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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An investigation of the relationship between children’s key vocabulary responses and certain Piagetian… Blakey, Janis Marie 1980

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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHILDREN'S KEY VOCABULARY RESPONSES AND CERTAIN PIAGETIAN CONCEPTS by JANIS MAR IE BLAKEY M.S. i n E d u c a t i o n , Kansas S t a t e Teachers C o l l e g e , 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Elementary E d u c a t i o n ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1980 ( c ) J a n i s M a r i e B l a k e y , 1980 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thou t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Elementary Education The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e A p r i l 11, 1980 ABSTRACT S y l v i a Ashton-Warner's (1963, 1972) r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s and Jean P i a g e t ' s (1955, 1966, 1974, 1976) t h e o r y o f c o g n i t i o n have a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n o f many e d u c a t o r s , but t h e i r works have seldom been c o n s i d e r e d under the same r u b r i c ( V e a t c h , 1972; Wadsworth, 1978). Ashton-Warner's r e c e n t c l a i m t h a t t h e r e e x i s t emergent, s e q u e n t i a l l e v e l s i n Key V o c a b u l a r y responses (Wasserman, 1972, 1976b) su g g e s t e d t h a t the Key V o c a b u l a r y method o f i n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d be examined from a deve l o p m e n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e u s i n g s e l e c t e d P i a g e t i a n c o n c e p t s . The s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o e x p l o r e and d e s c r i b e l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response and t o examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l s o f response and c o g n i t i o n . Stages o f p r e o p e r a t i o n a l , t r a n s i t i o n a l , and c o n c r e t e thought were d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g the P i a g e t i a n measures o f s i m p l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , s i m p l e s e r i a t i o n , c o n s e r v a t i o n o f number, and c l a s s i n c l u s i o n . A gamma c o e f f i c i e n t was used t o a n a l y z e the n a t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response and s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development. Teachers i n n i n e k i n d e r g a r t e n programs were t r a i n e d t o e l i c i t Key V o c a b u l a r y r esponses from a sample o f 120 c h i l d r e n . The t e a c h e r s e l i c i t e d r e s p o n s e s from the c h i l d r e n d u r i n g a s i x week p e r i o d i n the S p r i n g o f the y e a r . D u r i n g the same s i x week p e r i o d the r e s e a r c h e r and a t r a i n e d a s s i s t a n t a d m i n i s t e r e d the P i a g e t i a n measures. i I n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e s were dev e l o p e d i n d i c a t i n g the c h i l d ' s responses t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n . Each response was d a t e d and n o t a t i o n s were made by the t e a c h e r r e g a r d i n g the c h i l d ' s comments about the response. Based on the r e c e n t c l a i m s o f Ashton-Warner (Wasserman 1972, 1970) and Veatch (1973, 1976), the responses were c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o l e v e l s o f response. A s i g n i f i c a n t gamma c o e f f i c i e n t (p<.01) i n d i c a t e d t h a t the lower l e v e l r e sponses were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r e o p e r a t i o n a l and t r a n s i t i o n a l thought p r o c e s s e s w h i l e h i g h e r l e v e l s were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c h i l d r e n who were t r a n s i t i o n a l or c o n c r e t e i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g . The s t u d y f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t the young c h i l d does not always c o n c e i v e o f the concept o f "a word" from an a d u l t p e r s p e c t i v e . More than one l e v e l o f response o f t e n appeared on i n d i v i d u a l response p r o f i l e s . In a d d i t i o n , f i n e r d i s t i n c t i o n s c o u l d be made i n terms o f l e v e l s o f response. Because o f these o b s e r v a t i o n s , a post hoc a n a l y s i s was conducted t o ta k e a c l o s e r look at the n a t u r e o f the re s p o n s e s . The p r o f i l e s were r e - s c o r e d u s i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e system which took i n t o account these v a r i a t i o n s . The a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e were 15 p a t t e r n s o f r e s p o n d i n g to the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t i o n s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response and s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development s u g g e s t s t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y can i i be based on a developmental c o n s t r u c t . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f d i f f e r i n g p a t t e r n s o f response i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r such r e s e a r c h . The p r e s e n t s t u d y c o n s i d e r e d o n l y the o r a l forms o f response. F u t u r e e x a m i n a t i o n s o f the Key V o c a b u l a r y method s h o u l d i n c l u d e w r i t t e n forms o f response. i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The c o o p e r a t i o n o f the S e p a r a t e and P u b l i c School Boards i n S t . A l b e r t , A l b e r t a a l l o w e d f o r the c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y . I would l i k e t o e x t e n d a s p e c i a l thanks to the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s , and c h i l d r e n i n t h i s community f o r t h e i r k i n d a s s i s t a n c e . My s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e i s a l s o o f f e r e d t o Norma Bai c h o o who p a t i e n t l y a s s i s t e d i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g the P i a g e t i a n measures. The support and p e r c e p t i v e g u i d a n c e o f my s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. Naomi Hersom, was ever p r e s e n t . I am s i n c e r e l y g r a t e f u l to her f o r the encouragement o f f e r e d and the p r o f e s s i o n a l model she p r o v i d e d . My thanks t o Drs. Todd Rogers, Jon S h a p r i o , and Glen Dixon who s e r v e d as members o f my s u p e r v i s o r y committee. T h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s and s u p p o r t were t r u l y a p p r e c i a t e d . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o thank my f r i e n d s and c o l l e a g u e s f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e and encouragement. A s p e c i a l "thank you" i s extended t o Dr. J e a n n e t t e Veatch who, over the y e a r s , has a s s i s t e d me i n my p r o f e s s i o n a l growth. i v T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s Chapter Page CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM 1 KEY VOCABULARY STRATEGY 3 STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 5 RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY 6 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 9 Scope o f the Study 9 DEFINITION OF TERMS .10 Terms R e l a t e d t o Key V o c a b u l a r y Response 11 Terms R e l a t e d t o C o g n i t i v e P r o c e s s e s 11 QUESTIONS AND SUB-QUESTIONS... 12 ASSUMPTIONS 14 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY 15 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF SELECTED LITERATURE 16 KEY VOCABULARY 16 Movements or L e v e l s o f Response 18 The G i a n t Word Syndrome 21 PIAGET'S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 22 LANGUAGE AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 25 Sequence o f Language A c q u i s i t i o n 25 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Language and C o g n i t i o n . . 2 6 C o m m o n a l i t i e s i n T h e o r i e s 28 READING AND LANGUAGE 29 v Language E x p e r i e n c e S t r a t e g i e s 30 Un d e r s t a n d i n g the Term "Word" 32 Key V o c a b u l a r y Responses and C o g n i t i o n 36 PIAGET'S THEORY AND READING ACQUISITION 37 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN KEY VOCABULARY AND PIAGETI AN CONCEPTS 45 SUMMARY 46 CHAPTER 3 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 48 LANGUAGE, THOUGHT, AND EXPERIENCE 48 H y p o t h e s i z e d Sequence i n Key V o c a b u l a r y Response 49 STAGES OF COGNITION 52 THE RELATION BETWEEN KEY VOCABULARY AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 55 CHAPTER 4 DESIGN OF THE STUDY 60 I n t r o d u c t i o n 60 The V a r i a b l e s 61 PILOT STUDY , 61 Purposes 61 S u b j e c t s 63 Procedures f o r the P i l o t Study 63 THE MAIN STUDY 65 Teacher Sample 66 Pupi 1 Sample 67 The Nature o f the L e a r n i n g Environments 67 PROCEDURES FOR COLLECTING DATA 68 T r a i n i n g o f Teachers 69 M o n i t o r i n g the Data C o l l e c t i o n 70 v i O b t a i n i n g Key V o c a b u l a r y Responses... 71 O b t a i n i n g P i a g e t i a n Measures 71 S c o r i n g Procedure and R e l i a b i l i t y o f Key V o c a b u l a r y Responses 72 S c o r i n g P r o c edures f o r P i a g e t i a n Measures.... 74 Simple C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 74 Simple S e r i a t i o n 75 C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Number 75 C l a s s I n c l u s i o n 76 S c o r i n g Stages o f C o g n i t i v e Development 76 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Key V o c a b u l a r y and C o g n i t i v e Development 77 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS OF THE STUDY 81 THE NATURE OF KEY VOCABULARY RESPONSES 81 V a r i a b i l i t y i n Key V o c a b u l a r y Responses 83 Key V o c a b u l a r y Sequence 86 Key V o c a b u l a r y and C o g n i t i v e Development 87 C o n s i s t e n t O b s e r v a t i o n s 87 I n c o n s i s t e n t O b s e r v a t i o n s 90 L e v e l 4 Responses 91 Summary 92 POST HOC ANALYSIS 92 A l t e r n a t i v e S c o r i n g f o r Key V o c a b u l a r y 92 P a t t e r n s o f Response 94 A C h i l d With Unique Responses 98 SUMMARY STATEMENT 99 CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 100 v i i The Problem 100 Research Procedures 102 F i ndi ngs 103 CONCLUSIONS 106 L e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y Response 106 Sequence o f Key V o c a b u l a r y Response 107 Key V o c a b u l a r y and Stages o f C o g n i t i o n 108 Post Hoc A n a l y s i s 109 Ashton-Warner's O b s e r v a t i o n s 109 IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 110 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Teaching 110 Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research 111 CONCLUDING STATEMENT 115 REFERENCES 116 APPENDIX A Sample C o n v e r s a t i o n and Key V o c a b u l a r y E l i c i t a t i o n . . 1 2 5 APPENDIX B C r i t e r i a f o r S c o r i n g Key V o c a b u l a r y Responses 130 APPENDIX C A l t e r n a t i v e C r i t e r i a f o r S c o r i n g Key V o c a b u l a r y Responses 1 32 APPENDIX D P a t t e r n s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y Response 136 APPENDIX E P i a g e t i a n Tasks 139 APPENDIX F Record Sheet For P i a g e t i a n Tasks 147 APPENDIX G Summary Sheet For P i a g e t i a n Tasks 152 APPENDIX H C r i t e r i a f o r S c o r i n g P i a g e t i a n Tasks 154 v i i i L i s t o f T a b l e s Table Page 1. Key V o c a b u l a r y Responses and L e v e l s o f M e t a l i n g u i s t i c Competency 38 2. P o s s i b l e R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between L e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y Response and Stages o f C o g n i t i v e Deve lopment 56 3. Number of C h i l d r e n i n Each Age Group 82 4. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n f o r L e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y Response and Stages o f C o g n i t i v e Development 84 5. A Gamma C o e f f i c i e n t A n a l y s i s o f C o g n i t i v e Development and Key V o c a b u l a r y Response 88 6. A l t e r n a t i v e S c o r i n g f o r Key V o c a b u l a r y Responses 93 7. P a t t e r n s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y Response 95 i x L i s t of F i g u r e s F i g u r e Page 1. P r o f i l e s o f S t u d e n t s S c o r i n g i n P a t t e r n C 96 2. P r o f i l e s o f S t u d e n t s S c o r i n g i n P a t t e r n M 97 x CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM Young c h i l d r e n i n N o r t h America a r e e x p e c t e d t o l e a r n t o read s h o r t l y a f t e r e n t e r i n g e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . T h i s e x p e c t a t i o n e x i s t s f o r c h i l d r e n i n some k i n d e r g a r t e n s e t t i n g s and i n almost a l l grade one programs i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Many of the "games" which a r e used by t e a c h e r s i n p r e - p r i m a r y and grade one c l a s s r o o m s a r e d e s i g n e d t o t e a c h l e t t e r names, s i g h t words, or p h o n e t i c a n a l y s i s . S e v e r a l o f the c o m m e r c i a l l y p u b l i s h e d r e a d i n g programs a r e a d v e r t i s e d as b e i n g s u i t a b l e f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n s e t t i n g s . In Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e r e a r e government approved r e a d i n g t e x t b o o k s f o r f i r s t g rade as w e l l as f o r some k i n d e r g a r t e n s . The n a t u r e and number of such c o m m e r c i a l l y p u b l i s h e d r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s a r e an i n d i c a t i o n o f the e x p e c t a t i o n s many a d u l t s h o l d f o r the young c h i l d b e g i n n i n g s c h o o l at a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e t o s i x y e a r s o f age. Some e d u c a t o r s m a i n t a i n t h a t l e a r n i n g t o r e a d i s a t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s which i s developmental i n n a t u r e and, t h e r e f o r e , " b e g i n n i n g s c h o o l age" i s not the most a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t o r o f when a c h i l d s h o u l d " l e a r n to r e a d " . Some r e c e n t r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s t h a t the young c h i l d e n t e r i n g s c h o o l may not u n d e r s t a n d such terms as " l e t t e r s " , "words", and " s e n t e n c e s " which a r e used i n r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n (Downing, 1970, 1971, 1973; F r a n c i s , 1973; R e i d , 1966). 1 2 There a r e f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the c h i l d ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the concept o f "a word" i s deve l o p m e n t a l i n n a t u r e and i s r e l a t e d t o s p e c i f i c c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s as c o n c e i v e d by P i a g e t (Papandropoulu and S i n c l a i r , 1974). Language may be d e f i n e d as a f a c i l i t a t o r o f thought i n the sense t h a t i t l i b e r a t e s mental images from the bounds o f time and space, and a l l o w s the user to r e l a t e p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h p r e s e n t and f u t u r e e v e n t s and t o d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t s . From a P i a g e t i a n p e r s p e c t i v e , a c t i o n i s s a i d t o be b a s i c t o the development o f both language and thought. The s o c i a l m i l i e u i n f l u e n c e s the k i n d s o f a c t i o n s and i n t e r a c t i o n s the c h i l d e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h i n h i s environment. E x p e r i e n c e p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t , when a s s i m i l a t e d , a l t e r s the c h i l d ' s v iew o f the w o r l d . T h i s a l t e r a t i o n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y l e a d s t o f u r t h e r change i n c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s , termed "accommodation", and t o an e x t e n s i o n o f v e r b a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . In t u r n , v e r b a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s i n f l u e n c e the c h i l d ' s comprehension o f p r i n t m a t e r i a l . T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t a l view i s h e l d by those who a d v i s e a "language e x p e r i e n c e " s t r a t e g y f o r t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g . The t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i s s i m p l i f i e d and made more me a n i n g f u l f o r c h i l d r e n i f the m a t e r i a l t o be read i s w r i t t e n i n t h e i r own words and i s based on e v e n t s they have e x p e r i e n c e d . S y l v i a Ashton-Warner (1963, 1972) i n t r o d u c e d a "language e x p e r i e n c e " s t r a t e g y o f i n s t r u c t i o n based on the e l i c i t a t i o n o f s i n g l e word re s p o n s e s from the c h i l d . The 3 s t r a t e g y , which she named Key V o c a b u l a r y , was o r i g i n a l l y d e v e l o p e d i n New Z e a l a n d . Her work has been of i n t e r e s t t o e d u c a t o r s i n N o r t h America s i n c e Teacher was p u b l i s h e d i n 1963. To d a t e , the number of r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s based on Ashton-Warner's w r i t i n g s has been e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d ( B a r n e t t e , 1970; Duquette, 1970; O l s o n & Pau, 1966; Packer, 1970; Wasserman, 1974). KEY VOCABULARY STRATEGY Ashton-Warner (1963) d e v e l o p e d the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y u s i n g the c h i l d ' s own language as the c o r e component i n r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . A teacher u s i n g t h i s s t r a t e g y i s e x p e c t e d t o have a d a i l y , i n d i v i d u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h each c h i l d i n the c l a s s r o o m . F o l l o w i n g the c o n v e r s a t i o n , the t e a c h e r e l i c i t s "a word" from the c h i l d w hich i s p r i n t e d on a l a r g e c a r d . The c h i l d then "does something" w i t h the word; f o r example, the word may be w r i t t e n on a c h a l k b o a r d or a p i c t u r e can be p a i n t e d about the word. These s i n g l e word re s p o n s e s are the bases o f what Ashton-Warner r e f e r s t o as Key V o c a b u l a r y . She l a t e r i d e n t i f i e d what she termed "movements" (Wasserman, 1972, 1976b) i n the Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s which r e f l e c t q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t forms o f response made by the p u p i l s over a p e r i o d o f time. F u r t h e r , she proposed t h a t t h e s e movements a r e d e v e l o p m e n t a l i n n a t u r e and h i e r a r c h i c a l i n o r d e r (Wasserman, 1972, 1976b); (1) s i n g l e word r e s p o n s e s ; 4 (2) two word r e s p o n s e s ; (3) c o m p o s i t i o n o f p h r a s e s or s i m p l e s e n t e n c e s ; and f i n a l l y , (4) independent endeavors t o e x p r e s s r e l a t e d i d e a s i n a w r i t t e n form. Veatch (1968) i n t r o d u c e d the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y t o a group o f grade one and grade two t e a c h e r s . They became i n t e r e s t e d i n u s i n g s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s of the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y i n t h e i r r e a d i n g programs. The m a j o r i t y o f the t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n the p r o j e c t were t e a c h i n g i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n C h a n d l e r , A r i z o n a . As t h e r e were no S t a t e s u p p o r t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n s i n A r i z o n a at the t i m e , most o f the c h i l d r e n e n t e r i n g grade one had had no p r i o r e x p o sure t o a fo r m a l program of r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . The t e a c h e r s w o r k i n g i n the Chandler p r o j e c t r e p o r t e d t h a t some c h i l d r e n responded t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n w i t h s e n t e n c e s or p h r a s e s i n s t e a d o f the e x p e c t e d s i n g l e word. Veatch encouraged the t e a c h e r s t o r e c o r d t h e s e responses on l a r g e c a r d s and t o note the c h i l d r e n ' s comments about the p h r a s e s or s e n t e n c e s . The c h r o n o l o g i c a l r e c o r d kept by the t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n r e s p o n d i n g i n t h i s manner b e l i e v e d t h e i r response to be "a word". I t was f u r t h e r n o t e d t h a t the c h i l d r e n e v e n t u a l l y changed the form o f response t o a s i n g l e word. The sequence o f t h i s change c o n v i n c e d Veatch t h a t t h e s e r e s p o n s e s were developmental i n n a t u r e . Because o f e a r l i e r o b s e r v a t i o n s r e p o r t e d by B e r e i t e r & Engelmann (1966) and the 5 c h i l d r e n ' s tendency t o r e f e r t o t h e i r s e n t e n c e s as " g i a n t words", t h i s phenomenon was r e f e r r e d t o as the G i a n t Word Syndrome. The G i a n t Word Syndrome i s b e l i e v e d by Veatch t o be a r e a d i n e s s p e r i o d which may appear p r i o r t o the f i r s t movement i d e n t i f i e d by Ashton-Warner as a s i n g l e word response. Veatch (1972b, 1976) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the v a r y i n g forms o f Key V o c a b u l a r y responses a r e r e l a t e d t o s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development. STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT P i a g e t (1974, 1976) i d e n t i f i e d f o u r s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development r e f l e c t e d i n q u a l i t a t i v e changes i n mental s t r u c t u r e s . The s e n s o r y motor s t a g e ( b i r t h t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y two y e a r s ) i s the p e r i o d when the c h i l d d e v e l o p s ways o f p h y s i c a l l y o r g a n i z i n g o b j e c t s and a c t i o n s and ways o f d e a l i n g w i t h e v e n t s as they o c c u r i n the environment. The p r e o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y two t o seven y e a r s o f age) i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n n a t u r e . The c h i l d r e q u i r e s e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s or symbols as p a r t o f the t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s . C o n c r e t e thought ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y seven to e l e v e n y e a r s ) i s a p e r i o d i n wh i c h the c h i l d m e n t a l l y uses c l a s s and r e l a t i o n a l l o g i c t o o r g a n i z e the p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f the w o r l d . Formal o p e r a t i o n s ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y e l e v e n y e a r s onward) i s a p e r i o d i n wh i c h a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g i s used to view and o r g a n i z e the r e a l w o r l d and the r e a l m o f p o s s i b i l i t y . C h i l d r e n b e g i n s c h o o l i n Canada at an age c h a r a c t e r i z e d , i n P i a g e t i a n terms, by emerging c o n c r e t e 6 p r o c e s s e s . The p r e o p e r a t i o n a l c h i l d i s i n t u i t i v e i n terms o f thought and r e a c t s t o s i t u a t i o n s i n an e g o c e n t r i c manner. As new e x p e r i e n c e s are a s s i m i l a t e d , changes i n c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e take p l a c e which a r e then r e f l e c t e d i n at t e m p t s t o use l o g i c a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r s o l v i n g problems. Examples o f b e h a v i o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the t r a n s i t i o n from p r e o p e r a t i o n a l to e a r l y c o n c r e t e p r o c e s s e s a r e the a b i l i t y t o c l a s s i f y m a t e r i a l s a c c o r d i n g t o one a t t r i b u t e , or t o o r d e r o b j e c t s a l o n g one d i m e n s i o n . The a b i l i t y t o c o o r d i n a t e the c o n c e p t s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and s e r i a t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d when the c h i l d i s a b l e m e n t a l l y t o r e v e r s e a c t i o n s . P i a g e t found t h e s e p r o c e s s e s t o be i n d i c a t i v e o f the emergence o f c o n c r e t e thought. The c o n c r e t e s t a g e o f c o g n i t i v e development spans a number o f y e a r s and i n c l u d e s a h i e r a r c h y o f c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s . For example, the concept o f c o n s e r v a t i o n o f number i s an i n d i c a t o r o f e a r l y c o n c r e t e thought w h i l e the c o n c e p t s o f c l a s s i n c l u s i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f l e n g t h , w e i g h t , and volume r e f l e c t more advanced c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s which l e a d t o the form a l s t a g e o f r e a s o n i n g . RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY "Language e x p e r i e n c e " i s the t i t l e g i v e n t o a s t r a t e g y f o r t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g . I t may a l s o be used as a p r e - r e a d i n g a c t i v i t y . When u s i n g the language e x p e r i e n c e s t r a t e g y t o p r e p a r e f o r r e a d i n g the te a c h e r p r i n t s a s t o r y d i c t a t e d by a c h i l d (or group o f c h i l d r e n ) . T h i s p r i n t m a t e r i a l i s s a i d t o have s p e c i a l meaning f o r the c h i l d because i t i s a r e c o r d o f 7 a p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and uses the c h i l d ' s own v o c a b u l a r y . The t e a c h e r may d e v e l o p o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s f o r the c h i l d u s i n g words found i n the s t o r y . Language e x p e r i e n c e a c t i v i t i e s a r e recommended as p r e p a r a t i o n f o r r e a d i n g c o m m e r c i a l l y p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s . For example, S t a u f f e r (1970) c l a i m s t h a t c h i l d r e n w i l l make a smooth t r a n s i t i o n from r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l which they have p e r s o n a l l y d i c t a t e d or w r i t t e n t o r e a d i n g s t o r i e s w r i t t e n by o t h e r s . On the o t h e r hand, some e d u c a t o r s ( V e a t c h , S a w i c k i , E l l i o t t , B a r n e t t e , B l a k e y , 1973) contend t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t d u r i n g the e a r l y s t a g e s o f l e a r n i n g t o read f o r c h i l d r e n t o read the s t o r i e s they have d i c t a t e d . W h i l e Veatch and her c o l l e a g u e s s u p p o r t the language e x p e r i e n c e s t r a t e g y i n g e n e r a l , they b e l i e v e t h a t Ashton-Warner's (1963) s t r a t e g y o f e l i c i t i n g key words (or Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s ) i s an a l t e r n a t i v e p r e - r e a d i n g a c t i v i t y w hich s h o u l d o c c u r p r i o r t o , or i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h , r e c o r d i n g the c h i l d ' s own s t o r i e s . They c l a i m t h a t the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y h e l p s c h i l d r e n : (1) i d e n t i f y l e t t e r s , (2) r e c o g n i z e words, (3) make l e t t e r name and sound a s s o c i a t i o n s , and (4) d e v e l o p the motor s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r w r i t i n g s t o r i e s . They see Key V o c a b u l a r y as a b r i d g e t o f u l l e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f the language e x p e r i e n c e s t r a t e g y . Ashton-Warner's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f "movements" i n Key V o c a b u l a r y response (Wasserman, 1972, 1976b) and the o b s e r v a t i o n o f the G i a n t Word Syndrome (Veatch et a l . , 1973) added another d i m e n s i o n t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g the n a t u r e o f t h i s 8 p r e - r e a d i n g a c t i v i t y . F u r thermore, the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t v a r y i n g forms of c h i l d r e n ' s response a r e r e l a t e d t o s t a g e s i n c o g n i t i v e development c o u l d have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making. Thus, the major c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the p r e s e n t s t u d y l i e i n the a n a l y s i s o f the n a t u r e o f c h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e s to the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y o f i n s t r u c t i o n and the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response and s p e c i f i c c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s . Such r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i f they e x i s t , suggest a c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r matching a s t r a t e g y o f r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e t o the c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s o f the c h i l d . Such f l e x i b i l i t y would p e r m i t the t e a c h e r t o make more p r e c i s e i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s i n terms of s e l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s , p r o v i s i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s , and the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c o n c e p t s . By r e f i n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n these terms a t e a c h e r s h o u l d be a b l e t o i n c r e a s e the p r o b a b i l i t y o f s u c c e s s i n d e v e l o p i n g b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n , p r a c t i c e has demonstrated t h a t the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n ' s own e x p e r i e n c e s and e x p r e s s i v e language s t r o n g l y m o t i v a t e s i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g and the e x p r e s s i o n o f thoughts and p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s i n w r i t i n g (Ashton-Warner, 1958, 1963, 1972; B a r n e t t e , 1970; B u l l o c k , 1975; Veatch e t a l . , 1973; Wasserman, 1972, 1974, 1976, 1978). Thus the p r e s e n t s t u d y has b o t h p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h and i n s t r u c t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n . 9 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The s t u d y was i n t e n d e d t o e x p l o r e the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the ways f i v e year o l d c h i l d r e n u n d e r s t a n d the b a s i c term "word" as i t i s used i n t e a c h i n g b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g . I t was d e s i g n e d t o d i s c o v e r whether dev e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l s i n c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d the term "word" c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d . F u r t h e r , i f such l e v e l s of u n d e r s t a n d i n g were found, would t h e r e be a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i o n as d e f i n e d by P i a g e t . The Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y was used t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n on d i f f e r e n t ways c h i l d r e n u n d e r s t a n d the concept "word". Stages o f c o g n i t i v e development, as measured by P i a g e t i a n c o n c e p t s , were a n a l y z e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the v a r i o u s types o f Key V o c a b u l a r y responses e l i c i t e d by t e a c h e r s . Scope o f the Study A p i l o t s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d t o d i s c o v e r how f i v e year o l d c h i l d r e n respond t o Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , i t was used to g a t h e r m a t e r i a l t o t r a i n t e a c h e r s i n the use o f the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y and t o t r a i n an a s s i s t a n t t o a d m i n i s t e r P i a g e t i a n t a s k s . On the b a s i s o f the f i n d i n g s o f the p i l o t s t u d y , f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o v a r i o u s forms of responses seemed w a r r a n t e d . The main s t u d y f o c u s e d on i d e n t i f y i n g and c a t e g o r i z i n g the range o f responses o f 5 year o l d c h i I d r e n t o the 10 e l i c i t a t i o n o f "a word". These c a t e g o r i e s o f response were examined t o d i s c o v e r whether or not a s e q u e n t i a l development o c c u r r e d and i f a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between the l e v e l s o f response and s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development. Responses were c o l l e c t e d and d e s c r i b e d t o d i s c o v e r whether the proposed l e v e l s o f response d i d i n d e e d e x i s t . The v e r i f i c a t i o n o f l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e was p r e r e q u i s i t e t o any f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f the d a t a . T h i s p r o c e d u r e was f o l l o w e d by an e x a m i n a t i o n of the s e q u e n t i a l development o f the responses and the match between these l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y and the c h i l d ' s s t a g e o f c o g n i t i v e development as measured by s e l e c t e d P i a g e t i a n t a s k s . The s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o : (1) d e s c r i b e the v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response; and (2) examine the match between l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response and d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s i n c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s . Because of the e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f t h i s s t u d y , o n l y the o r a l forms of response were exami ned. DEFINITION OF TERMS In o r d e r t o examine the n a t u r e o f the l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response and t o examine the p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between such l e v e l s and c o g n i t i o n , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e the terms o p e r a t i o n a l l y . The terms d e f i n e d below were used t o i d e n t i f y v a r i a t i o n s i n Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s and c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s . Terms R e l a t e d t o Key Vocabu1ary Response S i x terms r e l a t i n g to Key V o c a b u l a r y were i d e n t i f i e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . These terms were used t o d e s c r i b e the n a t u r e of the r e s p o n s e s . Key Vocabu1ary r e s p o n s e s . The c h i l d ' s v e r b a l or w r i t t e n r esponse f o l l o w i n g t e a c h e r e l i c i t a t i o n . The e l i c i t a t i o n o f responses u s u a l l y f o l l o w s a p r i v a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n between the c h i l d and the t e a c h e r . L e v e l J. response. An e n t i r e s e n t e n c e or phrase which the c h i l d b e l i e v e s t o be a s i n g l e word ( t h a t i s , the G i a n t Word Syndrome). Leve1 2 response. A s i n g l e word. Leve1 3 response. Two or t h r e e words or the c h i l d ' s spontaneous c o m b i n a t i o n o f two word c a r d s which c r e a t e a new image. Leve1 4 response. Forms o f o r a l response t o the e l i c i t a t i o n o f a word which c o u l d not be d e f i n e d as a l e v e l 1, l e v e l 2, o r l e v e l 3 r e sponse. P r e - r e a d i nq a c t i v i t y . An a c t i v i t y used f o r b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n t o i n t r o d u c e the c h i l d t o p r i n t e d symbols ( l e t t e r s , words, p h r a s e s , and s e n t e n c e s ) . Terms Re 1ated t o Coqni t i ve P r o c e s s e s P i a g e t d e f i n e d f o u r s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development. Two o f t h e s e , p r e o p e r a t i o n a l and c o n c r e t e thought, a r e r e l e v a n t t o the s t u d y . O p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f the two s t a g e s used i n t h i s s t u d y and s e l e c t e d P i a g e t i a n measures 12 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these p e r i o d s o f c o g n i t i v e development a r e d e f i n e d below. P r e o p e r a t i o n a l thought. The i n a b i l i t y t o group o b j e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o one or more a t t r i b u t e s ( s i m p l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) , o r d e r m a t e r i a l a l o n g one d i m e n s i o n ( s i m p l e s e r i a t i o n ) , and m e n t a l l y r e v e r s e a c t i o n s ( c o n s e r v a t i o n ) . T r a n s i t iona1 thought. The a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m e i t h e r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s or the s e r i a t i o n t a s k s , but not b o t h , and an i n a b i l i t y t o c o n s e r v e number. C o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s . The a b i l i t y t o c l a s s i f y o b j e c t s , o r d e r m a t e r i a l s a l o n g one d i m e n s i o n , and c o n s e r v e number. S i mp1e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The a b i l i t y t o s o r t o b j e c t s i n t o two or more groups w i t h each group o f o b j e c t s h a v i n g one common a t t r i b u t e . S i mp1e ser i at i o n . The a b i l i t y t o o r d e r o b j e c t s a l o n g one d i m e n s i o n . C o n s e r v a t i o n o f number. The a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t the number o f o b j e c t s remains c o n s t a n t i n s p i t e o f the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s or d i s p l a c e m e n t s which take p l a c e . C l a s s i n c l u s i o n . The a b i l i t y t o i n c l u d e s u b - c l a s s e s o f o b j e c t s w i t h i n an o v e r a l l g e n e r a l c l a s s . QUESTIONS AND SUB-QUESTIONS The s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s and s u b - q u e s t i o n s : 1.0 Are t h e r e q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the responses c h i l d r e n g i v e when t e a c h e r s use the Key V o c a b u l a r y 13 s t r a t e g y as a p r e - r e a d i n g a c t i v i t y ? 1.1 Do some c h i l d r e n t y p i c a l l y respond t o the e l i c i t a t i o n o f a word w i t h an e n t i r e s e n t e n c e or ph r a s e which they b e l i e v e t o be a s i n g l e word? 1.2 Do some c h i l d r e n respond to the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n w i t h a s i n g l e word? 1.3 Do some c h i l d r e n respond t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n w i t h two or t h r e e words? 1.4 Are t h e r e o t h e r forms o f v e r b a l r e s p o n s e which may appear? 2.0 I f d i s t i n c t l e v e l s o f response e x i s t , do they appear i n a sequence? 2.1 Is the G i a n t Word Syndrome p r e - r e q u i s i t e t o the s i n g l e word response? 2.2 Is the s i n g l e word response p r e - r e q u i s i t e t o the two or t h r e e word response? 2.3 Are t h e r e o t h e r p e r s i s t e n t forms o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response which succeed the two or t h r e e word response? 3.0 Can P i a g e t i a n s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the emergence o f s p e c i f i c l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response? 3.1 Is the f i r s t l e v e l i n Key V o c a b u l a r y response (see 1.1) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r e o p e r a t i o n a l thought as d e f i n e d by 14 i n a b i l i t y t o c l a s s i f y o b j e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o one a t t r i b u t e , s e r i a t e a l o n g one d i m e n s i o n , c o n s e r v e number, and i n c l u d e s u b - c l a s s e s w i t h i n an o v e r a l l g e n e r a l c l a s s ? 3.2 Is the second l e v e l i n Key V o c a b u l a r y response (see 1.2) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a n s i t i o n a l thought (the a b i l i t y t o c l a s s i f y o b j e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o one a t t r i b u t e or s e r i a t e a l o n g one d i m e n s i o n ) ? 3.3 Is the t h i r d l e v e l i n Key V o c a b u l a r y response (see 1.3) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n c r e t e thought? These q u e s t i o n s were d e s i g n e d t o probe the e x i s t e n c e o f v a r i a t i o n s i n Key V o c a b u l a r l y response and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s and s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development as d e s c r i b e d by P i a g e t . ASSUMPTIONS I t was assumed t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s among c h i l d r e n e v i d e n t i n t h e i r use o f language. W h i l e the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l backgrounds o f the c h i l d r e n may be r e f l e c t e d i n the p a r t i c u l a r words e l i c i t e d when u s i n g t h i s Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y , i t i s assumed t h a t such v a r i a t i o n s a r e not r e l e v a n t because responses can be c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o the l e v e l o f responses d e f i n e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . C h i l d r e n ' s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s were b e l i e v e d t o i n f l u e n c e both the n a t u r e o f the words r e q u e s t e d and 15 c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s . These e x p e r i e n c e s , which c o u l d not be c o n t r o l l e d by the e x p e r i m e n t e r , might be assumed t o have i n f l u e n c e d the r e s u l t s o f the s t u d y . E x p e r i e n c e s were b e l i e v e d a l s o t o be r e f l e c t e d i n the power or the e m o t i o n a l impact o f the c h i l d ' s word (Ashton-Warner, 1963, 1972; Wasserman, 1974). I t was assumed t h a t some words would be more m e a n i n g f u l or p o w e r f u l f o r the c h i l d than o t h e r s and would thus i n f l u e n c e the n a t u r e o f the Key V o c a b u l a r y response. OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY A r e v i e w o f s e l e c t e d l i t e r a t u r e appears i n Chapter 2 w h i l e Chapter 3 p r o v i d e s a c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . The d e s i g n o f the s t u d y i s i n Chapter 4 and the f i n d i n g s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter 5. Chapter 6 c o n t a i n s a summary o f the s t u d y as w e l l as a d i s c u s s i o n o f the c o n c l u s i o n s , and recommendations. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF SELECTED LITERATURE S e v e r a l b o d i e s of l i t e r a t u r e c o n t r i b u t e d t o the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f the s t u d y . These r e l a t e t o : (1) the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y o f r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n ; (2) c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y o f c o g n i t i o n ; (3) language and c o g n i t i v e development; (4) s e l e c t e d s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g r e a d i n g and language development; and (5) s t u d i e s i n d i c a t i n g the p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y and r e a d i n g a c q u i s i t i o n . Each t o p i c w i l l be examined b r i e f l y i n t h i s c h a p t e r f o l l o w e d by the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an i n t e g r a t i n g c o n c e p t u a l framework i n Chapter 3. KEY VOCABULARY Key V o c a b u l a r y was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d as a t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y by S y l v i a Ashton-Warner i n her book Teacher (1963). The l i m i t e d s e l e c t i o n o f p u b l i c a t i o n s r e l a t i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y methodology which have appeared s i n c e the s t r a t e g y was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d (Ashton-Warner, 1972; B a r n e t t e , 1970; Duquette, 1970; K a l e s & N i z o l e k , 1973; O l s e n <S Pau, 1966; Packer, 1970; V e a t c h , et a l . , 1973; Wadsworth, 1978; Wasserman, 1972, 1974, 1976a, 1978) may be i n d i c a t i v e o f the nebulous t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f Ashton-Warner's w r i t i n g s . Ashton-Warner more r e c e n t l y has i d e n t i f i e d the emergence of f o u r s e q u e n t i a l movements (Wasserman, 1972, 1976b) or v a r i a t i o n s i n c h i l d r e n ' s Key 16 17 V o c a b u l a r y responses which appear t o c l a r i f y the b a s i c elements of the s t r a t e g y . Ashton-Warner has no p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l t o d a t e c l e a r l y d e s c r i b i n g the o b s e r v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the f o u r movements. The d e s c r i p t i o n s used i n t h i s s t u d y are based on the work o f Wasserman (1972, 1974, 1976b). 1 Key V o c a b u l a r y i s the term used t o d e s c r i b e an i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g y i n which the t e a c h e r e l i c i t s from each c h i l d a s i n g l e word which r e f l e c t s , f o r the c h i l d , a m e a n i n g f u l image. Ashton-Warner c o n s i d e r s each word t o be a "key" t o the i n n e r f e e l i n g s , t h o u g h t s , and i d e a s o f the c h i l d . As each "key word" i s e l i c i t e d , i t i s r e c o r d e d on a l a r g e c a r d . The c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l c o l l e c t i o n o f word c a r d s becomes the c o n t e n t o f h i s f i r s t r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . The words are r e v i e w e d d a i l y and any words which a r e not r e c o g n i z e d by the c h i l d a r e d i s c a r d e d under the assumption t h a t they l a c k "power" (Ashton-Warner, 1963, 1972). Words wh i c h have power are those h a v i n g i n t r i n s i c meaning. They a r e words which, f o r the c h i l d , r e l a t e s t r o n g emotions or a r e c a p t i o n s f o r m e a n i n g f u l e v e n t s . The n a t u r e o f the c o n v e r s a t i o n the t e a c h e r has w i t h the c h i l d seems t o i n f l u e n c e the power o f the e l i c i t e d r e s p onse. The t e a c h e r ' s s u p p o r t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s and empathic u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i l l encourage the c h i l d t o r e l a t e e x p e r i e n c e s 1 The movements as d e s c r i b e d here have been o b s e r v e d by Ashton-Warner as w e l l as by the t e a c h e r s w o r k i n g w i t h Wasserman i n the Vancouver P r o j e c t . The p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f these movements was not touched on i n Wasserman's (1974) Vancouver P r o j e c t Report. 18 and f e e l i n g s . Ashton-Warner (1963, 1972) contends t h a t those words which r e f l e c t the f e e l i n g s and p e r s o n a l thoughts o f the c h i l d a r e p o w e r f u l words. I f a response has meaning or power, the c h i l d w i l l c o n s i s t e n t l y r e c o g n i z e the word i n the p r i n t e d form. I f the c h i l d does not r e c o g n i z e the word, she i n s i s t s t h a t i t must be d i s c a r d e d as i t i s not "the r i g h t word" f o r the c h i l d . Movements or L e v e l s o f Response Ashton-Warner c l a i m s t h a t when c h i l d r e n a r e taught t o read u s i n g Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s , they go through f o u r d i s t i n c t movements or l e v e l s o f response (Wasserman, 1972, 1976b). She has c l a i m e d t h a t these movements a r e devel o p m e n t a l i n n a t u r e i n t h a t they appear w i t h o u t s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n from the te a c h e r and emerge i n a s e t sequence. The s t r a t e g i e s used by the t e a c h e r need t o be m o d i f i e d t o match the n a t u r e o f each emerging movement. For example, some of the more advanced movements may no lo n g e r r e q u i r e m o t i v a t i o n by the t e a c h e r . The f i r s t Key V o c a b u l a r y movement, a c c o r d i n g t o Ashton-Warner, i s one i n which the c h i l d responds w i t h a s i n g l e word as an e x p r e s s i o n o f an e n t i r e i d e a or image. The c h i l d , who may use a number o f words t o d e s c r i b e an image when t a l k i n g t o the t e a c h e r , w i l l ask f o r a s i n g l e word as a c a p t i o n o f the image. For example, the c h i l d may ask f o r the word "grandpa" to r e l a t e t h a t grandpa i s i n town f o r a v i s i t . Ashton-Warner (1963) says t h a t t h i s s i n g l e word 19 response i s a " c a p t i o n " of the e n t i r e c o n v e r s a t i o n . The teac h e r w r i t e s the c h i l d ' s s i n g l e word on a l a r g e c a r d . The c h i l d i s i n s t r u c t e d t o t r a c e the l e t t e r s o f the word. I t i s at times such as t h i s t h a t the te a c h e r can g i v e i n d i v i d u a l g u i d a n c e r e l a t i n g t o p r i n t i n g s k i l l s and l e t t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . In the second movement, the c h i l d seems t o be a b l e t o combine two words to d e s c r i b e an image. At t h i s l e v e l a c h i l d might ask f o r the words "my grandpa". The two words s t i l l r e l a t e t o the image d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y , but a c h i l d at t h i s s t a g e uses two words t o d e s c r i b e the image. Ashton-Warner (Wasserman, 1972, 1976b) s t a t e s t h a t when these two word responses emerge, the c h i l d has made a t r a n s i t i o n t o the second movement. The c a r d s used f o r r e c o r d i n g t h e s e two word responses a r e longer and narrower than those used w i t h c h i l d r e n i n the f i r s t movement. The c h i l d i s encouraged t o w r i t e the words on a s m a l l c h a l k b o a r d . In a d d i t i o n , the c h i l d i s g i v e n s m a l l teacher-made books which r e l a t e s t o r i e s made from the c o l l e c t i o n o f Key V o c a b u l a r y word c a r d s . The t h i r d movement i s one i n which the c h i l d w i l l r e q u e s t , or w r i t e , a phrase or s i m p l e s e n t e n c e . Such a response may be, "my funny grandpa" or "I l o v e my funny grandpa". The c h i l d ' s response d e s c r i b e s the image i n more p r e c i s e d e t a i l . C h i l d r e n who have a c q u i r e d the n e c e s s a r y w r i t i n g s k i l l s w i l l u s u a l l y attempt t o r e c o r d t h e i r t h oughts i n d e p e n d e n t l y . C h i l d r e n at t h i s l e v e l a r e aware t h a t t h e i r 20 responses c o n t a i n s more than one word. Ashton-Warner s e q u e n t i a l l y i n t r o d u c e s t h r e e k i n d s o f b o o k l e t s to c h i l d r e n who have e x h i b i t e d t h i s movement (Wasserman, 1972, 1976b). The f i r s t b o o k l e t c o n t a i n s a few u n l i n e d , b l a n k s h e e t s o f paper. As the c h i l d r e n s ' p h r a s e s or se n t e n c e s become l o n g e r , they a r e i n t r o d u c e d t o a second b o o k l e t which c o n t a i n s more pages and the paper i s l i n e d . When c h i l d r e n combine two s h o r t s e n t e n c e s they a r e g i v e n a . t h i r d b o o k l e t . T h i s b o o k l e t i s l a r g e r and c o n t a i n s more l i n e d s h e e t s o f paper than the p r e v i o u s b o o k l e t . The f i n a l movement i n v o l v e s c o m b ining s e v e r a l s e n t e n c e s i n t o a s e r i e s o f r e l a t e d thoughts and i d e a s . The s t o r i e s a r e w r i t t e n i n d e p e n d e n t l y and the e l i c i t a t i o n o f a word may no longer be a n e c e s s a r y s t i m u l u s f o r the c h i l d . The c h i l d might w r i t e , "Grandpa i s here f o r a v i s i t . He l i v e s i n Toronto. He w a l k s me t o s c h o o l e v e r y morning. At n i g h t he t e l l s me s t o r i e s b e f o r e I go t o s l e e p . " The Key V o c a b u l a r y movements o b s e r v e d by Ashton-Warner c o n s i s t o f forms o f response which she c l a i m s a r e emergent i n n a t u r e and h i e r a r c h i c a l i n o r d e r (Wasserman, 1976b). The f i r s t movement i s the s i n g l e spoken word f o l l o w e d by the c o m b i n a t i o n o f words and moving on through t o the independent c o m p o s i t i o n o f s t o r i e s . These movements have been o b s e r v e d by Ashton-Warner i n her work w i t h c h i l d r e n i n New Z e a l a n d , the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and Canada. 21 The Gi ant Word Syndrome Veatch (1973, 1976) has i d e n t i f i e d a form o f response which she c l a i m s i s apparent p r i o r t o Ashton-Warner's f i r s t movement. A c h i l d at t h i s l e v e l o f response w i l l r e q u e s t a s e n t e n c e or a phrase which i s b e l i e v e d t o be a s i n g l e word. She f i r s t o b s e r v e d t h i s phenomenon, which she termed the G i a n t Word Syndrome, w h i l e t r a i n i n g ten v o l u n t e e r grade one and grade two t e a c h e r s t o use the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y . The t e a c h e r s informed Veatch t h a t s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n would respond t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s w i t h s e n t e n c e s or p h r a s e s . Veatch encouraged the t e a c h e r s to note the c h i l d r e n ' s comments r e g a r d i n g t h e i r s e n t e n c e s and p h r a s e s . C o n f e r e n c e s w i t h the t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the c h i l d r e n seemed t o f o c u s on the amount o f space the word c o v e r e d on the word c a r d or the number o f l e t t e r s i n v o l v e d . They appeared t o be unaware of the spaces between words and would c o n t i n u e t o d i s r e g a r d these spaces when they were p o i n t e d out by the t e a c h e r . A l t h o u g h t h i s phenomenon, as i t r e l a t e s t o Key V o c a b u l a r y , had been noted (Veatch e t a l . , 1973), i t had not been v e r i f i e d e m p i r i c a l l y . To summarize, the b a s i s o f the Key V o c a b u l a r y i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g y i s the use o f the c h i l d ' s v e r b a l r e s ponse through the e l i c i t a t i o n o f key words. Ashton-Warner's o b s e r v a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e s l e d t o her i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f o u r l e v e l s o f r esponse. Veatch i d e n t i f i e d a form o f response made by some c h i l d r e n p r i o r t o Ashton-Warner's f i r s t l e v e l r e s p onse. 22 PIAGET'S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT A s p e c t s o f P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y o f development seemed e s p e c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response and c o g n i t i o n . Those elements o f P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y w i t h s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e s f o r t h i s s t u d y w i l l be examined. P i a g e t has i d e n t i f i e d f o u r s t a g e s of development i n the a c q u i s i t i o n o f the a b i l i t y t o t h i n k l o g i c a l l y . The t r a n s i t i o n from one s t a g e t o the next i s s a i d t o be i n v a r i a n t i n o r d e r but not s t r i c t l y t i e d t o age ( P i a g e t , 1966, 1974, 1976). A c c o r d i n g t o P i a g e t (1955, 1967, 1976), the o r i g i n s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e r o o t e d i n the s e n s o r i m o t o r s t a g e o f development ( b i r t h t o two y e a r s o f age). The s i x s u b - s t a g e s w i t h i n the s e n s o r i m o t o r s t a g e b e g i n at b i r t h i n the form o f r e f l e x e s and p r o g r e s s through the scheme o f o b j e c t permanence. The concept o f the o b j e c t i s the knowledge t h a t o b j e c t s c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t o u t s i d e the i n f a n t ' s p e r c e p t u a l f i e l d . Toward the end o f the f i r s t year o f l i f e , the i n f a n t w i l l s e a r c h out an o b j e c t which has been h i d d e n . T h i s s e a r c h w i l l l a t e r be g u i d e d by the i n f a n t ' s o b s e r v a t i o n o f the d i s p l a c e m e n t s ( t h a t i s , the sequence o f h i d i n g p l a c e s ) and thus the c h i l d w i l l e v e n t u a l l y d e v e l o p a system o f p r a c t i c a l a c t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the immediate space. T h i s system e n a b l e s the i n f a n t t o take i n t o account s u c c e s s i v e d i s p l a c e m e n t s , t o 23 o r d e r them and then t o r e v e r s e them ( P i a g e t , 1974, 1976). The p r e o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e (approximate ages two t o seven) i s a p e r i o d i n which symbols, e s p e c i a l l y language, a r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t . Through the use o f language and symbols the c h i l d can r e c o n s t r u c t p a s t a c t i o n s , make r e f e r e n c e t o f a r away spaces or ev e n t s o u t s i d e the p e r c e p t u a l f i e l d , and a n t i c i p a t e f u t u r e a c t i o n s . The t h r e e p e r s o n a l symbols used at t h i s s t a g e a r e : (1) s y m b o l i c or i m a g i n a t i v e p l a y ; (2) i m i t a t i o n o r d e f e r r e d i m i t a t i o n ; and (3) mental imagery. P e r s o n a l symbols a r e d e r i v e d from motor i m i t a t i o n and P i a g e t b e l i e v e s t h i s i m i t a t i o n s e r v e s as one o f the p o s s i b l e l i n k s between s e n s o r i m o t o r b e h a v i o r and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l thought. T h i s l i n k i s independent o f language, but i t a i d s i n the a c q u i s i t i o n o f language. The f u n c t i o n o f symbols i s br o a d e r than language and i n c l u d e s b o t h v e r b a l s i g n s and p e r s o n a l symbols. P i a g e t m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h i s " s y m b o l i c f u n c t i o n " can be e x p l a i n e d by the f o r m a t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . Furthermore, the essence of the s y m b o l i c f u n c t i o n i s the d i f f e r e n t a t i o n o f the s i g n s / s y m b o l s ( the s i g n i f i e r s ) from the o b j e c t s or e v e n t s ( t h e s i g n i f i e d ) . The a b i l i t y t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e the s i g n i f i e r s from the s i g n i f i e d p e r m i t s the e v o c a t i o n o f the a p p r o p r i a t e s i g n or symbol to r e p r e s e n t the o b j e c t o r ev e n t . The c h i l d can now make a c o n n e c t i o n between the symbols and the o b j e c t s or e v e n t s which they r e p r e s e n t . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l thought and language can t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d as i n t e r a c t i ve. 24 A l t h o u g h the c h i l d at the p r e o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e i s now c a p a b l e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l thought, he i s not y e t c a p a b l e o f l o g i c a l thought. I n s t e a d o f l o g i c , he uses what P i a g e t (1967) terms " i n t u i t i o n " . The c h i l d depends on the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f p e r c e p t s and movement i n the form of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l images and "mental e x p e r i e n c e s " . The c h i l d ' s a b i l i t i e s t o c o n s e r v e number, t o group and s e r i a t e o b j e c t s a l o n g one d i m e n s i o n , and t o c l a s s i f y o b j e c t s r e l a t i v e t o one or more a t t r i b u t e s a r e i n d i c a t i v e t h a t the t r a n s i t i o n from p r e o p e r a t i o n a l t o c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g has o c c u r r e d . The s t a g e o f c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y ages seven to t w e l v e ) i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the f o r m a t i o n o f the l o g i c o f c l a s s e s and the l o g i c o f r e l a t i o n s . The c h i l d ' s a c t i o n s upon c o n c r e t e o b j e c t s r e s u l t i n the a s s i m i l a t i o n , accommodation, and i n t e r i o r i z a t i o n o f a c t i o n s and subsequent r e a c t i o n s . As these a c t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s a r e i n t e r i o r i z e d , the c h i l d r e o r g a n i z e s e a r l i e r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s and a p p l i e s them anew l e a d i n g t o the emergences o f more complex c o n c e p t s ( t h a t i s , c l a s s i n c l u s i o n and m u l t i p l i c a t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; d o u b l e s e r i a t i o n and placement; c o n s e r v a t i o n o f s u b s t a n c e , l e n g t h , w e i g h t , a r e a , and volume). The c o o r d i n a t i o n o f the s e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s (or second o r d e r o p e r a t i o n s ) a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f what P i a g e t c o n s i d e r s the fo r m a l and f i n a l s t a g e o f c o g n i t i v e development. The f o u r s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development i d e n t i f i e d by P i a g e t a r e s e n s o r i m o t o r , p r e o p e r a t i o n a l , c o n c r e t e 25 o p e r a t i o n a l , and form a l o p e r a t i o n s . The c o g n i t i v e b e h a v i o r s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c h i l d r e n at the p r e o p e r a t i o n a l and c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e s were the ones o f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s s t u d y . LANGUAGE AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Language development, a 1 thought not the f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y , w i l l be t r e a t e d b r i e f l y because o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between language and c o g n i t i o n and language and the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . Recent s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t the g e n e r a l n a t u r e and sequence o f language a c q u i s i t i o n f o r E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n i s u n i v e r s a l ( F i s h b e i n & Emans, 1972; Menyuk, 1971; Moskowitz, 1978). T h i s sequence w i l l be d e s c r i b e d f i r s t f o l l o w e d by the e x a m i n a t i o n o f two s e l e c t e d t h e o r e t i c a l views o f the n a t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between language and c o g n i t i o n : (1) t h a t language p r e c e d e s thought; and (2) t h a t thought precedes language. These t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s w i l l be r e v i e w e d s e p a r a t e l y f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i r commona1i t i es. Sequence o f Language A c q u i s i t i o n The f i r s t type o f v o c a l i z a t i o n i n f a n t s make i n c l u d e sounds r e l a t e d t o c r y i n g f o l l o w e d by c o o i n g n o i s e s . These b e g i n t o emerge around s i x t o e i g h t weeks o f age. When i n f a n t s a r e about s i x months o f age they e n t e r a b a b b l i n g s t a g e . These b a b b l i n g s w i l l i n c l u d e i n t o n a t i o n p a t t e r n s 26 s i m i l a r t o those used by a d u l t s ( F i s h b e i n & Emans, 1972; Menyuk, 1971). When c h i l d r e n a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y one year o l d , they e n t e r what i s termed a "one word s t a g e " . These e a r l y one word u t t e r a n c e s a re b a s i c a l l y c o n c r e t e nouns and v e r b s . I t has been noted t h a t newly a c q u i r e d words a r e used f i r s t f o r naming and o n l y l a t e r w i l l c h i l d r e n use them as a means o f a s k i n g f o r something (Moskowitz, 1978). I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t each word s e r v e s as a "s e n t e n c e " . Furthermore, the i n t o n a t i o n used w i l l v a r y depending on the s i t u a t i o n or i n d i v i d u a l needs. The c h i l d r e n ' s d e v e l o p i n g s y n t a c t i c a b i l i t i e s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n b o t h the n a t u r e o f the one word u t t e r a n c e s and the a c c u r a t e p e r c e p t i o n o f the m u l t i w o r d s e n t e n c e s they hear. The one word s t a g e i s f o l l o w e d by the two word s t a g e and then f o l l o w e d by what Moskowitz (1978) c i t e s as t e l e g r a p h i c speech. T h i s l a t t e r form o f speech i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s h o r t , s i m p l e s e n t e n c e s or p h r a s e s . T e l e g r a p h i c speech l a c k s " f u n c t i o n words". That i s , the speech l a c k s tense e n d i n g s on v e r b s , p l u r a l e n d i n g s on nouns, p r e p o s i t i o n s , c o n j u n c t i o n s and so f o r t h . G r a d u a l l y c h i l d r e n b e g i n to add f u n c t i o n words t o t h e i r s e n t e n c e s . The b a s i c language p r o c e s s i s complete by about age f i v e and o n l y s u b t l e r e f i n e m e n t s a r e added t h e r e a f t e r . R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Language and Cogni t i o n There a r e s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s proposed t o 27 account f o r the n a t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between language and c o g n i t i o n . Two d i f f e r e n t v iews which have won wide a t t e n t i o n a r e those put f o r w a r d by Vygotsky and P i a g e t . V y gotsky (1962) viewed language as the major s t i m u l a n t of c o g n i t i v e growth. He h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the b e g i n n i n g s o f language and thought a r e found i n the models p r o v i d e d by a d u l t s and t h a t the s t r a t e g i e s used i n l e a r n i n g a language are o f major importance i n the development o f the thought p r o c e s s . L u r i a (1961), a c o l l e a g u e o f Vyg o t s k y ' s c o n c l u d e d t h a t the d i r e c t i v e r o l e o f words p r o g r e s s e s i n a s e r i e s o f s t a g e s . A l t h o u g h L u r i a and Vyg o t s k y h e l d t h a t language precedes thought, they a l l e g e d t h a t c o g n i t i o n and language are dependent on the c h i l d ' s e x p e r i e n c e s and i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o b j e c t s i n the environment. When r e v i e w i n g some o f h i s own r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , L u r i a (1976) extended h i s p o s i t i o n by s t a t i n g t h a t c o g n i t i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d markedly by p a s t e v e n t s . He contended t h a t some forms o f c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s ( p e r c e p t i o n , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , d e d u c t i o n , r e a s o n i n g , i m a g i n a t i o n , and s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n ) v a r y as the c o n d i t i o n s o f s o c i a l l i f e change and as rud i m e n t s o f knowledge a r e mastered. From a P i a g e t i a n p e r s p e c t i v e (Duckworth, 1976a, 1976b; P i a g e t , 1964, 1967 S i n c l a i r - d e Zwart, 1974), the o r i g i n s o f thought a r e i n the s e n s o r i m o t o r , p r e - v e r b a l a c t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d by the c h i l d i n the f i r s t two y e a r s o f l i f e . The s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f any k i n d o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s t o be found i n the a c t i o n s performed by the c h i l d . As new i n f o r m a t i o n i s 28 a s s i m i l a t e d , language s t r u c t u r e s a r e m o d i f i e d and the c h i l d i n c o r p o r a t e s i n t o e x i s t i n g speech p a t t e r n s those language s t r u c t u r e s which c o r r e s p o n d to c o g n i t i v e development. T h i s a s s i m i l a t i o n - a c c o m m o d a t i o n p r o c e s s a l l o w s the c h i l d t o o r g a n i z e and g e n e r a l i z e past e x p e r i e n c e s and a p p l y them anew. Thus language i n t e r a c t s w i t h thought, but i t i s not c o n s i d e r e d to be the o r i g i n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . R a t h e r , t h i n k i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d to be the b a s i s o f language. Commona1i t i es i n Theor i e s The r e l a t i o n s h i p between language and thought i s a complex one and has g i v e n r i s e t o a v a r i e t y o f t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . However, no s i n g l e t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n p r o v i d e s a comprehensive e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s complex p r o c e s s . A l t h o u g h each o f the two t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s d e s c r i b e d above emphasizes a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between language and thought, t h e r e a r e p o i n t s at which they converge. I t i s agreed t h a t e x p e r i e n c e , thought, and language development a r e i n t e r a c t i v e v a r i a b l e s . Language a c q u i s i t i o n and usage are seen as b e i n g dependent upon the development o f p e r c e p t u a l s t r a t e g i e s . F i n a l l y , language has s t r u c t u r e , and words can be viewed as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f thought. 29 READING AND LANGUAGE Some of the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e o r y r e l a t i n g t o language and thought a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o the l i t e r a t u r e about language and the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e o r y r e l a t i n g language and r e a d i n g s h o u l d a s s i s t i n c l a r i f y i n g the l i n k s among r e a d i n g and language and c o g n i t i v e development. The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f summary o f s e l e c t e d v i e w s e x p l a i n i n g how the c h i l d a c q u i r e s the a b i l i t y t o read. These views w i l l be r e l a t e d t o a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s and t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y method o f r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . Spache and Spache (1973) t a k e the p o s i t i o n t h a t when the c h i l d ' s own language i s not comparable t o t h a t found i n the b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l , r e a d i n g comprehension w i l l be s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d . They emphasize the f a c t t h a t r e a d i n g i s a m u l t i f a c e t e d p r o c e s s t h a t changes i n n a t u r e as the c h i l d moves from one developmental s t a g e t o the n e x t . A u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , c o g n i t i o n , language development, and s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s a r e some o f the f a c t o r s s a i d t o i n f l u e n c e the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . However, these a u t h o r s do not d e s c r i b e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the s e "developmental s t a g e s " or the r e l a t i o n s h i p between such s t a g e s and the f a c t o r s b e l i e v e d t o i n f l u e n c e the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . On the o t h e r hand, D u r k i n (1974) s t a t e s t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between the r e c o g n i t i o n o f symbols and t h e i r meanings and the a b i l i t y t o read r e f l e c t s a d i f f e r e n c e i n the a b i l i t y t o t h i n k . Smith, Brooks, Goodman, M e r e d i t h (1976), and Goodman (1969, 1970, 1972) r e g a r d the re a d e r as a decoder who 30 a t t e m p t s t o r e c o n s t r u c t a p r i n t e d message. They o u t l i n e t h r e e cue systems i n v o l v e d i n r e a d i n g which a i d the reader i n d e c o d i n g p r i n t language: (1) cues w i t h i n words; (2) cues i n the f l o w o f language; and (3) cues w i t h i n the r e a d e r . P r o f i c i e n c y i n the use o f these cue systems i s s a i d t o be i n f l u e n c e d by the c h i l d ' s e x p e r i e n t i a l and c o n c e p t u a l background. S t a u f f e r (1975) s t r e s s e s t h a t r e a d i n g i s a t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s . He contends t h a t i t i s a p r o c e s s which i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o e x p e r i e n c e and language development. S t a u f f e r (1969) f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t a c h i l d ' s o r a l language f a c i l i t y i s the n e c e s s a r y f o u n d a t i o n f o r the t r a n s i t i o n from o r a l t o p r i n t e d language. The e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h which he has r e p o r t e d ( S t a u f f e r , 1976) s u p p o r t s t h e s e c l a i m s . Language E x p e r i e n c e S t r a t e g i e s W h i l e i t appears t h e r e i s s u p p o r t f o r the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between language development and r e a d i n g a c q u i s i t i o n , G r o f f ' s (1977) r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s suggest t h a t the n a t u r e o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . He r e p o r t s t h a t the r e s e a r c h seems t o f a l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s ; (1) r e s e a r c h f o c u s i n g on o r a l language f l u e n c y and r e a d i n g ; and (2) s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h measures o f o r a l s y n t a x and r e a d i n g . Based on h i s r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e , G r o f f c o n c l u d e s t h a t the q u e s t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between language and r e a d i n g achievement has not been r e s o l v e d because o f the n a t u r e o f the r e s e a r c h 31 i t s e l f . He contends t h a t r e s e a r c h needs t o f o c u s more s p e c i f i c a l l y on b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l which u t i l i z e s the c h i l d ' s own language. G r o f f s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e e m p i r i c a l d a t a to s u p p o r t the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t r e a d i n g achievement i s enhanced i f the r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s match the c h i l d ' s e x p e r i e n t i a l and c o n c e p t u a l background. The e x p e r i e n t i a l and c o n c e p t u a l background of the reader i s the major t h r u s t i n the language e x p e r i e n c e approach t o r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n ( A l l e n & A l l e n , 1969; A l l e n , 1976, 1977, 1978; S t a u f f e r , 1970, 1976; Veatch e t a l . , 1973; Wasserman, 1972, 1974, 1976a). The s u p p o r t e r s o f t h i s s t r a t e g y contend t h a t e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n c o r p o r a t e s those c o n c e p t s , e x p e r i e n c e s , and e x p r e s s i v e v o c a b u l a r y which a r e a p a r t o f the c h i l d ' s own r e p e r t o i r e . A l l e n (1978) p o i n t s out t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s which he has o b s e r v e d r e l a t e d t o s u c c e s s f u l b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . The a c t i v i t i e s a r e : (1) s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n a c t i v i t i e s ( f o r example, a r t , drama, rhythm, r o l e - p l a y i n g , and p e r s o n a l w r i t i n g ) which promote language usage; (2) s t o r y t e l l i n g s e s s i o n s i n which the teacher reads w i t h the c h i l d r e n so as to encourage the r e p e t i t i o n o f words, p h r a s e s , and language p a t t e r n s ; and (3) a l p h a b e t a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e based on i n d i v i d u a l b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g s k i l l s ( f o r example, s p e l l i n g out words as the c h i l d d i c t a t e s a s t o r y ) . He f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t the c h i l d needs r e a l and v i c a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t can be v e r b a l i z e d and c a p t u r e d i n w r i t i n g . D a v id and M u r i a (1979) c o n c l u d e d from t h e i r r e v i e w o f 32 r e s e a r c h t h a t e x p e r i e n c e w i l l a i d c h i l d r e n i n f o r m i n g a " t h e o r y " about t h e i r w o r l d . T h i s " t h e o r y " e n a b l e s c h i l d r e n t o p r e d i c t e v e n t s r e g a r d i n g the w o r l d as they see i t . The e x p e r i e n c e s f u r t h e r a i d c h i l d r e n i n f o r m u l a t i n g g e n e r a l r u l e s t h a t a s s i s t them i n the p r e d i c t i o n o f f u t u r e e v e n t s . These r u l e s a r e the f o r e r u n n e r s o f the language r u l e s w hich c h i l d r e n have t o make when l e a r n i n g t o read the p r i n t e d symbol. The B u l l o c k Report (1975), based on a s u r v e y of c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e s i n England, s u p p o r t s t h i s v iew i n p a r t . The r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t one o f the v a l u e s o f u s i n g c h i l d r e n ' s spoken and w r i t t e n language as r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l was t h a t i t a i d e d i n o r g a n i z i n g and g e n e r a l i z i n g the e x p e r i e n c e s c h i l d r e n s h a r e d w i t h o t h e r s . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s r e q u i r e s the use o f complex r u l e s w h ich g o v e r n the c o m b i n a t i o n o f elements used i n s p e a k i n g and wr i t i ng. U n d e r s t a n d i n q the Term "Word" Proponents of the language e x p e r i e n c e s t r a t e g y f o r t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g argue t h a t the meaning a t t a c h e d t o the p r i n t e d symbols w i l l v a r y depending on the c h i l d ' s e x p e r i e n t i a l background and the d e v e l o p m e n t a l f a c t o r s o f language and c o g n i t i o n . Papandropoulu and S i n c l a i r (1974), i n a s t u d y i n v o l v i n g 121 c h i l d r e n age f o u r t o t e n , found t h a t t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t a l f a c t o r s may a l s o i n f l u e n c e the c h i l d ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the concept of "a word". T h e i r s t u d y , w h i c h d i d not i n c l u d e the v a r i a b l e o f r e a d i n g 33 a c q u i s i t i o n , r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e a r e f o u r s e q u e n t i a l l e v e l s i n v o l v e d i n the c h i l d ' s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f "a word". The f i r s t l e v e l (ages f o u r t o f i v e ) i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the i n a b i l i t y t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between a word and the r e a l i t y t o which i t r e f e r r e d . At the second l e v e l (ages f i v e t o s e v e n ) , the c h i l d no longer c o n f u s e s words w i t h r e a l i t y and now u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t words are what i s s a i d about something or are used t o name something. The f o l l o w i n g two s u b - s t a g e s a r e found w i t h i n the second l e v e l : (1) a word i s seen as a g l o b a l t o p i c and thus a complete s e n t e n c e i s s a i d t o be "a word"; and (2) a s i n g l e u n i t (or word) i s g i v e n as an example o f a word. By the t h i r d l e v e l (ages s i x t o e i g h t ) , words a r e s t i l l viewed as " t h i n g s t h a t t e l l something" but can now be d e t a c h e d from the r e a l i t y which they r e p r e s e n t and p l a c e d i n t o a m e a n i n g f u l c o n t e x t . The f o u r t h l e v e l (ages e i g h t t o ten) i s a c h i e v e d when words a r e seen as m e a n i n g f u l u n i t s w h i c h can be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a system o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In a d d i t i o n , words a r e seen as u n i t s , c o m p r i s ed o f l e t t e r s , and can be heard, spoken, or w r i t t e n . On the b a s i s o f t h e i r f i n d i n g s , Papandropou1u and S i n c l a i r (1974) proposed t h a t t h e r e i s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l sequence i n the m e t a l i n g u i s t i c competence o f c h i l d r e n which d e v e l o p s a l o n g w i t h the g e n e r a l c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s i d e n t i f i e d by P i a g e t . F u r t h e r , t h i s sequence i s s i m i l a r t o the u n i v e r s a l one found i n the e a r l y p e r i o d s o f language development ( F i s h b e i n <& Emans, 1972; H o s k i n s s o n , 1975; Menyuk, 1971; Moskowitz, 1978; Pflaum, 1974). 34 R e i d (1966), Downing (1968, 1970, 1971, 1973-74), and F r a n c i s (1973) examined the u n d e r s t a n d i n g c h i l d r e n f i v e t o seven y e a r s o f age a s c r i b e d t o the meaning o f "a word" as i t r e l a t e s t o r e a d i n g . T h e i r s t u d i e s f o c u s e d on the f o l l o w i n g t e c h n i c a l terms: (1) words, (2) l e t t e r s , (3) numbers, (4) sounds, (5) w r i t i n g , and (6) r e a d i n g . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a c h i l d ' s concept o f "a word" (as w e l l as the o t h e r t e c h n i c a l terms) changes over time. R e i d and Downing b o t h c o n c l u d e d t h a t the c h i l d ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f "a word" i s r e l a t e d t o c o g n i t i v e and l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s . They argued t h a t as the c h i l d ' s c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s and l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s i n c r e a s e , the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t e c h n i c a l v o c a b u l a r y r e l a t i n g t o r e a d i n g changes. I t i s not c l e a r whether the changes o b s e r v e d were r e l a t e d t o m a t u r a t i o n or were a r e s u l t o f l e a r n e d b e h a v i o r s i n c e a l l o f the c h i l d r e n i n t hese s t u d i e s were r e c e i v i n g r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n at the time o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . Holden (1977) used 7 c a t e g o r i e s o f word awareness t o a n a l y z e the responses o f 26 k i n d e r g a r t e n and 24 grade one c h i l d r e n . The a n a l y s i s was based on the re s p o n s e s c h i l d r e n gave t o 10 i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d items on the Homophones Test . The d a t a were c o l l e c t e d i n a p u b l i c s c h o o l which had open c l a s s r o o m a r e a s . Holden found t h a t the k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n made t w i c e as many e r r o r s as the grade one c h i l d r e n . The author c o n c l u d e d from the a n a l y s i s t h a t u t t e r a n c e s p r o c e e d from the g l o b a l t o the d i s c r e t e . 35 Nixon (1975) e x p l o r e d the n a t u r e of word meanings ( t h a t i s , the v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the i n h e r e n t p r o p e r t i e s o f a group o f o b j e c t s ) as e x p r e s s e d o r a l l y by 48 Canadian c h i l d r e n ages s i x , seven, and e l e v e n . The d a t a were examined i n terms o f the number o f p r o p e r t i e s ; the c a t e g o r i e s o f meanings; and the q u a l i t y o f word meanings e x p r e s s e d i n words, p h r a s e s , or s e n t e n c e s . I t was found t h a t as the age o f the c h i l d r e n i n c r e a s e d , the v e r b a l responses became more complex, d e t a i l e d , and p r e c i s e . A l l c h i l d r e n s c o r e d between 100 and 115 on an i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t ( the Canadian C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s Test P r i m a r y 1 or 2; or the Canadian L o r g e - T h o r n d i k e I n t e l l i g e n c e Test L e v e l B or D). The sequence o f m e t a l i n g u i s t i c competency i d e n t i f i e d by Papandropoulu and S i n c l a i r (1974) and s u p p o r t e d by R e i d (1966), Downing (1968, 1970, 1971, 1973-74), F r a n c i s (1973), Nixon (1975), and Hoiden (1977) may i n some way i n f l u e n c e the f o r m a t i o n o f word b o u n d a r i e s as a p p l i e d t o p r i n t symbols. Smith's (1973) summary o f r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e f i v e s t e p s i n the f o r m a t i o n o f word b o u n d a r i e s . These s t e p s a r e : (1) i n d i v i d u a l l e t t e r s seen as words; (2) words seen as u n i t s made up o f more than one l e t t e r ; (3) a space seen as a boundary between words u n l e s s the words a r e s h o r t and then they a r e combined; (4) long words d i v i d e d and seen as s e v e r a l words; and (5) spaces used t o i n d i c a t e b o u n d a r i e s . Smith's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s t h a t c e r t a i n c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s a r e n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e the c h i l d can 36 p e r c e i v e t h a t p r i n t e d language i s c o m p r i s e d of p a r t s ( l e t t e r s ) t h a t are combined t o form c l a s s e s (words) which i n t u r n form a whole ( t h o u g h t ) . I t i s not c e r t a i n how the c h i l d makes a c o n n e c t i o n between p r i n t e d symbols and the thoughts they r e p r e s e n t , but i t appears from the r e s e a r c h t h a t t h i s a b i l i t y i s i n f l u e n c e d by l i n g u i s t i c and c o g n i t i v e c o m p e t e n c i e s . The e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t s a language e x p e r i e n c e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n as a b a s i s f o r p r e - r e a d i n g a c t i v i t y r e l a t i n g t o the c o n c e p t s o f "word", "word b o u n d a r i e s " , and "Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s " . The s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h i s l i n k a g e i s the d e v e l o p m e n t a l change which t a k e s p l a c e i n the c h i l d ' s language and c o g n i t i o n . Key Vocabu1ary Responses and Coqni t i o n The Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y uses the c h i l d ' s language as the major f o c u s f o r p r e - r e a d i n g a c t i v i t y and thus t a k e s i n t o account any l i n g u i s t i c or c o g n i t i v e changes w h i c h may o c c u r . In f a c t , Veatch's (1973, 1976) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the G i a n t Word Syndrome does support the i d e a o f i d e n t i f i a b l e l e v e l s found i n the sequence o f c h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e s , over time, t o t e a c h e r s ' r e q u e s t s f o r "a word". F u r t h e r s u p p o r t i s e v i d e n t i n Papandropoulu and S i n c l a i r ' s (1974) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the f i r s t s u b - s t a g e , second l e v e l , o f m e t a l i n g u i s t i c competency. The o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e unable t o see t h a t t h e i r " g i a n t words" a r e composed of s e v e r a l words s e p a r a t e d by spaces i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the word boundary f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d by Smith (1973). The G i a n t 37 Word Syndrome and Ashton-Warner's f o u r movements appear t o be i n d i c a t i v e o f t r a n s i t i o n s i n m e t a l i n g u i s t i c knowledge and p a r a l l e l a s p e c t s of Papandropoulu and S i n c l a i r ' s (1974) f i n d i n g s as i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 1. I t seems p l a u s i b l e t h a t the n a t u r e of change i n a c h i l d ' s Key V o c a b u l a r y responses over time may be dependent upon the d e v e l o p m e n t a l changes i n c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s as i d e n t i f i e d by P i a g e t . These changes a r e s a i d t o i n f l u e n c e the c h i l d ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p r i n t e d symbol. The l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o a s p e c t s of P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y o f c o g n i t i o n and r e a d i n g a c q u i s i t i o n w i l l be examined next f o r p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . PIAGET'S THEORY AND READING ACQUISITION W a l l e r (1977) contends t h a t , from a P i a g e t i a n p e r s p e c t i v e , t e a c h i n g by t e l l i n g or r e a d i n g i s i n a d e q u a t e . He f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i f the c h i l d does not have the l i n g u i s t i c r e f e r e n t s n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d the m a t e r i a l b e i n g read or o r a l l y communicated. He s u p p o r t s the P i a g e t i a n p o s i t i o n t h a t l e a r n i n g r e s u l t s from the c h i l d ' s own a c t i v i t y . He s t a t e s t h a t the a c q u i s i t i o n o f r e a d i n g s h o u l d be viewed from a P i a g e t i a n p e r s p e c t i v e f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : (1) i t p r o v i d e s a t h e o r e t i c a l base which i s comprehensive i n scope and d e v e l o p m e n t a l i n n a t u r e ; and (2) i n f e r e n c e s and t e s t a b l e hypotheses can be d e r i v e d r e l a t i n g t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l changes and r e a d i n g a c q u i s i t i o n . 38 Table 1 Key V o c a b u l a r y Responses and L e v e l s of M e t a l i n g u i s t i c Competency Forms of Key V o c a b u l a r y Responses (Ashton-Warner l e t a l i n g u i s t i c [ Papandropou1u Competency and S i n c l a i r L e v e l 1 A word i s seen as r e a l i t y ( t h a t i s , the r e a l o b j e c t ) r a t h e r than a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e a l i t y . L e v e l J_ An e n t i r e s e n t e n c e or phrase i s g i v e n which the c h i l d b e l i e v e s t o be a s i n g l e word. L e v e l 2, Sub-Stage 1 A word i s seen as a g l o b a l t o p i c and a s e n t e n c e i s s a i d t o be a word. L e v e l 2 L e v e l 2, Sub-Staqe 2 A s i n g l e word response t o the e l i c i t a t i o n o f a key word. A s i n g l e word u n i t i s g i v e n as an example o f a word. L e v e l 3 L e v e l 3 A two word response which r e l a t e s more i n f o r m a t i o n about the image. A word can be d e t a c h e d from the r e a l i t y and p l a c e d i n t o a m e a n i n g f u l c o n t e x t . L e v e l 4 L e v e l 4 Responds w i t h p h r a s e s and s e n t e n c e s as w e l l as a t t e m p t s t o w r i t e p h r a s e s and s e n t e n c e s i n d e p e n d e n t l y . Words are seen and meaning-f u l u n i t s which can form a system o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Words are u n i t s w h i c h can be spoken or w r i t t e n . L e v e l 5 C o m p o s i t i o n o f s t o r i e s 39 There a r e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the c o n c e p t s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and s e r i a t i o n r e l a t e t o r e a d i n g a c q u i s i t i o n and r e a d i n g comprehension (BreKKe, W i l l i a m s , & Harlow, 1973; B r i g g s & E l k i n d , 1973; Kretschmer, 1972, 1975; R o b e r t s , 1976). A l t h o u g h the thought p r o c e s s e s r e l a t i n g to t h e s e c o n c e p t s a r e b e l i e v e d t o be s i m i l a r t o those used i n the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s , the n a t u r e o f t h a t s i m i 1 a r i t y i s never f u l l y d e s c r i b e d . Brekke, W i l l i a m s , and Harlow (1973) t e s t e d 81 grade one c h i l d r e n on s e l e c t e d f a c t o r s o f r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s u s i n g the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e : Readiness S k i l l s Test and i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s u s i n g the grade K-1 form o f the P r i m a r y Mental A b i l i t i e s T e s t . F i v e P i a g e t i a n t a s k s were used t o measure the c o n c e p t s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n o f number and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f s u b s t a n c e . The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d a moderate, p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between c o n s e r v a t i o n o f number and s u b s t a n c e and r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s ; a s l i g h t c o r r e l a t i o n between r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s and i n t e l l i g e n c e as measured by the P r i m a r y Mental A b i l i t i e s T e s t ; and a moderate, but p o s i t i v e , c o r r e l a t i o n between c o n s e r v a t i o n and i n t e l l i g e n c e . The a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t concept o f c o n s e r v a t i o n i s w o r t h y o f a t t e n t i o n as an a d d i t i o n a l p r e d i c t o r o f the c h i l d ' s r e a d i n e s s f o r b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . D i m i t r o v s k y and Almy (1975) t e s t e d 120 k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n t o d e t e r m i n e a b i l i t y t o c o n s e r v e number. Two and a h a l f y e a r s l a t e r they a d m i n i s t e r e d a r e a d i n g achievement t e s t to the same c h i l d r e n . I t was found t h a t c h i l d r e n who 40 c o u l d not c o n s e r v e number i n k i n d e r g a r t e n tended t o s c o r e lower on r e a d i n g achievement t e s t s at the end o f grade two than d i d the c h i l d r e n who c o n s e r v e d number. The r e s e a r c h e r s b e l i e v e the s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n g e n e r a l t h e r e i s some a s s o c i a t i o n between l e a r n i n g t o read and c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s r a t h e r than a s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o n s e r v a t i o n and r e a d i n g . The s t u d y d i d not attempt t o f i n d out i f the n o n c o n s e r v e r s would have been as s u c c e s s f u l i n r e a d i n g as the c o n s e r v e r s had e x p e r i e n c e s been p r o v i d e d t o enhance c o n s e r v a t i o n s k i l l s p r i o r t o the o nset o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n r e a d i ng. R o b e r t s (1976) r e v i e w e d a number of s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g t o c o n s e r v a t i o n s k i l l s and r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s . The f i n d i n g s from these s t u d i e s support D i m i t r o v s k y and Almy's (1975) h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the concept of c o n s e r v a t i o n and r e a d i n g a r e r e l a t e d . Other s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d by Roberts (1976) i n v o l v e d t r a i n i n g c h i l d r e n i n the use o f s t r a t e g i e s t h a t c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o the concept of c o n s e r v a t i o n . I t was found t h a t s u c c e s s i n c o n s e r v a t i o n t r a i n i n g t a s k s r e l a t e s p o s i t i v e l y t o r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , none o f the s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d what thought p r o c e s s e s a r e i n v o l v e d i n c o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s and how t h e s e p r o c e s s e s a r e s i m i l a r t o the ones u t i l i z e d i n the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . B r i g g s and E l k i n d (1973) a d m i n i s t e r e d a b a t t e r y o f p e r c e p t u a l , motor, c o g n i t i v e , and p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s to 16 matched p a i r s o f f i v e and o n e - h a l f year o l d s . The 32 c h i l d r e n were c a t e g o r i z e d as r e a d e r s or n o n - r e a d e r s . A l l o f 41 the p a r e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d r e g a r d i n g a number o f i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o r e a d i n g . The r e s u l t s o f the s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t c e r t a i n l o g i c a l a b i l i t i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s f a c i l i t a t e c h i l d r e n ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g s k i 11s. Kretschmer (1975) was i n t e r e s t e d i n c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o comprehend w r i t t e n d i r e c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g the c o n c e p t s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and s e r i a t i o n . He d e s c r i b e d a s t u d y i n which he p r e s e n t e d 60 grade t h r e e and 60 grade s i x s t u d e n t s w i t h s t o r i e s , w r i t t e n on a second grade r e a d i n g l e v e l , which i n c l u d e d the c o n c e p t s of g r o u p i n g and o r d e r i n g . Each s t o r y was f o l l o w e d by e i g h t m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s . Only 45 per c e n t o f the grade t h r e e c h i l d r e n and 65 per cent o f the grade s i x c h i l d r e n c o u l d c o r r e c t l y answer the q u e s t i o n s . The m a j o r i t y o f the i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s f o l l o w e d a p a t t e r n w h i c h i n d i c a t e d an i n a b i l i t y on the c h i l d ' s p a r t t o c o n s i d e r a whole thought composed of two d i s t i n c t i d e a s . There was a tendency t o f o c u s on the f i r s t i d e a p r e s e n t e d and d i s r e g a r d the second thought. Kretschmer (1975) a l s o r e p o r t e d a second s t u d y i n w h i c h he examined c h i l d r e n ' s r esponses t o q u e s t i o n s on the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Te s t . He found t h a t c h i l d r e n a g a i n made e r r o r s o f a c o n s i s t e n t n a t u r e i f the q u e s t i o n s r e q u i r e d the o p e r a t i o n s o f n e g a t i o n and r e c i p r o c i t y . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t m a t e r i a l w r i t t e n f o r c h i l d r e n under 12 y e a r s of age o f t e n r e q u i r e s a c e r t a i n degree o f a b s t r a c t i o n i n o r d e r t o comprehend the meaning. Such a b s t r a c t i o n may not emerge 42 u n t i l the s t a g e o f form a l o p e r a t i o n s . Based on her past r e s e a r c h and e x p e r i e n c e , Kamii (1971) p o s t u l a t e d a s i m i l a r i t y between the p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n r e a d i n g and those used i n d o i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s . She f u r t h e r proposed t h a t the c h i l d must be a b l e t o d i s c r i m i n a t e among l e t t e r s , w hich r e q u i r e s a " w e l l s t r u c t u r e d space", and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f l e f t t o r i g h t d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . A c l a s s i f i c a t o r y scheme i s needed t o group l e t t e r s i n t o words or s e n t e n c e s and t o u n d e r s t a n d s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e . Kamii s p e c u l a t e s t h a t comprehension r e q u i r e s the e v o c a t i o n o f mental images o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , m o b i l i t y o f thought, and the c o o r d i n a t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s among o b j e c t s i n terms o f space, time, and l o g i c . E l k i n d (1974) s u p p o r t s K a m i i ' s (1971) i d e a s based on h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . He found t h a t the concept o f " l e t t e r s " p r e s e n t s many o f the same c o g n i t i v e problems f o r a young c h i l d as the c o n c e p t s o f number, space, and time. L e t t e r s have the f o l l o w i n g p r o p e r t i e s : (1) an o r d i n a l p r o p e r t y , meaning t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the a l p h a b e t ; (2) a c a r d i n a l p r o p e r t y , which i s the name ( A B C ) ; and (3) p h o n i c and c o n t e x t u a l p r o p e r t i e s . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f these p r o p e r t i e s r e q u i r e the use o f c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s which do not appear u n t i l the c h i l d r eaches the c o n c r e t e s t a g e o f c o g n i t i o n . Freeman and Wolfgang (1978) t h e o r i z e d t h a t c h i l d r e n who s c o r e p o o r l y on r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s t e s t s a r e u s u a l l y f u n c t i o n i n g at a p r e o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l o f thought i n 43 P i a g e t i a n terms. They s t a t e t h a t such c h i l d r e n a r e not ready f o r f o r m a l b a s a l r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . The k i n d s o f p r e - r e a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s Freeman and Wolfgang ad v o c a t e are those which i n v o l v e r o l e p l a y i n g , e x p r e s s i v e a r t s , and language usage. Based on her r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h , K i r k l a n d (1978) contends t h a t r e a d i n g r e q u i r e s c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s w h ich would e n a b l e the c h i l d to d e a l w i t h a v a r i e t y o f r u l e s , a b s t r a c t i o n s , and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . She found t h a t l e a r n i n g t o read i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g a b i l i t i e s : (1) d i r e c t i o n a l i t y ; (2) a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s o f l e t t e r s , words, and p i c t u r e s ; (3) a b i l i t y t o c l a s s i f y and r e o r g a n i z e common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i n g s such as words, l e t t e r s , or numbers; (4) a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d c o n c e p t s p r e s e n t e d i n a t e x t ; (5) a b i l i t y t o f o c u s on h e a r i n g and r e p e a t i n g phonemic sounds i n words; and (6) a b i l i t y t o a t t e n d t o the t e a c h e r ' s v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s . She s u g g e s t s t h a t i n o r d e r t o d e a l w i t h t r a n s f o r m e d l e t t e r s and h o l d r e l a t i o n a l r u l e s i n mind w h i l e s y n t h e s i z i n g the meaning of p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l , the c h i l d must be at a c o n c r e t e s t a g e o f c o g n i t i v e development. She f u r t h e r contends t h a t the young c h i l d who i s "dominated by e g o c e n t r i s m " (ages f i v e t o s e v e n ) , may not be v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g t o read o t h e r p e o p l e ' s thoughts and words. For t h i s r e a s o n , she b e l i e v e s t h a t b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s h o u l d be the c h i l d ' s own words w r i t t e n by the t e a c h e r or s i g n i f i c a n t a d u l t . 44 Cannon (1973) t h e o r i z e d t h a t the c h i l d ' s f i r s t r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s h o u l d be an o u t g r o w t h o f spoken language. He adopted a P i a g e t i a n p e r s p e c t i v e and s t r e s s e d t h a t c o g n i t i v e and c o n c e p t u a l growth i s i n f l u e n c e d by the c h i l d ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the environment. Spoken language i s seen as r e f l e c t i n g the c h i l d ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s environment and, because o f i t s i n t r i n s i c meaning, i s s a i d t o be an a p p r o p r i a t e s o u r c e o f b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . Veatch (1972) h y p o t h e s i z e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Key V o c a b u l a r y words r e q u e s t e d by the c h i l d and the P i a g e t i a n concept of c o n s e r v a t i o n . She c o n c l u d e d t h a t each word the c h i l d asks f o r i s a l r e a d y i n t e r n a l i z e d and t h e r e f o r e i s c o n s e r v e d , as i t i s a p a r t o f the c h i l d ' s e x p e r i e n c e s . A l t h o u g h i t seems t o be t r u e t h a t the words l e a r n e d i n Key V o c a b u l a r y programs a r e q u i c k l y i n t e r n a l i z e d and seldom f o r g o t t e n (Ashton-Warner, 1963, 1972; Veatch et a l . , 1973; Wasserman, 1974), Veatch i s not c l e a r as t o the t h e o r e t i c a l l i n k between the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f Key V o c a b u l a r y responses and the concept of c o n s e r v a t i o n as d e s c r i b e d by P i a g e t . Wadsworth (1978) o b s e r v e d t h a t Ashton-Warner's Key V o c a b u l a r y method of r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i s c o n c e p t u a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h P i a g e t i a n p r i n c i p l e s o f l e a r n i n g i n t h a t : (1) i t e n s u r e s t h a t the c o n t e n t ( t h e words used f o r i n s t r u c t i o n ) has meaning f o r the c h i l d ; (2) the c h i l d i s encouraged t o read v i a p e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n ; (3) the s t r a t e g y i s i n d i v i d u a l i z e d e n a b l i n g advancement at the c h i l d ' s own 45 r a t e ; and (4) the s t r a t e g y a v o i d s n e g a t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t . Wadsworth's e x p e r i e n c e demonstrated t h a t the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y p r o v i d e s the c h i l d w i t h the time and o p p o r t u n i t y n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . As the c h i l d e x p l o r e s and works w i t h the words p r i n t e d by the t e a c h e r , t h e r e i s the o p p o r t u n i t y and m o t i v a t i o n t o combine words to form p h r a s e s , s e n t e n c e s , and then s t o r i e s which a r e m e a n i n g f u l t o the c h i l d . Wadsworth c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r r e s e a r c h based on the work of Ashton-Warner and P i a g e t . RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN KEY VOCABULARY AND PIAGETIAN CONCEPTS The l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s a commonality i n the thought p r o c e s s e s used by c h i l d r e n when s o l v i n g c e r t a i n P i a g e t i a n t a s k s (more s p e c i f i c a l l y ; s i m p l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , s i m p l e s e r i a t i o n , and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f number) and those they use when f i r s t l e a r n i n g t o read (Brekke, W i l l i a m s , <§ Harlow, 1973; B r i g g s & E l k i n d , 1973; D i m i t r o v s k y & Almy, 1975; E l k i n d , 1974; K a m i i , 1971; Kretschmer, 1972, 1975; R o b e r t s , 1976). Veatch (1972) and Wadsworth (1978) contend t h a t the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y i s c o n c e p t u a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h P i a g e t i a n p r i n c i p l e s o f l e a r n i n g . They suggest t h a t t h i s c o n s i s t e n c y p r o v i d e s a sound b a s i s f o r examining a p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o s o l v e P i a g e t i a n t a s k s and l e a r n i n g t o r e a d . In b r i e f , r e c e n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f v a r y i n g forms of Key V o c a b u l a r y response (Veatch e t a l . , 1973; Wasserman, 1972, 46 1976b) seems t o p r o v i d e d s u f f i c i e n t b a s i s f o r e x p l o r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o g n i t i o n and Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f the thought p r o c e s s e s used t o s o l v e s e l e c t e d P i a g e t i a n t a s k s and those r e l a t e d t o each l e v e l o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response are o u t l i n e d i n Chapter 3. SUMMARY Recent s t u d i e s (Downing, 1968, 1970, 1971, 1973-74; F r a n c i s , 1973; R e i d , 1966) i n d i c a t e t h a t the c h i l d f i v e or s i x y e a r s o f age does not have a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f such terms as "word" used f r e q u e n t l y by t e a c h e r s d u r i n g r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . Papandropoulu and S i n c l a i r (1974), found t h a t t h e r e a r e f o u r l e v e l s and two s u b - s t a g e s i n the c h i l d ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the concept o f "a word". They found a l s o t h a t t h e s e l e v e l s o f m e t a l i n g u i s t i c competency were r e l a t e d t o P i a g e t i a n measures o f c o g n i t i o n . P i a g e t i a n measures have been used to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g and c o g n i t i v e development (Brekke, W i l l i a m s & Harlow, 1973; B r i g g s & E l k i n d , 1973; De V r i e s , 1974; D i m i t r o v s k y & Almy, 1975; Kretschmer, 1973, 1975; R o b e r t s , 1976). These s t u d i e s s u pport the view t h a t r e a d i n g i s a developmental p r o c e s s t h a t can be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the emergence of c e r t a i n c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s ( D u r k i n , 1974; Spache & Spache, 1973; S t a u f f e r , 1969, 1975). Some t h e o r i s t s p o s i t the e x i s t e n c e o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p between language development and c o g n i t i o n ( L u r i a , 1961, 1976; P i a g e t , 1964, 1976; S i n c l a i r - d e Zwart, 1974; Vygotsky, 47 1962). Others have suggested t h a t t h e r e i s an i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p among the v a r i a b l e s of c o g n i t i o n , language development, p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , and r e a d i n g a c q u i s i i i o n ( A l l e n , 1976, 1977; S t a u f f e r , 1975; Veatch, 1972; Veatch e t a l . , 1973). Key V o c a b u l a r y i s a p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y which i s b e l i e v e d t o take i n t o account a l l o f t h e s e i n t e r r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s ( V e atch, 1972; Veatch e t a l . , 1973; Wadsworth, 1978; Wasserman, 1976a). The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n r e c e n t l y o f emergent l e v e l s i n response t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y method o f i n t r o d u c i n g the c h i l d t o the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s (Veatch e t a l . , 1973; Wasserman, 1972, 1976b) has opened the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s from a de v e l o p m e n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e . The t r a n s i t i o n from one l e v e l t o another i n Key V o c a b u l a r y responses may be dependent upon de v e l o p m e n t a l changes i n the c h i l d ' s c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s . C e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y o f c o g n i t i o n a r e b e l i e v e d t o be e s p e c i a l l y p e r t i n e n t t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e a d i n g a c q u i s i t i o n and thus may be a u s e f u l means o f examining whether a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between the l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response and s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development. CHAPTER 3 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The c o n c e p t u a l framework t h a t f o l l o w s was de v e l o p e d t o p r o v i d e a s y n t h e s i s o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o Key V o c a b u l a r y responses and t o e s t a b l i s h a t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n r e l a t i n g l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response and c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s as i d e n t i f i e d by P i a g e t . T h i s framework was used f i r s t t o t e s t f o r the c o n f i r m a t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response. S e c o n d l y , i t p r o v i d e d c r i t e r i a n e c e s s a r y f o r the e x a m i n a t i o n o f the proposed r e l a t i o n s h i p between the n a t u r e o f Key V o c a b u l a r y responses and s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development. The r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e i n the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r i l l u s t r a t e d the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n support o f an i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p among the v a r i a b l e s of language, thought, and e x p e r i e n c e . These f i n d i n g s were then r e l a t e d t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y and s t a g e o f c o g n i t i v e development. T h i s r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e was the bases f o r the c o n c e p t u a l framework o u t l i n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . LANGUAGE, THOUGHT, AND EXPERIENCE Papandropoulu and S i n c l a i r (1974) were a b l e t o i d e n t i f y f o u r l e v e l s and two su b - s t a g e s i n the development o f the young c h i l d ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the concept o f "a word". The l e v e l s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g , i n t u r n , were r e l a t e d t o s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i o n as i d e n t i f i e d u s i n g P i a g e t i a n measures. These 48 49 f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t s t u d i e s (Downing, 1968, 1970, 1971, 1973-74; F r a n c e s , 1973; R e i d , 1966) which suggest t h a t f i v e and s i x year o l d s do not u n d e r s t a n d much o f the b a s i c t e r m i n o l o g y such as "word" used i n the t e a c h i n g o f r e a d i n g . Thus t h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the c h i l d ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the concept o f "word" and the o t h e r b a s i c t e r m i n o l o g y used i n r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o c o g n i t i o n . C o g n i t i v e development, language, and e x p e r i e n c e a re s a i d t o be i n t e r r e l a t e d . Language e x p e r i e n c e s t r a t e g i e s o f r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n assume t h i s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p among language, e x p e r i e n c e , thought, and r e a d i n g a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d . Key V o c a b u l a r y i s an i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g y f o r the t e a c h i n g o f r e a d i n g based on the c h i l d ' s language and e x p e r i e n c e . The l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response i d e n t i f i e d by Ashton-Warner (Wasserman, 1972, 1976b) and Veatch (1973, 1976) r e f l e c t l e v e l s o f m e t a l i n g u i s t i c competency which a r e b e l i e v e d t o be r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c u l a r c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s (Papandropoulu & S i n c l a i r , 1974). A r e l a t i o n s h i p between the sequence o f Key V o c a b u l a r y responses and the development o f s p e c i f i c c o g n i t i v e c o n c e p t s was h y p o t h e s i z e d . H y p o t h e s i z e d Sequence i n Key V o c a b u l a r y Response Ashton-Warner (Wasserman, 1972, 1976b) contends t h a t d i f f e r e n t forms o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response emerge i n s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r and a r e deve l o p m e n t a l i n n a t u r e . Veatch's (1973, 1976) o b s e r v a t i o n s l e d her t o propose t h a t a G i a n t 50 Word Syndrome precedes Ashton Warner's s i n g l e word response g i v i n g f u r t h e r s u p p o r t to the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s an h i e r a c h i c a i o r d e r i n r e s p o n s e s . Based on these c l a i m s i s i t r e a s o n a b l e to propose t h a t a h i e r a c h y e x i s t s ? R e s n i c k (1973) o u t l i n e d t h r e e ways i n which t o d e f i n e h i e r a r c h i e s i n s t a g e s o f l e a r n i n g . The f i r s t i s the t r a n s f e r d e f i n i t i o n which s u g g e s t s t h a t when two t a s k s a r e h i e r a r c h i c a l l y r e l a t e d , l e a r n i n g o f one t a s k produces a p o s i t i v e t r a n s f e r to the o t h e r t a s k . The second, a p s y c h o m e t r i c d e f i n i t i o n , s t a t e s t h a t someone who can p e r f o r m a complex t a s k can r e l i a b l y be e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m a s i m p l e r t a s k w i t h i n the h i e r a r c h y . The t h i r d d e f i n i t i o n r e l a t e s t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l h i e r a r c h i e s . These h i e r a r c h i e s a r e based on s t a g e t h e o r i e s o f development which i m p l y t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l p a s ses through a f i x e d s e r i e s o f s t a g e s i n an o r d e r l y sequence. The proposed l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response may b e s t be d e f i n e d i n terms of the d e v e l o p m e n t a l d e f i n i t i o n o f h i e r a r c h i e s . Because o f the l a c k o f c r i t e r i a f o r i d e n t i f y i n g a s t a g e , the v a r y i n g forms o f response c o u l d not be viewed as s t a g e s . The o r d e r proposed was based on the p r e l i m i n a r y o b s e r v a t i o n o f Veatch (1973, 1976) and subsequent work of Ashton-Warner (Wasserman, 1972, 1976b) t h a t changes i n l i n g u i s t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s t r u c t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y can be o b s e r v e d i n c h i l d r e n ' s responses over time. L e v e l JL Responses at the f i r s t l e v e l , w h i l e complex i n terms o f l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e , r e f l e c t the c h i l d ' s l a c k o f 51 u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the concept o f "a word". These responses e x p r e s s an e n t i r e thought t h a t i s g l o b a l i n s t r u c t u r e and yet i s p e r c e i v e d by the c h i l d t o be a s i n g l e word. For example the c h i l d might respond w i t h "I l o v e my mommy" r a t h e r than the s i n g l e word " l o v e " o r "mommy". The n a t u r e o f t h i s form o f response s u g g e s t s t h a t the c h i l d cannot y e t i d e n t i f y the meaning o f a s i n g l e word as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a thought. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the c h i l d cannot e x p r e s s a thought " i n a word". L e v e l 2. At the second l e v e l o f response, the c h i l d s e l e c t s a s i n g l e word t o r e p r e s e n t something o f importance which has p e r s o n a l meaning. A f t e r t a l k i n g about "mother", a c h i l d at t h i s l e v e l might respond w i t h the s i n g l e word " l o v e " or "mommy". T h i s form o f response r e f l e c t s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the concept o f "a word". L e v e l 1 and 2 responses m i r r o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the concept o f "a word" s i m i l a r t o the l e v e l s i d e n t i f i e d by Papandropoulu and S i n c l a i r (1974). L e v e l 3. At the t h i r d l e v e l o f response the c h i l d p r o v i d e s two or t h r e e words which a r e combined c o n s c i o u s l y t o d e s c r i b e an image (or thought) i n a d e t a i l e d , c o n c i s e manner. L e v e l 4. A f o u r t h l e v e l o f response was i n c l u d e d t o a i d i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f o t h e r forms o f o r a l r esponse. T h i s l e v e l would i n c l u d e r esponses which c o u l d not be d e f i n e d as l e v e l 1, 2, or 3 re s p o n s e s . These changes i n l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response 52 r e f l e c t a s p e c t s of the f i n d i n g s o f Papandropoulu and S i n c l a i r (1974). T h e i r r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t the u n d e r s t a n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o the concept of "a word" were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h changes i n c o g n i t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i t was proposed t h a t v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response would be r e l a t e d t o s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development. STAGES OF COGNITION The way i n which young c h i l d r e n c o g n i t i v e l y p e r c e i v e s t h e i r w o r l d i s r e f l e c t e d i n the way they r e l a t e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s , b e l i e f s , and p e r c e p t i o n s o r a l l y . As c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e the w o r l d about them, t h e i r c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s a r e a l t e r e d . From a P i a g e t i a n p e r s p e c t i v e ( I n h e l d e r <§ P i a g e t , 1964; I n h e l d e r , S i n c l a i r & Bovet, 1974; P i a g e t , 1966, 1974, 1976; Gray, 1978), the way one o r g a n i z e s and i n c o r p o r a t e s new i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o e x i s t i n g p r o c e s s e s i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the f u n c t i o n o f a s s i m i l a t i o n . The m o d i f i c a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g p r o c e s s e s and/or the c r e a t i o n o f new p r o c e s s e s which adapt t o the incoming i n f o r m a t i o n i s termed accommodation. A s s i m i l a t i o n and accommodation l e a d t o the m o d i f i c a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s and the c r e a t i o n o f new mental p r o c e s s e s . These new p r o c e s s e s and s t r u c t u r e s p r o v i d e a b a s i s or framework f o r v i e w i n g one's w o r l d . As the c h i l d ' s c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s are a l t e r e d , m e t a l i n g u i s t i c competency becomes more complex. T h e o r i e s o f development. Overton and Reese (1973) contend t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s o f development can be 53 c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g to a m e c h a n i s t i c model or an o r g a n i s m i c model. These a u t h o r s s t a t e t h a t t h e o r i e s f a l l i n g w i t h i n one o f the b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s form a f a m i l y o f t h e o r i e s . These f a m i l i e s may c o n t a i n t h e o r i e s t h a t d i f f e r i n terms o f c o n t e n t , but they a r e c o m p a t i b l e as they a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the same deve l o p m e n t a l model. They argue t h a t t h e o r i e s which a r e based on d i f f e r e n t models a r e not c o m p a t i b l e . The m e c h a n i s t i c model views the phenomena o f p s y c h o l o g y as b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d by b a s i c laws. T h i s model i s a " r e a c t i v e model" of humans. That i s , the o r g a n i s m i s i n h e r e n t l y at r e s t and i s a c t i v e o n l y as a r e s u l t o f e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s or f o r c e s . The r e s u l t i n g b e h a v i o r s , i n p r i n c i p l e , make complete p r e d i c t i o n p o s s i b l e . That i s , knowledge o f a s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r at one p o i n t a l l o w s f o r i n f e r e n c e s at the next s t a t e g i v e n a knowledge of the f o r c e s p r e s e n t . Overton and Reese (1973) p o i n t out t h a t i n t h i s model c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s a r e viewed as complex phenomena wh i c h can be reduced t o s i m p l e phenomena. The emergence of a q u a l i t a t i v e change can be reduced t o a q u a n t i t a t i v e change. The o r g a n i s m i c model o f p s y c h o l o g y i s r e f l e c t e d i n an " a c t i v e o r g a n i s m model" o f humans (Overton & Reese 1973). I n d i v i d u a l s a r e seen as i n h e r e n t l y and s p o n t a n e o u s l y a c t i v e . They a r e viewed as b e i n g the s o u r c e o f a c t s r a t h e r than b e i n g a c t i v a t e d by e x t e r n a l f o r c e s . The emergence o f new p r o p e r t i e s or c o n c e p t s cannot be reduced t o lower l e v e l s and t h e r e f o r e a r e viewed as b e i n g q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from 54 e a r l i e r c o n c e p t s . Ashton-Warner has d e s c r i b e d the c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g f o r the Key V o c a b u l a r y t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y as an " o r g a n i c " environment, and her proposed movements from one l e v e l o f response t o another seem t o r e f l e c t an o r g a n i s m i c model o f development. Based on the Overton and Reese (1973) argument t h a t t h e o r i e s s h o u l d be c o m p a t i b l e , the de v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y used t o examine Key V o c a b u l a r y responses s h o u l d adhere t o the o r g a n i s m i c model. A l l s t a g e t h e o r i e s o f development meet the c r i t e r i a o f an o r g a n i s m i c model ( L e r n e r , 1976; L i p s i t t and Reese, 1979). Stages a r e viewed as b e i n g m u l t i p l i c a t i v e and i n t e r a c t i v e i n n a t u r e . An emerging s t a g e i s s a i d t o be q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from the p r e c e d i n g s t a g e . The t r a n s i t i o n from one s t a g e t o the next i s a g r a d u a l process., L e r n e r (1976) o u t l i n e s the f o l l o w i n g types o f t r a n s i t i o n s : (1) the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an e a r l i e r s t a g e a r e t o t a l l y d i s p l a c e d and new o r g a n i z a t i o n s take p l a c e ; (2) the b e h a v i o r s o f an e a r l i e r s t a g e a r e s t i l l seen, but c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a more advanced s t a g e a re dominant; and (3) when the new s t a g e has f u l l y emerged, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the e a r l i e r s t a g e become l a t e n t but i n s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s may come i n t o p l a y . 55 THE RELATION BETWEEN KEY VOCABULARY AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT The l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response were viewed as t r a n s i t i o n s from one l e v e l o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o a n o t h e r . These t r a n s i t i o n s , i n t u r n , were s a i d t o be r e l a t e d t o c o g n i t i v e development. The dev e l o p m e n t a l model f o r ex a m i n i n g the n a t u r e o f the Key V o c a b u l a r y t r a n s i t i o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t a st a g e t h e o r y would be a p p r o p r i a t e . P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y o f c o g n i t i o n , a s t a g e t h e o r y r e f l e c t i n g the o r g a n i s m i c model, was s e l e c t e d f o r i t s a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s t o the tasK o f examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development and l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response. Simple c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , s i m p l e s e r i a t i o n , c o n s e r v a t i o n of number, and c l a s s i n c l u s i o n a r e P i a g e t i a n c o n c e p t s t h a t have been shown to be r e l a t e d t o the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s (Brekke, W i l l i a m s <§ Harlow, 1973; B r i g g s & E l k i n d , 1973; D e V r i e s , 1974; D i m i t r o v s k y & Almy, 1975; Kretschmer, 1973, 1975; R o b e r t s , 1976). I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the emergence o f these s p e c i f i c c o n c e p t s may a l s o be r e l a t e d t o the t r a n s i t i o n from one l e v e l o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response t o the nex t . The proposed r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response and s t a g e o f c o g n i t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Table 2. The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o u t l i n e s the s i m i l a r i t y between the l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n s o l v i n g s e l e c t e d P i a g e t i a n t a s k s and those r e l a t i n g t o l e v e l s o f response. When c h i l d r e n a r e asked t o group o b j e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o one a t t r i b u t e , they must be a b l e t o h o l d an a t t r i b u t e ( f o r 56 Table 2 P o s s i b l e R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between L e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y Response and Stages o f C o g n i t i v e Development Key V o c a b u l a r y P r e o p e r a t i o n a l T r a n s i t i o n a l C o n c r e t e Stage Stage Stage L e v e l 1 • - A whole s e n t e n c e "word" X L e v e l 2 -- A s i n g l e word response X Leve 1 3 • - A two or t h r e e word response X Leve 1 4 • - Extended o r a 1 responses X 57 example, the c o l o r red) c o n s t a n t m e n t a l l y w h i l e s o r t i n g through an a r r a y o f o b j e c t s . They must then i d e n t i f y a l l of those o b j e c t s which p o s s e s s the s e l e c t e d a t t r i b u t e and e l i m i n a t e those which do n o t . Simple s e r i a t i o n ( o r d e r i n g o b j e c t s a l o n g one dimension) a l s o r e q u i r e s the s e l e c t i o n o f a r e l e v a n t a t t r i b u t e ( f o r example, h e i g h t ) w h i c h must m e n t a l l y be h e l d c o n s t a n t and c o o r d i n a t e d so as t o o r d e r a l l o b j e c t s i n r e l a t i o n t o the r e l e v a n t a t t r i b u t e . S i m i l a r mental p r o c e s s e s a r e n e c e s s a r y i n the e a r l y s t a g e s o f l e a r n i n g t o r e a d . C h i l d r e n must s e l e c t the r e l e v a n t a t t r i b u t e o f a whole word and h o l d i t c o n s t a n t w h i l e o r d e r i n g the l e t t e r s and l e t t e r sound r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n a word. I t can be h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the i n a b i l i t y t o use the l o g i c o f c l a s s and r e l a t i o n s would be r e f l e c t e d i n the f i r s t l e v e l o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response. That i s , c h i l d r e n who a r e at a p r e o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e o f c o g n i t i v e development cannot s e l e c t a s i n g l e word response. They would respond t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n w i t h a s e n t e n c e . Furthermore, they would b e l i e v e t h e i r whole s e n t e n c e response t o be "a word". As c h i l d r e n i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e i r e nvironment, new e x p e r i e n c e s are a s s i m i l a t e d and a d a p t a t i o n s and m o d i f i c a t i o n s o c c u r . T h i s a s s i m i l a t i o n - a c c o m m o d a t i o n p r o c e s s l e a d s t o new mental s t r u c t u r e s . As c h i l d r e n b e g i n t o u t i l i z e the l o g i c o f c l a s s e s or r e l a t i o n s , a t r a n s i t i o n i n thought p r o c e s s e s t a k e s p l a c e . These p r o c e s s e s o p e r a t e at the second l e v e l o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response. C h i l d r e n at t h i s l e v e l must be a b l e t o s e l e c t a s i n g l e word to r e p r e s e n t 58 a thought and r e c o g n i z e t h a t word as d i s t i n c t from a l l o t h e r words wh i c h may have been r e q u e s t e d . The s e l e c t i o n o f r e l e v a n t g r a p h i c a t t r i b u t e s a i d s c h i l d r e n i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r word. C o n s e r v a t i o n o f number r e q u i r e s t h a t the c h i l d m e n t a l l y c o n s e r v e o r h o l d c o n s t a n t the number o f o b j e c t s i n a c o l l e c t i o n r e g a r d l e s s of the d i s p l a c e m e n t s or t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s which may take p l a c e . That i s , no ma t t e r how a group o f o b j e c t s i s a r r a n g e d , the c h i l d knows the number remains the same because n o t h i n g has been added t o or taken away from the group. Furthermore, the a c t i o n s can be r e v e r s e d and the o b j e c t s can be r e t u r n e d to the o r i g i n a l pos i t i on. When r e a d i n g , the c h i l d must m e n t a l l y h o l d the image o f the word c o n s t a n t i n s p i t e o f the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s w h i c h might t a k e p l a c e . A word w i l l remain the same word whether i t appears a l o n e or i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r words. The o t h e r words may change the meaning and must be viewed i n r e l a t i o n t o the words s u r r o u n d i n g i t . At the t h i r d l e v e l o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response, the c h i l d i s b e g i n n i n g t o combine words. These c o m b i n a t i o n s may change the o v e r a l l meaning, but they do not n e c e s s a r i l y change the i n d i v i d u a l word or words. The c o n c e p t u a l framework p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s Chapter has sug g e s t e d a way o f e x p l o r i n g whether o r d e r i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response. The t h e o r e t i c a l v i ews r e g a r d i n g the c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 59 c e r t a i n P i a g e t i a n c o n c e p t s , l e a r n i n g t o r e a d , and l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response formed the bases f o r the h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p . CHAPTER 4 DESIGN OF THE STUDY I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y was d e s i g n e d (1) t o i d e n t i f y o r a l l e v e l s o f response u s i n g the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y o f i n s t r u c t i o n ; and (2) t o d e t e r m i n e whether a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between c h i l d r e n ' s l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response and a b i l i t y t o use s e l e c t e d c o g n i t i v e c o n c e p t s . In o r d e r t o e x p l o r e the q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o the s t u d y , 150 k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n were randomly s e l e c t e d from the c l a s s e s taught by n i n e v o l u n t e e r t e a c h e r s . The r e s e a r c h e r and a t r a i n e d a s s i s t a n t were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the s e l e c t e d P i a g e t i a n t a s k s measuring c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s . The t e a c h e r s e l i c i t e d Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s from the c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s . There was a f o u r week p i l o t s t u d y f o l l o w e d by the main s t u d y . The sequence o f the main s t u d y i s o u t l i n e d below. 1. A l l t e a c h e r s c o l l e c t e d Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s from the c h i l d r e n f o r a p e r i o d o f two and a h a l f weeks. 2. The Key V o c a b u l a r y d a t a were examined f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f l e v e l s o f response. 3. As v a r y i n g l e v e l s were i d e n t i f i e d , the t e a c h e r s c o n t i n u e d t o e l i c i t r e s p o n s e s from the c h i l d r e n . D u r i n g t h i s same p e r i o d P i a g e t i a n t a s k s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l l c h i l d r e n i n the s t u d y . 60 61 4. The d a t a were examined to i d e n t i f y whether t h e r e was a r e l a t i o n s h i p between Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s and c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s . The V a r i a b l e s Four l e v e l s o f the response v a r i a b l e and t h r e e s t a g e s of the c o g n i t i v e v a r i a b l e were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . The response v a r i a b l e was d e f i n e d as the f o l l o w i n g l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response: (1) a p h r a s e or an e n t i r e s e n t e n c e response which the c h i l d b e l i e v e d t o be a s i n g l e word; (2) a s i n g l e word response; (3) a two or t h r e e word response; and (4) forms o f response t h a t c o u l d not be c l a s s i f i e d as l e v e l 1, 2, or 3. The c o g n i t i v e v a r i a b l e was d e f i n e d as p r e o p e r a t i o n a l , t r a n s i t i o n a l , and c o n c r e t e s t a g e s of thought. The s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r b o t h o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e o u t l i n e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r . PILOT STUDY The f o l l o w i n g i s a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the purposes o f the p i l o t s t u d y , the s u b j e c t s , and the p r o c e d u r e s used. Purposes The f i r s t purpose o f the p i l o t s t u d y was t o r e f i n e the method of Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n f o r use w i t h c h i l d r e n o f k i n d e r g a r t e n age. S e c o n d l y , the p i l o t s t u d y s e r v e d as a means o f t r a i n i n g an a s s i s t a n t to a d m i n i s t e r the P i a g e t i a n measures. F i n a l l y , the p i l o t s t u d y was used to g a t h e r 62 m a t e r i a l ( f o r example, v i d e o tapes) which c o u l d be used i n the t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s t a k i n g p a r t i n the main s t u d y . The method o f e l i c i t i n g Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s and the r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s used i n the p i l o t s t u d y were adopted from Key words to r e a d i n g (Veatch e t a l . , 1973). These p r o c e d u r e s and a c t i v i t i e s a r e o u t l i n e d below. 1. Engage the c h i l d i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n . 2. Ask the c h i l d what t o w r i t e t h a t w i l l b e s t d e s c r i b e the c o n v e r s a t i o n . For example, "Of the t h i n g s we've t a l k e d about, what word would you l i k e me t o w r i t e ? " . 3. P r i n t the response on an oak tag c a r d ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 cm. x 30 cm. or 4 i n . x 12 i n . ) u s i n g a b l a c k f e l t pen. Name the l e t t e r s as you p r i n t the word. 4. Have the c h i l d t r a c e each l e t t e r w i t h the index f i n g e r . Check f o r l e f t t o r i g h t p r o g r e s s i o n and top t o bottom d i r e c t i o n . 5. Suggest t h a t the c h i l d s e l e c t an a c t i v i t y t o do w i t h the "word". The f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s were suggested t o the c h i l d : a. W r i t e the word on a c h a l k b o a r d . b. W r i t e the word i n a s a l t t r a y . c. W r i t e the word w i t h magnetic l e t t e r s . d. Draw a p i c t u r e about the word. e. Use c l a y t o w r i t e the word. f. W r i t e the word i n a "word b o o k l e t " . Audio tapes were made of a l l Key V o c a b u l a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n s e l i c i t e d d u r i n g the p i l o t s t u d y . In a d d i t i o n , 63 a v i d e o tape was made o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h f o u r c h i l d r e n . The v i d e o tape and a t r a n s c r i p t of one o f the a u d i o tapes were used to t r a i n the t e a c h e r s t a k i n g p a r t i n the main s t u d y . S u b j e c t s The s u b j e c t s f o r the p i l o t s t u d y were randomly s e l e c t e d from one k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s o f 29 c h i l d r e n . Twenty c h i l d r e n ( t e n boys and ten g i r l s ) were s e l e c t e d f o r the P i a g e t i a n t e s t i n g . Ten o f the twenty c h i l d r e n ( f i v e boys and f i v e g i r l s ) took p a r t i n the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s e s s i o n s . Procedures f o r the P i l o t Study A f t e r arrangements were made t o use one k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the t e a c h e r had been u s i n g the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y o f i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h some o f the c h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s r o o m . S i x o f the c h i l d r e n s e l e c t e d f o r the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s had a l r e a d y e x p e r i e n c e d the a c t i v i t y . As p r i o r Key V o c a b u l a r y e x p e r i e n c e would not negate the purposes o u t l i n e d f o r the p i l o t s t u d y , i t was d e c i d e d t o c o n t i n u e t o use the k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s . Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s . A l l the c h i l d r e n s e l e c t e d responded to the e l i c i t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s and t h r e e forms o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response were r e c o r d e d . One boy u s u a l l y responded to the e l i c i t a t i o n o f "a word" w i t h an e n t i r e s e n t e n c e . He would say t h a t he wanted "one word" w r i t t e n on h i s c a r d . A l l o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n the p i l o t s t u d y would 64 r e q u e s t one word and o c c a s i o n a l l y ask f o r two words ( f o r example, " b i r t h d a y p a r t y " ) . R e l i a b i 1 i t y of method of e l i c i t a t i o n . An e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t was asked to a s s e s s the t r a n s c r i p t s o f n i n e c o n v e r s a t i o n s r e c o r d e d d u r i n g the f i r s t two weeks o f the p i l o t s t u d y . I t was h i s judgement t h a t the s t r a t e g i e s used t o e l i c i t c o n v e r s a t i o n s and words from the c h i l d r e n were a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c h i l d r e n o f t h i s age. He suggested the o c c a s i o n a l use o f q u e s t i o n s such as, " I f you had t h r e e w i s h e s , what would they be?" as an a d d i t i o n a l way o f o p e n i n g a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h young c h i l d r e n . M a t e r i a l f o r t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s . A twenty minute v i d e o tape was made u s i n g f o u r c h i l d r e n i n the p i l o t s t u d y . The tape was d e s i g n e d t o t r a i n the t e a c h e r s who were t o t a k e p a r t i n the main s t u d y . In a d d i t i o n , t r a n s c r i p t s o f p o r t i o n s o f the a u d i o tapes r e c o r d e d d u r i n g the p i l o t s t u d y were used i n the t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s (see Appendix A). T r a i n i ng an a s s i s t a n t . A g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n was t r a i n e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r t o a d m i n i s t e r the P i a g e t i a n measures d u r i n g the p i l o t s t u d y . The i n v e s t i g a t o r a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t s t o t h r e e c h i l d r e n w h i l e the a s s i s t a n t o b s e r v e d the p r o c e d u r e s . In between each t e s t i n g s e s s i o n , the p r o c e d u r e s were d i s c u s s e d and q u e s t i o n s were answered. The a s s i s t a n t then d i d the t e s t i n g w i t h t h r e e c h i l d r e n w h i l e the i n v e s t i g a t o r o b s e r v e d the i n t e r a c t i o n s . These o b s e r v a t i o n s were re v i e w e d a f t e r each t e s t i n g s e s s i o n and s u g g e s t i o n s were g i v e n when needed. The a s s i s t a n t worked 65 w i t h seven more c h i l d r e n and the r e s e a r c h e r spot checked the s e s e s s i o n s . A f t e r w o r k i n g w i t h ten c h i l d r e n , the a s s i s t a n t demonstrated t h a t she c o u l d a d m i n i s t e r the t e s t s a c c u r a t e l y and e x p r e s s e d c o n f i d e n c e about u s i n g the p r o c e d u r e s . THE MAIN STUDY The t e a c h e r s and c h i l d r e n i n the s t u d y were s e l e c t e d from a suburan community i n c e n t r a l A l b e r t a . The c o o p e r a t i o n o f b oth the S e p a r a t e and P u b l i c School Boards e n s u r e d t h a t a l l o f the k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s i n the community were i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s t u d y . The community from which the c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d had a p o p u l a t i o n o f 25,000. Over e i g h t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f the p o p u l a t i o n was under f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s o f age; b i r t h t o f o u r t e e n , and t w e n t y - f i v e t o f o r t y - f i v e age ranges were the predominant age groups. The m a j o r i t y o f a d u l t s were employed i n a nearby m e t r o p o l i t a n area but e l e c t e d t o l i v e i n t h i s community c h a r a c t e r i z e d by low d e n s i t y , s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g . A few p r i v a t e s c h o o l s were i n o p e r a t i o n i n the a r e a , but they p r o v i d e d s e r v i c e s o n l y f o r c h i l d r e n under f i v e y e a r s o f age ( C i t y o f S t . A l b e r t , 1977). F i v e t e a c h e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y worked f o r the S e p a r a t e ( n o n - C a t h o l i c ) d i s t r i c t . The k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s e s were l o c a t e d throughout the community r e p r e s e n t i n g the whole range o f the s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i n the c i t y . Some of the c h i l d r e n were bused t o the s c h o o l s , but many o f the 66 c h i l d r e n l i v e d w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e . A l t h o u g h these k i n d e r g a r t e n programs a l l had a L o c a l A d v i s o r y Committee of p a r e n t s , the programs were a d m i n i s t e r e d c e n t r a l l y by the S e p a r a t e s c h o o l system. Four o f the t e a c h e r s t a k i n g p a r t i n the s t u d y were i n programs o p e r a t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the P u b l i c system (Roman C a t h o l i c system). These programs were b a s i c a l l y p a r e n t o p e r a t e d programs i n t h a t p a r e n t s d e c i d e d how t o spend the budget and had p a r t i n the h i r i n g o f t e a c h e r s . The k i n d e r g a r t e n programs were housed i n b u i l d i n g s b e l o n g i n g t o the P u b l i c s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . A l l the b u i l d i n g s were l o c a t e d on a s i n g l e s i t e near the c e n t e r o f the community. The b u i l d i n g s c o n s i s t e d o f one o l d e r s t r u c t u r e w i t h two k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s r o o m s , a gym, washroom f a c i l i t i e s , a s t a f f lounge, and two o f f i c e a r e a s . Four p o r t a b l e c l a s s r o o m s were l o c a t e d next to the c e n t r a l b u i l d i n g . A l l c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g the program were bused t o and from s c h o o l . Teacher Sample Nine k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s i n the S e p a r a t e and P u b l i c systems were i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y . F i v e t e a c h e r s from the two s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s were e x c l u d e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : (1) one t e a c h e r taught i n a French immersion k i n d e r g a r t e n ; (2) one worked w i t h " s p e c i a l needs" c h i l d r e n ; and (3) t h r e e t e a c h e r s were t e a c h i n g i n k i n d e r g a r t e n s f o r the f i r s t time. A l l t e a c h e r s who took p a r t i n the s t u d y had s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n the a r e a o f E a r y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n . 67 The number o f y e a r s of t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e ranged from 1 t o 12 y e a r s w i t h the average b e i n g 5 y e a r s . The n i n e t e a c h e r s were t e a c h i n g a t o t a l o f f i f t e e n h a l f day K i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s e s . Pupi1 Sample U s i n g numbers g e n e r a t e d by a computer, f i v e boys and f i v e g i r l s were randomly s e l e c t e d from each of the f i f t e e n c l a s s e s . A second s e t of random numbers was g e n e r a t e d to r e p l a c e t h o s e c h i l d r e n who were e x c l u d e d from the s t u d y on the bases t h a t they were l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as a second language, t h a t they had i d e n t i f i a b l e speech d e f e c t s , or t h a t they were absent due t o an extended h o l i d a y . The p l a n n e d sample s i z e was 150. The Nature o f the L e a r n i nq Envi ronments The l e a r n i n g e n v i ronments i n the c l a s s r o o m s where t h i s s t u d y was conducted were d e s i g n e d t o encourage c h i I d r e n to make c h o i c e s and d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s . There were times d u r i n g the day when c h i l d r e n c o u l d s e l e c t a c t i v i t i e s t o do i n d e p e n d e n t l y or w i t h f r i e n d s . Such a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d : (1) c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s (such as b l o c k s or Lego); (2) use o f p l i a b l e m a t e r i a l s ( f o r example, p l a y dough or c l a y ) ; (3) s e n s o r y a c t i v i t i e s ( f o r example, the e x p l o r a t i o n o f water or s a n d ) ; (4) e x p r e s s i v e a c t i v i t i e s (such as p a i n t i n g and c r e a t i v e d a n c e ) ; (5) r e c e p t i v e a c t i v i t i e s ( f o r example, l i s t e n i n g t o s t o r i e s or r e c o r d s ) ; 68 and (6) t h e m a t i c p l a y o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Key V o c a b u l a r y was i n t r o d u c e d as an o p t i o n a l a c t i v i t y w h ich the c h i l d r e n might s e l e c t d u r i n g the day. Each t e a c h e r d e s i g n a t e d an a r e a where she c o u l d have a p r i v a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a c h i l d . T h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n was i n t e n d e d t o e l i c i t a Key V o c a b u l a r y response which would be r e c o r d e d f o r the c h i l d . Each c h i l d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n at l e a s t one such s e s s i o n . PROCEDURES FOR COLLECTING DATA The p r o c e d u r e s d e s c r i b e d below i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n about the t r a i n i n g o f p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e d f o r the c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a . A l l t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s took p l a c e p r i o r t o the c o l l e c t i o n o f the d a t a . D u r i n g the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d the r e s e a r c h e r and t e a c h e r s agreed t h a t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d not be f o r c e d t o l e a v e an a c t i v i t y o f t h e i r c h o i c e t o become i n v o l v e d i n the Key V o c a b u l a r y a c t i v i t y . Thus no attempt was made t o c o n t r o l the number of times words were e l i c i t e d from each c h i l d or the day on w h i c h the words were e l i c i t e d . An equal number o f Key V o c a b u l a r y responses from each c h i l d would have p r o v i d e d a more r e l i a b l e measure f o r the o v e r a l l Key V o c a b u l a r y s c o r e . Had each e l i c i t a t i o n taken p l a c e on the same day f o r a l l c h i l d r e n , i t would have p r o v i d e d a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f changes i n l e v e l s o f response a c r o s s s h o r t p e r i o d s o f time. However, f o r c i n g c h i l d r e n to take p a r t i n the Key V o c a b u l a r y a c t i v i t y would have p o s s i b l y p r o v i d e d i n v a l i d r e s p o n s e s . 69 T r a i n i ng o f Teachers Based on the outcome of the p i l o t s t u d y , a h a l f day workshop t o t r a i n the t e a c h e r s was p r o v i d e d by the r e s e a r c h e r . The v i d e o tape made d u r i n g the p i l o t s t u d y p r o v i d e d a v i s u a l image of ways of e l i c i t i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n s , c h i l d r e n ' s Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s , and the method of r e c o r d i n g r esponses by the t e a c h e r . Typed t r a n s c r i p t s o f n i n e c o n v e r s a t i o n s r e c o r d e d d u r i n g the p i l o t s t u d y were d i s t r i b u t e d and d i s c u s s e d i n s m a l l groups (Appendix A). These t r a n s c r i p t s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d ways o f i n i t i a t i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n s based on i n t e r e s t s or r e c e n t e v e n t s i n the c h i l d ' s l i f e . The v i d e o tape i l l u s t r a t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n i t i a t e d by the c h i l d and c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n i t i a t e d by the t e a c h e r . Each t e a c h e r was g i v e n a copy o f Ashton-Warner's Teacher (1963) and S p e a r p o i n t (1972) as a b a s i s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y . The t e a c h e r s were i n s t r u c t e d to read at l e a s t one o f the books b e f o r e e l i c i t i n g r e s ponses from the c h i l d r e n . The t e a c h e r s were t o l d t h a t they c o u l d i n t r o d u c e the Key V o c a b u l a r y a c t i v i t y t o s m a l l groups of f i v e c h i l d r e n or do the i n t r o d u c t i o n on a one-to-one b a s i s . F o l l o w i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n , however, a l l e l i c i t a t i o n s were t o be done i n d i v i d u a l l y . The i n d i v i d u a l e l i c i t a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s adhered t o the p r o c e d u r e o u t l i n e d i n the p i l o t s t u d y . Both the g u i d e l i n e s f o r e l i c i t i n g r e s ponses and the suggested a c t i v i t i e s were adopted from Key words t o r e a d i n g 70 (Veatch e t a l . , 1973). The g u i d e l i n e s and a l i s t o f a c t i v i t i e s were d i s t r i b u t e d at the workshop. The v i d e o tapes used i n the workshop f o l l o w e d these g u i d e l i n e s and i l l u s t r a t e d a c h i l d w r i t i n g the word on a c h a l k b o a r d , a c h i l d d r a w i n g a p i c t u r e o f the word, and c h i l d r e n w r i t i n g t h e i r word i n a s a l t t r a y . Moni t o r i n q the Data C o l l e c t i o n A u d i o tapes were g i v e n t o the t e a c h e r s so they c o u l d r e c o r d the c o n v e r s a t i o n s they had w i t h the c h i l d r e n . These tapes were checked by the r e s e a r c h e r to ensure t h a t the method used was c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s t e a c h e r s . The two e s s e n t i a l b e h a v i o r s checked f o r on the tapes were engaging the c h i l d i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n and a s k i n g what "word" the c h i l d would l i k e w r i t t e n on the c a r d . The t e a c h e r s were asked t o r e c o r d at l e a s t t h r e e c o n v e r s a t i o n s throughout the s i x week p e r i o d . Two o f the s e s s i o n s r e c o r d e d were t o be d u r i n g the f i r s t two weeks and one d u r i n g the l a s t f o u r weeks o f the s t u d y . In a d d i t i o n t o the a u d i o t a p e s , f i v e t e a c h e r s were o b s e r v e d as they e l i c i t e d Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s from the c h i l d r e n . These o b s e r v a t i o n s were i n f o r m a l and were s c h e d u l e d f o r two t e a c h e r s upon t h e i r r e q u e s t . The o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the o t h e r t h r e e t e a c h e r s o c c u r r e d because the r e s e a r c h e r was i n the c l a s s r o o m when the Key V o c a b u l a r y a c t i v i t y was t a k i n g p l a c e . 71 Obtai n i ng Key V o c a b u l a r y Responses The n i n e v o l u n t e e r t e a c h e r s t r a i n e d by the r e s e a r c h e r agreed t o t r y to e l i c i t c o n v e r s a t i o n s and Key V o c a b u l a r y responses from the c h i l d r e n t w i c e a week d u r i n g A p r i l and May ( t h i s was a s i x week p e r i o d ) . The t e a c h e r s chose t o e l i c i t words from the c h i l d r e n on days t h a t p a r e n t v o l u n t e e r s were w o r k i n g i n the c l a s s r o o m . I t was d i s c o v e r e d e a r l y i n the s t u d y t h a t some c h i l d r e n r e q u e s t e d words on days when Key V o c a b u l a r y was not s p e c i f i e d as an a c t i v i t y and t h a t the c h i l d r e n d i d not a l l e l e c t t o become i n v o l v e d i n the a c t i v i t y on the s p e c i f i e d days. As a r e s u l t , each te a c h e r a r r a n g e d f o r the a c t i v i t y t o be a v a i l a b l e whenever the c h i l d s e l e c t e d i t , but the m a j o r i t y o f re s p o n s e s were c o l l e c t e d on the days p a r e n t s were p r e s e n t . Obtai n i ng P i aget i an Measures The r e s e a r c h e r and t r a i n e d a s s i s t a n t a d m i n i s t e r e d the P i a g e t i a n t a s k s s e l e c t e d t o measure each c h i l d ' s s t a g e o f c o g n i t i v e development. The c o n c e p t s s e l e c t e d as measures o f c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s were: (1) s i m p l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , (2) s i m p l e s e y i a t i o n , (3) c o n s e r v a t i o n o f number, and (4) c l a s s i n c l u s i o n . F i v e year o l d s were not e x p e c t e d t o u n d e r s t a n d the concept o f c l a s s i n c l u s i o n as i t i s a measure o f advanced c o n c r e t e thought. The concept was c o n s i d e r e d a " c e i l i n g measure". Three t a s k s measuring each o f the f o u r c o n c e p t s were based on P i a g e t i a n r e s e a r c h ( I n h e l d e r and P i a g e t , 1964; I n h e l d e r , S i n c l a i r and Bovet, 1974; P i a g e t , 72 1952) . Two k i t s o f m a t e r i a l s were put t o g e t h e r by the r e s e a r c h e r and c o n t a i n e d the c o n c r e t e m a t e r i a l s n e c e s s a r y f o r the t w e l v e t a s k s . The k i t s , w hich were used by the r e s e a r c h e r and a s s i s t a n t , each c o n t a i n e d m a t e r i a l s t h a t were i d e n t i c a l f o r ten o f the t w e l v e t a s k s . The two items which d i f f e r e d ( t h e f l o w e r s and the c o l o r t a b l e t s ) v a r i e d o n l y i n c o l o r . A f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the m a t e r i a l s and d i r e c t i o n s used f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g the t a s k s a r e l o c a t e d i n Appendix E. The P i a g e t i a n t a s k s were a l l a d m i n i s t e r e d i n area s o u t s i d e the c l a s s r o o m . The spaces were q u i e t and f r e e from o u t s i d e i n t e r f e r e n c e . Scor i n q P r o c e d u r e and R e l i a b i 1 i t y o f Key Vocabu1ary  Responses The t e a c h e r p r i n t e d each c h i l d ' s Key V o c a b u l a r y r esponse on an oak tag c a r d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 cm. x 30 cm. (4 i n . x 12 i n . ) . She a l s o r e c o r d e d the d a t e and any r e l e v a n t comments on the back o f the c a r d s . The t e a c h e r s were s p e c i f i c a l l y asked t o q u e s t i o n c h i l d r e n who responded w i t h s e n t e n c e s t o f i n d out the number o f words they thought were i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r r esponse. The c h i l d ' s c o l l e c t i o n o f re s p o n s e s , r e l e v a n t comments, and the d a t e s o f e l i c i t a t i o n were t r a n s f e r r e d o n t o s h e e t s o f paper ( r e f e r r e d t o as " p r o f i l e s " ) by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . I f no comment was noted r e g a r d i n g any o f the m u l t i p l e word r e s p o n s e s , the l e v e l o f response c o u l d not be s c o r e d a c c u r a t e l y . P r o f i l e s w i t h 73 i n c o m p l e t e d a t a of t h i s n a t u r e were not i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y . The i n d i v i d u a l r e sponses w i t h i n each p r o f i l e were then s c o r e d by the r e s e a r c h e r u s i n g the c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d i n Appendix B. The responses on the p r o f i l e s were s c o r e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r and t r a n s f e r r e d t o a c o d i n g s h e e t . A g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t i n E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y checked 75 p e r c e n t o f the i n f o r m a t i o n and then the d a t a were p r o f e s s i o n a l l y keypunched and v e r i f i e d . The f i r s t two re s p o n s e s on each p r o f i l e were not i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s as th e s e responses were c o n s i d e r e d p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s . I t was d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t the t e a c h e r s d e v e l o p e d the comfort and r a p p o r t n e c e s s a r y t o e l i c i t r e s p o n s e s from young c h i l d r e n . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the Key V o c a b u l a r y d a t a r e v e a l e d t h a t some c h i l d r e n r e q u e s t e d words r e f l e c t i n g more than one l e v e l o f response. I t was n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e f o r e , t o d e v i s e a system of s c o r i n g t h a t would take i n t o account these v a r y i n g forms of response and p r o v i d e an o v e r a l l Key V o c a b u l a r y s c o r e f o r each c h i l d . The most f r e q u e n t form o f response, o r the mode, was c o n s i d e r e d the o v e r a l l Key V o c a b u l a r y s c o r e . I f the l e v e l s o f response were b i m o d a l , then o n l y the most r e c e n t t h r e e r e s p o n s e s were c o n s i d e r e d f o r c h i l d r e n who had o n l y f o u r r e s p o n s e s . For a l l o t h e r c h i l d r e n who had bimodal s c o r e s , t h e i r f i v e most r e c e n t r e s p o n s e s were used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r modal response. 74 Scor i nq Procedures f o r P i aqet i a n Measures Each of the f o l l o w i n g c o n c e p t s was measured u s i n g t h r e e P i a g e t i a n t a s k s per c o n c e p t . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o r e d the P i a g e t i a n t a s k s by a p p l y i n g the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a t o the responses r e c o r d e d e a r l i e r on i n d i v i d u a l r e c o r d s h e e t s (see Appendix F) by the i n v e s t i g a t o r or a s s i s t a n t : S imple C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a. A s c o r e o f 0 was a s s i g n e d t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k i f : (1) the c h i l d a r r a n g e d the m a t e r i a l i n p a i r s or (2) used the m a t e r i a l s t o form a g r a p h i c arrangement ( f o r example, a p i c t u r e or d e s i g n ) . b. A s c o r e o f 1 was a s s i g n e d t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k i f the c h i l d s o r t e d m a t e r i a l s a c c o r d i n g t o one a t t r i b u t e ( f o r example, i f the c h i l d c o u l d f i n d o n l y one way t o group the o b j e c t s ) . c. A s c o r e o f 2 was a s s i g n e d t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k i f the c h i l d s o r t e d the m a t e r i a l s u s i n g two at t r i b u t e s . d. A s c o r e o f 3 was a s s i g n e d t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k i f the c h i l d s o r t e d the m a t e r i a l s u s i n g t h r e e a t t r i b u t e s . e. A s c o r e o f 4 was a s s i g n e d t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k i f the c h i l d s o r t e d the m a t e r i a l s a c c o r d i n g t o f o u r or more a t t r i b u t e s . 75 Simp1e Ser i at i o n a. A s c o r e of 0 was a s s i g n e d t o a s e r i a t i o n t a s k i f the c h i l d formed subgroups w i t h the o b j e c t s or used the m a t e r i a l s to form a g r a p h i c arrangement or d e s i g n . b. A s c o r e o f 1 was t o be a s s i g n e d t o a s e r i a t i o n t a s k i f the c h i I d o r d e r e d the m a t e r i a l s by t r i a l and e r r o r . c. A s c o r e o f 2 was a s s i g n e d t o a s e r i a t i o n t a s k i f the c h i l d o r d e r e d the m a t e r i a l c o r r e c t l y . C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Number a. A s c o r e o f 0 was a s s i g n e d t o a c o n s e r v a t i o n o f number t a s k i f the c h i l d d i d not r e a l i z e t h a t the two rows c o n t a i n the same number o f o b j e c t s d e s p i t e the d i s p l a c e m e n t of o b j e c t s . b. A s c o r e o f 0 was a s s i g n e d t o a c o n s e r v a t i o n o f number t a s k i f the c h i l d r e a l i z e d the two rows of o b j e c t s were the same, but c o u l d not g i v e a r e ason f o r the answer. c. A s c o r e o f 1 was a s s i g n e d t o a c o n s e r v a t i o n o f number t a s k i f the c h i I d knew t h e r e were the same number of o b j e c t s i n b o t h rows i n s p i t e o f the d i s p l a c e m e n t o f o b j e c t s i n one row. Furthermore, the c h i l d c o u l d e x p l a i n why the two rows s t i l l had the same number o f o b j e c t s . 76 C1 ass I n c l u s i o n a. A s c o r e of 0 was a s s i g n e d t o a c l a s s i n c l u s i o n t a s k i f one or more responses were i n c o r r e c t on a c l a s s i n c l u s i o n t a s k . b. A s c o r e o f 1 was a s s i g n e d t o a c l a s s i n c l u s i o n t a s k o n l y i f a l l the c h i l d ' s r esponses were c o r r e c t on a c l a s s i n c l u s i o n t a s k . Scor i n q Stages o f Coqni t i v e Development a. A s c o r e o f 1, i n d i c a t i n g a p r e o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l o f thought, was a s s i g n e d i f a c h i l d ; (1) r e c e i v e d a s c o r e o f 0 on both the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s and the s e r i a t i o n t a s k s , or (2) s c o r e d on o n l y the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s or the s e r i a t i o n t a s k s but not on both t a s k s . b. A s c o r e o f 2, c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d of thought was assumed i f the c h i l d s c o r e d at l e a s t 1 on the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s , 1 on the s e r i a t i o n t a s k s , and l e s s than 2 on the c o n s e r v a t i o n o f number t a s k s . c. A s c o r e o f 3 was a s s i g n e d t o s u b j e c t s o p e r a t i n g at the c o n c r e t e s t a g e o f c o g n i t i v e development. T h i s s c o r e was a s s i g n e d i f the c h i l d s c o r e d on two or more o f the s i m p l e s e r i a t i o n , s i m p l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f number t a s k s . The c h i I d d i d not have t o s c o r e on the c l a s s i n c l u s i o n measures t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n the e a r l y p e r i o d o f c o n c r e t e thought. 77 As p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , c l a s s i n c l u s i o n i s an advanced concept a p p e a r i n g i n the l a t t e r p e r i o d o f c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s . S c o r e s f o r each c h i l d were summarized on a p r o f i l e sheet (see Appendix G). The t o t a l s c o r e f o r c o n c e p t s summarized on the p r o f i l e s h e e t s s e r v e d as the g u i d e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the s t a g e o f c o g n i t i v e development ( p r e o p e r a t i o n a l thought, t r a n s i t i o n a l thought, o r c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s ) f o r each c h i l d . A random s e l e c t i o n o f t w e n t y - f i v e p r o f i l e s were s c o r e d by a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. A n a l y s i s o f the d a t a u s i n g the Pearson p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t the i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y on the fo u r P i a g e t i a n measures ranged from .96 to 1.00. R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Key Vocabu!ary and Coqni t i v e  Development The p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response and c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s were d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g a gamma c o e f f i c i e n t . The a n a l y s i s was run on the AMDAHL computer at the U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a which o p e r a t e s under the M i c h i g a n Terminal System. The S t a t i s t i c a 1 package  f o r the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s ( N i c , H u l l , J e n k i n s , S t e i n b r e n n e r , B r e n t , 1975) V e r s i o n H, R e l e a s e 8.0 was used t o p e r f o r m the a c t u a l c a l c u l a t i o n s . Gamma c o e f f i c i e n t . T h i s s t a t i s t i c i s o f t e n used i n s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s i n which b o t h v a r i a b l e s a r e o r d i n a l . 78 The s t a t i s t i c measures a l l p o s s i b l e p a i r s and i s i n t e r p r e t e d as p r o b a b i l i t y . Thus i f one knows the s t a g e o f c o g n i t i o n f o r a p a i r o f s t u d e n t s , can the l e v e l o f Key V o c a b u l a r y r esponse be p r e d i c t e d f o r the same p a i r ? The f o r m u l a used i s : P-Q gamma P+Q where: P = concordant or same o r d e r p a i r s Q = d i s c o n c o r d a n t o r r e v e r s e o r d e r p a i r s An example may s e r v e t o c l a r i f y the c a l c u l a t i o n o f gamma. Suppose a group o f c h i l d r e n r a t e d h i g h , medium, and low on the v a r i a b l e s s o c i a 1-economic c l a s s and r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o the s e two v a r i a b l e s i s as f o l l o w s : (Example) S o c i a 1-Economic C l a s s Low Medium High Low 20 20 20 Readi ng A b i l i t y Medium 10 10 10 High 5 5 30 79 Us i n g the f o r m u l a above, P would equal those p a i r s i n agreement which a re l o c a t e d i n a d i a g o n a l i n c r e a s i n g t o the r i g h t . In t h i s example, f o c u s on each c e l l i n t u r n and m u l t i p l y the f r e q u e n c y i n each c e l l by the t o t a l number o f cases below and t o the r i g h t o f the c e l l . Q e q u a l s a l l p a i r s i n d i s a g r e e m e n t . Thus examine each c e l l i n t u r n and m u l t i p l y the f r e q u e n c y i n each c e l l by the t o t a l number o f c a s e s above and t o the r i g h t o f the c e l l . T h i s c a l c u l a t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : P = 20(10+10+5+30)+10(5+30)+20(10+30)+10(30)=2550 Q = 5(10+10+20+20)+10(20+20)5(10+20)+10(20)=1050 P-Q 2550-1050 1500 = = = .42 P+Q 2550+1050 3600 When u s i n g the gamma c o e f f i c i e n t , a l l t i e s a r e i g n o r e d . Hayes (1963) contends t h a t t h i s e x c l u s i o n o f t i e s p e r m i t s a s i m p l e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n a p r e d i c t i v e sense. The t e s t o f the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s o f no r e l a t i o n was performed f o l l o w i n g the i n f e r e n t i a l p r o c e d u r e s d e s c r i b e d by M a r a c h u i l o and McSweeney (1977, pp. 469-470). T h i s p r o c e d u r e , based on the e a r l i e r work o f Goodman and K r u s k a l (1954, 1963) p r o v i d e s a c o n s e r v a t i v e t e s t o f the h y p o t h e s i s ( s i n c e the f o r m u l a f o r the s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f gamma p r o v i d e s an upper bound). The t e s t s t a t i s t i c i s : G-0 Z = SE where: gamma c o e f f i c i e n t /2n(1-G 2) ^ n 2-N CHAPTER 5 RESULTS OF THE STUDY T h i s c h a p t e r f o c u s e s on the f i n d i n g s of the s t u d y and p r e s e n t s a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from the e x a m i n a t i o n o f d a t a . The f i r s t s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s a summary of r e s u l t s r e g a r d i n g Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n o f s c o r i n g o f the s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development and the a n a l y s i s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l s o f response and c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e . F i n a l l y , r e s u l t s from a po s t hoc a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t e d by the i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d . Data were a n a l y z e d u s i n g a sample o f 120 c h i l d r e n r a n g i n g i n age from s i x t y - t w o months t o s e v e n t y - s e v e n months as o f May 1, 1978 (T a b l e 3 o u t l i n e s the number o f c h i l d r e n i n each o f the age g r o u p s ) . F i f t y - e i g h t o f the c h i l d r e n were i n a k i n d e r g a r t e n program o p e r a t i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the P u b l i c s c h o o l system and s i x t y - t w o were a t t e n d i n g a program which was p a r t o f the S e p a r a t e system. T h i r t y c h i l d r e n were e x c l u d e d from the o r i g i n a l sample o f 150 because they had fewer than f o u r s c o r a b l e r e s p o n s e s . THE NATURE OF KEY VOCABULARY RESPONSES The n a t u r e o f the Key V o c a b u l a r y responses i s d e s c r i b e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the q u e s t i o n s and sub-guest i o n s o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r i n Chapter 1. T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i n c l u d e s the 81 82 Table 3 Number o f C h i l d r e n i n Each Age Group Ages i n Months Number o f C h i l d r e n (as o f May 1, 1978) (N=120) 62 2 63 4 64 9 65 17 66 8 67 7 68 11 69 10 70 12 71 13 72 12 73 8 74 3 75 2 76 0 77 2 83 v a r i a b i l i t y o f l e v e l s o f response and the sequence o f these 1 eve 1s. Var i a b i 1 i t y i n Key Vocabu1ary Responses The f i r s t s e t o f q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e s t o the v a r i a b i l i t y i n Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s . The main q u e s t i o n and the f o u r s u b - q u e s t i o n s were d e s i g n e d t o i d e n t i f y the n a t u r e o f the proposed l e v e l s o f response. Q u e s t i o n 1.0. Are t h e r e q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the resp o n s e s c h i l d r e n g i v e when t e a c h e r s use the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y as a p r e - r e a d i n g a c t i v i t y ? T h i s was the p r e l i m i n a r y q u e s t i o n asked t o c o n f i r m the e x i s t e n c e o f v a r y i n g l e v e l s i n Key V o c a b u l a r y response. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e s r e v e a l e d t h a t s e v e r a l forms o f response were g i v e n by the c h i l d r e n i n the sample. Furthermore, 81 p r o f i l e s c o n t a i n e d responses t h a t v a r i e d over time. Some of the forms o f response d i d adhere t o the d e f i n i t i o n s o f the t h r e e l e v e l s o f response i n i t i a l l y e x p e c t e d . In a d d i t i o n t o responses which were c l a s s i f i e d as (1) a whole sen t e n c e or phrase w h i c h the c h i l d b e l i e v e d t o be "a word"; (2) a s i n g l e word response; and (3) a two or t h r e e word response, a l e v e l 4 response was i d e n t i f i e d i n which the c h i l d r e n p r o v i d e d s e n t e n c e s which they r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g composed o f s e v e r a l words. Table 4 p r e s e n t s t h e s e l e v e l s (or o v e r a l l Key V o c a b u l a r y response s c o r e s ) as they r e l a t e t o the q u e s t i o n s put f o r t h i n the s t u d y . F u r t h e r , w i t h i n some o f the major response l e v e l s , s u b - c l a s s e s were 84 Ta b l e 4 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n f o r L e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y Response and Stages o f C o g n i t i v e Development Stages o f L e v e l s o f Key C o g n i t i v e V o c a b u l a r y Response Development P r e o p e r a t iona1 Stage L e v e l 1 6 L e v e l 2 10 L e v e l 3 0 L e v e l 4 0 T o t a l 16 T r a n s i t iona1 Stage 11 39 0 1 51 C o n c r e t e Stage 0 45 0 8 53 T o t a l 17 94 0 9 120 85 o b s e r v e d ( t h e s e forms of response w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n ) . As d i s t i n c t l e v e l s o f response d i d appear, the f i n d i n g s can be r e l a t e d t o the f o u r s u b - q u e s t i o n s posed at the b e g i n n i n g o f the s t u d y . Quest i o n 1.1. Do some c h i l d r e n t y p i c a l l y respond t o the e l i c i t a t i o n o f a word w i t h an e n t i r e s e n t e n c e or phrase which they b e l i e v e t o be a s i n g l e word? I t was found t h a t s e v e n t e e n c h i l d r e n had a modal response t o the e l i c i t a t i o n i n d i c a t i v e o f the G i a n t Word Syndrome. An a d d i t i o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o the f i r s t s u b - q u e s t i o n was t h a t t h r e e o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n attempted t o count the l e t t e r s i n t h e i r s e n t e n c e s a p p a r e n t l y i n an e f f o r t t o d e t e r m i n e the number of words they had r e q u e s t e d . As Veatch and her c o l l e a g u e s (1973) c o n s i d e r e d t h i s type o f response b e h a v i o r to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the G i a n t Word Syndrome, responses o f t h i s n a t u r e were s c o r e d at the f i r s t l e v e l . Quest i o n 1.2. Do some c h i I d r e n respond t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n w i t h a s i n g l e word? N i n e t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d an o v e r a l l s c o r e o f l e v e l 2, i n d i c a t i n g s i n g l e words were t h e i r most f r e q u e n t r e s p o n s e s . Even though these c h i l d r e n had an o v e r a l l Key V o c a b u l a r y s c o r e at l e v e l 2, over h a l f o f the p r o f i l e s i n c l u d e r e s p o n s e s at o t h e r l e v e l s . Thus a g a i n i t was found t h a t some c h i l d r e n c o n s i s t e n t l y r e q u e s t words at one l e v e l o f r e s ponse w h i l e o t h e r s move back and f o r t h a c r o s s l e v e l s . 86 Quest i o n 1.3. Do some c h i l d r e n respond t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n w i t h two or t h r e e words? A l t h o u g h some c h i l d r e n responded o c c a s i o n a l l y w i t h two or t h r e e words, t h e r e were no c h i l d r e n who had an o v e r a l l Key V o c a b u l a r y s c o r e at l e v e l 3. Furthermore, these responses appeared i n two forms. Some o f the res p o n s e s c o u l d be d e f i n e d as compound words as they r e f l e c t e d a s i n g l e image (see Appendix C ). An example o f such a response would be " i c e cream" or " s t r a w b e r r y i c e cream". Other responses were r e q u e s t s f o r two or t h r e e words t h a t c o u l d not be d e f i n e d as a compound word r e s p o n s e . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the p r o f i l e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were s i n g l e word responses on a l l o f the p r o f i l e s c o n t a i n i n g compound and/or two and t h r e e word r e s p o n s e s . T h i s l e v e l o f response w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . Key Vocabu1ary Seguence The second q u e s t i o n r a i s e d i n the s t u d y f o c u s e d on the sequence o f Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s . Quest i o n 2.0. I f d i s t i n c t l e v e l s o f response e x i s t , do they appear i n a sequence? V a r y i n g forms o f response were i d e n t i f i e d but the d a t a r e l a t i n g t o the proposed sequence were not c l e a r . Thus t h i s q u e s t i o n c o u l d not be answered w i t h i n the scope o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y . 87 Key Vocabu1ary and Cogni t i ve Development As shown i n Table 4, s i x t e e n c h i l d r e n were at a p r e o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e o f c o g n i t i v e development. There were f i f t y - o n e c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g t r a n s i t i o n a l i n thought w h i l e f i f t y - t h r e e c h i l d r e n p o s s e s s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g s i n d i c a t i v e o f the emergence o f c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s . More s p e c i f i c f i n d i n g s as they r e l a t e t o the q u e s t i o n and s u b - q u e s t i o n s a r e d i s c u s s below. Quest i o n 3.0. Can P i a g e t i a n s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the emergence o f s p e c i f i c l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response? A gamma a n a l y s i s was performed t o i d e n t i f y the n a t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e v e l s o f response and s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development. T a b l e 5 i l l u s t r a t e s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o g n i t i o n and l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response as measured by a two t a i l e d gamma c o e f f i c i e n t (Hays, 1963; H i l d e b r a n d , L a i n g , & R o s e n t h a l , 1977; Kohout, 1974; M u e l l e r e t a l . , 1970). C o n s i s t e n t O b s e r v a t i o n s As shown i n Table 5, t h e r e were s i x c h i l d r e n i n c e l l A. These c h i l d r e n were p r e o p e r a t i o n a l i n thought and a l s o responded t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s w i t h a s e n t e n c e or p h r ase which they b e l i e v e d t o be "a word". The s i x c h i l d r e n i n c e l l A s c o r e d lower i n terms o f c o g n i t i o n than those who were i n c e l l s E, F, H, and I. There were n i n e t y - t h r e e c h i l d r e n (see c e l l s E, F, H, and I i n Tab l e 5) 88 Ta b l e 5 A Gamma C o e f f i c i e n t A n a l y s i s o f C o g n i t i v e Development and Key V o c a b u l a r y Response Stages o f L e v e l s o f Key C o g n i t i v e V o c a b u l a r y Response Development P r e o p e r a t i o n a l Stage L e v e l 1 6 c e l l A Le v e l 2 10 c e l l B Le v e l 4 0 c e l l C T o t a l 16 T r a n s i t i o n a 1 Stage 11 c e l l D 39 c e l l E 1 c e l l F 51 C o n c r e t e Stage 0 c e l l G 45 c e l l H 8 c e l l I 53 T o t a l 17 94 9 120 Gamma=.817* * S i g n i f i c a n t ( t w o - t a i l e d ) p<.01 89 who were h i g h e r i n terms o f c o g n i t i o n and Key V o c a b u l a r y response than the s i x c h i l d r e n i n c e l l A. The d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t i n th e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s the p r e d i c t i o n s were c o n s i s t e n t . There were e l e v e n c h i l d r e n i n c e l l D. These c h i l d r e n were t r a n s i t i o n a l i n thought and responded t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t i o n s w i t h s e n t e n c e s or p h r a s e s which they b e l i e v e d t o be "a word". They s c o r e d lower on b o t h o f the v a r i a b l e s than the c h i l d r e n i n c e l l s H and I. Thus i n these o b s e r v a t i o n s the p r e d i c t i o n s were c o n s i s t e n t . The c h i l d r e n i n c e l l B s c o r e d lower on b o t h c o g n i t i v e development and Key V o c a b u l a r y response than d i d the c h i l d r e n i n c e l l s F and I. The a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s e p r e d i c t i o n s were c o n s i s t e n t . C e l l E i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i r t y - n i n e c h i l d r e n were lower i n terms o f c o g n i t i o n and l e v e l s o f response than c h i l d r e n -i n c e l l I . Thus i n t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n the p r e d i c t i o n was c o n s i s t e n t . An o c c u r r e n c e o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t was t h a t t h e r e were no o b s e r v a t i o n s r e c o r d e d i n c e l l s C and G i n d i c a t i n g a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l s o f response and c o g n i t i o n . The c h i l d r e n who were p r e o p e r a t i o n a l i n thought d i d not respond to the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s i n a manner c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f l e v e l 4. S i m i l a r l y , c h i l d r e n who were c o n c r e t e i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g d i d not have r e s p o n s e s i n d i c a t i v e o f the G i a n t Word Syndrome ( l e v e l 1 r e s p o n s e ) . 90 I n c o n s i s t e n t Observat i o n s The e l e v e n c h i l d r e n i n c e l l D s c o r e d h i g h e r than the c h i l d r e n i n c e l l s B and C. T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n these i n s t a n c e s the o b s e r v a t i o n s were i n c o n s i s t e n t . The second i n c o n s i s t e n c y was found i n c e l l H where f o r t y - f i v e c h i l d r e n s c o r e d h i g h e r than the c h i l d i n c e l l F. Quest i o n 3.1. Is the f i r s t l e v e l i n Key V o c a b u l a r y r esponse (see 1.1) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r e o p e r a t i o n a l thought as d e f i n e d by the i n a b i l i t y t o c l a s s i f y o b j e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o one a t t r i b u t e , s e r i a t e a l o n g one d i m e n s i o n , c o n s e r v e number, and i n c l u d e s u b - c l a s s e s o f o b j e c t s w i t h i n an o v e r a l l g e n e r a l c l a s s ? Seventeen c h i l d r e n responded t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n w i t h a whole s e n t e n c e o r phrase w h i c h they b e l i e v e d t o be "a word" (see p. 8 8 ) . S i x o f the c h i l d r e n were at a p r e o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e o f c o g n i t i v e development. That i s , they c o u l d not c l a s s i f y o b j e c t s , s e r i a t e a l o n g one d i m e n s i o n or c o n s e r v e number. E l e v e n o f the c h i l d r e n were t r a n s i t i o n a l i n thought i n t h a t they c o u l d c l a s s i f y o b j e c t s or o r d e r m a t e r i a l a l o n g one d i m e n s i o n but c o u l d not do b o t h . In a d d i t i o n , these c h i l d r e n c o u l d not c o n c e i v e number. None o f the c h i l d r e n r e s p o n d i n g at t h i s l e v e l were at a c o n c r e t e s t a g e o f c o g n i t i v e development. Q u e s t i o n 3.2. Is the second l e v e l i n Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s ponse (see 1.2) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a n s i t i o n a l thought ( t h e a b i l i t y t o c l a s s i f y o b j e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o one a t t r i b u t e and/or s e r i a t e a l o n g one d i m e n s i o n ) ? N i n e t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n responded t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s w i t h s i n g l e words. Ten o f the c h i l d r e n s c o r e d 91 at a p r e o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e , t h a t i s , they c o u l d not c l a s s i f y , s e r i a t e , or c o n s e r v e number. T h i r t y - n i n e o f the c h i l d r e n were t r a n s i t i o n a l i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g because they used e i t h e r the l o g i c o f c l a s s e s or the l o g i c o f r e l a t i o n s . The r e m a i n i n g f o r t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n a t t a i n e d a s c o r e i n d i c a t i v e o f the c o n c r e t e s t a g e o f c o g n i t i v e development based on t h e i r a b i l i t y t o do s i m p l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and s e r i a t i o n t a s k s as w e l l as t o c o n s e r v e number. Quest i o n 3.3. Is the t h i r d l e v e l i n Key V o c a b u l a r y response (see 1.3) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n c r e t e thought. As p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , t h e r e were no c h i l d r e n who r e c e i v e d an o v e r a l l Key V o c a b u l a r y response s c o r e at t h i s l e v e l . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s q u e s t i o n c o u l d not be answered w i t h i n the framework of t h i s s t u d y . L e v e l 4 Responses An a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n asked i f t h e r e would be forms o f response o t h e r than those d e f i n e d i n the s t u d y . Nine c h i l d r e n responded t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s w i t h s e n t e n c e s r e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e i r r e sponses c o n t a i n e d more than one word. E i g h t o f these c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o c o n s e r v e number. The o t h e r c h i l d was i n a t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d o f c o g n i t i v e development and thus was s t i l l u n a b l e to p e r f o r m the c o n s e r v a t i o n o f number t a s k s . 92 Summary The gamma measure was used t o examine the d a t a . A l e v e l 4 response was i d e n t i f i e d and i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response and s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development. POST HOC ANALYSIS Wh i l e the modal s c o r e f o r the Key V o c a b u l a r y d a t a p r o v i d e d the n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n f o r answering the p r e c e d i n g q u e s t i o n s , the m a j o r i t y o f the response p r o f i l e s d i d not conform to e x p e c t a t i o n s . The v a r i a t i o n s i n c l u d e d : (1) more than one l e v e l o f r e s p o n s e i n some p r o f i l e s , (2) the c o u n t i n g o f l e t t e r s to d e t e r m i n e how many words were i n a s e n t e n c e , and (3) two or t h r e e word responses t h a t were compound words. Because these v a r i a t i o n s were not p r e d i c t e d , i t was deemed i m p o r t a n t t o examine them more c l o s e l y . A 1 t e r n a t i v e S c o r i n q f o r Key Vocabu1ary Some c h i l d r e n counted the number of l e t t e r s i n t h e i r whole s e n t e n c e or p h r a s e r e s p o n s e s i n an attempt t o d e t e r m i n e the number of words i n the response. As t h i s b e h a v i o r was s a i d t o be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the G i a n t Word Syndrome (V e a t c h , 1976), i t was s c o r e d as a l e v e l 1.1 response (see T a b l e 6 ) . I t was f u r t h e r o b s e r v e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f two or t h r e e word responses c o u l d be d e f i n e d as compound words (Webster, 1965). W h i l e such r e s p o n s e s r e f l e c t a s i n g l e image 93 T a b l e 6 A l t e r n a t i v e S c o r i n g f o r Key V o c a b u l a r y Responses R e l a t i o n s h i p t o E a r l i e r Categor i e s A l t e r n a t i v e Key V o c a b u l a r y Score N ature o f Response G i a n t Word Syndrome 1.0 A whole s e n t e n c e whi ch the c h i I d b e l i e v e s t o be a word. 1 . 1 A whole s e n t e n c e i n whi ch the c h i I d c o u n t s the l e t t e r s t o d e t e r m i n e the number o f words. S i n g l e words 2.0 A s i n g l e word re s p o n s e . Two word response 3.0 A two word re s p o n s e . 3. 1 A compound word r e s p o n s e . Other than 1 eve Is 1,2, or 3 4.0 A whole s e n t e n c e or p h r a s e response r e a l i z e d t o be more than one word. 94 ( f o r example " i c e cream") and c o u l d be s c o r e d as a s i n g l e word, Ashton-Warner (Wasserman 1972) c l a s s i f i e s them as two or t h r e e word r e s p o n s e s . Based on Ashton-Warner's o r i g i n a l d e f i n i t i o n , r e sponses o f t h i s n a t u r e were s c o r e d as l e v e l 3.1 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t such r e s p o n s e s are compound words (see Table 6 ) . Pat t e r n s o f Response An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the Key V o c a b u l a r y p r o f i l e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t some c h i l d r e n responded t o the e l i c i t a t i o n s w i t h more than one l e v e l o f r esponse. U s i n g the a l t e r n a t i v e s c o r i n g system p r e s e n t e d i n Table 6, the p r o f i l e s were grouped a c c o r d i n g t o the v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f response w i t h i n each p r o f i l e . The o v e r a l l Key V o c a b u l a r y s c o r e was not c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n . The g r o u p i n g o f p r o f i l e s based on the v a r y i n g n a t u r e o f r e s p o n s e s w i t h i n r e v e a l e d a s e r i e s o f f i f t e e n p a t t e r n s (see T a b l e 7 ) . W i t h i n each o f the p a t t e r n s , t h e r e were i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms of the sequence of r e s p o n s e s . Graphs were made o f each p r o f i l e so as t o examine t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s more c l o s e l y . Graphs f o r the t h r e e c h i l d r e n i n p a t t e r n C and the two c h i l d r e n i n p a t t e r n M a r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e s 1 and 2 as examples o f the d i f f e r e n c e s o b s e r v e d . The p a t t e r n s o f response i d e n t i f i e d i n the s t u d y a r e d e s c r i b e d more f u l l y i n Appendix D. 95 Table 7 P a t t e r n s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y Response P a t t e r n s N L e v e l s of Response Pat t e r n A 8 1 . 0 P a t t e r n B 1 1.0, 1 . 1 Pat t e r n C 3 1.0, 2. 0 Pat t e r n D 1 1.0, 1 . 1 , 2. 0 P a t t e r n E 7 1 • 1 , 2. 0 Pat t e r n F 8 1.0, 2. .0, 3. 1 P a t t e r n G 2 1 • 1 , 2. • 0, 3. 1 Pat t e r n H 24 2. .0 Pat t e r n I 35 2. • 0, 3. 1 Pat t e r n J 3 2. • 0, 3.0, 3. 1 P a t t e r n K 10 2, .0, 3. 1 , 4. .0 Pat t e r n L 4 2, .0, 3.0, 3. 1 , 4. .0 P a t t e r n M 2 2, .0, 3.0, 4. ,0 P a t t e r n N 5 2, .0, 4. .0 Pat t e r n 0 7 4, .0 96 F i g u r e 1 >-en «t CO o o PROFILES OF STUDENTS SCORING IN PATTERN C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 OBSERVATIONS CODE Student 1 2 = 3 = F i g u r e 2 97 PROFILES OF STUDENTS SCORING IN PATTERN M 5 1 ; ; ; ; ; :. ; ; ;.. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 OBSERVATIONS CODE Student 1 = 98 A Chi Id Wi t h Unique Responses One boy responded t o the e l i c i t a t i o n of Key V o c a b u l a r y i n a manner which was not o b s e r v e d i n any o f the o t h e r c h i l d r e n . In a d d i t i o n , h i s performance on the P i a g e t i a n t a s k s i n d i c a t e d h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a c h i l d i n a l a t e r p e r i o d o f c o n c r e t e thought. D u r i n g the P i a g e t i a n t a s k t e s t s , t h i s c h i l d c l a s s i f i e d o b j e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o f o u r to s i x a t t r i b u t e s when u s i n g the b l o c k s and the p l a s t i c a n i m a l s . He i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e a t t r i b u t e s u s i n g the p i c t u r e c a r d s from A t t r i b u t e Games and  Problems. In terms o f s e r i a t i o n , he q u i c k l y and a c c u r a t e l y o r d e r e d a l l the m a t e r i a l s . Tasks o f d o u b l e s e r i a t i o n and placement were not used i n the s t u d y so i t i s not known whether he c o u l d p e r f o r m these t a s k s . The t h r e e measures f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n o f number were done q u i c k l y and the e x p l a n a t i o n s were a p p r o p r i a t e . A g a i n , the t e s t e r d i d not a d m i n i s t e r the more complex c o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s . The emergence o f the s e s p e c i f i c c o n c e p t s was o b s e r v e d i n o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n the s t u d y . However, none o f the o t h e r c h i l d r e n s c o r e d as h i g h on the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s . In a d d i t i o n t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s i m p l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , s i m p l e s e r i a t i o n , and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f number; t h i s c h i l d was a b l e t o do a l l t h r e e o f the c l a s s i n c l u s i o n t a s k s a c c u r a t e l y and he c o u l d f u l l y e x p l a i n each o f h i s r e s p o n s e s . T h i s c h i l d responded to the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s 99 by t e l l i n g the teacher t h a t he needed more than one word t o d e s c r i b e h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n . He would then p r e d i c t the number of words needed and re q u e s t t h a t the tea c h e r w r i t e h i s s e n t e n c e c o n t a i n i n g the p r e d i c t e d number o f words. The a b i l i t y t o p r e d i c t the number o f words he was g o i n g t o r e q u e s t was a complex t a s k . He had t o be a b l e t o s e l e c t the r e l e v a n t i d e a he wanted t o r e l a t e , m e n t a l l y i d e n t i f y the number o f words needed t o e x p r e s s t h a t i d e a , h o l d the i d e a c o n s t a n t w h i l e p r e d i c t i n g the number o f words needed, and then e x p r e s s the i d e a . H i s l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s e n a b l e d him to respond i n t h i s manner, unusual f o r c h i l d r e n 5 1/2 y e a r s o f age. I t i s not c l e a r whether the n a t u r e o f t h i s boy's response i s i n d i c a t i v e o f another l e v e l o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response or i f i t i s unique t o t h i s c h i l d . SUMMARY STATEMENT An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the d a t a p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response. A gamma c o e f f i c i e n t a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between th e s e l e v e l s o f response and s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development. The post hoc a n a l y s i s l e d t o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f i f t e e n p a t t e r n s o f response. These p a t t e r n s suggest i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the ways c h i l d r e n respond a c r o s s time t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , the r e s u l t s o f one c h i l d ' s unique responses and c o g n i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d . CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a summary o f the s t u d y , the c o n c l u s i o n s reached, and the recommendations f o r t e a c h i n g and f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . The Problem Ashton-Warner (1963) i n t r o d u c e d a s t r a t e g y o f r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n which the t e a c h e r engages a c h i l d i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n f o l l o w e d by the e l i c i t a t i o n o f a s i n g l e word response. These responses a r e r e c o r d e d by the te a c h e r on l a r g e c a r d s and a r e reviewed d a i l y w i t h the c h i l d . Any words which the c h i l d does not r e c o g n i z e a r e d i s c a r d e d and those w hich the c h i l d knows i m m e d i a t e l y become the bases o f the b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . Based on her o b s e r v a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e s a c r o s s time, Ashton-Warner (Wasserman, 1972, 1976b) i d e n t i f i e d v a r y i n g forms o f response a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y . She noted f o u r forms o f o r a l and w r i t t e n response which she termed movements and which i n c l u d e : (1) s i n g l e word r e s p o n s e s ; (2) two or t h r e e word r e s p o n s e s ; (3) w r i t t e n p h r a s e s or s e n t e n c e s ; and (4) the c o m p o s i t i o n o f s t o r i e s . She o b s e r v e d t h a t these movements emerge i n a s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r . In 1968, Veatch i n i t i a t e d a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i n c o r p o r a t i n g the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y . She s u b s e q u e n t l y 100 101 r e p o r t e d (Veatch et a l . , 1973, Veatc h , 1976) a form o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response which she c l a i m e d appeared p r i o r t o the emergence o f the s i n g l e word response. I t was o b s e r v e d t h a t c e r t a i n c h i l d r e n responded t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n w i t h ' a s e n t e n c e o r ph r a s e which they b e l i e v e d t o be "a word". Some c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d t o these s e n t e n c e s as " g i a n t words"; thus Veatch l a b e l e d t h i s phenomenon the G i a n t Word Syndrome. The G i a n t Word Syndrome and the f o u r movements i n Key V o c a b u l a r y , when combined, r e f l e c t a s p e c t s o f Papandropou1u and S i n c l a i r ' s (1974) f i n d i n g s o f f o u r l e v e l s and two sub-st a g e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c h i l d ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the concept o f "a word". T h e i r s t u d y f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t these l e v e l s and s u b - s t a g e s o f m e t a l i n g u i s t i c competency were r e l a t e d t o cha n g i n g c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s as measured by P i a g e t i a n t a s K s . I t was c o n c e i v e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t emerging c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s would i n f l u e n c e the n a t u r e o f the c h i l d ' s r e s ponse t o the e l i c i t a t i o n o f a word as used i n the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y . Thus the f i r s t f o c u s o f the s t u d y was the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f l e v e l s o f o r a l response o b t a i n e d u s i n g the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y as d e s c r i b e d by Ashton-Warner (1963), Wasserman (1972, 1976b), and Veatch (1973, 1976). The second f o c u s was the e x p l o r a t i o n o f any p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response and emerging s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development as i d e n t i f i e d by P i a g e t (1955, 1966, 1974, 1976). I t was proposed t h a t t h e r e 102 would be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between Key V o c a b u l a r y l e v e l and c o g n i t i v e s t a g e , w i t h the G i a n t Word Syndrome c o r r e s p o n d i n g to p r e o p e r a t i o n a l thought; the s i n g l e word l e v e l of response to t r a n s i t i o n a l thought; and between the two or t h r e e word l e v e l and c o n c r e t e thought p r o c e s s e s . A f o u r t h l e v e l , c o n s i s t i n g o f advanced Key V o c a b u l a r y responses which c o u l d not be c l a s s i f i e d i n the o t h e r t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , was p o s t u l a t e d t o c o r r e s p o n d to the c o n c r e t e s t a g e o f c o g n i t i v e deve1opmen t . Research Procedures Nine k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s , w o r k i n g i n f i f t e e n h a l f - d a y programs, v o l u n t e e r e d t o be t r a i n e d t o conduct the e l i c i t a t i o n o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s and Key V o c a b u l a r y responses w i t h s e l e c t e d c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s . F i v e boys and f i v e g i r l s were randomly s e l e c t e d from each program p r o v i d i n g an i n i t i a l sample o f 150 c h i l d r e n . T h i r t y c h i l d r e n were l a t e r e x c l u d e d because they had fewer than f o u r s c o r a b l e r e s p o n s e s ; thus the a n a l y s i s o f the main s t u d y was based on a sample o f 120 c h i l d r e n . The t e a c h e r s e l i c i t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n s and Key V o c a b u l a r y responses from each c h i l d on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s t w i c e a week d u r i n g a s i x week p e r i o d i n A p r i l and May. These res p o n s e s were r e c o r d e d on l a r g e c a r d s and were d a t e d . On the back o f each c a r d the te a c h e r noted i n f o r m a t i o n about the c h i l d ' s comments r e g a r d i n g m u l t i p l e word r e s p o n s e s . U s i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and the Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s , a 103 response p r o f i l e was d e v e l o p e d f o r each c h i l d . D u r i n g the same s i x week p e r i o d , the r e s e a r c h e r and t r a i n e d a s s i s t a n t a d m i n i s t e r e d the c o g n i t i v e measures. S e l e c t e d P i a g e t i a n t a s k s were used to d e t e r m i n e p r e o p e r a t i o n a l , t r a n s i t i o n a l , and c o n c r e t e s t a g e s o f thought. The t a s k s used were s e l e c t e d from s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d by P i a g e t and h i s c o l l e a g u e s ( I n h e l d e r and P i a g e t , 1964; I n h e l d e r , S i n c l a i r , and Bovet, 1974; P i a g e t , 1952). Three measures o f each o f the f o l l o w i n g c o n c e p t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d : (1) s i m p l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , (2) s i m p l e s e r i a t i o n , (3) c o n s e r v a t i o n o f number, and (4) c l a s s i n c l u s i o n . C h i l d r e n who c o u l d not a c c u r a t e l y do two out o f t h r e e t a s k s r e l a t e d t o any one concept were c o n s i d e r e d to be p r e o p e r a t i o n a l i n thought. Those c h i l d r e n who c o u l d do two out o f t h r e e o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n or s e r i a t i o n t a s k s were c a t e g o r i z e d as b e i n g i n a t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d . C h i l d r e n who c o u l d do two out o f t h r e e o f the c o n s e r v a t i o n , s e r i a t i o n , and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s were s a i d t o be e n t e r i n g the c o n c r e t e s t a g e o f c o g n i t i o n . I f the c h i l d r e n c o u l d do two out o f t h r e e c l a s s i n c l u s i o n t a s k s , i n a d d i t i o n t o the s e r i a t i o n ; c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f number t a s k s , they were s a i d t o be i n a more advanced p e r i o d o f c o n c r e t e thought. F i ndi nqs The f i n d i n g s , as they r e l a t e t o each o f the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , a r e r e p o r t e d below. 104 Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s . The f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t some c h i l d r e n respond c o n s i s t e n t l y t o Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s . However, the d a t a i n t h i s s t u d y , c o l l e c t e d w i t h i n a s i x week p e r i o d , i n d i c a t e d t h a t 81 o f the 120 c h i l d r e n moved back and f o r t h between l e v e l s when r e s p o n d i n g t o the e l i c i t a t i o n s . T h i s w i t h i n - c h i l d v a r i a t i o n o f l e v e l o f response had t o be c o n s i d e r e d when s c o r i n g the p r o f i l e s . For the purposes o f t h i s s t u d y a modal s c o r e was chosen t o de t e r m i n e an o v e r a l l Key V o c a b u l a r y s c o r e f o r each c h i I d . Seventeen c h i l d r e n responded t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s w i t h a s e n t e n c e w h i c h they b e l i e v e d t o be "a word" ( l e v e l 1 r e s p o n s e ) . N i n e t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n responded w i t h s i n g l e word re s p o n s e s ( l e v e l 2 ) . No c h i l d c o n s i s t e n t l y responded by g i v i n g two or t h r e e words ( l e v e l 3 ) . Nine c h i l d r e n responded u s i n g s e n t e n c e s or phr a s e s w h i c h they knew t o be more than one word ( l e v e l 4 ) . Key Vocabu1ary and coqn i t i ve development. A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p (gamma=.82; p<.01) was found between the f o u r l e v e l s o f response and the t h r e e s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i o n . Of the 17 c h i l d r e n who responded t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s w i t h a s e n t e n c e which they b e l i e v e d t o be "a word", 6 were p r e o p e r a t i o n a l i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g and 11 were i n a t r a n s i t i o n a l s t a g e . There were no c h i l d r e n s c o r i n g at t h i s l e v e l who were at a c o n c r e t e s t a g e o f c o g n i t i v e development. Thus the G i a n t Word Syndrome was a phenomenon whi c h d i d not appear i n c h i l d r e n who used l o g i c a l thought p r o c e s s e s . 105 Of the 94 c h i l d r e n who had an o v e r a l l Key V o c a b u l a r y s c o r e i n d i c a t i v e of the s i n g l e word, 10 were i n a p r e o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e o f thought, 39 were t r a n s i t i o n a l i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g , and 45 were at a c o n c r e t e s t a g e o f c o g n i t i v e development. Whil e some c h i l d r e n who were p r e o p e r a t i o n a l i n thought d i d respond t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s w i t h s i n g l e words, the m a j o r i t y (84 out o f 120 c h i l d r e n ) were no longer r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g but r a t h e r were a b l e t o use some p r o c e s s e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f l o g i c a l thought. Nine c h i l d r e n responded t o the t e a c h e r ' s e l i c i t a t i o n s w i t h a s e n t e n c e u n d e r s t o o d t o be more than one word (or a l e v e l 4 r e s p o n s e ) . One c h i l d was t r a n s i t i o n a l i n terms o f thought p r o c e s s e s and 8 c h i l d r e n were at a c o n c r e t e s t a g e o f c o g n i t i v e development. Post hoc a n a l y s i s . The n a t u r e o f the Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s v a r i e d i n t h r e e ways from the p r e d i c t e d r e s p o n s e s . F i r s t , some o f the c h i l d r e n a ttempted t o count the l e t t e r s i n t h e i r whole sentence response so as to d e t e r m i n e the number of words. Secondly, w h i l e no c h i l d had an o v e r a l l Key V o c a b u l a r y s c o r e d e f i n e d as a two or t h r e e word response, most of the m u l t i p l e word re s p o n s e s r e c o r d e d were compound words. F i n a l l y , the m a j o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e s c o n t a i n e d more than one l e v e l o f response. A p o s t hoc a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d t o examine t h e s e v a r i a t i o n s more c l o s e l y . An a l t e r n a t i v e s c o r i n g system was d e v e l o p e d t o t a k e i n t o account a c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n t h a t 106 l e t t e r s r e p r e s e n t e d words and t o s e p a r a t e compound words from two or t h r e e word r e s p o n s e s . F o l l o w i n g Veatch (1976), who contended t h a t c o u n t i n g l e t t e r s i n a whole s e n t e n c e response i s a b e h a v i o r sometimes o b s e r v e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the G i a n t Word Syndrome, a response o f t h i s n a t u r e was r e - s c o r e d at l e v e l 1.1. Compound word re s p o n s e s were r e - s c o r e d as l e v e l 3.1 r e s p o n s e s . The c h i l d r e n ' s p r o f i l e s were grouped a c c o r d i n g t o the v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f response o b s e r v e d a c r o s s time. These v a r i a t i o n s i n l e v e l s o f response formed p a t t e r n s w h i c h i n c l u d e d two, t h r e e , and o c c a s i o n a l l y f o u r k i n d s o f response. F i f t e e n p a t t e r n s o f response were i d e n t i f i e d i n the s t u d y . CONCLUSIONS Leve1s o f Key Vocabu1ary Response The l e v e l s o f response i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the ways c h i l d r e n respond t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y . Some c h i l d r e n respond t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s w i t h a whole sent e n c e which they b e l i e v e t o be "a word". Thus i t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t the G i a n t Word Syndrome d e s c r i b e d by Veatch (1973, 1976) does e x i s t r e l a t i v e t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y . Furthermore, these d a t a c o n f i r m a s p e c t s o f Papandropoula and S i n c l a i r ' s (1974) f i n d i n g s p r o v i d i n g e v i d e n c e f o r a p e r i o d o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g d u r i n g which the c h i l d b e l i e v e s a s e n t e n c e to be "a word". 107 A second form o f response r e v e a l e d i n t h i s s t u d y was the s i n g l e word. Data o f t h i s n a t u r e c o n f i r m Ashton-Warner's (1963, i972) c o n t e n t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n respond t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n w i t h a s i n g l e word as a c a p t i o n o f the c o n v e r s a t i o n they have had w i t h the t e a c h e r . The two or t h r e e word response r e p o r t e d by Ashton-Warner (Wasserman, 1972) d i d not appear as an o v e r a l l Key V o c a b u l a r y s c o r e i n t h i s s t u d y . Some c h i l d r e n d i d , on o c c a s i o n , respond t o the e l i c i t i o n s w i t h two or t h r e e words. However, the m a j o r i t y of responses o f t h i s n a t u r e c o u l d be d e f i n e d as compound words. G i v e n t h e s e d a t a , i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t not a l l c h i l d r e n f i v e and one h a l f y e a r s o f age respond t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t i o n s w i t h two or t h r e e words. Some c h i l d r e n responded t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s w i t h s e n t e n c e s they knew t o be more than "a word". Most t e a c h e r s , when r e c o r d i n g a re s p o n s e o f t h i s n a t u r e , noted o n l y t h a t the c h i l d knew the response t o be more than one word. T h e r e f o r e , the d a t a a v a i l a b l e were not s u f f i c i e n t t o support any f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h i s form o f response. Sequence o f Key V o c a b u l a r y Response I t was proposed t h a t l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response would be found t o emerge i n a sequence. T h i s sequence was h y p o t h e s i z e d t o v a r y i n c o m p l e x i t y moving from the G i a n t Word Syndrome (whole s e n t e n c e s b e l i e v e d t o be "a word"), t o 108 s i n g l e word r e s p o n s e s , t o two or t h r e e word r e s p o n s e s , and then t o more complex forms o f response. I t was found t h a t o n l y some c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y d i d move back and f o r t h between l e v e l s o f response. The Key V o c a b u l a r y d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n t h i s s t u d y a l o n e a r e not s u f f i c i e n t t o s u p p o r t the i d e a o f a s e q u e n t i a l development. Key V o c a b u l a r y and Stages o f Cogni t i o n A h i g h r e l a t i o n s h i p (gamma=.82; p<.01) was found t o e x i s t between l e v e l s o f response and P i a g e t i a n s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development. Because the gamma c o e f f i c i e n t i s one o f the l e s s c o n s e r v a t i v e measures, i t must be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u t i o n . The l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e does s u p p o r t Papandropoulu and S i n c l a i r ' s (1974) e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s t h a t the concept o f "a word" i s r e l a t e d t o c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s . R e i d (1966) and Downing's (1968, 1970, 1971, 1973-74) r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t the t e r m i n o l o g y used i n r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i s not always u n d e r s t o o d by the c h i l d . The p r e s e n t s t u d y s u p p o r t s t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d the term "word" i s indeed r e l a t e d t o s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development. Seguence of response and c o g n i t i o n . The P i a g e t i a n s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e development have been shown t o emerge i n h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r . The l e v e l s o f response a l s o appeared i n a sequence which was r e l a t e d t o o r d e r e d s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i o n . Because o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s s t u d y , i t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e i s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l sequence i n the 109 forms o f o r a l responses to Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s . Thus, t h e s e l e v e l s o f response a r e i n d i c a t o r s o f c h i l d r e n ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s of c o g n i t i o n . Post Hoc A n a l y s i s A p o s t hoc a n a l y s i s conducted t o examine w i t h i n - c h i l d v a r i a t i o n l e d t o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p a t t e r n s o f r e s p o n s e s t o Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s . These p a t t e r n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the n a t u r e of c h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e s t o the e l i c i t a t i o n o f "a word" changed over a s i x week p e r i o d . However, t h i s change d i d not c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e a t r a n s i t i o n from one l e v e l o f response t o a n o t h e r . I t d i d r e v e a l t h a t not a l l c h i l d r e n f i v e and one h a l f y e a r s o f age c o n s i s t e n t l y respond t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y w i t h one form o f response w i t h i n a s i x week p e r i o d . I t was not p o s s i b l e t o draw any c o n c l u s i o n s about the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s v a r i a t i o n o f r e s p o n s e . Ashton-Warner's Q b s e r v a t i o n s Ashton-Warner's (Wasserman, 1972) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f "movements" or s e q u e n t i a l forms o f Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e , were b a s i c t o the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . C o n c u r r e n t l y , the p r e s e n c e o f a G i a n t Word Syndrome i d e n t i f i e d by Veatch e t a l . (1973) suggested t h a t t h e r e was a form o f response which had not been acknowledged by Ashton-Warner. The d a t a from t h i s s t u d y r e v e a l e d a d d i t i o n a l forms o f r e s p o n s e w h i c h had not been d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y . I t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t l e v e l s o f c h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e s t o 110 Key V o c a b u l a r y a re more complex i n n a t u r e than was thought p r e v i o u s l y . IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS I m p l i c a t i o n s drawn from t h i s s t u d y a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n as w e l l as f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n terms o f the c l a s s r o o m m i l i e u and the e x p e r i m e n t a l a s p e c t s w i l l appear under the r u b r i c o f r e s e a r c h . I m p ! i c a t i o n s f o r Teaching The s t u d y c o n f i r m e d t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e s t o Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s do v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o s e v e r a l g e n e r a l t y p e s . These responses d e s e r v e the t e a c h e r ' s c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n and a n e c d o t a l n o t a t i o n . P r o f i l e s o f res p o n s e s and n o t a t i o n s about c o n v e r s a t i o n s s h o u l d p r o v i d e f o u r k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n which would h e l p the tea c h e r match t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s t o each c h i l d . F i r s t , a c h i l d ' s l e v e l o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e l a t i v e t o r e a d i n g and r e a d i n g t e r m i n o l o g y can be i n d i c a t e d by the Key V o c a b u l a r y r e c o r d s . For example, a c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f the term "word" would be e v i d e n t i n the n a t u r e o f the Key V o c a b u l a r y response. Other u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , such as l e t t e r s and spaces between words, would be r e f l e c t e d i n a c h i l d ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n about e l i c i t e d r e s p o n s e . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d then be used i n the s e l e c t i o n o f p r e - r e a d i n g and r e a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s w hich a re most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r each i n d i v i d u a l 111 c h i I d . Second, a c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t s w i l l be i n d i c a t e d i n the r e c o r d s the tea c h e r keeps r e g a r d i n g the t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d d u r i n g the i n d i v i d u a l s e s s i o n s . These t o p i c s can be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the development o f an i n t e g r a t e d c u r r i c u l u m t h a t i s m e a n i n g f u l f o r each i n d i v i d u a l . T h i r d , a c h i l d ' s s o c i a l / e m o t i o n a l needs and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s w i l l appear d u r i n g h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h the t e a c h e r . The t e a c h e r ' s s e n s i t i v i t y t o , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f , a c h i l d ' s needs i n t h i s a r e a o f development have r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r a l l a s p e c t s o f l i f e w i t h i n a c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . F o u r t h , a c h i l d ' s c o g n i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n the way the environment i s d e s c r i b e d and r e l a t e d t o s e l f . I n f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s n a t u r e i s i n d i c a t e d by the l e v e l o f response e l i c i t e d d u r i n g the Key V o c a b u l a r y s e s s i o n s . A r e c o r d o f such i n f o r m a t i o n i s o f v a l u e t o the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i n terms o f p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , s e l e c t i n g m a t e r i a l s , and e v a l u a t i n g t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n e v e r y p a r t o f the t e a c h i n g program. Recommendat i o n s f o r Fur t h e r Research The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s ponse s u g g e s t s t h a t c o n t i n u e d r e s e a r c h i n t o the usage o f t h i s s t r a t e g y o f i n s t r u c t i o n would be w o r t h w h i l e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p i n d i c a t e d between l e v e l s o f response and thought p r o c e s s e s as measured by P i a g e t i a n c o n c e p t s f u r t h e r 112 s u g g e s t s t h a t the r e s e a r c h can be based on a d e v e l o p m e n t a l c o n s t r u c t . Sequence of response and c o g n i t i v e development. One a r e a f o r f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s the q u e s t i o n o f the d e v e l o p m e n t a l sequence o f l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response. The r e l a t i o n s h i p found i n t h i s s t u d y between l e v e l s o f response and s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i o n p r o v i d e s some e v i d e n c e o f the e x i s t e n c e of such a sequence. T h i s o r d e r , as i t i s r e l a t e d t o Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e , p r o v i d e s s u p p o r t f o r a s e q u e n t i a l n a t u r e i n l e v e l s o f response. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s needed to c l a r i f y the sequence o f responses t o Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s . Thus the f i r s t recommendation f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i s t h a t a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y be c o n d u c t e d which would t r a c e the sequence o f responses a c r o s s time. I t i s recommended t h a t p r e and p o s t P i a g e t i a n measures be a d m i n i s t e r e d . The i n t e n t o f l onger term i n v e s t i g a t i o n s would be: (1) t o d e f i n e l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response c l e a r l y ; (2) t o d e t e r m i n e the e x a c t sequence o f response; and (3) t o e x p l o r e f u r t h e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between emerging c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s and l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response. When c o n d u c t i n g such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the problems o f s c o r i n g , as i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s s t u d y , s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . L e v e l 4 response. W h i l e a l e v e l o f r e s p o n s e was i d e n t i f i e d which seemed t o be more advanced than those d e s c r i b e d by e a r l i e r s t u d i e s , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s form o f response r e q u i r e s more d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n . There 113 were not enough d a t a a v a i l a b l e from t h i s s t u d y t o p r o v i d e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r type o f response. I t i s t h e r e f o r e recommended t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h c o l l e c t d a t a from t e a c h e r s t o p r o v i d e more e x t e n s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about the c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e i r Key V o c a b u l a r y r e s p o n s e s . Two word response. The e x i s t e n c e of a two word response was not c o n f i r m e d u s i n g the r u l e s adopted f o r t h i s s t u d y . Whether such responses s h o u l d be e x p l o r e d by o b s e r v i n g c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l and w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s a c r o s s time or whether they a r e the p r o d u c t o f a r b i t r a r y s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s , i s y e t to be d e t e r m i n e d . I t i s recommended, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t f u t u r e s t u d i e s i n c l u d e the two word response i n o r d e r to t e s t f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e . I t i s a l s o recommended t h a t compound words be s c o r e d as a s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r y from two u n i t o r two word r e s p o n s e s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d a l s o be g i v e n t o the s e a r c h f o r t h i s form o f response i n e a r l y s t a g e s o f w r i t t e n r esponse. Wri t t e n forms of r e s p o n s e . The s t u d y examined c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l responses o n l y . Ashton-Warner (Wasserman, 1972, 1976b) c l a i m s t h a t t h e r e a r e l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response g i v e n i n w r i t t e n forms which a r e a l s o i d e n t i f i a b l e . There i s a need f o r a long term s t u d y which would examine b o t h the o r a l and w r i t t e n forms o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response. Impact o f p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t . The t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s t u d y r e p o r t e d t h a t the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y encouraged them t o t a l k t o c h i l d r e n on a more p e r s o n a l 114 l e v e l . They s t a t e d t h a t t h i s p e r s o n a l communication h e l p e d them b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r s . Wasserman (1976) contends t h a t t h i s i n t i m a t e a d u 1 t - c h i I d i n t e r a c t i o n i s a model f o r c h i l d - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t i n f l u e n c e s the s u c c e s s c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e when the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y i s used. I t i s recommended t h a t f u t u r e s t u d i e s be d e s i g n e d comparing programs u s i n g : (1) the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y ; (2) a language e x p e r i e n c e method i n which the i n s t r u c t i o n i s on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s ; and (3) a language e x p e r i e n c e program where the major p a r t o f the i n s t r u c t i o n i s on a group b a s i s . An i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f such a s t u d y would be to i s o l a t e the e f f e c t s o f the one-to-one r e l a t i o n s h i p and the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o respond. A second purpose would be t o i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s on c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r s towards one another as a r e s u l t o f the model o f i n t e r a c t i o n they have e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h the t e a c h e r . F i n a l l y , such a s t u d y c o u l d e x p l o r e changes i n t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r s ; t h a t i s , as the t e a c h e r s become more aware o f the needs and i n t e r e s t s o f i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n , do they a l t e r b e h a v i o r t o meet those needs? P o s s i b l e 1 imi t a t i o n s iimposed by the e l i c i t a t i o n method . W h i l e the s t u d y c o n f i r m s t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y response, the method o f e l i c i t a t i o n r a i s e s some i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s . By a s k i n g c h i l d r e n t o respond w i t h "a word" does the t e a c h e r u n c o n s c i o u s l y impose a l i m i t on the number o f words the c h i l d f e e l s f r e e t o o f f e r ? Do 115 some c h i l d r e n i n t e r p r e t t h i s t o mean they may not respond w i t h two or more words? What o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d t o t e s t the v a r i o u s e f f e c t s o f t e a c h e r i n s t r u c t i o n . I t i s recommended t h a t f u t u r e s t u d i e s c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s and the n a t u r e o f c h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e s . These recommendations c o u l d p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n s f o r more e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g t o t e a c h i n g s t y l e s and t o the c h o i c e o f the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y f o r p r e - r e a d i n g and b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g a c t i v i t y . CONCLUDING STATEMENT T h i s s t u d y has shown t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a need f o r c o n t i n u e d r e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g t o the use o f the Key V o c a b u l a r y method o f i n s t r u c t i o n , the s t r a t e g y i t s e l f has pro m i s e as a means o f p r o v i d i n g t e a c h e r s w i t h d i a g n o s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n about i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y was l i m i t e d t o o r a l forms o f response even though the Key V o c a b u l a r y t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y can be used to e l i c i t w r i t t e n forms o f response when a p p r o p r i a t e . The e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s r e l a t e d t o o t h e r l e v e l s o f response might be l a t e r i d e n t i f i e d u s i n g w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s . F i n a l l y , the a f f e c t i v e impact o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y has not been s t u d i e d . S i n c e e l i c i t a t i o n o f Key V o c a b u l a r y responses i s a p r o c e s s which encourages c h i l d r e n t o e x p r e s s p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s and e x p e r i e n c e s , i t s use as a t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y d e s e r v e s a t t e n t i o n . 116 REFERENCES A l l e n , Roach Van. Language exper i ence i n communi c a t i o n . Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1976. A l l e n , Roach Van. A l l t h i n g s c o n s i d e r e d . . . language p r o d u c t i o n i s b a s i c t o r e a d i n g . In Malcolm P. Douglass (Ed.) C1aremont r e a d i n g c o n f e r e n c e 41st yearbook. Claremont, C a l i f o r n i a : Claremont U n i v e r s i t y , 1977. A l l e n , Roach Van. P e r s o n a l language and b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g . E a r l y Y e a r s , 1978, 9, 22-25; 55. 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Ch i I d h o o d E d u c a t i o n , 1972, 48, 348-353. Wasserman, Selma. The Vancouver p r o j e c t : A s t u d y o f the Key  V o c a b u l a r y approach t o b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g i n an o r g a n i c  c l a s s r o o m c o n t e x t . Burnaby: Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1974. Wasserman, Selma. O r g a n i c t e a c h i n g i n the p r i m a r y c l a s s r o o m . Phi D e l t a Kappan, 1976a, November, 264-268. Wasserman, Selma. P e r s o n a l communication, 1976b. 123 Wasserman, Selma. Key V o c a b u l a r y : Impact on b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g . Young C h i l d r e n , 1978, 33, 33-38. Z i n t z , M i l e s V. The r e a d i nq p r o c e s s : The t e a c h e r and the  l e a r n e r . Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown, 1975 . 124 APPENDICES APPENDIX A Sample C o n v e r s a t i o n s and Key V o c a b u l a r y E l i c i t a t i o n 126 APPENDIX A Sample C o n v e r s a t i o n and Key V o c a b u l a r y E l i c i t a t i o n R. = Researcher and C. = The c h i l d Sample 1 R. I saw you the l a s t time I was out here, d i d n ' t I? I t was B r i a n ' s b i r t h d a y , i t was a fun day, wasn't i t ? C. Y u p - - I t ' s my b i r t h d a y the day a f t e r tomorrow. March the 2nd. That's my b i r t h d a y . R. How o l d w i l l you be? C. S i x ! B r i a n ' s a l r e a d y s i x . He beat me. R. ( l a u g h s ) Yes, but not by v e r y many days. Are you g o i n g t o do something s p e c i a l f o r your b i r t h d a y ? C. M-m-m-m-m. Ju s t we're g o i n g b o w l i n g - - I t h i n k . I f i t ' s O.K. w i t h my Dad and my Mom. R. Who's g o i n g b o w l i n g w i t h you? C. C h a r l i e , L e s - - t h a t ' s my s i s t e r , Andrea who's i n the a f t e r n o o n c l a s s and t h a t ' s a l l . Oh, my o t h e r s i s t e r and my baby s i t t e r . R. You have two s i s t e r ' s ? C. U-mmmm and me. R. Do you go b o w l i n g v e r y o f t e n ? C. No! 127 R. You've been b e f o r e though? C. Yes--once. R. Do your Mom or Dad bowl? C. U-mmmm. (nods "yes") R. Do they go o f t e n ? C. Not o f t e n . R. I f i n d t h a t the b o w l i n g b a l l i s p r e t t y heavy. C. We don' t do ten p i n . We do f i v e p i n . R. Ah-ha! C. But the b o w l i n g b a l l i s s t i l l p r e t t y heavy f o r me. R. Do you know how much i t weighs? (Shakes her head "no"). I t ' s j u s t p r e t t y heavy, i s n ' t i t ? I'm always a f r a i d I'm g o i n g t o drop i t on my toe. C. One time I d i d ! R. Oh, I bet t h a t h u r t ! I t ' s l i k e s t u b b i n g your toe r e a l l y h a r d , i s n ' t i t ? J I L L , I THOUGHT THAT WHAT WE MIGHT DO TODAY IS FOR YOU TO THINK ABOUT ALL THE THINGS WE'VE TALKED ABOUT THEN YOU TELL ME A WORD THAT TELLS YOU ABOUT SOMETHING SPECIAL WE TALKED ABOUT AND I'LL WRITE THAT WORD DOWN FOR YOU ON THIS CARD. C. BOWLING. I WANT YOU TO WRITE THE WORD BOWLING. R. (The e l i c i t e d r esponse " b o w l i n g " i s r e c o r d e d on a c a r d . ) 128 Sample 2 R. What we a r e g o i n g t o do Paul i s t h i n k about something you would r e a l l y l i k e t o t a l k about. I'd l i k e to get t o know you b e t t e r so I'd l i k e t o know t h i n g s t h a t you would l i k e t o t e l l me about y o u r s e l f . You might t e l l me about t h i n g s t h a t you l i k e , or t h i n g s t h a t you do, - - l i k e - - y o u j u s t made something v e r y s p e c i a l o v er t h e r e . C. A g i r a f f e ! R. Can you t e l l me how you made t h a t g i r a f f e . C. You have some l e g s and you n a i l i t and you have a f l a t p i e c e o f wood,' and a long p i e c e o f wood f o r h i s neck, and another f o r h i s head. R. And how do you get a l l t h e s e p i e c e s t o g e t h e r ? C. Hammer ' em. R. Is i t hard t o do? C. Yes. R. Then a f t e r you got a l l the p i e c e s t o g e t h e r , what d i d you do n e x t ? C. P a i n t i t . Y e l l o w and brown f o r i t ' s s p o t s . R. Have you ever seen a g i r a f f e ? C. Yes. In a zoo. R. What a n i m a l s d i d you see i n the zoo? C. A g i r a f f e - - i n pens--and b i r d s and an e l e p h a n t ! And I seen f o x e s , chipmunks, and I seen ah-ah-zebras and a h - a h - t h a t ' s a l l . And t h e r e was another a n i m a l , but I f o r g e t . 129 R. What d i d he look l i k e ? Do you remember? C. He jumps and he has a pocket i n f r o n t ( s h o r t pause) a kangaroo i R. That's r i g h t ! What does she keep i n the po c k e t ? C. A baby. R. Sounds l i k e you l i k e a n i m a l s . Do you have any p e t s at home? C. We got two k i t t e n s but they run away from home R. I have a c a t too. I l i k e c a t s . C. So do I. R. Do you have any o t h e r p e t s ? C. No. R. PAUL, OF ALL THE THINGS WE'VE TALKED ABOUT| WHAT WORD WOULD YOU LIKE ME TO WRITE DOWN. A WORD THAT TELLS YOU ABOUT WHAT WE'VE TALKED ABOUT TODAY. WHAT WOULD YOU LIKE ME TO WRITE DOWN. C. KANGAROO. R. ("Kangaroo" i s r e c o r d e d on a c a r d , APPENDIX B C r i t e r i a f o r S c o r i n g Key V o c a b u l a r y Responses 131 APPENDIX B C r i t e r i a f o r S c o r i n g Key V o c a b u l a r y Responses The d a t a were s c o r e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r u s i n g the c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e below. A s i n g l e s c o r e was e n t e r e d a l o n g s i d e each response. L e v e l 1.0 A whole sentence or p h r a s e response which the c h i l d b e l i e v e d t o be "a word". L e v e l 2.0 A s i n g l e word response. L e v e l 3.0 A two or t h r e e word response. L e v e l 4.0 A s e n t e n c e or phrase u n d e r s t o o d by the c h i I d t o be more than one word. Overa 11 Key Vocabu1ary Score The most f r e q u e n t l e v e l o f response on an i n d i v i d u a l response p r o f i l e . APPENDIX C A l t e r n a t i v e C r i t e r i a f o r i n g Key V o c a b u l a r y Respon 133 APPENDIX C A l t e r n a t i v e C r i t e r i a f o r S c o r i n g Key V o c a b u l a r y Responses The f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a were used as an a l t e r n a t i v e s c o r i n g f o r responses on i n d i v i d u a l Key V o c a b u l a r y p r o f i l e s . The a p p r o p r i a t e s c o r e was e n t e r e d next t o each response. L e v e l 1.0 Response A whole s e n t e n c e or p h r a s e r e s p o n s e w h i c h the c h i l d b e l i e v e d t o be 'a word' . Le v e l 1.1 Response A whole sentence or p h r a s e response i n w h i c h the c h i l d c ounted l e t t e r s t o d e t e r m i n e the number o f words i n the response. L e v e l 2.0 Response A s i n g l e word response. L e v e l 3.0 A two or t h r e e word response. L e v e l 3.1 Response The c o m b i n a t i o n o f two or more words wh i c h a r e d e f i n e d as "compound words" and which form a s i n g l e concept o f image. Only those responses which f i t the Webster's Seventh  New Col 1 i q i a t e D i c t i o n a r y (1965) d e f i n i t i o n o f a compound word were c o n s i d e r e d a l e v e l 3.1 r e s p o n s e . The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s o f a compound word (Webster, 1965) s e r v e d as a g u i d e t o d e t e r m i n e whether or not a two or t h r e e word response c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d i n the l e v e l 3.1 response. 134 1. Independent E n g l i s h words ( f o r example, " l i k e " ) w hich are sometimes c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i x e s and j o i n e d t o g e t h e r t o form a s i n g l e word or j o i n e d by a hyphen (such as, " C h r i s t 1 i k e " / " C h r i s t - 1 i k e " ) were c o n s i d e r e d compound words. 2. A noun p l u s another noun can be c o n s i d e r e d a compound word. Words such as "baby s i t t e r " , " b l a c k b e a r " , "baby c a l f " , or "bunk bed" were c o n s i d e r e d compound words. 3. Two p r o p e r nouns, such as "Bobbie Jean", were s c o r e d as compound words. 4. Nouns showing p o s s e s s i o n p l u s another noun were c o n s i d e r e d compound words. For example, "boys c l u b " and "Mother's Day" were viewed as s i n g l e concept r e s p o n s e s . 5. An a d j e c t i v e p l u s a noun, such as "swimming p o o l " o r "speed buggy" were c o n s i d e r e d compound words. 6. A v e r b p l u s a noun can be viewed as a compound word. An example of such a word would be " c u r e - a l l " . 7. A v e r b p l u s an adverb can sometimes be c o n s i d e r e d a compound word. An example o f such a c o m b i n a t i o n would be " u p - r o o t e d " . 8. A compound adverb, such as " s i g h t unseen", would be s c o r e d as a s i n g l e concept response. I f t h e r e was any q u e s t i o n as t o how t o s c o r e a m u l t i p l e word r e s p o n s e , a d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n was used t o d e t e r m i n e the a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l o f r esponse. L e v e l 4.0 Response A s e n t e n c e or phrase u n d e r s t o o d by the c h i I d t o be more 135 than one word. APPENDIX D P a t t e r n s o f Key V o c a b u l a r y Response 137 APPENDIX D P a t t e r n s of Key V o c a b u l a r y Response P a t t e r n A. C h i l d responds t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y w i t h a sen t e n c e which i s b e l i e v e d t o be "a word". P a t t e r n B. C h i l d responds t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n w i t h a s e n t e n c e s a y i n g i t i s "a word" and by c o u n t i n g the l e t t e r s i n a sent e n c e t o d e t e r m i n e the number o f words. C o u n t i n g l e t t e r s i n a s e n t e n c e was b e l i e v e d t o be r e l a t e d t o the b e l i e f t h a t a whole s e n t e n c e response i s a word. For the purposes o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , i t was deemed n e c e s s a r y t o s e p a r a t e t h i s form o f response from the o t h e r r e s p o n s e s . Pat t e r n C. Whole sent e n c e r e s p o n s e s and s i n g l e word r e s p o n s e s . P a t t e r n D. A c o m b i n a t i o n o f whole s e n t e n c e s b e l i e v e d t o be a word, a t t e m p t s t o count the l e t t e r s i n the s e n t e n c e s so as t o d e t e r m i n e the number o f words, and responded w i t h s i n g l e words. P a t t e r n E. Whole sent e n c e responses i n which the c h i l d c o u n t s the l e t t e r s so as t o d e t e r m i n e the number o f words and s i n g l e word r e s p o n s e s . P a t t e r n £_. Whole sent e n c e r e s p o n s e s which the c h i Id b e l i e v e s t o be "a word", s i n g l e word r e s p o n s e s , and compound words. 138 Pat t e r n G. A c o m b i n a t i o n o f c o u n t i n g the l e t t e r s i n a whole s e n t e n c e r e s p o n s e s , s i n g l e word r e s p o n s e s , and compound words. Pat t e r n H. C h i l d responds w i t h o n l y s i n g l e words. P a t t e r n I_. C h i l d responds w i t h s i n g l e words and compound words. Pat t e r n iJ. C h i l d responds t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y e l i c i t a t i o n s w i t h s i n g l e words, two or t h r e e word r e s p o n s e s , and compound words. Pat t e r n K. C h i l d responds t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y w i t h s i n g l e word r e s p o n s e s , compound words, and whole s e n t e n c e s u n d e r s t o o d t o be more than one word. Pat t e r n I_. C h i l d responds t o the Key V o c a b u l a r y s t r a t e g y w i t h s i n g l e words, two or t h r e e word r e s p o n s e s , compound words, and se n t e n c e s w h i c h he un d e r s t a n d s t o be more than one word. P a t t e r n M. A c o m b i n a t i o n o f re s p o n s e s t h a t a r e s i n g l e words, compound words, and s e n t e n c e s which the c h i l d knows t o be more than one word. P a t t e r n N. S i n g l e word re s p o n s e s and whole s e n t e n c e s which the c h i l d u n d e r s t a n d s t o be more than one word. P a t t e r n 0. C h i l d responds t o the e l i c i t a t i o n s w i t h s e n t e n c e s which he knows t o be more than one word. APPENDIX E P i a g e t i a n Tasks 140 APPENDIX E P i a g e t i a n Tasks 1. Mater i a 1: P l a s t i c g e o m e t r i c a l shapes. 3 t r i a n g l e s , 3 s q u a r e s , and 3 c i r c l e s (1 r e d , 1 b l u e , and 1 y e l l o w . ) There a r e two d i f f e r e n t s i z e s and two d i f f e r e n t t h i c k n e s s e s o f each shape. P r e s e n t a t i o n : The e x p e r i m e n t e r p u t s a l l the shapes i n a heap on the t a b l e and asks the c h i I d t o d e s c r i b e them: " T e l l me what's t h e r e . " "Can you put i n a p i l e a l l the ones t h a t go t o g e t h e r . Put those t h a t a r e v e r y l i k e each o t h e r t o g e t h e r . " When c h i l d has f i n i s h e d , ask: "Why d i d you put them l i k e t h a t ? " "Can you f i n d another way t o put them t o g e t h e r ? " "Why d i d you put them l i k e t h a t ? " C o n t i n u e u n t i l the c h i l d has run out o f ways. I f he has not s o r t e d i n t o two p i l e s , say, "Now can you put them i n j u s t two p i l e s ? A l l the ones t h a t a r e a l i k e i n one way put here and a l l t h a t a r e a l i k e i n another way put here. " "Why d i d you put them l i k e t h a t ? " C o n t i n u e h a v i n g the c h i l d s o r t i n t o two p i l e s , always a s k i n g "Why", u n t i l he has e x h a u s t e d a l l p o s s i b l e ways he can t h i n k o f t o s o r t . 2. M a t e r i a 1: C o l o r e d wooden b l o c k s 1 i n c h square. 12 ye 11ow b1ocks 12 g r e e n b l o c k s P r e s e n t a t i o n : S t a r t by l i n i n g up 4 y e l l o w b l o c k s o p p o s i t e 4 green b l o c k s as shown. E l HI • 0 m m ta h A. B. C. 141 A. "Are t h e r e as many b l o c k s i n my row as i n your row?" I f the c h i l d says "no", ask the c h i l d t o make the rows equa1. B. Add 2 b l o c k s t o j u s t one row. Ask, "Do I s t i l l have the same number o f b l o c k s as you have?" Make the rows equal and rep e a t the above q u e s t i o n . C o n t i n u e u n t i l you have 12 b l o c k s i n each row as shown. Q Q E ] B 0 D I I I l O a 0 0 E "Now watch what I am g o i n g t o do." Push the g r e e n row t o g e t h e r as shown. "Are t h e r e s t i l l as many gre e n b l o c k s i n t h i s row as t h e r e a r e y e l l o w b l o c k s i n t h i s row? Or are t h e r e more or l e s s g r een b l o c k s now?" H E I E J E E l E l I O E l E l i a E l E I "Why do you t h i n k t h a t ? " M a t e r i a 1: P l a s t i c n e s t i n g t o y . P r e s e n t a t i o n : P l a c e p i e c e s o f toy on the t a b l e i n a heap. A. " W i l l you p l e a s e l i n e t h e s e up f o r me so they go from the l a r g e s t t o the s m a l l e s t ? " M a t e r i a l s : 4 green s q u a r e s , 2 r e d s q u a r e s , and 3 red c i r c l e s . 142 P r e s e n t a t i o n : P l a c e the shape on the t a b l e as shown. • CD El 0 © © A. "Are a l l the r e d ones c i r c l e s ? Why?" B. "Are a l l the squares green? Why?" C. "Are t h e r e more c i r c l e s or more r e d t h i n g s ? Why?" D. "Are t h e r e more r e d t h i n g s than t h e r e a r e s q u a r e s , or a re they the same or l e s s ? Why" M a t e r i a 1: Ten p l a s t i c cups and ten p l a s t i c s a u c e r s . P r e s e n t a t i o n : S t a r t by l i n i n g up 4 cups o p p o s i t e 4 s a u c e r s as shown. & CP & QP A. "Are t h e r e as many cups i n t h i s row as t h e r e a r e s a u c e r s i n t h i s row?" I f the c h i l d says "no", ask t h a t the rows be made e q u a l . B. Add two cups t o one row. Ask, "Do I s t i l l have the same number o f cups as I have o f s a u c e r s ? " Make the rows equal and-repeat the above q u e s t i o n . C o n t i n u e u n t i l you have 10 cups and s a u c e r s i n each row as shown. 143 "Now watch what I am g o i n g t o do." Push the row o f cups t o g e t h e r . "Are t h e r e s t i l l as many cups i n t h i s row as t h e r e a r e s a u c e r s i n t h i s row? Or a r e t h e r e more or l e s s cups than s a u c e r s now?" (See #2). "Why do you t h i n k t h a t ? " 6. M a t e r i a 1s: Nine l i t t l e rods o f d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s . P r e s e n t a t i o n : P l a c e the rods on the t a b l e i n a p i l e . A. "I would l i k e you t o l i n e t h e s e up f o r me so they go from the l o n g e s t t o the s h o r t e s t . " "Why d i d you l i n e them up t h a t way?" 7. M a t e r i a l : P l a s t i c p i c t u r e c a r d s o f s i x t e e n p e o p l e . The p i c t u r e s show p e o p l e d r e s s e d i n two c o l o r s ( b l u e and r e d ) , o f two age groups ( a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n ) , two s i z e s ( f a t and t h i n ) , and two sexes (male and f e m a l e ) . M a t e r i a l t aken from A t t r i b u t e  Games and Problems; E l e m e n t a r y S c i e n c e Study. "Can you put i n a p i l e a l l the ones t h a t go t o g e t h e r . Put those t h a t a r e v e r y much l i k e each o t h e r t o g e t h e r . " "Can you f i n d a d i f f e r e n t way t o put them t o g e t h e r ? " "Why d i d you put them l i k e t h a t ? " C o n t i n u e i n the above manner u n t i l the c h i l d can t h i n k o f no more ways t o s o r t . 8. M a t e r i a l : A bunch o f t e n y e l l o w (or w h i t e ) d a i s i e s and f o u r r e d r o s e s ( a r t i f i c i a l f l o w e r s ) . 144 P r e s e n t a t i o n : Have the c h i l d name the f l o w e r s and make sure t h a t he knows the term " f l o w e r s " . "Are the d a i s i e s f l o w e r s ? . . . Are the r o s e s f l o w e r s ? . . . Do you know the names of some o t h e r f l o w e r s ? Are t h e r e more y e l l o w (or w h i t e ) d a i s i e s or more f l o w e r s i n t h i s bunch? "You and a f r i e n d would l i k e t o make up bunches w i t h t h e s e f l o w e r s . You make up a bunch w i t h the d a i s i e s . Then you g i v e the d a i s i e s back t o your f r i e n d . She makes up her bunch w i t h the f l o w e r s . Which bunch wi11 be b i g g e r ? " I f I g i v e you the d a i s i e s , what w i l l I have l e f t i n the bunch? I f I g i v e you the f l o w e r s , what w i l l I have l e f t i n the bunch? "I'm g o i n g to make up a bunch w i t h a l l the d a i s i e s , and you a r e g o i n g t o make a bunch w i t h a l l the f l o w e r s . Who w i l l have the b i g g e r bunch?" 9. M a t e r i a 1: E i g h t r e d (or orange) p i e c e s o f wood which v a r y i n shade from l i g h t p i n k (or orange) t o d a r k r e d (or o r a n g e ) . M a t e r i a l s a r e from a M o n t e s s o r i c o l o r t a b l e t k i t . A. " W i l l you p l e a s e l i n e up f o r me a l l the c o l o r s g o i n g from the d a r k e s t c o l o r t o the l i g h t e s t c o l o r . " "Why d i d you l i n e them up t h a t way?" 10. M a t e r i a 1: Twelve y e l l o w wooden b l o c k s and 12 y e l l o w c a r s . P r e s e n t a t i o n : S t a r t by l i n i n g up 4 y e l l o w c a r s o p p o s i t e 4 y e l l o w b l o c k s ( g a r a g e s ) . (Same as t a s k #2 and t a s k #5). A. "Are t h e r e as many c a r s i n t h i s row as t h e r e a r e garages i n t h i s row?" I f c h i l d says "no", ask t h a t t hey be made e q u a l . B. Add 2 c a r s t o one row. Ask, "Do I s t i l l have the same number of c a r s i n t h i s row as garages i n t h i s row?" Make the rows equal and repeat the above q u e s t i o n . C o n t i n u e u n t i l you have 12 i n each row. (See #2 and #5. ) C. "Now watch what I am g o i n g to do." Push the b l o c k s 145 (garages) t o g e t h e r . "Are t h e r e s t i l l as many c a r s i n t h i s row as t h e r e a r e garages i n t h a t row? Or a r e t h e r e more or l e s s c a r s than g a r a g e s ? " (See t a s k #2) . "Why do you t h i n k t h a t ? " M a t e r i a 1: Ten y e l l o w p l a s t i c beads and f o u r g r e e n p l a s t i c beads. P r e s e n t a t i o n : P l a c e the beads i n a s m a l l box. "What do I have i n t h i s box? ( P l a s t i c b e a d s - - i f the c h i l d does not s t a t e " p l a s t i c beads", ask, "What a r e these beads made o f ? " ) . "What c o l o r s a r e my p l a s t i c beads?" "Now I am g o i n g t o ask you some q u e s t i o n s about these beads." A. "Are t h e r e more p l a s t i c beads or more y e l l o w beads i n my box o f beads?" B. There a r e two l i t t l e g i r l s who would l i k e t o make n e c k l a c e s out of these beads. One would l i k e f i r s t t o make a n e c k l a c e out o f the y e l l o w beads, and then, when she g i v e s the beads back t o me, the o t h e r g i r l would l i k e t o use the p l a s t i c beads t o make a n e c k l a c e . Which o f the two n e c k l a c e s w i l l be l o n g e r ? " "Why?" C. " I f you g i v e me a l l the y e l l o w beads, what w i l l be l e f t i n the box?" D. " I f you g i v e me a l l the p l a s t i c beads, w i l l t h e r e be any beads l e f t i n the box? Why? How do you know?" E. " I n t h i s box, would you say t h a t t h e r e a r e more y e l l o w beads or are t h e r e more beads made o f p l a s t i c ? Why? How do you know?" M a t e r i a 1: Ten p l a s t i c a n i m a l s . P r e s e n t a t i o n : P l a c e the a n i m a l s i n a random o r d e r on the t a b l e . Have the c h i l d name the a n i m a l s and t a l k about them f o r a b i t . A. "Can you put t o g e t h e r a l l o f the a n i m a l s t h a t go t o g e t h e r ? Put those t o g e t h e r t h a t a r e a l i k e i n some way. " 146 " T e l l me why you put them t o g e t h e r t h i s way." B. "Can you f i n d another way t o put them t o g e t h e r ? " "Why d i d you put them l i k e t h a t ? " C. C o n t i n u e u n t i l the c h i l d has run out o f ways. I f he has not s o r t e d i n t o two p i l e s , say, "Now can you put them i n j u s t two p i l e s ? A l l the ones t h a t a r e a l i k e i n one way put here and a l l the ones t h a t a r e a l i k e i n another way put here." "Why d i d you put them l i k e t h a t ? " C o n t i n u e i n the above manner u n t i l the c h i l d can f i n d no more ways t o s o r t . APPENDIX F Record Sheet For P i a g e t i a n Tasks 148 APPENDIX F Record Sheet For P i a g e t i a n Tasks Name o f Chi Id Date o f B i r t h : Today's Date 1. C I a s s i f i c a t i o n 2. C o n s e r v a t i o n o f number more l e s s same re a s o n : 3. S e r i at i o n 149 4. C1 ass i n c l u s i o n A. yes no rea s o n : B. yes no rea s o n : C. c i r c l e s red t h i n g s r e a s o n : D. r e d t h i n g s same l e s s r e a s o n : 5. C o n s e r v a t i o n o f number more l e s s same rea s o n : 6 . Ser i at i o n 7 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 150 8. CI ass I n c l u s i o n A. d a i s i e s f l o w e r s B. me my f r i end C. d a i s i e s r o s e s n o t h i n g D. d a i s i e s r o s e s n o t h i n g E. you me re a s o n : 9 . Ser i at i o n 10. C o n s e r v a t i o n o f number more l e s s same rea s o n : 11. C l a s s I n c l u s i o n A. p l a s t i c bead y e l l o w beads r e a s o n : B. p l a s t i c y e l l o w beads green beads C. green beads n o t h i n g D. yes no re a s o n : E. y e l l o w beads p l a s t i c beads re a s o n : C l a s s i f i c a t i o n APPENDIX G Summary Sheet For P i a g e t i a n Tasks Child's Name _ Date of B i r t h Teacher's Natce Date of Testing 1 a t t r i b u t e 2 a t t r i b u t e s 3 a t t r i b u t e s more than 3 CLASSIFICATION 1 nesting toy rods c o l o r t a b l e t s SERIATION blocks cups and saucers cars and blocks CONSERVATION OF NUMBER shapes flowers beads CLASS INCLUSION CO C 0) "3 "< CO 17 CD CD J> r+ T3 - n m O -} o -a X CO o CO. CD r+ i . CO —I 0> w (/> CJ1 CO APPENDIX H C r i t e r i a f o r S c o r i P i a g e t i a n Tasks 155 APPENDIX H C r i t e r i a f o r S c o r i n g P i a g e t i a n Tasks Simp1e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (a) A s c o r e o f 0 was a s s i g n e d t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k i f : (1) the c h i l d a r r a n g e d the m a t e r i a l i n p a i r s or (2) used the m a t e r i a l s t o form a g r a p h i c arrangement ( f o r example, a p i c t u r e or d e s i g n ) . (b) A s c o r e o f 1 was a s s i g n e d t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k i f the c h i l d s o r t e d m a t e r i a l s a c c o r d i n g t o one a t t r i b u t e ( f o r example, i f the c h i l d c o u l d f i n d o n l y one way to group the o b j e c t s ) . (c) A s c o r e o f 2 was a s s i g n e d t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k i f the c h i l d s o r t e d the m a t e r i a l s u s i n g two a t t r i b u t e s . (d) A s c o r e o f 3 was a s s i g n e d t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k i f the c h i l d s o r t e d the m a t e r i a l s u s i n g t h r e e a t t r i b u t e s . (e) A s c o r e o f 4 was a s s i g n e d t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k i f the c h i l d s o r t e d the m a t e r i a l s a c c o r d i n g t o f o u r or more a t t r i b u t e s . Simp1e Ser i at i o n (a) A s c o r e o f 0 was a s s i g n e d t o a s e r i a t i o n t a s k i f the c h i l d formed subgroups w i t h the o b j e c t s o r used the m a t e r i a l s t o form a g r a p h i c arrangement or d e s i g n . (b) A s c o r e o f 1 was t o be a s s i g n e d t o a s e r i a t i o n t a s k 156 i f the c h i l d o r d e r e d the m a t e r i a l s by t r i a l and e r r o r . (c) A s c o r e o f 2 was a s s i g n e d t o a s e r i a t i o n t a s k i f the c h i l d o r d e r e d the m a t e r i a l c o r r e c t l y . C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Number (a) A s c o r e o f 0 was a s s i g n e d t o a c o n s e r v a t i o n o f number t a s k i f the c h i l d d i d not r e a l i z e t h a t the two rows c o n t a i n the same number o f o b j e c t s i n s p i t e o f the d i s p l a c e m e n t o f o b j e c t s . (b) A s c o r e o f 0 was a s s i g n e d t o a c o n s e r v a t i o n o f number t a s k i f the c h i l d r e a l i z e d the two rows o f o b j e c t s were the same, but c o u l d not g i v e a reason f o r h i s answer. (c) A s c o r e o f 1 was a s s i g n e d t o a c o n s e r v a t i o n o f number t a s k i f the c h i l d knew t h e r e were the same number o f o b j e c t s i n b o t h rows i n s p i t e o f the d i s p l a c e m e n t o f o b j e c t s i n one row. Furthermore he c o u l d e x p l a i n why the two rows s t i l l had the same number o f o b j e c t . C l a s s I n c l u s i o n (a) A s c o r e o f 0 was a s s i g n e d t o a c l a s s i n c l u s i o n t a s k i f one or more re s p o n s e s were i n c o r r e c t on a c l a s s i n c l u s i o n t a s k . (b) A s c o r e o f 1 was a s s i g n e d t o a c l a s s i n c l u s i o n t a s k o n l y i f a l l the c h i l d ' s r e s p o n s e s were c o r r e c t on a c l a s s i n c l u s i o n t a s k . 

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