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Whose body? Whose mind? : the implications of Paulo Freire’s Problem Posing method for a humanistic approach… MacKay, Robert Henry 1978

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WHOSE BODY? WHOSE MIND? THE IMPLICATIONS OF PAULO FREIRE'S PROBLEM POSING METHOD FOR A HUMANISTIC APPROACH TO AN ACTIVE HEALTH PROGRAM B.Ed. University of British Columbia, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of TEACHER PREPARATION (PHYSICAL EDUCATION) FACULTY OF EDUCATION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Ap r i l , 1978 (It) Robert Henry Mackay, 1978 by ROBERT HENRY MACKAY In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Faculty of Education Department of Tftfi.r>r.ftT» Prepar-a -Hrm ( F h y g W I M n ^ t . < n n ) The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 , Date A P * i l 8 1978. ABSTRACT Paulo Freire's Problem-Posing method was adapted and developed to provide a humanistic alternative to the prescriptive, physiological approach presently manifested in most Active Health programs. A need for a h o l i s t i c approach to Active Health was established and the Problem-Posing method was presented as a viable method for the development of personal, physiological, social and mind-body experiences within an Active Health program. The Problem-Posing method was viewed within the Humanistic Educational framework. An interpretation of Humanistic Education, its roots and characteristics was presented. An understanding of Freire's view of man and philosophy of education was given as a prelude to the nature and mechanics of the Problem-Posing method. A student oriented l i f e style program was developed around Freire's codification concept. This program, using Freire's dialogical, Problem-Posing approach, was intended to move students from a naive consciousness to a c r i t i c a l consciousness as they investigated the factors that determine their l i f e style and thus influence their health status. The program was introduced to a grade 11 Physical Education class in order to realize Freire's concept of praxis and to establish subjective opinion regarding the v i a b i l i t y of employing the Problem-Posing method in a Secondary School Physical Education class. In light of the positive opinions of students and teacher, i t appears, from a subjective stance, that students began to move from a naive to a c r i t i c a l consciousness in regards to l i f e style development and that the Problem-Posing method appears to be a viable, humanistic approach to an Active Health program. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i FIGURE i v LIST OF PLATES v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 B. Nature of the Problem 2 C. Procedure 7 References 9 II HUMANISTIC EDUCATION: AN APPROACH TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION A. A D e f i n i t i o n B. Roots and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Humanistic Education C. Emergence of Humanistic Education D. Review of Humanistic Physical Education References I I I FREIRE'S HUMANISTIC EDUCATION , A. F r e i r e ' s View of Man B. F r e i r e ' s Philosophy of Education C. The Nature of Problem-Posing Education D. Process of Problem-Posing Method References IV IMPLICATIONS OF THE PROBLEM-POSING METHOD FOR A HUMANSITIC APPROACH TO AN ACTIVE HEALTH PROGRAM References V EPILOGUE A. In the Process of Becoming B. The Diary C. Students' Opinions D. Refl e c t i o n s BIBLIOGRAPHY i i i FIGURE Figure Page 1. Comparison of Banking and Problem-Posing Methods 40 iv TABLE OF PLATES PLATES PAGI 1. Codification 1: Somatotype Pictures 57 2. Codification 2: Personal Data 58 3. Codification 3: Masculinity 60 4. Codification 4: Television 61 5. Codification 5: Involvement 62 6. Codification 6: Athletics 63 7. Codification 7: Nutrition 64 8. Codification 8: Alcohol 65 9. Codification 9: Smoking 66 10. Codification 10: Sexuality 67 v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I dedicate this thesis to Mr. Jack Armour, my friend and teacher, whose contribution to Physical Education has always been an inspiration to me. I express gratitude to my wife, Joyce, for her patience and constructive comments over the past year. To my colleagues and friends who gave much encouragement throughout the writing of this thesis, I extend my sincere thanks. I am especially indebted to my committee: Drs. Patricia Vertinsky, Ted Aoki and Gary Pennington for their humanistic approach, sincere interest and helpful guidance during my thesis project. I am grateful to my grade 11 Physical Education class at Templeton Secondary School for their enthusiastic and sincere approach to a new learning situation. I also thank Yvonne Peterson for her a r t i s t i c conception of codification 4, 8 and 9, Abby Chan for his photography of the codifications and Mrs. Eleanor Owen for her expertly typed copy of my thesis. This thesis could not have been completed without the assistance of these people. v i INTRODUCTION Thi9 thesis emerged out of a search for the development of an "Active Health" program that would afford a secondary school student the opportunity to develop his body in concert with his personally defined needs and interests. Such a program would allow each student the freedom and responsibility to decide his own destiny, without the imposition of a prescribed physical image. Such a program would be guided by such questions as Whose Body? Whose Mind? Current "Active Health" programs are directed toward the development of physical fitness* and cognition of physiological facts and principles in support of fitness. The aims of such programs can be stated as follows: The student should be able to: a. develop an improved state of fitness as measured in terms of cardiovascular endurance, strength, muscular endurance and f l e x i b i l i t y improvement; b. identify the physiological capacities and limitations of his body; c. learn physiological facts and principles that w i l l assist in developing and maintaining a f i t state; d. state the relationship of physical fitness to total health. The rationale for "Active Health" programs relies heavily on physiological research. The following quotations exemplify such research. Physical exercise is important during childhood for proper development of the functional capacity of the heart, the lungs and the strength of bones and muscles. If underdeveloped during the growing years, the opportunity for optimal development of these organ systems has lik e l y been lost. (1) *Physical fitness in this paper is defined as that state which produces maximum physiological growth and provides sufficient energy for an active and varied l i f e style. This definition was developed by the writer in response to a need for a fitness definition appropriate to adolescents. It considers physiological needs and the author's perception of adolescents - 2 -During adolescence there may be a second chance to improve those dimensions which are of importance for the oxygen-transport system. This is an inter-esting problem, especially with regard to Physical Education in school. It may not be possible to repair later in l i f e what is neglected during the adolescent years. (2) In addition Johnson et al_. provide a psychological rationale for the development of an "Active Health" program. It is our contention that misconception, frustration and fears often result from physical education pro-grams limited to s k i l l instruction and participation in games. We often forget that some youngsters do not enjoy those games, especially when s k i l l level is poor and there is l i t t l e or no success. Indiff-erence often results over a period of years from the misconception that s k i l l s , health and fitness are a l l one and the same. This indifference and frustration can best be prevented by a well-planned, early and dynamic exposure to a sound personal health and fitness program. Nature of the Problem In the experience of the writer, present "Active Health" pro-grams project almost exclusively, a biological image of man. The import-ance of physiological well-being cannot be contested but the current pre-scriptive, often fragmentary practices and the image of man portrayed, are unsatisfactory in providing opportunities for students to become responsible for the development of their own bodies. The mechanistic approach employed by most teachers of "Active Health" implies that students are perceived to walk a continuum from optimal health* to death. The physical educator is eager to move the student towards optimal health through the prescription of predetermined exercises. Such a formula, however, suggests that the nature of man is *In the opinion of the writer, optimal health is viewed by many Physical Educators as that state achieved by Olympic athletes. -3-reactive and predictable. It implies that man is an object to be moulded, denied freedom and responsibility in the development of his own body. The pursuit of physiological excellence at the expense of other approaches tends to negate the integrated nature of man. Man cannot be viewed solely as a biological being since cultural and historical events and beliefs are also woven into his matrix. Physical demands are often placed upon a student's body that are not in concert with his psychological needs, and thus a meaningful, integrated experience can be denied. A thousand push-ups w i l l have a positive physiological effect on the tricep muscles. However, what impact do push-ups have on a student's feelings and aspirations? The origin of those feelings are deeply imbedded in the cultural and historical heritage of the student and may deny and over-ride physiological concerns. Paulo Freire, the noted South American educator, elucidates upon the concept of " t o t a l i t y " when explaining the problems the agron-omist educator faces in educating peasants. For example, their attitude towards erosion, reforest-ation, seedtime or harvest (precisely because they are part of a structure and not isolated units) have a relation to peasant attitudes to religion, to the cult of the dead; to the illness of animals, etc. A l l these aspects are contained within a cultural t o t a l i t y . As a structure, this cultural t o t a l i t y reacts as a whole.(4) Thus, i f the physical educator is concerned for a " t o t a l i t y " in student learning, he must, along with the agronomist, realize the implications of viewing man as a h o l i s t i c being. If we develop a concern for the "t o t a l i t y " of a person, i t brings into question the values of a prescriptive approach which is the selection of pre-determined goals and exercises. Physical educators may affirm their own "totality", but are they selecting goals that are in harmony with a student's "totality"? Freire succinctly states the problem. -4-Every prescription represents the imposition of one man's choice upon another, transforming the conscious-ness of the man prescribed to into one that conforms with the prescriber's consciousness.(5) The physical educator is not always aware of the possible enslaving nature of the prescriptive approach. Though he may indeed attempt to meet individual student needs, the teacher's goals often reflect a narrow awareness and thus have l i t t l e relevance to students. Dubos c l a r i f i e s the point. The kind of health that men desire most is not necess-a r i l y a state in which they experience physical vigor and a sense of well-being, not even one giving them a long l i f e . It is instead the condition best suited to reach goals that each individual formulates for himself.(6) The prescriptive approach is a product of socialization. Society forces a body image upon dividUals and the teachers who direct "Active Health" programs, are the agents of socialization. One of the perversities of our cultural teaching is that of the many varieties of possible structure, only a few are held up as ideals. Using the cate-gories developed by William Sheldon, the father of body taxonomy for example, there are eighty-eight body types among Caucasian males. Only about three of those types, which Sheldon calls the extreme mesomorph, encompass the bodily ideals of our culture: muscular men with large shoulders and slim hips. (7) Women also have their cultural mould. Playboy and Vogue magazines provide examples of cultural expectations for women. Much of society appears to be concerned with cosmetic goals rather than those of function. Exercises prescribed in "Active Health" programs are frequently exercises that attempt to fashion a male meso-morph or a female beauty contestant. Most students w i l l have d i f f i c u l t y realizing this goal and may experience in f e r i o r i t y and failure. The physical educator, who thrusts his view of the world upon -5-students through his own prescription of cognitive knowledge and motor s k i l l s , may f a i l to achieve predetermined goals and w i l l f a i l to contend with the complex nature of man. If in accordance with the concept of extension, they transform their specialized knowledge and methods into something static and materialized and extend them mechanically to the peasants - invading the peasants culture and view of the world - they deny that men and women are beings who make decisions.(8) Although Freire is addressing the agronomist working in the "third world", his comments are applicable to physical educators in general and parti-cularly those involved with "Active Health" programs. It would be unjustified criticism to suggest that a l l experi-ences in an "Active Health" program are oppressive and irrelevant. In some cases, relevancy is not the issue, but rather, quality. Physical educators, desirous of excellence in student performance, concentrate on the results, rather than on experience. Leonard suggests that educators have viewed the body as an instrument. Research and training for coaches and physical education instructors focuses tightly on performance at the expense of experience. Instructors ask how many times a boy or g i r l can chin, but not how i t feels to chin, how i t i s . (9) The prescriptive approach to exercise is mainly concerned with performance - - do this, you w i l l feel better; or, do that, you w i l l lose weight. Even now, the President's Council on Physical Fitness pushes physical activity on us like a prescription drug. It w i l l make us healthy, prevent heart attack. It w i l l , perhaps, keep us out of trouble. Not one word about those moments at the height of exertion when an unex-pectedly graceful movement connects us to the turning of the planets and brings validation from the cosmos i t s e l f . (10) In Canada, "ParticipACTION", a private enterprise initiated by the Federal Government, has a similar approach to physical activity. -6-The prescriptive approach taken by "ParticipACTION" has helped to mould the public's approach to fitness a c t i v i t i e s . The emphasis on the body at the expense of the mind defrauds a physical experience of i t s richness and does l i t t l e to transform conscious-ness,..."a blending of the body and the mind can carry us to new plateaus of creative achievement."(11) It would seem, therefore, that i t is necessary to transcend the physiological concerns of exercise in order to f a c i l i t a t e a better union of body and mind. Often words are inadequate to express the import-ance of the mind-body unit, and -perhaps meaning is realized only through experience. Some believe that such an experience w i l l , "...help realize your inner meanings, to run to the drummer that is you." (12) Leonard expresses the need and urgency for the union of body and mind most cogently. The s p l i t can and must be repaired. The age of cheap technological energy is over, for a while at least. The coming age w i l l c a l l for human physical resources. Complex ecological problems w i l l require sensitivity to nature and other people, the kind of sensitivity that can come only i f we are also sensitive to our bodies and feelings. We shall discover that the mind-body s p l i t constituted a major error in Western thought, one that must never be repeated. We can learn to ex-perience our bodies as models of the environment, the world, the universe, as aids to the highest philosophical speculation.(13) It is apparent that present "Active Health" programs attempt to contribute to total health without considering the intricate inter-relationships existing in the health matrix. It is a program that isolates the biological aspect of man from his "to t a l i t y " , that spli t s the body and mind and attempts to produce student body images in concert with teacher aspirations. It i s , indeed, to use a phrase coined by Freire, an "oppressive pedagogy". The "oppressive pedagogy" is explicit in much of the methodology - 7 -employed in "Active Health" programs. Consider the method ut i l i z e d for developing strength. The teacher, in isolation, develops a strength train-ing procedure for the entire class. L i t t l e accommodation is provided for individual differences. The students listen to information transmitted by the teacher and without c r i t i c a l appraisal, attempt to reproduce, for the teacher, the desired response. Adherence to this procedure for a number of weeks w i l l f a c i l i t a t e physiological progress, as measured in terms of muscle girth and strength increases. . Unfortunately, biological progress of the above nature, is equated with improvement in total health. Strength training becomes a classroom activity with dubious relevance for the student. The above approach to education has been labeled the "Banking Method" by Paulo Freire The"Banking Method" i s : a. the teacher teaches and the students are taught; b. the teacher knows everything and the students know nothing; c. the teacher thinks and the students are thought about; d. the teacher talks and the students list e n - meekly; e. the teacher disciplines and the students are disciplined; f. the teacher chooses and enforces his choice and the students comply; g. the teacher acts and the students have the i l l u s i o n of acting through the action of the teacher; h. the teacher chooses the program content and the students who were not consulted adapt to i t ; i . the teacher confuses the authority of knowledge with his own professional authority, which he sets in opposition to the freedom of the student; j . the teacher is the Subject of the learning pro-cess, while the pupils are mere objects. (14) C. Procedure This thesis w i l l attempt to demonstrate that there exists a viable alternative to the present "oppressive pedagogy" implicitly and explicitly -8-employed in current "Active Health" programs. It is the writer's contention that Paulo Freire's "Problem Posing method" presents a positive, optimistic view of man; that i t provides for the " t o t a l i t y " of man; that i t can pro-mote the unity of body and mind; that i t can provide students the opport-unity to become responsible for the development of their own bodies, and therefore, i t is a "humanistic" approach to the teaching of "Active Health". Thus, Chapter II attempts to present a working definition of Humanistic Education. The roots and characteristics of Humanistic Education are included to f a c i l i t a t e a composite picture of the human-i s t i c concept. A brief history of the Humanistic Education movement is offered to assist in understanding the present form of Humanistic Education. The chapter concludes with a review of Humanistic Physical Education literature. Chapter III elucidates upon Freire's Humanism by establishing his image of man and philosophy of education. A presentation of the nature of the Problem Posing method follows, which sets the stage for a discussion of the procedures involved in the Problem Posing method. Chapter IV discusses the implications of Freire's method for a humanistic approach to "Active Health". Its strengths and weaknesses are explored. Examples of how the Problem Posing method could be employed in an Active Health program concludes Chapter IV. Chapter V provides a history of events leading up to and including the writing of this thesis. The epilogue concludes with a diary of the events, problems and emotions the writer and a class experienced in experimenting with Freire's Problem Posing method. -9-REFERENCES 1. Gordon R. Cumming, "The Child in Sport and Physical Activity -Medical Comment" in Child in Sport and Physical Activity, ed. by J.G. Albenson and G.M. Andrew, (Baltimore: University Park Press, 1976), Vol. 3, p. 67. 2. P. 0. Astrand, "Commentary" - International Symposium on Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health, Canadian Medical Association  Journal, Vol. 96, (March 25, 1967), p. 760. 3. Perry B. Johnson, et a l . , Physical Education - A Problem  Solving Approach to Health and Fitness, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1966), p. 83. 4. Paulo Freire, Education for C r i t i c a l Consciousness, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1974), p. 108. 5. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1970), p. 31. 6. Rene Dubos, Mirage of Health, (New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1959), 279. 7. Don Johnson, The Protean Body, (New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1977), p. 55. 8. Paulo Freire, Education for C r i t i c a l Consciousness, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1974), p. 116. 9. George B. Leonard, The Ultimate Athlete, (New York: Avon Books, 1975), p. 20. 10. Ibid., p. 12. 11. Mike Spino, Beyond Jogging, (Milbrae, California: Celestial Arts, 1967), p. 11. 12. Ibid., p. 12. 13. George B. Leonard. The Ultimate Athlete, (New York: Avon Books, 1975), p. 21. 14. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1970), p. 59. -10-CHAPTER II HUMANISTIC EDUCATION: AN APPROACH TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION If we are to view Paulo Freire's Problem Posing method within the framework of the Humanistic tradition, i t is c r i t i c a l that an inter-pretation of Humanistic Education be established from the outset. A. A Definition Humanistic education is a term frequently misused by many innovative educators as a synonym for individualized, affective-, confluent, or a host of other innovative, humane, educational endeavours. The diversity of educational programs under the humanistic umbrella has pre-cipitated confusion and thus, c l a r i f i c a t i o n is in order. Rubins provides a conservative but functional viewpoint.* In the true humanisticeschool, traditional content is subordinated to the child's nature and interests, the process of feelings becomes as important as those of thought; personal ethos and private experience are viewed as the significant subject matter and classical values, rather than passed on whole, are to be examined, appraised, interpreted and altered to f i t the individual's purpose and circumstance.(15) Although humanistic education may have affective overtones, i t is not concerned primarily with the development of s k i l l s to cope with the mult-itude of emotions that a student may experience throughout l i f e . A number of humane and individualized methods may be employed in humanistic pro-grams but these techniques are not the essence of humanistic education. Rather, humanistic education is directed toward the development of curri-culum for and by the student. Individualized, affective and confluent programs can be realized through the implementation of traditional curricula, but humanistic education cansndt. The transmission of the indigenous culture and the perpetuation of the status quo are not the aims of a humanistic program. *This view should not be accepted as absolute but i t does provide a useful focus when reviewing humanistic physical education literature. -11-B. Roots and Characteristics of Humanistic Education In a setting where the student-teacher dialogue is more import-ant than a predetermined, inflexible lesson plan and methodology, human-i s t i c education presents an image of man as: ...a being in the process of becoming. The model sees man as personal,conscious, future oriented, in control of his behavior and his destiny (16) Humanistic education views the child as a potential orchestra and encourages him to experiment with every instrument and every theme in him. (17) This image of man, as curious, creative and independent, is a result of the coalition of the psychological knowledge of Humanistic Psychology and the philosophical beliefs of Humanism. Humanistic Psychology, or the "Third Force", as i t has been coined by Maslow^^ , has emerged recently as a counterf orce to behavior-ism and psychoanalysis. The humanistic school encompasses Gestaltists, phenomenological and existential psychologists; a l l of whom believe in the importance of the individual human being. A l l reject an animalistic or mechanistic view of man. The "Third Force" has developed through the study of man, in contrast to behaviorist research which used animals and, through the study of psychologically healthy people, not neurotics, as frequently employed by Freud. Central to Humanistic Psychology is the belief ...that man is the process that supersedes the sum of his part functions. (19) It is the study of integrated man; body and mind. The importance of man's consciousness is stressed. Man has the a b i l i t y to reflect upon his actions and, therefore, assumes a free and responsible role in deter-mining further action. Humanistic Psychology recognizes the influence -12-that environment and culture play i n determining behavior, but i t a l s o stresses man's uniqueness i n viewing the environment and culture as a c r i t i c a l component i n influencing behavior. The humanistic psychologist d i r e c t s h i s att e n t i o n towards an understanding of human experience; desire, love, hope, fear, humour, spontaneity, autonomy, s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , and a host of other human conditions. Humanistic education, although concerned with a l l human experience, considers s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n to be of c r i t i c a l importance. Maslow^*^explains s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n as f u l f i l l m e n t of one's own basic needs. As a r e s u l t , a s e l f - a c t u a l i z e d i n d i v i d u a l i s motivated by things outside himself. Maslow suggests such people are "meta-motivated". Consequently humanistic education s t r i v e s to create an environ-ment which i s conducive to f a c i l i t a t i n g the s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g process within a l l students. The following humanistic psychological p r i n c i p l e s are employed: (21) a. "Persons learn i n a free environment'* The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for learning i s s h i f t e d from the teacher to the student. Teachers should not predetermine objectives or channel learning a c t i v i t i e s , but rather, create opportunities for students to make decisions concerning subject matter and method. What i s e s s e n t i a l i s to r e a l i z e that c h i l d r e n learn independ-e n t l y , not i n bunches; that they learn out of i n t e r e s t and c u r i o s i t y , not to please or appease the adult i n power; and that they ought to be i n cont r o l of t h e i r own learning, deciding for themselves^what they want to learn and how they want to learn i t . ' b. "The c h i l d learns by r e l a t i n g the world to h i s own experiences". (23) A student learns about the world through personal experiences and perceptions. I t i s important to the development of a c r i t i c a l awareness that students become personally involved i n most learning experiences. However, i t should be noted that some v i c a r i o u s experi-ences can be of value i n the learning process. For example, observ-ing s k i l l e d p a r t i c i p a n t s playing handball can be a valuable v i c a r i o u s experience i n developing the s k i l l of a novice handball player. -13-c. "Persons learn co-operatively". (24) A co-operative environment i s r e a l i z e d when students f r e e l y express t h e i r f e e l i n g s and understanding about a given subject. A l l contributions are received without judgment. As students r e f l e c t upon shared f e e l i n g s and knowledge each student i s able to view r e a l i t y with more o b j e c t i v i t y . In a competitive atmosphere learning i s not a shared venture and feeli n g s and knowledge become private and therefore s t a t i c . d "Persons learn from the inside out". (25) A l l learning i s purposeful'. A student learns when he i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y motivated; when he sees the value i n the experience. Learning i s fr u s t r a t e d when personal motivation i s replaced by teacher manipulation and value judgement. e. "Persons learn i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r human q u a l i t i e s " . (26) People have unique, emotive and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s but they do not overshadow the uni f y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of man's e s s e n t i a l humanness and human experience. Human experience such as love, a f f e c t i o n , b i r t h and death, should provide the subject matter for a number of learning experiences. Such a focus i s c r i t i c a l i n the development of interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The development of the s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g process i s not fostered i n i s o l a t i o n but rather i n a co-operative, human context. Humanistic education, at i t s best, i s an attempt to encourage growth and learning of a l l those involved -students, f a c u l t y , and administration. The focus i s on the people and r e l a t i o n s h i p s involved i n the educational process, such that a course or curriculum may only be considered humanistic to the degree persons involved - teachers and students - are f u l l y human.(27) The dual front of humanistic education i s s u c c i n c t l y c l a r i f i e d by J o y c e w h o perceives that h i s r o l e as a curriculum developer i s : a. "To create environments which enable i n d i v i d u a l s to a c t u a l i z e themselves on t h e i r own terms - emotionally, i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , and s o c i a l l y . " -14-b. "To create environments which help people reach each other and live with an expanding common consciousness - one which not only embraces the traditional liberal values of mutual respect and protection of the rights of others, but also reaches out to explore the development of expanded human experience through new dimensions of relationships with others." Humanistic education presents an alternative to that offered by behaviorists. The inventions of the teaching machine and computer assisted instruction have emphasized the end product rather than the process and have placed an unfortunate emphasis on behavioral modification. Humanistic education attempts to remove this behavioral emphasis. The error of the behavioral emphasis is its failure to recognize that behavior is only a symptom...In the field of medicine none would be satisfied i f the doctors dealt only with our symptoms and yet we have dealt with human behavior as though it were an entity in i tself , instead of recognizing that observed behavior is but a symptom of what has happened inside the individual. (29) Humanistic education and humanistic psychology evolved as a direct result of the philosophical beliefs of Humanism. Humanism gave impetus to the autonomous nature of humanistic education, stimulated a concern for the dignity arid worth of each person, promoted the importance of individual responsibility, self-control and direction and precipitated a new direction in psychological research. What is humanism? If we pause to indicate the precise nature of humanism, we will surely not be performing a humanistic task, for we would be saying that humanism involves some standard prescription for defining itself and the tasks intending to represent it.(30) . . . for humanism, like love, is a concept which resists classification.(31) The above statements may not be scientifically precise definitions but they indicate the multiplicity of thought inherent in humanism. The -15-ecclectic nature of humanism allows for richness and diversity of thought and precludes the formation of a definitive school, p o l i t i c a l platform or program. Humanism presents an image of man and an approach to l i v i n g ; i t is not a creed or dogma. F l e x i b i l i t y , in relation to time and context, is basic to humanism; an absolute, established program is an anathema. As a result, Humanism has attracted a number of epithets; naturalistic, s c i e n t i f i c , secular, democratic and modern. These appellations reflect a difference in emphasis rather than belief. Indeed, humanism presents a single image of man. Although humanism reflects a diversity of thought, this paper w i l l present only the dominant themes projected in the literature reviewed. Humanism offers an optimistic, almost ethereal view of man. Man, not God, is charged with the responsibility of solving the problems of the world. Man is urged to fu l l y engage his mind, body and s p i r i t in the concerns of the world; to arrive at a deeper understanding of the nature of man. Humanism rejects man's dependence upon the Supernatural. Theistic beliefs are considered to be no more than man-made myths. With the rejection of theistic dependence, such beliefs as "predestination" and " a f t e r - l i f e " are shattered. Man is now pressed to determine his own destiny. The elimination of a heaven to which man's soul w i l l be raised confines man to this world. Realizing his earthly confinement, the humanist is motivated to establish a paradise on earth. He is dedicated to the creation of a world that w i l l ensure enjoyment on earth for succeeding generations. ...Humanism is the viewpoint that men have but one l i f e to lead and should make the most of i t in terms of creative work and happiness, that human happiness is i t s own justification and requires no sanction or support from Supernatural sources; that in any case the Supernatural usually conceived of in the form of heavenly Gods or immortal heavens, does not exist and that human beings, using their own intelligence and co-operating l i b e r a l l y with one another, can build an enduring citadel of peace and beauty upon this earth. (32) -16-Although humanism i s concerned with the here and now, i t s secular view doe not n e c e s s a r i l y prompt a f r i v o l o u s or self-aggrandizing a t t i t u d e toward l i f e . With the r e j e c t i o n of the Supernatural, man becomes the c e n t r a l figure on stage, even though that stage i s but a t i n y dot in the universe. To f a c i l i t a t e an understanding of h i s world, many humanists believe man should seek t r u t h through reason and the s c i e n t i f i c method. Man must esta b l i s h h i s values out of human experience; not alleged supernatural dictate Basic assumptions and values must be constantly evaluated i n the l i g h t of new f a c t s . Humanism provides a pattern for human development. I f man i s to r e a l i z e f u l f i l l m e n t on earth, he must recognize the unity that e x i s t s among men - humanness. He must s t r i v e f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l welfare through peace, economic improvement and democracy.* Twentieth century humanism can be viewed as an energy force that can give d i r e c t i o n and meaning to l i f e . I mean the c r i s i s of the human race which threatens i t with e x t i n c t i o n . I mean the technology that has become lea d e r l e s s , the unlimited mastery of the means that no longer have to answer to any ends; I mean the voluntary enslavement of man i n the service of the s p l i t atom. In the growing, the s t i l l p l a s t i c gener-ati o n more and more men are aware of what i s preparing i t s e l f there; t h e i r day-by-day increasing awareness, the knowledge of the c r i s i s , summons i n them the only counterforce that can succeed in elevating ends again, great c l e a r ends, above the r e b e l l i o u s means. It i s t h i s counterforce that I c a l l the new b e l i e v i n g humanism.(33) I t i s not the writer's intention to imply, through the above i n t e r p r e t -at i o n of Humanism, that those with r e l i g i o u s or t h e i s t i c b e l i e f s could not be considered within the Humanistic framework. However, many^Human-i s t s would dispute t h i s point. As a r e s u l t of i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t i s the writer's contention that the development of Humanistic Education has been pr i m a r i l y influenced by Humanism that r e f l e c t s a secular b i a s . *Democracy in t h i s context means freedom and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of expression and the preservation of c i v i l r i g h t s for a l l . - 1 7 -It should a l s o be noted that Humanism i s not r e s t r i c t e d to s c i e n t i f i c explanations when seeking the t r u t h about phenomena. The phenomenological approach of F r e i r e i n attempting to understand the essence of experience i s just as rigorous as the s c i e n t i f i c method and can be included i n the Humanistic approach. Although many Humanists would not legitimate e i t h e r the t h e i s t i c or phenomenological approaches within the Humanistic framework, not to do so would deny the e c c l e c t i c and growing nature of Humanism. As noted e a r l i e r , Humanism does not involve a standard p r e s c r i p t i o n . Humanism, as viewed i n t h i s t h e s i s , i s e s s e n t i a l l y a concern for man's r e l a t i o n s h i p i n and with the world and a l l who dedicate themselves to t h i s end are Humanists. C. Emergence of Humanistic Education Humanistic education i s a r e l a t i v e l y recent term. However, the roots of the present concept were established by the e a r l y Greeks. Protagorus, a Greek teacher and philosopher i n the f i f t h century B.C. was perhaps the f i r s t notable humanistic educator. Protagorus holds that man i s the measure of a l l things, of things that are that they are, and of things that are not that they are not.(34) Protagorus was one of a number of Sophists, who cast t h e i r a t t e n t i o n upon man rather than toward physical nature, as was the t r a d i t i o n of e a r l i e r Greek scholars. Versenyi provides an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Protagorus' statement. Protagorus announces a p r a c t i c a l program: The things we are concerned with are chemata, i . e . , things we are d e c i s i v e l y r e l a t e d to. There i s no point i n speaking grandly about what things may or may not be i n themselves. What we have to take i n t o account and concentrate on i s what they are for us, in the world we l i v e i n , i n a world i n which our r e l a t i o n s h i p to things, or l i v i n g i n the world, i s decisive.(35) To suggest that man i s a human being who l i v e s and f i n d s a meaning in the world and whose concerns should be of the world was courageous i n Protagorus' time. He defied the Natural Philosophers, who were most i n f l u e n t i a l , by -18-deviating from speculation about the nature of the physical universe. Although Socrates is not considered to be a Sophist, he conveyed many similar concerns. Socrates was interested in the improvement of man through a concern for excellence and the cultivation of the process of l iving. However, he employed a different approach. Rather than exagger-ate man's abil i t ies , Socrates examined man's weaknesses and took a more rational, reflective look at man. Socrates espoused the following approach to education: That real education aims at imparting knowledge rather than opinion, that knowledge cannot be handed over ready-made but has to be appropriated by the knower, that appropriation is possible only through one's own search and that to make him aware of his ignorance is to start a man on the search for knowledge.(36)* Aristotle's thoughts on education also reflected an early human-istic stance: education should be directed towards realization of individ-ual potential. According to Aristotle, the ultimate goal is happiness. Happiness is attained through the pursuit of excellence in self-actualizing activities. However, i t should be noted that Aristotle tends to be con-cerned more with the end product than with the process. The next notable era in the development of humanistic education was the Renaissance. Renaissance education was a revolt against medieval Christian theology. Desiderus, Erasmus and Thomas Moore, a l l Renaissance educators, turned to the work of the early Greeks to resurrect reason and cast aside church dogma and rules. There was an attempt to educate people in a variety of disciplines in order to escape the narrow, specialist edu-cation of the church. Thus, the birth of the humanities. During the early modern period, Comenius provided the thrust for humanistic education. Interested in developing an efficient learn-ing environment, he proposed a system of progressive instruction based on *The major source for the remaining portion of this historical account is Number 37 in the footnotes to this chapter. -19-personally observed developmental stages of children. Locke carried on these ideas, noting the uniqueness of each child and expressing a concern for the worth of each child. In the 18th century, Rousseau advocated self-actualization through education. He wished to see man take an active part in the world rather than be witness to man moulded by the world. Pestalozzi, an educator, built upon the work of Comenius and Rousseau, expressing a concern for the development of the whole child. He was devoted to the establishment of a loving relationship between the teacher and the student. Through the contributions of Comenius, Locke, Rousseau and Pestalozzi, there developed the recognition that learning is a natural act i v i t y of children and should be enjoyed. Education should develop an integrated man capable of an active, responsible role in the world; a man who is self-actualized. Unfortunately, education as i t emerged into the twentieth century did not always reflect the philosophy of earlier humanists. Despite this the twentieth century could become the greatest humanist era and have a profound effect upon education. The birth of humanism, as expressed by John Huxley (38) in the twentieth century is born of a rich heritage. This new idea system, whose birth we of the mid-twentieth century are witnessing, I shall simply c a l l Humanism, because i t can only be based on our understanding of man and his relations with the rest of his environment. It must be focused on man as an organism, though one with unique properties. Huxley believes the "new idea system" is emerging in response to a rapid growth of knowledge in a multitude of disciplines, giving rise to sc i e n t i f i c and technological advancement. However, advancement has come at the expense of traditional practices and values, causing uncertainty and despair among men. Huxley sees the emergence of humanism as an answer to the problem confronting twentieth century man. - 2 0 -Erich Fromn/"'*''echoes Huxley's concern for the world and hopes mankind w i l l embrace humanism before the images of Orwell's 1984 are realized. Fromm paints a desperate picture of man; of man who has lost a l l hope, who no longer acts upon his world but instead is moulded by the forces of technology and bureaucratic society. It is an image portrayed earlier by Buber^^ Fromm urges man to adopt a new attitude toward l i f e . Man's development requires his capacity to transcend the narrow prison of his ego, his greed, his self i s h -ness, his separation from his fellow man, and hence, his basic loneliness. This transcendence is the con-dition of being open and related to the world, vulner-able, and yet with an experience of identity and integrity; of man's capacity to enjoy a l l that is alive, to pour out his faculties into the world around him, to be "interested"; in brief, to be rather than to have and to use are consequences of the step to overcome greed and egomania.(40) The threat of a nuclear war, over-population, starvation, depletion of energy resources, conflicting ideologies, preoccupation with quantity rather than quality and the gap between the rich and the poor combine to give expression to the Humanism of the twentieth century made manifest by writers such as Huxley, Fromm and Freire and give rise to: a new Weltanschuung. . .a new Zeitgeist, a new set of values, and a new way of finding them, and certainly a new image of man.(41) The rebirth of humanism is also being called for by students and educators who are demanding more relevance and autonomy in school programs. Educators are becoming cognizant of the deleterious effects of technology upon the development of students and are becoming aware that (42) schools can be a source of dehumanization. There is an increasing concern for the development of affective growth, in addition to cognitive growth, so that inter-personal relationships might be stimulated. Humanists are directing attention to education as a process and rejecting an over-emphasis on the specific, measurable objectives established by behaviorists, technologists, and those concerned with accountability. -21-Humanistic Education of the mid-twentieth century, although radically different from that of the early Greeks, is slowly evolving under the tutelage of modern humanism and humanistic psychology. Whether Humanistic Education continues to grow and become an effective influence in education w i l l unfortunately be determined by the po l i t i c s of a given community. Now that an interpretation of Humanistic Education has been established, i t is necessary to determine the influence of the Humanistic approach on Physical Education. Also, through a review of Humanistic Physical Education literature an understanding of thevcontext, into which we plan to place the Problem Posing method, w i l l be achieved. D. Review of Humanistic Physical Education Upon application of the c r i t e r i a for humanistic education, to physical education programs, i t was found that very few known pro-grams satisfy such requirements. However, a trend towards a humanistic approach can be noted. It appears that i n i t i a l attempts to replace traditional programs have not been motivated by the desire to see student involvement in subject and method selection. Rather, innovations have been introduced to better f a c i l i t a t e the execution stage of learning, after the instructor has explained and demonstrated a given subject matter. (43) Contract teaching exemplifies the above point. Parchman, (44) (45) (46) Annarino, Pina, and Fast v describe contract programs that are developed by the teacher. Each elective has been systematically and progressively ordered. Although students cannot devise their own object-ives and methods, they do have a choice of program. Selection occurs in consultation with an instructor. (47) A variation in contract teaching is illustrated by Hook et a l v and Cochrane ^ \ Students select a course from a number of predeterminec programs. The goals and objectives of each course are given but students - 2 2 -may determine the procedure for attaining the established goals and object-ives. A resource center is available to assist students. A further variation in contract teaching is exemplified by Foster, Geadelman, and Dubois . Within a given unit, students are encouraged to develop personal objectives and methods. I n i t i a l instruction and guidance is provided before students construct their contracts. A resource center equipped with loop films, tapes, books and charts is available. Independent study courses are offered in a few schools. Given time periods are established for students to select, within specified c r i t e r i a , a unit of study. Each student is responsible for establishing personal goals and methods. Teachers assume advisory roles and a resource (52) center is available to f a c i l i t a t e student progress. Stanhopev ' and Sadowski^"^ present such programs. Shulman^^ and Overskei^"^ have developed programs that f a c i l i t a t e student selection of a given course. The course, however, is established by the teacher. Course matter i s either transmitted by the instructor or a self-spaced program is employed. Course selection is restricted for those who register last and therefore, desired electives may not be realized. Heitman and Kneer^*^ and Cassidy and Caldwell typify a dominant attitude evident in the literature. They present programs that are based on the belief that there exist a number of absolutes in physical education that only a teacher is capable of determining. Therefore, i t is the teacher's role to determine behavioral objectives, methods and a c t i v i t i e s . The teacher diagnoses, prescribes, guides and evaluates. The student's role is restricted to choosing a unit among a predetermined selection and progressing through the unit at a personal learning pace. The student is permitted to participate in formative and summative evaluation. Lawsonv ' reflects a similar teaching model to that of Heitman - 2 3 -and Kneer V , . - ' and Cassidy and Caldwellv . However, he does demonstrate a concern for presenting not only motor s k i l l implications of a given activity, but also the importance of physical principles and socio-cultural implications. It is a holistic approach to physical activity. ( 5 9 ) Hellison is the only author reviewed who promotes the view that the student is in the best position to determine what and how he should learn. Hellison presents four goals for physical education. Students should develop through physical activity: (a) self-esteem, (b) self-actualization, (c) self-understanding, (d) interpersonal relationships. He proposes a progressive movement from a command approach to more individualized styles which will facilitate the forementioned humanistic goals. Hellison*s method applied to an example in an active health program would suggest the following. If a class were involved in a weight training unit, the teacher using the command style would predetermine the exercise, the method and the quantity. At the humanistic end of the scale, a l l pre-class decisions are determined by the student. Each student plans, executes and evaluates his own weight program. The teacher assumes a resource role. Caldwell explicitly outlines a concept of humanistic education. A humanistic concept of physical education focuses on the being and becoming of the "whole man", the "totality" of man's humanness. It asserts that there is more, much more than our traditional, limiting perception of what we have believed our-selves, our students and our field to be. The humanist attitude delights in total man as an alive, reasoning, thinking, feeling, moving, experiencing being - and demands that programs, practices, pro-cedures, and experiences in our discipline celebrate the rediscovery of this phenomenon through the trans-formation of our field into something more, much more -something better, much better - than it has been and is . Unfortunately, Caldwell did not adhere to the above concept in a later - 2 4 -book<57>' If we view the current literature from the above perspective, i t is obvious that a humanistic approach has not been achieved. It is true that personalized or individualized instruction is being explored but teacher domination is most evident. Hellison currently provides the best humanistic model, but he has given l i t t l e consideration to the methodology required to stimulate authentic student choice. In order to find a«mddel in concert with Caldwell's concept of humanistic physical education, i t may be desirable to investigate the Problem Posing method of Paulo Freire. Freire's ideas may help to provide a model for a student-teacher relationship that f a c i l i t a t e s student involvement in curricular decisions. If students are to make authentic decisions about their education, they must develop what Freire calls a " c r i t i c a l consciousness". It is the suggestion of this thesis that Problem Posing Method may provide an authentic model for developing a humanistic physical education program. Consequently, in the following chapter, Freire's approach to Humanistic education w i l l be discussed, the Problem Posing Method w i l l be developed and implications about Freire's method wi l l be presented. -25-REFERENCES 15. Louis Rubin, Curriculum, Affect and Humanism, Educational Leadership, Vol. 32 (Oct. 1974), p. 10. 16. CH. Patterson, Humanistic Education, (Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1973), p. 12. 17. Carl Weinberg, Introduction, in Humanistic Foundations of Education, ed. Carl Weinberg, (Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1972), p. 7. 18. Paul Bruce, Three Forces in Psychology and Their Ethical and Educational Implications, Educational Forum, Vol. 3(March, 1966), p.277. 19. J. Bugental, Humanistic Psychology: A New Break-through, in Humanistic Viewpoints in Psychology, ed. by Frank T. Severin, (New York: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1965), p. 9. 20.. A.H. Maslow, The Good Life of the Self-Actualizing Person, in Moral Problems in Contemporary Society, ed. by Paul Kurtz, (Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1969), pp. 67 - 76. 21. Carl Weinberg, and Philip Reedford, Humanistic Educational Psychology, in Humanistic Foundations of Education, ed. by Carl Weinberg, (Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1972), p. 118. 22. John Holt, How Children Learn, (New York: Pitman Publishing Corporation, 1969(, p. 185. 23. Carl Weinberg and Philip Reedford, Humanistic Educational Psychology in Humanistic Foundations of Education, ed. by Carl Weinberg, (Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1972), p. 120. 24. ibid, p. 122. 25. i b i d , p. 123. 26. ibid, p. 124. 27. Kauji Nakata, Business Administration and Education, in Humanistic Foundations of Education, ed. by Carl Weinberg, (Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1972), p. 251. 28. Bruce Joyce, Curriculum and Humanistic Education: "Monolism" vs Pluralism, in Humanistic Foundations of Education, ed. by Carl Weinberg, (Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1972), p. 169. -26-29. Arthur W. Coombs, The Educational Researcher: A Need for Humanism, p. 8, as cited in a paper distributed by Dr. T. Aoki for Education 580, Summer, 1976. Complete source not given. Library search for source unsuccessful. 30. Carl Weinberg, Introduction, in Humanistic Foundations of Education, ed. by Carl Weinberg, (Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1972), p. 1. 31. ib i d . , p. 1. 32. Corliss Lamont, The Philosophy of Humanism, (New York: Fredrick Ungar Publishing Co., 1965), p. 14. 33. Martin Buber, A Believing Humanism, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1967), p. 121. 34. Corliss Lamont, The Philosophy of Humanism, (New York: Fredrick Ungar Publishing Co., 1965), p. 31. 35. Laszlo Versenyi, Socratic Humanism, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963), p. 12. 36. ib i d . , p. 117. 37. C. H. Patterson, Humanistic Education, (Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1973), pp. 32 - 44. 38. John Huxley, The Humanist Frame in The Humanist Frame, ed. by Julian Huxley, (New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1961), p.14. 39. Erich Froom, The Revolution of Hope, (New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1974). 40. i b i d . , p. 141. 41. A.H. Maslow, Peak Experiences in Education and Art, Theory and  Practice, Vol. 10 (June, 1971), p. 149. 42. Ivan 111ich, Deschopling Society, (New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1970). 43. Linda L. Parchman, Experiences with Contract Teaching, J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 45 (Oct. 1974), pp. 41 - 42. 44. Anthony A. Annarino, Another Way to Teach, J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 45 (Oct. 1974), pp. 43 - 46. 45. Wallace Pina, The Systems Approach in Physical Education J.O.P.H.E.R. Vol. 42 (Nov. 1971), pp. 57 - 58. 46. Barbara L. Fast, Contracting, J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 42, (Sept. 1971), pp. 31-32. -27-47. Andrew J. Hook et aj_, Computer Monitored Physical Education, J.O.P.H.E.R.. Vol. 46. (Sept. 1973), pp. 24 - 25. 48. June Cochrane, Student-Centered Physical Education, J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 46. (Sept. 1973), pp. 25 - 26. 49. Larry E. Foster, A. Tool for F l e x i b i l i t y , J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 45. (Oct. 1974), pp. 38 - 39. 50. Patricia L. Geadleman, Self-Directed Learning, J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 42. (Sept. 1971), pp. 25 - 26. 51. Paul E. Dubois, Personalize Your Weight Training Programs, Physical Educator, Vol. 32 (Oct. 1975), pp. 138 - 141. 52. Carolyn L. Stanhope, Independent Study Options, J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 42 (Sept. 1971), p. 24. 53. Gregory W. Sadowski, Flexible Modular Scheduling Allows for Student Choice of Independent Study Units, J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 42 (Sept. 1971), p. 25. 54. Sidney Shulman, An Experimental High School, J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 44 (Sept. 1973), pp. 23 - 24. 55. Larry Overskei, A Co-educational Lottery System, J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 44 (Sept. 1973), pp. 27 - 28. 56. Helen M. Heitman, and Marion E. Kneer, Physical Education  Instructional Techniques, (Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc. , 1976). 57. Rosalind Cassidy and Stratton F. Caldwell, Humanizing Physical  Education: Methods for the Secondary School Movement Program, (Dubuque, Iowa: W.C. Brown Company, 1974). 58. Hal Lawson, An Alternative Program Model for Secondary School Physical Education, J.O.P.H.E.R.. Vol. 48 (Feb. 1977), pp. 38 £ 39. 59. Donald R. Hellison, Humanistic Physical Education, (Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1973). 60. Stratton F. Caldwell, Toward a Humanistic Physical Education, J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 43 (May, 1972), p.. 32. - 2 8 -CHAPTER III FREIRE'S HUMANISTIC EDUCATION The Humanism presented by Paulo Freire is in contrast to the sc i e n t i f i c , secular approach presented in Chapter II and so influential in the development of Humanistic Education. In the development of a c r i t i c a l consciousness Freire seeks to understand and give meaning to l i f e through constant reflection and action. This approach does not follow the dictates of the sci e n t i f i c method but rather conforms to a phenomenological approach. A. Freire's View of Man. Before attempting to analyze Freire's Problem Posing Method, i t is c r i t i c a l to be knowledgeable about his view of man. Such knowledge is fundamental to an understanding of his educational philosophy. According to Freire, man is not a static, determined object, but rather a dynamic, growing being, cognizant of his growth and con-scious of an evolving reality-Problem Posing education affirms men as beings in the process of becoming - as unfinished, incompleted beings in, and with a likewise unfinished reality.(61) Human beings constantly create and re-create their knowledge, in that they are inconclusive, historical beings engaged in a permanent act of discovery. (62) "Human beings are not just what they are, but also what they were"; they are in a state of being; this being is character-i s t i c of human existence. Human existence, therefore, con-trary to animal or vegetable l i f e , is a process taking place in one's own time. (63) Self awareness and consciousness of environment is possible as man is able to objectify or view re a l i t y from a distance, with reflection, as well as receive sense images from outside stimuli through sense receptors. -29-. . .of the incompleted beings, man is the only one to treat not only his actions but his very self as the object of his reflection; this capacity d i s t i n -guishes him from the animals which are unable to separate themselves from their a c t i v i t y and thus are unable to reflect upon it.(64) They are to detach themselves from the world in order to find their place in i t and with i t . Only people are capable of this act of "separation" in order to find their place in the world and enter in a c r i t i c a l way into their own reality.(65) The process of men's orientation in the world involves not just the association of sense images, as for animals. It involves above a l l , thought-language; that i s , the possibility of the act of knowing through his praxis, by which man transforms reality.(66) The a b i l i t y to reflect upon sense images and human actions allows man not only to be in the world, but also with the world. Men can f u l f i l the necessary condition of being with the world because they are able to gain objective distance from i t . Without this objectification, whereby man also objectifies himself, man would be limited to being in the world, lacking both self-knowledge and knowledge of the world. (67) Man's perception of his place in the world is neither solely an objective nor a subjective process. Rather, i t is the union of a concrete fact and man's perception of a concrete fact that determines man's view of re a l i t y . For man, this process of orientation in the world can be understood neither as a purely subjective event, nor as an objective or mechanistic one, but only as an event in which subjectivity and objectivity are united. (68) Although man recognizes that he is conditioned by the results of his actions, i t is through reflection that he is able to make decisions concerning his actions. Therefore, man is not passively moulded in: a predetermined fashion. Because men are aware of the conditioning effect of their actions, they set out, through reflection, to establish goals for themselves and are able to conceive of the results of their decisions -30-before action has been initiated. If they did not sever their adherence to the world and emerge from i t as consciousness constituted in the "ad-miration" of the world as i t s object, men would be merely.determinate beings, and i t would be impossible to think in terms of their liberation. Only beings who can reflect upon the fact that they are determined are capable of freeing themselves. (69) In contrast, men - aware of their activity and the world in which they are situated, acting in function of the objectives which they propose, having the seat of their decisions located in themselves and in their relations with the world and with others, infusing the world with their creative presence by means of the transformation they effect upon i t - unlike animals, not only live but exist, and their existence is h i s t o r i c a l . (70) The normal role of human beings in and with the world is not a passive one. Because they are not limited to the natural (biological) sphere but participate in the creative dimension as well, men can intervene in rea l i t y in order to change i t . (71) Conscientization is viable only because men's consciousness, although conditioned, can recognize that i t is conditioned. This " c r i t i c a l " dimension of consciousness accounts for the goals men assign to their transforming acts upon the world. Because they are able to have goals, men alone are capable of entertaining the result of their action even before i n i t i -ating the proposed action. They are beings who pro-ject.(72) Since man is an active and not a reactive being, he is able to transcend r e a l i t y through consideration of a number of choices at his disposal. In light of new knowledge, man is able to alter decisions and acquire heightened awareness. Human relationships with the world are plural in nature. Whether facing widely different challenges of the environ-ment or the same challenge, men are not limited to a single pattern. They organize themselves, choose the best response, test themselves, act, and change in the very act of responding.(73) Men relate to their world in a c r i t i c a l way. They apprehend the objective data of theirreality (as well as the ties that link one datum to another) through reflection - not by reflex, as do animals. (74) -31-The decision making process is facili t a t e d because man is Praxis. Praxis is the simultaneous process of acting and reflecting. It is through praxis that man attains new awareness. Only men are praxis - the praxis which, as the reflection and action which truly transform reality, is the source of knowledge and creation. (75) Through their continuing praxis, men simultaneously create history and become historical-social beings. (76) But men's activity consists of action and reflection; i t is praxis; i t is transformation of the world.(77) It is through praxis that man creates history and, in return, is influenced by history. Through the a b i l i t y to perceive a past, present and a future, man becomes an historical being. For man there is no here relative to a there which is not connected to a now, a before, and an after. Thus men's relationships with world are per se hist o r i c a l , as are men themselves. Not only do men make the history which makes them, but they can recount the history of this mutual making. (78) In attempting to interpret the world and his role in the world, man is capable of creating philosophy, ideas and a variety of products. Thus, man creates culture, which is not just the extension of his body but rather the product of mind and body, interacting in the world. It is as transforming and creative beings that men, in their permanent relations with r e a l i t y produce not only material goods - tangible objects - but also social institutions, ideas and concepts. (79) The difference between animals - who (because their activity does not constitute limit acts) cannot create products de-tached from themselves - and men - who through action upon the world create the realm of culture and history. . .(80) It is impossible for man to live separate from the world and i t i s man who gives meaning to the world. Only products which result from the activity of a being but not belong to i t s physical body (though these products may bear i t s seal), can give a dimension of meaning to -32-the contact, which thus becomes a world. A being cap-able of such production (who thereby is necessarily aware of himself, is a "being for himself") could no longer be i f he were not in the process of being in the world with which he relates; just as the world would no longer exist i f this being did not exist. (81) Meaning of man and of the world is made possible through communication. If communication does not occur, growth is impeded and men are reduced to objects. . . .that of men as beings who cannot be truly human apart from communications, for they are essentially communicative creatures. To impede communication is to reduce men to the status of "things". . .(82) Thus the world of human beings is a world of communication. As a conscious being (whose consciousness is one of intent-ionality towards the world and towards r e a l i t y ) , the human being acts, thinks, and speaks, on and about this r e a l i t y , which is the mediation between him or her and other human beings who also act, think and speak.(83) Freire's view of man as active, reflective and creative is manifested in his humanistic philosophy of education. His philosophy is a challenge to many traditional educational practices and thus offers educators an opport-unity to view, -objectively, their present attitudes and methods. B. Freire's Philosophy of Education As stated earlier, humanistic education is directed towards the self-actualization of each student. However, many humanists have appeared to restrict their concern to students' performance within the school system, rather than address themselves to the performance of students in and with the world. Freire's philosophy of education is in concert with his image of man and is directed toward student freedom in the world. It i s freedom from educators who keep students in bondage, by restricting student intervention in their world, i t is freedom from educators who interpret reality for students. . . ."education as a practice of freedom" is not the transfer, or transmission of knowledge or cultures. Nor is i t the extension of technical knowledge. It is not the act of -33-depositing reports or facts in the educatee. It is not the "perpetuation of the values of a given culture". It is not "an attempt to adapt the educatee to the milieu".(84) Education is the opportunity for students to become involved with the world and understand their relationship to the world. Education as the practice of freedom - as opposed to education as the practice of domination - denies that man is abstract, isolated, independent and unattached to the world; i t also denies that the world exists as a reality apart from man. Authentic reflection con-siders neither abstract man nor the world without men, but men in their relations with the world.(85) The main task of education is to f a c i l i t a t e student self-awareness and assist in the discovery of controlling,moulding forces operating in the student environment. In problem-posing education, men develop their power to perceive c r i t i c a l l y , the way they exist in the world with which and in which they find themselves; they come to see the world not as a static r e a l i t y , but as a rea l i t y in process, in transformation. (86) Education for freedom can only be attained i f the present restricted relationship between student and teacher is radically altered. At present, the teacher assumes responsibility for the development and transmission of curriculum. The students participate in a passive, non-c r i t i c a l manner, enslaved by the imposition of a teacher's interpretation of reality. Freire refers to the above as "banking education". Implicit in the banking concept is the assumption of a dichotomy between-man and the world: man is merely in the world, not with the world or with others; man is spectator, not re-creator. In this view, man is not a conscious being (corpo-consciente); he is rather the possessor of a consciousness: an empty "mind" passively open to the reception of deposits of r e a l i t y from the outside world. (87) In Freire's view, the teachers and students must become partners in the educational process. The master-slave relationship must give way to a co-operative venture that witnesses a constant interchange of roles between teachers and students. -34-Education must begin with the solution of the teacher-student contradiction, by reconciling the poles of the contradiction so that both are simultaneously teachers and students.(88) The teacher is no longer merely the one-who-teaches, but one who i s himself taught in dialogue with the students, who, in turn, while being taught, also teach. They become jointly responsible for a process in which a l l grow.(89) This process denies learning in isolation and promotes the necessity for teachers' and students' mutual involvement, for the realization of growth. Here, no one teaches another, nor is anyone self-taught. Men teach each other, mediated by the world, by the cogniz-able objects which in banking education are "owned" by the teacher. (90) The curriculum for education is not imposed by the teacher. Rather, i t is an outgrowth of student concerns, as students attempt to understand themselves and develop their relationship to the world. For the dialogical, problem-posing, teacher-student, the program content of education is neither a g i f t nor an imposition - bits of information to be deposited in the students - but rather the organized, systematized and developed "re-presentation" to individuals of the things about which they want to know more.(91) It is not the educator's right to interpret the concerns of students, but rather to present student concerns in the form of problems, for both the teacherts-and students' consideration. The task of the educator is to present to the educatees as a problem, the content which mediates them, and not to dis-course on i t , give i t , extend i t , or hand i t over, as i t were a matter of something already done, constituted, com-pleted and finished.(92) Students should not be involved in passive repetition. Instead, they should be actively involved in a search that w i l l assist them in knowing a more meaningful, evolving re a l i t y . Knowing, whatever i t s level, is not the act by which a subject transformed into an object docilely and passively accepts the contents of others give or impose on him or her. Know-ledge on the contrary necessitates the curious presence of subjects confronted with the world. It requires their trans-forming action on re a l i t y . It demands a constant searching. (93) -35-If students are to be truly free, education must provide students the opportunity to develop a c r i t i c a l awareness of their environment and to evolve a meaningful relationship with the world. Whereas banking education anesthetizes and inhibits creative power, problem-posing education involves constant unveiling of re a l i t y . The former attempts to maintain the submersion of consciousness; the latter strives for the emergence of consciousness and c r i t i c a l intervention in re a l i t y . (94) According to Freire, i t is only through reflection and action that man can dehumanize a given situation and become more human. Thus, Freire's philosophy of education would be incomplete without a viable plan for action. The following section w i l l outline such a plan; the Problem Posing Method. C. The Nature of Problem-Posing Education Problem Posing education was developed in the social, p o l i t i c a l , economic and cultural matrix of Brazil. In 1921, Freire was born in Recife into a middle class family. The economic c r i s i s of 1929 in the United States had a devastating effect on many countries; Brazil was no exception. Freire's family soon experienced the pain of hunger and poverty. However, through this experience, Freire came to feel that there were oppressive mechanisms operating in what he termed "the culture of silence"*(95) He soon realized that the educational system was an instrument of oppression and vowed to develop a new approach to education. His success was obvious: he was asked to leave Brazil after being jailed for seventy days by the leaders of the military coup in 1964, who feared his influence. Although Freire's pedagogy is addressed to the problems of the "Third World", i t has universal appeal for any individual or group 1 enslaved in the "culture of silence". It is for radicals; for those who challenge the status quo. It is not for those submerged in certainty -who suffer from the absence of doubt.(96) Problem Posing education is for those who trust and have faith that students can be the master of *The term "culture of silence" as used in this thesis refers to prescriptions forced upon individuals that s t i f l e s self-realization. - 3 6 -t h e i r own education. One must view man as a conscious being, not i s o l a t e d from the world, dependent or determined. F r e i r e ' s philosophy i s for those who believe that at present, Education e x i s t s i n the larynx of the teacher rather than i n the mind of the p u p i l . (97)' Problem-Posing education i s education for freedom and not oppression. Freedom in t h i s context implies the r i g h t t0 5participate i n the decisions that determine one's destiny. Thus, education for freedom i s not only concerned with self-perception of the conditions l i m i t i n g one's a b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n l i f e , but a l s o demands action to change the conditions perceived. Schools can be viewed as t r a i n i n g laboratories for adaptation to the world. Propaganda and other manipulative techniques are cu r r e n t l y the primary elements of the curriculum. Students are moulded by the pro-cess and are e s s e n t i a l l y released i n t o the world when they have reached the peak of adaptation. This view i s r e f l e c t e d i n the physical education l i t e r a t u r e reviewed. Educators are concerned about depositing the absol-utes of physical education i n t o each student as part of the adaptation process. I t i s true that some l a t i t u d e was observed i n methodology but students were not permitted to investigate outside the predetermined absolutes. This a t t i t u d e r e f l e c t s a view of students being i n the world and adapting to the world. T r a d i t i o n a l education f a i l s to view students i n and with the world. I t views students as beings who possess a con-sciousness that i s i n need of f i l l i n g and not conscious beings. T r a d i t i o n a l education with i t s d i c t a t e s and communiques imposes an order that i s designed to f i l l , mould and adapt the student to the world. Problem-Posing education views students as being in and with the world. To be with the world, one must be an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n l i f e , c r i t i c a l l y perceiving the environment and i n i t i a t i n g a ction to change the environment. We began with the conviction that the r o l e of man was not only to be in the world, but to engage i n r e l a t i o n s with the world - that through acts of creation and -37-re-creation, man makes cultural r e a l i t y and thereby adds to the natural world, which he did not make.(99) If students are to be with the world, they must integrate into, rather than adapt to the world. Integration is achieved through the process of personal choice and is not the product of teacher dictates. Thus, the main objective of Problem Posing education is to f a c i l i t a t e student self-awareness and sensitivity to the controlling, moulding forces oper-ating in their lives so that c r i t i c a l choice may be exercised in the process of change. Freire has coined this process "conscientization"^ 0 0^ The f i r s t phase of "conscientization" is the development of a " c r i t i c a l consciousness" or " c r i t i c a l t r a n s i t i v i t y " so that students may become aware of their socio-cultural r e a l i t y . ^ 1 0 1 ^ i t is an active process requiring student involvement and cannot be developed through teacher transmission. To achieve " c r i t i c a l t r a n s i t i v i t y " , students must transcend a false consciousness. Freire outlines two false states of conscious-ness: "semi-intransitive", and "naive transitive"(102)(103) "Semi-intransitive" consciousness is exemplified by students concerned with survival and therefore are attuned to biological needs. These students f a i l to perceive other challenges and are ignorant of the causality of their present socio-cultural reality and cling to myths for explanations and solutions to their problems. "Naive-transitive" consciousness expresses an expanded inter-est, beyond the concerns of survival. However, students manifesting this level of consciousness tend to accept myths and have not adapted a sci e n t i f i c approach to problem solving. The above states of consciousness exist in students who are dominated by teacher imposed views of reality. They are subjected to narration, empty deeds and become passive since they are denied p a r t i c i --38-patory education. A " c r i t i c a l consciousness" i s possessed by a conscious being who i s capable of acting upon r e a l i t y a f t e r perceiving and knowing pre-sent r e a l i t y . Knowing implies the a b i l i t y to make c r i t i c a l choices which i s not f e a s i b l e through the p r e s c r i p t i v e practice of t r a d i t i o n a l education. "Conscientization" i s only p a r t i a l l y achieved through s e l f -perception of a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r e a l i t y . F i n a l i t y i s r e a l i z e d when a student, through c r i t i c a l choice, acts upon h i s world and changes i t . I t i s through praxis, action and r e f l e c t i o n , that " c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n " i s consummated. Later i n t h i s chapter, a des c r i p t i o n of the process of " c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n " w i l l be outlined. Education f o r freedom, the r i g h t of students to perceive r e a l i t y s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , not mythically, and p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n changing present r e a l i t y , i s viewed by F r e i r e as a prerequisite for human completion. Such education can only be r e a l i z e d i f the present bureaucratic r e l a t i o n s h i p * between student and teacher i s r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d . The curriculum of "Problem Posing" education i s not imposed by the teacher. The transmission of ideas belongs to those who view edu-cation as a s t a t i c , f i n i s h e d product, when i n fact i t i s a dynamic pro-cess. "Problem Posing" curriculum i s an outgrowth of student con-cerns, as they attempt to understand themselves and develop t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the world. I t i s through i n v e s t i g a t i o n and not persuasion that students receive t h e i r education. Education i s not the transmission of ideas and words but the search for knowledge and t h i s demands a c t i v i t y , invention and reinvention, r e f l e c t i o n and ac t i o n . Through communication and not propaganda, the teacher problematizes the concerns of the students i n the form of " c o d i f i c a t i o n s " * * so that students may be able to o b j e c t i f y *as outlined e a r l i e r i n part C of t h i s chapter. **see "Process of Problem Posing education" i n part D of t h i s chapter. -39-r e a l i t y and become c r i t i c a l l y aware of t h e i r problems. Student and teacher are involved, not in the r e g u r g i t a t i o n of words but i n an a c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n of knowledge that w i l l reveal a more meaningful, evolving r e a l i t y / 1 0 9 > Problem posing education i s a dynamic process. The teacher presents the material to the students for t h e i r consideration, and re-considers h i s e a r l i e r con-siderations as the students express t h e i r own.(110) It i s through r e f l e c t i o n and action that teacher and student p a r t i c i p a t e as "subjects" i n the educational process and come to a c r i t i c a l r e a l i z -a t i o n of present r e a l i t y , only to be confronted with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to exercise c r i t i c a l choice to change that r e a l i t y . Through the Problem-Posing method, education becomes a continu-ous cognitive process. The p a r t i c i p a n t s do not assume superior knowledge and respect the contributions of a l l c l a s s members. I t i s education with students and not for or about students. The p r e s c r i p t i v e practices of the "banking method" standardizes thinking. Predigested ideas tend to automate behavior and atrophy the students' capacity for c r i t i c a l t hinking. In contrast, Problem Posing education stimulates students' thinking and acting i n response to t h e i r d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the world. ^ ^"^ Student awareness of opposing s o c i o - c u l t u r a l forces i n the world i s made possible i n the Problem Posing method through the u n i t i n g of the d i a l e c t i c a l opposites, s u b j e c t i v i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y . This occurs as student and teacher conduct a s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n into the problem posed by the teacher. In summation, and before considering the process of Problem Posing education, i t may be f r u i t f u l to keep i n mind the d i a l e c t i c a l opposites presented by a comparison of the "banking" and "Problem Posing" m e t h o d s . ( 1 1 A ) -40-Figure I Comparison of Banking and Problem Posing Methods BANKING PROBLEM POSING 1. the curriculum is narrative 1. the curriculum is cognitive 2. the teacher presents comm-uniques 2. the teacher communicates 3. a dictatorial environment 3. a co-operative environment 4. a pedagogy of domination 4. a pedagogy of freedom 5. submission of consciousness 5. stimulation of consciousness 6. distorts r e a l i t y 6. intervenes in re a l i t y 7. students are treated as objects 7. students are treated as subjects D. Process of Problem Posing Education Although Freire has applied the "Problem Posing" method to literacy programs, i t is not the scope of this paper to relate his literacy techniques, but rather, to understand the essential phases of the "Problem Posing" method. The "Problem Posing" method is initiated by "thematic investi-gation"^*"^ This process involves three basic stages* preliminary thematic investigation, codification and decodification. The object of thematic investigation is ". . .the thought language which men refer to reali t y , the levels at which they perceive that r e a l i t y and their view of the world, in which their generative themes are found."^^^^ Before describing the c r i t i c a l phases of thematic investigation, i t is necessary to c l a r i f y the following concepts: epochal units, themes, -41-thematic universe and limit-situation. "Epochal Unit" Freire views man as an historical being, one who experiences time from a past, present and future perspective. As man acts upon his world, he creates objects, ideas, feelings, concepts and hopes, that mark his historical transformation of rea l i t y . These new objects, ideas, feelings and hopes, in turn act upon man, the reversed praxis, and can be catalogued as "epochal units". An his t o r i c a l epoch is characterized by a series of aspirations, concerns and values in search of f u l -fillment; by ways of being and behaving; by more or less generalized attitudes.(118) As man continues to transform his world, new epochal units w i l l be formed which supersede the old units, thus maintaining historical continuity. "Themes" Themes are concrete representations, within the students' social matrix, of the many ideas, values, concepts and hopes, found within the present epochal units. Although a countless number of themes may exist as students live their lives in and with the world, this paper i s chiefly concerned with those themes that are relevant to health and the development of free and responsible human beings. Themes may be viewed from several levels: international, national and community. For example, at the international level, world peace could be a generative theme. National unity and national economics could be considered generative themes for Canadian students, at the national level. At the community or school level, freedom might be a generative theme of most students. "Thematic Universe" Themes do not exist in isolation, nor outside the student, as - 4 2 -observable phenomena. Rather, they e x i s t within the student and i n t e r -r e l a t e to explain the student's t o t a l view of the world. Each theme inte r a c t s d i a l e c t i c a l l y with i t s opposite; the theme of oppression works i n a d i a l e c t i c a l relationship&with the theme of freedom. F r e i r e coins (121) t h i s complex of i n t e r r e l a t e d themes, "thematic universe". I t i s important, for the perception of t o t a l r e a l i t y , that the thematic u n i -verse be unveiled during thematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n . "Limit S i t u a t i o n s " F r e i r e further reasons ". . .the themes both contain and are contained i n l i m i t s i t u a t i o n s ; the tasks they imply require l i m i t a c t s " . ^ In t r a d i t i o n a l education, a l i m i t s i t u a t i o n that contains the theme of oppression and therefore contains, i n d i a l e c t i c a l opposition, the theme of freedom, could be a rule that decrees a two mile run for a l l students. Students who cannot view r e a l i t y c r i t i c a l l y may experience negative f e e l -ings as a r e s u l t of the r u l e but they w i l l not be able to perceive the cause or causes of the negative f e e l i n g s . The r u l e w i l l be viewed as an insurmountable b a r r i e r , hiding the generative theme and bearing witness to teacher authority and student p a s s i v i t y . For those students, who, through thematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n , see the theme of oppression i n the r u l e , the r u l e becomes a " l i m i t s i t u a t i o n " that can be changed through r e f l e c t i o n and ac t i o n . These students have begun to u n v e i l t h e i r generative themes, gi v i n g r i s e to a personal view of the world and a step toward freedom and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . "Preliminary Thematic Investigation" Preliminary thematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s a comprehensive, time-consuming and expensive process which involves teams of investigators involved i n a c o - i n v e s t i g a t i o n with students, into every aspect of the students' s o c i o - c u l t u r a l matrix i n search of generative themes. This complex procedure i s not f e a s i b l e for most contemporary schools. F r e i r e does recognize the problems inherent in the thematic process and believes -43-that basic knowledge of the s i t u a t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t to determine a number (123) of fundamental themes that w i l l serve as c o d i f i c a t i o n . However, the search for generative themes cannot be conducted u n i l a t e r a l l y by the teacher. The choice of a few basic themes must be confirmed by the students. The teacher must not assume absolute know-ledge of student values, a s p i r a t i o n s and concerns. Teachers and students must be "co - i n v e s t i g a t o r s " throughout thematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n . " C o d i f i c a t i o n " Once a number of student themes have been i d e n t i f i e d , thematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n enters the t h i r d stage - c o d i f i c a t i o n . C o d i f i c a t i o n represents the teacher's attempt to present, i n the form of a problem, the themes inherent i n a number of s o c i a l s i t u -ations facing the student. I t i s an opportunity to view the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s o b j e c t i v e l y . C o d i f i c a t i o n may take the form of pi c t u r e s , s t o r i e s , poems, tape recordings or other v i s u a l and/or auditory presentations. Each c o d i f i c a t i o n must represent a f a m i l i a r s i t u a t i o n to the student. The student must be able to project himself into the s i t u a t i o n being pre-sented. A l l c o d i f i c a t i o n must be neither too obvious nor too d i f f i c u l t to perceive. To f a c i l i t a t e a complete picture of r e a l i t y , the c o d i f i c a t i o n must be organized into what F r e i r e r e f e r s to as a "thematic f a n " . ^ " ^ Through a "thematic fan" approach, the c o d i f i c a t i o n s are presented i n a systematic and progressive manner, revealing a t o t a l picture of the students' r e a l i t y . "Decoding" Decoding i s the l a s t phase of thematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The teacher presents the c o d i f i c a t i o n to the students as a problem. Through -44-the question technique, the teacher gives the students the opportunity to view the component parts of the codification and discover the inter-relationships among the parts, thus f a c i l i t a t i n g a new understanding of the codification. The new perspective of the codification i s then transferred to objective reality where transformation occurs. However, this transformation does not mark the completion of the educational pro-cess, nor is the reality transformed to be viewed as static and absolute. Problem Posing education is a continuous historical process. Its thrust toward denunciation and annunication cannot be exhausted when the r e a l i t y denounced today cedes it s place tomorrow to the rea l i t y previously announced in the denunciation.(127) It is through reflective action that a new r e a l i t y i s announced; simultaneously, the present rea l i t y is denounced and is replaced. In turn, the present announced re a l i t y w i l l be denounced, as r e a l i t y con-tinues to evolve, rejecting both the replication of the past and pre-determined future. "Authentic Dialogue" Thematic investigation is facilitated through authentic dialogue between teacher and student. Dialogue is the encounter between men, mediated by the world in order to name the world.(129) The teacher's role in thematic investigation is not to present a pre-scribed view of the students' themes, but to be co-investigators with students, in search of students' themes and "re-present them in the form of a problem. This task can only be achieved through dialogue; a horizontal relationship built on love, humility, faith, hope and trust. The teacher must have faith in the student's a b i l i t y to learn, reflect and transform reality. Humility, that promotes rejection of the notion that students are totally ignorant and that the teacher's knowledge is absolute, is crucial to the development of dialogue. The above conditions can only be realized through the teacher's love for students and the world and cannot be achieved through a sense of duty. -45-A s i t u a t i o n nourished by love, f a i t h and h u m i l i t y , gives r i s e to a t r u s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between teacher and student. I t i s within a t r u s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p that the p a r t i c i p a n t s , who are aware of t h e i r i n -completeness, express hope that they w i l l transform r e a l i t y through praxis and become more human. A concern f o r praxis necessitates consideration of the implic-ations of the Problem Posing method for a humanistic approach to an Active Health program. For to have only r e f l e c t e d upon the Problem (132) Posing method and not i n i t i a t e a c t i o n i s merely "verbalism". Consequently, the next Chapter w i l l attempt to define some of the implications of the Problem Posing method and provide a few examples of how F r e i r e ' s Problem Posing method can be employed in an "Active Health" program. -46-REFERENCES 61. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1970), p. 72. 62. Paulo Freire, Education for C r i t i c a l Consciousness (New York: The Seabury Press, 1974), p. 199. 63. ibid., p. 132 64. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1970), p. 87. 65. Paulo Freire, Education for C r i t i c a l Consciousness (New York: The Seabury Press, 1974), p. 105. 66. Paulo Freire, Cultural Action for Freedom (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Educational Review, 1970), p. 6. 67. ibid., p. 28. 68. ibid., p. 6. 69. ibid., p. 28. 70. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1970), p. 88. 71. Paulo Freire, Education for C r i t i c a l Consciousness, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1974), p. 4. 72. Paulo Freire, Cultural Action for Freedom, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Educational Review, 1970), p. 30. 73. Paulo Freire, Education for C r i t i c a l Consciousness, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1974), p. 3. 74. ib i d . , p. 3. 75. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1970), p. 91. 76. ibid., p. 91. 77. ibid., p. 119. 78. Paulo Freire, Cultural Action for Freedom, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Educational Review, 1970), p. 31. 79. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1974), p. 91. -47-80. ibid., p. 90. 81. ibid., p. 122. 82. i b i d . , p. 122. 83. Paulo Freire, Education for C r i t i c a l Consciousness, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1974), p. 137. 84. ibid., p. 149. 85. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1970), p. 69. 86. ibid., p. 70. 87. ibid., p. 62. 88. ibid., p. 59. 89. ibid., p. 67. 90. ib i d . , p. 67. 91. ib i d . , p. 82. 92. Paulo Freire, Education for C r i t i c a l Consciousness, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1974), p. 153. 93. ib i d . , p. 88. 94. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1970), p. 68. 95. Paulo Freire, Cultural Action for Freedom, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Educational Review, 1970), p. 3. 96. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1970), p. 23. 97. David Harman, Methodology for Revolution, Saturday Review, June 19, 1971, p. 54. 98. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1970), p. 62. 99. Paulo Freire, Education for C r i t i c a l Consciousness, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1974), p. 43. 100. Paulo Freire, Cultural Action for Freedom, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Educational Review, 1970), p. 27. 101.i Paulo Freire, Education for C r i t i c a l Consciousness, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1974), p. 18. -48-102. ibid., p. 17. 103. ib i d . , p. 18. 104. Paulo Freire, Cultural Action for Freedom, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Educational Review, 1970), p. 50. 105. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1970), p. 31. 106. Paulo Freire, Education for C r i t i c a l Consciousness, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1974), pp. 100 - 101. 107. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1970), p. 82. 108. Paulo Freire, Education for C r i t i c a l Consciousness, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1974), p.. 101; 109. ib i d . , p. 88. 110. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1970), p. 68. 111. ib i d . , p. 20. 112. ibid., p. 82. 113. Paulo Freire, Cultural Action for Freedom, (Cambridge: Massachusetts: Harvard Educational Review, 1970), p. 49. 114. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1970), pp. 68 - 74. 115. ibid., p. 96. 116. ibid., p. 86. 117. ibid., p. 91. 118. Paulo Freire, Education for C r i t i c a l Consciousness, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1970), p. 5. 119. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1970), p. 92. 120. ibid., p. 93. 121. ibid., p. 92. 122. ibid., p. 92. 123. ibid., p. 117. -49-124. ibid., p. 92. 125. ibid., p. 109. 126. i b i d . , p. 96. 127. Paulo Freire, Cultural Action for Freedom, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Educational Review, 1970), p. 20. 128. ibid., p. 21. 129. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1970), p. 76. 130. ibid., p. 101; 131. ibid.. pp. 77 - 81. 132. ibid., p. 75. 50-Chapter IV IMPLICATIONS OF THE PROBLEM POSING METHOD FOR A HUMANISTIC APPROACH TO AN ACTIVE HEALTH PROGRAM Upon discovering a paucity of literature on Humanistic Physical Education, after observing the "banking" approach of the present Provincial Physical Education committee and in anticipating the format of the impend-ing Physical Education assessment for British Columbia schools in 1980, the writer is beginning to feel the r i g i d forces concerned with defining, prescribing and implementing a universal Physical Education program, rush-ing to the foreground. To define Physical Education in absolute terms is an anathema to the Problem-Posing method. If we view education as Freire does - "as something which is in a state of being and not something which (133) i s " , then we must consider the above situation regressive. Those wishing to prescribe and reduce Physical Education to absolute terms view knowledge as complete and static, f a i l i n g to realize i t s dynamic nature. If we accept man as being praxis, we can no longer perpetuate the "banking" concept. Physical Education programs that are dominated by the teacher through selection of intents, displays, a c t i v i t i e s and evaluation pro-cedures must be superseded by experiences in which students, through reflection and action, determine their needs and procedures. Physical Education should not reflect the absolute concerns of teachers but must, as an integral part of the students' process of becom-ing, provide students with program opportunities for freedom and respons-i b i l i t y in the area of physical activity. Such a program views man as a conscious being who is in and with the world and rejects the view that man is an object in possession of a consciousness that needs to be f i l l e d with teacher determined absolutes. It is a program that demands both c r i t i c a l reflection and action. Physical Educators must realize that techniques cannot be merely transferred. "For techniques do not exist without men and women, and men and women do not exist apart from history, apart from the rea l i t y that they have to transform." We focus on Freire's Problem-Posing method as an alternative to the "banking" concept presently employed in most Physical Education programs. -51-As we apply the method to an "Active Health" program, we do not consider Problem-Posing to be a panacea for a l l present i l l s . In adopting the Problem-Posing method, we are cognizant of the following limitations. Freire's method or the "Psycho-social" method is deeply con-textual . ( 1 3 5 ) It must be remembered that Freire's program was originally directed towards i l l i t e r a t e adults in Bra z i l . Thus, when adapting the Problem-Posing method to adolescents in a Vancouver "Active Health" program, codificatiorsthat reflect the socio-cultural matrix of adoles-cents l i v i n g in the Vancouver area must be developed. It must not be assumed that such codification; could be used in a l l "Active Health" programs throughout British Columbia as socio-cultural or l i f e style differences can be noted within the province. However, Freire's codi-fication principles can be followed. Since Freire has only addressed himself to adults, the innovator must realize that f l e x i b i l i t y may be required when applying the method to adolescents. We can not assume that methods successful with adults w i l l also be satisfactory for adolescents, C r i t i c s , G r i f f i t h and Stanley focus on another c o n c e r n . ( 1 3 7 ) Freire, perhaps consciously, takes an over-simplified view of the relation-ships among men. He views man as either an oppressor or the oppressed. This black and white view is not sufficient to explain the many apparent grey relationships. It would be foolish to view a l l teachers as oppressors and a l l students as oppressed in a secondary school since most relation-ships are less explicit and more enigmatic. Furthermore, i t would be naive to suggest that the "culture of silence" in schoolsiis only the result of teacher oppression. Maccoby makes a salient point. In rural Latin America, hopelessness has been defeated by scarcity and oppression. Here (North America)* i t often comes from consumer-ism, anxiety about the future, and the lack of responsiveness or joy in human relations. Freire's social and p o l i t i c a l expectations far exceed his •writer's words in parentheses. -52-educational intentions. Grounded in the cultural-historical matrix of Brazil, the Problem-Posing method is viewed by Freire as an instrument of social and p o l i t i c a l revolution. We do not judge the need for such revolution in Brazil but when adapting the method to a classroom in a Vancouver school, one must be aware of different social and p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s . However, this does not alleviate the necessity of redressing dehumanizing situations found within a school. As for revolution, Boston notes, "Freire cannot liberate us; we must liberate ourselves. Thus i t is from a more subdued, adaptable educational perspective that we view the Problem-Posing method. It w i l l be employed here as a tool to escape the "culture of silence" wherever i t is found and to present a more humanistic approach to Active Health. The Problem-Posing method, in spite of a few limitations, may be received sympathetically in Canada because of the assumptions upon which the method is based. These assumptions are: "(a) equality of a l l men; (b) the right to knowledge (140) and culture; (c) the right to c r i t i c i z e and act upon knowledge". These are rights that most Canadians recognize. At present most Active Health programs reflect a series of teacher prescribed exercises and activities which aim at raising student fitness levels. It is believed that through attainment of an improved fitness level,the students w i l l reflect improvement in health, as deter-mined by the teacher. Thus, improvement in health is visualized as physiological adaption to a series of prescribed exercises and a c t i v i t i e s . This biological orientation as we have already mentioned views students as detached bodies alienated from culture and history. Present Active Health programs offer only the teacher's view of health. As a result, Active Health becomes a closed, static subject with l i t t l e exchange of ideas among students and teachers. Most Active Health programs conform to a number of Farmer's c r i t e r i a for the use of the Problem-Posing method.^ 1) 1. Motivation is lacking on the part of the learners; 2. Prescriptive types of education have failed; 3. Individuals or groups of individuals feel -53-oppressed or powerless as a r e s u l t of s o c i a l , economic, or psychological forces; Conscientization which i s the process of becoming cognizant of one's present r e a l i t y , understanding and then acting to transform i t w i l l a s s i s t students i n un v e i l i n g t h e i r concept of health. In so doing, the students w i l l move from a naive to a c r i t i c a l consciousness. Students w i l l then have the opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n decisions affect-ing t h e i r health i n a free and responsible manner. In an Active Health program, the educator i s concerned with student changes i n l i f e s t y l e . Farmer believes that the Problem-Posing method i s an excellent v e h i c l e for such paradigm s h i f t s . ^ 1 A 2 ^ F r e i r e ' s method recognizes that a students-s desire to make l i f e s t y l e changes i s a r e s u l t of r e f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n and not the r e s u l t of p r e s c r i p t i o n and salesmanship of the teacher. Problem-Posing i s direc t e d towards concrete problems through which students can experience the world i n a deep, penetrating manner instead of being forced to accept c u l t u r a l l y interpreted versions from the teacher. As noted i n a previous chapter, Problem-Posing i s concerned with the generative themes of the learners. I t can be argued that health constitutes one of the student's basic themes. I f we accept that --"the body i s the instrument used by the mind to e s t a b l i s h contact with the outside world"--we can appreciate the e f f e c t pain and discomfort of the body would have on c r i t i c a l con-> s c i o u s n e s s . F o r F r e i r e , the development of c r i t i c a l consciousness i s of prime importance. He sees l i t t l e value i n l i t e r a c y programs i f in d i v i d u a l s were unable to employ l i t e r a c y s k i l l s as instruments of i n t e r -vention i n the world. His concern for intervention i n the world has result e d i n l i t e r a c y programs that include the simultaneous study of the anthropological concept of culture and the study of l i t e r a c y s k i l l s . ' F r e i r e believes that i l l i t e r a t e s are motivated to become l i t e r a t e once -54-they discover that literacy i s an instrument of freedom; an escape from the "culture of silence". In a similar manner, through the study of the concept ?«of health, students could be given the opportunity to realize that an imposed l i f e style is oppressive and contributes significantly to the "culture of silence". Such a study would promote a move from a naive to a c r i t i c a l consciousness as students simultaneously developed a personal l i f e style. The Problem-Posing method implies the presentation of the compon-ents of health free from bias. It is not the teacher's view of health that must be discovered but rather the students' concept of health. It is the students' c r i t i c a l view of health that is sought through the decodification of a number of concrete situations, in the students' lives. It is a view that considers their culture and history. It should be noted that some teacher bias w i l l be reflected in the choice of codifications but through dialogue such bias w i l l be made conscious to students. As the students become c r i t i c a l l y aware of their health statuses and the circumstances that determine their l i f e style, they w i l l be in a position to make c r i t i c a l choices and transform their pre-sent l i f e style; thus realizing praxis. For those who are skeptical about students' a b i l i t y to develop their own l i f e styles, Freire offers the following comment: . . . i t is enough that we recognize that men and women are beings who are in permanent relation with the world which they transform through their work to be aware of them as beings who know, although this knowledge is manifested at different levels of "doxa" of magic, and of "logos", which is true knowledge. In spite of a l l this, or perhaps because of i t , neither ignorance nor knowledge can be absolute.(145) Freire, as previously noted, does not view literacy programs as simply the development of literacy s k i l l s . Similarly, Freire would not view Active Health programs simply as techniques for l i f e style change. To Freire, i t would be of l i t t l e consequence i f a student were to change -55-l i f e styles but failed to become a better person; to become more human by transforming a dehumanizing situation. The Problem-Posing method does not present solutions to students since solutions should be the result of student reflections. It is not the reflections of students isolated from one another but rather the reflections of students in communion with each other. As Hellison states—"Alone we are incomplete, u n f u l f i l l e d . Our humanness becomes whole to the extent that we can f u l l y be at one with others and to the extent that we can share human values" The Problem-Posing method may present a problem for educators steeped in the "banking" method as i t may be d i f f i c u l t to denounce a paternalistic attitude and employ dialogue for dialogue is not discussion to persuade students to accept a given stance. It is not an argument, an exchange of views nor an opportunity to understand other viewpoints. Rather i t is a co-operative search via problematizing of a cognizable subject, so that one may c l a r i f y one's perception and take action to transform the present situation. Saunders states--"the key to the success-ful implementation of the method is the "co-ordinator", who does not "teach" but tries instead to promote self-discovery in the other p a r t i c i -pants through exploring the dimensions of the pictures'.'. The Problem-Posing method provides students with the opportunity to approach the health theme from a personal perspective. It is not concerned with an academic, information-gathering approach to the study of health. Rather, the study of health is achieved through personal reflections of present l i f e style habits. Obviously, l i f e style choices have a direct bearing upon one's health status. It is important that students understand the forces in society that influence their l i f e style choices. They must become c r i t i c a l l y conscious of the factors operating in the "culture of silence" that dictate to them a given l i f e style. Once they understand the forces that impinge upon their freedom to choose, they can initiate action to overcome such forces and -56-select l i f e s t y l e changes that are i n tune with t h e i r needs and a s p i r a t i o n s . An Active Health program that employs the Problem-Posing method would be dedicated to providing students with opportunities to i n v e s t i -gate the forces determining present l i f e s t y l e s , to i n i t i a t e l i f e s t y l e changes i f desired and to develop t h e i r own a c t i v i t y program. Students i n such a program would be guided by the following questions as adapted from H e l l i s o n ' s Beyond Bats and B a l l s . Who am I? What expectations do others have of me? Who can I become? Who do I want to become? What i s beyond me? nLa\ What are my r e l a t i o n s h i p s with others?^ The above questions ensure a personal approach to the study of health and encourage students to understand health from a mental, emotional, s o c i a l and physical point of view. To f a c i l i t a t e an Active Health program based on the Problem-Posing method, the following c o d i f i c a t i o n s are offered as examples of the s i t u a t i o n s that could be used i n d i a l o g i c a l sessions. -57-Plate 1. Codification 1: Somatotype Pictures Students would be encouraged to view their personal somatotype pictures and express their feelings regarding their own body and any changes they would like to see occur. A discussion of the factors determining one's present body shape would follow. -58-Plate 2. 6.02 6.0* 6. IS 6.2b 6.25 6.32 6.38 6.45 6.47 7.01 7.05 7.05 7.10 7.15 *.23 7.30 ; 7.36 7.50 8.01 10.03 11.40 SB0UUK3 55.5 l>hJ Cm w 39 34.4 y> 33.5 32 32 30 -29 29 29 26.5 26 25.5 25 24 BUS 52.6 43 y* 32 31 31 31 30 28 26 26 24 23^ 21 21 20 19 19 18 li* 13 HIP Push 1 8 67 1 * 63 1* 60 13 52 12 52 1 2 to) 11 44 10 44 6 43 U 4 2 a 2 2 33 2 30 0 29 0 27 -2 25 -2 25 -4 25 - A 25 6 P 59 59 58 5* 53 53 51 51 51 50 47 i»7 46 42 42 o y 31 28 L.H. 63.5 55 51 50 49 49 48 47 45 45 44 44 42 39 39 37.5 37 36 33 31 29.5 3.A. 56 56 55.5 55 53 52 51 51 49 48.5 47 47 45 uu 43.5 43 42.5 39.5 36.5 36 36 KECK CHEST VAXST L.THIGH B. THIGH 39.6 104 9-».2 64 66.8 39 96.5 91.5 58.8 59.2 38.6 96 88 5 8 . 57.6 38.5 95 84.5 55.6 56 38.3 94.8 83.5 55.5 56 38 94.5 81 55.5 55.5 38 91.2 79 55 55.5 37.2 90.2 77.7 54.5 54 36.8 89.5 77.6 53 54 36_ 89.3 77.5 53 53.8 88.5 77 52.7 52.8 88 74.1 52.5 52.5 35 87 73 51.5 52 34.8 86.5 72 51.3 51.4 3*.8 86.3 72 50 51 34.5 84.6 72 49.3 51 '33.6 84 71.3 48.8 50 33.6 GP 70 (W)7 iwui 33.2 oO.l «i<5.1 viSv5 33.2 79 35.* 461. 33 46 HEIGHT 186.3 183.6 180.4 178.6 1178.5 1178 177.6 177.4 177 176.3 174.8 173.8 173.5 172.6 172 171.6 171.6 170 WEIGHT 86 81 74 73.5 73 73 73 70 69 64 63.5 63.5 62 61 59 58.5 57.5 57.5 57 3o Codification 2: Personal Data This picture presents a compilation of class data of the anthropometric measurements and fitness test scores. Through discussion, students would investigate the importance or f u t i l i t y of body comparisons. It is hoped that students would realize the importance of accepting one's body positively and developing i t according to personal needs and aspirations. -59-This c o d i f i c a t i o n could a l s o f a c i l i t a t e an understanding of the r o l e competition plays in the students' l i v e s . Students could be encouraged to express t h e i r f e e l i n g s regarding a personal f i t n e s s test score that i s the best or near the best i n the c l a s s . Do they f e e l a need to improve? Are they s a t i s f i e d with themselves? The same procedure could be followed for low and middle scores. -60-Plate 3. Codification 3 : Masculinity This codification presents a North American image of masculinity. Through discussion students would identify the image presented. Once the image is identified, students would be asked to discuss the ramifications of the image of masculinity on their own l i f e styles. If conducting a g i r l s ' class, an image of femininity would be developed. In a co-educational class both images would be presented. A co-educational class would be valuable as males and females would be given a f i r s t hand account of how each sex views the opposite sex. -61-Plate 4. Codification 4: Television Since television plays a significant role in most adolescent l i f e styles, an opportunity to view, objectively, the effects of television would be valuable. Students would be asked to reflect upon the role television plays in their lives. How much time do they spend watching television? What programs do they watch? What effects do these programs have on them? Why do they watch television? -62-Plate 5. Codification 5 : Involvement This picture would be used to discuss the reasons why people choose to participate or not participate in physical activity. Students would be encouraged to reflect upon the role physical activity plays in their lives. - 6 3 -Plate 6. Codification 6; Athletics This picture provides examples of most popular North American sports. These sports also play a major role in school Physical Education programs. After students have classified these sports as popular North American sports a discussion of how these sports have influenced their lives would follow. Through discussion, students would realize that there are other physical activities they have not experienced. Why have they not had many experiences outside the North American team game category? -64-Plate 7. C o d i f i c a t i o n 7: N u t r i t i o n Each student would be asked to bring a lunch to c l a s s . Those who pur-chase lunch i n the school c a f e t e r i a or elsewhere would be asked to buy their lunch and bring i t to c l a s s . The c l a s s could meet in the school c a f e t e r i a . While eating lunch together a discussion regarding food choices would be i n i t i a t e d . Students would be encouraged to discover the reasons fo the composition of t h e i r lunch. Discussion of breakfast and dinner ch should also be considered. The n u t r i t i v e value of t h e i r choices could be discussed a f t e r they have an understanding of present food choices. - 6 5 -Plate 8 . C o d i f i c a t i o n 8 : Alcohol This picture depicts students at a party as envisioned by a student a r t i s t . Through discussion the r o l e alcohol plays i n student l i f e s t y l e could emerge. There i s no attempt to provide moral judgement but rather achieve an understanding of why alcohol i s part of a s o c i a l event. I f students wish to discuss the p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of a l c o h o l , the wish should be accommodated but the t o p i c i s not c r i t i c a l to the discussion. I t i s important that students r e a l i z e the r o l e alcohol plays i n t h e i r l i v e s and the reasons why they consume or don't consume a l c o h o l . -66-Plate 9. Codification 9: Smoking This picture portrays a smoking scene in the school washroom as viewed by a s t u d e n t a r t i s t . Again, moral judgement is not intended. Through discussion realization of the role smoking plays in student lives and an understanding of the reasons students smoke or don't smoke is sought. -67-Plate 10. Codification 10: Sexuality Through discussion, an understanding of present attitudes toward the opposite sex is intended. If conducting a boys' class, a discussion con cerning their attitude towards females in sport and recreation, work, positions of authority and personal relationships should be pursued. A g i r l s ' class would investigate their feelings about how they view their role in the world in relation to men. -68-The c o d i f i c a t i o n s presented are not intended to encompass the complex nature of health but rather provide an opportunity to investigate the v i a b i l i t y of the Problem-Posing method in an "Active Health" program. The c o d i f i c a t i o n s presented e a r l i e r were used i n a Grade 11 boys' physical Education c l a s s . We now turn to the l a s t chapter for an understanding of how the writer a r r i v e d at considering the use of the Problem-Posing method in an "Active Health" program and a discussion of the problems and emotions the writer and a cl a s s experienced while using the Problem-Posing method. -69-REFERENCES 133. Paulo Freire, Education for C r i t i c a l Consciousness, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1974) p. 155. 134. ibid., p. 121. 135. Thomas G. Saunders, the Paulo Freire Method, American Universities  Field Staff Reports, West Coast South American Series, Vol. VS, No. 1, p. 2. 136. William S. G r i f f i t h , Paulo Freire: Utopian Perspectives on Literacy Education for Revolution, in Paulo Freire: A Revolutionary  Dilemma for the Adult Educator, ed. by Stanley M. Grabowski, (Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Publications, Nov. 1972), p. 74. 137. Manfred Stanley, Literacy: the Crisis of a Conventional Wisdom, in Paulo Freire: A Revolutionary Dilemma for the Adult Educator, ed. by Stanely M. Gravowski, (Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Publications, Nov. 1972), pp. 45 - 46. 138. Michael Maccoby, Literacy for the Favelas, Science, Vol. 172, 1971, p. 673. 139. Bruce 0. Boston, Paulo Freire: Notes of a Loving C r i t i c , in Paulo Freire: A Revolutionary Dilemma for the Adult Educator, ed. by Stanley M. Grabowski, (Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Publications, Nov. 1972), p. 92. 140. Thomas G. Saunders, The Paulo Freire Method, American Universities  Field Staff Reports, West Coast South American Series, Vol. VX, No. 1, p. 12. 141. James A. Farmer, Adult Education for Transiting, in Paulo Freire:  A Revolutionary Dilemma for the Adult Educator, ed. by Stanley M. Grabowski, (Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Publications, Nov. 1972), p. 6. 142. ib i d . , p. 7. 143. Aldous Huxley, Ends and Means, (London: Chatto and Windus, 1957), p. 220. 144. Paulo Freire, Education for C r i t i c a l Consciousness, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1974), p. 46. 145. ibid., p. 119. 146. Thomas G. Saunders, The Paulo Freire Method, American Universities  Field Staff Reports, West Coast South American Series, Vol. VX, No. l,,p. 11. 147. Donald Hellison, cited in manuscript of Beyond Bats and Balls, to be published by A.A.P.H.E.R. Educational Media Services, Washington, D.C, 1978, pp. 24 - 25. 148. ibid., pp. 8 - 9 . - 7 0 -Chapter V. Epilogue A. In the Process of Becoming If education is to be viewed as a process of becoming, i t is d i f f i c u l t to suggest that a particular event marks the beginning of the process. Such is the situation with the development of an "Active Health" program. Perhaps I became conscious of the development of an "Active Health" program seven years ago. I had always recognized the value of fitness in athletics but l i t t l e was being accomplished toward developing a f i t state within students enrolled in most Physical Education classes, physical Education appeared to be a conglomeration of ac t i v i t i e s with each activity receiving a varying amount of attention as the seasons of the year changed. Many believed that physical fitness could be achieved through the pursuit of such class a c t i v i t i e s as volleyball, f i e l d hockey, soccer, badminton, rugby and basketball. However, the s k i l l level in most classes was not adequate to ensure a fast, continuous pace s u f f i c i -ent to realize an improvement in cardio-respiratory endurance. Further, l i t t l e strength, strength endurance and f l e x i b i l i t y improvement was achieved through the above games. A decision had to be made. Was physical fitness an important objective of Physical Education? If so, development of a fitness program, based on the physiological principles necessary to ensure development of physical fitness was c r i t i c a l . During the last six years, I developed a fitness program involving the entire class that realizes an improvement in strength, strength endurance, f l e x i b i l i t y and cardio-respiratory endurance. I was pleased with the "fitness for health" recipe, students began to develop the muscular body type and achieve the fitness scores, I, as a teacher, wished them to achieve. I had developed a recipe that proved successful, in my mind, for the majority of the physical education class. Nearly everyone could follow the recipe as l i t t l e motor s k i l l was required. I took comfort in the belief that through development of fitness s k i l l s , the realization of a f i t state -71-and the memorization of a body of fitness knowledge most students would initi a t e l i f e style changes and remain f i t throughout their adult years. However, this belief was soon shattered when I discovered that many students upon leaving the Physical Education program reverted to sedentary l i f e styles. I was not completely discouraged. The program was not affecting a l i f e style change, but, perhaps, the program was providing a physiological challenge necessary for the growth of the adolescent body system. I was not completely satisfied with our program but I could not understand the source of my unrest. During the summer of 1976, I enrolled in Education 580 at the University of British Columbia. I was soon to understand the source of my unrest but that knowledge would not produce serenity but rather turmoil. Dr. Aoki, who during Education 580, posed questions that stimulated us to reflect upon our present teaching methods and our image of man. During my investigation, I became aware of two books that would significantly challenge many cherished ideas; "Mirage of H e a l t h " ^ and "Pedagogy of the Oppressed."^ After reading the "Mirage of Health", I could no longer view health as just a physiological concern nor could I view fitness as the central ingredient in the recipe for health. If I had not read the "Mirage of Health" f i r s t , perhaps I would never have read "Pedagogy of the Oppressed". I had started to make a significant paradigm sh i f t . During the winter of 1976^ -77, I realized that I could no longer rationalize the incompatibility between my methodology and the complex image of man. It is not easy to change methods that have been employed for twelve years and adopt a new stance. However, the change w i l l not be dramatic but rather gradual. I am sure that I w i l l continue to mix the "banking" approach with the Problem-Posing method as time passes. I cannot predict the future and I do not condemn myself for using the "banking" method as i t was probably a necessary stage in the process of becoming. -72-During the summer of 1977, I started to produce in the form of a thesis, the thoughts, emotions and concerns that tumble out during the process of becoming. This process continues even though this thesis draws to a close. The Problem-Posing method and i t s implications for an "Active Health" program w i l l continue to evolve. Perhaps, this belief is exemplified in the diary I wrote as a result of the situation my class and I experienced using the Problem-Posing method. B. The Diary The diary that follows records the experiences of a grade 11 boys Physical Education class as they adapted the Problem-Posing method to an "Active Health" program. This class was not assembled for experi-mentation purposes. Fifteen class members elected to take what is called Fitness 11 at the arena*. The remainder of the class registered because they could not enroll in the class of their f i r s t choice or they entered the school after the arena. The course was structured so that the f i r s t 15-20 minutes would be devoted to discussion of a given codification. The remaining 40 minutes would be spent in pursuit of acti v i t i e s designed by the students. Each student was responsible for maintaining a book. The book contained the students objectives, activity program and diary. The student and teacher through reading the diary could determine i f the student was following his personally developed program,and i f the pro-gram was compatible with the students' personally developed objectives. The class agreed upon a number of c r i t e r i a for determining whether a book was complete or incomplete. Each book must contain: a. 3 personal somatotype pictures b. personal anthropometric data c. personal fitness test data d. personal objectives e. personal activity program f. personal diary *During a day in June, the gymnasium becomes an arena for the purpose of allowing students to select courses and teachers for the following year. -73-If a student's book meets the above c r i t e r i a , i t is judged complete and the student then gives himself a mark for the course. A student whose book is incomplete is given an opportunity to complete his book. It is in such a context that the following diary emerged. After anthropometric data were gathered,somatotype pictures were taken and the class procedure was explained. The f i r s t codification was presented on February 9, 1978. February 9, 1978. It was with great apprehension that I conducted the f i r s t codification dialogue. Was I ready? Did I have the s k i l l s necessary? The f i r s t codification (Plate 1) was the somatotype pictures. I f e l t that my f i r s t question was crucial and as a result probably posed a poor question. What kind of information can our pictures give us? Three or four students were immediately responsive. They expressed feelings about their own pictures; mostly negative. Some fe l t their body was too fat, others f e l t they were too skinny, while others wished to have more muscular arms and chests. The majority remained silent. What influences play a part in determining our bodies? About 12 students out of 30 contributed a variety of factors, such as inheritance, nutrition, activity pattern, drug habits and mental attitude. They decided that mental attitude was determined by how people viewed us and how we f e l t about ourselves. Towards the end of the session, we reflected upon the process we had just experienced. A number of students expressed surprise at dis-covering a number of factors that influenced the growth of their bodies. Those who remained silent were asked to think about their silence. February 10, 1978 I f e l t I participated too much. There was another teacher in the room and that may have affected a l l of us. However, I believe I -74-offered too many ideas. We discussed the influence of the teacher on the development of the body. Talked about the pros and cons of a teacher determined program. The discussion moved toward the idea of students tak-ing responsibility for the development of their own body. The influence of society on our body development was also covered. Most of the class expressed a desire to take responsibility for the development of their own body. February 13, 1978. I introduced the second codification (Plate 2); the compilation of the anthropometric data and fitness test results. A disaster! L i t t l e or no response. Perhaps i t was the phrasing of the questions, the size of the group or Monday morning blues. Whatever, we didn't get into the codification. The codification could be part of the problem. There was an attempt to identify the influence competition has on our attitude toward ourselves. We could not get into the effects of competition. A few expressed their feelings. February 14, 1978, Stopped using the tape recorder as i t appeared to be a block-ade to communication. Made sure a l l students had a position in the circle so that a l l were "inner" members. We talked about the difference in performance between a program that was teacher oriented and one that was student directed. A number of students expressed that they f e l t pride in developing and following their own program. There was a better tone and more participation today. February 15, 1978. Since the majority of students remained silent, I f e l t that i t was necessary to discuss the factors that determined the "culture of silence". The students brought forth the following points: teacher dependence, fear of making a mistake, no faith in the quality of their -75-knowledge. We then slipped into a discussion of teacher supervised activity as opposed to pupil directed activity. Most responses supported student directed programs. The effects of competition, an earlier disaster, suddenly emerged. The majority f e l t that they benefited from competition. February 16, 1978 I introduced the third codification (Plate 3); the image of North American masculinity. Students became very l i v e l y and expressed themselves freely. The students quickly identified the image projected in the codification. However, they became silent as to the effects of such an image on their own lives. During the activity phase of the period, i t was obvious that a l l students were following a similar pro-gram even though they had been given the opportunity to develop different pr ograms. February 17, 1978 My paternalistic nature took over today. I was discouraged about their apparent reluctance to discuss the influence of the North American masculine image.on their lives. I pointed out to them that they seemed to be following a similar program and asked i f they had reasons for this. This question brought forth response. The following points emerged: a) a l l had similar objectives; b) they thought i t was what I wanted. These points led into a discussion of how the above had played a part in moulding them. I urged them to be guided in developing a program by the major questions posed at the beginning of the course; Who am I? What do others expect of me? Who can I become? Who do I want to be? What are my relationships with others? I delivered a direct message as I f e l t many were confused. There are a number of ethnic backgrounds represented in the class which may contribute to a communication problem. -76-February 20, 1978. I presented the fourth codification (Plate 4) today; a student watching television. A large number of the students actively participated. They quickly identified the codification. We then discussed the effects of television on their lives. The following aspects were contributed; the effect of positive and negative images, commercials and time consumed watching television. A number of contradictions surfaced. They ident-i f i e d the negative effects of television but f e l t they had l i t t l e i n f l u -ence on them. Our discussions are s t i l l on the surface level. It is d i f f i c u l t to engage them in a discussion below the surface level. In private discussions with a number of students, many expressed they fel t the codifications were valuable as they began to look at certain topics differently. However, they expressed the fact that they could not con-tribute actively to the discussion. February 21, 22, 1978. We prepared for the indoor track meet. February 23, 1978. The indoor track meet. February 24, 1978. Professional day; no school. February 27, 1978. We continued our discussion on television. We attempted to develop a deeper look into the effects of television on our l i f e style. We focused on the benefits of television. Two points were offered; excitement and humor. After a lengthy discussion on excitement, i t was discovered that excitement was associated with violence. The majority of students began to recognize that violence was a significant reason -77-for their watching television. Others believed they watched television because they seemed to have nothing else to do. February 28, 1978 Did not use a codification. Rather decided to discuss a situ-ation that occured in class yesterday. Situation: A student entered the office during the period and asked for a basketball. I asked i f he could justify the request. Did he have basketball included in his program? He claimed he didn't. I refused tovgive him the b a l l . I related the situation to the class and asked them to discuss my action. Several students supported my action and suggested the student had not carefully considered his choice. However, two students voiced their disapproval and suggested that I should have given the student the ball because many spontaneous ideas can lead to valuable experiences. Their comments certainly made me refle c t . For the f i r s t time, I experienced the excitement of learning from students as outlined by Freire. The teacher learns through reflecting on the reflections of the students. March 1, 1978 Today, the student involved in yesterday's problem situation was present. I asked i f he would share his feelings about the situation. At f i r s t he seemed confused. However, he stated that he did feel angry but that he f e l t that I was in charge and there was l i t t l e he could do. This situation illustrates the frustration that the students and I are going through. They struggle for freedom and I struggle to give them freedom. I feel very uncomfortable and no longer sure that my action was correct. I believe the students also feel awkward in many situations as they often appear confused as to whether to free themselves or follow a course that they believe would please me. -78-As I reflect back over the last few weeks, I am pleased to see many students actively involved in their program. However, there are a number of students who appear to be experiencing d i f f i c u l t y in establishing a program. Some students leave before the end of the period. This, bothers me. Should it? Uncertainty and confusion become the oppressors. March 2, 1978 Introduced a new codification today (Plate 5). A good spontaneous response to the question, "What do you see in the picture?" Many students expressed opinions about the nature of the student leaning against the pole. They classified him as lonely, angry, rejected, unhappy and sedentary. They attempted to connect the clothes he wears with the attitude he projects. However, economic factors were also voiced as an influence upon dress. Students who f e l t that he was angry expressed possible reasons for his anger. One of which was parent-child conflict. As we ran out of time, I suggested we continue the discussion at the next session. I completed the last of the student interviews today. Most books met the established c r i t e r i a . A l l students expressed their interest in the codification sessions. They claim they are able to look at a number of situations from a new perspective. However, many s t i l l feel hesitant about verbal participation. March 6, 1978 A most frustrating session. Complete silence, not a whisper. I f e l t frustrated because of my ina b i l i t y to stimulate dialogue. We attempted to pursue feelings related to their relationships with parents and how parents might influence their l i f e style. Perhaps i t was too personal. We sat in very uncomfortable silence and after expressing my frustration suggested we close the session. I carried my frustration to the gymnasium. I f e l t that many -79-students did not demonstrate a high degree of responsibility toward following their programs. There are a number of students who have chosen to shoot a basketball for the majority of the period. I must admit I am s i l e n t l y c r i t i c a l and I am sure i t shows. I collected a l l books today to see i f they satisfy agreed upon c r i t e r i a . March 9, 1978 Presented another codification (Plate 6) today. A vigorous response was experienced today. A large number of students contributed. The students recognized the Professional North American games portrayed in the codification. They affirmed the fact that they had l i t t l e experi-ence in physical a c t i v i t i e s outside the sports presented in the codification. We closed by asking them to reflect upon why they had so l i t t l e experience in other a c t i v i t i e s . The students to date have been quick to relate the facts of a given codification but they have had d i f f i c u l t y c r i t i c a l l y analyzing the situation. Although I pose a number of questions, I feel I contribute too much additional comment. However, as I ran with a number of the stu-dents, I reflected upon the excitement I feel as we experience the Problem-Posing method. The students struggle to use their freedom in a c r i t i c a l , responsible manner and I struggle to give them sufficient freedom to develop their own program. March 10, 1978 This session was perhaps the most penetrating session to date. Discussion revolved around the question, "What forces determine the physical ac t i v i t i e s you pursue?" The following factors were indicated: television, image of masculinity, Physical Education programs, fear of failure in individual games as opposed to the relative comfort of shared failure in team games. Discussion had to be curtailed because of the time limit. Attempting to discuss a codification and provide time for -80-physical activity within f i f t y - f i v e minutes may prove to be a problem. March 13, 1978 Another active session was experienced today as the codification on alcohol (Plate 8) was introduced. Many students voiced the opinion that alcohol was important at a party to release inhibitions and allow people to talk freely with one another. Others suggested alcohol gave them a sense of maturity. S t i l l others fel t i t freed them from rea l i t y and present problems. We viewed alcohol as a crutch and began to discuss the possibility of alcohol interfering with the development of other social s k i l l s . March 14, 1978 We continued the alcohol codification. The session opened with comments from students who do not drink. They suggested they did not consume alcohol because either their parents did not indulge or they did not like the taste of alcohol. I posed the following question. If alcohol helps a number of people socialize more readily, do these people begin to rely on alcohol at the expense of developing other social skills? A few f e l t that alcohol helped them to initiate social contact and without i t , they might not socialize at a l l . They stated that they would not need alcohol later as they would have had sufficient practice socializing. Others disagreed. Some f e l t they became a different person under the influence of alcohol and liked the experience. They enjoyed escaping from themselves. We experienced the time constraint again. In order to realize a projected time line for completion of this thesis, i t is necessary to suspend future diary reports on the codification sessions. C. Students" Opinions I believe that student opinion is important in understanding -81-the implications of the Problem-Posing method. Therefore, I asked each student to record opinions about their personal experience with the Problem-Posing method. I f e l t an open ended question would give students the opportunity to record their thoughts freely. Students' comments appear unabridged. In my opinion, the sessions we've been having about the codifications have been helpful to me. They've helped me to look down deeply into myself and see i f I like myself or not. The codifications get&the group talking, most of the time, so that everyone can express themselves and then the rest of the group can make judgements comparing them-selves against the others. About the students doing their own programs, I feel that i t ' s an excellent idea. This is because I can design the type of program that I want and that w i l l help me physically. For example, i f I wanted to improve my cardiovascular system I w i l l probably designe a program with a lot of running, or i f I wanted to build up my body muscle wise, I'd do a lot of weight l i f t i n g . I feel that this is a very good thing. Mike Alivojvodic I feel that the student oriented codification is better than the teacher codification because i t gives me responsibilities of what I want to do with my body. It gives me more pleasure doing what I want to do instead of what the teacher wants me to do. Setting up my own schedule and doing the things I feel w i l l help me improve my overall body and endurance gives me more satisfaction than a teacher doing i t for me. The sessions we have in class have benefited me in a lot of different ways and has made me think of a lot of things that I really didn't think a lot about. Graziano Zanatta I think this program is going well for me. Here, you have a chance to work on your own without any super-vision from any teachers and a great responsibility is expected from you. Horacio Salonga -82-The pattern chosen for the f i t n e s s u n i t i s i n some way good but i t also has i t s flaws. The only reason I am not sure of my views i s because i t i s a new approach to the student-teacher aspect. We as students have infrequently experienced such freedom i n the classroom and i t took a while to discover how to handle i t . I t i s good i n respect to i t giving the students a more uniqueness or a more personal q u a l i t y . However the only drawback i s that some students may not be able to cope with such a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . That s i t u a t i o n can however be remedied. Thus I f e e l the approach to t h i s would and i s d e f i n i t l y b e n i f i c i a l to the students conserned. Tim Minnette My opinion on t h i s course i s : I t sure i s d i f f e r e n t from the normal grind of a P.E. c l a s s . This makes you aware of accomplishments that you make and makes them more enjoying and s a t i s f y i n g . Now you r e a l i z e your not hurting anyone else when you goof o f f , but just r i p p i n g yourself o f f , of time that you have spent planning something to do. When you have worked hard i n P.E. you walk out of the changing room f e a l i n g great. You think of yourself, I have done something for myself not for no teacher that may have not put anytime i n planning what w i l l be doing for 5 years of physical education and t h i s gives you the chance of doing what you want anything you can fantasize up. Regarding c o d i f i c a t i o n s and group discussion these are very h e l p f u l things they l e t you see whats e f f e c t -ing and why should I l e t t h i s e f f e c t me. Is t h i s my own choices or i s someone t e l l i n g me to do t h i s , or am I doing these things just because everyone else i s , because i t ' s a fad. You a l s o f i n d out how every one else may have dealt with a problem you don't know how to handle. Vice-versa you shouldn't just s i t there i n the culture of silence and take some one's suggestion regarding a problem and not return the favor, By that I mean i n your l i f e at one time you may have handled a problem great, and t h i s person you have just gotten an idea o f f of i s facing t h i s now, even i f he was embassed to admit i t i n group session, you should o f f e r how someone should deal with i t . The conversation even should be aloud to d r i f t into topics such as a l c h o l o l , drugs, e t c , which they have been dicussed but couldn't beforee. t h i s i s a most rewarding course and i t i s a p r i v i l a g e for everyone that i t i s experimented on. Mike Maier -83-Codification I enjoyed this program what we are doing now. But I think we should have a different program once a week. For example: basketball, socer, baseball, football, floor hockey or some other thing. The reson why I chose these program because i f we are only work on one program, like weight l i f t i n g , i t is very boring. Danny Ma Fitness 11 Mar.20/78 The codifications we have been studying in this course I think have been very helpful to me. It makes me take a c r i t i c a l look at myself and my l i f e s t y l e . It shows me how opressed we really are by people te l l i n g us what to do, and how to do i t . I'm in favour of a student oriented course because I think the student knows whats best for himself, not the teacher who has to worry about 20 or more students. Colin English I like this student orientated course better than a teacher orientated course because i t allows us to change ourselves to the person we want ourselves to be. If someone wanted to be Mr. America, he could work out a l l he wanted to. If someone wanted to be better at tennis he might play tennis everyday. In a teacher orientated course i t is the same program everyday. Running weightlifting & stretching. Being humans, we are not perfect. One day we might feel energetic, the next day we might feel tired and lazy and then be forced against our w i l l , to run weightlift, etc. As for the daily talk sessions, It gets me thinking about myself and the kind of person I want to be. Also I realized that alot of people form their program to suit Other people and just aren't being themselves. -84-I think i t i s very important for a person to be what he wants to be and do what he wants to do and forget what other people think of him. Leo G i l l i s I f e e l that the sessions of c o d i f i c a t i o n were very i n t e r e s t i n g . I t got me thinking about myself and helped me understand the way we act, and why we do c e r t a i n things. I l i k e the idea of us making up our own program, rather than the teacher making up the program. This i s because there i s l o t s of d i f f e r e n t things you can do. And you don't have time to do them f u l l y . J erry Chan I don't think that the c o d i f i c a t i o n s did me any good because the things that were talked about didn't i n t e r e s t me too much I think that some people i n the cl a s s were i n t e r -ested but I was not deeply involved i n the c o d i f i c a t i o n because the topics were not i n t e r e s t i n g enough for me. To make t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g , I think that should something that we are not aware. Steve Okano I have gained from the c o d i f i c a t i o n s that we had i n c l a s s , although I s t i l l can't f i n d answers to c e r t a i n questions for example, the alcohol sessions although h e l p f u l s t i l l did not answer the question of why I drink. I t made me more aware of my habit and I am g r a t e f u l because I have curbed drinking excessively, although i t may not be permanent. As for the do i t yourself program, I f e e l i t i s better than the type where everyone follows the teacher's i n s t r u c t i o n s . Here, one has f u l l control of h i s body and has no l i m i t s as to what he can do. True, there w i l l be those who take advantage of i t and not do anything but i n the end of the course, they w i l l be at a disadvantage. But i n i t s p o s i t i v e aspect, those who use t h e i r freedom to get themselves -85-i n shape w i l l b e n i f i t g r e a t l y . I enjoy doing my own thing even though I sometimes slack o f f , and I think t h i s i s a p o s i t i v e step i n education. Joe C a f a r i e l l o I think t h i s i s a good program. I t has given me more knowledge of what other people think and f e e l . I think i t was h e l p f u l to f i n d out how other people f e e l towards alcohol and other subjects we discussed. The program of a student making h i s own i n d i v i d u a l program i s e x c e l l e n t . This way we can achieve our own goals not what a teacher thinks we should have. Now we can develop into who we want to be. Fernando Wong Personally, I think that the c o d i f i c a t i o n s that the teacher put up in our sessions were r e a l l y good. Mainly the reason being that they were a c t i v i t i e s that almost every human being takes part i n . There was one for instance, where there were people play-ing d i f f e r e n t types of sports, t h i s c o d i f i c a t i o n r e a l l y concerns our age group because we a l l play these sports. This program where the student makes up h i s own d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , whether i t be pumping weights or running i s excellent because I think we're mature enough now to do our own things. Mario piluso I f e e l that the c o d i f i c a t i o n sessions were a success to a point. I f e l t that i t was sometimes a monotinous session in which I f e e l that t h i s kind of s i t u a t i o n should be done on skip-a-day b a s i s . As for the f i t n e s s program I f e e l that i t i s very good If put i n the hands of r e l i a b l e students. I t gives the person a chance to work at what he f e e l s i s needed for him to better both h i s phsyical and mental s e l f . I f e e l that t h i s course gives the student an extra sense of responsibity which w i l l help when he heads out into -86-the world and has some experience with responsability. Joe Sloan I think that codifications during the past months is very helpful to me. That might help me to make up my programs and how to work on i t . Sometime, we may be need the teacher's help on our programs, discuss what we need together. It might be successful very fast. We should do the same things everyday. It might effect our body and makes i t look different from what i t is before. We know that we got to improve our body condition. I think that's why we are a l l taking fittness now. Edwin Lo Codification - some of the codification that we did in class help me in organizing my program of what I what to do. This program of P.E. where each individual are free to do what ever they like is good because i t gives me a chance to do what I feel is necessary to improve what is needed. Ken Kwan Personally I'm not a l l that hot about the 15 minutes we spend in this class, but I do know that we spend lot of time talking, but i t ' s a great chance to get a l l the guys to get to know each other and i t gives us a chance to figure out our problems or i f something is bothering us, there is someone to talk to. Gino Pastore Codifications was O.K., i t helped me and the other guys understand more what we talk about (e.g., culture of silence). We talk about ourselves, our bodies. Class orientation was great too. It was really different. We discussed what we wanted and what we f e l t about this course. This course is really well-organized in my book. I think this course is really good for me. Mike Lee -87-This program has open my eyes, in viewing the soceity that surrounds me. In our talking period I found out that every thing that I almost do is related to the people I am with. We are a l l shape in with society. I learned that everyone in our class is adapted to their culture in which they l i v e . The majoridy of the class lived in North America for a long time, and they a l l like to drink at parties and have a wild time. The other part of the class are new Canadian, some of them haven't even touch a drink such as the Chinese. To me, I learned that I'm not alone in the way I think I found that every thing I see or do is influence by the North American society. Enzo Fratino I feel that these class talks were both useful and at times not at a l l useful. The days that I learnt the most from the talks were the days when ^ everyone f e l t like talking, at the begging of the course I always f e l t that I had to contribute in the talks, but as the weeks past a lot of other people came out of their shells and gave their feelings about the codifications. Yet, there are some people that are in a code of silence so deep, I feel that they w i l l never talk in front of a group of people such as this class. Mario Luongo Report The codifications that we have seen and talked about in our class has helped me know what the American Male Life Style really i s . From what I used to know about i t to what I know now is quite a differance. Now talking about the student doing whatever he wants to do and having his own programme is much better than the teacher t e l l i n g the student what to do. The reason I say this is because let's say the student wants to improve in different parts of the body more than others then he w i l l go about doing i t and f i n a l l y getting his/her objective, not as i f the teacher t e l l s him what to do and then at the end of the year or semester he/she doesn't see in himself what he wanted to see. This report was done by Luis DaPalma -88-I f e l t this program is excellent. It inables me to develope my body and s k i l l s to f i l l my needs. Contrary to that of a teacher oriented program. In the teacher oriented program you have to live by his rules and pro-grams. I myself don't enjoy doing that, I find I work a lot harder at something when I am not being told or ordered to i t . The codifications we have been discussing are quite interesting. I have become much more awake to the subjects we discussed, e.g., alcohol, television, North American image, etc. I find that I can under-stand better and can see more clearly the effects that these subjects have on my l i f e . John Allen The codifications we have looked at, so far I think have helped me take a look at myself, my habits, my overall l i f e style c r i t i c a l l y . Most of the codification have a direct impact to most every ones l i f e style. Clayton English The codifications are very important in these dis-cussions. They act as part of the discussed topic. In other words, they sort of represent or stand in for a specific topic or idea that the teacher wanted the class of P.E. students to discuss about. They not only act as topics but they are a great help in these discussions. For example, each of the codific-ation can lead into many topics and opinions. Each of the students begins to provide or say out i t s own opinion about them and before anyone can realize, the students are participating in these discussions. As a result, I feel that these codifications are very important and helpful in these discussions. The student-oriented program gives each student a chance to do the things he wanted to do, instead of being commanded or forced into doing somethings that he hates. But on the other side of this same token, this type of program provides the student with a lot of responsibilities and learning to be responsible is very important in l i f e . Because of these two positive items, I feel that this program can be very beneficial and i t is good learning process of responsibilities. Millan See -89-The c o d i f i c a t i o n part of t h i s coarse helped me to think for my s e l f and helped me r e a l i z e that most of what I do i s to have fun. When we started our programs, I thought that i t would be a l o t of fun but i t turns out that I don't know why I do things. I guess I don't l i k e programs very much because i t won't l e t me carry on sort of absent mindedly and have fun. Now I just have to f i n d or design my own program so that i t s u i t s me l i k e a rubber glove. Larry Dawson D. Reflections In l i g h t of a b r i e f encounter with the Problem-Posing method and students' r e f l e c t i o n s about the method, a few observations are i n order. To judge the merits of F r e i r e ' s approach, i t w i l l be necessary i n the future to conduct a psychological study, which was not the intent of t h i s t h e s i s . However, our l i m i t e d experience with the Problem-Posing method may provide d i r e c t i o n for such a study. Consideration must be given to the problem of timetabling i f the method i s going to be u t i l i z e d i n Physical Education programs at the Secondary l e v e l . The format of f i f t e e n minutes for dialogue and f o r t y minutes for physical a c t i v i t y might be suitable on occasion but as a r u l e , i t appears too r e s t r i c t i v e f o r the development of meaningful dialogue. I t i s not the intent of the c o d i f i c a t i o n sessions to r e a l i z e summation but rather to f a c i l i t a t e opportunity for a complete i n v e s t i g -a t i o n of a given t o p i c . Such i n v e s t i g a t i o n cannot always be r e a l i z e d i n a f i f t e e n minute session. Perhaps Elementary schools, where time-table f l e x i b i l i t y and subject in t e g r a t i o n are more r e a d i l y attained, would provide an i d e a l environment for experimentation. However, the relevance of the method, as r e f l e c t e d i n students' comments, should provide motivation to seek an acceptable format at the Secondary l e v e l . A one hour c o d i f i c a t i o n session per week might prove to be acceptable. Schools that have a multi -ethnic population may experience -90-more complex communication problems than schools with less diverse populations. Careful thought must be given to the development of codifications i f several ethnic groups are involved. One codification may not provide a l l students with the relevance necessary for meaning-ful dialogue. Although the codifications that we used might have provided students who had recently immigrated with insights into the indigenous culture, I f e l t the codifications appears to inhibit their verbal participation. Group communication techniques are not always an integral part of a teacher's professional training. Teachers wishing to adopt Freire's methods would be wise to upgrade their communication techniques. When the codification sessions lost momentum, I f e l t , to a large extent, i t was a reflection on my group communication techniques. The Problem-Posing method appears to be a viable, humanistic approach to an "Active Health" program. The method recognizes the value of a sci e n t i f i c orientation but also incorporates social and mind-body experiences, thus f a c i l i t a t i n g rewarding interpersonal relationships and enriching student directed experiences. Through the "Problem-Posing" method, an "Active Health" program can become a dynamic process where students and teacher learn that education is a sharing, humanistic enterprise. -91-BIBLIOGRAPHY Aiken, Henry D. "Toward a New Humanist Manifesto^" The Humanist, Vol. 33 (Jan-Feb. 1973), pp. 14 - 15. Albenson, J.G., and Andrew, G.M., ed. Child in Sport and Physical  Activity. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1976. Alschuter, Alfred S., "Humanistic Education" Educational Technology, Vol. X No. 5 (May, 1970), pp. 58 - 61. Annariso, Anthony A. "Another Way to Teach". J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 45, (Oct. 1974), pp. 43 - 46. Astrand, P.O. "Commentary - International Symposium on Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health". Canadian Medical Association  Journal, Vol. 96 (March 25, 1967), p. 760. Ayer, A.J., ed. The Humanist Outlook. London: Pemberton in Association with Barrie and Rockliff, 1968. Bruce, Paul. "Three Forces in Psychology and their Ethical and Educational Implication." Educational Forum, Vol. 30 (March, 1966), pp. 277 - 85. Buber, Martin. A Believing Humanism. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1967. Bugental, James F.T., Challenges of Humanistic Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1967. Caldwell, Stratton F., "Toward a Humanistic Physical Education". J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 43 (May, 1972), p. 32. Cassidy, Rosalind and Caldwell, Stratton F., Humanizing Physical Education; Methods for the Secondary School Movement Program. Dubuque, Iowa: W. C. Brown Company, 1974. Child, Irvin L., Humanistic Psychology and the Research Tradition: Their  Several Virtues. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1973. Cochrane, Jane. "Student-Centered Physical Education". J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 46 (Sept. 1973), pp. 25 - 26. Combs, Arthur W., "The Educational Researcher: A Need for Humanism". as cited in paper distributed by Dr. T. Aoki for Education 580, (summer, 1976), Complete source not given. Library search for source unsuccessful. The Counterfoil Group, Toronto. "Towards a Pedagogy of Oppressed Youth". Convergence, Vol. IV. No. 2 (1971), pp. 80 - 83. -92-Donohue, John W., "Paulo Freire: Philosopher of Adult Education". America, Vol. 127, No. 1 (July 8, 1972), pp. 167 - 70. Dubois, Paul E . , "Personalize your Weight Training Programs". Physical  Educator, Vol. 32 (Oct. 1975), pp. 138 - 141. Dubos, Rene. Mirage of Health. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1959. Dworkin, Martin S., ed. Dewey on Education. New York: Teachers" College Press, 1959. Egerton, John. "Searching for Freire". Saturday Review of Education, (March 10, 1973), pp. 32 - 35. Elias, John L. "Adult Literacy Education in Brazil 1961-1964: Metrodo Paulo Freire". Canadian and International Education, Vol. 2 No. 1 (June, 1973), pp. 67 - 84. Elias, John L. "Social Learning and Paulo Freire". Journal of Educational Thought, Vol. 8, No. 1 (April, 1974), pp. 5 - 14. Elias, John L. Conscientization and Deschooling. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1976. Fast, Barbara L. "Contracting". J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 42, (Sept., 1971), pp. 31 - 32. Foster, Larry E. "A Tool for Flexibili ty" . J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 45, )Oct. 1974), pp. 3 8 - 3 9 . Freire, Paulo. Cultural Action for Freedom. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Educational Review and Center of Development and Social Change, 1970 (Monograph Series, No. 1) Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: The Seabury Press, 1970. Freire, Paulo. Education for Crtitical Consciousness. New York: The Seabury Press, 1974. Fromm, Erich. The Revolution of Hope. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1974. Gallwey, Timothy.W. The Inner Game of Tennis. New York: Random House, 1974. Geadleman, Patricia L. "Self-Directed Learning". J.O.PVH.E.R., Vol. 42, (Sept. 1971), pp. 25 - 26. -93-Grabowski, Stanley M., ed. Paulo Freire: A Revolutionary Dilemma For the Adult Educator. New York: Syracuse University Publishers in continuing Education, 1972. Harman, David. "Methodology for Revolution". Saturday Review, (June 19, 1971), pp. 54-55. Hawton, Hector. The Humanist Revolution. London: Barrie and Rockliff in association with the Pemberton Publishing Co. Ltd., 1963. Heitman, Helen M. and Kneer, Marion E. Physical Education Instructional Techniques. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1976. Hellison, Donald. Humanistic Physical Education. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1973. Hellison, Donald. Beyond Bats and Balls. Manuscript to be published by A.A.P.H.E.R. Educational Media Services, Washington D.C, 1978. Hellison, Donald. Personal Interview, January, 1978. Hitt, William D. Education as a Human Enterprise. Worthington, Ohio: Charles A. Jones Publishing Co., 1973. Holt, John. How Children Learn. New York: Pitman Publishing Corporation, 1969. Hook, Andrew J., et a l . "Computer Monitored Physical Education". J.O.P.H.E.R.. Vol. 46 (Sept., 1973), pp. 24 - 25. Huxley, Aldous. Ends and Means. London: Chatto and Windus, 1957. Huxley, Julian, ed. The Humanist Frame. New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1961. I l l i c h , Ivan. Deschooling Society. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1970. Johnson, Don. The Protean Body. New York; Harper and Row Publishers, 1977. Johnson, Perry B., et a l . Physical Education - A Problem Solving Approach  to Health and Fitness. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc., 1966. Keen, Brewster. "Pedagogy of the Oppressed". Canadian Forum, (July-August, 1971) , pp. 29 - 31. -94-Kurtz, Paul, ed. Moral Problems In Contemporary Society. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 1969. Kurtz, Paul, ed. The Humanist Alternative: Some Definitions of  Humanism. London: Pemberton Books, 1973. Lamont, Corliss. The Philosophy of Humanism. New York: Fredrick Ungar Publishing Co., 1965. Lawson, Hal. "An Alternative Program Model for Secondary School Physical Education". J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 48 (Feb., 1977), pp. 38 - 39. Leonard, George. Education and Ecstasy. New York: Delacorte Press, 1968. Leonard, George. The Ultimate Athlete. New York: Avon Books, 1975. Maccoby, Michael. "Literacy for the Favelas". Science, Vol. 172, (1971), pp. 671 - 673. Maslow, A.H. "Peak Experiences in Education and Art". Theory Into  Practice, Vol. 10 (June, 1971), pp. 149 - 153. Mosiak, Henryk and Saxton, Virginia. History of Psychology. New York: Greene and Stratton, 1966. Overskei, Larry. "A Co-educational Lottery System." J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 44 ( Sept., 1973), pp. 27 - 28. Parchman, Linda L. "Experiences with Contract Teaching". J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 45 (Oct., 1974), pp. 41-42. Patterson, CH. Humanistic Education. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1973. Pina, Wallace M. "The Systems Approach in Physical Education". J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 42 (Nov. 1971), pp. 57 - 58. Reimer, Everett. "Does the Shoe F i t ? " America, (Jan. 23, 1971), pp. 69 - 70. Rich, John Martin. Humanistic Foundations of Education. Worthington, Ohio: Charles A. Jones Publishing Company, 1971. Rubin, Louis. "Curriculum, Affect and Humanism". Educational  Leadership, Vol. 32 (Oct., 1974), pp. 10 - 13. Sadowski, Gregory W. "Flexible Modular Scheduling allows for Student Choice of Independent Study." J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 42 (Sept. 1971), p. 25. Sauders, Thomas G. The Paulo Freire Method. New York: American Universities Field Staff Report, West Coast South American Series, Vol. VX, No. 1. -95-Saverin, Frank T., ed. Humanistic Viewpoints on Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965. Shulman, Sidney. "An Experimental High School". J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 44 (Sept., 1973), pp. 23 - 24. Simpson, Elizabeth L. Humanistic Education. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Ballinger Publishing Co., 1976. Spino, Mike. Beyond Jogging. Millbrae, California: Celestial Arts, 1976. Stanhope, Carolyn L. "Independent Study Options". J.O.P.H.E.R., Vol. 42 (Sept. 1971), p. 24. Valett, Robert E. Affective - Humanistic Education. Belmont, California: Tearson Publishers, 1974. Versenyi, Laszlo. Socratic Humanism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963. Wasserman, Miriam. "School Mythology and the Education of Oppression". This Magazine is about Schools, Vol. 3, No. 3 (1971), pp. 23 - 36. Weinberg, Carl, ed. Humanistic Foundations of Education. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1972. Zakovik, John A., and Brubaker, Dale L. Toward More Humanistic Instruct ion. Dubuque, Iowa: W.C. Brown Co., Publishers, 1972. 

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