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Authority and power in the governance of public education: a study of the administrative structure of… Woodrow, James 1974

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AUTHORITY and POWER in the GOVERNANCE 'of PUBLIC EDUCATION A Study of the Administrative Structure of the B r i t i s h Columbia Education System by James Woodrow B.A., Simon Fraser University, 1968 M.A., Simon Fraser University, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in the Department of Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard Dr. Ian E. Housego, Professor Dr. Ronald G. Jones, Professor Dr. W. J., Hartrick, Professor Dr. J. H. A. Wallin, Associate Professor THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February, 1974 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a llowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f E d u c a t i o n (Admin i s t r a t i o n ) The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date J a n u a r y , 1974 ABSTRACT The ed u c a t i o n system of B r i t i s h Columbia i s c o n s t i t u t e d by s t a t u t e . The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a t u t e i s c a l l e d the P u b l i c Schools A c t (1972). The P u b l i c Schools Act R e g u l a t i o n s are p a r t of the A c t . T h i s A c t names v a r i o u s o f f i c i a l s ( c o n s t i t u e n t s ) . The c o n s t i t u e n t s i n c l u d e the M i n i s t e r of Education, the Deputy M i n i s t e r o f Education, P r o v i n c i a l and D i s t r i c t Superintendents, Teachers, P r i n c i p a l s , T r u s t e e s and such persons as may be r e q u i r e d t o g i v e e f f e c t t o the p r o v i s i o n s of the A c t . I f i t i s assumed t h a t the term a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e f e r s t o a c t s ~of-governing, c o n t r o l l i n g , i n d u c i n g c o - o p e r a t i o n and s i m i l a r kinds of a c t s , then i t may be the ca^e t h a t many c o n s t i t u e n t s of the B r i t i s h Columbia e d u c a t i o n system engage a t l e a s t p e r i o d i c a l l y i n some form of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n . Each c o n s t i t u e n t t h a t a c t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y has some a u t h o r i t y and/or power over someone or something. T h i s c a p a c i t y may be regarded as a b a s i s o f many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the education system's c o n s t i t u e n t s . The P u b l i c Schools Act e s t a b l i s h e s what kin d s o f a u t h o r i t y and degrees of power each c o n s t i t u e n t has. Without a c a r e f u l examination of the s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s o f the A c t , the kinds of l e g a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y and the degrees of power of the system's c o n s t i t u e n t s cannot be determined. The c e n t r a l problem of the study i s t o determine the kinds of s t a t u t o r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y and power of the c o n s t i t u e n t s of the B r i t i s h Columbia e d u c a t i o n a l system. The problem i s approached by e s t a b l i s h i n g the nature of the p o l i t i c a l context w i t h i n which the admin-i s t r a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n takes p l a c e ; and by a n a l y z i n g the s t a t u t o r y documents governing education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The study s e t s out the many s t a t u t o r i l y p o s i t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s of c o n s t i t u e n t s , and concludes t h a t there i s a s t r o n g p a r a l l e l between p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n and t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n cannot be f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d without a t t e n t i o n to the p o l i t i c a l context of p r o v i n c i a l government which i s the source and o p e r a t i n g environment of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . Dr. I. E. Housego, P r o f e s s o r Research D i r e c t o r TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t I n t r o d u c t i o n i I P o l i t i c a l Systems 1 II P o l i t i c s and Education 5 I I I Government 18 a) The Ex e c u t i v e b) The L e g i s l a t u r e c) The J u d i c i a r y d) S e p a r a t i o n o f Powers e) P a r l i a m e n t a r y Powers f) The Sover e i g n t y o f Parliament g) The P r e r o g a t i v e h) M i n i s t e r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n i ) M i n i s t e r i a l A c c o u n t a b i l i t y IV Government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 2 9 a) Delegated L e g i s l a t i o n b) Orders - i n - C o u n c i l c) O b j e c t i v e s of D e l e g a t i o n d) L e g i s l a t i v e and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e V A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : Towards a D e f i n i t i o n 53 VI P o l i t i c s and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 62 VII A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Ed u c a t i o n : I t s C o n s t i t u t i o n 70 a) The M i n i s t e r of Education b) The Deputy M i n i s t e r c) The Superintendency o f Educat i o n d) The D i s t r i c t Superintendent e) The Board of T r u s t e e s f) Teachers V I I I A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A u t h o r i t y and Power 94 Summary and Con c l u s i o n s 109 B i b l i o g r a p h y 116 ACKNOWLEDGMENT I wish to thank the University for the opportunity to undertake t h i s study, and my Department and Committee members whose continued encouragement and cooperation made the task as enjoyable as i t was i n s t r u c t i v e . P a r t i c u l a r thanks i s extended to my external examiner, Dr. R.P.E. Harvey, Deputy Minister, Department of Continuing Education, Province of Saskatchewan, for the burden he undertook and the many helpful observations he made. i INTRODUCTION The r u l e of law i s a p p a r e n t l y u n i v e r s a l : i t i s the y o l k which coheres s o c i e t y ' s i n g r e d i e n t s ; but law fo l l o w e d b l i n d l y can be no t h i n g more than a burden which somehow seems t o r e s t r i c t and c o n f i n e the s u b j e c t t o whom i t a p p l i e s . I f nothin g e l s e , most c i t i z e n s stand c l o s e t o a s t a t e o f awe be f o r e the law. The r e s u l t may be a confused f e a r which causes one to a t t r i b u t e a l o s s of freedom and a la c k o f i n i t i a t i v e t o the omnipotent "they". F o r those i n education f o r whom t h i s may be the case, then the a c q u i s i t i o n of some understanding o f t h a t area o f law which a f f e c t s t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l sphere may i n some s i g n i f i c a n t degree, h e l p to - d i s p e l t h e i r f e a r s and show them how to work with the s t a t u t e s more e f f e c t i v e l y and so he l p t o r e a l i z e more f u l l y some im p o r t a n t ' e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s . I t may be the case t h a t schools e x i s t p r i m a r i l y f o r a s o c i e t y ' s b e n e f i t as much as f o r the i n d i -v i d u a l ' s . Compulsory attendance i n Canada o r i g i n a t e s from the t h e s i s t h a t democracy -- i t s e l f taken t o be a fundamental good — best f l o u r i s h e s when the p o p u l a t i o n r e c e i v e s uniform s c h o o l i n g and when the p o p u l a t i o n achieves some measure, o f i n t e l l e c t u a l enlightenment. Anything so u n i v e r s a l l y r e q u i r e d must be conceived t o be of very g r e a t importance; and any-t h i n g of such g r e a t importance with which one d e a l s p r o f e s s i o n -a l l y , s u r e l y r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l study i n a l l i t s dimensions, not the l e a s t o f which are the s t a t u t o r y r e l a t i o n s p o s i t e d f o r i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s and t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . i i I f s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l are t o understand t h e i r r o l e s , then because t h e i r p o s i t i o n s are c r e a t i o n s of the l e g i s l a t u r e and products of the ensuing s t a t u t e s , i t may be w e l l t o study those procedures which g i v e them l i f e . In o t h e r words, i t seems reasonable t h a t t e a c h i n g , and, more p a r t i c u l a r -l y , the understanding of the o b j e c t i v e s of t e a c h i n g , can be more f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d when examined w i t h i n the s t a t u t o r y context which began the whole of the e d u c a t i o n a l process i n the modern s t a t e . Teachers, as s p e c i a l k i n d s of s e r v a n t s of the law, are not, i n t h e i r r o l e s as t e a c h e r s , expected to express normative statements or t o p r e s c r i b e e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . I t i s the prime task of the t e a c h e r to execute the wishes o f the p u b l i c as s e t out i n the P u b l i c Schools A c t (1972). F o r t h i s purpose, t e a c h e r s must understand t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s as c l e a r l y as p o s s i b l e f o r they are p u b l i c t r u s t e e s i n charge of a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of the mental growth of the c h i l d r e n of o t h e r s . I t i s not the purpose of the t e a c h e r to make o r change s c h o o l o b j e c t i v e s but t o i n -t e r p r e t the p u b l i c ' s d i r e c t i v e s and t o execute them f a i t h -f u l l y . The o b j e c t i v e s of many s t u d i e s are expressed i n v ery p r e c i s e terms because t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i z i n g marks are few. For example, an attempt to show memory behaviour i n b a c t e r i a w i l l be e x c e e d i n g l y l i m i t e d i n scope. However, d u r i n g the p e r i o d when b a c t e r i a were unknown, the l i t e r a t u r e o f the p o t e n t i a l f i e l d of m i c r o b i o l o g y was comprised mainly of e x p l o r a t o r y analyses of many v a r i a b l e s a c c o r d i n g t o i i i v a r i o u s assumptions w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t c l a r i f i c a t i o n emerged of what p r e c i s e l y might be s t u d i e d by micro techniques. In many areas of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n , progress remains a t a r a t h e r p r e l i m i n a r y stage. There are many t o p i c s but few show s i g n s of having t i g h t , t h e o r e t i c a l bases which may d i s t i n g u i s h them as apart from o t h e r s u b j e c t s . I t i s an ongoing s e a r c h f o r p r e c i s i o n . In form, t h i s study i s no d i f f e r e n t . At f i r s t , one might assume t h a t a study i n v o l v i n g the P u b l i c Schools Act would enable him t o determine the p o s s i b l e outcomes of s e r i o u s Board-School con-f l i c t s , t e a c h e r d i s m i s s a l s u i t s and the l i k e . The r e s u l t s may h e l p a l i t t l e i n such cases; but the study does not equip one t o be h i s own lawyer i n the s l i g h t e s t . I t i s an attempt to understand the governing mechanisms of the p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n system of B r i t i s h Columbia. A reader of the study should be able t o f i n d a means of answering a wide range of e d u c a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s . F o r example, to what degree i s a t e a c h e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the day-to-day c u r r i c u l u m ? Is a P r i n c i p a l f r e e t o o r g a n i z e the s c h o o l programme any way he chooses? Does the law a l l o w a s c h o o l t o f a i l a student? May. a Board of T r u s t e e s d i r e c t l y guide e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y of schools? To what degree i s a D i s t r i c t Superintendent an agent of the Department of Ed u c a t i o n and t o what degree i s he a d i s t r i c t ' s e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r ? What f u n c t i o n s s h o u l d T r u s t e e s expect of t h e i r D i s t r i c t Superintendent? These are t y p i c a l q u e s t i o n s f o r which the r e s u l t s of t h i s study c o u l d i n d i c a t e some reasonable answers. I t i s i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o s t u d i e s i n case law where the k i n d s of i s s u e s analyzed, while not uncommon, are not the v a r i e t y encbuntered i n every-day s i t u a t i o n s o r which m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t the conduct of one's e d u c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . S u i t s over s c h o o l bus a c c i d e n t s would be an example of case law i s s u e s o f t e n d e a l t with under the heading of s c h o o l law. T h i s then, i s a study i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i t s context i s e d u c a t i o n ; and the context of e d u c a t i o n i s the p o l i t i c a l c e n t r e of p r o v i n c i a l government. I t i s not a study of the c l e r i c a l management of a s c h o o l , the Board of T r u s t e e s , o r of the Department of E d u c a t i o n . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s a process the parameters of which are framed by the p r i n c i p l e s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e law; and while the reader may, at times, begin to t h i n k otherwise, t h i s i s not a study of law, e s p e c i a l l y not i n the o r d i n a r y sense of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d i v i s i o n c a l l e d the j u d i c i a r y . In s h o r t , the study c o n c e i v e s the e d u c a t i o n system as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n o f govern-ment, c o n s t i t u t e d by the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e and p l a c e d under the c o n t r o l of the e x e c u t i v e branch of government. I t i s the s t r u c t u r e of e x e c u t i v e governance of the system which i s a n a lyzed at some l e n g t h and the machinery by which p o l i c y i s implemented. Thus, where p o l i c y i s taken t o mean the formation of a d o c t r i n e or p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s p o s i t i o n ( a governing r u l e ) , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e f e r s t o the process of e x e c u t i o n t o achieve the r e q u i r e d p o l i c y outcomes i n accordance with the p r i n c i p l e s i n h e r e n t i n t h a t p o l i c y . V I t may be u s e f u l t o d e l i m i t the study some-what g e n e r a l l y , not o n l y i n terms of what i t p u r p o r t s t o do, but a l s o i n what i t does not p u r p o r t t o do. F o r t h i s reason, a b r i e f look a t some r a t h e r s i m p l i f i e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e law may a s s i s t i n c l a r i f y i n g the ways i n which thctt f i e l d i s r e l e v a n t and the ways i n which i t i s not. The study does not d e a l w i t h the p o s i t i o n of S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r o r w i t h i s s u e s of e d u c a t i o n f i n a n c e . The l e g a l r i g h t s of personnel are not con-s i d e r e d . While a l l c l a u s e s of the P u b l i c Schools Act have been examined, o n l y those which p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n s u i t a b l e f o r the c e n t r a l problem are d i s c u s s e d . Chapters VII and V I I I of the study must be read w i t h c a u t i o n because o n l y an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r i b u n a l w i l l determine a c t u a l a u t h o r i t i e s and powers. In some cases, o r d i n a r y c o u r t s of law w i l l p r o v i d e such d i s t i n c t i o n s . T r i b u n a l s , however, are not bound by the customs of o r d i n a r y law or precedent. Hence, even d e c i s i o n s of t r i b u n a l s are no c e r t a i n guide t o f u t u r e d e c i s i o n s . F u r t h e r , t h i s i s not a study i n law, and any a n a l y t i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s should be regarded as t e n t a t i v e i n s o f a r as l e g a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of any k i n d may a r i s e on o c c a s i o n . A review of l e g a l t r e a t i s e s q u i c k l y r e v e a l s the seeming ease with which l e g a l minds reach concurrence on many p o i n t s of law through t h e i r adversary methods of a n a l y s e s . Of course, the ease i s d e c e p t i v e f o r i t a l s o v i becomes c l e a r t h a t precedents, the s y n t h e s i z e d p r i n c i p l e s adduced from c o n s i d e r i n g many p r e v i o u s cases o f law, are the r e s u l t o f the most p a i n s t a k i n g e f f o r t s upon the p a r t o f the j u d i c i a r y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , even a c u r s o r y review of t e x t s on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e law q u i c k l y r e v e a l s the unanimous c o n c l u s i o n t h a t no s a t i s f a c t o r y d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s f i e l d has y e t been produced. Consequently, the s e p a r a t i o n of law from the process of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n can be achieved o n l y i n a g e n e r a l way. P r o f e s s o r Garner, i n h i s t e x t , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Law 1 makes about the c l e a r e s t ' d e f i n i t i o n ' o f the s u b j e c t while, a t the same time, p r o v i d e s the f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n o f t h i s k i n d of law from o t h e r s . He says: A d m i n i s t r a t i v e law i s not concerned o n l y w i t h law. • • • A d m i n i s t r a t i v e "law" i s a l s o concerned with M i n i s t e r i a l c i r c u l a r s and memoranda, d e c i s i o n s o f l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s or p u b l i c c o r p o r a t i o n s . . . o f the s e v e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r i b u n a l s none of which would.be r e c o g n i s e d o r a p p l i e d by " o r d i n a r y " c o u r t s of l a w . 1 1 I t f o l l o w s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the e s s e n t i a l s u b j e c t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e law i s r u l e s which govern the conduct of the g e n e r a l business of a government — i n accordance with the p r i n c i p l e s i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r p o l i c y . The s p e c i f i c f i e l d i n which these r u l e s are made, a p p l i e d and a d j u d i c a t e d i n c l u d e s the v a r i o u s kinds of governmental agencies and t h e i r i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between agencies and i Garner, J.F., A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Law (London) Butterworths, 1967. i i I b i d . , p. 2. v i i between a l l of these and the p r i v a t e c i t i z e n . As Garner concludes, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e law i s : ...concerned wi t h the p r e s e r v a t i o n of order, the we l f a r e of the c i t i z e n and the r i g h t s of the i n d i v i d u a l as a g a i n s t the government of the country, and a l s o w i t h the machinery by which such matters are p r o t e c t e d . 1 1 1 At t h i s p o i n t , one may begin t o suspect, and r i g h t l y so, t h a t the v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agencies are giv e n powers and powers of rule-making which may be used t o a f f e c t the r i g h t s of p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s ; and wherever t h i s may be the case, many c o n f l i c t s o f i n t e r e s t may a r i s e and some s o r t of a d j u d i c a t o r y process i s r e q u i r e d t o r e s o l v e the d i s p u t e s . However, as Garner's d e f i n i t i o n a l treatment of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e law i n d i c a t e s , t h i s k i n d o f law i s not e a s i l y equated with standard common law concepts. A c t u a l l y , i t i s not a matter o f r e q u i r i n g a somehow d i f f e r e n t k i n d of law. I t i s simply t h a t t h e r e are laws or p r i n c i p l e s which i n some ways and to v a r y i n g degrees p r e c l u d e the j u d i c i a l branch of government from having a u t h o r i t y over a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agencies and over t h e i r i n t e r n a l procedures. Thus, before expanding upon the e a r l i e r r e f e r e n c e t o the nature o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e process and drawing demarcation l i n e s between t h a t process and i t s f i e l d of law, i t i s necessary t o examine c a r e f u l l y the sources and nature of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agencies. While i t i s a lengthy d i v e r s i o n , i t w i l l serve t o make many p o i n t s s p e c i f y i n g the co n c e p t u a l c o n t e x t f o r the term a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e which c o u l d not be made otherwise. i i i Garner, A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Law, p.3. v i i i The e s s e n t i a l o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study i s t o determine the kinds of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y and power of the main c o n s t i t u e n t s of the B.C. e d u c a t i o n a l system. On the s u r f a c e , t h a t o b j e c t i v e would portend o n l y an examination of the P u b l i c Schools A c t . The examination would produce b a s i c data of the c o n s t i t u e n t r e l a t i o n s . However, i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t simply t o determine c o n s t i t u e n t r e l a t i o n s , not i f the study i s t o a s s i s t teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n understanding the s t a t u t o r y dimensions of t h e i r r o l e s ; and t h i s i s a secondary o b j e c t i v e o f the study. To reach t h i s l a t t e r o b j e c t i v e , i t i s necessary to understand t h a t e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s a p r o v i n c i a l government a c t i v i t y . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n here i s founded i n a p o l i t i c a l c o ntext. T h i s study a s s e r t s t h a t without an examination of the p o l i t i c a l context, much o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the a n a l y s i s of the Act would be l o s t . The systemness of e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s l o s t without a l a r g e r context. F o r t h i s reason, the f i r s t c hapter i n t r o d u c e s concepts of p o l i t i c a l systems. Because the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n takes p l a c e w i t h i n a p o l i t i c a l system, i t seems reasonable t o i n t r o d u c e the i d e a of a system. The e s s e n t i a l p o i n t of Chapter I i s t h a t the main i n g r e d i e n t of a system i s the i d e a of a "bonding f o r c e " . T h i s n o t i o n i s l a t e r t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the concept of p o l i t i c a l governance (Chapter V I ) . Again, s i n c e e d u c a t i o n i s t o t a l l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f government, the p o l i t i c a l aspect of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n cannot be overemphasized. Chapter I I con-c e p t u a l i z e s the nature of p o l i t i c s . The "bonding f o r c e " i d e a of Chapter I i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n Chapter I I as the governing f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n a p o l i t i c a l system. The e s s e n t i a l i d e a i s t h a t while a system may be d e s c r i b e d , i t s meaning-f u l n e s s as a system i s l i t t l e understood u n t i l t h a t which governs the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the components i s i d e n t i f i e d . The terms p o l i c y , a u t h o r i t y and power are i n t r o d u c e d and d e f i n e d . P o l i c y i s taken t o mean 'a g e n e r a l v a l u e t o be a l l o c a t e d ' . T h i s i s somewhat l i k e David Easton's t h e s i s t h a t p o l i t i c s i s the a u t h o r i t a t i v e a l l o c a t i o n o f v a l u e s . Easton's concept of p o l i t i c s i s used throughout the study as the means of c o h e r i n g the p o l i t i c a l with the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . One l i n e o f the p a r a l l e l between p o l i t i c s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s the a l l o c a t i o n of v a l u e s ; the o t h e r l i n e i s the a l l o c a t i o n o f s t r a t e g i e s . Both p o l i t i c s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n share the fundamental f e a t u r e o f the a u t h o r i t a t i v e a l l o c a t i o n o f some-t h i n g . Thus, i n o r d e r t o understand the s t a t u t o r y c o n d i t i o n s as analyzed i n Chapters V I I and V I I I , Chapter I I s e t s out the b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n s necessary t o d i s t i n g u i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t s from l e g i s l a t i v e a c t s . Chapter I I I d e s c r i b e s the b a s i c c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of Canadian Government. At t h i s p o i n t , the study begins t o focus s h a r p l y on the l a r g e r context w i t h i n which educa t i o n and i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o p e r a t e s . While at f i r s t t h i s chapter may seem t o simply t r e a t what i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l t e x t s , i t does i n f a c t , b r i n g t o g e t h e r c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o X t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . F o r example, the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by P r o f e s s o r Garner's volume, A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Law would not o r d i n a r i l y be known by many. Even though the m a t e r i a l e x i s t s i n a v a r i e t y o f sources, the important p o i n t s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e law would not be a p p r e c i a t e d without t h i s c h a p t e r . The main o b j e c t i v e of Chapter I I I i s t o s e t up the background of the governing machinery o f Canadian Government so t h a t something more than a simple s t a t i c , n o m i n a l i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f ' p o l i t i c s i n a c t i o n ' emerges. M i n i s t e r i a l powers and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y are not wid e l y known o r understood. To a p p r e c i a t e the complicated nature of the p o s i t i o n of the M i n i s t e r of Education, i t s a u t h o r i t y and power, Chapter I I I i s necessary. Perhaps i t may best be regarded as the e q u i v a l e n t as a survey of the l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d . Chapter IV, "Government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " , focuses most s h a r p l y upon the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e domain of the governmental s t r u c t u r e . What i s important t o keep i n mind at t h i s p o i n t i s t h a t the d e s c r i p t i o n generated o f government s t r u c t u r e i s the paradigm f o r the s t r u c t u r e o f a l l s u b - d i v i s i o n s of governmental a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agencies. Chapter IV determines the source o f p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e bodies and r e p r e s e n t s t h e i r b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form. The main s t r u c t u r a l d e t a i l s of government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are l a i d out: m i n i s t e r i a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , the nature and e f f e c t o f r e g u l a t i o n s , d i r e c t i v e s , by-laws and areas of a u t h o r i t y . The o b j e c t i v e here i s t o show the d e t a i l e d dynamics of p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t o l a y out the s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t a t u t e s . Thus, the chapter i n t r o d u c e s s t a t u t o r y form and p r o v i d e s examples x i of how a v a r i e t y of governmental a d m i n i s t r a t i v e departments operate. Consequently, t h i s s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s an e s s e n t i a l i n t e r p r e t i v e guide t o understanding the ranges o f a u t h o r i t y and power s e t f o r t h or i m p l i e d i n the P u b l i c Schools Ac t . Without t h i s chapter i t would be v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o understand the o r i g i n s of the s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the e d u c a t i o n system o r how the c o n s t i t u e n t s were r e l a t e d . Chapter V, " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " , attempts t o c l a r i f y the meaning of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as a r e s u l t of the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s developed i n the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s . I t con-c l u d e s t h a t a d e f i n i t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which does not embrace a p o l i t i c a l dimension has l i t t l e meaning f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n . The problem of d e f i n i n g admini-s t r a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e c a r r i e d i n t o Chapter VI. " P o l i t i c s and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " takes the i n f o r m a t i o n of the e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s , and by r e l a t i n g p o l i t i c s €6 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n through the concept of " a u t h o r i t a t i v e a l l o c a t i o n " , d e f i n e s the n ature of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n . Three b a s i c p o l i t i c a l s teps are i d e n t i f i e d : a) the determin-a t i o n o f what va l u e s are a t i s s u e (the p o l i c y ) ; b) what val u e s s h o u l d be a l l o c a t e d ; and c) which agency s h a l l be charged w i t h the r e q u i r e d a u t h o r i t y and power t o a d m i n i s t e r the p o l i c y . These st e p s are p a r a l l e l l e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y : a) determine the p r e c i s e nature of the p o l i c y ; b) choose which s t r a t e g y w i l l r e s u l t i n g i v i n g f o r c e ; and c) d i s t r i b u t e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r e x e c u t i o n t o those with the necessary t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e . Consequently, the separate l i n e s of x i i p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y are merged to show t h a t the s t r u c t u r e s of each are v e r y s i m i l a r , o n l y the content v a r i e s . I t i s hoped, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t Chapters I - VI w i l l e nable the reader t o go beyond the b a s i c data produced i n the l a t e r c hapters and have a more meaningful understanding o f the c o n d i t i o n s which govern the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Chapter VII r e p r e s e n t s the a c t u a l s t a t u t o r y analysis-. I t determines the kinds of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s of the c o n s t i t u e n t s o f the e d u c a t i o n system i n terms of the p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s s e t out e a r l i e r . The l a s t chapter (VIII) s e t s out the d e t a i l s of a u t h o r i t y and power v e s t e d i n each c o n s t i t u e n t . To summarize the I n t r o d u c t i o n , i t i s very important t o r e a l i z e t h a t the study views e d u c a t i o n as a governmental a c t i v i t y ; i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r i l y and e s s e n t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l . Thus, an e s s e n t i a l element of comprehending the system's c o n s t i t u e n t r e l a t i o n s i s f i r s t of a l l t o understand the c o m p l e x i t i e s o f p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agencies g e n e r a l l y , f o r t h a t i s the o p e r a t i n g environment of the whole of e d u c a t i o n . 1 I - POLITICAL SYSTEMS Observation and d e s c r i p t i o n are important f o r e m p i r i c a l s c i e n c e . Together, they p r o v i d e the "what i s " realm of f a c t — assuming c e r t a i n ! t e s t i n g procedures are under-taken. Given the data of what i s , some s c i e n t i s t s are s a t i s f i e d ; o t h e r s continue to ask why t h i n g s are as they appear t o be. What they seek are e x p l a n a t i o n s . The explan-a t i o n s may take many forms. However, e m p i r i c a l s c i e n t i s t s e s t a b l i s h p a r t i c u l a r assumptions and from these assumptions they d e r i v e the c r i t e r i a of an acceptable e x p l a n a t i o n . I t i s of importance here t o note o n l y t h a t a system of l o g i c c o n s i s t s of a s e t of r u l e s f o r which d e s c r i b e d t h i n g s or events may be accounted. These r u l e s are n e i t h e r good nor bad; they are simply conventions which the e m p i r i c i s t agrees t o f o l l o w . I t i s i n t h i s l a t t e r area of conventions f o r e x p l a n a t i o n s t h a t c o n t r o v e r s y over meanings or i m p l i c a t i o n s of d e s c r i p t i o n s may a r i s e . Assuming t h a t everyone on the p l a n e t agreed as to what i s f a c t i n a p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e , there i s no assurance they would agree t o the meaning of a s e t of f a c t s , even g i v e n the same l o g i c of e x p l a n a t i o n because i t seems t h a t accounting f o r f a c t s i s not a normative a c t i v i t y (apart from e s t a b l i s h i n g i n i t i a l l y the system of l o g i c of e x p l a n a t i o n s ) whereas a s c r i b i n g meaning t o the f a c t s may be a normative t a s k . However, l e a v i n g q uestions of meaning a s i d e f o r the moment, i t seems proper to speak of a s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n or a t l e a s t a system of s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n o n l y when some se t of r u l e s or conventions 2 are p o s t u l a t e d and f o l l o w e d by a community of s c i e n t i s t s . Now when i t comes t o determining what c o n s t i t u t e s a p o l i t i c a l system, c e r t a i n r u l e s or conventions must be e s t a b l i s h e d by means o f which p o l i t i c a l f a c t s may be accounted. I t i s something i n the sense of these conventions t h a t t h i s study seeks t o i n i t i a l l y e s t a b l i s h a c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r what might be meant by the phrase "a p o l i t i c a l system" and t o subsequently apply t h a t framework t o the development of a c o n c e p t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . W r i t i n g of systems and e n t i t i e s , Walter Buckley notes t h a t We cannot make a neat d i v i s i o n o f those t h i n g s t h a t are and those t h i n g s t h a t are not systems; r a t h e r we s h a l l have t o r e c o g n i z e v a r y i n g degrees of systemness.1 Now what makes a system o r , what taken away, d e s t r o y s a system, i s a d i f f i c u l t problem. Take, f o r example, the s o l a r system. What makes i t a system? E m p i r i c a l s c i e n t i s t s have adequately accounted f o r the f a c t s . Around the sun t h e r e r e v o l v e s a number of p l a n e t s . In p r i n c i p l e , p l a n e t a r y behaviour c o u l d be c o n s i d e r -a b l y m o d i f i e d and s t i l l the r e s u l t a n t c o l l e c t i o n c o u l d be c a l l e d a system. A number of p l a n e t s c o u l d be removed and s t i l l t h e r e would be a s o l a r system. W i t h i n l i m i t s , more p l a n e t s c o u l d be added and s t i l l t h ere c o u l d be a s t a t e of s o l a r e q u i l i b r i u m . Perhaps the e x i s t e n c e of e q u i l i b r i u m i s c e n t r a l to a system. D i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f e q u i l i b r i u m c o u l d be s a i d t o equal d i f f e r e n t degrees of "systemness". And y e t , t h e r e may be c o n d i t i o n s of e q u i l i b r i u m o t h e r than s t a t i c . Suppose there were constant change i n the s o l a r system: p l a n e t s changed o r b i t s , some were 1 Walter Buckley, S o c i o l o g y and Modern Systems Theory (Engle-wood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1967); p.42. There i s no i n t e n t to p r o v i d e a 'systems a n a l y s i s ' of the e d u c a t i o n system o f B.C. 3 added, others removed, and some changed r o t a t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n . In t h i s l a t t e r case, there i s a constant process of change and yet a maintenance of a f a i r l y high l e v e l of complex equilibrium. This may represent homeostatic equilibrium wherein a balance of components at a high l e v e l of complexity i s maintained. Going even further, suppose that this planet's solar system continually merged with other star systems and perhaps that resultant with other g a l a c t i c e n t i t i e s . By the c r i t e r i a of what constitutes Earth's solar system, i t would be possible to say that Earth's solar system no longer existed; but i t would also be quite possible that i t had become a complex adaptive system and was maintaining what Buckley c a l l s dynamic equilibrium or a system "state" characterized by continuously elaborating structures of organization. That i s , rather than r e s i s t i n g change l i k e a homeostatic system, the complex adaptive system changes through continuous evolution to higher l e v e l s of complexity. But the l a t t e r i s s t i l l a system. It may be f a i r to conclude at t h i s point that while equilibrium i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the systemness of the solar system, the empirical s c i e n t i s t must s t i l l account for equilibrium i t s e l f i f he i s to test that phenomenon as explaining the astronomical feature as a system. The rules of his empirical l o g i c system require i t . In order to explain the presence of equilibrium of components, one has to account f o r t h e i r patterned behaviour. That i s , some p r i n c i p l e of u n i f i c a t i o n 4 must be found. The empirical s c i e n t i s t w i l l observe and describe; and to make the story short, he w i l l ultimately f i n d that the components in t e r a c t in some regular fashion. He w i l l conclude that some bonding force, perhaps gravity, i s the es s e n t i a l ingredient that establishes equilibrium. Hence, whatever kind of equilibrium he finds, there w i l l always be some bonding force. In other words, the components always appear to follow some set of rules or laws. This i s not to impute some cognitive i n t e l l i g e n c e to simple matter but simply to say that the empiricist can formulate general descriptive laws which account for the regular behaviour of a physical system's components. The essence of system i n t h i s case then seems to be the adherence of the constituents to some governing p r i n c i p l e s or rules. Without behaviour following these rules, there would be no system. Thus, to study a system i s to study the rules which govern the con-stituent's behaviour and pos i t i o n . To what degree then, can t h i s sort of analysis be applied to s o c i a l systems and i n pa r t i c u l a r , to p o l i t i c a l systems? 5 I I - POLITICS and EDUCATION I f the essence of systemness i s the adherence of system c o n s t i t u e n t s t o governing r u l e s o r p r i n c i p l e s , then i t should be p o s s i b l e t o d e s c r i b e a p o l i t i c a l system by the k i n d of r u l e s t h a t govern the system. However, what i s p o l i t i c s ? The term p o l i t i c s i s used here t o r e f e r t o the form, o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f some s o c i a l e n t i t y , and t o the means of the r e g u l a t i o n o f i t s i n t e r n a l p e r s onnel and o f f i c e s , t o g e t h e r with the r e g u l a t i o n s govern-i n g the e n t i t y ' s behaviour with o t h e r s o c i a l elements. In essence, p o l i t i c s r e f e r s t o the governing r e l a t i o n s h i p s among people and t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Viewed as a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of s o c i a l system, educ a t i o n must be regarded i n some re s p e c t s as a p o l i t i c a l system. Hence, those who would argue to keep p o l i t i c s out o f ed u c a t i o n would be, i n the terms of re f e r e n c e e s t a b l i s h e d here, a s k i n g t h a t water be kept out of oceans, because p o l i t i c s i s the essence of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e domain of educ a t i o n . T h i s chapter and the next w i l l h e l p t o s u b s t a n t i a t e these views. The term p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n can be used t o r e f e r t o the process o f i n f l u e n c e e x e r t e d by members of a p o l i t i c a l system. Given such a view, i t may be s a i d t h a t ? p o l i t i c s i s a s s o c i a t e d with the i n f l u e n c i n g o f p o l i c y . S e m a n t i c a l l y , the a s s o c i a t i o n i s sound; and i n f a c t , members of an o r g a n i z a t i o n concerned with i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are a l s o n e c e s s a r i l y con-6 cerned w i t h p o l i c y , f o r i t i s the a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s duty t o g i v e e f f e c t t o p o l i c y . The d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n i s whether o r not an a d m i n i s t r a t o r should i n f l u e n c e p o l i c y . Doubtless, t h e r e are many s t u d i e s which show t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s do i n f l u e n c e p o l i c y ; but i t i s not c l e a r i n a l l cases t h a t they should e x e r t s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e . I t i s not unreasonable t h a t i f one i s charged wi t h a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t he q u e s t i o n h i s terms of r e f e r e n c e concerning the p o l i c y ; but once the assignment i s accepted, t h e r e appears t o be no v a l i d reason f o r t r y i n g t o modify a p o l i c y except where d i s c r e t i o n i s give n t o do so. P o l i t i c s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are o f t e n d e a l t with as separate s u b j e c t s . C l e a r l y , t h e r e i s at l e a s t a f l a v o u r o f one i n the oth e r and indeed, i t may be t h a t p o l i t i c s i s the process by which the a d m i n i s t r a t o r o p e r a t e s . Perhaps an a n a l y s i s o f each, p o l i t i c s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , can show the p r o c e s s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the former t o the l a t t e r . The b e n e f i t w i l l be t o r e a l i z e t h a t •.... form ( p o l i t i c s ) cannot be s e n s i b l y separated from content ( a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) . I f the term system can be accepted t e m p o r a r i l y a t l e a s t as r e f e r r i n g to a c o l l e c t i v i t y o f t h i n g s or persons behaving i n c o n c e r t a c c o r d i n g t o some s e t of r u l e s , then the s i m p l e s t approach t o what i s a p o l i t i c a l system may be t o d e a l ;f irst\ i;of ; a l l w ith the term p o l i t i c s . E a r l i e r i t was noted t h a t the term p o l i t i c s i s used here t o r e f e r t o the s c i e n c e d e a l i n g w i t h the form, 7 o r g a n i z a t i o n , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f some s o c i a l e n t i t y . The term i s now f u r t h e r l i m i t e d t o r e f e r t o people who are c o n -s t i t u t e d f o r some purpose. While i t i s p o s s i b l e t o speak of the p o l i t i c a l behaviour of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , of p o s i t i o n s and the l i k e , the context f o r the moment i s people: the c o n s t i t u e n t s occupying p o s i t i o n s i n the P r o v i n c i a l C i v i l S e r v i c e . When the terms form, o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are used, a con-c e p t i o n o f r e l a t e d n e s s a r i s e s . In o t h e r words, one i s l i k e l y t o t h i n k o f how c o n s t i t u e n t s are r e l a t e d t o one another when i s s u e s of form, o r g a n i z a t i o n and. a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are r a i s e d . In f a c t , much contemporary l i t e r a t u r e d e a l s e x h a u s t i v e l y with the r e l a t i o n a l i s s u e s of power and a u t h o r i t y when attempting to analyze the p o l i t i c a l domain of o r g a n i z a t i o n s . One example i s the t i d y summary of approaches t o p o l i t i c a l a n a l y s i s presented by Lutz and Iannaccone i n t h e i r volume Understanding E d u c a t i o n a l 2 O r g a n i z a t i o n s : A F i e l d Study Approach. Lutz and Iannaccone equate the concept o f * power with i n f l u e n c e . They a s s e r t t h a t "...the word power used alone, w i l l have as i t s r e f e r e n t behaviour d i r e c t e d ^ t o w a r d i n f l u e n c i n g o t h e r s whether s u c c e s s f u l o r not. F u r t h e r along, they a s s e r t t h a t P o l i t i c s i s the process o f i n f l u e n c e which r e s u l t s i n an a u t h o r i t a t i v e d e c i s i o n , having the f o r c e ^ o f law, by a governmental body such as a s c h o o l board. C l e a r l y the authors c o n s i d e r p o l i t i c s t o be a f i e l d of 2 Frank W. Lutz and Laurence Iannacconne, Understanding  E d u c a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s : A F i e l d Study Approach(Columbus, Charles E. M e r r i l l P u b l i s h i n g , 1969). 3 I b i d . , p. 11. 4 i b i d . , p. 13. 8 r e l a t i o n s h i p s among people i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h a t the key t o the system they r e p r e s e n t i s the concept o f i n f l u e n c e . I t i s , f o r them, the p r i n c i p l e of u n i f i c a t i o n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t , however, to v i s u a l i z e i n f l u e n c e except i n terms of cause and e f f e c t of a c t o r s and t h e i r a c t i o n s . That i s , i n f l u e n c e c o u l d be s a i d to be the summative e f f e c t o f a c e r t a i n c l a s s o f c o n s t i t u e n t behaviours such as p e r s u a s i o n of o t h e r s by some means. The "process of i n f l u e n c e " would most l i k e l y be the a c t i o n s o f some c o n s t i t u e n t s which c o u l d be observed and d e s c r i b e d o p e r a t i o n a l l y . I f t h i s i s so, then the p o l i t i c a l a n a l y s i s belongs to the f i r s t stage mentioned at the b e g i n n i n g of the l a s t s e c t i o n , namely, o b s e r v a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n . I t i s important t o note t h a t the e x p l a n a t o r y stage of i n q u i r y o r a n a l y s i s r e q u i r e s an answer t o the q u e s t i o n w i t h the form of "why i s X as i t appears t o be." In terms of the s o l a r system example, one must ask: i f i n f l u e n c e i s the e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t of a p o l i t i c a l system, what i s the process o f i n f l u e n c e ? Is t h a t process analagous t o the bonding f o r c e necessary t o cohere elements i n t o a system? I t may be w e l l to p o i n t out here t h a t s i n c e the immediate o b j e c t i v e i s t o f i n d the g e n e r i c form of whatever c h a r a c t e r i z e s the nature o f systemness i n a p o l i t i c a l system, i t i s of no importance what oth e r uses o f the term i n f l u e n c e may be intended by Lutz and Iannaccone. T h i s i s not a c r i t i q u e o f t h e i r work; but use i s made o f some o f t h e i r statements s i n c e they seem t o r e p r e -sent f a i r l y a s i g n i f i c a n t segment o f c u r r e n t w r i t i n g i n p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s i n e d u c a t i o n . 9 I t can be seen by r e f e r r i n g t o the e a r l i e r example of the s o l a r system t h a t the process of i n f l u e n c e would be analogous t o the concept of e q u i l i b r i u m . Thus i t i s necessary t o examine what g i v e s r i s e t o the process of i n -f l u e n c e : what governs the behaviour of those who seek t o ex e r t i n f l u e n c e . The term govern suggests laws o r l a w - l i k e behaviour. I t would be h e l p f u l i n t h i s case t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n between a n a t u r a l and a s o c i a l law. A u s e f u l way of marking each i s t o t h i n k of a n a t u r a l law as a statement d e s c r i b i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h i n g s t h a t seems const a n t , t h a t i s , an i n v a r i a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . Such laws are the laws of g r a v i t y and of c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy. S o c i a l laws d i f f e r from n a t u r a l laws i n t h a t the former p r e s c r i b e s what ought t o be the case. In o r d i n a r y language usage, one o f t e n encounters the statement of the form "the laws governing p l a n e t a r y motion" used i n much the same sense as the phrase "the laws governing s c h o o l boards." But i t i s important t o remember t h a t the l a t t e r phrase does not presume a s t a t e o f i n v a r i a n c e i n the laws as may be presumed f o r n a t u r a l laws. For example, i t may be i n v a r i a b l y t r u e o r f a c t u a l t h a t any human s o c i e t y makes laws governing i t s e l f . T h i s might be c a l l e d a s o c i o l o g i c a l law much i n the same way as the law of g r a v i t y i s a p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e law. S o c i a l laws, however, p r e s c r i b e how members o f the s o c i e t y s h a l l behave. I t i s i n t h i s sense t h a t one can say t h a t human behaviour i s governed by normative r u l e s . Going back then t o the q u e s t i o n o f what governs the behaviour of those who seek t o i n f l u e n c e o t h e r s , i t i s reasonable t o assume t h a t v a r i o u s t h i n g s may cause one t o t r y to i n f l u e n c e 10 another, but the means of e x e r t i n g i n f l u e n c e w i l l be governed by normative r u l e s . Something t h a t might be c a l l e d a 'general t h e o r y ' o f p o l i t i c s i s sought; and i t seems t h a t the term i n f l u e n c e i s something more l i k e a s t r a t e g y r a t h e r than an encompassing concept. A p o l i t i c a l system i s comprised of a m u l t i t u d e o f elements or a s p e c t s . There s t i l l remains the task of s o r t i n g out j u s t whatever might be the e s s e n t i a l or c h a r a c t e r i z i n g nature of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . From time t o time, one encounters i n ed-u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e v a r i o u s admonitions; t o keep p o l i t i c s out of e d u c a t i o n . The d e s i r e a b i l i t y o f such a p r e f e r e n c e i s not a t i s s u e here. The i s s u e i s simply whether i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a s s e r t t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e without r e c o g n i z i n g a p o l i t i c a l aspect. T h i s study argues t h a t p o l i t i c s i s not o n l y as necessary t o e d u c a t i o n as a i r i s t o human l i f e ; p o l i t i c s form the " g e n e t i c b u i l d i n g b l o c k s " of e d u c a t i o n . Without p o l i t i c s , t h e r e c o u l d be no e d u c a t i o n system. Indeed (though such a c l a i m i s i n the domain o f the p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t ) without p o l i t i c s , t h e r e c o u l d be no s o c i e t y . O b v i o u s l y , such cl a i m s can o n l y be s u b s t a n t i a t e d w i t h i n the context of meaning developed f o r the term p o l i t i c s . P o l i t i c k i n g i s the a n c i e n t a r t of c a j o l i n g , persuading and maneuvering. V a r i o u s l e v e l s o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n the a r t e x i s t . P o l i t i c k i n g may range from c o n v i n c i n g a neighbour t o share one's view t h a t dandelions are not p r e t t y lawn flowers and so maneuver him t o remove them, to persuading 11 a Prime Minister that energy exports should be c u r t a i l l e d . Numerous examples could be c i t e d . They would a l l share at least one important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : person or group A wants person or group B to share a certain value. Depending upon the complexity and importance of the issues, p o l i t i c k i n g often leads to a s h i f t i n g of positions for power. The main objective of such maneuvering i s to ensure the establishment of some kind of general value over some area in society — and that area may be as simple as a neighbour's lawn or as complex as an entire planet. This study takes the notion of a general value to be synonymous with the term p o l i c y . From the preceding discussion, i t follows that p o l i t i c s i s intimately related to p o l i c y . But these common sense notions about p o l i t i c s are not s u f f i c i e n t l y precise to suggest a conceptual framework f o r analyzing the p o l i t i c a l dimensions of administra-t i v e authority and power i n the governance of public education. In order to define ' p o l i t i e s ' , concepts which encompass the p o l i t i c a l aspects of the administrative system must be found. These concepts must be s u f f i c i e n t l y embracing to include the major aspects of a p o l i t i c a l system, not just some aspects of that system. There are three key terms i n the t i t l e of t h i s study: authority, power and governance. Each i s funda-mental to any p o l i t i c a l system but none appears adequate to" function as the prime conceptual descriptor of a p o l i t i c a l system. But the combined analysis of each w i l l produce a theme — a locus for formal description — of any p o l i t i c a l system. Remember that what i s needed i s a statement that can f u n c t i o n as the p r i n c i p l e of u n i f i c a t i o n . Governance i s a term u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the concept o f the s t a t e . One can search f o r the b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s t a t e . I t may seem to be begging the q u e s t i o n , but t o t r y t o a s s e r t what the s t a t e i s would be not u n l i k e t r y i n g t o say what g r a v i t y i s . Both are a l l around they cause bodies t o i n t e r a c t and so on; but each seems to l a c k denotable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t can be s a i d t h a t the s t a t e maintains s o c i a l o r d e r and does so through i t s agent, the government; but t h i s view does not h e l p i n t r y i n g t o i d e n t i f y p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . I t i s the k i n d o f governance t h a t i s im-p o r t a n t t o a d e s c r i p t i o n of a p o l i t i c a l system but even knowing the k i n d of governance t h a t may operate w i l l not h e l p d e l i n e a t e the form o f whatever i t means t o be p o l i t i c a l . The n o t i o n of the s t a t e i s a p a r t o f the g e n e r i c concept sought a f t e r because c o n n o t a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n i s too imprecise a means by which to c h a r a c t e r i z e anything as seemingly complicated as a p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . One of the most f r e q u e n t l y used concepts t o analyze p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i s power. I t c e r t a i n l y has m e r i t as a r e s e a r c h t o o l because i t presumes t o analyze an a c t i v i t y the process of person or group A t r y i n g t o i n f l u e n c e B. The m e r i t r e s t s on the assumption, of course, t h a t anything t h a t can be i d e n t i f i e d as i n f l u e n c e a l s o has p o l i t i c a l r e l e v a n c e . However, the q u e s t i o n here i s not whether the power concept approach to p o l i t i c a l a n a l y s i s has m e r i t but to ask i f the approach i s s u f f i c i e n t l y g e n e r i c t o be used as the prime d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f whatever i t means to a c t 1 3 p o l i t i c a l l y . Power meets the c r i t e r i o n of being a highly recurring phenomenon in p o l i t i c a l domains to be studied intensively and therefore, there should exist a great deal of recurrent p o l i t i c a l data necessary to formulate p o l i t i c a l generalizations. However, power does not seem to be the only major concept for studying p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y for surely, not a l l p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i s that of struggle for control of p o s i t i o n . In other words, i t i s doubtful that a l l p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y can be characterized as a struggle to control the w i l l of others. From power concepts there emerges e l i t i s t theories of governance: the tendency of power to s e t t l e into the hands of a few. Whatever power analysis reveals, i t seems reasonable to conclude that i t has as i t s central focus the behaviour of actors within a p o l i t i c a l system and not the p o l i t i c a l system i t s e l f . For t h i s reason, power i s not chosen here as the prime concept for p o l i t i c a l analysis. The task s t i l l remains to f i n d a concept which w i l l help determine the meaning of p o l i t i c s as i t applies to some s o c i a l system. Some twenty years ago, David Easton 4 developed an argument i n his volume The P o l i t i c a l System which provides a most comprehensive and useful conception of p o l i t i c s . This study uses Easton's thesis as a major premise for i t s coneptual framework by which the p o l i t i c a l domain of the administration of public education w i l l be analyzed. The t h i r d key term in the t i t l e of t h i s 5 David Easton, The P o l i t i c a l System (New York, A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1 9 5 3 ) ; p p , 1 2 9 - f f . It xs Easton's phrase, "authoritative a l l o c a t i o n " that has been used rather than a precise application of his t h e s i s . 14 study i s a u t h o r i t y . I t may be s a i d t h a t the policy-making process c o n s t i t u t e s the p o l i t i c a l system. I n d i v i d u a l s , groups, o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s seek a u t h o r i t y t o formulate s o c i a l p o l i c i e s and t h a t process may be c a l l e d the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . Easton c a l l s t h i s " a u t h o r i t a t i v e p o l i c y . " I t may be deduced from Easton's arguments t h a t p o l i t i c s i s the process of a u t h o r i t a t i v e a l l o c a t i o n o f values f o r a s o c i e t y . While an example can be made of any p i e c e of governmental l e g i s l a t i o n , one of the more c u r r e n t themes of the process o f a u t h o r i t a t i v e a l l o c a t i o n o f valu e s i s t h a t of ecology. The value i m p l i e d i s simply t h a t c e r t a i n k inds of n a t u r a l resources must be pres e r v e d . To t h i s end, v a r i o u s kinds of l e g i s l a t i o n such as "green b e l t " r e s e r v e s are promulgated. Bounties are taken o f f wolves and p l a c e d on soda pop cans. The i d e a i s t h a t some s o c i a l p r e f e r e n c e of the m a j o r i t y (though perhaps o f t e n i n s t i g a t e d by an e l i t i s t m i n o r i t y ) i s gi v e n e f f e c t through l e g i s l a t i o n and so becomes law. I f the g e n e r a l view of p o l i t i c s being the a u t h o r i t a t i v e a l l o c a t i o n o f v a l u e s can be j u s t i f i e d , then some i n t e r e s t i n g and u s e f u l d i s t i n c t i o n s can be made between a u t h o r i t y and power i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n . A p o l i c y statement i s one which portends t o g i v e some t h i n g s to some people and t o deny o t h e r t h i n g s t o these people. In essence, a p o l i c y i s an a l l o c a t i o n o f v a l u e s . Given t h i s view o f p o l i c y , i t r e q u i r e s no 6 Easton, o p . c i t . , p. 12 9. 7 Easton, o p . c i t . , p. 130. 15 e l a b o r a t i o n t o understand the constant quest f o r power i n p o l i t i c a l arenas. The o p p o r t u n i t y t o design and a l l o c a t e v a l u e s i s much sought a f t e r . A v a s t corps o f l e g i s l a t i v e l o b b y i s t s has a r i s e n f o r two b a s i c f u n c t i o n s : t o persuade o t h e r s of c e r t a i n v a l u e s and t o manage power. Policy-making, however, must not be con-fused w i t h decision-making. The l a t t e r i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . * Thus, the l e g i s l a t u r e may decide t o manufacture doughnuts r a t h e r than buy a product which i s not union made. T h i s i s the e x p r e s s i o n — and a l l o c a t i o n — of v a l u e s . Once t h i s c h o i c e i s made, the a d m i n i s t r a t o r must execute the p o l i c y . Values are a l l o c a t e d through the maze of s o c i e t y i n many ways. T h i s study looks at o n l y one source o f a l l o c a t i o n : the p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l government and i t s Department of E d u c a t i o n . (While these are two d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e bodies, t h i s study assumes the premise t h a t p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f p r o v i n c i a l governmental r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and i s composed of two major elements: a) the pol i c y - m a k i n g Cabinet, and b) the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n , the Department ' o f Educa t i o n . T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d at g r e a t e r l e n g t h i n a subsequent c h a p t e r ) . I t i s to t h i s e n t i t y t h a t the term a u t h o r i t y i s a s c r i b e d and the meaning of a u t h o r i t y f o r t h i s study i s again p r o v i d e d by Easton. A p o l i c y i s a u t h o r i t a t i v e when the people t o whom i t i s t o apply o r who are a f f e c t e d by i t c o n s i d e r t h a t they must o r ought t o obey i t . The v a l u e o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s simply t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o 8 Easton, o p . c i t . , p. 132. * The d i f f e r e n c e i s e s s e n t i a l l y i n the kinds of d e c i s i o n making i n each case. 16 determine the authority of the p o l i c y makers by observing whether or not those to whom the p o l i c y applies obey the rules. There may be many reasons why one follows a p o l i c y : moral, custom, or fear of penalty. But authority i s best determined by observing who follows what i s prescribed. In B r i t i s h Columbia schools, certain p a t r i o t i c r i t u a l s have been prescribed: oathes of allegiance, singing the national anthem and many others. I f authority were placed on a scale, i t would have rated rather low i n the observations of how many schools were following the po l i c y were counted. At the same time, the po l i c y was enforceable and the leg a l authority was unquestionably complete. There are, therefore, two domains of authority to be accounted for when speaking of the al l o c a t i o n of values, informal and formal. In some p o l i t i c a l context a person may have complete l e g a l authority but no power to exercise that authority. The Cabinet may have the authority to nationalize a p r o v i n c i a l l y incorporated company, but i t may lack the power to do so. In t h i s case, power implies a concept of accountability and su r v i v a l of the government. This d i s t i n c t i o n and dilemma w i l l be taken up i n some d e t a i l in a subsequent chapter. For the moment, i t i s of importance to note that something i s taken to be authoritative only when those to whomr i t applies accept i t as binding. Easton sums t h i s view by saying that The property of a s o c i a l act that informs i t with a p o l i t i c a l aspect i s the act's r e l a t i o n to the authoritative a l l o c a t i o n of values for a society. 9 Easton, The P o l i t i c a l System, p. 134. 17 He f u r t h e r argues t h a t A minimum c o n d i t i o n f o r the e x i s t e n c e of any s o c i e t y i s the es t a b l i s h m e n t o f some mechanisms, however crude o r i n c o h a t e , f o r a r r i v i n g a t a u t h o r i t a t i v e s o c i a l d e c i s i o n s about how goods, both s p i r i t u a l and m a t e r i a l , are t o be ^ d i s t r i b u t e d , where custom f a i l s t o c r e a t e o t h e r p a t t e r n s . T h i s study assumes t h a t t h i s i s t r u e not o n l y o f s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y , but o f any s o c i a l sub-system such as e d u c a t i o n . I t i s now p o s s i b l e t o begin an examination o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the conception o f p o l i t i c s expressed here and a conception o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 10 Easton, The P o l i t i c a l System, p. 135. 18 II I >• GOVERNMENT H i s t o r i c a l l y , the purpose of Parliament has been t o make laws f o r the peace, order, and good government of Canada. Sweeping as i t may appear, t h i s purpose as s t a t e d r e c o g n i z e s i m p l i c i t l y the myriad c o m p l e x i t i e s of a modern s o c i e t y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a v a s t a r r a y of i n d u s t r i a l e n t i t i e s , p u b l i c and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f a l l k i n d s , and the need f o r r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s t o maintain t h e i r o r d e r and to c o n t r o l the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n d i s c r i m i n a t e p r a c t i c e s as may be viewed as u n j u s t w i t h i n the n a t i o n ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l framework. The ensuing complexity gave r i s e to the th r e e major f u n c t i o n a l branches of government: the e x e c u t i v e , the l e g i s l a t i v e and the j u d i c i a l . These t h r e e branches a c t i n concert t o a) d e v i s e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y , b) t o enact l e g i s l a t i o n g i v i n g l e g a l l i f e t o e x e c u t i v e p o l i c y and c) i n t e r p r e t and d e f i n e the a c t i v i t i e s of the f i r s t two branches. The E x e c u t i v e I t i s the prime f u n c t i o n o f the e x e c u t i v e to formulate and d i r e c t g e n e r a l governmental p o l i c y ; and i t i s the e x e c u t i v e which c r e a t e s the need f o r a somewhat i n f o r m a l f o u r t h branch of government, the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . Since the e x e c u t i v e branch formulates p o l i c y , i t r e q u i r e s not onl y some means of c o n v e r t i n g the p o l i c y i n t o law, but a l s o some means of s e e i n g the p o l i c y i s a c t u a l l y executed and t h i s i n t u r n r a i s e s problems o f i n s p e c t i o n s , i n q u i r i e s and the enforcement of standards. Thus, the day - t o - day c o n t r o l s of government 19 over p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s r e a l l y a r i s e s from the e x e c u t i v e branch. For example, the e x e c u t i v e has d e c i d e d t h a t o n l y c e r t a i n c i t i z e n s may operate a motor v e h i c l e . T h i s p o l i c y i n t u r n r e q u i r e s a l i c e n s i n g agency, an i n s p e c t i o n agency, and indeed, a very l a r g e a r r a y of governmental sub-agencies a l l of which taken t o g e t h e r represent one o f the many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e departments of a government and whose o p e r a t i o n s i n sum r e p r e s e n t an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n . F u r t h e r , s i n c e v a r i o u s k i n d s of d i s p u t e s a r i s e between c i t i z e n s and these agencies, some s o r t of mechanisms are necessary f o r t h e i r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . Most f r e q u e n t l y , these are c a l l e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r i b u n a l s r a t h e r than c o u r t s of law, and the reason f o r t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n w i l l become apparent when the g e n e r a l a n a l y s i s r e t u r n s t o the s p e c i f i c case o f e d u c a t i o n as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f government. The L e g i s l a t i v e The l e g i s l a t i v e branch of government enacts r u l e s which bind: the p r i v a t e c i t i z e n and, when such r u l e s are made i n accordance w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e procedure, the c o u r t s of law w i l l c o n s i d e r those r u l e s t o be law. Parliament i s s a i d t o be omnicompetent. I t may enact s t a t u t e s concerning one person, but such s t a t u t e s w i l l be r e c o g n i z e d by a l l governmental c o n s t i t u e n t s as law. The l e g i s l a t i v e process i n v o l v e s not o n l y the p r e c i s e procedures of s t a t u t o r y enact-ment but the business o f house debate, i n t e r - and i n t r a d e p a r t -mental d i s c u s s i o n s and i n g e n e r a l , a l l p r e p a r a t o r y work p r i o r t o the a c t u a l procedures o f enactment. A phrase commonly used 20 f o r the p r e p a r a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s i s the travaux p r e p a r a t o i r e s . The J u d i c i a l The f u n c t i o n s of the j u d i c i a l branch o f government have been a l l u d e d t o a l r e a d y . Garner sums them q u i t e a p p r o p r i a t e l y by s a y i n g t h a t f o r the j u d i c i a r y t o a c t : i ) t h e r e must be a l i s i n t e r p a r t e s , or a d i s p u t e between two o r more p a r t i e s ; i i ) the proceedings i n the l i s must have been i n i t i a t e d by one (or more) of the p a r t i e s t o the l i s , but not by the t r i b u n a l i t s e l f o r by some government agency or o t h e r body not being a p a r t y t o the l i s ; i i i ) as a g e n e r a l r u l e , the d e c i d i n g judge, having found the f a c t s and a p p l i e d the a p p r o p r i a t e p r i n c i p l e s of law t h e r e t o , has l i t t l e d i s c r e t i o n i n coming t o h i s d e c i s i o n ; he may not be i n f l u e n c e d by precon-c e i v e d p r i n c i p l e s of p o l i c y , but must apply pre-,g s c r i b e d r u l e s of law so as to reach a d e c i s i o n . P o i n t s concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the j u d i c i a r y t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e process w i l l be made as t h a t process i s r e -viewed i n a subsequent c h a p t e r . At t h i s p o i n t , i t i s important to note the g e n e r a l branch f u n c t i o n s . From Garner's c r i t e r i a , i t can be seen t h a t the j u d i c i a r y p r o v i d e s the means f o r s e t t l i n g d i s p u t e s which are brought be f o r e the c o u r t s . I t i s not the f u n c t i o n of the j u d i c i a r y to make laws: the f u n c t i o n i s t o p r o v i d e c l a r i t y and f u l l e r meaning o f s t a t u t e s . The j u d i c i a r y , by making such d i s t i n c t i o n s , e n f o r c e s s t a t u t o r y and common law f o r l i t i g a n t s who seek r e d r e s s . S e p a r a t i o n o f Powers Much has been w r i t t e n on the s u b j e c t o f the 10 J.F. Garner, A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Law (London, Butterworths, 1967) ; pp. ll^TT. 21 s e p a r a t i o n o f powers of the e x e c u t i v e , l e g i s l a t i v e and j u d i c i a l branches of government. Comment on the t o p i c i s made here o n l y t o c a u t i o n t h a t such i s s u e s are of l i t t l e importance t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study. Given the w r i t t e n form o f c o n s t i -t u t i o n o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America, t h e r e i s , perhaps, g r e a t e r need f o r examining the i s s u e . As f o r Canada, Garner argues t h a t not o n l y i s the search f o r such a s e p a r a t i o n o f powers e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t , i t i s a s e p a r a t i o n t h a t would l i k e l y be harmful were i t t o be made.^ C e r t a i n l y , t h e r e i s obvious o v e r l a p i n f u n c t i o n s and t h i s o v e r l a p i s necessa r y . However, i t does not seem t h a t attempts t o make d i s t i n c t i o n s beyond those g i v e n above would have l i t t l e d i r e c t b e a r i n g on the problems of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e process themselves. P a r l i a m e n t a r y Powers I t may be thought t h a t a c a r e f u l review of hi g h e r governmental bodies i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y the s u b j e c t matter o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . However, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s p a r t o f a h i e r a r c h y and an understanding o f governmental form i s necessary to a p p r e c i a t e the nature and emergence o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e elements. Whatever powers a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o dies have, i t i s unquestionably t r u e t h a t t h e i r powers d e r i v e s o l e l y from h i g h e r a u t h o r i t i e s and t h e r e f o r e , the r u l e s t h a t govern p a r l i a m e n t , t o g e t h e r with the r u l e s by which pa r l i a m e n t governs, must be s t u d i e d i n or d e r t o grasp the concept o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s . I t i s t h i s k i n d o f complex i n t e r r e l a t e d -11 Garner, A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Law, p. 13. 22 ness t h a t seems t o be making a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a more and more d i f f i c u l t t o p i c t o understand. E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s segment of the study e s t a b l i s h e s the premises o f a more important t o p i c , t h a t o f del e g a t e d l e g i s l a t i o n and the procedures which a c t u a l l y c r e a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s . The S o v e r e i g n t y o f Parl i a m e n t Quoting H. W. R. Wade i n h i s a r t i c l e on "The B a s i s o f L e g a l S o v e r e i g n t y " , D. C. M. Yardley w r i t e s : An orthodox E n g l i s h lawyer, brought up c o n s c i o u s l y o r un-c o n s c i o u s l y on the d o c t r i n e o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y s o v e r e i g n t y s t a t e d by Coke and B l a c k s t o n e , and e n l a r g e d upon by Dicey, c o u l d e x p l a i n i t i n simple terms. He would say t h a t i t meant merely t h a t no Act o f the s o v e r e i g n l e g i s l a t u r e (composed o f the Queen, Lords and Commons) c o u l d be i n v a l i d i n the eyes o f the c o u r t s ; t h a t i t was always open t o the l e g i s l a t u r e , so c o n s t i t u t e d , t o r e p e a l any p r e v i o u s l e g i s l a t i o n whatever; t h a t t h e r e f o r e no Pa r l i a m e n t c o u l d b i n d i t s s u c c e s s o r and t h a t the l e g i s l a t u r e had o n l y one process f o r e n a c t i n g s o v e r e i g n l e g i s l a t i o n , whereby i t was d e l c a r e d t o be the j o i n t Act o f the Crown, Lords and Commons i n Parl i a m e n t assembled. He would probably add t h a t i t i s an i n v a r i a b l e r u l e t h a t i n the case o f c o n f l i c t between two Acts o f P a r l i a m e n t , the l a t e r r e p e a l s the e a r l i e r . I t f o l l o w s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t there i s one, and o n l y one, l i m i t t o Parl i a m e n t ' s l e g a l power: i t cannot d e t r a c t from i t s own c o n t i n u i n g s o v e r e i g n t y .H Y a r d l e y c o n t i n u e s , s a y i n g t h a t : P r o f e s s o r Wade goes on t o show how v a r i o u s j u r i s t s have doubted the f u l l v a l i d i t y o f t h i s orthodox view, but i t i s submitted t h a t he e f f e c t i v e l y d i s p o s e s o f these c r i t i c s ' arguments.13 12 D.C.M. Y a r d l e y , A Source Book of E n g l i s h A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Law (London, Butterworths, 1970); pp 2-3. 13 I b i d . , p. 3. 23 The P r e r o g a t i v e From the e s t a b l i s h e d s o v e r e i g n t y o f p a r l i a m e n t , t h e r e appears t o be l i t t l e e x e c u t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the Royal P r e r o g a t i v e . T e c h n i c a l l y , the p r e r o g a t i v e i s t h a t r e s i d u e of power l e f t v e s t e d i n the Crown, and i s n e i t h e r dependent upon nor r e g u l a t e d by s t a t u t e . In Canada, the Queen's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , The Governor Gen e r a l , cannot a c t except i n accordance with M i n i s t e r i a l a d v i c e . I t i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l convention t h a t the Crown cannot a c t except i n accordance w i t h m i n i s t e r i a l a d v i c e . The procedure of m i n i s t e r i a l a d v i c e s being executed by the Crown c o n s t i t u t e s O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l . The p r i n c i p l e o f m i n i s t e r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y p r o v i d e s a c o n t r o l over such a c t i o n s . The 1971 i n v o c a t i o n of the Canada War Measures Act i s an example o f an o r d e r - i n -c o u n c i l executed through Royal P r e r o g a t i v e . The ensuing p a r l i a m e n t a r y debates gave ample evidence t h a t w h i l e an o r d e r -i n - c o u n c i l i s as much l e g i s l a t i o n as an Act o f P a r l i a m e n t , o n l y p a r l i a m e n t a r y agreement not t o pass c o n t r a r y l e g i s l a t i o n p e r m i t t e d the o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l to s u r v i v e . However, t h i s r e p r e s e n t s p a r l i a m e n t a r y c o n t r o l over the p r e r o g a t i v e . The 14 p r e r o g a t i v e i s q u i t e f r e e o f any j u d i c i a l c o n t r o l s . M i n i s t e r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n The 1960 Royal Commission on Government O r g a n i z a t i o n r e p o r t s t h a t : The Prime M i n i s t e r i s s e l e c t e d by the Governor Gen e r a l , 14 Garner, op. c i t . , p. 40. 24 being the person who, i n the o p i n i o n o f the Governor Gen e r a l , c u r r e n t l y enjoys the support o f the m a j o r i t y of members i n the House of Commons. The members of the Cabinet are s e l e c t e d by the Prime M i n i s t e r , appointed by the Governor General t o the Queen's P r i v y C o u n c i l f o r Canada, and compose the Committee of C o u n c i l on whose advice the Governor General a c t s . The Governor General a c t s o n l y through m i n i s t e r s , i n ord e r t o ensure t h a t some m i n i s t e r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r every d e c i s i o n taken and i s answerable f o r i t t o the House o f Commons; sometimes t h i s a c c o u n t a b i l i t y i s ^ 5 c o l l e c t i v e , but i n some circumstances i t i s p e r s o n a l . Consequently, the e x e c u t i v e power i s e x e r c i s e d by the Governor - i n - C o u n c i l f e d e r a l l y , and by the L i e u t e n a n t Governor - i n - C o u n c i l p r o v i n c i a l l y . T h i s organ i s most f r e q u e n t l y c a l l e d the Cabinet i n Canadian government. The Royal Commission continues to say: The Governor - i n - C o u n c i l — t h e Governor General a c t i n g on the advice of the P r i v y C o u n c i l — i s the formal e x e c u t i v e body which g i v e s l e g a l e f f e c t t o those d e c i s i o n s o f Cabinet which are t o have the f o r c e of law. In composition, the two bodies — Cabinet and the Committee of C o u n c i l — are i d e n t i c a l . ^ I t appears as though the m i n i s t e r s may enact what laws they wish; but i t must be kept i n mind t h a t t h e i r power i s not simply d e r i v e d from being i n the p o s i t i o n o f m i n i s t e r s but from having the preponderance o f p u b l i c support and the consequent support o f the m a j o r i t y o f the House of Commons, the supreme l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y . The r e s u l t i s l e g i t i m a c y o f e x e c u t i v e power both l e g a l l y and by popular consent o f the c o n s t i t u e n t s . 15 The 1960 Royal Commission on Government O r g a n i z a t i o n (Ottawa, The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1960); v.5. 16 I b i d . , v.5. 25 Although the commissioners were examining f e d e r a l government o r g a n i z a t i o n , the b a s i c s t r u c t u r a l form and procedures o b t a i n p r o v i n c i a l l y . Thus, p r o v i n c i a l powers are as f u l l and complete as those of the Dominion — they simply have s m a l l e r scope. Quoting J u s t i c e R i d d e l l , Dawson notes t h a t : The powers o f the l e g i s l a t u r e o f the p r o v i n c e . . . a r e the same i n i n t e n s i o n though not i n e x t e n s i o n as those o f the I m p e r i a l P a r l i a m e n t . The l e g i s l a t u r e i s l i m i t e d i n the t e r r i t o r y i n which i t may l e g i s l a t e , and i n the s u b j e c t s ; the I m p e r i a l Parliament i s not — t h a t i s the whole d i f f e r e n c e . ^ M i n i s t e r i a l A c c o u n t a b i l i t y The p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s g i v e c l e a r evidence t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l body known as the L i e u t e n a n t Governor-i n - C o u n c i l may enact laws and r e g u l a t i o n s which have the f o r c e o f law by means of an o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l . Thus, while no m i n i s t e r i s o l a t e d from h i s c o l l e a g u e s can g e n e r a l l y enact laws ( f o r e x c e p t i o n s , see s e c t i o n on Delegated Power), any m i n i s t e r may submit recommendations t o the L i e u t e n a n t Governor-i n - C o u n c i l and upon t h e i r consent, c r e a t e a law. Obviously, without some means of p a r l i a m e n t a r y c o n t r o l , democracy would l a c k ample o p p o r t u n i t y t o f l o u r i s h . Of t h i s , Dawson comments: . . . t h a t they [ m i n i s t e r s ] are a t a l l times r e s p o n s i b l e t o the House o f Commons l i e s a t the very r o o t o f Canadian p o l i t i c s , and i t was the acceptance o f t h i s convention, . . . t h a t a century ago transformed r e p r e s e n t -a t i v e government i n t o r e s p o n s i b l e government.18 I f the l e g i s l a t u r e censures a Cabinet a c t i o n , e i t h e r the 17 R. MacGregor Dawson, The Government o f Canada (Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1962); p. 261. 18 I b i d . , p. 274. 26 e x e c u t i v e o r the l e g i s l a t u r e must r e s i g n . Among m i n i s t e r s ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the sense of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , one of the more s i g n i f i c a n t i s the convention o f Cabinet s o l i d a r i t y . In p u b l i c , they must appear to agree upon each others a c t i o n s . T h i s n e c e s s a r i l y r e q u i r e s t h a t i n the course o f g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s , a m i n i s t e r must keep h i s c o l l e a g u e s informed and o b t a i n t h e i r consent b e f o r e advancing p r o p o s a l s f o r enactment. F a i l i n g t o achieve c o l l e g i a l support, a m i n i s t e r may g i v e up h i s views or r e s i g n . T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t not o n l y i s a m i n i s t e r p e r s o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e but the e n t i r e Cabinet shares the same burden. Censure of one m i n i s t e r w i l l be taken t o be censure f o r a l l . While i t may be o n l y o f p a s s i n g i n t e r e s t , the r e s p o n s i b l i t y o f the Cabinet extends o n l y to the l e g i s -l a t u r e , not t o the senate, i n the case of a f e d e r a l body. Garner sums the concept o f m i n i s t e r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by s a y i n g t h a t : The whole system, however, s t i l l depends upon fundamental conventions o f the c o n s t i t u t i o n , such as: a) the c o l l e c t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f M i n i s t e r s ; b) the Cabinet must have the support o f the House o f Commons; c) members of the Cabinet must be members o f one or the o t h e r of the Houses of P a r l i a m e n t ; d) the Sovereign i s e n t i t l e d t o i n f o r m a t i o n from the ^ g Cabinet but must a c t on the advice of her M i n i s t e r s . The same conventions o b t a i n f o r Canada. Reporting upon 19 Garner, o p . c i t . , p.30. 27 m i n i s t e r i a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , the 1960 Royal Commission s t a t e s : Although a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y i s possessed by m i n i s t e r s i n d i v i d u a l l y , t h e i r p o l i t i c a l power i s h e l d i n common. Consequently, the r o l e of the i n d i v i d u a l m i n i s t e r must always be r e l a t e d to h i s membership i n the group. In e f f e c t , f o r a l l matters t o which h i s a u t h o r i t y extends, i t i s the task of each m i n i s t e r t o d e v i s e courses of a c t i o n a c c e p t a b l e t o h i s c o l l e a g u e s t o ensure t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o l l o w s the agreed course, to i n t e r p r e t the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n day-to-day s i t u a t i o n s ( c o n s u l t i n g h i s c o l l e a g u e s when n e c e s s a r y ) , and t o answer f o r the conduct of those matters, f i r s t , t o h i s c o l l e a g u e s , and, on b e h a l f of the government, to Parliament.^0 The f a c t t h a t power i s h e l d and e x e r c i s e d c o l l e c t i v e l y means t h a t a l l important d e c i s i o n s of p o l i c y are taken by the group r a t h e r than by i n d i v i d u a l s . Moreover, the p r i n c i p l e of c o l l e c t i v e c o n t r o l extends t o the admin-i s t r a t i v e process w i t h i n the s e v e r a l departments.^0 T h i s chapter has presented a b r i e f resume of the Government of Canada. The e s s e n t i a l governmental bodies connected w i t h i s s u e s t o be t r e a t e d subsequently i n t h i s study have been i d e n t i f i e d . T h e i r c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been noted and those p o i n t s of c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r e s t f o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e c o n s t i t u t e what may be c a l l e d i n f orm-a l l y the p o s s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n s . They are the f a c t s expressed and i m p l i c i t which p r o v i d e some of the context f o r the f u r t h e r and more p r e c i s e development of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e process as promulgated by p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g a s s e r t i o n s form the base f o r f i x i n g such t h i n g s as Departmental powers and r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s , o r i g i n s of d e l e g a t e d l e g i s l a t i o n , m i n i s t e r i a l c o n t r o l , and the e x e c u t i o n of government p o l i c i e s . a) The e x e c u t i v e branch of p r o v i n c i a l 20 The 1960 Royal Commission on Government O r g a n i z a t i o n , v.5. 28 government i s composed of the Cabinet m i n i s t e r s and the Lieu t e n a n t Governor. b) The prime f u n c t i o n o f the Cabinet i s t o formulate g e n e r a l government p o l i c y and t o arrange f o r i t s e x e c u t i o n . c) The Cabinet g e n e r a l l y c r e a t e s p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b o d i e s . d) The p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e i s omnicom-petent. e) The j u d i c i a l branch o f government s e t t l e s d i s p u t e s brought before i t . f) The J u d i c i a r y does not make laws. g) The Royal P r e r o g a t i v e , f o r t h i s study, has e x c e e d i n g l y l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e . h) The Lieutenant-Governor, w h i l e f r e e t o express h i s views, must a c t onl y upon the advice of the Cabinet and i n accordance w i t h such a d v i c e as the Cabinet may g i v e . i ) The power of a s i n g l e m i n i s t e r t o make r e g u l a t i o n s as d e f i n e d by the Regulations Act must be e x p r e s s l y g i v e n . 29 IV - GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION The l i t e r a t u r e now extant on t h a t "branch" of the government c a l l e d the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e i s not very e x t e n s i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Canada. Dawson notes t h a t a volume on Canadian government w r i t t e n t h i r t y years ago would not have co n t a i n e d even a chapter on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e 21 powers. Even today, the s t a t u s of the term "law" i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e law i s i n some c o n f u s i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , as the g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s study has a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d , the c o m p l e x i t i e s of the modern s t a t e are enor-mous; and growth of the Canadian C i v i l S e r v i c e has reached the p o i n t where a m i n i s t e r o f a department can no longer p r a c t i c a l l y a d m i n i s t e r a l l the b u s i n e s s of the department h i m s e l f . Sheer s i z e has n e c e s s i t a t e d a d e l e g a t i o n of powers. However, the i n c r e a s e of s i z e has c r e a t e d o t h e r problems. The d e l e g a t i o n o f powers t o s u b o r d i n a t e s has helped i n m a i n t a i n i n g governmental c o n t r o l over i t s admin-i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s r e g a r d i n g i t s p o l i c i e s , but the d e l e g a t i o n process takes p l a c e a t the expense both of the l e g i s l a t u r e and the j u d i c i a r y . The l e g i s l a t u r e g e n e r a l l y l a c k s the p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e to maintain c l o s e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l over a l l departmental o p e r a t i o n s , and the j u d i c i a r y , because o f the p e c u l i a r nature o f subordinate l e g i s l a t i o n , l a c k s access to the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s . Courts of law 21 R. MacGregor Dawson, o p . c i t . , p. 264. 30 c o u l d be given s u f f i c i e n t powers t o a c t i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s p u t e s , but the ensuing s i z e o f the j u d i c i a r y c o u l d be unconscionably huge; and i t too l a c k s the p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge necessary t o d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y with the natures of so many s p e c i a l i z e d bodies as the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e p r e -s e n t s . The consequent was the formation o f the g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e o f c r e a t i n g d e l e g a t e d l e g i s l a t i o n . Two s h o r t quotes are worth n o t i n g at t h i s p o i n t . The f i r s t v o i c e s a l e a r n e d view on the growing importance o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e dimensions o f government and the second advances a d e f i n i t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t gains more p r e c i s i o n than the e a r l i e r r e f e r e n c e s t o the term — more p r e c i s e i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e s a sharper focus f o r t h i s chapter o f the study. The r i s e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s . . . p r o b a b l y has been the most s i g n i f i c a n t l e g a l t r e n d o f the l a s t century and perhaps more value s today are a f f e c t e d by t h e i r d e c i s i o n s than by those of a l l the c o u r t s , review o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s a p a r t . They a l s o have begun t o have important consequences on p e r s o n a l r i g h t s . 2 2 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e law i s a term sometimes used t o d e s c r i b e the r u l e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and procedure which govern the i n t e r n a l workings of e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e s . I do not use the term i n t h a t sense at a l l . By a d m i n i s t r a t i v e law I mean the p r o v i s i o n o f s t a t u t e s c o n f e r r i n g r u l e making, and a d j u d i c a t o r y powers upon o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n government o u t s i d e the j u d i c i a l branch, and the r u l e s and orders e n t e r e d by those agencies pursuant t o such p o w e r s . 2 3 What then are the means by which these c u r i o u s bodies caught between Parliament and the j u d i c i a r y come i n t o being? 22 Prettyman, E.B., qu o t i n g F e l i x F r a n k f u r t e r i n T r i a l By  Agency (1959, C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e , The V i r g i n i a Law Review), i v . 23 I b i d . , p.3. 31 T h i s chapter answers t h a t q u e s t i o n and se t s the stage f o r the beginning o f the a n a l y s i s o f the s t a t u s o f the con-s t i t u e n t s o f the educa t i o n system as being members of such " o u t s i d e " bodies as w e l l as the r u l e s by which they make r e g u l a t i o n s , o r d e r s and judgments. Delegated L e g i s l a t i o n E x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s o f the h i s t o r y o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e bodies i n Canada are long overdue. Most of the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t does e x i s t i s i n the form of government departmental r e p o r t s , s t a t u t e s and Royal Com-mis s i o n r e p o r t s ; and these a l l await the h i s t o r i a n ' s approach. The need f o r such a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e n t i t i e s , t h e i r areas o f j u r i s d i c t i o n and t h e i r s u b s t a n t i v e a c t i v i t i e s are among the many important t o p i c s r e q u i r i n g study. Without such a background of i n f o r m a t i o n , i t i s o n l y p o s s i b l e a t t h i s time t o examine and d e s c r i b e the l e g i s l a t i v e process which c r e a t e s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e organs and endows them wi t h t h e i r powers, and thus t o see how they may f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l i m i t s . The e x e c u t i v e branch o f government may not take any a c t i o n a f f e c t i n g the r i g h t s o f c i t i z e n s beyond the powers e x p r e s s l y g i v e n i t by the l e g i s l a t u r e . Of course, the e x e c u t i v e u s u a l l y commands the m a j o r i t y o f p o l i t i c a l power i n the l e g i s l a t u r e and t h e r e f o r e , i t may a l s o l e a d t h a t body which u l t i m a t e l y c o n t r o l s i t . Hence, a given 32 e x e c u t i v e may arrange to have r a t h e r l a r g e d e l e g a t e d powers t o make laws i n the form of r e g u l a t i o n s . Apparently, the r i s k s of p r o v i d i n g the exe c u t i v e with such power i s warranted i n view of the enormous volume of d e t a i l t h a t must be attended t o w i t h i n the c i v i l s e r v i c e ranks. I t i s common t o encounter abusive r e f e r e n c e s t o the ponderous bureaucracy of c i v i l s e r v a n t s ; y e t u n l i k e the freedoms of p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t e p e r s o n n e l , the c i v i l s e rvant i s i n the p o s i t i o n o f a f f e c t i n g the p e r s o n a l r i g h t s o f p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s wherein a c i t i z e n ' s recourse f o r remedy, should he wish t o c o n t e s t c i v i l servant a u t h o r i t y , i s not the r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e o r d i n a r y c o u r t s of law o r the freedom t o p a t r o n i z e another source f o r h i s s e r v i c e s : h i s recourse l i e s i n a c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h a r a t h e r huge a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body, o f t e n empowered t o s i t i n judgment of i t s own r u l i n g s . Consequently, the c i v i l s e rvant operates under c l o s e s c r u t i n y by h i s s u p e r i o r s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f the c i t i z e n r y which he se r v e s . The end r e s u l t i s a c i v i l s e r v i c e whose realm i s v a s t and whose minute d e c i s i o n s from day t o day would t o t a l l y overwhelm any l e g i s l a t u r e were i t t o attempt even p a s s i n g s c r u t i n y o f the d a i l y behaviour of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n to the problem of volume, the t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e r e q u i r e d i n the s u b - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f each department tends t o pr e c l u d e the p o s s i b i l i t y of the l e g i s l a t u r e from m a i n t a i n i n g c l o s e c o n t r o l over the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The p a r t i a l answer t o these i s s u e s was f o r the l e g i s l a t u r e t o d e l e g a t e , by s t a t u t e , the necessary a u t h o r i t y t o the e x e c u t i v e , which i n t u r n , c r e a t e d subordinate l e g i s l a t i o n to empower persons — c o r p o r a t e and n a t u r a l — t o make r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s a f f e c t i n g the l i v e s of p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s . When i t i s r e a l i z e d j u s t how immense the e f f e c t i v e power can be o f de l e g a t e d and sub-delegated l e g i s l a t i o n , i t i s understandable why t r a d i t i o n s such as oathes o f a l l i g i a n c e are r e t a i n e d and one can have more t o l e r a n c e o f s i t u a t i o n s where c i v i l s e r v a n t s appear t o apply almost b l i n d l y the d e t a i l s o f t h e i r manuals i n a s i t u a t i o n . I t i s not a matter o f i n d i f f e r e n c e on the p a r t o f the c i v i l s e r v i c e but a constant v i g i l a n c e t o see t h a t i n s t a n c e s of maltreatment of a c i t i z e n ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s doo. not occur. Bureaucracy can be viewed t h e r e f o r e , not as an e v i l but as a necessary, although a t times a cumbersome, p r o t e c t i v e d e v i c e o f any democracy. Orders - i n - C o u n c i l The o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l i s the most common form o f del e g a t e d l e g i s l a t i o n . I t i s a d e c i s i o n o f the Cabinet f o r m a l i z e d while a c t i n g ( p r o v i n c i a l l y ) as the Lie u t e n a n t Governor - i n - C o u n c i l . There must e x i s t i n some p a r l i a m e n t a r y s t a t u t e the e x p l i c i t p e r m i s s i o n t o enact an o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l i n any department. G e n e r a l l y , the s t a t u -t o r y p r o v i s i o n a l l o w i n g t h i s freedom d e r i v e s from s e c t i o n s such as Sec (17) of the P u b l i c Schools Act (1971) which s t a t e s : For the purpose o f c a r r y i n g out the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s Act a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r i n t e n t , the Lieutenant-Governor -34 i n - C o u n c i l may make such r e g u l a t i o n s as are a n c i l l a r y t h e r e t o and not i n c o n s i s t e n t t h e r e w i t h and as are con s i d e r e d necessary o r a d v i s a b l e and every r e g u l a t i o n made under t h i s s e c t i o n and s e c t i o n 18 s h a l l be deemed pa r t o f the Act and has the f o r c e o f law.24 Hence, the Cabinet makes a d e c i s i o n and advi s e s the Lie u t e n a n t Governor to consent t o the d e c i s i o n . Many w r i t e r s have e x e r c i s e d t h e i r pens v i g o r o u s l y debating the advantages and disadvantages o f dele g a t e d l e g i s l a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , without t h i s k i n d of e x e c u t i v e power, government s e r v i c e s would g r i n d t o a h a l t . Whereas one might simply argue t h a t the main reason f o r d e l e g a t e d l e g i s l a t i o n was t o promote e f f i c i e n c y , i t i s today a procedure o f n e c e s s i t y , f o r "the maintenance of 'peace, order,-, and good government." Were par l i a m e n t t o h o l d the pa s s i n g of b i l l s u n t i l a l l c o n c e i v a b l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s were worked out, very l i t t l e l e g i s l a t i o n would ensue. I t i s the procedure of d e l e g a t i o n which allows f o r " f i e l d t e s t i n g " of p a r l i a m e n t a r y s t a t u t e s ; and the p r o v i s i o n o f c l a u s e s l i k e s e c t i o n (17) of the P u b l i c Schools Act (1971) allows c o n s t a n t t e c h n i c a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o be made as circumstances r e q u i r e . When p r o v i d i n g the g e n e r a l a u t h o r i t y t o d e l e g a t e , the s t a t u t e may c o n t a i n c e r t a i n terms such as ord e r , r u l e s , r e g u l a t i o n s , and many o t h e r s . L e g i s l a t i o n i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be ge n e r a l r u l e s of c o n t i n u i n g a p p l i c a t i o n t o the p u b l i c ; an 24 R.S.B.C. Chapter 52, 1972, The P u b l i c Schools A c t . 35 o r d e r u s u a l l y r e q u i r e s a p a r t i c u l a r person t o do or not do some p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g . Thus, an order by the M i n i s t e r o f N a t i o n a l Revenue t o a c i t i z e n t o f i l e a non- r e s i d e n t r e t u r n would not be c o n s i d e r e d law. However, i f the L e g i s l a t u r e enacted a s t a t u t e r e q u i r i n g a s p e c i f i c person t o do something, i t would be c l a s s e d by the j u d i c i a r y as a law. In t h i s study, the term order w i l l be used as i t may be t o d e s c r i b e the instrument e s t a b l i s h i n g r e g u l a t i o n s : the Lie u t e n a n t Governor - i n - C o u n c i l may i s s u e an o r d e r ( O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l ) f o r making whatever r e g u l a t i o n s as may be necessary o r permissable. The s t a t u t e may a l s o g rant a u t h o r i t y — or delegate a u t h o r i t y — t o d i r e c t , d e c l a r e o r a u t h o r i z e . The instruments used f o r these e f f e c t s would not have e i t h e r the s t a t u s o r f o r c e o f r e g u l a t i o n s . R e g u l a t i o n s , i n form and substance, are of the same nature as s t a t u t e s . The term may r e f e r t o the whole instrument o r t o a p a r t i c u l a r p r o v i s i o n o f i t . As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , a r e g u l a t i o n w i t h i n the meaning of the Regulat i o n s A c t has the f o r c e of law and no o t h e r i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n o f the term i s intended i n t h i s study. P r o v i n c i a l l y , r e g u l a t i o n s are made u s u a l l y , but not n e c e s s a r i l y , by the Lie u t e n a n t Governor - i n - C o u n c i l . These are s t a t u t e s which a u t h o r i z e a M i n i s t e r t o make r e g u l a t i o n s ; and o n l y i n the 3 6 most e x c e p t i o n a l circumstances i s the power t o make r e g u l a t i o n s c o n f e r r e d upon an o f f i c e r below the rank o f M i n i s t e r . Where such f u r t h e r d e l e g a t i o n i s made t o p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s such as the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n o r some p u b l i c commission (the N a t i o n a l Energy Board), i t i s done wi t h the p r o v i s i o n t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s so made s h a l l be done with the approval o f the Governor - i n - C o u n c i l o r u n t i l approved by a M i n i s t e r w i t h adequate a u t h o r i t y . From the above, i t may be concluded t h a t g e n e r a l l y a M i n i s t e r l a c k s the d i r e c t power t o make laws. He may, however, produce a l a r g e number of r u l e s . Rules are c o n s i d e r e d here t o be o f a p r o c e d u r a l n a t u r e . That i s , they r e f e r t o the steps needed t o accomplish a p a r t i c u l a r t a s k , the p o l i c y o f which has a l r e a d y been determined by a hi g h e r a u t h o r i t y . Given a c o r p o r a t i o n o f persons, the r u l e s they may produce may be c a l l e d by-laws. A s c h o o l board may make r u l e s concerning i t s own conduct and, t o some e x t e n t , may make r u l e s governing the conduct o f o t h e r s . These r u l e s are the board's by-laws and, depending upon the nature o f deleg a t e d a u t h o r i t y , these by-laws may have the f o r c e o f law. Most laymen are e a s i l y confused when attempting t o read s t a t u t e s by what appears t o be l e g a l jargon most l i b e r a l l y s p r i n k l e d throughout. The frequent usage of 'whereas', 'notwithstanding', and 'as are not i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h . . . " cause one to l o s e h i s grasp on the 37 e s s e n t i a l s of the s t a t u t e . E. A. Driedger, a former Deputy M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e and Deputy At t o r n e y General o f Canada, wrote a s m a l l volume on l e g i s l a t i v e form which de a l s w i t h some o f these problems of wording. Much of the f o l l o w i n g a s s e r t i o n s are based upon h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l judgment and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . When c o n f e r r i n g a u t h o r i t y t o make regu-l a t i o n s , c e r t a i n phrases are used. Some have s i g n i f i c a n c e ; o t h e r s are l i t t l e more than f l o u r i s h e s o f the draftsman. A s t a t u t e may s t a t e t h a t : The L i e u t e n a n t Governor - i n - C o u n c i l may make r e g u l a t i o n s f o r c a r r y i n g - o u t the purposes and p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s A c t . Such a c l a u s e i s q u i t e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and r e q u i r e s l i t t l e s p e c i a l study. Driedger notes t h a t i t may be d o u b t f u l whether t h i s p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of c l a u s e a u t h o r i z e s anything beyond s t r i c t l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g u l a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , any regu-l a t i o n d e r i v e d from t h i s a u t h o r i t y which a l t e r e d the sub-s t a n t i v e r i g h t s of persons a f f e c t e d by the g e n e r a l s t a t u t e would most l i k e l y be deemed u l t r a v i r e s . In a d d i t i o n t o the above c l a u s e , the f o l l o w i n g phrases are sometimes used and i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , have the same ge n e r a l e f f e c t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y ; f o r c a r r y i n g the purposes and p r o v i s i o n s o f the Act i n t o e f f e c t . p r o v i d i n g f o r the e f f e c t i v e c a r r y i n g out o f the p r o-v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t . to g i v e e f f e c t to the p r o v i s i o n s of the A c t . 26 f o r b e t t e r e x e c u t i o n o f t h i s A c t . 25 E. A. D r i e d g e r , L e g i s l a t i v e Forms and Precedents (Ottawa, The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1963),p. 40. 26 I b i d . , p. 41. 38 Included i n such c l a u s e s are terms o r phrases which tend t o obscure the meaning of the c l a u s e . For example, a u t h o r i t y may c o n f e r the c a p a c i t y t o make r e g u l a t i o n s which "are not i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the A c t . " A c c o r d i n g t o D r i e d g e r , these words are unnecessary because i t i s not p e r m i s s i b l e t o make r e g u l a t i o n s c o n t r a r y t o or i n c o n s i s t e n t with the Act i t s e l f . He f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t : The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Act makes i t unnecessary t o p r o v i d e t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s may be made from time  t o time or t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s may be revoked and  o t h e r s made i n t h e i r s tead. Words such as the a u t h o r i t y i s to make "such r e g u l a t i o n s as are necessary" f o r c a r r y i n g out the Act appear to be without v a l u e . I t may be argued t h a t such p h r a s i n g an-t i c i p a t e s d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers; but there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between s a y i n g a r e g u l a t i o n seems necessary and r e g u l a t i o n s which the L i e u t e n a n t Governor - i n - C o u n c i l deems necessary. The l a t t e r phrase a u t h o r i z e s d i s c r e t i o n , the former does not. Thus, power may be g i v e n t o the L i e u t e n a n t Governor - i n - C o u n c i l "to make such r e g u l a t i o n s as he deems necessary o r a d v i s a b l e f o r c a r r y i n g out the purposes of t h i s A c t . " On t h i s p o i n t , D r iedger says t h a t : In such cases the r e g u l a t i o n making a u t h o r i t y i s the s o l e judge of n e c e s s i t y and the c o u r t s would not q u e s t i o n [ i t s ] d e c i s i o n , even i f they thought otherwise, except p o s s i b l e i f bad f a i t h were e s t a b l i s h e d . There i s , t h e r e f o r e , a v a s t d i f f e r e n c e 27 D r i e d g e r , L e g i s l a t i v e Forms and Precedents, p. 40. 39 between the two f o l l o w i n g examples i n the e x t e n t of power c o n f e r r e d . ...make such r e g u l a t i o n s as may be necessary f o r c a r r y i n g out the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t . ...make r e g u l a t i o n s as he deems necessary f o r c a r r y i n g out the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s Act.28 O b j e c t i v e s of D e l e g a t i o n The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n of d e l e g a t e d a u t h o r i t y r e f e r s p r i m a r i l y t o the form o f the a u t h o r i t y ; i t expresses no d e t a i l of purpose, s u b j e c t matter or o t h e r d e l i m i t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Where de l e g a t e d a u t h o r i t y remains g e n e r a l or u n s p e c i f i c , i t u s u a l l y means t h a t the Act o f P a r l i a m e n t i t s e l f i s c o n s i d e r e d c l e a r i n i n t e n t and r e g u l a t i o n s made by the L i e u t e n a n t Governor - i n -C o u n c i l are expected to be o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e concern o n l y . However, where a s p e c i f i c purpose i s i d e n t i f i e d , then the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (the E x e c u t i v e - i n - C o u n c i l ) i s expected t o have a somewhat f r e e hand to e s t a b l i s h main p r i n c i p l e s as w e l l as o p e r a t i n g d e t a i l s ; and when the e a r l i e r d i s t i n c t i o n of d i s c r e t i o n a r y power i s combined with t h i s l a t t e r p o i n t , even g r e a t e r d e l e g a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y r e s u l t s . Thus: The L i e u t e n a n t Governor - i n - C o u n c i l may make such r e g u l a t i o n s as he deems necessary f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose, r e s u l t s i n the e n t i r e law being l e f t t o a body subordinate to the L e g i s l a t u r e . To comment on the f o r c e o f such r e g u l a t i o n s , Driedger quotes the C h i e f J u s t i c e o f Canada (194 3) who s a i d : 2 8 D r i e d g e r , L e g i s l a t i v e Forms and Precedents, p. 4 0 . 40 I cannot agree t h a t i t i s competent t o any c o u r t t o canvas the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which have, o r may have, l e d him [the L i e u t e n a n t Governor - i n - C o u n c i l ] t o deem such r e g u l a t i o n s necessary o r a d v i s a b l e f o r the transcendent o b j e c t s s e t f o r t h . . . . T h e words are too p l a i n f o r d i s p u t e ; the measures a u t h o r i z e d are such as the Governor General - i n - C o u n c i l (not the courts) deem necessary o r a d v i s a b l e . 2 ^ C l e a r l y , g i v e n such f o r c e of law and freedom t o make i t , o n l y the L e g i s l a t u r e i n such a case c o u l d c o n t r a d i c t the r e g u l a t i o n making body and o n l y by e n a c t i n g another s t a t u t e . O b j e c t i v e s of s p e c i f i c purpose i s one m o t i v a t i o n f o r d e l e g a t e d a u t h o r i t y , s u b j e c t matter i s another. And again, wide ranges o f a u t h o r i t y r e s u l t from t h i s k i n d of d e l e g a t i o n . The l e g i s l a t i v e s t a t u t e may a u t h o r i z e r e g u l a t i o n making a u t h o r i t y r e s p e c t i n g some p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t such as a i r t r a n s p o r t , b r o a d c a s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s o r l i c e n s i n g procedures. Some o b j e c t i v e s of r e g u l a t i n g a u t h o r i t y are l e s s obvious to the c a s u a l reader o f s t a t u t e s . For example, a u t h o r i t y i s sometimes c o n f e r r e d to make s p e c i f i c r e g u l a t i o n s . Thus one might make r e g u l a t i o n s " f o r the purpose o f r e s t r i c t i n g o r p r o h i b i t i n g . " In t h i s case, almost any r e g u l a t i o n f o r which i t can be shown t o have as i t s purpose, r e s t r i c t i n g o r p r o h i b i t i n g , would be v a l i d . But i f the Act c o n f e r s a u t h o r i t y to make r e g u l a t i o n s " r e s t r i c t i n g or p r o h i b i t i n g " , then the power g i v e n i s meant 29 D r i e d g e r , L e g i s l a t i v e Forms and Precedents, p.41. 41 t o r e s t r i c t d i r e c t l y by a p p l i c a t i o n o f the r e g u l a t i o n . In o t h e r words, i n the second phrase, a n c i l l a r y r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the purpose of r e s t r i c t i n g may be i n v a l i d because they do not o f themselves r e s t r i c t . The seemingly inoccuous terms such as ' r e s p e c t i n g ' are a c t u a l l y q u i t e important when powers of d e l e g a t i o n are encountered. A M i n i s t e r may be empowered t o make r e g u l a t i o n s r e s p e c t i n g some s u b j e c t i n which case he may sub-delegate some p a r t o f h i s a u t h o r i t y r e s p e c t i n g t h a t r e g u l a t i o n . D r iedger c i t e s the s u b j e c t o f t a r i f f s o r t o l l s . I f the M i n i s t e r were r e q u i r e d t o make r e g u l a t i o n s p r e s c r i b i n g t a r i f f s , then o n l y the M i n i s t e r c o u l d p r e s c r i b e and t h a t a u t h o r i t y he c o u l d not del e g a t e t o another. But i f the M i n i s t e r were onl y r e q u i r e d t o make r e g u l a t i o n s r e s p e c t i n g t a r i f f s , he c o u l d delegate the author-i t y o f p r e s c r i p t i o n elsewhere. The p u b l i c Schools A c t (1972) c o n t a i n s good examples o f r a t h e r standard omnibus c l a u s e s . S e c t i o n s (17) and (18) are omnibus c l a u s e s . Where an enumeration f o l l o w s the omnibus p r o v i s i o n , i t i s u s u a l t o p r o v i d e t h a t 30 the enumeration i s not t o be construed as c o n s t r i c t i v e . In s h o r t , the omnibus p r o v i s i o n determines the scope o f dele g a t e d a u t h o r i t y and any enumerated a u t h o r i t i e s should not be coiftrued as being the o n l y a u t h o r i t i e s and c e r t a i n l y not as l i m i t a t i o n s p l a c e d upon the omnibus a u t h o r i t y c l a u s e . Thus, S e c t i o n (18) of the P u b l i c Schools A c t (1972) opens with the words: 30 Driedger, L e g i s l a t i v e Forms and Precedents, p. 43. 42 Without l i m i t i n g the g e n e r a l i t y o f s e c t i o n (17), the L i e u t e n a n t Governor - i n - C o u n c i l may, by r e g u l a t i o n (1) p r e s c r i b e the c o n d i t i o n s under which a Board may be r e q u i r e d o r a u t h o r i z e d by the M i n i s t e r to e s t a b l i s h o r c l o s e an elementary o r secondary s c h o o l 31 (2) r e g u l a t e the conduct o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s * • • • Consequently, the opening l i n e s deny l i m i t i n g p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s and s i m i l a r l y , the subsequent enumerations are not intended t o r e s t r i c t . These omnibus c l a u s e s are r e -f e r r e d t o g e n e r a l l y as e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . L e g i s l a t i v e and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e There would be l i t t l e q u e s t i o n whether a c t i o n s of o f f i c i a l s were e s s e n t i a l l y l e g i s l a t i v e or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n nature were i t not f o r the f a c t t h a t government departments i s s u e a host of d i r e c t i v e s , g u i d e l i n e s , c i r c u l a r s and announcements. The p r i n c i p l e of r e d u c t i o ad  absurdum i s as r e l e v a n t t o the a n a l y s i s o f government o p e r a t i o n s as i t i s to the work of p h i l o s o p h e r s : e x c e p t i n g s t i p u l a t e d d e f i n i t i o n s , what are the proper l i n e s o f de-marcation between the "macro" l e v e l o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y l e g i s l a t i o n and the "micro" l e v e l o f d a i l y r o u t i n e s by c i v i l s e r v a n t s which i n t u r n a f f e c t the d a i l y l i v e s of the p u b l i c ? S i n c e e v e r y t h i n g committed by the government o r i t s agents stems from some l e g i s l a t i v e s t a t u t e , how does 31 R.S.B.C.1960, Chapter 52, 1972. 43 one d i s t i n g u i s h the l e g i s l a t i v e from the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ? The q u e s t i o n i s not merely gamesmanship o r one o f semantic convenience: l e g i s l a t i v e a c t s at the v e r y l e a s t p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t the b a s i c r i g h t s o f c i t i z e n s ; those of a p u r e l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e nature are not n e a r l y so u n i v e r s a l o r b i n d i n g . F u r t h e r , i t does not seem s u f f i c i e n t t o r e l y upon s t a t u t o r y c l a u s e s which e x p r e s s l y s t a t e t h a t where a M i n i s t e r may make v a r i o u s r u l e s and o r d e r s , t h a t such r u l e s and o r d e r s are not r e g u l a t i o n s as d e f i n e d i n t h i s study. I f a d i s p u t e comes b e f o r e a t r i b u n a l or a c o u r t o f law, the e s s e n t i a l c r i t e r i a determining t o what degree a p a r t y was bound by a d i r e c t i v e may w e l l r e s t upon whether o r not the d i r e c t i v e was l e g i s l a t i v e i n nature or p u r e l y admini-s t r a t i v e . The 1969 S p e c i a l Committee on S t a t u t o r y Instruments examined these i s s u e s b r i e f l y . P a r t o f i t s procedure was the c i r c u l a t i o n t o v a r i o u s m i n i s t r i e s a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . P e r t i n e n t t o t h i s area were the f o l l o w i n g q u e r i e s : : 1. With r e f e r e n c e t o the d i f f e r e n t types o f sub-o r d i n a t e l e g i s l a t i o n which come under the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f your Department... (d) Does your Department i s s u e other r u l e s , o r d e r s , i n s t r u c t i o n s not i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the terms of the R e g u l a t i o n s Act — which a f f e c t the p u b l i c ? I f so, about how many, i n c l u d i n g amendments, were i s s u e d d u r i n g 1968? (e) Does your Department i s s u e o t h e r r u l e s , o r d e r s , or i n s t r u c t i o n s , not i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the terms o f the Regulations Act — which a f f e c t o n l y your own Department? 44 10. Does your Department o r Agency i s s u e documents i n the nature of p o l i c y statements or p o s i t i o n papers which are used by your Department or Agency t o implement p o l i c i e s under l e g i s l a t i o n a d m i n i s t e r e d by i t ? I f so p l e a s e s p e c i f y . I f so, what steps are taken t o b r i n g such documents t o the a t t e n t i o n o f i n t e r e s t e d of a f f e c t e d p e r s o n s ? 3 2 Each o f the m i n i s t e r i e s r e p l i e d t h a t they had indeed i s s u e d a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f documents under each o f the c o n d i t i o n s mentioned i n the q u e s t i o n s . Apparently, the main reason f o r e x c l u d i n g the documents from being c l a s s e d as r e g u l a t i o n s as d e f i n e d by the Regulations Act was simply t h a t they were not c a l l e d r e g u l a t i o n s by the Departments. When such r u l e s are e f f e c t e d , bureaucracy, taken t o mean government by o f f i c i a l s , becomes the power and the c i v i l s e r v i c e becomes the master o f the people. I t i s presumed, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a d i s t i n c t i o n between a c t s t h a t are l e g i s l a t i v e o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n nature i s worth seeking. The Committee on S t a t u t o r y Instruments c i t e s an e x t e n s i v e comment o f S.A. de Smith and, because o f the l i m i t e d l i t e r a t u r e on these i s s u e s of d e l e g a t e d l e g i s l a t i o n , i t i s worth reproducing here. P r o f e s s o r de Smith t r e a t s the i s s u e of l e g i s l a t i v e versus a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t s by s a y i n g t h a t : In the f i r s t p l a c e , every measure du l y enacted by P arliament i s regarded as l e g i s l a t i o n . Thus, i t a p a r c e l o f l a n d i s c o m p u l s o r i l y a c q u i r e d by means of a P r i v a t e Act o f P a r l i a m e n t o r a P r o v i s i o n a l Order C o n f i r m a t i o n A c t , the a c q u i s i t i o n i s deemed to be a l e g i s l a t i v e a c t ; though i f the a c q u i s i t i o n i s deemed 32 T h i r d Report o f the S p e c i a l Committee on S t a t u t o r y Instruments, M. MacGuigan, Chairman, (Ottawa, The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1969); p. 22. 45 t o be a l e g i s l a t i v e a c t ; though i f the a c q u i s i t i o n i s e f f e c t e d by means of a compulsory purchase o r d e r made under e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , i t w i l l u s u a l l y be c l a s s i f i e d as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t . Secondly, departmental instruments o r announcements which, although g e n e r a l i n a p p l i c a t i o n , n e i t h e r c o n f e r l e g a l l y e n f o r c e a b l e r i g h t s nor impose l e g a l l y e n f o r c e a b l e o b l i g a t i o n s are commonly r e f e r r e d t o as examples o f ' a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ' a c t i o n . In t h i s sense the d e c i s i o n t o all o w c e r t a i n c l a s s e s o f a l i e n s t o be heard b e f o r e a m e t r o p o l i t a n m a g i s t r a t e on a q u e s t i o n o f d e p o r t a t i o n was a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . S i m i l a r l y , C i r c u l a r No 9/58 whereby the M i n i s t e r o f Housing and L o c a l Government i n v i t e d l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o supply o b j e c t o r s and a p p e l l a n t s concerned i n i n q u i r i e s i n t o compulsory purchase and cl e a r a n c e o r d e r s and p l a n n i n g appeals w i t h f u l l e r p a r t i c u l a r s o f the cases they had t o meet, and a l s o announced the M i n i s t e r s own i n t e n t i o n t o make s e v e r a l important concessions i n the l i g h t o f recommendations made by the Franks Committee on A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T r i b u n a l s and E n q u i r i e s , was not a l e g i s l a t i v e instrument because i t was not made pursuant t o express s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y and f a i l u r e to comply wi t h i t s p r o v i s i o n s d i d not a f f o r d a l e g a l remedy t o any member o f the p u b l i c ; l e g a l remedies became a v a i l a b l e o n l y when the terms o f the c i r c u l a r were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o s t a t u t e s and s t a t u t o r y instruments. The p o s i t i o n would have been no d i f f e r e n t i f the M i n i s t r y o r the M i n i s t e r had pur p o r t e d t o i s s u e mandatory i n s t r u c t i o n s t o l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n such a c i r c u l a r . J u s t as the Crown i s without a u t h o r i t y t o a l t e r the g e n e r a l law of the land by p r e r o g a t i v e , so are i t s s e r v a n t s and ot h e r p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s without i n h e r e n t a u t h o r i t y t o impose l e g a l d u t i e s o r l i a b i l i t i e s o r t o c o n f e r l e g a l e n f o r c e a b l e r i g h t s , p r i v i l e g e s o r immunities on the s u b j e c t . Hence, the e x t r a s t a t u t o r y concessions to taxpayers t h a t the In l a n d Revenue a u t h o r i t i e s announce from time t o time cannot be r e -l i e d upon i n any c o u r t o f law, although they have been s t y l e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e q u a s i - l e g i s l a t i o n . I t must not be assumed, however, t h a t departmental communications i s s u e d i n the form of c i r c u l a r s , notes f o r guidance o r l e t t e r s t o l o c a l and r e g i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s o r press n o t i c e s , are n e c e s s a r i l y d e s t i t u t e o f l e g a l e f f e c t . I f they are i s s u e d i n pursuance o f s t a t u t o r y powers which a u t h o r i s e the M i n i s t e r t o c o n f e r r i g h t s , d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , on members of the p u b l i c , and i f the M i n i s t e r does p u r p o r t t o c o n f e r such r i g h t s (as where a M i n i s t e r who i s empowered t o impose r e s t r i c t i o n s upon h i s own powers o r the powers of l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n c e r t a i n 46 t r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h members of the p u b l i c , imposes r e s t r i c t i o n s i n a c i r c u l a r l e t t e r o r o t h e r docu-ment) , the r e l e v a n t p r o v i s i o n s w i l l be r e c o g n i z e d and e n f o r c e d by the c o u r t s ; and t o t h a t extent these i n f o r m a l instruments may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as having l e g i s l a t i v e e f f e c t . 3 Answering one of the Committee's q u e s t i o n s , the f e d e r a l Department o f H e a l t h and Welfare a d v i s e d : I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h i n some i n s t a n c e s between an i n s t r u c t i o n i s s u e d i n the day-to-day a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the work and i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t c o u l d be regarded as supplementing l e g i s l a t i o n . I t i s more d i f f i c u l t s t i l l i n r e t r o s p e c t t o d i s t i n g u i s h between i n s t r u c t i o n s which may a f f e c t the p u b l i c and those which do not a f f e c t the p u b l i c but which a f f e c t o n l y the Department. 3 4 In another i n s t a n c e , the Legal A d v i s e r t o the Department o f Manpower and Immigration acknowledged the f a c t t h a t the Department e x p l a i n s p o l i c y i s s u e s which a f f e c t the r i g h t s of c i t i z e n s and t h a t such " e x p l a n a t i o n s " 35 are not made p u b l i c . The Department of T r a n s p o r t , Marine Regul a t i o n s Branch, responded to one of the Committee's q u e s t i o n s s a y i n g : Yes. We have i s s u e d a 'Concentrates Code' f o r the guidance o f p o r t wardens i n determining what i s 'approved p r a c t i c e ' under S e c t i o n 624 (4) and a document e n t i t l e d 'Ships C e n t r a l i z e d Automated C o n t r o l Systems Recommendations' f o r the guidance o f steamship i n s p e c t o r s i n determining what systems are l i k e l y t o be approved by the Board o f Steamship I n s p e c t i o n . We expect t h a t e v e n t u a l l y , a f t e r we 33 T h i r d Report of the S p e c i a l Committee on S t a t u t o r y Instruments; pp 22-3. 34 I b i d . , p.24. 35 I b i d . , p. 26. 47 g a i n f u r t h e r e x p e r i e n c e , these w i l l be converted i n t o r e g u l a t i o n s . Our p r a c t i c e i s t o c o n s u l t w i t h the i n d u s t r y b e f o r e these documents are put i n t o f i n a l form and to make copies f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e t h e r e a f t e r . The Committee concludes t h a t i f the l a t t e r documents r e f e r r e d t o by the Department o f T r a n s p o r t c o u l d be converted r e a d i l y i n t o r e g u l a t i o n s , and t h a t i f t h e r e i s s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y f o r such r e g u l a t i o n s , then such " d i r e c t i v e s " are o f a l e g i s l a t i v e nature. F i n a l l y , the Department o f Veteran A f f a i r s , Veteran Welfare Branch, r e p l i e d t h a t : In a few cases M i n i s t e r i a l Orders are i s s u e d , normally t o d e f i n e the boundaries o f items of d i s c r e t i o n i n l e g i s l a t i o n . In such cases, persons a p p l y i n g f o r b e n e f i t s are c o u n s e l l e d concerning t h i s area i n the same manner as i f they were contained i n the l e g i s l a t i o n . 3 7 The Committee concludes t h a t i n view of the f o r e g o i n g kinds of evidence t o g e t h e r w i t h i t s axioms of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u s t i c e , the term ' r e g u l a t i o n ' c o u l d w e l l be r e d e f i n e d t o mean: In t h i s Act " r e g u l a t i o n " means (i) a r u l e , o r d e r , r e g u l a t i o n , d i r e c t i v e , by-law, pro c l a m a t i o n , o r any o t h e r document made i n the e x e r c i s e of l e g i s l a t i v e power c o n f e r r e d by o r under an Act o f Parliament; ( i i ) a r u l e , o r d e r , r e g u l a t i o n , d i r e c t i v e , by-law, procl a m a t i o n , or any o t h e r document made i n the e x e r c i s e of l e g i s l a t i v e power c o n f e r r e d by o r under the p r e r o g a t i v e o f r i g h t s of the Crown and having the f o r c e of law; 36 T h i r d Report of the S p e c i a l Committee on S t a t u t o r y Instruments, 1969; p.26. 37 L o c . c i t . 48 ( i i i ) a r u l e , order, r e g u l a t i o n , d i r e c t i v e , by-law, pr o c l a m a t i o n , o r any o t h e r document made i n the e x e r c i s e o f l e g i s l a t i v e power coming w i t h i n sub-paragraph (i) and ( i i ) and which has been sub-delegated; (iv) a r u l e , o r d e r , r e g u l a t i o n , d i r e c t i v e , by-law, pr o c l a m a t i o n , o r any oth e r document f o r the c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f which a p e n a l t y o r f i n e o r imprisonment i s p r e s c r i b e d by or under an Act o f Parliament; but does not i n c l u d e a r u l e , o r d e r , r e g u l a t i o n , d i r e c t i v e , o r by-law, o r any o t h e r document o f a l e g i s l a t i v e c h a r a c t e r o f a c o r p o r a t i o n i n c o r p o r a t e d by o r under an Act o f Parliament, which i s not a Crown c o r p o r a t i o n u n l e s s such a r u l e , o r d e r , r e g u l a t i o n , by-law o r document comes w i t h i n sub-paragraph ( i v ) . 3 * * In a d d i t i o n , the Committee makes ten recommendations. Because of the ge n e r a l importance o f t h i s t o p i c f o r l a t e r a n a l y s i s , i t may be u s e f u l to c i t e these recommendations i n the hope t h a t they may g i v e f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f g e n e r a l concerns w i t h i n the f i e l d o f p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s t u d i e s . I t i s the view of the Committee t h a t a l l e n a b l i n g a c t s f o r regulation-making a u t h o r i t i e s should accord with the f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s : (a) The p r e c i s e l i m i t s o f the law-making power which Parliament intends t o c o n f e r s h o u l d be d e f i n e d i n c l e a r language. (b) There should be no power t o make r e g u l a t i o n s having a r e t r o s p e c t i v e e f f e c t . (c) S t a t u t e s should not exempt r e g u l a t i o n s from j u d i c i a l review. (d) R e g u l a t i o n s made by independent bodies, which do not r e q u i r e governmental approval b e f o r e they become e f f e c t i v e , should be s u b j e c t t o d i s -allowance by the Governor - i n - C o u n c i l o r a M i n i s t e r . 38 T h i r d Report of the S p e c i a l Committee on S t a t u t o r y I n s t r u m e n t s , 1 9 6 9 ; p . 2 1 . 49 (e) Only the Governor - i n - C o u n c i l should be g i v e n a u t h o r i t y t o make r e g u l a t i o n s having s u b s t a n t i a l p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s . (f) There should be no a u t h o r i t y t o impose by regu-l a t i o n anything i n the nature of a t a x . . . . Where the power t o charge fees t o be f i x e d by r e g u l a t i o n s i s c o n f e r r e d , the purpose f o r which the fees are t o be charged should be c l e a r l y expressed. (g) There should be no a u t h o r i t y t o amend s t a t u t e s by r e g u l a t i o n . (h) The p e n a l t y f o r breach o f a p r o h i b i t o r y r e g u l a t i o n should be f i x e d , o r a t l e a s t l i m i t e d by the s t a t u t e a u t h o r i z i n g the r e g u l a t i o n . (i) The a u t h o r i t y t o make r e g u l a t i o n s should not be granted i n s u b j e c t i v e terms. (j) J u d i c i a l o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r i b u n a l s w i t h powers o f d e c i s i o n on p o l i c y grounds should not be e s t a b l i s h e d by r e g u l a t i o n s . 3 9 Perhaps more p o i n t s on government admin-i s t r a t i o n have been developed i n t h i s chapter than are a c t u a l l y necessary. I t may be u s e f u l , t h e r e f o r e , t o summarize a few o f the more important f a c t s . The l e g i s l a t i v e branch o f government generates c o n t i n u i n g p r i n c i p l e s of p o l i c y . I t i s the duty o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e branch, i n c l u d i n g the E x e c u t i v e , t o formulate the r u l e s by which the people's p o l i c y w i l l be f a i t h f u l l y c a r r i e d out. E a r l i e r , i t was noted both the d i f f i c u l t y and l a c k of s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t a case f o r a ' s e p a r a t i o n o f powers' d o c t r i n e would have. Here, however, i t i s v i t a l t o ensure t h a t the l e g i s l a t i v e f u n c t i o n s are c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from those o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . A l a c k of d i s t i n c t i o n c o u l d e a s i l y r e s u l t i n a c h a o t i c d i c t a t o r s h i p o f the c i v i l s e r v i c e . 39 T h i r d Report o f the S p e c i a l Committee on S t a t u t o r y Instruments, 1969; pp 33-40. 50 L e g i s l a t i v e a c t s are those which g i v e r i s e t o statements o f p o l i c y and p r o v i d e f o r t h e i r e x e c u t i o n by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t s are those con-cerened with r u l e formation by which p o l i c y statements may be c a r r i e d out. The former may a f f e c t b a s i c c i t i z e n r i g h t s ; the l a t t e r should have no such e f f e c t s . An o r d e r , such as an Order - i n - C o u n c i l , i s c l a s s e d as a s t a t u t o r y instrument, a u t h o r i z e d by P a r l i a m e n t , f o r the purpose o f making r e g u l a t i o n s which have the f o r c e o f law. I t f o l l o w s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s are not themselves s t a t u t o r y i n s t ruments. They are c l a s s e d as d e l e g a t e d l e g i s l a t i o n . As subsequent a n a l y s i s w i l l show, t h i s p o i n t i s extremely important f o r any p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n system, and i n p a r t i c u l a r , f o r determining j u s t what a u t h o r i t y a s c h o o l board has i n g e n e r a t i n g or g u i d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y . Since r e g u l a t i o n s can be promulgated o n l y through p a r l i a m e n t a r y a u t h o r i t y , i t f o l l o w s t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s are e x t e n s i o n s of l e g i s l a t i v e p o l i c i e s and t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , are l e g i s l a t i v e , not a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . Consequently, i t seems reasonable not t o r e g a r d s t a t u t o r y r e g u l a t i o n s as s p e c i f i c commands i n a l l c a s e s . In o t h e r words, i t i s not d e c i s i v e l y c l e a r from the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t the o r d i n a r y semantic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of ' r e g u l a t i o n 1 a p p l i e s . Thus, there i s perhaps the q u e s t i o n of i n t e n t i n a r e g u l a t i o n j u s t as t h e r e i s a q u e s t i o n o f i n t e n t i n a s t a t u t e . The r e s u l t i s 51 simply t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s , while o f t e n q u i t e s p e c i f i c , are open t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . One might expect v a r i a t i o n s i n the conduct o f those t o whom the r e g u l a t i o n s apply. Although i t i s a n t i c i p a t i n g a f u t u r e chapter o f the study, i t i s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t o note t h a t the j u d i c i a r y cannot review the s u b s t a n t i v e content o f l e g i s l a t i o n , and t h a t consequently, d i s p u t e s over r e g u l a t i o n s a l l o w the p r o s p e c t i v e l i t i g a n t s no recourse t o the c o u r t s of law. T h e i r redress i s sought through a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r i b u n a l s . The formation o f r e g u l a t i o n s i s c l e a r l y an important and i n t r i c a t e p a r t o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e process because of the degree t o which t h a t process i s a f f e c t e d by the E x e c u t i v e . The phenomenon o f d e l e g a t i o n r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l study because o f the power behind a l e g i s l a t i v e a c t . Since the prime c r i t e r i o n o f what c o n s t i t u t e s a l e g i s -l a t i v e act appears t o be whether the action taken was other than p r o c e d u r a l and a f f e c t e d the l e g a l r i g h t s o f o t h e r s , a c t i o n s taken, even though presumed to be duly a u t h o r i z e d y e t Excluded from being r e g u l a t i o n s , c o u l d be classed as l e g i s l a t i v e and so produce a host of u n d e s i r a b l e consequences. S i m i l a r l y , the problems of s u b - d e l e g a t i o n a r i s e w i t h i n the context of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n . A s c h o o l board i s c o n s t i t u t e d by l e g i s l a t i v e s t a t u t e , not the e x e c u t i v e ; but q u e s t i o n s of board c a p a c i t y on c e r t a i n i s s u e s are s e t t l e d by the M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , sometimes at h i s d i s c r e t i o n , o t h e r times at the d i s c r e t i o n of the E x e c u t i v e -52 i n - C o u n c i l . I n d i r e c t l y , t h i s may be a case of sub-d e l e g a t i o n i n form i f not expre s s . That i s , the M i n i s t e r may empower a board t o e x e r c i s e i t s own d i s c r e t i o n i n a matter t h a t i s r e a l l y a case o f l e g i s l a t i v e p o l i c y . In sum, t h e r e f o r e , t h i s chapter has d e a l t with l e g i s l a t i v e instruments which a u t h o r i z e the E x e c u t i v e to a d m i n i s t e r , and with the ex e c u t i v e instruments through which r u l e s f o r p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are processed; and f i n a l l y , the chapter has d e a l t w i t h some i s s u e s and problems r e s p e c t i n g r u l e making processes by which an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e may emerge. I t seems a p p r o p r i a t e a t t h i s p o i n t t o r e t u r n t o the e a r l i e r attempts t o d e f i n e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 53 V - ADMINISTRATION: TOWARDS a DEFINITION The nature o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s not r e a d i l y expressed i n a s i n g l e , even i f complex, sentence; and s i n c e i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o separate form and content, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t s taken apa r t from a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purpose produces empty s e t s . Common approaches t o the ta s k o f d e f i n i n g ' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' i n c l u d e searches f o r reasonable components of the term and c o n t e x t u a l s t u d i e s . In the f i r s t i nstance,. , terms such as purpose, c o - o p e r a t i o n and a c t i o n are used. The r e s u l t i s the a s s e r t i o n t h a t : . . . a d m i n i s t r a t i o n can be d e f i n e d as the a c t i v i t i e s o f groups c o - o p e r a t i n g t o accomplish common g o a l s . 4 ^ In the second i n s t a n c e , the d e f i n i t i o n a l attempt seeks t o u t i l i z e the term a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h i n some context such as formal o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t some o r g a n i z a t i o n a l format i s presented and the reader must adduce the import of the e s s e n t i a l term. Both approaches i n producing a product of such a g e n e r a l nature r e s u l t i n a d e f i n i t i o n f o r which the a n a l y t i c a l v alue i s e x c e e d i n g l y s m a l l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , anyone who has attempted t o produce a u s e f u l d e f i n i t i o n knows-how easy i t i s t o develop c r i t i q u e s and how d i f f i c u l t i t i s t o formulate b e t t e r replacements. Perhaps each r e s e a r c h e r ' s c o n c e p t u a l system d i f f e r s enough one from another t h a t no u n i v e r s a l formu-l a t i o n emerges. In terms o f the immediately p r e c e d i n g quote, 40 H. Simon, D. Smithburg and V. Thompson, "The Nature o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " , i n Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , J . E. Hodgett and D.C. Cor b e t t (Toronto, Macmillan, 1960), p. 2. 54 perhaps the r e a l goal, i s not the d e f i n i t i o n o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n constant but one s p e c i f i c a l l y s u i t e d t o the i n t e n t o f the l a r g e r i n q u i r y w i t h i n which a p a r t i c u l a r d e f i n i t i o n b e s t a p p l i e s . But s i n c e the same term i s u s u a l l y used — a d m i n i s t r a t i o n — i t would seem t h a t there i s some widely a p p l i c a b l e con-n o t a t i o n t o the term i f not a u n i v e r s a l d e n o t a t i o n . D e n o t i v e l y d e f i n e d , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y c l a s s e d as a s e t o f a c t s or a c t i o n s o f e i t h e r a conducting o r c o - o p e r a t i n g f a s h i o n . C o n n o t a t i v e l y , the term seems t o r e f e r t o p o s i t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t of a s u p e r - o r d i n a t e . Thus, someone o r some group behaves i n a p a r t i c u l a r f a s h i o n f o r some o b j e c t i v e or outcome. Again, however, t h i s k i n d of d i s c o u r s e l a c k s p o i n t because the s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t h i n g a d m i n i s t e r e d are not i d e n t i f i e d . I t i s perhaps necessary t h e r e f o r e , t o speak both o f form and content t o g e t h e r w i t h some k i n d of context. Another approach t o c l a r i f y i n g what i s meant by a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s the study o f behaviour. On the s u r f a c e , at l e a s t , i t i s a reasonable approach. One might observe someone i d e n t i f i e d as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r and examine h i s tas k s i n o r d e r t o taxonomize the o p e r a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r . With s u f f i c i e n t r e p e t i t i o n o f t h a t k i n d of study, one may be able t o e x t r a p o l a t e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n . At l e a s t the a n a l y s i s may say something about what a c e r t a i n c l a s s o f s t a f f i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n do; i t c o u l d not say what they 55 should do. I t i s perhaps t h i s l a s t p o i n t t h a t g i v e s r i s e t o most problems when t r y i n g t o produce a s a t i s f y i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n : f r e q u e n t l y , the search may presume some absolute meaning of the term and t h a t the meaning simply awaits d i s c o v e r y . However, s i n c e i t can be assumed t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e f e r s t o m a t e r i a l and human resour c e s i n some way, and t h a t i t s o b j e c t i v e s are r e l e v a n t t o outcomes f o r human b e n e f i t , f i n d i n g such an abso l u t e meaning would have l i t t l e use unl e s s t h e r e were alr e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d a s e t o f axioms concerning the grand purposes of human l i f e . Consequently, the term can be d e a l t with best by r e l a t i n g i t t o human ends or o b j e c t i v e s i n which case a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s best t r e a t e d as the 'means' s i d e o f the 'means-ends' e q u a t i o n . In t h i s study, the g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l context being c o n s i d e r e d i s the B r i t i s h Columbia e d u c a t i o n a l system as c o n s t i t u t e d by the P u b l i c Schools Act (1972). A l s o , the e d u c a t i o n system i s being c o n s i d e r e d as a p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n body t h a t i s no d i f f e r e n t i n b a s i c form from such e n t i t i e s as the Department o f T r a n s p o r t . The .aciblogicaldomain — the e s t a b l i s h i n g o f o b j e c t i v e s — i s c o n t r o l l e d and developed by the l e g i s -l a t i v e branch of government. The l e g i s l a t u r e a c t s as s o c i e t y ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and formulates p o l i c y as much i n accordance w i t h the g e n e r a l p u b l i c ' s wishes as i t can. I n s o f a r as the 56 the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s concerned, i t i s q u i t e i r r e l e v a n t why c e r t a i n p o l i c i e s are advanced. I t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o take p o l i c y as g i v e n and t o understand i t as the people's prospectus t o be implemented. Moreover, c i v i l s e r vants are presumed t o be a p o l i t i c a l and serve 'at the p l e a s u r e of the L i e u t e n a n t Governor'; and they are expected t o serve the government o f the day, r e g a r d l e s s of i t s i d e o l o g y . T h i s i m p l i e s , o f course, t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s are not expected t o q u e s t i o n the m o t i v a t i o n f o r p o l i c i e s but t o o b e d i e n t l y seek the best means of g i v i n g e f f e c t t o them. Now w h i l e subordinates are not expected t o q u e s t i o n the o r i g i n o f p o l i c i e s , i t i s necessary t o understand t h e i r i n t e n t i f they are t o have any chance o f being e f f e c t e d . Thus, the d i s t i n c t i o n should be drawn between why a p o l i c y e x i s t s and what a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y means. As subsequent a n a l y s i s w i l l demonstrate, p r o v i s i o n s i n e d u c a t i o n f o r making p o l i c y and p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e s c l e a r are inadequate. I f the ends of the o r g a n i z a t i o n are g i v e n , i t f o l l o w s from the means-ends assumption above t h a t some body and/or some process must c o n s t i t u t e the means. Simon and o t h e r s t r e a t the r o l l i n g o f a stone as an admin-i s t r a t i v e t a s k . But, they p o i n t out: A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the more r e s t r i c t e d sense i s not b a s i c a l l y concerned w i t h the t e c h n o l o g i c a l methods s e l e c t e d . I t i s concerned with such q u e s t i o n s as how the method was chosen, how the two men moving 57 the stone were s e l e c t e d and induced t o co-operate i n c a r r y i n g out such a t a s k , how the ta s k was d i v i d e d between them, how each one l e a r n e d what h i s p a r t i c u l a r job was i n the t o t a l p a t t e r n , how he l e a r n e d t o perform i t , how h i s e f f o r t s are c o - o r d i n a t e d with the e f f o r t s o f the o t h e r . 4 ^ F o l l o w i n g Simon's reasoning, the problem o f means may be f u r t h e r reduced t o i s s u e s not of g e n e r a l technology but of methodology. P u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t o r s face the same b a s i c i s s u e s . Assuming t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e f e r s t o p o l i c y and not t o technology — at l e a s t the emphasis i s taken t o be on the former, not the l a t t e r — then t e a c h i n g t a s k s per se are e q u i v a l e n t t o the p h y s i c a l a c t i o n o f r o l l i n g the stone. That i s , p e d a g o g i c a l t a c t i c s are t e c h n o l o g i c a l ; how the t a c t i c s were chosen was an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k . A p r i n c i p a l may be i n charge o f the school programme. H i s s e l e c t i o n o f pe r s o n n e l and o r g a n i z a t i o n -a l s t r a t e g i e s i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l ; but h i s d e c i s i o n s t h a t c e r t a i n persons should be h i r e d o r t h a t c e r t a i n s t r a t e g i e s should be employed are a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s . The same l i n e of reas o n i n g may be a p p l i e d upwards throughout the educa t i o n h i e r a r c h y . The important d i s t i n c t i o n which seems t o emerge i s t h a t a c t s which r e f e r t o the a c t u a l e x e c u t i o n o f the task i s the technology of the t a s k . The d e c i s i o n s of what should be done and by what manner should they be done seem more a p p r o p r i a t e l y c l a s s e d as a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t s . 41 Herbert Simon e t a l , Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p. 2. 58 But, o f course, t h i s k i n d o f d i s t i n c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the types of o p e r a t i o n s of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ; i t says no t h i n g about the o b j e c t i v e s o r ends of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Without a statement d e l i m i t i n g the ends o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the o p e r a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d may q u i t e c o n c e i v a b l y apply t o any p o s i t i o n i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n . Engineers, p h y s i c i a n s , or t a x i d r i v e r s may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the c r i t e r i a which Simon and ot h e r s develop; and indeed a l l may be performing a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s . The q u e s t i o n remaining i s how does one i d e n t i f y the d i s t i n c t i o n between the f u n c t i o n of an engineer qua engineer and an engineer who i s an a d m i n i s t r a t o r ? I t may be a s s e r t e d t h a t t h i s i s a t r i v i a l and simple q u e s t i o n t o answer: when 'A' d e a l s w i t h i s s u e s o f t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h , v e c t o r analyses and whatever e l s e , he may be c l a s s e d as an engineer; but when'A' d e a l s w i t h i s s u e s o f s e l e c t i o n , co-o p e r a t i o n and d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r , he may be c l a s s e d as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r . How then, might one begin t o separate admin-i s t r a t i o n from e v e r y t h i n g e l s e ? An e f f e c t i v e means of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g one d i s c i p l i n e from another i s t o examine the kin d s o f q u e s t i o n s each asks. Perhiaps once the g e n e r a l forms o f the q u e s t i o n s can be i d e n t i f i e d , a c r i t e r i o n may emerge. There i s probably no d i s p u t e t h a t p h i l o s o p h y as a d i s c i p l i n e would not e x i s t were i t not ask i n g q u e s t i o n s d i f f e r e n t from p h y s i c s , zoology and o t h e r s . Thus, i f the p h i l o s o p h e r ' s problems were e m p i r i c a l problems, the techniques o f the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s would serve him w e l l enough, and the p h i l o s o p h e r would be an e m p i r i c a l 59 s c i e n t i s t . I t would appear then, t h a t u n l i k e s c i e n t i f i c q u e s t i o n s which are about understanding nature, p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n s may be regarded as q u e s t i o n s about the c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e through which nature i s understood. Thus, whereas s c i e n t i f i c q u e s t i o n s are e m p i r i c a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n s are c o n c e p t u a l . I f a q u e s t i o n i s t o be conceptual and t h e r e f o r e d i s t i n c t from e m p i r i c a l , i t must be of the form "what i s x ?" And s i n c e i t i s c o n c e p t u a l , i t must d e a l w i t h problems o f meaning. Given t h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h y , i t s r o l e cannot be d e f i n e d e s s e n t i a l l y as answer g i v i n g but as c l a r i f y i n g through c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s . L i k e the nature o f a p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n , t h a t o f a c o n c e p t u a l q u e s t i o n i s e q u a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y . Being asked a p u r e l y c o n c e p t u a l q u e s t i o n l i k e "What i s the l o g i c a l nature of the concept a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ? " makes i t q u i t e r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e as a conceptual q u e s t i o n . But the q u e s t i o n , "Should we continue c o r p o r a l punishment i n s c h o o l s ? " c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s : a) what i s the nature of c o r p o r a l punishment? b) what f a c t u a l knowledge have we about the circumstances of the s c h o o l and i t s inmates? c) what are the c r i t e r i a f o r e x p r e s s i n g a moral o p i n i o n ? Most of the q u e s t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y asked i n any d i s c i p l i n e are s i m i l a r l y m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l . But j u s t as f r e q u e n t l y , we u n t h i n k i n g l y respond from our common s t o r e of wisdom r a t h e r than from a sound a n a l y t i c a l approach. Thus, f o r each q u e s t i o n mark, t h e r e may be s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s ; and i n a very l i t e r a l sense, 6 0 the a d m i n i s t r a t o r who does not engage i n conceptual a n a l y s i s cannot know what he i s t a l k i n g about. In the above examples of c o n c e p t u a l q u e s t i o n s i t can be seen t h a t the conceptual q u e s t i o n takes p r i o r i t y because c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of f a c t and m o r a l i t y cannot be r e l e v a n t l y a p p l i e d a t a l l u n t i l j u s t what they are supposed t o be a p p l i e d t o has been determined. T h i s r e a s o n i n g , then, leads the study f u l l c i r c l e t o the o u t s e t where the conceptual scheme o f what i t means to speak of p o l i t i c s and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y began. A v a r i e t y o f f a c t s concerning governmental o p e r a t i o n s have been d e s c r i b e d and i t i s t o t h a t e a r l i e r c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s of p o l i t i c s t h a t the remainder o f the study w i l l be d i r e c t e d . R e c a l l some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the main government d i v i s i o n s , the l e g i s l a t i v e , j u d i c i a l , and e x e c u t i v e . G e n e r a l l y , the f i r s t enacts p o l i c y ; the second a d j u d i c a t e s c o n f l i c t s brought b e f o r e i t by c l a r i f y i n g s t a t u t e s and r i g o r o u s l y a p p l y i n g t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s ; and the t h i r d branch mediates between the f i r s t d i v i s i o n and the people by both c r e a t i n g laws under i t s d e l e g a t e d a u t h o r i t y and making p r o v i s i o n f o r the ex e c u t i o n o f s t a t u t o r y r e -quirements. In a d d i t i o n , the e x e c u t i v e u s u a l l y l a c k s the e x p e r t i s e t o manage, or even t o a d m i n i s t e r very c l o s e l y the d e t a i l s o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s under i t s a u t h o r i t y . Never-t h e l e s s , i t i s charged w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r any d e l e g a t i o n o f t h a t a u t h o r i t y a c c o r d i n g t o the d o c t r i n e o f m i n i s t e r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 61 Consequently, i t i s reasonable t o conclude t h a t the Ex e c u t i v e c o n s t i t u t e s the head o f a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s , w i t h the a p p r o v a l o f the l e g i s l a t u r e . As noted e a r l i e r , i t i s much e a s i e r t o d e f i n e who i s the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n than i t i s to d e f i n e what i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; but a t l e a s t there now i s a context which the co n c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s can be a p p l i e d t o . T h i s a n a l y s i s so f a r has: a) giv e n some important c h a r a c t e r i z i n g marks of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t s , and b) p r o v i d e d the context f o r a proposed d e f i n i t i o n o f what a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s , and c) l o c a t e d the p o s i t i o n of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h i n the governmental system. I t may be p o s s i b l e now t o more c l e a r l y express a view of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which would serve t h i s study adequately and, at the same time, p r o v i d e some use w i t h i n many ot h e r f i e l d s where a d m i n i s t r a t i o n takes p l a c e . 62 VI - POLITICS 7 and ADMINISTRATION The conception of a p o l i t i c a l system developed and used i n Chapters I and I I , t o g e t h e r w i t h some of the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s g i v e n t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e process i n the preceding chapter, suggest a t l e a s t , t h a t t h i s study views a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b a s i c a l l y as a p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y — a d i s t r i b u t i v e o r a l l o c a t i n g f u n c t i o n . There-f o r e , the o b j e c t o f t h i s c h apter i s t o c a r r y forward the conception pf the p o l i t i c a l system and t o show t h a t its form and the form of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s are e s s e n t i a l l y the same. Commenting on the work o f the F e d e r a l Management A n a l y s i s D i v i s i o n , the 1960 Royal Commission on Government O r g a n i z a t i o n i n Canada s a i d : ...the emphasis has g e n e r a l l y been on s p e c i f i c problems and remedies r a t h e r than on the broad problems of o r g a n i z a t i o n , s t r u c t u r e and i n t e g r a t e d systems p l a n n i n g . ^ 2 In view of the pr e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f Chapter V, i t might be argued t h a t the D i v i s i o n has been a t t e n t i v e more t o i s s u e s i n the domain of t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e t h a t t o i s s u e s of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e nature. That i s , they have p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n to the r u l e s which govern the ch o i c e o f t e c h n i c a l procedures. In Volume 5 of the same study, the Commissioners s t a t e : I t has long been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t M i n i s t e r s need not be a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e x p e r t s . On the c o n t r a r y , i t i s d e s i r a b l e 42 The 1960 Royal Commission Report, o p . c i t . , v.5. save i n the s t r e s s of emergency t h a t they do not become deeply i n v o l v e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o c e s s . As members of the Cabinet, t h e i r p r i n c i p a l o b l i g a t i o n i s t o r e f l e c t and g i v e e f f e c t t o the c o l l e c t i v e p o i n t of view •— drawing t o g e t h e r the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s , a t t i t u d e s and a s p i r a t i o n s t h a t f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , and, by r e c o n c i l i n g these, p r o v i d i n g the b a s i s f o r a c e n t r a l u n i t y of government i n p o l i c y and a c t i o n . As heads of departments, i t i s the t a s k of M i n i s t e r s t o d e f i n e the ends t o be pursued, and t o i n s t i l t h e i r own sense o f purpose and urgency i n the permanent o f f i c i a l s . In the absence of such l e a d e r s h i p , p u b l i c s e r v a n t s may lapse — by reason of t h e i r immunity from the p o l i t i c a l consequences of t h e i r a c t i o n s — i n t o d i l a t o r y and complacent h a b i t s , i n s e n s i t i v e o r i n - . , d i f f e r e n t t o p u b l i c wants and r e s t r a i n t t o change. The Commissioners a s s e r t t h a t the M i n i s t e r s are heads of Departments and t h e r e f o r e must accept a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e both i n e f f e c t i v e l y communicating the w i l l of the l e g i s l a t u r e t o the s u b o r d i n a t e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and i n matters p e r t a i n i n g to the c h o i c e o f methods f o r g i v i n g e f f e c t t o l e g i s l a t i v e p o l i c y : a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i r e c t i v e s . I t i s f o r t h i s reason t h a t some d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n t o instruments of d e l e g a t e d a u t h o r i t y i n the l a s t (V) chapter. These d i r e c t i v e s f a l l i n t o t h a t hazy area o f l e g i s l a t i v e power and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e guidance. Of them, the Royal Commissioners say: D i r e c t i v e s i n c l u d e i n t e r n a l i n s t r u c t i o n s , p r o-cedure manuals, r e f e r e n c e s t o and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of s t a t u t e s and r e g u l a t i o n s , d i s t r i b u t e d throughout an o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the guidance o f i t s s t a f f . 4 4 The phrase ' f o r the guidance o f i t s s t a f f s hould not be 43 The 1960 Royal Commission Report on Government  O r g a n i z a t i o n , v.5. 44 I b i d . , v.5. 64 passed by c a s u a l l y . R e c a l l how i n Chapter IV i t was demonstrated how some s t a f f members took such d i r e c t i v e s and a p p l i e d them as g u i d e l i n e s and as though they were co n t a i n e d i n the l e g i s l a t i o n . T h i s was t r u e of the branch o f the Veterans A f f a i r s Department. While i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o govern how the l e g i s l a t u r e ' s p o l i c y i s e f f e c t e d , the d i s c u s s i o n of l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y and the d e l e g a t i o n of powers c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t the k i n d of a c t i o n taken by t h i s branch c o u l d not be construed i n any way o t h e r than l e g i s l a t i v e — a v i o l a t i o n o f i t s a u t h o r i t y and power. I t s a u t h o r i t y i s s t a t u t o r i l y d e f i n e d and i t s power i s the degree of d i s -c r e t i o n accorded i t by the s t a t u t e ; but the L e g i s l a t u r e c e r t a i n l y g i v e s no freedom to a c t l e g i s l a t i v e l y t o a subordinate d i v i s i o n o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e n t i t y . I f , indeed, the branch acted l e g i s l a t i v e l y , then i t s a c t i o n s a f f e c t e d the l e g a l r i g h t s of c i t i z e n s and i t i s a common convention t h a t i n such circumstances t h a t a c t i o n i s e i t h e r j u d i c i a l o r l e g i s l a t i v e , not a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . Thus, i t appears t o f o l l o w t h a t i f o n l y the l e g i s l a t u r e c o n t r o l s matters of l e g a l r i g h t s , then the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n must engage i n matters where no such t o p i c a r i s e s . In f a c t , i t i s o n l y i n i s s u e s of g i v i n g f o r c e t o extant p o l i c y t h a t the admin-i s t r a t i o n may a c t . One p r a c t i t i o n e r i n the f i e l d o f admin-i s t r a t i v e law sums the i s s u e by s a y i n g : One commonly accepted ground f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g 65 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e from q u a s i - j u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n s i s t h e i r e f f e c t s on r i g h t s . Power t o a f f e c t r i g h t s i s q u a s i - ,. j u d i c i a l ; a l a c k o f i t i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r m i n i s t e r i a l . In o t h e r words, a d i r e c t i v e construed as t o gi v e f o r c e t o p o l i c y i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . The o p e r a t i v e phrase i s 'to g i v e f o r c e t o p o l i c y ' . There i s no h i n t t h a t such a c t i o n s should in; any way extend p o l i c y o r assume a p o l i c y o r an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a p o l i c y i s i n f o r c e and then a c t a c c o r d i n g l y . I f the M i n i s t e r o r h i s agent has not made h i s d i r e c t i v e c l e a r and unambiguous, the l e s s e r a u t h o r i t y must seek c l a r i f i c a t i o n . The i s s u e s of c i v i l l i b e r t i e s are too important t o be s u b j e c t e d t o r u l e s made i n a manner as t o preclud e them from the s c r u t i n y and approval o f the p u b l i c whom the subordinate agency s e r v e s . From t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , i t becomes apparent t h a t t h e r e i s something c a l l e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and something c a l l e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s . I t i s not y e t c l e a r whether t h e r e i s something c a l l e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t s o r whether t h i s term i s synonymous wi t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s comprised o f the E x e c u t i v e as head of Departments, and the Departments themselves. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s are those which g i v e f o r c e t o l e g i s l a t i v e p o l i c y but which i n themselves should not a f f e c t the l e g a l r i g h t s o f c i t i z e n s . When t e c h n i c a l bodies such as 45 Robert F. Reid, A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Law and P r a c t i c e (Toronto, Butterworths, 1971); p. 146. 66 e n g i n e e r s , t r a n s p o r t o f f i c i a l s o r t e a c h e r s are i n s t r u c t e d t o achieve a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e , the c o n d i t i o n s under which they are t o apply t h e i r t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e and i n i t i a t i v e are s p e c i f i e d by r u l e s promulgated by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; These r u l e s d e a l w i t h the kinds o f i s s u e s mentioned e a r l i e r : how c e r t a i n t e c h n i c a l methods are s e l e c t e d , what c r i t e r i a determine personnel s e l e c t i o n , what d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r i s n ecessary, and s i m i l a r t o p i c s . Now w hile t h e r e may be cases where the Departments may even s p e c i f y g r e a t e r d e t a i l s such as what p a r t i c u l a r t e c h n i c a l s t r a t e g y should be used, t h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d simply a matter o f p r a c t i c a l convenience o r concern; i t s ocurrance does not cause t h i s k i n d of d e c i s i o n to be i n c l u d e d i n those d e c i s i o n s c l a s s e d as a d m i n i s t r a t i v e because i t f a i l s t o meet the c r i t e r i o n of d i s t r i b u t i v e or a l l o c a t i v e mentioned at the beginning o f t h i s Chapter and c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n Chapter I I . I t does p o i n t out, however, the a u t h o r i t y o f the M i n i s t e r t h a t can be e x e r c i s e d . I f the M i n i s t e r of Education p r e s c r i b e d the use o f a t e x t even though teachers unanimously opposed i t s use, the M i n i s t e r ' s a u t h o r i t y would p r e v a i l . His p r e s c r i p t i o n however, would not be an example of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n because i t f a i l s t o meet the c r i t e r i o n o f 'value' as s e t out i n Chapter I I . And, i n any case, p r e s c r i b i n g something i s not the same as a l l o c a t i n g something. The M i n i s t e r ' s d e c i s i o n t o p r e s c r i b e something, however, would 6 7 c o n s t i t u t e an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t because the a c t o f p r e -s c r i p t i o n would o r d i n a r i l y be preceded by d e c i s i o n s of s e l e c t i o n among a l t e r n a t e s and subsequently the d e c i s i o n t o a l l o c a t e , o r impose, the va l u e o f what the p r e s c r i p t i o n r e p r e s e n t s on o t h e r s . Consequently, were the M i n i s t e r t o a u t h o r i z e a segment of h i s Department to make r u l i n g s r e s p e c t i n g the usage of t e x t s as they deemed d e s i r a b l e , then he would have made an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n . As seen e a r l i e r , p o l i t i c s r e f e r r e d t o policy-making and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y was taken t o mean making d e c i s i o n s concerning the a l l o c a t i o n of v a l u e s . Thus, i f a government were r e q u i r e d t o c o n t r o l i n f l a t i o n , the p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n would r e f e r t o what k i n d of p o l i c y concerning i n f l a t i o n s hould be s t u d i e d ; and the p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y would be the decision-making process o f what k i n d of economic s t r a t e g y should be employed. I n f l a t i o n would be the p o l i c y i s s u e and p r i c e c o n t r o l s may be the p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n . The r e s u l t a n t d e c i s i o n i s manifested through the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e s of the government and t h i s phase re p r e s e n t s the o p e r a t i o n a l stage of a l l o c a t i n g v a l u e s . The three b a s i c p o l i t i c a l s teps a r e : a) determining what valu e s are a t sta k e , i . e . , the p o l i c y , b) what valu e s should be a l l o c a t e d , and c) which agency s h a l l be charged w i t h the r e q u i r e d power and a u t h o r i t y t o a d m i n i s t e r the p o l i c y . C o n t i n u i n g with the n o t i o n o f a l l o c a t i o n , i t i s now p o s s i b l e t o show the p a r a l l e l between forms of. 68 p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y . The a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s e s s e n t i a l task i s t o f i n d s u i t a b l e means f o r g i v i n g f o r c e t o e x e c u t i v e p o l i c y . In form, t h e r e f o r e , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e process p a r a l l e l s the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s ; and i t achieves t h i s p a r a l l e l because of the b a s i c i n g r e d i e n t o f a l l o c a t i o n . Given some e x e c u t i v e p o l i c y t o implement, the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n must a l s o engage i n three b a s i c s t e p s : a) determine the p r e c i s e c o n c e p t u a l nature o f the p o l i c y , b) choose which s t r a t e g y w i l l r e s u l t i n g i v i n g f o r c e , and c) d i s t r i b u t e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r ex e c u t i o n t o those with the necessary t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e . The f i r s t s tep r e p r e s e n t s a p h i l o s o p h i c a l a c t i v i t y : a process o f c l a r i f i c a t i o n . T h i s i s the l e v e l o f p o l i t i c s where i d e o l o g i e s t a k e s i a p e . The e s s e n t i a l v a l u e s chosen f o r a l l o c a t i o n r e s u l t l a r g e l y from the s o c i a l p e r -s p e c t i v e s generated at t h i s l e v e l . The second step r e p r e s e n t s an e v a l u a t i v e stage where p r e f e r e n c e s f o r means are expressed. Any number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s may be a v a i l a b l e . Each must be t e s t e d i n p r i n c i p l e a t l e a s t f o r i t s e f f i c a c y o f a c h i e v i n g the p o l i c y . The t h i r d step i s the p r e s c r i p t i v e stage wherein the e s s e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i v e o r a l l o c a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s c a r r i e d out. I t i s at t h i s p o i n t t h a t p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s are made o p e r a t i o n a l and a p p l i e d t o the o b j e c t s o f the p o l i c y . A f t e r g i v i n g e f f e c t t o the f o r e g o i n g p o i n t s , i t s u i t s t h i s study b e s t t o conceive o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 69 as that process engendered by the delegated authority and power of those constituents of an organization who are charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of giving force to p o l i c y promulgated by a superior authority by means of which rules are made to govern the constituents subordinate to themselves concerning the conditions under which those subordinates may apply t h e i r technical knowledge fo r the ultimate purpose of giving force to po l i c y decisions of the superior authority. As stated e a r l i e r , authority i s defined as to i t s nature and scope within the statutes, and power i s taken to mean the extent of dis c r e t i o n which the statute provides within the l i m i t s of authority s p e c i f i e d . Administrative acts are considered a n c i l l a r y to admin-i s t r a t i v e decisions. Thus, the issuance of a d i r e c t i v e may be classed as a technical act, but the decision which preceded i t s issuance constitutes the substantive essence of the administrative process. In sum, any act that can be described as au t h o r i t a t i v e l y a l l o c a t i n g strategies i s an administrative act. V I I - ADMINISTRATION i n EDUCATION: ITS CONSTITUTION I f l a r g e - s c a l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s are t o accomplish t h e i r pufposes; i f the extremely complex i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p s of an i n d u s t r i a l e r a are not t o break down, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i f e — i t s anatomy and pathology — needs t o be c o n s i d e r e d . Those who p a r t i c i p a t e i n and operate the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n s through which so much of our s o c i e t y ' s a c t i v i t y i s c h a n n e l l e d mu|t know what makes c o o p e r a t i o n e f f e c t i v e ana what hampers i t . E i t h e r through experience o r through formal e d u c a t i o n , or both, they must study administration. 4° The P u b l i c Schools Act may be regarded as the c o n s t i t u t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia e d u c a t i o n system. In t h i s study, ' c o n s t i t u t i o n ' r e f e r s simply t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the p r i n c i p a l c l a s s e s of educ a t i o n personnel named i n the A c t . The preceding c h a p t e r s argue t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n ed u c a t i o n has as i t s foundation, the p o l i t i c a l system of p r o v i n c i a l government, and t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t s are those d e c i s i o n s t o a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y a l l o c a t e v a l u e s and s t r a t e g i e s t o implement those v a l u e s . T h e r e f o r e , a l o g i c a l s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r determining the anatomy of the p u b l i c s c h o o l system i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s , i n i t i a l l y , t o study the component r e l a t i o n s h i p s p o s i t e d by the L e g i s l a t u r e . The M i n i s t e r of Education The e a r l i e r c hapters o f the study make i t c l e a r t h a t the M i n i s t e r of Education i s the. one who 46 J.E. Hodgetts and D.C. C o r b e t t , Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (Toronto, The Macmillan Company, 1960) p. 4. 71 i s the head of h i s department. The p r i n c i p l e of m i n i s t e r i a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y i m p l i e s t h a t the M i n i s t e r must bear respon-s i b i l i t y f o r anything done w i t h i n h i s department. F o r t h i s reason, he a l s o has complete a u t h o r i t y over a l l matters i n e d u c a t i o n . While i t may be t h a t the e x e r c i s e of h i s a u t h o r i t y i s most o f t e n achieved through the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l , subordinates f a i l i n g t o o b t a i n m i n i s t e r i a l approval on major i s s u e s may be s u b j e c t t o p e n a l t y by v i r t u e of the f a c t t h a t they w i l l be c o n t r a v e n i n g the s t a t u t o r y con-d i t i o n s of t h e i r d u t i e s . Each c l a s s of c o n s t i t u e n t has both: :mandatory d u t i e s and areas of d i s c r e t i o n . Thus, as an example of a mandatory duty: The M i n i s t e r s h a l l (c) d i v i d e the P r o v i n c e i n t o d i s t r i c t s u p e r i n t e n d e n c i e s f o r the purposes of t h i s Act; (g) arrange, from time t o time, i n r e s p e c t of the s c h o o l s e s t a b l i s h e d under t h i s A c t , f o r the examination and i n v e s t i g a t i o n of (i) the p r o g r e s s of the p u p i l s i n l e a r n i n g ; ( i i ) the o r d e r and d i s c i p l i n e observed; ( i i i ) the system of i n s t r u c t i o n pursued; (iv) the p r o f e s s i o n a l development of t e a c h e r s ; (v) the mode of keeping the s c h o o l r e c o r d s ; and (vi ) the c h a r a c t e r and c o n d i t i o n s of the b u i l d i n g s and premises; and, w i t h r e s p e c t t o these matters, o f f e r such ^_ guidance and d i r e c t i o n as he may c o n s i d e r proper; In the case of d i s c r e t i o n a r y a u t h o r i t y , The Minister may (c) r e q u i r e the p r e p a r a t i o n and completion of such r e p o r t s from persons under h i s s u p e r v i s i o n as he may c o n s i d e r necessary t o implement the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t ; (d) a u t h o r i z e , a t the request o f a Board o f School T r u s t e e s , the use of a course o f study, a t e x t -47 The P u b l i c Schools A c t , R.S.B.C.1960, c.52. Sec. 7. 72 book , or a supplementary reader w i t h i n a p u b l i c s c h o o l of a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t f o r a s t a t e d p e r i o d of time. 4 8 In the same f a s h i o n , v a r i o u s o t h e r c o n s t i t u e n t s have s i m i l a r types o f d u t i e s , each o f which denotes a range of s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y and a range of d i s c r e t i o n w i t h i n t h a t a u t h o r i t y . F u r t h e r , each c o n s t i t u e n t subordinate t o the M i n i s t e r has c e r t a i n i t e m i z e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s e i t h e r t o the M i n i s t e r d i r e c t l y o r t o some oth e r con-s t i t u e n t who i s i n t u r n r e s p o n s i b l e t o the M i n i s t e r . Con-sequently, w h i l e the M i n i s t e r ' s law-making power r e s t s o n l y i n the body of the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l , h i s admin-i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the Department of Education i s complete, or, a l l - e m b r a c i n g . The M i n i s t e r ' s a u t h o r i t y and power i s so complete t h a t , i n s o f a r as i s s u e s r e q u i r i n g d e c i s i o n s made are concerned, t h e r e i s l i t t l e p o i n t i n t r y i n g t o d e l i m i t h i s p o s i t i o n f u r t h e r ; A l l t h i n g s a r e , i n p r i n c i p l e , p o s s i b l e through the M i n i s t e r . T h e r e f o r e , o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o r c r i t e r i a might have t o be a p p l i e d when t r y i n g t o p r e d i c t how a c e r t a i n i s s u e might be r e s o l v e d t h a t r e q u i r e s m i n i s t e r i a l a u t h o r i t y . There i s , however, one p o i n t t h a t might be worth a b r i e f examination. I t may h e l p t o f u r t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h the p o s i t i o n o f the M i n i s t e r from the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l . The use of the term r e g u l a t i o n s can e a s i l y cause c o n f u s i o n . Chapter IV d i s c u s s e d r e g u l a t i o n s i n the 48 R.S.B.C. 1 9 6 0 , c. 3 1 9 , 1 9 7 2 c. 5 2 . S e c t i o n 8 ( d ) . 73 context of Orders - i n - C o u n c i l . R e g u l a t i o n s as used t h e r e have the f o r c e o f law. The p r o v i s i o n s o f the Act concerning the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the Department o f Education s t a t e t h a t the M i n i s t e r : s u b j e c t t o the r e g u l a t i o n s , may make such r u l e s and o r d e r s as are c o n s i d e r e d necessary o r a d v i s a b l e t o e f f e c t i v e l y a d m i n i s t e r t h i s Act o r the R e g u l a t i o n s . 4 ^ T h i s item may l e a d one t o t h i n k o f c e r t a i n m i n i s t e r i a l d i r e c t i v e s o r r u l i n g s as having the f o r c e o f law. Indeed, t h e r e may be circumstances under which a M i n i s t e r may i s s u e a r u l e o r o r d e r and, f o r those who are components of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the r u l e o r o r d e r may not be ignored; but i t must have a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f e c t o n l y and not a f f e c t the person's r i g h t s . The d i s t i n c t i o n i s f o r a c o u r t of law t o s e t t l e . What i s important a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y , i s the f a c t t h a t such r u l e s and ord e r s made pursuant t o S e c t i o n 6(e) have a mandatory e f f e c t . F u r t h e r , the p h r a s i n g "as are c o n s i d e r e d necessary o r a d v i s a b l e " p r o v i d e l a r g e degrees o f m i n i s t e r i a l d i s c r e t i o n . H i s power i s c o n s i d e r a b l e . S e c t i o n 6 sho u l d be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h S e c t i o n 18(27). Here, the l a c k of a m i n i s t e r ' s r i g h t t o make laws i s made e x p l i c i t . The Li e u t e n a n t - Governor may v e s t i n the M i n i s t e r such powers and a u t h o r i t y as are c o n s i d e r e d necessary o r a d v i s a b l e (a) t o e f f e c t i v e l y a d m i n i s t e r the Act and the r e g u l a t i o n s ; and (b) t o make such r u l e s and orders f o r t h a t purpose, 49 R.S.B.C. 1960, c.319; 1972, c. 52, S e c t i o n 6 ( e ) . 74 and such r u l e s and o r d e r s are not r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h i n the meaning of the Regula t i o n s A c t . 5 ^ C l e a r l y , i t i s not the i n t e n t i o n o f the L e g i s l a t u r e t h a t the M i n i s t e r o f Education be empowered t o make l e g i s l a t i v e d e c i s i o n s , and c e r t a i n l y not t o make laws. There i s an i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t concerning the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o be p l a c e d upon the word 'may'. In some cases, the term should be construed as c o n f e r r i n g d i s c r e t i o n . ^ T h i s i s g e n e r a l l y the case where i t i s used i n omnibus c l a u s e s , o r , e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . A good example of t h i s i s S e c t i o n 17 o f the P u b l i c Schools A c t . For the purpose o f c a r r y i n g out the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r i n t e n t , the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l may make such r e g u l a t i o n s as are a n c i l l a r y t h e r e t o and not i n c o n s i s t e n t t h e r e w i t h and as are c o n s i d e r e d necessary o r a d v i s a b l e ; and every r e g u l a t i o n made under t h i s s e c t i o n and s e c t i o n 18 s h a l l be deemed p a r t o f the Act and has the f o r c e of l a w . 5 2 In o t h e r circumstances, the usage of 'may* connotes o b l i g a t i o n . The c r i t e r i o n t o be a p p l i e d i s whether the o b j e c t o f power i s t o a f f e c t l e g a l r i g h t s . Edgar t r e a t s the matter s a y i n g : I t i s , however, a w e l l - r e c o g n i s e d canon o f con-s t r u c t i o n , as Lord C a i r n s s a i d . . . t h a t "where a power i s d e p o s i t e d with a p u b l i c o f f i c e r f o r the purpose of being used f o r the b e n e f i t o f persons who are s p e c i f i c a l l y p o i n t e d out, and wit h regard 50 R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 319; 1972, c.52. S e c t i o n 18(27). 51 S.G.G. Edgar, C r a i e s on S t a t u t e Law (London, Sweet and Maxwell, 1971); p. 284. 52 R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 319; 1972, c. 52; S e c t i o n 17. t o whom a d e f i n i t i o n i s s u p p l i e d by the l e g i s l a t u r e of the c o n d i t i o n s upon which they are e n t i t l e d t o c a l l f o r i t s e x e r c i s e , t h a t power ought t o be e x e r c i s e d and the c o u r t w i l l r e q u i r e i t t o be exercised."53 The p r e c e d i n g example o f the Li e u t e n a n t - Governor shows much d i s c r e t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g i s an example where the M i n i s t e r has no d i s c r e t i o n . The M i n i s t e r may cause t o be p a i d such amounts as p r e s c r i b e d by the Li e u t e n a n t - Governor i n C o u n c i l from funds voted by the L e g i s l a t u r e f o r t h a t purpose towards the s a l a r y o f any person t o whom has been i s s u e d a c e r t i f i c a t e of q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r t e a c h i n g or a l e ^ e r o f pe r m i s s i o n f o r t e a c h i n g under t h i s Act••»• Here, the M i n i s t e r must pay or, a u t h o r i z e payment, the sums agreed upon. There i s one f i n a l usage of 'may* worth n o t i n g . O c c a s i o n a l l y , 'may' i m p l i e s a p r o h i b i t i o n . Simply s t a t e d , i t may mean t h a t someone may do something i n a s p e c i f i c manner and i n no othe r way. F o r example: I f the M i n i s t e r , a f t e r c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n has been made, c o n s i d e r s t h a t the programme of s t u d i e s or the q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n p r o v i d e d i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i s not s a t i s f a c t o r y , he may recommend t o the Lieu t e n a n t - Governor i n C o u n c i l t h a t the amount of the grant o f money payable under t h i s Act i n a i d o f the p u b l i c schools i n th a t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t be reduced.55 While t h i s may be e a s i l y viewed as a p e n a l t y c l a u s e , i t may a l s o r e q u i r e the M i n i s t e r t o do something and t o do i t i n no ot h e r manner. Thus, he may not h i m s e l f reduce 53 Edgar, o p . c i t . , p. 285. 54 R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 319; 1972, c. 52, S e c t i o n 20. 55 I b i d . , S e c t i o n 19. a d i s t r i c t ' s funds; but he must recommend t h a t tis& E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l so r e g u l a t e . The Deputy M i n i s t e r The Deputy M i n i s t e r i s the top ranki n g c i v i l servant i n the Department and" i s appointed i n accordance w i t h the C i v i l S e r v i c e A c t . He may a c t upon the M i n i s t e r ' s b e h a l f i f a u t h o r i z e d t o do so, and should be accorded every r e s p e c t otherwise g i v e n t o the M i n i s t e r . A l l a c t i o n s taken by the Deputy M i n i s t e r are done wi t h the presumed a u t h o r i t y of the M i n i s t e r . The C i v i l S e r v i c e Act p r o v i d e s t h a t : A Deputy M i n i s t e r s h a l l be a C i v i l Servant under the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t and s h a l l h o l d o f f i c e d u r i n g pleasure.56 and t h a t I t i s the duty of the Deputy M i n i s t e r of each department, and he has the a u t h o r i t y , s u b j e c t t o the M i n i s t e r , t o oversee and d i r e c t the o t h e r employees i n the department and t o r e p o r t as t o t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y . He has the g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n of the business of the department, and such o t h e r powers and d u t i e s as are assig n e d t o him by the L i e u t e n a n t - Governor i n C o u n c i l or by S t a t u t e . 5 7 In essence, the Deputy M i n i s t e r assumes a l l immediate r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the g e n e r a l o p e r a t i o n s of the Department of Educ a t i o n . Since the M i n i s t e r i s r a r e l y a s p e c i a l i s t i n the m i n i s t r y he heads, the Deputy 56 R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 56, S e c t i o n 10(2). 57 Loc. c i t . ; S e c t i o n 12. M i n i s t e r i s o f t e n chosen from the area the m i n i s t r y he s u p e r v i s e s . Consequently, those i n the f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n w i l l have much more co n t a c t with the Deputy M i n i s t e r than they w i l l w i t h the M i n i s t e r . T h i s d i v i s i o n h e l p s t o both separate and c o o r d i n a t e the p o l i t i c a l and admin-i s t r a t i v e domains of the Department. The Superintendency of E d u c a t i o n The Superintendency of E d u c a t i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the M i n i s t e r and Deputy M i n i s t e r f o r the g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n of the p u b l i c s c h o o l system. In the 1968 c o n s o l i d a t i o n of the P u b l i c Schools A c t , the Superintendent o f E d u c a t i o n was i d e n t i f i e d as having those a u t h o r i t i e s of the c u r r e n t s e c t i o n s (7) and (8) now s p e c i f i c a l l y g i v e n to the M i n i s t e r . J u s t what t h i s means i s u n c l e a r s i n c e no r a t i o n a l e f o r these kinds of s t a t u t o r y changes i s g i v e n . T h i s l a c k of data r e s u l t s from a c t i o n s o f the L i e u t e n a n t - Governor i n C o u n c i l and obscures p o s s i b l e s t a t u t o r y i n t e n t i o n s . However, a com-p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s between the s t a t u t e s of 1968 and the present would show a t r e n d o f c e n t r a l i z i n g governmental a u t h o r i t y and power. The e l i m i n a t i o n o f the o l d C o u n c i l of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n probably prompted most of the change The r e s u l t , f o r the P r o v i n c i a l Superintendency i s the D i v i s i o n s of I n s t r u c t i o n a l S e r v i c e s , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s . These may be regarded as a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t s t o the M i n i s t e r . However, when they a c t , they do so w i t h the M i n i s t e r ' s a u t h o r i t y . 78 D i v i s i o n a l Superintendents i r r e g u l a r l y i s s u e c i r c u l a r s . These c i r c u l a r s may c o n t a i n asssouncements, d i r e c t i v e s o r r u l i n g s . Somis note t h a t they should be r e -t a i n e d w hile o t h e r s are -purely i n f o r m a t i o n of the day and have no c o n t i n u i n g e f f e c t . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r g e n e r a l f i e l d s u p e r v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n r e s t s with the D i s t r i c t S uperintendents. The D i s t r i c t Superintendent Probably the most s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i o n i n terms o f a u t h o r i t y and power i n education i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s t h a t o f the D i s t r i c t Superintendent. There are s e v e r a l i n d i c a t i o n s w i t h i n the Act t h a t t h i s p o s i t i o n i s expected t o be one of c o n t r o l and e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p . That he i s the agent o f the M i n i s t e r r a t h e r than simply a f i e l d e x t e n s i o n of the Departmental Superintendent i s i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t o n l y he, i n a d d i t i o n to the M i n i s t e r , i s i d e n t i f i e d as b eing r e q u i r e d t o . . . . . a s s i s t i n making e f f e c t i v e the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t , i n c a r r y i n g out the r e g u l a t i o n s and i n c a r r y i n g out a system of e d u c a t i o n i n conformity w i t h those r e g u l a t i o n s . 5 8 The phrase " i n c a r r y i n g out a system of e d u c a t i o n " does i n d i c a t e t h a t the D i s t r i c t Superintendent i s expected t o perform e d u c a t i o n a l programme l e a d e r s h i p f u n c t i o n s . Except f o r the p r i n c i p a l , no o t h e r " f i e l d " c o n s t i t u e n t i s g i v e n t h i s k i n d of a u t h o r i t y . In a d d i t i o n , the D i s t r i c t Super-58 : R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 319; 1972, c. 52, S e c t i o n '9 (a). intendment i s r e q u i r e d t o r e p o r t i n a l l matters t o the M i n i s t e r . A c a s u a l r e a d i n g of the A c t might l e a d t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the D i s t r i c t Superintendent i s at best an a s s i s t a n t t o a s c h o o l board. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the s t a t u t e law of the P u b l i c Schools Act has r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n from the c o u r t s and t h e r e f o r e i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o c i t e cases on e x a c t l y how c e r t a i n c l a u s e s o f the A c t might be i n t e r p r e t e d . However, based upon v a r i o u s p r i n c i p l e s , an argument can be made t o j u s t i f y the a s s e r t i o n t h a t the D i s t r i c t Superintendent i s the major e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r i n the system. There i s a r u l e o f law i n s t a t u t o r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t h a t says: I f an a f f i r m a t i v e s t a t u t e which i s i n t r o d u c t i v e o f a new law d i r e c t a t h i n g t o be done i n a c e r t a i n way, t h a t t h i n g s h a l l not, even i f th e r e be no nega t i v e words, be done i n any o t h e r way.59 The c u r i o u s s i t u a t i o n i n the P u b l i c Schools Act i s the l a c k o f a u t h o r i t y and power delegated t o a Board o f Tr u s t e e s and the ensuing a s s i s t a n t - t o - t h e - B o a r d r o l e of the D i s t r i c t Superintendent. The Act says t h a t the D i s t r i c t Superintendent s h a l l : a s s i s t i n making.... advise and a s s i s t each Board.... f u r n i s h t r u s t e e s . . . . i f a u t h o r i z e d t o do so by the Board.... 6^ 59 Edgar, C r a i e s on S t a t u t e Law, pp 264-5. 60 R.S.B.C. c. 319, 1972, c. 52 S e c t i o n 9. These opening phrases may appear t o l i m i t the a u t h o r i t y of the D i s t r i c t Superintendent; but r e c a l l how i t - i s presumed t h a t the Lieutenant-Governor s h a l l a c t i n accordance w i t h m i n i s t e r i a l d i r e c t i v e s or a d v i s e . In the case of a Board, i t s h a l l a c t i n accordance w i t h the D i s t r i c t Superintendent's a d v i s e except i n those matters over which i t has e x c l u s i v e and e x p l i c i t l y g i v e n j u r i s d i c t i o n . F u r t h e r ; f o r those c l a u s e s opening with the above words, th e r e i s no s u b s t a n t i v e counter-p a r t f o r Boards o f T r u s t e e s wherein t h e r e i s not a c r o s s -r e f e r e n c e back t o the a u t h o r i t y Of the D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n -dent. F o r example, the D i s t r i c t Superintendent s h a l l : s u b j e c t t o the a p p r o v a l of the Board, a s s i g n t e a c h e r s t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s on the t e a c h i n g s t a f f o f each s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . 6 0 The c o u n t e r p a r t t o t h i s c l a u s e f o r the Board of T r u s t e e s s t a t e s t h a t : The Board of each s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s h a l l . . . a s i g n o r a u t h o r i z e the assignment of those t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t under c l a u s e (e) of s u b s e c t i o n (1) o f S e c t i o n 9, and e n t e r i n t o c o n t r a c t s w i t h them, as p r o v i d e d i n t h i s Act.61 Such p h r a s i n g can h a r d l y be s a i d t o g i v e a u t h o r i t y t o a Board. Ins t e a d , i t may be s a i d t h a t the Board must bear the f i s c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but l e a v e e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y t o o t h e r c o n s t i t u e n t s . Thus, the o n l y way t o have a t e a c h e r assigned i s through the D i s t r i c t Superintendent. 60 R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 319; 1972, c. 52, S e c t i o n 9 ( e ) . 61 I b i d . , S e c t i o n 128(1). 81 S i m i l a r l y , where the Act r e q u i r e s t h a t the D i s t r i c t Superintendent advise and a s s i s t e a c h Board having j u r i s d i c t i o n i n h i s superintendency i n e x e r c i s i n g i t s powers and d u t i e s under t h i s A c t ; 6 2 i t may be concluded t h a t the Board s h a l l r e c e i v e and show evidence o f due c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the recommen-d a t i o n s o f the D i s t r i c t Superintendent i n a l l matters which the Board may c o n s i d e r . T h i s c l a u s e alone would tend t o support the a s s e r t i o n t h a t the D i s t r i c t Super-inte n d e n t ranks f i r s t i n the f i e l d because the mandatory nature o f the c l a u s e ensures t h a t no Board a c t i o n should be taken without the d i r e c t involvement o f the D i s t r i c t Superintendent. The Act does not say simply t h a t a Board may ask a D i s t r i c t Superintendent f o r a d v i c e , but t h a t the D i s t r i c t Superintendent s h a l l g i v e advice and a s s i s t a n c e . In matters o f e d u c a t i o n a l import, the i s s u e s o f s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n s t r u c t i o n and s p e c i a l l e a r n i n g s e r v i c e s as w e l l as c u r r i c u l a r p o l i c y , the D i s t r i c t Superintendent i s completely r e s p o n s i b l e . Of these matters, the Act s t a t e s : Each D i s t r i c t Superintendent o f Schools, i n r e s p e c t of h i s superintendency, s h a l l e x e r c i s e s u p e r v i s o r y a u t h o r i t y i n a l l matters r e l a t i n g t o s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n s t r u c t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , and d i s c i p l i n e , and s h a l l encourage the r a i s i n g of the l e v e l of p u p i l a c h i e v e -ment and the advancement o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n ; 6 3 62 R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 319; 1972, c. 52, 9 ( c ) . 63 I b i d . , S e c t i o n 9(h). p l a n and s u p e r v i s e the a c t i v i t i e s o f d i r e c t o r s -and s u p e r v i s o r s o f i n s t r u c t i o n , t e a c h e r con-s u l t a n t s , and oth e r t e a c h e r s a s s i g n e d t o s c h o o l d i s t r i c t d u t i e s ; 6 4 C l e a r l y , the Act g i v e s the D i s t r i c t Superintendent f u l l a u t h o r i t y t o d i r e c t the e s s e n t i a l purposes o f the p u b l i c schools.-Sometimes, th& D i s t r i c t Superintendent i s r e f e r r e d * t o as "the c h i e f e d u c a t i o n a l o f f i c e r o f the Board." T h i s i s erroneous. The same source p o i n t s out t h a t the D i s t r i c t Superintendent "does not have any power under law over the B o a r d . " 6 6 I f t h i s were t r u e , then he c o u l d not be anything "of the Board". The d u t i e s t o which the T r u s t e e s ' Manual r e f e r r e d are not with r e f e r e n c e t o the Board but t o the School D i s t r i c t , f o r the preamble s t a t e s Each D i s t r i c t Superintendent of Schools, i n r e s p e c t of h i s superintendency, s h a l l . . . 6 7 F u r t h e r , the T r u s t e e s were of the view t h a t the D i s t r i c t 6 8 Superintendent "does not d i r e c t the Board." While t h i s i s q u i t e t r u e , the Board i s l a w f u l l y unable t o come t o i t s c o n c l u s i o n s on i s s u e s without the advise of the D i s t r i c t Superintendent. Thus, the D i s t r i c t Superintendent must be i n v o l v e d i n a l l d i s t r i c t matters whereas the Board i s l i m i t e d t o what, e d u c a t i o n a l l y , are housekeeping d u t i e s . 64 R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 319; 1972, c. 52, S e c t i o n 9 ( p ) . 65 Marion R i c k e r , P a u l i n e Touzeau, eds., The Tr u s t e e ' s  Reference Manual (Vancouver, The B.C. School T r u s t e e s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1963); p. 23. 66 I b i d . , p. 24• 67 R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 319, o p . c i t . , S e c t i o n 9. 68 R i c k e r and Touzeau, o p . c i t . p. 23. F i n a l l y , the A c t p r o v i d e s t h a t Powers or d u t i e s a s s i g n e d t o any person by any Board s h a l l not abridge o r impair the powers o r d u t i e s a s s i g n e d t o the person by or under t h i s : Act.69 Thus, nothi n g done by the Board may contravene any p r e v i o u s p r o v i s i o n of the A c t . Hence, when S e c t i o n 9(o) says: Each D i s t r i c t Superintendent o f S c h o o l s . . . s h a l l when necessary, and s u b j e c t t o the ap p r o v a l o f the Board o f the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t concerned, determine which s c h o o l any p u p i l s h a l l attend;70 i t i s necessary t o read the Act as a whole and S e c t i o n 158 s t a t e s : The Board of each s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s h a l l a u t h o r i z e the D i s t r i c t Superintendent t o a s s i g n p u p i l s t o v a r i o u s s c h o o l s i n the d i s t r i c t . . . . ' 1 The c o n c l u s i o n once again i s t h a t a u t h o r i t y f o r programme matters i s intended to r e s t with the D i s t r i c t Superintendent, s u b j e c t t o the M i n i s t e r . The Board of T r u s t e e s -I t may be t h a t Canada's p r o x i m i t y t o the United S t a t e s of America has, t o some ex t e n t , i n f l u e n c e d t h i n k i n g upon the a u t h o r i t y and power o f l o c a l s c h o o l boards. In many S t a t e s , s c h o o l boards appear t o have v e r y h i g h degrees o f autonomy i n many matters. Since much of the 69 R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 319, o p . c i t . , S e c t i o n 91. 70 I b i d . , S e c t i o n 9 (o). 71 I b i d . , S e c t i o n 158(b). p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e on s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s of U.S. o r i g i n , i t i s not unreasonable t h a t a t t i t u d e s towards Boards o f T r u s t e e s may be i n f l u e n c e d by i t . In matters o f f i n a n c e and management o f p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . Boards have much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t h e i r ensuing t a s k s are demanding and complicated. T h i s study, however, focuses o n l y upon the ' e d u c a t i o n a l ' domain: t e a c h i n g *and l e a r n i n g i s s u e s o f i n t e r e s t t o a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f e d u c a t i o n . In t h i s l a t t e r area, Boards of T r u s t e e s must r e l y upon the D i s t r i c t Superintendent almost e x c l u s i v e l y . I t i s not i n a c c u r a t e t o a s s e r t t h a t i n b a s i c i s s u e s of e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y , l o c a l s c h o o l boards l a c k s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y . S e c t i o n 97 o f the Act does s t a t e t h a t the Board o f each s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s h a l l determine l o c a l p o l i c y i n conformity with t h i s Act f o r the e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n of the s c h o o l s i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ; ' 2 The o p e r a t i v e phrase i s " i n conformity w i t h t h i s A c t " and i n view of the p r e c e d i n g a n a l y s i s of the D i s t r i c t Super-i n t e n d e n t , i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t t h i s c l a u s e c o u l d enable a Board t o a c t u a l l y express o r e n f o r c e any p o l i c y concerned with an e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o n l y t h a t i s not e x p l i c i t l y formulated under the a u t h o r i t y o f the A c t . T h i s i s not t o say t h a t a Board i s without p o l i t i c a l power. I f t h e r e i s a c o n f l i c t of views on an e d u c a t i o n a l matter between the Board and the D i s t r i c t Superintendent, the Board might w e l l 72 R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 319; 1972, c. 52, S e c t i o n 97(b). use leverage from those areas over which i t has c o n s i d e r a b l e a u t h o r i t y such as t e a c h e r d i s m i s s a l , b u i l d i n g si.t.st> and maintenance. Of course, t h i s type d f p r e s s u r i n g can proceed two ways and the f i n a l a l l o c a t i o n o f v a l u e s o r s t r a t e g i e s would probably be b e t t e r reached through some r a t i o n a l r e g a rd f o r each p a r t y ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . While t r u s t e e s may note t h a t a D i s t r i c t Superintendent has no l e g a l power over a Board, n e i t h e r has the Board l e g a l power over the D i s t r i c t Superintendent. As a p o i n t i n law, the i s s u e i s of l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y ; but f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o proceed e f f e c t i v e l y , the p o i n t i s q u i t e important. Were the D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n -dent t o have any such l e g a l power, i t would mean, a c c o r d i n g t o the i s s u e s i n Chapter IV, t h a t he had been i n v e s t e d w i t h d e l e g a t e d a u t h o r i t y o f a l e g i s l a t i v e n a t u r e . T h i s , o f course, i s not the i n t e n t o f the L e g i s l a t u r e . S i m i l a r l y , s i n c e the D i s t r i c t Superintendent a c t s on b e h a l f o f the M i n i s t e r and by the M i n i s t e r ' s a u t h o r i t y , i t would be a strange r e l a t i o n s h i p were the Board t o have l e g a l power over the D i s t r i c t Superintendent. What emerges then, i s a n e c e s s i t y f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e c o - o p e r a t i o n upon the p a r t s of both the Board and the D i s t r i c t Superintendent. The a u t h o r i t y o f each to act i s designed i n such a way t h a t each r e q u i r e s the c o - o p e r a t i o n of the o t h e r . T h e i r s i s a complementary r e l a t i o n s h i p . The purpose of t h i s i n t e r l o c k i n g e f f e c t i s twofold.The Board i s kept completely informed of e d u c a t i o n a l 86 a c t i v i t y w i t h i n i t s d i s t r i c t , and the Department o f Education i s kept i n touch with l o c a l p o l i c y r e q u e s t s . I t may w e l l be t h a t l o c a l i s s u e s f o r " c o n t r o l o f our s c h o o l s " do not a r i s e i n B r i t i s h Columbia q u i t e t o the extent they seem t o i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s because o f t h i s i n t e r w e a v i n g o f a u t h o r i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n management. $hus, i n the June, 1973 e d i t i o n of " f d u c a t i o n B.C.", the p u b l i c a t i o n of the B.C. School T r u s t e e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , a "re-afff i r m a t i o n " of the p r i n c i p l e o f l o c a l c o n t r o l was l i s t e d f o u r t h of f i v e p r i o r i t i e s f o r the coming ye a r . The i s s u e s o f l o c a l c o n t r o l are i n t e r e s t i n g and a b r i e f examination of the area might h e l p t o determine f u r t h e r the Board's a u t h o r i t y i n e d u c a t i o n . I t i s the i n t e n t o f the B.C. School T r u s t e e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n To maintain the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s confirmed b e l i e f i n l a y c o n t r o l of e d u c a t i o n . To encourage p u b l i c involvement i n s e t t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and i n d e v e l o p i n g l e a d e r s h i p at the l o c a l l e v e l . ? 3 I t may be asked, t h e r e f o r e , what a u t h o r i t y has a Board t o encourage c i t i z e n involvement i n i t s a f f a i r s ? C o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y , Canada has a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government. T h i s excludes p a r t i c i p a t i o n by means of r e f e r e n d a . Only i n s c h o o l budget matters may a referendum be c r e a t e d . At b e s t , t h e r e f o r e , Boards can conduct p l e b i s c i t e s o r t h e i r e q u i v a l e n t . These are o n l y i n f o r m a t i o n producing s t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r r e s u l t s i n no way r e q u i r e Board o r Departmental a c t i o n . Hence, a t 73 "Education B.C." (The B.C. School T r u s t e e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n ) , V o l . I I , No. 10, June 1973. 87 t h i s time, a c i t i z e n may p e t i t i o n the Board, s i n g l y or c o l l e c t i v e l y , i n the same manner as he can p e t i t i o n h i s Member o f P a r l i a m e n t . A Board does not have an o b l i g a t i o n t o respond.74 From the m a t e r i a l s o f Chapters I I I and IV, i t i s c l e a r t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e has t o t a l c o n t r o l of e d u c a t i o n , and t h a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as w e l l as the s e t t i n g o f o b j e c t i v e s has been co n t a i n e d w i t h i n the a u t h o r i t y of the m i n i s t r y . L o c a l Boards are not mentioned wi t h r e s p e c t t o e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y except f o r S e c t i o n 97(b) mentioned e a r l i e r ; and even t h i s r e f e r e n c e i s , by S e c t i o n 91, i n f e r i o r a u t h o r i t y t o t h a t of the D i s t r i c t Superintendent and o t h e r s mentioned i n the A c t . I t might be w e l l t o r e i t e r a t e here an e a r l i e r comment t h a t t h i s a n a l y s i s i n no way means t o compromise the w i l l i n g c o - o p e r a t i o n t h a t takes p l a c e between p e r s o n n e l named i n the A c t . The i n t e n t i s t o s t a t e as c l e a r l y as p o s s i b l e the s t a t u t o r y r e l a t i o n s as they appear t o be. In o t h e r words, were the e d u c a t i o n system suddenly t o "work t o r u l e , " then the outcomes might be p r e d i c t e d as d e s c r i b e d h e r e i n . Power was e a r l i e r d e f i n e d as the range of d i s c r e t i o n p e r m i t t e d i n the d e l e g a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y . Thus, the Board has the a u t h o r i t y t o enact by-laws. S e c t i o n 98 i s i n t e r e s t i n g . I t s t a t e s : 74 A.M. Adams, A Study o f the Use of P l e b i s c i t e s and Referendums by the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, (Master T h e s i s , U.B.C. LE 3 B7 A8 A3 S8, 1958). 88 The Board of a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t may make by-laws, not i n c o n s i s t e n t with the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t o r r e g u l a t i o n s , r e l a t i v e t o the^ ^ fcgani-. z a t i o n o f meetings of the Board and to any matter * over which power o r a u t h o r i t y i s by t h i s Act e x p r e s s l y v e s t e d e x c l u s i v e l y i n the Board; and a copy o f each by-law s h a l l be f i l e d w ith the Department;'5 T h e r e f o r e , the Board may make by-laws o r r u l e s about i t s own s t y l e o f meetings. T h i s i s not e d u c a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . A l s o , i t may make by-laws on any matter where i t has e x c l u s i v e a u t h o r i t y and power e x p r e s s l y v e s t e d i n i t . In terms of ed u c a t i o n p o l i c y , t h e r e i s no such i n s t a n c e i d e n t i f i e d i n the Ac t . S e c t i o n 122 p r o v i d e s t h a t : The Board o f any s c h o o l d i s t r i c t may by by-laws p r e s c r i b e e i t h e r g e n e r a l l y o r s p e c i f i c a l l y an a p p r o p r i a t e type of c l o t h i n g t o be worn by p u p i l s _,g of any s c h o o l o r a l l s c h o o l s w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . I t might be argued i n o r d i n a r y c o u r t s t h a t such a power a f f e c t s the r i g h t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and s i n c e such power i s g e n e r a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r the L e g i s l a t u r e alone, t h i s s e c t i o n c o u l d be, c o n c e i v a b l y , h e l d u l t r a v i r e s . That p o i n t n o t w i t h -s t a n d i n g , i t c o u l d be argued t h a t such r u l i n g s c o u l d perhaps a f f e c t o r i n f l u e n c e l e a r n i n g outcomes and t e a c h i n g a t t i t u d e s , but the p o i n t i s probably not too s i g n i f i c a n t e d u c a t i o n a l l y . The Board does not have the a u t h r o i t y o r power t o d i r e c t l y a f f e c t c u r r i c u l a r development. I n d i r e c t l y , a Board may be ab l e t o i n f l u e n c e the m i n i s t r y ; but not by s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n . L o c a l c o n t r o l of ed u c a t i o n i s , a t t h i s time, s t a t u t o r i l y i m p o s s i b l e . To argue f o r such a p r i n c i p l e would be l i k e 75 R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 319; 1972, c. 52; S e c t i o n 98(a). 76 I b i d . , S e c t i o n 122. 89 arguing f o r l o c a l c o n t r o l of p r o v i n c i a l government. The Department o f Educat i o n has i n s t i t u t e d the p r a c t i c e o f encouraging l o c a l l y developed courses f o r p u b l i c s c h o o l s . The Board i s not mentioned at any stage f o r the development of these courses. In f a c t , the proper t i t l e o f such courses i s " L o c a l l y Developed P r o v i n c i a l l y 77 Approved Courses." Again, t h i s i s not t o say t h a t Boards of T r u s t e e s are not without important r o l e s , even i n t h i s area; but such r o l e s are not s t a t u t o r i l y p r o v i d e d and thus are beyond the scope of t h i s study. In 1972, the B.C. Parent-Teacher F e d e r a t i o n conducted a p u b l i c i n q u i r y i n t o the i s s u e o f p u b l i c i n -volvement i n e d u c a t i o n . The study concluded t h a t : A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f c i t i z e n s — many o f whom are h i g h l y educated and aware of the r o l e o f the s c h o o l i n a modern community — wanted t o break down the b a r r i e r s t o our s c h o o l s , t o r i d s c h o o l s o f t h e i r sense of h o l y ground, which the c i t i z e n r y may e n t e r on l y a t s p e c i a l times and f o r des i g n a t e d , l a r g e l y s p e c t a t o r purposes.78 Indeed t h e r e are b a r r i e r s . Many viewed t h e i r Boards as un-w i l l i n g t o co-operate o r to permit c i t i z e n s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n f l u e n c e e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y . The T r u s t e e s , however, simply l a c k a u t h o r i t y t o permit such involvement. Most are s i n c e r e l y sympathetic t o c i t i z e n r e q u e s t s , as evidenced by the B.C. School T r u s t e e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n r e s o l u t i o n , but they are not abl e l e g a l l y t o be o f d i r e c t a s s i s t a n c e . 77 The B.C. Department of E d u c a t i o n , " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  B u l l e t i n f o r Secondary Schools", 1972; p. 10. 78 The B.C. Parent-Teacher F e d e r a t i o n Report: "The P u b l i c ' s Role In E d u c a t i o n " (Vancouver 1972). 90 L e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c u r r i c u l u m r e s t s with the L i e u t e n a n t - Governor i n C o u n c i l . T h i s i n c l u d e s the a u t h o r i z i n g of p r o v i n c i a l courses o f study and the p r e s c r i b i n g of textbooks. The a c t u a l process of d e v e l o p i n g courses of study and s e l e c t i n g textbooks i s undertaken by committees of s e l e c t e d t e a c h e r s , s u p e r v i s o r s , p r i n c i p a l s , and members of F a c u l t i e s of Education working under the g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n of the P r o v i n c i a l Department of E d u c a t i o n . R e s u l t s o f t h i s work are submitted t o the M i n i s t e r of Education and the L i e u t e n a n t - Governor i n C o u n c i l f o r a u t h o r i z a t i o n and t r a n s m i s s i o n to the s c h o o l s of the P r o v i n c e . 7 9 Thus, while some case; may be made t o support the a s s e r t i o n t h a t a Board i s not without some a u t h o r i t y and power i n ed u c a t i o n programme i s s u e s , the case would be extremely weak i n view of the p r e c e d i n g quote; and f i n a l l y , t h e r e i s no such area where the Board has e x c l u s i v e a u t h o r i t y . What a u t h o r i t y i t may appear t o have i s i n f e r i o r t o t h a t of the D i s t r i c t Superintendent by v i r t u e of S e c t i o n 91 and the f a c t t h a t a Board has no l e g a l a u t h o r i t y over a D i s t r i c t Superintendent. T h e r e f o r e , a Board has no a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y over a D i s t r i c t Superintendent, i n which case, a c c o r d i n g t o the d e f i n i t i o n s of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Chapters V and VI, a Board cannot impress i t s c u r r i c u l a r v a l u e s upon the Superintendency nor can i t impose a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s . Teachers Since the A c t i s almost s i l e n t on p e d a g o g i c a l i s s u e s — programme p l a n n i n g and the l i k e — i t may be assumed t h a t , except f o r those r e f e r e n c e s to the D i s t r i c t Superintendent, such matters are g e n e r a l l y delegated t o 79 " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B u l l e t i n , 1972", o p . c i t . , p. 8. t e a c h e r s v i a the P r o v i n c i a l and D i s t r i c t Superinfc'endencies. As always, the M i n i s t e r i s i n charge. However, the*" Superintendents a c t w i t h the M i n i s t e r ' s a u t h o r i t y and t h e r e f o r e the 1972 " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B u l l e t i n f o r Secondary Schools" can be r e l i e d upon f o r f u r t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f S e c t i o n 152 of the Act which says: Every t e a c h e r employed i n a p u b l i c s c h o o l s h a l l , s u b j e c t t o t h i s A c t and the r e g u l a t i o n s teach a l l p u p i l s under h i s c a r e d i l i g e n t l y and f a i t h f u l l y a l l the branches o f l e a r n i n g r e q u i r e d t o be taught by him i n the s c h o o l t o which he i s a s signed, and m a i n t a i n proper o r d e r and g Q d i s c i p l i n e among the p u p i l s a t t e n d i n g the s c h o o l ; The Department of Education i s s u e s c e r t i f i c a t e s t o teach, and presumes t h a t anyone granted a c e r t i f i c a t e w i l l be a b l e t o reach the t e a c h i n g o b j e c t i v e s s e t out i n the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B u l l e t i n . However, the p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h e r has v i r t u a l l y no s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y f o r any matter. At b e s t , t h e r e are a number o f c l e r i c a l d u t i e s a s s i g n e d under S e c t i o n 152 of the Act, but none of these can be regarded as v e s t i n g any a u t h o r i t y o r power i n a t e a c h e r . Teachers have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o m aintain p u p i l o r d e r and d i s c i p l i n e , as evidenced by the above quote; but t h e r e i s no e x p l i c i t a u t h o r i t y g i v e n t o execute d i s c i p l i n a r y procedures There are, however, i m p l i c i t a u t h o r i t i e s f o r t e a c h e r s and they are very e x t e n s i v e and e n f o r c e a b l e . They w i l l be d i s -cussed l a t e r - i n Chapter V I I . 80 R.S.B.C. 1960, c.319; 1972, c. 52, S e c t i o n 152(b). 92 The p r i n c i p a l t e a c h e r has, of course, numerous d u t i e s . There was-& time when a p r i n c i p a l was presumed t o be an e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r . T h i s presumption probably r e s u l t e d from the broader d e f i n i t i o n s of a p r i n c i p a l s h i p than now e x i s t — s t a t u t o r i l y . In the 1968 c o n s o l i d a t i o n of the P u b l i c Schools A c t , i t was p r o v i d e d t h a t : The Board pf a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t may appoint o r a u t h o r i z e the appointment o f t e a c h e r s •r^-ir as p r i n c i p a l s , each o f whom s h a l l have charge o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and s u p e r v i s i o n o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l o r s c h o o l s of which he i s : appointed p r i n c i p a l ; 8 ! In t h i s case, what might be meant by o r g a n i z a t i o n , admin-i s t r a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n was l e f t t o l o c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t a p r i n c i p a l c o u l d e a s i l y be regarded as a s u p e r i o r a u t h o r i t y by t e a c h e r s . The c u r r e n t A c t , however, makes c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n s of what d u t i e s and a u t h o r i t i e s a p r i n c i p a l s h a l l have. Subject t o the p r o v i s i o n s o f the Act, the p r i n c i p a l i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g the s c h o o l , i n c l u d i n g p l a c i n g and programming p u p i l s i n the s c h o o l ; the time t a b l e s o f t e a c h e r s ; the programme of t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s conducted by the s c h o o l ; the maintenance of s c h o o l r e c o r d s ; and the g e n e r a l conduct of p u p i l s , both on s c h o o l 82 premises and d u r i n g e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . . . . N o t i c e t h a t the p r i n c i p a l i s " r e s p o n s i b l e f o r " compared with the e a r l i e r p h r a s i n g " s h a l l have charge o f . " I t would appear 81 R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 319; 1968, c.45 S e c t i o n 1 2 9 ( a ) ( i ) . 82 R.S.B.C, 1960, c. 319; 1972, c.52, R e g u l a t i o n s (93). t h e r e has been a marked d i m i n u t i o n of the p r i n c i p a l ' s a u t h o r i t y , even f o r b u s i n e s s management items. The p r i n c i p l e of ejusdem g e n e r i s may apply t o f u r t h e r c l a r i f y the s t a t u s o f a p r i n c i p a l ' s a u t h o r i t y . Quoting Lord Bramwell, Edgar says: As a matter of o r d i n a r y construction...where s e v e r a l words are f o l l o w e d by g e n e r a l e x p r e s s i o n s , the e x p r e s s i o n s are not l i m i t e d t o the l a s t but applye t o a l l . 8 2 Thus, the meanings t o be a s c r i b e d t o the terms ' a d m i n i s t e r i n g ' and ' s u p e r v i s i n g ' of S e c t i o n 93 o f the Regulations quoted above are c o n t a i n e d i n the subsequent enumeration (a) t o ( e ) . These are d u t i e s o f a c l e r i c a l nature and cannot be r e a d i l y equated w i t h o r d i n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e respons-i b i l i t y . However, e x p l i c i t s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y i s not the o n l y source from which a p r i n c i p a l may r e c e i v e a u t h o r i t y and power. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y and power may be d e l e g a t e d by the M i n i s t e r or Deputy M i n i s t e r . The next chapter examines some o f the i m p l i c i t , d e legated circumstances o f c o n s t i t u e n t s o f the e d u c a t i o n system. 94 V I I I - ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY and POWER Chapter VII demonstrates the g e n e r a l s t a t u t o r y a u t horities of the major c o n s t i t u e n t s of the educat i o n system. What remains t o be examined are the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s and powers as these terms are used i n the c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g chapters, I - VI. Where the l a s t c h apter began a t the top of the h i e r a r c h y , i t may be more s u i t a b l e f o r reasons o f c o n t i n u i t y t o begin t h i s S e c t i o n with the classroom t e a c h e r . The l a s t c h a p t e r a s s e r t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s lack s t a t u t o r y , a u t h o r i t y and power. Yet, anyone who has been a classroom student, t e a c h e r or observer, w i l l probably wonder a t the v a l i d i t y of such an a s s e r t i o n . F o r the l e a r n e r , the ' r e a l a c t i o n ' of the edu c a t i o n system takes p l a c e i n the classroom. Few students ever r e a l i z e the immensity and com-p l e x i t y t h a t l a y s behind the r o l e of a tea c h e r . At t h a t l e v e l , e d u c a t i o n i s the te a c h e r . I t i s not u n l i k e the journeys o f the as t r o n a u t s : the cameras focus upon a few persons; but behind those persons i s a v a s t a r r a y o f technology and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s without whom the space m i s s i o n would never o c c u r . Thus, by what means can the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y and power of a teac h e r be accounted? I f i t doesn't e x i s t , then t h e r e i s no problem. Any d e c i s i o n t h a t a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y a l l o c a t e s s t r a t e g i e s was s a i d to be a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . To execute t h a t k i n d of d e c i s i o n r e q u i r e s some measure of a u t h o r i t y and o f t e n i n c l u d e s some degree of d i s c r e t i o n , o r , power. 95 Each day, every t e a c h e r must choose some s t r a t e g y by means o f which the e f f o r t s o f a group o f students w i l l be c o - o r d i n a t e d and d i r e c t e d towards some o b j e c t i v e . That c h o i c e i s the d e c i s i o n t o a l l o c a t e some s t r a t e g y t o be a p p l i e d by the l e a r n e r s f o r r e a c h i n g an o b j e c t i v e . The a c t , t h e r e f o r e , i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . T h i s , of course, does not mean t h a t the te a c h e r a c t s i n a manner which contravenes some p a r t o f the a c t . S e c t i o n 6 ( a ) , ( d), and (e) a u t h o r i z e the M i n i s t e r t o delegate t o t e a c h e r s v i a the Superintendency the r e q u i r e d a u t h o r i t y t o make such d e c i s i o n s . The d e l e g a t i o n i s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e scope. S e c t i o n 6 p r o v i d e s t h a t : The M i n i s t e r , s u b j e c t t o the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s A c t , (a) has charge of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h i s A ct; (d) may designate a member o f the C i v i l S e r v i c e t o a c t on h i s b e h a l f ; and (e) s u b j e c t t o the r e g u l a t i o n s , may make such r u l e s and o r d e r s as are c o n s i d e r e d necessary o r a d v i s a b l e t o e f f e c t i v e l y a d m i n i s t e r t h i s A c t or the r e g u l a t i o n s . 8 3 The consequent here i s the p r o d u c t i o n o f such d i r e c t i v e s as the "Administrative B u l l e t i n f o r Secondary Sc h o o l s , 1972." In t h i s document, p u b l i s h e d and d i s t r i b u t e d by the a u t h o r i t y of the M i n i s t e r and Deputy M i n i s t e r , the Act i s giv e n more s p e c i f i c e f f e c t . T h i s document may be c o n s i d e r e d as an order o f the Department of Educat i o n and t h e r e f o r e o f f e r s much v a l u e as an i n t e r p r e t i v e guide t o the a u t h o r i t y and power 83 R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 319; 1972, c.52. S e c t i o n 6. 96 o f t e a c h e r s . I t w i l l be worthwhile to examine i t b r i e f l y . The B u l l e t i n opens by s t a t i n g i t s purpose. I t says: The purpose o f the f o l l o w i n g i s t w o f o l d : 1. t o d e s c r i b e i n a simple summary form those elements i n a p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n system which m e r i t thought by a l l those concerned w i t h i t s o p e r a t i o n ; and 2. t o a s s i s t those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e v e l o p i n g s p e c i f i c o p e r a t i o n a l statements f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p u b l i c schools.84 At t h i s p o i n t , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t e a c h e r s ("those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e v e l o p i n g s p e c i f i c o p e r a t i o n a l statements") are expected t o perform a t l e a s t some of the i n t e r p r e t i v e work concerned w i t h a p p l y i n g the Department's ph i l o s o p h y t o the s c h o o l o p e r a t i o n s . The B u l l e t i n f u r t h e r a s s e r t s , when speaking of the student, t h a t : As an i n d i v i d u a l he w i l l r e q u i r e i n t e l l e c t u a l s e l f -r e a l i z a t i o n , as w e l l as p h y s i c a l , mental, and emotional growth and as a member o f s o c i e t y he w i l l need some t r a i n i n g t o make a l i v i n g and be a b l e t o i n t e g r a t e with h i s c u l t u r a l surroundings. T h e : p u b l i e s c h o o l should apply t h i s g e n e r a l aim so t h a t p r o v i s i o n can and w i l l be made not o n l y t o r e c o g n i z e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s but a l s o t o g i v e r e a l a s s i s t a n c e i n d e a l i n g with them....85 I f "the p u b l i c s c h o o l should apply t h i s g e n e r a l aim," then, without o t h e r evidence as t o how the p u b l i c s c h o o l should proceed, U . o r : the s c h o o l s t a f f themselves must be presumed t o be given the a u t h o r i t y t o f u n c t i o n as p e d a g o g i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . In s h o r t , t e a c h e r s are indeed g i v e n r e c o g n i t i o n 84 " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B u l l e t i n " , o p . c i t . , p. 1. 85 I b i d . , p. 1. 97 of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e and are expected t o e x e r c i s e i t f u l l y . There i s , then, an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e domain t o t e a c h i n g . I t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are o f the same form as p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d as a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . Only the content d i f f e r s from t h a t , say, o f a Superintendent. N e a r l y a l l d e c i s i o n s made by a te a c h e r i n v o l v e the choosing and a p p l y i n g o f s t r a t e g i e s i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . The Department o f Ed u c a t i o n has e s t a b l i s h e d the o b j e c t i v e s o f e d u c a t i o n . That i s the p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y o f a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y a l l o c a t i n g v a l u e s . The v a l u e s are t o be a c q u i r e d by the students and i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the te a c h e r t o look a f t e r the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s connected w i t h those v a l u e s . T h i s means choosing the a p p r o p r i a t e p e d a g o g i c a l strategy f o r . t h e t a s k . The freedom f o r the p e d a g o g i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n i s l a r g e . Any examination o f a Departmental c u r r i c u l u m guide book w i l l show i n l a r g e l e t t e r s t h a t " t h i s i s a guide o n l y . " The Department shows rib wish t o i n t e r f e r e with the p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a t e a c h e r . While the a u t h o r i t y o f the M i n i s t e r i s l a r g e , he always a c t s w i t h c the a d v i s e of the p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The whole o f governmental procedure d e s c r i b e d i n Chapters I I I and IV g e n e r a l l y apply i n form to the o p e r a t i o n s o f a Department. Admittedly, the M i n i s t e r need not a c t on the advice o f the p r o f e s s i o n i n the same f a s h i o n as the L i e u t e n a n t - Governor; but t h e r e i s no evidence t h a t i n matters of c u r r i c u l u m and programme p l a n n i n g t h a t the M i n i s t e r a c t s without such a d v i c e . 98 The l a s t c h apter a l s o l e f t the impression t h a t t e a c h e r s appointed p r i n c i p a l s l a c k e d much s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y . As i n the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n of the t e a c h e r , the p r i n c i p a l has much a u t h o r i t y and power delegated t o him by the M i n i s t e r . I t i s f o r reason o f t h i s route o f d e l e g a t i o n t h a t a p r i n c i p a l i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r programme and c u r r i c u l u m matters t o the Superintendencies and not t o the Board of T r u s t e e s . The " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B u l l e t i n " d i s c u s s e s the r o l e o f the p r i n c i p a l . I t says: Mention has been made of the i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t i n i t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the secondary s c h o o l i n p r o -v i d i n g f o r the e d u c a t i o n o f i t s p u p i l s . In t h i s con-n e c t i o n the r o l e of the p r i n c i p a l i s o f paramount importance. He w i l l p l a y a major p a r t i n d e v e l o p i n g and p r o v i d i n g p u p i l programmes t h a t w i l l b e s t s u i t the needs o f the p u p i l s and the community. T h i s w i l l r e q u i r e a thorough knowledge of the community based upon a c l o s e l i a s o n w i t h b u s i n e s s , i n d u s t r y and community agencies; a thorough understanding o f the • nature of the v a r i o u s programmes and t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l demands on s t a f f and f a c i l i t i e s ; and ac c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the present and p o t e n t i a l enrolment o f the s c h o o l . In a d d i t i o n t o c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g the p r i n c i p a l w i l l a l s o be concerned wi t h the e f f e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the c u r r i c u l u m i n h i s s c h o o l . T h i s w i l l i n v o l v e c o n s i d e r -a t i o n o f such matters as the f o l l o w i n g : e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z i n g a l l s t a f f members; c o o r d i n a t i n g c o u n s e l l i n g and guidance s e r v i c e s e s s e n t i a l - t o the i n t e l l i g e n t s e l e c t i o n of programmes by the p u p i l s ; m a i n t a i n i n g l i a s o n with "feeder" s c h o o l s ; i n t e r p r e t i n g the p h i l o s o p h y and c u r r i c u l u m of the s c h o o l f o r p u p i l s , t h e i r parents and the community.86 T h i s document says the p r i n c i p a l i s of "paramount importance"; and such an e x p r e s s i o n seems t o c o n t r a d i c t the s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s o f S e c t i o n 93 of the R e g u l a t i o n s . O b v i o u s l y , i t 86 " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B u l l e t i n " , o p . c i t . , p. 4. 99 i s an i s s u e t h a t can be accounted f o r by again r e a l i z i n g the d i s c r e t i o n a r y power o f the M i n i s t e r and of the Deputy M i n i s t e r who a c t s as the c h i e f e x e c u t i v e of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the Department, with the a u t h o r i t y o f the M i n i s t e r . I t does mean, however, t h a t the p r i n c i p a l can be reduced t o the c l e r i c a l s t a t u s p r o v i d e d by the Act by means of the same m i n i s t e r i a l d i s c r e t i o n a r y power. For the moment though (and t h e r e i s no evidence of c a p r i c i o u s behaviour on the M i n i s t e r ' s p a r t i n these m a t t e r s ) , the p r i n c i p a l i s c l e a r l y i n charge of the l o c a l s c h o o l programme. I t i s worth n o t i n g as w e l l t h a t i t i s the p r i n c i p a l , and no o t h e r , who i s expected t o i n t e r p r e t the p h i l o s o p h y and c u r r i c u l u m of the s c h o o l t o p a rents and the community g e n e r a l l y . S e c t i o n 9(h) o f the A c t , quoted e a r l i e r , i n d i c a t e s t h a t the p r i n c i p a l i s answer-able t o the D i s t r i c t Superintendent i n matters o f s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n s t r u c t i o n and s i m i l a r e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e s . I t would appear t h a t s i n c e the p r i n c i p a l i s c l e a r l y i n charge of the l o c a l s c h o o l programme and i s accountable t o the D i s t r i c t Superintendent, and s i n c e the Board o f T r u s t e e s l a c k s j u r i s d i c t i o n i n c u r r i c u l a r matters, t h a t l o c a l autonomy, e d u c a t i o n a l l y , has been achieved. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the e x c l u s i o n o f the Board t o such an e x t e n t may not be w holly d e s i r a b l e . F o r example, the Department suggests t h a t the p r i n c i p a l m a i n t a i n a " c l o s e lia'son w i t h b u s i n e s s , i n d u s t r y and the community agenc i e s . " The p r i n c i p a l i s not o f t e n able t o e s t a b l i s h t h i s k i n d of lia'son without 100 consuming time t h a t c o u l d be w e l l spent on the demands of the d a i l y s c h o o l o p e r a t i o n s . T h i s i s an area f o r T r u s t e e involvement; and the reason f o r involvement would seem t o suggest some s o r t o f T r u s t e e r o l e i n c u r r i c u l u m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Perhaps one o f the fundamental reasons Boards o f T r u s t e e s l a c k j u r i s d i c t i o n i n c u r r i c u l a r i s s u e s i s the f a c t t h a t e s t a b l i s h i n g and a l l o c a t i n g v a l u e s i s p r i m a r i l y the domain o f the l e g i s l a t i v e f u n c t i o n . Thus, t h e r e i s l i t t l e chance t h a t such r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s would be d e l e g a t e d to a c o r p o r a t i o n whose main task i s t o p r o v i d e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s such as accomodation and t u i t i o n . E d ucation i s a p r o v i n c i a l , not community, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s reasonable t h a t s o c i a l homogeneity can be achieved best where the decision-making process on c u r r i c u l u m i s c e n t r a l i z e d . The most important f a c t , though, i s t h a t the a u t h o r i t a t i v e a l l o c a t i o n o f v a l u e s i s a l e g i s l a t i v e f u n c t i o n and t h e r e f o r e must remain under the f i n a l a u t h o r i t y o f the L i e u t e n a n t - Governor. Consequently, the p r i n c i p a l i s d e l e g a t e d t o have a major r o l e i n i n t e r p r e t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y and i s accountable t o the D i s t r i c t Superintendent who i n t u r n i s accountable to the M i n i s t e r . I t i s expected, o f course, t ha.it any Board o r o t h e r c i t i z e n group may make r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o the M i n i s t e r concerning e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y ; but no group can expect t o s h o r t - c i r c u i t the p a r l i a m e n t a r y procedures o f a 101 democracy. L o c a l c o n t r o l of c u r r i c u l a r d e c i s i o n s c o u l d l e a d t o procedures which may a f f e c t the r i g h t s o f c i t i z e n s without the c i t i z e n s having recourse t o review the d e c i s i o n s . The v a l u e o f uniform e d u c a t i o n a l standards would be l o s t , and g r e a t fragmentation o f the system c o u l d r e s u l t from extending l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y t o a Board. Evidence o f j u s t how s i g n i f i c a n t the p r i n c i p a l ' s r o l e i s i n e d u c a t i o n comes from the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B u l l e t i n . I t says: As a matter o f p o l i c y i t i s expected t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m w i l l r e c e i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a t the s c h o o l and classroom l e v e l . I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s t o i n -t e r p r e t the P r o v i n c i a l statements of purposes o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l and the o u t l i n e s o f m a t e r i a l s t o be t a u g h t . . . . 8 7 Once again , i t i s the s c h o o l and not the Board o f T r u s t e e s who i n t e r p r e t . Since the Department has not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i t s p h i l o s o p h y of c u r r i c u l u m , the p r i n c i p a l and h i s s t a f f are charged w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f both a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y a l l o c a t i n g v a l u e s and s t r a t e g i e s ; but not without the ap p r o v a l o f the M i n i s t e r through the s u p e r v i s i o n o f the D i s t r i c t Superintendent. T h i s constant governmental p r i n c i p l e o f a c c o u n t a b i l i t y makes i t mandatory f o r the p r o f e s s i o n t o work with the government and a l s o causes the government t o a c t with the ad v i s e o f the p r o f e s s i o n . They system p r o v i d e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g communication of a s e l f - a d j u s t i n g n a t u r e . O b v i o u s l y , decision-mlaking o p p o r t u n i t i e s 87 " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B u l l e t i n " o p . c i t . , p. 8. 102 concerning both val u e s and s t r a t e g i e s abound. Some might argue t h a t these o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l freedom are o n l y s t a t u t o r y o r s u p e r f i c i a l and contend t h a t p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n uses s t r a t e g i e s such as uniform e v a l u a t i o n t o f o r c e adherence to c u r r i c u l u m guides. T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y not t r u e today and the B u l l e t i n says: The e v a l u a t i o n programme must r e f l e c t the s c h o o l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the c u r r i c u l u m and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g adjustments made.88 The phrase "must r e f l e c t the s c h o o l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " counters most charges o f a l a c k of p r o f e s s i o n a l freedom; and i n the matter of course content, the same source speaks of the c u r r i c u l u m guides s a y i n g : [They are] not intended t o be b l u e - p r i n t s f o r t e a c h i n g o r t o be f o l l o w e d r i g i d l y under a l l c o n d i t i o n s . 8 9 There c o u l d be no s t r o n g e r s e t of statements than the p r e c e d i n g quotes of the " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B u l l e t i n " a u t h o r i z i n g l o c a l s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l t o be autonomous e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s w h i l e , at the same time, b e i n g cognizant pf t h e i r accounta-b i l i t y t o the M i n i s t e r and thereby, t o the e l e c t o r a t e . I t can be concluded t h a t t h e r e i s no s t a t u t o r y b a s i s f o r any t e a c h e r to a s s e r t t h a t he l a c k s p r o f e s s i o n a l freedom i n academic i s s u e s . The a u t h o r i t y to a s s i s t i n the a l l o c a t i o n of v a l u e s and t o a l l o c a t e s t r a t e g i e s i s c l e a r l y g i v e n ; and 88 " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B u l l e t i n " o p . c i t . , p. 9. 89 L o c . c i t . , p. 9. 103 the range o f d i s c r e t i o n i s a l s o l a r g e so t h a t power, as d e f i n e d h e r e i n , i s e x t e n s i v e . The t e a c h e r ' s a u t h o r i t y and power govern academic i s s u e s ; f o r the p r i n c i p a l , a u t h o r i t y and power govern academic i s s u e s and the p e r s o n n e l of h i s s c h o o l as w e l l as the behaviour o f the s t u d e n t s . Chapter VII a s s e r t e d t h a t i n view o f the s t a t u t o r y c o n d i t i o n s , the D i s t r i c t Superintendent c l e a r l y emerged as the e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r o f a d i s t r i c t . The contents o f t h i s chapter should i n no way reduce the f o r c e o f t h a t view. The a u t h o r i t y and d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers o f the D i s t r i c t Superintendent have a l r e a d y been analyzed. They are very c o n s i d e r a b l e . In f a c t , s i n c e the t e a c h e r ' s a u t h o r i t y i s s t a t u t o r i l y i n f e r i o r t o the D i s t r i c t Superintendent's and s i n c e the l a t t e r must e x e r c i s e s u p e r v i s o r y a u t h o r i t y i n a l l matters r e l a t i n g t o s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n s t r u c t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s and d i s c i p l i n e . , . . 9 0 he t h e r e f o r e , i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the M i n i s t e r f o r what takes p l a c e i n the s c h o o l s . Consequently, the D i s t r i c t Superintendent i s the s c h o o l ' s s u p e r i o r . In view o f the f a c t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t he can negate o r a f f i r m any c u r r i c u l a r a c t i o n i n the s c h o o l , he must be regarded as the immediate governor of the t e a c h e r s and p u p i l s . H i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y and power i s g r e a t e r than t h a t o f a t e a c h e r . The Deputy M i n i s t e r ' s d e l e g a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o the s c h o o l i s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expediency o n l y and should not be construed as 90 R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 319; 1972, c. 52, S e c t i o n 9 (hK 104 by-passing the D i s t r i c t Superintendent s i n c e the s c h o o l i s accountable t o the D i s t r i c t Superintendent. However, s i n c e the s p e c i f i c t a s k o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has been del e g a t e d t o the s c h o o l , the D i s t r i c t Superintendent r e l i e s h o t so much upon h i s s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y as he does, i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , upon h i s power through d i s c r e t i o n t o s u p e r v i s e . H is a u t h o r i t y and power, t h e r e f o r e , govern the sc h o o l ' s a c t i v i t y . The D i s t r i c t Superintendent has r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s t o the Board o f T r u s t e e s as i n d i c a t e d by the Act which s t a t e s t h a t the D i s t r i c t Superintendent s h a l l f u r n i s h t r u s t e e s and te a c h e r s with such i n f o r m a t i o n as they may r e q u i r e r e s p e c t i n g the o p e r a t i o n o f t h i s Act;91 T h i s does not mean t h a t T r u s t e e s must o b t a i n whatever e d u c a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n they request from the D i s t r i c t Superintendent; i t means t h a t the Superintendent w i l l a d v i s e the Board as t o t h e i r s t a t u t o r y r i g h t s and l i m i t a t i o n s . These ki n d s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ~ f i n a n c e i s s u e s n o t w i t h -s t a n d i n g — are few and o n l y serve t o p o i n t out the need f o r mutual exchanges f o r e f f e c t i v e o v e r a l l o p e r a t i o n s o f the Board. The degree of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y of the D i s t r i c t Superintendent to the Deputy M i n i s t e r i s not s t a t e d i n the Ac t . In f a c t , t h e r e i s no such r e f e r e n c e ; but i t i s reasonable to i n f e r t h a t where the term M i n i s t e r has been used i n t h i s study r e s p e c t i n g the D i s t r i c t Superintendent, the Deputy M i n i s t e r c o u l d apply. The Deputy M i n i s t e r i s the top ra n k i n g c i v i l s e rvant 91 R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 319; 1972, c. 52, S e c t i o n 9 ( d). 105 i n charge of a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n s i n e d u c a t i o n . Chapters I I I and IV d e s c r i b e the exte n t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l open t o M i n i s t e r s t h a t a l l t h a t can be reasonably s a i d here i s t h a t the M i n i s t e r ' s a u t h o r i t y and power i n the governance o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n covers a l l aspects o f educat i o n and he i s accountable o n l y t o the Li e u t e n a n t -Governor i n C o u n c i l and, consequently, the L e g i s l a t u r e . A g e n e r a l i s s u e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y and power i s the q u e s t i o n o f who should make p o l i c y i n ed u c a t i o n . P r o f e s s o r Downey i n h i s paper "Leadership i n the Process o f E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c y Development" notes t h a t the Pro v i n c e ...delegates t o l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s the r i g h t t o adapt p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s ( w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s ) and to i n t e r p r e t p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s i n such a way as t o make them f u n c t i o n a l i n the s p e c i f i c community.92 The evidence t o support t h i s a s s e r t i o n has been developed i n t h i s chapter. However, Downey goes on t o say t h a t F r e q u e n t l y , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y p r i n c i p a l s ) view themselves simply as implementors o f p o l i c i e s — the thought being t h a t p o l i c i e s are s e t e i t h e r by the l o c a l Board o r by the p r o v i n c i a l Department o f Educat i o n and t h a t e v a l u a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y the task o f the Superintendent. But as I have a l r e a d y attempted t o p o i n t out, important p o l i c i e s a re e s t a b l i s h e d by the p r i n c i p a l h i m s e l f , by the p r i n c i p a l and h i s s t a f f , and by the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s , with r e s p e c t t o s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s . 92 L.W. Downey, "Leadership i n the Process o f E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c y Making Development", i n The S i x t h Conference  of B.C. School P r i n c i p a l s , U.B.C. 1968; p. 2. 93 I b i d . , p. 4. 106 t o t a l l y erroneous. The whole process o f r e s p o n s i b l e democratic government c o l l a p s e s when Downey's k i n d o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s made. He has presumed, on b e h a l f of p r i n c i p a l s , a l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y . T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y not the i n t e n t o f the s t a t u t e s . A l e g i s l a t i v e a c t a f f e c t s the r i g h t s o f c i t i z e n s ; and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t should have no such e f f e c t . The j u d i c i a r y i s not empowered t o make laws, on l y t o i n t e r p r e t them and apply them. A s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l i s expected t o i n t e r p r e t p o l i c y , not make i t . There appears t o be no room f o r s t a t u t o r y argument on t h i s p o i n t . The p r i n c i p a l can make a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y . T h i s he does when making d e c i s i o n s on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l format, p e r s o n n e l placement and s t r a t e g i e s f o r l e a r n i n g environments. Downey argues t h a t In any case, the p o l i c y c o n s t i t u t e s a p l a n , a d e c l a r -a t i o n o f i n t e n t i o n , a d e c i s i o n as t o what ought t o be  done.94 T h i s study has assumed t h a t p o l i c y means what ought t o be done. The doing o r implementation i s an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k . Downey says t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s view themselves simply as implementors o f p o l i c i e s . There seems t o be n o t h i n g simple about implementing p o l i c y . I t w i l l not be denied here t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s do, i n a d v e r t e n t l y perhaps, c r e a t e l e g i s l a t i v e types o f p o l i c y i n the course o f t h e i r d u t i e s . The Veteran's A f f a i r s Branch was such an example. But they have no s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y f o r so doing; and i f c i t i z e n r i g h t s are t o be 94 Downey, o p . c i t . , p. 4. 1 0 7 p r o t e c t e d from a ' d i c t a t o r s h i p o f the ; .bureaucracy', then no a d m i n i s t r a t o r should have such a u t h o r i t y . Another g e n e r a l i s s u e i n e d u c a t i o n i s r a i s e d by G r e e n f i e l d e t a l i n t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n . They a s s e r t t h a t : A major f u n c t i o n o f the s c h o o l board i s the s e t t i n g of purposes and o b j e c t i v e s f o r the s c h o o l system under i t s c o n t r o l . As r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the community, board members have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t r a n s l a t e the community's wishes w i t h regard t o e d u c a t i o n i n t o a statement o f e d u c a t i o n a l purposes g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n t o the s c h o o l system.95 T h i s c l a i m o b v i o u s l y p a r a l l e l s Downey's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f who has the a u t h o r i t y to e s t a b l i s h e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y . I t may seem reasonable t o conclude t h a t a body e l e c t e d by a community should have the r i g h t t o expect t h a t body t o a c t as they d i r e c t i t . However, a Board o f School T r u s t e e s i s i n t e n ded t o a c t f o r a m u n i c i p a l i t y , not a p r o v i n c e . P o l i c y i n e d u c a t i o n i s a p r o v i n c i a l matter and thus the domain o f the L e g i s l a t u r e . A s c h o o l board serves anC a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n , not a governing o r l e g i s l a t i v e f u n c t i o n . In essence, the f u n c t i o n o f a Board i s t o p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s , whether i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t i t c o u l d be more than t h i s i s beyond the scope of t h i s study. Because of the s t a t u t o r i l y r e q u i r e d i n t e r a c t i o n between the Board and the D i s t r i c t Superintendent, i t seems reasonable t o conclude t h a t they are expected t o co-operate on many i s s u e s ; but the h i e r a r c h y 95 T.B. G r e e n f i e l d , J.H. House, E.S. Hickcox, B.H. Buchanan, Developing School Systems (Toronto, O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , 1969); py 32. 108 o f a u t h o r i t y i s c l e a r : a Board i s not intended t o have the a u t h o r i t y t o make e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y . The task i s the domain o f the L e g i s l a t u r e . 109 SUMMARY and CONCLUSIONS That which makes the p r o v i n c i a l education system a system has been i d e n t i f i e d as the r u l e s which govern each c o n s t i t u e n t together w i t h the r u l e making a u t h o r i t i e s o f each c o n s t i t u e n t . The e s s e n t i a l bonding f o r c e of the system l i e s i n the s t a t u t o r y c o n d i t i o n s which c o n s t i t u t e and govern the components. Education i s c l e a r l y a p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . I t i s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n a d i v i s i o n of government, not j u s t a product of government. I t i s c o n t r o l l e d and developed l a r g e l y by p o l i t i c i a n s . I t s p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n s t i t u e n t s are appointed by e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s and a l l are c i v i l s e rvants t o serve "at p l e a s u r e " . The c o n s t i t u e n t s are an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the government, not j u s t something h i r e d f o r a t a s k . I t i s f a i r t o say t h a t the education system has a h i g h degree of c e n t r a l i z e d a u t h o r i t y . A l l l i n e s of a c c o u n t i n g l e a d t o the M i n i s t e r ' s o f f i c e . The data of Chapters I I I and IV (Government and Government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) show c l e a r l y the complete a u t h o r i t y the m i n i s t e r has over the system. The p r i n c i p l e of m i n i s t e r i a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y (Chapter III) r e q u i r e s the M i n i s t e r to accept f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r any e d u c a t i o n a l matter. However, the process of d e l e g a t i o n (Chapter d i v e s t s the M i n i s t e r of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n of the system's r e g u l a r b u s i n e s s . The bulk of p r o f e s s i o n a l respons-i b i l i t y l i e s i n the hands of the Deputy M i n i s t e r . He i s the 110 c h i e f o p e r a t i o n s o f f i c e r of the Department and probably has the most demanding burden of any i n the system. The p r o v i n c i a l s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s may be regarded as the a s s i s t a n t s t o the Deputy M i n i s t e r . They are riot rianted i n the Act s p e c i f i c a l l y and presumably, t h e r e f o r e , they a c t under the Deputy M i n i s t e r ' s a u t h o r i t y . D i r e c t i v e s are signed by the Superintendents but the content i s u s u a l l y p r e f a c e d w i t h phrases such as "the Government has a u t h o r i z e d " or, "a d e c i s i o n has been made." They do not themselves assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r u l i n g s . D i s t r i c t Superintendents are accountable t o the M i n i s t e r , not the Board of T r u s t e e s . The Act l e a v e s rio doubt t h a t i n e d u c a t i o n a l a f f a i r s w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t , a D i s t r i c t Superintendent i s expected t o assume the major l e a d e r s h i p r o l e . T h i s i s an i n f e r e n c e from the f a c t t h a t o n l y he has adequate s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r -s h i p . The D i s t r i c t Superintendent has s u p e r v i s o r y a u t h o r i t y over P r i n c i p a l s . He does not have a u t h o r i t y over the P r i n c i p a l ' s methods of programme o r g a n i z a t i o n and the l i k e except i n s o f a r as a P r i n c i p a l may contravene Departmental p o l i c y . The P r i n c i p a l ' s r o l e as d e f i n e d by s t a t u t e i s mainly c l e r i c a l . H i s t o r i c a l l y , P r i n c i p a l s were c o n s i d e r e d "head t e a c h e r s " or, j u s t t e a c h e r s with added c l e r i c a l d u t i e s . Contemporary educ a t i o n i s v e r y complex; i t c a t e r s t o a v e r y wide range of community and i n d i v i d u a l needs wherein s c h o o l programme management demands much more than c l e r i c a l d i r e c t i o n . I l l These circumstances are r e c o g n i z e d not i n the s t a t u t e s but i n the m i n i s t e r i a l d i r e c t i v e s (Chapters I I I and VIII) which del e g a t e l a r g e a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o the p r i n c i p a l f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p o f the l o c a l s c h o o l . Using Easton's c o n c e p t i o n o f " a u t h o r i t a t i v e a l l o c a t i o n " , i t has been argued t h a t every c o n s t i t u e n t i n the p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n system has an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e aspect. Each person must, on o c c a s i o n , make d e c i s i o n s t o a l l o c a t e s t r a t e g i e s f o r e x e c u t i o n . Each person has been given some a u t h o r i t y t o act i n t h i s manner. A l l a c t under the presumption t h a t a p o l i c y , a g e n e r a l v a l u e t o be a l l o c a t e d , e x i s t s t o be implemented. The e s s e n t i a l d i s t i n c t i o n i s made t h a t a l e g i s l a t i v e a c t p r e s c r i b e s v a l u e s ; a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t s p r e s c r i b e s t r a t e g i e s t o implement va l u e p r e s c r i p t i o n s ; ( p o l i c y ) . The p u b l i c School Board i n B r i t i s h Cplumbia l a c k s d i r e c t s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y i n c u r r i c u l u m , programme development, and g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n o f the s c h o o l . The Board i s a m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n i n charge p r i m a r i l y o f the f i x e d a s s e t s of the d i s t r i c t and s i m i l a r f i s c a l matters. I t i s not an e d u c a t i o n a l agent o f the Depart-ment. A Board may w i t h h o l d funds and use v a r i o u s such means t o i n f l u e n c e l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n . I t may even seek te a c h e r o r p r i n c i p a l d i s m i s s a l on some grounds o r ot h e r ; but i t i s r e a l l y the M i n i s t e r ' s d i s c r e t i o n a r y power t h a t determines the success o r f a i l u r e o f such a c t i v i t y i f the grounds f o r d i s m i s s a l are i n any way e d u c a t i o n a l . The Board 112 may not d i r e c t the p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of teach e r s or p r i n c i p a l s — and thus are i n no p o s i t i o n t o n e g o t i a t e documents c a l l e d " l e a r n i n g and working c o n d i t i o n c o n t r a c t s " . Schools should b a r g a i n these i s s u e s with the D i s t r i c t Superintendent, s u b j e c t t o m i n i s t e r i a l a p p r o v a l , most l i k e l y , the Deputy M i n i s t e r . A l l p r o f e s s i o n a l d u t i e s are e s t a b l i s h e d and guided by the M i n i s t r y (Chapters I I I , V, and V I I ) ; and th e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the Department intended t o sub-delegate i t s a u t h o r i t y t o a Board of T r u s t e e s . Indeed, from Chapter IV, i t may be deduced t h a t the Department c o u l d not dele g a t e such a u t h o r i t y — the a c t i o n would be u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . The study has developed some much needed da t a concerning c o n s t i t u e n t i n t e r r e l a t i o n s . These data may pr o v i d e a good base f o r f u r t h e r p r o j e c t s . For example, the study has d e s c r i b e d the s t a t u t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s of e d u c a t i o n a l p e r s o n n e l . A reasonable q u e s t i o n now i s whether the kin d s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s p o s i t e d are the most s u i t a b l e f o r r e a l i z i n g e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . Should T r u s t e e s be excluded from having some d i r e c t say i n e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e s ? Should the complex r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a P r i n c i a p l be re c o g n i z e d i n the Act or l e f t as a matter of m i n i s t e r i a l d i s c r e t i o n ? Or, one c o u l d develop an i d e a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and e v a l u a t e the B.C. system a c c o r d i n g t o t h a t m e t r i c . A r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g s h o r t study would be to compare the s t a t u t o r y r e l a t i o n s developed here of the sch o o l board with the l o c a l s c h o o l , with the a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s 113 as may be observed. Indeed, the data of t h i s study may be used as a metric by which to evaluate the actual. Thus, should i t be f e l t necessary to examine the dai l y , operational behaviour of administrative constituents, there i s available a set of data determining what administrative relationships have been provided. It may be possible, therefore, to i d e n t i f y organiza-t i o n a l dysfunctions traceable to the improper assumption of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the part of some constituent, corporate or otherwise. Another p r o f i t a b l e investigation t h i s study may a s s i s t i s an inquiry into the means of access the public have to t h e i r educational system. Quite c l e a r l y , the statutory analysis and the analysis of Government (Chapters III and IV) make i t abundantly c l e a r that c i t i z e n committees should address themselves a) to the P r i n c i p a l , b) to the D i s t r i c t Superintendent, and c) to the Minister. Schooli Boards are not reluctant to l i s t e n to action groups: they are without power to act on most such issues brought before them. It i s hoped that P r i n c i p a l s and Teachers who read t h i s document w i l l be confident of the very large degrees of professional autonomy the statutes give them. The 1969 Vancouver " F l e x i b i l i t y Study" (Es4ekson»,,oHill-s and Robinson) concluded that a general f e e l i n g among teachers and administrators was that they lacked freedom to innovate. The problems may not l i e in statutes but in themselves. Many f e l t too c l o s e l y controlled by t h e i r Boards of Trustees. This study shows that the school's autonomy, and i t s educational accountability i s to the D i s t r i c t 114 Superintendent and the M i n i s t e r , not the Board. Board - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s may be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d i n time. H o p e f u l l y , i t can now bee seen t h a t p o l i t i c s and e d u c a t i o n are inseparable. The context of a l l p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n i s p r o v i n c i a l government p o l i c y . I t i s an area not open t o d i r e c t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The system of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c c o u n t a b i l i t y d i r e c t l y p a r a l l e l s the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework o f the government. L o c a l autonomy r e s u l t s o n l y from the power of the Cabinet, i t s d i s c r e t i o n a r y power. Chapters I I I , IV and VI demonstrate the n e c e s s i t y of the h i e r a r c h y o f r e l a t i o n s which the study develops: u l t i m a t e l y , the Cabinet i s r e s p o n s i b l e to the people and, t h e r e f o r e , cannot delegate anything more than a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y t o s u b o r d i n a t e s . In a democratic system, i t can be no o t h e r way. Chapters I I I , I V and VI a l s o show the means of law and l a w - l i k e enactments through r e g u l a t i o n s and d i r e c t i v e s . A g r e a t many r e g u l a t i o n s are passed by p r o v i n c i a l governments a n n u a l l y . Many times more d i r e c t i v e s are i s s u e d . Chapters IV and VI d e a l t with the complex i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f d i r e c t i v e s . I t i s through a d i r e c t i v e , o r , m i n i s t e r i a l order, t h a t a P r i n c i p a l has e d u c a t i o n a l charge of a s c h o o l ; and i t i s the p r i n c i p l e of m i n i s t e r i a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y and the s o v e r e i g n t y v of Parliament (Chapter I I I ) t h a t r e q u i r e s the P r i n c i p a l t o account t o the Deputy M i n i s t e r and the M i n i s t e r r a t h e r than to the Board of T r u s t e e s because the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t o the p u b l i c c i t i z e n s and not t o a m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n . The very simplest premise of t h i s whole study (Introduction) was that i f one has an understanding of the p r i n c i p l e s which unify his organization, i f he unde stands how i t works (or should work), then he may be in a better position to maintain the health of the organization It i s hoped that t h i s study contributes to that end. 116 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l e n , C.K., Law i n the Making (Oxford, Clarendon P r e s s , 1946). Carrow, M i l t o n M., The Background of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Law (Newark, A s s o c i a t e d Lawyers P u b l i s h i n g , 1948). Chapman, F.A.R., Fundamentals of Canadian Law (Toronto, McGraw-Hill, 1970T Corry, J.A., and Hodgetts, J.E., Democratic Government and P o l i t i c s (Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1946). Driedger, Elmer A., The Composition of L e g i s l a t i o n (Ottawa, The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957). , L e g i s l a t i v e Forms and Precedents (Ottawa, The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1963). Easton, David, The P o l i t i c a l System (New York, A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1953). Edgar, S.G.G., C r a i e s on S t a t u t e Law (London, Sweet and Maxwell, 1971). Garner, J.F., A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Law (London, Butterworths, 1967). G r e e n f i e l d , T.B., House, J.H., Hickcox, E.S., Buchanan, B.H., Developing School Systems (Toronto, O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r Stu d i e s i n Education, 1969) . G r i f f i t h , J.A.G., and S t r e e t , H., P r i n c i p l e s o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Law (London, S i r Isaac Pitman & Sons, 1963). Hodgetts, J.E., and Co r b e t t , D.C, Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (Toronto, Macmillan & Co., 1960). K e r s e l l , John E., Par l i a m e n t a r y S u p e r v i s i o n o f Delegated  L e g i s l a t i o n (London, Stevens & Sons, 1960). Landis, James M., The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Process (New Haven, Yale P r e s s , 1938). Lorch, Robert S., Democratic Process and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Law ( D e t r o i t , Wayne State U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1969). M a s s i a l a s , Byron G., Educat i o n and the P o l i t i c a l System (New York, McGraw-Hill, 1967H " M a l l o r y , J.R., The S t r u c t u r e of Canadian Government (Toronto, Macmillan of Canada, 1971). Reid, Robert F., A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Law and P r a c t i c e (London, Longman Group L t d " 1971). Varcoe, F r e d e r i c k P., The C o n s t i t u t i o n o f Canada (Toronto, The C a r s w e l l Co., L t d . , 1965). Wade, H.W.R., A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Law (Oxford, Clarendon P r e s s , 1967). Ya r d l e y , D.C, Source Book o f E n g l i s h A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Law (London, Butterworths, 1970). ~ ~ ~ ~ 117 S p e c i a l Reports and B u l l e t i n s " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B u l l e t i n f o r Secondary Schools", The B.C. Department of Education, V i c t o r i a , 1972. "Education B.C.", the B.C. School T r u s t e e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , V o l . I I , No. 10, June, 1973. "Leadership i n the Process of E d u c a t i o n a l Policy-Making Development". S i x t h Conference o f B.C. School P r i n c i p a l s , U .B . C . Vancouver, 196 8. The 1960 Royal Commission on Government O r g a n i z a t i o n , (Ottawa, The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1960). V o l . 5. R.S.B.C, 1960, c. 319; 1972, c.52: The P u b l i c Schools Act ( V i c t o r i a , The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1972TT " T h i r d Report of the S p e c i a l Committee on S t a t u t o r y Instruments" M. MacGuigan, Chairman, S e s s i o n 196 8-9, House of Commons, Ottawa. "The P u b l i c ' s Role i n E d u c a t i o n " , J.H.A. W a l l i n , Research Consultant, (Vancouver, The B.C. Parent-Teacher F e d e r a t i o n , 1972). "The T r u s t e e s ' Reference Manual", Marion R i c k e r , P a u l i n e Touzeau, eds., (Vancouver, The B.C. School T r u s t e e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , 1963). A u x i l l i a r y Resources Ashby, L l y o d W., The E f f e c t i v e School Board Member (New York, Ho l t Rinehart, 1968). Buckley, Walter, S o c i o l o g y and Modern Systems Theory (Engle-wood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1967). Davis, Kenneth Culp, D i s c r e t i o n a r y J u s t i c e (Baton Rouge, L o u i s i a n a State U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969). Dawson, R. MacGregor, The Government of Canada (Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1962). Enns, F., The Legal Status of the Canadian School Board (Toronto, Gage & Co.";; 1966) . Foulkes, David, I n t r o d u c t i o n to A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Law (London, Butterworths, 1964). L u t z , F.W., and Iannacconne, L., Understanding E d u c a t i o n a l  O r g a n i z a t i o n s (Columbus, C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l , 1969). Laux, F r e d e r i c k A., The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Process (Edmonton, U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a Press, 1971). Prettyman, E.B., T r i a l by Agency ( C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e , The V i r g i n i a n Law Review A s s o c i a t i o n , 1959). E r i c k s o n , Donald A., H i l l s , R. Jean, Robinson, Norman, " E d u c a t i o n a l F l e x i b i l i t y i n an Urban School D i s t r i c t " , (Vancouver, Ed u c a t i o n a l ' Research I n s t i t u t e of B.C., 1970). 

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