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The creative writing course in the British Columbia senior secondary school : a telephoto examination… Jamieson, Norma 1977

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THE CREATIVE WRITING COURSE IN THE BRITISH COLUMBIA SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL: A TELEPHOTO EXAMINATION WITH ACCOMPANYING CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES by NORMA JAMIESON B.A., (Honours E n g l i s h ) A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1977 (c) Norma Jamieson, 1977 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t p u b l i c a t i o n , i n p a r t o r i n whole, o r the c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . NORMA JAMIESON Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Westbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 i i ABSTRACT T h i s i n - d e p t h e x a m i n a t i o n o f the C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c o u r s e i n the B r i t i s h Columbia s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s w i t h accompanying c u r r i c u l u m development g u i d e l i n e s was prompted because o f the p r o v i n c i a l l a c k o f c o u r s e s u r v e y i n f o r m a t i o n and the l a c k o f m a t e r i a l s and g u i d e l i n e s f o r t e a c h e r s to use when d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c u r r i c u l a . C r e a t i v e w r i t i n g i s d e f i n e d as an i n e x t r i c a b l e c o m b i n a t i o n o f both p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t , s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s t i n c t from s t a n d a r d c l a s s r o o m e x p o s i t o r y w r i t i n g to w a r r a n t a s e p a r a t e l a b e l . A s e p a r a t e c o u r s e i n C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g i s j u s t i f i e d by con-temporary s t u d i e s o f t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s which emphasize homogeneous g r o u p i n g to encourage the p a r t i c u l a r t a l e n t c o n c e r n e d . C r e a t i v i t y , c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y , i s a d i s t i n c t t a l e n t . The p r o v i n c i a l s u r v e y e f f e c t e d c o m p i l a t i o n o f a l i s t o f B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g w i t h the r e s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s . The s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d e d q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g methodology and c o n t e n t o f the C r e a t i v e w r i t i n g c o u r s e . T a b u l a t e d r e s u l t s and t e a c h e r comments c o n f i r m the g r e a t d i v e r s i t y o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c u r r i c u l a o f f e r e d t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h Columbia, the extreme v a r i a t i o n i n t e a c h e r c o n f i d e n c e , and the g e n e r a l l a c k o f p r e s c r i b e d i i i t e a c h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The s u r v e y emphasized the t e a c h e r s ' need o f r e a l i s t i c g u i d e l i n e s f o r c u r r i c u l u m development. Contemporary c r e a t i v i t y r e s e a r c h and t h e o r y a r e o u t l i n e d as they a f f e c t the development o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c u r r i c u l a . The c r e a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y , c r e a t i v i t y needs and f a c t o r s i n h i b i t i n g c r e a t i v i t y development a r e emphasized. S p e c i f i c and p r a c t i c a l c u r r i c u l u m development g u i d e l i n e s , i n t e n d e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r use, a r e approached i n a two s t a g e c o n c e p t t h a t r e f l e c t s the r e a l w o r l d o f w r i t i n g . Stage One: D r a f t i n g e x p l o r e s e x p e r i e n t i a l c o n t e n t t h a t i s small and o r d i n a r y , the t e a c h e r ' s r o l e , j o u r n a l use and o b s e r v a t i o n s k i l l s . Stage Two: E d i t i n g and P u b l i s h i n g e x p l o r e s the v a l i d i t y and n e c e s s i t y o f s t u d e n t p u b l i c a t i o n , and v a r i o u s p u b l i c a t i o n forms. The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f p u b l i c a t i o n f o r c u r r i c u l u m development t h a t are d e a l t w i t h are peer r e s p o n s e , t e a c h e r as t u t o r , r e v i s i o n p h i l o s o p h y , e d i t i n g o f mechanics, form and s t y l e . P a r t i c u l a r e v a l u a t i o n formats a r e del i n e a t e d . C o n c l u s i o n s recommend r e w o r k i n g the C u r r i c u l u m Guide and t h e P r e s c r i b e d Textbook L i s t . G u i d e l i n e s f o r c u r r i c u l u m development need to be made a v a i l a b l e to each C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g t e a c h e r , and a t t e n t i o n must be d i r e c t e d to making the c o u r s e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the w r i t i n g w o r l d o u t s i d e the c l a s s r o o m . i v I write to join myself. I write because words wait, hands out, to be joined. I will write until I have joined them all every way I can J i l l H andford Matthew McNair S r . Sec. Richmond Grade 11 V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i EPIGRAPH i v TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLES i x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS x INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter 1. CREATIVE WRITING: SOMETHING DIFFERENT 3 2. A SEPARATE COURSE: WHY BOTHER? . . 8 3. PROVINCIAL SURVEY: EXPOSE 16 Q u e s t i o n 1 18 Q u e s t i o n 2 2 1 Q u e s t i o n 3 22 Q u e s t i o n 4 2 2 Q u e s t i o n 5 2 3 Q u e s t i o n 6 2 3 Q u e s t i o n 7 2 4 Te a c h e r Comments 2 4 Q u e s t i o n 8 2 5 Teache r Comments 2 5 Q u e s t i o n 9 2 6 Te a c h e r Comments 26 v i C h apter Page Q u e s t i o n 10 27 Te a c h e r ' Comments 27 Q u e s t i o n 11 28 Te a c h e r Comments 29 Q u e s t i o n 12 30 Te a c h e r Comments 31 Q u e s t i o n 13 31 Te a c h e r Comments 32 Q u e s t i o n 14 33 Te a c h e r Comments 33 Books Suggested 33 Q u e s t i o n 15 . . . . 35 Te a c h e r Comments 35 Q u e s t i o n 16 36 Teach e r Comments 36 Added I n c e n t i v e 37 Survey C o n c l u s i o n s 37 4. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES: VICTORIA, IT'S TIME 4 U 5. STUDIES IN CREATIVITY: IMPLICATIONS FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 4 4 The C r e a t i v e P e r s o n a l i t y 51 C r e a t i v i t y Needs . ^5 F a c t o r s I n h i b i t i n g C r e a t i v i t y Development 58 C o n c l u s i o n ^0 v i i C h apter Page 6. SPECIFIC GUIDELINES FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT OF SENIOR SECONDARY CREATIVE WRITING COURSES: GOOD-BYE MIDNIGHT SLAVERY 62 STAGE ONE: DRAFTING 65 E x p e r i e n c e - B a s e d W r i t i n g 65 Te a c h e r as ' T r a v e l C o u n s e l l o r 1 76 The J o u r n a l 80 O b s e r v a t i o n s 86 Small E x p e r i e n c e s 95 O r d i n a r y E x p e r i e n c e s 1°° D r a f t i n g Summary 104 STAGE TWO: EDITING AND PUBLISHING 106 V a l i d i t y and N e c e s s i t y o f S t u d e n t P u b l i c a t i o n 1°6 P u b l i c a t i o n forms 113 I m p l i c a t i o n s o f P u b l i c a t i o n f o r C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g Programs 121 Peer response 121 Te a c h e r as t u t o r 133 R e v i s i o n p h i l o s o p h y 137 E d i t i n g o f mechanics 141 Form 145 S t y l e 151 P u b l i c a t i o n : end o r a n o t h e r b e g i n n i n g ? 153 E d i t i n g and P u b l i s h i n g Summary 154 v i i i C h apter Page EVALUATION 156 S t r u c t u r i n g C o n t r a c t s 159 T y p i c a l c o n t r a c t components 159 CONCLUSION .163 C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g J o u r n e y Summary . . 163 The L a s t Word . 166 APPENDIX A - PROVINCIAL SURVEY LETTER TO ALL B.C. SUPER-INTENDENTS 169 APPENDIX B - PROVINCIAL SURVEY LETTER TO ALL TEACHERS OF CREATIVE WRITING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 171 APPENDIX C - SCHOOLS OFFERING CREATIVE WRITING IN 1.977-1.978 WITH THE RESPECTIVE TEACHERS 176 APPENDIX D - PROVINCIAL SURVEY: ADDITIONAL TEACHER COMMENTS . 185 APPENDIX E - WAYS OF KNOWING THE STUDENT 195 APPENDIX F - HELPFUL ARTICLES ON THE PRACTICALITIES OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS WITH THE SCHOOL 200 APPENDIX G - EXEMPLARY PUBLISHED STUDENT WORK 202 APPENDIX H - MUSTS FOR THE CREATIVE WRITING STUDENT LIBRARY 203 APPENDIX I - WRITERS' MARKET 205 APPENDIX J - WRITING COMPETITIONS 210 BIBLIOGRAPHY 212 i x LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1. C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g i n B.C. Survey (n = 54) 19 X ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l to a l l t h o s e p e o p l e who have made the w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s an e n l i g h t e n i n g and e n j o y a b l e e x p e r i e n c e f o r me. P r o f e s s o r P h i l i p Penner and Dr. Syd B u t l e r have been c o n s t a n t s o u r c e s o f i n s p i r a t i o n and s o l i d p r a c t i c a l a d v i c e , and I cannot thank them enough. I a l s o acknowledge w i t h g r a t i t u d e P r o f e s s o r Frank Bertram f o r h i s i n t e r e s t and encouragement. I have been g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by two remarkable i n d i v i d -u a l s whose i d e a s have r e v o l u t i o n i z e d E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n i n the w o r l d a t l a r g e . I thank Stephen Judy f o r s h a r i n g w i t h me h i s s e n s i t i v i t y t o language and h i s e n t h u s i a s m f o r making s t u d e n t w r i t i n g ' r e a l . 1 I thank Paddy C r e b e r f o r i m p a s s i o n i n g me w i t h h i s b e l i e f i n the i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y o f language and s e l f . The mechanics o f the s u r v e y c o n s t i t u t e d demanding t a s k s a t times and I p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r e c i a t e the e f f o r t s o f Diana C r u t c h l e y and E r n i e Novakowski i n a t t e m p t i n g t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n from the S t a t i s t i c s Branch o f the Department o f E d u c a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a . I am a l s o most g r a t e f u l t o Cathy A b r o s s i m o f f , J e a n n i e B a l l and t h e i r S e c r e t a r i a l s t u d e n t s f o r t h e i r e x p e r t a s s i s t a n c e . And, w i t h o u t the t h o u g h t f u l r e s p o n s e s o f a l l t he s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s and w r i t i n g t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s u r v e y , t h i s t h e s i s c o u l d n e v e r have been completed. x i Acknowledgements a r e a l s o due to the B.C. E n g l i s h T e a c h e r ' s A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r eager s u p p o r t o f my p r o j e c t and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s . I must be s u r e t o o f f e r my a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g s t u d e n t s o f Matthew McNair S e n i o r Secondary who c o n s t a n t l y remind me o f the i n d i v i d u a l i t y and the fun o f w r i t i n g . P a r t i c u l a r c r e d i t i s due t o t h o s e s t u d e n t s whose works I have quoted: Marci Cheveldave, D a r l e n e C o r n e l s o n , Donna D e L i s l e , J i l l H a n d f o r d , E l a i n e H u t c h i n s o n , C o l l e e n L a C r o i x , Ann M a r t i n , G e o r g i a Merry, Marjo Mulder, Barb R i t c h i e , Lynda S c o b i e , C o l e t t e Watson, L i n d a W e l t e r , and E l a i n e Uyeno. I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o Bob Simpson, t h e p r i n c i p a l o f McNair, f o r h i s p r o g r e s s i v e i d e o l o g i e s and concern f o r the s t u d e n t s as i n d i v i d u a l s . I a p p r e c i a t e the freedom o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , the freedom t h a t a l l o w s me c o n t i n u o u s l y to d i s c o v e r -e f f e c t i v e ways o f e n c o u r a g i n g noteworthy C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g . The generous t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e o f Mrs. E l l i s , who t y p e d the m a n u s c r i p t , and o f Georgi W i l l i n g d o n , I h o l d i n g r e a t esteem. L a s t l y , I d e e p l y thank my husband, Bob, f o r h i s unwaver-i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g and cheer. INTRODUCTION C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c o u r s e s i n S e n i o r Secondary s c h o o l s need more a t t e n t i o n and guidance than have been a v a i l a b l e t o d a t e . The C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g t e a c h e r has, by and l a r g e , been l e f t to f e n d f o r h i m s e l f i n a s u b j e c t a r e a where ve r y few m a t e r i a l s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o a s s i s t him. The m a t e r i a l s t h a t are o f s i g n i f i c a n t v a l u e are g e n e r a l l y d i f f i c u l t to l o c a t e , and then must be s o l e l y f i n a n c e d by the s c h o o l i n some manner. The Department o f E d u c a t i o n p r e s c r i b e d t e x t b o o k l i s t and i n t e r i m c u r r i c u l u m guide are p a r t i c u l a r l y weak, and o f n e g l i g i b l e v a l u e . In my endeavour to w r i t e some p r a c t i c a l and r e l e v a n t g u i d e l i n e s f o r s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s t o use when each i s d e v e l o p i n g h i s own i n d i v i d u a l C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c u r r i c u l u m , I found t h a t I had to go back t o the v e r y ' r a i s o n d ' e t r e ' o f a C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c o u r s e as such. C h a p t e r s One and Two deal w i t h t h i s l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g , s e t t i n g the s t a g e f o r the drama o f my work. However, b e f o r e q u i d e l i n e s can be o f f e r e d , one has t o know what g u i d e l i n e s a r e needed. In o t h e r words, what a r e the C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g t e a c h e r s i n the p r o v i n c e l o o k i n g f o r i n terms o f p h i l o s o p h y , m a t e r i a l s , methodology and so on? Because no i n f o r m a t i o n w hatsoever on C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g Courses i n B r i t i s h Columbia was a v a i l a b l e from 2 V i c t o r i a I l a u n c h e d a p r o v i n c i a l s u r v e y t o d i s c o v e r the a c t u a l s t a t e o f t h e c o u r s e . Why the a l l - i n f o r m a t i v e J-Forms t h a t each s c h o o l d u t i f u l l y f i l l s o u t each y e a r are not t a b u l a t e d and r e c o r d e d on computer tape can o n l y be j u s t i f i e d - o v e r l o o k e d - i g n o r e d by a government b u r e a u c r a c y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the s u r v e y r e s u l t s a r e most i n f o r m a t i v e , e m p h a s i z i n g once a g a i n , the need f o r r e a l i s t i c g u i d e l i n e s f o r c u r r i c u l u m development. The n e x t s t e p i n w r i t i n g t h e g u i d e l i n e s was t o examine i n depth the contemporary r e s e a r c h and t h e o r i e s o f the c o n c e p t , ' C r e a t i v i t y , 1 e x t r a c t i n g the e s sence o f t h e s e s t u d i e s as i t a p p l i e s t o C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c u r r i c u l a i n s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . C h a p t e r 5 i s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n to t h o s e demanding c o u r s e s which a r e s o l i d l y r o o t e d i n r e s e a r c h . C r e a t i v i t y s t u d i e s combined w i t h c o m p o s i t i o n s t u d i e s ( o b v i o u s l y a b l o o d r e l a t i v e o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g ) combined w i t h e x e m p l i f y i n g m a t e r i a l s , y i e l d s C h a p t e r 6, the g u i d e l i n e s f o r each i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r to c o n s i d e r when d e v e l o p i n g h i s own c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s f i n a l c h a p t e r i s the c u l m i n a t i o n o f y e a r s o f r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h , t h e o r y and t e s t i m o n i a l , o f c o u n t l e s s d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s , and o f t e a c h i n g the s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c o u r s e , m y s e l f , numerous t i m e s . The f i n a l c h a p t e r i s a s e r i e s o f g u i d e l i n e s which promise the t e a c h e r a more s u c c e s s f u l and dynamic C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c l a s s and which promises t h e s t u d e n t i n c r e a s e d c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g s k i l l s and an i n s a t i a b l e d e s i r e to w r i t e . 3 CHAPTER 1 CREATIVE WRITING: SOMETHING DIFFERENT? " C r e a t i v i t y 1 and ' C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g 1 are c o n c e p t s which seem c l e a r and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d enough u n t i l one i s f a c e d w i t h the t a s k o f d e f i n i n g them. As the eye s t r a i n s i n v a i n t o f o c u s on the v e r y e s s e n c e o f c r e a t i v i t y , i t i s o f some sm a l l c o m f o r t to r e c a l l E a r l e B i r n e y ' s f r u s t r a t i o n s w i t h t h i s d e f i n i t i o n t a s k . He s t a t e s t h a t attempts t o d e f i n e ' C r e a t i v i t y ' o r ' C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g 1 make t h e s e c o n c e p t s b e g i n " t o s w e l l up l i k e a c l o u d i n t o something t h a t f i l l s the whole sky o f meaning, and darkens i t , and comes to s i g n i f y e v e r y t h i n g o r n o t h i n g . " I t i s t r u l y i m p o s s i b l e to c o n s i d e r any human a c t as 1 U n c r e a t i v e . 1 Each person i s c o n s t a n t l y i n v e n t i n g and r e c o m b i n i n g i n new p a t t e r n s , t h o u g h t s , works and a c t i o n s . F o l d i n g up the l a u n d r y , s h a v i n g i n the morning, and making l o v e are a l l c r e a t i v e a c t s . L i f e i s c r e a t i v i t y p e r s o n i f i e d . A s a m p l i n g o f a few noteworthy d e f i n i t i o n s o f c r e a t i v i t y r e i n f o r c e the opeh-endedness and d i v e r g e n c y o f the i s s u e . S c h o l a r s from a l l walks o f l i f e , w r i t e r s , s c u l p t o r s , l i n g u i s t s , p h i l o s o p h e r s , and s c i e n t i s t s , each forwards h i s own t e n e t : C r e a t i v i t y i s the e n c o u n t e r o f the i n t e n s i v e l y c o n s c i o u s human b e i n g w i t h h i s w o r l d . ROLLO MAY "The Nature of Creativity" The c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s i s the emergence i n a c t i o n o f a novel r e l a t i o n a l p r o d u c t , growing out o f the uniqueness o f the i n d i v i d u a l . CARL B. ROGERS "Toward a Theory of Creativity" C r e a t i v i t y i s the o c c u r r e n c e o f a c o m p o s i t i o n which i s both new and v a l u a b l e . HENRY A. MURRAY "Vicissitudes in Creativity" C r e a t i v i t y i s d e f i n e d as the a b i l i t y t o make new co m b i n a t i o n s o f s o c i a l worth. JOHN W. HAEFELE "Creativity and Innovation" The a b i l i t y to r e l a t e and t o c o n n e c t , sometimes i n odd and y e t i n s t r i k i n g f a s h i o n , l i e s a t the v e r y h e a r t o f any c r e a t i v e use o f the mind, no m a t t e r i n what f i e l d o r d i s c i p l i n e . GEORGE J . SEIDEL "The Crisis in Creativity" A f i r s t r a t e soup i s more c r e a t i v e than a second r a t e p a i n t i n g . ABRAHAM MASLOW "Creativity in Self-Actualizing People" Many have i n s i s t e d t h a t the i m a g i n a t i v e p r o c e s s i s d i f f e r e n t i n a r t and s c i e n c e . . . On the c o n t r a r y , t he c r e a t i v e a c t o f the mind i s a l i k e i n both c a s e s . DR. R. GERARD "The Biological Basis of Imagination" C r e a t i v i t y i s the a b i l i t y t o see ( o r be aware) and t o respond. ERIC FROMM "The Creative Attitude" 5 From one man, I l e a r n e d t h a t c o n s t r u c t i n g a b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n c o u l d be a c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y . From a young a t h l e t e , I l e a r n e d t h a t a p e r f e c t t a c k l e would be as a e s t h e t i c a p r o d u c t as a sonn e t and c o u l d be approached i n the same c r e a t i v e s p i r i t . ABRAHAM H. MASLOW "Creativity in Self-Actualizing People" We do not ob s e r v e c r e a t i v i t y because the c o n s c i o u s mind i s anchored t o r e a l i t y and s u r v i v a l . But i t i s not the whole mind, nor i s i t v e r y f l e x i b l e mind, and the w o r l d i n which i t must s u r v i v e i s t o t a l l y new e v e r y morning and e v e r y moment . . . Beyond s u r v i v a l i s e v o l u t i o n . EUGENE A. BRUNELLE "Creative Intelligence and Semantics" Etc., June 1967 [Fabun, 1968, pp. 3-5] Paul T o r r a n c e , one o f the l e a d i n g r e s e a r c h e r s i n C r e a t i v i t y S t u d i e s f o r m u l a t e s an i m p r e s s i v e and sound d e f i n i t i o n : L e a r n i n g c r e a t i v e l y t a k e s p l a c e i n the p r o c e s s o f becoming s e n s i t i v e t o o r aware o f problems, d e f i c i e n -c i e s , gaps i n knowledge, m i s s i n g e l e m e n t s , d i s h a r m o n i e s , and so on; b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r i n new r e l a t i o n s h i p s a v a i l a b l e e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ; d e f i n i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f i d e n t i f y i n g the m i s s i n g e l e m e n t s ; s e a r c h i n g f o r s o l u t i o n s , making gu e s s e s , o r f o r m u l a t i n g hypotheses about the problems o r d e f i c i e n c i e s ; t e s t i n g and r e t e s t i n g t h e s e hypotheses and m o d i f y i n g and r e t e s t i n g them; p e r f e c t i n g them, and f i n a l l y , communicating the r e s u l t s . [ T o r r a n c e , 1970, p. 1] T o r r a n c e s t a n d s as the a c c l a i m e d a u t h o r i t y on C r e a t i v i t y . H i s words subsume the m u l t i t u d e s o f o t h e r d e f i n i t i o n s t h a t a r e con c e r n e d w i t h c u r i o s i t y , o r i g i n a l i t y , i m a g i n a t i o n , d i s c o v e r y , i n n o v a t i o n , 6 i n v e n t i o n , r e - c o m b i n i n g i d e a s , s e e k i n g new p a t t e r n s and new r e l a t i o n -s h i p s , and b r e a k i n g out o f the mold o f c o n f o r m i t y . In view o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the v e r y a c t o f w r i t i n g , o f e t c h i n g symbols on paper o r s e a s h o r e , i s c r e a t i v e . And the w r i t e r o f an e f f e c t i v e p i e c e o f e x p o s i t i o n i s no l e s s c r e a t i v e than the w r i t e r o f a poem, p l a y , s h o r t s t o r y o r n o v e l . E x p l o r i n g G a r i b a l d i Park i s j u s t as much a work o f the c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n as i n Great E x p e c t a t i o n s . Each o f t h e s e works depends on the w r i t e r to employ the s k i l l s t h a t T o r r a n c e has i s o l a t e d as b e i n g i n d i c a t i v e o f c r e a t i v e work. S t i l l - - t h e r e remains the unanswered q u e s t i o n — W h a t i s ' C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g ' ? An u n d e n i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e c e r t a i n l y e x i s t s between works o f e x p o s i t i o n which d e l i n e a t e o b j e c t i v e f a c t and o t h e r works which s u b j e c t i v e l y i n t e r p r e t e x p e r i e n c e . Take note o f John De w i t t McKee who emphasises t h a t the d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e between the two types o f w r i t i n g i s t h a t w h i l e s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i -mental w r i t i n g must use f a c t as a base f o r both f a c t and f i c t i o n , e x p o s i t i o n must limit i t s e l f t o the f a c t s . I t i s t h i s s u b j e c t i v e w r i t i n g t h a t has become known as ' C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g . ' ' C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g ' encompasses both p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t , hence any work l a b e l l e d C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g must r e f l e c t t h i s i n e x t r i c a b l e p a i r . Kaufman and Powers s u c c i n c t l y l i s t t h e i r t h r e e d e f i n i t i v e c r i t e r i a : 7 F i r s t , a w r i t e r must have some form o f e x p e r i e n c e . Something e n t e r s h i s nervous system and b r a i n . Second, h i s mind does something t o t h a t e x p e r i e n c e . He f e e l s i t o u t by c l a s s i f y i n g , c a t e g o r i z i n g , comparing, c o n t r a s t i n g , o r g a n i z i n g , e x t e n d i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s , p l a y i n g , s i m p l i f y i n g , m e d i t a t i n g , and so on. T h i r d , he ex p r e s s e s something. He w r i t e s words, s e n t e n c e s and p a r a g r a p h s t h a t t e l l what he wants t o communicate about the p a s t e x p e r i e n c e . [ K a u f m a n a n d P o w e r s > e d . 5 1 9 7 0 , p. 219] C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g does not i s s u e f o r t h from one who s i m p l y gleans v i c a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s . Such w r i t i n g c o u l d be l i k e n e d t o an u n c o n t r o l l e d and i n e f f e c t u a l 'news' r e p o r t o f one's l i f e . Nor does C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g ensue from s o l e l y c a p t u r i n g e x p e r i e n c e s i n 'fancy' language. C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g demands t h a t t h e mind, the c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n , p l a y i t s r o l e . The mind must work i t s magic on the i n i t i a l e x p e r i e n c e , and then provoke the w r i t e r i n t o r e c o r d i n g i t i n e f f e c t i v e language. T h i s , t h e n , p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t , i s C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g . 8 CHAPTER 2 A SEPARATE COURSE: WHY BOTHER? A c c o r d i n g to the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g i s d i s t i n c t i n c h a r a c t e r from the e x p o s i t o r y w r i t i n g which predomin-a n t l y tends to c h a r a c t e r i z e the c u r r i c u l a o f the t r a d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h 11 and 12 c o u r s e s . But does t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n w a r r a n t y a s e p a r a t e c o u r s e ? Yes, most d e f i n i t e l y ! C r e a t i v i t y can be d e v e l o p e d . I t i s n o t e n t i r e l y a 'have' o r 'have not' s i t u a t i o n . A v a r i e t y o f contemporary s t u d i e s by Samson, T o r r a n c e and o t h e r s ( n o t to mention B i n e t ' s s t u d y o f 1909!) c o n f i r m t h a t a l l mental f u n c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y those i n v o l v e d w i t h p r o d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g , r e q u i r e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r g u i d e d p r a c t i c e i n o r d e r to d e v e l o p a h i g h degree. [ B a r t l e t t , 1958; Barnes and, Meadow, 1959, I960; S i n g e r , 1964; Samson, 1965; T o r r a n c e , 1963, 1965] Hence the c r e a t i v i t y s k i l l s o f the i m a g i n a t i o n can be de-v e l o p e d must as can the s k i l l s o f l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g . T o r r a n c e has p u b l i s h e d e x t e n s i v e games to encourage c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g as w e l l as t e s t s to measure t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . These c r e a t i v i t y s k i l l s c annot be t a u g h t e f f e c t i v e l y a l o n g s i d e the s k i l l s o f reason and l o g i c . The s k i l l s a r e a t c r o s s p u r p o s e s . The c r e a t i v i t y s k i l l s a r e b e s t t a u g h t as a .separate package i n o r d e r to become more i n h e r e n t . Hence a s e p a r a t e c o u r s e i s r e q u i r e d . 9 W r i t e r s need time s e t a s i d e f o r w r i t i n g r e g u l a r l y . W r i t i n g i s a d i s c i p l i n e and i f postponed f o r any reason whatsoever, w i l l b e g i n t o assume an e l u s i v e n a t u r e t h a t words a r e a t a l o s s t o c a p t u r e . The w r i t e r must be r i g o r o u s about s e t t i n g up a w r i t i n g s c h e d u l e and b e i n g f a i t h f u l t o i t . As E a r l e B i r n e y so vehemently s t a t e s "Never postpone the w r i t i n g , o r t h e r e w i l l come a day when you can no l o n g e r w r i t e , I know; I've been through the Canadian academic m i l l s . " [ B i r n e y , 1966, p. 58] H i s a d v i c e to young w r i t e r s i s to e n r o l l i n a C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c o u r s e on a p a r t time b a s i s so as to have time t o w r i t e , o r t o take a nondemanding j o b such as se a s o n a l salmon f i s h i n g o r n i n e - t o - f i v e , no homework, b a n k i n g , so as t o have time t o w r i t e . A C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c o u r s e o f f e r s the r i t u a l i s t i c time d i s c i p l i n e t h a t the w r i t e r so d e f i n i t e l y needs. The w r i t e r a l s o needs t o have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o meet o t h e r w r i t e r s i n o r d e r t o l e a r n from them and t o use them as sounding boards f o r h i s work. W r i t e r s a l s o need each o t h e r f o r s u p p o r t . W r i t i n g i s a l o n e l y endeavour, more o f t e n f r u s t r a t i n g and d e p r e s s i n g than r e w a r d i n g . When a w r i t e r l i k e B r i a n B r e t t , from White Rock, pours f o r t h : My l i f e as an a d u l t i s s t i l l the wrong end o f t h a t northbound h o r s e , i s s t i l l l o o k i n g out through a g l a s s a t the r e a l a n i m a l s o f c o r r u p t i o n and i n -e q u i t y . . . . Whatever happened t o t r u t h and the i d e a l . P o e t r y has become as r e l e v a n t as a h u r r i c a n e i n an i c e age. [ m i S j ] g 7 7 j p > 2 5 g ] he needs the u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t o n l y a community o f w r i t e r s can o f f e r . Such a s i t u a t i o n i s most u n l i k e l y t o d e v e l o p i n the 10 o r d i n a r y E n g l i s h c l a s s r o o m w i t h i t s motley a s s o r t m e n t o f s t u d e n t s The a b i l i t y to w r i t e c r e a t i v e l y i s a t a l e n t , and the s t u d e n t o f t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s by such w e l l known r e s e a r c h e r s as Abraham, Durr, Maltzman, M i c h a e l and Osborne, contend t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to encourage and r e i n f o r c e t a l e n t o f any bent e f f e c t i v e l y , g i v e n the r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m and the eve r y d a y c u r r i c u l u m . ' E f f e c t i v e l y * means a l l o w i n g the t a l e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l the o p p o r t u n i t y to d e v e l o p h i s t a l e n t to i t s f u l l e s t . C e r t a i n l y a v a l i a n t attempt can be made, but the t e a c h e r can o n l y s p r e a d h i m s e l f so t h i n , and the t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t can o n l y work on h i s own w i t h minimal t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n f o r so l o n g u n t i l i t i s g l a r i n g l y a p p a r e n t t h a t t h i s system can never be e f f e c t i v e . To encourage t a l e n t to blossom u n i n h i b i t e d l y , t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s must be met: f i r s t , the t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s must be p l a c e d i n a homogeneous s e t t i n g ; second, the c u r r i c -ulum must be e n r i c h e d and a c c e l e r a t e d i n o r d e r to r e f l e c t the needs, i n t e r e s t s and c a p a c i t i e s o f the t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s ; and t h i r d , the environment must be c o n d u c i v e to optimum l e a r n i n g . These c o n d i t i o n s , when a p p l i e d to the t e a c h i n g o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g promise s u c c e s s . C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g s t u d e n t s a r e most s u c c e s s f u l when grouped by t h e m s e l v e s . I d e a l l y , t o t a l s e g r e g a t i o n i s the most e f f e c -t i v e type o f a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g , p r e c i p i t a t i n g s p e c i a l s c h o o l s f o r 11 t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s as i n B a l t i m o r e , B o s t o n , C h i c a g o , P h i l a d e l p h i a and New York. The New York High School o f S c i e n c e i s the most renowned o f t h e s e s p e c i a l s c h o o l s , a t the s e c o n d a r y l e v e l . The v a l u e o f t h e s e s e g r e g a t e d s c h o o l s i s t h a t the e n t i r e c u r r i c u l u m can be geared t o the l e a r n i n g l e v e l s o f t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s , s i n c e o t h e r s t u d e n t s a r e not e n r o l l e d . The t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s can engage i n a c h a l l e n g i n g , r i g o r o u s program d e s i g n e d t o t a k e advantage o f t h e i r unique a b i l i t i e s . These s e p a r a t e s c h o o l s a r e u s u a l l y d e s i g n e d w i t h the purpose o f p r e p a r i n g the s t u d e n t s f o r c o l l e g e and a subsequent c a r e e r i n h i s t a l e n t a r e a . Such s c h o o l s a r e , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , o n l y e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e i n d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a s . When t h e r e i s a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number o f t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s , but n o t enough t o w a r r a n t s e g r e g a t e d s c h o o l s a 'school w i t h i n a s c h o o l ' may be e s t a b l i s h e d . While t h i s e x i s t s w i t h i n the framework o f a r e g u l a r s c h o o l , a s e p a r a t e f a c u l t y and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are c o n c e r n e d w i t h the s p e c i a l needs o f the t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s . A y e t s m a l l e r p o p u l a t i o n o f t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s w a r r a n t s p a r t i a l g r o u p i n g . T h i s system p r o v i d e s s p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r the t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s i n each grade l e v e l o f each t a l e n t a r e a . In t h i s system the t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t a t t e n d s s p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r h i s t a l e n t a r e a , and then r e t u r n s to the main stream. T h i s i s the system which i s , a t p r e s e n t , most worka b l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s , p r e c i p i t a t i n g a s e p a r a t e C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c o u r s e . As i s s t a t e d , the mere e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s e g r e g a t e d homogeneous s e t t i n g , does not ensure the s t u d e n t ' s a t t a i n m e n t o f h i s optimum l e a r n i n g c a p a c i t y . T h i s s e t t i n g o n l y makes i t a 12 p o s s i b i l i t y . The c u r r i c u l u m must be e n r i c h e d and a c c e l e r a t e d i n o r d e r t o r e f l e c t the needs, i n t e r e s t s and c a p a c i t i e s o f the t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s . An example o f such a c u r r i c u l u m i s the c u r r i c u l u m o f the New York High School o f S c i e n c e . Because one a r e a o f knowledge i s emphasized, the o t h e r a r e a s a r e c e r t a i n l y not n e g l e c t e d , o r t r e a t e d as t a l e n t f i e l d s . In the Freshman y e a r (Grade 8) s t u d e n t s t a k e a l l the o t h e r academic c o u r s e s . In the Sophomore and J u n i o r y e a r s (Grades 9 & 10) s t u d e n t s p r e p a r e themselves f o r meeting the a d m i s s i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s o f f i r s t - r a t e c o l l e g e s and t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s . In the S e n i o r y e a r (Grade 12) the s t u d e n t s s p e c i a l i z e and pursue any s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t , i n t h e i r t a l e n t f i e l d , which they have a c q u i r e d d u r i n g t h e i r more g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n y e a r s . [ M i c h a e l , 1958] Such programs a r e a l s o i n e x i s t e n c e f o r o t h e r t a l e n t a r e a s , such as Music, A r t , and P e r f o r m i n g A r t s . With t h i s emphasis on a d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l u m , e n r i c h m e n t and a c c e l e r a t i o n , i t must not be f o r g o t t e n t h a t t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s must a l s o master the fundamental l e a r n i n g s t h a t w i l l a l l o w them t o o p e r a t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n a b s t r a c t realms. The v a l u e o f a homogeneous s e t t i n g and a p p l i c a b l e c u r r i c u l u m i s t h a t f a r l e s s time i s r e q u i r e d f o r such mastery, and the s t u d e n t s do not have t o b e a r the deadening i n f l u e n c e s o f o v e r t e a c h i n g . They can move on to spend t h e i r time e x p l o r i n g . t h e i r t a l e n t s . Such a c u r r i c u l u m p l a n i s i d e a l , i n d e e d , but most u n r e a l i s t i c f o r B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s a t p r e s e n t . But the f o u n d a t i o n o f t h i s i d e a l c u r r i c u l u m can be i n c l u d e d i n a s e p a r a t e 13 C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c l a s s . The s t u d e n t s ' needs, i n t e r e s t s and c a p a c i t i e s can be met i n a unique and a p p r o p r i a t e c u r r i c u l u m . A l s o , the s t u d e n t s can spend e x t r a time, a p a r t from a l l t h e i r o t h e r s t u d i e s , e x p l o r i n g and d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g t a l e n t s . The t e a c h e r s s e l e c t e d to work w i t h t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s must themselves be t a l e n t e d i n t h e i r c o n t e n t a r e a and a l s o t a l e n t e d i n t e a c h i n g g i f t e d s t u d e n t s . As Durr [1964] i n s i s t s i n g r o s s understatement: "The o p p o r t u n i t y to work w i t h t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s i s n o t a reward g i v e n s i m p l y f o r l o n g and f a i t h f u l s e r v i c e o r a compensation f o r h a v i n g t a u g h t "slow" l e a r n e r s i n a p r e v i o u s y e a r . " The t e a c h e r o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g must no t o n l y w r i t e e x t e n s i v e l y h i m s e l f , b u t must a l s o be t a l e n t e d i n meeting the s p e c i f i c and v e r y unique l e a r n i n g needs o f s t u d e n t s w i t h a c r e a t i v e bent. In C h a p t e r 5, S t u d i e s i n C r e a t i v i t y : I m p l i c a t i o n s  f o r C u r r i c u l u m Development, I e l a b o r a t e on t h i s i m p o r t a n t c o n c e r n . I c a n n o t s t a t e s t r o n g l y enough t h a t the t e a c h e r d e t e r m i n e s the s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f the s e t t i n g and c u r r i c u l u m . I f the t e a c h e r f a i l s to c r e a t e a c o n d u c i v e environment f o r optimum l e a r n i n g , the e n t i r e program w i l l l i k e w i s e f a i l . W hile a l l s t u d e n t s must have these a f o r e m e n t i o n e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s , i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t f o r t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n such a d i s t i n c t i v e e d u c a t i o n . I t i s the 14 t a l e n t e d p e o p l e t h a t , i f p r o v i d e d w i t h adequate e d u c a t i o n a l exper-i e n c e s , have the p o t e n t i a l t o be the f u t u r e problem s o l v e r s , i n n o -v a t o r s and e v a l u a t o r s o f o u r c u l t u r e . C o l e r i d g e s h a r e s t h i s b e l i e f i n the w o r l d l y s i g n i f i c a n c e o f w r i t i n g : Thus much i s e f f e c t e d by works o f i m a g i n a t i o n ; - - t h a t they c a r r y t he mind out o f s e l f , and show the p o s s i b l e o f the good and the g r e a t i n the human c h a r a c t e r . . . . In the i m a g i n a t i o n i s the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f man as a p r o g r e s s i v e b e i n g : and I r e p e a t t h a t i t ought t o be c a r e f u l l y g u i d e d and s t r e n g t h e n e d as the i n d i s p e n s a b l e means and i n s t r u m e n t o f c o n t i n u e d a m e l i o r a t i o n and r e f i n e m e n t . [ C o l e r i d g e , "Essays and L e c t u r e s , " Everyman, 1909, p. 300] W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r i n h i s a c c e p t a n c e speech f o r the Nobel P r i z e i n 1950 e l o q u e n t l y s t a t e s : I d e c l i n e t o a c c e p t the end o f man. I t i s easy enough t o say t h a t man i s immortal s i m p l y because he w i l l e ndure; t h a t when the l a s t ding-dong o f doom has changed and f a d e d from the l a s t w o r t h l e s s rock hanging t i d e l e s s i n the l a s t r e d and d y i n g e v e n i n g , t h a t even then t h e r e w i l l s t i l l be one more sound: t h a t o f h i s puny i n e x h a u s t i b l e v o i c e , s t i l l t a l k i n g . I r e f u s e t o a c c e p t t h i s . I b e l i e v e t h a t man w i l l not merely endure: he w i l l p r e v a i l . He i s immo r t a l , not because he a l o n e among c r e a t u r e s has a n . i n e x h a u s t i b l e v o i c e , b u t because he has a s o u l , a s p i r i t c a p a b l e o f compassion and s a c r i f i c e and endurance. The p o e t ' s , the w r i t e r ' s , duty i s t o w r i t e about t h e s e t h i n g s . I t i s h i s p r i v i l e g e t o h e l p man endure by l i f t i n g h i s h e a r t , by rem i n d i n g him o f the courage and honor and hope and p r i d e and compassion and p i t y and s a c r i f i c e which have been the g l o r y o f h i s p a s t . The p o e t ' s v o i c e need n o t me r e l y be the r e c o r d o f man, i t can be one o f the p r o p s , the p i l l a r s t o h e l p him endure and p r e v a i l . [Judy, u n p u b l i s h e d monograph, 1976] W r i t i n g has import and s i g n i f i c a n c e . The g r e a t e r the e x t e n t t h a t t h e s e c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g c a p a c i t i e s do not d e v e l o p , the g r e a t e r t he 15 l o s s to the i n d i v i d u a l w r i t e r , and a l s o to o u r s o c i e t y and t o o u r c u l t u r e . C r e a t i v e t a l e n t can o n l y be encouraged and r e i n f o r c e d i f e d u c a t o r s a r e s e n s i t i v e t o the needs, i n t e r e s t s and c a p a c i t i e s o f s t u d e n t w r i t e r s . With due r e s p e c t f o r economical r e a s o n s , one cannot j u s t i f y any e d u c a t i o n a l program t h a t condemns t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s , be they C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g s t u d e n t s o r Woodworking s t u d e n t s , t o the everyday s i t u a t i o n . T a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s have s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s , and r e q u i r e s p e c i a l s c h o o l s o r a t l e a s t , s p e c i a l c l a s s e s , s p e c i a l c u r r i c u l a and s p e c i a l t e a c h e r s . C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g t a l e n t must be encouraged and r e i n f o r c e d , not d e s t r o y e d by the l e v e l i n g i n f l u e n c e s o f s c h o o l p r e s s u r e s which l e a d to c o n f o r m i t y and i m i t a t i o n . C r e a t i v e w r i t e r s must be g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s u c c e s s , and t h i s can o n l y be a c h i e v e d through a d i s t i n c t l y s e p a r a t e C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g program. 16 CHAPTER 3 PROVINCIAL SURVEY: EXPOSE T h i s s u r v e y r e p r e s e n t s the f i r s t c o m p i l a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n on the s t a t e o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c o u r s e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Not even a l i s t o f s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g W r i t i n g 11 i s a v a i l a b l e from V i c t o r i a , though each y e a r s c h o o l s r e l i g i o u s l y f i l l o u t a J-Form which l i s t s a l l c o u r s e s the s c h o o l o f f e r s , a l o n g w i t h the s t u d e n t e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e s e c o u r s e s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n must be b u r i e d i n t h e r e c e s s e s o f some o b s c u r e f i l e c a b i n e t a c c e s s i b l e o n l y t o s p i d e r s and b e e t l e s . I n i t i a l l y , l e t t e r s were s e n t t o e v e r y d i s t r i c t s u p e r i n -t e n d e n t i n the p r o v i n c e , r e q u e s t i n g a l i s t o f the s c h o o l s i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r d i s t r i c t which o f f e r W r i t i n g 11. S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s were a l s o r e q u e s t e d t o s u p p l y the name, o f the t e a c h e r and a l s o the p a r t i c u l a r branch o f W r i t i n g 11 o f f e r e d : C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g , J o u r n a l i s m , o r B r o a d c a s t i n g . See Appendix A. Most o b l i g e d i n t h i s r e s p e c t . A f t e r a second s e t o f l e t t e r s was m a i l e d t o s t r a g g l e r s , a 100% r e t u r n was r e c e i v e d . The next s t a g e i n the s u r v e y was t o send a q u e s t i o n n a i r e to e v e r y t e a c h e r i n e v e r y s c h o o l which o f f e r s W r i t i n g 11 . See Appendix B. The r e t u r n on t h e s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , by s c h o o l s s u r v e y e d , i s 71% and by t e a c h e r s s u r v e y e d i s 65%. Ninety-two s c h o o l s and 107 17 t e a c h e r s were s e n t s u r v e y forms. A n o t h e r b a t c h o f l e t t e r s w i l l be s e n t i n September t o improve the r e t u r n p e r c e n t a g e as the l i s t o f names o f s c h o o l s and t e a c h e r s i s d e s i r e d by the B.C. E n g l i s h T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n f o r workshop purpo s e s . Undoubtedly, most o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s not r e t u r n e d r e p r e s e n t o p t i o n s o f the W r i t i n g 11 c o u r s e o t h e r than C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g . Hence, the r e t u r n as i s , i s v a l i d and from t h i s r e t u r n the s u r v e y r e s u l t s a r e c o m p i l e d . W r i t i n g 11 has many o p t i o n s open t o the s c h o o l . The most common a r e C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g , J o u r n a l i s m and B r o a d c a s t i n g . A t times W r i t i n g 11 becomes a c a t c h - a l l l a b e l f o r l o c a l l y d e v e l o p e d c o u r s e s which have not r e c e i v e d a p p r o p r i a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a p p r o v a l . The c o u r s e o p t i o n s a c r o s s the p r o v i n c e a r e : C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g J o u r n a l i s m C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g - J o u r n a l ism Combination B r o a d c a s t i n g C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g - J o u r n a l i s m - B r o a d c a s t i n g Combination G r a p h i c A r t s F i l m Study T e l e v i s i o n P r o d u c t i o n T e c h n i c a l W r i t i n g C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g - F u n c t i o n a l W r i t i n g Combination Remedial W r i t i n g C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g - J o u r n a l ism-Remedial W r i t i n g Combination Double Programmed w i t h L i t e r a t u r e 12 The s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g i n 1977-78, w i t h the r e s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s a r e l i s t e d i n Appendix C. A t p r e s e n t 49 s c h o o l s o f f e r 18 C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g . I t s t r i k e s me t h a t the l a b e l W r i t i n g IT i s in a d e q u a t e and vague. The c o u r s e s s h o u l d be l a b e l l e d w i t h t he s p e c i f i c name o f the c o u r s e o p t i o n . I t i s a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t because o f the extreme v a r i a t i o n i n c o u r s e s r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e , s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be a b l e t o r e c e i v e c r e d i t f o r more than one o f them. A t p r e s e n t t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e , because t h e y a l l f a l l under the same c o u r s e l a b e l . The s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d e d q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n -i n g methodology and c o n t e n t o f the C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c o u r s e . The q u e s t i o n s were asked i n such a manner as t o evoke a d i r e c t answer. Room was a v a i l a b l e f o r comments. A l l t a b u l a t i o n s a r e based on numbers o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g t e a c h e r r e t u r n s , r a t h e r than s c h o o l r e t u r n s . P e r c e n t a g e s a re t a b u l a t e d by u s i n g t he number o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g t e a c h e r r e t u r n s (54 r e t u r n s ) as a c o n s t a n t denominator. See T a b l e I. Q u e s t i o n 1: Yes 70.4% "Does y o u r c l a s s ' p u b l i s h ' a 'book'? Some Years 3.7% No 24.0% Us i n g s c h o o l d i t t o machines? Yes 37.0% U s i n g t he s c h o o l o f f s e t p r e s s ? Yes 35.2% Us i n g o u t s i d e p u b l i s h e r s ? Yes 9.3% Do you s e l l y o u r p u b l i c a t i o n ? " Yes 27.8% Othe r p u b l i c a t i o n d e v i c e s t h a t were s u g g e s t e d : U s i n g s c h o o l board Xerox machine 3.7% Us i n g s c h o o l paper 5.6% U s i n g l o c a l newspaper 3.7% U s i n g s c h o o l annual 3.7% Us i n g p r i v a t e a n t h o l o g i e s 3.7% 19 TABLE I C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g i n B.C. Survey ( n = 5 4 ) Q u e s t i o n Yes No 1. Does y o u r c l a s s p u b l i s h a book? 74.1% 24.0% U s i n g s c h o o l d i t t o machines? 37.0% U s i n g the s c h o o l o f f s e t p r e s s ? 35.2% U s i n g o u t s i d e p u b l i s h e r s ? 9.3% Do you s e l l y o u r p u b l i c a t i o n ? 27.8% 2. Does y o u r c o u r s e r e v o l v e about a s e r i e s o f assignments? 27.8% Or, do the s t u d e n t s w r i t e what the y wish? 7.4% Combination o f the two? 64.8% 3. Do you s e t d e a d l i n e s ? 88.9% 9.3% 4. Do you i n s i s t s t u d e n t s mimic the form o f o u t s t a n d i n g w r i t e r s ? 27.8% 68.5% 5. Do you i n s i s t s t u d e n t s t r y w r i t i n g i n v a r y i n g genres? 87.0% 11.1% 6. Do you i n s i s t on r e v i s i o n ? 83.3% 16.7% 7. Do you mark i n d i v i d u a l p i e c e s o f w r i t i n g ? 90.7% 9.3% I f so -- e v e r y p i e c e ? 59.3% 8. Do you i n s i s t on s i l e n c e i n y o u r c l a s s ? 20.4% 74.1% 20 T a b l e I ( c o n t i n u e d ) Q u e s t i o n Yes No 9. Do s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s o t h e r s t u d e n t s ' works? I f so -- o n l y as a p r e s c r i b e d p a r t o f the co u r s e ? Or o n l y c a s u a l l y and s p o n t a n e o u s l y among i n d i v i d u a l s ? Combination o f the two. 96.3% 27.8% 27.8% 40.7% 10. Do you p r e s c r i b e r e a d i n g ? 79.6% 18.5% 11. Do you have r e a d i n g s ? I f so — by the s t u d e n t s ? — by community w r i t e r s ? 74.1% 68.5% 33.3% 24.1% 12. Do you i n s i s t t h a t s t u d e n t s keep a d a i l y j o u r n a l ? 37.0% 61.1% I f so — do you i n s p e c t i t ? 31.5% 11.1% — do you mark i t ? 9.3% 33.3% 13. Do you i n v o l v e the s t u d e n t s i n o t h e r modes o f e x p r e s s i o n ? 64.8% 20.4% 14. Do you use any t e x t s ? 50.0% 46.3% 15. Does y o u r s c h o o l o f f e r C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g 12? 16.7% 83.3% 16. Do you f e e l more d i r e c t i o n from the Department o f E d u c a t i o n i s needed f o r t h i s c o u r s e ? 25.9% 70.4% 21 I t i s e x c i t i n g t o d i s c o v e r t h a t most C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c l a s s e s a r e i n t e g r a t i n g p u b l i c a t i o n i n t o t h e i r c u r r i c u l a . The l a r g e numbers o f c l a s s e s u s i n g the o f f s e t p r e s s t e l l o f the h e a l t h y i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l l i a i s o n between the C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g Departments and the G r a p h i c Departments. And the numbers o f c l a s s e s s e l l i n g t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n s bespeaks o f r e a l l i f e p u b l i c a t i o n . How e n l i g h t e n i n g i t would be f o r s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s a l i k e t o s e t up a C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g P u b l i c a t i o n Exchange, through the B.C. E n g l i s h T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n . Q u e s t i o n 2: "Does y o u r c o u r s e r e v o l v e about a s e r i e s o f a s s i g n m e n t s ? Yes 27.8% Or, do the s t u d e n t s w r i t e what they w i s h ? " Yes 7.4% Combination 64.8% The c l a s s e s t h a t employ a c o m b i n a t i o n o f assignments and f r e e c h o i c e v a r y from s t r e s s i n g e i t h e r end o f the continuum t o a 50/50 s p l i t . The numbers o f c l a s s e s t h a t r e v o l v e s t r i c t l y around assignments i s very d i s t u r b i n g . C u r r i c u l a o f t h i s o r d e r go a g a i n s t a l l c r e a t i v i t y r e s e a r c h and t h e o r y t h a t have been c o m p i l e d o v e r the l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s . Such c o u r s e s must be h e a v i l y s t r e s s i n g the s t r u c t u r e o f w r i t i n g , as t h i s i s the a r e a o f w r i t i n g most e a s i l y packaged i n t o l e a r n i n g u n i t s . 22 Q u e s t i o n 3: "Do you s e t d e a d l i n e s ? Yes F l e x i b l e Ones No Those r e t u r n s t h a t f a v o u r the use o f d e a d l i n e s v a r y from a few e x c l a m a t o r y Y e s l ' s t o a more w i d e s p r e a d i n s i s t e n c e on d e a d l i n e s f o r major assignments o n l y . There e x i s t s an overwhelming c o n t e n t i o n t h a t c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g s t u d e n t s need a w o r k a b l e framework w i t h i n which t o d i s c i p l i n e t h e m s e l v e s . 81.5% 7.4% 9.3% Q u e s t i o n 4: "Do you i n s i s t s t u d e n t s mimic the form o f o u t s t a n d i n g w r i t e r s ? " Yes 27.8% No 68.5% Those t e a c h e r s t h a t r e p l y i n the a f f i r m a t i v e range from making i t p e r f e c t l y c l e a r t h a t the m i m i c k i n g i s a l o n e assignment t o s t a t i n g t h a t the m i m i c k i n g i s a s t y l e u n i t . The l a r g e number o f n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e s i n d i c a t e t h a t most t e a c h e r s a r e more c o n c e r n e d w i t h o t h e r a s p e c t s o f w r i t i n g . The n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e s may a l s o r e f l e c t the l o a d e d c o n n o t a t i o n s o f the word 'mimic.', Perhaps ' i m i t a t e ' would have been a b e t t e r word c h o i c e . 23 Q u e s t i o n 5: "Do you i n s i s t s t u d e n t s t r y w r i t i n g i n v a r y i n g g e n r e s ? " Yes 87% No 11.1% A c o u p l e o f the t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e they do encourage e x p e r i -m e n t a t i o n w i t h v a r y i n g g e n r e s , though they do not i n s i s t upon i t . T e a c h e r s , on the whole, seem t o be bent on b r o a d e n i n g the s t u d e n t w r i t e r s ' h o r i z o n s . Q u e s t i o n 6: "Do you i n s i s t on r e v i s i o n ? " Yes 83.3% No 16.7% Of the t e a c h e r s t h a t do i n s i s t on r e v i s i o n , some s t a t e t h a t they o n l y do so o c c a s i o n a l l y . One t e a c h e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t r e v i s i o n i s e f f e c t e d i n groups. A n o t h e r s t a t e s t h a t the r e v i s i o n i s i n s i s t e d upon w h i l e the s t u d e n t i s wor k i n g on the work; not a f t e r i t i s completed. Other t e a c h e r s a r e most adamant i n s t a t i n g t h a t the s t u d e n t has the f i n a l word; i t i s h i s c r e a t i o n . However, the overwhelming m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t the a c t o f r e v i s i o n i s n e c e s s a r y . 24 Q u e s t i o n 7: "Do you mark i n d i v i d u a l p i e c e s o f w r i t i n g ? Yes 90.7% No 9.3% I f so - - - e v e r y p i e c e ? Yes 59.3% I f not — e x p l a i n . " T e a c h e r Comments: - No mark ( l e t t e r grade) i s a s s i g n e d u n t i l June. The r e s t o f the co u r s e i s e v a l u a t e d by comment/discussion w i t h the s t u d e n t . - S t u d e n t s choose what they wish marked. - The marking i s , i n i t i a l l y , s u b j e c t i v e and done i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d i s c u s s i o n o f the work. There i s a mark g i v e n f o r each r e p o r t c a r d . - J o u r n a l s a r e c o n s i d e r e d o n l y from the view o f q u a n t i t y . - Most work i s marked. Volume sometimes p r e v e n t s marking a l l work. - There i s n o t enough time o r i n c l i n a t i o n t o mark e v e r y t h i n g . - Some works are d i s c u s s e d and/or marked by the s t u d e n t s . - O c c a s i o n a l l y s t u d e n t s mark each others', o r t h e i r own a t a l a t e r d a t e . Some t h i n g s may never be marked. - Sometimes I mark; sometimes I me r e l y read and comment. - I mark i n the sense o f i n s t r u c t i v e comments. - I e d i t work. S t u d e n t s then may p i c k the b e s t from each term's p r o d u c t i o n t o submit f o r a grade. - I mark the e n t i r e p o r t f o l i o o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g w i t h one l e t t e r grade (One p o r t f o l i o p er s t u d e n t ) . 25 I t i s amazing the number o f t e a c h e r s who not o n l y f e e l o b l i g e d , but a c t u a l l y manage, to mark e v e r y p i e c e o f w r i t i n g o f e v e r y s t u d e n t . Research s t a t e s t h a t t h e s e t e a c h e r s a r e o v e r -w orking themselves f o r no r e t u r n . C r e a t i v i t y s t u d i e s r e v e a l t h a t , i d e a l l y , judgement s h o u l d be suspended u n t i l t h e l a s t p o s s i b l e minute o f the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . There i s a danger t h a t s t u d e n t w r i t e r s become i n h i b i t e d by e v a l u a t i o n mania. And, i n r e a l i t y , p u b l i c a t i o n r e sponse i s the o n l y e v a l u a t i o n t h a t i s s i g n i f i c a n t . Q u e s t i o n 8: "Do you i n s i s t on s i l e n c e i n y o u r c l a s s ? " Yes 20.4% No 74.1% T e a c h e r Comments: - Sometimes a c o n v e r s a t i o n can h e l p . - While w r i t i n g i s b e i n g a t t e m p t e d , s i l e n c e i s a must. - S i l e n c e i s mandatory o n l y when someone 'has the f l o o r , ' e i t h e r m y s e l f o r a n o t h e r s t u d e n t . ( I t ' s c a l l e d manners). - We have s i l e n c e e x c e p t on I n f o r m a t i o n and D i s c u s s i o n Day o r Reading Day. - Reasonable q u i e t i s e x p e c t e d . - S i l e n c e u s u a l l y p r e v a i l s when s t u d e n t s a r e wor k i n g t h e i r h a r d e s t . - S i l e n c e i s a p e a c e f u l s i t u a t i o n . - I i n s i s t on s i l e n c e but I never g et i t . - I use music t o s t i m u l a t e w r i t i n g . 26 The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g t e a c h e r s r e c o g n i z e the w r i t e r ' s needs t o communicate w i t h h i s f e l l o w w r i t e r . T h i s i s where a g r e a t p a r t o f the c o u r s e ' s v a l u e stems from. Q u e s t i o n 9: "Do s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s o t h e r s t u d e n t s ' works? Yes 96.3% I f so -- ( o n l y ) as a p r e s c r i b e d p a r t o f the c o u r s e ? Yes 27. 8% Or, o n l y c a s u a l l y and s p o n t a n e o u s l y among i n d i v i d u a l s ? " Yes 27. 8% Both p r e s c r i b e d and s p o n t a n e o u s l y . Yes 40. 7% T e a c h e r Comments: - Spontaneous d i s c u s s i o n s d e v e l o p n a t u r a l l y i n t o a p e r i o d s e t a s i d e f o r c r i t i c i s m — a t l e a s t one p e r e i g h t day c y c l e . - One must be a t t e n t i v e t o not e m b a r r a s s i n g a s t u d e n t . - R e g u l a r seminars o c c u r i n which work i s r e a d t o the group by the a u t h o r , o r exchanges a r e made among s e v e r a l a u t h o r s who comment and e d i t the work they r e a d . - We have worksheets o f s t u d e n t s ' work. E n e r g e t i c s t u d e n t w r i t e r s soon d i s c o v e r the v a l u e o f d i s c u s -s i n g t h e i r works w i t h t h e i r f e l l o w w r i t e r s . Most t e a c h e r s have a l s o r e a l i z e d the v a l u e o f such p e e r feedback and have a t t e m p t e d t o work t h i s l e a r n i n g d e v i c e i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m . 27 Q u e s t i o n 10: "Do you p r e s c r i b e r e a d i n g ? Yes 79.6% I f so — s p e c i f y " No 18.5% Teacher Comments: - We read works f o r models; Joyce Cary's S p r i n g Song i s a model. - I p r e s c r i b e a r e a d i n g l i s t f o r the y e a r which c o v e r s t h e d i f f e r e n t genre s t y l e s . - I ask them t o read s e l e c t i o n s from w e l l known w r i t e r s t o 'get the f e e l ' o f mood, f l o w , imagery, e t c . - We have r e a d i n g p e r i o d s , and t h e s t u d e n t s g e n e r a l l y s e l e c t t h e i r own m a t e r i a l t o read. - I o n l y p r e s c r i b e r e a d i n g i n the 'Major Poet S t u d y 1 t h a t i s r e q u i r e d t o pass the c o u r s e . - My God. I p r e s c r i b e masses o f contemporary s t u f f : l i t t l e magazines, u n i v e r s i t y l i t e r a r y p u b l i c a t i o n s l i k e P r i s m . - A r t i s t and P e r s o n a l p u b l i s h e d by Ginn and Co. i s p r e s c r i b e d . - C u r r e n t p a p e r s , magazines, reviews a re p r e s c r i b e d . - I u s u a l l y s e t a r t i c l e s o u t o f the s t u d e n t e d i t i o n o f the A t l a n t i c ; - -a l s o p o e t r y and s h o r t s t o r i e s from the same p u b l i c a t i o n . - I r e a d to them what I f i n d s t i m u l a t i n g . - I f e e l t h a t i n s p i r a t i o n i s g a i n e d through c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f the w r i t i n g s o f o t h e r s i n a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e w r i t t e n word. - Sometimes I recommend a s p e c i f i c book t o an i n d i v i d u a l i f I t h i n k he w i l l e n j o y i t , o r i f the a u t h o r ' s s t y l e echoes t h a t o f the s t u d e n t . 28 - Whenever s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l i s found i t i s put on d i t t o and passed o u t . - To h e l p the s t u d e n t ' p l a c e ' h i s own work, I do p r e s c r i b e r e a d i n g . - I p r e s c r i b e a book r e p o r t on one o f the c u r r i c u l u m books ( s t u d e n t ' s c h o i c e ) f o r each s t u d e n t . Reports a r e g i v e n o r a l l y . There tends t o be a wide d i v e r s i t y i n p r e s c r i b e d r e a d i n g t e n d e n c i e s . S i x t e e n p e r c e n t o f the t e a c h e r s s i m p l y do not a s s i g n any r e a d i n g whatsoever, w h i l e a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same number go so f a r as t o p r e s c r i b e y e a r l y r e a d i n g l i s t s which i n c l u d e a l l the g e n r e s . About the same number o f t e a c h e r s a g a i n , p r e s c r i b e c l a s s r e a d i n g f o r model s t u d y , w h i l e the r e m a i n i n g q u a r t e r t e n d t o be more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and spontaneous when s u g g e s t i n g r e a d i n g f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s . Q u e s t i o n 11: "Do you have r e a d i n g s ? I f so — by the s t u d e n t s ? -- by community w r i t e r s ? S p e c i f y . " * The r e a d i n g s r e f e r r e d to here a r e o r a l r e a d i n g s . Yes 74.1% No 24.1% Yes 68.5% Yes 33.3% 29 T e a c h e r Comments: - We do not have many r e s i d e n t w r i t e r s i n T r a i l , so such r e a d i n g s a r e r a r e . - S t u d e n t s have the c h o i c e t o have t h e i r m a t e r i a l r e a d a l o u d . - U s u a l l y I b e g i n by f r e q u e n t l y r e a d i n g the works the s t u d e n t s submit. They, i n t u r n , u s u a l l y r e a d t h e i r own works. I do not f o r c e the more i n t r o v e r t e d s t u d e n t s t o r e a d t h e i r sub-m i s s i o n s , a l t h o u g h most do not o b j e c t t o my r e a d i n g o f t h e i r works. - We have v i s i t s from community r e s o u r c e p e o p l e ; amateur p o e t s , e d i t o r s , i n t e r e s t i n g c i t i z e n s ; I t r y f o r a t l e a s t f o u r g u e s t s p e a k e r s p e r semester. - Few p r a c t i c i n g w r i t e r s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n C h i l l i w a c k . No h o n o r a r -ium i s a v a i l a b l e e i t h e r . ( W r i t e r s i n the boondocks a r e s t a r v i n g o r mercenary, o r b o t h ) . - We s h a r e p e r i o d s once a week f o r s t u d e n t r e a d i n g s . I t i s v e r y e x c i t i n g . - The Canadian League o f Poets p e o p l e are good f o r r e a d i n g s , e.g., Leona Gom, F r e d e r i c k C a n d e l a r i a , P a t r i c k Lane. - I would l i k e t o i n v i t e w r i t e r s but we have no budget. - Fotheringham and Paul S t . P i e r r e have been our g u e s t s . - L o u i s Dudek was i n the c i t y and came t o the s c h o o l i n f o r m a l l y t o t a l k t o s t u d e n t s and s t a f f . 30 - We have s t u d e n t r e a d i n g s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h group c r i t i c i s m . - We do not have gu e s t w r i t e r s due t o o u r remoteness i n Vanderhoof. - Mike Doyle and P.K. Page have been our g u e s t s . - Former s t u d e n t s have r e t u r n e d as guest p o e t s . - Rosenthal and Hodgins came t o t a l k t o the c l a s s . - The w r i t i n g c l a s s p a i d f o r the w r i t e r t o come. - Kevin Roberts (from M a l e s p i n a ) and Gary Geddes have v i s i t e d us. - We have had s e v e r a l Canadian w r i t e r s b r o u g h t i n by the l o c a l A r t s A l l i a n c e . Many o f thos e t e a c h e r s r e p l y i n g n e g a t i v e l y s t a t e t h a t they a r e l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o t r y i n g t o get community w r i t e r s i n t o t he s c h o o l s . Remoteness and f u n d i n g a r e c o n s i d e r a b l e o b s t a c l e s , b ut can be overcome w i t h energy and p e r s i s t e n t c o n t a c t s . I t i s e x c i t i n g t o see t h a t s e v e r a l s c h o o l s use the r e s i d e n t w r i t e r s w i t h i n the s c h o o l t o g i v e r e a d i n g s t o o t h e r s t u d e n t s . In a d d i t i o n t o a l l the b e n e f i t s o f s t u d e n t r e a d i n g s , t h i s i s an e x c e l l e n t method o f a d v e r t i s i n g f o r the f o l l o w i n g y e a r ! Q u e s t i o n 12: Yes 37.0% "Do you i n s i s t t h a t s t u d e n t s keep a d a i l y O p t i o n a l 9.3% j o u r n a l ? No.. 51.8% I f ".so — do you i n s p e c t i t ? Yes 31.5% No 11.1% — do you mark i t ? Yes 9.3% No 33.3% 31 T e a c h e r Comments: - The j o u r n a l i s overworked by the E n g l i s h Department I use an o b s e r v a t i o n j o u r n a l : F l o r a one week, emotions n e x t , a r c h i t e c t u r e a n o t h e r , e t c . - I i n s p e c t t he j o u r n a l f o r q u a n t i t y , not q u a l i t y . - I comment on the s t u d e n t s ' j o u r n a l s . - I o n l y i n s p e c t t he j o u r n a l i f the s t u d e n t a l l o w s i t . - I b e l i e v e a j o u r n a l i s p r i v a t e and w h i l e a s t u d e n t may l e t me read i t , i t must be h i s / h e r d e c i s i o n . - I i n s i s t t h e y keep a j o u r n a l t w i c e weekly. The t e a c h e r s a r e more o r l e s s e v e n l y s p l i t on the p r a c t i c e o f h a v i n g the s t u d e n t s keep a j o u r n a l . Those t h a t do use the j o u r n a l t e c h n i q u e a re almost unanimous i n s t a t i n g t h a t t h e y do i n s p e c t i t , b u t do n o t mark i t . T h i s p r a c t i c e can o n l y r e f l e c t the con-t e n t i o n t h a t t he j o u r n a l i s the s t u d e n t ' s p e r s o n a l , p l a c e and s h o u l d be r e s p e c t e d as such. Q u e s t i o n 13: "Do you involve''the s t u d e n t s i n o t h e r modes o f e x p r e s s i o n ? Yes 64.8% I f so -- s p e c i f y . " No 20.4% T e a c h e r Comments: - taped r e a d i n g s , r a d i o s c r i p t s - i l l u s t r a t i o n o f some work - add music t o w r i t i n g s f o r e f f e c t - v i d e o o f t e l e v i s i o n s c r i p t s , commercials - f i l m s , s l i d e s - c a r t o o n s - o r a l communication i n c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n , s h o r t speeches and r e a d i n g s - some r o l e p l a y i n g f o r purposes o f a s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m - m u l t i - m e d i a p r e s e n t a t i o n s - c o l l a g e s , montages - p o s t e r poems - p o s t u r e , g e s t u r e , dance - c l o t h i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r e - performance o f s k i t s and p l a y s t h a t s t u d e n t s have w r i t t e n - performance o f song l y r i c s t h a t s t u d e n t s have w r i t t e n - puppet t h e a t r e - s t u d e n t s a r e i n s p i r e d by music, p a i n t i n g s , s l i d e s , f i l m s - s t u d e n t s a r e i n s p i r e d by any l o c a l a r t e x h i b i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e , and by g o i n g t o p l a y s - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s e x p e c t e d i n debates i n the form o f a combined e f f o r t . 33 T e a c h e r s o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g a c r o s s the p r o v i n c e a r e c e r -t a i n l y c r e a t i v e i n s u g g e s t i n g a l t e r n a t e modes o f e x p r e s s i o n . Do those t e a c h e r s who a b s t a i n from such d i v e r s i t y do so because t h e y haven't thought o f i t , o r because they a r e w r i t i n g p u r i s t s ? In t h i s m u l t i - m e d i a age the s t u d e n t s a r e e a g e r t o augment t h e i r w r i t i n g w i t h t h e s e f a m i l i a r modes o f e x p r e s s i o n . Q u e s t i o n 14: "Do you use any t e x t s ? Yes I f so — s p e c i f y . " No 46.3% T e a c h e r Comments: - I use a l l t he books I can f i n d on C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g f o r my own e d i f i c a t i o n . - I make my own handouts. - T e x t s a re used o n l y as r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l . F or example, the s e c t i o n on " P o i n t o f View" i n S t o r y and S t r u c t u r e has proven e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l . - I use the government i s s u e t e x t s f o r r e f e r e n c e o n l y . - I use the government i s s u e t e x t s because they a r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . Books Suggested: P r e s c r i b e d books: How W r i t e r s W r i t e  W r i t e r s a t Work  The Elements o f S t y l e  S t o p , Look and W r i t e 34 W r i t e r s Guide and Index t o E n g l i s h  C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g Other: Canadian A u t h o r and Bookman  The P r a c t i c e o f P o e t r y  So You Want t o be a W r i t e r  Dreams and C h a l l e n g e s W r i t i n g I n c r e d i b l y S h o r t S t o r i e s , Poems, P l a y s C r i t i c a l Reading W r i t e Now L e a r n i n g t o W r i t e A r t i s t and P e r s o n a l D i s c o u r s e W r i t e r s Workshop W r i t i n g f o r T e l e v i s i o n Modern R h e t o r i c Sentence C r a f t L i t e r a r y C a v a l c a d e P r e s s Time The Young W r i t e r a t Work While a v e r y few t e a c h e r s use the p r e s c r i b e d t e x t s , the v a s t m a j o r i t y have abandoned them, s e e k i n g more r e l e v a n t and i n s p i r i n g m a t e r i a l s . The g r e a t v a r i e t y i n books used by t h o s e who do a b i d e by t e x t s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s no c o r e book o r books t h a t a r e w h o l l y adequate. C o n s e q u e n t l y , many t e a c h e r s have taken to u s i n g a g r e a t number o f books as r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s f o r the needs o f i n -d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . The government p r e s c r i b e d t e x t s , by t h e i r non-use, are o b v i o u s l y i n a d e q u a t e . I t i s d i s a p p o i n t i n g t o see the l a c k o f book t i t l e s t h a t would r e a l i s t i c a l l y h e l p a w r i t e r improve 35 h i s a r t , and i n f o r m him o f the t e c h n i q u e i n g e t t i n g h i s work pub-l i s h e d . I t i s a l s o d i s a p p o i n t i n g t o note the l a c k o f t i t l e s o f t e a c h e r r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s . A need i s n o t b e i n g met. Q u e s t i o n 15: "Does y o u r s c h o o l o f f e r C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g 12? Yes 16.7% I f so -- what i s i t l a b e l l e d on the s t u d e n t s ' t r a n s c r i p t s ? No 83.3% T e a c h e r Comments: - Our t r a n s c r i p t l a b e l i s W r i t i n g and D i r e c t i n g 12. - We u n o f f i c i a l l y l a b e l i t L i t e r a t u r e 12. - We have a p p r o v a l f o r W r i t i n g 12. - I'd l o v e an advanced c o u r s e , but t h e r e j u s t a r e n ' t enough s t u d e n t s t o o f f e r i t . - Can you do t h i s ? I have s e v e r a l who want i t , but we are t o l d i t cannot be a c r e d i t c o u r s e . Most s c h o o l s , f o r whatever r e a s o n , do n o t o f f e r the f o l l o w -up to C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g 11. A c o u p l e o f s c h o o l s have gone the r o u t e o f g e t t i n g l o c a l s c h o o l b o a r d a p p r o v a l f o r the c o u r s e , w h i l e a c o u p l e o f o t h e r s c h o o l s u n o f f i c i a l l y use s u b s t i t u t e l a b e l s . Though t h e r e are seldom enough s t u d e n t s a t the 12 l e v e l w a n t i n g the c o u r s e t o w a r r a n t a whole c l a s s , t h e s e advanced s t u d e n t s can e a s i l y be accommodated i n the r e g u l a r W r i t i n g 11 c l a s s . The Department o f E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be encouraged to r e c o g n i z e C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g 12. 36 Q u e s t i o n 16: "Do you f e e l more d i r e c t i o n from the Depart-ment o f E d u c a t i o n i s needed f o r t h i s c o u r s e ? " Yes 25.9% No 70.4% T e a c h e r Comments: - God f o r b i d ! - We need good r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s . - I have more i d e a s now than I can p o s s i b l y use and am c o n s t a n t l y t h i n k i n g o f new ones. I do n o t want a p r e s c r i p t i o n . The c h a l l e n g e l i e s i n b e i n g i n n o v a t i v e as a t e a c h e r w r i t e r / g u i d e . - C r e a t i v i t y i s d i f f i c u l t to b u r e a u c r a t i z e . - More d i r e c t i o n i s needed i n terms o f l e a r n i n g outcomes, and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . - More s u g g e s t i o n s are needed, but freedom i s e s s e n t i a l . - An e x c i t i n g p r a c t i c a l t e x t would be n i c e . - T h i s c o u r s e needs t o be r e c o g n i z e d and c a t e r e d t o . - Leave the c o u r s e to the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r and the E n g l i s h Department. A t e a c h e r who wishes to t e a c h i t w i l l have i d e a s o f h i s own. - A y e a r l y l i s t o f new t e x t s and a c o m p i l a t i o n o f s m a l l p r e s s pub-l i c a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h c u r r e n t a d d r e s s e s , produced by the Department o r a n o t h e r s o u r c e would be v e r y h e l p f u l . - Leave i t a l o n e , e x c e p t t o s p o n s o r workshops. - I would l i k e l o c a l money to buy t e x t s . - The Department i s too d i r e c t i v e a l r e a d y . 37 Though some t e a c h e r s wish more d i r e c t i o n from the Department o f E d u c a t i o n , they g e n e r a l l y o n l y d e s i r e more a p p l i c a b l e r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s . The g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s q u i t e e m p h a t i c a l l y echo t h i s need, but are a l s o emphatic about r e t a i n i n g t h e i r freedom i n d e v e l o p i n g the C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c u r r i c u l u m as they see f i t . The word " d i r e c t i o n " i n the q u e s t i o n seems t o s e t o f f n e g a t i v e v i b r a t i o n s i n most t e a c h e r s , who i n t e r p r e t the word as h a v i n g o v e r t o n e s o f p r e s c r i p t i o n and mandate r a t h e r than sugges-t i o n and g u i d a n c e . Added I n c e n t i v e Many t e a c h e r s have n o t o n l y completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n d e t a i l but have a l s o added p r o f u s e comments. I t i s i m p r e s s i v e to see the c o n c e r n t h a t t h e s e t e a c h e r s have f o r d e v e l o p i n g the c o u r s e c u r r i c u l u m . A p p r e c i a t e d i s t h e i r time and energy taken t o s h a r e t h e i r c o n c e r n s . Noted a r e some o f t h e s e comments i n Appendix D because they more f u l l y r e f l e c t the s t a t e o f the C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c o u r s e i n B r i t i s h Columbia than do the i s o l a t e d s u r v e y q u e s t i o n s . Survey C o n c l u s i o n s There i s a g r e a t d i v e r s i t y o f c u r r i c u l a o f f e r e d t h r o u g h -o u t the p r o v i n c e . Some c l a s s e s t e n d to be v e r y s t r u c t u r e d , w i t h y e a r l o n g r e a d i n g l i s t s , p r e s c r i b e d c l a s s a s s i g n m e n t s , and emphasis 38 on grammar, mechanics and form. O t h e r c l a s s e s t e n d to be more l o o s e l y o r g a n i z e d , where s t u d e n t s f o l l o w t h e i r own b e n t , and to c o i n an o l d c l i c h e , 'do t h e i r own t h i n g , ' and the t e a c h e r i s con-c e r n e d o n l y t h a t some p r o c e s s i s o c c u r r i n g i n the s t u d e n t ' s head even i f i t n e v e r g e t s to paper. T h i s i s n o t even to mention the c o u r s e s t h a t a re t a u g h t under the t i t l e o f W r i t i n g 11, but t h a t b e a r no resemblance to i t whatsoever. W r i t i n g 11 cannot be d e s c r i b e d , p r o v i n c i a l l y , i n terms o f e i t h e r an e x p e c t e d p r o d u c t , o r even an e x p e c t e d p r o c e s s . There a re no departmental expec-t a t i o n s t o speak o f , and the d i v e r s i t y o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c u r r i c u l a r e f l e c t s t h i s s t a t e . Some t e a c h e r s a re c o n f i d e n t t h e i r approach i s e f f e c t i v e , to the p o i n t o f b e i n g exemplary, w h i l e o t h e r s would welcome any s u g g e s t i o n whatsoever. However, a l l agree t h a t r e l e v a n t r e s o u r c e s a r e d r a s t i c a l l y needed. The s t u d e n t s a r e w r i t e r s and need w r i t e r s ' r e s o u r c e s . Many t e a c h e r s are o v e r f l o w i n g w i t h i d e a s , and see a g r e a t demand f o r s p e c i a l B.C. E n g l i s h T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n workshops where C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g t e a c h e r s can exchange i d e a s and l e a r n from w r i t e r s and p u b l i s h e r s t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s s u r v e y cannot h e l p but b r i n g t o the f o r e the co n c e r n t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g t e a c h e r s are not q u a l i f i e d to t e a c h the c o u r s e . What does such q u a l i f i c a t i o n c o n s i s t o f ? Courses from a U n i v e r s i t y Department o f C r e a t i v e - W r i t i n g ? Courses i n methodology from a U n i v e r s i t y F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n ? Simply b e i n g a 39 w r i t e r ? S u g g e s t i o n : a t l e a s t the l a t t e r two s h o u l d be the n e c e s s a r y p r e - r e q u i s i t e s f o r t e a c h i n g C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g . The E d u c a t i o n F a c u l t i e s . c e r t a i n l y s h o u l d augment t h e i r c o u r s e o f f e r -i n g s to i n c l u d e a C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g methods c o u r s e . C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g i s d i s t i n c t from E n g l i s h 11 and 12 i s s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s t i n c t and needs to be approached w i t h a unique t r a i n i n g and a unique mind s e t . 40 CHAPTER 4 CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES: VICTORIA, IT'S TIME The W r i t i n g 11 C u r r i c u l u m Guide, C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g o p t i o n , though p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y 'on t r a c k , ' i s s k e t c h y and l a c k i n g i n the c o n c r e t e guidance t h a t C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g t e a c h e r s need when d e v e l o p -i n g t h e i r c u r r i c u l a . The Foreward t o the Guide s t a t e s : A t t e n t i o n i s a l s o drawn to the f a c t t h a t h i s guide i s b e i n g p r i n t e d i n i n t e r i m form t o a l l o w f o r m o d i f i c a -t i o n s i n the l i g h t o f e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the c o u r s e . [p. U T h i s t h r e e page ' i n t e r i m form' was p u b l i s h e d i n 1970. I t i s 1977 now, due time f o r some u p d a t i n g and augmenting to get underway. The b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y e v i d e n t i n the i n t e r i m Guide i s sound. The a u t h o r s r e c o g n i z e the importance o f the s t u d e n t " u s i n g h i s own l i f e and e x p e r i e n c e as a most v a l i d s o u r c e o f w r i t i n g m a t e r i a l f o r him."[p. 7] The Guide a l s o s t a t e s t h a t s t u d e n t s s h o u l d "be g i v e n e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r a c t i c e and w r i t e i n the genre o f t h e i r c h o i c e " [p. 9] and the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p u b l i s h t h e i r works i n some form. The i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology recommended " s h o u l d be as f r e e and u n s t r u c t u r e d as p o s s i b l e " [p. 8] w i t h s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n to the number o f s t u d e n t s a c c e p t e d i n t o the c o u r s e . T e a c h e r s c o n c u r w i t h t h e s e g u i d e l i n e s , but a r e ^ q u i c k 41 p o i n t out the b r e v i t y o f the e x p l a n a t i o n s and s u g g e s t i o n s . Even the p r e s c r i b e d t e x t b o o k s are o f l i t t l e v a l u e to the C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g t e a c h e r w i t h r e s p e c t to c u r r i c u l u m development. The W r i t e r s a t Work s e r i e s and E a r l e B i r n e y ' s The C r e a t i v e W r i t e r c o n s t i t u t e i n t e r e s t i n g and i n f o r m a t i v e r e a d i n g f o r the t e a c h e r as w e l l as f o r the s t u d e n t , but a r e o n l y m i n i m a l l y b e n e f i c i a l i n terms o f a c t u a l p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r d e v e l o p i n g a h i g h s c h o o l C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c o u r s e . The r e m a i n i n g p r e s c r i b e d t e x t b o o k s f o r s t u d e n t use gen-e r a l l y miss the mark by some d i s t a n c e , and c o n s e q u e n t l y are seldom used. The W r i t e r ' s Eye and S t o p , Look & W r i t e a r e both aimed a t s t u d e n t o b s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e but are poor s u b s t i t u t e s f o r r e a l -l i f e o b s e r v a t i o n . The o t h e r t e x t s (The Technique o f C l e a r W r i t i n g and W r i t e r s Guide and Index t o E n g l i s h ) which p u r p o r t to t e a c h the r u l e s o f model w r i t i n g , do j u s t t h a t . C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g i s not a c l a s s i n s t a n d a r d c o m p o s i t i o n 'do's' and 'don'ts.' Though a t times the t e a c h e r may need a c c e s s t o a summary o f t h e s e r u l e s , i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t a s t u d e n t would s e a r c h out any i n f o r m a -t i o n i n such a book. The Elements o f S t y l e , i n t e n d e d f o r use as a s t u d e n t handbook, would be v a l u a b l e i f s t u d e n t s would r e f e r t o i t . T h i s book i s noteworthy f o r i t s b r e v i t y and c o n c i s e n e s s . U n d e r s t a n d i n g F i c t i o n i s a t y p i c a l l i t e r a r y a n a l y s i s o f the s h o r t s t o r y , which i s o f l i t t l e v a l u e to a C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g s t u d e n t . W r i t i n g and a n a l y s i s a r e two v e r y d i f f e r e n t s k i l l s . W r i t i n g i s a s y n t h e s i z i n g a c t i v i t y . I t i s no wonder t h a t t h e s e books seldom l e a v e the c l a s s r o o m s h e l v e s . 42 The p r e s c r i b e d t e x t b o o k l i s t s h o u l d i n c l u d e p u b l i c a t i o n s t h a t a r e v a l u a b l e t o the t e a c h e r i n d e v e l o p i n g h i s c o u r s e c u r r i c u -lum, and p u b l i c a t i o n s t h a t a re v a l u a b l e t o the s t u d e n t i n h e l p i n g him f u r t h e r h i s w r i t i n g c r a f t . The t e a c h e r needs a book much l i k e the l a s t c h a p t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s , a c t u a l p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o the t a s k a t hand. The s t u d e n t s ' needs a r e d i v e r s e . N e i t h e r c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s , nor the 'You, t o o , can be a W r i t e r i n 10 Easy S t e p s ' p u b l i c a t i o n s a r e what s t u d e n t s need. Numerous s u b s c r i p t i o n s t o contemporary magazines a r e c r u c i a l . P u b l i c a t i o n o f i n t e r v i e w s w i t h w r i t e r s who a r e p r e s e n t l y p u b l i s h i n g and w i t h whom the s t u d e n t s can i d e n t i f y i s mandatory [ W r i t e r s a t Work i s a good model, but n o t contemporary enough.] M a n u s c r i p t p r e p a r a t i o n and p u b l i c a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t . Each s t u d e n t s h o u l d a l s o be i s s u e d a d i c t i o n a r y and a t h e s a u r u s . S p e c i f i c t i t l e s o f i n v a l u a b l e books a r e r e c o r d e d i n C h a p t e r 6. In view o f t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n o f the i n t e r i m C u r r i c u l u m  Guide and the p r e s c r i b e d t e x t b o o k s , t h e r e i s much work t o be done i n V i c t o r i a . The s u c c e s s f u l C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c l a s s e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y a p r o d u c t o f t e a c h e r s t h a t who, w h i l e f r a n t i c a l l y g r o p i n g about i n the dark, stumbled upon some r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l s and have combined t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h t h e i r own i n t u i t i o n and w r i t e r ' s sense . In a l l c o r n e r s o f B r i t i s h Columbia t h i s g r o p i n g i s b e i n g r e p e a t e d . The C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c o u r s e needs some s p e c i f i c a t t e n t i o n v e r y soon. The p r e s c r i b e d t e x t b o o k l i s t needs to be t o t a l l y revamped. C u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s are needed, though not i n the format o f p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m , but i n the for m a t o f p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s and r e s e a r c h - b a s e d p h i l o s o p h y , t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r can c o n s i d e r when d e v e l o p i n g h i s p a r t i c u l a r c u r r i c u l u m . 44 CHAPTER 5 STUDIES IN CREATIVITY: IMPLICATIONS FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Contemporary s t u d i e s i n c r e a t i v i t y i n c r e a s e the u n d e r s t a n d -i n g o f the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , the p e r s o n a l i t y o f the c r e a t i v e p e r s o n , and the n a t u r e o f the mental a b i l i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o u r . C o n s e q u e n t l y i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t c r e a t i v e s t u d e n t s have needs which a r e g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by d e f i n i t e f a c t o r s which i n h i b i t c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o u r , and c o n v e r s e l y , methodology which f a c i l i t a t e s c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o u r . C r e a t i v i t y s t u d i e s n o t o n l y have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t a l e n t e d c r e a t i v e s t u d e n t s ; t h e y have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r 'average' s t u d e n t s who are t o y i n g w i t h t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y . However, the more c r e a t i v e a s t u d e n t i s , the more c o m p e l l i n g h i s needs and t h e more s i g n i f i c a n t l y the s t u d i e s a p p l y . A l t h o u g h s t u d i e s o f c r e a t i v i t y p u r p o r t to p r e c i p i t a t e u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s , i t i s mandatory t o keep i n mind t h a t t h e r e are g r e a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y , c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , and needs. C o n s e q u e n t l y , a l l g e n e r a l i z e d d e s c r i p t i o n s must not be r e -graded as p r o f i l e s o r e x c l u s i v e ways o f l e a r n i n g f o r a l l c r e a t i v e s t u d e n t s - - n o r f o r any i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t . However, a few g e n e r a l bases upon which i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n can be worked, a r e most h e l p f u l . D e v e l o p i n g c r e a t i v i t y r e q u i r e s l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s which r e i n f o r c e the many ty p e s o f c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n to the a b i l i t i e s o f r e c o g n i t i o n , memory, and l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g (--the a b i l i t i e s f r e q u e n t l y a s s e s s e d by t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s and measures o f s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e ) , d e v e l o p i n g c r e a t i v i t y r e q u i r e s 45 a t t e n t i o n t o such a b i l i t i e s as c u r i o s i t y , e v a l u a t i o n ( s e n s i t i v i t y to problems, i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and and m i s s i n g e l e m e n t s ) , d i v e r g e n t p r o -d u c t i o n ( e . g . , f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y , o r i g i n a l i t y , and e l a b o r a t i o n ) , and r e d e f i n i t i o n . Each o f t h e s e a b i l i t i e s i s viewed by G u i l d f o r d , T o r r a n c e and s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s as a s e p a r a t e t h i n k i n g s k i l l . (With these, s k i l l s i n mind i t i s e v i d e n t why i t i s o f t e n s a i d t h a t a c r e a t i v e p e r s o n i s u s u a l l y ' i n t e l l i g e n t 1 but t h a t an i n t e l l i g e n t p e r s o n i s not n e c e s s a r i l y ' c r e a t i v e ' ) . A prime goal i s to have t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n c r e a t i v i t y (be i t music, w r i t i n g o r d r e s s - d e s i g n ) knowing t h e s e s k i l l s , so as t o have much more d e f i n i t e o b j e c t i v e s a t which t o have t h e i r s t u d e n t s aim. G u i l d f o r d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , contends t h a t an awareness o f t h e s e c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s g i v e s the t e a c h e r f a r b e t t e r g u i dance than the t r a d i t i o n a l , s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e models t h a t have dominated e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y . Stages o f C r e a t i v i t y The p r o c e s s o f both a r t i s t i c and s c i e n t i f i c c r e a t i v i t y can be p l o t t e d i n terms o f s e q u e n t i a l s t a g e s . Not a l l o f the s t a g e s a r e n e c e s s a r i l y p a r t o f e v e r y c r e a t i v e a c t ; c e r t a i n l y some c r e a t i v e a c t s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t u i t o u s i n terms o f chance o r l u c k . I t a l s o s h o u l d be emphasized t h a t the mechanism u n d e r l y i n g the sequence i s o n l y p a r t i a l l y u n d e r s t o o d . There a r e smorgasbords o f f u r t h e r s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a . The r e s e r v a t i o n 46 must be r e s t a t e d c o n c e r n i n g o v e r g e n e r a l i z i n g mental s t r a t e g i e s . As H e r b e r t Fox s t a t e s i n "A C r i t i q u e on C r e a t i v i t y i n the S c i e n c e s " : I t would seem q u i t e a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e i s no one c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , and t h e r e may w e l l be as many c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s e s as t h e r e a r e c r e a t i v e p e o p l e . [Fabun, 1968, p. 6] N e v e r t h e l e s s , knowledge o f the g e n e r a l p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i v i t y undoubtedly l e a d s t he t e a c h e r to d e v e l o p i n g a f a r more e f f e c t i v e c u r r i c u l u m i n C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g . The f i r s t s t a g e i n the c r e a t i v i t y p r o c e s s i s DESIRE. The person must, f o r some r e a s o n , want to c r e a t e . He may want t o e x p r e s s a p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , s o l v e a problem t h a t i s b o t h e r i n g him, o r make more money through the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a new i n v e n t i o n , p r o c e s s o r t e c h n i q u e . R i c h a r d W i l b u r p h i l o s o p h i z e s about t h i s s t a g e o f d e s i r e : The need t o w r i t e a poem a r i s e s , I t h i n k , from the f e e l i n g t h a t the w o r l d i s g e t t i n g o u t o f hand, t h a t i t ' s s h a k i n g i t s e l f f r e e from t he names and v a l u e s and p a t t e r n s t h a t t he poet has p r e v i o u s l y imposed on i t . T h i s may happen f i v e minutes a f t e r you've w r i t t e n a poem. In o t h e r words, the mother o f i n v e n t i o n f o r the poet i s an i n n e r n e c e s s i t y t o r e a s s e r t h i s i m a g i n a t i v e c o n t r o l o v e r the w o r l d . A poem be g i n s w i t h a f e e l i n g o f inadequacy. [Kaufman and Powers, ed., 1970, p. 304] Whatever the r e a s o n , c r e a t i v i t y s t a r t s w i t h m o t i v a t i o n . The second s t a g e i s PREPARATION. Both r e l e v a n t and i r r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n a r e g a t h e r e d . Whether through the d e v i c e s 47 o f r e s e a r c h , e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n o r exposure to e x p e r i e n c e , t h i s s t a g e i s a n a l y t i c a l , c o n c e r n e d w i t h making the s t r a n g e f a m i l i a r . The j o u r n a l , d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n d e t a i l , i s an i n v a l u a b l e d e v i c e f o r i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g . The t h i r d s t a g e i s MANIPULATION. Once a l l the m a t e r i a l has been amassed, i n h i s mind, on s c r a p s o f paper, o r on a workbench, the c r e a t i v e person becomes i n v o l v e d i n t r y i n g t o f i n d a new p a t t e r n by m a n i p u l a t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n i n many d i f f e r e n t ways. The goal i s to make the f a m i l i a r s t r a n g e . The f o u r t h s t a g e o f INCUBATION i n v o l v e s an outward abandonment o f the c r e a t i v e t a s k . The w r i t e r drops h i s novel and goes on to something e l s e . Yet, f o r reasons not f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d , the s u b c o n s c i o u s c o n t i n u e s t o dwell on the t a s k , w r e s t l i n g w i t h the problems i n v o l v e d w i t h i t s e x p r e s s i o n . R i c h a r d W i l b u r d e s c r i b e s h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f the i n c u b a t i o n s t a g e o f c r e a t i v i t y : The i n c u b a t i o n p e r i o d o f a poem may be s h o r t o r l o n g , but f o r me i t i n v o l v e s f i r s t a r e t r e a t from l a n g u a g e , the c u l t i v a t i o n o f a s t a t e o f a p p a r e n t s t u p i d i t y . D uring t h i s time the mind r e t r e a t s as f a r as p o s s i b l e i n t o a p r e v e r b a l c o n d i t i o n , and moves around among i t s fundamental images: b r i g h t n e s s , d a r k n e s s , f a l l i n g , r i s i n g , t h a t k i n d o f t h i n g . I suppose the c o n d i t i o n i s one which y o u r mind d e l i b e r -a t e l y r e f u s e s to r e l a t e the p o t e n t i a l elements o f a poem i n any f i n a l o r f u l l y c o n s c i o u s way. They shake around a t the bottom o f the mind as b i t s o f c o l o r i n a k a l e i d o s c o p e , and you c o n s c i o u s l y a v o i d any d e c i s i o n as t o what p a t t e r n s they might t a k e . A l l the w h i l e , f o c o u r s e , the l e s s c o n s c i o u s p o r t i o n o f the mind i s making f l u i d e x p eriments i n p a t t e r n , t r y i n g on t h i s and t h a t , though you don't know i t . [Kaufman and Powers, ed., 1970, pp. 304-5] The i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the t e a c h e r o f c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o u r a r e p a r a -mount. The s t a g e o f i n c u b a t i o n i s a p e r i o d o f a p p a r e n t s t u p i d i t y and a i m l e s s n e s s , and i t may c o n t i n u e f o r days o r weeks. Stu d e n t s a r e o f t e n j u s t as b e w i l d e r e d and f r u s t r a t e d by the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s s t a g e , as i s the n a i v e t e a c h e r . S t u d e n t s need to u n d e r s t a n d t h a t 'The Muse' has not f o r s a k e n them, but has o n l y gone underground t e m p o r a r i l y . T e a c h e r u r g i n g s t o 'produce'and rooms f u l l o f s i g n s r e a d i n g ' t h i n k ' a r e , a t b e s t , a n n o y i n g and u s e l e s s a t t h i s p o i n t . U n d e r s t a n d i n g and time ( t o l e t the mind be f r e e ) i s o f the e s s e n c e . The f i f t h s t a g e o f INTIMATION i s o f t e n i n c l u d e d as the wind-up o f the I n c u b a t i o n s t a g e , because o f i t s f l e e t i n g and l u s t r e l e s s n a t u r e . T h i s s t a g e s i m p l y l a b e l s the p r e m o n i t i o n t h a t the c r e a t i v e a c t i s about t o o c c u r . To quote from W i l b u r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n a g a i n : A t t h i s s t a g e i n the coming o f a poem I haven't any i d e a as t o what the p a r a p h r a s a b l e c o n t e n t o f the poem i s going t o be when i t c o m e s - - i t s p r o s e meaning. I don't know what the poem i s g o i n g t o 'say'. A t most I ' l l have some i d e a as to the mood o f the poem, i t s p r o b a b l e s i z e , i t s p r o b a b l e scope, the e x t e n t t o which i t ' s going t o r a m i f y . The poem doe s n ' t b e g i n w i t h a meaning, i t works towards m e a n i n g - - i t f i n d s out what i t ' s about. Only when you w r i t e the poem do you f i n d o u t what i t has t o say. A f t e r a l l , t h i s i s n ' t d i s r e p u t a b l e . A poem i s , as one o f the p r e v i o u s s p e a k e r s s a i d , more than i t means, more than the sum o f i t s p a r t s . I t i s the t o t a l p a t t e r n o f the poem, the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a s t a t e o f p s y c h i c harmony, the whole s o u l i n a c t i o n , to which we respond. [Kaufman and Powers, ed., 1970, p. 305] 49 The s i x t h s t a g e o f ILLUMINATION i s the d r a m a t i c and much r o m a n t i c i z e d s t a g e i n the c r e a t i o n p r o c e s s , and a l l too o f t e n the o n l y s t a g e t h a t w i s h f u l c r e a t o r s - t o - b e r e c o g n i z e . ' C r e a t i v i t y ' and the s t a g e o f ' I l l u m i n a t i o n ' a r e f a r too o f t e n m i s t a k e n l y taken f o r b e i n g synonymous by those l a c k i n g i n fundamental knowledge. O f t e n the e x p e r i e n c e o f I l l u m i n a t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d as a ' f l a s h , ' 'an i n s i g h t 1 o r 'a sudden awakening.' C o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g attempts t o d e s c r i b e t h i s s t a g e : DR. ELLIOTT DUNLAP SMITH, s a i d , " I f the knowledge o f the i n v e n t o r and the c l u e s which w i l l b r i n g the i n v e n t i o n i n t o b e i n g have brought n e a r l y i n t o p o s i t i o n to p r o v i d e the i n v e n t i v e i n s i g h t , h i s i n n e r t e n s i o n w i l l be s t r o n g . . . . As he nears h i s goal he w i l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y e x c i t e d . . . . I t i s no wonder t h a t t h e sudden r e l e a s e o f such i n n e r t e n s i o n i s o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as a ' f l a s h ' . " Sometimes I s t a r t w i t h a s e t s u b j e c t ; o r to s o l v e , i n a b l o c k o f s t o n e . . . a s c u l p t u r a l problem I've g i v e n my-s e l f , and then c o n s c i o u s l y attempt t o b u i l d an o r d e r l y r e l a t i o n s h i p o f forms, which s h a l l e x p r e s s my i d e a . But i f the work i s t o be more than j u s t s c u l p t u r a l e x e r c i s e , u n e x p l a i n a b l e jumps i n the p r o c e s s o f thought o c c u r ; and the i m a g i n a t i o n p l a y s i t s p a r t . HENRY MOORE "Notes on Sculpture" FRIEDRICH WILHELM NIETZSCHE s a i d , "The n o t i o n o f r e l e v a t i o n d e s c r i b e s the c o n d i t i o n s q u i t e s i m p l y ; by which I mean t h a t something p r o f o u n d l y c o n v u l s i v e and d i s t u r b i n g s u d d e n l y becomes v i s i b l e and a u d i b l e . . . . One h e a r s — o n e does not seek, one takes--one does not ask who g i v e s : a tho u g h t f l a s h e s o u t l i k e l i g h t n i n g . " (In "Ecce Homo") I t i s t o me the most e x c i t i n g moment—when you have a bl a n k canvas and a b i g brush f u l l o f wet c o l o r , and you plunge. I t i s j u s t l i k e d i v i n g i n t o a p o n d — t h e n you s t a r t t o swim. . . . Once the i n s t i n c t and i n t u i t i o n get i n t o the brush t i p , the p i c t u r e happens, i f i t i s to be a p i c t u r e a t a l l . D.H. LAWRENCE "Making Pictures" 50 I have no i d e a whence t h i s t i d e comes, o r where i t goes, but when i t b e g i n s to r i s e i n my h e a r t , I know t h a t a s t o r y i s i n the o f f i n g . DOROTHY CANFIELD "How Fling and Five Started and Grew from .Americans All" [Fabun, 1968, p. 9] I t i s no s u r p r i s e t h a t the s t a g e i s o f t e n c a s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as the 'A-HA,1 'Eureka' o r ' L i g h t - B u l b ' E x p e r i e n c e . The r a d i a n c e on the s t u d e n t ' s f a c e and h i s t o t a l e n t h r a l I m e n t w i t h h i s c r e a t i v e t a s k q u i c k l y r e v e a l a mind e n j o y i n g i l l u m i n a t i o n . In the f i n a l s t a g e o f VERIFICATION the c r e a t i v e t a s k i s a c c o m p l i s h e d , examined and v a l u e d . In the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s t a g e : . . . you have a sense t h a t the whole p a t t e r n o f i t e x i s t s p o t e n t i a l l y but s t i l l somewhat f l u i d l y i n the u n c o n s c i o u s . You don't know where y o u ' r e g o i n g , but you do know t h a t y o u ' r e g o i n g somewhere. In o t h e r words, you have an o v e r r i d i n g p r e m o n i t i o n t h a t the poem i s going t o take shape. The w r i t i n g o f the poem i s a m a t t e r o f making moment-by-moment c h o i c e s among p o s s i b i l i t i e s proposed by the u n c o n s c i o u s . As B a u d e l a i r e s a i d , i n the p r o c e s s o f w r i t i n g a poem the p o e t must be h y p n o t i s t and s u b j e c t a t once. T h i s i s a very t i c k l i s h b u s i n e s s . You have t o g i v e the u n c o n s c i o u s f r e e p l a y , and a t the same time shape the p r o p o s a l s o f the u n c o n s c i o u s i n t o something t h a t makes d a y l i g h t sense. You have t o be s e r i o u s and l o g i c a l w i t h p a r t o f y o u r b e i n g but p l a y f u l and spontaneous w i t h a n o t h e r p a r t o f y o u r b e i n g . [Kaufman and Powers, ed., 1970, p. 305] The c r e a t i v e work once a c c o m p l i s h e d , i s c r i t i c a l l y re-examined and re-examined. A poem may be r e w r i t t e n and r e v i s e d s e v e r a l t i m e s , u n t i l i t s v a l u e i s e v i d e n t , e i t h e r by b e i n g p e r s o n a l l y s a t i s f y i n g t o the a u t h o r , o r by b e i n g demanded by the p u b l i c i n p r i n t . A r e c i p e o r even a mathematical f o r m u l a must be examined s e v e r a l times and u l t i m a t e l y t e s t e d . In the f i n a l s t a g e s o f v e r i f i c a t i o n the s t u d e n t needs much t e a c h e r s u p p o r t . R e v i s i n g and r e w o r k i n g f o r p e r f e c t i o n can be b o r i n g , r e q u i r i n g much s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e . And a f t e r the e n t i r e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s i s complete, the s t u d e n t must be ready t o r e a l i z e t h a t h i s c r e a t i o n may not be v a l u e d by o t h e r s . The t e a c h e r ' s r o l e i s b l a t a n t l y o b v i o u s , y e t a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e . T e a c h e r compassion and u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s undoubtedly the u l t i m a t e key. Both t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t need t o be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s e s t a g e s i n the p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i o n so as t o be more e f f e c t i v e i n t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the c r e a t o r . Both a l s o need to remember t h a t the s t a g e s o f the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s a r e t r u l y a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and hence, t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t a f a l s i f i c a t i o n . The s t a g e s a r e n o t d i s t i n c t , but b l e n d t o g e t h e r . The s e q u e n t i a l s t a g e s a r e , i n t r u t h , one c o n c u r r e n t p r o c e s s . The C r e a t i v e P e r s o n a l i t y C r e a t i v e p e o p l e s t a n d a p a r t from the crowd i n terms o f p e r s o n a l i t y , not o n l y i n d i v i d u a l l y , but a l s o as a r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous group. C r e a t i v e p e o p l e a r e n o t i c e a b l y unique. Maslow, S t o d d a r d and Fromm have made such keen o b s e r v a t i o n s : 52 I t seemed to me t h a t much b o i l e d down to the r e l a t i v e absence o f f e a r ( i n c r e a t i v e p e r s o n s ) . . . . They seemed t o be l e s s a f r a i d o f what o t h e r p e o p l e would say o r demand o r laugh a t . . . . Perhaps more i m p o r t a n t , however, was t h e i r l a c k o f f e a r o f t h e i r own i n s i d e s , o f t h e i r own i m p u l s e s , emotions, t h o u g h t s . ABRAHAM MASLOW "Creativity in Self-Actualizing People" To be c r e a t i v e , i n s h o r t i s t o be u n p r e d i c t a b l e ; i t i s t o be d e c i d e d l y s u s p e c t i n the w o r l d o f a f f a i r s . The c r e a t i v e a s p e c t o f l i f e i s r i g h t l y viewed as a c t i o n . Never s i m p l y c o n t e m p l a t i v e , t he c r e a t i v e a c t a t i t s h i g h e s t b r i n g s about n o t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h i n g s , t h o u g h t s , works o f a r t and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s . What i s t o be changed f i g h t s back; perhaps w i t h s u c c e s s . GEORGE D. STODDARD "Creativity in Education" What a r e the c o n d i t i o n s o f the c r e a t i v e a t t i t u d e , o f s e e i n g and r e s p o n d i n g , o f b e i n g aware and b e i n g s e n s i t i v e to what one i s aware o f ? F i r s t o f a l l , i t r e q u i r e s the c a p a c i t y to be p u z z l e d . C h i l d r e n s t i l l have the c a p a c i t y to be p u z z l e d . . . . But once they a r e through the p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i o n , most p e o p l e l o s e the c a p a c i t y o f wondering, o f b e i n g s u r p r i s e d . They f e e l they ought t o know e v e r y t h i n g , and hence t h a t i t i s a s i g n o f i g n o r a n c e t o be s u r p r i s e d o r p u z z l e d by a n y t h i n g . ERIC FROMM [Fabun, 1968, p. 25] The c h i l d i n the c r e a t i v e person i s ind e e d e v i d e n t ! Frank B a r r o n p r e s e n t s some i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s from h i s 1967 s t u d y o f f i f t y - s i x c r e a t i v e w r i t e r s . His c r e a t i v e w r i t e r s a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t e r s ( o f f i n e a r t s l i t e r a t u r e and a l s o more commercial works) and s t u d e n t s i n a C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c o u r s e . Q u o t i n g from h i s paper: 53 . . . the f i v e items most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the group o f 30 c r e a t i v e w r i t e r s were t h e s e : Appears t o have a h i g h degree o f i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y . G e n u i n e l y v a l u e s i n t e l l e c t u a l and c o g n i t i v e m a t t e r s . V a l u e s own independence and autonomy. Is v e r b a l l y f l u e n t ; can e x p r e s s i d e a s w e l l . Enjoys a e s t h e t i c i m p r e s s i o n s ; i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y r e a c t i v e . The next e i g h t more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c items were: Is p r o d u c t i v e ; g e t s t h i n g s done. Is c o n c e r n e d w i t h p h i l o s o p h i c a l .problems; e.g., r e l i g i o n , t he meaning o f l i f e , e t c . Has a h i g h a s p i r a t i o n l e v e l f o r s e l f . Has a wide range o f i n t e r e s t s . T h i n k s and a s s o c i a t e s to i d e a s i n unusual ways; has u n c o n v e n t i o n a l thought p r o c e s s e s . Is an i n t e r e s t i n g , a r r e s t i n g p e r s o n . Appears s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , c a n d i d i n d e a l i n g s w i t h o t h e r s . Behaves i n an e t h i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t manner; i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h own p e r s o n a l s t a n d a r d s . [Kaufman and Powers, ed., 1970, pp. 231-32] Barron goes on t o s t a t e t h a t f o r t y p e r c e n t (an u n u s u a l l y h i g h p e r -centage) o f c r e a t i v e w r i t e r s c l a i m t o have had " e x p e r i e n c e s e i t h e r o f m y s t i c communion w i t h the u n i v e r s e o r o f f e e l i n g s o f u t t e r d e s o l a t i o n and h o r r o r . " The n a t u r e o f man i n r e l a t i o n t o the u n i v e r s e seems t o be o f paramount c o n c e r n t o them. He con-c l u d e s t h a t c r e a t i v e w r i t e r s a r e d e d i c a t e d t o the q u e s t f o r u l t i m a t e meaning. They u n d e r s t a n d themselves t o be e l e c t e d t o t a c k l e t h i s t a s k , and have a c c e p t e d the o f f i c e . C r e a t i v e w r i t e r s a r e c o m p e l l e d t o l i s t e n to the v o i c e w i t h i n and speak o u t the the t r u t h . T h i s t r u t h need not be everyone o r even anyone e l s e ' s t r u t h ; s t i l l the c r e a t i v e person f e e l s d r i v e n t o s h a r e i t . 54 Less c r e a t i v e , more c o n v e n t i o n a l p e o p l e a l s o have non-c o n f o r m i n g , even i r r a t i o n a l i d e a s , but condemn them and h i d e them b e f o r e they o r anyone e l s e can examine them. A t times such c o n v e n t i o n a l p e o p l e l o s e t h e i r i n h i b i t i o n s and r e l e a s e c o n t r o l , o f t e n even s h a r i n g t h e i r 'weird' i d e a s , when dreaming, day-dreaming, d r i n k i n g , t a k i n g drugs and going i n s a n e . The t e a c h e r can c e r t a i n l y a i d c r e a t i v i t y development by b e i n g s u p p o r t i v e o f s t u d e n t s ' d i v e r g e n t i d e a s , e n c o u r a g i n g them t o suspend judgement, p r i m a r i l y by d o i n g so h i m s e l f . B a r r o n ' s s t u d y s i n g l e s o u t the s t u d e n t w r i t e r s , d i s -c o v e r i n g t h a t e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between the s t u d e n t s and the p r o f e s s i o n a l s : The s t u d e n t w r i t e r s , as p e r c e i v e d by the assessment s t a f f , d i f f e r e d from t h e s e mature c r e a t i v e w r i t e r s i n s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t r e s p e c t s . For them, the second most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i tem was: 'Concerned w i t h own adequacy as a p e r s o n , e i t h e r a t c o n s c i o u s o r u n c o n s c i o u s l e v e l s . ' A l s o , h i g h l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c were t h e s e i t e m s : 'Is b a s i c a l l y a n x i o u s ' ; 'has f l u c t u a t i n g moods'; 'engages i n p e r s o n a l f a n t a s y and daydreams, f i c t i o n a l s p e c u l a t i o n s . ' [Kaufman and Powers, ed., 1970, p. 232] These r e s u l t s a r e somewhat e x p l a i n e d by the young ages, and the-accompany-i n g e g o - i d e n t i t y c o n c e r n s , o f the s t u d e n t s . But B a r r o n goes so f a r as t o s u g g e s t t h a t " f o r them w r i t i n g was much more a form o f s e l f -'therapy, o r a t l e a s t an attempt a t working out t h e i r problems t h r o u g h d i s p l a c e m e n t and s u b s t i t u t i o n i n a s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e form o f f a n t a s y . " Such s e l f - t h e r a p y i s not to be s q u e l c h e d u n m e r c i f u l l y a t a l l , y e t s t u d e n t s o f t h i s bent s h o u l d be made t o r e a l i z e t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s i s d e f i n i t e l y not to presume the t e a c h e r t o p l a y p s y c h o l o g i s t . The t e m p t a t i o n i s g r e a t to push two c h a i r s t o g e t h e r and ask the s t u d e n t t o r e c l i n e and r e c a l l h i s c h i l d h o o d , but t e a c h e r beware. Have the s t u d e n t l i m i t h i s s e l f - t h e r a p y t o h i s j o u r n a l , and g e t on w i t h the C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g t h a t can become noted i n p r o f e s s i o n a l c i r c l e s . C r e a t i v i t y Needs the c r e a t i v e person has d e f i n i t e needs upon which any c u r r i c u l u m d e a l i n g w i t h c r e a t i v i t y s h o u l d be based. C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g C u r r i c u l a must take note. One o f the most compel 1ing needs o f c r e a t i v e s t u d e n t s i s the need f o r c u r i o s i t y . The c r e a t i v e person i s p e r s i s t e n t about a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s about t h i n g s t h a t p u z z l e him. He i s a t t r a c t e d t o the p u z z l i n g , the unknown, the b i z a r r e , and conse-q u e n t l y h i s q u e s t i o n s can be e m b a r r a s s i n g . T o r r a n c e ' s r e s e a r c h s t u d y c o n c e r n e d w i t h h a v i n g t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s r a t e the d e s i r a b i l i t y and u n d e s i r a b i l i t y o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c r e a t i v e s t u d e n t s , c o n s i s t e n t l y showed the p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c "Always a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s " as r a n k i n g u n i f o r m l y low. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t when E i n s t e i n was asked t o drop out o f s c h o o l , h i s t e a c h e r had kept a p o r t f o l i o on him which i n c l u d e d a c o m p i l a t i o n o f h i s e m b a r r a s s i n g q u e s t i o n s : "Why 56 c a n ' t we f e e l the e a r t h move?" What i s space?" "What keeps the w o r l d from f l y i n g i n t o p i e c e s as i t s p i n s around?" The t e a c h e r c o u l d n ' t answer h i s q u e s t i o n s and l a b e l l e d E i n s t e i n a bad i n f l u e n c e on the r e s t o f the s t u d e n t s , a c c u s i n g him o f c a u s i n g them t o l o s e r e s p e c t f o r the t e a c h e r . An i s o l a t e d i n c i d e n t ? H a r d l y ! There i s no reason why a t e a c h e r s h o u l d f e e l t h r e a t e n e d by q u e s t i o n s t h a t he cannot answer. The knowledge t h a t the c r e a t i v e c h i l d has t h e s e demanding needs, i s b e n e f i c i a l i n d e a l i n g r a t i o n a l l y w i t h them. The development o f a s t u d e n t ' s c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l does depend, t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , upon the way h i s needs f o r c u r i o s i t y a r e t r e a t e d . A n o t h e r o v e r t need, i s o l a t e d by T o r r a n c e i n 1968, i s t he need t o meet c h a l l e n g e and t o attempt d i f f i c u l t t a s k s . There i s a s t r o n g tendency towards s t r e s s - s e e k i n g i n t e s t i n g the l i m i t s o f one's a b i l i t i e s . T o r r a n c e ' s s t u d y o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a l s o ranks " p r e f e r e n c e f o r complex t a s k s " and " a t t e m p t i n g d i f f i c u l t t a s k s as r a t h e r u n d e s i r a b l e . O f t e n t i m e s t h e d i f f i c u l t t a s k s t h a t c r e a t i v e p e o p l e embrace may become downright dangerous. W i l b u r and O r v i l l e W r i g h t c o n t i n u a l l y t e s t e d t h e i r l i m i t s i n a box k i t e which more than once wrapped i t s e l f and them around a t r e e . Pen and paper do not i m m e d i a t e l y p r e s e n t themselves as l i f e - t h r e a t e n i n g e n t i t i e s , but one need o n l y t h i n k o f the p o l i t i c a l e x i l e o f A l e k s a n d r I. S o l z h e n i t s y n t o see t h a t C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g can have dangerous l i m i t s , as w e l l . The t e a c h e r s ' r o l e can o n l y be t o g i v e a l e r t and s e n s i t i v e guidance which w i l l a s s i s t the c r e a t o r i n h i s l i m i t - t e s t i n g endeavour. He c e r t a i n l y s h o u l d n o t attempt t o thwart the endeavour, as t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s a r e wont t o do, e n c o u r a g i n g t h a t which i s s a f e and p r e d i c t a b l e , but l i f e l e s s and b o r i n g t o a c r e a t o r . A n o t h e r , c o m p e l l i n g need, and one t h a t many p e o p l e have d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g , i s the need t o g i v e o n e s e l f c o m p l e t e l y t o a t a s k and t o become f u l l y a bsorbed i n i t . The c r e a t i v e person o f t e n i s so p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h the t a s k a t hand t h a t he may seem i n a t t e n t i v e and absentminded. N e e d l e s s t o s a y , n a i v e t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s f i n d t h i s b e h a v i o u r annoying a t b e s t , and f i n d themselves f o r b i d d i n g the n u i s a n c e a c t i v i t i e s . Once a g a i n , s i m p l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g the c r e a t i v e need f o r complete submersion i n a t a s k makes a l l the d i f f e r e n c e . M o n t e s s o r i ' s methods emphasize t h i s d r i v i n g need. She i n s i s t s t h a t s t u d e n t s a b s o r b e d i n a t a s k be l e f t u n i n t e r r u p t e d r a t h e r than r u s h i n g them o f f t o a d i f f e r e n t l e a r n i n g t a s k , p r e v i o u s l y s c h e d u l e d . She s t a t e s : He who i n t e r r u p t s the c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o make them t o l e a r n some p r e d e t e r m i n e d t h i n g ; he who makes them cease the s t u d y o f a r i t h m e t i c t o pass on t o t h a t o f geography and the l i k e , t h i n k -i n g i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d i r e c t t h e i r c u l t u r e , c o n f u s e s the means w i t h the end and d e s t r o y s the man f o r a v a n i t y ' [ M o n t e s s o r i , 1917, p. 180] 58 T e a c h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g , need to be s u r e to a l l o w f o r such i n d i v i d u a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n i n the day-to-day c u r r i c u l u m . The c r e a t i v e person has a need to be honest and to s e a r c h f o r the t r u t h . Genuine c r e a t i v e achievement r e q u i r e s t h a t a p e r s o n make an independent judgement and then have the courage to s t i c k to h i s c o n v i c t i o n s , and work to t h e i r l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s . The c r e a t o r may have to stand a l o n e , b u t the l i f e l o n g s e a r c h f o r the t r u t h i s a need o f u l t i m a t e i m p o r t . The c r e a t i v e s t u d e n t a l s o has a need to be d i f f e r e n t , to be an i n d i v i d u a l . T o r r a n c e i s q u i c k to p o i n t o u t t h a t t h i s i s not f o r the sake o f b e i n g d i f f e r e n t , but r a t h e r t h a t t h e c r e a t i v e p e r s o n has to be d i f f e r e n t i n o r d e r to a t t a i n h i s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s need i s v e r y seldom r e s p e c t e d i n s t u d e n t s . P a r e n t s u s u a l l y do n o t want t h e i r c h i l d t o be c o n s i d e r e d p e c u l i a r , and t e a c h e r s g e n e r a l l y seem to be most adept a t making c h i l d r e n conform to b e h a v i o u r a l norms. A c l a s s o f c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s needs m e n t a l , even p h y s i c a l , room to be themselves and to a s s e r t t h e i r own unique p e r s o n a l i t i e s . F a c t o r s I n h i b i t i n g C r e a t i v i t y Development In any c u r r i c u l u m d e a l i n g w i t h c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s , t e a c h e r s a r e c o n s t a n t l y f a c e d w i t h a handful o f v e r y powerful f a c t o r s which can i n h i b i t and even k i l l c r e a t i v i t y . These f a c t o r s a r e a l l s o c i e t y - b o r n and b r e d . Our s o c i e t y i s a s u c c e s s o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y i n which e v e r y t h i n g d e t r i m e n t a l t o s u c c e s s i s r e a d i l y p r e v e n t e d . T h i s s u b v e r s i v e a t t i t u d e has c a r r i e d through i n t o the s c h o o l s , and s t u d e n t s w i t h c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l , who need t o a t t a c k complex t a s k s hence r i s k i n g f a i l u r e , a r e o f t e n t h w a r t e d . T e a c h e r s o f c r e a t i v e s t u d e n t s need to be open t o l e t t i n g the s t u d e n t s f a i l , and need t o encourage the s t u d e n t s t o r i s k f a i l u r e . The peer o r i e n t a t i o n o f our s o c i e t y c r e a t e s much p r e s -s u r e on i n d i v i d u a l s , and the e s p e c i a l i n h i b i t i n g e f f e c t s on c r e a t i v e s t u d e n t s a r e o b v i o u s and w i d e s p r e a d . A prime way o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s phenomenon i s t o encourage t he s t u d e n t s t o respond t o t h e i r c r e a t i v e needs, t o be i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r own r i g h t s t a n d i n g a p a r t from the t h r o n g . The sex r o l e s t h a t e x i s t i n o u r s o c i e t y have been m i s p l a c e d and overemphasized, e x a c t i n g t o l l s on c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t dare t o t r a n s g r e s s the r o l e b o u n d a r i e s . Though r e c e n t y e a r s have brought men and women w r i t e r s i n t o the same camp, the s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s s t i l l somewhat r o l e - o r i e n t e d . Eyebrows s t i l l r a i s e a t women w r i t e r s such as E r i c a Jong and Marion E n g l e , y e t q u i v e r not a t Saul B e l l o w s o r John Updike. S t u d e n t s need t o be encouraged t o i g n o r e t h e s e burdensome r o l e s and s t r i k e o u t on m e r i t o f t h e i r own t a l e n t . Our s o c i e t y i s g u i l t y o f u n e q u i v o c a b l y e q u a t i n g d i v e r g e n c y w i t h a b n o r m a l i t y . As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , p a r e n t s 60 and t e a c h e r s t e n d t o be the w o r s t c u l p r i t s f o r m o l d i n g the c h i l d i n t o a s o c i a l l y w e l l - a d j u s t e d r o b o t . The f i n a l i n h i b i t i n g f a c t o r t h a t s o c i e t y has b l e s s e d our c u l t u r e w i t h , i s the w o r k - p l a y dichotomy. Work i s supposed to be d i s l i k e d and p l a y i s supposed t o b e . e n j o y e d , and woe t o t h o s e d e v i a t e s who p r e f e r work. I t i s a l s o a p p a l l i n g t o note t h a t , i n t h i s s e n s e , r i g o r and work have alm o s t become synonymous. Where does the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s f i t ? W r i t i n g i s a p o t p o u r r i o f work and p l a y ; r i g o r , d i s l i k e s and f u n . The dichotomy does not a p p l y . T o r r a n c e does not o f f e r any pat s o l u t i o n s t o c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s and nor do I. These i n h i b i t i n g f a c t o r s t e n d t o g r a d u a l l y e a t away a t the i n d i v i d u a l , s t u l t i f y i n g h i s c r e a t i v i t y . I t i s the o b s e r v a n t t e a c h e r who knows h i s s t u d e n t s w e l l , t h a t can d e t e c t , and h e l p the s t u d e n t d e a l w i t h t h e s e s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s . C o n c l u s i o n T o r r a n c e i s most adamant i n s t r e s s i n g t h a t the c r e a t i v e s t u d e n t needs a " r e s p o n s i v e environment," r a t h e r than a s t i m u l a t i n g one. S t i m u l a t i o n o f c r e a t i v i t y comes from w i t h i n the s t u d e n t . He does not r e q u i r e s t i m u l a t i n g l i g h t shows and open-ended murder m y s t e r i e s t o provoke h i s c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l . These a r e o u t e r s t i m u l i , f o r e i g n and r e l a t i v e l y i n e f f e c t i v e f o r him. The c r e a t i v e 61 s t u d e n t needs t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , and f e l l o w s t u d e n t s t o be r e s p o n s i v e t o h i s c r e a t i v e needs. He needs h i s freedom e m b e l l i s h e d w i t h s e n s i t i v e t e a c h e r g u i d a n c e and d i r e c t i o n . T o r r a n c e ' s words b e s t summarize the c o n c e p t o f the t e a c h e r ' s r o l e i n a c u r r i c u l u m devoted t o c r e a t i v i t y : E a r l y i n our i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , I became c o n v i n c e d t h a t we c o u l d b e s t r e s p e c t c r e a t i v e needs and s e r v e t h e purposes o f c r e a t i v e growth i n t h e c l a s s r o o m by r e s p e c t i n g the q u e s t i o n s t h a t c h i l d r e n ask, by r e s p e c t i n g the i d e a s t h a t t h e y p r e s e n t f o r c o n s i d e r -a t i o n , by showing them t h a t t h e i r i d e a s have v a l u e , by e n c o u r a g i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r a c t i c e and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h o u t e v a l u a t i o n and g r a d i n g , and by e n c o u r a g i n g and g i v i n g c r e d i t f o r s e l f - i n i t i a t e d l e a r n i n g and t h i n k i n g . We c a l l e d t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s f o r r e w a r d i n g c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o r . [ T o r r a n c e , 1970, p. 22] Though t h e s e recommendations do r i n g out as s e l f - e v i d e n t and o v e r l y s i m p l i s t i c t r u i s m s , t e a c h e r s seldom seem to a p p l y them i n the c l a s s -room. The a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e i d e a s t o the development o f a C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c u r r i c u l u m would be a v e r y p o w e r f u l f o r c e i n e n c o u r a g i n g the c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l o f many s t u d e n t w r i t e r s . 62 CHAPTER 6 SPECIFIC GUIDELINES FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT OF SENIOR SECONDARY CREATIVE WRITING COURSES: GOOD-BYE MIDNIGHT SLAVERY In the f o l l o w i n g pages a r e s u g g e s t e d g u i d e l i n e s to c o n s i d e r i n d e v e l o p i n g the c u r r i c u l u m o f a C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c o u r s e . These g u i d e l i n e s a r e f i r m l y based i n both r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n and w a r r a n t s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . However, i t i s not suggested t h a t t h i s scheme be too r i g i d l y f o l l o w e d ; a too s t r i c t adherence might i n f a c t l e a d to an i n f l e x i b i l i t y o f approach t h a t would be i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the v e r y n a t u r e o f c r e a t i v i t y . These g u i d e l i n e s a r e b e s t i n t e r n a l i z e d , then c r a f t e d i n t o a c u r r i c u l u m t h a t i s e f f e c t i v e f o r the s i t u a t i o n a t hand. W r i t i n g c o u r s e s i n Secondary S c h o o l s must come to terms w i t h b o t h p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t . To emphasize o n l y p r o d u c t i s to embrace the t r a d i t i o n a l methodology, e v o k i n g such c o n c e p t s as: i n s t r u c t i o n , s t a n d a r d , d i s c i p l i n e , form, model, and p r o d u c t . Y e t to emphasize o n l y p r o c e s s i s to swing f a r p a s t the m i d l i n e i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n , c o n j u r i n g up such vague ' u n t e s t a b l e ' n o t i o n s a s : i n s p i r a t i o n , i n n o v a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l i s m , and p r o c e s s . W r i t i n g need not be a s c h i z o p h r e n i a o f the c l a s s i c v e r s u s the 63 r o m a n t i c . I t can and, i n f a c t , must i n c l u d e both p e r s o n a l i t i e s i f i t i s t o have v a l u e and meaning to the s t u d e n t s . P u b l i c a t i o n o f s t u d e n t m a t e r i a l i s the l i n k between the i m a g i n a t i o n o f the a u t h o r and the r e c e p t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f the r e a d e r . P u b l i c a t i o n i n t r o d u c e s the e n t i r e a r e a o f the c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the a u t h o r o f how the r e a d e r w i l l respond to h i s ( t h e a u t h o r ' s ) work. However, we must n o t f o r g e t t h a t p u b l i c a t i o n i s the aim o f the second s t a g e o f w r i t i n g . The f i r s t s t a g e f o r the s t u d e n t i s the c o n s c i o u s t o t a l unawareness o f a p o t e n t i a l r e a d e r . In t h i s f i r s t s t a g e he w r i t e s s o l e l y f o r h i m s e l f . In b r i e f , the o v e r a l l p l a n f o r the s t u d e n t w r i t e r i s a two s t a g e c o n c e p t : * J i m Sabol has o r g a n i z e d i n a q u a s i - s i m i l a r manner, the " B a s i c S k i l l s i n the E n g l i s h Language A r t s Program" f o r the B e l l e v u e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s i n Washington S t a t e . 64 S t u d e n t A c t i o n ( p r o c e s s ) S t u d e n t Work ( p r o d u c t ) Stage 1 i n s p i r a t i o n , e x p l o r a t i o n , c r e a t i o n I n i t i a l work d r a f t i n g s k i l l s Goal r e l a t i o n o f ' s e l f to ' n o n s e l f Stage 2_ r e f i n i n g , e d i t i n g , r e w r i t i n g w i t h a u d i e n c e i n mind p o l i s h e d work e d i t i n g and p u b ! i s h i n g s k i l l s G o a l : p u b l i c a t i o n Each s t a g e has i t s own s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t g o a l , and the s t u d e n t s must adhere to the g i v e n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r . To i n t r o d u c e the goal o f p u b l i c a t i o n t o o soon i s t o i n v i t e l e s s than h o n e s t work, namely, work t h a t i s m e c h a n i c a l l y p u b l i s h a b l e , but t h a t i s s h a l l o w i n p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t . 65 STAGE ONE: DRAFTING E x p e r i e n c e - B a s e d W r i t i n g In the f i r s t s t a g e o f w r i t i n g the s t u d e n t ' s a t t e n t i o n must be d i r e c t e d i n t o h i m s e l f , i n t o h i s i n n e r w o r l d o f v i v i d and vague, r e c e n t and remembered e x p e r i e n c e s . I t i s t h i s i n n e r w o r l d t h a t the s t u d e n t s h o u l d be encouraged to d i s c o v e r and r e d i s c o v e r through w r i t i n g . W r i t i n g g i v e s to e x p e r i e n c e s i g n i f i c a n c e , meaning, and worth and, n o t s u r p r i s i n g , e x p e r i e n c e has t h i s i d e n t i c a l e f f e c t on w r i t i n g . That i s , s t u d e n t s n o t o n l y d i s c o v e r themselves and f i n d meaning i n t h e i r l i v e s by e x p l o r i n g t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s through words, they a l s o c r e a t e works o f a r t t h a t are i n h e r e n t l y powerful i n t h e i r r e a l i s m and s e n s i t i v i t y . The c o n t e n t o f the s t u d e n t s ' w r i t i n g s h o u l d be e s s e n t i a l l y s e l f - c e n t e r e d , based i n t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s . The c o n c l u s i o n s o f the Dartmouth Anglo-American C o n f e r e n c e o f 1966 aimed t e a c h e r s o f s t u d e n t w r i t i n g i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n : While p r o v i d i n g f o r the b a s i c s k i l l s t h a t a l l s t u d e n t s need f o r t h e i r p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , i t s u b o r d i n a t e d t h e s e t o human v a l u e s . I t s o b j e c t i v e was n o t merely p r o f i c i e n c y b u t p l e a s u r e i n the uses o f language and l i t e r a t u r e , and t h e s e uses as a means to l e a r n i n g how to l i v e , e x p l o r i n g as w e l l as communicating e x p e r i e n c e , i l l u m i n a t i n g , d e e p e n i n g , and e n r i c h -i n g i t . S i m i l a r l y , i t s s t r e s s was on p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , the development o f c h i l d r e n as i n d i v i d u a l s , w i t h p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e i r d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l needs and p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . [ M u l l e r , 1967, p. 176] E f f e c t i v e c r e a t i v e works w i l l stem from l o o k i n g inward i n t o the 'raw s t u f f t h a t we, as i n d i v i d u a l and unique human b e i n g s a r e made o f : t h o u g h t s , b e l i e f s , e m o t i o n s , c o n f l i c t s , e t c . c o n c e r n i n g our e x p e r i e n c e s . Language and e x p e r i e n c e a re so i n t e r - r e l a t e d t h a t language w i t h o u t e x p e r i e n c e i s a d e s e r t , and e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o u t language i s m e a n i n g l e s s . Edward S a p i r s t a t e s , "While i t ( l anguage) may be l o o k e d upon as a s y m b o l i c system which r e p o r t s o r r e f e r s o r o t h e r w i s e s u b s t i t u t e s f o r d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e i t does not as matter o f a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r s t a n d a p a r t from o r run p a r a l l e l t o d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e b u t c o m p l e t e l y i n t e r p e n e t r a t e s w i t h i t . " [ S a p i r , 1949, p. 1] The a c t o f w r i t i n g about an e x p e r i e n c e g i v e s t h a t e x p e r i e n c e meaning. L.S. Vygotsky, a Ru s s i a n p s y c h o l o g i s t , l a b e l s t h i s form o f s e l f - c o m m u n i c a t i o n "speech f o r o n e s e l f . " Each i n d i v i d u a l i s concerned w i t h making sense o f h i s own w o r l d and w r i t i n g i s but one method o f d o i n g so. W r i t e r s w r i t e , not o n l y to be u n d e r s t o o d , but to under-s t a n d . How o f t e n have p e o p l e s a i d to themselves when w r i t i n g , "Now I see; now I u n d e r s t a n d . " Where b e f o r e was o n l y c o n f u s i o n f r u s t r a t i o n , now i s s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t p a r t o f l i f e has meaning. P e t e r Elbow has s o l i d , p r a c t i c a l a d v i c e f o r a l l w r i t e r s : I n s t e a d o f a two-step t r a n s a c t i o n o f meaning-i n t o l anguage, t h i n k o f w r i t i n g as an o r g a n i c , developmental p r o c e s s i n which you s t a r t w r i t i n g a t the v e r y b e g i n n i n g — b e f o r e you know y o u r meaning a t a l l - - a n d encourage y o u r words g r a d u a l l y t o change and e v o l v e . Only a t the end w i l l you know what you want t o say o r the words you want t o say i t w i t h . You s h o u l d e x p e c t y o u r s e l f t o end up somewhere d i f f e r e n t from where you s t a r t e d . Meaning i s not what you s t a r t out w i t h but what you end up w i t h . C o n t r o l , c oherence, and knowing y o u r mind are not what you s t a r t o u t w i t h but what you end up w i t h . T h i n k o f w r i t i n g then not as a way t o t r a n s m i t a message but as a way t o grow and cook a message. W r i t i n g i s a way t o end up t h i n k i n g something you c o u l d n ' t have s t a r t e d o u t t h i n k i n g . W r i t i n g i s , i n f a c t , a t r a n s a c t i o n w i t h words whereby you free y o u r s e l f from what you p r e s e n t l y t h i n k , f e e l , and p e r c e i v e . You make a v a i l a b l e to y o u r s e l f something b e t t e r than what you'd be s t u c k w i t h i f you'd a c t u a l l y succeeded i n making y o u r meaning c l e a r a t the s t a r t . What l o o k s i n e f f i c i e n t — a r a m b l i n g p r o c e s s w i t h l o t s o f w r i t i n g and l o t s o f t h r o w i n g away--is r e a l l y e f f i c i e n t s i n c e i t ' s the b e s t way you can work up t o what you r e a l l y want to say and how t o say i t . [Elbow, 1973, pp. 15-16] Too many p e o p l e a r e a f r a i d t o take pen i n hand u n t i l t h e y know e x a c t l y what they want t o communicate and how t h e y w i l l do so. I t i s the t e a c h e r ' s duty t o smash t h e s e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s , and l a u n c h the w r i t e r s on j o u r n e y s t h a t have no such s t a u n c h p r e -c o n c e i v e d formats o r e n d p o i n t s . W r i t i n g s h o u l d be somewhat o f an a d v e n t u r e , r a t h e r than a p r e d i c t a b l e h i e r o g l y p h i c t o u r . Language a l l o w s the w r i t e r t o e x p l o r e a l i e n p i e c e s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n depth and t o r e f l e c t on them at l e n g t h , t o ruminate on them, g i v i n g him i n s i g h t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t would o t h e r w i s e d i s a p p e a r i n the c e a s e l e s s rush o f e x p e r i e n c e . And i n t h i s d i s c o v e r y o f the form and meaning o f h i s i d e a s , the s t u d e n t d i s c o v e r s h i m s e l f . C e r t a i n l y a w r i t e r w r i t e s t o i n f o r m , p e r s u a d e , e n t e r t a i n and e x p l a i n , but j u s t as v a l u a b l e , 68 he w r i t e s t o d i s c o v e r the i n n e r m o s t spaces o f h i m s e l f . "The a c t o f p u t t i n g words on paper i s n o t the r e c o r d i n g o f a d i s c o v e r y .but the v e r y a c t o f e x p l o r a t i o n i t s e l f . " [Murray, 1969] W r i t i n g i s d i s c o v e r y , d i s c o v e r y o f the meaning o f e x p e r i e n c e , d i s c o v e r y o f the s e l f . Language, more than a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and l i n g u i s t s know a t p r e s e n t , shapes the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y . The e x t e n t t o which any gi v e n i n d i v i d u a l i s a user o r a v i c t i m o f language determines n o t o n l y how he i s viewed by s o c i e t y , b ut a l s o how he sees h i m s e l f : Language g i v e s shape and b o u n d a r i e s t o i d e a s , t h o u g h t s , and f e e l i n g s and thus t o p e r s o n a l i t y . Language i t s e l f has i n h e r e n t forms, however, so t h a t the v e r y tongue o u r p a r e n t s g i v e us shapes o u r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . . . . C r e a t i n g answers i n words can be a form o f i n v e s -t i g a t i o n and d i s c o v e r y ( i f y o u are h o n e s t ) . Not h a v i n g words means t h a t i n some r e s p e c t s you have not y e t d i s c o v e r e d y o u r s e l f . Or h a v i n g d i s c o v e r e d p a r t o f y o u r s e l f , what guarantee do you have t h a t i t w i l l n o t change? Unl e s s you become a mental and emo t i o n a l f o s s i l , you w i l l always be c h a n g i n g . You w i l l always need new language to communicate t o y o u r -s e l f and to o t h e r p e o p l e . Without new language f o r new s i t u a t i o n s , no one can be h i m s e l f . [Kaufman and Powers, ed., 1970, p. 2] George O r w e l l ' s c o n t e n t i o n s about the i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y o f language and thought i n Ni n e t e e n E i g h t y - F o u r become i n c r e a s i n g l y r e a l i s t i c , as contemporary r e s e a r c h s u r f a c e s . P s y c h o l o g i s t s l a b e l the use o f language to come to know o n e s e l f : ' s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n , ' making the s e l f r e a l . T.S. E l i o t i s co n c e r n e d w i t h t h i s t r u t h i n h i s m a s t e r p e i c e , The Four Q u a r t e t s : 69 We s h a l l not cease from e x p l o r a t i o n And the end o f a l l o u r e x p l o r i n g W i l l be to a r r i v e where we s t a r t e d And know the p l a c e f o r the f i r s t time. [ E l i o t , 1944, p. 59] The s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be encouraged to s t r a y back i n t o t h e i r random tho u g h t s o f the f a r and n e a r p a s t and b r i n g them i n t o f o c u s . They s h o u l d be encouraged t o s i f t through t h e s e thoughts and images i n s e a r c h o f the 'raw s t u f f o f e x p e r i e n c e t h a t they f e e l c o m p e l l e d to w r i t e about: Indeed, w r i t i n g i s l a r g e l y a p r o c e s s o f c h o o s i n g among a l t e r n a t i v e s from the images and thoughts o f the end-l e s s f l o w , and t h i s c h o o s i n g i s a m a t t e r o f making up one's mine, and t h i s making up one's mind, becomes i n e f f e c t the making up o f one's s e l f . In t h i s way w r i t i n g t h a t i s honest and genuine and s e r i o u s (though n o t n e c e s s a r i l y w i t h o u t humor o r w i t ) c o n s t i t u t e s the d i s c o v e r y o f the s e l f . [ M i l l e r , 1972, p. 113] The s t u d e n t ' s j o u r n e y i n t o h i m s e l f has an u n t o l d p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on both h i s v i s i o n o f the n a t u r e o f h i s s e l f and h i s r e l a t i o n to o t h e r s , as w e l l as on h i s w r i t i n g . The w r i t i n g t h a t stems from such i n t r o s p e c t i v e j o u r n e y i n g i s g e n e r a l l y powerful and s e n s i t i v e . Such d i r e c t e x p e r i e n t i a l w r i t i n g has an impact on the r e a d e r t h a t o t h e r w r i t i n g cannot e q u a l . But what happens t o the s t u d e n t h i m s e l f i s even more e x c i t i n g . He comes a l i v e to h i m s e l f . Take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n words o f F r e d C h a p p e l l , a poet and C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g p r o f e s s o r a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f North C a r o l i n a : "I've seen 70 persons come a l i v e to themselves i n w r i t i n g c l a s s e s i n a way they n e v e r have done b e f o r e . " [ G a r r e t t , e d . , 1972, p. 36] In many w r i t i n g c l a s s e s t e a c h e r s have seen s t u d e n t s , who were p r e -v i o u s l y e n c o u n t e r e d as s t i f l e d and c l o s e d s t u d e n t s i n a r e g u l a r E n g l i s h c l a s s , grow i n t o open, s e n s i t i v e and warm i n d i v i d u a l s . Wayne Booth echoes t h i s o p i n i o n : I f we ask them to w r i t e about t h i n g s c l o s e to the home base o f t h e i r own honest e x p e r i e n c e , w h i l e c o n s t a n t l y s t r e t c h i n g t h e i r powers o f o b s e r v a t i o n , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , and argument, n e v e r a l l o w i n g them to d r i f t i n t o pompous i n a m i t i e s o r empty c o n t r o v e r s i a l -i t y we may have t h a t r a r e but wonderful p l e a s u r e o f w i t n e s s i n g the m i r a c l e : a man and a s t y l e where b e f o r e t h e r e was o n l y a bag o f wind o r a bundle o f r e c e i v e d o p i n i o n s . [ B o o t h , 1964, pp. 119-120] W r i t i n g i s an outward e x t e n s i o n o f the s e l f , and can be e f f e c t i v e i f the w r i t e r has h o n e s t l y l o o k e d inward f i r s t . The t e a c h e r s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d t o c h a t c a s u a l l y , b ut purpose-, f u l l y , a w h i l e w i t h each i n d i v i d u a l t h a t i s e r r i n g l y p r o -j e c t i n g h i s mind's eye s o l e l y outward, and w i t h each i n d i v i d u a l t h a t has s e e m i n g l y e x h a u s t e d h i s i d e a s . F i v e minutes o f ' i d l e ' t a l k t h a t c e n t e r s on the s t u d e n t ' s e x p e r i e n c e s can t u r n up c o u n t l e s s e x p e r i e n c e s which he may f i n d e x c i t i n g t o e x p l o r e on paper. A c h a t w i t h L i n d a about remembered e v e n t s t h a t were a l l i m p o r t a n t i n both - d i s t a n t c h i l d h o o d s provoked a poem t h a t many r e a d e r s can i d e n t i f y w i t h : 71 Te a r s s l i p down h e r cheeks, as she pouts i n a c o r n e r . C r y i n g s o f t l y to h e r s e l f , she fumbles w i t h a Kleenex, and s n i f f l e s h e r sorrows t o a w i l t e d rag d o l l . When you are f i v e , even b r e a k i n g a b u t t e r d i s h i s a v e r y b i g problem. L i n d a ' s e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h i s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e brought meaning and o r d e r to an o t h e r w i s e i n s i g n i f i c a n t and w o r t h l e s s e x p e r i e n c e . She d i s c o v e r e d a t r u t h about the e v e r c h a n g i n g p a t t e r n t h a t weaves t o g e t h e r s e l f and time. Ann's j o u r n e y i n t o c h i l d h o o d speaks f o r i t s e l f : The F i f t h Thummer T h i t h thummer wath f a n t a t h t i c ! We p r a c t i c a l l y l i v e d i n o u r b a t h i n g t h u i t h . Jimmy and David (my b e t h t f r i e n t h ) and I found a f i e l d w i t h l o n g g r a t h e t h o v e r headth. We caught g r a t h h o p p e r t h and a b e a u t i f u l b u t t e r f l y w i t h y e l l o w and brown w i n g t h . But my Daddy athed me i f I would l i k e to l i v e i n a j a r tho we l e t the g r a t h h o p p e r t h and b u t t e r f l y go. The thun b e a t down on o u r brown b o d i e t h a t h we l a y chewing on t h t r a w i n the l o n g g r a t h . Then David went to the h o t h p i d a l . Jimmy and I knew he would come back becauth h o t h p i d a l t h alwayth maketh pe o p l e b e t t e r . And Jimmy knew i t b e t t e r than anybody becauth he'th D a v i d ' t h b r o t h e r . Tho, Jimmy and I went ahead and b u i l t the t h t u r d y f o r t r e t h i n the f i e l d . And f o r dayth a f t e r w a r d t h , we kept making i t b e t t e r and b e t t e r tho David c o u l d thee i t when he got back. Today I went t o the f i e l d to meet Jimmy. When I got t h e r e , he wath w r e c k i n g o u r b e a u t i f u l f o r t . I ran a t him 72 and athed him what he wath d o i n g , what are we g o i n g t o thow David when he g e t t h back. I l o o k e d a t him. Jimmy wath c r y i n g and Jimmy n e v e r c r i t h becauth he'th the o l d e t h . David and I c r y becauth we're a y e a r y o u n g e r than him. Jimmy t h a i d David had gone t o the a n g e l t h . David had lookemea o r something. I a t h e d him when David would get back. Jimmy t h a i d he wath dead, t h u p i d , and he wathn't coming back. T h t i l l c r y i n g , Jimmy ran away. But David i t h n ' t dead, I know. Only o l d p e o p l e d i e . Naw, o n l y o l d p e o p l e d i e . R e l a t i o n s h i p s among peop l e t h a t concern the s t u d e n t are f a s c i n a t i n g p l a c e s t o b e g i n a t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t c h a t . From t h e r e the c h a t can p r o g r e s s t o a p a r t i c u l a r e v e n t t h a t might c a p t u r e the e s s e n c e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r the s t u d e n t to w r i t e about h i s own i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the c o n c e r n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p , f o r i n t h i s very w r i t i n g l i e s the d i s c o v e r y o f the n a t u r e o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . A r e l a t i o n s h i p o f paramount concern to h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i s t h a t o f 'boy-man-girl-woman.' Donna enhances h e r r e a l i z a t i o n o f the n a t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e r s e l f and her b o y f r i e n d when she attempts t o c a p t u r e i t i n words: f o r mark: p a r a -chute i n t o my morning i n y o u r u s u a l , e x p e c t e d b l u e a n d w h i t e n y l o n g l o r y : we can c a t c h h o l d o f the wind-s t r i n g s and f l y , dodging c l o u d s and wax-melting s t a r s t o g e t h e r . 73 The c l a s s r o o m i t s e l f p r o v i d e s many r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t , and between s t u d e n t and s t u d e n t . An e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s by any i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t can uncover un-t o l d c o n c e r n s . Lynda e x p l o r e s h e r s e l f - c o n s c i o u s r e a c t i o n t o b e i n g asked, by a t e a c h e r , a q u e s t i o n t o which she has no answer: In a c i r c l e o f g l a r i n g eyes I am squeezed by s i l e n c e . They w a i t , r a v e n o u s l y , f o r my r e s p o n s e , Ready to l e a p , and t e a r the words from my mouth. My f a c e t i g h t e n s , begging w i t h unsounding screams as I s i n k * deeper, i n t o m y s e l f . Lynda wrote to u n d e r s t a n d , more than t o be u n d e r s t o o d . While a d o l e s c e n t s o f t e n o u t w a r d l y i g n o r e t h e i r f a m i l i e s , they s t i l l c o n s t i t u t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f g r e a t importance t o the i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t . C o l l e e n was s p u r r e d i n t o w r i t i n g f o l l o w i n g a f a m i l y v i s i t to h e r grandmother i n an o l d - f o l k s home: She s i t s r o c k i n g , w i t h n e e d l e s and wool i n hand. Her sad brown eyes r i p a t the h e a r t s o f the v i s i t i n g f a m i l y . They a l l c h a t h a p p i l y a t h e r , but the words n e v e r touch h e r She t r i e s h e r s l u r r e d words c a u t i o u s l y , h o p i n g someone w i l l reach o u t t o u n d e r s t a n d , Yet she i s not h e a r d . They don't s t a y l o n g , h e r q u e s t i o n s are l e f t unanswered. When th e y ' v e gone, she remains i n h e r c h a i r . T e a r s s t r e a k down her d i s c o l o u r e d f a c e , and are l e f t unwiped. * P h r a s e s from Edwin A. Hoey's poem "Foul Shot" a r e echoed i n Lynda's poem. 74 A p a t h e t i c g r i n passes a c r o s s h e r w h i t e l i p s . The c h a i r s t o p s s t i l l , as h e r grandma-warm eyes s t r o l l around the empty, l i f e l e s s room. Needles and v/ool drop to the f l o o r , as i f i n slow motion. Her f a m i l y mourns an empty c h a i r . In a t t e m p t i n g t o c a p t u r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f grandma and f a m i l y , C o l l e e n had t o s i m u l t a n e o u s l y become 16 and 95 y e a r s o l d . An e f f e c t i v e and powerful poem r e s u l t e d , but j u s t as n o t a b l e , i f not more s o , was C o l l e e n ' s d i s c o v e r y o f the pathos o f age and the n a i v e t y o f a l l who a r e not y e t aged. As s t u d e n t s w r e s t l e and p l a y w i t h words and e x p e r i e n c e , each one i n e v i t a b l y d e s i r e s t o w r i t e about h i s own p e r s o n a l traumas o f a t t e m p t i n g t o a s s i m i l a t e language and e x p e r i e n c e . Some s t u d e n t s f e e l c o m p e l l e d t o concern themselves w i t h the d i f f i c u l t i e s t hey e n c o u n t e r , as G e o r g i a does: Molasses b r a i n S t a g n a n t , s t a l e No f i r e o f i n s p i r a t i o n M e l t s the s l u d g e . I t s t i c k y - d r i b b l e s Bogging down more Of my c r e a t i v e machinery. Others t r y t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s e s : When I c a n ' t t h i n k I squeeze my b r a i n 1 i k e a r i p e orange t o e x t r a c t e v e r y ounce o f p r e c i o u s j u i c e . . . . then c a r e f u l l y s e p a r a t e the p u l p from the j u i c e and s i p i t s l o w l y t o quench my t h i r s t f o r i d e a s . (Barb) 75 O t h e r s , y e t , f e e l d r i v e n t o e x p l o r e t h e i r reasons f o r w r i t i n g : I c o u l d n e v e r be a w r i t e r . What t a l e n t have I? What w r i t e r ' s q u a l i t i e s ? I have none. I'm n o t a p e r s e c u t e d Jew l i k e Cohen nor born i n a n c i e n t Greece as was Homer I was never a poor farmboy l i k e Shakespeare n o r an a l c o h o l i c l i k e Poe and I'm not mad l i k e Hemmingway I doubt i f I'm e c c e n t r i c enough t o be a w r i t e r I'm not a n a t i o n a l i s t l i k e Atwood nor an i d e a l i s t l i k e Whitman I haven't Dickens' sense f o r s o c i a l j u s t i c e n o r C a r r ' s need t o r e f l e c t n a t u r e I doubt i f I have even the e s s e n t i a l s Y e t , I w r i t e I w r i t e because . . . wel 1 What the h e l l I l i k e t o w r i t e . ( E l a i n e ) Because the w r i t i n g e x p e r i e n c e i s p r e s s i n g and p e r s o n a l , t h i s s u b j e c t can s u c c e s s f u l l y be s u g g e s t e d and encouraged. Whenever a s t u d e n t has a temporary d r o u g h t , the t e a c h e r s h o u l d be ready f o r a s t u d e n t - c e n t e r e d c h a t t h a t w i l l c o v e r t l y r e a r o u s e the s t u d e n t ' s j o u r n e y i n t o h i m s e l f . A t t i m e s , d i r e c t i n g s t u d e n t s t o o t h e r a u t h o r ' s works may a c t i v a t e thoughts o f t h e i r own, but t h i s i s a v e r y round about and i n d i r e c t way o f s t i m u l a t i n g t h e i r own r e c o l l e c t i o n s . Comparison o f the s t u d e n t s ' p o l i s h e d works w i t h o t h e r a u t h o r s ' works f o r c u r i o s i t y and i n t e r e s t ' s sake b e n e f i c i a l . However, t h i s comparison s h o u l d have no more 76 d e s p o t i c v a l u e f o r form, c o n t e n t , o r s t y l e than a comparison w i t h a f e l l o w s t u d e n t ' s work. T h i s i s n o t to b l a t a n t l y i g n o r e the a u t h o r ' s form, c o n t e n t o r s t y l e , but to emphasize the p r i m a l r e s o u r c e — t h e s t u d e n t ' s own i n d i v i d u a l l i t e r a r y d e c i s i o n s based on h i s own e x p e r i e n c e s . Remember: the predominant aim o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t a g e one i s to encourage the s t u d e n t s to b e t t e r know and u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s and t h e i r v e r y s e l v e s through l a n g u a g e . T e a c h e r as ' T r a v e l C o u n s e l l o r ' Where does the t e a c h e r f i t i n t o t h i s f i r s t s t a g e o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g where s t u d e n t s c e a s e l e s s l y d r a f t e x p e r i e n t i a l p e a r l s ? I t i s the t e a c h e r ' s job to encourage the s t u d e n t s to e x p l o r e the i n n e r m o s t r e c e s s e s o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s and then to encourage them to w r i t e u s i n g t h i s i n v a l u a b l e raw m a t e r i a l as a c o r n e r s t o n e f o r each work. I d e a l l y a l l w r i t i n g assignments and t e a c h i n g c o n c e r n s s h o u l d engage the i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t i n p e n e t r a t i n g , p e r c e i v i n g , s t r u c t u r i n g , c r e a t i n g o r r e c r e a t i n g the r e a l i t y he knows. In t h i s w r i t i n g s t a g e the t e a c h e r i s both a ' t r a v e l c o u n s e l l o r , ' a i m i n g the s t u d e n t s on t h e i r j o u r n e y o f s e l f , and a 'momentum f a c i l i t a t o r , ' k e e p i n g them j o u r n e y i n g . Some s t u d e n t s are a b l e to j o u r n e y i n t o t h e i r i n n e r w o r l d s much more r e a d i l y than o t h e r s . E d u c a t i o n a l i n n o v a t o r s i n a r e a s o f c r e a t i v i t y , such as T o r r a n c e , M o n t e s s o r i , B i n e t , F r o e b e l , and P e s t a l o z z i r e c o g n i z e t h a t the n a t u r a l f a c t o r s o f c r e a t i v i t y : c u r i o s i t y , p l a y f u l n e s s , 77 m a n i p u l a t i v e n e s s , and the l i k e , w i l l n o t , i n t h e m s e l v e s , n e c e s s a r i l y promote c r e a t i v e development. E x t e r n a l g u i d a n c e , i n the form o f a t e a c h e r , i s needed t o d i r e c t the c r e a t i v e t a l e n t from aim-l e s s n e s s t o c o n s t r u c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n . D i s c u s s i o n , and o t h e r p r e w r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s must not be f o r g o t t e n . The t e a c h e r s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d t o endeavour t o become adept a t c h a t t i n g w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s , about t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s , c o v e r t l y e n c o u r a g i n g the s t u d e n t t o assume the c o n v e r s a t i o n l e a d . There i s much r e s e a r c h and o p i n i o n t o s u p p o r t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c h a t t i n g b e f o r e w r i t i n g . Rohman and Wlecke l a b e l t h i s a c t i v i t y " p r e w r i t i n g . " They go so f a r as t o p l a c e t h e i r f o c u s upon t h i s s t a g e , d e f i n i n g i t as "The s t a g e o f d i s c o v e r y i n p r o c e s s when a person a s s i m i l a t e s ' h i s s u b j e c t ' to h i m s e l f . " They go on t o s t a t e t h a t p r e w r i t i n g " i s c r u c i a l t o the s u c c e s s o f any w r i t i n g t h a t o c c u r s l a t e r " and " i s seldom g i v e n the a t t e n t i o n i t c o n s e q u e n t l y d e s e r v e s . " [Rohman and Wlecke, 1964, p. 103] J a n e t Emig [Emig, 1977, pp. 20-21] and J.N. Hook [Hook, 1972, p. 308] c o n c u r w i t h the c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . T o r r a n c e , i n h i s c r e a t i v i t y r e s e a r c h , terms t h i s a c t i v i t y "the warm-up p r o c e s s " and s t a t e s t h a t h e i g h t e n i n g t he s t u d e n t ' s a n t i c i p a t i o n i s " f u n -damental t o any c r e a t i v e a c t . " [ T o r r a n c e , 1970, p. 65] There a re c o u n t l e s s numbers o f momentum a c t i v i t i e s t h a t would v i r t u a l l y e n a b l e the s t u d e n t s t o d r a f t u n t i l the end o f the c o u r s e . The t e a c h e r can nudge the s t u d e n t i n t o d e l v i n g 78 deeper i n t o h i s t o p i c by c o n s i d e r i n g p o i n t o f view, g e n e r a l — s p e c i f i c - -c o n c r e t e — a b s t r a c t a l t e r n a t i v e s , d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s , etymo-l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , q u e s t i o n s t h a t form i d e a s , word c o l l e c t i o n s and arrangements, ad i n f i n i t u m . The c l o s e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t , the e a s i e r i t i s t o tap the e x p e r i e n c e s they may f e e l c o m p e l l e d to w r i t e about and the e a s i e r i t i s t o keep them w r i t i n g e f f e c t i v e l y and c o n s t r u c t i v e l y . In o r d e r t o be a b l e t o empathize w i t h the s t u d e n t , to r e c o g n i z e h i s p o t e n t i a l , the t e a c h e r must g e n u i n e l y know him. Knowing s t u d e n t s i s a demanding t a s k , and one t h a t s h o u l d not be taken l i g h t l y . T o r r a n c e c o m p i l e d a l i s t o f 100 "ways o f knowing" a s t u d e n t , based on i n p u t from a workshop o f 100 Oregan t e a c h e r s . (See Appendix E) These "ways o f knowing" are i n d e e d thought p r o v o k i n g . U l t i m a t e l y i t i s t h e t e a c h e r who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a n i p u l a t i n g the environment t o be warm and c o n d u c i v e t o the c r e a t i v e l y t a l e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l . Such an environment i s n e c e s s a r y f o r e n c o u r a g i n g and r e i n f o r c i n g w r i t i n g t a l e n t . I t i s the t e a c h e r who i n s p i r e s o r d e s t r o y s s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and s e l f - e s t e e m , encourages o r s u p p r e s s e s i n t e r e s t s , d e v e l o p s o r n e g l e c t s a b i l i t i e s , f o s t e r s o r b a n i s h e s c r e a t i v i t y , s t i m u l a t e s o r d i s c o u r a g e s c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , and f a c i l i t a t e s o r f r u s t r a t e s optimum achievement. The t e a c h e r must no t o n l y condone, but b u i l d around the c r e a t i v e s t u d e n t ' s n a t u r a l c u r i o s i t y , encourage him t o deal w i t h problems 79 r e l e v a n t to h i s own needs, p u r p o s e s , and i n t e r e s t s , encourage and reward i n i t i a t i v e , i n q u i s i t i v e n e s s , o r i g i n a l i t y and a q u e s t i o n i n g a t t i t u d e . Above a l l , he must welcome and p r a i s e c r e a t i v e and c o g n i t i v e r i s k - t a k i n g , and encourage the c l a s s , as a whole, t o f o l l o w h i s l e a d . Too many s t u d e n t s r e f r a i n from f r e e e x p r e s s i o n due to t h e i r r e p r e s s i v e f e a r s o f c r i t i c i s m and r i d i c u l e , by both t e a c h e r s and c l a s s m a t e s a l i k e . The t e a c h e r must c r e a t e an environment i n which each s t u d e n t has a sense o f b e l o n g i n g , o f s e l f - w o r t h and v a l u e i n h i s own i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Only i n t h i s environment w i l l c r e a t i v e s t u d e n t s take the r i s k s o f e x p l o r a t i o n , e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , s h a r i n g p e r s o n a l i d e a s and r e v e a l i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s . In s h o r t , o n l y i n t h i s environment w i l l they not f e a r to be t h e m s e l v e s . Thus, the t e a c h e r must be aware o f the n e c e s s i t y f o r e n c o u r a g i n g and r e i n f o r c i n g c r e a t i v e t a l e n t . He must be s e n s i t i v e t o each o f the s t u d e n t ' s needs, i n t e r e s t s and c a p a c i t i e s , and must be, t o them, a r e s o u r c e f o r l e a r n i n g r a t h e r than a d i s -p e n s e r o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The s t u d e n t s s h o u l d p e r i o d i c a l l y be g i v e n a r e l a t i v e l y f r e e r e i n t o d e v e l o p t h e i r o r i g i n a l i d e a s i n t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r o r i g i n a l ways. And, most i m p o r t a n t o f a l l , the t e a c h e r must c r e a t e an environment o f warmth, b e l o n g i n g and s e l f - e s t e e m i n which r i s k - t a k i n g through c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , i n q u i s i t i v e n e s s and c r e a t i v i t y i s welcomed. 80 The J o u r n a l Each s t u d e n t s h o u l d be encouraged t o keep a j o u r n a l t h a t i s h i s own p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h o u g h t s , i m p r e s s i o n s , i d e a s and j u s t p l a i n word p l a y ! I t s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d t h a t t h i s i s a j o u r n a l , n o t a d i a r y . The word d i a r y , to many s t u d e n t s , seems to have the c o n n o t a t i o n o f a c t u a l h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s o f e v e n t s , r a t h e r than w r i t t e n e x p l o r a t i o n s o f t h e i r thoughts about t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , p a s t and p r e s e n t . T h i s j o u r n a l s h o u l d n o t be used f o r r e c o r d i n g t r i v i a l i t i e s such as what the s t u d e n t had f o r b r e a k f a s t , o r what day he trimmed h i s t o e n a i l s , u n l e s s t h e s e t r i v i a l e x p e r i e n c e s are s i g n i f i c a n t to the s t u d e n t ' s t h o u g h t s . The j o u r n a l i s g e n e r a l l y a s u c c e s s because i t seems to s a t i s f y a need i n a l l types o f s t u d e n t s . S t u d e n t s f i n d i t b e n e f i c i a l t o 'unload' themselves through w r i t i n g . E x p e r i e n c e s t h a t h u r t , worry, d e l i g h t o r p l e a s e a r e a l l d i v u l g e d . The s t u d e n t s are f o r c e d i n t o t h e i r own r e s e r v o i r s o f e x p e r i e n c e because t h e r e are no a s s i g n e d t o p i c s . The s t u d e n t ' s j o u r n a l i s a u s e f u l p l a c e to r e c o r d h i s s i f t i n g through and e v a l u a t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e , a p l a c e to r e c o r d the coming t o terms w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t o r i n s i g n i f i -c a n t e x p e r i e n c e . The j o u r n a l i s a l s o i d e a l f o r the s t u d e n t to use f o r d e f i n i n g and p a t t e r n i n g p r e v i o u s l y mushy and muddled e x p e r i e n c e . John Winthrop s h a r e s t h i s c o n t e n t i o n about the v a l u e o f the j o u r n a l : 81 I t i s a r e c o r d o f e x p e r i e n c e and i m p r e s s i o n . . . . We s h o u l d then d e s c r i b e the j o u r n a l as the r e c o r d o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t r u g g l e w i t h chaos. I t may not be the p l a c e where one w i l l c r e a t e f i r m o r d e r , but i t s h o u l d be the p l a c e where the e x p e r i e n c e o f d i s o r d e r i s r e c o r d e d and examined, l a t e r to be u n d e r s t o o d and w r i t t e n about a g a i n . The s i m p l e s t f i r s t s t e p i n a j o u r n a l i s t o r e c o g n i z e d i s o r d e r and r e c o r d c l e a r l y the i n t e r e s t i n g d e t a i l . Do not i m m e d i a t e l y worry about f i n a l answers. [Kaufman and Powers, ed., 1970, p. 205] And i n t h i s s t r u g g l e w i t h p a t t e r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e , the s t u d e n t s h o u l d l e t the words take t h e i r own form. Q u i t e l i k e l y , though, because the j o u r n a l i s much more than a memory a i d , the w r i t i n g s w i l l be l e n g t h i e r and more d e v e l o p e d than such j o t t i n g s as t h o s e which f r e q u e n t l y appear n e a r k i t c h e n t e l e p h o n e s o r on laundromat b u l l e t i n b o a r d s : J o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s i n f o r m a l and o f t e n d i s o r d e r l y , but i t i s u s u a l l y w r i t i n g and n o t j u s t n o t e s . Remember t h a t a l l language has form o r o r d e r . So r e c r e a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e , even i n a s e n t e n c e fragment, means s h a p i n g e x p e r i e n c e . W r i t e r s keep j o u r n a l s t o s a t i s f y t h e i r c u r i o s i t y . They want t o see what p o s s i b l e shapes e x p e r i e n c e might t a k e . Sometimes the w r i t e r pursues one p o s s i b i l i t y , sometimes many. The key word i s possibility. F i n d i n g new p e r s p e c t i v e s means w i t h -h o l d i n g f i n a l judgment w h i l e t r y i n g t o see c l e a r l y - -both what i s and what might be. [Kaufman and Powers, ed., 1970, p. 206] In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s e x p e r i e n t i a l e x p l o r i n g , the j o u r n a l i s a l s o e f f e c t i v e i n s i m p l y s t i m u l a t i n g the f l o w o f h i s i m p r e s s i o n s and i d e a s , w h i l e p r o v i d i n g a p l a c e f o r him t o p l a y w i t h the language t h a t i s an i n h e r e n t p a r t o f t h e s e i m p r e s s i o n s and i d e a s . 82 The p a s t and p r e s e n t s u c c e s s o f the j o u r n a l recommends f t s e l f ; however, a few words o f warning a r e n e c e s s a r y . Without any doubts whatsoever, m i s d i r e c t e d t e a c h e r emphasis on the trimmings ( t h e b i n d i n g , the f o r m a t , e t c . ) n o t o n l y i g n o r e s , but d e v a s t a t e s the essence o f the j o u r n a l , i t s freedom and n a t u r a l -ness. While the s t u d e n t may o p t t o b i n d h i s j o u r n a l i n l e a t h e r volumes, he may j u s t as l i k e l y o p t to w r i t e on paper bags o r t o i l e t t i s s u e . The o n l y c r i t e r i a s h o u l d be the a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f any p a r t i c u l a r e n t r y . Because the d e s i r e d c o n t e n t o f the j o u r n a l i s h i g h l y p e r s o n a l , the t e a c h e r s h o u l d emphasize t h a t t h i s i s the s t u d e n t ' s own j o u r n a l , and i f he does not wish him (t h e t e a c h e r ) t o r e a d p a r t s then he s h o u l d e i t h e r i n d i c a t e so by w r i t i n g 'Do not read' a t the top o f the page, o r i f he w i s h e s , to f o l d t h a t page o v e r and s t a p l e i t b e f o r e s u b m i s s i o n . I f the s t u d e n t w i s h e s , he can even t e a r o u t a page. I t i s b e t t e r to have the s t u d e n t w r i t e m a t e r i a l t h a t w i l l n e v e r reach the t e a c h e r ' s e y e s , r a t h e r than not w r i t e i t a t a l l . T h i s i s h i s j o u r n a l . A f i n a l p o i n t e r i s t h a t the j o u r n a l must be nongraded. (A b l a n k e t grade f o r s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t . ) To grade a j o u r n a l i s to i n v i t e ' t e a c h e r - p l e a s i n g ' c o n t e n t , which i n no p o s s i b l e way i s o f any v a l u e w h a t s o e v e r t o the s t u d e n t w r i t e r , and i n f a c t d e s t r o y s the v e r y r a i s o n d ' e t r e o f the j o u r n a l . Each s t u d e n t w i l l u ndoubtedly c o n s i d e r d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t m a t t e r each day. One day the w r i t i n g may c e n t e r about the 83 s t u d e n t ' s r e a c t i o n s t o a newspaper c l i p p i n g , a s c h o o l e v e n t o r a f a m i l y s q u a b b l e . He may choose to w r i t e about v a r i o u s o b s e r v a t i o n s o f h i s , o r may d e l v e i n t o h i s i m a g i n i n g s o r even h i s dreams. S k e t c h e s , d o o d l e s , c a r t o o n s , photos and ads may even be c r e a t e d o r d i s s e c t e d . Yet a n o t h e r day may f i n d the s t u d e n t r e l i v i n g remembered e x p e r i e n c e s o f y e a r s ago. Perhaps some e v e n i n g j u s t b e f o r e bed, h i s thoughts may take a p h i l o s o p h i c a l bent and the j o u r n a l w i l l q u i c k l y s u r f a c e t o a c c e p t h i s mind's meanderings. A n o t h e r day the p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h w r i t i n g may be t u g g i n g a t h i s mind, e v e n t u a l l y f i n d i n g i t s c l a r i f i c a t i o n o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n on the pages o f h i s j o u r n a l . One o f E l a i n e ' s j o u r n a l e n t r i e s r e v e a l s t h i s s e r i o u s p u r s u i t : Jan. 29, 1975: I t ' s d i f f i c u l t t o be c r e a t i v e when most words are c o n n o t a t e d i n t o s h r e d s . E n g l i s h n e v e r was a pure language, anyway. I suppose most w r i t e r s p r e f e r to s t i c k new combinations o f words t o g e t h e r ( l i k e r e a r r a n g -i n g h a s h ) . I t ' s a good method, but I t h i n k t h a t r e a r r a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s i s more i m p o r t a n t . The w r i t e r ' s c r a f t , a f t e r a l l , i s a s c r i p t e a s e ( s i c ) o f l i f e . Not t h a t t h e r e ' s much l e f t to r e v e a l t h a t h a s n ' t been s a i d a l r e a d y , but i t ' s not the words o r images, as such t h a t need f r e s h e n i n g ; i t ' s the i d e a s . T h i s e n t r y c e r t a i n l y g i v e s an i n s i g h t i n t o E l a i n e ' s t h o u g h t s . A note was w r i t t e n back to h e r a s k i n g h e r to c o n s i d e r the v e r y s u b j e c t o f t h i s p a p e r - - t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e x p e r i e n c e and language. The p o i n t we c i r c l e d about was, 'How do you f r e s h e n i d e a s i f n o t through language?' W r i t t e n exchanges o f i d e a s and arguments 84 can be e n j o y a b l e and b e n e f i c i a l f o r both s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r . T h i s c e r t a i n l y i s n o t t o imply t h a t the t e a c h e r hunt f o r oppor-t u n i t i e s t o s e t up such an exchange. Q u i t e the c o n t r a r y . But i f the t e a c h e r f e e l s the a i r i s r i g h t , then l e t him t e n d e r l y p r o c e e d . As t h i s example i l l u s t r a t e s , the j o u r n a l can o f t e n t i m e s a l l o w the t e a c h e r - - i f he l o o k s - - t o see deeper i n t o the workings o f the s t u d e n t ' s mind. The j o u r n a l i s a l s o c o n v e n i e n t to use as a c a t c h - a l l f o r p hrases and i d e a s which the s t u d e n t may w ish t o remember so t h a t he can p l a y w i t h them a t any f u t u r e date. As s u c h , the j o u r n a l i s a s o u r c e o f p a r t i a l l y o r g a n i z e d m a t e r i a l , a s t a r t i n g p l a c e f o r w r i t e r s to f a l l back on. The t e r r o r o f the empty-page and the empty-head syndrome i s n e v e r m a n i f e s t when a j o u r n a l i s kept. C o n s e q u e n t l y i t i s no s e c r e t t h a t most p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t e r s are adamant j o u r n a l s c r i b b l e r s . E a r n e s t Hemingway, N a t h a n i a l Hawthorne, A l b e r t Camus, and G e r a r d Manley Hopkins are but a few. The p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t e r s seldom dash o f f master-p i e c e s w i t h f l a i r and v i g o u r and l i g h t e n i n g speed. They take t h e i r time and b u i l d s l o w l y . And the j o u r n a l e n t r i e s p r o v i d e u n t o l d w e a l t h f o r t h e i r works. S t u d e n t w r i t e r s and p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t e r s a l i k e know o n l y too w e l l t h a t f l a s h e s o f b r i l l i a n t i n s p i r a t i o n and p e r f e c t l y awesome phrases are more o f t e n f o r -g o t t e n than remembered, s i m p l y because the w r i t e r f e l t he c o u l d remember them and n e g l e c t e d t o r e c o r d them. 85 Not o n l y are t h e r e no t e a c h e r - d e l i n e a t e d t o p i c s f o r j o u r n a l w r i t i n g , n o r a r e t h e r e any t e a c h e r - d e l i n e a t e d time p e r i o d s s e t a s i d e f o r compulsory w r i t i n g . The j o u r n a l i s , i n e v e r y way p o s s i b l e , the s t u d e n t ' s own, and the c l a s s r o o m approach must be c o n s i s t e n t t o t h i s i d e a l . T h i s i s n o t t o negate some i n t r o d u c t o r y c l a s s j o u r n a l w r i t i n g s e s s i o n s t o i n i t i a t e the s t u d e n t s i n t o the whole j o u r n a l - k e e p i n g endeavour. But t o p r o l o n g such s e s s i o n s beyond the time o f t h e i r worth i s to t u r n the j o u r n a l i n t o a c l a s s notebook. The s t u d e n t s a r e v e r y c o n s c i o u s o f the di f f e r e n c e . The s t u d e n t s w i l l n o t take l o n g to r e a l i z e t h a t many p l a c e s and many times o f f e r j o u r n a l r i c h e s . I t i s n o t unusual to see a s t u d e n t s c r i b b l i n g i n h i s j o u r n a l i n the m i d d l e o f a Math c l a s s . Even the f i f t e e n minute bus r i d e t o s c h o o l can p e r i o d i c a l l y be j o u r n a l time. In a d d i t i o n to b e i n g open t o w r i t i n g i n many s i t u a t i o n s , the s t u d e n t s h o u l d t r y t o e s t a b l i s h a d a i l y r o u t i n e o f h i s own t h a t w i l l encourage him t o w r i t e i n g r e a t e r q u a n t i t y , and c o n s e q u e n t l y [ h o p e f u l l y ] q u a l i t y . Most p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t e r s adhere f a i r l y r i g o r o u s l y t o t h e i r r o u t i n e s . L y i n g i n w a i t f o r the muse i s p o e t i c , b ut seldom t e r r i b l y p r o d u c t i v e . The Muse most o f t e n descends on the w r i t e r when h i s page i s a l r e a d y w e l l i n k e d . P r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t e r s o f f e r m u l t i -t u d i n o u s a d v i c e on t h i s s u b j e c t . They a r e e a g e r t o s h a r e t h e i r own i d i o s y n c r a c i e s about where to w r i t e , when t o w r i t e , what t o w r i t e w i t h , what to wear when w r i t i n g , what sounds t o l i s t e n t o when w r i t i n g , even who to imagine one i s w r i t i n g t o . The key here i s t o make the s t u d e n t s r e a l i z e t h a t w r i t e r s do have t h e s e i d i o s y n c r a c i e s ; p e o p l e , i n g e n e r a l , have t h e s e i d i o -s y n c h r a c i e s . And the s o o n e r they can g e t i n touch w i t h t h e i r own p e r s o n a l q u i r k s , the more p r o d u c t i v e t h e i r w r i t i n g w i l l be. Though j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y choppy i n i t s ramblings from t o p i c t o t o p i c , (No p r e c o n c e i v e d p l a n - - s h o c k ! ) i t i s an e x p e r i e n c e t h a t i s most b e n e f i c i a l t o a l l s t u d e n t w r i t e r s . I t e n a b l e s s t u d e n t s t o s t r e n g t h e n the m i n d — t o — p e n passage (as opposed t o the m i n d — t o — m o u t h p a s s a g e ) , f o r c e s them to s t o c k p i l e the v e r y f o r c e s which w i l l grow i n t o e f f e c t i v e p e r s o n a l w r i t i n g s , and encourages them t o spend time p l a y i n g w i t h t h e i r own thoughts about t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s . O b s e r v a t i o n I f the s t u d e n t i s t o be e f f e c t i v e i n w r i t i n g about h i s e x p e r i e n c e s , he must be o b s e r v a n t o f h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s . Braddock has n o t i c e d t h a t a u t h e n t i c o b s e r v a t i o n produces b e t t e r n a r r a t i o n . O b s e r v a t i o n s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d by the t e a c h e r . The t e a c h e r can c e r t a i n l y h e l p the s t u d e n t t o l e a r n t o s e e , r a t h e r than b l i n d l y l o o k . He s h o u l d d i r e c t the s t u d e n t ' s a t t e n t i o n t o such d e t a i l s as s i z e , shape, c o l o u r , t e x t u r e , odour, t a s t e and sound. He s h o u l d a l s o see t h a t p o i n t o f view i s comprehended and t o y e d w i t h . 87 S e n s i t i v i t y and o b s e r v a t i o n a r e i n s e p a r a b l e and e n t a i l a l l f i v e s e n s e s . In e f f e c t , t h e w r i t e r must :empathize w i t h h i s s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l i n o r d e r t o r e n d e r a moving work. Paddy C r e b e r , Department Head o f E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f E x e t e r i n E n g l a n d , s t r e s s e s t h i s empathy, a l o n g w i t h Ted Hughes: . . . do one t h i n g . . . imagine what y o u ' r e w r i t i n g about. See i t and l i v e i t . Don't t h i n k i t up l a b o r i o u s l y , as i f you were wor k i n g out mental a r i t h m e t i c . J u s t l o o k a t i t , touch i t , s m e l l i t , l i s t e n to i t , t u r n y o u r s e l f i n t o i t . [Hughes, Autumn, 1961] John M o f f i t t , i n h i s poem "To Look a t A n y t h i n g " has sound a d v i c e f o r w r i t e r s : To l o o k a t a n y t h i n g I f you would know t h a t t h i n g , You must lo o k a t i t l o n g : To l o o k a t t h i s green and say "I have seen s p r i n g i n t h e s e Woods" w i l l not do--you must Be the t h i n g you see: You must be the dark snakes o f Stems and f e r n y plumes o f l e a v e s , You must e n t e r i n To the s m a l l s i l e n c e s between The l e a v e s , You must take y o u r time. And touch t h e v e r y p l a c e They i s s u e from. [Lawrence, ed., 1973, p. 100] Such empathy i s the key to i n t i m a t e o b s e r v a t i o n and powerful w r i t i n g . C l a s s f i e l d t r i p s are p r i c e l e s s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n - b a s e d w r i t i n g . The s t u d e n t s t e a c h each o t h e r , as each c a t c h e s s i g n i f i c a n t d e t a i l s 88 the o t h e r s missed. I t i s f a s c i n a t i n g f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o d i s c o v e r how one such s e e m i n g l y s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e i n t w e n t y - f i v e p e o p l e can r e s u l t i n such d i f f e r i n g works o f a r t . One C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c l a s s e s s p e n t an a f t e r n o o n wandering around Gastown. The o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t they g a t h e r e d y i e l d e d some powerful imagery. Lynda and Marjo were t r a n s f i x e d by the slum's n a t i v e s : Grey, a r t h r i t i c - g n a r l e d f i n g e r s Bang on the g u i t a r L i k e a C h i l d a t t e m p t i n g To make p l a y music. The weathered straw hat Waits on the s i d e w a l k For c o i n s t o be t o s s e d . With e v e r y j i n g l e o f s i l v e r His f a c e awakens i n t o A broad t o o t h l e s s s m i l e . Many would see him as a d i r t y beggar. (Lynda) P o o l y eyes o f f s e t the f a c e ; drops o f p a i n s l i d e p a s t s h redded l i p s . N eedle h o l e s mark b r u i s e d arms. F l a s h i n g c o l o u r s r i p through the broken mind, c r e a t i n g screams, o f unheard p l e a s . (Marjo) C o l e t t e examined the ewerpresent dichotomy o f a slum t h a t has been s u p e r f i c i a l l y r e n o v a t e d f o r t o u r i s t s : 89 Shadows sway b e h i n d pebble g l a s s , V o i c e s , music, c l a n g i n g b o t t l e s , Rocking and c l a p p i n g t o the drones o f the band, While o u t s i d e some s i t on s i d e w a l k s , Begging f o r dimes, M i x i n g t h e i r d r i n k s i n second-hand P e p s i b o t t l e s . A f i e l d t r i p t o R i v e r v i e w Mental H o s p i t a l sowed the d e t a i l o f C o l l e e n ' s poem: She s i t s i n c o r n e r s , t e l l i n g s t o r i e s t o h e r shadow, t r a p p e d on the w a l l . She g i g g l e s a t j o k e s t h a t are w h i s p e r e d to h e r by g i a n t green e l v e s . With r o c k s i n h e r hand, she d e c l a r e s war on a s e t t l e d pond, and h e r changing e x p r e s s i o n s r e v e a l t h a t h e r c h a r r e d mind i s amused. Padded w a l l s and s t a r i n g f a c e s s u r r o u n d h e r w o r l d . She's the A l i c e o f t o d a y — o n l y m i s s i n g h e r magic mushrooms. T h i s i s not to s u g g e s t f i e l d t r i p s be used t o s i m p l y o b s e r v e d e t a i l s which w i l l be d u t i f u l l y r e c o r d e d i n a work o f a r t by each and e v e r y s t u d e n t upon h i s r e t u r n t o the c l a s s r o o m . God f o r b i d ! What i s s u g g e s t e d i s t h a t f i e l d t r i p s be used t o enhance t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y t o l i f e and t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m s e l v e s , w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y opening the doors t o p o s s i b l e raw m a t e r i a l s t h e y may wish t o employ i n t h e i r w r i t i n g . The j o u r n a l i s an e x c e l l e n t p l a c e f o r them t o j o t down d e t a i l s they may too q u i c k l y f o r g e t , and then l a t e r — i f t h e y c h o o s e — t h e y can use t h e s e d e t a i l s t o b u i l d a work on. The s t u d e n t s s h o u l d c a r r y t h e i r j o u r n a l s w i t h them on t h e s e f i e l d t r i p s . One day i n the f a l l an e n e r g e t i c group o f w r i t e r s s p e n t a w h i l e s a u n t e r i n g through a wide open f i e l d . They were s i m p l y e n j o y i n g the f i e l d and the f r e s h a i r , an a c t i v i t y even s t u d e n t s seldom i n d u l g e i n , w i t h the senses a l e r t t o t r i v i a l i t i e s the g e n e r a l p u b l i c would p r o b a b l y o v e r l o o k . One g i r l was very r e s e r v e d a l l a f t e r n o o n . The f o l l o w i n g week she r e v e a l e d t h e s e two p e r c e p t i v e poems: C r o u c h i n g i n green a n t i c i p a t i o n , They c l u s t e r i n c l i q u e s , w i t h t h e i r p o i n t e d toques p u l l e d down s n u g l y t o keep ou t the r a i n , and t h e i r s m a l l , brown o v e r c o a t s b u t t o n e d t i g h t l y a g a i n s t the c o l d . The t o a d s t o o l s are ready f o r w i n t e r . and The unkempt g r a s s s t r a n d s p u l l e d g e n t l y , but became i n c r e a s i n g l y i n s i s t e n t t u g g i n g , r o u g h l y , a t the s t i l l a i r , angry a t i t s r e l u c t a n c e to s t i r , b ut the a i r became g e n t l e g r a s s - n o i c e s , then i n c r e a s e d to a b r e e z e . The g r a s s bent o v e r , one row, a f t e r next and the breeze s l i d o f f t h e i r so s h i n y backs, i t s speed e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g . 91 Soon, i t s momentum was such t h a t i t became a wind, and n e a r i n g the end o f t he f i e l d t h e g r a s s e s s t o o d UP and w i t h one l a s t , a l l - o u t e f f o r t they f l u n g the wind i n t o the t r e e s , then s a t back, l a u g h i n g . The r e a d e r knows t h a t J i l l c l o s e l y o b s e r v e d the d e t a i l o f h e r s u b j e c t m a t t e r . She had t o i n o r d e r t o respond as she d i d . The t e a c h e r s h o u l d not h e s i t a t e to c o n s i d e r s e n d i n g s t u d e n t s on s m a l l group o r even on i n d i v i d u a l f i e l d t r i p s . As T o r r a n c e e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e s o v e r and o v e r a g a i n : For c r e a t i v i t y t o o c c u r , t h e r e must be o p p o r t u n -i t i e s f o r one t h i n g t o l e a d t o a n o t h e r . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t any genuine encouragment o f c r e a t i v i t y i n the c l a s s r o o m must take c h i l d r e n and young p e o p l e beyond t e x t b o o k s and beyond the c l a s s r o o m . [ T o r r a n c e , 1970, p. 81] The s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be c a r r y i n g o u t t h i s t y p e r o f a c t i v i t y on t h e i r own as w e l l . That i s , they s h o u l d be o b s e r v a n t o f the t r i v i a l i t i e s o f l i f e about them, and s h o u l d be c o n s t a n t l y j o t t i n g down t h e i r d i s c o v e r i e s . The s t a t e o f mind r e q u i s i t e f o r o b s e r v a t i o n s h o u l d be encouraged on t h e s e c l a s s f i e l d t r i p s , h o p e f u l l y e f f e c t i n g a p o s i t i v e c a r r y o v e r i n t o the s t u d e n t ' s s t a t e o f mind when 92 o b s e r v i n g on h i s own. O r d i n a r y p l a c e s w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e o f the s t u d e n t s ' homes w i l l undoubtedly p r o v i d e ample o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s t u d e n t o b s e r v a t i o n . W i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e o f my s c h o o l may be f i e l d s , bushes, a n a t u r e walk, dykes, a r i v e r , f i s h docks, major i n t e r s e c t i o n s o r an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . Any one o f t h e s e p l a c e s e x h i b i t s enough d e t a i l s t o w h i r l the s t u d e n t s ' minds, and i f the s t u d e n t s grew up near t h e i r p r e s e n t s c h o o l t h e s e p l a c e s a l s o may s t i r t he s t u d e n t s t o r e c a l l e x p e r i e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e p l a c e s . S t u d e n t s s h o u l d a l s o be encouraged t o 'observe' t h e i r own emotions. Too o f t e n the r e a l emotion t h a t the s t u d e n t i s e x p e r i e n c i n g g e t s smothered by the emotion he f e e l s he ought t o be e x p e r i e n c i n g . Robert B l y s h a r e s t h i s c o n c e r n : The f i r s t problem i s t o know what the emotion i s , what you r e a l l y f e e l . Too o f t e n , what we t h i n k we f e e l i s o n l y what we want o r a r e e x p e c t e d t o f e e l . Going t o G r e a t Aunt E l i z a b e t h ' s f u n e r a l and l o o k i n g a t the c o r p s e , we may say t o h e r next o f k i n , "I'm so s o r r y . " L i k e as n o t , we a r e more f a s c i n a t e d , b o r e d , r e l i e v e d , i n c o n v e n i e n c e d , g u i l t y , o r u n c o m f o r t a b l e i n the s m e l l y room f u l l o f o l d p e o p l e . G e t t i n g away from e x p e c t e d o r d e s i r e d f e e l i n g s i s j u s t the b e g i n n i n g o f w r i t i n g , but i t i s no easy m a t t e r . [Kaufman and Powers, ed., 1970, p. 373] A w r i t e r must, i n a l l s e n s e s , be o b s e r v a n t o f h i s environment, but e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t , o b s e r v a n t o f h i s own s e l f r e s p o n d i n g t o h i s environment. 93 Noteworthy i n d e e d , i s the f r e s h n e s s and power t h a t the s t u d e n t s a t t a i n i n t h e i r w r i t i n g through o b s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e . The m i n i s c u l e d e t a i l s t he s t u d e n t w r i t e r s f e e l c o m p e l l e d t o c a p t u r e on p a p e r . d e f y c l i c h e . Sydney H a r r i s ' d e l i g h t f u l work "You W i l l Never Be a W r i t e r i f You" s a t i r i z e s t h i s o u t d a t e d t r a d i t i o n a l l e s s o n : YOU WILL NEVER BE a WRITER IF YOU . . . Y o u ' l l n e ver be a w r i t e r i f you r e f e r t o a p l a y e r who "sparked" a r a l l y , t o a p o l i t i c i a n who 'spearheaded' a d r i v e , t o a committee t h a t ' s l a t e d ' a c a n d i d a t e . Y o u ' l l n e v e r be a w r i t e r i f you r e f e r t o ' o p t i m i z i n g ' an o p p o r t u n i t y , ' e n t h u s i n g ' o v e r a campaign, o r ' f i n a l i z i n g ' a c o n t r a c t . Y o u ' l l n e ver be a w r i t e r i f you r e f e r t o P a r i s as 'Gay Paree,' t o I r e l a n d as the 'Emerald I s l e , ' t o a l i o n as the ' k i n g o f b e a s t s , ' t o a nose as a ' p r o b o s c i s , ' t o death as ' p a s s i n g away.' Y o u ' l l n e ver be a w r i t e r i f you r e f e r to a b a t t l e ' r o y a l , ' a 'foregone' c o n c l u s i o n , a ' m i s c a r r i a g e ' o f j u s t i c e , a ' h e l p i n g ' hand, a diamond ' i n the rough,' an ' e a g l e 1 eye, a 'shadow' o f doubt, a s i g h t ' f o r s o r e eyes.' Y o u ' l l n e ver be a w r i t e r i f you r e f e r t o an a c t o r as a ' t h e s p i a n , ' t o a poet as a 'bard,' t o a t a v e r n - k e e p e r as a ' b o n i f a c e , ' t o a s o c i a l l e a d e r as a ' s o c i a l i t e , ' t o a f i r e m a n as a 'smoke-eater.' Y o u ' l l n e v e r be a w r i t e r i f you r e f e r t o a ' f a r ' c r y , a ' l a p ' o f l u x u r y , a 'pageant' o f h i s t o r y , a 'square peg' i n a round h o l e , a 'sumptuous' meal, a 'swank' apartment, a 'supreme' s a c r i f i c e , a 'token' o f esteem. Y o u ' l l n e ver be a w r i t e r i f you r e f e r t o time as 'immemorial,' t o c l i m a t e as ' h a l c y o n , ' t o t r u t h as 'naked,' t o h e a r t s o f ' g o l d ' o r ' s t o n e , 1 t o f e e t o f ' c l a y , ' t o a penny as ' p r e t t y , ' t o a d o l l a r as ' a l m i g h t y , 1 t o o p i n i o n s as ' c o n s i d e r e d , ' t o p l o t s t h a t ' t h i c k e n . ' Y o u ' l l never be a w r i t e r i f you r e f e r t o peace o f f e r i n g s as ' o l i v e b r anches,' t o d e l i c a t e s i t u a t i o n s as 'hanging by a t h r e a d , ' to any movement out as an 'exodus,' t o the l a t e s t p o s s i b l e time as 'the e l e v e n t h hour,' t o born i n p r o s p e r o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s as a ' s i l v e r spoon,' t o an i r r o v a c a b l e s t e p as ' c r o s s i n g the Rubicon.' Y o u ' l l n e ver be a w r i t e r i f you r e f e r t o a burdensome p o s s e s s i o n as a 'white e l e p h a n t , ' t o d a n c i n g as 'the l i g h t f a n t a s t i c , ' t o a mountain as 'coming t o Mahomet,' t o a n y t h i n g s e l l i n g l i k e 'hot cakes' ( e x c e p t hot c a k e s ) , to ' l e a p s ' t h a t go w i t h bounds and ' f i t s ' t h a t go w i t h s t a r t s and 'hooks' t h a t go w i t h c r o o k s and 'bags' t h a t go w i t h baggages and ' t o o t h ' t h a t goes w i t h n a i l and 'rack' t h a t goes w i t h r u i n and ' f a s t ' t h a t goes w i t h l o o s e and 'high' t h a t goes w i t h dry and 'wear' t h a t goes w i t h t e a r and. . . [Kaufman and Powers, e d . , 1970, pp. 82-83] I f s t u d e n t s i n t e r n a l i z e the p r a c t i c e o f o b s e r v a t i o n , t h e y w i l l c r e a t e works t h a t w i l l make such concern o v e r c l i c h e s u p e r f l u o u s O b s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e has i t s c o m p l i c a t i o n s . While Braddock c o n s i d e r s t he v i e w i n g o f p i c t u r e s , TV, and movies as d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n , h i s p l a t f o r m i s week. Paddy C r e b e r a l s o has r e s e r v a t i o n s about w r i t i n g based on p i c t u r e ^ o b s e r v a t i o n : I t i s a d v i s a b l e , i n a l l t h i s work, t o s t r e s s t h a t we a r e w r i t i n g about a scene, r a t h e r than a picture, i n o r d e r t o encourage the c h i l d r e n t o ' p a r t i c i p a t e ' o r t o p r o j e c t t h e m s e l v e s . A t the l e v e l o f honest endeavour the p r o j e c t i o n i s ver y i n c o m p l e t e and the w r i t i n g tends t o d e s c r i b e o n l y what i s t h e r e . A t the h i g h e r l e v e l , where the p i c t u r e has r e a l l y made some impact, the o r i g i n a l d e t a i l s may be s u b t l y t r a n s f o r m e d by the e s e m p l a s t i c power o f the c h i l d ' s own i m a g i n a t i o n . [ C r e b e r , 1965, p. 153] However, even the v a l i d i t y o f C r e b e r ' s approach i s q u e r i e d . I t p o s s i b l e t o s u c c e s s f u l l y t e a c h o b s e r v a t i o n through the media by comparing h y p o t h e t i c a l p o i n t s o f view w i t h t he p a r t i c u l a r one employed, and by d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n t o such d e t a i l s as c o l o u r , d i s t a n c e and sound, e t c . However, i t i s not a d v i s e d s p e n d i n g 95 too much time d i r e c t i n g the s t u d e n t to t h e s e second-hand o b s e r v a t i o n s , second-hand because the s t u d e n t s a r e s e e i n g the r e a l o b j e c t through someone e l s e ' s e y e s , and hence through someone e l s e ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and v i s i o n o f the r e a l i t y o f t h a t o b j e c t . The image on the TV s c r e e n , w h i l e i n one sense a r e a l image, i s t r u t h f u l l y the f i l m m a k e r s ' con-c e p t i o n and d i s t o r t i o n o f the r e a l o b j e c t b e i n g f i l m e d . I t i s more i m p o r t a n t f o r the s t u d e n t to see the o b j e c t through h i s own eyes and h i s own v i s i o n o f r e a l i t y so he can come t o f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d h i s w o r l d and h i s s e l f . U s i n g f i l m s and p i c t u r e s as jumping o f f p o i n t s f o r d i s c u s s i o n which aims a t i n d u c i n g the s t u d e n t to ruminate h i s own e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h language i s a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t , and most b e n e f i c i a l . Small E x p e r i e n c e s With the s t r e s s upon w r i t i n g from e x p e r i e n c e and from f i r s t - h a n d o b s e r v a t i o n , i t i s o n l y n a t u r a l f o r the t e a c h e r t o s i m u l t a n e o u s l y encourage the s t u d e n t s to f o c u s t h e i r w r i t i n g on smal1 e x p e r i e n c e s . S t u d e n t s i n e v i t a b l y t e n d to attempt to w r i t e about such a b s t r a c t g e n e r a l i t i e s as l o v e , hunger, sorrow, h a p p i n e s s , ad i n f i n i t u m . The t o p i c i s too l a r g e , too g e n e r a l , too v a r i -e g ated f o r the s t u d e n t w r i t e r to even approach s u c c e s s . And s u c c e s s i s i m p o r t a n t . An i n t e r v i e w w i t h Michael Mewshaw, n o v e l -i s t and p a s t C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g p r o f e s s o r a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s , s u p p o r t s the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be s t e e r e d away from the hazy, u n d e f i n a b l e g e n e r a l i t i e s and d i r e c t e d to c o n c r e t e images t h a t the w r i t e r and r e a d e r can v i s u a l i z e : 96 MEWSHAW: I t h i n k I would emphasize f i r s t a c o n s c i o u s t e c h n i q u e . Yes, I t h i n k I would emphasize f i r s t a c o n s c i o u s t e c h n i q u e . I t h i n k too many young w r i t e r s spend a g r e a t deal o f t h e i r time t r y i n g t o e x p r e s s some deep, dark, vague, amorphous r e a c t i o n t o t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e o f y o u t h , and I p e r s o n a l l y t h i n k i t would be more b e n e f i c i a l t o f o c u s on, perhaps a p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , but a s m a l l e r e x p e r i e n c e , one t h a t they can come t o g r i p s w i t h i n a c o n s c i o u s f a s h i o n , and shape. GRAHAM: Not ' l i f e , ' b u t a b i r t h d a y p a r t y when you were t w e l v e , t h a t k i n d o f t h i n g ? MEWSHAW: I t h i n k t h a t ' s more o f a l o g i c a l approach. I know t h a t i n e v e r y c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g c l a s s I e v e r took t h e r e was always a ve r y t a l e n t e d , but perhaps u n d i s c i -p l i n e d f e l l o w , who was w r i t i n g a book o f a thousand pages, a book t h a t was g o i n g t o encompass a l l o f human e x p e r i -ence. And i n e v i t a b l y i t broke down, and t h a t w r i t e r d e s p a i r e d o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g what he had s e t o u t t o do. I don't t h i n k you can go from a s e n i o r i n h i g h s c h o o l t o James J o y c e . I t h i n k t h a t t h e r e a r e a l o t o f s t e p s i n between, t h a t you have t o c l i m b t h o s e s t a i r s . [ G a r r e t t , e d ., 1972, p. 56] The s t u d e n t who has w r i t t e n a l i n e such a s , "Sorrow i s i n my h e a r t " s h o u l d be encouraged t o s u b v e r s i v e l y c o n v i n c e the r e a d e r o f t h i s f e e l i n g through h i s s p e c i f i c and s m a l l c o n c r e t e images, not by coming out and pounding the r e a d e r on the head w i t h an u n i m a g i n a t i v e s t a t e m e n t . The t e a c h e r might ask t h i s s t u d e n t t o c o n s i d e r such q u e s t i o n s as: 'When you are s o r r o w f u l do you see f a m i l i a r t h i n g s i n the same way as when you a r e happy? Example? How do y o u r senses respond? As u s u a l ? Example? How do you r e a c t t o peop l e when you are s o r r o w f u l ? Example?' The t e a c h e r s h o u l d be a b l e t o e l i c i t remarks i n which s p e c i f i c examples a r e embedded. I t i s t h e s e s p e c i f i c examples t h a t s h o u l d be w r i t t e n i n l i e u o f the o r i g i n a l g e n e r a l i t y . Henry James a d v i s e s young w r i t e r s : Oh, do something from y o u r p o i n t o f view; an ounce o f example i s worth a ton o f g e n e r a l i t i e s . . . do something w i t h l i f e . You each have an i m p r e s s i o n c o l o r e d by y o u r i n d i v i d u a l c o n d i t i o n s ; make t h a t i n t o a p i c t u r e , a p i c t u r e framed by y o u r own p e r s o n a l wisdom, y o u r g l i m p s e o f the . . . w o r l d . [ E d e l , ed., 1956, p. 29] St u d e n t s seldom r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i r use o f g e n e r a l i t i e s has e i t h e r no a f f e c t whatsoever on the r e a d e r , o r an a f f e c t t h a t i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t than they i n t e n d e d . The word 'sorrow' e l i c i t s a d i f f e r e n t image i n each r e a d e r , i f i t e l i c i t s an image a t a l l . C o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l i t i e s and t h e i r s p e c i f i c c o u n t e r p a r t s : Grey a r t h r i t i c - g n a r l e d f i n g e r s S a d l y bang on the g u i t a r . Grey a r t h r i t i c - g n a r l e d f i n g e r s Bang on the g u i t a r L i k e a c h i l d a t t e m p t i n g To make p l a y music. The q u e s t i o n asked here was ' what do you mean by s a d l y ? ' Then s was t o l d a few ways o f i n t e r p r e t i n g ' s a d l y . ' Not one matched her own way. Here i s a n o t h e r comparison: L y i n g on my back F e e l i n g the i n t e n s e noonday h e a t , The p r i c k l e - g r a s s s e n d i n g s e n s a t i o n s through me. . . 98 and L y i n g on my back F e e l i n g the i n t e n s e noonday h e a t , The p r i c k l e - g r a s s s e n d i n g s e n s a t i o n s through me. . . T h i s t h i r d l i n e i s much more e f f e c t i v e . However, t h e r e a r e s t i l l two a r e a s o f concern here. " F e e l i n g " i s a n o t h i n g word. How does " i n t e n s e noonday heat" f e e l ? and What a r e the s e n s a t i o n s you f e e l from the p r i c k l e - g r a s s ? The r e a d e r i s too f a r removed from the s t u d e n t ' s e x p e r i e n c e because o f t h e s e u n s u b s t a n t i a l words. An o t h e r example o f g e t t i n g bogged down i n meaningless g e n e r a l i t i e s , i s t h e use o f the words r e a l i t y and u n r e a l i t y o r f a n t a s y . One s t u d e n t was a t t e m p t i n g t o c a p t u r e the i d e a o f b r i e f l y waking up from a dream, and wanted to c a p t u r e the i d e a t h a t both w o r l d s seemed r e a l to h e r i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n t . She wrote: F l y i n g on the wings o f a b i r d The rush o f the wind s t u n s my s e n s e s . For a b r i e f moment f a n t a s y m i n g l e s w i t h r e a l i t y . I t i s much more powerful f o r h e r t o imagine j u s t what i t i s l i k e t o be i n both w o r l d s a t once--and w r i t e about something p a r t i c u l a r . She thought f o r some time and came back w i t h : F l y i n g on the wings o f a b i r d , The rush o f the wind s t u n s my s e n s e s . For a b r i e f moment i c y c o o l m i n g l e s w i t h s h e e t warmth. She went d i r e c t l y t o h e r senses f o r raw m a t e r i a l because she i n s t i n c t i v e l y knew t h a t i t i s man's senses t h a t make f a n t a s y seem 99 r e a l . A poem t h a t C o l l e e n wrote was t r a n s f o r m e d when she p l u c k e d out the g e n e r a l i t i e s , r e p l a c i n g them w i t h e x p e r i e n c e s o f h e r own w o r l d : My h e a r t i s f i l l e d w i t h sorrow When I no l o n g e r see the t h i n g s o f beauty I once d i d That ' s when I r e a l i z e the l o v e has d i e d . became My h e a r t i s a c h i l d - d e m o l i s h e d c o o k i e . When I no l o n g e r see the beauty i n an open f i e l d o f d a i s i e s , Or the morning sun r e f l e c t i n g o f f the dew o f a s p i d e r ' s newly woven web, That ' s when I r e a l i z e the l o v e has d i e d . There i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n the e f f e c t o f each o f thes e p a i r e d examples. D i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s t o s p e c i f i c , o r d i n a r y events the r e a d e r can empathize w i t h a l l o w the r e a d e r t o get very c l o s e t o the a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e t he w r i t e r had. The language becomes a v e h i c l e o f e x p r e s s i o n , r a t h e r than a b a r r i e r to e x p r e s s i o n . To r e a s s e r t the b a s i c premise o f t h i s paper, the s t u d e n t w r i t e r i s a b l e t o e x p l o r e deeper i n t o h i s i n n e r w o r l d when he chooses s p e c i f i c s o v e r g e n e r a l i t i e s . E x p e r i e n c e s do n o t o c c u r i n the form o f g e n e r a l -i t i e s , hence i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c f o r the s t u d e n t t o e x p l o r e them through t he language o f g e n e r a l i t i e s . 100 O r d i n a r y E x p e r i e n c e s The s t u d e n t ' s everyday s u r r o u n d i n g s r e f l e c t b o u n t i f u l s m a l l , o r d i n a r y e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t are the makings f o r c o u n t l e s s works o f a r t . Wordsworth was most adamant about the f a m i l i a r i t y and o r d i n a r i n e s s o f h i s w r i t i n g t o p i c s , and h i s w r i t i n g i s w e l l l o v e d and r e s p e c t e d because o f t h i s v e r y q u a l i t y e v i d e n t i n h i s works. C o l e r i d g e d e s c r i b e s Wordsworth as g i v i n g : . . . the charm o f n o v e l t y t o t h i n g s o f e v e r y day, . . by awakening the mind's a t t e n t i o n t o the l e t h a r g y o f custom, and d i r e c t i n g i t to the l o v e l i n e s s and wonders o f the w o r l d b e f o r e us; i n i n e x h a u s t i b l e t r e a s u r e , b ut f o r which i n consequence o f the f i l m o f f a m i l i a r i t y and s e l f i s h s o l i c i t u d e , we have ey e s , y e t see n o t , ea r s t h a t h e a r n o t , and h e a r t s t h a t n e i t h e r f e e l n o r und e r s t a n d . r r 1 ... ,„-,-, [ C o l e r i d g e , p. 147] Common s e t t i n g s and everyday p e o p l e have a d i s t i n c t beauty when we s t o p t o n o t i c e and o b s e r v e . I t i s t h i s ' o r d i n a r y beauty' t h a t t r a n s c e n d s t he passage o f time. L i f e i s , i n e f f e c t , an o r d i n a r y a f f a i r , and i t i s i n e v i t a b l y t he s h a r i n g o f the o r d i n a r i n e s s o f day-to-day l i v i n g t h a t b i n d s t o g e t h e r p e o p l e o f a l l ages. Teachers must manage to convey t o s t u d e n t s t he i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f w r i t i n g about 'the most wonderful person I e v e r met' compared t o the c o n t r a d i c t o r y o l d codger next door who reeks o f r e a l i t y . J u s t as W a l l a c e Stevens f a s h i o n e d h i s powerful works from e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e — a g l a s s o f water, a Sunday morning, a man w i t h a b l u e 101 g u i t a r — s o can the s t u d e n t s f a s h i o n t h e i r s . Whether t h e i r neighbourhoods have underground w i r i n g o r d i l a p i d a t e d b i l l b o a r d s , images embedded i n t h e i r own l i v e s w i l l always s u r p a s s phony, h a l f - h e a r t e d and homogenized g e n e r a l i t i e s . S t u d e n t s s h o u l d be encouraged to d i r e c t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n s t o o r d i n a r y e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t a r e sm a l l enough t o deal w i t h i n t h e i r e n t i r e t i e s . The analogy o f b i t i n g o f f more than you can chew i s r e a l i s t i c . (The i d i o m i s a l s o r e l e v a n t . ) I f t h e r e i s n ' t room i n the s t u d e n t ' s mouth to chew the morsel o f e x p e r i e n c e around, t o g r i n d i t and s a v o u r i t and g r i n d i t a g a i n , to p l a y w i t h i t f o r a w h i l e b e f o r e s w a l l o w i n g , then the morsel i s too l a r g e . Marci has r e l i e d t o t a l l y on h e r own o b s e r v a t i o n s and f e e l i n g s c o n c e r n i n g h e r own o r d i n a r y s c h o o l mornings: orange marmalade newspaper morning, w i t h y o u r boots i n the h a l l w a y and steam from y o u r c o f f e e m e l t i n g the moon. The compactness and c o n c i s e n e s s o f t h i s ' o r d i n a r y ' morsel i s e f f e c t i v e . C o l e t t e has w r i t t e n about a 'greasy spoon' i n Richmond t h a t she happened i n t o : Sunny a f t e r n o o n s i n c o r n e r , c o u n t r y c a f e s , Checkered t a b l e c l o t h s , Warm m i l k , and f l i e s on y o u r t o a s t , D i r t y , o l d , w o r k i n g men, and m i n i - s k i r t e d o l d women, A l l make me g r i n . 102 Marjo spends much time r i d i n g h e r h o r s e a l o n g the s e a g u l l - f r e q u e n t e d dykes. T h i s i s h e r p r o t e s t a g a i n s t o i l seepage: Beach rocks on the h o t summer sand make s u n n i n g c h a i r s and tombstones f o r dead s e a g u l l s . Lynda i s a l s o f a m i l i a r w i t h the dyke a r e a . She u t i l i z e s h e r o r d i n a r y e x p e r i e n c e s i n y e t a n o t h e r manner: S t i l l waters — i n s h a l l o w sea rock p o o l s h o l d l i f e c a p t i v e . T i d e s r i s e , r e l e a s e the sea l i f e c r e a t i n g a water path to the open oceans Y e t always some l e f t i n the s t a g n a n t s a l t p o o l s to w a i t f o r the n e x t t i d e . The range o f o r d i n a r y , s p e c i f i c and s m a l l t o p i c s i s as l i m i t l e s s as the s t u d e n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e s . The t e a c h e r s h o u l d be aware o f the s t u d e n t ' s work as i t p r o g r e s s e s . As soon as he r e a l i z e s the s t u d e n t i s d r i f t i n g o f f i n t o a i m l e s s g e n e r a l i t i e s , r e t r a c k him i n t o h i s own a u t h e n t i c s u r r o u n d i n g s so he can e x p l o r e h i s s u r r o u n d -i n g s through language, g i v i n g h i s e x p e r i e n c e s meaning, purpose and worth. On the l a s t day o f c l a s s t h i s y e a r , a s t u d e n t d i s c l o s e ed. a poem w i t h a s m a l l note a t t a c h e d . As an impromptu g i f t , •this s mall poem emphasizes so w e l l the rewards i m p l i c i t i n g u i d i n g the s t u d e n t s to w r i t e about s m a l l , o r d i n a r y e x p e r i e n c e s I've Blow-Dried my Cat/Snowflake I've s m e l l e d the r a i n as i t s e t t l e d the d u s t on an o l d t r a c t o r r o a d . I've sung Hare Krshna and I've been to the S i k h Temple. I've r i d d e n a k i t t e n - s o f t cow and I've s a i d good-bye to Grampa. I've l a i d back i n t a l l c o u n t r y g r a s s , n i b b l i n g a honeyed w a t e r - r o o t , dreaming. I've b l o w - d r i e d my c a t a f t e r he f e l l i n t o a swimming pool and I've r e s c u e d him from the f r i d g e . I've s k i p p e d time-smoothed r o c k s o v e r c o l d b o i l i n g c r e e k s . A w h i l e ago I c a u g h t a snowflake i n my hand to a n a l y s e i t ; to s e a r c h f o r i t s beauty; but I c o u l d n ' t b e f o r e i t m e l t e d . Then someone came a l o n g and p o i n t e d a t the sky where the f r o z e n c r y s t a l s d r i f t e d w e i g h t l e s s l y ; p e a c e f u l l y s w i r l i n g i n the b l a c k n e s s . I t made me c r y . Mrs. Jamieson: Thanks f o r h e l p i n g me w i t h my p o e t r y - - a n d f o r h e l p i n g me r e c o g n i z e l i f e as not o n l y major happenings, but a l l the l i t t l e t h i n g s in. between. I had been m i s s i n g so much b e f o r e I c o u l d put my f e e l i n g s on paper. Thanks a g a i n ! Lonny Cochran W r i t i n g has taken on a new p e r s p e c t i v e f o r Lonny. So has her l i f e . 104 D r a f t i n g Summary Fundamental i s the b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y o f Stage One, the D r a f t i n g Stage o f w r i t i n g . The w r i t i n g t e a c h e r s h o u l d do h i s u t -most t o encourage s t u d e n t w r i t e r s t o t u r n t h e i r mind's eye inward to the e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t a re s e c r e t e d away w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s . The p r o c e s s o f p l a y i n g w i t h words t o t r y and c a p t u r e t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s on paper i s a p r o c e s s o f d i s c o v e r y . The s t u d e n t d i s c o v e r s a t r i a n g u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between words, e x p e r i e n c e , and h i s ver y s e l f t h a t g i v e s meaning to l i f e : s e l f w o r d s ^ e x p e r i e n c e These t h r e e p o i n t s a re so i n t e r r e l a t e d , t h a t they are i n s e p a r a b l e . To withdraw one f a c t o r i s t o l e a v e the t r i a n g l e g a p i n g and i n -complete. The t e a c h e r ' s goal s h o u l d be to h e l p each s t u d e n t w r i t e r , by c o n s i s t e n t , c o v e r t encouragement, to s t r e n g t h e n t h e s e bonds by p l a y i n g w i t h p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , t h r o u g h words. The a c t u a l w r i t i n g o f the poem ( e s s a y , s t o r y , p a r a g r a p h , e t c . ) , the word-play i n v o l v e d i n c r e a t i n g a poem, the s t u d e n t ' s own poem, h i s own way, i s the s o u r c e o f the a d d i c t i o n o f s u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t w r i t e r s t o w r i t i n g . The t e a c h e r must t r y t o d i r e c t each s t u d e n t w r i t e r i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . 105 Two v i g o r o u s s t u d e n t s , who are^ c a s t as s u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t w r i t e r s w i t h an immense c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g p o t e n t i a l , p o e t i c a l l y e x p l o r e t h e s e v e r y a d d i c t i v e reasons f o r w r i t i n g : E l a i n e w r i t e s i n h e r j o u r n a l : Feb. 6, 1975: My w r i t i n g (and I don't c o n s i d e r m y s e l f a w r i t e r ) does not come from p r e c o n c e i v e d i d e a s o r p l a n s . N o r m a l l y , my mind i s e i t h e r wandering o r c o n c e n t r a t i n g t o the p o i n t o f mental e x h a u s t i o n , b e i n g i l l o g i c a l , d i s s a t i s f i e d , l a u g h i n g . Yet none o f t h a t goes i n t o words t h a t I would l i k e t o l i s t e n t o , o r read. What I w r i t e i s merely what comes out o f my pen a t a g i v e n moment. So, ask me to e x p l a i n what I w r i t e , and t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g t o e x p l a i n . I d i d not w r i t e w i t h c l a r i t y o r l o g i c i n view, and r e v i s i o n i s a l m o s t a s i n - - e x c e p t i n t e c h n i c a l p o i n t s . I don't e x p e c t an a u d i e n c e o r anyone to want to u n d e r s t a n d , o r l i k e i t . I don't even w r i t e f o r what I l i k e , r e a l l y . I t ' s j u s t to make a p a r t o f my-s e l f , something b e t t e r . J i l l ' s poem e f f e c t i v e l y summarizes the g i s t o f t h i s f i r s t s t a g e o f c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g : I w r i t e to j o i n m y s e l f . I w r i t e because words w a i t , hands o u t , t o be j o i n e d . I w i l l w r i t e u n t i l I have j o i n e d them a l l e v e r y way I can. Whether a s t u d e n t i s i n h e r e n t l y e l o q u e n t and p o e t i c o r an i n c o r r i g i b l e word f u m b l e r , the t e a c h e r must encourage him to d i s c o v e r , through h i s own language, h i s own e x p e r i e n c e s , h i s own s e l f . 106 STAGE TWO: EDITING AND PUBLISHING V a l i d i t y and N e c e s s i t y o f S t u d e n t P u b l i c a t i o n The goal o f the second s t a g e o f w r i t i n g i s p u b l i c a t i o n . The w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f ' p u b l i c a t i o n ' t h a t i s employed: t h e exposure o f works to an a u d i e n c e o u t s i d e the c l a s s r o o m , and by 'audience' i s encompassed r e a d e r , l i s t e n e r , v i e w e r , e t c . In view o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , t h e n , a performance o f a s t u d e n t - w r i t t e n p l a y , a s t u d e n t ' s r e a d i n g o f h i s own p o e t r y , a b r o a d c a s t o f a s t u d e n t ' s r a d i o o r t e l e v i s i o n p l a y , as w e l l as the r e l e a s e i n p r i n t ( j o u r n a l s , magazines, e t c . ) o f the s t u d e n t ' s work are a l l v a r i o u s forms o f p u b l i c a t i o n . The f o r e r u n n e r t o such p u b l i c a t i o n i s the ' s h a r i n g ' o f s t u d e n t works w i t h i n the c l a s s r o o m . James B r i t t o n , the w e l l known B r i t i s h p s y c h o l i n g u i s t , has found t h a t t h i s ' s h a r i n g ' f a c e t i s e x t r e m e l y m o t i v a t i o n a l i n p e o p l e o f a l l ages: Even when we can i n t e r p r e t i n s i l e n t r e f l e c t i o n , w i t h o u t b e n e f i t o f a u d i b l e language and a l i s t e n e r , we s t i l l p r e f e r t o do a g r e a t d e a l o f o u r i n t e r p r e t i v e work i n t a l k w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . The i n c e n t i v e t o shape our e x p e r i e n c e i n words i s very f r e q u e n t l y t h a t o f s h a r -i n g i t w i t h somebody e l s e . [ B r i t t o n , 1967, p. 27] The s h a r i n g o f s t u d e n t s ' works i s a common endpoint.. i n many ele m e n t a r y c l a s s e s (though some commendably pursue p u b l i c a t i o n as w e l l ) , and i s most i m p o r t a n t as a t r i a l f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n the s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y c l a s s e s . Three o f the most outspoken advocates o f t h i s i n t e r p e r s o n a l exchange o f w r i t i n g are the poets M i c h a e l Mott, Dabney S t u a r t , and S y l v i a W i l k i n s o n . They i n t e r a c t e d w i t h e l e m e n t a r y , j u n i o r and s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s i n a program i n which one o f the f o u r o b j e c t i v e s was t o c r e a t e a c l i m a t e i n which the s t u d e n t s c o u l d s h a r e t h e i r w r i t i n g w i t h o t h e r s , p r o -f e s s i o n a l s and p e e r s . T h i s ' s h a r i n g ' i m p l i e s a p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s i n e n j o y i n g and a p p r e c i a t i n g a f e l l o w s t u d e n t ' s work as w e l l as e d i t i n g and c o n s t r u c t i v e l y c r i t i c i z i n g t h i s work. P u b l i c a t i o n does not have t h e s e i m p l i c a t i o n s . P u b l i c a t i o n i s an u n v e i l i n g o f a work f o r the p u b l i c t o r e a c t t o i f i t w i s h e s , and as i t chooses. P u b l i c a t i o n i s a b a r i n g o f the w r i t e r ' s i n n e r -most reaches t o masses o f s t r a n g e r s . I n e v i t a b l y , the s t u d e n t s ' w r i t i n g aim must be p u b l i c a t i o n The c o n c l u s i o n s o f the Dartmouth Anglo-American C o n f e r e n c e o f 1966 aimed t e a c h e r s o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n : In the f i r s t p l a c e , c h i l d r e n need an a u d i e n c e o t h e r than the t e a c h e r . They w r i t e most e a s i l y when th e y w r i t e f o r the c l a s s , a r e e n t e r t a i n e d and s t i m u l a t e d by one a n o t h e r ' s f a n c i e s . E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s f o r g e t t h a t w i t h o l d e r c h i l d r e n an a u d i e n c e i s no l e s s i m p o r t a n t . As Wendell Johnson has c o m p l a i n e d , t e a c h e r s f a i l be-cause they appear to emphasize ' w r i t i n g ' i n s t e a d o f ' w r i t i n g - a b o u t - s o m e t h i n g - f o r - s o m e o n e . ' You cannot w r i t e w r i t i n g . Too o f t e n they a s s i g n the y o u n g s t e r s l i t e r a r y t o p i c s f o r which t h e r e can h a r d l y be a l i v e a u d i e n c e e x c e p t the t e a c h e r , h i m s e l f . [ M u l l e r , 1961, pp. 100-101] 108 The s t u d e n t must a c t u a l l y aim f o r a r e a l a u d i e n c e f o r h i s works, e l s e the c o u r s e i s a sham, a phoney. The h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t needs to be exposed t o the r e a l t h i n g . H i s days o f ' L e t ' s p r e t e n d ' are o v e r . Stephen Judy c o n f i r m s t h i s a t t i t u d e : However, the s t u d e n t a l s o ( i n a d d i t i o n t o w r i t i n g about m a t e r i a l t h a t i s from p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s ) needs a r e a d e r s h i p ; and a c l a s s s h o u l d be a l i v e w i t h s t u d e n t s r e a d i n g t o each o t h e r , r e a d i n g each o t h e r ' s work, r e s p o n d i n g and r e a c t i n g t o the t h i n g s t h a t they have s a i d and done. I s i m p l y want t o n o t e t h a t the c l a s s r o o m needs t o be a p u b l i s h i n g and r e a d i n g c e n t e r , where s t u d e n t s ' work takes on r e a l i t y by b e i n g g i v e n a p u b l i c r e a d e r s h i p . [Judy, 1974, p. 94] No l o n g e r i s the c l a s s r o o m a c l o i s t e r e d i v o r y tower o f s a c r o s a n c t l e a r n i n g t h a t bears l i t t l e r e l a t i o n t o r e a l i t y . With the u l t i m a t e aim o f p u b l i c a t i o n , the c l a s s r o o m i s f o r c e d o u t i n t o the community, becoming an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the ' r e a l ' w o r l d . For the s t u d e n t s , t h i s coming t o terms w i t h r e a l i t y i s commonly a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e i r endorsement o f a c o u r s e , and hence t o the amount o f e f f o r t they w i l l expend i n i t . Laverne G o n z a l e z , a p r o f e s s o r o f freshman c o m p o s i t i o n a t Purdue U n i v e r s i t y i n L a f a y e t t e , I n d i a n a , w h o l e h e a r t e d l y applauds the p u b l i c a t i o n a p p r o a c h , c o n d u c t i n g c o u r s e s i n which the c o n t e n t i s p r i m a r i l y s t u d e n t c r e a t e d m a t e r i a l s . The c o n t e n t i o n i s t h a t s i n c e , by d e f i n i t i o n , a w r i t e r i s one who w r i t e s , a freshman w r i t i n g c o u r s e s h o u l d s i m u l a t e the p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t i n g p r o c e s s and a l s o p r o v i d e an o u t l e t f o r the p r o d u c t . The o u t l e t f o r the 109 p r o d u c t i s a newspaper p u b l i c a t i o n , Easy W r i t e r s , c o n c e i v e d to p r o v i d e an a u d i e n c e f o r the works o f the freshman c o m p o s i t i o n c l a s s e s . G o n z a l e z ' s p h i l o s o p h y i s e n c a p s u l e d y e a r l y i n the opening a d d r e s s t o new s t u d e n t s : Here e v e r y day f o r s i x t e e n weeks you w i l l be w r i t e r s — p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t e r s because you w i l l be w r i t i n g f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . We p u b l i s h a weekly newspaper Easy W r i t e r s i n which the b e s t a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n each week a r e p u b l i s h e d . T h i s newspaper goes t o deans, c o u n s e l l o r s , p r o f e s s o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a l l o v e r Purdue's campus and t o o t h e r u n i v e r s i t i e s t h a t have r e q u e s t e d c o p i e s . Anytime you want e x t r a c o p i e s t o send home o r t o f r i e n d s j u s t ask. As p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t e r s you w i l l need to keep j o u r n a l s i n which you r e c o r d m a t e r i a l s f o r p o s s i b l e f u t u r e u s e — I c a l l i t mind rape. I f the term i s too s t r o n g , t r y something e l s e . But do c a p t u r e a moment, respond t o an i d e a , blow y o u r c o o l , w r i t e a poem, r e c a l l the p a s t , but the t r u t h I want t o foc u s on most i s Word T r u t h , i . e . , f i n d i n g the e x a c t word t o communicate p r e c i s e l y the i d e a you have. W r i t e e v e r y d a y f o r a t l e a s t ten minutes. We w i l l be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t r u t h — y e s , the p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e ; each o f you has completed a t l e a s t 18 y e a r s o f o b s e r v i n g and r e c o r d i n g i n y o u r mind. We w i l l use t h a t m a t e r i a l . . . . Because the exchange o f s i x t e e n minds i s r i c h e r than one mind wor k i n g a l o n e , we w i l l r e a d t o each o t h e r , d i s c u s s and c r i t i c i z e the i d e a s and w r i t i n g s . E v e r y t h i n g you w r i t e i s i m p o r t a n t . Keep i t al1 i n a p o r t f o l i o . We w i l l spend a l o t o f time t o g e t h e r . We w i l l l e a r n t o know each o t h e r through o u r w r i t i n g . I promise you t h i s w i l l be the b e s t c l a s s you have e v e r o r w i l l e v e r have. In a d d i t i o n you w i l l s u r p r i s e even y o u r s e l f i n y o u r w r i t i n g . . . . And o n l y t h o s e changes you s a n c t i o n w i l l e v e r be made. When you have an a r t i c l e ready f o r p u b l i s h i n g , w e ' l l do i t . [ G o n z a l e z , 1973, pp. 3-4] I t i s c e r t a i n l y b e l i e v a b l e t h a t a s t u d e n t would remark, " T h i s i s not a c o u r s e ; t h i s i s a way o f l i f e . " [ G o n z a l e z , 1973, p. 15] P u b l i -c a t i o n does not need t o be campaigned by t e a c h e r s . R a t h e r , p u b l i c a t i o n n o i t s e l f campaigns the c o u r s e t h a t endorses i t . There i s no sub-s t i t u t e f o r c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t have v a l i d i t y o u t s i d e the c l a s s r o o m . B e a t r i c e A F u r n e r [1970], Marlene Knowles [1971], and B. Jo K i n n i c k [1966], t h r e e w e l l known w r i t e r s on the t e a c h i n g o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g , a l s o agree on the i n v a l u a b i l i t y o f a r e a l a u d i e n c e f o r the s t u d e n t w r i t e r . The g r e a t e s t e f f e c t t h a t p u b l i c a t i o n has on t h e s t u d e n t s i s m o t i v a t i o n a l . C h a r l e s K. S t a l l a r d contends t h a t good w r i t e r s , as compared t o a randomly chosen comparison group, a r e more con-c e r n e d w i t h the purpose o f t h e i r w r i t i n g . [ S t a l l a r d , F a l l , 1974] Naomi Chase echoes t h i s s e n t i m e n t o f the importance o f purpose and a u d i e n c e . [Chase, Sept., 1973] I t i s not a new t h e o r y t h a t a s t u d e n t w i t h a g o a l , aim, o r purpose t h a t he c o n s i d e r s t o be meaningful and worthy i s more m o t i v a t e d , more w i l l i n g t o work h a r d , more e n t h u s i a s t i c than one who l a c k s such a g o a l . S t u d e n t s demand a r e l e v a n c e o f c l a s s work t o t h e i r l i v e s and the o u t s i d e w o r l d . Few s t u d e n t s , anymore, w r i t e p r i m a r i l y t o p l e a s e the t e a c h e r and/or t o r e c e i v e a h i g h mark. There must be something deeper, something more m e a n i n g f u l , something more w o r t h y . o f t h e i r time and energy f o r which t o s t r i v e . E l l e n Gray Massey, t e a c h e r o f communications c l a s s e s a t Lebanon High School i n M i s s o u r i , has found t h i s magical r e l e v a n c e t o be p u b l i c a t i o n : I have t a u g h t E n g l i s h c o m p o s i t i o n f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s and have n e v e r had s t u d e n t s so w i l l i n g t o r e v i s e and r e w r i t e . Nor have my s t u d e n t s e v e r been so c r i t i c a l o f t h e i r own w r i t i n g s and so anxious t o g e t .11! a s s i g n m e n t s . B e f o r e , many s t u d e n t s would be s a t i s f i e d w i t h a paper q u i c k l y w r i t t e n the n i g h t b e f o r e t he assignment was due. . . . The d i f f e r e n c e now i s due t o th e magic o f p u b l i c a t i o n . Now they a r e w r i t i n g f o r a magazine they have c r e a t e d about s u b j e c t s they t h i n k are i m p o r t a n t . They know t h a t any magazine must be top q u a l i t y t o s u r v i v e . They are det e r m i n e d t h a t B i t t e r s w e e t w i l l s u c c e e d . [Massey, A p r i l / M a y , 1975] B i t t e r s w e e t i s a s t u d e n t produced q u a r t e r l y about the Ozark way o f l i f e , s u b s c r i b e d t o by the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . T h i s i s m o t i v a t i o n . E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s can l e a r n about m o t i v a t i o n and s t u d e n t d e v e l o p e d m a t e r i a l s from r e s e a r c h e x e c u t e d by Lawrence M i c h a e l Rudner. [Rudner, Feb., 1973] Rudner was con c e r n e d w i t h the achievement o f grade e i g h t Mathematics s t u d e n t s who produced t h e i r own v i s u a l l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s on t o p i c s i n the c u r r i c u l u m compared w i t h e i g h t h g r a d e r s who d i d not have t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y . The two groups o f s t u d e n t s were assumed t o be e q u i v a l e n t due t o t h e i r random s e l e c t i o n and t h e i r comparable IQ and p r e - t e s t s c o r e s . The s t u d e n t s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group were a l l o w e d t o produce t h e i r own f i l m s t r i p s on v a r i o u s t o p i c s i n the mathematics c u r r i c u l u m . The r e s u l t s were t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l group d i d not l e a r n more than t h o s e i n the c o n t r o l group. However, o b s e r v a t i o n showed t h a t the f i l m s t r i p p r o j e c t d i d have a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t and m o t i v a - t i o n a l v a l u e . The e x t r a p o l a t i o n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h on grade e i g h t Mathematics s t u d e n t s t o h i g h s c h o o l C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g s t u d e n t s i s m e r i t e d . Rudner i s not a l o n e i n h i s f i n d i n g s , 112 though he has more r e s e a r c h v a l i d i t y . Many d e s i r a b l e outcomes i n s t u d e n t s t h a t t e a c h e r s a t t r i b u t e t o p u b l i c a t i o n a r e : an enjoyment o f l i t e r a t u r e , a sense o f competency w i t h language, a sense o f s o c i e t y w i t h i n the c l a s s r o o m [Landrum, e t a l . , 1971]; p r i d e , a sense o f e f f i c a c y [ L e b a r o n , May, 1973]; g r e a t e x c i t e m e n t , a sense o f wonder about what they have a c c o m p l i s h e d [ C h a p n i c k , D e c , 1973]; the s t i m u l a t i o n o f c r e a t i v i t y i n w r i t i n g , enjoyment f o r r e a d e r s , and teamwork i n s t u d e n t p u b l i s h i n g . [ C a m p b e l l , 1971] M o t i v a t i o n i s a many c o l o u r e d rainbow, and t h a t pot o f g o l d a t the end i s the s t u d e n t ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t , which i s i n f l u e n c e d by both the p r o c e s s o f w r i t i n g , f o r h i m s e l f and f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , as w e l l as by the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the f i n a l p r o d u c t . In e f f e c t , p u b l i c a t i o n can be r e g a r d e d as a reward f o r s t r u g g l i n g w i t h a work u n t i l i t i s p o l i s h e d , u n t i l i t says e x a c t l y what the a u t h o r wishes i t t o say and how he wishes t o say i t . P u b l i c a t i o n i s a reward f o r s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e . Those s t u d e n t s who s a y , 'I don't want anyone t o read my work. I w r i t e o n l y f o r myself, ' may g e n u i n e l y mean i t . But v e r y l i k e l y t h e s e s t u d e n t s a r e shy and unsure o f e x p o s i n g t h e i r a r t t o the masses, and need the c o n f i r m a t i o n t h a t p u b l i c a t i o n can g i v e them. I t i s i m p e r a t i v e t o s t a t e here t h a t a n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e w i l l u ndoubtedly o c c u r i f the works a r e p u b l i s h e d u n p o l i s h e d . A l v i n Granowsky, D i r e c t o r o f the D i a g n o s t i c Reading C e n t e r a t Greensboro, North C a r o l i n a , and Morton B o t e l , P r o f e s s o r o f 113 R e a d i n g — L a n g u a g e A r t s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , P h i l a d e l p h i a , b e l i e v e i n t h i s reward p h i l o s o p h y : The human s p e c i e s needs and wants rewards. Give i t t o them i n terms t h a t they want and you have a g r e a t m o t i v a t i n g mechanism. I t i s o u r e x p e r i e n c e t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n o f c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g by p u b l i c a t i o n i s a b s o l u t e dynamite. The p o s s i b i l i t y o f h a v i n g a c r e a t i v e e f f o r t w i t h y o u r name b e s i d e i t i n p r i n t i s a powerful m o t i v a t o r . [Granowsky and B o t e ! , May, 1974, p. 654] Most t e a c h e r s f i n d t h a t s t u d e n t s r e a c t w i t h i n c r e d i b l e g u s t o , e x c i t e -ment and endeavour when p r e s e n t e d w i t h t he p o s s i b i l i t y o f h a v i n g t h e i r works p u b l i s h e d . P u b l i c a t i o n Forms P u b l i c a t i o n can take many forms, as s t a t e d i n the o r i g i n a l d e f i n i t i o n . I t i s l i m i t e d o n l y by the w r i t e r ' s own c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n . With r e s p e c t t o t h e p r i n t media, the most t r a d i t i o n a l p u b l i c a t i o n form, t h e r e a r e t r u l y e n d l e s s u n d e r t a k i n g s f o r the s t u d e n t s . There are always d i t t o and mimeograph machines t o run o f f c l a s s a n t h o l o g i e s and i n d i v i d u a l c o l l e c t i o n s . Becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y common i s the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f o f f s e t p r e s s i n the s c h o o l s t h r o u g h the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f G r a p h i c s , Commercial D e s i g n , and V i s u a l Communications E d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s . P u b l i c a t i o n s need not be s h o r t c h a n g e d i n terms o f d e s i g n and i l l u s t r a t i o n . O f t e n 114 the c r e a t i v e t a l e n t i s r i g h t t h e r e i n the c l a s s r o o m , w a i t i n g f o r the o p p o r t u n i t y t o be d i s c o v e r e d and a p p r e c i a t e d . E f f e c t i v e handmade c o v e r s a r e e x c i t i n g f o r l i m i t e d d i s p e r s a l . The a r t o f s i l k -s c r e e n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e . A n o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e i s t h a t a n t h o l o g i e s be a j o i n t p r o j e c t between the C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c l a s s e s , the A r t c l a s s e s , and the ViCoEd c l a s s e s . Even a nearby p r e s s may o f f e r t o g r a t u i t o u s l y b i n d the books between p a y i n g j o b s . Newspapers, magazines and j o u r n a l s can a l s o s u c c e s s f u l l y employ t h e s e v a r i e d t e c h n i q u e s o f d u p l i c a t i o n . The u l t i m a t e i n p r i n t i s t o have the c l a s s s e l l t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n , i f the q u a l i t y i s h i g h enough. St u d e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s w i t h i n the s c h o o l r e q u i r e s p e c i a l e f f o r t on the p a r t o f a l l c o n c e r n e d , t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s a l i k e . Appendix F i n c l u d e s a l i s t o f a r t i c l e s which dea l w i t h p r a c t i c a l c o n c e r n s o f s t u d e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s w i t h i n the s c h o o l , t h a t i s h e l p f u l t o t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . Beyond the l i m i t s o f p u b l i s h i n g w i t h i n the s c h o o l , l i e s t h a t o u t e r w o r l d o f p r i n t c o m p e t i t i o n . C l a s s a n t h o l o g i e s t h a t evoke p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d f o r ' o u t s i d e ' p u b l i c a t i o n . There i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix G a s h o r t l i s t o f a n t h o l o g i e s t h a t are c o n s i d e r e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t s t u d e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s . P r e s e n t e d i s an a n n o t a t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y o f p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l which f e a t u r e c h i l d r e n ' s c r e a t i v e e f f o r t s . A l t h o u g h many o f the s t u d e n t works c i t e d are w r i t t e n by e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t s , 115 s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s can be t a c k l e d on a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d , i n - d e p t h l e v e l by\:older s t u d e n t s . S t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g w i l l e n j o y s e e i n g the a r t o f o t h e r s i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s t o themselves--namely i n c l a s s r o o m s — a n d may be prompted t o engage i n a p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e i r own. I n e v i t a b l y , however, each c l e v e r w r i t i n g s t u d e n t must e n t e r the w o r l d o f p u b l i c a t i o n on h i s own. The w r i t i n g o f a work i s a l o n g and l o n e l y t a s k , and.so i s the attempt t o p u b l i s h c o m p e t i v e l y , whether i t be i n j o u r n a l s and magazines, o r i n books. Appendix H i n c l u d e s a l i s t o f books which s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n each C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c l a s s i n m u l t i c o p y . These books a r e d e s i g n e d t o e x p l a i n the p u b l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s t o n o v i c e w r i t e r s , to t e l l t he w r i t e r how t o p r e p a r e a m a n u s c r i p t f o r s u b m i s s i o n , t o h e l p the f r e e l a n c e r s e l l h i s works, e t c . These books a r e mandatory t o a p u b l i c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c o u r s e . They w i l l always be i n use. A l l t h i s h e l p w i t h m a n u s c r i p t p r e p a r a t i o n i s o f l i t t l e v a l u e u n l e s s the s t u d e n t knows where t o send h i s work f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . There a r e many l i t e r a r y p u b l i c a t i o n s t h a t a c c e p t u n s o l i c i t e d m a n u s c r i p t s , but i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o keep t r a c k o f them as the months pass. G e n e r a l l y , l i t e r a r y j o u r n a l s a r e not s t a b l e p u b l i c a t i o n s . Any l i s t would be i n c o n s t a n t f l u x . However, a t e n t a t i v e l i s t i s a must. A l i s t has been co m p i l e d w i t h the a d d r e s s e s o f the more well-known p u b l i c a t i o n s , t h a t i s v a l i d a t t h i s t ime. (See Appendix I) Teachers must be con-116 s t a n t l y aware o f a d d i t i o n s and d e l e t i o n s t o t h i s l i s t . There a r e a number o f p u b l i c a t i o n s t h a t o f f e r s p e c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n the form o f w r i t i n g c o m p e t i t i o n s . There a r e l i s t e d i n Appendix J the more prominent ones. These p e r i o d i c a l s and c o m p e t i t i o n s seldom pay, and t h o s e t h a t do are u s u a l l y o n l y o f f e r i n g token amounts. For u n e s t a b l i s h e d w r i t e r s payment f o r such w r i t i n g i s not the main c o n c e r n , but the v e r y r e a l s t r u g g l e o f s i m p l y g e t t i n g i n t o p r i n t . I f the s t u d e n t d e c i d e s t o e n t e r the p r o f e s s i o n a l market-p l a c e he s h o u l d be coached i n the a r t o f m a n u s c r i p t s u b m i s s i o n . There a r e p a r t i c u l a r p r o c e d u r e s t o f o l l o w , as f u l l y d i l i n e a t e d i n the books mentioned i n Appendix H. A l s o , t h e s t u d e n t s h o u l d not j u s t w h i s t l e o f f h i s works t o the f i r s t magazine t h a t c a t c h e s h i s eye. He s h o u l d s t u d y the market, l o o k i n g f o r a magazine t h a t p u b l i s h e s the type o f work he has w r i t t e n . I n c i d e n t a l l y , t h i s w r i t i n g market s h o u l d be i n a d v e r t a n t l y s t u d i e d through c o n t i n u o u s l y r e a d i n g as much contemporary w r i t i n g as time p e r m i t s . Much can be l e a r n e d from p o e t s , p l a y w r i g h t s , j o u r n a l i s t s and s t o r y t e l l e r s who are p r e s e n t l y p u b l i s h i n g . I n e v i t a b l y , the w i d e r r e a d a w r i t e r i s , the more e x t e n s i v e are the i m a g i n a t i v e p o s s i b i l -i t i e s he c o n j u r e s . Then he s h o u l d send a l e t t e r o f i n q u i r y e x p l a i n i n g what he has w r i t t e n o r i s about t o w r i t e , and why i t i s s u i t a b l e f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r magazine. The e d i t o r ' s r e p l y w i l l be i n f o r m a t i v e and e n e r g y - s a v i n g . 117 O t h e r forms o f p u b l i c a t i o n t h a t are not bound t o the p r i n t media are becoming more n o t i c e a b l e . The media o f f i l m has e x p l o d e d w r i t i n g i n t o a whole new e r a . With the amount o f m e c h a n i c a l hardware most s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l s , o r a t l e a s t the d i s t r i c t s , have a c q u i r e d i t s h o u l d be r e l a t i v e l y easy t o encourage the p u b l i c a t i o n o f t e l e v i s i o n p l a y s o r v i s u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f poems ( f i l m poems) v i a f i l m o r v i d e o t a p e , which can then be p l a y e d back t o whatever a u d i e n c e i s d e s i r e d . The a u d i e n c e can be from w i t h i n the s c h o o l o r w i t h o u t . There are many o p p o r t u n i t i e s a t noon break, o r s c h o o l a s s e m b l i e s , f o r such performances. The community i s g e n e r a l l y v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d e n t p u b l i c a t i o n and would come t o see o r hear an e v e n i n g performance. The use o f the tape r e c o r d e r s h o u l d not be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d i n p r o v i d i n g a n o t h e r p u b l i s h i n g form. S t u d e n t r a d i o p l a y s and b r o a d c a s t s a r e thus a f f o r d e d g r e a t e r c i r c u l a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s . There are many o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e forms o f p u b l i c a t i o n r e c o g n i z e d by t e a c h e r -w r i t e r s . Stephen Judy s t a t e s : There are many d i f f e r e n t ways the t e a c h e r can p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h a r e a d e r s h i p . Some papers a r e b e s t ' p u b l i s h e d ' by h a v i n g them rea d a l o u d t o the c l a s s , e i t h e r by the a u t h o r o r the t e a c h e r . Some w r i t i n g s h o u l d be r e a d and t a p e - r e c o r d e d to become p a r t o f a c l a s s l i b r a r y o f r e c o r d e d l i t e r a t u r e . S t u d e n t ' s work can be p o s t e d on the b o a r d , s u b m i t t e d to a c l a s s newspaper o r magazine,, s e n t to the s c h o o l paper o r magazine, r u n - o f f on d i t t o f o r the c l a s s , and c i r c u l a t e d i n m a n u s c r i p t form. [Judy, 1974, p. 108] 118 H e n r i e t t a Dombey a l s o d e s c r i b e s a v a r i e t y o f p u b l i c a t i o n modes: The a u d i e n c e i s v i t a l t o the s t o r y t e l l e r but n e c e s s a r y t o the w r i t e r too. I h e l p c h i l d r e n make t h e i r own books l i k e r e a l books w i t h i l l u s t r a t i o n s , a l i s t o f c o n t e n t s , and none o f the t e a c h e r ' s red b i r o . ( S p e l l i n g can be t a u g h t more e f f i c i e n t l y than by cramping a c h i l d ' s w r i t i n g s t y l e ) . The c h i l d r e n r e a d t h e i r s t o r i e s t o t h e i r f r i e n d s and l e n d them round the c l a s s . I f i n d t h e i r books t r a v e l f u r t h e r than the c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s . Nine y e a r o l d boys rea d s t o r i e s by g i r l s t h e y would be shy t o t a l k t o . S p e c i a l l y produced books and c l a s s mag-a z i n e s g i v e the c h i l d r e n a sense o f p u b l i c a t i o n and i n c r e a s e i n t e r e s t i n the c o n t e n t o f what i s w r i t t e n . . . . Reading t h e i r own s t o r i e s o r poems a t a s c h o o l assembly g i v e s them a sense t h a t t h e i r work has an importance o u t s i d e t h e i r own c l a s s r o o m . Pro-d u c i n g d u p l i c a t e d magazines f o r s a l e a t s i x p e n c e a time t u r n s them i n t o r e a l w r i t e r s . [Dombey, Autumn, 1969] N o t i c e t h a t l i v e performances by s t u d e n t s a r e not upstaged by the i m p r e s s i v e 'shows' which r e s u l t from the use o f a r r a y s o f m e c h a n i c a l p a r a p h e n a l i a . L i v e p o e t r y r e a d i n g s and l i v e performances o f s t u d e n t - w r i t t e n p l a y s are as c o m p e l l i n g as e v e r . They are a unique and t i m e l e s s p u b l i s h i n g form. Words and music have been u n i t e d f o r c e n t u r i e s t o produce p a r t i c u l a r p u b l i c a t i o n e f f e c t s . The f o l k - s o n g i s r e a l l y p o e t r y -music. The montage i s a form o f p u b l i c a t i o n t h a t can be produced by i n d i v i d u a l w r i t e r s o r by s m a l l groups o f w r i t e r s . I t i n v o l v e s u s i n g a tape r e c o r d e r t o r e c o r d works which have been a r r a n g e d and accompanied by s e l e c t e d music. Some w r i t e r s f e e l t h a t e l e c t r o n i c music makes a p r e f e r a b l e p o e t i c background because 119 the w r i t e r can l i t e r a l l y t e a r o f f a s t r i p o f music and subdue i t t o h i s own purposes w i t h o u t b e i n g c o n c e r n e d about the i n t e g r i t y o f the m u s i c a l p e r f o r m e r and composer. Though a time-consuming and c o m p l i c a t e d p r o c e d u r e , the montage o f t e n produces s u r p r i s i n g l y e f f e c t i v e r e s u l t s . A v a r i a t i o n o f t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n i s t o c o o r d i n a t e w i t h the montage, a s l i d e show, t r a n s f o r m i n g i t i n t o an a u d i o - v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f words and dance i s but a n o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n form. The r e c i t e d poem o r s t o r y i s the s c r i p t f o r the choreography o f the dancer, who p h y s i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t s i n dance the moods and emotions the words evoke i n him. The a d d i t i o n o f music t o t h i s word-dance c r e a t e s y e t a n o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n dimension. A r e l a t i v e l y new p u b l i c a t i o n form f o r w r i t e r s i s the medium o f v i s u a l a r t . S c u l p t o r s and p a i n t e r s a r e i n v i t i n g p o e t r y , i n s m a l l packages, i n t o t h e i r works. Poem p o s t e r s have taken the w o r l d by storm o f l a t e . P o e t r y i s even a p p e a r i n g on c l o t h i n g ; T - s h i r t s and h i g h f a s h i o n d r e s s e s commonly s p o r t b o l d words and p h r a s e s . T h i s new p o e t r y may not always be a e s t h e t i c a l l y s t i m u -l a t i n g but i t i s a l i v e and t h r i v i n g and e x t r e m e l y p u b l i c . Computer p o e t r y i s a c o n t r o v e r s i a l mode o f e x p r e s s i o n . Though some w r i t e r s r e f u s e t o r e c o g n i z e i t as p o e t r y , o t h e r s such as E a r l e B i r n e y a p p l a u d i t s n o v e l t y : 120 There's a l s o o f co u r s e the s o - c a l l e d 'computer p o e t r y . ' R e c i p e : f e e d t he b a s i c r u l e s o f s y n t a x and some r e c u r r e n t r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n s i n t o a computer, add v o c a b u l a r y l o a d e d w i t h image words, run the machine l o n g enough, and out come enormous l e n g t h s o f word-tape a r r a n g e d i n l i n e s . By the o p e r a t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c a l chance, such tapes w i l l o c c a s i o n a l l y produce passages w i t h s u f f i c i e n t u n i t y o f theme and image and enough p r o v o c a t i v e o v e r t o n e s t o w a r r a n t t h e i r b e i n g c l i p p e d o u t and p r e s e n t e d as poems. E n g l i s h p r o f e s s o r s who are o u t r a g e d o r t e r r o r - s t r u c k by such a f f a i r s , o r r e j e c t them s c o r n f u l l y as machine-made, b e t r a y t h e i r misunder-s t a n d i n g o f the n a t u r e o f p o e t r y . The computer, used t h i s way, i s s i m p l y an enormously c o m p l i c a t e d t y p e -w r i t e r . The poem i s s t i l l b e i n g made by p o e t i c a l l y -s e n s i t i z e d human b e i n g s - - b y t h e l i n g u i s t i c e x p e r t who chooses the dat a words and, above a l l , by the e d i t o r o f the t a p e , the c r i t i c - p e r c e i v e r who e x t r a c t s t he poem from the s u r r o u n d i n g g i b b e r i s h . Even when you 'make' y o u r own poem longhand, you don't make i t s form, you f i n d i t . Some o f t h e s e poems a r e , i n f a c t , much b e t t e r than many I've been r e a d i n g r e c e n t l y i n such f a s h i o n a b l e American p o e t r y j o u r n a l s as Ch i c a g o Poetry, under the s i g n a t u r e s o f s o - c a l l e d l e a d i n g American p o e t s . [ B i r n e y , 1966, p. 78] The r e a l w r i t e r s a r e . n o t t h r e a t e n e d by e l e c t r o n i c s and mechanics. I n s t e a d , they use t h e s e d e v i c e s t o f u r t h e r the scope o f w r i t i n g . The s t u d e n t s and the t e a c h e r must be a l i v e t o the end-l e s s a l t e r n a t i v e modes o f p u b l i c a t i o n . Our minds, as E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s , a r e o f t e n i m p r i s o n e d i n the w o r l d o f p r i n t a l o n e . Today s t u d e n t s a re e x p l o r i n g a r e a s f o r p u b l i c a t i o n t h a t a re t o t a l l y new and v i t a l . The e x p r e s s i o n o f words through v a r i o u s combina-t i o n s o f movement, c o l o u r , t e x t u r e , shape and sound i s but an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s f i e l d o f p u b l i c a t i o n . The w o r l d s o f a r t , c r e a t i v e drama, music and c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g a r e becoming i n c r e a s -i n g l y i n t e r t w i n e d as s t u d e n t s s e a r c h f o r t h e i r own p u b l i c a t i o n v o i c e . 121 I m p l i c a t i o n s o f P u b l i c a t i o n f o r C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g Programs Peer response The f o r e m o s t i m p l i c a t i o n o f a p u b l i c a t i o n o r i e n t e d C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c o u r s e i s t h a t t he s t u d e n t s need a so u n d i n g b o a r d to t e s t out t h e i r works b e f o r e a c t u a l l y p u b l i s h i n g . Whatever he i s w r i t i n g , the w r i t e r t a k e s c a l c u l a t e d r i s k s w i t h the meanings o f words. The keener h i s awareness o f the many v a r i e d d e n o t a t i o n s and c o n n o t a t i o n s o f words, the more e f f e c t i v e h i s w r i t i n g i s l i k e l y t o be. He must t r y and f o r e s e e how the r e a d e r w i l l i n t e r -p r e t h i s work. James E. M i l l e r J r . v e r i f i e s t h i s c o n c e r n : The w r i t e r and r e a d e r t o g e t h e r make language mean and i n the i d e a l s i t u a t i o n t h e y a re making i t mean the same t h i n g — b u t o f t e n too they a r e n o t , not because o f p e r v e r s i t y o r s t u p i d i t y , b ut because o f d i f f e r e n c e s . . . ( i n s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t ) . A l l o f us are f a m i l i a r w i t h p i e c e s o f w r i t i n g t h a t have meant one t h i n g t o the w r i t e r , and a v a r i e t y o f t h i n g s t o h i s r e a d e r s . T h i s w i l l p r o b a b l y always be the r e s u l t t o some e x t e n t w i t h w r i t i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t i s l o n g and c o m p l i c a t e d , s u b t l e , r i c h i n s u g g e s t i o n . But i f a w r i t e r i s g o i n g to approach t he i d e a l o f l u c i d i t y i n meaning, he must immerse h i m s e l f not i n the d i c t i o n a r y but i n language-use i n many c o n t e x t s , spoken and w r i t t e n , and he must dev e l o p a deep s e n s i t i v i t y t o the nuances and s u b t l e t i e s o f words and p h r a s e s . He must de v e l o p not o n l y a s t r o n g sense o f what he means and i n t e n d s t o mean, but he must a l s o d e v e l o p the i m a g i n a t i o n t h a t e n a b l e s him t o f o r e s e e how r e a d e r s w i l l r espond, not j u s t t o g r o s s meaning but to the o v e r t o n e s and s u b v i b r a t i o n s o f words. [ M i l l e r , 1973, pp. 101-102] The s t u d e n t w r i t e r must d i s c o v e r , b e f o r e p u b l i c a t i o n , i f he i s i n c o n t r o l o f h i s words, o r i f they a r e r u n n i n g rampant o v e r t he meaning he i s a t t e m p t i n g t o convey. 122 In e f f e c t , t h i s s t a g e i n the C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g p r o c e s s i s s i m p l y the n a t u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n o f the i n c e s t u o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p between c r e a t i o n and c r i t i c i s m . For c o n v e n i e n c e o f emphasis, c r e a t i o n i s s t r i c t l y s e p a r a t e d from . c r i t i c i s m but r e a l i s t i c a l l y t hey o v e r l a p each o t h e r almost i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l y . As T.S. E l i o t s t a t e s i n h i s i n d i c t m e n t o f Matthew A r n o l d : Matthew A r n o l d d i s t i n g u i s h e s f a r too b l u n t l y , i t seems t o me, between the two a c t i v i t i e s : he o v e r l o o k s the c a p i t a l importance o f c r i t i c i s m i n the work o f c r e a t i o n i t s e l f . P r o b a b l y , i n d e e d , the l a r g e r p a r t o f the l a b o u r o f an a u t h o r i n composing h i s work i s c r i t i c a l l a b o u r ; the l a b o u r o f s i f t i n g , c ombining, c o n s t r u c t i n g , expunging, c o r r e c t i n g , t e s t i n g : t h i s f r i g h t f u l t o i l i s as much c r i t i c a l as c r e a t i v e . [ E l i o t , 1951, p. 30] In t r u t h , c r e a t i o n and c r i t i c i s m a r e i n s e p a r a b l e . The workshop approach i s deemed the most e f f e c t i v e method o f e l i c i t i n g such p r e - p u b l i c a t i o n r e sponse to s t u d e n t w r i t i n g . S t u d e n t w r i t e r s need t o be f r e e t o t e s t t h e i r m a t e r i a l s on t h e i r f e l l o w s t u d e n t s when they f e e l the work i s ready. The workshop approach i s i n f o r m a l and c a s u a l , y e t c o n s t a n t l y humming w i t h v a r i o u s forms o f b u s i n e s s . I t s t a n d s t o reason t h a t n o t e v e r y -one w i l l be ready f o r p r e - p u b l i c a t i o n response a t the same time. C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e workshop approach i s e f f e c t i v e . However, s t u d e n t s must be c a r e f u l not t o d i s t u r b t h o s e s t u d e n t s t h a t a r e e m b r o i l e d i n the f r a g i l e s t r u g g l e f o r i n i t i a l e x p r e s s i o n . They ar e t o ask o n l y those who are i n t o the p o l i s h i n g s t a g e s , as 123 t h e s e s t a g e s are more e a s i l y r e t u r n e d to a f t e r a t u r n o f thought. As Granowsky and B o t e l s t a t e : When the e a r l y w r i t i n g e f f o r t s are completed, t h e y ' l l need to be d i s c u s s e d , because even the f i n e s t c r e a t i v e e f f o r t s can be p o l i s h e d and made b e t t e r . Why e l s e do p u b l i s h i n g houses h i r e e d i t o r s to work w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l a u t h o r s ? [Granowsky and B o t e l , May, 1974, p. 654] Hence, the s t u d e n t s a c t as e d i t o r s f o r t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s . N o t i c e t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e i s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the ' r e a l ' w o r l d o u t s i d e the c l a s s r o o m ! Stephen Judy a l s o advocates workshops and s t u d e n t s as e d i t o r s : Encourage the s t u d e n t s to t a l k t o you and to each o t h e r about problems w h i l e they are w r i t i n g . . . . Encourage the s t u d e n t s to s e r v e as each o t h e r ' s e d i t o r s . One doesn't need t o be an e x p e r t i n c o m p o s i t i o n and r h e t o r i c to make u s e f u l s u g g e s t i o n s about the c l a r i t y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f w r i t i n g . A l t h o u g h s t u d e n t s may not know t e r m i n o l o g y , they are c e r t a i n l y c a p a b l e o f s p o t t i n g e d i t o r i a l problems and t a l k i n g about them i n t h e i r own language: 'Hey, I don't know what y o u ' r e t a l k i n g about.' ( T r a n s l a t i o n f o r t e a c h e r s : 'Lacks c l a r i t y . ' ) 'That's c r a z y . ' ( T r a n s l a t i o n : 'Lacks l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e . ' ) 'I don't b e l i e v e i t . ' ( T r a n s l a t i o n : 'Needs more s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e . 1 ) S t u d e n t s are h i g h l y p e r c e p t i v e i n t h e s e ways, and when t h e i r e d i t i n g has r e a l purpose, they can take o v e r the p r o c e s s and make g e n u i n e l y h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s to each o t h e r . Leave p r o o f r e a d i n g to the s t u d e n t s . In e v e r y c l a s s t h e r e are some s t u d e n t s who have mastered most o f the p r o o f r e a d i n g s k i l l s . O f t e n such s t u d e n t s are s i m p l y 'good s p e l l e r s ' o r ' i n t u i t i v e p u n c t u a t o r s . ' Acknowledge t h e i r s k i l l by s e t t i n g them up as p r o o f r e a d i n g c o n s u l t a n t s to the c l a s s . . . . Help the s t u d e n t s l e a r n to r e a c t to each o t h e r ' s work. Small-and l a r g e - g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n o f completed c o m p o s i t i o n s s h o u l d be a r e g u l a r p a r t o f any E n g l i s h c l a s s . A t f i r s t you may f i n d t h a t s t u d e n t s are a b i t h a r d on each 124 o t h e r , no doubt i m i t a t i n g p r e v i o u s t e a c h e r s o f t h e i r a c q u a i n t a n c e . I t may take some p r a c t i c e b e f o r e the s t u d e n t s can respond t o the s u b s t a n c e o f each o t h e r ' s w r i t i n g , but i t w i l l come w i t h time and guidance Read some o f y o u r own w r i t i n g t o the c l a s s , and s h a r e y o u r own s a t i s f a c t i o n s and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s w i t h i t . [Judy, 1974, pp. 112-113] In e f f e c t the workshop c l a s s b e g i n s to o p e r a t e v e r y e f f i c i e n t l y w i t h -o u t the t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r image. The s t u d e n t s are a t t e m p t i n g to h e l p each o t h e r r e a l i z e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l s as e f f e c t i v e w r i t e r s . Laverne G o n z a l e z ' s c o l l e g e c o m p o s i t i o n c l a s s e s a t Purdue U n i v e r s i t y a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e i n p e e r c r i t i c i s m b e f o r e p u b l i c a t i o n i s e f f e c t e d i n t h e i r c o l l e g e newspaper: W o r k s - i n - p r o g r e s s a r e s u b m i t t e d t o t h r e e o r f o u r p e e r s . A t t h i s p o i n t c r i t i c i s m b e g i n s . E a r l y c r i t i c i s m n o t e s merely response t o an i d e a — i f as the a u t h o r reads he t r i g g e r s a t h o u g h t , the l i s t e n e r v e r b a l i z e s i t . Then packed s e n t e n c e s , s t r o n g use o f v e r b , e x c i t i n g metaphor, v i v i d c o m p a r i s o n / c o n t r a s t , unusual d e f i n i t i o n r e c e i v e p r a i s e . C r i t i c s i n v e s t i g a t e p o s s i b l e i r o n y o r l a r g e r i d e a . B e f o r e any c u t t i n g away may be done, s t r e n g t h s e m e r g e — t h e dross may then be s l o u g h e d o f f i n the r e v i s i o n p r o c e s s . As papers c o n t i n u e to be s u b m i t t e d f o r p e e r c r i t i c i s m , the s t u d e n t s b e g i n t o s e t the c r i t e r i a f o r t o u g h e r c r i t i c i s m . The a u t h o r o f f e r s a paper deemed ready f o r p u b l i c a t i o n to a p e e r group whose members w r i t e on a c o v e r s h e e t those p l a c e s where the paper s t i l l needs work. F i n a l l y the group s c r u t i n i z e s b e g i n n i n g s , e n d i n g s , and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the paper. As s t u d e n t s l o o k thus c r i t i c a l l y a t t h e i r own w r i t i n g , they o f t e n b e g i n to review c r i t i c a l l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , the r h e t o r i c a l garbage used by h i g h l y e m o t i o n a l a u t h o r s , and a t l a s t to produce sound c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g o f m a t e r i a l i n c l u d e d i n the newspaper. [ G o n z a l e z , 1973, p. 2] G o n z a l e z ' s system i s somewhat more s y s t e m a t i z e d than Judy's t o t a l l y open workshop. The s t u d e n t r e a d e r s are almost too thorough i n t h e i r c r i t i c i s m . L i o n e l Kearns, a well-known Canadian w r i t e r , d i s c u s s e s h i s own e x p e r i e n c e s i n a U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c l a s s : . . . t h e r e was the f a c t t h a t I would be l e f t out o f the a c t i o n i f I d i d n o t hand a n y t h i n g i n . And t h e r e was a good deal o f a c t i o n i n t h a t c l a s s . The i n s t r u c t o r made no attempt to teach us how t o w r i t e . He merely conducted open-form workshop s e s s i o n s i n which we d i s c u s s e d o u r own, each o t h e r ' s o r o u t s i d e work, most o f which was c i r c u l a t e d anonymously. Now t h i s , f o r me, was a v e r y s t r a n g e and s t a r t l i n g e x p e r i e n c e — t o s u d d e n l y a c q u i r e an a r t i c u l a t e and r e s p o n s i v e a u d i e n c e f o r my work, and to be i n on t h e i r honest a p p r a i s a l s o f what I had produced. Needless t o say t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l responses v a r i e d , but I was a b l e to see what k i n d o f r e a c t i o n my work produced on the v a r i o u s p e o p l e i n v o l v e d . Furthermore, I was a b l e to b r i n g my own c r i t i c a l f a c u l t i e s to b e a r on t h e i r work, and to hear t h e i r own defence o r e x p l a n a t i o n o f what they were a t t e m p t i n g t o do. [ K e a r n s , A p r i l , 1971] T h i s p a r t i c u l a r C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c l a s s had a s m a l l degree o f r e g u l t i o n : anonymous s u b m i s s i o n o f m a t e r i a l s , and p a r t i c u l a r d i s c u s s i o n p e r i o d s . P e t e r Elbow's book W r i t i n g w i t h o u t Teachers i s a v e r i -t a b l e goldmine o f p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on i n s t i t u t i n g a p e e r response workshop. Though h i s workshop i s i n t e n d e d f o r work on p r a c t i c a l e x p o s i t o r y w r i t i n g s , t h e r e are o b v i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r workshops i n C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c l a s s e s . Elbow emphasizes the 126 n e c e s s i t y o f w r i t e r s needing "movies o f p e o p l e ' s minds" to see how t h e i r works a r e r e c e i v e d . He e x p l i c a t e s t h i s need i n the v o i c e o f an i m p a s s i o n e d w r i t e r : Don't g i v e me any more o f t h a t s u b j e c t i v e b u l l s h i t . Don't e v e r t e l l me my w r i t i n g i s too u n c l e a r . T e l l me what you were p e r c e i v i n g and how you were e x p e r i e n c i n g t h a t passage you s u b j e c t i v e l y l a b e l u n c l e a r . Don't t e l l me I've got too many a d j e c t i v e s . T hat's s u b j e c t i v e b u l l s h i t . There's no such t h i n g as too many a d j e c t i v e s . There's g r e a t w r i t i n g w i t h t w i c e as many a d j e c t i v e s . T e l l me how you were r e a c t i n g and what you were s e e i n g and where. Don't t a l k to me about good w r i t i n g and bad w r i t i n g . No one knows. Don't g i v e me a l o t o f u n t r u s t w o r t h y nonsense. Give me some f i r s t - h a n d d a t a I can t r u s t , not a l o t o f second-hand c o n c l u s i o n s based on hidden data and f a l s e h y p o t h e s e s . [Elbow, 1973, p. 141] Though thes e s t a t e m e n t s do n o t e x a c t l y c o n s t i t u t e a r e a s o n e d a r g u -ment i n the most temperate language, Elbow e f f e c t i v e l y makes h i s p o i n t . Orthodoxy bound t e a c h e r s take note. Elbow proceeds to g i v e d i r e c t i o n s to s t u d e n t r e a d e r s to h e l p them r e v e a l these "movies" to the w r i t e r : . . . p r e t e n d t h a t t h e r e i s a whole s e t o f i n s t r u m e n t s you have hooked up to y o u r s e l f which r e c o r d e v e r y -t h i n g t h a t o c c u r s i n you: n o t j u s t p u l s e , b l o o d p r e s s u r e , EEG, and so on, b u t a l s o ones which t e l l e v e r y image, f e e l i n g , t h o u g h t , and word t h a t happens i n y o u . P r e t e n d you have hooked them a l l up and now you are j u s t r e a d i n g o f f the p r i n t - o u t from the machines. [Elbow, 1973, pp. 89-90] 127 He has f u r t h e r a d v i c e f o r the r e a d e r : 1. Make s u r e you've had a good chance t o read the w r i t i n g . 2. Never q u a r r e l w i t h someone e l s e ' s r e a c t i o n . 3. Give s p e c i f i c r e a c t i o n s to s p e c i f i c p a r t s . 4. No k i n d o f r e a c t i o n i s wrong. 5. Though no r e a c t i o n s are wrong, you s t i l l have to t r y to r e a d wel1. 6. Sometimes you may n o t want t o — pass y o u r t u r n . 7. You are always r i g h t and always wrong. - You a r e always r i g h t i n t h a t no one i s e v e r i n a p o s i t i o n t o t e l l you what you p e r c e i v e and . e x p e r i e n c e . - But you a r e always wrong i n t h a t you n e v e r see a c c u r a t e l y enough, e x p e r i e n c e f u l l y enough. Such a d v i c e to the r e a d e r i s b a l a n c e d by h i s a d v i c e to the w r i t e r on l i s t e n i n g t o the r e a d e r ' s "movies": 1. Be q u i e t and 1 i s t e n . - Guard a g a i n s t b e i n g t r i c k e d i n t o r e s p o n d i n g . 2. Don't t r y t o understand what peop l e t e l l you. 3. But do t r y t o u n d e r s t a n d HOW they t e l l i t to you. 4. Don't r e j e c t what r e a d e r s t e l l you. 128 5. Don't s t o p them from g i v i n g you r e a c t i o n s . 6. But don't be t y r a n n i z e d by what they say. 7. Ask f o r what you want, but don't p l a y t e a c h e r w i t h them. 8. You are always r i g h t and always wrong. - You are always r i g h t i n t h a t y o u r d e c i s i o n about the w r i t i n g i s always f i n a l . - But you are always wrong i n t h a t y o u can n e v e r q u a r r e l w i t h t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . And you must assume t h a t you are n e v e r good enough a t s h a r i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n -s h e d d i n g y o u r b l i n d e r s , g e t t i n g i n t o t h e i r shoes. Elbow w r i t e s from a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e , and h i s a d v i c e i s s o l i d . Elbow warns o f the p o s s i b l e breakdown o f the workshop system, g i v e n p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s s i t u a t i o n s . The t e a c h e r s h o u l d be tuned to r e c o g n i z e the danger s i g n a l s : 1. People p e r s i s t i n a r g u i n g . Such fuming i s e x h a u s t i n g and wastes a l l a v a i l a b l e energy. 2. People don't argue. The c l a s s becomes s l a c k , r e l a x e d , b o r i n g , unfocused.. 3. Someone who l i k e s t o t a l k a l o t i s c o n t i n u o u s l y g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o do so. The c l a s s becomes a b o r i n g one-man show. There i s a p e c u l i a r t a u t n e s s o f energy and a t t e n t i o n e v i d e n t i n the s u c c e s s f u l workshop. The energy i s not d i r e c t e d towards a c h i e v i n g a common c o n c l u s i o n , but r a t h e r towards l i s t e n i n g t o and c o n s i d e r i n g e v e r y r e a d e r ' s r e a c t i o n s , and, i n a s e n s e , t r y i n g t o agree w i t h them a l l a t once. C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e e x i s t s a l o t o f a m b i g u i t y , and a l o t o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n , but h e r e i n l i e s the workshop's s u c c e s s . Undoubtedly, the workshop approach i s the b e s t p o s s i b l e method o f e f f e c t i v e l y t e a c h i n g C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g . S t u d e n t s need the freedom to pursue t h e i r own works a t t h e i r own speeds. Yet they a l s o need c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e i r works to see i f t h e y are e l i c i t i n g the r e a d e r response they were ai m i n g f o r . In s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t s t u d e n t s f e e l much more c o m f o r t a b l e as w r i t e r and as c r i t i c i f the works are s u b m i t t e d anonymously. The r e a d e r i n p a r t i c u l a r i s f r e e d from making judgements about the poem, based on h i s a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h the w r i t e r . S t u d e n t s type up t h e i r works on d i t t o s h e e t s and the c o p i e s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d the day b e f o r e the c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n p e r i o d . T h i s to a l l o w the s t u d e n t s p l e n t y o f time to r e a d and d i g e s t the works and t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o them. The t e a c h e r and the s t u d e n t s must be wary about m o t i v e s f o r c r i t i c i z i n g each o t h e r s ' works. Wordsworth's well-known l i n e s v e r b a l i z e the danger i n h e r e n t i n c r i t i c i s m : Our meddling i n t e l l e c t Mis-shapes the beauteous forms o f t h i n g s : We murder t o d i s s e c t . . . . 130 C r i t i c i s m c e r t a i n l y need n o t be damaging, but everyone must be c o n s c i o u s o f the p o s s i b i l i t y i f conducted u n s c r u p u l o u s l y . A l l c r i t i c i s m must be made w i t h an eye t o b e i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e and h e l p f u l , i n terms o f p u b l i c a t i o n . There i s no s e t s c h e d u l e f o r c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n p e r i o d s . When the need a r i s e s , the c l a s s o r g a n i z e s one. G e n e r a l l y they o c c u r about once e v e r y two weeks and l a s t f o r about two p e r i o d s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t the works be read o u t l o u d b e f o r e b e i n g d i s c u s s e d . Two r e a d i n g s , s e p a r a t e d by a p r e g n a n t pause f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n p u r p o s e s , tend to e l i c i t more s e n s i t i v e and w e l l - t h o u g h t o u t comments from the s t u d e n t s . Through the o r a l r e a d i n g o f a c r e a t i v e work, the r e a d e r a c t i v e l y , r a t h e r than p a s s i v e l y , u n i t e s w i t h the e s s e n c e o f work. The manner i n which a work i s read r e v e a l s much about the p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n the r e a d e r has g l e a n e d from i t and s h o u l d be o p e n l y d i s c u s s e d . C r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n p e r i o d s are r a t h e r s p e c i a l . They exude a f e e l i n g o f c a m a r a d e r i e , as everyone s t r i v e s f o r the common goal o f p u b l i c a t i o n . The mood i s warm as a l l s i t i n a c i r c l e , s i p p i n g t e a and d i s c u s s i n g the v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f one o f a f e l l o w w r i t e r ' s works. The t e a c h e r i s a l s o a w r i t e r and s h a r e s the same aims as h i s s t u d e n t s . The t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a s t u d e n t ' s work i s no more h o l y than an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by a f e l l o w s t u d e n t . A l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , though they r e q u i r e t e x t u a l s u p p o r t , are i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the t e a c h e r , though w i t h more 131 background than h i s s t u d e n t s , has no g r e a t e r say as to the meaning of s t u d e n t works. T h i s i s presuming t h a t s t u d e n t s a r e r e a c t i n g h o n e s t l y , s e n s i t i v e l y , and i n t e l l i g e n t l y to the work a t hand. I t i s i n t h i s a r e a t h a t the t e a c h e r has t o be aware to t e a c h s t u d e n t s how to r e a c t to a work i n an a c c e p t a b l e manner. The t e a c h e r s h o u l d a l s o t e s t h i s w r i t i n g on h i s s t u d e n t s . I t i s f a s c i n a t i n g and v e r y u s e f u l to see how s t u d e n t s respond to work when they are unaware t h a t i t i s — d a s h — t e a c h e r ' s ! Needless to say c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n c o u l d become v e r y p a i n f u l and d e t r i m e n t a l to the s t u d e n t whose work i s b e i n g c r i t i c i z e d i f the c l a s s atmosphere i s not g e n t l y , but f i r m l y c o n t r o l l e d . High s c h o o l w r i t e r s a r e , i n g e n e r a l , v e r y s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , as a c r e a t i v e work i s v e r y s e l f - r e v e a l i n g . The t e a c h e r o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g must c r e a t e an environment which i s warm and c o n d u c i v e to the e x p r e s s i o n and a c c e p t a n c e of p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s and i d e a s . What a c h a l l e n g e t h i s i s i n a s t e r i l e c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n of n a i l e d down s e a t s and s t r i c t time i m p o s i t i o n s . However, the environment b e i n g spoken of t r a n s c e n d s the p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s of the c l a s s r o o m , even though i t must deal w i t h them. That i s , even though the s c h o o l demands a one hour c l a s s d e s i g n a t e d 'Time t o be C r e a t i v e , ' and t r a d i t i o n a l l y emphasizes p u b l i c i t y o v e r p r i v a c y , i n s p e c t i o n o v e r i n t r o s p e c t i o n , and the 'how' of w r i t i n g o v e r the 'what' and 'why' of w r i t i n g — t h e t e a c h e r need not bow i n r e v e r e n c e to the s e a n c i e n t p r a c t i c e s . One cannot emphasize too much the importance of t h i s t e a c h e r - i n i t i a t e d e n v i r -onment, because w i t h o u t i t the s t u d e n t w r i t e r ' s p o t e n t i a l w i l l remain c o n s c i o u s l y i m p r i s o n e d w i t h i n the n o n t h r e a t e n i n g w a l l s of h i s s e l f . How does a t e a c h e r go about i n i t i a t i n g such an environment? The main f a c t o r s are warmth, t r u s t and c h a r i s m a , and t h e s e cannot be t a u g h t as t h e r e a r e a s many d i f f e r e n t forms as i n d i v i d u a l s . A p r a c t i c e t h a t i s s u c c e s s f u l i n c r e a t i n g such an atmosphere i s t o i n s t i l l i n the s t u d e n t s a few b a s i c p r e m i s e s : T h e i r own work i s , i n f a c t , unique. One w r i t e r ' s good work i s n e v e r , n e v e r , n e v e r l i k e any o t h e r w r i t e r ' s good work. C o n s e q u e n t l y , each w r i t e r , s t u d e n t o r p r o f e s s i o n a l , has h i s own g o a l . T h i s s t a t e o f mind o f p e r s o n a l d i r e c t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t . S t u d e n t s s h o u l d w a i t u n t i l t h e i r works have ' c o o l e d o f f b e f o r e they ask f o r c r i t i c a l r e s p o n s e s . When a work i s s t i l l i n the i n f a n t s t a g e s o f c r e a t i o n and even when a work has been w r i t t e n , but i s s t i l l i n e x t r i c a b l e from i t s c r e a t o r , c r i t i c i s m i s t o r t u r e . I t i s g e n e r a l l y o n l y a m a t t e r o f days f o r the works to cool o f f enough f o r the w r i t e r t o s t e p back and more o b j e c t i v e l y r e g a r d h i s work a p a r t from h i m s e l f . S t u d e n t w r i t e r s must l e a r n to a c c e p t c r i t i c i s m con-s t r u c t i v e l y , w i t h an eye to p o l i s h i n g t h e i r works. T h i s becomes immensely e a s i e r i f the s t u d e n t w r i t e r can a c c e p t the f a c t t h a t i t i s h i s work, the words he chose to put on paper, t h a t are b e i n g c r i t i c i z e d , n o t the i d e a s o r emotions b e h i n d those words. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e x t r i c a t e the s e l f from the work, but i t i s mandatory f o r c r i t i c a l p urposes and f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the w r i t e r ' s w e l l - b e i n g . S t u d e n t s must a l s o l e a r n t o g i v e c r i t i c i s m c o n s t r u c -t i v e l y , g e n t l y but h o n e s t l y , and concern the work, not the wri t e r . H e n r i e t t a Dombey c l a i m s she has had s u c c e s s i n t h i s area w i t h h e r C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c l a s s e s i n j u n i o r h i g h . "They comment f r e e l y on each o t h e r s ' works and w i t h s u r p r i s i n g l y l i t t l e i n t e r f e r e n c e f rom t h e i r f e e l i n g s about each o t h e r as p e o p l e . " [Dombey, Autumn, 1969, p. 16] These t r a i t s o f a c c e p t a n c e and d i s p e n s a t i o n o f 133 c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s t h a t the s t u d e n t s a re l e a r n i n g t r a n s c e n d the C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c l a s s i n t h e i r v a l u e . These t r a i t s a r e v a l u e d i n g e n e r a l day-to-day l i v i n g . T h i s s u p p o r t i v e , p u b l i c a t i o n - a i m e d atmosphere o f the c l a s s r o o m s h o u l d pervade the a t t i t u d e s o f the s t u d e n t w i t h r e s p e c t to o t h e r s ' works, s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r , p e e r and p r o f e s s i o n a l ) , and o f the s t u d e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o h i s own works. T e a c h e r as t u t o r Where i s the t e a c h e r i n t h i s s t u d e n t - b u s y workshop? I d e a l l y , the t e a c h e r i s f r e e to assume the r o l e o f a r e s o u r c e person and a t u t o r . Lessons d i r e c t e d to the e n t i r e c l a s s a re seldom o f va l u e t o the s t u d e n t s , as each i s f o l l o w i n g a d i f f e r e n t p u r s u i t , and i s a t a d i f f e r e n t s t a g e i n the development o f h i s i n d i v i d u a l work. Of c o u r s e , i f a common concern i s e v i d e n t among the s t u d e n t s , a whole c l a s s l e s s o n i s i n o r d e r . I t i s most e f f e c t i v e i f the s t u d e n t s r e q u e s t a d v i c e when they a re i n d i v i d u a l l y ready f o r i t . W r i t e r s t h e m s e l v e s , when i n t e r v i e w e d i n v a r i a b l y a p p l a u d t h i s approach. E a r l e B i r n e y , a c c o m p l i s h e d Canadian w r i t e r and, one time b a s t i o n o f the UBC C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g Department r e i t e r a t e s t h i s t e a c h e r r o l e : F o r the C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g i n s t r u c t o r i s n o t , cannot be a remote and g o d l i k e l e c t u r e r b e f o r e a mass c l a s s , n o r a d r o n i n g machine f o r t e x t b o o k s , b ut a man o r woman around a seminar t a b l e i n h i g h l y p e r s o n a l and spontaneous c o n t a c t w i t h a sm a l l group o f s t u d e n t s he has h i m s e l f 134 c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d . He has r e a d the v o l u n t a r y e x e r c i s e s o f t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n s , and he i s t h e r e not o n l y t o make them e x e r c i s e f u r t h e r , but t o v o c a l i z e t o them the e f f e c t o f t h e i r work on him, and t o accustom each i n h i s c l a s s t o do the same, so t h a t each may l e a r n awareness o f h i s own e f f e c t s and be a b l e to compare the r e s u l t he has produced on o t h e r s w i t h the hopes and i n t e n t i o n s and i n t u i t i o n s which i m p e l l e d him t o w r i t e . Such an i n s t r u c t o r becomes more than a r e f e r e e o r Master o f Ceremonies; he i s the maker o f a c l i m a t e . The ' c o n t e n t ' o f the s e m i n a r i s , o f c o u r s e , produced by the s t u d e n t s . [ B i r n e y , 1966, pp. 55-56] P a t r i c k Lane, a more r e b e l l i o u s and outspoken contemporary p o e t , v i g o r o u s l y condemns C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c l a s s e s t h a t a r e o p e r a t e d w i t h p r o c e d u r e s t h a t are i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to the t e a c h e r as t u t o r p r o c e d u r e : There i n the a b s o l u t e p r e t e n s i o n o f Creative Writing Class the s o - c a l l e d poets h o l d c o u r t from the l o f t y p i n n a c l e s o f t h e i r i n v i o l a b l e i v o r y towers o f s u p e r i o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and knowledge. There they d i c t a t e meaning t o the fawning minds o f t h e i r a m b i t i o u s s t u d e n t s : the laws o f p o e t r y , the a n a l y s i s o f form and s t r u c t u r e and c o n t e n t , the meaning and non-meaning o f imagery, the use o f the l i n e as an e x t e n s i o n o f b r e a t h i n g , the a r c h i t e c t u r e o f the poem as a c o n c r e t e symbol on the page, the t e c h n o l o g y o f the e l e c t r i c i n terms o f the poem beyond Gutenburg, the i n t e r p l a y o f p o o l e d minds around a t a b l e i n a b a r r e n room where the murmurings o f the a c o l y t e s are measured a g a i n s t the wisdom o f the h i g h p r i e s t p o e t / t e a c h e r , who, w i t h h i s s u p e r i o r knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g , d i s s e m i n a t e s the accumulated wisdom o f the ages to t h e i r c o r r u p t e d g r a s p i n g minds. A b i o l o g y o f p o e t s . A c u l t u r e o f poems. I f b u l l s h i t was f e e l i n g t h e s e men c o u l d grow gardens on t h e i r tongues t h a t would put mythic B a b l y l o n to shame. F o r they p l a c e b o u n d a r i e s around the poem w i t h the laws they w r i t e as i f c r e a v i t i t y were the sum o f one p l u s one. [ E l l i s , e d., 1977, p. 211] 135 Lane's words are a p a s s i o n a t e o u t c r y from h i s e n t r a i l s t o the w o r l d a t l a r g e . Lane does n o t o f f e r any s o l u t i o n s , as B i r n e y does, but C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g t e a c h e r s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , s h o u l d take n o t e . Stephen Judy e l a b o r a t e s on t h i s system: In a d d i t i o n , as a c l a s s 'grows' i n the c o u r s e o f a q u a r t e r o r semester, the s t u d e n t s can take o v e r more and more o f the p r o c e s s . A l l t h i s c r e a t e s more time f o r the t e a c h e r t o ' f l o a t , 1 w o r k i n g on a one-to-one b a s i s w i t h s t u d e n t s who seek h i s h e l p as a w r i t i n g C o n s u l t a n t . r , , m -7/1 « n o l [Judy, 1974, p. 112J With p u b l i c a t i o n as each s t u d e n t ' s aim, the t e a c h e r i s kept busy e v e r y minute o f the c l a s s . I t i s r e f r e s h i n g t o w i t n e s s s e n i o r h i g h s t u d e n t s c l a m o u r i n g f o r a s s i s t a n c e t o r e v i s e t h e i r works. And i f the c l a s s i s run on a workshop b a s i s , the s t u d e n t s w i l l i n d e e d clamour. O r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s c i p l i n e are needed as an u n d e r l y i n g u n i f y i n g f o r c e f o r the c l a s s t o run r e l a t i v e l y smoothly. However, t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s c i p l i n e w i l l n o t be e v i d e n t to the o b s e r v e r who i s u n f a m i l i a r w i t h workshop methodology. An e f f e c -t i v e workshop i s an u n p r e d i c t a b l e happening, a t times p h y s i c a l l y busy and n o i s y and a t times s t i l l and s i l e n t . Paddy C r e b e r has words f o r the t e a c h e r who i s c o n c e r n e d about the mania t h a t may accompany the workshop methodology: To the c y n i c a l maths master, who happens t o pass the h a l l the p r o c e s s t h a t I have c a l l e d ' s e t t i n g - f r e e ' may appear as l i t t l e l e s s than an a n a r c h i s t i c i n c i t e m e n t to r i o t i n g and worse. Even the E n g l i s h t e a c h e r , h o a r s e - v o i c e d a t 136 the end o f such a l e s s o n , may t e n d to wonder what he has a c h i e v e d . No r u l e s can be g i v e n f o r the c o n t r o l o f l e s s o n s l i k e t h e s e , each t e a c h e r has t o d e v e l o p h i s own method: some w i l l p r e f e r to impose a measure o f d i s c i p l i n e from the s t a r t ; o t h e r s may be c o n t e n t to l e t the c l a s s e v o l v e a d i s c i p l i n e o f t h e i r own. The c u r i o u s f a c t remains t h a t r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s — p r o v i d e d they are backed up by c o n v i c t i o n , e n t h u s i a s m and s y m p a t h y — t e n d to produce comparable r e s u l t s . There must always, however, be c o n s i d e r a b l e freedom t o b e g i n w i t h . In t h i s , as i n much o t h e r E n g l i s h work, the t e a c h e r ' s r e l a t i o n t o h i s p u p i l s i s something l i k e t h a t o f a s m a l l boy t o h i s b o t t l e o f 'pop': he puts h i s thumb o v e r the mouth o f the b o t t l e and shakes i t up; he e n j o y s w a t c h i n g i t f i z z and f e e l i n g the p r e s s u r e b u i l d up; and t h e n , when the moment i s r i g h t , he p o i n t s the b o t t l e , removes h i s thumb and watches the l i q u i d s h o o t o u t — i n a p r e d e t e r m i n e d d i r e c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e must be f i z z ; t h e r e must be p r e s s u r e ; and t h e r e must be r e l e a s e , a l o n g a p a r t i c u l a r channel we have chosen. [ C r e b e r , 1965, pp. 134-135] The t e a c h e r as t u t o r must be a c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l h i m s e l f t o t o l e r a t e and t h r i v e i n the workshop s i t u a t i o n . There i s a v a s t d i f f e r e n c e between o r g a n i z e d chaos and b l a t a n t r i o t and c o n f u s i o n ! An added bonus o f the workshop method i s the odd time when, by some g o d l y i n t e r v e n t i o n , the s t u d e n t s are a l l w o r k i n g on t h e i r own and do n o t r e q u i r e any t e a c h e r a s s i s t a n c e . The t e a c h e r , t h e n , s h o u l d n o t r e v e r t t o h i s r o b o t f i l i n g d u t i e s , but s h o u l d q u i e t l y r e t r e a t i n t o a c o r n e r and s i t down to w r i t e h i m s e l f ! T h i s a c t t e a c h e s s t u d e n t s more than c o u n t l e s s d i s c u s s i o n s e v e r c o u l d . 137 R e v i s i o n p h i l o s o p h y S t u d e n t s i n d u c t i v e l y l e a r n t h a t r e v i s i o n i s an i n e x t r i c -a b l e p a r t o f w r i t i n g as they p r o g r e s s towards t h e i r g o a l o f p u b l i c a t i o n . They are e n h e a r t e n e d by the f a c t t h a t even p r o f e s s i o n a l s must r e w r i t e c o u n t l e s s times b e f o r e s u b m i s s i o n to a p u b l i s h e r . James A. Michener may rework and reshape each paragraph f i v e times b e f o r e he i s s a t i s f i e d , and Leonard Cohen may w r i t e o n l y 500 words one day, e d i t them t h e n e x t , and heave them a l l i n t o the garbage on the t h i r d . S t u d e n t s , t o o , must be p e r m i t t e d t o d i s c a r d some d r a f t s , and not be p l a g u e d by f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t and f a i l u r e . E d i t i n g embodies a d d i t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s as w e l l as d e l e t i o n , even d e l e t i o n o f the whole d r a f t i f need be. T.S. E l i o t w r i t e s i n " E a s t Coker" o f Four Q u a r t e t s about h i s c o n s t a n t s t r u g g l e w i t h the s e a r c h f o r the p e r f e c t words, the p e r p e t u a l need t o r e v i s e , and ' r e - r e v i s e ' : So here I am, i n the m i d d l e way T r y i n g to l e a r n to use words, and e v e r y attempt Is a w h o l l y new s t a r t and a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f f a i l u r e Because one has o n l y l e a r n t t o g e t the b e t t e r o f words Fo r the t h i n g one no l o n g e r has t o say, o r the way i n which One i s no l o n g e r d i s p o s e d t o say i t . And so each v e n t u r e Is a new b e g i n n i n g , a r a i d on the i n a r t i c u l a t e With shabby equipment always d e t e r i o r a t i n g In the g e n e r a l mess o f i m p r e c i s i o n o f f e e l i n g , U n d i s c i p l i n e d squads o f emotion. [ E l i o t , 1944, pp. 30-31] W r i t i n g r e q u i r e s p e r s i s t a n c e , but as l o n g as the e n d p o i n t has v a l u e , the t a s k o f r e w r i t i n g a l s o has v a l u e . Laverne Gonzalez i s u n e q u i v o c a b l y p l e a s e d w i t h t h i s system: 138 As s t u d e n t s work w i t h language, they b e g i n to r e p l a c e the e v o c a t i v e but i n e f f e c t i v e ' s h i t ' w i t h d e t a i l s t h a t produced the c o m m e n t — f i n a l l y ' s h i t ' i s a cop-out employed when the a u t h o r r e f u s e s to f i l l i n the d e t a i l s . [ G o n z a l e z , 1973, p. 3] E l l e n Gray Massey has n o t i c e d a f a n t a s t i c change i n the a t t i t u d e s o f h e r s t u d e n t s w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f p u b l i c a t i o n : B e f o r e , .... My r e q u i r i n g much re w o r k i n g was an i m p o s i t i o n o r r e f l e c t i o n on t h e i r a b i l i t y . The d i f f e r -ence now i s . . . I n s t e a d o f b e i n g d i s c o u r a g e d o r i n s u l t e d by my c r i t i c i s m , the s t u d e n t s are g r a t e f u l and w i l l i n g l y make changes. They would much r a t h e r have me h o n e s t l y s a y , ' I t won't do,' t o something they have done than t o l e t i t be p u b l i s h e d i n B i t t e r s w e e t ( t h e i r q u a r t e r l y magazine about the Ozarks) f o r everyone to see t h e i r mediocre work. [Massey, A p r i l / M a y , 1 9 7 5 , pp. 230-232] In e f f e c t , the t e a c h e r ' s image i n t h e eyes o f the s t u d e n t s changes. He i s no l o n g e r the G u i d i n g L i g h t who l e a d s a l l h i s f o l l o w e r s a l o n g the one r i g h t path t o g l o r y and who demands r e v i s i o n f o r the good o f each s t u d e n t ' s s o u l . I n s t e a d , the t e a c h e r i s seen t o be someone who nudges the w r i t e r from b e h i n d a l o n g whatever path he i s f o l l o w i n g , and who a l s o t r i e s t o d i s p l a y the s t u d e n t s ' work i n the b e s t p o s s i b l e l i g h t to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a u d i e n c e s . In the eyes o f the s t u d e n t s the t e a c h e r s t e p s o v e r t h a t i n v i s i b l e l i n e and i s 'with' the s t u d e n t s i n s t e a d o f ' a g a i n s t ' them. Perhaps t h i s i s an o v e r s i m p l i s t i c v e r s i o n o f the r e a l i t y , but r e v i s i o n i s d e f i n i t e l y more e a s i l y stomached by the s t u d e n t s w i t h t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n approach. 139 E v a l u a t i o n , t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , f o r c e s the t e a c h e r back o v e r t h a t i n v i s i b l e l i n e , ' a g a i n s t ' the s t u d e n t . So, i n t r u t h , the t e a c h e r has a dual r o l e . The key i s t o mi n i m i z e the e v a l u a t i o n r o l e , and t o r e s t r i c t i t to o n l y a few works d e s i g n a t e d by e i t h e r t e a c h e r o r s t u d e n t . The r o l e o f e v a l u a t o r and e d i t o r - c o n s u l t a n t must n e v e r be c o n f u s e d o r attempted t o be e n a c t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . The r o l e o f e v a l u a t i o n i s as synonymous t o p u b l i s h e r as c o n s u l t a n t i s to e d i t o r . P u b l i s h i n g and e d i t i n g a r e two d i s t i n c t c o n c e r n s . R e v i s i o n , i n i t i a l l y , i n v o l v e s making the work more o f what i t i s t r y i n g to be i n the eyes o f the s t u d e n t w r i t e r . The s t u d e n t must be s e n s i t i v e t o h i s work as a l i v i n g e n t i t y , and be s e r i o u s about h i s p o t e n t i a l a u d i e n c e , b e i n g c l e a r , p r e c i s e , and e f f e c t i v e . The d i s c u s s i o n o f c o r r e c t n e s s and p u b l i s h i n g con-v e n t i o n s s h o u l d be d e l a y e d u n t i l the l a s t p o s s i b l e moment i n the r e v i s i o n - e d i t o r i a l p r o c e s s , l e a v i n g the s t u d e n t s f r e e t o do the i n i t i a l w r i t i n g and r e v i s i o n s w i t h o u t concern o v e r e x t r i n s i c r u l e s . The b e s t approach t o w r i t i n g does not c o n s i s t o f a s e r i e s o f d o n ' t s , a l i s t o f r e s t r a i n t s and r e s t r i c t i o n s . Such s e r i e s and l i s t s t e n d t o t r i v i a l i z e language and t o d i m i n i s h i t s p o t e n t i a l i n human c r e a t i v i t y . Only a f t e r the s t u d e n t has e d i t e d h i s w r i t i n g i n t o a form t h a t s a t i s f i e s h i m s e l f s h o u l d the d i s c u s s i o n o f mechanics and usage be opened. Even then r e d -p e n c i l p h o b i a s h o u l d not descend from on h i g h . The s t u d e n t must make h i s own d e c i s i o n s . 140 An i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f the r e v i s i o n p r o c e s s i s the r e a d -i n g a l o u d o f a s t u d e n t ' s work, t o h i m s e l f o r a f e l l o w s t u d e n t . T h i s , o f c o u r s e , i s fundamental i f the i n t e n d e d p u b l i c a t i o n i s t o be o r a l . But, even i f the a u d i e n c e i s meant t o see the work, not hear i t , i t i s a v a l u a b l e e x e r c i s e . M i c r o s c o p i c weaknesses t h a t miss the eye are o f t e n m a g n i f i e d when heard. James E. M i l l e r s t a t e s : Such a r e a d i n g w i l l f r e q u e n t l y r e v e a l weaknesses t h a t remain weaknesses whether the prose i s i n t e n d e d f o r h e a r i n g o r s e e i n g . I t w i l l a l s o p i c k up s e n t e n c e s and paragraphs t h a t seem harmless t o the eye, but whose s t u m b l i n g and awkward rhythms t r i p the tongue o f the s p e a k e r and d i s s i p a t e a l l emphasis and p o i n t . [ M i l l e r , 1973, p. 198] I t i s e f f e c t i v e both f o r the s t u d e n t w r i t e r to read a l o u d h i s own work, h i m s e l f , and a l s o t o hear h i s own work read a l o u d by someone e l s e . Everyone reads a work a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t l y . The p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e f o r r e v i s i o n i s the p a r t i c u l a r a u d i e n c e t h a t the work i s w r i t t e n f o r . Each p a r t i c u l a r a u d i e n c e demands c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r e s . Hence the w r i t e r who wishes t o communicate t o an a u d i e n c e , has a p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r e imposed on h i s work by t h a t a u d i e n c e ' s c a p a c i t y to p e r c e i v e . To d e v i a t e from t h i s s t r u c t u r e too d r a s t i c a l l y would undoubtedly c o s t him h i s r e a d e r s h i p . To concur w i t h Stephen Judy: 141 I s u g g e s t t h a t c o n c e r n f o r s k i l l s s h o u l d have i t s p r o p e r p l a c e but be kept i j i p l a c e . That p l a c e i s i n the e d i t i n g p r o c e s s . U n t i l the s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r have determined the a u d i e n c e f o r a paper, a l m o s t any i n s t r u c t i o n o r a d v i c e i n r h e t o r i c o r mechanics i s i r r e l e v a n t . However, when the form o f p u b l i c a t i o n has been d e t e r m i n e d , commentary about w r i t i n g as w r i t i n g becomes a p p r o p r i a t e ; and the t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t can b e g i n r a i s i n g q u e s t i o n s about e f f e c t i v e n e s s , c l a r i t y , o r g a n i z a t i o n , s t y l e , and s t r u c t u r e . But i t i s c r i t i c a l t h a t t h i s commentary r e l a t e to the p a r t i c u l a r form o f p u b l i c a t i o n and the p a r t i c u l a r a u d i e n c e f o r the paper. P u b l i c a t i o n s and r e a d e r s have d i f f e r i n g s t a n d a r d s , and i f e d i t o r i a l a d v i c e i s t o be h e l p f u l , i t must be v a l i d . r, , [Judy, 1974, p. 110] The s t u d e n t s and the t e a c h e r s h o u l d f a m i l i a r i z e themselves w i t h the e d i t o r i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f v a r y i n g a u d i e n c e s t h a t the w r i t e r s a re d i r e c t i n g t h e i r works t o . A s o u r c e o f e d i t o r i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s the l i s t s o f e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t p u b l i s h e r s o f t e n d i s p e n s e , upon r e q u e s t , t o t h e i r p r o s p e c t i v e w r i t e r s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the s t u d e n t s t o s e a r c h out t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , as they cannot r e l y on themselves ( g e n e r a l l y too l a x ) n o r on t h e i r t e a c h e r s ( g e n e r a l l y too s t r i c t ) . In g e n e r a l , the m a j o r i t y o f the t e a c h e r s s t i l l r e j e c t many usages t h a t p u b l i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n tends t o s u p p o r t as a c c e p t a b l e . V a l i d i t y o f e d i t o r i a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o the p a r t i c u l a r a u d i e n c e concerned i s the c o r n e r s t o n e t o t h i s s t a g e o f the s t u d e n t w r i t e r ' s work. E d i t i n g o f mechanics Keeping i n mind t h e i r d e s i r e d a u d i e n c e s , the s t u d e n t s must f i n a l l y examine the b a s i c mechanical s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e i r works. Too o f t e n , t h i s mechanical e d i t i n g p r o c e d u r e i s viewed as b e i n g synonymous w i t h ' c o r r e c t i n g ' one's work. T h i s i s a dangerous n o t i o n . L l o y d , i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Our N a t i o n a l Mania f o r C o r r e c t n e s s " b e r a t e s our c u l t u r e ' s u n h e a l t h y compulsion f o r c o r r e c t n e s s : The demon which p o s s e s s e s us i s o u r mania f o r c o r r e c t n e s s . I t dominates our minds from the f i r s t grade t o the graduate s c h o o l ; i t i s the f i r s t and o f t e n the o n l y t h i n g we t h i n k o f when we t h i n k o f our language. Our s p e l l i n g must be ' c o r r e c t ' - - e v e n i f the words are i l l - c h o s e n ; o u r 'usage' must be ' c o r r e c t ' - -even though any p o s s i b l e s u b s t i t u t e e x p r e s s i o n , however c r u d e , would be p e r f e c t l y c l e a r ; our p u n c t u a t i o n must be 1 c o r r e c t ' - - e v e n though p r a c t i c e s surge and change w i t h the p a s s i n g o f y e a r s , and d i f f e r from book t o book, p e r i o d i c a l t o p e r i o d i c a l . C o r r e c t ! That's what we've got t o be, and the i d e a t h a t we've got t o be c o r r e c t r e s t s l i k e a soggy b l a n k e t on o u r b r a i n s and o u r hands whenever we t r y to w r i t e . [Kaufman and Powers, ed., 1970, p. 404] C l e a r l y t h e n , e d i t i n g f o r mechanics must o c c u r a t the end o f the C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g p r o c e s s . Premature concern o v e r mechanics i s d e a d l y , as Paddy C r e b e r so e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e s : Teachers whose s o l e s t a n d a r d i s c o r r e c t n e s s can dry up the f l o w o f language and s h a c k l e c r e a t i v e and i m a g i n -a t i v e w r i t i n g b e f o r e i t i s under way. [ C r e b e r , 1965,,p. 242] E d i t i n g f o r mechanics does not presuppose any u n i v e r s a l s t a n d a r d s o f ' c o r r e c t n e s s . ' M e c h a n i c a l c o r r e c t n e s s i s not an unchanging a b s o l u t e . C o n v e r s e l y , the n o t i o n o f mechanical c o r r e c t n e s s must 143 u l t i m a t e l y take i n t o a c c o u n t the i n t e n d e d a u d i e n c e , t he t o p i c c o n c e r n e d , and the w r i t e r ' s p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s . Such areas as p u n c t u a t i o n , s p e l l i n g , c a p i t a l i z a t i o n , e t c . must be reviewed i f the p u b l i c a t i o n i s t o be w r i t t e n . However, i f a work i s t o be p u b l i s h e d o r a l l y , s o l e l y through r e a d i n g i t a l o u d o r tape r e c o r d i n g i t , any d i s c u s s i o n o f w r i t i n g s k i l l s i s a i m l e s s and a waste o f time. V a r i o u s methods o f e d i t i n g mechanics s h o u l d be con-s i d e r e d , not o n l y by the t e a c h e r , but by the c l a s s as a whole. Laverne G o n z a l e z ' s f i r s t y e a r E n g l i s h c l a s s e s a t Purdue U n i v e r s i t y have worked out a scheme f o r p r o o f r e a d i n g each o t h e r s ' works: B e f o r e any paper may be p u b l i s h e d , i t must undergo r e v i s i o n and e d i t i n g . To h e l p w i t h t h i s p r o c e s s p r o o f -r e a d i n g q u i c k i e s , i . e . , t h r e e o r f o u r s e n t e n c e s l i f t e d from s t u d e n t s ' papers f o c u s i n g on p u n c t u a t i o n , verb-noun-pronoun agreement, s p e l l i n g o r any grammar problem a re reviewed d a i l y . Sometimes a p a r t i c u l a r l y t r o u b l e s o m e s p o t w i l l e l i c i t s e v e r a l days work on grammar c o n c e p t s . Each s t u d e n t keeps h i s own grammar c h a r t which a l l o w s him t o c o n c e n t r a t e on any r e c u r r i n g problem. From t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f a c e t o f the course a s l i d e s e t on p u n c t u a t i o n u s i n g t he an a l o g y o f a t r a i n e v o l v e d . Grammar books appear, composed o f d i t t o e d m a t e r i a l d e v e l o p e d by each s t u d e n t . E x e r c i s e s c r e a t e d by c l a s s members t o home a p o i n t a re a d m i n i s t e r e d . When the m a t e r i a l demands a s p e c i f i c r h e t o r i c a l form, s p e c i f i c t o n e , s t u d e n t s work i t through t o g e t h e r . [ G o n z a l e z , 1973, pp. 2-3] I f s t u d e n t s f i n d they are e n c o u n t e r i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s a t t h i s s t a g e , i t i s a b e n e f i c i a l e x p e r i e n c e f o r them t o take the time to c o n s t r u c t a b a s i c c l a s s check l i s t t h a t i s a p p l i c a b l e t o most a u d i e n c e s . C a r r i e S t e g a l l ' s C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g s t u d e n t s wrote t h e i r own 144 " E n g l i s h Book" which c o n t a i n s t h e i r r u l e s o f usage, s p e l l i n g , p u n c t u a t i o n and c a p i t a l i z a t i o n . [ S t e g a l l , 1967] Laverne G o n z a l e z ' s s t u d e n t s wrote t h e i r own grammar book and then produced a f i l m t o a i d f u t u r e s t u d e n t s : S e v e r a l o f the s t u d e n t s were s t r u g g l i n g w i t h grammar books because they were a t the e d i t i n g s t a g e i n papers they wanted p u b l i s h e d . They complained t h a t t h e y c o u l d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d the grammar books; so the group wrote t h e i r own. The method was s i m p l e : r e c o r d f i r s t the grammar r u l e . Then o b s e r v e how you wrote the s e n t e n c e : now c o r r e c t . F i n a l l y , what t e c h n i q u e d i d you f i n d f o r remembering the next time? I n c i d e n t a l l y , most o f the s t u d e n t s had memorized grammar r u l e s which they c o u l d quote but found no c o r r e l a t i o n between the r u l e and the paper they were e d i t i n g . The i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f the grammar book was, o f c o u r s e , t h e r e c o r d i n g t e c h n i q u e f o r remembering. B u i l d i n g from t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s , the group c r e a t e d a f i l m -s t r i p f o r f u t u r e use by s t u d e n t s h a v i n g p u n c t u a t i o n problems. [ G o n z a l e z , 1973, p. 6] The s t u d e n t s a r e most c a p a b l e o f c r e a t i n g t h e i r own methodology f o r e d i t i n g mechanics, under the guidance o f the t e a c h e r . Whatever the p u b l i c a t i o n medium employed, the a d v i c e g i v e n t o the s t u d e n t w r i t e r must be o p e r a t i o n a l . Vague a b s t r a c -t i o n s about u n i t y , coherence, p a r a l l e l i s m , t o p i c and c o n c l u d i n g s e n t e n c e s , and b r e v i t y are o f l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n t v a l u e t o the s t u d e n t . What i s o f v a l u e a r e s p e c i f i c s u g g e s t i o n s o f a l t e r n a -t i v e s f o r the s t u d e n t t o c o n s i d e r . I t i s emphatic t h a t the t e a c h e r be e x t r e m e l y c a r e f u l not t o remodel the s t u d e n t ' s work so t h a t i t becomes the ' s t u d e n t ' s work w i t h t e a c h e r r e v i s i o n s . 1 A l l e d i t i n g changes, a d d i t i o n s and d e l e t i o n s a l i k e , must u l t i m a t e l y come from the s t u d e n t h i m s e l f . 145 Form There i s a d e f i n i t e s p l i t among C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g t e a c h e r s on t he t e a c h i n g o r the not t e a c h i n g o f form. A t the H o l l i n s C o n f e r e n c e i n C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g and Cinema, c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h poets and n o v e l i s t s who tea c h C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g a t v a r i o u s u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s r e v e a l t h i s s p l i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t . [ G a r r e t t , e d ., 1972] However, the m a j o r i t y o f c r e a t i v e w r i t e r s a p p l a u d the abandonment o f the formal t e a c h i n g o f form. Even C o l e r i d g e i n the Romantic P e r i o d was most concerned w i t h t h i s m a t t e r : The form i s mechanic, when on any g i v e n m a t e r i a l we impress a p r e - d e t e r m i n e d form, not n e c e s s a r i l y a r i s i n g o u t o f the p r o p e r t i e s o f the m a t e r i a l ; — a s when t o a mass o f wet c l a y we g i v e whatever shape we wish i t t o r e t a i n when hardened. The o r g a n i c form, on the o t h e r hand, i s i n n a t e ; i t shapes, as i t d e v e l o p s , i t s e l f from w i t h i n , and t he f u l l n e s s o f i t s development i s one and the same w i t h t he p e r f e c t i o n s o f i t s outward form. Nature . . . i n e x h a u s t i b l e i n d i v e r s e powers, i s e q u a l l y i n e x h a u s t i b l e i n f o r m s ; — e a c h e x t e r i o r i s the physiognomy o f the b e i n g w i t h i n . . . . Some w r i t e r s go so f a r as t o co n c u r w i t h W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s ' a d v i c e t o w r i t e r s : F o r g e t a l l r u l e s , f o r g e t a l l r e s t r i c t i o n s , as t o t a s t e , as t o what ought t o be s a i d , w r i t e f o r t h e p l e a s u r e o f i t — w h e t h e r s l o w l y o r f a s t — e v e r y form o f r e s i s t a n c e t o a complete r e l e a s e s h o u l d be abandoned. [ W i l l i a m s , 1936, p. 45] P a t r i c k Lane o v e r f l o w s w i t h p a s s i o n at the v e r y i d e a o f w r i t e r s r e s t r i c t i n g themselves t o t r a d i t i o n a l form: 146 The poet has no p l a c e w i t h i n the law. He e x i s t s w i t h o u t i t . Not f o r him the p u r i t y o f the i n v i o l a b l e s t r a i g h t l i n e t h a t s t a g g e r s , f a l l s and. ends. To Lane, r e a l p o e t r y has a form t h a t i s : "impure as the c l o t h i n g we wear, s o u p - s t a i n e d , s o i l e d w i t h our shameful b e h a v i o u r , our w r i n k l e s and v i g i l s and dreams." He r e i t e r a t e s h i s p o i n t . "No p o e t r y born i n the bondage o f e x p e r i e n c e was e v e r w r i t t e n w i t h i n the law." [ E l l i s , ed., 1977, p. 211] E a r l e B i r n e y quotes from McLuhan's U n d e r s t a n d i n g Media, remarking t h a t a r t , when i t i s most s i g n i f i c a n t , " i s a D E W L i n e , a D i s t a n t E a r l y Warning system t h a t can always be r e l i e d on t o t e l l the o l d c u l t u r e what i s b e g i n n i n g t o happen t o i t . " N o n - w r i t e r s are o f the o l d c u l t u r e . B i r n e y , i n h i s e l o q u e n t manner, p h i l o s o p h i z e s on the n e c e s s i t y o f p e r p e t u a l change t o r e t a i n the v i t a l i t y o f a l l a r t , w r i t i n g i n c l u d e d : L i v i n g a r t , l i k e a n y t h i n g e l s e , s t a y s a l i v e o n l y by c h a n g i n g . The young a r t i s t must c o n s t a n t l y examine the forms and the a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i e s he has i n h e r i t e d ; he must r e j e c t most o f them, and he must s e a r c h f o r new ones. L i t e r a t u r e i s a l l the more a l i v e today because i t i s changing so r a p i d l y . In f a c t i t ' s a d j u s t -i n g t o the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the p r i n t e r page i s no l o n g e r the c h i e f d i s s e m i n a t o r o f i d e a s , and t h a t a u t h o r s must f i n d ways t o bend the new t e c h n o l o g i c a l media t o a r t i s t i c p urposes. The r e b e l s and e x p e r i m e n t e r s who are f o r c i n g t h e s e changes a r e , o f c o u r s e , h a v i n g t o f i g h t the same b a t t l e s a g a i n s t the same k i n d o f academic c r i t i c s who a t t a c k e d the l i t e r a r y r e v o l u t i o n -a r i e s o f the l a s t g e n e r a t i o n . In t h e i r b e g i n n i n g s , J o y c e , K a f k a , Rimbaud, R i l k e , Pound, B r e c h t , even E l i o t , were pooh-poohed o r i g n o r e d as cheap and s e n s a t i o n a l , as mad o r f r i v o l o u s d e s t r o y e r s o f s a c r e d t r a d i t i o n . Now t h e s e men are the a n c i e n t g r e a t — a n d the young w r i t e r s who f i n d them i n a d e q u a t e are g e t t i n g the same t r e a t m e n t . Of c o u r s e , many l i t e r a r y move-ments i n e v e r y g e n e r a t i o n t u r n out to be b l i n d a l l e y s , but no c r i t i c s h o u l d t h i n k h i m s e l f so p e r c e p t i v e t h a t he can always t e l l the p a s s i n g f a s h i o n from t he s i g n i f i c a n t b r e a k t h r o u g h . I don't know e x a c t l y where the l i t e r a r y Dew L i n e i s t h i s moment, but I'm s u r e i t l i e s somewhere i n the c o m p l i c a t e d w o r l d o f today's l i t t l e - l i t t l e magazines and s m a l l - p r e s s chapbooks. [ B i r n e y , 1966, pp. 71-72] He goes on, s p e c i f i c a l l y z e r o i n g i n on the comtemporary changes w r i t i n g t e c h n i q u e s : In t h a t w o r l d y o u ' l l f i n d t h a t many o f the p o e t i c and p r o s e t e c h n i q u e s which were r e g a r d e d a few y e a r s ago as merely f a r o u t and p r o b a b l y i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l are now customary and e s t a b l i s h e d ones. To b e g i n w i t h a s m a l l example, p u n c t u a t i o n i n p o e t r y i s now used f u n c t i o n a l l y o n l y — o r not a t a l l . S y n t a c t i c a l a m b i g u i t i e s a r e e i t h e r p e r m i t t e d , o r o b v i a t e d by a r t f u l b r e a k i n g s between l i n e s , and b l a n k s o r b r e a t h i n g spaces between p h r a s e s . Or, i f p u n c t u a t i o n i s used, i t may be i n company w i t h s p e l l i n g d i s t o r t i o n s and enormous v a r i a t i o n s o f typ e f a c e s and s i z e s , t o s i g n a l v o i c e tones s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h v i s u a l e f f e c t s , t o r e i n f o r c e t he f e e l i n g and meaning o f the poem. One L a t i n - a m e r i c a n p o e t , Jose G a r c i a V i l l a , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y known f o r a s e r i e s o f s h o r t v e r s e s he c a l l e d Comma poems, i n which a l l words a r e s e p a r a t e d by commas, t o f o r c e t he r e a d e r t o a c c e p t each word as o f equal importance. Here i s the c o n c l u s i o n o f one o f t h e s e p i e c e s ( i n which t he poet has been v i s i o n i n g God danc-i n g on a bed o f s t r a w b e r r i e s : 'Yet, He, h u r t , n o t , the l i t t l e s t , one,/ But, gave, them, r i p e n e s s , a l l . ' [ B i r n e y , 1966, p. 72] Denise L e v e r t o v e x p r e s s e s h i s views on form i n a poem o f non-t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m a t : I b e l i e v e e v e r y space and comma i s a l i v i n g p a r t o f the poem and has i t s f u n c t i o n , j u s t as e v e r y muscle and pore o f t h e body has i t s f u n c t i o n . And the way the l i n e s a r e broken i s a f u n c t i o n i n g p a r t e s s e n t i a l t o the l i f e o f the poem. 148 The l e s s r a d i c a l contend t h a t pure form i s a myth and hence i t i s r i d i c u l o u s t o be concerned about i t : I f we loo k a t any p i e c e o f w r i t i n g , we f i n d n a r r a t i o n mixed up w i t h e x p o s i t i o n , argument c r e e p i n g i n t o d e s c r i p t i o n , f i c t i o n f i l t e r i n g through p o e t r y , and p o e t r y e n c r o a c h i n g on drama. Sometimes f i x e d and r i g i d n o t i o n s about form w i l l cause one t o d i s t o r t r e a l i t y , demanding p u r i t y where t h e r e i s o n l y a l l o y . I t i s b e t t e r t o remain f l e x i b l e , and t o t a k e w r i t i n g as we f i n d i t , n ot as we might wish t o f o l l o w from p a t and t i d y d e f i n i t i o n s . [ M i l l e r , 1973, p. 2] Pure form i s an i n v e n t i o n o f E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s t o l a b e l and c a t e g o r i z e . Stephen Judy speaks f o r the f a r r i g h t o f t h i s ' f o r m - l e s s ' s c h o o l . S t u d e n t s need forms, o r mediums, through which they d e l i v e r t h e i r messages. Yet they do not r e q u i r e i n s t r u c t i o n i n form: There seemed t o be two s o u r c e s f o r t h e s e s k i l l s : F i r s t , f o r many o f the a c t i v i t i e s the s t u d e n t s had an i n t u i t i v e sense o f form based on r o u t i n e r e a d i n g h a b i t s ( t h e y had a l l r e a d e d i t o r i a l s , columns, p l a y s , commer-c i a l s ) o r on human e x p e r i e n c e ( a f t e r a l l 'drama,' ' s t o r y , ' 'essay' r e f l e c t ways o f l i v i n g and t h i n k i n g ; t h e y a r e not a r b i t r a r y ) . The second s o u r c e was q u e s t i o n -i n g . When s t u d e n t s d i d n ' t know what something was, they n a t u r a l l y asked: 'What's g r a f f i t i ? ' 'What's s a t i r e ? ' T h i s d i s c o v e r y l e d t o a n o t h e r from t h a t same c l a s s : q u e s t i o n s about form a r e b e s t answered i n o p e r a t i o n a l , not d e f i n i t i o n a l , terms. . . . In the end, the s t u d e n t s t i l l may not be a b l e t o d e f i n e s a t i r e , but he w i l l know how t o make one. [ J u d y j m ^ pp_ 9 2 _ 9 3 ] I n d u b i t a b l y , t h e s e b a s i c p h i l o s o p h i e s each have v a l i d i t y f o r the s t u d e n t w r i t e r . Rohman and Wlecke, i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "The Person i n the P r o c e s s " c o n s e r v a t i v e l y sum up t h i s g e n e r a l approach t o t he t e a c h i n g o f form: 149 We do not deny the v a l i d i t y o f e x t r i n s i c approaches t o c o m p o s i t i o n and t o w r i t e r s , w i t h t h e i r emphasis upon methods, t r a d i t i o n , c o n d i t i o n i n g , grammar and the l i k e ; we o n l y h o l d t h a t t h e s e a l o n e and t h e s e f i r s t w i l l n e v e r produce good w r i t i n g d e f i n e d as f r e s h p e r s p e c t i v e . [Kaufman and Powers, ed., 1970, p. 50] I t i s the s t u d e n t w r i t e r who must make the d e c i s i o n as t o what form h i s work w i l l t a k e , i f i t w i l l a b i d e by the laws o f t r a d i t i o n a l forms o r not. I f he d e c i d e s h i s work needs a t r a -d i t i o n a l f o r m a t , the l i s t he has t o choose from i s l o n g . And, i n r e a l i t y , t he s t u d e n t s h o u l d have a sample l i s t , such as f o l l o w s , to m ull o v e r : Adventure t a l e A d v e r t i s e m e n t Animated f i l m A u t o b i o g r a p h y B a l l a d C a r t o o n C o l l a b o r a t i v e novel C o l l a g e Commercial C o n c r e t e p o e t r y C o n f e s s i o n C r i t i c i s m Debate D i a l o g u e E x p o s i t o r y e s s a y Fantasy F i c t i o n F l y e r Free v e r s e F u l l l e n g t h drama G r e e t i n g c a r d Haiku and Tanka I m p r o v i s a t i o n ( w r i t t e n down) Informal speech I n s t r u c t i o n s I n t e r v i e w Joke J o u r n a l and d i a r y L e t t e r 150 L i g h t e s s a y L i g h t show ( d i r e c t i o n s w r i t t e n down) L i g h t v e r s e L i m e r i c k Magazine M a n i f e s t o Memoir Metaphor Monograph Monologue M u s i c a l Novel One-act s k i t Pamphlets Panel P e r s o n a l e s s a y P e t i t i o n P o e t r y P o l i c y p a p er P l a y P o s t e r Probe Propaganda Puppet show Radio s c r i p t Reminiscence Research Review (books, c o n c e r t s , s p o r t s , d a t e s ) Ri d d l e Soap opera S h o r t scene S h o r t s t o r y Songs Sonnet Sound tape Stream o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s Telegram T e l e v i s i o n s c r i p t T h i r t y - s e c o n d drama Underground newspaper W r i t e r ' s notebook I f , on the o t h e r hand, the s t u d e n t w r i t e r d e c i d e s to s t r i k e o u t i n s e a r c h o f h i s own new form, he does so as h i s own path-maker. He has gone beyond the law, and w h i l e t h e r e are no i m p r i s o n i n g r u l e s , t h e r e a r e a l s o no s i g n p o s t s o r h e l p f u l g u i d e l i n e s t o r e l y on. He i s a l o n e . Whatever the s t u d e n t ' s c h o i c e , t r a d i t i o n a l form o r e x p e r i m e n t a l , the t e a c h e r must be c o n s c i o u s l y aware t h a t w r i t e r s a r e i n a d i f f e r e n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l w o r l d than c r i t i c s (most t e a c h e r s i n c l u d e d ) . I f a C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g t e a c h e r i s a l s o a w r i t e r , as he c e r t a i n l y s h o u l d be, he w i l l u n d e r s t a n d t h a t i t i s the w r i t e r s who i n v e n t form. C r e a t i v e W r i t e r s a r e a l l i n a w o r l d o f p o t e n t i a l new forms and, p o s s i b l y , new laws. S t y l e The t e a c h i n g o f s t y l e i s an i m p o s s i b l e t a s k . W r i t i n g i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f s e l f which i s m a n i f e s t i n the s t y l e o r v o i c e o r d i s t i n c t i v e a c c e n t o f the w r i t e r . S t y l e , t h e n , i s not a t e c h n i q u e t h a t can be t a u g h t o r l e a r n e d . I t can o n l y be g i v e n freedom t o d e v e l o p . S t y l e i s as unique to each w r i t e r as h i s f i n g e r p r i n t : . . . the essence o f a sound s t y l e i s t h a t i t cannot be reduc e d t o r u l e s — t h a t i t i s a l i v i n g and b r e a t h i n g t h i n g , w i t h something o f the demoniacal i n i t — t h a t i t f i t s i t s p r o p r i e t o r t i g h t l y and y e t e v e r so l o o s e l y , as h i s s k i n f i t s him. I t i s , i n f a c t , q u i t e as s e c u r e l y an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f him as t h a t s k i n i s . I t hardens as h i s a r t e r i e s harden. I t i s gaudy when he i s young and g a t h e r s decorum when he grows o l d . On the day a f t e r he makes a mash on a new g i r l i t glows and g l i t t e r s . I f he has f e d w e l l , i t i s mellow. I f he has g a s t r i t i s i t i s b i t t e r . In b r i e f , a s t y l e i s always the outward and v i s i b l e symbol o f a man, and i t cannot be a n y t h i n g e l s e . To attempt t o t e a c h i t i s as s i l l y as t o s e t up c o u r s e s i n making l o v e . [ M e n c k e n , 1 9 4 9 > p > 4 6 0 ] 152 There i s no such animal as 'a b e s t s t y l e . 1 I t cannot be t a u g h t because i t does not e x i s t . I t would be a b s u r d t o ask Joyce t o w r i t e i n the s t y l e o f Hemingway, o r F e r l i n g h e t t i i n the s t y l e o f D i c k i n s o n . James E. M i l l e r i s most adamant about t h i s p o i n t : There i s , i n p o i n t o f f a c t , no 'best s t y l e ' f o r a l l w r i t e r s . And the p r e v a l e n t view t h a t everyone s h o u l d w r i t e i n the same s i m p l i s t i c s t y l e i s based on a misunder-s t a n d i n g o f the n a t u r e o f language and the w r i t i n g p r o c e s s . The b e s t s t y l e f o r any w r i t e r w i l l be one t h a t t a k e s i n t o account h i s own temperament and p e r s o n a l -i t y , the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f h i s s u b j e c t , and the n a t u r e o f h i s a u d i e n c e . On some o c c a s i o n s t h e s e may c a l l f o r l o n g words r a t h e r than s h o r t , f o r c o m p l i c a t e d s e n t e n c e s r a t h e r than s i m p l e , f o r an i n t e n t i o n a l opaqueness r a t h e r than a d i s t o r t i n g l u c i d i t y . They might c a l l , i n d e e d , f o r a t o r r e n t o f words r a t h e r than a t r i c k l e , f o r a f l o o d o f r h e t o r i c r a t h e r than a r i v u l e t . [ M i l l e r , 1973, p. 202] He condemns the dated n o t i o n o f ' c o r r e c t ' w r i t i n g : So many peop l e have been i n d o c t r i n a t e d w i t h the view t h a t good w r i t i n g i s p r i m a r i l y ' c o r r e c t ' w r i t i n g , and t h a t the b e s t w r i t i n g i s ' o b j e c t i v e ' and ' i m p e r s o n a l ' (and t h e r e f o r e d e v o i d o f the f i r s t - p e r s o n s i n g u l a r ) , t h a t t h e r e i s abroad i n the c o u n t r y an ' i d e a l ' p r o s e t h a t i s almost u n r e a d a b l e . T h i s p r o s e pours out o f government o f f i c e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , b u s i n e s s e s ; has become a k i n d o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r o s e ; and might be d e s c r i b e d as the p r o s e i n t he gray f l a n n e l s u i t . I t i s a f a c e l e s s and v o i c e -l e s s p r o s e : the sound t h a t a r i s e s from i t i s monotonous and b o r i n g . r m - n m-? - . m / n 3 [ M i l l e r , 1973, p. 184] S t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s s h o u l d beware o f s i m p l e r u l e s f o r good w r i t i n g . A l l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s which a r e supposed t o have u n i v e r s a l a p p l i -c a t i o n a r e most l i k e l y m i s l e a d i n g , i f not t o t a l l y f a l s e . Even the d i a l e c t a w r i t e r uses s h o u l d be o f h i s own c h o o s i n g , be i t 153 a r e g i o n a l o r a s o c i a l d i a l e c t . Language i s too v i t a l t o the w r i t e r ' s i d e n t i t y and t o the e f f e c t s o f h i s work t o be s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d by any p r e s c r i p t i o n s o f one ' s t a n d a r d language.' P u b l i c a t i o n : end o r a n o t h e r b e g i n n i n g ? Throughout t h i s t h e s i s p u b l i c a t i o n has been spoken o f a s t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f a l l t h e s t u d e n t w r i t e r ' s w r i t i n g e f f o r t s . P u b l i c a t i o n i s , i n f a c t , an end p o i n t , b u t i t i s a l s o a n o t h e r b e g i n n i n g . P u b l i c a t i o n : . . . i s not the f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t , i t i s a t e a c h i n g t o o l - - s i n c e s t u d e n t s l e a r n p r i n t i n g does not make an a r t i c l e p r o f o u n d o r even c o r r e c t - c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g - [ G o n z a l e z , 1973, p. 3] A f t e r p u b l i c a t i o n has been e f f e c t e d , the s t u d e n t s s h o u l d not abandon the p u b l i s h e d works, r e g a r d i n g them as 'done.' There i s s t i l l much to l e a r n o f a work a f t e r i t has been p u b l i s h e d . P u b l i c a t i o n does n o t mark t h e e n d p o i n t f o r t h e r e v i s i o n p r o c e s s , though p r e -sumably most e n s u i n g r e v i s i o n s w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y minor. T.S. E l i o t makes note o f the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f even a r r i v i n g a t a c o n c l u s i v e e n d p o i n t : What we c a l l the b e g i n n i n g i s o f t e n the end And to make an end i s t o make a b e g i n n i n g . The end i s where we s t a r t from. And e v e r y phrase And s e n t e n c e t h a t i s r i g h t (where e v e r y word i s a t home. T a k i n g i t s p l a c e t o s u p p o r t the o t h e r s , The word n e i t h e r d i f f i d e n t o r o s t e n t a t i o u s , an easy commerce o f the o l d and the new, 154 The common word e x a c t w i t h o u t v u l g a r i t y , The formal word p r e c i s e but not p e d a n t i c , The complete c o n s o r t d a n c i n g t o g e t h e r ) E v e r y phrase and e v e r y s e n t e n c e i s an end and a b e g i n n i n g , Every poem an e p i t a p h . [ E l i o t , 1944, p. 58] The p r o c e s s o f w r i t i n g i s a c o n t i n u o u s endeavour, and the word 'pr o d u c t , ' o r 'work o f a r t , 1 s i m p l y d e s i g n a t e s the development a t a p a r t i c u l a r pause i n the w r i t e r ' s p e r p e t u a l l a b o u r . I t i s not i n t e n d e d t h a t the p r o c e s s o f w r i t i n g be viewed as an e x i s t e n t i a l i s t a l b a t r o s s . Rather, i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t the s t u d e n t keep an open mind t o change, even a f t e r h i s work has been p u b l i s h e d . E d i t i n g and P u b l i s h i n g Summary Fundamental i s the b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y o f Stage Two, the E d i t i n g and P u b l i s h i n g Stage o f w r i t i n g . A f t e r the i n i t i a l c r e a t i v e d r a f t i n g o f a work, the w r i t e r t h e n , and o n l y t h e n , becomes c o n c e r n e d w i t h p o l i s h i n g the work f o r h i s i n t e n d e d a u d i e n c e , and then proceeds t o p u b l i s h i t . I t must be kept i n mind t h a t i t t a k e s both a w r i t e r and a r e a d e r t o b r i n g a l i t e r a r y work t o l i f e : 155 T r a n s c e n d e n t ' p o e t i c ' e x p e r i e n c e B e f o r e p u b l i c a t i o n and r e a d e r r e s p o n s e , the l i t e r a r y work i s i n c o m p l e t e . The words o f the p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a r y work aim a t u n i t i n g p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i e n c e s o f the w r i t e r w i t h s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s o f the r e a d e r . The r e a d e r b r i n g s h i s e x p e r i e n c e s t o b e a r on words t h a t have been c r a f t e d by the w r i t e r , molded by the w r i t e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e s . I f the words are s u c c e s s f u l , they c r e a t e a unique bond between r e a d e r and w r i t e r t h a t t r a n s c e n d s e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l ' s l o n e e x p e r i e n c e . Both the r e a d e r and the w r i t e r then g i v e the l i t e r a r y work meaning. Conse-q u e n t l y , the w r i t e r must u l t i m a t e l y p r e p a r e h i s work, h i s p e r f e c t l y n u r t u r e d embryo, f o r the r e a d e r t o g i v e i t b i r t h . 156 EVALUATION With a l l t h i s g r e a t t a l k about p r o c e s s , p r o d u c t , s e l f -d i s c o v e r y and p u b l i c a t i o n , where does e v a l u a t i o n f i t ? In t r u t h , the e v a l u a t i o n t h a t i s synonymous w i t h the d i s p e n s a t i o n o f judgement does not f i t . (The e v a l u a t i o n t h a t i s synonymous w i t h s e n s i t i v e and c o n c e r n e d t e a c h e r r e a c t i o n to s t u d e n t work i n s p e c i f i c u t i l i t a r i a n l anguage, has pervaded the e n t i r e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the e d u c a t i o n a l system demands t h a t s t u d e n t s ' work be graded on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . So t e a c h e r s a r e caught, i n the end, w i t h d e s p e r a t e l y t r y i n g to compromise the r e a l w o r l d s i t u a t i o n t h a t i s b e i n g s t r i v e n f o r , and the f a l s e c l a s s r o o m r e q u i r e m e n t s . The aim here i s to make t h i s compromise m i n i m a l . The prime magic a c t , a t t h i s p o i n t , i s to c o n v i n c e the s t u d e n t s t h a t the t e a c h e r ' s dual r o l e s o f e d i t o r and judge a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . And, t o o , i t must be o b v i o u s to the s t u d e n t which r o l e the t e a c h e r i s e n a c t i n g a t any g i v e n time. T h i s f e a t a c c o m p l i s h e d , the t e a c h e r can become as c o n s c i e n c e - f r e e a judge as i s humanly p o s s i b l e ! But how do you grade C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g ? I f one d o e s n ' t l o o k f o r 'correctness', what does one l o o k f o r ? S i n c e the b e g i n n i n g o f time p e o p l e have not been a b l e t o agree on a d e f i n i -t i o n o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f what c o n s t i t u t e s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n w r i t i n g . Whenever anyone has a p r o m i s i n g t h e o r y , some well-known and w e l l - l i k e d p i e c e s o f w r i t i n g a r e always o m i t t e d from the exem-p l a r y l i s t because t h e y c o n t r a d i c t the t h e o r y . A t the p r e s e n t time, w r i t i n g i s t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , a mystery. W r i t e r s make marks 157 on paper and w a i t t o see what w i l l happen when o t h e r p e o p l e come a l o n g and s t a r e a t t h e s e marks. T h i s whole u n p r e d i c t a b l e mess i s a c c e n t u a t e d by the f a c t t h a t d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e have d i f f e r e n t r e a c t i o n s t o any g i v e n p i e c e o f work, and even one p e r s o n w i l l l i k e l y have d i f f e r e n t r e a c t i o n s on d i f f e r e n t days. So how, on t h i s e a r t h , can a t e a c h e r e v a l u a t e C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g w i t h an i n d e l i b l e l e t t e r - g r a d e ? S u g g e s t i o n : v e r y c a u t i o u s l y , and i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h c l a s s response and w i t h the s t u d e n t h i m s e l f . C r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n and c r e a t i v i t y are i n t e r t w i n e d i n the s t u d e n t ' s mind from the o n s e t o f the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . The s t u d e n t i s c o n s t a n t l y c h o o s i n g h i s words from the whole p r o l i f e r a -t i o n o f words i n the E n g l i s h language. He i s c r i t i c a l l y c h o o s i n g , i n a d v e r t e n t l y e v a l u a t i n g , as he i s c r e a t i n g . Hence i t i s im-p o r t a n t f o r the s t u d e n t t o s h a r e i n the f i n a l p r o c e s s o f grade e v a l u a t i o n . S e l f - c r i t i c i s m i s a most v a l u a b l e growth f a c t o r . I t i s not o n l y the s t u d e n t who b e n e f i t s from p a r t i c i -p a t i n g i n the g r a d i n g p r o c e d u r e . The t e a c h e r ' s marking burden i s somewhat l i g h t e n e d . But more i m p o r t a n t y e t , the t e a c h e r who i n c l u d e s h i s s t u d e n t s i n the g r a d i n g t a s k w i l l i n e v i t a b l y f i n d t h a t h i s t e a c h i n g becomes t a u t e r and more c l e a r l y f o c u s e d as a r e s u l t , and t h a t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s t u d e n t s ' d i f f i -c u l t i e s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y h i s a b i l i t y t o h e l p them, are i n d e e d i n c r e a s e d . Some v a r i a t i o n s i n g r a d i n g methods can be c o n s i d e r e d the t e a c h e r , dependent upon a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n : Non-graded systems: W r i t t e n e v a l u a t i o n (26 l e t t e r g r a d i n g ) by t e a c h e r W r i t t e n s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n by s t u d e n t S t u d e n t and t e a c h e r w r i t t e n e v a l u a t i o n E x p e r i e n c e p o r t f o l i o Performance c h e c k l i s t ( s t u d e n t w r i t t e n c h e c k l i s t which i s compared t o h i s a c t u a l performance) A l t e r n a t i v e s t o c o n v e n t i o n a l g r a d i n g : P a s s / F a i l P a s s / Q u e s t i o n ( Q u e s t i o n i s an i n t e r i m grade which can be upgraded t o a Pass) P a s s / Q u e s t i o n / D e s c r i b e C r e d i t / N o C r e d i t A, B, C, IP ( i n p r o g r e s s ) , W (withdrew) A l t e r n a t i v e approaches t o g r a d i n g : Recommended g r a d i n g ( c o n v e n t i o n a l g r a d i n g ) Grades w i t h w r i t t e n e v a l u a t i o n S e l f - g r a d i n g Matched g r a d i n g w i t h o r w i t h o u t w r i t t e n e v a l u a t i o n (Take the average o f t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t recommended grades) C o n f e r e n c e g r a d i n g (same as matched g r a d i n g , o n l y w i t h f a c e t o f a c e d i s c u s s i o n ) Performance mastery by l e v e l 159 P o i n t system B l a n k e t g r a d i n g (the e n t i r e c l a s s i s g i v e n the same grade, perhaps even b e f o r e the c o u r s e s t a r t s ) C o n t r a c t g r a d i n g P o r t f o l i o g r a d i n g (can be combined w i t h any o f the o t h e r methods) C o n t r a c t g r a d i n g has had w i d e s p r e a d p u b l i c i t y o f l a t e , and has had a wide range o f s u c c e s s . Some s t u d e n t s f i n d t h i s system m o t i v a t i o n a l , w h i l e o t h e r s f i n d i t an easy way o f d i s c o v e r i n g the minimum re q u i r e m e n t s f o r a p a s s , and h o l d i n g the t e a c h e r to i t . Because o f i t s a c t i v e i n c l u s i o n o f the s t u d e n t i n the g r a d i n g t a s k and because o f i t s i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a r i t y , some e x p l i c i t c o n t r a c t s a r e i n c l u d e d : S t r u c t u r i n g C o n t r a c t s P r e - c o n t r a c t p r e p a r a t i o n : Thorough exposure t o the o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o the s t u d e n t . D e f i n e the b a l l p a r k . T y p i c a l c o n t r a c t components 1. D e s c r i p t i o n o f a r e a o f s t u d y 2. D e t a i l e d l i s t o f o b j e c t i v e s 3. C r i t e r i a f o r g r a d i n g (time commitment, q u a n t i t y o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g , e t c . ) 4. C r i t e r i a o f q u a l i t y f o r a c c e p t a n c e o f work 160 5. P l a n o f a t t a c k (a) Reading and r e s o u r c e l i s t (b) Independent r e s e a r c h p l a n s (c) P o s s i b l e f i e l d o r community work (d) Schedule o f c o n f e r e n c e s and/or i n t e r i m d e a d l i n e s (e) P r o j e c t e d t e a c h e r h e l p and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 6. E v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e . When g r a d i n g i s b e i n g f o r m u l a t e d whether by t e a c h e r , s t u d e n t o r b o t h , many f a c t o r s have to be c o n s i d e r e d v e r y c a r e f u l l y . Q u a l i t y o f work, q u a n t i t y o f work, s t u d e n t e f f o r t , c l a s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n , c o o p e r a t i o n and a t t i t u d e , n o t to mention i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t improvement are b ut a few o f these 'bug-bears.' Kenneth Lewis o u t l i n e s a system t h a t i n c l u d e s these d i v e r s e f a c t o r s : GRADING STANDARDS Q u a l i t y o f Work — w r i t t e n , o r a l r e p o r t s , e t c . ( T h i s i s i n comparison w i t h a h i g h and demanding s t a n d a r d I c a r r y around i n my head--not i n comparison w i t h anyone e l s e i n t h i s c l a s s ) E x c e l l e n t — c o n s i s t e n t l y meeting o r even e x c e e d i n g the h i g h s t a n d a r d s I h o l d A Good-accurate b ut n o t t o p - n o t c h , o r i n c o n s i s t e n t work B M e d i o c r e — b a r e l y meeting a s s i g n m e n t s — s o - s o q u a l i t y C P o o r — l o w q u a l i t y D E f f o r t Always work to b e s t o f y o u r a b i 1 i t y — e v e r y a c t i v i t y , . be i t w r i t i n g o r o r a l work was a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h p r i d e and a d e t e r m i n a t i o n to do y o u r b e s t . . . . A Making a good e f f o r t — g o o d b ut n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y g i v i n g y o u r ' a l l ' B So-so e f f o r t — o r e x t r e m e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t e f f o r t — y o u d i d n ' t c o n s i s t e n t l y c a r e much o r t r y v e r y h a r d . . C 161 L i t t l e e f f o r t — o n l y a f l i c k e r o f r e s p o n s e — n o t t r y i n g o r c a r i n g , o n l y f i l l i n g a space up D C l a s s P a r t i c i p a t i o n , C o o p e r a t i o n , A t t i t u d e S i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n — f o r w a r d i n g a l l group a c t i v i t i e s — p o s i t i v e , open a t t i t u d e — c o n s t a n t and spontaneous e f f o r t t o make t h i s c l a s s ( t h i s p a r t n e r s h i p o f t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n ) work A Some c o n t r i b u t i o n — w o r k i n g f o r the c l a s s sometimes — 'proper' a t t i t u d e B Answers when o b l i g e d to n e u t r a l a t t i t u d e — i r r e g u l a r c o o p e r a t i o n C F i l l i n g a s p a c e — l i t t l e c o - o p e r a t i o n — i n d i f f e r e n t — even h o s t i l e — g e t s i n the way o f the c l a s s . . . . D I n d i v i d u a l improvement ( w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s o f my a b i l i t y as a t e a c h e r and the s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s c l a s s — o b v i o u s l y you s h o u l d n o t be p e n a l i z e d i f I o r the c l a s s do n o t a i d y o u r honest and de-l i b e r a t e e f f o r t s a t improvement) Marked and growing A Si g n s o f p r o g r e s s , r e s p o n d i n g to c l a s s o r i n d i v i d -ual s t i m u l a t i o n B No p r o g r e s s C [L e w i s , March, 1975, p. 83] The t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s i n any C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c l a s s can use t h i s b a s i c l i s t as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r d i s c u s s i o n s on g r a d i n g t e c h n i q u e s . A d d i t i o n s and d e l e t i o n s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . The t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s can d e c i d e how t o b a l a n c e and average the s e f a c t o r s t o make a t o t a l grade. By g i v i n g n u m e r i c a l e q u i v a l e n t s a mark can r e a d i l y be a r r i v e d a t . 162 I t must be s t r e s s e d a g a i n t h a t t h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t d i f f e r -ence between the e v a l u a t i o n t h a t i n v o l v e s s k i l l f u l t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n -i n g and b e n e f i c i a l s u g g e s t i o n i n p r e c i s e language, and the e v a l u a t i o n t h a t i s synonymous w i t h marking and g r a d i n g , i n v o l v i n g the d i s p e n -s a t i o n o f judgement. T e a c h e r s , not o n l y o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g b ut o f a l l s u b j e c t s , must c o n s t a n t l y be on the a l e r t f o r the a l l too common s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f honest, i n t e l l i g e n t r e a c t i o n , to r e l a t i v e l y s u p e r f l u o u s r a n k i n g and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Beyond a l l o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n on e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e , i s the u l t i m a t e q u e s t i o n t h a t a l l s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be encouraged to g r a p p l e w i t h and f o r m u l a t e an answer t o , r e g a r d l e s s how t e n t a t i v e . What i s s u c c e s s i n C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g f o r each i n d i v i d u a l ? h i g h marks? e n c o u r a g i n g comments? a t t e n t i o n ? c o l l e a g u e a p p r o v a l ? p u b l i c a t i o n ? s e l f - s a t i s f i c t i o n ? In t he r e a l w o r l d good w r i t e r s do n o t g e t marks; th e y g e t p u b l i s h e d . The more i n g r a i n e d t h i s c o n c e p t becomes i n each i n d i v i d u a l , the l e s s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d and i m p r i s o n e d the s t u d e n t s , and t h e i r w r i t i n g , w i l l be. 163 CONCLUSION C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g Journey Summary .Work Submi t t e d Q u e s t i o n : Is t h i s b a s i c a l l y an i n v o l v e d p i e c e o f w r i t i n g ? Are t h e r e s i g n s t h a t the s t u d e n t \-NO—> e n j o y e d d o i n g i t ? Can you hear The s t u d e n t ' s v o i c e coming through? E s s e n t i a l l y . . . i s i t r e a l ? YES Respond as h o n e s t l y as the s t u d e n t has w r i t t e n . T e l l about y o u r p e r s o n a l r e a c t i o n s . T e l l the s t u d e n t about the p a r t s t h a t most i n t e r e s t e d o r e x c i t e d you. D i s a g r e e i f you d i s a g r e e , but don't t e a c h , p r e a c h , o r 'improve.' In s h o r t , be a human audi e n c e o f one. Q u e s t i o n : Is t h i s a work t h a t s h o u l d be made p u b l i c ? W i l l i t a p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e f o r the s t u d e n t i f i t i s ? be YES \-NO-^ Decide ( o r h e l p the s t u d e n t d e c i d e ) the most s u i t a b l e medium f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . O r a l r e a d i n g ? B u l l e t i n board? C l a s s magazine? School paper? I Q u e s t i o n Why was the v o l v e d w i t h the What went wrong? s t u d e n t s n o t i n -h i s work? Read work, f i n d the good p a r t s , respond p o s i t i v e l y , r e t u r n i t , and then s t a r t o ver. Return i t w i t h y o u r compliments. Not a l l w r i t i n g needs an a u d i -ence anyway. T e l l the s t u d e n t how and why you e n j o y e d i t . Respond i n p e r s o n a l terms as a p p r o p r i a t e . I n v i t e more w r i t i n g . Suggest new d i r e c t i o n s , r e l a t e d r e a d i n g s . E d i t i n g . The aim now becomes h e l p -i n g the s t u d e n t get t h i s work ready f o r t h i s p u b l i s h i n g medium and t h i s a u d i e n c e a t t h i s time. Here i s where the t e a c h e r ' s e x p e r t i s e can l e a d t o q u e s t i o n s about ' e f f e c t i v e n e s s . ' How w i l l the work be r e c e i v e d ? What r e v i s i o n s w i l l h e l p improve i t ? These s u g g e s t i o n s are b e s t o f f e r e d i n terms o f o p e r a t i o n a l a d v i c e (how to do i t ) r a t h e r than a b s t r a c t i o n s about r h e t o r i c , and the t e a c h e r does i t w i t h the aim o f h e l p i n g a s t u d e n t s u c c e e d , n o t t r y i n g , t o change a human b e i n g . 4 164 C o l l e a g u e Response: The work i s c r i t i c a l l y d i s c u s s e d by the o t h e r s t u d e n t s i n the c l a s s , i n terms o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s . P u b ! i c a t i o n . C o p y r e a d i n g ( n ot to be c o n f u s e d w i t h r e v i s i n g ) . Help the s t u d e n t p o l i s h the work to e l i m i n a t e any g r a p h i c , mechanical o r s y n t a c t i c b a r r i e r s to s u c c e s s . A g a i n r e l a t e a d v i c e and sugges-t i o n s to the p a r t i c u l a r form o f p u b l i c a t i o n ( e . g . , i f the s t u d e n t -is g o i n g t o rea d the work a l o u d , don't g i v e a d v i c e about s p e l l i n g e r r o r s ) . I f the t e a c h e r has been a good e d i t o r , the work i s a s u c c e s s w i t h the a u d i e n c e . Both p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t are v i t a l n e c e s s i t i e s t o round the s t u d e n t w r i t e r ' s w r i t i n g e x p e r i e n c e . N e i t h e r i s s t r e s s e d above the o t h e r . Three b a s i c assumptions which have run thro u g h t h i s t h e s i s w a r r a n t v e r b a l i z i n g . 1. Language s e r v e s each s t u d e n t both i n the e x p l o r a t i o n and d i s c o v e r y o f h i s i n n e r s e l f , and i n c o n n e c t i n g him t o o t h e r s . 2. R e v i s i o n , o r e d i t i n g , can be m o t i v a t e d i n e v e r y s t u d e n t , and must be f o r e f f e c t i v e w r i t i n g t o r e s u l t . P u b l i c a t i o n m o t i v a t e s . 165 3. A l l n o t i o n s o f ' c o r r e c t n e s s ' o f language are r e l a t i v e to the i n d i v i d u a l w r i t e r , t o the s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f the work and t o the i n t e n d e d a u d i e n c e . When f i n i s h e d the i n i t i a l w r i t i n g , the s t u d e n t w r i t e r must ask him-s e l f s e r i o u s l y , "Do I wish t o be understood? Do I c a r e i f my audi e n c e m i s r e a d s o r mis j u d g e s me?." He must g l a n c e i n s e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s as he p o l i s h e s h i s work. He must keep an eye on h i s a u d i e n c e , h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r , and, p o s s i b l y , the n a t u r e o f the o c c a s i o n f o r h i s w r i t i n g . S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , he must a l s o keep a n o t h e r eye on h i s own s e n s i t i v i t i e s and a t t u n e h i s v o i c e t o the v i b r a t i o n s o f h i s i n n e r s e l f . The s t u d e n t s should e x p e r i e n c e a s e r i e s o f s t a g e s i n t h e i r w r i t i n g . B r o a d l y , they a r e p s y c h o l o -g i c a l p r e p a r a t i o n , i n i t i a l w r i t i n g , p e e r r e s p o n s e , r e v i s i o n and e d i t i n g , and p u b l i c a t i o n . The w r i t i n g t e a c h e r must p r e p a r e the s t u d e n t s t o a c c e p t the d i f f i c u l t y i n v o l v e d i n w r i t i n g and r e w r i t i n g . V e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e i s p a i n f u l and f r u s t r a t i n g and the s t u d e n t s must a c c e p t i t as such. However, they must a l s o be made aware o f the rewarding f e e l i n g o f s u c c e s s when they f i n a l l y do c a p t u r e the essence o f thoughts w i t h the ' p e r f e c t ' words, and e f f e c t i v e l y r e c r e a t e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n the minds o f t h e i r a u d i e n c e s . U n q u e s t i o n a b l y , t he s e c r e t to an e x c i t i n g , m o t i v a t e d , and p r o d u c t i v e s e c o n d a r y w r i t i n g program i s k e e p i n g the s t u d e n t s d i s c o v e r i n g t h e i r i n n e r w o r l d s through w r i t i n g , w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y k e e p i n g the i n t e r e s t and s p i r i t o f p u b l i c a t i o n a l i v e . 166 The L a s t Word C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g i s an e x c i t i n g f i e l d t o be i n v o l v e d i n a t p r e s e n t , because r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i c a l i t i e s are j u s t be-g i n n i n g t o merge. The c o u r s e i s o n l y on t h e ground f l o o r now, but the i m p l i c a t i o n s and p o t e n t i a l i t i e s a r e sky-bound. There i s a r a g i n g need f o r the Department o f E d u c a t i o n t o update i t s t h i n k i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s c o u r s e . The C u r r i c u l u m Guide and the P r e s c r i b e d Textbook L i s t need much re w o r k i n g and augmentation. Seven y e a r s have passed s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n . C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g may have begun as an added e x t r a , an e x p e r i m e n t a l f r i l l t o the b a s i c s . However, i t s c o n t i n u a l growth i n e n r o l l m e n t a t t e s t s t o i t s r e l e v a n c e and importance i n the s t u d e n t s ' eyes. C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g must be made a d i s t i n c t c r e d i t , d i v o r c e d c o m p l e t e l y from J o u r n a l i s m , B r o a d c a s t Media, o r whatever e l s e W r i t i n g 11 has come t o l a b e l t h r o u g h o u t B.C. S c h o o l s . And C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g 12 must be r e c o g n i z e d and deemed worthy o f c o u r s e c r e d i t s . The t e a c h e r s o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g a r e d o i n g a r e s p e c t a b l e j o b g i v e n the l a c k o f guidance and the l a c k o f m a t e r i a l s . T e a c h i n g C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g i s a very demanding endeavour t h a t r e q u i r e s l i m i t l e s s energy and p e r s o n a l a t t e n t i o n . When p r a c t i c a l t e a c h e r guidance and r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l s become a v a i l a b l e , the c o u r s e w i l l r e a l l y blossom. A t p r e s e n t , the c o u r s e i s l i m i t e d o n l y by the numbers o f t e a c h e r s who f e e l competent t o t e a c h i t , knowing 167 f u l l w e l l t h a t they a r e , f o r the most p a r t , g r o p i n g i n the dark, f o l l o w i n g t h e i r own w r i t i n g bent. The g u i d e l i n e s f o r c u r r i c u l u m development t h a t a r e p r e s e n t e d a r e i n t e n d e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by each C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g t e a c h e r w h i l e he i s p l a n n i n g h i s c u r r i c u l u m . What i s p r e s e n t e d i s not a c u r r i c u l u m p e r s e , but r a t h e r g u i d e l i n e s f o r C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s , i . e . the a c t u a l t e a c h e r s . The s t u d e n t s i n each c l a s s w i l l v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r needs and d e s i r e s , and the t e a c h e r s v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r i d e o l o g y and methodology. No c o n s t a n t c u r r i c u l u m c o u l d meet even a f r a c t i o n o f t h e s e v a r i a t i o n s . But the g u i d e l i n e s do remain c o n s t a n t . Each t e a c h e r must s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r the s p e c i f i c n a t u r e o f h i m s e l f and o f h i s c l a s s and then a p p l y the g u i d e l i n e s t o the unique s i t u a t i o n a t hand. Perhaps the key c o n c e p t i n C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g i s the a b s o l u t e i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f each w r i t e r . U l t i m a t e l y t h i s must be the c o n c e r n o f the c r e a t i v i t y r e s e a r c h e r s , the Department o f E d u c a t i o n p o l i c y makers, the t e a c h e r , and the s t u d e n t h i m s e l f . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a c o u r s e o f t h i s n a t u r e has t o be 'ry.eal'; i t has t o o f f e r something more than c o u r s e c r e d i t s and graded papers. In o r d e r t o be " r e a l , 1 the c o u r s e has t o h e l p each s t u d e n t a l o n g an i n d i v i d u a l p u r s u i t t h a t goes beyond the s c h o o l ' s w a l l s i n t o the o u t s i d e w o r l d . I t i s no one's d e c i s i o n but the s t u d e n t ' s what h i s p u r s u i t w i l l be. P.K. Page, a v e r y contemporary p o e t , c r i e s 168 o u t f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s i n d i v i d u a l j o u r n e y each w r i t e r must take : I am t r a v e l l e r . I have a d e s t i n a t i o n but no maps. Others perhaps have reached t h a t d e s t i n a t i o n a l r e a d y , s t i l l o t h e r s a r e on t h e i r way. But none has had to go from here b e f o r e - - n o r w i l l a g a i n . One's r o u t e i s one's own. One's j o u r n e y unique. What l i e s on the way i s unknown. How to go? Land, sea o r a i r ? What t e c h n i q u e s to use? What v e h i c l e ? [ E l l i s , ed., 1977, p. 240] So, i n the end, the w r i t e r i s a l o n e . But r e g a r d l e s s o f whether he i s w r i t i n g i n b u s i n e s s o r i n f r i e n d s h i p , f o r a p o l i t i c a l group o r a c h u r c h community, o r j u s t f o r h i m s e l f , the w r i t e r i s coming to know and u n d e r s t a n d h i s own s e l f i n a v e r y s p e c i a l way. U l t i -m a t e l y a l l C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c o u r s e s must endeavour to h e l p each i n d i v i d u a l w r i t e r w r i t e what i t i s t h a t he f e e l s c o m p e l l e d to w r i t e about. A P P E N D I X A PROVINCIAL SURVEY LETTER TO ALL B.C. SUPERINTENDENTS September 1, 1977 School D i s t r i c t No. ATTENTION: Mr. . . . . D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t Gentlemen: I am c o m p i l i n g a l i s t o f a l l the D i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia which o f f e r t he e l e c t i v e c o u r s e W r i t i n g 11. T h i s i n f o r -mation i s n o t on f i l e a t the Department o f E d u c a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a , and i s u r g e n t l y needed. My p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s t o a l l o w me t o c o n t a c t the W r i t i n g 11 t e a c h e r s i n d i v i d u a l l y t o e x p l o r e w i t h them t h e c u r r i c u l u m they a r e employing. I am w r i t i n g my M.A. t h e s i s i n E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and need t o know the numbers o f t h i s c o u r s e o f f e r e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and the type o f c o u r s e o f f e r e d , be i t J o u r n a l i s m , C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g , Communications, o r j u s t a c a t c h - a l l l a b e l . The B.C. E n g l i s h T e a c h e r ' s A s s o c i a t i o n a l s o needs t h i s l i s t f o r workshop purposes. I am r e q u e s t i o n t h a t you respond t o the a t t a c h e d q u e s t i o n s , and promptly r e t u r n y o u r response i n the s e l f - a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e i n c l u d e d . I a p p r e c i a t e y o u r time and c o n c e r n . Thank you. Yours t r u l y , NJ/mle E n c l o s u r e Mrs. Norma Jamieson E n g l i s h C u r r i c u l u m C o o r d i n a t o r A P P E N D I X B PROVINCIAL SURVEY LETTER TO ALL TEACHERS OF CREATIVE WRITING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA PRINCIPAL - R. V. SIMPSON MATTHEW MCNAIR SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL VICE PRINCIPAL - E. T. NOVAKOWSKI 950 No. 4 ROAD RICHMOND, B.C. V7A 2Y9 274-7258 Today's date Name School A ddress C i t y P o s t a l Code Dear Mr./Mrs./Miss : I have r e c e i v e d y o u r name from y o u r D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , , and d e s p e r a t e l y need you to respond. I am c o m p i l i n g a l i s t o f a l l the s c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia which o f f e r the C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g o p t i o n o f the the e l e c t i v e , W r i t i n g 11. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t on f i l e a t the Department o f E d u c a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a , and i s d e s p e r a t e l y needed. My p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s t h a t I am w r i t i n g my M.A. t h e s i s i n E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n a t U.B.C. My t h e s i s t o p i c c o n c e r n s C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g i n B.C. s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , a t o p i c on which no i n f o r m a t i o n has been g a t h e r e d . The B.C. E n g l i s h T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n a l s o needs t h i s l i s t f o r work-shop purp o s e s . I am r e q u e s t i n g t h a t you respond to the a t t a c h e d q u e s t i o n s and promp t l y r e t u r n y o u r response i n the s e l f - a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e i n c l u d e d . I a p p r e c i a t e y o u r time and co n c e r n . Thank you. Yours t r u l y , urs/NJ E n c l o s u r e s Mrs. Norma Jamieson E n g l i s h C u r r i c u l u m C o o r d i n a t o r 1. Do any S e n i o r Secondary S c h o o l s i n y o u r d i s t r i c t o f f e r the co u r s e W r i t i n g 11? 2. I f W r i t i n g 11 i s o f f e r e d , p l e a s e l i s t the names o f the s c h o o l s i n v o l v e d and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a d d r e s s e s and, i f p o s s i b l e , the names o f the t e a c h e r s . P l e a s e r e t u r n t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , even i f y o u r d i s t r i c t does not o f f e r W r i t i n g 11. Thank you N. Jamieson 174 CREATIVE WRITING IN B.C. 1. Does y o u r c l a s s " p u b l i s h " a "book"? U s i n g s c h o o l d i t t o machines? U s i n g the s c h o o l o f f s e t p r e s s ? U s i n g o u t s i d e p u b l i s h e r s ? Do you s e l l y o u r p u b l i c a t i o n ? 2. Does y o u r c o u r s e r e v o l v e about a s e r i e s o f assignments? Or, do the s t u d e n t s w r i t e what th e y wish? 3. Do you s e t d e a d l i n e s ? 4. Do you i n s i s t s t u d e n t s m i n i c t he form o f o u t s t a n d i n g w r i t e r s ? 5. Do you i n s i s t s t u d e n t s t r y w r i t i n g i n v a r y i n g genres? 6. Do you i n s i s t on r e v i s i o n ? 7. Do you mark i n d i v i d u a l p i e c e s o f w r i t i n g ? I f so — e v e r y p i e c e ? I f not — e x p l a i n . 8. Do you i n s i s t on s i l e n c e i n y o u r c l a s s ? 9. Do s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s o t h e r s t u d e n t s ' works? I f so -- as a p r e s c r i b e d p a r t o f the c o u r s e ? Or, o n l y c a s u a l l y and s p o n t a n e o u s l y among i n d i v i d u a l s ? 175 10. Do you p r e s c r i b e r e a d i n g ? I f so -- by the s t u d e n t s ? - - b y community w r i t e r s ? S p e c i f y . 11. Do you have r e a d i n g s ? I f so — by the s t u d e n t s ? — by community w r i t e r s ? S p e c i f y . 12. Do you i n s i s t t h a t s t u d e n t s keep a d a i l y j o u r n a l ? I f so -- do you i n s p e c t i t ? — do you mark i t ? 13. Do you i n v o l v e the s t u d e n t s i n o t h e r modes o f e x p r e s s i o n ? I f so -- s p e c i f y . 14. Do you use any t e x t s ? I f so -- s p e c i f y . 15. Does y o u r s c h o o l o f f e r C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g 12? I f so -- what i s i t l a b e l l e d on the s t u d e n t s ' t r a n s c r i p t s ? 16. Do you f e e l more d i r e c t i o n from the Department o f E d u c a t i o n i s needed f o r t h i s c o u r s e ? 17. Do you have a c o u r s e d e s c r i p t i o n t h a t you use i n y o u r s c h o o l c o u r s e c a t a l o g u e ? I f so -- p l e a s e send the d e s c r i p t i o n a l o n g . P l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o add any comments on the back, and to r e q u e s t a copy o f the r e s u l t s o f t h i s endeavour. Thank you a g a i n f o r y o u r e f f o r t s . A P P E N D I X C SCHOOLS OFFERING CREATIVE WRITING IN 1977-1978 WITH THE RESPECTIVE TEACHERS 177 APPENDIX C SCHOOLS OFFERING CREATIVE WRITING IN 1977-1978 WITH THE RESPECTIVE TEACHERS School T e a c h e r F e r n i e Secondary School D i s t r i c t #1 2nd Avenue F e r n i e , B.C. The t e a c h e r i s not known. S t a n l e y Humphries Secondary School D i s t r i c t #9 Box 3190 C a s t l e g a r , B.C. Ms. T. Hal l a s J . F l o y d Crowe Secondary School D i s t r i c t #11 5th Avenue T r a i l , B.C. Mr. J . R a n a l l o Southern Okanagon Secondary School D i s t r i c t #14 Box 990 O l i v e r , B.C. VOH 1T0 Mr. C M . T a y l o r Similkameen Secondary School D i s t r i c t #16 Box 410 Keremeos, B.C. VOX 1N0 Mr. R. Thomas Kelowna Secondary School D i s t r i c t #23 575 Harvey Avenue Kelowna, B.C. Mrs. N. C a s s i d y 178 Appendix C ( c o n t i n u e d ) School T e a c h e r C o r r e l i e u S e n i o r Secondary School D i s t r i c t #28 850 Anderson D r i v e Q u e s n e l , B.C. V2J 1G4 Mr. Mrs. Mark Kunen J i l l L e b e d o f f S a r d i s J r - S r Secondary School D i s t r i c t #33 Box 100 S a r d i s , B.C. L i n d a L u t c h e r C h i l l i w a c k S e n i o r Secondary School D i s t r i c t #33 239 Y a l e Road E a s t C h i l l i w a c k , B.C. Ms. M.J. M o r r i s A b b o t s f o r d S e n i o r Secondary School D i s t r i c t #34 c/0 2343 McCallum Road A b b o t s f o r d , B.C. V2S 3P5 Mr. Jack Wood E a r l M a r r i o t t Secondary School D i s t r i c t #36 15751 - 16th Avenue S u r r e y , B.C. Mr. V. Webber P r i n c e s s Margaret S e n i o r Secondary School D i s t r i c t #36 12870 - 72nd Avenue S u r r e y , B.C. Mr. D. L a r s e n \ 179 Appendix C ( c o n t i n u e d ) School T e a c h e r S t e v e s t o n S e n i o r Secondary School D i s t r i c t #38 1044 No. 2 Road Richmond, B.C. Mr. Gary M a c h e l l McNair S e n i o r Secondary School D i s t r i c t #38 950 - #4 Road Richmond, B.C. Mrs. N. Jamieson C h u r c h i l l Secondary School D i s t r i c t #39 7055 Heather S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. Mr. Stubbs G l a d s t o n e Secondary School D i s t r i c t #39 4105 G l a d s t o n e Vancouver, B.C. Mr. R. Cooper P o i n t Grey Secondary School D i s t r i c t #39 5350 E a s t B o u l e v a r d Vancouver, B.C. Miss Schwartz P r i n c e o f Wales Secondary School D i s t r i c t #39 2250 E d d i n g t o n Vancouver, B.C. Mr. F e a r i n g Tupper Secondary School D i s t r i c t #39 419 E a s t 24th Avenue Vancouver, B.C. Mr. Robb 180 Appendix C ( c o n t i n u e d ) School T e a c h e r U n i v e r s i t y H i l l S chool D i s t r i c t #39 2896 A c a d i a Vancouver, B.C. Ms. Barb Baker Burnaby North S e n i o r Secondary School D i s t r i c t #41 751 Hammarskjold D r i v e Burnaby, B.C. Mr. V.F. W r i g h t A r g y l e Secondary School D i s t r i c t #44 1131 F r e d e r i c k Road North Vancouver, B.C. V7K 1J3 Mr. Mr. Mr. J . Bryan H. Cross Ed. Reimer S e n t i n e l Secondary School D i s t r i c t #45 1250 C h a r t w e l l D r i v e West Vancouver, B.C. V7S 2R2 Mrs . M. T i n g e y Max Cameron Secondary School D i s t r i c t #47 4360 J o y c e Avenue Powell R i v e r , B.C. V8A 3A4 Mr. T.M. Foreman P r i n c e Rupert Secondary School D i s t r i c t #52 417 West 9th Avenue P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C. V8J 2P8 Mr. M. Clement 181 Appendix C ( c o n t i n u e d ) School T e a c h e r S m i t h e r s Secondary School D i s t r i c t #54 Box 849 S m i t h e r s , B.C. VOJ 2N0 G a r r e t t M. VanWeetherizen Lakes D i s t r i c t Secondary School D i s t r i c t #55 Box 3000 Burns Lake, B.C. VOJ 1E0 Mrs.Doreen Woodal1 Nechako V a l l e y Secondary School D i s t r i c t #56 P.O. Box 950 Vanderhoof, B.C. VOJ 3A0 Mr. L. C o l o n e l l o K e l l y Road Secondary School D i s t r i c t #57 c/o 1891 6th Avenue P r i n c e George, B.C. V2M 1L7 Mr. Rod M u l l i g a n McBride Secondary School D i s t r i c t #57 c/o 1891 6th Avenue P r i n c e George, B.C. V2M 1L7 Mrs. Nora Penner North Peace Secondary School D i s t r i c t #60 10419 - 99th Avenue F o r t S a i n t John, B.C. VIJ 1V6 Mr. B a r r e Eyre 182 Appendix C ( c o n t i n u e d ) School T e a c h e r Mount Douglas Secondary School D i s t r i c t #61 3970 Gordon Head Road V i c t o r i a , B.C. V8P 3X3 Mr. C h a r l e s Brookman Oak Bay Secondary School D i s t r i c t #61 2151 Cranmore Road V i c t o r i a , B.C. V8R 1Z2 The t e a c h e r i s not known. Spectrum Community Secondary School D i s t r i c t #61 957 West B u r n s i d e Road V i c t o r i a , B.C. V8Z 6E9 The t e a c h e r i s not known. V i c t o r i a Secondary School D i s t r i c t #61 1260 Grant S t r e e t V i c t o r i a , B.C. V8T 1C2 The t e a c h e r i s not known. P a r k l a n d Secondary School D i s t r i c t #63 10640 McDonald Park Road S i d n e y , B.C. V8L 3S8 Mr. Ross M a r t i n S t e l l y ' s Secondary School D i s t r i c t #63 c/o School Board O f f i c e P.O. Box 2010 S i d n e y , B.C. Mrs R o s a l i n d T a y l o r 183 Appendix C ( c o n t i n u e d ) School T e a c h e r Claremont Secondary School D i s t r i c t #63 4980 Wesley Road V i c t o r i a , B.C. V8Y 1Y9 Mr. George K e l l y Cowichan S e n i o r Secondary School D i s t r i c t #65 2652 James S t r e e t Duncan, B.C. Ms. J . S h e l b o u r n Lake Cowichan Secondary School D i s t r i c t #66 Box 40 Lake Cowichan, B.C. Mr. Dave Boekner Nanaimo D i s t r i c t Secondary School D i s t r i c t #68 355 Wakesiah Avenue Nanaimo, B.C. Mr. Mr. Rod Brown Jack Hodgins Ladysmith Secondary School D i s t r i c t #68 Drawer 190 L a d y s m i t h , B.C. David K e l l e y A l b e r n i D i s t r i c t Secondary School School D i s t r i c t #70 4000 Burde S t r e e t P o r t A l b e r n i , B.C. Mr. R. Rankin 184 Appendix C ( c o n t i n u e d ) School T e a c h e r Georges P. V a n i e r Secondary School D i s t r i c t #71 Box 3369 Courtenay, B.C. Mrs. D. C r o f t F o r t N e lson Secondary School D i s t r i c t #81 Box 90 F o r t N e l s o n , B.C. VOC 1R0 Mrs. J i l l V i v i a n North I s l a n d Secondary School D i s t r i c t #85 P.O. Box 100 P o r t M c N e i l l , B.C. VON 2R0 Mr. Dave Manning C a s s i a r E l e m e n t a r y - S e c o n d a r y School D i s t r i c t #87 Box 190 C a s s i a r , B.C. Ms. Donna A b l i n C a l e d o n i a S e n i o r Secondary School D i s t r i c t #88 3605 Munroe S t r e e t T e r r a c e , B.C. V8G 1X2 Mr. P e t e r Vogt Salmon Arm S e n i o r Secondary School D i s t r i c t #89 Box 1000 Salmon Arm, B.C. Mr. Duncan Lowe A P P E N D I X D PROVINCIAL SURVEY: ADDITIONAL TEACHER COMMENTS APPENDIX D PROVINCIAL SURVEY: ADDITIONAL TEACHER COMMENTS Comment No. 1 No q u e s t i o n s on c l a s s s i z e ? C l a s s s e l e c t i o n ( i . e . , c r i t e r i a f o r e n t r y ) . Comment No. 2 St u d e n t assignments i n c l u d e d i r e c t i o n t o seek o u t s i d e p u b l i c a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s . U s u a l l y some do g e t p u b l i s h e d and get payment. Comment No. 3 A d v i c e to a l l C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g s t u d e n t s : I t i s f a r b e t t e r t o screw i n one s m a l l l i g h t -b u l b than t o reach f o r the sun a t m i d n i g h t . Comment No. 4 Have you e v e r thought o f t r y i n g t o o r g a n i z e W r i t i n g 11 t e a c h e r s i n the p r o v i n c e so t h a t we can exchange i d e a s more f r e q u e n t l y . Such an exchange would be most u s e f u l . Appendix D ( c o n t i n u e d ) Comment No. 5 I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t the book we produce i s an 'annual' ( y e a r b o o k ) . I t o f f e r s a c e r t a i n o u t l e t f o r some o f the C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g t h a t i s done. The o t h e r method we used, t o p u b l i s h C.W., was the monthly s c h o o l newspaper. I t would c e r t a i n l y be b e n e f i c i a l t o have a P r o v i n c i a l j o u r n a l p u b l i s h e d (monthly?) w i t h v a r i o u s s t u d e n t c r e a t i o n s . . . . Comment No. 6 I have been t e a c h i n g t h i s c o u r s e f o r o n l y two y e a r s , and am s t i l l s e a r c h i n g f o r ways t o d e v e l o p the elements o f the w r i t e r ' s s t y l e . I doubt t h a t the Department o f E d u c a t i o n c o u l d do v e r y much i n t h i s f i e l d , u n l e s s they c o u l d commission a b o o k l e t c o n t a i n i n g passages i l l u s t r a t i n g v a r i o u s s t y l e s , w i t h a s i m p l e a n a l y s i s o f the s t y l e o f each. T h i s s h o u l d be o f such a l e v e l as to be a c c e s s i b l e t o the s t u d e n t . Such a b o o k l e t would a l l o w the s t u d e n t t o become f a m i l i a r w i t h s t y l e s , and t o o b s e r v e the manner i n which they d i f f e r . Appendix D ( c o n t i n u e d ) The g r e a t e s t h e l p would be t o hear from o t h e r s i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g . Perhaps t h i s c o u l d be a l o n e by the p r o v i n c i a l E n g l i s h T e a c h e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n . Comment No. 7 I am a new t e a c h e r o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g and am g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g p r o c e d u r e s used by o t h e r t e a c h e r s . Do you know o f any a r t i c l e s o r books r e l a t e d t o the s u b j e c t o f t e a c h i n g C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g ? Comment No. 8 J u s t f o r the r e c o r d , I ' v e d i v i d e d the c o u r s e i n t o t h r e e segments:Journal ism, B r o a d c a s t i n g (emphasis on r a d i o t e c h n i q u e s ) and C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g . In a small s c h o o l such as t h i s i t ' s d i f f i c u l t t o o f f e r r e a l l y " i n depth" c o u r s e s which one m a i n l y makes up o n e s e l f . I was g i v e n t he c o u r s e t o t e a c h as I had a one time worked i n the Newsroom o f the Vancouver Sun--hence I had j o u r n a l i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e . 189 Appendix D ( c o n t i n u e d ) I'm not an E n g l i s h t e a c h e r — r a t h e r my f i e l d i s t h a t o f H i s t o r y and Geography but I'm v e r y t h a n k f u l f o r t a k i n g E n g l i s h 303 a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. I don't know what the c o u r s e was supposed t o c o n t a i n b ut my i n s t r u c t r e s s f e l t t h e o u t l i n e as put f o r t h by the F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n l e f t "something" t o be d e s i r e d and what she d i d was o f f e r a C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g c o u r s e a l b e i t f a i r l y w e l l s t r u c t u r e d s t a r t i n g w i t h how t o w r i t e so o t h e r s can un d e r s t a n d what y o u ' r e t r y i n g t o say. I've used a g r e a t p a r t o f my n o t e s , e t c . from my o l d E n g l i s h 303 c o u r s e and have found them i n v a l u a b l e f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n o f W r i t i n g 11.. Comment No. 9 I f e e l t h a t t h i s c o u r s e was one o f the most s u c c e s s f u l I have t a u g h t because we jumped r i g h t i n and d i d t h i n g s and l e a r n e d from e x p e r i e n c e . We made a movie, made a v i d e o t a p e , made a l i t e r a r y magazine, e t c . and then a n a l y z e d o u r e f f o r t s a f t e r w a r d s t o see where we c o u l d improve. We o n l y l o o k e d something up t o see how t o do i t i f we got s t u c k . I thought t e x t b o o k s t u d i e s i n Appendix D ( c o n t i n u e d ) t h i s c o u r s e would s t i f l e c r e a t i v i t y . As i t was, we had no l a c k o f c r e a t i v e i d e a s . E n c l o s e d i s a copy o f o u r l i t e r a r y magazine. Very l i t t l e o f the c l a s s ' s t o t a l C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g o u t p u t i s i n the magazine because we t r i e d t o b a l a n c e the c o n t r i b u -t i o n s from d i f f e r e n t g r a d e s . A l s o , we a r e somewhat l i m i t e d by o u r g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n ! For i n s t a n c e , t h e r e p r o b a b l y i s n ' t a p r o f e s s i o n a l ( o r even s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l ) w r i t e r w i t h i n m i l e s who c o u l d do a r e a d i n g . Comment 10 T h i s j u s t got t o me today so I hope i t reaches you on time! YEA CREATIVE WRITING'. LONG LIVE WRITERS. Don't l e t the government put i n c o u r s e o u t l i n e s o r screw us up a t a l l . We can d e v e l o p genre s e c t i o n s and d e v e l o p s k i l l s o u r s e l v e s i f we have p e o p l e who know what they a r e d o i n g . We need p e o p l e who know w r i t i n g , p r e f e r a b l y w r i t e r s who l i k e h e l p i n g o t h e r s t o l e a r n . The s t u d e n t s a r e v e r y i n t e l l i g e n t , can ha n d l e d i f f i c u l t c o n c e p t s and a r e v e r y f u n t o work w i t h . I am going back t o do my M.F.A. i n C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g and o n l y then w i l l I f e e l r e a l l y q u a l i f i e d t o t e a c h t he c o u r s e . 191 Appendix D ( c o n t i n u e d ) Comment No. 11 C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g i s a v e r y p o p u l a r e l e c t i v e h e r e — a b o u t s i x t y s t u d e n t s do i t each semester. (School R o l l - 550) Many s t u d e n t s w r i t e f a r more than e x p e c t e d amounts and o f t e n c o n t i n u e t o b r i n g work i n a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g the c o u r s e . P o e t r y i s most p o p u l a r . I e n j o y r e a d i n g n e a r l y e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s handed i n , m a i n l y because p e o p l e a r e encouraged t o w r i t e what i s most i m p o r t a n t t o them from d a y - t o - d a y — a n d I emphasize e m o t i o n a l s i n c e r i t y so t h a t p e o p l e e x p r e s s s u b s t a n t i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e m s e l v e s . I used t o s u g g e s t t o p i c s a t the b e g i n n i n g o f e v e r y p e r i o d but i t seems t h a t the more I withdraw my d i r e c t i o n t h e more t h e q u a l i t y o f w r i t i n g i m p r o v e s — a d e l i c a t e p r o c e s s . Comment 12 I would a p p r e c i a t e any h e l p o r s u g g e s t i o n s I can g e t . Next y e a r I w i l l i n s i s t on a j o u r n a l kept f o r the y e a r . I w i l l a l s o spend some time t e a c h i n g STANDARD grammar and u s a g e — s e n t e n c e s , p a r a g r a p h s , e s s a y s . I b e l i e v e I a l s o emphasize e n j o y i n g t h e p r o c e s s r a t h e r than a c h i e v i n g the g o a l . I t seems t o w o r k — t h e r e s u l t s a r e g e n e r a l l y i m p r e s s i v e . 192 Appendix D ( c o n t i n u e d ) t h a t c r e a t i v e w r i t e r s must be aware o f the " s t a n d a r d " t h e y a r e r a n g i n g from. I l o o k upon STANDARD grammar and usage as a knowledge o f the CRAFTSMANSHIP o f w r i t i n g . I w i l l a l s o spend time on a h i s t o r y o f s t y l e s — h a v e s t u d e n t s parody s t y l e s . I w i l l , i n a d d i t i o n , do a l i t t l e s u r v e y o f g e n r e s . Once s t u d e n t s have a background o f s t a n d a r d grammar and usage, an awareness o f d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s and forms, then they can t r y t h e i r hand f r e e l y moulding t h e i r own t h o u g h t s . Then I w i l l have workshops t o d i s c u s s themes, compare notes and so on. D i s c u s s i o n s , r e a d i n g s . . . . Next y e a r w i l l be the second y e a r f o r t h i s c o u r s e . T h i s y e a r I made the m i s t a k e o f assuming: (1) o n l y p e o p l e i n t e r e s t e d i n w r i t i n g o r p e o p l e who are w r i t i n g a l r e a d y w i l l be i n the c o u r s e ( C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g 11 i s a c o n v e n i e n t dumping ground f o r s t u d e n t s who have no p l a c e t o g o — s c h o o l problem which won't co n c e r n y o u r t h e s i s but which n o n e t h e l e s s a f f e c t s the c o u r s e ) . 193 Appendix D ( c o n t i n u e d ) (2) c r e a t i v i t y i s i t s own m o t i v a t i o n . (3) c r e a t i v i t y f u n c t i o n s b e s t w i t h i n a s t r u c t u r -l e s s ( f r e e ) environment) I w i l l h e a v i l y s t r u c t u r e the c o u r s e f o r a p p r o x i -m a t e l y o n e - h a l f a y e a r — s e n t e n c e s , p a r a g r a p h s , l o n g e r c o m p o s i t i o n s , h i s t o r y o f s t y l e s , s u r v e y o f f o r m s — t h e n o n e - h a l f y e a r on workshops, ' f r e e r ' environment e t c . , r e a d i n g s . I ' l l ' i m p r i s o n ' them i n a s t r u c t u r e f i r s t , then s e t them f r e e . Comment No. 13 Your q u e s t i o n n a i r e uses ' i n s i s t ' i n s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s . I t i s c o n t r a r y w i t h the s p i r i t , o f my c o u r s e t o i n s i s t on a n y t h i n g c r e a t i v e — w i t h one e x c e p t i o n , I i n s i s t t h a t s t u d e n t s not be humble about t h e i r work but t h a t they s h a r e i t w i t h o t h e r s . H o p e f u l l y , they work because they want t o . 194 Comment 14 I am c u r r e n t l y e n d e a v o u r i n g t o persuade the Department o f E d u c a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a t h a t s e p a r a t e c r e d i t s s h o u l d be g i v e n f o r C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g 11 and J o u r n a l i s m 11 , as they d e v e l o p e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t s k i l l s . I am o f the o p i n i o n t h a t t h e y appear t o d i f f e r e n t t ypes o f s t u d e n t s and c a p i t a l i z e on d i f f e r e n t t a l e n t s . So f a r , I have met the usual b u r e a u c r a t i c 'red t a p e ' — b u t I haven't g i v e n upl 195 APPENDIX E Ways o f Knowing The S t u d e n t A. Ideas R e l e v a n t to an Awareness o f the Person's I n d i v i d u a l i t y 1. Remember t h a t p o t e n t i a l i t i e s have t o be l o o k e d f o r and t h a t t h i s t a k e s e f f o r t . 2. T r y t o d i s c o v e r something unique about each c h i l d o r young p e r s o n . 3. Expect him t o be d i f f e r e n t . 4. I d e n t i f y him by name as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e . 5. Remember t h a t c h i l d r e n come i n many d i f f e r e n t shapes, s i z e s , c o l o r s . Each has h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t needs t o be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . 6. Remember t h a t each has h i s own p a t t e r n o f l e a r n i n g and t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o "tune i n t o i t " o r become aware o f i t . 7. A c c e p t him as he i s . Every c h i l d and young p e r s o n has i n -t e r e s t i n g , e x c i t i n g , and v a l u a b l e q u a l i t i e s . 8. Observe the e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s on him; know the e n v i r o n -mental background. 9. Be aware o f the p r e v i o u s i n j u r i e s o r e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t have shaped h i s way o f t h i n k i n g , a c t i n g , and f e e l i n g . 10. Be f a m i l i a r w i t h h i s p a s t r e c o r d , achievement, d i s c i p l i n e , h e a l t h , e t c . 11. Learn something o f h i s f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s ("chip o f f o l d b l o c k " ) . 12. Know what the normal p a t t e r n i s and compare t o see how h i s p a t t e r n d i f f e r s from i t . 13. Remember t h a t we n e v e r l e a r n a l l t h e r e i s t o know about a p e r s o n . B. Ideas I n v o l v i n g H e i g h t e n e d Sensory E x p e r i e n c e 14. Look him o v e r . 15. Focus y o u r a t t e n t i o n d i r e c t l y on him. 16. A c h i l d ' s p h y s i c a l q u a l i t i e s a r e one way o f knowing him. 17. Use a l l y o u r senses o f " k n o w i n g " — s t r e t c h i n g them t o the utmost. * [ T o r r a n c e , 1970, pp. 26-30]. 196 19. Weigh and t e s t . 20. Look a t , l i s t e n t o , r e a c t t o him from al1 a n g l e s . 21. Observe i n v a r i o u s k i n d s o f l i g h t ( i n as many s i t u a t i o n s as p o s s i b l e ) . B r i g h t l i g h t s b r i n g o u t some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , w h i l e shade b r i n g s o u t o t h e r s . 22. Observe the c h i l d f i r s t as an i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l , and then h i s r e a c t i o n t o h i s environment, the r e a c t i o n s o f o t h e r s t o him, and h i s b e h a v i o r i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . 23. T e s t the depth and genuineness o f h i s o b s e r v a b l e ( s u r f a c e ) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . What you might assume t o be sham o r p r e t e n s e may be genuine. 24. Observe what he does when l e f t a l o n e . 25. Empathize. T r y to imagine how he e x p e r i e n c e s t h i n g s . 26. C o n s t r u c t f a n t a s i e s o r dream c a s t l e s about what he c o u l d become. 27. Observe c l e a n l i n e s s o r l a c k o f c l e a n l i n e s s . What appears t o be u n c l e a n l i n e s s may o n l y be s t a i n s . 28. Go below the s u r f a c e appearance t o f i n d the r e a l c h i l d . 29. See him from a l l s i d e s and p o s i t i o n s . 30. N o t i c e p h y s i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s so as t o d i s t i n g u i s h one p u p i l from a n o t h e r as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e . 31. Photograph him engaged i n v a r i o u s k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s . Record h i s v o i c e . 32. Observe whether he i s r e l a x e d o r t e n s e . 33. Look, l o o k , l o o k , and then l o o k a g a i n . C. E x t e n s i o n o f S e n s i n g through E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n 34. Encourage him t o go f u r t h e r than he t h i n k s he c a n , t o t e s t h i s l i m i t s . 35. F i n d h i s most ob v i o u s a s s e t s , put them t o use, and see what o t h e r s emerge. 36. Do not be a f r a i d t o c h a l l e n g e a c h i l d o r a young person t o h i s l i m i t s o c c a s i o n a l l y , even t o the f r u s t r a t i o n p o i n t . 37. P r o v i d e m a t e r i a l s f o r m a n i p u l a t i o n , g i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e i r use, and see what p o t e n t i a l i t i e s emerge. 38. S e t up a v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s where he may work a l o n e , w i t h one, w i t h a committee, and w i t h a s t r u c t u r e d c l a s s , and o b s e r v e changes i n b e h a v i o r . 39. Observe h i s response t o d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s . 40. A l t e r t he c l a s s r o o m s t r u c t u r e . 41. Give him an i n t e r e s t i n v e n t o r y o f some k i n d . 42. C h a l l e n g e him w i t h a v a r i e t y o f types o f assignments and note the r e s u l t s . 43. Use him f o r an i m p o r t a n t purpose o r goal and o b s e r v e what new p o t e n t i a l i t i e s t h i s b r i n g s out. 44. Observe him under s t r e s s , when he i s angry, e t c . 45. Observe what he chooses t o do when he i s a l o n e . 46. Give him o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o pursue h i s hobbies o r s t r o n g i n t e r e s t s as a way o f b r i n g i n g o u t some o f h i s b e s t a b i l i t i e s and s t r o n g e s t m o t i v a t i o n s . 47. Observe changes o r l a c k o f change ( s t a b i l i t y ) under d i f f e r -e n t c o n d i t i o n s . 48. Keep chan g i n g the c o n d i t i o n s . Give d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s t o b r i n g out new p o t e n t i a l i t i e s t h a t don't j u s t happen t o come o u t . 49. Observe how he responds and t o what he responds. 50. L e t him a c t i n d e p e n d e n t l y . 51. Give him a chance t o e x p r e s s h i m s e l f . 52. Experiment and e v a l u a t e ; o b s e r v e what new q u a l i t i e s come out under v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s . 53. Use a v a r i e t y o f ways o f t e s t i n g them. 54. Develop o r enhance one p o t e n t i a l i t y and see what o t h e r s come o u t . 55. Joke w i t h him. 56. Needle him. 57. Remember t h a t e v e r y c h i l d and young person has i n f i n i t e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , and t h e r e i s no end t o them i f we are open, and i f we e x e r t e f f o r t . 58. Observe him under s t r e s s and c o m p e t i t i o n . 59. S y n t h e s i z e t e s t s c o r e s and o t h e r d a t a i n t o a c o h e r e n t m e a n i n g f u l p i c t u r e . D. E x t e n d i n g Awareness by R e c o r d i n g , P r e d i c t i n g , and C h e c k i n g P r e d i c t i o n s 60. A f t e r making o b s e r v a t i o n s , p r e d i c t how the c h i l d o r young person w i l l p e r f o r m (behave, a c h i e v e , r e a c t , respond) i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s ; how he w i l l meet p r e d i c t a b l e s t r e s s e s , e 198 61. Have him r e a c t to c e r t a i n o b j e c t s , and p r e d i c t h i s r e a c t i o n . 62. W i t h h o l d f i n a l judgment. Keep open t o changes and unseen p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . 63. L i s t o b s e r v a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . W r i t e down p r e d i c t i o n s and keep a r e c o r d o f t h e i r outcome. 64. Record o b s e r v a t i o n s from time t o t i m e , o v e r a span o f time. Observe t r e n d s . 65. When you combine h i s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s w i t h someone e l s e ' s , what new q u a l i t i e s emerge. 66. Examine performance d a t a , i f a v a i l a b l e . Study growth t r e n d s . E. E x t e n d i n g Awareness Through I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n 67. F i n d ways o f r e a r r a n g i n g c h i l d r e n f o r g r e a t e r i n t e r a c t i o n . 68. A l l o w c h i l d r e n t o work i n teams, and l i s t e n and o b s e r v e t o see what unexpected q u a l i t i e s are m a n i f e s t e d . 69. Observe what t a l e n t s , i n t e r e s t s , o r m o t i v a t i o n s emerge i n r o l e p l a y i n g , p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s , lunchroom i n t e r a c t i o n , f a n t a s y a c t i v i t i e s , e t c . 70. Observe the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r i n d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f o t h e r p u p i l s . 71. Ask o t h e r people about him; f i n d out how o t h e r s see him. 72. Use sociograms and o t h e r peer r a t i n g s , i n t e r a c t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n , e t c . 73. Observe how he i n t e r a c t s w i t h h i s peers i n the c l a s s r o o m . 74. Compare him w i t h o t h e r s h i s age, sex, e t c . 75. N o t i c e h i s moods and r e a c t i o n s day a f t e r day; o b s e r v e how h i s p r e s e n c e o r absence a f f e c t s o t h e r s . F. U s i n g S e l f i n I n t e r a c t i o n P r o c e s s 76. Remember t h a t warmth o f p e r s o n a l i t y i s f e l t o n l y by c o n t a c t , a s s o c i a t i o n , e t c . 77. Touch him. 78. H o l d him. 79. C a r e s s him. 80. Converse w i t h the c h i l d o r young person i n d i v i d u a l l y . 81. A c t as a r e s p o n s i v e environment. 199 82. Be a v a i l a b l e , always take time to l i s t e n , and l o o k f o r p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . 83. Be r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d ; r e a l l y c a r e . 84. T r y t o get t o know him w e l l enough t o d i s c o v e r what "warms" o r " s p a r k s " him. 85'. Love him. 86. Enjoy him. 87. Work and p l a y a l o n g w i t h him; c o - e x p e r i e n c e , c o - l e a r n . G. Through H e i g h t e n e d C o n s c i o u s n e s s 88. Become aware o f y o u r own b i a s e s — p o t e n t i a l i t i e s you t e n d e i t h e r t o see o r t o i g n o r e . 89. I n s t e a d o f f o r c i n g the c h i l d i n t o y o u r mold, t h i n k o f ways o f h e l p i n g him develop as he i s , u s i n g h i s own b e s t poten-t a l i t i e s . 90. Become aware o f the c h i l d o r young person's e f f e c t on you e m o t i o n a l l y . 91. Remember t h a t no c h i l d o r young person i s d u l l o r u n i n t e r e s t -i n g ; i t t a k e s time and q u i e t e f f o r t t o f i n d the q u a l i t i e s t h a t make him unique. 92. A person's p o t e n t i a l i t i e s a re many-sided; sometimes we see o n l y one dominant q u a l i t y and miss a l l the o t h e r s . 93. Do not l e t a l a b e l b l i n d you t o what the c h i l d r e a l l y i s and can become. The l a b e l may sometimes be i n c o r r e c t o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e . 94. Know what b i a s e s and l i m i t a t i o n s f o r awareness keep you from u n d e r s t a n d i n g a c h i l d o r young p e r s o n . 95. R e f l e c t about the c h i l d and y o u r own f e e l i n g s about him. 96. Take time out t o become aware o f h i s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . 97. Keep open t o the c h i l d ' s developmental and b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n . 98. Seek t o know the c h i l d i n t i m a t e l y and i n t u i t i v e l y . 99. A f t e r making o b s e r v a t i o n s , l e t the p r o c e s s e s o f i n c u b a t i o n o p e r a t e . 100. D i f f e r e n t i a t e the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between you and him; do not assume t h a t he responds as you do i n a l l r e s p e c t s . APPENDIX F H e l p f u l A r t i c l e s on the P r a c t i c a l i t i e s o f S t u d e n t P u b l i c a t i o n s W i t h i n the School Benjamin W. A l l n u t . "Why Do You Do I t ? , " C.S.P.A.A. B u l l e t i n : V o l . 32, May 1974. T h i s a r t i c l e reviews the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s and a d v i s o r s i n v o l v e d i n p r o d u c i n g s c h o o l p u b l i c a t i o n s . Edmund A r n o l d . "Your P u b l i c a t i o n s can Improve When You S e t High S t a n d a r d s , " Communication: J o u r n a l i s m E d u c a t i o n Today: V o l . 7, W i n t e r 1974. T h i s a r t i c l e s u g g e s t s i d e a s f o r e n c o u r a g i n g h i g h s c h o o l p u b l i c a t i o n s s t a f f e r s t o produce c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h q u a l i t y work. J u l i a M. Connor. " A d v i s i n g S t u d e n t P u b l i c a t i o n s - S t e p by S t e p , " S c h o l a s t i c E d i t o r Graphics/Communications: V o l . 54, O c t o b e r 1974. Connor p r o v i d e s a number o f p r a c t i c a l t i p s f o r t e a c h e r s who are c u r r e n t l y f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s f o r s t u d e n t p u b l i -c a t i o n s o r a r e c o n t e m p l a t i n g such a move. Joseph M. Murphy. " L i v i n g A f t e r Three," C.S.P.A.A. B u l l e t i n : V o l . 32, May 1974. C o n t a i n e d i n t h i s a r t i c l e i s the address o f D i r e c t o r E m e r i t u s , Dr. Joseph M. Murphy o f the Columbia S c h o l a s t i c P r e s s A d v i s o r s A s s o c i a t i o n , on the n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the j o u r n a l i s m a d v i s o r and h i s s t u d e n t s . Robert Stephen S i l v e r m a n . "How t o Measure a P u b l i c a t i o n s ' L e g i b i l i t y , " School P r e s s Review: V o l . 49, F e b r u a r y 1974. S i l v e r m a n p r o v i d e s and d i s c u s s e s the use o f an i n s t r u -ment f o r e v a l u a t i n g the l e g i b i l i t y o f any p u b l i c a t i o n . 201 Howard J . Waters. "Step Up Advocacy, S o f t - P e d a l A u t h o r i t y , " C a t h o l i c School E d i t o r : V o l . 43, March 1974. P a r t One o f a two p a r t s e r i e s , t h i s a r t i c l e examines the r o l e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s f o r s e c o n d a r y p u b l i c a t i o n s . L e s l i e Z a i t a . " L e t Your S t u d e n t s C a r r y the B a l l , " C a t h o l i c  School E d i t o r : V o l . 43, March 1974. P a r t Two o f a two p a r t s e r i e s , t h i s a r t i c l e examines the r o l e s o f the f a c u l t y a d v i s o r and s t u d e n t e d i t o r from the p o i n t o f view o f a former s t u d e n t e d i t o r . A Book t h a t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l i s The School L i t e r a r y Magazine, by B. Jo. K i n n i c k , ed. I t i s an i m p r e s s i v e book t h a t p u b l i s h i n g c l a s s r o o m s s h o u l d not be w i t h o u t . 202 APPENDIX G Exemplary P u b l i s h e d S t u d e n t Work »Foxfire. Anya Seton ed. S t u d e n t s d e l v e i n t o the f o l k a r t s and f o l k l o r e o f the r u r a l A p p a l a c h i a s . Sunshine U n f o l d i n g . C r a i g H o l d r e g e , and o t h e r s . S t u d e n t s d e s i g n e d t h i s book f o r use by both e l e m e n t a r y and h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . T o p i c s c o v e r e d i n c l u d e Hinduism, Yoga, T r a n s c e n d e n t a l m e d i t a t i o n , t r a d i t i o n a l American p h i l o s o p h i e s , F a r - E a s t e r n p h i l o s o p h i e s (Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and Zen c o n c e p t s ) , M a c r o b i o t i c s and Judeo-C h r i s t i a n T e a c h i n g s . The W h i s p e r i n g Wind: P o e t r y by Young American I n d i a n s . T e r r y A l l e n ed. T h i s book i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f p o e t r y by s t u d e n t s from the i n s t i t u t e o f American I n d i a n A r t s . Many poems a r e r o o t e d i n the I n d i a n o r a l t r a d i t i o n . Wishes, L i e s and Dreams. Kenneth Koch and the S t u d e n t s o f P.S. 61 i n New York C i t y . T h i s book i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f c h i l d r e n ' s p o e t r y , augmented by Kenneth Koch's d e s c r i p t i o n s o f how he t a u g h t the c h i l d r e n t o w r i t e p o e t r y and t o e n j o y the e x p e r i e n c e . Those i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g o t h e r s t u d e n t a u t h o r e d work, s h o u l d r e a d the a r t i c l e , " C h i l d r e n as A u t h o r s , " Elementary E n g l i s h : V o l . 49, O c t o b e r 1972, by Mary Anne H a l l and L i n d a B. G a m b r e l l . 203 APPENDIX H Musts f o r the C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g S t u d e n t L i b r a r y Canadian W r i t e r ' s Guide. Canadian A u t h o r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n . T h i s comprehensive manual and market l i s t i s a must f o r e v e r y Canadian w r i t e r . I t e x p l a i n s the r e q u i r e -ments o f Canadian e d i t o r s , s u p p l i e s i n f o r m a t i o n on such items as g r a n t s , c o p y r i g h t and f e e s t r u c t u r e s . The C r e a t i v e W r i t e r . E a r l e B i r n e y . T h i s book c o n t a i n s the t e x t s o f seven h a l f - h o u r p h i l o s o -p h i c a l t a l k s w i t h E a r l e B i r n e y about the w r i t e r and h i s a r t . How t o P u b l i s h Your Own Book. L.W. M u e l l e r . As a guide f o r a u t h o r s who wish to p u b l i s h a book a t t h e i r own expense, t h i s book i s complete i n i t s p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s . D e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o -v i d e d on e v e r y a s p e c t o f p u b l i c a t i o n . The o n l y drawback i s i t s l a c k o f p a r t i c u l a r Canadian i n f o r m a t i o n . I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r y o f L i t t l e Magazines and Small P r e s s e s . Len F u l t o n ed. A l l the p e r t i n e n t d e t a i l s , f o r both s u b m i s s i o n s and o r d e r s , f o r e v e r y magazine p r i n t e d a re i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c o m p i l a t i o n . ^ L e t ' s W r i t e a S c r i p t . T.E. H a r d i n g . Some problems o f w r i t i n g s c r i p t s f o r r a d i o and/or t e l e v i s i o n are d i s c u s s e d . Notes a re a l s o i n c l u d e d t o h e l p the f r e e l a n c e w r i t e r who wishes to s e l l h i s work. The P u b ! i s h - I t - Y o u r s e l f Handbook. B i l l Henderson ed. T h i s book i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f p r a c t i c a l t i p s f o r many ki n d s o f p u b l i c a t i o n s , from r e c i p e books t o under-ground newspapers. I t i s w r i t t e n by w r i t e r s who have a l r e a d y p u b l i s h e d i n the f i e l d they a re w r i t i n g about. Western Windows: A Comparative A n t h o l o g y o f P o e t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. P a t r i c i a M. E l l i s ed. T h i s contemporary a n t h o l o g y o f poems, w i t h accompanying poe t i n t e r v i e w s , i s i n t e n d e d to f o r c e r e a d e r s t o a c c e p t p o e t r y as r e a l and v i t a l messages from one human b e i n g t o a n o t h e r . W r i t e r ' s Market. Canadian A u t h o r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n . T h i s book expands on the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n Canadian W r i t e r ' s Guide. W r i t i n g C h i l d r e n ' s Books. C h i l d r e n ' s Book C o u n c i l pamphlet. T h i s pamphlet concerns what the w r i t e r needs t o know: s p e c i a l t e c h n i q u e s , how to submit a m a n u s c r i p t and what happens to a m a n u s c r i p t a t a p u b l i s h i n g house. W r i t i n g f o r C h i l d r e n and Teen-Agers. Lee Wyndham. The purpose o f t h i s book i s to t e a c h would-be a u t h o r s how to w r i t e and p u b l i s h a book f o r young p e o p l e . I t i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s : "A P r a c t i c a l Guide t o P u b l i s h i n g " and " S p e c i a l W r i t i n g Problems and P r o j e c t s . " APPENDIX I W r i t e r s ' Market The A n t i g o n i s h Review. S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r U n i v e r s i t y , A n t i g o n i s h , Nova S c o t i a . B l a c k f i s h . 1851 Moore Avenue, Burnaby 2, B r i t i s h Columbia Bluenose Magazine, Box 580, P o r t M a i t l a n d , Nova S c o t i a , BOW 2V0. The Canadian F i c t i o n Magazine, P.O. Box 46422, S t a . G., Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Canadian P o e t r y , Department U n i v e r s i t y Uni ve r s i t y London, O n t a r i o . o f E n g l i s h , Col l e g e , o f Western O n t a r i o , The C a p i l a n o Review, 2055 P u r c e l l Way, North Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, V7J 3H5. Charasee P r e s s , P.O. Box 340, S t a t i o n E, T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o d a v a n c i , P.O. Box 813, S t a t i o n A, M o n t r e a l , Quebec. Eve n t , Douglas C o l l e g e P.O. Box 2503, New Westminster, B r i t i s h Columbia F i l e , A r t O f f i c i a l I n c . , 241 Yonge S t r e e t , T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o , M5B 1N8 G r a i n , Box 1885, Sa s k a t o o n , Saskatchewan. Impulse, Box 901, S t a t i o n "Q", T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o , M4T 2P1. I t Needs To Be S a i d , R.R. 1, Box 201, K i n g s t o n , O n t a r i o . c/o. E n g l i s h Department, C o n c o r d i a U n i v e r s i t y , L o y o l a Campus, 7141 Sherbrooke S t r e e t , W. M o n t r e a l , Quebec. K a r a k i , Apt. 1 2821 Irma S t r e e t V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia V9A 1S3. Makara, 1011 Commercial D r i v e , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia V5L 3X1. Malahat Review, U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. Newest ReView, 13024-109 Avenue, Edmonton, A l b e r t a . Only Paper Today, c/o A Space, 85 S t . N i c h o l a s S t r e e t , T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o . O n t a r i o Review, 6,000 R i v e r s i d e Dr. E., Windsor, O n t a r i o , N8S 1B6 P a r a c h u t e , C P . 730, S u c c u r s a l e N, M o n t r e a l , Quebec, H2X 3N4. P o e t r y Windsor P o e s i e , Box 6, Sandwich, P.O. Windsor, O n t a r i o , N9C 3Y6. P r i s m I n t e r n a t i o n a l , Department o f C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. R e p o s i t o r y , R.R. 7, Buckhorn Road, P r i n c e George, V2N 2J5. Revue, Box 652, S t a . A, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Room o f One's Own, 1918 Waterloo S t r e e t , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, V6R 3G6. West C o a s t Review, Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby 2, B r i t i s h Columbia. 209 Wascana Review, Wascana Parkway, Regina, Saskatchewan. There a r e c e r t a i n l y many o t h e r some o f which are l i s t e d below: Anansi  A r t s c a n a d a  A t h a n o r  blewointment  B r a n c h i n g Out  Canada West  Canadian Forum  Canadian L i t e r a t u r e  Coach House  Combustion  C o n t a c t  CV'/II D a l h o u s i e Review D e l t a . F i d d l e h e a d Imago Is I s l a n d  Moment M o r r i s e P r e s s  new p r e s s  Poet L o r e  P o e t r y Bag  P o e t r y Northwest  Quarry Queen's Q u a r t e r l y i c a t i o n s worthy o f a t t e n t i o n , Q u i l l " a n d Q u i r e  Sono N i s  T a l o n Tamarack Review  Vancouver L i fe  V i g i l a n t e  White P e l i c a n  The Whole Apple  W r i t i n g Yes APPENDIX J W r i t i n g C o m p e t i t i o n s Canada C o u n c i l o f Teachers o f E n g l i s h (CCTE): P r o j e c t Pandora P o e t r y Content r submit through B r i t i s h Columbia E n g l i s h T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n (BCETA) - d e t a i l s a v a i l a b l e i n BCETA p u b l i c a t i o n : Update Canada Permanent T r u s t : S h o r t S t o r y C o n t e s t - submit through S t u d e n t W r i t i n g C o n t e s t , The Permanent, Room 1502, 320 Bay S t r e e t , T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o M5H 2P6 - submit by December 31 - w r i t e f o r d e t a i l s N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Teachers o f E n g l i s h : S p r i n g P o e t r y F e s t i v a l - submit through The E n g l i s h J o u r n a l , 1111 Kenyon Road, Urbana, I l l i n o i s , 61801 - submit by March 1 S c h o l a s t i c Magazine: S c h o l a s t i c Awards - annual w r i t i n g awards i n s h o r t s t o r y , p o e t r y , drama and a r t i c l e - submit through S c h o l a s t i c Magazine, 50 W. 44th S t r e e t , New York, N.Y., 10036 - submit i n January Seventeen Magazine: S h o r t S t o r y C o n t e s t - submit through S e v e n t e e n , 320 Park Avenue, New York, N.Y., 10022 - see March i s s u e - submit by J u l y 1 211 U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a : S c i e n c e and Humanities Symposium - e s s a y c o m p e t i t i o n - w r i t e f o r d e t a i l s Youth Magazine: C r e a t i v e A r t s Awards - submit through Youth Magazine, Room 1203, 1505 Race S t r e e t , P h i l a d e l p h i a , PA 19102 - w r i t e f o r d e t a i l s W r i t e r ' s D i g e s t : Annual c o n t e s t f o r s h o r t s t o r y , a r t i c l e o r poem - submit through W r i t e r ' s D i g e s t , 9933 A l l i a n c e Road, C i n c i n n a t i , Ohio 45242 - not l i m i t e d to s t u d e n t s - submit by May 31 212 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abraham, W. Common Sense About G i f t e d C h i l d r e n (New York, H a r p e r and Row, 1958). A l l e n , T e r r y , ed. W h i s p e r i n g Wind: P o e t r y by Young American  I n d i a n s (New York, Doubleday, 1972). A l l n u t , Benjamin W. "Why Do You Do I t ? " C.S.P.A.A. B u l l e t i n . V o l . 34, May 1974 (New York, New York, C.S.P.A.A. A s s . ) , ed. J . F . P a s c h a l . A r n o l d , Edmund. "Your P u b l i c a t i o n s Can Improve When You S e t High S t a n d a r d s , " Communications: J o u r n a l i s m E d u c a t i o n Today. V o l . 7, W i n t e r 1974 ( S p r i n g f i e l d , Mo., J o u r n a l i s m E d u c a t i o n A s s . ) , ed. V i r g i n i a Woodring. B a g n a l l , N i c h o l a s , ed. New Movements i n the Study and T e a c h i n g  o f E n g l i s h (London, Temple Smith, 1973). B i r n e y , E a r l e . The C r e a t i v e W r i t e r ( T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o , CBC P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1966). B l i s h e n , Edward. "A Golden Age o f Rubbish," Times E d u c a t i o n a l  Supplement. September 1974 (London, E n g l a n d , Times Newspapers L t d . ) , ed. S t u a r t M aclure. Booth, Wayne. " M o t i v a t i o n i n the T e a c h i n g o f C o m p o s i t i o n , " E n g l i s h  T e a c h i n g i n South A f r i c a . 1964. Braddock, R i c h a r d , e t a l . Research i n W r i t t e n C o m p o s i t i o n ( I l l i n o i s , N.C.T.E., 1963). 213 Branowsky, A l v i n and Morton B o t e l . " C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g , Reading and W r i t i n g i n the C l assroom," Elementary E n g l i s h ( I l l i n o i s , N.C.T.E.), ed. I r i s M. T i e d t . B r i a n , M i c h a e l and Lewis P o t e e t , eds. ATEQ J o u r n a l . V o l . 5, No. 1 A p r i l 1972 (Urbana, I l l i n o i s , N.C.T.E.). B r i t t o n , James. T a l k i n g and W r i t i n g (London, Methune and Co., 1967). Campbell, Laurence R. The High School Magazine. 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