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Sentence combining versus grammar study : two approaches to the study of sentence structure Lee, Jean Celeste 1977

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SENTENCE COMBINING VERSUS GRAMMAR STUDY: TWO  APPROACHES  TO THE STUDY OF SENTENCE STRUCTURE  by J E A N CELESTE L E E  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in The D e p a r t m e n t o f E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n  FACULTY OF EDUCATION  We a c c e p t t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming  to t h e r e q u i r e d  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA October (c)  1977  J e a n C e l e s t e L e e , 1977  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s for  thesis i n partial  fulfillment  of the requirements  an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  agree study.  t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e I f u r t h e r agree  I t i s understood  i n p a r t or i n whole, or the copying of t h i s  g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  the Department o f  ry^/yt  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V6T Date  1W5  that thesis for  permission.  J E A N CELESTE L E E  In  this  may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my  Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  financial  f o r r e f e r e n c e and  that permission f o r extensive copying of  t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes  publication,  I  i i  ABSTRACT  T h i s s t u d y , prompted No. 1 5 , S e n t e n c e C o m b i n i n g :  b y F r a n k O ' H a r e ' s NCTE R e s e a r c h R e p o r t  Improving Student W r i t i n g Without  Formal  Grammar I n s t r u c t i o n , was d e s i g n e d t o c o m p a r e t h e e f f e c t s o f two approaches  toward t h e improvement o f s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y i n t h e f r e e  w r i t i n g o f grade t e n s t u d e n t s over a nine-month  period.  The  experi-  m e n t a l g r o u p s t u d i e d c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t r a d i t i o n a l grammar, a n d after  t h e n e c e s s a r y g r a m m a t i c a l t e r m i n o l o g y was m a s t e r e d , i t was u s e d  t o d i s c u s s t h e v a r i o u s ways o f m a n i p u l a t i n g s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e t o c r e a t e more p l e a s i n g o v e r a l l p a t t e r n s and t h e r e b y enhance  style.  I n t h e second approach, the c o n t r o l group, w i t h o u t f o r m a l  instruc-  t i o n i n grammar, p r a c t i s e d a wide v a r i e t y o f s y n t a c t i c  sentence-combining problems structures.  encompassing  B o t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and  the c o n t r o l groups a l s o engaged i n an i n t e n s i v e f r e e  writing  program. Specifically, questions.  One, w o u l d  t h i s r e s e a r c h s o u g h t t h e a n s w e r t o two the experimental-grammar  growth i n s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y i n t h e i r group, and two, w o u l d  free writing  than the c o n t r o l  t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group w r i t e c o m p o s i t i o n s  t h a t would be judged s u p e r i o r i n o v e r a l l q u a l i t y control  g r o u p show more  to those o f the  group? The s a m p l e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f  grade t e n students a t t e n d i n g a l a r g e urban secondary  fifty-six school.  iii  A l l of the t h i r t y g i r l s and twenty-six boys were from a similar upper middle class socioeconomic background and were almost a l l of average or better a b i l i t y .  The experimental class, with twenty-  seven students, met i n small group classes once a week for f o r t y minutes, as did the twenty-nine control group students.  Both groups  followed an i d e n t i c a l curriculum i n their regular middle group English classes, which met three times a week.  Experimental and con-  t r o l groups did the same number of writing assignments not only i n regular classes, but i n small group, where, i n addition to their work i n syntactic structuring, they wrote:  (1) three pre- and three  post-test compositions on topics devised i n p a r a l l e l forms, with one i n each mode given i n early October, and the counterpart of each i n early June; (2) a pre- and post-treatment writing of a passage on aluminum containing many short sentences which they were asked to write i n a better way;  and (3) approximately twenty-five free  writing assignments over a period of seven months. In the four pieces of writing done i n class at pre- and post-test times, the f i r s t ten T-Units i n each, f o r t y T-Units for each test time, were analyzed according to two factors of syntactic maturity, T-Unit length and clause length.  As a r e s u l t of the  analyses of the data, i t was concluded that the control group wrote compositions which were s y n t a c t i c a l l y more mature than the compositions written by the experimental group.  The control group  iv  wrote s i g n i f i c a n t l y longer clauses, than d i d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group.  and as a r e s u l t , l o n g e r  When c o m p a r e d t o t h e r a t e o f  normal growth e s t a b l i s h e d by Hunt, t h e c o n t r o l students evidence  T-Units  showed  i n t h e i r f r e e w r i t i n g and i n t h e aluminum passage,  of a  l e v e l o f s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y , on both i n d i c e s , e q u a l t o o r above that of superior  adults.  When n i n e e x p e r i e n c e d E n g l i s h the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f twenty-seven compositions  t e a c h e r s were asked  t o judge  p a i r s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l  t h a t h a d b e e n m a t c h e d f o r s e x , I.Q. a n d a b i l i t y i n  E n g l i s h , a s w e l l a s mode o f d i s c o u r s e ,  there appeared  t o b e no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l group. the d i f f e r e n t i a l  I t was c o n c l u d e d ,  gains i n syntactic maturity of the control  were n o t a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n t h e markers' based e q u a l l y  therefore,  upon f i v e c r i t e r i a  s t r u c t u r e , v o c a b u l a r y and s t y l e .  of ideas,  group  judgments, which  organization,  that  were  sentence  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter  Page  INTRODUCTION  1  Survey o f Developments  I n Grammar  T r a d i t i o n a l Grammar  4  S t r u c t u r a l - D e s c r i p t i v e Grammar  5  Transformational-Generative  8  Grammar  Tagmemic a n d S t r a t i f i c a t i o n a l  1.  3  Grammars . . . .  BACKGROUND RESEARCH  10  14  E a r l y Grammar R e s e a r c h  14  L a t e r S t u d i e s i n Grammar  17  R e c e n t New Z e a l a n d S t u d y Language Development Hunt's  Study  Studies  24 . . . .  29  (1965)  30  O'Donnell's Studies  33  Hunt's  34  Study  (1970)  Sentence-Combining Mellon* s Study  Studies .  35 35  O'Hare's S t u d y  36  Other Studies  41  Combs' S t u d y  43  C r i t i c i s m o f Sentence-Combining by M o f f e t t , C h r i s t e n s e n , and Marzano  46  Moffett's  46  vi  Chapter  Page  Christensen's  47  Marzano's  48  Summary 2.  50  DESIGNS AND PROCEDURES  54  Overview  54  Hypotheses  55  Design o f the Study  56  Subjects  57  Variables  57  Independent  57  Dependent  58  Concommitant  58  Extraneous  58  R a t i o n a l e o f t h e P r e s e n t Study  58  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study  60  Design o f the Study  60  Homogeneity o f t h e S u b j e c t P o p u l a t i o n  61  Financial Restraints  61  Procedures Selection of the Experimental Subjects Control  Group T r e a t m e n t  Lesson 1  62 . . . .  62 64 66  vii  Chapter  Page  L e s s o n s 4 , 5 , 6 , 8 , 9 , 1 1 , 1 2 , a n d 13  66  L e s s o n s 15 a n d 16  68  L e s s o n s 18 a n d 19  68  Lesson  68  21  L e s s o n 22 . . . W r i t i n g Workshops  69 70  C o u r s e F o l l o w e d b y E x p e r i m e n t a l Grammar Classes  72  T r e a t m e n t f o r t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Group  73  Summary o f Grammar C u r r i c u l u m  75  Regular Curriculum Literature  .  79 80  Language  80  Composition  81  Text-Books.  82  Measurement  84  Ability  84  Syntactic Maturity:Sample Size  84  Rules f o r A n a l y s i s  86  Choice o f Indices  88  Writing Quality  90  Other Studies  90  Present Study  95  viii  Chapter  3.  Page  RESULTS AND A N A L Y S I S . . .  99  Assessment o f S y n t a c t i c M a t u r i t y  4.  99  Assessment o f W r i t i n g Q u a l i t y  103  Summary  106  CONCLUSIONS AND I M P L I C A T I O N S  108  Conclusions  109  Discussion of Conclusions  110  Syntactic Maturity  110  Quality of Writing  113  Implications  119  B e n e f i t s o f Sentence Combining  121  B e n e f i t s o f Grammar S t u d y  123  Suggestions f o r Further Research  .  124  BIBLIOGRAPHY  129  A P P E N D I X A - A N A L Y S I S OF COVARIANCE FOR T-UNIT LENGTH SCORES OF 26 EXPERIMENTAL AND 25 CONTROL SUBJECTS FREE WRITING PASSAGES  138  A P P E N D I X B - A N A L Y S I S OF COVARIANCE FOR CLAUSE LENGTH SCORES OF 26 EXPERIMENTAL AND 25 CONTROL SUBJECTS' FREE WRITING PASSAGES  139  A P P E N D I X C - A N A L Y S I S OF COVARIANCE FOR T-UNIT LENGTH SCORES OF 26 EXPERIMENTAL AND 25 CONTROL SUBJECTS' ALUMINUM PASSAGE  140  A P P E N D I X D - A N A L Y S I S OF COVARIANCE FOR CLAUSE LENGTH SCORES OF 26 EXPERIMENTAL AND 25 CONTROL SUBJECTS' ALUMINUM PASSAGE  141  ix  Page  Chapter  A P P E N D I X E - GRAMMAR - EXPERIMENTAL GROUP S MARKS AND GRAMMAR EXAMINATION, JUNE 1977 1  A P P E N D I X F - 1. COMPOSITIONS TOPICS - I N P A R A L L E L FORMS - D E S C R I P T I V E , NARRATIVE, EXPOSITORY 2. ALUMINUM PASSAGE APPENDIX G  TEACHER EVALUATOR'S Q U A L I F I C A T I O N S . . .  APPENDIX H  RAW  APPENDIX I  POTTER'S DATA  APPENDIX J  C R I T I C A L VALUES OF T FOR THE S I G N TEST .  APPENDIX K  WRITING WORKSHOP SAMPLE  SCORES  142  149 158 159 160 164 165 166  X  L I S T OF TABLES  Table  I.  Page  Mean T - U n i t a n d C l a u s e L e n g t h S c o r e s o f P r e and P o s t - t e s t s o n F r e e W r i t i n g a n d Aluminum Passages  f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l  a n d T h e i r Mean I.Q. a n d E n g l i s h  Groups  Achievement  Scores  II.  100  E x p e r i m e n t a l o r C o n t r o l C o m p o s i t i o n s Chosen by Nine Experienced E n g l i s h Teachers S e c t i o n A - l - From F o u r t e e n M a t c h e d P a i r s of Expository Compositions S e c t i o n A-2 - F r o m T h i r t e e n M a t c h e d P a i r s of D e s c r i p t i v e Compositions S e c t i o n B - l - Summary o f M a r k e r s ' C h o i c e s i n t h e E x p o s i t o r y Mode S e c t i o n B-2 - Summary o f M a r k e r s ' C h o i c e s i n t h e D e s c r i p t i v e Mode  III.  Comparative  Data from Other Studies  S e c t i o n A - Comparison o f P r e - and P o s t T r e a t m e n t Change S c o r e s o f t h e S e n t e n c e Combining and.Non-Sentence-Combining Groups o f M e l l o n , O ' H a r e , Combs a n d t h e P r e s e n t S t u d y o n One I n d i c e o f S y n t a c t i c M a t u r i t y : Words/T-Unit S e c t i o n B - Hunt's Data on Normal Growth i n F r e e W r i t i n g and i n t h e R e w r i t i n g o f t h e A l u m i n u m P a s s a g e f o r Two I n d i c e s o f S y n t a c t i c M a t u r i t y : Words/T-Unit and Words/Clause  104  xi  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I would l i k e  t o t h a n k t h e members o f my a d v i s o r y  Professor Frank Bertram, and on  Chairman, and P r o f e s s o r s Ruth  P h i l i p Penner, f o r t h e i r t h i s study.  In addition,  the  Centre,  McConnell  t h o u g h t f u l a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g my w o r k I wish  t h e h e l p o f D r . Seong-Soo L e e , Research  committee,  t o acknowledge w i t h g r a t i t u d e  Coordinator o f the Education  for h i s help with the s t a t i s t i c a l  analysis of  data. I would a l s o l i k e  very  fine  t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o t h e men w h o s e  studies provided  t h e guidance  for thepresent  research:  Dr. K e l l o g g Hunt, D r . J o h n M e l l o n , D r . F r a n k O'Hare, D r . W a r r e n Combs, a n d D r . R o b e r t  Potter.  I am g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d  to their  v e r y comprehensive work. My c o l l e a g u e s a t H a n d s w o r t h S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l w e r e a l s o o f great help  t o me: S u e D u x , M a r g a r e t R i c h , a n d t h e s t a f f o f t h e  E n g l i s h D e p a r t m e n t who v o l u n t a r i l y  marked s t u d e n t  compositions;  t h e s t a f f o f t h e Commerce D e p a r t m e n t , who a s s i s t e d w i t h t h e p u b l i s h i n g o f s t u d e n t w r i t i n g , a n d t h e s c h o o l s e c r e t a r y , who typed ful  the student  I am a l s o g r a t e f u l  t o t h e wonder-  s t u d e n t s who t o o k p a r t i n t h e r e s e a r c h . Lastly,  and  compositions.  I would l i k e  understanding,  completed.  t o t h a n k my f a m i l y f o r t h e i r  patience  w i t h o u t w h i c h t h i s work would never have been  1  INTRODUCTION  In  the p a s t two decades,  e d u c a t i o n has  f e l t the impact  an e x p l o s i o n i n the growth o f knowledge i n a l l d i s c i p l i n e s , particularly  i n the f i e l d of language.  m u l t i t u d e o f r e c e n t developments, and  of  but  Teachers a r e f a c e d w i t h a they must come to g r i p s not  o n l y w i t h the i n c r e a s e i n the t o t a l body of knowledge, but a l s o w i t h new  concepts and approaches.  of language  Teachers' concerns over the problems  i n s t r u c t i o n are augmented by the c u r r e n t c o n t r o v e r s y  over s t u d e n t l i t e r a c y .  The demand f o r a "Return  l e d to a r e e x a m i n a t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n o f how taught.  Should  grammar?  to the B a s i c s " has  w r i t i n g s h o u l d be  the w r i t i n g be c l o s e l y l i n k e d to the study o f  What k i n d o f knowledge s h o u l d the s t u d e n t have about  s t r u c t u r e o f the E n g l i s h language improve h i s a b i l i t y manipulate  and can such knowledge be used  to w r i t e w e l l ?  the to  Can s t u d e n t s be taught to  language more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h o u t any  f o r m a l study o f  grammar? The purpose of two  approaches  student w r i t i n g . grammatical  o f the p r e s e n t study i s to compare the e f f e c t s  to the improvement of sentence s t r u c t u r e i n One  approach w i l l  i n v o l v e the l e a r n i n g o f  t e r m i n o l o g y , w h i l e the o t h e r w i l l employ  t e c h n i q u e s which do not i n v o l v e any  sentence-combining  f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n grammar.  Most o f the r e s e a r c h concerned w i t h the development and measurement  2  of s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y have been done i n the p a s t twelve y e a r s , b u t p r i o r to t h i s , many i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f the m e r i t s o f grammar as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l a i d i n the t e a c h i n g o f w r i t i n g have been made.  These  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have f o l l o w e d i n the wake o f s u c c e s s i v e " r e v o l u t i o n s " in linguistic  theory, as r e s e a r c h e r s have sought to d i s c o v e r whether  a newer s c i e n t i f i c system was more r e l e v a n t to student r h e t o r i c was i t s p r e d e c e s s o r .  than  B e f o r e s u r v e y i n g some o f t h i s r e s e a r c h a s s o c -  i a t e d w i t h the changing  systems o f grammar, perhaps i t would be w e l l  to summarize j u s t what has been happening i n the f i e l d o f grammar s i n c e the n i n e t e e n t h  century.  In the December 1974 i s s u e o f E n g l i s h J o u r n a l , Owen Thomas p o i n t s out how the meaning o f "grammar" has undergone s e v e r a l metamorphoses i n t h i s c e n t u r y , as i t r e f l e c t s the c u r r e n t changes i n the study o f grammar.  The OED (1933) d e f i n e s grammar a s :  That department o f the study o f language which d e a l s w i t h i t s i n f l e c t i o n a l forms o r o t h e r means o f i n d i c a t i n g the r e l a t i o n o f words i n the sentence, and w i t h the r u l e s f o r employing these i n accordance w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d usage; u s u a l l y i n c l u d i n g a l s o the department which d e a l s w i t h the p h o n e t i c system o f t h e language and the p r i n c i p l e s o f i t s representation i n writing.  T h i s d e f i n i t i o n n o t o n l y antedates f i v e y e a r s ; i t a l s o antedates grammar.  g e n e r a t i v e grammar by almost  twenty-  the major p u b l i c a t i o n s i n s t r u c t u r a l  Webster's T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y (1961) comes  c l o s e r to the c u r r e n t view:  3  (a) a b r a n c h o f l i n g u i s t i c study t h a t d e a l s w i t h the c l a s s e s o f words, t h e i r i n f l e c t i o n s or o t h e r means o f i n d i c a t i n g r e l a t i o n to each o t h e r , and t h e i r f u n c t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s i n the sentence as employed a c c o r d i n g to e s t a b l i s h e d usage and t h a t i s sometimes extended to i n c l u d e r e l a t e d m a t t e r such as phonology, prosody, language h i s t o r y , orthography, orthoepy, etymology, o r semantics. (b) l i n g u i s t i c s . (c) a. study o f what i s to be p r e f e r r e d and what a v o i d e d i n the i n f l e c t i o n s and syntax o f a language.  In 1966  the Random House D i c t i o n a r y o f the E n g l i s h Language s t a t e s  t h a t grammar r e f e r s t o :  The study o f the system u n d e r l y i n g the esp. f o r m a l f e a t u r e s of a language, as the sounds, morphemes, words, o r s e n t e n c e s ; a t h e o r y s p e c i f y i n g the manner i n which a l l sentences o f a language are c o n s t r u c t e d .  As Thomas remarks,  the changing d e f i n i t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t the n o t i o n s  of what grammar r e a l l y i s have changed  c o n s i d e r a b l y o v e r the y e a r s .  Survey o f Developments i n Grammar  D u r i n g the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r e had been change i n t r a d i t i o n a l grammar, as i t was  found to be an  adequate  framework f o r the " r e c o n s t r u c t i o n " o f Proto-Indo-European,  which  p r o v i d e d the f o c u s f o r most o f the h i s t o r i c a l and comparative of the e r a .  little  studies  However, i n the l a s t decade o f the c e n t u r y , F e r d i n a n d  de Saussure's i d e a s about e s t a b l i s h i n g the study of l i v i n g on a s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s , i n t r o d u c e d i n h i s l e c t u r e s and  language  published  4  posthumously  (1916), proved  t o be o f f u n d a m e n t a l  importance  c u r r e n t European t h e o r i e s of d e s c r i p t i v e l i n g u i s t i c s . also proved  to the  His theories  t o be t h e f o r e r u n n e r o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y  "revolution"  i n grammar s t u d y .  Traditional  Grammar  A t a b o u t t h e same t i m e a s S a u s s u r e was  lecturing,  began i n N o r t h e r n Europe a s c h o l a r l y development o f grammar.  traditional  M o s t o f t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e g r e a t r e f e r e n c e grammars  historically-oriented  linguists  ( 1 9 2 8 ) , and K r u i s i n g a  ( 1 9 2 5 ) , whose w o r k c o n t i n u e d i n t o  and  there  later.  such as Jesperson (1909-49),  T h e s e men w e r e n o t w r i t i n g  Poutsma  t h e 1930's  textbooks, but very  a c c o u n t s o f E n g l i s h on a t r a d i t i o n a l b a s i s .  were  Jesperson's  careful  comprehen-  s i v e a c c o u n t , w r i t t e n i n s e v e n v o l u m e s , i n t r o d u c e d many i n n o v a t i o n s which  i n c l u d e d h i s t r e a t m e n t o f s y n t a x and h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f  words i n sentences. I t was  to the work o f these s c h o l a r l y  some o f t h e l a t e r  linguistic  grammarians  t h e o r i e s were i n d e b t e d .  that  However,  these  a d v a n c e s i n t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o l a r l y grammar w e r e n o t r e f l e c t e d  i n the  s c h o o l grammars  began  w h i c h were f a r b e h i n d .  w i t h a study of p a r t s o f speech  These t e x t s u s u a l l y  (which were d e f i n e d p a r t l y  accord-  i n g t o meaning and p a r t l y a c c o r d i n g t o f u n c t i o n ) , and t h e n c o n t i n u e d with the p r a c t i c e of parsing. grammatical  rules:  Basically,  t h e r e w e r e two k i n d s o f  those by w h i c h words were a r r a n g e d  i n order,  5  and  those by which a l t e r a t i o n s ,  s u c h a s i n f l e c t i o n s , w e r e made t o t h e  f o r m o f w o r d s t o show s u c h t h i n g s a s c a s e , number o r t e n s e . first  o f t h e s e r u l e s was c a l l e d  Syntactically,  " s y n t a x , " and t h e second,  t h e most i m p o r t a n t u n i t i n t r a d i t i o n a l  e x c l a m a t o r y , and i m p e r a t i v e sentences.  "accidence."  grammar was  the simple a s s e r t i v e sentence, w i t h i t s v a r i a n t forms, ative,  The  the interrog-  E a c h s e n t e n c e was made  up o f a s u b j e c t a n d a p r e d i c a t e ( c o n s i s t i n g o f a v e r b a n d i t s o b j e c t s or complements, i f a n y ) , and t h e m o d i f i e r s . v e r b , and complements were i d e n t i f i e d noun p h r a s e s o r v e r b p h r a s e s .  In analysis,  as s i n g l e words r a t h e r  than as  Sentences were a l s o d e f i n e d as s i m p l e ,  compound, c o m p l e x , o r c o m p o u n d - c o m p l e x , d e p e n d i n g number o f c l a u s e s .  the subject,  upon t h e t y p e and  The l a t t e r w e r e l a b e l l e d a s c o o r d i n a t e o r s u b -  o r d i n a t e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r r o l e i n t h e s e n t e n c e , and as a d v e r b i a l , adjectival,  o r noun, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r  Structural-Descriptive  function.  Grammar  B e f o r e t h e s c h o o l grammars c o u l d b e g i n t o c a t c h up w i t h scholarly and  grammar, r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e g r e a t a c h i e v e m e n t  of Jesperson  t h e o t h e r s c h o l a r l y g r a m m a r i a n s was o v e r s h a d o w e d b y t h e g r o w t h  o f s t r u c t u r a l - d e s c r i p t i v e grammar, w h i c h b e g a n i n t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s a n d owed its  inspiration  t o t h e work o f S a u s s u r e , whose i n s i g h t s were  u l a r l y v a l u a b l e to l i n g u i s t s working w i t h American  partic-  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , who h a d b e e n  I n d i a n language.  Here t h e p i o n e e r s were  6  F r a n z Boas ( 1 9 1 1 ) , Edward S a p i r  ( 1 9 2 1 ) , and L e o n a r d  Bloomfield,  w h o s e b o o k L a n g u a g e ( 1 9 3 3 ) became t h e s t a n d a r d h a n d b o o k o f A m e r i c a n s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c s , which reigned  supreme u n t i l  the l a t e  fifties.  F o r B l o o m f i e l d l a n g u a g e was a s e t o f c o n d i t i o n e d r e s p o n s e s t o i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i ,  a n d , a s s u c h , i t was a f o r m o f human b e h a v i o u r ,  b u t i n s p i t e o f t h i s b e h a v i o u r i s t i c approach he b e l i e v e d l i n g u i s t s should r e s t r i c t he  their attention  that  to language forms.  As  said:  L a r g e g r o u p s o f p e o p l e make up a l l t h e i r u t t e r a n c e s o u t o f t h e same s t o c k o f l e x i c a l f o r m s a n d g r a m m a t i c a l c o n structions. A l i n g u i s t i c observer t h e r e f o r e can d e s c r i b e the speech h a b i t s o f a community w i t h o u t r e s o r t i n g t o s t a t i s t i c s . . . he must r e c o r d e v e r y form he c a n f i n d and n o t t r y t o e x c u s e h i m s e l f f r o m t h e t a s k by a p p e a l i n g t o t h e r e a d e r ' s common s e n s e o r t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f some o t h e r l a n g u a g e o r t o some p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y , a n d a b o v e a l l , he must n o t s e l e c t o r d i s t o r t t h e f a c t s a c c o r d i n g to h i s v i e w s o f what t h e s p e a k e r ought t o be s a y i n g . . . . The d a n g e r h e r e l i e s i n m e n t a l i s t i c v i e w s o f p s y c h o l o g y , w h i c h may t e m p t t h e o b s e r v e r t o a p p e a l t o p u r e l y s p i r i t u a l s t a n d a r d s i n s t e a d o f r e p o r t i n g t h e f a c t s , (pp. 37-38)  I n t h i s p a s s a g e B l o o m f i e l d ' s c o n c e r n t o make t h e s t u d y o f l a n g u a g e m o r e s c i e n t i f i c was a p p a r e n t , a s w e r e a number basic  of h i s other  assumptions:  1.  A l i n g u i s t must r e l y upon e m p i r i c a l d a t a r a t h e r upon  than  rules.  2.  He m u s t r e c o g n i z e t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f e v e r y  3.  He m u s t r e a l i z e psychological  language.  the uselessness o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l  theories, f o r "the only useful  a t i o n s about language a r e i n d u c t i v e  and  generaliz-  generalizations."  7  4.  He m u s t r e c o g n i z e  the primacy o f speech.  Thus t h e s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t , corpus,  gathered h i s  o r c o l l e c t i o n o f u t t e r a n c e s , and r e l i e d , n o t upon s e m a n t i c  criteria and  i n "reporting the facts"  to describe  it,  b u t upon t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l ,  s y n t a c t i c forms present  i n the speech  signal.  Much o f t h e w o r k i n s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c s was i n i t i a t e d  b y C.C. F r i e s , who h a d f o r many y e a r s  grammar c o u r s e s  morphological,  i n the f i f t i e s urged  i n t h e s c h o o l s b e made m o r e e f f e c t i v e .  that  His investi-  gations had e s t a b l i s h e d that the s e m i - l i t e r a t e w r i t t e n E n g l i s h o f Americans d i f f e r e d  from standard  E n g l i s h more i n t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f  t h e l a n g u a g e t h a n i n t h e number o f e r r o r s made, a n d h e t h a t grammar t e a c h i n g s h o u l d  concluded  b e more c o n s t r u c t i v e t h a n c o r r e c t i v e .  Commissioned by t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Teachers o f E n g l i s h t o investigate  t h e r o l e o f grammar i n t h e s c h o o l s , h e p u b l i s h e d h i s  r e p o r t i n 1940.  This report contained  a partial  s t a t e m e n t o f a new  s y s t e m , w h i c h h e c o m p l e t e d i n h i s b o o k , The S t r u c t u r e o f E n g l i s h (1952).  He t o t a l l y r e j e c t e d t r a d i t i o n a l  grammar, s e e k i n g  instead  to b u i l d  grammar o n f a c t s w h i c h c o u l d b e o b s e r v e d a n d v e r i f i e d .  B e c a u s e h i s grammar i n v o l v e d a d e s c r i p t i o n o f s p e e c h s o u n d s , a o f p h o n e m i c s a n d m o r p h e m i c s was n e c e s s a r y . turned  After this,  study  t h e grammar  t o a d e f i n i t i o n o f p a r t s o f speech o r "form c l a s s e s " which  were d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t h e s e n t e n c e "The  to t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the sentence. fell  Thus i n  a s l e e p , " o n l y a noun c o u l d f i t  8  i n t o the t e s t frame.  C l a s s e s c o u l d a l s o be d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g  form ( i n f l e c t i o n s or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u f f i x e s ) .  Fries replaced  t r a d i t i o n a l p a r t s o f speech w i t h f o u r major form c l a s s e s and groups o f f u n c t i o n words, but other s t r u c t u r a l i s t s . classes, l i t t l e was  i n syntax, which was  tures.  i n v e s t i g a t e d by  o f the "lower" s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s , the e s t a b l i s h e d e i g h t to ten " b a s i c i n formulaic  Text Books based on s t r u c t u r a l grammar v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y , these sentence p a t t e r n s , as w e l l as form c l a s s e s  terms. but and  i n t e g r a l to a l l .  Transformational-Generative  In the m i d - f i f t i e s ,  the  Grammar  transformational-generative  d o c t r i n e s of Noam Chomsky (1957) and  o t h e r s began to q u e s t i o n  t h e o r i e s of F r i e s and h i s f o l l o w e r s , and o f t h e o r e t i c a l power.  interest  to examine c o n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h i n s t r u c -  to the sentence, and  s t r u c t u r e groups, was  by  immediate-constituent  sentence p a t t e r n s " which c o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d  work w i t h  fifteen  modified  spent on p a r s i n g , as the p r i n c i p a l  designed  Having d i s p o s e d  grammar turned  t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was  the  In s p i t e o f t h i s p r e c i s i o n i n d e f i n i n g form  time was  a n a l y s i s , a process  to  T h i s new  to c r i t i c i z e  the  their lack  grammar i n c o r p o r a t e d many o f  the  i d e a s of the s t r u c t u r a l i s t s , but d i f f e r e d s h a r p l y from them i n purpose, as while  the s t r u c t u r a l i s t s d e s c r i b e d completed language a c t s ,  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar attempted to account f o r the  ability  9 of  t h e human m i n d t o p r o d u c e l a n g u a g e .  Transformationalists  r e p u d i a t e d a l l t h e o r i e s o f grammar w h i c h a s s e r t e d of  human l a n g u a g e c o u l d b e d e s c r i b e d  a d e q u a t e l y by segmenting  i n t o d i s c r e t e e l e m e n t s and t h e n c l a s s i f y i n g contrast,  that the sentences  these elements.  In  t h e t h e o r y o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar c l a i m e d t h a t t h e  s t r u c t u r e o f human l a n g u a g e was c o n s i d e r a b l y more a b s t r a c t i n d i c a t e d by t h e s i m p l e s u r f a c e a n a l y s i s o f s e n t e n c e s . the  them  than  Furthermore,  t h e o r y c l a i m e d t h a t human l a n g u a g e was n o t m e r e l y a f o r m o f  learned behaviour but the product o f a highly capacity peculiar tional  t o man.  specified  innate  mental  W h i l e Chomsky p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t r a n s f o r m a -  grammar was n o t a m o d e l f o r a s p e a k e r ' s l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t y ,  he d i d h o p e t h a t t h e grammar w o u l d p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f language  t h a t would h e l p t o g i v e an i n s i g h t i n t o  u n i q u e l y human a b i l i t y t o u s e l a n g u a g e . the  need  This concern, along with  t o j u s t i f y r e l i a n c e on i n t u i t i o n  i n s t e a d o f a corpus o f  c o l l e c t e d u t t e r a n c e s l e d to the drawing o f an important between a s p e a k e r ' s "competence"  o r knowledge  "performance" o r a c t u a l use o f h i s language  The  structuralist  linguistic  from day t o day.  was a n a l y z i n g a c o r p u s , w h i c h was r e a l l y  intuition  was w i l l i n g  distinction  o f h i s language, and  his  r a t h e r than what l a ybehind i t .  He was n o t w i l l i n g  ( h i s competence),  t o u s e h i s own c o m p e t e n c e ,  this  while  to rely  a  "performance" o n h i s own  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l i s t  a n d was t r y i n g  to describe  it. In linguists  t h e e a r l y d a y s o f T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l - G e n e r a t i v e grammar,  believed  t h a t t h e r e was a c o r e o f s i m p l e " k e r n e l "  sentences  10  from which a l l o t h e r sentences c o u l d be d e r i v e d .  L a t e r these  ideas  were abandoned, as l i n g u i s t s came to b e l i e v e t h a t a l l sentences were d e r i v e d from t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s ,  and thus had an u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e .  Thus sentences had deep s t r u c t u r e s which were changed to s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e s by t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s .  The deep s t r u c t u r e c l a r i f i e d  meaning  and the s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e l e d to the sounds spoken o r words w r i t t e n . In the s i x t i e s , Chomsky's grammar was m o d i f i e d , component  and a semantic  was added to the s y n t a c t i c and the p h o n o l o g i c a l  The s y n t a c t i c component,  which generated b o t h deep and s u r f a c e  s t r u c t u r e s , c o n s i s t e d o f two p a r t s . w i t h deep s t r u c t u r e were c a l l e d  Those p a r t s t h a t had to do  the base component,  which i n c l u d e d  both phrase s t r u c t u r e r u l e s and the l e x i c o n , and the component,  components.  transformation  which mapped s t r i n g s generated by the base i n t o s u r f a c e  structures.  T h i s base was  a t the h e a r t o f the system, as i t  generated the i n f i n i t e c l a s s o f s t r u c t u r e s u n d e r l y i n g formed sentences o f a language. a semantic and p h o n e t i c  These s t r u c t u r e s were then g i v e n  " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " by the o t h e r  L e x i c a l r u l e s s p e c i f i e d how  the w e l l - -  components.  the a b s t r a c t symbols were to be r e p l a c e d  w i t h words, and p h o n o l o g i c a l r u l e s t o l d what form and sound the words would have.  Tagmemic and S t r a t i f i c a t i o n a l Grammars  Other r e c e n t developments i n grammar i n c l u d e d the work o f K.L. P i k e i n Tagmemic A n a l y s i s .  A "tagmeme" was a u n i t d e f i n e d  11  as the " c o r r e l a t i o n o f a grammatical o f m u t u a l l y s u b s t i t u t a b l e items  f u n c t i o n , o r s l o t , w i t h the c l a s s  t h a t can f i l l  the s l o t . "  Another  study  was t h a t o f S t r a t i f i c a t i o n a l Grammar, d e v i s e d by S.K. Lamb, which p l a c e d emphasis upon the f a c t t h a t language was a l a y e r e d system. S t r u c t u r a l grammar had developed  the n o t i o n o f s y n t a c t i c l e v e l s , and  tagmemic a n a l y s i s was a l s o concerned w i t h s t r u c t u r e l e v e l s , and mapped tagmemes i n t o " s t r i n g s " a t three s p e c i f i c l e v e l s : c l a u s e , and phrase.  sentence,  S t r a t i f i c a t i o n a l used s i x k i n d s o f l e v e l s ,  called  "strata." T h i s b r i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f some o f the r e c e n t developments i n language g i v e s some i n d i c a t i o n o f the problems b e s e t t i n g E n g l i s h teachers i n recent years.  Not o n l y must the t e a c h e r d e c i d e whether  the t e a c h i n g o f grammar i s warranted,  when p a s t r e s e a r c h has i n d i c a t e d  t h a t a knowledge o f grammar does n o t improve s t u d e n t w r i t i n g , b u t a l s o he must determine be  taught.  which system i s p r e f e r a b l e i f grammar i s to  Such i n q u i r i e s must i n e v i t a b l y l e a d to the r e a l i z a t i o n  t h a t no one grammar i s a c l e a r and complete answer t o the q u e s t i o n o f how the E n g l i s h language i s p u t t o g e t h e r , and how i t o p e r a t e s , nor i s i t an u n e q u i v o c a l answer to the q u e s t i o n "What s h a l l I t e a c h ? " T r a d i t i o n a l grammar has the advantage o f f a m i l i a r i t y , a t l e a s t degree,  f o r the t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t .  terminology.  to a  Both know something o f i t s  C r i t i c i s m o f t r a d i t i o n a l methods s t a t e s t h a t - i t s  s t r o n g committment to d e d u c t i o n , implemented by p a r s i n g , i s a n e g a t i v e approach which shows a s t u d e n t how to analyze r a t h e r than  12  synthesize.  T r a d i t i o n a l i s t s have a l s o been accused  of b e i n g  unrealis-  t i c i n the matter o f usage, r e f u s i n g to r e c o g n i z e t h a t many L a t i n a t e s t r i c t u r e s a r e no l o n g e r v a l i d .  Probably  the c h i e f  criticism  d i r e c t e d toward t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l grammars, however, i s t h a t they do not p r o v i d e a c c u r a t e o r complete  definitions.  S t r u c t u r a l i s t s , on the o t h e r hand, a r e s a i d to be more concerned w i t h the e x a c t d e s c r i p t i o n o f the language than w i t h o p e r a t i o n o f the language. t y p i c a l sentence  For the c l a s s r o o m  patterns i s l i k e l y  s t r u c t u r a l grammar.  to be  t e a c h e r , the study  By p o i n t i n g out changes i n word o r d e r ,  of i n t e r e s t  inflection,  distinctive  s t r u c t u r a l features i n sets of c o n t r a s t i n g patterns. to e x p l a i n how  of  the most u s e f u l p a r t o t  and use of f u n c t i o n words, t e a c h e r s can i d e n t i f y the  theory's e f f o r t s  the  Transformational  c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e language s h o u l d  be  to a l l t e a c h e r s , but some have d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a s t r a i g h t  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar r e q u i r e s complete and  systematic  derivation  of hundreds o f s t r u c t u r e s t h a t a r e simply a c c e p t e d as g i v e n i n o t h e r systems. Perhaps the b e s t s o l u t i o n f o r the teacher l o o k i n g f o r a p p l i c a t i o n s o f l i n g u i s t i c knowledge to c l a s s r o o m work i s to l e a r n enough about the three major approaches g i v e n c u r r e n c y ( t r a d i t i o n a l , s t r u c t u r a l , and  today  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l ) to enable him  e v a l u a t e the t e x t books o f f e r e d , and  to  to use independent judgment to  b r i n g t o g e t h e r what seems p l a u s i b l e and workable from v a r i o u s sources.  The  common denominator o f such e c l e c t i c grammars w i l l  be  13  an account o f the i n f l e c t i o n s and p o s i t i o n s o f the f o u r major word c l a s s e s and v a r i o u s minor c a t e g o r i e s , an account o f b a s i c  sentence  p a t t e r n s , and an account o f the way i n which these b a s i c sentences  may  be m o d i f i e d , expanded, and transformed. In d e v i s i n g a grammar course f o r the p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s , the r e s e a r c h e r termed the grammar " t r a d i t i o n a l , " b u t i n f a c t it  embodied a l i t t l e o f each o f the p r o c e s s e s d e s c r i b e d above.  However, the t e r m i n o l o g y was l a r g e l y  traditional.  The purpose o f  the r e s e a r c h was to determine whether the q u a l i t y o f w r i t i n g , as w e l l as the m a t u r i t y o f sentence s t r u c t u r e , o f grade  ten students could  be f u r t h e r enhanced by a study o f c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f grammar than by the p r a c t i c e o f sentence  combining.  Chapter 1 c o n t a i n s a s u r v e y o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o the p r e s e n t study, and i n c l u d e s e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the study o f grammar and the w r i t i n g p r o c e s s . t r a c e s the development i n language means f o r measuring a b l e terms,  I t also  s t u d i e s which have p r o v i d e d the  normal growth i n s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y i n q u a n t i f i -  and e a r l i e r sentence-combining  studies.  Chapter 2  d i s c u s s e s the d e s i g n and procedures o f the two groups;  the group  s t u d y i n g grammar was termed e x p e r i m e n t a l , and the group p r a c t i c i n g sentence-combining  was c a l l e d  In Chapter  the c o n t r o l  group.  3 the r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a a r e  p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d , and Chapter 4 c o n t a i n s the c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s study, the i m p l i c a t i o n s drawn from these, and some s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r study.  14  CHAPTER 1  BACKGROUND RESEARCH  As the p r e s e n t study w i l l compare a grammar-oriented  approach  to the improvement o f sentence s t r u c t u r e w i t h a sentence-combining approach, t h a t has no f o r m a l grammar i n s t r u c t i o n ,  i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y  to examine the r e s e a r c h which has been done i n b o t h a r e a s , as w e l l as r e s e a r c h done i n the f i e l d o f measuring s y n t a c t i c growth. made i n the t h i r t i e s  to determine whether  the study o f  Efforts  traditional  grammar l e d to any improvement i n s t u d e n t w r i t i n g were f o l l o w e d i n the l a t e f o r t i e s and the f i f t i e s by attempts to e v a l u a t e the r o l e o f s t r u c t u r a l - d e s c r i p t i v e grammar i n r e l a t i o n to w r i t i n g .  These i n  t u r n were succeeded by o t h e r experiments to a s s e s s the worth f o r m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e grammar as an a i d to l i t e r a c y .  of trans-  In these  l a s t s t u d i e s , grammar and sentence combining were a t f i r s t  combined,  but were l a t e r s e p a r a t e d , i n o r d e r to f i n d the e f f e c t o f each on sentence s t r u c t u r e .  E a r l y Grammar Research  In examining the r e s e a r c h o f the t h i r t i e s one f i n d s v i r t u a l l y no e v i d e n c e was  that  uncovered to s u p p o r t the theory t h a t  s t u d y i n g grammar improved w r i t i n g .  However, as John M e l l o n (1965)  15  i n h i s comprehensive review o f t h i s e a r l y r e s e a r c h  pointed  most o f the s t u d i e s were d i r e c t e d toward the q u e s t i o n grammar had  o f whether  been u s e f u l i n promoting c o r r e c t usage r a t h e r  whether grammar had  been of v a l u e  (1934), and  usage was  more e f f e c t i v e l y  (1939), Frogner  taught w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e  to the  gramma-  t h a t l a t e r s t u d i e s by Evans  (1939),  (1939), and  i t was  better  rather  than by p r e s c r i p t i v e d r i l l i n g .  B u t t e r f i e l d (1945) suggested  a c o r r e c t i v e one,  and  t h a t i t s study should  be l i m i t e d  Sherwin (1969), i n an  exhaustive  examination not o n l y of s t a t i s t i c a l and u s i n g c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s , but out  the r e s e a r c h  Thus the " f u n c t i o n a l  t h i r t i e s argued t h a t the s o l e f u n c t i o n o f  to l e a r n i n g the r u l e s o f usage.  pointed  non-experimental  also of experimental  that "After a t a l l y of procedural still  and  to h e l p  other l i m i t a t i o n s ,  overwhelmingly s u p p o r t s the c o n t e n t i o n  that inefficient  students achieve p r o f i c i e n c y i n w r i t i n g . "  T h i s type o f e r r o r - o r i e n t e d r e s e a r c h , t e s t i n g , continued was  studies  research,  i n s t r u c t i o n i n t r a d i t i o n a l grammar i s an i n e f f e c t i v e and way  that  to d i s c u s s e r r o r s i n a " d i r e c t or i n c i d e n t a l " way,  grammarians" o f the grammar was  (1932),  Craxjford-Royer (1935) concluded t h a t c o r r e c t  t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d , and Milligan  than  i n improving sentence s t r u c t u r e .  M e l l o n noted t h a t the work o f Symonds (1931), Catherwood Cutwright  out,  through the f i f t i e s  concerned to see whether the  improved s t u d e n t w r i t i n g .  and  teaching  However, o n l y  based upon o b j e c t i v e  sixties,  though now  it  o f s t r u c t u r a l grammar those a s p e c t s o f  a b i l i t y which were measurable on o b j e c t i v e t e s t s were  verbal  considered.  16  In a f a c t o r a n a l y t i c study which d e f i n e d c o m p o s i t i o n terms o f s c o r e s on twenty-three a s i n g l e composition,  Weinfeld  ences between students who those who  had  had  ability in  such t e s t s , p l u s q u a l i t y r a t i n g (1957) found no s i g n i f i c a n t  Schuster  Schuster  the two methods; Suggs noted g a i n s , but she the treatment.  felt  found  no  and  (1961) and  (1961) each compared the above approaches, a l s o u s i n g objective tests.  differ-  studied s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c s  taken c o n v e n t i o n a l grammar.  Suggs  pre-post  a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between  t h a t her s t r u c t u r a l group had  t h i s might be due,  greater  i n p a r t , to the n o v e l t y o f  As M e l l o n commented, i t seemed s t r a n g e  that  these  s t u d i e s d i d not c o n s i d e r u s i n g the " d i r e c t method" approach i n of t h e i r groups, i n view o f the f a c t t h a t a l l the p r e v i o u s had  on  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the d i r e c t method was  one  research  more e f f e c t i v e than  the  p r e s c r i p t i v e study of f o r m a l grammar i n l e a r n i n g c o r r e c t usage. In Braddock's (1963) summation o f the r e s u l t s o f s t u d i e s done to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between grammar and he s t a t e d u n e q u i v o c a l l y : has  "...  the t e a c h i n g o f f o r m a l  composition, grammar  a n e g l i g i b l e , o r because i t u s u a l l y d i s p l a c e s some i n s t r u c t i o n  and p r a c t i c e i n a c t u a l c o m p o s i t i o n , improvement o f w r i t i n g . " ( p p . 37-38) sure.  even a harmful  e f f e c t on  the  However, Meckel (1963) was  not  In h i s a n a l y s i s o f the f i n d i n g s o f e a r l y r e s e a r c h , whose  methods were o f t e n q u e s t i o n a b l e he concluded  i n the l i g h t of modern  t h a t "much of the e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h on  grammar must be regarded  as no  techniques,  teaching  l o n g e r of g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e  the p e r i o d i n e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y which i t r e p r e s e n t s . "  outside  L a t e r S t u d i e s i n Grammar  The p r a c t i c e o f measuring  improvement i n w r i t i n g by  o b j e c t i v e t e s t s r a t h e r than by an examination was  overcome i n p a r t by H a r r i s  o f the w r i t i n g  (1962), i n a c a r e f u l l y  itself  conducted  study which compared the e f f e c t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n f o r m a l and i n " f u n c t i o n a l " grammar over a two-year p e r i o d on the w r i t i n g o f London p u p i l s aged 12 to 14. two  He compared the i n c i d e n c e o f e r r o r s i n the  groups, u s i n g a s h o r t answer t e s t on the terms and a p p l i c a t i o n  o f f o r m a l grammar as w e l l as a count o f common grammatical i n the s t u d e n t s ' w r i t i n g .  errors  I n a d d i t i o n , however, he examined the  500-word b e f o r e and a f t e r compositions a c c o r d i n g to e l e v e n of maturing  "criteria  s t y l e , " seven o f which were r e p r e s e n t e d by frequency  counts o f words p e r simple and complex sentences, non-simple simple s e n t e n c e s , s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s , complex sentences, sentence p a t t e r n s , a d j e c t i v a l phrases phrases  i n simple sentences.  grammar group,  minus  different  and c l a u s e s , and q u a l i f y i n g  H a r r i s found  t h a t i n the t r a d i t i o n a l  t h i r t e e n o f the f o u r t e e n common e r r o r s were more  f r e q u e n t i n the p o s t - t e s t than i n the p r e - t e s t , w h i l e the d i r e c t method group had s i x e r r o r s which were more f r e q u e n t and s i x t h a t were l e s s f r e q u e n t i n the p o s t - t e s t than i n the p r e - t e s t . concluded  t h a t " t h e study o f E n g l i s h grammatical  He  terminology had  a n e g l i g i b l e o r even r e l a t i v e l y h a r m f u l e f f e c t upon the c o r r e c t n e s s of c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t i n g , "  18  T h u s i t was a p p a r e n t t h a t t h o u g h H a r r i s d i d e x a m i n e s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e , h e was p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h of e r r o r s . before,  I n t h i s , he r e s s e m b l e d M i l l i g a n  the occurrence  ( 1 9 3 9 ) who h a d , y e a r s  e x a m i n e d t h e s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e o f h i s grammar a n d n o -  grammar g r o u p s a n d f o u n d t h a t t h e grammar c l a s s e s w r o t e m o r e t h a n complex s e n t e n c e s , b u t on t h e o t h e r of dependent c l a u s e s , this) the  clauses i n  c o m p l e x s e n t e n c e s t h a t t h e y d i d compose t h a n d i d t h e n o groups. A second study  t h a t was d e s i g n e d s i m i l a r l y  H a r r i s was t h e t w o - y e a r r e s e a r c h  generative  to that of  o f Bateman and Z i d o n i s  w h i c h compared t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e s t u d y  "non-grammatical" approach o f a c o n t r o l group. (1) t h a t a study  the number o f e r r o r s i n s t u d e n t a l s o improve the a b i l i t y  (1964)  of transformational-  grammar u p o n t h e w r i t i n g o f a n e x p e r i m e n t a l  Zidonis hypothesized:  group  w r i t i n g , and  with  Bateman and  o f TG grammar c o u l d  reduce  (2) t h a t i t c o u l d  t o employ mature s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e .  t h e i r assessment o f e r r o r s , the researchers e r r o r free sentences to t o t a l of  number  i n d i c a t i n g (though M i l l i g a n d i d n o t pursue  t h a t t h e grammar g r o u p w r o t e many more s u b o r d i n a t e  grammar  the  hand, had a h i g h e r  simple  computed r a t i o s o f  sentences and found t h a t  t h e grammar c l a s s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  In  greater  the gains  than those o f the  no-grammar c l a s s e s .  The grammar g r o u p a l s o d i d b e t t e r i n t h e p r e -  post error reduction  scores.  from H a r r i s , f o r t h e i r of  transformational  Thus Bateman and Z i d o n i s  findings apparently  differed  i n d i c a t e d that the study  grammar d i d r e d u c e e r r o r .  19 In to  apply  their efforts  to d i s c o v e r whether students  could learn  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e s t o t h e i r w r i t i n g and improve  their  s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e , Bateman a n d Z i d o n i s gave t h e i r s t u d e n t s s i x p r e - t e s t and s i x p o s t - t e s t c o m p o s i t i o n s months o f t h e f i r s t year. into  year  and t h e l a s t  during the f i r s t  t h r e e months o f t h e second  As these were examined f o r e r r o r s , sentences two t y p e s ;  "structural student  rules.  scores  f o rsentences  p e r t e s t were c a l c u l a t e d by adding  transformations  i t contained  from a l i s t  sentences  experimental.  The  o f each type p e r  of approximately complexity  fifty  such  scores f o r  was 3.8 f o r t h e c o n t r o l c l a s s a n d 9.3 f o r t h e  The l a t t e r r e p r e s e n t e d  transformations p e r sentence. the experimental  separated  one t o t h e number o f  The i n c r e a s e i n a v e r a g e s t r u c t u r a l  well-formed  were  those w i t h e r r o r s , and those w i t h o u t .  complexity"  three  an i n c r e a s e o f over  five  However, t h e g r e a t e s t changes i n  g r o u p w e r e made b y o n l y f o u r s t u d e n t s , who c o m p r i s e d  one-fifth of the subjects. John Mellon  ( 1 9 6 9 ) , who b a s e d h i s s t u d y  upon t h i s  w o r k i n s e n t e n c e - s t r u c t u r e h y p o t h e s i s , was c r i t i c a l of features o f the Bateman-Zidonis research:  o f a number  (1) he  questioned  w h e t h e r a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t i s t i c of the fact  t h a t m o s t o f t h e g a i n s w e r e made b y f o u r  (2) h e t h o u g h t t h e r e s e a r c h e r s  pioneer  i n view  students;  s h o u l d have taken heed o f Hunt's  f i n d i n g s i n t h e i r means o f d e t e r m i n i n g " s t r u c t u r a l - c o m p l e x i t y , " but  a s O'Hare ( 1 9 7 4 ) l a t e r p o i n t e d o u t ,  t h e i r s t u d y was c o m p l e t e d  20  in  t h e same y e a r a s H u n t ' s ( 1 9 6 4 ) ;  (3) M e l l o n b e l i e v e d  i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d have been g i v e n about f o l l o w e d by b o t h g r o u p s ; and Bateman-Zidonis  the course of  t h a t more studies  (4) he d i s p u t e d t h e v a l i d i t y  a r g u m e n t t h a t " p u p i l s m u s t be  of  the  taught a system  that  a c c o u n t s f o r w e l l - f o r m e d s e n t e n c e s b e f o r e t h e y c a n be e x p e c t e d p r o d u c e m o r e o f s u c h s e n t e n c e s t h e m s e l v e s " when r e s e a r c h h a d t h a t c h i l d r e n had v i r t u a l l y m a s t e r e d t i m e t h e y came t o  s e n t e n c e p r o d u c t i o n by  (1967)  He  contended  little  that  e f f e c t on s t u d e n t w r i t i n g .  d i f f e r e n c e between approaches  p a r t i c u l a r grammar u s e d  the former.  the  to the improvement o f  established very  the  little  Potter's reservations  had  about  ( 1 ) s t u d i e s o f t e n seemed t o n e g l e c t to language  s t u d y and  to d e s c r i b e the language.  significant differences ascribed c a u s e d by  to determine  t r a d i t i o n a l grammar t a u g h t i n i s o l a t i o n  research i n this area included: the  the  a l s o made b y  that past studies considering  r e l a t i o n o f grammar t o c o m p o s i t i o n h a d beyond the f a c t  s t u d y was  i n h i s study which attempted  a s p e c t s o f grammar w h i c h m i g h t be r e l e v a n t composition.  proved  school.  C r i t i c i s m o f the Bateman-Zidonis Robert P o t t e r  to  to the l a t t e r might  P o t t e r argued  s e e t h a t e n t h u s i a s m i n t e a c h i n g , new  As a  the result,  easily  be  t h a t a competent s t u d y must books or m a t e r i a l s ,  and  e x c i t i n g m e t h o d s w e r e common t o b o t h c o n t r o l a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l groups;  (2)  very narrow  some s t u d i e s , s u c h a s t h e B a t e m a n - Z i d o n i s ,  had  a  d e f i n i t i o n o f "good w r i t i n g , " f o r t h e y c o n s i d e r e d o n l y  21  the g r a m m a t i c a l i t y  and  was  the e f f e c t o f grammar on c o m p o s i t i o n ,  concerned w i t h  the c o m p l e x i t y  o f the w r i t i n g ;  went beyond the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of grammars A, each grammar had  to be  method o f t e a c h i n g  (3) i f a the  B,  study  question  C, o r  D;  t e s t e d a g a i n s t a proven "non-grammatical"  composition.  P o t t e r ' s approach to the q u e s t i o n made c e r t a i n a s s u m p t i o n s : (1) t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n grammar, the b a s i c p a t t e r n s and o f language, would have l i t t l e with  the p r o p e r  E n g l i s h was  that t h i s process  dialect  t h a t i t was  concerned  (2) t h a t w r i t t e n  t h a t must be l e a r n e d by  students  and  o f c o n v e r t i n g spoken E n g l i s h i n t o the p a t t e r n s  f o r m a l w r i t t e n E n g l i s h might be (3)  e f f e c t on usage, which was  use o f v a r i a n t l e x i c a l forms;  a separate  transformations  necessary  r e f e r r e d to as  "normalization";  to know what p r o c e s s e s  separated good w r i t e r s from bad,  and  i f these  of  normalization  differences could  be  q u a n t i f i e d i n grammatical terms i t might be p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y f a c e t s of grammar which would e f f e c t In h i s study P o t t e r had  100  t e n t h grade c l a s s e s w r i t e c o m p o s i t i o n s t o p i c "The study was  students  from f i v e  o f 500  words on an  the papers u n i f o r m l y  of good w r i t i n g , mechanics, and  a l l gross  typed  i n f l u e n c e d by  spelling.  the papers "good," " a v e r a g e , " or "poor."  average expository  S i n c e the o b j e c t o f  "grammar" and not usage, P o t t e r had  f o u r t e a c h e r markers would not be  the  composition.  Q u a l i t i e s o f a Good T e a c h e r . "  e r r o r s c o r r e c t e d and  of  i n order  the  mechanical that  the " h a l o "  the  effects  These markers r a t e d The  twenty b e s t  and  22  twenty  worst  were then  evaluation.  Potter  submitted  to two other  typed the individual  groups of papers onto McBee Keysort  markers  sentences  cards which were  the presence  or absence  for a  second  in the  two  then  coded  and punched  to indicate  of certain  features.  The two groups of papers were examined first  grammatical according A  to established (Hunt, 1965),  criteria  such as subordination  and sentence  length.  indices were not really useful  Potter  index,  T-Unit  found that  in comparing  length  these  the work of  students  when quality of writing was made the differentiating feature. on good papers  were a little  the two groups was an unexpected  writers  as Hunt had  The subordination  the same for both  groups.  used more T-Units because  patterns, with  and  writer  used  Looking  comparison  of sentence  more subject-verb-object  more S-V-0 sentences."  ratio  patterns  length,  a more  discrimin-  also ineffective,  further, he  found  simple, basic  sentence  and thus they had  showed  sentences,  that  a fact  double did.  the  poor  that  made  that students  His data also raised questions  as poor  that the good writers  texts advocated  A T-Unit consisted clause or nonclausal  between  for sentence  T-Units  they wrote  less internal modification,  Potter wonder why language  ordinate in it.  found  index was  the number of T-Units under six words A  the T-Unit  the same as the ratio  development,  ating measure. it was  exactly  longer,  Sentences  "write about  the  of a principal clause and any substructure attached to, or embedded  23  standard  warning a g a i n s t  appeared on  the p a s s i v e v o i c e , as twice as many  the good papers as on  s t u d e n t s needed to be  the bad.  i n s t r u c t e d on  He  passives  c o n c l u d e d t h a t poor  the j u d i c i o u s use  o f the  passive.  L o o k i n g n e x t a t sentence openers, P o t t e r found t h a t poor w r i t e r s used twice as many c o n d i t i o n a l s , but Only i n the use  f a r fewer t r a n s i t i o n a l  o f " b u t , " "and," " s o , "  and  " f o r example" d i d  poor w r i t e r s even approach the good w r i t e r s who t r a n s i t i o n a l words, from " a f t e r a l l "  to  expressions.  used about  the  thirty  "thus."  P o t t e r found t h a t good w r i t e r s used more words i n s t r u c t u r e s of m o d i f i c a t i o n , notably  p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrases; t h e r e was  little  d i f f e r e n c e , however, i n e i t h e r the use o f the phrases o r the p o s i t i o n s used.  The  o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was  c o m p l e x i t y o f the o b j e c t s .  The  in  pre-  the  good w r i t e r s proved s u p e r i o r  modifying t h e i r objects with p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrases, clauses, v e r b a l s t r u c t u r e s , as w e l l as i n u s i n g c l a u s e s themselves as o b j e c t s . d i n a t i o n r a t i o was  also discovered  much the same f o r the  d i f f e r e n c e i n the way used:  He  the v a r i o u s  two  and v e r b a l  in and  structures  t h a t though the  subor-  groups, there was  a  types o f s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s were  (1) nominals were used more by poor w r i t e r s , but  only  because they tend to s t a r t sentences w i t h terms l i k e " I  think,"  o r " I s a i d " ; a l s o , poor w r i t e r s tended to omit " t h a t " i n i n t r o d u c i n g noun c l a u s e s where b e t t e r w r i t e r s d i d not;  (2) a d v e r b i a l  were a l s o more f r e q u e n t l y used by poor w r i t e r s , but because o f t h e i r p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r " i f "  clauses.  this The  clauses was  good w r i t e r s ,  24  h o w e v e r , a p p e a r e d t o h a v e a g r e a t e r command o f t h e many c l a u s e -  i n t r o d u c i n g conjunctions,;and  (3) t h e two  number o f a d j e c t i v a l c l a u s e s , b u t stitute "that"  f o r "who,  Finally, of  every  g r o u p s u s e d a b o u t t h e same  the poor w r i t e r s  whom, w h i c h ,  t h e good p a p e r s  when, and  tended  sub-  where."  c o n t a i n e d more v e r b a l s t r u c t u r e s  type than d i d the poor papers;  t h e good w r i t e r s u s e d  a s many v e r b a l s i n t h e p r e - s u b j e c t p o s i t i o n ,  twice  t h e y u s e d more v e r b a l s  a s s u b j e c t s , a n d more a s m o d i f i e r s o f a d j e c t i v e s . t h a t a l t h o u g h h i s c o r p u s was  to  Potter  too s m a l l f o r a meaningful  concluded  statistical  a n a l y s i s , i t d i d show t h a t t h e r e w e r e m e a s u r e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between " g o o d " and  "poor" w r i t i n g ,  and  that the teaching of  a s p e c t s o f grammar m i g h t be o f v a l u e i n i m p r o v i n g  R e c e n t New  Zealand  composition.  Study  When l o o k i n g a t r e c e n t r e s e a r c h d e s i g n e d methods o f i m p r o v i n g e x a m i n e one of  "The  (RTE,  and  to t e s t v a r i o u s  s t u d e n t w r i t i n g , p e r h a p s i t w o u l d be w e l l  to  o f the most comprehensive s t u d i e s o f the whole q u e s t i o n  R o l e o f Grammar i n a S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l E n g l i s h C u r r i c u l u m "  Sp.  76)  completed  i n Auckland,  t h r e e - y e a r p r o g r a m e n c o m p a s s e d 248 in  certain  New  pupils  Zealand  (1970-73).  t a u g h t by  three  e i g h t matched c l a s s e s o f t h i r d - f o r m s t u d e n t s of average f o l l o w e d these students through  t o t h e end  of the  w i t h a s i x t h - f o r m f o l l o w - u p t e s t i n November, 1973. three treatment  groups:  This teachers ability,  fifth-form, There were  25  1.  The T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  Grammar  (TG) Course,  —  which i n c l u d e d  the grammar, r h e t o r i c , and l i t e r a t u r e " s t r a n d s " o f the Oregon C u r r i c u l u m .  The grammar a s p e c t  i n c l u d e d deep and  s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e , embedding, sentence p a r t s , compound s e n t e n c e s , p a r t i c i p i a l m o d i f i e r s , e t c . Students sentences i n o r d e r  to d i s c o v e r and apply  analyzed  grammatical r u l e s .  Under r h e t o r i c they s t u d i e d concepts o f substance, s t r u c t u r e , and  s t y l e i n w r i t i n g and s p e a k i n g .  They wrote f o r e n t e r -  tainment, i n f o r m a t i o n , and p e r s u a s i o n . included short s t o r i e s , poetry, key  The R e a d i n g - W r i t i n g (RW) Course,  and  i t introduced  the study o f these s e l e c t i o n s .  r h e t o r i c and l i t e r a t u r e s t r a n d s  —  i n c l u d e d o n l y the  above, w i t h e x t r a  reading  creative writing substituted f o r transformational  grammar.  3.  and n o v e l s ;  concepts such as s u b j e c t , form, and p o i n t o f view  during  2.  The l i t e r a t u r e phase  No grammar o f any k i n d was taken f o r t h r e e  " L e t ' s L e a r n E n g l i s h (LLE) Course, three widely  used r e s o u r c e  which employed  books by P.R. Smart - L e t ' s  L e a r n E n g l i s h i n the 70's S e r i e s . t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l grammar.  —  years.  The grammar taught waa  I t i n c l u d e d s u b j e c t s and  p r e d i c a t e s , o b j e c t s , complements, p a r t s o f speech, i n f l e c t i o n s , p h r a s e s , c l a u s e s , and compound s e n t e n c e s . The  l i t e r a t u r e study i n t h i s course came from c l a s s s e t s  26 of  fiction,  poetry,  and  c h a r a c t e r , p l o t , and  At  t h e end  drama, w i t h s t u d y c e n t e r e d  on  theme.  of the f i r s t  year a l l students wrote  a  of  f o u r s e t e s s a y s on a v a r i e t y o f t o p i c s , e a c h o f w h i c h was  by  four o u t s i d e markers,  scale.  Four  mechanics.  to  i n d e p e n d e n t l y , and  c r i t e r i a were used:  using a  I n a d d i t i o n , a s a m p l e o f t h e e s s a y s was  tests  The  essays were supplemented  t h a t w e r e g i v e n a t t h e end  1.  PAT  Reading  by a v a r i e t y o f  o f each  C o m p r e h e n s i o n and  essays  vocabulary language  year:  Vocabulary  test  (NZCER,  1969). 2.  Sentence-combining to  3.  test,  j o i n short sentences  i n which p u p i l s were r e q u i r e d i n a number o f ways.  E n g l i s h usage t e s t r e q u i r i n g s t u d e n t s to  correct  " e r r o r s " i n s p e c i a l l y prepared short sentences continuous 4.  designed  to  test  s t u d e n t s ' understanding of unseen s e l e c t i o n s f i c t i o n and 5.  At  t h e end  of the f i r s t  t h e TG  grammar  of  poetry.  i n s p e l l i n g and year,  and  prose.  Objective tests of l i t e r a t u r e ,  g r o u p was  skills.  y e a r , a t e s t was  listening  and  submitted  o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s and  levels.  16-point  f o u r t i m e s t o make h i s  I n t h e l a t e r y e a r s t h e number o f m a r k e r s and  reduced.  marked  content, organization, s t y l e ,  Each marker read a l l essays  assessment. was  working  series  skills,  t e s t e d on  and  also  i n the  t h e i r mastery  given third of  At  the end o f each y e a r the t h r e e treatment groups were  thus measured on twelve v a r i a b l e s : essay t o t a l , r e a d i n g comprehension,  sentence-combining,  l i t e r a t u r e , essay mechanics,  style,  reading vocabulary,  E n g l i s h usage, E n g l i s h  s t r u c t u r e , and c o n t e n t .  none o f these d i d any of the t h r e e programs show any s u p e r i o r i t y a t the end o f the f i r s t y e a r . o n l y one o f the comparisons  c r i t e r i o n , but t h i s was of  group  significant  A t the end o f the  proved s i g n i f i c a n t ;  showed a p p r e c i a b l e g a i n over the RW  On  the LLE  group  i n the essay c o n t e n t  c o n s i d e r e d a chance f l u c t u a t i o n .  At the end  the t h i r d y e a r , the TG and LLE groups measured s i g n i f i c a n t  over the RW  group  i n E n g l i s h usage t e s t s , and the TG and RW  gained over the LLE group  second,  i n sentence-combining.  gains  groups  In the f o u r t h  y e a r f o l l o w - u p , the d i f f e r e n t programs had produced no  important  d i v e r g e n t e f f e c t on the p u p i l s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples o f f i f t y - e i g h t o f the essays i n each f i f t h - f o r m group, were, as mentioned structures.  The f i r s t  t h a t the t h r e e groups of  T-Units.  above, a n a l y z e d f o r s y n t a c t i c  ten T - U n i t s were counted; r e s u l t s  proved  showed no r e a l d i f f e r e n c e , i n average l e n g t h  The same essays were a l s o examined to see i f the  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s taught i n the TG c o u r s e , v i z : p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e s , s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s , a d j e c t i v e s , p a r t i c i p l e s , gerunds, p o s s e s s i v e s , a b s o l u t e s , p a s s i v e s , a p p o s i t i v e s , comparatives, adverbs, d e l e t i o n s were used more f r e q u e n t l y i n the w r i t i n g o f the s t u d e n t s than i n t h a t o f the o t h e r s .  and TG  The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t  28  information No  to emerge was  evidence was  t h a t the TG  group used fewer p a r t i c i p l e s .  found to support the c o n t e n t i o n  transformational transformations  that a study o f  grammar would l e a d to an i n c r e a s e  i n the use  of  in their writing.  The main purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was d i r e c t e f f e c t s of a study o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l growth o f secondary s t u d e n t s .  The  to determine  grammar on  r e s u l t s showed that  the  the  language  the e f f e c t s  were n e g l i g i b l e , as were the e f f e c t o f t h e i r exposure to  traditional  grammar.  to  T h i s e v a l u a t i o n o f the r o l e of grammar s e r v e d  corroborate  e a r l i e r f i n d i n g about, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between grammar  and w r i t i n g . who  These f i n d i n g s were summarized by W i l k i n s o n  reviewed the grammar r e s e a r c h  o f the p a s t  seventy y e a r s  found t h a t many o f the c l a i m s made f o r grammar had Results of no  showed t h a t grammar d i d not  general  help  to c h i l d r e n who  had  i n composition. not  the m a t u r i t y  Further,  been proven  i t was  often  writing,  "...  facilitating  the i m p l i c a t i o n of many s t u d i e s was  student  . . . that i t  I t must be remembered, however, t h a t employed methods t h a t would not  considered  i n a d d i t i o n , most of i t was  today, and  was  taught  much o f t h i s e a r l y r e s e a r c h valid  false.  or i n t e l l i g e n c e to understand.  s t r e s s e d t h a t i n a d d i t i o n to not  i t . " (p. 34)  and  improve c o m p o s i t i o n , and  Wilkinson  might h i n d e r  (1971)  o r i e n t e d " r a t h e r than " s t r u c t u r e - o r i e n t e d . "  be  "error-  Many o f these  studies  t e s t e d the premise t h a t by l e a r n i n g a s e t of r u l e s a s t u d e n t would unconsciously  apply  these r u l e s to h i s w r i t i n g , and  by  so  doing,  29  have fewer errors.  Frequently r e s u l t s were obtained by objective  tests rather than the students' compositions.  One  cannot help  speculating as to whether students studying grammar were shown any of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Bateman and Zidonis, Mellon, O'Hare,  Obenchain and others mentioned above demonstrated that p r a c t i c e i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c p r i n c i p l e s , with or without terminology,  grammatical  improved student w r i t i n g .  Language Development Studies Because most of the recent research i n syntactic maturity was  dependent upon the indices which were developed to measure this  growth, a review of the progress i n language studies i s included here. The body of research that attested to children's syntactic growth began with the work of LaBrant (1933), who  found that the  r a t i o of dependent clauses to a l l clauses i n written language increased with the age of the writer.  In spite of the fact that  she noted that the "increase i n length of clauses i s apparently occasioned by the reduction of clauses to p a r t i c i p i a l and  infinitive  phrases, and by the e l i s i o n of words, phrases, and clauses," her research unfortunately led to the conclusion that clause length was not an index of maturity and that sentence length increased among mature writers solely because of the addition of more  30  subordinate  clauses.  I n 1937,  A n d e r s o n was  o f d e v e l o p i n g an e a s i l y a p p l i e d and he  e v a l u a t e d by  (sentence the l a s t  concerned  w i t h the  uniform measuring device.  s t a t i s t i c a l methods t h r e e i n d i c e s o f l a n g u a g e  l e n g t h , p r o n o u n i n d e x , and that h i s concern  v a r i a b l e s as c o m p o s i t i o n  was and  possibility Though development  s u b o r d i n a t i o n i n d e x ) , i t was  most a c t i v e .  However, because o f  subject matter,  he  drew n e g a t i v e  with such  conclusions  about the g e n e r a l i z e d a p p l i c a t i o n o f the s u b o r d i n a t i o n index. I n 1940  Heider  of hearing c h i l d r e n studying)  and  Heider  found  (as opposed to deaf  f r o m 8 t o 14 h a d  a steadily  that the sentence  structure  c h i l d r e n whom t h e y w e r e a l s o  i n c r e a s i n g number o f a d j e c t i v e  c l a u s e s , a c o n c l u s i o n c o r r o b o r a t e d by Hunt a q u a r t e r o f a c e n t u r y T h e s e and (1954),  many o t h e r s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n c r i t i c a l l y  Carroll  ( 1 9 6 0 ) , E r w i n and  Miller  reviewed  (1963), Mellon  O'Donnell et a l . (1967).  Traditionally,  velopment have i d e n t i f i e d  increased l e n g t h of sentence  use  of subordinate  Two  important  c l a u s e as  by  i n d i c e s of progress  Hunt's Study  by O ' D o n n e l l  and  o b s e r v a t i o n s on l a n g u a g e  toward  de-  increased  a mature  r e c e n t s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a have been done by  Hunt (1965, 1 9 7 0 ) , and  McCarthy  (1965),  and  later.  style.  Kellogg  (1967).  (1965)  H u n t i n 1965 w r i t i n g of eighteen  i n v e s t i g a t e d 1000-word samples o f the  s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n G r a d e s 4,  w r i t i n g o f some s k i l l e d "maturity" i n sentence  adults-. structure  In order he  8,  and  to determine  identified  the  12,  free and  the  what c o n s t i t u t e d construe-  ,r  31  t i o n s and  s t r u c t u r e s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e d the work of more mature  w r i t e r s from younger, l e s s s k i l l e d  students.  He  found  that  the  l e n g t h e n i n g o f independent c l a u s e s by the i n c r e a s e d use o f embedding t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s was maturity" i n w r i t i n g .  He  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r much o f the " s y n t a c t i c  i n t r o d u c e d a new  measure, c a l l e d  "minimal t e r m i n a l " u n i t o r " T - U n i t " which was (1961, 1963)  "communication u n i t . "  p l u s any  subordinate  attached  to o r imbedded i n i t .  syntactic maturity.  sentence-  The  T - U n i t was  c l a u s e s o r non-clause T h i s T-Unit  Hunt p o i n t e d out  a refinement  a of'Loban's  one main c l a u s e  s t r u c t u r e s t h a t were increased i n length with  that t h i s u n i t could  be  i d e n t i f i e d o b j e c t i v e l y , would not be a f f e c t e d by poor p u n c t u a t i o n , would p r e s e r v e a l l the s u b o r d i n a t i o n a c h i e v e d by as h i s  c o o r d i n a t i o n o f words, phrases,  and  the student  subordinate  s h o u l d be regarded as s e p a r a t e  as a c l a u s e (LaBrant had  Hunt a l s o  a finite  verb  counted c o o r d i n a t e  c l a u s e s ) , and he r e v i s e d the s u b o r d i n a t i o n r a t i o so  to g i v e the mean number o f c l a u s e s per  No.  Hunt's study a n a l y z e d  o f Main  as  o f Main CI.  Clauses  sentence l e n g t h , c l a u s e l e n g t h , the  r a t i o , kinds of subordinate  verbs  T-Unit:  of Sub.CI. + No. No.  It  excessive  c o o r d i n a t i o n o f main c l a u s e s was not an index of m a t u r i t y . contended t h a t o n l y a s t r u c t u r e w i t h a s u b j e c t and  as w e l l  clauses.  would not p r e s e r v e h i s c o o r d i n a t i o n of main c l a u s e s , but  and  c l a u s e s , and  subordination  a l a r g e number o f w i t h i n -  clause structures.  He found  t h a t the T - U n i t was c l o s e l y t i e d to  m a t u r i t y , b u t the amount o f T - U n i t expansion  t h a t c o u l d be a c h i e v e d  by the a d d i t i o n o f s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s p r o b a b l y reached a maximum by Grade 12.  He a l s o found t h a t t h e t h r e e k i n d s o f s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s  were n o t o f equal v a l u e as measures, f o r o n l y a d j e c t i v a l c l a u s e s v a r i e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y i n such a way as t o p r o v i d e a measure o f development.  Noun, o r nominal,  c l a u s e s v a r i e d w i t h the mode o f d i s -  course, and movable a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s showed no p a t t e r n , v a r y i n g w i t h n e i t h e r s u b j e c t o r age.  Thus the r a t i o o f a d j e c t i v e c l a u s e s was a  b e t t e r measure than the r a t i o o f s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s . The f i n a l stage o f Hunt's study was to determine s t r u c t i o n s accounted  f o r the added l e n g t h o f the c l a u s e s .  such as noun c l a u s e s and phrases  used  con-  Here  nominals  i n p l a c e o f nouns and pronouns,  and m o d i f i e r s embedded b e f o r e and a f t e r nouns were found answer.  what  to be the  Thus a f t e r t h e maximum i n c r e a s e i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n c l a u s e s ,  f u r t h e r s y n t a c t i c growth was a c h i e v e d by (1) t h e use o f noun modif i e r s such as g e n i t i v e s , a d j e c t i v e s , p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e s , o r nonf i n i t e verbs  ( i n f i n i t i v e s , and p a r t i c i p l e s ) , and  (2) n o m i n a l i z e d  v e r b s and c l a u s e s , i n c l u d i n g noun c l a u s e s , gerund nominals, and i n f i n i t i v e nominals.  Hunt concluded  t h a t words p e r T-Unit  to be the b e s t index o f s y n t a c t i c growth; c l a u s e l e n g t h was and  c l a u s e s per T-Unit was t h i r d .  appeared second;  33  O'Donnell's Study  C o n f i r m a t i o n o f the v a l i d i t y of Hunt's i n d i c e s was by O'Donnell,  provided  G r i f f i n , and N o r r i s i n t h e i r study of c h i l d r e n ' s  syntax i n 1967.  T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n found  t h a t when f a i r l y  extensive  samples o f f i v e to f o u r t e e n - y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n ' s language were o b t a i n e d , t h a t the T-Unit was  a valid  index o f measurement.  These r e s e a r c h e r s  had measured not o n l y T-Unit l e n g t h , but a l s o the number and of sentence-combining  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s per T - U n i t , a time-consuming  p r o c e s s which O'Donnell e t a l . f e l t found  depth  c o u l d be d i s p e n s e d w i t h , as  a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between the l e n g t h o f T-Unit and  they  the  number o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . In o r d e r to see whether the i n d i c e s Hunt proposed c o u l d be computed from s m a l l e r w r i t i n g samples, O'Donnell (1968) d e v i s e d experimental  instrument  an  f o r c o l l e c t i n g comparable samples o f w r i t i n g  from c h i l d r e n a t v a r i o u s grade l e v e l s .  T h i s instrument  the r e w r i t i n g o f a passage made up o f s h o r t sentences combine them ("Aluminum" passage).  required  i n an e f f o r t  Data from t h i s study  indicated  t h a t c l a u s e l e n g t h and number of c l a u s e s per T - U n i t i n c r e a s e d t o gether i n lower  grades,  but c l a u s e l e n g t h alone accounted  of the growth i n complexity  i n h i g h e r grades.  was  of the two  caused  judged  by a combination  S i n c e T-Unit l e n g t h  f a c t o r s , T-Unit l e n g t h  was  to be more u s e f u l than e i t h e r o f the o t h e r two measures as  an index o f the growth o f s t r u c t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y range.  f o r most  over a wide  age  to  Hunt's Study  (1970)  In Hunt's 1970 study, he c o n t r o l l e d f o r the i n f l u e n c e o f s u b j e c t matter, u s i n g the above mentioned passage. from Grades 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 r e w r i t e the passage.  He had s t u d e n t s By a n a l y z i n g  these samples w i t h h i s p r e v i o u s l y developed measures, Hunt found a w r i t e r ' s sentences were d e f i n i t e l y a f f e c t e d by h i s s y n t a c t i c  that  skill,  not j u s t by what he had to say, and t h a t s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y c o n s i s t e d , i n l a r g e measure, i n the a b i l i t y  to embed i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n c l a u s e s .  A r e p l i c a t i o n o f Hunt's study was conducted Reesink e t a l . (1971).  i n the N e t h e r l a n d s by  Using the "aluminum" passage and a c h i l d ' s  f a b l e p r e s e n t e d i n s i m i l a r s h o r t choppy sentences, the r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t w i t h i n c r e a s e d age s u b j e c t s wrote l o n g e r sentences  with  fewer T - U n i t s , and mean c l a u s e l e n g t h i n c r e a s e d . In h i s study, Hunt (1965) found t h a t the growth o f h i s s t u d e n t s toward  s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y , as c a l c u l a t e d by h i s measures,  was v e r y slow, and might be caused as much by the p u p i l ' s development as by h i s language e s t a b l i s h e d normal parameters  instruction.  cognitive  He and O'Donnell  o f growth which were a c c e p t e d as  "normative" by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s , such as M e l l o n , O'Hare, Combs, and o t h e r s a t t e m p t i n g to measure growth i n s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y . (See M e l l o n , p. 18, O'Hare, p. 2 0 ) .  The q u e s t i o n o f whether  this  r a t e o f development c o u l d be enhanced b r i n g s us back to M e l l o n ' s r e s e a r c h , which was s i m i l a r to Bateman and Z i d o n i s ' s i n t h a t  both  exposed t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t a l groups to a study o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  35  grammar. aspect  However, M e l l o n had  o f t h e i r study; he  no  I n t e r e s t i n the  error-reduction  d i d not b e l i e v e t h e i r c l a i m t h a t the  i n g o f grammatical r u l e s per  learn-  se c o u l d improve s t u d e n t w r i t i n g .  He  thought t h a t the sentence-combining p r a c t i c e the Bateman-Zidonis s t u d e n t s had  had  p r o b a b l y caused t h e i r improvement i n w r i t i n g .  of t h i s hypothesis, curriculum.  he d e v i s e d  his "transformational  Because  sentence-combining"  In i t , however, M e l l o n a l s o expected h i s s t u d e n t s to  l e a r n grammatical  terminology.  Sentence-Combining  Studies  M e l l o n ' s Study  Mellon's subjects  included  comprised of f i v e c o n t r o l c l a s s e s who grammar and  combining p r a c t i c e .  These two  s t u d i e d a course i n t r a d i t i o n a l studied a year long  e x t r a w r i t i n g assignments.  course  sentence-  groups were matched i n a b i l i t y .  p l a c e b o groups who  extra lessons  E n g l i s h program.  students,  grammar that i n c l u d e d a l a r g e amount o f  a d d i t i o n , t h e r e were two but had  seventh grade  f i v e e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s who  i n transformational  all,  247  i n l i t e r a t u r e and  s t u d i e d no  grammar a t  composition without  A l l twelve c l a s s e s s t u d i e d  The w r i t i n g sample a t each t e s t time  the  consisted the  first  first  last  f o u r weeks of s c h o o l .  M e l l o n took the  ten T - U n i t s from each c o m p o s i t i o n , making n i n e t y a t each t e s t  time.  any  regular  o f n i n e c o m p o s i t i o n s , each w r i t t e n i n a c l a s s p e r i o d d u r i n g f o u r and  In  T-Units i n a l l  36  M e l l o n adapted Hunt's T-Unlt,  and  used as h i s main dependent  v a r i a b l e s twelve f a c t o r s o f s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y , length, and  subordination  i n c l u d i n g T-Unit  r a t i o , number of nominal and  o f p r e - and  depth of embedding.  to 3.5  y e a r s of growth on  Comparison  e s t a b l i s h e d normal growth per y e a r (nominal and  and  phrases),  .01  level,  and  s i g n i f i c a n t increases  relative  evaluated  this increase  by  An  8%  i n syntactic maturity  mental group d i d not  s m a l l n e s s o f the  part  would be  to see whether o r r e f l e c t e d i n the  not over-  However, i n t h i s r e s p e c t M e l l o n ' s e x p e r i -  do as w e l l , f o r the c o n t r o l group was  significantly better.  have been caused by  the  the  subsample o f the t o t a l s t u d e n t w r i t i n g  independent r a t e r s i n o r d e r  q u a l i t y of w r i t i n g .  clauses  i n a l l twelve f a c t o r s at  i n comparison to l e s s than a y e a r ' s growth on  o f the c o n t r o l group.  had  the f a c t o r s f o r which Hunt  had  be  and  p o s t - t e s t s showed t h a t M e l l o n ' s e x p e r i m e n t a l group  gained from 2.1  all  clauses  phrases (which i n c l u d e d a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s o f time, p l a c e ,  manner), c l u s t e r e d m o d i f i c a t i o n , and  was  "relative"  judged  to  M e l l o n suggested t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e might  the t a l e n t of a c o n t r o l teacher,  or by  the  sample.  O'Hare's Study  O'Hare (1973), whose study was  based on t h a t o f  gave a s u c c i n c t account o f M e l l o n ' s work, and of aspects of i t : to be a s s e s s i n g  (1) he  Mellon,  c r i t i c i z e d a number  thought t h a t even though M e l l o n  claimed  the i n f l u e n c e o f o n l y the sentence-combining  features  o f h i s program, the grammatical  theories that h i s students studied  c o u l d have a f f e c t e d h i s r e s u l t s . had had  to do t h r e e t h i n g s :  (a) l e a r n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e s  apply them i n sentence-combining; r u l e s ; and others. January  Mellon's experimental students  (b) l e a r n a s e t o f  and  grammatical  (c) l e a r n concepts l i k e p a s s i v e i n f i n i t i v e phrases  and  Students spent September to December on grammar, and to May  on the sentence-combining  exercises.  O'Hare b e l i e v e d  t h a t many o f these r u l e s and concepts were too d i f f i c u l t grade s t u d e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those o f average o r lower (2) O'Hare guessed  t h a t grammatical  f o r seventh-  ability;  concepts were "mentioned," but  not " t a u g h t , " and he p o i n t e d out t h a t M e l l o n had not s t a t e d whether o r not h i s s t u d e n t s were t e s t e d on t h e i r grammatical ( 3 ) O'Hare s p e c u l a t e d t h a t the sentence-combining  knowledge;  p r a c t i c e s were  more than "an a c t i v i t y designed to r e i n f o r c e and f u r t h e r  illustrate  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s e a r l i e r l e a r n e d by the s t u d e n t , " as M e l l o n had s t a t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y as M e l l o n had p r e p a r e d e x t r a d a i l y p r a c t i c e s o t h e r than those i n h i s t e x t ;  combining  ( 4 ) O'Hare doubted  M e l l o n had p r e s e n t e d h i s study i n a p u r e l y " a - r h e t o r i c a l " c i t i n g e v i d e n c e to support t h i s c o n t e n t i o n ; and t h a t an improvement i n s y n t a c t i c s k i l l s  that setting,  ( 4 ) O'Hare suggested  s h o u l d be expected to  improve the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f student w r i t i n g . In r e p l i c a t i n g M e l l o n ' s program, O'Hare s t r o v e to e l i m i n a t e the f a u l t s he found i n i t . grammatical  To d i s p o s e o f the problem o f l e a r n i n g  t e r m i n o l o g y , he i n s t i t u t e d a system o f non-grammatical  38  cue words to s i g n a l each sentence  combining  transformation.  He  c o n t r o l l e d the t e a c h e r v a r i a b l e by d e s i g n i n g two c o n t r o l and two e x p e r i mental c l a s s e s , w i t h a t o t a l o f e i g h t y - t h r e e s t u d e n t s a t the seventh grade l e v e l , which he and another  t e a c h e r taught.  a c o n t r o l and an e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s .  Each o f them had  Students' a b i l i t i e s were  measured by the C a l i f o r n i a T e s t of Mental M a t u r i t y , and by T-Unit length i n their pre-tests.  0'Hare's sentence-combining  practice  was done i n an a - r h e t o r i c a l s e t t i n g i n o r d e r to i s o l a t e i t s e f f e c t . He s t a t e d t h a t "he took g r e a t p a i n s to a v o i d c o n d i t i o n i n g s t u d e n t s to f a v o u r complex s y n t a c t i c e x p r e s s i o n s i n t h e i r a c t u a l c l a s s , where sentence-combining O'Hare h y p o t h e s i z e d to  referred to."  t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups,  "exposed  the n o n - e r r o r o r i e n t e d , grammar-study-free p r a c t i c e o f sentence-  combining of  was never  composition  which was w h o l l y dependent on each s t u d e n t ' s i n h e r e n t  sense  g r a m m a t i c a l i t y " would: "(1) a c h i e v e g r e a t e r growth than the  c o n t r o l group on s i x f a c t o r s o f s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y : words p e r T - U n i t , c l a u s e s per T - U n i t , words p e r c l a u s e , noun c l a u s e s p e r 100 T - U n i t s , a d j e c t i v e c l a u s e s per 100 T - u n i t s , and adverb and  (2) w r i t e compositions  c l a u s e s p e r 100 T - U n i t s ;  judged by e i g h t E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s to be  s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r to compositions w r i t t e n by the c o n t r o l group." In  O'Hare's study, the f i r s t  d i f f e r e n t f r e e compositions  t e n T - U n i t s i n each o f f i v e  encompassing n a r r a t i v e , e x p o s i t o r y , and  d e s c r i p t i v e modes were measured from both p r e - and p o s t - t e s t samples, a l l o f which were w r i t t e n i n c l a s s , d u r i n g the f i r s t  two weeks i n  October  and  the l a s t  two weeks i n May.  Thus f i f t y T - U n i t s  per  student were examined a t each t e s t i n g p e r i o d , a c c o r d i n g to the above criteria.  In a s s e s s i n g the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y of the w r i t i n g , O'Hare  e x p l a i n e d t h a t as he had n e i t h e r the time nor the r e s o u r c e s to have all  compositions  e v a l u a t e d , he d e c i d e d to use a "system of f o r c e d  c h o i c e s between matched p a i r s o f c o m p o s i t i o n s . " p a i r s o f s u b j e c t s were d i v i d e d i n t o two w i t h each group of a p p r o x i m a t e l y for  T h i r t y matched  groups of f i f t e e n p a i r s  equal a b i l i t y .  U s i n g one  composition  each s t u d e n t , a n a r r a t i v e f o r the f i f t e e n p a i r s i n the one  and a d e s c r i p t i v e f o r the o t h e r f i f t e e n p a i r s , he o b t a i n e d a of  s i x t y c o m p o s i t i o n s , which were r a t e d by the e i g h t  judges, who  group,  total  independent  made a s i n g l e judgment on the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y , u s i n g  t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a such as i d e a s , o r g a n i z a t i o n , s t y l e , and sentence  each,  vocabulary,  structure.  Both c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l groups f o l l o w e d the r e g u l a r E n g l i s h c u r r i c u l u m , but the u n i t s covered by the e x p e r i m e n t a l were shortened  i n o r d e r to p r o v i d e time f o r the  O n e - t h i r d of the y e a r was reading s k i l l s , were two  did  sentence-combining.  spent on r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n ( t e a c h i n g  and g i v i n g time f o r f r e e r e a d i n g ) .  In a d d i t i o n  s h o r t u n i t s on l i t e r a t u r e , as w e l l as u n i t s on  dramatics, l i b r a r y s k i l l s ,  group  and language study.  The  there  composition,  c o n t r o l group  not study any k i n d of grammar, as O'Hare b e l i e v e d t h a t a l l  p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h had  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the t e a c h i n g of f o r m a l grammar,  as Postman (1967) s t a t e d :  "does v e r y l i t t l e ,  o r n o t h i n g , o r harm,  40  to students."  The c o n t r o l g r o u p ' s l i t e r a t u r e u n i t s i n c l u d e d s h o r t  s t o r i e s , n o n - f i c t i o n , and p o e t r y .  Their dramatic  units consisted  of i m p r o v i s a t i o n s , and t h e w r i t i n g and p r e s e n t i n g o f t h e i r plays.  Language study  c o n s i s t e d o f teacher-made study  e x e r c i s e s on v o c a b u l a r y , tion,  and usage.  was d i v i d e d i n t o  dictionary  skills,  S p e l l i n g was t a u g h t  experimental  taught  capitalizaComposition  two s e c t i o n s , w i t h j o u r n a l w r i t i n g i n o n e , a n d m o r e  f o r m a l n a r r a t i v e , e x p o s i t o r y , and d e s c r i p t i v e w r i t i n g The  s h e e t s , and  punctuation,  "incidentally."  own  i n the other.  group, i n a d d i t i o n , had n i n e t e e n l e s s o n s which  sentence-combining  i n sentence-combining,"  techniques  practice  a b o u t o n e - a n d - a - q u a r t e r h o u r s p e r week i n  c l a s s a n d a h a l f - h o u r o f homework. completed sentences,  and p r o v i d e d "abundant  Students  wrote out a l l the  and i n a d d i t i o n , p r a c t i s e d c h o r a l r e a d i n g o f  approximately  o n e - t h i r d o f them.  T h i s may h a v e b e e n d o n e i n r e s p o n s e  to the M i l l e r  and Ney (1968) s t u d y , w h i c h h a d a n e x p e r i m e n t a l  engage i n o r a l p r a c t i c e i n m a n i p u l a t i n g found  t h a t they  gained  significantly  class  s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s , and  i n the use o f p r a c t i s e d s t r u c -  tures,  i n t h e number o f w o r d s w r i t t e n , and i n t h e u s e o f more m u l t i -  clause  T-Units. At  t h e e n d o f t h e y e a r O'Hare f o u n d :  mental group had experienced  highly significant  (1) t h a t t h e e x p e r i g r o w t h a t t h e .001  l e v e l on a l l measured f a c t o r s o f s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y ;  (2) t h e  experimental  g r o u p was s u p e r i o r t o t h e c o n t r o l o n a l l f a c t o r s a t t h e  .001  (3) t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l  level;  scores  f o r syntactic maturity similar  group on the average had t o H u n t ' s 1965 t w e l f t h  grade  norms;  (4) t h a t the p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h e r o r sex o f s t u d e n t s was  r e l a t e d to treatment e f f e c t ; and  not  (5) t h a t even e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d e n t  w i t h low IQ's s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d i n s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y .  In  a d d i t i o n , he found t h a t the s i x t y c o m p o s i t i o n s o f the t h i r t y matched p a i r s , when e v a l u a t e d , proved t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d e n t s wrote s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than those i n the c o n t r o l  group.  Other S t u d i e s  Other r e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s concerned w i t h sentence  struc-  t u r e and the q u a l i t y o f s t u d e n t w r i t i n g i n c l u d e the works o f Obenchain  (1971), Green  (1972), M a r t i n (1968), and Crews  (1971).  Obenchain  f o c u s e d on an approach to e x p o s i t o r y w r i t i n g through the  study o f l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i v e s which would be used to develop w e l l c o n s t r u c t e d sentences, then paragraphs, and f i n a l l y , a s e r i e s o f paragraphs.  She used a w r i t i n g - r e a d i n g approach, which  sentence-combining O'Hare's.  p r a c t i c e , though  included  i n fewer numbers than M e l l o n s ' o  Students were asked to combine c o h e r e n t l y f o u r  sentences i n a number o f ways, so t h a t c e r t a i n i d e a s were and o t h e r s s u b o r d i n a t e d . use.  In d o i n g t h i s ,  the most e f f e c t i v e l i n k i n g d e v i c e s .  combining problems,  related emphasized  they would be expected to After practising  these  s t u d e n t s used t h e i r s o l u t i o n s as models i n  answering p r e c i s e essay q u e s t i o n s based on the l i t e r a t u r e  studied.  E x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d e n t s gained over the c o n t r o l s on a l l s i x w r i t i n g measures.  42  Green, M a r t i n , and Crews a l l sought writing s k i l l s  i n the lower elementary  to develop  grades.  sentence  Green d i d a n i n e -  week study o f grade f i v e c h i l d r e n , comparing t h r e e approaches to developing syntactic fluency: combining;  (1) a composition program w i t h  (2) a t r a d i t i o n a l language program, and  program w i t h an e r r o r - c o r r e c t i n g f o c u s . l e s s o n s i n sentence-combining, r e l a t i v e clauses.  He found  sentence  (3) a c o m p o s i t i o n  The f i r s t group had f i f t e e n  u s i n g s t r u c t u r e s w i t h a d v e r b i a l and  t h i s group had s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s over  group t h r e e , b u t o n l y i n mean l e n g t h o f c l a u s e i n the n a r r a t i v e mode. F u r t h e r , these g a i n s were no l o n g e r apparent  on a d e l a y e d - t e s t .  Both M a r t i n and Crews, i n y e a r - l o n g s t u d i e s , compared the e f f e c t s o f a l i n g u i s t i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d grammar approach t o a " t r a d i t i o n a l " language approach upon c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t i n g s k i l l s , subjects practice syntactic manipulation. p u p i l s used  and both had t h e i r  Martin's  experimental  i n d u c t i v e s e n t e n c e - b u i l d i n g e x e r c i s e s designed by Roberts,  and were found  to have made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s over c o n t r o l c l a s s e s  when t h e i r w r i t i n g was a n a l y z e d i n terms o f T - U n i t s and s u b o r d i n a t i o n ratio.  Crews taught h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s such s t r u c t u r e s as  s h i f t i n g a d v e r b i a l s , p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e s , middle  adverbs,  simple  c o o r d i n a t e c o n j u n c t i o n s , p a r t i c i p i a l p h r a s e s , and s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s i n o r d e r to develop  certain writing s k i l l s .  In t h e i r post-writing  t e s t s , t h i s group showed g r e a t e r v a r i e t y i n sentence s t r u c t u r e than d i d the c o n t r o l group.  43  Combs'  Study  A number o f s t u d i e s o f the e f f e c t s o f  sentence-combining  p r a c t i c e upon s t u d e n t w r i t i n g f o l l o w e d i n the wake o f O'Hare's. of the most i n t e r e s t i n g was v e r y s i m i l a r to O'Hare's. c o n t r o l and  two  t h a t o f Combs (1975), whose program His design included four classes,  One was  two  e x p e r i m e n t a l , w i t h a t o t a l o f one hundred s t u d e n t s .  These c l a s s e s were taught by two and one e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s .  t e a c h e r s , each o f whom had one  control  A l l c l a s s e s f o l l o w e d the same c u r r i c u -  lum, which i n c l u d e d the study o f a number o f l i t e r a r y genres, and a l l c l a s s e s had  the same number and k i n d o f w r i t i n g assignments.  They  a l s o d i d work s h e e t s on s p e l l i n g , p u n c t u a t i o n , d i c t i o n a r y and word skills.  Between the p o s t - t e s t and d e l a y e d p o s t - t e s t  u n i t on myths was taught.  s t u d i e d , and s t u d e n t s wrote myths.  The e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s had,  program, two  ( e i g h t weeks), a No  grammar  was  i n a d d i t i o n to t h i s r e g u l a r  c l a s s s e s s i o n s and one " s e t " p e r i o d per week f o r ten  weeks to do the f o u r t e e n sentence combining the M e l l o n sentences and  lessons patterned a f t e r  the O'Hare non-grammatical s i g n a l s ,  u s i n g l e s s complex base sentences  than O'Hare.  a l t h o u g h the time span o f h i s study was i t would i n v o l v e a p p r o x i m a t e l y  but  Combs c o n s i d e r e d t h a t  much s h o r t e r than O'Hare's,  the same number o f study hours. . .  c i t e d the work o f V i t a l e t a l . (1971) which demonstrated s h o r t e r , more i n t e n s i v e exposure  to sentence-combining  that a practice  c o u l d be e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y i n the f r e e w r i t i n g of students.  He  44  Another a d a p t a t i o n to O'Hare's d e s i g n was Combs' p r o v i s i o n for a delayed p o s t - t e s t  to be g i v e n e i g h t weeks a f t e r t h e p o s t - t e s t .  Combs hoped t o prove:  1.  S y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y g a i n s a c h i e v e d by the M e l l o n and O'Hare procedures were r e p l i c a b l e w i t h a seventh-grade  2.  S y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y g a i n s would be r e t a i n e d a delayed p o s t - t e s t  3.  as measured by  of students' free w r i t i n g .  The o v e r a l l " q u a l i t y " o f w r i t i n g o f s t u d e n t s sentence-combining  population.  p r a c t i c e would be judged  receiving s u p e r i o r to  t h a t o f s t u d e n t s n o t r e c e i v i n g SC p r a c t i c e as measured by an expanded matched-pairs  The  design.  e f f e c t s o f t h e program were a s s e s s e d by two types o f measures.  First,  s t u d e n t s ' compositions w r i t t e n  a n a l y z e d t o determine words p e r T-Unit (W/C).  Combs used  a t the t h r e e t e s t i n g times were (W/T), and words p e r c l a u s e  these i n d i c e s because Hunt had c o n s i d e r e d them  the most d i s c r i m i n a t i n g .  The assessment was based upon t h r e e -  hundred word samples o f s t u d e n t s ' n a r r a t i v e and d e s c r i p t i v e w r i t i n g . In a d d i t i o n , O'Donnell's tered at post-test W/C.  "aluminum" passage (Hunt, 1970) was a d m i n i s -  time and a s s e s s e d f o r d i f f e r e n c e s  i n mean W/T and  The r e s u l t s o f these measures showed s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s o f  two y e a r s f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l  group over the c o n t r o l group.  r e w r i t i n g o f the "aluminum" passage a l s o supported  The  the hypothesis,  as mean W/T f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group was 11.3 compared to 8.18 f o r the c o n t r o l .  45  Second, t h e compositions and  22 e x p e r i m e n t a l )  test compositions  were matched and judged  (22 c o n t r o l  t w i c e , once on t h e p r e -  and once on t h e p o s t - t e s t .  m a r k e r s , e a c h o f whom a s s e s s e d found  from f o r t y - f o u r students  The s e v e n  teacher-  a l l p a i r s a n d made a c h o i c e b e t w e e n t h e m ,  no s i g n i f i c a n t p a t t e r n o f d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s i n  the p r e - t e s t , b u t judged  t h e work o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than compositions.  group t o be  t h a t o f t h e c o n t r o l group on t h e p o s t - t e s t  A l l papers were g i v e n a 0 t o 7 r a t i n g , depending upon  how many o f t h e r a t e r s h a d j u d g e d  a paper b e t t e r than  i t s "pair."  A  s e c o n d j u d g m e n t o f t h e q u a l i t y o f w r i t i n g was made b y c o m p a r i n g t h e pre-test compositions  of eleven students  own p o s t - t e s t s t o s e e i f i n d i v i d u a l showed t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e  i n each group w i t h  g a i n s were apparent.  their  Results  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p r e - and p o s t -  t e s t s o f t h e c o n t r o l s t u d e n t s , b u t t h a t t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t i m provement i n t h e p o s t - t e s t w r i t i n g o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l Combs h a d t h u s  confirmed  the f i r s t  group.  two o f h i s h y p o t h e s e s .  H i s r e p o r t o f a two-year g a i n i n the s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y o f h i s experimental but  less  than  his students in  g r o u p was v e r y s i m i l a r the f i v e year achieved  t o t h e g a i n recorded by M e l l o n ,  g a i n o f O'Hare's i n 1974.  O'Hare  g r e a t e r g a i n s b e c a u s e t h e y h a d no  instruction  grammar, b u t Combs, w h o s e s t u d e n t s a l s o h a d no grammar,  many o t h e r combining  factors, practice  s u c h a s t h e amount o f t i m e (both o r a l and w r i t t e n ) ,  the study, were i n v o l v e d .  spent  on  and t h e time  thought  thought  sentencespan o f  46  E i g h t weeks a f t e r the sentence-combining  program  was  f i n i s h e d , Combs a d m i n i s t e r e d the d e l a y e d p o s t t e s t to see i f the s y n t a c t i c g a i n s were r e t a i n e d , and hypothesis.  However, he found  the r e s u l t s confirmed h i s t h i r d  t h a t the s y n t a c t i c g a i n s measured  i n the p o s t - t e s t had been cut almost  i n h a l f , and he s t a t e d t h a t  t h i s s h o u l d be remembered when e v a l u a t i n g a program o f  this  nature.  C r i t i c i s m o f Sentence-Combining by M o f f e t t , C h r i s t e n s e n , and Marzano  Moffett's The e f f e c t s o f sentence  combining  on s t u d e n t w r i t i n g were  q u e s t i o n e d by a number o f e d u c a t o r s .  Two  o f the e a r l i e r c r i t i c s were  M o f f e t t (1968) and C h r i s t e n s e n (1967).  M o f f e t t p o i n t e d out t h a t t e a c h e r s  s h o u l d eschew work books and e x e r c i s e s , and work w i t h the c h i l d ' s language p r o d u c t i o n .  He  thought  that Mellon's  study advocated  n a t u r a l i s t i c " p r a c t i c e a c t i v i t i e s and he recommended i n s t e a d expansion  games, good d i s c u s s i o n s , r e w r i t i n g o f n o t e s ,  r e v i s i o n s of compositions,  "non-  "sentence-  collaborative  p l a y i n g w i t h one-sentence d i s c o u r s e , and  v e r b a l i z i n g c e r t a i n c o g n i t i v e t a s k s " (pp. 180-181). Mellon r e p l i e d  own  t h a t sentence-combining,  To  a p a r t from any  of grammar, c o u l d be as " n a t u r a l " and e f f e c t i v e as any game i n M o f f e t t ' s language a r t s program.  t h i s comment formal  study  language  47  Christensen's Christensen, April,  1968)  i n " D e f i n i n g a Mature S t y l e " ( E n g l i s h J o u r n a l ,  summarized the work o f Hunt and  he b e l i e v e d t o be lumped t o g e t h e r  the r a d i c a l  two  s t a t e d what  flaw i n both their studies:  free modifiers  whole sentences)."  He  (which  "They h a v e  in rhetorical effect  r e l a t i v e embeddings.  modifier which permitted  the s k i l l e d  s h o r t ; v a r i a t i o n s i n the use i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e s , and Christensen  can m o d i f y each o t h e r ,  s a i d t h a t s e n t e n c e s w e r e made l o n g b y  class of constructions far different  pursuit,  and  q u i t e d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n s , bound  ( w o r d ) m o d i f i e r s and  n o m i n a l i z a t i o n s and  Mellon,  of these  students  the  free  w r i t e r to keep h i s base  c o u l d be  taught  a r g u e d , grammar a n d  a  from  T h i s c l a s s was  free modifiers  or  clauses  differentiated  to use  them.  r h e t o r i c c o u l d be  In  this  brought  together. Christensen  criticized  that encouraged students  subordination: s t y l e , but hard  an  "cumulative"  "...  He  constructed  t h e l o n g c l a u s e was  the use not  the  sentence-of  excessive  the mark o f a mature  b e l i e v e d t h a t a "mature s t y l e "  sentences,  process  . . . t h e e a s y w r i t i n g t h a t makes c u r s t  w i t h short base clauses  of f r e e m o d i f i e r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the  emphasized  and  final position.  t h a t t h e w o r k o f p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t e r s was of sentence.  compositions  in their  Christensen deprecated  inept style  reading."  for teaching a w r i t i n g  t o i m i t a t e i n t h e i r own  l o n g , complex s e n t e n c e s they had combining p r a c t i c e .  Mellon  a high He  pointed  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  In h i s r e p l y to Christensen's  proportion  charge, Mellon  this  out type  denied  48  t h a t sentence-combining "had a n y t h i n g be the t e a c h i n g o f w r i t i n g . " cedure f o r h e i g h t e n i n g  t o do w i t h what he c o n c e i v e d to  Instead,  i t was " l i m i t e d to a p r o -  the growth r a t e o f s y n t a c t i c f l u e n c y , an  a s p e c t o f language procedure . . . over which one does n o t and cannot exercise conscious "mistakenly mature s t y l e .  c o n t r o l . " (p. 81)  He i n s i s t e d t h a t  Christensen  i n t e r p r e t e d h i s experiment as an attempt to teach a . . . b u t s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y was n o t the same as s t y l e  . . ." (p. 79)  Marzano's C h r i s t e n s e n had developed  a r h e t o r i c program o f sentence  a d d i t i v e problems i n which he gave s t u d e n t s suggested (EJ,  a base c l a u s e and then  the content and grammatical form o f the m o d i f i e r s .  Feb. 1976) compared C h r i s t e n s e n s 1  R. Marzano  sentence composing to s e n t e n c e -  combining: Mellon-O'Hare  Christensen  The s a i l o r f i n a l l y came on deck He was t a l l . He was r a t h e r u g l y . He had a l i m p . He o f f e r e d them a p r i z e .  Students a r e g i v e n the same base c l a u s e : "The s a i l o r f i n a l l y came on deck," w i t h s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t the f o l l o w i n g m o d i f i e r s be added:  Students a r e asked to combine these i n t o one sentence: The t a l l , rather ugly s a i l o r with a limp, who had o f f e r e d them a p r i z e , f i n a l l y came on deck.  (a)  two prenominal m o d i f i e r s d e s c r i b i n g the s a i l o r ' s h e i g h t and weight  (b)  a p a r t i c i p i a l phrase des c r i b i n g the s a i l o r ' s walk  (c)  a p a r t i c i p i a l phrase des c r i b i n g something the s a i l o r was d o i n g .  49  Marzano advocated  t h i s program o f C h r i s t e n s e n ' s as a b a s i s  c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y w i t h s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g , f o r he sentence composing efficient "forced  M a r z a n o was  c h o i c e " method o f j u d g i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f I n h i s own  He  frequency of sentence-combining  found a  critical  a n d he  t h a t i t was  t o remember t h a t s e n t e n c e - c o m b i n i n g m i g h t b e r e l a t e d  the  the important  to q u a l i t y  with-  it.  M a r z a n o ' s c r i t i c i s m o f s e n t e n c e - c o m b i n i n g was 1976,  compositions  transformations per T-Unit.  i n c i d e n c e o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s , b u t he e m p h a s i z e d  i n E J , Dec.  o f O'Hare's  calculated  .51 c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e q u a l i t y r a t i n g s a n d  out b e i n g the cause of  more  sentence-combining  s t u d y ( 1 9 7 5 ) , he e v a l u a t e d 100  on a s c a l e f r o m 1 t o 9 f o r o v e r a l l q u a l i t y , average  this  p r o c e s s m i g h t p r o v e as e f f e c t i v e a s , and  than, sentence-combining.  on c o m p o s i t i o n .  thought  for a  b y James Ney  ( s e e a b o v e ) , who  answered  p o i n t e d out  Marzano's o b j e c t i o n t o the f o r c e d - c h o i c e method o f g r a d i n g  that composi-  t i o n s had b e e n a n t i c i p a t e d , and more r e c e n t s t u d i e s had i n t r o d u c e d a g r a d a t i o n o f s c o r e s method (Ney, favoured quoted  s t u d e n t s who  had  1975;  practised  Combs, 1975)  which  sentence-combining.  also Ney  a r e m a r k f r o m Combs:  S k e p t i c i s m a b o u t SC p r a c t i c e . . . d e r i v e s f r o m a b e l i e f than s y n t a c t i c m a n i p u l a t i o n encourages o v e r - c o m p l i c a t e d , badly conceived prose. U n l e s s one i s w i l l i n g t o e n t e r t a i n the c o u n t e r - i n t u i t i v e assumption that such prose i s cons i s t e n t l y p r e f e r r e d by t e a c h e r - r a t e r s , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y shows t h a t s t u d e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p w r o t e s e n t e n c e s o f i m p r o v e d ' q u a l i t y . ' ( p . 18)  then  50  Ney  a l s o quoted S t o t s k y  (1975), who, i n her comprehensive review  of sentence combining, argued t h a t SC p r a c t i c e improved  composition  from another p o i n t o f view:  . . • the p r a c t i c e o f p l a y i n g m e n t a l l y and o p e r a t i o n a l l y with s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s leads to a kind of automatizat i o n o f s y n t a c t i c s k i l l s such t h a t mental energy i s f r e e d i n a B r u n e r i a n sense to c o n c e n t r a t e on g r e a t e r e l a b o r a t i o n o f i n t e n t i o n and meaning.  In the same i s s u e o f the E n g l i s h J o u r n a l  as Ney wrote,  Combs a l s o answered Marzano's a t t a c k , p o i n t i n g out s e v e r a l e r r o r s i n Marzano's argument, and adding " t h a t r e c e n t Combs, and Pedersen have s u b s t a n t i a t e d a c t i v i t y and i n c r e a s e d concluding  s t u d i e s by V i t a l e ,  Perron,  the c o r r e l a t i o n between SC  judgments o f q u a l i t y i n w r i t i n g . "  remarks, however, Combs warned t h a t one s h o u l d  too much f o r SC p r a c t i c e , as i t was "no panacea; g a i n s c a n t l y e i g h t weeks a f t e r s t u d e n t s q u i t combining  In h i s not claim  drop  signifi-  sentences."  Summary  A summary o f the r e s e a r c h present  study r e v e a l e d  d i r e c t l y p e r t a i n i n g to the  t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e  agreement among e x p e r t s .  about the r o l e o f grammar i n r e l a t i o n to w r i t i n g , except t h a t  taught  i n i s o l a t i o n i t was o f l i t t l e  (1967)  b e n e f i t to c o m p o s i t i o n .  Potter  noted the need to t e s t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a grammatical approach against  a "non-grammatical" approach to c o m p o s i t i o n , and t h a t the  methods used should  be e q u a l l y e x c i t i n g f o r both.  He a l s o  stressed  the importance o f d e f i n i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y the q u a l i t i e s expected o f "good" w r i t i n g .  In h i s research,  he had found t h a t the most  marked d i f f e r e n c e s between good and bad w r i t i n g i n grade t e n l a y i n the use o f c o o r d i n a t i n g and t r a n s i t i o n a l d e v i c e s , the o b j e c t s , and the use o f v e r b a l  the c o m p l e x i t y o f  structures.  In the f i e l d o f language development, Hunt's (1965) s t u d i e s not  o n l y e s t a b l i s h e d the f a c t t h a t s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y  accompany c o g n i t i v e growth, but a l s o p r o v i d e d describe,  o b j e c t i v e measures to  i n q u a n t i f i a b l e terms, the f e a t u r e s which c o n s t i t u t e d  syntactic maturity.  Hunt concluded t h a t , o f these measures, the  b e s t were T - U n i t l e n g t h and c l a u s e  length.  O'Donnell e t a l . (1967)  confirmed t h i s when they found t h a t s t u d e n t s ' longer  seemed to  T - U n i t s and c l a u s e s  ability  to w r i t e  i n c r e a s e d w i t h each grade l e v e l .  i n 1968 O'Donnell, u s i n g an instrument he had d e v i s e d ,  Further,  known as the  "aluminum" passage, found t h a t c l a u s e l e n g t h accounted f o r most o f the growth i n c o m p l e x i t y i n the w r i t i n g o f o l d e r s t u d e n t s . 1970  In h i s  study, Hunt used the same i n s t r u m e n t , and found t h a t a l l the  trends  apparent i n h i s e a r l i e r study were d u p l i c a t e d .  i n d i c a t e d that s y n t a c t i c maturity  c o n s i s t e d c h i e f l y i n the a b i l i t y  to make many embeddings p e r c l a u s e , and i n so doing c l a u s e l e n g t h and T - U n i t  His findings  increasing  length.  Once these i n d i c e s were e s t a b l i s h e d as e f f e c t i v e means of measuring the a b i l i t y o f s t u d e n t s to m a n i p u l a t e language, research  began i n an e f f o r t to determine whether o r n o t s y n t a c t i c  52 m a t u r i t y c o u l d be a c c e l e r a t e d , r a t h e r than a w a i t i n g the slow" development Hunt d e s c r i b e d as normal.  "glacially  The p i o n e e r s i n t h i s  f i e l d were Bateman and Z i d o n i s , whose two-year study, completed  i n the  same y e a r as Hunt's, d i d not have the f u l l b e n e f i t o f h i s f i n d i n g s . T h e i r r e s u l t s showed t h a t a study o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar by t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t a l group o f grade n i n e and  ten s t u d e n t s enabled  group to i n c r e a s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y the p r o p o r t i o n o f w e l l - f o r m e d t h a t they wrote, and to reduce writing.  this  sentences  the o c c u r r e n c e o f e r r o r s i n t h e i r  M e l l o n , whose study f o l l o w e d i n 1967,  Z i d o n i s c l a i m t h a t the l e a r n i n g o f grammatical  r e j e c t e d the Bateman-  rules  per se  could  l e a d to improvement i n student w r i t i n g o r t h a t these r u l e s c o u l d be a p p l i e d i n a c o n s c i o u s manner by the w r i t e r s . i t was  the sentence-combining  Mellon speculated that  p r a c t i c e t h a t had r e s u l t e d i n the  s y n t a c t i c g a i n s o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s , r a t h e r than the l e a r n i n g o f grammar.  In h i s own  r e s e a r c h , M e l l o n ' s h y p o t h e s i s was  that  by t e a c h i n g h i s s t u d e n t s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar and h a v i n g them use the knowledge to p r a c t i s e a g r e a t d e a l o f he might improve t h e i r " s y n t a c t i c f l u e n c y . " e p i l o g u e to h i s p u b l i s h e d study  sentence-combining, He d i d so, but i n the  (1969) he s t a t e d t h a t the g a i n s o f  h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l group were p r o b a b l y due more to t h e i r combining  sentence-  p r a c t i c e than to t h e i r study of grammar. B a s i n g h i s study on t h i s same premise,  that students could  improve t h e i r a b i l i t y to m a n i p u l a t e  sentence s t r u c t u r e b e t t e r w i t h -  out b e i n g burdened w i t h grammatical  t e r m i n o l o g y , O'Hare d e v i s e d a  53  study wherein  h i s experimental c l a s s e s p r a c t i s e d  sentence-combining  problems which were c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h non-grammatical s i g n a l s .  The  g a i n s o f these s t u d e n t s i n s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y were much g r e a t e r than M e l l o n ' s , and O'Hare a t t r i b u t e d t h i s t o the non-grammatical  approach.  In r e p l i c a t i n g O'Hare's study, Combs (1975) a l s o had h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l group p r a c t i s e sentence-combining study any grammar, but he found  without having  them  t h a t w h i l e h i s s t u d e n t s d i d make  s y n t a c t i c g a i n s , these were l e s s than h a l f as g r e a t as O'Hare's, more on a p a r w i t h M e l l o n ' s .  F u r t h e r , Combs found t h a t by g i v i n g a two--  month delayed p o s t - t e s t t h a t the g a i n s o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l  group  were c u t i n h a l f . C r i t i c s o f the sentence-combining maturity  approach t o s y n t a c t i c  ( M o f f a t , C h r i s t e n s e n , Marzano), who b e l i e v e d t h a t i t encouraged  c o m p l i c a t e d , wordy p r o s e , were c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the f a c t t h a t i n a t least  t h r e e s t u d i e s (O'Hare's, Bateman-Zidonis's,  competent t e a c h e r s had r a t e d the prose w r i t t e n by c l a s s e s t o be s u p e r i o r to t h a t o f the c o n t r o l  and Combs's), sentence-combining  classes.  54  CHAPTER 2  DESIGNS AND PROCEDURES  Overview  The o v e r a l l p l a n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h was t o t e s t w h e t h e r s t u d y o f c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f grammar c o u l d b e more e f f e c t i v e  a  in in-  c r e a s i n g the normal r a t e o f growth o f s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y i n the f r e e w r i t i n g o f grade t e n s t u d e n t s than t h e sentence-combining approach a d v o c a t e d b y F r a n k O'Hare i n h i s r e s e a r c h r e p o r t No. 15 f o r t h e N a t i o n a l Council o f Teachers o f E n g l i s h . Sentence Combining:  entitled  Improving Student W r i t i n g Without Formal  Instruction, explained to h i s s u b j e c t s .  This report,  the type o f sentence-combining program  Grammar given  S u b s e q u e n t l y , O'Hare w r o t e h i s s e n t e n c e - c o m b i n i n g  program i n a t e x t c a l l e d S e n t e n c e c r a f t , p u b l i s h e d by Ginn and Company i n 1 9 7 5 . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e r e w e r e two n o r m a l g r a d e t e n c l a s s e s , a t o t a l o f 56 s t u d e n t s ( 3 0 g i r l s , in  26 b o y s ) .  Of t h e s e , 27 w e r e  t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , w h i c h was d i v i d e d i n t o 2 s m a l l g r o u p s , o n e  w i t h 13 a n d t h e o t h e r w i t h 14 s t u d e n t s . students, divided other.  into  The c o n t r o l g r o u p h a d 29  two s m a l l g r o u p s , w i t h 14 i n o n e a n d 15 i n t h e  The e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d t h e c o n t r o l  groups f o l l o w e d  t h e same  curriculum f o r three out o f the four weekly E n g l i s h periods.  I n the  55  f o u r t h p e r i o d the s m a l l groups met o r sentence-combining  to c a r r y on t h e i r grammar study  a c t i v i t i e s o v e r a n i n e month p e r i o d .  During  time a l l s t u d e n t s wrote the same number o f d e s c r i p t i v e , n a r r a t i v e , expository compositions.  and  Samples o f b e f o r e and a f t e r w r i t i n g were  used as a b a s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g s y n t a c t i c growth. growth observed  this  Comparisons o f  i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups were made w i t h the normal  growth r a t e e s t a b l i s h e d by Hunt (1965) and w i t h the growth observed i n e q u i v a l e n t b e f o r e and a f t e r w r i t i n g o f s t u d e n t s i n the groups.  Growth i n the two  groups was  control  a l s o compared to the growth  a c h i e v e d by the s u b j e c t s o f M e l l o n , O'Hare, and Combs i n t h e i r studies.  Hypotheses  T h i s study was  1.  d e s i g n e d to t e s t the f o l l o w i n g  That the e x p e r i m e n t a l group,  hypotheses:  studying c e r t a i n aspects of  t r a d i t i o n a l grammar, would a c h i e v e more growth i n s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y than the c o n t r o l group, sentence-combining  practising  t h a t d i d not i n v o l v e formal i n s t r u c t i o n  i n grammar.  2.  That  the e x p e r i m e n t a l group would w r i t e compositions  that  would be r e c o g n i z e d by e x p e r i e n c e d E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s as s u p e r i o r i n o v e r a l l q u a l i t y to those w r i t t e n by the c o n t r o l group.  56 Design of the Study A 2 x 2 f a c t o r i a l design was used, with grammar study versus sentence-combining,  and pre- versus post-test. An analysis  of covariance was carried out i n order to p a r t i a l out the e f f e c t s of I.Q. and previous achievement i n English as i t was f e l t that these were the two main factors which might contribute to i n i t i a l differences i n the two groups.  English marks were obtained from  the student's achievement for the previous year, as indicated by l e t t e r grade on h i s June report.  This l e t t e r grade was quantified  by a scale on which: A = 8 , A- =7, B + = 6 , B = 5 , B - = 4 , C + = 3 , C = 2, C - = l .  I.Q. score were obtained from an Otis Quick-Scoring  Test, Beta Form EM, given to the subjects i n September.  The two  experimental and two control classes had been assigned to their classes according to their timetables, which were f l e x i b l e enough, however, to permit the subjects to be shifted within the small groups i n order to create, a f t e r I.Q. and performance i n English were considered, a control and experimental population of approximately equal a b i l i t y and sex.  A few students of very low a b i l i t y  were transferred from the population of the study into two other small groups not involved i n this experiment, but taught by the researcher.  Such a transfer was not possible, however, with  a l l students i n this category.  57 Subjects Four small-group grade t e n c l a s s e s ,  t o t a l l i n g 56 s t u d e n t s ,  who were w i t h i n the normal grade t e n range o f 15 to 16 y e a r s , and had I.Q. s c o r e s r a n g i n g from 85 to 124, w i t h an average o f 109.7 i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group, and 110.2 i n the c o n t r o l group. students l e f t  Three  s c h o o l d u r i n g the y e a r , and one t r a n s f e r r e d i n , l e a v i n g  15 g i r l s and 12 boys i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s , and 15 g i r l s and 14 boys i n the c o n t r o l c l a s s e s .  Students i n b o t h c l a s s e s were from  the same socio-economic background, Anglo-Saxon  origin,  as they were almost a l l o f  from upper m i d d l e c l a s s homes i n which the p a r e n t s  were w e l l - e d u c a t e d and i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s p r o g r e s s .  Variables  I.  Independent (a) Between-Subject  Variable: a regular curriculum i n English  was taught f o r t h r e e p e r i o d s o u t o f f o u r , and i n the f o u r t h two approaches d e s i g n e d to i n c r e a s e growth i n s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y were used.  Two s m a l l groups s t u d i e d c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f grammar, w h i l e the  o t h e r two p r a c t i s e d a form o f sentence-combining which d i d n o t i n v o l v e any f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n grammar. sentence-combining were l a b e l l e d i n g grammar were c a l l e d  The c l a s s e s p r a c t i c i n g  the " c o n t r o l " group and those s t u d y -  the " e x p e r i m e n t a l " group.  Both groups, i n  a d d i t i o n to t h e i r work i n sentence s t r u c t u r e , c a r r i e d out a program of free w r i t i n g . (b) W i t h i n - S u b j e c t Repeated Measures V a r i a b l e : pre-.\and p o s t - t e s t s were g i v e n i n October and May.  58  II.  Dependent A.  B.  Two  i n d i c e s of s y n t a c t i c maturity:  1.  Words per T - U n i t  2.  Words per c l a u s e  A s i n g l e q u a l i t a t i v e judgment based  s t y l e , v o c a b u l a r y , and was  the b e t t e r o f two  sentence  s t r u c t u r e was  on i d e a s , o r g a n i z a t i o n , made to d e c i d e which  c o m p o s i t i o n s , one e x p e r i m e n t a l and one  which had been matched f o r I.Q.,  ability  control,  i n E n g l i s h , sex, and mode  of d i s c o u r s e . III.  IV.  Concommitant: I.Q.  Scores and E n g l i s h Achievement  Scores.  Extraneous Language e x p e r i e n c e s o f the s u b j e c t s o u t s i d e the E n g l i s h  classes.  R a t i o n a l e of the P r e s e n t Study  In s e e k i n g to d i s c o v e r the most e f f e c t i v e way s t u d e n t s to improve t h e i r sentence  s t r u c t u r e and  to h e l p  their writing  style,  the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h e r noted P o t t e r ' s comment t h a t : I f c o m p o s i t i o n improvement i s used to j u s t i f y i n s t r u c t i o n i n grammar, the q u e s t i o n goes beyond the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e ness o f grammars A, B, C, and D. Each o f the grammars must be t e s t e d a g a i n s t a proven 'non-grammatical' method, (p. 19)  The  c h o i c e o f " t r a d i t i o n a l " grammar as a means o f enhancing  syntactic  m a t u r i t y might w e l l seem . q u i x o t i c . i n view o f the l a r g e body o f r e s e a r c h a t t e s t i n g to i t s i n e f f i c i e n c y as an a i d to i n s t r u c t i o n i n c o m p o s i t i o n ,  59 but i n doing so the researcher was moved by a number of considerations : 1.  Much of the research done i n the f i r s t half of the century would not be considered v a l i d i n the l i g h t of modern methods of research.  In addition, most of  these early studies were more interested i n usage than in grammar, and their results were obtained by objective testing.  2.  The investigator hoped:  (a) that a study of grammar  integrated with the w r i t i n g process might enable students to see more c l e a r l y the importance of structure i n improving s t y l e ;  (b) that students would recognize  the need for e d i t i n g s k i l l s when the written work was to be published; and (c) that the usefulness of a grammatical vocabulary describing accurately the operating of language would become apparent.  The aim of the researcher was thus to make grammar function i n a dual r o l e : a n a l y t i c a l l y , i t would show the structure of the language, and synthetically, o f f e r the writer a variety of options from which he could choose to improve h i s own constructions. For the "non-grammatical" approach, i t was decided to use O'Hare's method of sentence-combining, f u l i n increasing "syntactic maturity.  as i t had been proved 11  success-  This term "syntactic maturity"  60  u s u a l l y meant t h a t a s a w r i t e r m a t u r e d , a n d more c o m p l e x b e c a u s e  h i s s e n t e n c e s grew l o n g e r  h i s independent  by i n c r e a s e d embedding w i t h i n c l a u s e s .  c l a u s e s were l e n g t h e n e d Hunt's i n d i c e s ,  such as  words p e r T-Unit and p e r c l a u s e , measured t h e l e n g t h t h a t with maturity. was  increased  I n the present study, m a t u r i t y o f sentence  defined i n a s t a t i s t i c a l  found i n samples  structure  sense as t h e range o f sentence  types  of student w r i t i n g .  L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study  1.  Design o f the Study: (a)  The r e s e a r c h e r t a u g h t b o t h o f t h e c l a s s e s and b o t h o f t h e c o n t r o l classes.  experimental-grammar  sentence-combining  T h i s was u n a v o i d a b l e a s t h e e x p e r i m e n t h a d t o  be c a r r i e d o u t i n c l a s s e s a l r e a d y a s s i g n e d t o t h e researcher.  S c h e d u l i n g c o n s t r a i n t s , made o t h e r a r r a n g e -  ments i m p o s s i b l e .  H o w e v e r , e v e r y e f f o r t was made t o  approach both c l a s s e s w i t h equal enthusiasm and equal effort,  f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r was more i n t e r e s t e d  c o v e r i n g w h i c h m e t h o d was m o r e e f f e c t i v e students' sentence s t r u c t u r e a particular (b) B e c a u s e  i n improving  t h a n s h e was i n a d v o c a t i n g  treatment,  the r e s e a r c h e r had " i n t a c t " c l a s s e s ,  c o u l d n o t be randomly  be c o n t r o l l e d .  students  a s s i g n e d t o t h e c o n t r o l and  experimental groups, nor could met  i n dis-  the time a t which  classes  61 (c) The sentence-combining group was a r b i t r a r i l y l a b e l l e d the "control" group as i t followed a treatment devised by O'Hare, while the group studying grammar was c a l l e d the experimental group, as the researcher, i n designing i t s course, had attempted to formulate a method of i n s t r u c t i o n that would be more e f f e c t i v e i n improving not only the sentence structure but the o v e r a l l quality of writing, than the sentence-combining approach.  2.  Homogeneity of the Subject Population Not only were the control and experimental classes balanced  by I.Q. and language achievement, but they were almost a l l from the same socioeconomic background. 3.  F i n a n c i a l Restraints Because no funds were available to pay markers, the researcher  followed certain procedures not because they were preferable, but because they were p r a c t i c a l : (a) The use of O'Hare's "forced choice" method of evaluating compositions. (b) The brevity of the pre-marking session. (c) The size of the sample.  62 Procedures  S e l e c t i o n o f the E x p e r i m e n t a l S u b j e c t s  The t e n t h grade was  s e l e c t e d as t h e M e v e l on which to con-  duct the experiment s i m p l y because, o f the two  grades taught by the  r e s e a r c h e r , t h i s one seemed b e t t e r s u i t e d to the purpose o f the experiment.  One  o f the reasons f o r t h i s was  t h a t the t e x t used  by the c o n t r o l c l a s s , S e n t e n c e c r a f t , d e s i g n e d as the b a s i s o f an e l e c t i v e c o u r s e , appeared to be more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a grade ten l e v e l , as d i d the a s p e c t s o f grammar t h a t c o n s t i t u t e d the b a s i s o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l group's study. sented the t r a n s i t i o n phase s t u d e n t s , and i t was  In a d d i t i o n , the grade tens r e p r e -  from j u n i o r to s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l  i n t h i s y e a r t h a t i n c r e a s i n g emphasis  w r i t t e n E n g l i s h , as a form d i s t i n c t  from spoken E n g l i s h ,  upon was  placed. Procedures i n t h i s experiment had to be f u n c t i o n a l w i t h i n a g i v e n s e t t i n g : a l a r g e urban secondary s c h o o l o p e r a t i n g on a f l e x i b l e modular timetables.  system, w i t h s t u d e n t s on i n d i v i d u a l  W i t h i n t h i s s t r u c t u r e , time was  computerized  provided for student-  t e a c h e r c o n f e r e n c e s , but the c l a s s time f o r E n g l i s h was to the f o u r f o r t y - m i n u t e p e r i o d s p e r week mentioned  limited  above._  Of  these, the one used to c a r r y on the c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l programs, group  I.e., sentence-combining and grammar study, met  i n small  sessions. T h i s s m a l l group format had a d i s t i n c t advantage  for this  type o f experiment, as the work done i n s m a l l group c o u l d be kept  63  c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e from t h a t done i n middle  group.  The  program  f o l l o w e d by the c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d e n t s meeting i n s m a l l group c l a s s e s was  never d i s c u s s e d i n r e g u l a r c l a s s e s .  Indeed,  such  a procedure would have been i m p o s s i b l e , as the f i f t e e n s t u d e n t s i n one  s m a l l group might be members o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t r e g u l a r  classes.  Students were never  t o l d t h a t they were p a r t o f an e x p e r i -  ment, nor d i d they seem to have any  i d e a t h a t t h e r e was  ence i n the programs o f the s m a l l group c l a s s e s . a c c e p t e d the i d e a t h a t the p r e - t r e a t m e n t  a differ-  They e a s i l y  compositions were a s s i g n e d  i n o r d e r t h a t the t e a c h e r might l e a r n something of t h e i r a b i l i t y w r i t e i n the v a r i o u s modes, and  t h a t the p o s t - t r e a t m e n t  were g i v e n to see i f t h e r e had been any  to  compositions  improvement d u r i n g the  year. Another advantage of the s m a l l group format was p e r m i t t e d a l e s s f o r m a l atmosphere, w i t h more i n t e r c h a n g e d i s c u s s i o n among s t u d e n t s .  tages as w e l l , difficult  and  In a d d i t i o n , i t a l l o w e d s t u d e n t s to  have a week to complete w r i t i n g assignments, the program f o r b o t h groups.  that i t  an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e were d i s a d v a n -  f o r the weekly i n t e r v a l between c l a s s e s made i t  to a c h i e v e c o n t i n u i t y , which was  not a problem i n the  sentence-combining  c l a s s e s , but a d e f i n i t e d e t r a c t i o n i n the  grammar c l a s s e s .  In the l a t t e r ,  s t u d e n t s sometimes needed  c o n s i d e r a b l e review b e f o r e they remembered c l e a r l y what they done the week b e f o r e . arrangement was  Another disadvantage  t h a t two  had  o f the s m a l l group  o f the weekly c l a s s e s , one  experimental,  and one c o n t r o l , were scheduled f o r the l a s t day, when s t u d e n t s were o f t e n t i r e d . athletic  two p e r i o d s i n the  In a d d i t i o n , members o f  teams missed a number o f these c l a s s e s because o f games o r  practices. Of the 58 s t u d e n t s who c l a s s e s , one boy  in  comprised  the f o u r s m a l l group  the e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s q u i t  s c h o o l , and  two  boys i n the c o n t r o l group t r a n s f e r r e d out o f the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . T h e i r s c o r e s were n o t i n c l u d e d i n the d a t a .  One  boy  transferred  i n t o the e x p e r i m e n t a l group f a i r l y e a r l y i n the term, and h i s i n p u t was  included.  A t the end of the study, a f t e r a l l the d a t a had been  c o l l e c t e d , the s c o r e s o f f o u r c o n t r o l and one who  had missed  the I.Q.  experimental  students  t e s t o r one o f the p r e - or p o s t - t e s t  composi  t i o n s were n o t i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter  3.  C o n t r o l Group  Treatment  For a t h i r t y - f i v e to f o r t y minute p e r i o d once a week, the c o n t r o l group p r a c t i s e d the sentence-combining  problems i n the book  S e n t e n c e c r a f t , i n which were t w e n t y - s i x l e s s o n s , i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h e i g h t " W r i t i n g Workshops." the importance how  to say i t .  In the i n t r o d u c t i o n , O'Hare emphasized  not o n l y o f h a v i n g something To t h i s end he suggested  to say, but o f knowing  that students should l e a r n  to manipulate words, p h r a s e s , and sentences u n t i l the most e x p r e s s i v e combination  they had  attained  to d e s c r i b e t h e i r thoughts.  h i s r e s e a r c h r e p o r t (p. 72) O'Hare quoted  C h r i s t e n s e n (1967),  In who  s a i d " s o l v i n g the problem of 'how  to say' h e l p s s o l v e the problem  o f "what to say.  T h i s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t "form" c o u l d ,  i n a sense,  . . ." (p. 5)-  generate  " c o n t e n t " seemed to be p a r t o f the p h i l o s o p h y  u n d e r l y i n g the sentence-combining  approach  to improved w r i t i n g i n  0'Hare's t e x t . During the course o f the study s t u d e n t s i n the •sentencecombining  program completed  the t w e n t y - s i x l e s s o n s i n t h e i r t e x t ,  w e l l as some typed sheets o f a d d i t i o n a l problems i n sentences w i t h o u t  the a i d o f s i g n a l s .  employed no grammatical the sentences  terminology;  combining  These problems, l i k e O'Hare's s t u d e n t s were asked  i n the most e f f e c t i v e way  a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f any new  as  possible.  to combine  In c l a s s ,  after  techniques i n t r o d u c e d i n t h a t day's  l e s s o n or l e s s o n s , s e v e r a l sample problems were s o l v e d o r a l l y  before  the s t u d e n t s went ahead a t t h e i r own  the  speed.  l e s s o n s d u r i n g the p e r i o d , but most had time to f i n i s h .  A few completed  to spend some a d d i t i o n a l  Students were encouraged to d i s c u s s w i t h each o t h e r  p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s to any q u e s t i o n s t h a t proved  troublesome,  and  a t some time d u r i n g the p e r i o d answers to the p r e v i o u s week's assignment were read a l o u d .  There was  a v e r y p l e a s a n t atmosphere  i n the c l a s s , as s t u d e n t s seemed to enjoy the c h a l l e n g e o f manipul a t i n g language,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c h a p t e r s e n t i t l e d  which o f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e scope f o r t h e i r i n g e n u i t y . i n these s e c t i o n s r e q u i r e d the use of a l l the techniques employed i n e a r l i e r l e s s o n s .  "Challenge" The  problems  sentence-combining  Some had  signals  66  i n d i c a t i n g how t h e s e n t e n c e s Students were s i m p l y t o l d used  s h o u l d be c o m b i n e d , and o t h e r s h a d none.  t o "make u s e o f t h e c o m b i n i n g  so f a r . " O'Hare d e v i s e d a s e r i e s o f s i g n a l s  first and  techniques  to master  single-embedding problems,  embed a number o f k e r n e l  few examples w i l l  Lesson  sentences  serve to i l l u s t r a t e  that enabled  students  and t h e n t o t r a n s f o r m  i n t o a s i n g l e sentence.  A  the type o f s i g n a l s g i v e n :  1  Three  o r f o u r s h o r t sentences were combined by  deletion  and p u n c t u a t i o n s i g n a l s : A.  Helen r a i s e d her p i s t o l . Site t o o k c a r e f u l .aim.  . B.  (,)  Sfee s q u e e z e d o f f f i v e r a p i d t h e t a r g e t (, a n d ) Helen raised her p i s t o l , off  five  rapid  (The s i g n a l s of  Lessons  shots to the center of  t o o k c a r e f u l a i m , and  squeezed  shots to the center of the target.  i n t h e b r a c k e t s w e r e t o be p l a c e d i n f r o n t  the sentence which  they  follow).  4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 1 1 , 1 2 , a n d 13  These i n v o l v e d  v a r i o u s combining  noun c l a u s e s o r o t h e r nour  signals  f o r embedding  s u b s t i t u t e s , such as gerunds  and  infinitives: 1.  A. I g e t n e r v o u s  e v e r y time Ben goes f o r a swim i n t h e  o c e a n b e c a u s e he does n o t b e l i e v e  SOMETHING.  67  Something i s p o s s i b l e  (that).  The undertow sweeps him o u t i n t o deep water  (it-for-to)  I get nervous every time Ben goes f o r a swim because he does n o t b e l i e v e  that i t i s p o s s i b l e  f o r t h e under-  tow to sweep him o u t i n t o deep water.  SOMETHING was p r e d i c t a b l e . F i s h e r crushed h i s opponent r u t h l e s s l y  Fisher's ruthless crushing  ( 's +^5? + i n g + o f )  o f h i s opponent was p r e d i c t a b l e .  (Students were i n s t r u c t e d to f o l l o w the s i g n a l s i n the o r d e r i n which they were given)  SOMETHING was  impossible.  John s t u d i e d d u r i n g  I t was i m p o s s i b l e  commercials.  SOMETHING.  amino a c i d s b r i l l i a n t l y  I could not follow Garcia's amino a c i d s .  (it...for...to)  f o r John to study d u r i n g  I could not follow Garcia discussed  commercials  brilliant  ('s, + l y + d i s c u s s i o n + of)  discussion of  68  Lessons 15 and  16  These d e a l t w i t h the embedding o f a d j e c t i v e r e p e t i t i o n as a combining (that),  (who), (whom), (which/that) i n P a r t  (where), and  A.  signal, i n conjunction with  The room was  l i t by a s i n g l e displayed  The s p o t l i g h t was  Lessons 18 and  (whose),  (when),  i n the room, (where)  t r a i n e d on the gem  itself,  displayed  t r a i n e d on the gem  was  (which/that)  l i t by a s i n g l e  itself.  19  Here u n d e r l i n i n g tion with r e p e t i t i o n .  was  used as a combining  s i g n a l , i n conjunc-  Students were t o l d to i n s e r t the u n d e r l i n e d  words a f t e r the f i r s t appearance l i n e d words, and e l i m i n a t e  o f the r e p e a t e d words, to keep  the o t h e r s .  Blanche e a s i l y p u l l e d away from the Blanche i s a powerful  B.  (which),  spotlight.  The room where the diamond was s p o t l i g h t t h a t was  A.  using  (why), i n P a r t I I .  The diamond was  B.  I , and  clauses,  field.  runner.  Blanche, a p o w e r f u l runner, e a s i l y p u l l e d away from  the  field.  Lesson  21  Here the use o f c o n n e c t i n g words to combine sentences and e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p between them was  illustrated.  This  under-  69 lesson dealt p r i n c i p a l l y with adverbial conjunctions, but also showed the use of the semi-colon, coordinate conjunctions, and a d j e c t i v a l conjunctions. A.  You put i t that way. (since) Something i s impossible. I disagree with your proposal,  B.  (it..for..to)  Since you put i t that way, i t i s impossible for me to disagree with your proposal.  Lesson 22 The signals (ing) and (with) showed how to combine  sentences  using p a r t i c i p i a l and prepositional phrases to get the "cumulative" type of sentence. A.  J i l l stood at the edge of the c l i f f . She looked down on their upturned, nickle-sized. faces by the side of the t i d a l pool, (ing) She wished she had ignored the dare, (ing) She f e l t trapped, (ing) I Yet she knew something,  (ing)  She couldn't back down, (that) B.  J i l l stood at the edge of the c l i f f , looking down on their upturned, n i c k l e - s i z e d faces by the side of the t i d a l pool, wishing she had ignored the dare, f e e l i n g trapped, yet knowing she couldn't back down.  70  Writing  Workshops  In a d d i t i o n interspersed distributed  to the above l e s s o n s ,  and the " C h a l l e n g e "  between them, t h e r e were a l s o e i g h t " W r i t i n g Workshops" throughout the t e x t so t h a t one o c c u r r e d e v e r y t h i r d o r  fourth lesson.  These o u t l i n e d w r i t i n g p r o j e c t s w e r e l a r g e l y i n the v  n a r r a t i v e , n a r r a t i v e - d e s c r i p t i v e , and e x p o s i t o r y not  only  o f f e r e d a wide c h o i c e ,  humourous, and always r e l e v a n t experiences.  but were h i g h l y  modes.  The t o p i c s  imaginative,  I n the n a r r a t i v e v e i n ,  themes i n v o l v i n g the s o l v i n g o f were  as were c h i l d r e n ' s  stories, tall  Many o p p o r t u n i t i e s  were p r o v i d e d f o r media w r i t i n g i n both  expository  and  current  t a l e s , daydreams, and nightmares.  to the e d i t o r ; l e t t e r s to  from "Ann Landers"; a weekly c o l u m n i s t ' s view o f a  controversy; or a s p o r t c a s t e r  expository  narrative  t a l e s o r n u r s e r y t a l e s as news f l a s h e s ;  w i t h famous people; l e t t e r s  purportedly  included,  modes: s c r i p t s f o r t e l e v i s i o n shows, f i l m s , o r s l i d e s ;  advertisements; w r i t i n g f a i r y interviews  often  to the s t u d e n t s ' own i n t e r e s t s and  a moral dilemma, o r s u r v i v i n g a w i l d e r n e s s e x p e d i t i o n  and  lessons  r e p o r t i n g a game.  Other  o r argumentative t o p i c s d e a l t w i t h p u b l i c s e r v i c e  appeals  to support worthwhile causes, and a r t i c l e s to i n f o r m and persuade the p u b l i c about l o c a l o r n a t i o n a l c o n c e r n s .  These workshops were  w e l l planned and p r o v i d e d the type o f w r i t i n g e x p e r i e n c e s t u d e n t s found e n j o y a b l e ; t h e r e  was  very l i t t l e  the weekly compositions t h a t were r e q u i r e d sentence-combining problems.  that  complaint about  i n conjunction  w i t h the  A p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e n t y - f i v e o f these  71  assignments were g i v e n to each c l a s s oyer a p e r i o d  o f seven months.  They were termed " f r e e w r i t i n g " as none o f the work was done i n c l a s s , and  t h e r e was no i n s t r u c t i o n o r a s s i s t a n c e  r e a d the m a t e r i a l  given.  Students simply  o u t l i n e d i n each "workshop" s e c t i o n and responded  a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the d a t a . These w r i t i n g assignments were g i v e n to a l l s m a l l c l a s s e s , whether they were c o n t r o l o r e x p e r i m e n t a l .  group  A l l compositions  were r e a d by the i n s t r u c t o r and r e t u r n e d to the s t u d e n t w i t h a comment which was u s u a l l y designed to i n c r e a s e sense o f achievement o f the w r i t e r . sentence s t r u c t u r e , and  the c o n f i d e n c e and  No r e f e r e n c e  was made to  i n grammatical o r non-grammatical  t h e r e was no d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f the c o n t e n t .  i n small  terminology,  The emphasis  group was always upon encouragement and the atmosphere was  congenial.  A few minutes a t the b e g i n n i n g o f each c l a s s were  u s u a l l y spent i n c o n g r a t u l a t i n g  s t u d e n t s who had turned i n p a r t i c u -  l a r l y good papers the week b e f o r e , and i n r e a d i n g some o f these a l o u d before returning received  them.  recognition  Care was taken to see t h a t a l l s t u d e n t s  as f r e q u e n t l y  as p o s s i b l e .  or a r t i c l e s were exchanged i n f o r m a l l y reluctance  stories  i n c l a s s , and once the i n i t i a l  o f p u p i l s to emerge from anonymity was overcome, these  group s e s s i o n s  proved h e l p f u l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g some s o r t o f g u i d e -  l i n e s as to what c o n s t i t u t e d incentive  Occasionally  q u a l i t y and s t y l e i n w r i t i n g .  to e d i t t h e i r work was g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d  p o s s i b i l i t y of publication.  The  by the  Students were urged to c o l l a b o r a t e  w i t h each o t h e r i n r e v i s i n g t h e i r w r i t i n g .  By A p r i l ,  everyone i n  b o t h groups had submitted a t l e a s t one p i e c e o f w r i t i n g f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n what became a 265-page volume. s c h o o l a t the time t h i s book was  O u t s i d e e v a l u a t o r s i n the  being c o l l a t e d i n preparation f o r  b i n d i n g commented i n t h e i r r e p o r t on the h i g h c a l i b r e o f the ten free w r i t i n g . received a  The book was  p u b l i s h e d i n May,  grade  and each s t u d e n t  copy.  Course Followed by E x p e r i m e n t a l Grammar C l a s s e s  In a d d i t i o n to these " W r i t i n g Workshop" assignments,  the  two  s m a l l groups making up the e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s s t u d i e d those a s p e c t s of grammar which P o t t e r (1967) and Hunt (1965, 1970) might be h e l p f u l to grade structure.  had  indicated  ten s t u d e n t s i n improving t h e i r  sentence  These i n c l u d e d :  1.  The use o f a v a r i e t y o f sentence p a t t e r n s .  2.  The e f f e c t i v e use o f c o o r d i n a t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n .  3.  The use o f v e r b a l s and  4.  The use o f t r a n s i t i o n a l d e v i c e s .  appositives.  Other a s p e c t s o f grammar which were covered i n c l u d e d a study o f the v o i c e and tense o f v e r b s , the agreement o f verbs w i t h s u b j e c t s , and on these was  the r e f e r e n c e o f pronouns.  their  However, the time spent  r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f , as the emphasis o f the c o u r s e  upon the work i n syntax. proved d i f f i c u l t  T h i s study o f the s t r u c t u r i n g o f  f o r many o f the s t u d e n t s , who  had had v e r y  was  sentences little  grammar b e f o r e t h i s y e a r , and much more time than the r e s e a r c h e r had a n t i c i p a t e d had  to be spent on i t .  I t was  week, o f l e s s than f o r t y minutes, was  found t h a t one p e r i o d a  r e a l l y not enough to ensure  sound grasp o f these b a s i c concepts, p a r t i c u l a r l y as some time used i n r e a d i n g t h e i r f r e e w r i t i n g c o m p o s i t i o n s .  a  was  Students came f o r  e x t r a h e l p as t h e i r t i m e t a b l e and i n c l i n a t i o n a l l o w e d , and  after  many weeks o f c o n t i n u e d e f f o r t w i t h each o f the s e c t i o n s l i s t e d above, most o f the s t u d e n t s demonstrated a s p e c t s o f t h e i r study.  One  some p r o f i c i e n c y w i t h  o f the most remarkable  b o t h these c l a s s e s i n grammar was  these  features of  t h e i r good humour.  For the most  p a r t , they d i d n o t l i k e grammar, but because they wanted to do w e l l , they approached master i t .  each new  phase o f the work w i t h an honest d e s i r e to  T h i s a t t i t u d e made the l e a r n i n g  (and t e a c h i n g ) p r o c e s s  easier.  Treatment  f o r the E x p e r i m e n t a l Group  A f t e r the i n t r o d u c t o r y comments on the s m a l l group w r i t i n g , each c l a s s began w i t h a review o f the p r e v i o u s week's work, and d i s c u s s i o n o f the assignment.  The atmosphere o f the c l a s s  a  was  s i m i l a r to t h a t o f a workshop, as s t u d e n t s c o n t r i b u t e d or q u e s t i o n e d i d e a s f r e e l y , and h e l p e d each o t h e r c o n s i d e r a b l y .  The  instructor  e x p l a i n e d each phase of the work, u s i n g b l a c k b o a r d  demonstrations,  t r a n s p a r e n c i e s , and packages o f p r e p a r e d m a t e r i a l s c o n t a i n i n g o u t l i n e s and e x p l a n a t i o n s o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d , as w e l l as a s s i g n -  merits to reinforce the concepts taught.  Students examined their  free writing, which they kept i n a binder, to see i f they could recognize whatever aspect of sentence structure was currently under investigation.  For example, they might look f o r :  their sentence patterns, or or subordination, or  (1) variety i n  (2) effectiveness i n their coordination  (3) their use of noun clauses or verbals.  Students were encouraged to analyze the structure and grammaticality of their own writing, and to recognize the need for r e v i s i o n .  As  mentioned above, the prospect of publication made the need for editing real. In the l a t t e r part of the course, when students were applying the terminology they had learned to the manipulation of sentence structure, the attitude of the students was more enthusiast i c , as they enjoyed exercising their ingenuity i n combining  sentences  through subordination, reduction, or the "cumulative" techniques of Christensen, which emphasized " c l u s t e r s " rather than clauses.  In  class, pupils read aloud the sentences they had written i n response to various sentence-building a c t i v i t i e s , and usually the inherent sense of grammaticality of the other students enabled them to t e l l what combinations were acceptable.  The whole emphasis of this  course was upon the integration of the study of sentence structure with the writing process.  75 Summary of Grammar Curriculum In order to c l a r i f y the materials covered with the experimental group, an outline of the course i s included here. 1.  Sentence Patterns.  Students were expected to recognize and to  write sentences i n the following basic patterns: (a) subject + verb (b) subject + verb + object (c) subject + verb + i n d i r e c t object + d i r e c t object (d) subject + "be" r complement (noun, adjective, or place phrase) J  (e) subject + l i n k verb + complement (f) subject + verb + object + objective complement (noun or adjective) 2.  Coordination and Subordination.  This work included:  (a) The difference between coordinate and subordinate conjunctions and the functions of each (b) The types of sentences:  simple, complex, compound,  . and compound-complex, (c) The use of connectives with coordinate clauses to show relationships: addition, contrast, choice, or result (d) Use of conjunctions to show relationships such as time, cause or reason, purpose or r e s u l t , and cond i t i o n between main clauses and subordinate adverbial clauses  (e) Use o f a d j e c t i v e c l a u s e s  to enable w r i t e r s to  s t r e s s one i d e a above another ( f ) Use o f s u b o r d i n a t e  clauses, modifying  a p p o s i t i v e s to c o r r e c t f a u l t y  Parallelism.  phrases, o r  coordination  T h i s s e c t i o n covered the w r i t i n g o f c o o r d i n a t e  i d e a s , as w e l l as i d e a s  t h a t were compared and c o n t r a s t e d , and  stressed:  (a) E x p r e s s i n g  p a r a l l e l i d e a s i n the same grammatical  form (b) P l a c i n g c o r r e l a t i v e c o n j u n c t i o n s parallel  immediately  terms  (c) Repeating any n e c e s s a r y words i n p a r a l l e l t i o n s i n order  Verbals  before  and A p p o s i t i v e s .  construc-  to c l a r i f y meaning  T h i s study  included:  (a) The d u a l n a t u r e o f i n f i n i t i v e s , gerunds, and p a r t i c i p l e s , which had many o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f v e r b s (b) The f u n c t i o n o f v e r b a l s as nouns, a d j e c t i v e s , o r adverbs (c) T h e i r use as an a i d t o c o n c i s e n e s s (d) Dangling  participles  (e) The f u n c t i o n o f a p p o s i t i v e s  Misplaced  Modifiers.  junction with dangling  These were covered v e r y b r i e f l y i n conparticiples.  77  Verbs.  T h i s s e c t i o n was (a) P r e s e n t  and p a s t  (b) A c t i v e and  brief. tense  passive  Pronoun R e f e r e n c e.  I t emphasized:  voice  T h i s p a r t was  a l s o v e r y s h o r t , and  stressed  the need to a v o i d : (a) Ambiguous (b) General  reference  reference  (c) Weak r e f e r e n c e (d) I n d e f i n i t e use o f " i t , " "they,"  Subject-Verb  Agreement.  T h i s was  and  "you."  mentioned b r i e f l y  i n connec-  t i o n w i t h pronoun r e f e r e n c e .  Unnecessary S h i f t s i n Sentences.  This topic dealt with  shifts  in: (a)  Subject  (b) Tense (c) V o i c e  Conciseness.  T h i s work s t r e s s e d the need to e l i m i n a t e unnecessary  words i n w r i t i n g , and  the methods o f r e d u c i n g c l a u s e s  (a) P a r t i c i p i a l ,  gerund, o r i n f i n i t i v e phrases  (b) P r e p o s i t i o n a l phrases (c) A p p o s i t i v e s (d) S i n g l e words.  to:  78  In o r d e r to p r a c t i s e sentence-combining,  and to review  most o f the a s p e c t s o f sentence s t r u c t u r e they had s t u d i e d , s t u d e n t s worked through the l a t t e r p a r t o f Chapter 7 and Chapter 8 i n L e a r n i n g English  (1963).  T h i s was the o n l y t e x t t h a t the s t u d e n t s i n t h i s t  e x p e r i m e n t a l course had, b u t they were a l s o g i v e n m a t e r i a l on mimeographed s h e e t s , some adapted from o t h e r t e x t s such as W a r r i n e r ' s E n g l i s h Grammar and Composition  (1977), and some developed by the  researcher. Because the r e s e a r c h e r wished  to determine how w e l l the  e x p e r i m e n t a l group had understood the grammatical o l o g y which  concepts and t e r m i n -  they had s t u d i e d , t h i s group was g i v e n , i n June, a compre-  h e n s i v e examination which r e q u i r e d them to demonstrate and s y n t h e s i z i n g s k i l l s .  both a n a l y z i n g  The examination r e q u i r e d s t u d e n t s to do a  c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f w r i t i n g , and took much l o n g e r than the i n s t r u c t o r had a n t i c i p a t e d .  As a r e s u l t ,  i t was n e c e s s a r y to s h o r t e n  some o f the s e c t i o n s o f the paper, and to omit one.or two o t h e r s . The papers were e v a l u a t e d o u t o f 100 ( w i t h o v e r h a l f o f the marks f o r the s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h syntax) by the E n g l i s h Department marker, who was f u l l y q u a l i f i e d , h a v i n g a B.A. w i t h a major i n E n g l i s h , and ten y e a r s ' e x p e r i e n c e i n marking  secondary E n g l i s h .  exam, and the r e s u l t s may be seen i n Appendix  The grammar  E .  The marks were n o t h i g h , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the mean I.Q. of the e x p e r i m e n t a l group was 109, b u t n o t too s u r p r i s i n g when the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s were taken i n t o a c c o u n t :  7? 1.  Of the three students who f a i l e d , one had a very low a b i l i t y , and was not expected to pass the same type of exam as the rest of the class; another had missed almost one-quarter of her classes during the year.  2.  The exam was too long, and fatigue was c e r t a i n l y a consideration.  3.  Students had to review the year's work on t h e i r own, as there was not time i n class for this purpose.  This task  proved d i f f i c u l t for pupils accustomed to the shorter tests given at the end of each unit i n the continuous evaluation system. 4.  As mentioned above, time was a r e a l l y pressing concern with the experimental c l a s s .  As a r e s u l t , a f t e r the  grammatical concepts and terminology had been taught, there was less time than expected f o r the students to spend on the manipulation of sentence structure.  Regular Curriculum In the other three periods each week, classes met i n middle groups, where a l l classes studied the same course material- i n l i t e r a ture, language, and composition.  80  Literature  Work i n t h e f a l l stories, of  term began w i t h the study o f ten s h o r t  taken p r i m a r i l y from E i g h t e e n S t o r i e s  these s t o r i e s ,  such as p l o t ,  s e t t i n g were d i s c u s s e d .  The  end  at which  of January,  T h i s s u b j e c t was  new  s t u d e n t s had  short stories,  C h r y s a l i d s , Animal completed  to the grade ten course  t h i r t y or f o r t y r e f e r e n c e books from  the s c h o o l l i b r a r y  w i t h a u n i t on n o n - f i c t i o n ,  including Hiroshima  i n t h e E x p o s i t o r y Mode.  T h i s w o r k was  p o e t r y f r o m P o e t r y : An A n t h o l o g y Imagine S e e i n g You  oral  completed, and  which  Language  year included:  began  continued  selections  f o l l o w e d by a s t u d y  Here.  texts  research.  f o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , and  Language study d u r i n g the  the  as  t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e w o r k on m y t h s , s t u d e n t s a n d when t h i s was  text,  oral,  included three or four  the study o f J u l i u s Caesar,  Man  Kill  t h i s y e a r , and m o s t o f  w e r e p l a c e d o n r e s e r v e so a s t o b e a v a i l a b l e f o r s t u d e n t After  To  mythology.  M o s t o f t h e w o r k was  Books used i n t h i s u n i t  or  by a p p r o x i m a t e l y  t i m e c l a s s e s began a u n i t on  it.  aspects  three  Farm, and  a c h o i c e o f d o i n g a m a j o r w r i t t e n p r o j e c t o r an  presentation. and  The  l a s t o f t h e s e was  t h e s t u d e n t s seemed t o e n j o y  Varying  c h a r a c t e r , theme, p o i n t o f v i e w ,  F o l l o w i n g t h e u n i t on  n o v e l s were s t u d i e d i n t u r n : a Mockingbird.  (1965).  the  from of new  81  1.  A u n i t on s p e l l i n g , and t h e b u i l d i n g o f v o c a b u l a r y through a s t u d y o f p r e f i x e s and s u f f i x e s .  2.  A u n i t on t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e language  and the h i s t o r y o f  writing. 3.  A u n i t on t h e l e v e l s o f language w h i c h s t r e s s e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i n f o r m a l i t y o f spoken  4.  the f o r m a l i t y o f w r i t t e n  English.  A u n i t on t h e advantages  of specific,  a b s t r a c t , g e n e r a l ones, quality of writing. and  E n g l i s h and  c o n c r e t e words over  i n improving the picture-making  D e n o t a t i o n and c o n n o t a t i o n o f words  t h e u s e o f euphemisms w e r e i n c l u d e d  here.  Composition  Free w r i t i n g , group  assignments.  a s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , was l a r g e l y d o n e i n s m a l l  I n middle groups, w r i t i n g  associated w i t h the study of l i t e r a t u r e . assignments might  i n a l l modes was  Examples o f t h e types o f  include:  1.  A d e s c r i p t i o n o f P a u l i n " P a u l ' s Case"  2.  A v e r s i o n o f "Mr. Know A l l " view  primarily  (Eighteen Stories).  f r o m Max K e l a d a ' s p o i n t o f  (Eighteen Stories).  3.  A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t h e m e s i n The C h r y s a l i d s .  4.  An i m a g i n a r y account i n which you a r e Scout, w r i t i n g t o Dill  of the e x c i t i n g adventure  m e e t i n g w i t h t h e "Grey  Chost"  that leads to your (To K i l l  A Mockingbird).  5.  T r a c e , i n a s e r i e s o f s t e p s , t h e ways i n w h i c h i d e a l s o c i e t y i n a u g u r a t e d b y O l d M a j o r was turned into a t o t a l i t a r i a n central irony implicit  Assignments  r e g i m e and  i n this  i n m i d d l e group v a r i e d  gradually  discuss  change ( A n i m a l  f r o m one  the  the Farm).  to t h r e e pages i n l e n g t h ,  a n d w e r e h a n d e d i n f o r m a r k i n g p r o b a b l y on a n a v e r a g e o f o n c e e v e r y two w e e k s . any p h a s e classes.  No w o r k o n grammar, u s a g e , p u n c t u a t i o n , c a p i t a l i z a t i o n , o f s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e was  discussed i n middle  group  Work f r o m C h a p t e r s 2 a n d 12 i n L e a r n i n g E n g l i s h on  p a r a g r a p h s and b u i l d i n g l o n g e r c o m p o s i t i o n s , w h i c h i n c l u d e d w r i t i n g o f r e p o r t s , o f summaries,  of reviews, the o r g a n i z i n g  m a t e r i a l i n t o a n o u t l i n e , a n d o t h e r f a c e t s o f w r i t i n g was  Text  the  the of  studied.  of the t e x t s , mentioned  above,  t h a t were used i n  r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m of the grade t e n s t u d e n t s i s i n c l u d e d  L i t e r a t u r e Texts ( i n the o r d e r r e f e r r e d  C h r y s a l i d s , b y J o h n Wyndham ( H o u s e 1965).  of Grant  A n i m a l Farm, by George O r w e l l (Longmans, Green London, England, 1964). To K i l l a M o c k i n g b i r d , b y H a r p e r L e e Ltd., Toronto, 1960). Myth, by M o i r a K e r r and John Bennet Company, T o r o n t o , 1 9 6 6 ) .  here.  to above):  E i g h t e e n S t o r i e s , ed. by M a l c o l m Ross and John S t e v e n s D e n t a n d S o n s L t d . , Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o , 1 9 6 5 ) . The  buildin  Books  A list  (J.M.  (Canada) L t d . ,  a n d Co. L t d . ,  ( M c C l e l l a n d and  ( T h e Copp C l a r k  o  Stewart  Publishing  83 Comparative M y t h o l o g y , by M a r i o n R a l s t o n L t d . , Toronto, 1974).  (D.C.  Heath  Canada  D e e d s o f Gods a n d H e r o e s , b y D o n a l d C r e i g h t o n ( M a c M i l l a n o f Canada, T o r o n t o , 1967). M y t h o l o g y , b y E d i t h H a m i l t o n ( T h e New 1940). Men  American L i b r a r y ,  Toronto,  a n d G o d s , b y Rex W a r n e r ( H e i n e m a n n E d u c a t i o n a l B o o k s L t d . , London, 1950).  Drama I V ( J u l i u s C a e s a r ) e d . , b y H e r m a n V o a d e n ( M a c M i l l a n Co. of Canada, T o r o n t o , 1965). H i r o s h i m a , by John H e r s e y New Y o r k , 1 9 6 0 ) . Man  (Bantam  B o o k , A l f r e d A. K n o f p , I n c . ,  i n t h e E x p o s i t o r y Mode, e d . , b y S a r a h S o l o t a r o f f L i t t e l l & Co., E v a n s t o n , I l l i n o i s , 1 9 7 0 ) .  (McDougal,  P o e t r y : A n A n t h o l o g y f o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , e d . , K. P h y l l i s Dover ( H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n o f Canada, L t d . , 1 9 6 5 ) . Language and C o m p o s i t i o n T e x t s : L e a r n i n g E n g l i s h , by P h i l i p Penner Toronto, 1963). The  L a n g u a g e o f Man  I I and  III,  and R u t h M c C o n n e l l  (McDougal,  Littell,  (MacMillan,  1972).  L a n g u a g e L i v e s , b y Ron S h e p h e r d a n d A l a n Coman ( N e l s o n & S o n s Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o , 1 9 7 2 ) . Language I s , by Shepherd O n t a r i o , 1.971).  a n d Coman ( N e l s o n & S o n s , Don  Dynamics o f Language, I I and I I I , ed.. b y G l a t t h o r n , a n d H e i m a n (D.C. H e a t h & Co., 1 9 7 1 ) .  Mills,  Kreidler,  84  Measurement Ability.  The students' a b i l i t y was measured by the Beta  Test: Form EM, Otis Q u i c k - S c o r i n g Mental A b i l i t y Tests: New Edition ( I . Q . scores, mean 100), and by the l e t t e r grade which represented  the student's achievement i n English for the previous  terms. Syntactic Maturity: Sample Size. syntactic maturity of students' for  the researcher  writing.  In order to measure the  free writing, i t was necessary  to obtain a representative sample of that  Studies had shown that a writer's performance could vary  because of day-to-day fluctuations and because of the mode of discourse.  Braddock (1963) summarized the research of Kincaid  (1953), who discovered  that the writing of college freshmen,  especially that of the better writers, varied from day to day. O'Hare referred to the work of Anderson (1960), who found that the grade eight students whom he tested on eight d i f f e r e n t  occasions  showed s u f f i c i e n t evidence of f l u c t u a t i o n i n their writing for him to conclude that a writer variable must be taken into account when rating compositions for research purposes.  In Kincaid's  study, he also noted that s p e c i f i c aspects of structure, l i k e length and complexity of clause, were related to the mode of discourse.  In this respect, h i s findings were s i m i l a r to those  of Johnson (1967) who examined the writing of elementary Seegers, as early as 1933,  students.  showed that mode of discourse was  related  t o s y n t a x , and Hunt (1964) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e w r i t e r ' s  sentence  s t r u c t u r e was a f f e c t e d b y t h e t y p e o f w r i t i n g h e was d o i n g .  A more r e c e n t s t u d y , b y V e a l and T i l l m a n (1971) examined t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r a t e d q u a l i t y o f c o m p o s i t i o n s in  f o u r modes: d e s c r i p t i v e , n a r r a t i v e , e x p o s i t o r y , a n d  at three elementary  grade  levels.  d i f f e r e n c e s between grade n a r r a t i v e modes.  They found  written  argumentative,  that the biggest  l e v e l s o c c u r r e d i n t h e e x p o s i t o r y and  Research  thus i n d i c a t e d  t h a t samples o f s t u d e n t s '  w r i t i n g s h o u l d i n c l u d e more t h a n one t y p e o f d i s c o u r s e , a s w e l l a s a variety of topics,  t o be w r i t t e n a t d i f f e r e n t  times.  I n a t t e m p t i n g t o d i s c o v e r an i d e a l sample s i z e , researcher noted clusions.  t h a t o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s h a d come t o v a r y i n g c o n -  C h o t l a s (1944) f o u n d  t h a t 1000-word samples w r i t t e n by  j u n i o r h i g h s t u d e n t s were as e f f e c t i v e a s 2000-word O'Donnell  and Hunt (1970) u s e d  of fourth graders.  samples.  a 300-word sample o f t h e w r i t i n g  M e l l o n ' s e x a m i n a t i o n o f 90 T - U n i t s  1000-word sample f o r each average  the present  l e n g t h o f T-Unit  test  time  f o r grade  (Hunt had found  gave h i m a  that the  e i g h t s t u d e n t s was e l e v e n  O'Hare e x a m i n e d 50 T - U n i t s , a n d t h i s g a v e h i m a p p r o x i m a t e l y samples a t each  test  time.  t h a t Hunt and O'Donnell  Combs u s e d  had suggested  a 300-word sample, this  (1970).  t h e t h r e e modes o f  d i s c o u r s e : n a r r a t i v e , d e s c r i p t i v e , a n d e x p o s i t o r y , b u t Combs o n l y t h e n a r r a t i v e a n d d e s c r i p t i v e modes.  500-word  stating  s i z e a s a minimum  M e l l o n ' s and 0'Hare's samples were t a k e n from  words).  used  86  In the present test,  and  study,  Length  of T-Units  s i t i o n s were averaged,  and  r e s e a r c h e r was  replicating  time.  g i v e n a t p r e - and  No  attempt  was  Rules  these  ten T-Units  the procedures  the  o f M e l l o n , O'Hare,  A l l p r e - and  and  topics,  to ensure t h a t s t u d e n t s were not  B forms,  may  be  was  assisted.  neither  o t h e r a s p e c t o f h i s w r i t i n g was  i n A and  words  post-test writing  made t o i n f l u e n c e t h e s t u d e n t s ' e f f o r t s ; any  of  i n d i c e s i n the  In following t h i s practice  stressed.  seen i n Appendix  'F .  for Analysis O'Hare e x p l a i n e d a n u m b e r o f t h e r u l e s he  each student's w r i t i n g  i n t o T - U n i t s , and  these procedures,  appropriate here. word counted word; other  a brief  as  u s e d t o segment  the present  researcher  summary o f them m i g h t  t o by Hunt ( 1 9 6 5 , p.  Unintelligible 6) a n d  as " g a r b l e s " were d i s c a r d e d .  be  from the o m i s s i o n of  the r e s e a r c h e r s u p p l i e d the  fragments were d i s c a r d e d .  39)  as  Fragments w h i c h r e s u l t e d  as a T - U n i t ,  words, r e f e r r e d ( 1 9 6 7 , p.  one  o f c l a u s e s i n t h e t h r e e p r e - t e s t compo-  p o s t - t e s t times.  s t r u c t u r e nor  Composition  followed  form,  I n a d d i t i o n , O'Donnell's Aluminum passage  done i n c l a s s i n o r d e r  sentence  to examine the f i r s t  pre-  S u c h m e t h o d s y i e l d e d a w r i t i n g s a m p l e o f a t l e a s t 350  a t each t e s t  was  to g i v e three  also i n parallel  as were t h e s c o r e s on  three post-test compositions.  Combs.  decided  three post-test compositions,  i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e modes, a n d each.  i t was  missing  strings  of  O'Donnell et a l . , In segmenting  direct  a  87  d i s c o u r s e , O'Hare counted the f i r s t  expression a f t e r  the speaker t a g  (he s a i d ) as a d i r e c t o b j e c t (noun c l a u s e ) , b u t any f u r t h e r T - U n i t s after  this f i r s t  e x p r e s s i o n were segmented as s e p a r a t e  T-Units:  In h e r s o f t g e n t l e v o i c e Marsha s a i d , 'I r e a l l y l i k e you, John. | However, C l a r e n c e ' s f a t h e r i s a m i l l i o n a i r e | and I l i k e the i d e a o f Palm Beach.  In t h i s procedure O'Hare d i f f e r e d tags.  from M e l l o n , who d i s c a r d e d  speaker  Very l i t t l e d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e was used by the Grade 10  students  i n t h i s study, b u t i f i t was, the r e s e a r c h e r  followed  0'Hare's method i n t h i s and i n the c o u n t i n g o f c l a u s e s .  In the  l a t t e r p r o c e s s , both O'Hare and M e l l o n used Hunt's t e c h n i q u e :  In c o u n t i n g the number o f c l a u s e s i n the p r e s e n t w r i t i n g s , a c l a u s e was taken to be a s t r u c t u r e w i t h a s u b j e c t and a f i n i t e v e r b . I f s u b j e c t s were c o o r d i n a t e d , they merely lengthened the c l a u s e , as d i d c o o r d i n a t e d v e r b s , (p. 15)  Words p e r T - U n i t were o b t a i n e d by d i v i d i n g words by the number o f T - U n i t s .  the number o f  The c o u n t i n g o f words f o l l o w e d the  format s e t by O'Hare i n t h a t compound nouns w r i t t e n as one word counted as one word..  Compound nouns w r i t t e n as two words and  hyphenated word p a i r s counted as two words.  Dates l i k e A p r i l 2  counted as two words, as d i d c o n t r a c t i o n s such as Words per c l a u s e were found by d i v i d i n g number o f s u b o r d i n a t e  and main c l a u s e s .  "shouldn't."  t h e number o f words by the  88  Choices  of  Indices  The number o f i n d i c e s used by M e l l o n , to c a l c u l a t e s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y v a r i e d : M e l l o n s i x , and had  Combs, two  found these  maturity,  and  (words per T-Unit  O'Hare, and used twelve,  Combs O'Hare  and words per c l a u s e ) .  Hunt  two were the most d i s c r i m i n a t i n g measures o f s y n t a c t i c  O'Donnell had  confirmed  his findings.  f i n d i n g s had  shown t h a t the s u b o r d i n a t i o n r a t i o was  measure, but  i n h i s 1970  study, he  p l a t e a u by grade e i g h t , and  Hunt's (1965) the t h i r d  best  found t h a t s u b o r d i n a t i o n reached a  t h a t w r i t e r s , as they matured, i n c r e a s -  i n g l y c o n s o l i d a t e d sentences to " l e s s than a p r e d i c a t e or l e s s a clause."  T h i s b e i n g so, the p r e s e n t  w i t h Grade 10 w r i t i n g , d e c i d e d p a r t i c u l a r l y as Hunt had cantly with  was  dealing  a g a i n s t u s i n g the s u b o r d i n a t i o n  found t h a t T - U n i t  length correlated s i g n i f i -  to determine which i n d i c e s would be most  f o r the p r e s e n t  study,  data, and noted t h a t he had  the r e s e a r c h e r re-examined Hunt's  found a second s i g n i f i c a n t  t r e n d to  the i n c r e a s e d use o f noun c l a u s e s i n o l d e r w r i t e r s , who  d i d not  noun c l a u s e s i n d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e , as younger w i r t e r s d i d , but o b j e c t s of v e r b s from 170  ratio,,  the number o f a d j e c t i v e c l a u s e s .  In an e f f o r t appropriate  r e s e a r c h e r , who  than  l i k e "say."  i n Grade 4 to 290  though t h e r e were too few  The  use of noun c l a u s e s  i n Grade 12. to be  above type of v e r b s , but served  use  as  increased  However, Hunt added t h a t  t e s t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y , he  t h a t those noun c l a u s e s which d i d not  be  suspected  f u n c t i o n as o b j e c t s o f  the  i n s t e a d as s u b j e c t s , complements,  or objects maturity, 16  o f p r e p o s i t i o n s m i g h t be as  the use  i n G r a d e 4 t o 45  of  i n G r a d e 8,  o f n o u n s , and  cantly with of  t o 63  i n G r a d e 8,  and  increased  i n Grade  of  markedly,  from  12.  that average clause  length  Further,  he  correlated  noted  signifi-  that the  use  n o m i n a l s , i n f i n i t i v e s , g e r u n d s , and n o n - r e s t r i c t i v e  appositives, increased 162  the b e s t i n d i c e s  o l d e r w r i t e r s u s e d more n o n - c l a u s e  t h e s e noun m o d i f i e r s .  three near-clause  of  these constructions  Hunt a l s o determined the modifiers  one  289  substantially with i n Grade 1 2 ) ,  and  grade l e v e l that  (119  i n Grade  these "near  clause"  n o m i n a l s were more d i s t i n c t l y i n d i c a t i v e o f m a t u r i t y  than noun  clauses.  dramatically  In fact,  use  of  the  f r o m g r a d e t o g r a d e t h a n any that clause  length  T-Unit length  i n f i n i t i v e nominals  participles prevalent  other  structure.  (.368).  l e n g t h and  but  there  clause  showed  the number  As  of  a p p e a r e d t o be  also  and  f o u n d t o be much more  forms as  researcher  a measure of  good e v i d e n c e t h a t  l e n g t h would measure the  the  gerunds, i n f i n i t i v e s ,  c o m p o s i t i o n s o f good w r i t e r s , the  contemplated a count of these v e r b a l maturity,  Hunt's data  correlated significantly with  were s t r u c t u r e s P o t t e r had  i n the  more  correlated significantly with  g e r u n d s (.666) and number o f  gerund i n c r e a s e d  4,  had  syntactic  T-Unit  frequency with  which  these s t r u c t u r e s were used. Hunt a l s o o f n o m i n a l s and one  of  he  f o u n d t h a t o l d e r w r i t e r s had believed  that  this  the b e s t i n d i c e s of m a t u r i t y .  complexity  greater  count could  Again h i s findings  w i t h P o t t e r ' s , as P o t t e r n o t e d t h a t i n the  "complexity" be  coincided  compositions of  the  good  90  w r i t e r s the complexity  of nominals ( p a r t i c u l a r l y o f o b j e c t s )  much g r e a t e r than i n those o f the poor w r i t e r s . over, showed t h a t a complexity  Hunt's f i n d i n g s , more-  count measured f a c t o r s which were  d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the p r o c e s s of l e n g t h e n i n g T - U n i t s . v e r y comprehensive study, Hunt a l s o a n a l y z e d and  found  grades,  In h i s  the use o f verb  auxiliaries  t h a t the use o f p a s s i v e s i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the upper  a development P o t t e r had noted when he found more p a s s i v e s  were used by mature w r i t e r s . all  was  Hunt's s t a t i s t i c s i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o r  s t u d e n t s , c l a u s e l e n g t h c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the  use  of passives. A summary o f Hunt's f i n d i n g s would thus show t h a t the most s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a t i o n s o f growth between grade l e v e l s were: the use o f a d j e c t i v e c l a u s e s ; the use o f noun c l a u s e s i m p o s i t i o n s o t h e r than o b j e c t s o f v e r b s l i k e " s a i d " ; non-clause n e a r - c l a u s e nominals,  and p a s s i v e s .  According  m o d i f i e r s o f nouns; to Hunt's r e s u l t s , a l l  o f these f a c t o r s r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to T-Unit l e n g t h and length.  T h e r e f o r e , the r e s e a r c h e r d e c i d e d  clause  t h a t these two i n d i c e s  would be adequate f o r her purpose.  Writing Quality Other S t u d i e s  A review o f the methods used i n e a r l i e r s t u d i e s to compare the q u a l i t y o f w r i t i n g i n the c o n t r o l and vealed c e r t a i n  facts:  experimental  groups r e -  1.  Because o f the l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s o f papers,  f o r marking g r e a t numbers  o n l y a s m a l l sample o f the compositions  by each group were compared; i n M e l l o n ' s  study t h i s  written comprised  8% o f the t o t a l , i n O'Hare's about 7%, and i n Combs about 20%. Combs's>students, however, wrote f a r fewer c o m p o s i t i o n s , a t o t a l o f 400, i n comparison to 4,446 f o r M e l l o n , and 830 f o r O'Hare.  2.  I n these t h r e e s t u d i e s , q u a l i t y o f c o m p o s i t i o n was judged by a number o f w e l l - q u a l i f i e d and e x p e r i e n c e d  teachers  (6 f o r  M e l l o n , 8 f o r O'Hare, and 7 f o r Combs), each o f whom was i n s t r u c t e d to use t h e r a p i d - r e a d i n g technique  suggested by  Noyes (1963), and employed by the C o l l e g e E n t r a n c e Board.  Examination  Braddock (1963) s t a t e d t h a t :  The two p r i n c i p a l means o f s e e k i n g v a l i d and r e l i a b l e r a t i n g s d e s p i t e the c o l l e a g u e v a r i a b l e a r e t h e ' g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n ' method o f r a t i n g compositions and t h e ' a n a l y t i c method.' I n the g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n method, a number o f r a t e r s , working i n d e p e n d e n t l y , q u i c k l y read and r a t e each c o m p o s i t i o n , the mean o f t h e i r r a t i n g s b e i n g used as the f i n a l r a t i n g o f each paper. A c c o r d i n g t o Wiseman's p r o cedure . . . 'keeping up a r a t e o f about 50 p e r hour' to i n s u r e t h a t he makes up h i s mind q u i c k l y , (p. 12)  In d i s c u s s i n g the a n a l y t i c method, Braddock s t a t e d t h a t i t might be more e f f e c t i v e i n r e d u c i n g c o l l e a g u e v a r i a b l e f o r the argumentative  papers o f o l d e r s t u d e n t s , b u t t h a t i t was  more time-consuming, and more expensive,  considerations of  c o n s i d e r a b l e importance to most r e s e a r c h e r s .  R a t e r s f o r M e l l o n and O'Hare were asked  to base t h e i r judg.^  ments e q u a l l y on f i v e f a c t o r s : i d e a s , o r g a n i z a t i o n , s t y l e , sentence  s t r u c t u r e , and v o c a b u l a r y .  Procedures  were  s t a n d a r d i z e d d u r i n g an i n i t i a l p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n , as Buxton (1958) c l a i m e d t h a t r a t e r t r a i n i n g h e l p e d r a t e r  reliability.  Buxton s t a t e d t h a t g r a d e r s s h o u l d review t o g e t h e r a compos i t i o n they had j u s t r a t e d to i n s u r e a common i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  their c r i t e r i a .  Braddock remarked on t h e frequency  with  which r a t e r t r a i n i n g was r e p o r t e d i n s t u d i e s which r e p o r t e d high r e l i a b i l i t i e s ,  (p. 14)  M e l l o n s e l e c t e d 35 s t u d e n t s by  random draw from each o f h i s t h r e e treatment the h i g h average tions per test to  and average  groups a t o n l y  l e v e l , and s e l e c t e d two composi-  (pre and post) f o r each s t u d e n t .  Using a 1  5 r a t i n g s c a l e , t h r e e markers e v a l u a t e d one o f the two  compositions,  and the o t h e r t h r e e judged  the second.  Thus  each s t u d e n t had s i x r a t i n g s , which were summed, f o r each t e s t time, w i t h s c o r e s r a n g i n g from 6 to 30. appeared  These methods  t o be more comprehensive than t h e " f o r c e d c h o i c e  between matched p a i r s " d e s i g n used by O'Hare, o r t h e expansion of  0'Hare's d e s i g n used by Combs, b u t M e l l o n had more  funds  a v a i l a b l e , as he was working on a government r e s e a r c h grant.  All  compositions  t h a t were e v a l u a t e d f o r w r i t i n g  quality  were f i r s t typed, u s u a l l y by a s c h o o l s e c r e t a r y a l s o unaware of  the experiment,  who c o r r e c t e d s p e l l i n g and p u n c t u a t i o n .  93  M e l l o n simply s t a t e d : These compositions were t y p e w r i t t e n so t h a t s p e l l i n g and p u n c t u a t i o n e r r o r s c o u l d be c o r r e c t e d , and a u t h o r and group i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o m i t t e d .  O'Hare commented  t h a t h i s study:  . . . was i n t e r e s t e d i n the s t u d e n t s ' w r i t i n g a b i l i t y and n o t a t a l l i n t h e i r s p e l l i n g , p u n c t u a t i o n , o r handwriting t a l e n t s . I n o r d e r to e l i m i n a t e the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s o f these extraneous f a c t o r s on the e v a l u a t o r s ' judgments, the t h i r t y p a i r s o f compositions were t y p e w r i t t e n so t h a t s p e l l i n g and p u n c t u a t i o n c o u l d be corrected.  In support o f h i s p o s i t i o n , he quoted  Braddock:  Even though r a t e r s a r e r e q u e s t e d to c o n s i d e r i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s such a t t r i b u t e s as c o n t e n t and o r g a n i z a t i o n , they may p e r m i t t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n s o f the grammar and mechanics o f the c o m p o s i t i o n to c r e a t e a h a l o e f f e c t which s u f f u s e s t h e i r g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n s . (A converse emphasis, o f course, can j u s t as e a s i l y c r e a t e the h a l o ) . (p. 14)  Braddock a l s o wrote o f s i m i l a r h a l o e f f e c t s b e i n g r e p o r t e d by b o t h Starring  (1952) and by D i e d r i c h , French, and C a r l t o n (1961), and on  pp. 49-50, i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f the f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o making a good c o m p o s i t i o n , Braddock argued  that:  However important a c c u r a t e s p e l l i n g may be i n the c l a r i t y and s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f c o m p o s i t i o n , many o f t h e f a c t o r s o f good s p e l l i n g do n o t seem to be c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the f a c t o r s o f good c o m p o s i t i o n .  One might argue t h a t the samples f o r comparison o f w r i t i n g q u a l i t y were too s m a l l , o r t h a t M e l l o n ' s  r a t e r s , u s i n g a 1-5  rating  s c a l e , might have examined the papers more c l o s e l y , and though they examined o n l y 8% o f the corpus, t h i s percentage s i d e r a b l y more papers (88)•  represented  con-  (420) than d i d O'Hare's 7% (60), o r Combs 20%  I n any case, the e v i d e n c e was s u r e l y n o t c o n c l u s i v e i n any  o f these s t u d i e s , as each o f these r e s e a r c h e r s was p r i n c i p a l l y concerned w i t h e s t a b l i s h i n g g a i n s i n s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y .  The e f f o r t to  see whether these g a i n s were r e f l e c t e d i n the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f the w r i t i n g seemed to be a secondary  consideration.  O'Hare and Combs both r e p o r t e d t h a t that  their raters  found  the s y n t a c t i c g a i n s o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups were r e f l e c t e d i n  the q u a l i t y o f t h e i r w r i t i n g , b u t i n these r e s u l t s a number o f v a r i a b l e s should be c o n s i d e r e d . and  Both used  the "matched p a i r s " d e s i g n ,  thus no q u a n t i f i a b l e mark was a s s i g n e d t o the c o m p o s i t i o n s  judged.  being  As a r e s u l t no mean s c o r e s c o u l d be c a l c u l a t e d , and no F-  r a t i o s o r p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l s computed. statistical  e v i d e n c e was n o t as important as the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by  the r a t e r s o f the term " q u a l i t y . " procedure  However, t h i s l a c k o f  "that  Combs i n f e r r e d from O'Hare's  the d e s i g n measured a s p e c i f i c a s p e c t o f w r i t i n g  q u a l i t y , ease o r e f f i c i e n c y o f ( s y n t a c t i c ) e x p r e s s i o n . "  As a  r e s u l t Combs asked h i s markers to make "a h o l i s t i c judgment o f ease o f e x p r e s s i o n . " ( p . 141)  T h i s statement  seemed to imply  that  smoothness o f sentence s t r u c t u r e was more important than the o t h e r four c r i t e r i a . .  I f t h i s were s o , then the g a i n s i n s y n t a c t i c  m a t u r i t y o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups should enable them to w r i t e a better  " q u a l i t y " o f compositions  than the c o n t r o l  group.  95  Present  Study  I n o r d e r t o compare t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n s by  the e x p e r i m e n t a l group w i t h those o f the c o n t r o l group,  r e s e a r c h e r adopted  O ' H a r e ' s m e t h o d o f h a v i n g r a t e r s make a  c h o i c e between matched p a i r s o f c o m p o s i t i o n s which  o f t h e two was  better.  T h i s m e t h o d was  but a l e s s time-consuming process ordinal scale,  such as a l e t t e r  A s i m i l a r l i s t was  s u b j e c t was of  w r i t i n g a b i l i t y was a pair.  and  e q u a l I.Q.  i n 27  compositions, use  interest to use  to the i n v e s t i g a t o r .  compositions  of  s u b j e c t s were d i v i d e d  three  up  pre-treatment  groups,  t h a t was  In the present  of  decided compositions  a s i t was  the  primary  s t u d y , i t was  decided  t h e e x p o s i t o r y modes,  the Grade 10's.  i n t o two  and  pairs.  o n l y the post-treatment  i n t h e d e s c r i p t i v e and  t h e s e w e r e t h e ones f a v o u r e d by  a subject  the researcher again  of the experiment  A  (within five points)  when c o m p a r i n g t h e w r i t i n g q u a l i t y o f t h e two w r i t i n g d o n e a t t h e end  funds  and  t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p t o make  the s t u d e n t s had w r i t t e n  t o f o l l o w O ' H a r e ' s e x a m p l e and  of  f o r both boys  the c o n t r o l group, and  approximately  three post-treatment  ideal,  f o r the experimental group.  T h i s random p a i r i n g r e s u l t e d Although  considered  t h a n t h e u s e o f some s o r t  completed  chosen from  simply i n d i c a t i n g not  o r d e r o f I.Q.  randomly chosen from  t h e same s e x a n d  forced  Members o f t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p w e r e  and numbered i n a s c e n d i n g  girls.  the  g r a d e o r a 1 t o 5 s c a l e , when no  were a v a i l a b l e t o pay markers. listed  by  written  The  matched  sets, with thirteen pairs  as  pairs in  one  96  and fourteen pairs i n the other.  Pairs of subjects were assigned to  these two sets i n a manner which would give approximately equal numbers of the same sex and a b i l i t y l e v e l to each group.  Thus f i f t y -  four compositions were collected i n a l l , twenty-eight i n the descriptive, forming fourteen o f the p a i r s , and twenty-six i n the expository, forming the other thirteen p a i r s . The evaluators were nine English teachers, a l l of whom had excellent q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and experience (see Appendix.G ), and none of whom had any knowledge of the research i n progress.  These  teachers were asked to make a single i n t u i t i v e judgment of the o v e r a l l quality of the compositions, basing their decision equally upon the f i v e c r i t e r i a of ideas, organization, s t y l e , sentence structure, and vocabulary.  No emphasis was l a i d upon any one factor.  The teachers met i n the English o f f i c e s before beginning the marking, and there followed a b r i e f discussion o f the r e l a t i v e merits of two sample pairs of compositions, one pair exemplifying good writing and the other exemplifying poor writing.  In an e f f o r t to establish some  common understanding of the c r i t e r i a , raters agreed that the assessment of (1) ideas would be by the reasoning or imagining that had gone into them,  (2) organization by the order and c l a r i t y with which  ideas had been put together,  (3) s t y l e by the way i n which the  writer had captured the attention of the reader, (4) sentences by the fluency of expression, and the avoidance of fragments, run-on or short, choppy structures, or complicated, unclear constructions, and (5) d i c t i o n by the s u i t a b i l i t y of vocabulary to subject.  Teachers were urged to read r a p i d l y , k e e p i n g the f i v e c r i t e r i a i n mind as they p l a c e d a check a t the top o f the paper i n each p a i r which they judged to be s u p e r i o r .  Follman and Anderson  (1967) and Marzano (1975) had shown t h a t the h o l i s t i c method o f marking c o u l d produce a h i g h degree o f r e l i a b i l i t y .  The markers were  each g i v e n a f o l d e r c o n t a i n i n g twenty-seven p a i r s o f numbered compos i t i o n s , stapled together.  Each marker r e c e i v e d h i s s e t o f papers  assembled i n a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r , so t h a t i t would not be p o s s i b l e to compare judgments.  In f a c t , they were s p e c i f i c a l l y asked n o t to  d i s c u s s t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s w i t h each o t h e r , and a c o d i n g system  was  used i n o r d e r t h a t the t e a c h e r s had no i d e a to which group any composition belonged.  A paper c o u l d s c o r e between 0 and 9, depending  upon how many o f the markers chose i t as the b e t t e r .  B e f o r e the  marking commenced, the r e s e a r c h e r had f o l l o w e d the p r a c t i c e o f M e l l o n , O'Hare, P o t t e r , and Combs i n h a v i n g the p a i r s o f c o m p o s i t i o n s typed by the s c h o o l s e c r e t a r y .  The s p e l l i n g was  p u n c t u a t i o n was n o t , as i t was  c o r r e c t e d , but the  thought t h a t t h i s might a l t e r the  sentence s t r u c t u r e , and i n f l u e n c e the judgment In  o f the markers.  h y p o t h e s i z i n g t h a t the q u a l i t y o f w r i t i n g , as w e l l  as the m a t u r i t y o f sentence s t r u c t u r e , c o u l d be enhanced as  effic-  i e n t l y by a study o f grammar as by a sentence-combining approach, the  r e s e a r c h e r had to c o n s i d e r .how  to keep the c o n t r o l group's  sentence combining and w r i t i n g workshops grammar. l o g y was  T h i s was  r e a l l y not d i f f i c u l t ,  f r e e o f the i n f l u e n c e o f as no grammatical t e r m i n o -  used i n the t e x t , S e n t e n c e c r a f t , and i n the marking o f  98  written assignments, the marker limited h e r s e l f , as mentioned e a r l i e r , to a general comment on the quality, o r i g i n a l i t y , ingenuity, or humour of the work.  S i m i l a r l y , i n marking written work assigned i n  middle group classes where the regular curriculum of Grade 10 was carried on, the researcher made no reference to sentence structure; instead emphasis was placed on ideas, organization, and d i c t i o n .  99  CHAPTER 3 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS  Assessment of Syntactic Maturity A major part of the r e s u l t s of the present study has been shown i n Table I, which represents the mean scores of two dependent measures, T-Unit Length and Clause Length, obtained from students' own compositions Aluminum passage.  (free writing), and from their r e v i s i o n of the The free writing was  examined f i r s t , and an  analysis of covariance was performed on the words per T-Unit scores obtained i n the 2 (Experimental versus Control) x 2 (Repeated measures: Pre- versus Post-tests) design with English marks and I.Q. scores as covariates.  The r e s u l t s of the analysis are presented i n  Appendix A. The most important question i n the present study  was  whether or not the experimental-grammar group had achieved greater gains i n syntactic maturity, as measured f i r s t i n terms of T-Unit length, than did the sentence-combining  control group.  Since there  was no reason why pre-test scores of both groups should d i f f e r , s t a t i s t i c a l evidence was  sought by examining the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t  between the two treatment groups and the time of testing (pre- and  TABLE I MEAN T-UNIT AND CLAUSE LENGTH SCORES OF P R E - AND POST-TEST ON FREE WRITING AND ALUMINUM PASSAGES FOR EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS ON T H E I R MEAN I.Q. AND ENGLISH ACHIEVEMENT SCORES  Free Indices  Clause  T- U n i t  Time o f Test  Pre  * Experimental  Control  Post  Aluminum Passage  Writing Length  T- U n i t  Pre  Post  Pre  Clause Post  Length  Pre  Post  R.  12.77  14.42  9.47  9.97  11.48  13.43  7.54  8.05  A.  12.73  14.40  9.48  9.96  11.52  13.48  7.54  8.05  R.  12.26  16.74  8.78  10.35  10.55  16.65  7.29  8.58  A.  12.20  17.07  8.74  10.56  10.61  16.49  7.35  8.59  R.  =  Raw  A.  =  Adjusted  I.Q.  English Mark  109.7  B-  110.2  B-  Scores Scores  o o  101  post-testing). cant  As  c o u l d be  s e e n i n A p p e n d i x A,  i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t b e t w e e n t h e two,  t h e r e was  J? ( 1 , 49) = 1 2 . 5 0 , p _ < . 0 0 1 .  T h i s meant t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l  gains of  significantly  of the e x p e r i m e n t a l  greater  1.67  than  4.87  versus  ally  o p p o s e d t o w h a t was  those  words per T-Unit. expected  experimental-grammar group.  the c o n t r o l students  t h a t I.Q. £<  .08  scores  (Beta weight In order  on  the words per  p_ < .033  d i d a l s o , but  i n A p p e n d i x B, and  the  the v a r i a t i o n i n T-Unit  (Beta weight =  to compare t h e s y n t a c t i c g a i n s o f i n their  c a r r i e d out.  The  free writing, m a t r i x and  r e s u l t s of  the  =  a  two  3.22,  groups  second  t h e same  t e s t i n g , F_ ( 1 , 49)  = 4.60,  p_<.037 was  two  of the experimental  group  (1.82  clause scores).  grammar s t u d y  group w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s on b o t h  l e n g t h , than  versus  Thus t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l  e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the r e s e a r c h e r .  .48  indices,  scores,  on the T-Unit  the  E n g l i s h achievement scores  a c c o u n t f o r some o f d i f f e r e n c e i n c l a u s e l e n g t h  again  gains of  the c o n t r o l group, c o n t r a r y to  groups  significant.  gains were  the words per  Clause  and  t h i s a n a l y s i s , found  T h i s meant t h a t the c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s d i f f e r e n t i a l  and  .31)  .08).  clause index  those  the  here;.that E n g l i s h  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two  time of  g r e a t e r than  r o l e of  t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e , F_ ( 1 , 27)  a n a l y s i s of covariance, u s i n g the 2 x 2 c o v a r i a t e s , was  group, i . e . ,  from the h y p o t h e s i z e d  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d  = 4.82  were  These r e s u l t s were d i a m e t r i c -  a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s d i d a c c o u n t f o r some o f l e n g t h s c o r e s , F_ ( 1 , 47)  signifi-  did  102 F  ( 1 , 47)  = 8.19,  p_ <  .006  (Beta weight  =  F  ( 1 , 47)  = 2.11,  £  .153  (Beta weight  .04)  In  the w r i t i n g of  e f f e c t between the words per  <  T-Unit  two  .28), but  I.Q.  d i d not.  the Aluminum passage, the  treatment  scores,  g r o u p s and  interaction  the time of  i n d e x , shown i n A p p e n d i x C,  indicated  t e s t i n g on that there  significant  i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t b e t w e e n t h e two,  F_ ( 1 , 49)  p < .001.  Thus t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l g a i n s o f  sentence-combining  control (5.88  the  group were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than  versus  1.96)  i n T-Unit  length scores.  =  group  apparent  that  the t r e n d e s t a b l i s h e d i n the f r e e w r i t i n g , where the g a i n s o f control  group were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than  m e n t a l g r o u p , was ment s c o r e s , F  repeated  ( 1 , 47)  =  affect  the r e s u l t s , but  weight  .14)  g r o u p s and  index i n the w r i t i n g F  ( 1 , 49)  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  The  I.Q.  the time of  would  not  = 8 . 4 6 ) , p_ < .006  -.03)  d i d not  scores, F  i n Appendix  the words per  o f the Aluminum passage.  (Beta  p <  .120  The  D,  two clause  interaction  demonstrated t h a t the d i f f e r e n t i a l  group were not r e l i a b l y s u p e r i o r to those  group  hypothesized  t e s t i n g on  (1.24  versus  .51).  Once a g a i n  f o r t h e grammar g r o u p d i d n o t  E n g l i s h a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s , _F ( 1 , 47)  weight  .007)  s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between the  = 2.50,  gains of the c o n t r o l  tations  ( 1 , 47)  f o u r t h a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e , found  s h o w e d t h a t t h e r e was  effect,  scores, F  (Beta weight  English achieve-  would.  A  treatment  I.Q.  p_ < .97  the  those of the e x p e r i -  i n the Aluminum w r i t i n g .  .002,  was  14.81,  the e x p e r i m e n t a l I t was  the  significantly affect  ( 1 , 47)  =  .78, j> < .38  = .28,  the  expec-  materialize.  p_ < .60  the r e s u l t s nor  (Beta weight  of  .02).  (Beta did  the  103  The a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a thus i n d i c a t e d  t h a t the n u l l  h y p o t h e s i s , assuming no d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups, had to be r e j e c t e d , as t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups.  However, t h i s d i f f e r e n c e proved  to be i n the o p p o s i t e  d i r e c t i o n from t h a t h y p o t h e s i z e d , i . e . , the s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s were made by the c o n t r o l group r a t h e r than by the e x p e r i m e n t a l  group.  Assessment o f W r i t i n g Q u a l i t y  The next c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the a n a l y s e s o f d a t a was to t e s t the second h y p o t h e s i s : t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l group would w r i t e compositions  t h a t would be judged by a group o f e x p e r i e n c e d  English  t e a c h e r s to be b e t t e r i n o v e r a l l q u a l i t y than those w r i t t e n by the c o n t r o l group. and  In o r d e r to c a r r y out t h i s t e s t f o u r t e e n e x p o s i t o r y  t h i r t e e n d e s c r i p t i v e compositions were s e l e c t e d from b o t h the  c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l groups and p a i r e d as d e s c r i b e d above. Judgments o f o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f w r i t i n g c o u l d be a n a l y z e d i n terms o f the number o f times an e x p e r i m e n t a l o r a c o n t r o l s i t i o n was chosen  compo-  from a matched p a i r , r e g a r d l e s s o f which  t e a c h e r s had chosen  it,  as shown i n S e c t i o n A - l and A-2 o f T a b l e I I .  The judgments c o u l d a l s o be a n a l y z e d i n r e l a t i o n to the t o t a l number of times each marker had chosen compositions  e i t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a l or c o n t r o l  to be s u p e r i o r , w i t h o u t a c c o u n t i n g f o r the s p e c i f i c  p a i r s of compositions  from which the c h o i c e s were made, as shown  i n S e c t i o n s B-1 and B-2 o f T a b l e I I .  104 TABLE I I E x p e r i m e n t a l o r C o n t r o l C o m p o s i t i o n s Chosen by Nine Experienced E n g l i s h Teachers {  Section A 1 From F o u r t e e n Matched P a i r s o f E x p o s i t o r y  Compositions  Nine Teachers' Choices  1  2  3  C o m p o s i t i o n P a i r No. 5 6 8 9 4 7  Exp e r i m e n t a l  8  3  2  3  7  2  8  3  Control  1  6  7  6  2  7  1  Sign ( E - C )  +  -  -  -  +  -  +  N = 14  10  11  :.12  .13  :.14  5  8  5  6  5  9  6  4  1  4  3  4  0  -  +  +  +  +  +  +  r = 5 2  From T h i r t e e n Matched P a i r s o f D e s c r i p t i v e  Compositions  Nine Teachers' Choices  1  2  3  C o m p o s i t i o n P a i r No. 8 5 6 7 9 4  Experimental  4  6  3  3  5  6  7  7  Control  5  3  6  6  4  3  2  Sign ( E - C )  -  +  -  -  +  +  +  N = 13  10  11  12  13  5  4  2  0  2  2  4  5  7  9  7  +  +  -  -  -  -  r = 6 Section B A Summary o f M a r k e r s ' C h o i c e s i n E a c h Mode 2  JL  Descriptive  Expository Marker 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 N = 14  Experimental  Control  10 8 9 8 8 6 9 9 _7  4 6 5 6 6 8 5 5 _7  74  52  Sign  + + + + + + + r  Experimental  Control  Sign  6 6 6 4 10 10 8 3 _1_  7 7 7 9 3 3 5 10 12  + + + -  = 1 N = 13 54  63  r = 3  -  --  105  Section A - l o f Table 14  I I showed t h a t m a r k e r s a s s e s s i n g t h e  pairs of expository compositions  and  52 o f t h e c o n t r o l c o m p o s i t i o n s .  t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t ,  c h o s e 74 o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l I n order  to determine  a s i g n t e s t was u s e d .  whether  The number  o f p a i r s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s was r e p r e s e n t e d b y " r " a n d t h e " s i g n " w a s the d i f f e r e n c e ,  shown b y a p l u s o r a m i n u s , b e t w e e n t h e m e a s u r e -  m e n t s made u p o n t h e two t r e a t m e n t s ,  e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l .  s y m b o l " r " was u s e d t o d e n o t e t h e number o f t i m e s sign occurred. a probability  d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h m e d i a n 0.  significant,  values of " r "  j u d g i n g 13 p a i r s o f d e s c r i p t i v e  the observed  according  compositions.  " r " was f o u n d  test  to the  ( s e e A p p e n d i x J ) was  a s t h e r e q u i r e d " r " a t p < .05 l e v e l , w a s  S e c t i o n A-2 o f T a b l e  experimental  Results o f the sign  " r " e q u a l l e d 5, w h i c h ,  table giving the c r i t i c a l  54  frequent  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s h e r e was t h a t e a c h d i f f e r e n c e h a d  showed t h a t t h e o b s e r v e d  not  the less  The  I I indicated compositions  2.  that the markers s e l e c t e d 63 c o n t r o l a n d  When t h e s i g n t e s t w a s a p p l i e d  here,  t o b e 6, w h i c h was a l s o n o t s i g n i f i c a n t  a t £ < .05 l e v e l . I n a s i m i l a r m a n n e r a s i g n t e s t was p e r f o r m e d o n S e c t i o n B-1. by  Although  experimental  seven out o f the nine  compositions  compositions  were chosen as s u p e r i o r  teachers, these  choices of experimental  d i d n o t a p p e a r t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  s u p e r i o r a t p_< .05  106  level  ( r e q u i r e d " r " = 0, observed  c a r r i e d out w i t h S e c t i o n B-2  " r " = 1).  Another s i g n t e s t  d a t a , the r e s u l t s o f which showed no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the c h o i c e s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l and compositions  was  ( r e q u i r e d " r " = 0, observed  control  " r " = 3).  Summary  A.  A n a l y s i s o f the Data on the Two 1.  In both  the f r e e w r i t i n g and  Indices of S y n t a c t i c Maturity: the r e v i s i o n of the  Aluminum  passage, t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , a t the  .001  l e v e l , between the mean change s c o r e s i n T - U n i t l e n g t h o f the c o n t r o l group and combining  c o n t r o l group had  than the e x p e r i m e n t a l 2. On  the e x p e r i m e n t a l group.  sentence-  s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r growth  group.  the words per c l a u s e index, the growth i n s y n t a c t i c  m a t u r i t y o f the c o n t r o l group was a t the  B.  The  .04  s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater,  l e v e l , than t h a t o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l  group.  A n a l y s i s of the Data on the Q u a l i t y o f the W r i t i n g Sample Judged by Nine Markers Showed: 1.  There were some d i f f e r e n c e s between the markers' c h o i c e s i n the two modes, as they judged  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  t i o n s s u p e r i o r i n the e x p o s i t o r y mode, and s u p e r i o r i n the d e s c r i p t i v e mode.  composi-  the c o n t r o l  When  s i g n t e s t s were used  to t e s t  the d i f f e r e n c e s  between the number o f times an e x p e r i m e n t a l or a control observed  c o m p o s i t i o n was " r " was  Similarly,  chosen  from a matched p a i r ,  not s i g n i f i c a n t  when the d a t a was  a t p < .05  the  level.  analyzed to t e s t  the d i f f e r -  ence between the t o t a l number o f times each marker had selected either  an e x p e r i m e n t a l or c o n t r o l  t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was  not s i g n i f i c a n t  composition,  a t p < .05  level.  108  CHAPTER 4  CONCLUSIONS AND  The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h was  IMPLICATIONS  designed  to t e s t whether a study  o f c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t r a d i t i o n a l grammar c o u l d be as e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g the normal r a t e o f growth o f s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y i n the f r e e w r i t i n g o f grade combining  approach  ten s t u d e n t s as the non-grammatical  advocated  by O'Hare.  c o n t r o l c l a s s e s h a v i n g 29 p u p i l s , and  two  c l a s s e s h a v i n g 27 s t u d e n t s , were used. concerned  To do t h i s ,  two  sentencesmall-group  s m a l l group e x p e r i m e n t a l  The e x p e r i m e n t a l group  was  p r i m a r i l y w i t h those a s p e c t s o f sentence s t r u c t u r e which  Hunt (1965) and P o t t e r (1967) had documented as b e i n g of the w r i t i n g of b e t t e r s t u d e n t s .  The  characteristic  c o n t r o l group used  S e n t e n c e c r a f t , w i t h i t s expanded program o f  the t e x t  sentence-combining  d e v i s e d by O'Hare. Both groups f o l l o w e d the same c u r r i c u l u m i n r e g u l a r c l a s s e s , and  i n the s m a l l groups,  the grammar-study c l a s s d i d e x a c t l y  the  Same amount o f f r e e w r i t i n g , based upon the " W r i t i n g Workshops" i n O'Hare's t e x t , as d i d the sentence-combining the p r e s e n t study sought  the answer to two  class.  questions.  Specifically, Would the  e x p e r i m e n t a l group, w i t h i t s study o f sentence s t r u c t u r e  (1) be a b l e  109  to show more growth i n syntactic maturity i n their free writing than the  control  group and (2) be able to write compositions that would  be judged superior i n o v e r a l l quality to those of the control group?  Conclusions  As a r e s u l t of the analyses presented i n Chapter 3, i t was concluded that the role hypothesized f o r the experimental grammar group, that i t would achieve greater growth i n syntactic maturity than the control group, was not f u l f i l l e d .  Contrary to the expec-  tations of the researcher, the sentence-combining  control group wrote  s i g n i f i c a n t l y longer clauses, and as a r e s u l t , longer T-Units, than did the experimental group. When nine experienced English teachers were asked to judge the o v e r a l l writing quality of fourteen pairs of experimental and control compositions written i n the expository mode, they chose more of the experimental than the control compositions.  However, when they  evaluated thirteen pairs of descriptive compositions, the markers selected more of the control papers.  The differences i n choices,  however, d i d not appear to be s i g n i f i c a n t i n either mode, and as a r e s u l t the n u l l hypothesis could not be rejected.  110 D i s c u s s i o n of C o n c l u s i o n s  Syntactic Maturity  In h y p o t h e s i z i n g t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l grammar group would a c h i e v e more growth i n s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y t h a t the  sentence-combining  c o n t r o l group, the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s were the o p p o s i t e o f those o f O'Hare and  Combs, both o f whom had  the p r a c t i c e of sentence-combining  sought  to prove  that  would s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e the  a b i l i t y o f t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s to manipulate M e l l o n ' s h y p o t h e s i s had been s i m i l a r , except  sentence  t h a t he had  structure.  taught h i s  e x p e r i m e n t a l group the nomenclature of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar i n o r d e r t h a t the s t u d e n t s would understand used  i n h i s sentence-combining  reason  problems.  the grammatical  signals  O'Hare s p e c u l a t e d t h a t the  t h a t M e l l o n ' s g a i n s were c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s than h i s own  because o f t h e i r grammar s t u d y .  O'Hare, and  Combs a f t e r him,  was did  not have t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t a l o r c o n t r o l groups study any k i n d o f grammar, but M e l l o n ' s c o n t r o l group s t u d i e d t r a d i t i o n a l The d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter study c o n f i r m e d  3 indicated  grammar.  t h a t the p r e s e n t  the f i n d i n g s o f i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s i n t h a t the e x p e r i -  mental-grammar group d i d not succeed  i n a c h i e v i n g g r e a t e r growth i n  s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y than d i d the c o n t r o l group.  S e c t i o n A of T a b l e  I I I I n d i c a t e d t h a t i n the f r e e w r i t i n g , the g a i n s of 4.87 T - U n i t f o r the c o n t r o l group were c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than  words per those  Ill  TABLE I I I Comparative Data From Other  Studies  Section A C o m p a r i s o n o f P r e - and Post^-Treatment Change S c o r e s o f t h e S e n t e n c e Combining and Non-Sentence-Combining Groups o f M e l l o n , O ' H a r e , Combs, a n d t h e P r e s e n t S t u d y o n One I n d i c e of S y n t a c t i c M a t u r i t y : Words/T-Unit SentenceCombining Study  Program*  &  &  Grade  Non-SentenceCombining Program*  &  Group  PreTest  PostTest  Group  PreTest  Post Test  Mellon  7  SC-Exp.  9.98  11.25  Grm. - C o n .  9.94  10.20  O'Hare  7  SC-Exp.  9.63  15.75  No Grm.-- Cori.  9.69  9.96  Combs  7  SC-Exp.  9.48  11.65  No. Grm. - Con.  9.14  9.67  P r e s e n t 10  SC-Con.  12.20  17.07  Grm. - E x p .  12.73  14.40  SC — S e n t e n c e C o m b i n i n g ,  E x p . = E x p e r i m e n t a l , Grm. = Grammar, C o n . = C o n t r o l  Section B Hunt's Data on Normal Growth i n F r e e W r i t i n g and i n t h e R e w r i t i n g o f t h e A l u m i n u m P a s s a g e f o r Two I n d i c e s o f S y n t a c t i c M a t u r i t y : Words/T-Unit and Words/Clause  Grade T-Unit 4  8.51  Free Writing Clause Length 6.6  6 8  11.34  8.1  10 12 Average Superior  14.4  8.6  Adult Adult  20.3  11.5  T-Unit  Aluminum Passage Clause Length  5.42  5.19  6.84  5.76  9.84  6.79  10.44  7.35  11.30  7.85  11.85  8.40  14.78  9.95  112  of Mellon's  o r Combs' s u b j e c t s , b u t n o t  Table I i n the previous writing, per  chapter  had  q u i t e as h i g h as  indicated that i n their  the p o s t - t e s t score of the present  T - U n i t was  Hunt's data  1 7 . 0 7 , and  on w o r d s p e r  scores  on  shown i n S e c t i o n B o f T a b l e I I I , t h e s e  T-Unit length  (16.49) p l a c e d  clause length  on  to  not  their  them b e y o n d t h e l e v e l  (8.59) put  of  them b e t w e e n a v e r a g e  superior adults.  maturity  of the experimental  contrast  to other  t o be.  T h e i r g a i n o f 1.67  studies  compared f a v o u r a b l y w i t h  f r o m T a b l e I was  only a  I I I , S e c t i o n A)  words per  placed  on  experimental  .01  experi-  level.  When  group's gain of  .48  T-Unit,  grade twelve.  to Hunt's d a t a ,  and  put  words  B per  c o n s i d e r a b l e , as Hunt i n d i c a t e d  at the  grade  Their  post-  length, twelve  w e l l above i t i n c l a u s e l e n g t h .  the aluminum passage p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s c l a u s e l e n g t h , 8.05)  appear  free writing  f r e e w r i t i n g ( T - U n i t , 14.40; c l a u s e  them, a c c o r d i n g  l e v e l on w o r d s p e r  d i d not  in  c o m p a r e d t o H u n t ' s t a b l e s , shown i n S e c t i o n  f r e e w r i t i n g was  their  in syntactic  words f o r M e l l o n ' s  found s i g n i f i c a n t a t the  .5 c h a n g e b e t w e e n ' g r a d e e i g h t and  test scores  they  T-Unit i n t h e i r  t h e g a i n o f 1.27  of Table I I I , the present clause i n their  gains  g r o u p seemed n o n - s i g h i f i c a n t , b u t  (Table  m e n t a l g r o u p , w h i c h he h a d  9.96)  According  scores were  Similarly,  I n comparison to the c o n t r o l group, the  data  words  the Aluminum passage, the c o n t r o l group's p o s t - t e s t  s u p e r i o r a d u l t s , and and  free  c o n t r o l group on  c l a u s e , 10.56.  f a r from the l e v e l of s u p e r i o r a d u l t s . w r i t i n g of  O'Hare's.  on b o t h i n d i c e s ( T - U n i t ,  them a t t h e l e v e l o f a v e r a g e a d u l t s .  On 13.48,  The question of why  the present study's grammar group had  had only one-third of the syntactic gains of the control group was discussed i n Chapter Two,  where the researcher concluded that,  although there was no d i r e c t evidence, she believed that the explana tion lay, i n part, i n the fact that the scope of the study was broad.  too  Too much time had to be spent i n learning- grammatical termin  ology, and not enough time remained to practise the many aspects of grammatical sentence-combining grammatical"  (as opposed to O'Hare's "non-  approach) that might have increased the grammar group's  gains i n syntactic maturity.  Quality of Writing The r e s u l t s of a comparison of the w r i t i n g quality of the two groups posed the rather interesting problem of why  the sentence-  combining control group, having achieved s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n t i a l gains i n syntactic maturity, did not write better compositions the experimental group.  than  In an e f f o r t to answer this question, a  number of possible explanations were examined.  1.  Lack of Emphasis on Sentence Structure.  to discover why  Any attempt  syntactic maturity was not a more s i g n i f i c a n t factor  in i d e n t i f y i n g the quality of w r i t i n g must take into consideration the fact that no special v i r t u e was write complex sentences.  ever attached to the a b i l i t y to  Students i n the control class did indeed  114  s o l v e many sentence-combining s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h and  problems by w r i t i n g sentences  c o m p l e x i t y , but t h i s a c t i v i t y was,  i n t e n t s and purposes,  of  to a l l  c a r r i e d on i n an " A - r h e t o r i c a l " s e t t i n g , f o r  even though a program o f f r e e w r i t i n g was  undertaken  w i t h the s m a l l group work, the l a t t e r was  done out o f c l a s s ,  s t u d e n t s were never  admonished to p r a c t i s e t h e i r  when w r i t i n g t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n s . combining  i n conjunction and  sentence-combining  The c l a s s regarded  sentence-  more as a c h a l l e n g e to t h e i r i n g e n u i t y , a r a t h e r e n j o y a b l e  e x e r c i s e q u i t e d i v o r c e d from the p r o c e s s o f w r i t i n g . was  con-  thus no c o n s c i o u s t r a n s f e r of sentence-combining  the w r i t i n g p r o c e s s , i t was  obvious  s t u d e n t s to use l o n g e r T - U n i t s and compositions. (1969) put i t ,  techniques  no e v i d e n c e , as M e l l o n  to the e x p e r i m e n t a l group." (p. 69), as they a t t a c h e d any p a r t i c u l a r importance  c o m p l e x i t y o f sentence  sentence there to the  structure.  V a r i a t i o n i n T-Units.  F u r t h e r evidence  t h a t the  s t u d e n t s had no undue concern about the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f syntax e v i d e n t when T - U n i t l e n g t h was compositions.  counted  20.3  was  i n the p r e - and p o s t - t e s t  Some o f the most a b l e w r i t e r s i n each group were  q u i t e u n p r e d i c t a b l e i n s o f a r as T - U n i t l e n g t h was boy  to  "rubbed o f f " f o r  of " s t r a i n e d , g a r b l e d , or o t h e r w i s e t o r t u r e d  might have been had  there  clauses i n their post-test  In these, however, t h e r e was  structure peculiar  2.  t h a t enough had  Although  i n the sentence-combining  concerned.  One  c l a s s had a p r e - t e s t mean s c o r e of  and a p o s t - t e s t mean of 17.9,  w h i l e another,  i n the grammar  115  group, had a n e g a t i v e change from 25.7  to 16.8  In b o t h i n s t a n c e s t h e i r p o s t - t e s t w r i t i n g was  words p e r  e x c e l l e n t , and  i t been compared to t h e i r p r e - t e s t , i t would almost been judged  superior.  In a d d i t i o n , a boy  whose w r i t i n g a b i l i t y was  had  c e r t a i n l y have  i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l  group,  s u p e r i o r to most of the o t h e r s t u d e n t s ,  averaged  16.8  t h i s was  a mean o f three s c o r e s r a n g i n g from 9.7  words per T-Unit i n h i s p o s t - t e s t c o m p o s i t i o n s ,  were taken from papers o f e q u a l l y f i n e q u a l i t y . and many o t h e r s , T - U n i t l e n g t h was  aluminum passage, reduced  to 22.8, With t h i s  in revising  but  which  s u i t e d to the i d e a s and  they wished to convey. This p a r t i c u l a r boy,  139,  T-Unit.  student attitude  the  the m a t e r i a l to 66 words from a t o t a l of  l e a v i n g out no s a l i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n .  T - U n i t s , g i v i n g him an average  o f 9.6  In d o i n g so, he used  seven  words, y e t h i s v e r s i o n was  much more s u c c i n c t than those i n which the d a t a had been combined i n t o f o u r o r f i v e T - U n i t s of g r e a t e r l e n g t h and c o m p l e x i t y . o t h e r hand, two  s t u d e n t s who  e x p r e s s i n g themselves  had  On  the  a g r e a t d e a l of d i f f i c u l t y i n  c l e a r l y , had an average  o f 18.1  and 15.5  words  per T - U n i t i n t h e i r p o s t - t e s t w r i t i n g , i n which the sentences were c o n v o l u t e d and combining  the meaning u n c l e a r .  caused  the l a c k o f c l a r i t y ,  T h i s d i d not mean t h a t  f o r those boys wrote l o n g ,  c o m p l i c a t e d T - U n i t s i n t h e i r p r e - t e s t s ; however, i t d i d t h a t l e n g t h of T-Unit might not always be an a c c u r a t e of f l u e n c y or  clarity.  sentence-  suggest  indication  116  3.  Words Per  the words per  Clause  Preferable.  I t was  c l a u s e i n d e x might more c l o s e l y measure the  o f s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e at the grade t e n l e v e l . that a student's  mental a b i l i t y  and  maturity  Hunt (1970) had  c h r o n o l o g i c a l age  c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to h i s c l a u s e l e n g t h . he had  p o s s i b l e that  seemed to  In h i s e a r l i e r study  d i s c o v e r e d many o f the h a l l m a r k s  found be  (1965),  o f mature w r i t i n g had  c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with clause length.  In the p r e s e n t  study,  t h e r e seemed to be a c o r r e l a t i o n between l e n g t h o f c l a u s e and w r i t i n g performance.  The  l e n g t h s o f 15.5, 11.5  s u p e r i o r w r i t e r s mentioned above had mean c l a u s e  14.2,  and  13.2,  for superior adults.  In these c a s e s ,  t h e i r s u p e r i o r i t y where T - U n i t of the e x p e r i m e n t a l although  l e n g t h had n o t .  t h i s d i d not r e p r e s e n t  measure o f " m a t u r i t y "  than T - U n i t  s c o r e s might h e l p  4.  9.96  post-test words,  l e n g t h , the r e l a t i v e  to e x p l a i n why  t h e r e was  so  influence  fairly  close  closeness little  groups when  The  i n v e s t i g a t o r next  the r o l e o f the w r i t i n g program which stemmed from the  w r i t i n g and  and  the  were judged.  W r i t i n g Workshops.  Workshops" designed  score  I f c l a u s e l e n g t h were a b e t t e r  d i f f e r e n c e i n the q u a l i t y o f w r i t i n g o f the two matched c o m p o s i t i o n s  The  as l a r g e a g a i n , i t was  words.  of  clause length i n d i c a t e d  group i n c l a u s e l e n g t h was  to the c o n t r o l c l a s s ' s 10.56  o f these  i n comparison to Hunt's s c o r e  explored  "Writing  by O'Hare as p a r t of h i s e l e c t i v e c o u r s e  i n c l u d e d i n the sentence-combining  the s m a l l group programs had  text.  How  in  much  upon the q u a l i t y o f w r i t i n g  117  i n the matched p a i r s o f c o m p o s i t i o n s judged by the n i n e E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s was  almost i m p o s s i b l e to determine, but i t was  at least  p o s s i b l e t h a t the i n t e n s i v e n a t u r e o f the w r i t i n g p r a c t i c e engaged i n by the s t u d e n t s was  the common denominator  t h a t proved  equally  e f f e c t i v e i n p o l i s h i n g the " s t y l e " o f both the c o n t r o l and experimental  5.  groups.  Grade L e v e l .  p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f s t y l e , and  Sentence  sense was  the s t u d e n t who  i n smooth, wellr-ordered sentences couched g r e a t advantage  undoubtedly an  im-  c o u l d frame h i s thoughts  i n s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h had a  over the p u p i l whose prose was  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  short,  choppy s e n t e n c e s , l o n g , s t r i n g y s e n t e n c e s , fragments, o r f r e q u e n t grammatical e r r o r s .  However, such p r o s e was  among younger w r i t e r s than i t was  s u r e l y more common  a t the grade ten l e v e l where most  students could w r i t e well-formed sentences.  The q u e s t i o n then a r o s e  as to whether the s y n t a c t i c g a i n s r e s u l t i n g from the p r a c t i c e o f sentence-combining might more e f f e c t i v e l y determine the  "quality"  o f w r i t i n g i n grade seven, where a l l of,.the p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s were conducted.  6.  S y n t a c t i c M a t u r i t y Only One  C r i t e r i o n Among F i v e .  In  j u d g i n g the " o v e r a l l q u a l i t y " o f the w r i t i n g sample from the cont r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s , the markers were not p r i m a r i l y  con-  cerned w i t h sentence s t r u c t u r e ; as M e l l o n s a i d , ". . . i t was  merely  one  f a c t o r among f i v e which  they were s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a t t e n d i n g . " (p.69)  118  Certainly attached  the r a t e r s were not  t o l d o f any  to the complexity or g r a m m a t i c a l i t y of sentences.  s e n t e n c e s were w e l l - c o n s t r u c t e d , and w o u l d go o n  diction,  and  i n which  the w r i t e r ,  t o mean  liveliness  t h e way  i n which  t o be  his  I n d e c i d i n g between  c l o s e l y matched on a l l  the marker's i n d i v i d u a l preference i n s t y l e s might  another wrote  one  used  and  unemotional, but graphic account  concept  In doing  to h i s i d e a s ,  the d e c i d i n g f a c t o r i n h i s choice.  version,  rater  i n adapting h i s language  a p a i r of compositions t h a t appeared  be  " S t y l e " was  immediacy h e l d the i n t e r e s t o f h i s r e a d e r .  criteria,  the  the o r g a n i z a t i o n of these i d e a s , the  the s t y l e of the w r i t e r .  reflected his individuality, and  i n correct English,  a m o r e o r n a t e and  then the r a t e r of " q u a l i t y . "  index i n f i v e ,  being  If  to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the ideas they expressed.  s o , he w o u l d t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t  t h e way  special significance  I f one  of a dramatic  well  s t u d e n t gave a incident,  terse,  while  impassioned, but e q u a l l y compelling  chose between " s t y l e s " a c c o r d i n g to h i s When m a t u r i t y o f s e n t e n c e  s t r u c t u r e was  a n d no m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e r e s t ,  then  own only  the-  g a i n s o f the c o n t r o l group might w e l l have not been a d e t e r m i n i n g factor  i n the judgment o f " q u a l i t y " by  6.  Rater Variable.  One  the  markers.  f i n a l matter  t h a t must be i n -  cluded i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of compositions concerns variable.  the  rater  P o t t e r (1967), i n speaking of r e s e a r c h designed  v a r i o u s approaches  to  test  to the improvement o f w r i t i n g , warned t h a t c a r e  119  should be  taken to e s t a b l i s h what was  p o s s i b l e that i n c e r t a i n instances markers c o u l d  meant by  "quality."  was  the l a c k of agreement between  stem from i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the  f o r even h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d , t h o r o u g h l y e x p e r i e n c e d E n g l i s h might d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y  It  criteria, teachers  i n t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s o f " q u a l i t y " and  i n f l u e n c e of " s t y l e " i n d e t e r m i n i n g i t . the commencement o f marking, too l i t t l e  I t might be time was  the  t h a t p r i o r to  spent i n an  effort  to s e c u r e some mutual agreement about what c o n s t i t u t e d " q u a l i t y " i n sentence s t r u c t u r e , o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  d i c t i o n , s t y l e , and  ideas.  Perhaps more c o m p o s i t i o n s , c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d , s h o u l d have been compared i n the p r a c t i c e  session.  Implications  In the were e x p l o r e d  and  the apparent i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s  the e x p l o r a t i o n  sought to d i s c o v e r why  (1) the  in  experi-  a c h i e v e the s y n t a c t i c growth h y p o t h e s i z e d  (2) the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y of the w r i t i n g of t h i s group  considered  e q u a l to t h a t of the c o n t r o l group d e s p i t e  s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater process of "belabouring it,  possibilities  drawn from the r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  mental group d i d n o t it,  d i s c u s s i o n , a number o f  i n an e f f o r t to e x p l a i n  the c o n c l u s i o n s Specifically,  foregoing  gains i n s y n t a c t i c maturity. the c o n c l u s i o n s , "  a number of i m p l i c a t i o n s were made:  as M e l l o n  the  for  was  latter's  During t h i s (p. 71)  called  120  1.  That c e r t a i n problems a r o s e when r e p l i c a t i n g a t the grade t e n l e v e l a study designed f o r the grade seven l e v e l , as growth i n " s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y " d i d n o t seem to be as d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a c r i t e r i o n o f q u a l i t y i n the writing of older  2.  That c l a u s e  students.  l e n g t h might be a b e t t e r  index o f m a t u r i t y  than T - U n i t l e n g t h w i t h grade t e n c l a s s e s , as the length  o f T - U n i t s was n o t always i n d i c a t i v e o f good  writing.  3.  That s y n t a c t i c c o m p l e x i t y , measured by c l a u s e  and T - U n i t  l e n g t h , was more pronounced i n d e s c r i p t i v e w r i t i n g  than  i n the o t h e r modes.  4.  That an i n t e n s i v e program o f f r e e w r i t i n g might be more e f f e c t i v e i n i n f l u e n c i n g the " s t y l e " or " q u a l i t y " o f s t u d e n t s ' w r i t i n g than e i t h e r a grammatical o r nongrammatical approach t o the s t r u c t u r i n g o f s e n t e n c e s .  5.  That a l a r g e r , more heterogeneous s u b j e c t might ensure more c o n c l u s i v e  6.  population  results.  That the aspect o f s t y l e which r e f l e c t e d the i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f the w r i t e r  i n h i s approach to h i s s u b j e c t , and  the l i v e l i n e s s and immediacy o f h i s d i s c o u r s e  might be  a more e f f e c t i v e measure than the c o m p l e x i t y o r " m a t u r i t y " of sentence s t r u c t u r e  i n distinguishing "quality."  121  7.  That a grammar-oriented approach to the acquisition of syntactic s k i l l s should l i m i t the range of grammatical concepts studied i n order than less time might be spent i n learning terminology and more i n the application of those terms to a variety of sentence-combining techniques.  8.  That an e f f o r t be made to define more closely what i s meant by " q u a l i t y " i n writing, and to ensure a common interpretation of the c r i t e r i o n of " s t y l e . " As one of the p r i n c i p a l concerns of the present research  had been to determine whether or not an increased s k i l l i n structuring sentences would be transferred to the writing process, i t was unfortunate that no clear evidence of such a transfer was obtained. However, even though o v e r a l l quality might not have been improved by the treatments, the treatments were of some benefit i n themselves.  Benefits of Sentence Combining An evaluation of the sentence-combining program carried on during the year i n the control group, revealed that i t had been b e n e f i c i a l i n a number of ways: 1.  In being exposed to a wide variety of sentence-combining techniques, including subordination, reduction, and cumulation, the student's "syntactic choices" were broadened, and h i s a b i l i t y to structure language  enhanced.  These s k i l l s might have c o n t r i b u t e d t o " h i s ease o f expression," particularly whether o r n o t they  i n d e s c r i p t i v e w r i t i n g , but  influenced "quality"  depended  upon a d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e term.  The  syntactic s k i l l  t h e y a c q u i r e d was e m p l o y e d i n a  constructive b u i l d i n g process learned  to hold longer  during which the student  and l o n g e r  discourse  i n h i s head,  an a c h i e v e m e n t w h i c h may h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d s o m e t h i n g t o his  c o g n i t i v e development.  About t h i s Mellon  observed:  I n r e h e a r s i n g t h e f u l l s t a t e m e n t w h i l e f o r m i n g i t and a p p r a i s i n g i t s grammaticality, the student experiences i t r e p e a t e d l y and t h u s i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e n s i v e manner. L a s t l y , he must r e t a i n t h e f u l l y f o r m e d s e n t e n c e i n memory w h i l e h e w r i t e s i t , a n d p r a c t i c e i n t h i s m n e m o n i c s k i l l may i n d e e d b e c r u c i a l , , ( p . 36)  I n commenting upon t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , pared i t to Vygotsky's  Stotsky  ( 1 9 7 5 ) com-  (1962) d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a c t o f  writing:  W r i t i n g . . . r e q u i r e s d e l i b e r a t e a n a l y t i c a l a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e c h i l d . . . . The c h a n g e . . . t o m a x i m a l l y d e t a i l e d w r i t t e n speech r e q u i r e s what m i g h t be c a l l e d d e l i b e r a t e s e m a n t i c s — d e l i b e r a t e s t r u c t u r i n g o f t h e web o f m e a n i n g . W.  Strang,  i n an a r t i c l e  i n the English Journal  1 9 7 6 ) , r e f l e c t e d V y g o t s k y ' s v i e w , a s he s a i d o f combining:  (February sentence-  123  . . . i t h e l p s k i d s b r i d g e a l i n g u i s t i c gap between the i n c r e d i b l e t r a n s f o r m i n g power i n speech and the p a i n f u l s i l e n c e they o f t e n e x p e r i e n c e when they c o n f r o n t a b l a n k p i e c e of paper, (p.64)  3.  The p r o c e s s o f sentence-combining  was  based  upon the  s t u d e n t ' s i n h e r e n t sense of g r a m m a t i c a l i t y , which would u s u a l l y enable him acceptable.  to t e l l whether a s o l u t i o n  was  O r a l work i n p a r t i c u l a r h e l p e d him  whether a sentence  "sounded r i g h t . "  to  judge  As S t r a n g commented  i n the above a r t i c l e , " a l l the k i d s we  teach are  g e n e r a t i n g g e n i u s e s — t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l w i z a r d s who  sentencehave  tremendous banks o f l i n g u i s t i c d a t a a l r e a d y programmed i n t o t h e i r b r a i n computers" and s t u d e n t s to "tap t h e i r own  4.  Sentence-combining of  sentence-combining  helped  l i n g u i s t i c r e s o u r c e s . " (p.  56)  h e l p e d to i n c r e a s e the s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e  s t u d e n t s because of the s u c c e s s they a c h i e v e d i n the  process.  A l l p u p i l s , even the weaker ones, p a r t i c i p a t e d  when s o l u t i o n s were t e s t e d o r a l l y i n the easy  give-and-  take workshop atmosphere o f the s m a l l group c l a s s e s , which were not t h r e a t e n e d by any  form o f  examination.  B e n e f i t s o f Grammar Study  In  comparison to the advantage o f the  sentence-combining  program, the b e n e f i t s o f the grammar study were more d i f f i c u l t enumerate, as i t was  undoubtedly  t e d i o u s f o r the s t u d e n t s .  to  However,  124 they r e c o g n i z e d the u s e f u l n e s s of a guide to "what was f e r r e d and what avoided i n the i n f l e c t i o n and There was  to be  pre-  syntax of t h e i r w r i t i n g . "  no c e r t a i n t y , of c o u r s e , t h a t the knowledge they a c q u i r e d  would not a l s o be h a l v e d a f t e r the summer h o l i d a y , or perhaps q u a r t e r e d . One  c o u l d o n l y hope t h a t the f r a c t i o n remaining would be  sufficient  to enable the s t u d e n t s , a f t e r a t h o u g h t f u l r e a p p r a i s a l of what they had w r i t t e n , to r e c o g n i z e any i t s g r a m m a t i c a l i t y , and more c o n c i s e way  i n a d e q u a c i e s i n the s t r u c t u r e , to t e s t  to determine  whether t h e r e were any b e t t e r ,  of a d a p t i n g t h e i r language to t h e i r i d e a s .  Students  l e a r n e d the importance  of r e s t r u c t u r i n g  sentences  i n o r d e r to improve t h e i r s t y l e when they were e d i t i n g t h e i r work for publishing. i n g one  The r e l a t i o n s h i p of s t y l e to syntax was  combining  c o g n i t i v e growth.  I f the p o s s i b i l i t y  that  sentence-  promoted c o g n i t i v e growth c o u l d be e n t e r t a i n e d , then  c e r t a i n l y the same c o u l d be s a i d of grammar.  . to of to  interest-  t h a t needed f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , as d i d the c o n n e c t i o n between  s y n t a c t i c and  Stotsky  an  (1975),  In the a r t i c l e  a f u r t h e r q u o t a t i o n of Vygotsky's  confirmed  by this:  . . our a n a l y s i s c l e a r l y showed the study o f grammar be o f paramount importance f o r the mental development the c h i l d . . . . Grammar and w r i t i n g h e l p the c h i l d r i s e to a h i g h e r l e v e l of speech development, (pp.100-101)  Suggestions  for Further  Research  Throughout t h i s c h a p t e r a number o f s u g g e s t i o n s were made f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n the study o f s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y and i t s r e l a t i o n to the w r i t i n g p r o c e s s .  A summary o f these would i n c l u d e :  More c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s might be a c h i e v e d  i f the scope of  the  study were widened to i n c l u d e a more heterogeneous group.  V a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be gained by e x t e n d i n g  the e x p e r i -  ment over a l o n g e r p e r i o d i n o r d e r t h a t delayed p o s t - t e s t s c o u l d e s t a b l i s h the r e l a t i v e permanence of the g a i n s .  If  funds were a v a i l a b l e to pay markers, more time c o u l d be  spent on r a t e r t r a i n i n g , and on a m o r e - p r e c i s e of  the sample o f p o s t - t e s t compositions  evaluation  compared f o r q u a l i t y .  In a d d i t i o n , the number of p r e - and p o s t - t r e a t m e n t w r i t t e n by  compositions  the s t u d e n t s c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d i n o r d e r to get a  more adequate sample of w r i t i n g a t each t e s t i n g p e r i o d .  If  t h i s were done, the q u e s t i o n of whether s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z a b l e i n improved c o u l d be more adequately  style  tested.  Important i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be p r o v i d e d by a study of r e l a t i o n s h i p between growth i n s y n t a c t i c s k i l l s  the  and c o g n i t i v e  growth.  I t would be of i n t e r e s t combining p r o c e s s  to determine whether the  improved r e a d i n g s k i l l s .  sentence-  A reading  comprehension t e s t c o u l d be g i v e n a t p r e - and p o s t - t e s t p e r i o d s to measure any  change.  Research i n v o l v i n g a sentence-combining and  experimental  class  a c o n t r o l c l a s s doing f r e e w r i t i n g might g i v e some  126  new  i n s i g h t i n t o which p r o c e s s was  more e f f e c t i v e i n improving  the q u a l i t y o f w r i t i n g .  The p r e s e n t study has caused the r e s e a r c h e r to conclude t h a t sentence-combining  would be most a p p r o p r i a t e as a s k i l l - b u i l d i n g  a d j u n c t to the c o m p o s i t i o n program.  I t would perhaps be more u s e f u l  w i t h o u t any s i g n a l s , i n the open format suggested by S t r a n g . as Combs remarked, sentence-combining was ills  o f s t u d e n t w r i t i n g , i t was  "no panacea"  Although,  f o r a l l the  a most u s e f u l procedure f o r demon-  s t r a t i n g the g r e a t v a r i e t y o f o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e to the s t u d e n t when p u t t i n g h i s thoughts on paper.  As he l e a r n e d to choose  e f f e c t i v e methods o f a d a p t i n g h i s language  the most  to h i s i d e a s , he  more p l e a s i n g p a t t e r n s i n h i s work, and enhanced h i s s t y l e . the problem w i t h t h i s approach was  not u n l i k e t h a t o f a  approach, as b o t h , taught i n i s o l a t i o n , were o f l i t t l e benefit.  A l t h o u g h the " a - r h e t o r i c a l " p r a c t i c e o f  created However,  grammatical lasting  sentence-combining  d i d not l e a d to a " c o n s c i o u s " t r a n s f e r to the w r i t i n g p r o c e s s o f the s k i l l s a c q u i r e d , some d i d " r u b - o f f " and was  manifested i n a  g r e a t e r c o m p l e x i t y o f sentence s t r u c t u r e , but t h i s c a r r y - o v e r might be f o r o n l y a l i m i t e d  time.  I t would seem t h a t a " c o n s c i o u s " t r a n s f e r o f t h i s to m a n i p u l a t e language was what was  needed by s t u d e n t s .  f o r a "grammatical" o r "non-grammatical"  ability  In o r d e r  study o f sentence  structure  to be o f g r e a t e r permanent v a l u e , i t s h o u l d be c a r r i e d on i n a  127  " r h e t o r i c a l " s e t t i n g , where s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d to m a n i p u l a t e sentences,  their  own  r e o r g a n i z i n g , combining, r e d u c i n g , or c l u s t e r i n g , i n  o r d e r to c r e a t e more v a r i e t y , c o n c i s e n e s s , or c l a r i t y i n t h e i r writing.  T h i s p r o c e s s would i n v o l v e c o n s i d e r a b l y more d i s c i p l i n e  and  hard work, but once l e a r n e d , s h o u l d be o f i n e s t i m a b l e v a l u e to the maturing  s t udent who  critical  eye, and  ideas.  was  beginning  to view h i s e f f o r t s w i t h a more  to seek a more e f f e c t i v e way  of e x p r e s s i n g h i s  T h i s s o r t o f s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n and r e v i s i o n would not  be  e v i d e n t i n compositions w r i t t e n i n c l a s s under the p r e s s u r e o f but would r e s u l t w r i t e r was  time,  i n a h i g h e r " q u a l i t y " o f c o m p o s i t i o n when the  not rushed  i n his editing.  The g o a l o f improving  " s y n t a c t i c m a t u r i t y " i n student  w r i t i n g might be reached most e f f e c t i v e l y by an approach r e f l e c t i n g the i d e a s of both the p s y c h o l i n g u i s t s and  the  rhetoricians.  P i a g e t , M o f f e t t , B r i t t o n , and Holbrook s t r e s s e d the importance of a s t u d e n t - c e n t e r e d w r i t i n g c u r r i c u l u m i n which p r o c e s s was important  than p r o d u c t ,  from c l e a r t h i n k i n g . s t u d e n t s ' own  f o r c l e a r w r i t i n g c o u l d o n l y be d e r i v e d  To reach t h i s end,  composition  of student problems.  more  and  t e a c h e r s worked w i t h  e v i n c e d a sympathetic  the  understanding  R h e t o r i c i a n s , on the o t h e r hand, emphasized  the need f o r m a i n t a i n i n g h i g h e r standards i t s c h i l d r e n on s e n t i m e n t a l and  i n "a s o c i e t y which r e a r e d  shoddy r e a d i n g matter,  which  bathed  them i n the l i n g u i s t i c s l u d g e o f t e l e v i s i o n , and which debased the E n g l i s h language i n the p l a c e where i t a l l began: a t home."  A. Giamette, i n w r i t i n g thus i n the January,  1976 i s s u e o f Y a l e  Alumni Magazine, d e c r i e d the s e n t i m e n t a l i t y o f modern trends toward f r e e i n g language from " t h e s h a c k l e s o f syntax, grammar, the e l i t i s m o f s t y l e . " the study o f sentence  the r a c i s m o f  T h e r e f o r e , an i d e a l approach t o  s t r u c t u r i n g would be one t h a t was i n t e g r a t e d  w i t h the composing p r o c e s s  i n o r d e r t h a t the p r o d u c t might conform  to h i g h e r s t a n d a r d s o f e x c e l l e n c e .  129  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Anderson,  C.C. "The New STEP E s s a y T e s t a s a M e a s u r e o f C o m p o s i t i o n Ability," E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement, 20 ( 1 9 6 0 ) , 9 5 - 1 0 2 .  Anderson,  J.E. "An E v a l u a t i o n o f V a r i o u s I n d i c e s o f L i n g u i s t i c Development," C h i l d Development, 8 ( 1 9 3 7 ) , 62-68.  B a t e m a n , D.R. a n d F . 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"A C r i t i q u e o f Some I n d i c e s o f S y n t a c t i c M a t u r i t y , " R e s e a r c h i n t h e T e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h , 10 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 3 1 - 3 8 .  Writing,"  O'Hare, F r a n k . Sentence-Combining: Improving Student W r i t i n g W i t h o u t F o r m a l Grammar I n s t r u c t i o n , R e s e a r c h R e p o r t No. 1 5 . Urbana, I l l i n o i s : N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Teachers of E n g l i s h , 1973. S e n t e n c e c r a f t : An E l e c t i v e C o u r s e G i n n a n d Company, 1 9 7 5 .  i n Writing.  Scarborough:  135  Pedersen,  E. " S y n t a c t i c M a t u r i t y as Measured by C o n c e p t u a l o r Ideational Loading." U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, i n progress.  P e r r o n , J.D. "An E x p l o r a t o r y A p p r o a c h t o E x t e n d i n g t h e S y n t a c t i c D e v e l o p m e n t o f F o u r t h - G r a d e S t u d e n t s T h r o u g h t h e Use o f Sentence-Combining Methods." Dissertation Abstracts I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 35 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 4316A. Piaget,  Jean. The L a n g u a g e a n d T h o u g h t o f t h e C h i l d . t r a n s . ) , New Y o r k : M e r i d a n B o o k s , 1 9 5 5 .  P i k e , K.L.  .  (M.  Language i n R e l a t i o n to a U n i f i e d Theory o f the S t r u c t u r e o f Human B e h a v i o u r . 2 n d . E d i t i o n , Summer I n s t i t u t e o f L i n g u i s t i c s , 1967. Tagmemics i n M a t r i x L i n g u i s t i c s A p p l i e d t o S e l e c t e d A f r i c a n L a n g u a g e s . P u b l i c a t i o n s i n L i n g u i s t i c s and R e l a t e d F i e l d S e r i e s , No. 2 3 . Summer I n s t i t u t e o f L i n g u i s t i c s : 1970.  P o s t m a n , N. " L i n g u i s t i c s and the P u r s u i t o f R e l e v a n c e , " J o u r n a l , 56 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , 1 1 6 0 - 1 1 6 5 . Potter,  Gabain,  Robert. "Sentence Study," Research 17-28.  English  S t r u c t u r e a n d P r o s e Q u a l i t y : An E x p l o r a t o r y i n the Teaching of E n g l i s h , 1 (1967),  Poutsma, H e n d r i c k . A Grammar o f L a t e M o d e r n E n g l i s h . G r o n i n g e n : P. N o o r d h o f f , 1 9 0 4 - 1 9 2 9 .  5 vols.  R e e s i n k , G.P. e t a l . " D e v e l o p m e n t o f S y n t a x Among S c h o o l C h i l d r e n and A d u l t s : A R e p l i c a t i o n - I n v e s t i g a t i o n , " N e d e r l a n d s T i j d s c h r i f t v o o r do P s y c h o l o g i e e n h a a r G r e n s g e b i e d e n , 26 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , 3 3 5 - 3 6 4 . P s y c h o l o g i c a l A b s t r a c t s , 47, 10536. S a p i r , Edward. 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S t o t s k y , S.L. " S e n t e n c e - C o m b i n i n g as a C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t y : I t s E f f e c t on W r i t t e n Language Development and R e a d i n g Comprehension," Research i n the Teaching o f E n g l i s h , 9, 1 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 3 0 - 7 1 . S t r o n g , W.  .  Sentence-Combining: House, 1973.  A Composing Book.  New Y o r k :  Random  "Sentence Combining: Back t o t h e B a s i c s - And Beyond," E n g l i s h J o u r n a l , 65, 2 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 56, 60-64.  S u g g s , L.R. " S t r u c t u r a l Grammar V e r s u s T r a d i t i o n a l Grammar i n I n f l u e n c i n g W r i t i n g , " E n g l i s h J o u r n a l , 50 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , 5 2 1 525. Starring,  R.W. "A S t u d y o f R a t i n g s o f C o m p r e h e n s i v e E x a m i n a t i o n Themes When C e r t a i n E l e m e n t s A r e W e a k e n e d . " U n p u b l i s h e d P h . D. t h e s i s , M i c h i g a n S t a t e C o l l e g e , 1952.  Symonds, P.M. " P r a c t i c e V e r s u s Grammar i n t h e L e a r n i n g o f C o r r e c t E n g l i s h Usage," J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology,61 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , 81-95. Thomas,. Owen. "Some P e r s p e c t i v e s o n Grammar a n d L i n g u i s t i c s , " J o u r n a l , 6 1 , 9 (1974) 63.  English  V e a l , Ramon L . a n d M. T i l l m a n . "Mode o f D i s c o u r s e V a r i a t i o n i n t h e E v a l u a t i o n o f C h i l d r e n ' s W r i t i n g , " Research i n the Teachi n g o f E n g l i s h , 5, 1, ( 1 9 7 1 ) , 3 7 - 4 5 . V i t a l e , M.R., K i n g , F . J . , S h o n t z , D.W. a n d G.W. H u n t l e y . "Effect of Sentence-Combining E x e r c i s e s Upon S e v e r a l R e s t r i c t e d W r i t t e n Composition Tasks," J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 61 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , 5 2 1 - 5 2 5 . Vygotsky,  L.  T h o u g h t a n d L a n g u a g e . C a m b r i d g e : MIT P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 .  W e i n f e l d , F.D. "A F a c t o r A n a l y t i c A p p r o a c h t o t h e M e a s u r e m e n t o f D i f f e r e n t i a l E f f e c t s o f T r a i n i n g : An E v a l u a t i o n o f Three Methods o f Teaching E n g l i s h C o m p o s i t i o n . " An u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , G r a d u a t e S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1959. '  137  W i l k i n s o n , Andrew. The Foundations o f Language. U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971.  London: Oxford  138  APPENDIX A ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR T-UNIT LENGTH SCORES OF 26 EXPERIMENTAL AND 25 CONTROL SUBJECTS* FREE WRITING PASSAGES  Sum of Squares  Source  I Degrees of Freedom |  Prob. F Exceeded  Mean Square  Beta Estimates  6.69946  1  6.69946  0.88925  0.351  28.95996  1  28.95996  3.84400  0.056  1- st Covariate 36.30009  1  36.30009  4.81830  0.033  0.30880  2- nd Covariate 24.29561  1  24.29561  3.22488  0.079  0.07781  145.63062  2  72.81531  9.66515  0.000  354.08862  47  7.53380  272.66528  1  272.66528 52.14275  0.000  65.36768  1  65.36768 12.50049  0.001  256.23120  49  Mean G  All Covariates Error R RG Error  5.22921  Pooled Regression Coefficients 1- st Covariate  0.30880  2- nd Covariate  .07781  4 control and 1 experimental subjects not included i n analysis because of missing data.  139  APPENDIX B ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR CLAUSE LENGTH SCORES OF 26 AND 25 CONTROL SUBJECTS' FREE  WRITING  EXPERIMENTAL  PASSAGES  Sum o f Squares  Degrees of Freedom  Mean  5.38687  1  5.38687  1.52810  0.223  G  0.13705  1  0.13705  0.03888  0.845  28.85620  1  28.85620  8.18565  0.006  0.27533  1  7.42207  2.10542  0.153  0.04301  2  40.77780  11.56745  0.000  165.68527  47  3.52522  R  33.49889  1  33.49889  13.64537  0.001  RG  11.29320  1  11.29320  4.60015  0.037  120.29320  49  2.45496  Source  1- s t C o v a r i a t e  I  2- nd C o v a r i a t e  I  A l l Covariates Error  Error  7.42207 81.55562  Pooled Regression  Mean Square  Exceeded  Estimates  Coefficients  1- s t C o v a r i a t e  0.27533  2- nd C o v a r i a t e  0.04301  4 c o n t r o l and 1 e x p e r i m e n t a l missing data  s u b j e c t n o t i n c l u d e d i n a n a l y s i s because o f  140  APPENDIX C A N A L Y S I S OF COVARIANCE FOR T-UNIT LENGTH SCORES OF 26 AND  Source  Mean G  EXPERIMENTAL  25 CONTROL S U B J E C T S ' * ALUMINUM PASSAGE  Sum o f Squares  Degrees of Freedom  Mean Square  F  Prob. F Exceeded  2.37402  1  2.37402  0.25060  0.619  28.33154  1  28.33154  2.99066  0.090  Beta Estimates  1-st  Covariate  0.01796  1  0.01796  0.00190  0.965  -0.00687  2-nd  Covariate  80.10275  1  80.10275  8.45559  0.006  0.14129  Covariates  120.08398  2  60.04199  6.33799  0.004  Error  445.24731  47  9.47335  R  391.07642  1  391.07642  58.92581  0.000  98.23047  1  98.23047  14.80097  0.000  325.20117  49  6.63676  All  RG Error  Pooled  Regression  Coefficients  1- s t C o v a r i a t e  -0.00687  2- n d C o v a r i a t e  0.14129  141  APPENDIX D ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR CLAUSE LENGTH SCORES OF 26 EXPERIMENTAL AND 25 CONTROL SUBJECTS'* ALUMINUM PASSAGE  Source  Mean G  Sum o f Squares  Degrees of Freedom  Mean Square  F  Prob. F Exceeded  14.47649 •  1  14.47649  9.95562  0.003  0.73607  1  0.73607  0.50620  0.480  Beta Estimates  1-st  Covarlate  0.41000  1  0.41000  0.28196  0.598  -0.03282  2-nd  Covarlate  1.12943  1  1.12943  0.77672  0.383  0.01678  Covariates  1.12987  2  0.56493  0.38851  0.680  Error  68.34280  47  1.45410  R  19.46092  1  19.46092  14.57150  0.000  3.34459  1  3.34459  2.50428  0.120  All  RG Error  Pooled  65.44182  Regression  49  1.33555  Coefficients  1- s t C o v a r i a t e  -0.03282  2- nd C o v a r i a t e  0.01678  * 4 c o n t r o l and 1 e x p e r i m e n t a l m i s s i n g data  s u b j e c t s n o t i n c l u d e d i n a n a l y s i s because o f  APPENDIX E GRAMMAR EXAM - EXPERIMENTAL GROUP MARKS OF EXAM  APPENDIX GRAMMAR EXAM - EXPERIMENTAL GROUP  GRADE TEN GRAMMAR EXAM INSTRUCTIONS:  Rewrite the following sentences on foolscap, correcting each i n the way specified i n each set.  SET I - Faulty Coordination - occurs when two unequal ideas are placed i n coordinate clauses as though they were of equal importance. A.  B.  C.  D.  Correct by the use of a subordinate clause: 1.  Peter i s going to college i n the West, and he came i n to say goodbye.  2.  I didn't understand how to do the assignment, and I didn't have my homework done.  3.  Franklin was a s c i e n t i s t as well as a statesman, and he invented a new kind of stove.  Correct by a modifying phrase: 1.  We were delighted to receive a bushel of oranges, and they came from F l o r i d a .  2.  He told me to look i n the unabridged dictionary, and i t was on h i s desk.  Correct by an appositive: 1.  Mr. Carter i s a very fine man, active church.  and he i s pastor of a very  2.  The v i o l i n was an old instrument with a b e a u t i f u l tone, and i t belonged to my father.  3.  The plane i s the fastest passenger plane i n the world, and i t w i l l take you to Europe i n record time.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between ideas i n the following sentences i s not clear, either because the conjunctions used are not exact, or because the sentences contain faulty coordination. Improve the sentences by rewriting them. 1.  You want me to help you with your homework, and you must help me with the dishes.  143  S t e w a r t H a r r i s o n was a f a m o u s d e t e c t i v e , and he s o l v e the a r s e n i c murder c a s e . U n c l e B i l l i s my f a v o u r i t e u n c l e , a n d he h a s t o s p e n d t h e summer w i t h h i m .  SET  SET  A.  B.  could  invited  not me  I I - REFERENCE OF PRONOUNS - r e w r i t e t h e f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e s and c o r r e c t a n y g e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e (The b o y s w o r e s k i b o o t s t o c l a s s w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r d i d n o t l i k e ) , o r w e a k r e f e r e n c e (We f i s h e d a l l day, but d i d n ' t c a t c h one), o r the i n d e f i n i t e use o f pronouns s u c h as j f t , t h e y , and y o u , o r any u n c l e a r r e f e r ence o f pronouns. 1.  A number o f p e o p l e g a t h e r e d a r o u n d t h e s p e a k e r and h i s m i c r o p h o n e , w h i c h was due t o c u r i o s i t y .  2.  On p l a n e s t h a t a r e i n f l i g h t a t m e a l t i m e , t h e y s e r v e meals w i t h o u t charge.  3.  He o v e r c a m e h i s h i p i n j u r y w h i c h d o c t o r s h a d impossible.  4.  F a t h e r M e y e r came t o t h e h o u s e d a i l y , f r i e n d s h i p grew.  5.  The w i t n e s s t e s t i f i e d t h a t h e h a d s e e n t h e a c c u s e d when h e was e a t i n g d i n n e r i n t h e d i n i n g c a r , w h i c h c o n v i n c e d t h e j u r y o f h i s presence on the t r a i n .  said  was  from which a  sturdy  I I I - M i s p l a c e d o r D a n g l i n g ' M o d i f i e r s - improve t h e s e n t e n c e s by p u t t i n g the m i s p l a c e d p h r a s e s o r c l a u s e s c l o s e r to the word they modify. S o m e t i m e s a d v e r b i a l m o d i f i e r s c a n b e moved t o the b e g i n n i n g of the sentence. 1.  I f what t h e d i r e c t i o n s say i s t r u e on t h e package, a powerful drug.  2.  Mr. Simmons met a f r i e n d h e h a d n ' t Grand C e n t r a l S t a t i o n .  3.  While l i g h t i n g a cigar, a telephone pole.  4.  E v e r c h a n g i n g c o l o u r , e v e r f o r m i n g new followed the clouds.  5.  The n e x t c a s u a l t y t r e a t e d b y t h e c o r p s m e n was stretcher s u f f e r i n g w i t h a broken l e g .  6.  While watching the b a l l  this i s  seen f o r ten years i n  the c a r swerved  dangerously toward shapes, her  eyes  l y i n g on  a  game, S i d ' s h o r s e r a n away.  W r i t e two s e n t e n c e s o f y o u r own, phrases c o r r e c t l y .  using introductory  participial  144  SET  A.  B.  SET  SET  IV - P a r a l l e l i s m - c o r r e c t t h e l a c k o f p a r a l l e l i s m i n t h e f o l l o w ing sentences by: (a) seeing t h a t the c o r r e l a t i v e conj u n c t i o n s a r e p r o p e r l y p l a c e d , (b) by m a k i n g s u r e t h a t o n l y e q u a l terms a r e j o i n e d w i t h a c o o r d i n a t e c o n j u n c t i o n , and (c) i n c l u d i n g i n t h e second p a r t o f a p a r a l l e l c o n s t r u c t i o n a l l w o r d s n e c e s s a r y t o make i t c o m p l e t e . 1.  T e l l me w h e r e y o u h a v e b e e n a n d a n a c c o u n t o f y o u r a c t i v i t i e s there.  2.  He r e g a r d e d a l l n a t i v e s a s s l y , i g n o r a n t , a n d n o t t o b e depended upon.  3.  P i o n e e r s came w i t h h o p e s o f b e i n g h a p p y a n d f r e e a n d t o make t h e i r f o r t u n e s i n t h e new l a n d .  4.  He n e i t h e r t o l d me t h a t I s h o u l d make a r e p o r t .  5.  H i s f r i e n d s n o t o n l y were shocked by h i s f a i l u r e b u t a l s o they f e l t a great disappointment.  6.  To t h e i n e x p e r i e n c e d s o l d i e r , w a r may b e a r o m a n t i c a d v e n t u r e , b u t a d u l l a n d d i r t y b u s i n e s s i s t h e way t h e combat v e t e r a n r e g a r d s i t .  1.  Write a sentence i l l u s t r a t i n g p a r a l l e l use o f c o r r e l a t i v e c o n j u n c t i o n s .  structure with the  2.  Write a sentence i l l u s t r a t i n g p a r a l l e l t i v e phrases, or w i t h gerunds.  structure with  attend  the meeting nor  infini-  V - S h i f t s i n V e r b Forms ( a c t i v e t o p a s s i v e w i t h i n t h e s e n t e n c e , o r i n t e n s e ) - s h i f t s f r o m one s u b j e c t t o a n o t h e r . Rewrite the f o l l o w i n g sentences t o a v o i d unnecessary s h i f t s . 1.  Once a c u s t o m e r b i t e s i n t o o n e o f o u r s t e a k s , y o u w i l l never complain about o u r b i l l .  2.  P r o p e r l y e q u i p p e d men c a n s u r v i v e f o r m o n t h s i n t h e A r c t i c and no i l l e f f e c t s w i l l b e s u f f e r e d .  3.  A l t h o u g h we c o u l d n o t s e e t h e p l a n e s , be c l e a r l y h e a r d .  4.  I f a p e r s o n wished t o succeed, you have t o work  t h e i r motors  could  hard.  V I - Sentence Conciseness - Rewrite the f o l l o w i n g passages, l e a v i n g out a l l unnecessary words. 1.  As y o u c o n t i n u e on i n t h e book a l i t t l e f u r t h e r , y o u w i l l be s u r p r i s e d a n d amazed b y t h e c l e v e r s k i l l o f t h e w r i t e r o f t h e b o o k i n w e a v i n g i n t o g e t h e r t h e many p r e v i o u s l y u n r e l a t e d threads o f the s t o r y .  145  2.  B.  H i s mental thought p r o c e s s e s p u z z l e d h i s s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and made them d e s p a i r o f h i s f u t u r e s u c c e s s i n the y e a r s a f t e r h i s g r a d u a t i o n from s c h o o l .  A v o i d wordiness by r e d u c i n g the f o l l o w i n g s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s a c c o r d i n g to d i r e c t i o n s . 1.  When he was r u n n i n g f o r the bus, George f e l l and t w i s t e d h i s ankle. (Replace sub. c l . w i t h a p a r t i c i p i a l p h r a s e ) .  2.  I f you l e a v e a t noon, you can get to Chicago (Replace c l a u s e w i t h a gerund p h r a s e ) .  3.  We d e c i d e d t h a t we would g e t an e a r l y s t a r t . c l a u s e w i t h an i n f i n i t i v e p h r a s e ) .  4.  The teams which had come from the f a r West were n o t p l a y i n g today. (Replace c l a u s e w i t h a p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e ) .  5.  A f t e r you have graduated, you w i l l be l o o k i n g f o r a j o b . (Replace c l a u s e w i t h p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e ) .  6.  My mother, who i s the k i n d e s t woman i n the w o r l d , w i l l h e l p you w i t h your problem. (Replace c l a u s e w i t h an appositive).  7.  S i n c e she i s an automobile d e a l e r , Mrs. Holmes has promised her c h i l d r e n a c a r as a g i f t when they r e a c h twenty-one. (Change the f i r s t c l a u s e to an a p p o s i t i v e , and the second to a p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e ) .  8.  Her two s p e c i a l i t i e s , one o f which i s c o o k i n g and the o t h e r sewing, h e l p e d her to get the j o b . (Change c l a u s e to two s i n g l e word a p p o s i t i v e s ) .  9.  We decided to w a i t f o r the bus i n o r d e r t h a t we might money. (Change c l a u s e to i n f i n i t i v e p h r a s e ) .  10.  by t h r e e . (Replace  save  Our days t h a t we spent i n the n o r t h woods would have been p e r f e c t i f i t had n o t been f o r the mosquitoes t h a t t r o u b l e d us. (Reduce f i r s t c l a u s e to a p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrase, and the second c l a u s e t o a s i n g l e word).  SET V I I - Combine the f o l l o w i n g sentences i n t o one smooth sentence, a v o i d i n g any unnecessary words, but l e a v i n g o u t no information. 1.  Galen was a famous p h y s i c i a n o f the second c e n t u r y . He added g r e a t l y to our knowledge o f the body. He d i s c o v e r e d important f a c t s about the a r t e r i e s , the b r a i n , and the nervous system.  2.  S e r i o u s w i l d l i f e p r o t e c t i o n began i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n the 1880's. I t was headed by c o n s e r v a t i o n groups. Among these groups were the N a t i o n a l Audubon S o c i e t y and the C r o c k e t t C l u b .  146  3.  He stood a t the top of the s t a i r s . He watched me. I was w a i t i n g f o r him to c a l l me up. He was h e s i t a t i n g to come down. H i s l i p s were nervous. They had the s u g g e s t i o n o f a s m i l e . My eyes were a s k i n g whether the s m i l e meant come, o r go away.  SET V I I I - Subject-Verb Agreement - C o r r e c t any e r r o r s i n s u b j e c t verb agreement, or pronoun-antecedent agreement i n the f o l l o w i n g sentences.  SET  1.  Everyone i n the c l a s s were i n s t r u c t e d o f t h e i r schedule.  2.  N e i t h e r Smith nor Ford have remembered to have uniform cleaned.  3.  Everyone o f us i s g l a d t h a t we  4.  E m i l y , as w e l l as her c o u s i n , walk to t h e i r s c h o o l day.  5.  N e i t h e r C a p t a i n T r a v i s nor t h e i r experience.  6.  The team o f b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s t r a v e l to t h e i r game i n Seattle.  out  copies  their  brought a c o a t .  the o t h e r o f f i c e r s  every  t a l k about  IX - W r i t e a sentence i n each of the f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n s ; u n d e r l i n e and name the p a r t s o f each p a t t e r n : E.g.,  A.  to f i l l  S + V + 0.  The new  p l a y e r h i t the b a i l i n t o l e f t  field.  1.  S + V  (Use a gerund or i n f i n i t i v e as s u b j e c t ) .  2.  S + V + I O + 0  3.  S + "be" + C (Adj.) (Use an a d j e c t i v e c l a u s e to d e s c r i b e the  (Use a noun c l a u s e as o b j e c t ) .  subject) .  B.  4.  S + "be" + C (N)  (Use a noun c l a u s e as s u b j e c t ) .  5.  S + l i n k v. + C (Use a verb i n the p a s t p e r f e c t t e n s e ) .  6.  S + V + 0 + 0 C  (N)  (Use a verb i n the p r e s e n t p r o g r e s s i v e  tense)  W r i t e a sentence i n the p a s s i v e v o i c e , g i v i n g a p o l i t i c i a n ' s answer to a q u e s t i o n about why h i s government hasn't b u i l t new roads.  SET X - Make any n e c e s s a r y 1.  The and  c o r r e c t i o n s i n the f o l l o w i n g sentences.  cannery manager was h a v i n g t r o u b l e g e t t i n g workers advertisements p r o m i s i n g h i g h wages were used.  147  2.  On t h e c a n o e t r i p we c a r r i e d a f i r s t a i d k i t b e c a u s e one n e v e r knows when y o u w i l l n e e d o n e o f them.  3.  The h o n e s t c o w b o y s c a u g h t up w i t h t h e g a n g a t t h e b e n d of t h e r o a d , and then a f i e r c e b a t t l e ensues.  4.  S i n c e t h e c h i l d r e n e n j o y p i c n i c k i n g , we go o n s e v e r a l e v e r y summer.  5.  Y i e l d i n g to the temptation to look a t a classmate's the teacher caught h e r c h e a t i n g .  paper,  6.  He t h o u g h t i t e a s i e r t o l i s t e n r e a d i n g t h e newspaper.  than  t o news o n t h e r a d i o  148  APPENDIX E E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p s Marks 1  Grammar Examination, June, 1977  Letter  Grade  Percentage Equivalent  Number o f Students i n Each Category  Percentage o f Students i n Each Category  C+  D  B  80+  74-79  3  7  4  6  4  3  25.9  14.8  22.2  14.8  11.1  11.1  C  C-  A  67-73 58-66 50-57  Total  Below 50  27  99.9  APPENDIX  F  COMPOSITIONS TOPICS - IN PARALLEL FORMS DESCRIPTIVE NARRATIVE EXPOSITORY  ALUMINUM PASSAGE  149a  COMPOSITION TOPICS (Form A, F a l l )  DESCRIPTIVE  Good w r i t e r s can use words to p a i n t p i c t u r e s .  Not o n l y  t h a t , b u t they can use words to convey sounds, s m e l l s , t a s t e s , and t h i n g s t h a t you f e e l .  When you d e s c r i b e a scene, you t r y to make  words t e l l what the t h i n g s you see a r e d o i n g and what they l o o k l i k e . You a l s o  t r y to say what they sound l i k e ,  t a s t e , and how they f e e l . imagine  and how they s m e l l o r  S e l e c t one o f the f o l l o w i n g scenes, and  t h a t you can see i t i n your mind's eye, they d e s c r i b e i t  w i t h v i v i d , l i f e l i k e word p i c t u r e s . d e s c r i b e the scene.  Don't t e l l a s t o r y ,  W r i t e two to t h r e e paragraphs,  mately a page. 1.  The Dinner T a b l e a t T h a n k s g i v i n g  2.  Hallowe'en  3.  An A f t e r n o o n i n Midsummer a t the Beach  4.  The A u d i t o r i u m D u r i n g A School Dance  5.  A F r i g h t e n i n g Storm  6.  A Birthday Party  7.  A Busy A i r p o r t o r Bus Depot.  Night  just  or a p p r o x i -  150  COMPOSITION TOPICS (Form B,  Spring)  Good w r i t e r s can use words to p a i n t p i c t u r e s .  Not o n l y  t h a t , b u t they can use words to convey sounds, s m e l l s , t a s t e s , o r feelings.  When you d e s c r i b e a scene, you t r y to make words  what the t h i n g s you see a r e doing and what they l o o k l i k e . a l s o t r y to say what they sound l i k e , as w e l l as how they and  feel.  You  and how they s m e l l o r t a s t e ,  Choose one o f the f o l l o w i n g scenes,  t r y to d e s c r i b e i t as v i v i d l y as y o u can.  approximately  tell  Make your d e s c r i p t i o n  one page l o n g .  1.  Our R e c r e a t i o n  Room A f t e r A P a r t y  2.  A Horrible Accident  3.  A T e r r i b l e F i r e That I Saw  4.  A Meal I G r e a t l y Enjoyed  5.  The Beach i n the E a r l y Morning  6.  A S p r i n g Scene i n S t a n l e y Park ( o r o t h e r r e g i o n ) .  That I Saw  COMPOSITION TOPICS (Form A, F a l l )  NARRATIVE  Biographies t e l l where a person was born, where he grew up, what he did i n l i f e , and when he died.  But the l i t t l e things  that happen to you sometimes make more interesting s t o r i e s . one of the following and write a TRUE story about i t .  Choose  When you  write about something that r e a l l y happened, you write with more f e e l i n g and i n t e n s i t y .  Be sure to say when and where i t happened,  what you were doing at the time, what actually took place, and how you f e l t about i t then or l a t e r .  Write about three paragraphs, or  about one page.  1.  The Worst Weekend I Ever Had  2.  The Unhappiest Day of My L i f e  3.  The F i r s t Time I Felt Real Fear  4.  My Most Embarrassing Experience  5.  My F i r s t Time i n the P r i n c i p a l ' s O f f i c e  6.  My F i r s t Day on a New Job  7.  My F i r s t Fight With a Friend  8.  The F i r s t Time I F e l t Real Sadness  152  COMPOSITION TOPICS (Form B, S p r i n g )  NARRATIVE  B i o g r a p h i e s t e l l where a person was born, where he grew up, what he d i d i n l i f e ,  and when he d i e d .  However, the l i t t l e  t h a t happen to you sometimes make more i n t e r e s t i n g s t o r i e s . one o f the f o l l o w i n g and w r i t e a TRUE s t o r y about i t .  things  Choose  Be sure to say  when and where i t happened, what you were d o i n g a t the time, what a c t u a l l y took p l a c e , and how you f e l t about i t then o r l a t e r . about  t h r e e paragraphs, o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y one page.  1.  My L u c k i e s t Day  2.  My F i r s t Encounter With the P o l i c e  3.  My F i r s t Day a t a New  4.  A T e r r i b l e Q u a r r e l t h a t R e a l l y F r i g h t e n e d Me  5.  The F i r s t Time I F e l t Fear a t a P a r t y  6.  My G r e a t e s t  7.  My F i r s t E x p e r i e n c e With D r i n k i n g  8.  The Problems o f Being i n too Many A c t i v i t i e s a t S c h o o l  School  Disappointment  Write  153  COMPOSITION TOPICS (Form A,  Fall)  EXPOSITORY  I t i s v e r y important to do something, or how  to be a b l e to t e l l someone e l s e  something o p e r a t e s .  A o r B, which ask you to e x p l a i n how  how  Choose one o f T o p i c s  a system works:  (Write two or  three p a r a g r a p h s — a b o u t a page).  A.  Imagine you have been a p p o i n t e d new  school.  submitted,  as a d m i n i s t r a t o r o f a l a r g e  You were s e l e c t e d because o f the statement you which t o l d how  you would run an i d e a l s c h o o l .  Your  i d e a s on grade t e n were o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t , as you s t a t e d what number o f s u b j e c t s s t u d e n t s  s h o u l d have, which s h o u l d  compulsory, what e l e c t i v e s would be p o s s i b l e , how  would  be s e l e c t e d , what forms o f d i s c i p l i n e would be used, how  long  the s c h o o l day and what amounts o f f r e e time t h e r e would  be,  as w e l l as your views on h o l i d a y s , homework, and activities.  students)  A man  extracurricular  Make your s c h o o l as i n n o v a t i v e as you l i k e , as l o n g  as you can persuade your audience i t i s i d e a l  B.  teachers  be  as w e l l as  (at l e a s t f o r  reasonable.  l i k e Benjamin F r a n k l i n was  an e x p e r t on gadgets and  a p p l i a n c e s f o r the home i n h i s day.  He even i n v e n t e d a few  154  new a p p l i a n c e s  himself,  such as the famous F r a n k l i n  stove.  P r e t e n d t h a t a time machine i s b r i n g i n g F r a n k l i n to v i s i t the modern age.  Your task i s to b r i n g him up to date on d e v e l o p -  ments i n the home s i n c e h i s time. could  t h a t you  g i v e him, t e l l i n g about s e v e r a l home a p p l i a n c e s  gadgets t h a t have been i n v e n t e d T e l l him how you  Write a report  and  between h i s day and our own.  they work and what they can do, and a n y t h i n g  else  t h i n k he might l i k e to know.  OR Do One o f the f o l l o w i n g :  Whenever we f e e l s t r o n g l y about something, we o f t e n t r y to persuade o t h e r s  to t h i n k as we do, or to do what we want them to do.  We u s u a l l y t r y to t h i n k o f as many good reasons as p o s s i b l e to persuade them to b e l i e v e as we do, o r to a c t as we want  them to a c t .  Choose one o f the s i t u a t i o n s l i s t e d below, and w r i t e a c o m p o s i t i o n o f two to t h r e e paragraphs. writing.  You should  I f you wish, you c o u l d express your views i n a l e t t e r  newspaper e d i t o r , a s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l ,  1.  have a p p r o x i m a t e l y a page o f  a counsellor, or a parent.  Imagine you have won a two-week h o l i d a y are  to take a f r i e n d and go on your own  get  to Hawaii, and you  t r y i n g to persuade your p a r e n t s t h a t you s h o u l d  as you c a n ) . the news.  W r i t e them a l e t t e r  to a  (marshall  be  able  as many arguments  as they a r e away when you  155  2.  Imagine you a r e b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d by the p e r s o n n e l manager o f Safeway's, who  has a job opening  a t $8.00 an hour, f o r work  on Thursday and F r i d a y evenings, and a l l day  (a)  Persuade the manager to h i r e you  (b)  Imagine you have been o f f e r e d the j o y — p e r s u a d e p a r e n t s to a l l o w you  3.  your  to a c c e p t i t !  t e s t s to once a month.  Persuade your  f e l l o w s t u d e n t s t h a t r a c i a l and o t h e r forms o f  p r e j u d i c e do e x i s t i n your and 5.  OR  Persuade an E n g l i s h t e a c h e r to l i m i t homework to once a week, and  4.  Saturday.  show how  school, give s p e c i f i c instances,  t h i s p r e j u d i c e can be e l i m i n a t e d .  Persuade your p a r e n t s t h a t t h e i r i d e a s on d i s c i p l i n e outdated, and  are  t h a t a more l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e whould be much  more e f f e c t i v e . 6.  Persuade your p a r e n t s t h a t you a r e now h o l i d a y s w i t h them. i n g them, and  E x p l a i n why  too o l d to go  on  you no l o n g e r enjoy accompany-  suggest ways o f d e a l i n g w i t h the  situation.  COMPOSITION TOPICS (Form B, S p r i n g )  EXPOSITORY  It  i s v e r y important to be a b l e to t e l l  do something, o r how  something o p e r a t e s .  B, which ask you to e x p l a i n how  someone e l s e how  to  Choose one o f T o p i c s A o r  a system works:  (Write 2 o r 3 p a r a g r a p h s — a b o u t a page)  A.  Perhaps you know someone your own c o u n t r y , who  age who  l i v e s i n a foreign  has n e v e r v i s i t e d Canada, and i s extremely i n t e r -  e s t e d i n our way  of l i f e .  W r i t e your f r i e n d a l e t t e r i n which  you t e l l him e v e r y t h i n g t h a t happens to you d u r i n g a normal day i n your s c h o o l — w h a t c l a s s e s you a t t e n d , how  they a r e  taught, what the o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s a r e , what the r u l e s and p r i v i l e g e s a r e , and any o f the t h i n g s t h a t you t h i n k a r e " s p e c i a l " about Canadian s c h o o l s t h a t might i n t e r e s t  him.  Remember t h a t you a r e i n f o r m i n g him, but a l s o p e r s u a d i n g him how  B.  g r e a t the Canadian e d u c a t i o n system i s .  A Man  l i k e D a n i e l Boone was  day.  He knew a l l about h o r s e s , coaches, c a n a l b o a t s , and  as w e l l as w a l k i n g !  an e x p e r t on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n h i s ships,  P r e t e n d t h a t a time machine i s b r i n g i n g  D a n i e l Boone back to v i s i t  the modern age.  Your t a s k i s to  157  bring him up to date on developments his  time.  Write  a report  that you  in transportation could  give  to him,  since telling  him about several modern means of transportation, how  they  work, what  want  know.  they can do, or anything  you  think he would  Inform him, but also persuade him how  improvements  great  to  the  are! OR Do ONE of the  Whenever we suade others We usually suade  feel strongly about something, we often try to  to think as we  them to believe  two  a  You  below,  should  and write  a  a newspaper editor,  you  a school  express  act.  a page  case you  your  principal,  per-  composition  have approximately  could  do.  to  them to  is very large, in which  If you wish,  per-  them to  to act as we want  listed  unless your writing  to:  to do what we want  do, or  paragraphs.  need more space. letter  as we  the situations  to three  writing,  do, or  try to think of as many good reasons as possible  Choose one of of  following  views  in  of  will a  a counsellor,  or  parent. 1.  The High Drivers  Cost of Driver Training  2.  The Advantages  3.  My Attitude Toward Teenage  4.  What Divorce  5.  The Many  6.  The Advantages  7.  How  I Feel  (or Disadvantages,  Does  to a  Young  of Television  for  Me  Drinking  That Go on in  (or Disadvantages, the  or both)  for  Family  Forms of Cheating  About  and Licenses  Police.  or Both)  School of an After  School  Job  158  ALLUMINUM PASSAGE  SET I Directions:  Read the passage a l l the way through.  t h a t the sentences  a r e s h o r t and choppy.  then r e w r i t e i t i n a b e t t e r way.  You w i l l n o t i c e  Study the passage, and  You may combine sentences,  the o r d e r o f words, and omit words t h a t a r e r e p e a t e d  change  too many  times, b u t t r y n o t to l e a v e o u t any o f the i n f o r m a t i o n .  Aluminum i s a m e t a l . I t comes from b a u x i t e .  I t i s abundant.  B a u x i t e i s an o r e .  B a u x i t e c o n t a i n s aluminum.  They p u t i t i n tanks.  o t h e r substances filters.  form a mass.  A l i q u i d remains.  processes.  aluminum. the oxygen.  They p u t i t through  The c h e m i c a l i s alumina.  I t c o n t a i n s oxygen.  The l u s t e r i s s i l v e r y .  s e v e r a l other  The c h e m i c a l i s powdery.  I t i s a mixture.  I t contains from  They f i n a l l y produce a m e t a l .  I t has a l u s t e r . T h i s metal  The  They use  Workmen s e p a r a t e the aluminum  They use e l e c t r i c i t y .  The m e t a l i s l i g h t .  They g r i n d  P r e s s u r e i s i n the t a n k s .  They remove the mass.  clay.  substances.  from the b a u x i t e .  I t f i n a l l y y i e l d s a chemical.  I t i s white.  Bauxite looks l i k e  I t contains several other  Workmen e x t r a c t these o t h e r substances the b a u x i t e .  I t has many uses.  The l u s t e r i s b r i g h t .  comes i n many  forms.  159  APPENDIX  G  159*  APPENDIX G Academic Degrees H e l d and P r i o r E x p e r i e n c e of Teacher E v a l u a t o r s  Teacher  Degree  Sex  Grades Taught  Years of Experience  1  F  B. Ed.  (Secondary)  8, 9  1  2  F  B. Ed.  (Secondary)  8,  11  1  3  M  B. Ed.  (Secondary)  10,  12  18  4,  M  B.A':.,. M.  9,  10  18  5  F  B. Sc.  11,  12  13  6  F  B.A.  8,  12  10  7  M  B.S.,  8 ,11,  12  ]5  8  F  B.A.  9  F  B.A.,  Ed.  M.Ed.  E n g l i s h Mai•ker  M.A.  11,  12  10  18  APPENDIX H RAW SCORES  160 a  Pre- and Post-Test Scores on Two Indices o f S y n t a c t i c Maturity I.Q., and L e t t e r Grade o f the Experimental Group 3 P r e t e s t Compositions Narr. Expos. & Descr.  3 Post-test Compositions Narr. Expos. & Descr.  Student  T-Unit Length  Clause Length  T-Unit Length  Clause Length  I.Q.  Letter Grade  1 2 3 4  13.9 12.0 10.8 12.8 15.2 11.9 11.8 15.1 11.9 9.9 12.8 11.6 11.4  9.3 8.5 7.3 9.9 10.0 9.4 8.9 12.9 9.0 7.6 9.7 7.8 8.7  14.6 16.8 10.9 13.3 16.2 13.9 15.4 13.9 11.5 13.5 14.4 14.5 15.9  10.2 14.2  119 119 104 111  A-  12.0  111 104 116 107 106 110 105 112  160.9  119.0  184.8  131.6  1324  11.8 14.6 25-7 11.5 10.6 10.5 12.3 14.1 12.9 14.8 13.2 10.5 12.1 9.4  10.2 10.0 20.3 7.2 8.1 7.2 10.0 8.7 11.2 10.0 9.8 8.1 8.7 7-3  14.5 20.4 16.8 18.0 10.4 9.6 13.5 14.5 14.4 17.4 16.3 13.5 12.6 12.8  11.3 11.3 13.4 13.6 7.6 6.7  115 119 119 102 106 100 104 122 112 111 114 112 108 85  l84.o  136.8  204.7  137.8-  1529  255.8  389.5  269.4  2853  5  6 7 8 9  10 11 12 13 T^al 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  10 ll 12 13 14 Sub Total  T o t a l 344.9 2 Groups Mean 12777 Score  <PJ7  :  14.42  Mean C h a n g e — T - U n i t L e n g t h -- I . 6 5  9.0  8.9 11.1 10.7 8.2 9.4 8.7 9.6  10.0 9.6  9.3  8.5 8.9 11.4 9.4  8.7 9.3  8.4  9»97  Clause Length—.50  109.7  A  CA-  B A-  C A.  C+ B C C B  A  B+ A-  C C CC+ A-  C+ A  C+ C CC-  Pre- and Post-Test Scores on Two Indices of Syntactic Maturity, I.Q., and L e t ter Grade of the Control Group 3 Pre-test Compositions Narr. Expos. & Descr.  161  3 Post-test Compositions Narr. Expos. & Descr. T-Unit Length  Clause Length  I.Q.  Letter Grade  11.4 9.5 9-7 12.6 9.5 9.5 12.3 11.5 7.6 9.1 10.2 9.4 8.6 9.6 9.5  113 115 114 102  8.5  16.9 16.6 14.3 20.4 18.6 13.8 20.5 19.2 11.9 12.0 17.6 13.5 15.9 15.3 17.4  B+ A, • A. B CB+ CC CC B CC C c+  Sub-total 179.4  131.1  243.9  150.0  1377  1 13.3 10.8 2 9.9 3 4 12.1 20.3 5 12.0 6 13.3 7 11.8 8 10.6 9 10 12.5 10.0 11 12 13.2 13 13.3 14 13.1 Sub-total 176.2  10.1 8.5 6.9 6.8 11.5 10.4 9.7 8.9 7.7 8.3 8*3 8.7 10.0 8.0 123.8  25.9 17.3 14.1 18.8 17.9 18.4 18.7 15.1 13.7 16.3 22.9 13.3 15.3 14.0 241.7  15.5 10.4 7.8 10.4 13.2 11.3 9.6 10.3 9.2 10.2 13.7 9.5 9.2 9.8 150.1  112 108 103 116 124 124 111 108 107 118 125 107 109 118 1600  T o t a l of 2 Groups  254.9  485.6  300.1  2977  Student  T-Unit Length  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 3.3 14 15  11.3 16.5 12.9 12.9 12.5 12.0 14.1 13.7 11.2 12.6 11.4 7.k 9-4 10.5 11.0  355.6  Mean Score 12.26 Mean Change—T-Unit  Clause Length 7.7 10.8 10.7 9.3 8.9  10>O 8.o 8.9 8.3 8.3 9.7 6.6 7.3 8.1  8.78 Length—4.48  l6.?4  10.35  Clause Length—1.57  113 101 102 105 108 100 100 100 104  110.2  A C B-sC C A B C C+ c+ B c cA  Pre- and Post-test Scores on Two Indices of Syntactic Maturity Aluminum Passage—Experimental Group Pre-test ;udent  T-Unit length  1  12.5  2  15.3  3  4 5  Post-test  Clause Length  T-Unit Length  Clause Length 7.7  10.8 11.9  7.5  12.8  8.1  9.6  6.0  12.3  7.9  11.1 13.6  6  10.8  6.9  7  8.4  12.1  6.6  12.3  8 9  12.7  7.1  11.0  11.3  7.2  10.8  7.1  14.0  11  10.6  14.9  12  12.7 12.0  13  13.4  10  Total  1 2 3  4 5  9.9  8.0  141.7  11.5  11.7  8.3  8.5 7.2  8.4 8.4 8.5 7.3 6.7  7.5 7.9  5.9 7.1  7.6  13.3  90.6  145.9  91.0  8.8  10.5 27.8 14.3  7.9 8.2  12.7  7.9  15.1  7.6  11.9 9.8  8.2'  8.8  14.4  8.4 8.4 7.0  6.9  13.4  6  7.7  6.6  9.3  7  9.4  8.7  12.4  11.7 12.5  6.3  15.7  7.7 6.2  17.5  8.1  16.0  10.7 13.0 12.0  6.9  14.0  8.7 8.6  8.7 8.6  16.7  8.9  7.0  6.3  156.8  105.4  203.4  118.3  Total298.5 Both Gr-.  196.0  349.3  209.3  8 9  10  11 12 13  14 Total  ^Sofe  11.8  11.48  Mean Change—T-Unit  7-5^  10.4 11.0  13.43  Length—1.95  9.3  10.0  6.1  9.9  8.05  Clause Length-  Pre- and Post-test Scores on Two Indices of Syntactic Maturity Aluminum Passage—Control Group Pre-test ;udent  1 2 3 4 5 6 7. 8 9 10  11 12 13  14 15  Total 1 2  3 k 5 6 7 8  T-Unit Length 11.4 13.3 9.7 11.6 10.7  Post-test  Clause Length 7.9 8.8 7.6 7.7  T-Unit Length  Clause Length  16.9 17.7  9.2 8.2  21.2  7.7 8.2  15.1 13.0 18.1  8.7 7.8 8.4  9.1 11.6 10.7 10.4  8.5 7.6 9.3 5.8 7.3 6.2 7.1 6.8 8.1 9.4  155.7  108.1  182.8  11.4  6.8 8.1 6.4  19.0  10.4  11.7  8.4 7.0  7.1 7.5 8.1 6.8  25.0 25.0 19.4 18.0 18.8 16.0  14.3  7.3 7.0 7.5 10.0 8.2  14.0 16.8 7.1 11.3 8.0  11.3 8.8 13.4  14.2 10.5 9.4 7-5 7.8  15.5  14.0 11.0 12.3 11.0 16.8  14.0  8.0 7.3 7.7 8.5 10.1 99.8  9.1 8.8 10.8 7.8 8.6  7.7 10.2 9.6  5.5 6.6 6.0 6.0 6.6  7.3  7.3  15.7 17.5 16.3 13.3 15.1  Total  129.1  88.8  250.2  123.4  Total—both groups  284.8  196.8  433.0  223.2  9 10 11 12  13 lk  Mean Score  IO.55  7.29  Mean Change--T-Unit Length—6.10  16.65  8.58  Clause Length—  APPENDIX I POTTER'S DATA  164 a, Potter's Quantitative Data on "Good" and "Poor" Writing Examined Item  "Good" Papers  Mean Sentence length i n words Mean T-Unit length i n words Total number of T-Units T-Units under s i x words i n length T-Units over t h i r t y words i n length Subordination index Sentence patterns ( i n raw t o t a l s ) Subject+Verb+Adverbial (Optional) Subject+Verb+Object (Passives) Subject+Verb+Object+Complement Subject+Linking Verb+Complement Sentence openers Clauses Conditional Temporal Others "Thought l i n k i n g " t r a n s i t i o n a l expressions Percentage of T-Units having openers P r e p o s i t i o n a l phrases D i f f e r e n t prepositions used Objects of prepositions Modified by phrase Modified by clause Modified by verbal Clause as object Verbal as object Nominal clauses Using 0 f o r "that" Using "that" E l l i p t i c a l nominal clauses Adverbial clauses Introductory " i f " clauses A d j e c t i v a l clauses Using0 f o r "which" Using "which" Relative i n subject p o s i t i o n Relative i n object p o s i t i o n Verbals Used as sentence openers Used as subjects Used as adjective modifiers ^sed as post-noun modifiers  17.8  16.0 568  17 30 .43  "Poor" Papers  15.9  14.2 645 42  18 .43  208  100 330 21 39 193  24 14  53 18  65 216 42  9  64  31 799 46  100 43 15 15 33  124  25 52 10 152 30 144  16 32 86 38 17  8  47 31  684 40  59 27 6  12 21  149  5<* 41  3 181 60 148  37 19 67 44  7  i?  2  42  2?  33  6  165-  APPENDIX J  C R I T I C A L V A L U E S O F r FOR T H E SIGN T E S T  A-lOa  Two-tail percentage points are given for the binomial for p = .5) 5%  1%  N  10%  1 2 3  4 5  0  6  7 S 9 10  0 0 0  25%  iV  1%  5%  10%  25%  0 0 0  51 52 53 54 55  15 16 16 17 17  18 18 18 19 19  19 19 20 20 20  20 21 21 22 22  1 1 1 2 2  56 57 58 59 60  17 18 18 19 19  20 20 21 21 21  21 21 22 22 23  23 23 24 24 25  3 3 3  20 20 20 21 21  22 22 23 23 24  23 24 24 24 25  25 25 26 26 27  0 0 0  0 0  1 1  i l  1 2 2 2  2 2 3  4 4  61 62 63 64 65  1  11 12 13 1-1 15  1 1 1 • 2  16 17 18 19 20  2 2 3 3 3  3 4 4 4' 5  4 4 5 5 5  5 5 6 6 6  66 67 6S 69 70  22 22 22 23 23  24 25 25 25 26  25 26 26 27 27  27 •2S 23 29 29  21 22 23 24 25  4 4 4 5  5  5 5 6 6 7  6 6 7 7 7  7 7 8 8 9  71 72 73 74 75  24 24 25 25 25  26 27 27 28 2S  28 28 2S 29 29  30 30 31 31 32  26 27 23 29 30  6 6 0 7 7  7 7 8 8 9  8 8 9 9 10  9 10 10 10 11  70 77 78 79 SO  26 26 27 27 2S  2S 29 29 30 30  30 30 31 31 32  32 32 33 33 34  31 32 33 34 35  7 S S 9 9  9 9 10 10 11  10 10 11 11 12  11 12 12 13 13  81 82 S3 84 S5  28 2S 29 29 30  31 31 32 32 32  32 33 33 33 34  34 35 35 30 36  30 37 3S 39 40  9 10 10 11 11  11 12 12 12 13  12 13 13 13 14  14 14 14 15 15  80 87 SS 89 90  30 31 31 31 32  33 33 34 34 35  34 35 35 30 30  37 37 3S 38 39  41 42 13 44 45  11 12 12 13 13  13 14 14 15 15  14 15 15 If. 16  10 10 17 17 IS  91 92 93 91 95  32 33 33 34 34  35 30 30 37 37  37 37 3S 3S 3S  39 39 40 40 41  40 47  13 11 14 15 15  15 10 10 17 17  10 17 17 IS IS  IS 1!) 19 19 •JO  90 97 9S 99 100  34 35 35 30 30  37 3S 3S 39 39  39 39 40 4(> 41  41 42 42 43 43  0  4.H  49 50 or  V i lilies  .5752  for  3  3 3  o f A'larger tl an 100, approximate values of r in:iy he f n t i i i i l l>y ( V.iil t l l . ' l l l (X - l)/2 - * / A M . W lit:I'd k is 1.2 -.79, O.OSOO, 0 S22; tl,r 1, ',, 10, 25 % valu •s, re.-ipertiv.ly. :  APPENDIX K WRITING WORKSHOP SAMPLE  166  WRITING WORKSHOP  a  O b i t u a r y C o l u m n : w r i t e a mock o b i t u a r y m o u r n i n g t h e d e a t h o f s e l f l e s s n e s s , 5<! c a n d y b a r s , t h e i n t e r n a l c o m b u s t i o n or something  engine,  e l s e that you f e e l has passed  morality,  away.  Sample Responses NATURE, MOTHER: T h e p a s s i n g t o d a y w a s announced o f Mother N a t u r e . She passed away l a s t n i g h t a t 6:30 p.m., o f s e v e r e pollution. Hope was f o u n d e a r l i e r i n the day w i t h t h ed i s c o v e r y o f a s m a l l patch o f c l e a n a i r over t h e c e n t r a l Alps. However, i t d i s s i p a t e d l a t e r i n the day. She h a d been r e c e n t l y s a d dened by t h e l o s s o f h e r c h i l d r e n , known t o f r i e n d s a s T r e e s a n d A n i m a l s . Mother Nature's severe i l l n e s s began i n t h e e a r l y I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n , a l t h o u g h h e r a i l m e n t s were n o t noticed u n t i l the raid-twentieth century. Unfortunately, her tenants, Men, w e r e u n c o n c e r n e d b y h e r i l l n e s s u n t i l they were a f f e c t e d , by which time i t was t o o l a t e . At t h e time o f h e r p a s s i n g s h e was a l o n e , f o r b y t h e t i m e she h a d r e c e i v e d p r o p e r c a r e , s h e h a d l o s t h e r b e l o v e d R e s o u r c e s a n d Ozone Layer. T r u l y , a l l were saddened b y her passing. She  was s u r v i v e d b y no o n e .  RESPECT, F . P.: F u n e r a l s e r v i c e s w e r e h e l d y e s t e r d a y t o mourn t h e d e a t h o f something t r e a s u r e d — r e s p e c t f o r p a r ents. Although expected, the death o f r e s p e c t was a l i n g e r i n g one, a n d t h e end came a s a s h o c k t o many, e s p e c i a l l y those over f o r t y years o f age.  The s l o w d e m i s e o f p a r e n t a l r e s p e c t began i n t h e m i d - s i x t i e s when y o u n g p e o p l e b e g a n t o r i o t and t u r n a g a i n s t t h e c r a s s materialism of their parents (although a t t h e time they were r e v o l t i n g t h e y were a t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y a t t h e expense o f t h e i r a f o r e m e n t i o n e d parents). The d e a t h m y s t i f i e d most d o c t o r s , who d i d e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e f o r t h e v i c t i m . Massive doses o f d i s c i p l i n e , l e c t u r e s , and even, i n r a r e emergencies, t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f severe p r e s s u r e t o t h e anatomy, were a d m i n i s t e r e d , b u t a l l t o no avail. R e s p e c t f o r p a r e n t s , b e i n g .:• b o r n i n t h e y e a r o n e , was c o m a t o s e f o r t h e past few y e a r s , b u t f i n a l l y and m e r c i f u l l y was l e f t t o d i e . Such prominent p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s a s Dave B a r r e t t , a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s Human R e s o u r c e s M i n i s t e r B i l l V a n d e r Zalm expressed t h e i r s i n c e r e s t h e a r t f e l t sympathy f o r s e v e r a l h o u r s . The e u l o g y w a s d e l i v e r e d b y a parent a f f e c t e d by t h e death, t o a l a r g e g r o u p o f m o u r n e r s who l a t e r stood i nl i n e f o r hours t o view t h e remains l y i n g i n s t a t e . The p a l l bearers included Love-for-Parents, the F a m i l y - U n i t , and Obedience. Respect f o r P a r e n t s i s s u r v i v e d by Rudeness, Bad B e h a v i o u r , and Gene r a l Contempt f o r t h e O l d e r G e n e r a tion.  

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