UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Lithography in the schools Wilson, Robert 1977

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1977_A8 W55.pdf [ 15.53MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055717.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055717-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055717-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055717-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055717-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055717-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055717-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055717-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055717.ris

Full Text

LITHOGRAPHY IN THE SCHOOLS by ROBERT WILSON B.Ed., University of British Columbia, 1 9 7 £ A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Graduate Division). (Faculty of Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA in September, 1 9 7 7 Robert Wilson i i In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Depart-ment or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Faculty of Education The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, B.C. Canada Date: September 1 9 7 7 ABSTRACT Lithography is a print medium which allows the artist almost complete freedom in terms of image development. It is the fastest growing art medium on the North American Continent. However, until now, this important print medium has virtually been ignored in the high schools. The reasons for the omission in the high school art programs are financial and technical. The traditional methods of establishing a lithography workshop requires a vast amount of money, usually much more than the average art department's budget could afford. The technical difficulties involved not only in setting up the workshop but also in the processing and printing of the lithographs seemed to have finished any furthur discussion of establishing facil-ities at the high school level. Drawing upon fourteen years acquaintance with lithography, the experience of setting up a lithographic workshop on a small budget and experience as a high school art teacher I am attempting in this thesis to provide alternate methods for establishing a lithographic program in the schools. The teacher, although he may be lacking in any technical knowledge of lithography, should be able to follow the instructions set down in the thesis and be able to start a litho program with his classes. Included in the thesis are instruction whereby the teacher can start his classes using almost soley the existing facilities found in most art rooms or he can, if budget allows, develope a full facility including all aspects of lithography. All the equipment has been built by the i i i i v wr i te r and a l l the procedures have been t e s t e d . I am sure that by d i l i g e n t l y fo l l ow ing the i n s t r u c t i o n s any a r t teacher could provide an i n t e r e s t i n g and rewarding l i t h o g r a p h i c program f o r h i s students. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION / 1 Chapter I. METAL PLATE LITHOGRAPHY 6 Sensitizing the plate Drawing on the plate Processing the drawing The wash out The roll up Storing the plate The printing kit Printing of the etching press Printing the metal plate on a direct transfer press Printing base for metal plates Registration of the printing paper The press The levigator The graining sink The stone cart The inking table Inking slabs Working table Paper shelves Litho stones Inking rollers IvTympans Scraper bars Inks III. MAKING A LITHOGRAPH ON STONE 53 Graining the stone Drawing on the stone The litho crayon The litho pencil Tusche Rubbing crayon Repro pencils II. STONE LITHOGRAPHY IN THE SCHOOLS 23 v vi Repro pens Etching the stone Counteretching the-stone IV. SPECIAL EFFECTS 81 The bleed image The rainbow roll Simultaneous two colour printing Reversals Ph ot olithography Phototransfer V. SUMMARY 93 FOOTNOTES 95 BIBLIOGRAPHY 96 APPENDIX 99 vii LIST OF TABLES Table Page I. Etching table for aluminum plates 10 II. Ernest De Soto's etching table 75 III. Two etch table.. 78 v i i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1 . R o l l i n g up a metal plate 12 2 . A metal plate being printed on a hand transfer press... 1 6 3 . P r i n t i n g base • 1 ? 4 . P u l l i n g a print 1 9 5 . Line r e g i s t r a t i o n 2 0 6 . T r e g i s t r a t i o n 2 1 7 . Registering a pri n t 2 1 8 . Pinhole r e g i s t r a t i o n . • 2 2 9 . The press 24 1 0 . The yoke and scraper bar housing 2 6 1 1 . Chain drive gear system and handle 2 6 1 2 . The pressure cam. • • 2 7 1 3 . The press box. 2 2 7 14. The press area of a two press workshop 28 1 5 . The levigator 2 9 1 6 . Plans of a levigator 2 9 1 7 . The graining sink 3 0 18. The stone cart 3 1 1 9 . The inking table 3 2 2 0 . The inking slab 3 3 2 1 . Arborite ink slab 3 4 2 2 . The working table 3 5 2 3 . The top of the paper shelves being used as a clean area f o r laying out p r i n t s . . . 3 6 24. Paper cabinet 3 9 2 5 . Paper cabinet, cutting diagram 40 2 6 . Paper cabinet, assembly diagram 41 2 7 . Paper cabinet, d e t a i l s of shelves 42 2 8 . The paper drawer............. 4 3 2 9 . Inking r o l l e r s **6 3 0 . Scraping the leather r o l l e r s 48 3 1 . A variety of r o l l e r s used i n the shop 49 3 2 . An assortment of scraper bars 5 1 ix 33. The graining pattern 55 34. Some of the lithographic drawing tools 57 35. A crayon drawing on stone 59 36. A drawing using a #5 litho pencil....... 61 37. A crayon drawing with tusche spatter 63 38. A drawing using lithotine washes 65 39. A detail of a print executed with lithotine washes..... 66 40. Three colour print in which two of the colours are water washes. 67 41. Detail of a water wash showing ringlet patterns. 68 42. Drawing using the rubbing crayon. 70 4 3 . Case for carrying the rosin and talc 74 44. Spatter technique printed with a rainbow roll 82 45. A print pulled using the simultaneous two colour method 83 46. A reversal 87 47. Lamp and chemicals for photolithography 90 48. A photolithograph 9 1 49. A phototransfer with tusche solids 92 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Professor Robert Steele for giving me the freedom and facilities to persue my investigations into lithography and Professor Sam Black who, acting as my advisor, assisted me in so many ways. I particularly would like to thank my wife, Dianne Ostoich, who suffered through the labour pains of this thesis. INTRODUCTION Much of the failure to make lithography an integral part of the high school art program stems from the pre I960 mystique that lingers on. Here we have a medium which demands a concern with drawing skills and image making, which is direct and spontaneous and which lends itself equally well to monochrome and colour and to a wide range of techniques, largely ignored in our public school art program. This thesis is an attempt to dispel the mysteries and an attempt to provide detailed information to aid the teacher in setting up his own lithographic program in the school. A. Hyatt Mayor in his introduction to Alois Senefelder's A Complete Course of Lithography, says; Lithography requires such simple materials - grease, water, paper, and fine limestone - that it could have been invented as long ago as the woodcut, which appeared in China before Charlemagne was born. While lithography should ideally have arrived in time to multiply the drawings of Michelangelo's contemporaries, it actually come at an apt moment when the romantic cult of genius began to prefer a master's autograph sketch, no matter how slight, to a formal work carried out with the help of assistanta. Lithography is the only major print process whose invention was described by its inventor. We know more about its origins in the 1 7 9 0 ' s than we.know about the appearance - where? how? - of silk screen in the 1 9 2 0 ' s . In 1 7 9 8 Alois Senefelder invented the principles of stone lith-ography, through a combination of diligent scientific research and fortu-itous good luck. I had Just succeeded in my little laboratory in polishing a stone plate, which I intended to cover with etching ground, in order to continue my exercises in writing backwards, when my mother entered the room, and desired me to write her a b i l l for the washer-woman, who was 1 2 waiting for the linen; I happened not to have even the smallest slip of paper at hand, as my little stock of paper had been en-tirely exhausted by taking proof impressions from the stones; nor was there even a drop of ink in the inkstand. As the matter would not admit of delay, and we had nobody in the house to send for a supply of the deficient materials, I resolved to write the list with ray ink prepared with wax, soap, and lampblack, on the stone which I had just polished, and from which I could copy at leisure. Some time after this I was just going to wipe this writing from the stone, when the idea all at once struck me, to try what would be the effect of such writing with my prepared ink, i f I were to bite in the stone with aqua-fortis; and whether, perhaps, it might not be possible to apply printing ink to it, in thg same way as to wood engravings, and so take impressions from i t . He spent the next twenty years of his life perfecting the techniques of his invention and popularising these discoveries. Stone lithography soom began to replace engraving, etching, and aquatinting, as processes of reproducing images onto paper and textiles. By 1819 lithography had been firmly established in France, had spread into the United States through the establishment of the Currier & Ives printing house, and was to be found as far east as Persia. In England the expansion of lithography was slowed through the action of the British Society of Etchers and Engravers, who successfully persuaded parliament to place prohibitive import duties on the German limestone. It was in France where the artists first embraced lithography. Working closely with the printers they started to produce lithographs as original art works rather than as reproductions of paintings and drawings. While in France, Goya created the first great works in the medium; 3 the monumental series, "The Bulls of Bordeaux,"^  in 1825. He was quickly followed by other great artists such as; Delacriox, Daumier, Degas, Lautrec, Bonnard, Vuillard, Matisse, Picasso and almost all the other major artists in Europe. Meanwhile, in the United States, the artists regarded the medium with much less enthusiasm and the use of lithography remained confined almost exlusively to the commercial printers as 3 exemplified by the Currier & Ives printery. Canada also went the way of the United States when large printing houses were started in Toronto, then moved to Winnipeg. These houses, such as Bulman Brothers, even-tually opened branches in most major cities in Canada. Bulman Brother's Vancouver branch was s t i l l doing some stone work as late as the 1950's when they sold most of their old stone equipment to MacMillan Bloedel to be included in a proposed lithography museum. As for the artists in North America the advantages of stone lithography passed them be with the exception of artists such as James McNeil Whistler who went to Europe to do his printmaking or George Bellows who worked closely with a local printer to produce many excellent prints. Very few people were aware of the possibilities of the medium. There were few books of any worth published on the subject, Senefleder's English translation published in 1819 remained, although couched in archaic terms, one of the few of any great use, As the com-mercial printing shops discovered that they could transfer the drawings onto zinc plates and bend these plates around large cylinders attached to steam driven presses the conversion from stone lithography to metal plate and offset printing began. The quality of the printing declined but the speed increased. The loss of the quality of the printing was minor com-pared to the loss of printers knowledgable in the art of stone printing. By the time of the second world war most of the printing houses had converted to Offset presses and many of the old hand transfer presses were scrapped to be made into weapons of war. The fine old limestones were used to make patios and walkways. Stone lithography began to be found soley in University art departments and Art Colleges where instruc-tion was, at best, cursory and haphazard. Great mysteries started to 4 grow around the medium compounded by the lack of knowledge of the in instructors. Images were hard to sustain and consistent editions, even in small numbers, were difficult to produce. Faced with the vagaries and frustrations of the medium, lithography was al l but abandoned by the North American artist. The few lucky and dedicated artists wanting to make lith-ographs would have to make periodic treks to Europe to produce edi-tions with surviving print houses such as Morlot, where Picasso did all of his great lithographs, or Clot. And so the art of lithography languished in North America until I960 when June Wayne in Los Angeles, working with arFord Foundation grant, opened the Tamarind Lithographic Workshop whose purpose was to train printers, re-discover the craft, discover new procedures and materials and to re-introduce the medium to Noirth American artists. This single occurence can be traced as the germ that has spawned a renaissance in lithography that is s t i l l growing throughout the con-tinent. Today workshops started by Tamarind graduates or people taught by Tamarind graduates are to be found in almost every major city in North America. Art Colleges and Universities are running lithographic programs staffed by Tamarind people or instructors who have been in direct contact with Tamarind printers. New facilities are being prepared every day. Today lithography is the fastest growing art medium in North America. Collectors faced with the high prices of paintings and other one of a kind art works are turning more and more to building collections of original prints. Artists are finding that the immediacy, spontaneaity and directness of lithography makes it an ideal medium in which to work. Now most major North,American artists have made some lithographs while 5 some such as, Robert Rauchenberg, Jasper Johns and Robert Motherwell are beginning to be regarded as highly for their lithographs as they are for their paintings. It remains the public school system's art programs that have so far, ignored the popularity of lithography. Few art teachers in the schools have more than a passing acquaintance with lithography and many of them have no knowledge what ever of the medium. A few schools have gone as far as to actually purchase presses and stones but they have not been able or seen fi t to hire teachers trained in the medium. CHAPTER!! METAL PLATE LITHOGRAPHY The simplest and most economical way to start a litho program in the school is to confine the exploration into the medium to metal plates. The costs involved with working in metal plates is relatively minor. Only the plates and a few chemicals and ink need be purcheased. Everything else that is required is probably already available in the art room. There are two types of metal plates available, zinc and alum-inum. The aluminum plates are more widely used as they are consider-ably cheaper than the zinc plates while giving the printer the same quality and almost the same versatility. The basic difference between the two plates is that the zinc plate tends to be grease loving and the aluminum plate tends to be water loving. Thus, the processing of the drawing requires that in the zinc plate the printer concentrates more on establishing the water holding areas and in the aluminum plates he concentrates on establishing the greasy or ink holding areas. The basic processes used to develop the image is the same for both plates but the chemicals used differ. I do not reccomend using zinc plates in the class-room mainly because of the difference in price. The zinc plates tend to cost three times that of the aluminum plates. There are three basic types of aluminum plates produced for lith-ography; anodized plates, brush grain plates and ball grain plates. The anodized plates have a grain on them which has been formed through elec-trical discharge. This plate has a very fine grain and is not suitable for hand lithography. The brush grain plate has a grain that is formed by brushing on a corrosive chemical which in its biting action forms irregular pits in the plate. The brush grain plate is most widely used by the commercial printing trade and is therefore the most easily obtain-ed. This plate is sold with different sizes of grain. When using these plates for hand lithography buy the coarsest grained. When using these plates there is always a tendency for the light greys to f i l l in and coarsen. The ball grain plate has a grain which is formed through the action of metal balls being agitated for a long period of time on the surface of the plates. This action creates a grain which is ideal for hand lithography. When ordering your plates always specify ball grain plates. If the supplier claims that they are no longer manufactured (as happened to me when I first went looking for plates) ignore him and find another sup-plier. Check the prices by shopping around. I found that the difference in price from one supplier to another was one hundred dollars a case, with the better quality plates being the cheaper ones. When you receive your plates keep them in their casesand store them in a dry, cool place until they are to be used. If the plates are kept dry and clean they are ready to be drawn upon with no additional treatment. Sometimes when the plates have been stored and unused for a while they become dirty or oxided from dampness and must be cleaned and r re-sensitized before being used. Sensitizing the plate Sensitizing the plate removes the dirt and oxides that may have formed on the plate during storage or handling. A solution of water and 8 tri-sodium phosphate is made,(one teaspoon T.S.P. to on gallon of water). This solution is poured onto the plate and is rubbed gently in a circular motion with a soft piece of cheese cloth. This action dissolves and removes the dirt and grease that may be on the plate. The T.S.P. solu-tion is rinsed from the plate. The plate is then flooded with the sensi-tizing solution.(four liquid ounces phosphoric acid to one gallon of water). Using a soft cloth or brush move the solution over the plate in a circular motion. Keep the solution moving over the plate for l-§- to 2 minutes, this action dissolves the aluminum oxides from the plate. Rinse the plate off well with water. Either fan the plate dry or use clean pieces of newsprint to blot the plate dry. The quicker the plate is dried the less chance there is for it to become oxided again. Once the plate is dry it is ready to receive the drawing. Drawing on the plate The plate will receive all the drawing tools described in the section on stone lithography except those that may scratch or abrade the surface of the plate. It must be remembered at al l times to take pains to protect the grain of the plate. If the grain is inadvertently removed that part of the plate will be inconsistent in the way that it holds water and/or grease. For the student's first plate I recommend that it be done very simply with one of the litho crayons or pencils. It is advisable to use a pencil or crayon no softer than #3 and to use only one grade of pencil for the first attempt. Later when the student has had some success he can start experimenting with the drawing tools. The plates can be cut to size with either a pair of scissors or a sharp knife. There may be a slight burr, left by the cutting, remove this 9 burr with a piece of emery cloth or a jeweller's file. Remember to make your plate larger than the paper on which you are to print. If the paper is larger than the plate registration becomes difficult and as the edges of the plate have a tendency to pick up ink there is a danger that these areas will print onto the paper making a mess of the borders. Processing the drawing Once the drawing is completed to the artist's satisfaction it is dusted with fine powdered rosin. Use liberal amounts of rosin and pile it onto the surface of the drawing. Let it sit for about four minutes. This allows the grease in the drawing to absorb the rosin making the drawing more acid resistant. The rosin is gently wiped off the plate. The plate is next dusted with talcum powder. Using firm but gentle pressure buff the plate with the talc. This dries the grease in the drawing and furthur strengthens it against the action of the acid. The plate is now ready for the etch. The etch is combined with l4°Baume gum arabic. The etch recom-mended is Tri-fountain etch or 3M Fountain Concentrate. The duration of time the etch is allowed to stay on the plate also affects the strength of the etch, e.g. a weak etch should stay on the plate no longer than 30 seconds. The etch is applied with a three inch, rubber set brush. Apply the etch first to the large open areas, e.g. borders, then to the darkest areas and finally to the lighter areas of the plate. A form of spot etch-ing could be done here by letting the etch sit on the greasier areas for a time before applying the etch to less greasy spots. As soon as the plate has been covered with the etch and the etch has been allowed to sit for 1 0 the designated time, wipe off most of it with a clean piece of cheese cloth. Do not try to wipe it dry but immediately cover the plate with some pure gum. Wipe the excess gum off with another piece of cheese cloth then take another dry cloth and rub the plate down vigorously. It is important at this stage to get the gum wiped as smoothly and thinly as possible. If the gum is too thick it will bridge the drawn areas and make them difficult to be properly sensitized for holding ink. Let the plate sit for a few minutes to ensure that the gum dries complet-ely. This is an ideal time to wash out the etching bowls, etching brush and the cheese cloth. If the student can learn automatic cleaning habits the shop will run more smoothly and materials will last longer. TABLE I Etching table for aluminum plates Type of Drawing weak drawing, repro pen repro pencils, very weak water washes light.drawing, # 4 & # 5 Korn's pencils or crayons, light washes medium drawing, # 3 & # 4 Korn's pencils or crayons, medium water washes, medium light lithotine washes strong drawing, # 3 Korn's pencils or crayons, heavy water washes, medium heavy lithotine washes very greasy drawings heavy lithotine tusche washes % Gum % Etch 1 0 0 Duration 3 0 seconds 7 5 5 0 2 5 3 0 seconds 5 0 3 0 - 4 5 seconds 2 5 7 5 4 5 - 9 0 seconds 1 0 0 9 0 - 1 2 0 seconds 11 The wash out Once the gum has dried the image can be washed out. The wash out removes the old pigment and the rosin and talc from the drawing. Wash the drawing out with lithotine using a soft rag to wipe the solvent. Apply a liberal amount of lacquer thinner to the plate and wipe the plate with another soft rag or with a kimwipe. Repeat this operation until there is no residue of pigment showing on the Kimwipe. This will indicate that al l the grease has been removed from the drawing. Let the plate dry. Apply a small amount of lacquer ' C to the plate. Use only as much as is necessary to cover the image area. Too much lacquer 'C causes difficul-ies in wiping it thin enough and is a useless waste of materials. Fol-lowing the instructions on the bottle wipe the lacquer 'C thoroughly. Allow to dry. The instructions on the bottle say to fan dry for three minutes. It is easier and surer to allow the lacquer to air dry for fifteen minutes. After the lacquer has dried apply a thin coating of one part lithotine to one part roll up ink to the plate. (this is called an ink stain). Wipe down until dry. The roll up Charge the roller with an ink mixture of one part roll up ink and one part crayon ink. Wipe the plate with a damp sponge and then with a dry sponge and immediately start to roll up the image. When sponging do not try to remove the accumulated lacquer 'C and ink stain. Too much water at this point could result in a condition called water burn. This is where the acidic action of the water burns away the light grey areas of your drawing. The roller will pick up any lacquer 'C* that sits on fhernegative.areas. Do not panic i f it takes a few rolls before al l the excess is removed it will slowly but surely al l come off. Continue to 12 r o l l up the plate u n t i l the image looks as dark as the original drawing. Allow the plate to dry and then rosin i t . After removing the rosin, talc the plate as was done for the f i r s t etch and repeat the etching procedure. The purpose of this second etch i s to furthur strengthen the negative areas and to stabilize the image. The plate can now be washed out with lithotine and an ink stain applied. When the ink stain has dried the r o l l e r can be charged with the edition ink and the plate rolled up. It i s advisable to start the r o l l up with very l i t t l e ink on the r o l l e r as there i s some danger at this point of over inking the drawing and f i l l i n g in the light areas. After about three charges and passes of the r o l l e r pull a newsprint proof. This i s to remove any excess ink from the areas that are building up quickly. Con-tinue the inking of the plate and pull another proof. Repeat u n t i l the image i s printing up f u l l y on the newsprint. Ink the plate up again and pull some proofs on proofing paper. It w i l l be noticed that the image i s not as dark or as sharp as the image pulled on the newsprint. Increase the press pressure slightly and repeat the inking and pull another proof. Continue this procedure u n t i l the image i s up f u l l . You are now ready to pull a proof on edition paper. FIG. 1 - Rolling up a metal plate 1 3 Storing the plate If for any reason the plate must be stored for printing at some later date the plate should be rolled up full with roll up ink, rosined, talced and gummed. The plate should be stored in a place which is dry and cool and pr.eferrably where the air can flow around i t . When the time comes to reopen the plate for printing, simply wash out with lithotine, apply the ink stain and commence printing. The printing kit Prior to commencing printing it is advisable to prepare a print kit. This kit should contain all the papers required to print your e d i r r tion. It is advisable to sandwich the kit between two pieces of stiff card to facilitate the moving and handling of the printing paper. Working from the top down the kit should include; six to twelve sheets of news-print cut to the size of the edition paper and marked for registration, three to six pieces of proofing paper also cut to the size of the edition paper and marked for registrationm as many sheets of edition paper as the number of planned prints in the edition plus 1 0 - 2 0 % more depending on the number of colours planned for the print.(the more colours used the more complicated is the printing, increasing the chances of spoilage). The print kit should be placed in a convenient location handy to the press so that as few steps as is possible are required to complete the printing operation. The printing of an edition can be very tiring especi-ally for a beginner, thus, economy of motion becomes important. When printing I prefer to have a helper handle the paper while I concentrate on the inking and as a teaching tool I feel it is advisable to train the students to work in teams. The job progresses faster and-smoother and the students learn the value of cooperation. If the printer is working alone 14 he should use finger tabs when handling the paper, thus, enabling him to keep the edges of the paper clean. The emphasis on cleanliness in presentation has a tendency to carry over to the whole operation and when one is working in a medium such as this, which has so many chemical variables and where the grease carried by dirt can influence the charac-ter of the image so much, cleanliness becomes very important. Printing on the etching press Transferring the image from the plate to the edition paper re-quires some sort of press. The traditional press with which to print a lithograph is one of the hand operated direct transfer presses. But 4 Senefelder's first press was one patterned after the etching press. If you were printing from a stone the etching press would pose a difficulty in getting enough pressure on the stone without crushing the ends of i t . Senefelder solved this problem by cutting a wedge out of the top roller and starting the stone in the wedge. This requires a roller with a circumference greater than the length of the stone. With a metal plate none of these problems arise. Because of the thinness of the plate it is possible to print from it much as you would from an etching plate. Simply lay the plate, image side up, on the bed of the press. Place your paper on the plate. Cover the printing paper with a cover sheet, a piece of light card will do. Then lay a piece of felt over the cover sheet and run through the press with moderate to firm pressure. The resulting print will be so near the quality of a print pulled from the transfer press that it would take a very practised eye to be able to see the dif-ference. The advantage of printing from the etching press is that most high schools already have one as part of their regular equipment. Thus, saving one of the major costs of setting up a litho program. If your 15 classroom does not have an etching press, quite suitable ones can be purchased for less than $400. If this price is more than your budget can stand there is a cheaper alternative and one that has many educa-tional advantages. Most high school metal work shops are well enough equipped to manufacture a press for you. I have found the metal work teachers, that I have approached, have not only been willing but have been eager to help build the press. A press built in the school shop should not cost more than $100. Printing the metal plate on a direct transfer press The traditional way of printing a lithograph is by using the direct transfer press. This press applies pressure through a scraper:)"." bar. The action is a scraping action rather than a rolling action as is found on most other presses. Because of the design of the scraper bar housing the stone can be rolled under the housing and then the pressure is applied, therefore, eliminating any danger of damaging the edges of the stones. To print metal plates on this type of press you must have some sort of base for the plate. The base should be the same size as the plate and should be two to three inches thick. To attach the plate to the base a little water is sponged onto the base and the plate is laid down, by moving the plate slightly from side to side suction is formed holding the plate firmly to the base. The plate is now ready for pro-cessing. Printing bases for metal plates When printing from metal plates on the transfer press a printing base is required. The old commercial litho shops had bases made of metal. These bases were honeycombed to give strength and tightness. It has 16 FIG. 2 - A metal plate being printed on a hand transfer press. The base i s a marble stone. Note the polyurethane r o l l e r . been so long since these bases were manufactured that it is now almost impossible to obtain them. Some shops use old litho stones as bases. These work very well but it means tying up a useful and expensive stone. Marble *makes an excellent base as well and is not as expensive as the limestone. I have found that Tennesee marble makes an excellent, in-expensive base, the one I have cost me $15. Make sure that the piece you get is even in surface and thickness. Another good base which is lighter than the marble is Benelex. Benelex is a compacted, highly tempered hardboard that comes in thicknesses as high as two inches. It is quite expensive and can be obtained from Caddilac plastics. The cheapest type of base that I have found is made from sheets of K3 ,b°ard. The boards are glued together and a piece of smooth, white formica or arborite is glued on top. The disadvantages of the K3 board is that with time the pressure starts to cause waves in the surface of the board, thus causing uneven printing,. When this happens the boards must be discarded and a new base made. FIG. 3 - Printing Base -—• ' formica top \ v ^ - ^ ^ — extension to locate against front block of press The procedures for printing on the direct transfer press is the same for pla'te and stone. The plate and base or the stone is centered on the press bed. A 2" x 4" block is placed between the stone or base and the end of the bed, i f a small stone is being used two or three 2" x 4"s may be used. A scraper bar longer than the image is wide and shorter 18 than the width of the stone is selected and placed in the scraper bar housing. The bed is rolled forward and a mark is made on the bed with a piece .of masking tape indicating the position where the scraper bar will engage the stone. The bed is rolled forward some more to ascertain where the scraper bar comes off the image, another mark is made on the bed to show this position. The roller is charged with ink. The stone is washed out and an ink stain is applied. The stone is sponged with the damp sponge. Excess water is removed with the dry sponge. The layer of water left should be a very light film. The stone is inked up following a vertical pattern across the stone. Wet sponging follows .the inking. The roller is charged with ink again. The stone is dry sponged and reinked this time the roller follows a horizontal pattern. Wet sponge, charge the roller, dry sponge and roll up the stone in a diagonal pattern. The purpose of rolling the stone in different directions is to ensure even coverage and to eliminate lap marks. The stone is wet sponged and then dry sponged. The paper is registered to the image. A piece of cover paper or blotter is placed over the paper. The tympan is lowered onto the cover paper and the press is moved forward until the scraper bar is over the stone. The tympan is greased and the scraper bar is lowered, using the adjustment screw, t i l l the leather kisses the tympan. The pressure bar is engaged and the stone is cranked through until the scraper bar has passed the image. The pres-sure is disengaged, the tympan and cover paper are removed and the print is pulled from the stone. The stone is damp sponged. Adjustments are made to the pressure as indicated by the proof pulled. The stone is re-inked and another proof is pulled. This procedure is repeated until the prints are pulling consistently. The edition paper can now be used and 19 the edition pulled. FIG. 4 - Pulling a print Registration of the printing paper When printing a multi-colour print you must have some system of registration. Even when pulling a single colour a registration system i s advisable to help ensure a consistency of presentation. There are many systems of registration in use, including a registration machine invented by the master printer Ernest De Soto."' The best registration system i s one that i s simple, quick and accurate. The simplest method to register your paper i s the line registra-tion. This i s not particularly accurate and i s recommended only for single colour prints. This method i s quick and does not require that the paper be marked in any way. The border size i s determined. A line i s drawn on the longest side of the stone, parallel to the image the 20 width of the border. Marks are made on this line indicating the bottom and top edges of the paper. When printing the paper edge is brought up to the line and the paper is dropped onto the image. FIG. 5 - Line registration -The T method of registration is both simple and accurate. It is guite satisfactory for most multi-colour work. With care it will work well for even the most demanding prints. The border at top and bottom is decided upon. The center of the image is found and a T is drawn on the stone corresponding to the center point of the bottom edge of the paper. A line is drawn on the stone corresponding to the center point where the top edge of the paper will lie. The backs of each sheet of paper is then marked with a light pencil line indicating the top and bottom center points. When printing the bottom edge of the paper is brought up to the crossbar of the T with the pencil mark on the paper lined up to the center of the T. Sighting from the top of the paper to the top mark on the stone the paper is laid down. A tracing is made of the first, or key, image including the register marks and transferred to the other stones, ensuring that all the_images will^-be^registered in relation to each other. 21 FIG. 6 - T registration FIG. 7 - Registering a print 22 Pinhole registration is one of the most accurate methods of registration. Done properly this method will give you dot on dot registration consistently. This method of registration is used when the requirements are demanding. The drawbacks are that two holes must be made in the paper and printing time is increased because the paper must be laid down with much more deliberation. Two dots are drawn on the plate that holds the first colour. These dots will print onto the paper along with the image. One dot should lie at the top of the paper and one at the bottom. They can be centered or can be placed diagonally. Shallow holes are drilled into all the other stones involved in the print. These holes must correspond to the dots on the first stone. When printing the subsequent colours a pin is poked through the paper at each dot. Then holding the pin and the edge of the paper with each hand the pins are placed into their respective holes. The paper is then allowed to slide down the pins and onto the image. Care must be taken not to enlarge the pinholdes in the paper. FIG. 8 - Pinhole registration CHAPTER II STONE LITHOGRAPHY IN THE SCHOOL The setting up of a stone lithographic workshop can be very-expensive and demanding. It can also give tremendous results. The lithographic stone is said by many to be the most receptive drawing surface ever. The adventure of working on great heavy slabs of stone cannot be equaled in any other medium except, perhaps, in sculpture. The artist is at once using a medium that is monumental in suggestion and light and spontaneous to the touch. Tatanya Grossman is quoted in the. New Yorker as saying; "I do have great love for the lithographic stone itself, for the majesty of the natural element. No two stones are alike^ you see; each one has its own size, shape, colour, and texture." And in the same article artist Robert Rauschenburg says; "It's such a paradox... The stone is so heavy and clumsy and im-mobile, and yet at the same time it's the most flexible, responsive surface there is. And every stone is different. Some stones will be much better for me than others - easier to work with, it&s like you're drawing on the skin of the stone."' Given the desire to set up a stone workshop the art instructor can do much to alleviate the high cost of equiping i t . Much of the furniture can be made in the school wood work shop and items such as presses, levigators and graining sinks can be produced in the metal work shop. Ideally the lithographic workshop should have its own room and perhaps for many this would pose an insurmountable problem. Failing the availability of a room of its own the workshop should have a section 23 2k designated specifically for the etching and proofing a c t i v i t i e s . We shall set out to design a lithographic workshop under the ideal situation of having a classroom reserved for i t . The press The press used in lithography i s called, the direct transfer or scraper bar press. These two terms describe the presses function. The former describes the action in transferring the image from the plate or stone to the paper, here the action i s direct as opposed to the offset press where the image i s transferred from the plate to a r o l l e r and then the paper, while the latter describes the action of the printing, the action i s one of scraping across the back of the paper as opposed to the r o l l e r action of most other presses. The press i s comprised oft a bed, usually made of hardwood covered with battleship linoleum and galvanized sheet metal; a large diameter r o l l e r , which the bed rides on and which provides the motive force through f r i c t i o n ; a yoke, which supports the pressure cam and the scraper bar housing; the scraper bar housing which holds and aligns the scraper bar; a press box to hold the tympan and cover paper. FIG. 9 - The press , — — 2 5 The press is usually the most expensive item required for a print shop. Much of the cost of the press can be alleviated by building your own. A cost that can run as high as five thousand dollars can shrink to hundreds with a little effort. Even when the metal work shop in the school can't or won't build the presses for you a good local machine shop can and s t i l l save you dollars. It would be handy to have three presses in a well equipped shop. It is advisable to have presses which are made to handle the largest stones you will be using and no larger. There is always the temptation to go big, but a press made to handle 3 0 " x 40" stones becomes awkward to use when you are printing on stones 1 6 " x 2 0 " or smaller. Two of the presses could be built to take a maximum size stone of 1 6 " x 2 0 " , which would require the bed to be 18" x 3 6 " and one which could take larger sizes up to 3 0 " x 40". If money is short, sacrifice the larger press for one smaller. It is advisable to have as many presses as money or space allows as "nothing.is so frustrating for the student than having to wait for days to get on the press. The press shown has a 3 6 " x 6 0 " bed which will comfortable take a 3 0 " x 40" stone. To make a smaller press merely scale the size down. The cost of producing the large press should be under $ 5 0 0 and a smaller press could cost as little as $ 1 0 0 to build. The levigator The levigator is not a necessary item but it is certainly handy to have. The levigator cuts the graining time down with much less energy. They sell for more than fifty dollars each from the suppliers, but like the presses they can be produced in the school metalwork shop. Basically they are a 1 " piece of steel turned down on a lathe and having a handle 26 27 FIG. 12 - The pressure cam FIG. 13 - The press box. Note the placement of the pressure cam. FIG. 14 - The press area of a two press whorkshop. Both presses were made in a high school machine shop. All tables and shelves were made with 3/4" plywood and covered with white arborite. 29 which i s placed eccentrically. Ship yards and heavy machine shops usually have large enough pieces lying in their scrap heaps. Plan on making a levigator with a diameter no larger than ten inches. Anything larger becomes too heavy and cumberson for the student to use. F I G . 15 - The levigator 3 0 The graining sink The graining sink i s the platform on which the stones are ground. It can be made from galvanized sheet metal in the schools metal work shop or could be made from 3/4" plywood coated with fiberglass. The pipes should be from 1" to 2" in thickness and can be obtained from a scrap metal yard. There i s no need to have new pipes so by buying scrap a considerable saving can be made. The pipes can easily be cut to size with a pipe cutter or a hacksaw. A trap should be included in the construction to capture the carborundum otherwise the janitors w i l l become upset having to be con-stantly cleaning the plumbing. The trap also allows you to recover and reuse the carborunbum. FIG. 17 - The graining sink 3 1 The stone cart The stone cart is used to move the stones from place to place. It is possible to buy hand operated forklifts to move the stones but these represent quite an expenditure for little gain. The stone cart is a heavily constructed, movable table with a galvanized metal or arborite top which enables the student to slide the stone from the work-ing area onto the cart and then onto the press. The cart has heavy duty swivel wheels so that it can be easily manuvered around the shop furniture. FIG. 18 - The stone cart arborite or galvanized metal top heavy duty swivel casters 3 2 The inking table For each press station i t i s advisable to have an inking table. The inking table can easily be made with a few sheets of plywood and some 2" x V s . It i s wise to cover the surface of the inking tables with white arborite. The arborite i s well worth the extra cost as i t allows for quick and easy cleanups. The smooth, white arborite allows you to easily see when i t i s dirty. Design the tables so that you get the maximum use of the space available. Make sure that there are enough shelves to hold the inks and chemicals needed at the station. Eight inch long screw eyes can be used to make holders for the inking r o l l e r s . There should be one holder at each station. FIG. 19 - The inking table 3 3 Inking slabs Inking slabs can be made from thin sheets of white marble, plate glass or arborite. They should be large enough to allow you a complete r o l l with the r o l l e r . Make the base of the slab with 2" x 2" wood and plywood. The ink slabs with the arborite tops are the cheapest. They are easy to keep clean, are light and are unbreakable. The glass top-ped slabs are easier to clean but are more expensive because of the plate glass required. However the cost, when in a school shop i t i s usually worthwhile spending more money to make the cleanup easier. The marble tops are the most expensive to make and although there i s a certain romance to having them the ink sinks into the pores making i t vary d i f -f i c u l t to clean. FIG. 20 - The inking slab. Note the hinges with removable pins. The hinges allow the slab to be firmly attached to the inking table while allowing the slab to be easily removed for cleaning, etc. 34 FIG. 21 - Arborite ink slab 'arborite 3/4" plywood 2 " x 2"s mitered at corners 1/2" rabbet cut inside Hinges with renfevable pins (the hinges should be placed in the same relative position on all ink slabs) 1/4" plate glass arborite— 3/4" plywood 2 " x 2"s mitered at corners 7/8" rabbet cut inside The glass is allowed to float on the arborite and the edges are sealed with a silicone cauking compound. 35 Working tables Working tables can easily be made with plywood and 2" x V s . Again, I recommend covering the tables with white sheets of arborite to help f a c i l i t a t e the cleaning. FIG. 22 - The working table 4' x 8' x 3/4" plywood top covered with white arborite 36 Paper shelves A l l art classes seem to have problems finding places for safe storage of the better papers and finished prints. This set of drawers offers a solution to those problems. The drawers require five sheets of plywood in i t s construction. It i s advisable to build as many as you can afford or have space for. The tops can be used to lay out the editions for signing or other clean work. As always i t i s advisable to put arborite on the top. The plans included here make a sturdy, inexpensive paper drawer g which can easily be constructed in a day. FIG. 23 - The top of the paper shelves being used as a clean area for laying out prints 3 7 A l l a r t i s t s who work on paper need dust-free f l a t storage for f u l l sheets of paper, finished works and full-sized matboards. This cabinet i s designed to f i l l that need at a fraction of the usual cost. It i s free-standing nine-drawer cabinet, table height without casters, counter height with casters, providing, in addition to storage space, a large work surface. The only tools required for i t s assembly are a hammer, a d r i l l and a screwdriver. You can take the enclosed cutting diagrams to your lumber yard and have them cut to size and deliver to you a l l the pieces you need to assemble this cabinet in an afternoon. Construction The cabinet i s designed so that i t may be cut from five sheets of 4 ' x 8 ' plywood with a minimum of waste. It i s a simple box with cleats installed on i t s inner sides to support sliding shelves. Each shelf has a front which closes flush to provide dust protection. It i s not neces-sary to support the shelves with sides and backs (i.e. make drawers) or with center supports becuase the 3 / 4 " plywood used i s perfectly r i g i d and stable, and w i l l not sag, even throughout this broad expanse. The cutting plans do not allow for drawer pulls. For convenience, i t i s recommended that two pulls be installed in each drawer. These can be as simple as small strips cut from left-over plywood, or you can buy i inexpensive ready-made pulls of wood or metal. If you wish to i n s t a l l casters on your cabinet, be sure to purchase the heavy-duty variety. The construction plans c a l l for butt joints throughout, f i r s t nailed and then screwed together. It i s not necessary to use glue. Shelf fronts are attached to shelves in the same manner, but these joints are reinforced with angle irons so they can be pulled on without loosen-ing. 38 The original cabinet was concieved as a functional piece of studio equipment and was therefore l e f t unfinished, with a l l nails and screws v i s i b l e . The identical cabinet could, however, he constructed of furniture grade plywood, glued together, the screws countersunk and f i l l e d , the plywood edges finished, and the whole stained or painted. But before you elect a more elaborate construction technique, read the f o l -lowing note. NOTEs Finished dimensions of this cabinet are 30~3/4"h x 33-5/8" d x 4 5 " w (without optional casters). It w i l l f i t upend through a 32" doorway with no d i f f i c u l t y . If your doorways are narrower than 32" assemble the cabinet in the room in which i t i s to be kept. If i t be-comes necessary to move i t at some future date, the cabinet, with shelves removed, may be easily disassembled so long as i t has not been glued. If you prefer, these plans can be modified to produce an eight-drawer cabinet, 27-1/2" h x 33-5/8" d x 4 5 " w. Simply reduce the height of sides and back by 3-1/4" and eliminate one shelf with i t s corresponding cleats and shelf front. Material; 5 sheets 4 ' x 8' interior plywood, good one side 1-1/2" or 2 " nails #8 x 1-1/2" or #10 x 1/1/2" w 0 0 d screws matching d r i l l b i t hammer d r i l l screwdriver 18 1-1/2" angle irons 18 drawer pulls 4 heavy duty casters (optional) Cut one 4' x 8' sheet t h i s way Cut one 4' x 8' sheet t h i s way s h e l f s h e l f s h e l f Cut three 4' x 8' sheets t h i s way FIG'. 26 - Paper cabinet, assembly diagram Step 1 Lay out 2 side pieces, rough side up (see fig. l ) . Draw a vertical line 3/4" in from each edge/ Beginning at the top, draw horizontal lines at 3-1/4" intervals. Draw additional horizontal lines 1" above each of the previous lines and 1" up from the bottom. Position cleats between horizontal lines and against vertical lines as shown. Nail in place. D r i l l holes and insert screws. left front top left back align cleat" screws nails lines drawn on side pieces E • - 1 • 1 bottom right back "cleat" top right front align bottom FIGURE 1 'FIG. 27 " Paper cabinet, details of shelves Step 2 Attach sides to top and bottom with nails and screws. Attach back (see figs. 2 and 3) • Attach optional casters to bottom of case. Step 3 Attach fronts to shelves in same manner. Position angle irons inside each shelf front and mark position of screw holes. Drill holes through front (for drawer pull bolts) and fasten angle iron and drawer pull with same screw or bolt. Fasten angle iron to shelf. Step 4 Slide shelves into case. If you have been somewhat casual in your measurments, you will find some shelves fit better in some positions than in others. If necessary, use a plane to reduce any shelf fronts which do not close smoothly. Sand all exposed edges. top screws top J L 1 C j C side back j sides [ j C i t bottom bottom shelf front angle iron shelf FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 43 FIG. 28 - The paper drawer. Note ink table with shelves in the background. 44 Litho stones The stones are the most important pieces of equipment in the shop. It is a good practise to have as many stones as is possible. Most of the stones should be no larger than 1 6 " x 2 0 " and no smaller than 1 2 " x 16". These sizes of stones while allowing for a reasonable size image are s t i l l small enough to move with ease. As a stone increa-ses in size the price increases proportionately. The larger the stone the more difficult it is to handle and process. A 16" x 2 0 " stone can be carried by most students where a 2 0 " x 3 0 " stone requires a small fork l i f t to move it. A 1 6 " x 2 0 " stone retails at $ 1 7 5 while a 24" x Q 3 6 " one retails for $ 1 , 0 7 5 . While it may be nice and impressive to have a shop filled with large stones there is no educational value in using them, in fact, the large stones will probably be counter-educa-tional in that they will present so many additional handling problems that the students will be hesitant about using them. Remember that when you are buying the stones for the shop you will be placing a very large order and should be eligible for consider-able discounts. As with everything else you purchase shop around for the best prices. An alternative to the lithographic limestone is marble. Marble is a crystalized form of limestone and is lj times harder than limestone. It works well for all the lithographic techniques excepting engraving. The white Carrara marble is being offered as a lithographic stone at about half the price of limestone. Some marbles will hot work because the crystaline structure is so loose that the stone crumbles under the press pressure. Other stones have large air pockets in them which may open up during the graining or during the printing. Still other stones 45 are just too dark to allow you to see your drawing. Carrara marble is an ideal marble to use, it is white so that the drawing can be seen, the good grades have no air pockets, it has very little streaking in the grain and the structure is strong enough to take the heaviest of press pressures. It is also the most expensive of the marbles. Tennesee marble is a grey marble which works well lithographic-ally. The grey colour of the stone does make it difficult to see the lightest tones but otherwise the stone is perfect for printing on. The colour of the stone is very even with little streaking in the grain. The pieces that I have used have all been without blemishes. I have been using one for two years and have found it to be a very reliable stone. The price of the 18" x 24" piece that I have was $15, compare this to the $150 price of the similar size Carrara or the $345 price of the limestone. Look around before deciding on what stones to get and visit the different marble yards to see what they have. Lithograph stones were being used commercially in Vancouver up until the 1950's, there are s t i l l some stones around from those days. Ask around, have your students look around. Many of the stones ended up being part of peoples patios and walkways. I know of one person who haSi over thirty of the stones lining his rumpus room, needless to say I have been trying to convince him to change his decor. I have six small stones that I was able to obtain from people who had them lying around their houses. Check some of the older printing houses and some of the old printers to see if they have any stones stored away. Inking rollers The shop should have at least one inking roller per press station 46 plus some for proofing the stones between etches. The rollers come in two types; the leather r o l l e r and the compositional r o l l e r . The leather r o l l e r can be used only for one colour and i s usually used to print blacks. It i s an excellent r o l l e r for printing delicate areas. This i s the traditional inking r o l l e r which has not changed in design or composition since Senefelder's day. The leather r o l l e r requires constant care as i t i s easily ruined. It would be worthwhile, never the less, to have a couple of these rollers so that the students can experience using them. With proper instruction in the roller's care I am sure that they w i l l be well looked after. FIG. 29 - Inking rollers It is possible to make your own leather rollers. The roller is made with a wooden core similar to a rolling pin, the roller usually has a diameter of bj" and is from 1 2 " to 2 0 " long. The wooden core is wrapped with a layer of felt and then a layer of hide. The hide is stretched tightly around the roller, rough side out and is sewn with a blind stitch. The quality of the leather and the stitching is what differentiates a good roller from a poor one. The hide should be even grained with no cuts or scars, the stitching should be so tight that little or no seam should show. The roller must be seasoned or broken in before it can be used. The breaking in can be slow and laborious but it is worthwhile taking the time to break the roller in well as nothing can be so frustrating as trying to make a quality print with a roller which is in bad condition. The roller is first treated with Neat's foot oil, the oil ap-' plied liberally to the roller and allowed to soak in. This procedure is repeated until the roller is completely saturated with oil. A long spatula is used to scrape the roller. Prop one end of the roller against the ink slab or press and hold the other end against the abdomen, scrape the roller, holding the handle of the spatula in one hand and the tip of the blade in the other pull firmly toward you. Bits of nap will come off the roller with the oil, this is desirable as al l the coarse nap must be removed before the roller can be used for printing. Continue scraping while slowly revolving the roller. When the roller has been scraped a full revolution turn i t end for end and repeat the scraping. Take some # 0 0 litho varnish and rub into the roller until the roller is saturated. Scrape the roller. Repeat the rubbing in of litho varnish. Scrape, varnish and scrape. Continue this treatment daily for 48 two or three days. After this treatment most of the coarsest nap should be removed. Lay out some #5 l i t h o varnish on the ink slab and r o l l up the r o l l e r . It w i l l be noted that the sticky varnish pulls much of the nap onto the inking slab. Continue r o l l i n g , turning the ro l l e r end for end and r o l l i n g in a l l directions. Scrape the r o l l e r and the ink slab. Lay out fresh #5 varnish and repeat. Repeat this a couple of times each day for about a week. Lay out some # 7 or #8 l i t h o varnish and follow the same procedure as with the #5 varnish. After finishing the cycle with the # 7 l i t h o varnish scrape the r o l l e r well and lay out some r o l l up black on the ink slab and continue as with the # 7 varnish. By the end of a week of this kind of treatment l i t t l e or no nap should be coming off the r o l l e r , i f any i s continue the treatment. The r o l l e r should now be ready to use for proofing the stone or printing the editions. FIG. 3 0 - Scraping the leather r o l l e r . Use a piece of newspaper to wipe the ink off of the spatula. 49 The compositional rollers come in three basic types, the gelatin r o l l e r , the rubber r o l l e r and the polyurethane r o l l e r . The gelatin r o l l e r i s not suitable for lithography as i t has the tendency to absorb water and lose i t s shape. The rubber r o l l e r w i l l work but w i l l deteriorate over a period of time because of the solvents used in lithography. The polyurethane r o l l e r i s the most suitable as i t i s quite stable and i s unaffected by either water or solvent. The compositional r o l l e r has the advantage of being easy to clean which allows the printer to switch from colour to colour. They are available in a number of sizes and are quite expensive. There are places that w i l l cover your own cores at reasonable prices. Have the school shop make the cores for you out of aluminum and have them covered at these places. This way you should get three rollers for the price of one. A number of good quality rubber or polyurethane brayers should be kept in the shop to allow small, isolated areas to be printed seper-ately. This i s one method of printing multi-colours on one plate by isolating the areas of colour i t i s possible to ink them, using the small brayers, individually in different colours. Small images can be inked completely using the brayers eliminating the need for the much more expensive large rollers in a limited program. FIG. 3 1 - A variety of rollers used in the shop 50 Tympans When printing, the edition paper is placed face down on the stone, then a blotter or sheet of cover paper is put over the edition paper, finally a tympan is placed on top of the cover paper. The pur-pose of the tympan is to provide a smooth, hard surface on which the scraper bar comes in contact and slides along. Originally tympans were made from leather. Later fiber boards and sheets of metal were used. Today, most tympans are made of some sort of plastic. Almost any smooth plastic will work. A plastic recom-mended for tympans is called 5 oz. flat white. This material is durable easy to clean and is relatively inexpensive. Scraper Bars The scraper bars are made of hardwood. Boxwood or maple make the best bars but birch, alder and any other close grain hardwood will work. It is possible to buy scraper bars from the suppliers, but the prices are high and the quality is.often questionable. Scraper bars are quite easy to make. Buy 3" clear stock. Birch and alder are probably the easiest wood to get locally. Plane the wood down to the thickness of the scraper bar housing. Usually the housing will take a 7/8" or 3 A " scraper bar, depending on the manufacture of your press. Cut the bars to the size of your stones and then plane one end down to a point. Lay some strip sand paper on a flat stone and tape it down. Sand down the point until there is a l/l6" edge. Soak 1" belt leather in olive oil overnight. Stretch the leather tight over the scraper bar and nail it down with box nails. Find the center of the bar, mark it and write the size on i t . The scraper bars are designed to crack under stress, helping to 51 prevent damage to the stones because of uneven or excess pressure. Consequently, a well equipped shop should have a number of bars of each size handy. F I G . 32 - An assortment of scraper bars 52 Inks The inks used in hand lithography are very important. The pigments in the ink should he ground finer than those used in other print methods as coarse grained pigments can abrade the printing surface and scratch the image. The inks should contain a larger percentage of pig-ment as the layer of ink laid down "on the stone is so thin that even the most dense inks will print transparent. The inks should have little or no modifiers or driers as these can upset the chemical balance of the stone. Ink that dries too fast can also damage the rollers. Graphic Chemical and Ink produce an excellent roll up black and crayon black, they use Senefelder's original recipe. The Handeschy Company and Sinclair and Valentine, working in collaboration with Tamarind have developed excellent coloured inks for stone lithography. The inks should be ordered specifying no driers. The colours print quite reliably r and most will not dry in the can. The Sinclair and Valentine, inks are much more costly than those produced by the Handeschy Company. Canada Printing Ink, in Vancouver, will manufacture good litho inks on special order and their prices are quite competitive. CHAPTER III MAKING A LITHOGRAPH ON STONE The amazing thing about the discovery of lithography was not that Senefelder discovered it in 1798 but rather that it took so long to be discovered. The principle of water and grease repelling each other was a basic principle known for centuries before it was put to use making prints. Lithography depends upon this antipathy of grease and water. The litho-graphic stone when dreshly ground is equally receptive to grease or water. The task of the lithographer is to make some of these areas recep-tive only to water and the other areas receptive only to grease. In theory we have only to use some greasy implement with which to do the drawing to sensitise them to hold grease and wet the other areas to sensitise them to hold water. This would probably work, most of the time, if we would be con-tent with only one or two prints from the drawing. What would most likely occur would be the rapid filling in of the image as the grease in the oily ink would start to overpower the water in the negative areas. One would be very lucky to get two consistent prints, let alone an edition. So what do we do? The solution is to reinforce the water holding areas. We do this by applying a water loving substance on the stone after the drawing has been completed. The substance most commonly used is gum arable. The gum arabic dries and attaches itself to the pores of the stone or plate, making a thin water attracting layer on the surface of the stone. The grease in the drawing has a tendency to creep away from the 53 54 edges of the drawing making them blurry and filling in light tones. To prevent this we put an acid in with the gum to etch away this film of grease. The type of acid used depends on the type of stone or plate the drawing is on. The concentration of acid to gum, in the etch, depends on how greasy the drawing is. The greasier the drawing the stronger the etch should be. Sometimes the grease in the drawing isn't in a strong enough concentration to make a firm grease base on the stone or plate. To remedy this we increase the grease by adding a very greasy substance such as asphaltum. Other times we may replace the grease with a lacquer which has the advantage of forming a very firm base while s t i l l being able to attract the grease in the ink. Thus, as the lithographer goes through the procedures of processing the plate or stone he is constantly re-inforcing one area and balancing it by re-inforcing the other areas. It is this balance that becomes so important when printing an edition, because without it one area would over come the other and the prints would either gradually darken with each succeeding pull or they would lighten. Graining the stone The limestone is cleaned to prepare the surface for the drawing by graining the stone. The procedure is simple but sometimes tiring. The stone is ground either by using a levigator or another stone to grind down the surface with the aid of carborundum and water. As well as re-moving old grease and dirt left from the previous drawing the grinding prepares the stone to recieve the new drawing by imparting a suitable tooth or grain to the surface. It is this tooth which allows the grease and the gum arabic to hold onto the surface. The type of tooth required depends on the type of image that is going on the stone. A very fine 55 drawing would require a fine tooth, such as one made by using a #FFF carborundum. A coarser drawing may require a grain as rough as #150. Most drawings suit a grain of #220. To grain the stone, place the stone on the graining sink, remove the old grease and ink with solvent. Dampen the stone, wipe away the excess water with your hand. There should be enough water to cover the stone without leaving puddles. Sprinkle some #120 carborundum on the stone, use about two tablespoons of carborundum. Dampen the grinding stone or levigator. Place on top of the stone to be ground and proceed to follow the grinding pattern in the illustration. FIG. 33 - The graining pattern 56 To grain the stone, start by moving the graining stone or leviga-tor up and down the stone to be grained, working from one side to the other, diagram A. Then move along the stone working from the top to bot-tom, diagram B. Finally go around the edges of the stone, diagram C. Repeat the pattern until the stone starts to stick. Be careful not to go too far over the edge of the stone as you run the risk of dropping off the side and damaging the edge of your stone, or the graining stone may tip and cause the edges to slope downwards. After the stone or, levigator begins to feel sticky, slide it to the edge and remove from the stone. Wash the surface of both stones thoroughly with water and repeat the grinding steps until a l l vestiges of the old image have been removed. Wash off well making sure that there are no traces of the #120 grit car-borundum left either on the surface of the stone being ground or on the grinding surface. Any piece of the #120 carborundum that may be on the surface when the next set of grindings occur will cause scratches to ap-pear. Fan the stone dry and check the stone for level, using a straight edge. If the stone has any high or low spots continue grinding with the #120 grit, concentrating on the high spots until the stone becomes level. Wash off and proceed with the next set of grindings. Repeat the previous procedure this time with #150 grit. Grind the stone three times with the #150 grit. Check the stone once more for level. Wash the stone off with water making sure no particles of the carborundum are left behind. Wipe off the excess water and dust on some #220 grit. Grind with the #220 just until the stone starts to get sticky, as soon as this happens flood the stone with water and remove the grinding stone or levigator. The more times you grind with the #220 the more you increase the chances of foreign particles showing up and scratching the stone. The #220 should be used 57 only long enough to put the f i n a l polish on the grain. When the stone has been properly grained take a stone rasp or coarse f i l e and bevel the edges of the stone. This prevents the edges from chipping during printing and stops them from picking up ink. The stone i s now ready to receive the drawing. If the stone i s going to be used at some later date i t should be covered with a clean piece of newsprint. Tape the edges of the newsprint to the stone with masking tape and store the stone in a cool dry place. Drawing on the stone Anything can be used to draw on the stone which imparts a grease to the surface. Joyce Wieland did a series of lithographs where she used li p s t i c k to do the drawing. It i s possible to use things as varied as o i l pastels and axel grease. It i s well to experiment with anything that you think i s greasy, but, i t i s best to wait u n t i l you have done a few prints using more conventional means. It i s recommended that for your f i r s t print to confine the drawing to one grade of crayon. This allows you to contend with the processing problems without having to deal with the intricacies created by using mixed medias. FIG. 34 - Some of the lithographic drawing tools 58 The litho crayon A number of lithographic crayons are available. The most common make is Korn's. The crayon looks like a piece of black conte. It is l/4" x l/4" x 2" and is packaged in dozens. The crayons come in a range of grades from #00 being the softest, to #5 being the hardest. The price of the crayons is quite low and it is advisable to stock a number of boxes of each grade. The litho crayon imparts a line very similar to that of a conte or pastel. The soft crayon will give a bold dark line while the #5 crayon will give a soft delicate grey or a sharp delicate line. Choose the crayon that suits your type of line. The crayon drawings are easy to process and stabilise quickly. The surface of the stone can have a coarser grain when drawing with a soft crayon, some people use as coarse a grain as that furnished by a #80 carborundum. So coarse a grain causes large white dots to separate the particles of colour. The drawing will appear to be composed of black dots with no soft, modulating greys. The drawing can appear coarse and unattractive. For best results try a grain no coarser than that provided by #150 carborundum. 59 FIG. 35 - A crayon drawing done on stone. The white scratch marks were created "by scratching the stone with a needle. The dots were formed by splattering liquid tusche onto the stone. 60 The litho pencil The litho pencil is similar to the crayon in most respects. It is made from the same materials and is graded the same way. The major difference is that it is about six inches long and is wrapped in a paper fiber much like a marking pencil. The fiber is unwrapped to expose the tip of the pencil. The drawings produced by the pencil appear similar to those produced by the crayon, except that there seems to be a tendency for the artist to be more bold and energetic with his drawing when using the crayon and more refined and deliberate when using the pencil. This seems to be a result of the physical character of the drawing tools. The crayon resembles in appearance and feel a piece of charcoal and the drawing takes on that appearance. The pencil resembles any other pencil and the artist responds by doing a rendering resembling that of a pencil drawing. The litho pencil, because it is wrapped is a cleaner tool to use and seems to be preferred by most artists. The litho pencils available locally are manufactured by Kom's and can be purchased singly or by the dozen. A cheaper alternative to the litho pencil is the grease pencil or china marker that is available in most hardware stores. The quality is not necessarily consistent but they work as well as the #3 litho pencil at 1/4 or l/3rd the cost. FIG. 36 A drawing using a #5 l i t h o pencil done on metal plate 62 Tusche Tusche i s a mater ia l which i s used to produce s o l i d areas or grey washes. The tusche comes i n two forms; l i q u i d and s o l i d . L i q u i d tusche L iqu id tusche i s a greasy or f a t t y substance i n suspension with water. The f a t t y p a r t i c l e s i n the l i q u i d tusche have a tendency to p r e -c i p i t a t e out and t h e r e f o r e , the b o t t l e should be shaken v igorous ly before the tusche i s used. The l i q u i d tusche i s best used f u l l strength t o ach ive s o l i d b l a c k s . I f the tusche i s d i l u t e d i n an attempt t o p r o -duce grey tones the r e s u l t s become haphazard and unpred ic tab le . The tusche i s u s u a l l y app l i ed with a brush t o produce l a r g e , f l a t areas of co lour . Dry brush e f f e c t s and scumbling e f f e c t s can a l s o be obtained. The tusche can be app l i ed with a f i n e brush, s t r a i g h t pen or rapidograph t o produce hard f i n e l i n e s . Gum arab i c can be pa inted on the stone and then tusche brushed over i t to g ive large s o l i d areas with c r i s p white l i n e s . The tusche lends i t s e l f w e l l t o spatter techniques. Tusche i s put on a hard b r i s t l e d brush and the b r i s t l e s are brushed with a k n i f e edge or the t i p s of the f i n g e r t o produce a f i n e spray over the drawing. With p r a c t i c e the a r t i s t can ga in considerable con t ro l over the spa t te r s . The tusche can a l s o be sprayed with atomizers or a i r brushes. Areas that the a r t i s t wishes to remain white can be blocked out with gum a r a b i c , templates Mactac or any other ob jec ts . FIG. 37 A crayon drawing with tusche spatters ON 64 Solid tusche Solid tusche comes in stick form from Korn's or in solid blocks from Charbonnel, Cornelius and Sons, and La Favorite. The solid tusche can be dissolved in lithotine or turps to produce one type of wash or it can be dissolved in water to produce another distinctive type of wash. The washes are noted for their range of tones going from light greys to dark blacks. The grey tones are created by the fatty particles fixing themselves to the grain of the stone as the solvent evaporates. These fatty particles form a dot pattern on the stone which gives the appear-ance of light greys in places of lesser concentration and blacks in places of greater concentration. It is probably the ranges of wash ef-fects which are so peculiar to lithography that has caught the fancy of so many of todays artists. Charbonnel and La Favorite tusche mixed with distilled water seem to make the best water washes. This mixture gives a beautiful textured effect with a full range from the lightest, most delicate tones to dark and dense blacks. The Korn's stick tusche works well when mixed with solvents such as turpentine, lithotine, gasoline or alcohol. Each solvent will give the wash its own distinctive characteristics. Water washes can be combined with washes mixed in oily solvents to create pat-terns caused by the water and oil repelling each other. These techniques are often unpredictable but usually result in dramatic and beautiful effects. It is important that the tusche that has been used for a turps or lithotine wash is not then used for water washes as the resultant wash could appear spotty and unatractive. For best results in a school shop it is advisable to restrict the different makes of tusche to particular 65 roles. Charbonnel and La Favorite come in cans and as they work best for water washes should be used soley in the capacity. Korn's tusche comes in a stick form and should be used exclusively for solvents other than water. When the tusche i s diluted with water or other solvents the balance between grease and pigment i s disturbed making i t d i f f i c u l t to visualy t e l l precisely how much grease i s on the stone. A wash that may appear to be light on the stone, when processed may appear quite dark conversly a wash that appears dark may print light. Consequently washes are more d i f f i c u l t to process than other drawing medias as i t i s easy to use too strong an etch which w i l l eat away any of the lightest greys or too weak and etch which w i l l cause the washes to f i l l i n. With practise the printer w i l l learn to judge the washes and become quite competent in using them. FIG. 38 - A drawing using lithotine washes. Some lines were f i r s t drawn in with litho pencil. 66 FIG. 39 - A detail of a print executed with lithotine washes. 67 FIG. 40 - Three colour print in which two of the colours are water washes. The silver grey around the edges and the red lines were drawn with a Korn's li t h o pencil. 6 8 FIG. kl - Detail of a water wash showing the characteristic 'ringlet' pattern created by the wash. Note drawing using litho crayon and rubbing crayon at bottom l e f t . 69 Rubbing crayon The rubbing crayon allows the artist to draw subtle variations in tone. The results are similar to that gained from using charcoal and an estompe. The rubbing crayon comes in three grades; soft, medium and hard. The soft will give the darkest blacks and the hard will give the lightest tones. It is probably best to use a couple of different grades so that the widest range of tones can be achieved. The crayon is applied to the surface by rubbing some onto your finger or thumb and then gently rubbing the digit over the surface. Gradually build up the tones and be careful not to overwork the surface. The balance of pigment to grease does not seem to be right and there is a tendency for the rubbed areas to print up darker than they appeared on the stone or plate. The processing of the rubbing crayon is very similar to that of the regular litho crayon. Repro pencils The repro pens are produced for the commercial trade. They resemble ordinary drawing pencils in appearance and hardness. They will give the artist a result very similar to a pencil drawing. The main problem with these pencils is that the people who like to use them draw with such a fine touch that the grease in the pencil connot get a chance to attach itself to the surface. The grease in the pencil is meager and often in the processing the light greys float off as soon as the gum is applied to the plate leaving the image looking coarse and sparse. For the best results when drawing with these pencils overdraw and use a fairly firm pressure. Allow the drawing to sit for a couple of days before processing giving the grease a chance to settle into the plate or stone. Repro pens The repro pens are ballpoint pens produced for the commercial 70 FIG. 42 - Drawing using the rubbing crayon. The white spots were created by spattering gum arabic onto the stone before doing the drawing. 71 printing trade. They are rather difficult to learn how to use but with patience and care they can reward the artist with good results. The pens impart a line which is fine and dark but will also allow the artist to achieve thick to thin and light to dark lines. They work well for cross hatching techniques and any of the other fine line techniques. It is best to slightly overdraw as the grease content of the pens is very slight. Let the drawing sit for a few days before processing to allow the grease to sink into the stone or plate. When processing the drawing wash out with lacquer thinner and put on a lacquer 'C base. Otherwise the grease which is tentatively at-tached to the stone may weaken and cause the stone to print to light. As mentioned earlier anything that contains grease will work to a certain extent on the stone or plate. After the printer has experienced working with the more conventional drawing tools it may be rewarding to try inventing new tools for new effects. Keep in mind that one of the dangers in lithography is to assume itsis merely a method of reproducing drawings and another just as dangerous mistake is to become so caught up in dis-covering new textures that the image becomes incidental. Before drawing on the stone many lithographers will first paint a 1 l / 2 " or 2 " border on the stone using gum arabic. This ensures that the artist will not get dirty fingerprints, etc. on the border and will also ensure that he does not draw to the edge of the stone. There is a tendency for the beginning lithographer to want to draw to the edge and to incorp-orate the impression of the stone's edge into the image. This is a danger-ous practise and should be discouraged. The scraper bar would have to be engaged at the leading edge and would have to run off the end of the stone, the bar would also have to be wider than the stone. Starting the bar too 72 close to the edge of the stone is liable to tip the stone and break it or at the veryleast it will cause the edges to chip away. These chips could work their way between the stone and the printing paper causing scratches and irrepairable damage to the image. Running the bar off the end of the stone will also cause the same problems. Using a scraper bar that is wider than the stone can cause chipping and will create ridges in the leather rendering it useless for the printing of larger works. Having a border will eliminate these problems plus allow space in which to place registation marks for the edition paper. Etching the stone The most complicated aspect of making a lithograph is the etching of the image. With too strong an etch we lose a l l the subtleties, with too weak an etch the drawing overtakes the negative areas and cause the image to f i l l in. The strength of etch to be used is not only dictated by the greasiness of the drawing but also by the hardness of the stone used. A hard stone will require a strong etch while a soft stone must have a weaker etch to prevent undercutting of the image. Books on lithography will tend to confuse the reader as the author painstakingly documents wierd and esoteric systems for finding the right etch. Most of these systems have been developed by printers who have been doing lithographs for many years and what will work for a very experienced person will not necessarily work for the novice. Included here are two reliable etching systems. The two etch system will work well for most images, its simplicity lends itself well to the school situation. The three etch system, developed by Ernest De Soto, is the most reliable and complete system encountered. It is a little more time consuming as J."t requires three stages of processing rather than 73 two but its reliability far outweighs the time involved. When using the two etch method if problems should arise or if the drawing has many delicate complexities then switch to the three etch method. With most images the two etch system will give good, reliable results. Before an etch is applied the drawing is dusted with fine powder-ed rosin. Allow the rosin to sit on the drawing for four minutes. This allows the grease in the drawing to absord the rosin. The purpose of the rosin is to re-inforce the drawing's ability to resist the acid. Wipe, carefully, the rosin from the stone being careful not to scratch the sur-face of the drawing with the rosin particles. Dust the drawing with talcum powder. Using a Kimwipe and employing a circular motion buff down £ the talc. The purpose of the talc is to dry the grease in the drawing, clean the edges of the drawing and to furthur re-inforce the drawing's acid resistant properties. The rosin and talc steps must be taken before any etching pro-cedure is undertaken. Put the rosin and talc in small glass jars, poke holes in the caps so that the rosin and talc can be shaken out like salt in a salt shaker. A small carrying case can be made to keep the jars in. This case can be used for carrying the rosin and talc from proofing area to press area, etc. Excess rosin and talc can be brushed into the com-partments in the case allowing the re-cycling of the materials. fhe-first etch Once the drawing has been rosined and talced it is ready to receive the first etch. For the strength of etch required refer to the two etch table. Add to an ounce of gum the appropriate number of drops of nitric acid. Stir the solution well with the finger or a glass FIG. 43 - Case for carrying the rosin and talc made out of l / 2 " plywood TABLE II Ernest De Soto's etching table The drops of acid are added to 1 ounce modules of gum arabic. The acid used is 7 0 percent nitric acid. First etch Second etch third etch solution time solution time solution time 1/10-strength washes Korn's tusche Charbonnel tusche La Favorite tusche 4 - 6 drops 5 drops 4 drops 7 min. 7 min. 7 min. 5 drops 4 drops 3 drops 6 min. 6 min. 6 min. 3 drops 2 drops 2 drops 5 min. 6 min. 6 min. 1/4-strength washes Korn's tusche Charbonnel tusche La Favorite tusche 5 - 7 drops 6 drops 5 drops 7 min. 7 min. 7 min. 6 drops 5 drops 4 drops 6 min. 6 min. 6 min. 4 drops 3 drops 3 drops' 5 min. 6 min. 6 min. l/3-strength washes Korn's tusche Charbonnel tusche La Favorite tusche 6 - 8 drops 7 drops 6 drops 7 min. 7 min. 7 min. 7 drops 6 drops 5 drops 6 min. 6 min. 6 min. 5 drops 4 drops 4 drops 5 min. 6 min. 6 min. 1/2-strength washes Korn's tusche Charbonnel tusche La Favorite tusdhel 8 - 1 0 drops 7 - 9 drops 8 drops 7 min. 7 min. 1 0 min. 8 drops 7 - 8 drops 7 drops 6 min. 6 min. 8 min. 7 drops 7 drops 6 drops 6 min. 6 min. 7 min. full-strength washes Korn's tusche Charbonnel tusche La Favorite tusche 1 3 - 1 4 drops 1 2 - 1 3 drops 1 1 - 1 2 drops 6 min. 5 min. 5 min. 1 0 - 1 1 drops 1 0 - 1 1 drops 1 0 - 1 1 dropse 5 min. 5 min. 5 min. 7 - 8 drops 6 - 7 drops 6 - 7 drops 5 min. 5 min. 5 min. s61id> tones" Korn's liquid tusche Korn's autographic ink etch as for l/lO-strength washes litho crayon or pencil # 5 # 4 # 2 & # 3 # 0 & # 1 straight gum 3 drops 6 drops 1 0 drops 5 min. 5 min. 1 0 min. 7 min. straight gum 3 drops 5 drops 9 drops 5 min. 5 min. 1 0 min. 8 min. straight gum 2 drops 4 drops 6 drops 5 min. 3 min. 8 min. 6 min. repro pens and repro pencils 1 oz. gum 1 oz. H 20 straight gum 5 min. 3 drops 3 min. 76 stirring rod to eliminate any acid spots. Using a three inch rubber set brush apply the etch to the borders of the stone. Pile the etch up on al l the non-image areas of the stone. Let stand for two minutes, this allows the initial sting caused by the nitric acid to subside. Brush the piled up etch onto the drawn areas of the stone. Work rapidly and brush in all directions to ensure full coverage of the image. Pile up any extra etch on the darkest areas of the drawing. Allow the etch to sit for twenty minutes. Check the stone periodically and if any areas start to dry move some of the gum from the wet areas with your finger onto the dry areas. After the etch has sat for twenty minutes sprinkle a small amount of water onto the stone to replace the moisture lost in evaporation and buff the stone down vigorously with a clean cheesecloth. Fan the stone dry. The wash out The wash out procedure will be the same whether the two etch or the three etch process is used. Sprinkle lithotine onto the stone and proceed to wash out the drawing using a soft cloth. The purpose of this is to remove the old rosin and talc and any pigment that was in the drawing. The grease remains on the stone. The gum arabic does not dissolve in litho-tine but forms a thin film that protects the non-image areas. It is important that no water gets onto the stone at this point. After the image is washed out buff the stone dry. Take a little litho asphaltum or a mixture of one part roll up black and one part lithotine and rub into the stone. Buff down to a thin even layer. Allow to dry. This re-inforces the grease in the drawing and makes it more receptive to recieving the ink. Lay out a mixture of one part roll up ink and one part crayon ink on the ink slab. Charge the roller with ink. Using the wet sponge dampen 77 the stone. It will be noticed that the asphaltum sitting on the non-image areas will begin to l i f t off with the sponge. Using the dry sponge wipe the stone leaving a thin layer of water on the surface. Start to roll up the image with the inking roller. Redampen the stone, charge the roller again, dry sponge and re-ink the image. Repeat this process until the image takes on the appearance of the original drawing. Wet and dry sponge again and allow the stone to dry. Any deletions can be made on the stone now. When the stone has dried rosin and talc the image as in the first etch. Any corrections or additions can be made at this point, see sec-tion on counter-etches. The second etch Mix a fresh batch of etch, this time using seven drops of nitric acid. Apply the etch the same way as in the first etch. Allow to stand four minutes. Wipe off the excess etch with a piece of cheese cloth. Using a dry cheese cloth, buff down the image. Repeat the wash out and add the asphaltum or ink stain. The stone is now ready for printing or storing. Adjustments can be made to the image during the second etch. If the image rolled up too quickly it indicates that the first etch was too weak, therefore, add a couple of extra drops to the second etch. If the image rolled up to slowly, it indicates that the first etch was too strong. Subtract a couple of drops from the second etch. The more grease in the stone the stronger the etch should be until you get solid blacks. Solid blacks should recieve a weak etch. Up to medium grey the etch increases slowly, as the greys go up the scale from medium to black the increase-in drops jumps radically. 78 TABLE I I I Two etch table The drops of acid are added to one ounce modules of gum arabic. The acid used i s 7 0 percent n i t r i c acid. F i r s t etch solution time Second etch solution time repro pens and pencils 1 pt. gum 7 drops 4 min. 1 pt. H 2 0 # 5 l i t h o crayon, fpencil straight gum 2 0 min. 1  i t i f 11 # 3 & #4 1 3 - 1 5 drops " " M 1  11 1  # 0 0 , # 0 & #1 1 5 - 2 0 drops 1  1 ' 11 1  weak water wash 5 drops " " 11 1  M i t healthy water wash 14 - 1 5 drops " " 1  11 1  II weak l i t h o t i n e wash 10-14 drops " 11 H 11 tf medium l i t h o t i n e wash 18 - 1 9 drops H i t H 11 heavy l i t h o t i n e wash 3 0 drops " " 11 n 1  i t solids 5 drops " " 1  1  tt tt Spot etching When the image i s complicated and many diff e r e n t drawing tools have been used a single etch may not be suitable f o r a l l parts of the draw-ing. In t h i s case i t i s advisable to spot etch the stone. The drawing i s studies to ascertain the number of different etches that are required. Usually three or four etches w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t . The weakest parts of the drawing are f i r s t protected by pools of pure gum, then the weakest etch i s brushed onto the rest of the stone, the next stronger etch i s applied to a l l the mid tones and f i n a l l y the strongest etch i s p i l e d up on the densest blacks. The etch*.is allowed to stand f o r the twenty minutes, sprinkled l i g h t l y with water and buffed down. The standard wash out and r o l l up procedures are followed. For the second etch, i f the r o l l up has been even, a standard second etch w i l l s u f f i c e but i f some areas were slow to r o l l up a weaker etch could be applied by spot etching, conversly i f some areas r o l l e d up 79 too strong those areas could be spot etched with slightly stronger mixture. Remember that in most cases the variation of the strength of the second etch will vary by only a couple of drops, plus or minus, from the seven drop etch. Counteretching the stone Occasionaly the artist will wish to add more drawing to the stone. Additions are usually done after the image has been rosined and talced following the first roll up. Before any additions can be made to the stone it must be counteretched. The counteretch removes the film of gum arabic that protects the non-image areas from the ink. A simple counteretching solution is made by adding one part of glacial acetic acid to nine parts water. Brush or pour the solution onto the stone. Keep the solution moving over the stone for 1-1/2 to 2 minutes. Flush the solution from the stone with water. Fan the stone dry. Proceed to make the additions. Rosin and talc the image and apply a standard second tech. If after the second etch has been completed and proofing begun it is decided that additions should be made the image should be rolled uo full, rosined, talced and then counteretched. It is a general rule that after counteretching a standard second etch should be used, even when the drawing is quite greasy. The acidic action of the counteretch has a tendency to wear down the grain of the stone. There is approximately a 15% reduction in the size of the grain after each counteretching. Thus, there is a practical limit to the amount of times a stone should be counter-etched. If the additions are to be light washes or delicate drawings it may be advisable to add three ounces of potassium alum to the counteretch solution. The potassium alum salts that ar,e deposited on the surface of 80 the stone have a great a f f i n i t y f o r grease and w i l l al low the stone to more r e a d i l y ho ld the l i g h t depos i ts of grease. CHAPTER IV SPECIAL EFFECTS The bleed image There are times when the image is served best by not having a border on the paper. This method of printing is called a bleed image, because the image bleeds off the edge of the paper. Draw the image slightly larger than the paper it is to be printed on. The paper is usually printed with the deckle edges left on. When printing a piece of newsprint is place between the edition paper and the cover paper. This is to capture the bleed and prevent it from offsetting onto the cover aper and onto subsequent edition papers. A fresh piece of newsprint must be used for each print pulled. The rainbow roll The rainbow roll is also called a split fountain or a blend. This is an easy method of getting the effect of many colours in one printing. Different colours are laid out on the ink slab. The colours are rolled up on the roller and usually allowed to blend into one another. Rolling in one direction only the colour is then transferred to the image and printed. Usually a roller is required that has a circumference that is at least that of the length of the image^  and a width at least that of the image. With care in the charging of the roller and in the rolling of the image very consistent prints can be pulled. 81 82 FIG. 44 - Spatter techniques printed with a rainbow r o l l 83 Simultaneous two colour printing This is one of Senefelder's many inventions. The image is rolled up the normal way and then a second colour i s applied and the print i s pulled. The second colour i s a water base and i s repelled by the grease or o i l base of the f i r s t colour. The water base ink i s pre-pared by mixing one part sugar to one part powdered gum arable to one part a r t i s t ' s quality powdered pigment, sufficient water i s added to bring i t to a liquid state. This colour can be applied with either a brush or a sponge. The whole stone can be covered or only isolated areas. It i s important that the second colour be applied quickly ao as not to allow the stone to dry. FIG. 45 - A print pulled using the simultaneous two colour method 84 Reversals Reversals are used to obtain a negative image from a positive. Usually the positive image is printed in a colour, a reversal is made and the negative image is printed in another colour. If the register in the second printing is set slightly off a thin white line will show out-lining one side of the image giving it a three dimensional effect. If the procedure is followed carefully there will be no loss of the subtle grey areas. There are three methods of doing reversals on the stone. In the first two cases the positive image must be editioned first before going on with the reversal/ The first method requires the following supplies: orange shellac, alcohol, gasoline, absorbent cotton, a pan large enough to rest the stone or plate in. This method will work for both stone and metal plate. Roll the image up full with a stiff ink. Rosin and talc the image. Counter-etch, wash off with water and dry. Prepare a solution of two parts shellac to one part alcohol. Tilt the stone or plate at a 45 degree angel with the bottom edge in the pan. Pour the shellac solution onto the surface and allow it to run down the image and drain into the pan. Make sure al l the surface is coated evenly. Allow to drain. Fan the surface until the shellac becomes tacky. Wash out the image with cotton soaked in gasoline. The surface should appear messy and smeared. Do not try to clean it by using too much pressure. Etch with a moderately strong etch, 14-18 drops nitric acid, to remove any traces of grease that the gasoline didn't remove. Buff the etch down with cheese cloth. Do a wash out and apply liquid asphaltum. Sponge and roll up. Do a regular second e,tch. When the shellac is poured onto the counteretched surface it 85 adheres to it while the grease in the rolled up image repels the shellac. The ink is removed with the gasoline which also removes the grease in the original drawing. The shellac on the negative areas will accept the printing ink. To prevent the borders of the stone from accepting the shellac and also printing coat them with vasaline after the image has been c ounteretched. The second method of doing a reversal requires the image to be etched in high relief. This method is only applicable on stone. After the first colour has been editioned, roll up the image with a stiff ink. Rosin the image and roll up again. Repeat the rosin and roll up once more. Rosin and talc the image. The image will now have a heavy acid resistant coating of ink on it . Etch the stone using a water acid solu-tion, about 20 drops nitric acid to 1 ounce water. Make sure the acid in the etch is not undercutting the image. Sponge off the old etch and apply more fresh etch. Repeat the etching until the image stands in relief about the thickness of a playing card. Counteretch the stone. Block', out the borders and any other areas that you wish not to print with gum arabic. Either rub asphaltum into the stone or paint on a coating of liquid tusche. Rosin and talc. Gum the stone down. Wash out and roll up. Take the stone to the graining sink. Using a smaller stone and 220 carborundum, carefully grind off the old image. Grind only until the ghost of the old image has disappeared. Etch the stone with a weak etch. Buff the etch down with some cheese cloth. Wash out and roll up. The positive areas should now hold water and repel ink while the negative areas will now accept the ink. Rosin and talc and do a regular second etch. The stone is now ready to print the second colour. The third method of doing a reversal requires two stones or 86 plates. This method results in having two stones, one holding the positive image and one holding the negative image. With this method the first colour need not be editioned before going on with the reversal. The positive image is proofed up. When the image is printing fully a print is pulled on tracing paper. The stone is rolled up and sealed off for future printing. The tracing paper print is now dusted with powdered gum arabic. Dust the gum over all the print, by tipping the paper allow the gum to slide back and forth over the image. The gum will attach itself to the tacky ink on the paper. Tap off the excess gum. Using a soft bristled brush dust off the paper removing any excess gum that may s t i l l be on it . Lay the paper, face down, on a clean stone or plate which has been lightly dampened. Run through the press under medium pressure. Remove the paper and allow the stone to dry. The positive image has now been transferred to the stone as a gum arabic mask. Once the stone is dry, rub in a thin coating of liquid asphaltum. Buff the asphaltum down to a thin, smooth even coat. Fan dry. Sponge off with water and roll up. When the image has been rolled up fully, rosin and talc and proceed with a normal second etch. Ph ot olithography Often there is the desire to incorporate photographic images into the drawings. Obtaining the arc lamps and vacuum tables necessary for exposing the plates can be expensive. Included here is a method which requires only a modest outlay of money and which has been found to work exceedingly well. The following equipment and materials will be needed to process your plate. A plywood or particle board base covered with arborite. The base should be the same size as your plate. A quartze iode or photoflood 87 FIG. 46 - A reversal. The positive image was printed in black, a reversal made and the negative image was printed with a rainbow r o l l . Note the effect created by printing the second colour slightly off register. 88 lamp. The quartze iode lamp is preferred, although it is more expensive, as i t lasts much longer and burns the image quicker. A piece of glass which is as large as the plate. Lith Kern Ko wipe on sensitiser and red developer. A half tone negative or a high contrast negative of your image. This process will work on a stone or plate. The plate has a finer grain and will reproduce fine tones better than the stone. If a stone is to be used it should have a fine grain. The half tone negative can have as fine a dot pattern as a 220 line. To prepare the surface to receive the image, work in subdued lighting. The sensitiser comes in two parts, a liquid and a powder. Pour all the powder into the bottle with the liquid. Shake the bottle well. All the powder must be dissolved before the solution will work correctly. Pour some of the liquid onto the stone or plate. Quickly and lightly wipe the solution over the surface. Do not rub. Wipe in all directions. Let the solution dry. As soon as the solution is dry place the negative on the surface. Cover the areas not to be exposed, e.g. the borders, with a light proof paper. Place the glass over the negative. Position the lamp over the image,al8" to 30" away. The furthur the lamp is from the plate surface the longer the burn will take. Make sure all the image is within the beam of light. Turn the lamp on and proceed to burn the image. The time required to complete the burn will depend on the negative, the type of lamp used and the distance the lamp is from the surface. The exposed areas on the plate will turn in colour from yellow to blue green. When the exposed areas have turned a dark blue green the burn has been completed. Shield your eyes when the lamp is on as it is strong in ultra violet and can easily burn the eyes. Turn the light off. Remove the 89 glass and negative. Shake the bottle of developer well and take a clean cotton cloth and saturate it with the developer. Rub the developer over the plate. It will be noticed that the exposed areas will turn red. Continue rubbing the developer until a l l the exposed areas are uniformly-red. Take a clean damp sponge and sponge off all the excess developer. Move the plate over to the roll up area. Wet sponge and then dry sponge the plate. Proceed to roll up using a stiff ink. The image will probably not take the ink very well, continue to roll until the plate dries. Dry roll until the plate is uniformly black. Wet sponge the plate again. Re-charge the roller with ink. Dry sponge and roll up gently. The roller will pick up the ink on the non-image areas and leave the ink on the image areas. Repeat the roll up until the image has come up full. Rosin and talc the plate. Do any erasures that may be required. If additional drawing is needed the plate may be counteretched and the new drawing added. Rosin and talc the added drawing. Apply the etch, use a 25% etch for 30 seconds on plate and a standard second etch on stone. Wipe and apply pure gum and buff down. Wash out the image. If additional drawing has been done the plate must be washed out with lacquer thinner and lacquer 'C should be wiped on. If there has been no additional drawing the plate can be washed out with lithotine and an ink stain applied. The plate may now be moved to the press in preparation for the proofing and printing. Phototransfer It is possible to transfer a printed photo image onto a stone or plate. Photos clipped from magazines or newspapers may be used. The photos that have been freshly printed work the best. Some magazine images work better than others, e.g. National Geographic works very well while some of the pulp magazines will not work^ at all. 90 The stone or plate i s f i r s t counteretched to increase i t s sensitivity. The image i s placed face down on the stone and affixed with contact paper. A Q-tip i s dipped into lacquer thinner and then rubbed on the back of the photo. The back i s then burnished with a ball point pen. Do not use to much lacquer thinner as i t may cause the ink to run, rather, apply sparingly but often. When the back has been thoroughly burnished remove the photo. Rosin and talc the image. Etch with a 50% gum and 50% water solution. Buff down tightly. Wash out and apply an ink stain or asphaltum base. Sponge off and r o l l up. When the image i s rolled up f u l l rosin and talc and apply a weak second etch. FIG. 47 - Lamp and chemicals for photolithography 92 FIG. 49 - A phototransfer with tusche solids CHAPTER V SUMMARY When one first approaches the medium of lthography he may become overwhelmed and intimidated by the technical and physical problems of the art. But, with a systematic approach to the processes and meth-odical attention to the layout and maintenance of the shop he will find that soon the procedures will become automatic. Once this level of expertise is attained the teacher and his students are freed to concentrate on the imagery and to use the medium as a tool for their visual expres-sions. Experimentation and the bending of known methods to suit their personal needs will allow the student to explore new modes of expression. With an insight into the rocesses the student, using the basic principle of the antipathy of grease and water, can develope new tools with which to execute his drawing. An ancillary advantage to the lithographic program in the schools can be in providing a link between the fine arts and the commercial off-set printing facilities found within many high schools in British Columbia. Students taking the commercial printing course could also spend time in the art rooms learning the principles of hand lithography and bringing with them their knowledge and familiarity with the technical advances of the industry. With the knowledge gained in the art room they could return to their offset presses with an intimate understanding of the 93 94 chemistry and o r i g i n s of the c r a f t . A secondary advantage i s found i n the exposure of the commercial student to the environs of the f i n e a r t i s t which otherwise may not have been p o s s i b l e . Conversely the a r t student, once he has learned hand l i thography , could spend some time with the o f f s e t presses, f Thus ga in ing knowledge of an aspect of h i s f i e l d which he may not have normaly come in to contact . Br ing ing with him h i s knowledge of imagery and design and, hope fu l l y , a t h i r s t f o r innovat ion he can adapt the commercial procedures t o uses i n the f i n e a r t sense. Such a c o l l a b o r a t i o n can only help a l l the p a r t i e s involved and could lead to other i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y l i n k s w i th in the schoo l . The student can reap bene f i t s from the extended contacts throughout the school which should broaden h i s outlook towards h imse l f , h i s fe l low students and h i s community. 9 5 FOOTNOTES Alois Senefelder, A Complete Course of Lithography. (New York: Da Capo Press, 1 9 6 8 ) , P.V. 2'Ibid. P.P 9 - 1 0 . 3'Michael Knigin and Murray Zimilies, The Technique of Fine Art  Lithography, (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1 9 7 0 ) , P. 1 3 . " h, 'Senefelder, A Complete Course of Lithography. P. 1 3 . Jules Heller, Printmaking Today. (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1 9 7 2 ) , P . 1 1 9 . 8 6'Calvin Tomkins, "Profiles, The Moods of a Stone;'" The New Yorker. June, 1 9 7 6 , P. 7 6 . Q '"Paper Cabinet,'" Indianapolis: Dryad Press, 1 9 7 1 . A pamphlet detailing the construction of a paper cabinet reproduced in the text in its entirety. ^'"Tenline Sales Catalogue," Vancouver; 1 9 7 7 , P- 9 6 . 1 0 'Knigin and Zimilies, The Techniques of Fine Art Lithography. 7:ibid. P. 6 6 . 96 'i. BIBLIOGRAPHY Cliffe, Henry. Cox, Alan. Cumming, David. Lithography. New York: Watson-Guptil Publications Ltd., 1965. A good reference book but now somewhat out of date. A Complete Guide to Printmaking. ed.by Stephe Russ. New York: The Viking Press, 1975. A rather surprising book that attempts to deal compre-hensively with the four main areas of printmaking. The chapter on lithography written by Cox is concise and fairly complete. Handbook of Lithography. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1904. This book is intended for the commercial printer and although it is now outmoded it includes many helpful hints which are s t i l l relevant. Heller, Jules. Hirsch, S. Carl. Hullmandel, C. Printmaking Today. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972. The lithography section of this book contains many excel-lent reproductions. Much of the information included is useful but some of the procedures are not explained fully. Printing from a Stone. New York: The Viking Press, I967. An excellent historical account of lithography spiced with well written anecdotes of the giants of the craft. The Art of Drawing on Stone. London: C. Hullmandel and R. Ackermann, 1824. A delightful book intended for the printer rather than t the artist. It gives a historical insight into the English lithographer, shortly after the restrictions and tariffs were lifted. Knigin, Michael., and Zimilies, Murray. The Contemporary Lithographic Work- shop Around the World. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1974. This book has more of a "coffee table book" appearance than that of a technical jourinal. It contains a brief history of the art of lithography including the technical history. There are some good drawings of early presses and some good reproductions of lithographs. The main body of the text is devoted to major lithographic print-ing houses in North America-and^ Europe. 9 7 K n i g i n , M i c h a e l . , and Z i m i l i e s , M u r r a y . The T e c h n i q u e s o f F i n e A r t L i t h - o g r a p h y . New Y o r k i Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Company, 1 9 7 0 . T h i s book i s p r o b a b l y t h e most v a l u a b l e r e f e r e n c e f o r n o v i c e l i t h o g r a p h e r s t h a t e x i s t s t o d a t e . The p r o c e s s e s a r e d e s c r i b e d s i m p l y b u t f u l l y . The i l l u s t r a t i o n s a r e p l e n t i f u l and o f good q u a l i t y . The f o r m a t o f t h e book i s a l o n g t h e s t y l e o f a r e c i p e b o o k . F o r each p r o c e s s t h e r e i s an i n t r o d u c t i o n , a l i s t o f m a t e r i a l and a d e t a i l e d s t e p by s t e p d e s c r i p t i o n . L o c h e , Renee. L i t h o g r a p h y . New Y o r k : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Company, 1971. A s m a l l book more v a l u a b l e f o r i t s photographs and r e p r o -d u c t i o n s t h a n f o r i t s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f p r o c e s s e s . The photographs show a r t i s t s such a s J a s p e r Johns and C h a g a l l w o r k i n g on t h e i r p r i n t s . R o s s , J o h n . , and Romano, C l a r e . The Complete S c r e e n p r i n t and L i t h o g r a p h . New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 . Ross and Romano have a t t e m p t e d t o c o v e r a l l a s p e c t s o f l i t h o g r a p h y i n one s m a l l v o l u m e . A l t h o u g h s k e t c h y i n p a r t t h i s book would make a good a d d i t i o n t o t h e l i t h o -graphy l i b r a r y . I n c l u d e d i n t h e book a r e some good i l -l u s t r a t i o n s o f l i t h o g r a p h s , i n t e r e s t i n g p h o t o g r a p h s o f some l i t h o shops and some s o u r c e s o f s u p p l i e s . S e n e f e l d e r , A l o i s . A Complete Course o f L i t h o g r a p h y . New Y o r k i Da Capo P r e s s , 1968. T h i s i s S e n e f e l d e r ' s a n t o b i o g r a p h y . I t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g a c c o u n t o f t h e i n v e n t i o n and development o f t h e a r t o f l i t h o g r a p h y . L i t h o g r a p h y 1800 - 1830. London : 1 9 7 0 . An i n t e r e s t i n g h i s t o r y o f t h e e a r l y days o f l i t h o g r a p h y . The Technique o f L i t h o g r a p h y . New Y o r k : R e i n h o l d P u b l i s h -i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 6 5 . M r . Weaver draws on h i s e x p e r i e n c e a s a t e a c h e r t o p r o -duce a v a l u a b l e book on l i t h o g r a p h y . L i t h o g r a p h y . S c r a n t o n , P e n n s y l v a n i a ! I n t e r n a t i o n a l T e x t -book Company, 1 9 6 6 . T h i s book i s i n t e r e s t i n g f o r i t s s e c t i o n w h i c h i n t r o d u c e s major a m e r i c a n l i t h o g r a p h e r s , o f t h e t i m e , and t h e i r w o r k s . There a r e f i n e p h o t o g r a p h s t h r o u g h o u t t h e b o o k . Wengenroth, Stow. M a k i n g a L i t h o g r a p h . L o n d o n : The S t u d i o L t d . , 1 9 3 6 . An o u t d a t e d b u t i n t e r e s t i n g a c c o u n t o f making a l i t h o g r a p h . Twyman, M i c h a e l . Weaver, P e t e r . Weddige, E m i l . 9 8 Woods, Gerald. Introducing Lithography, New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1 9 6 9 Of particular interest to the teacher is the inclusion of some tactics for teaching lithography. Articles Fleisher, Pat. "Canadian Print Workshops," Artmagazine. (print sup-plement). March/April, 1977, P.P. 1 5 - 1 7 . Knapton, Kenneth S. Jr. "Tamarind - Yesterday and Today," Graphics. Spring, 1 9 7 5 , P.P. 16 - 1 9 . Paxton, Maureen. "Open Studio in Toronto," Artmagazine. March/April, 1 9 7 7 , P.P. 2 3 - 28. Tomkins, Calvin. "Profiles, The Mood of a Stone," The New Yorker. June, 1 9 7 6 , P.P. 42 - 7 6 . 99 APPENDIX Material Abrasives, Silicon Carbide Chemicals, Nitric acid 70% Acetic 9k% (glacial) Phosphoric 95% (syrupy) Alum Potassium Acid drop bottles Inking Rollers, Colour Polyurethane Source Western Granite Co. Ltd., 5498 Fraser St., Vancouver, B.C. Rembrandt Graphic Arts Co., Cane Farm, Rosemont, New Jersey, 08556 Graphic Chemical & Ink Co., Post Office Box 27 Villa Park, Illinois, 60181 Western Scientific Services Ltd., 2520 G Simpson, Richmond, B.C. Inking Rollers, Leather Inks Rembrandt Graphic Arts Co. Graphic Chemical & Ink Co. Spray Sales and Sierra Roller Co., 5001 Firestone Place, South Gate, California, 90280 Rembrandt Graphic Arts Co. Graphic Chemical & Ink Co. Charles Schwartz, 219 Rue Raymond Losserand, Paris 14e, France Rembrandt Graphic Arts Co. Graphic Chemical & Ink Co. Tenline Sales Limited, P.O. Box 3557, Vancouver, B.C. V6B 3Y6 100 Inks cont. Lacquer Base, Lith-Kem-Ko Deep Etch Lacquer 'C Levigators Lithographic stones (limestone) Lithographic stones (marble) Lithographic crayons & pencils Lithographic Presses MacEwen Arts, 4 3 2 Homer St., Vancouver, B.C. Canadian Fine Color, 7 5 0 S.W. Marine Drive, Vancouver, B.C. The Canada Printing Ink Co., 8 2 9 5 Crompton St., Vancouver, B.C. Graphic Chemical & Ink Co. Rembrandt Graphic Arts Co, Tenline Sales Limited. Graphic Chemical ft Ink Co. Rembrandt Graphic Arts Co. Tenline Sales Limited. Marchesi Marblecraft Ltd., 3 9 1 5 Kitchener, Burnaby, B.C. MacEwen Arts. Tenline Sales Limited. Graphic Chemical & Ink Co. Rembrandt Graphic Arts Co. Patrick Designs, R.R. 7 , Vernon, B.C. Charles Brand, 84 East 10th St., New York, N.Y. 1 0 0 0 3 The Griffin Co., 2241 6th St., Berkeley, California, 9 4 ? 1 0 Graphic Chemical & Ink.Co. Rembrandt Graphic Arts Co. Tenline Sales Limited. 101 Lithographic Suppliers, gum arabic tri-fountain etch cheese cloth, etc. Metal Plates, W.O. Ball grain Aluminum .009 Plate Conditioner Hurst No. 328 Plate Cleaner Photographic Supplies, Lith-Kem-Ko wipe on base Lith-Kem-Ko Lacquer developer(red) Printing Papers, fine rag papers Printing Papers, proofing Scraper Bars Scraper Leather, belt leather Graphic Chemical & Ink Co. Rembrandt Graphic Arts Co. Canadian Linotype Co. 42 West 8th Ave., Vancouver, B.C. The Canada Printing Ink Co. Canadian Linotype Co. The Canada Printing Ink Co. Canadian Linotype Co. Canada Printing Ink Co. Canadian Fine Color. Tenline Sales Limited. MacEwen Arts. Coast Paper Ltd., 798 Beatty, Vancouver, B.C. Rembrandt Graphic Arts Co. Graphic Chemical & Ink Co. Local lumber supplier Tandy Leather Co. Ltd., 872 Granville St., Vancouver, B.C. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0055717/manifest

Comment

Related Items