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Songs of ethnic Canada : (an interdisciplinary teachers’ guide for grades K-12, based on the folksongs… Luccock, Norma A. 1979

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SONGS OF ETHNIC CANADA (An I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Teachers' Guide f o r Grades K - 1 2 , Based on the Folksongs o f Four Canadian E t h n i c Groups) by NORMA ARLEEN LUCCOCK B.Mus., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 6 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTIES OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND EDUCATION We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1 9 7 9 c) Norma Ar l e e n Luccock, 1 9 7 9 In p resent ing t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r re fe rence and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permiss ion f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood tha t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed wi thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Educat ion The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P lace Vancouver , Canada V6T 1W5 Date A p r i l , 1979 ABSTRACT TITLE: Songs of Ethnic Canada PROBLEM: One-third of Canada's p o p u l a t i o n i s now n e i t h e r B r i t i s h nor French, yet few m u l t i c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s are a v a i l a b l e f o r teachers' use. The w r i t e r ' s aim was, t h e r e f o r e , to l o c a t e songs of fou r of Canada's m i n o r i t y groups and prepare them f o r use i n Music, S o c i a l S t u d i e s , and Language A r t s classrooms. PROCEDURE: For each group the w r i t e r chose four o r f i v e songs from ethnomusicological c o l l e c t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g a i d s were prepared f o r each song: adapted l y r i c s , o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r O r f f instruments, suggestions f o r use i n Music c l a s s e s and other subject areas, and a r e c o r d i n g on tape c a s s e t t e . CONCLUSION: Hope f u l l y p r e p a r a t i o n of these m a t e r i a l s w i l l encourage educators to i n c l u d e m u l t i c u l t u r a l Canadian songs i n t h e i r programs. I accept t h i s A b s t r a c t as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard. A l l e n Clingman, Supervisor / PREFACE The graph below c l e a r l y shows t h a t Canada i s now a m u l t i c u l t u r a l country, w i t h o n e - t h i r d of i t s p o p u l a t i o n being n e i t h e r B r i t i s h nor French. CANADIAN POPULATION TRENDS., (percentagewise) 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 Few music textbooks make any reference t o t h i s " T h i r d Element." The purpose of t h i s book i s t h e r e f o r e t w o f o l d : l ) To present a c o l l e c t i o n of songs which are r e l e v a n t t o the m i n o r i t y groups and a l s o serve t o help B r i t i s h and French Canadian c h i l d r e n understand the t h i n k i n g and way of l i f e of other peoples. "4>aul Yuzyk, U k r a i n i a n Canadians; Their Place and Role  i n Canadian L i f e , (Toronto: U k r a i n i a n Canadian Business and P r o f e s s i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n , 1967), pp. U-5. 2) To provide l o c a l Canadian m a t e r i a l s f o r the teaching of musical concepts. The book i s d i v i d e d i n t o four semi-independent s e c t i o n s , each c o n s i s t i n g of four or f i v e songs from one ethnic group and teaching m a t e r i a l s f o r them. Native peoples are represented by the Nootka Indian and Copper Eskimo, immigrant groups by Uk r a i n -ians and Doukhobors. Each song i s sung now i n Canada or has been sung here, and most conta i n references t o the Canadian environ-ment or way of l i f e . The choice of peoples and songs has been determined mainly by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of pub l i s h e d m a t e r i a l . Each of the eighteen songs has been obtained from ethnomusico-l o g i c a l c o l l e c t i o n s , and, t o the w r i t e r ' s knowledge, has never before appeared i n a music textbook. Photocopies of a l l o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n s have been i n c l u d e d . M u s i c a l and t e x t u a l adaptations have been made f o r the sole purpose of making the songs acces-s i b l e t o elementary school c h i l d r e n without a f f e c t i n g the songs' v a l i d i t y . The ethnomusicologist, Kenneth Peacock, a c t u a l l y s t a t e s i n h i s anthology t h a t "anyone who wants t o make m e t r i c a l t r a n s l a t i o n s t o f i t the music can do so by using these b a s i c documentary t r a n s l a t i o n s as a guide." The book has not been d i v i d e d i n t o s e c t i o n s f o r use only w i t h Primary or Intermediate grades because n e a r l y every song could be sung by a c h i l d i n Kindergarten or Grade Seven i f 2 Kenneth Peacock, Songs of the Doukhobors, (Ottawa: N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada, B u l l e t i n No. 2 3 1 , F o l k l o r e S e r i e s No. 7 , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 1 7 . i i presented i n an appropriate manner. The "Background Information" and suggestions f o r " I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h other s u b j e c t s , " i n c l u d e d w i t h each song, could be adapted f o r use at any grade l e v e l . The Index of M u s i c a l Concepts (p. I l k ) should be h e l p f u l to music teachers, e s p e c i a l l y those who use a Kodaly approach, f o r i t l i s t s the songs s e q u e n t i a l l y from e a s i e s t to most d i f f i c u l t . Although O r f f instruments are suggested t o accompany each song, r e g u l a r classroom instruments would i n most cases be s u i t a b l e . The L i s t of M u s i c a l Examples on Tape (p. v i ) i n d i c a t e s which o r i g i n a l recordings or r e l a t e d songs have been i n c l u d e d on the c a s s e t t e tape f o r classroom l i s t e n i n g . I am g r a t e f u l to Mile. Renee Landry of the Canadian Centre f o r F o l k Culture S t u d i e s , and Maria A. Forde of the Cana-dian Ethnology S e r v i c e , Museum of Man, Ottawa, f o r p r o v i d i n g most of the rec o r d i n g s . I a l s o appreciate the D i s c r e t i o n a r y Grant provided by the Educational Research I n s t i t u t e of B.C. t o a s s i s t w i t h minor expenses. Hop e f u l l y t h i s book w i l l encourage other music educators t o search through the extensive ethnomusicological c o l l e c t i o n s of Canadian ethnic folksongs and make more of these m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e t o classroom teachers. i i i CONTENTS Page PREFACE . . . . . . i LIST OF FIGURES v LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES ON TAPE . v i Sec t i o n A. SONGS OF THE NOOTKA INDIANS 1 1. "Paddle Song" 3 2. " C a l l i n g Song" 10 3. " P o t l a t e h Song" 15 k. "Song of a L i t t l e Boy i n Search of His Grandparents" 22 B. SONGS OF THE COPPER ESKIMOS 26 5. "A Lucky Hunt" 30 6. "The Returning Hunter" 31* 7. "The Raven Sings" 39 8. "A Weather Chant" !+5 9. " L i t t l e S i s t e r L o s t " 51 C. SONGS OF THE UKHAINIAN-CANADIANS 56 10. "Canada, My Country" 58 11. "My Tr u s t y Ford" 63 12. "Christmas C a r o l No. 1" 69 13. "Christinas C a r o l No. 2" . lh D. SONGS OF THE D0UKH0B0RS 80 Ik. "In a Pine F o r e s t " 85 15. "Bye Bye, Baby" 91 16. "A S a i l o r ' s Secret" 96 17. "No Match f o r Me!" . , 103 18. "Matchmaker, You Lying R a s c a l " (Lithuanian) . . 108 BIBLIOGRAPHY 112 INDEX OF MUSICAL CONCEPTS 11^ i v LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Map of Region Inhabited by Nootka Tribes 2 2. Nootka K i l l e r Whale 3 3. Indian Performances 7 k. Nootka Man w i t h Mask 19 5. Map of Eskimo Regions 27 6. An Eskimo Family 27 7. C e n t r a l Eskimo Drum Dancer 28 8. Ivory Sea B i r d 29 9. Eskimo Hunter 33 10. S e a l Hunting 37 11. Raven, S t e a l i n g Eggs ^0 12. A Hunter Defies the E v i l S p i r i t s ^5 13. Young People of the North 50 ik. Students of S i r Alexander Mackenzie School 55 15. U k r a i n i a n P e a s a n t - S e t t l e r s from Bukowina 58 16. U k r a i n i a n Dancers 68 17. U k r a i n i a n Dancer and Musicians 68 18. Christmas " K u t j a " Custom 73 19. Hay f o r Christmas 78 20. Young U k r a i n i a n Church C a r o l l e r s 79 21. P e r s e c u t i o n by Cossacks 81. 22. Women Plough the P r a i r i e s 82 23. F i r s t Harvest, w i t h Russian Scythes 82. 2k. 1902 - Thunder H i l l Colony 83-25. Florence A. Makortoff, Singer of L u l l a b y 85. 26. Young S i s t e r s from Grand Forks, B.C 102 v LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES ON TAPE Song Performer See page 1. "Paddle Song" George C l u t e s i k 2. " C a l l i n g Song" . . . . Peter Webster 12 . 3 . "Song of a L i t t l e Boy". Mrs. G i l b e r t Holden 25 k. "Dance Song" Unek'ag 30 5- "Hunting S e a l s " . . . . Kemukserar and Pangatkar . . . 36 6. "Dance Song; Magic Song" Ivyayotailaq. hQ 7. "Dance Song" An'ayoq 5k 8. "0 Canada, Canada". . . Mrs. H. Rewakowsky . . . . . . 6 l 9. "0 my f a t h e r " Walter Pasternak 67 10. "Christmas C a r o l " . . . Z o f i j a Njedzvjec'ka 77 11. "In a Pine F o r e s t " . . Florence A. Makortoff . . . . 89 12. "Bye-you, Bye-you". . . Dora Markin 9*+ 13. "In the Green F o r e s t " . Budapest Children's Choir . . 9k Ik. "A g i r l was s i t t i n g " . . Mrs. H. Chernoff; Mrs. Kanygin 101 15. b o y f r i e n d " Dora Markin 106 16. "Matchmaker, Matchmaker" T z e i t e l 110 17. "Matchmaker, you l y i n g r a s c a l " . . . . Mrs. S h o l a c i j a S i b i l s k i e n e . . 110 v i A. SONGS OF THE NOOTKA INDIANS I n t r o d u c t i o n The Nootka Indians l i v e on the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d . Because of t h e i r l o c a t i o n , the Nootka played an important p a r t i n e a r l y e x p l o r a t i o n and development of the north P a c i f i c . coast by white e x p l o r e r s and t r a d e r s (see map, p. 2 ) . Captain Cook, the f i r s t man t o step on the land now known as B r i t i s h Columbia, was at Nootka Sound i n 1778, and claimed i t f o r Great B r i t a i n . Although the Indians c a l l e d themselves "Mooachat," Cook thought they s a i d "Nootka," and t h e r e f o r e c a l l e d them by th a t name. In 1780 there were approximately 6000 Nootka on Vancouver I s l a n d ; diseases brought by the white man reduced the number con-s i d e r a b l y , but by 1970 there were over 3^00 Nootka. Nootka songs were o f t e n "owned" by one Indian and could not be sung by anyone e l s e . Since the t r i b e ' s songmaker was given songs i n dreams and v i s i o n s , he was a h i g h l y respected per-son. • For t h i s reason, t o o , Indians r a r e l y permitted o u t s i d e r s t o hear t h e i r songs. They are a combination of words, s y l l a b l e s and melody, w i t h few instruments, o f t e n being sung i n a "leader and f o l l o w e r " p a t t e r n . The melody and the accompaniment u s u a l l y have two d e f i n i t e rhythms—both f a i r l y r e g u l a r , but independent of each o t h e r . 1 Dr. Ida Halpern, "Nootka-Indian Music of the P a c i f i c North West Coast", Ethnic Folkways Album No. FE h^2h brochure. 1 Frances Densmore, Nootka and Quileute Music, (New York: Da Capo P r e s s , 1972, r e p r i n t of 1939 e d i t i o n ) , p. 2. 3 1. "Paddle Song" a) Background Information The whale hunt. Hunting f o r whales was an important pa r t of Nootkan l i f e , and was accompanied by many ceremonies and songs. The singe r s r e f e r r e d t o i n the "Paddle Song" were pro-bably r e t u r n i n g from a whale hunt. Artwork o f t e n d e p i c t e d a whale or hunters (see i l l u s t r a t i o n " * below). n o o t k a My little son, k i l l e r w h a l e > o u will P u t a whale harpoon and a sealing spear into your canoe, not knowing what use you will make of them. James Houston, ed., Songs of the Dream People, (Don M i l l s , O ntario: Longman Canada, 1972), p. 5U, The r e c o r d i n g . L i s t e n f o r 'cauda' ( * ) i n the o r i -g i n a l r e c o r d i n g . These are p u l s a t i o n s or breathing spaces which are t y p i c a l l y heard i n the songs of Indians and Eskimos. Indian music i s m i c r o t o n a l , so the singer may sound o f f - p i t c h t o an untrained ear. 5 The s i n g e r . George C l u t e s i and h i s Port A l b e r n i group sang t h i s song t o Dr. Ida Halpern, c o l l e c t o r and t r a n s c r i b e r of West Coast Indian music. C l u t e s i , a Nootkan author, a r t i s t and teacher, i s a member of the Tse-Shaht t r i b e , a whaling c l a n . A self-educated man, he c a r r i e d on the t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y r o l e of t r i b a l speaker, f o r h i s f a t h e r was h i s t o r i a n of t h e i r house, and h i s uncle was the s t o r y - t e l l e r . O r i g i n a l v e r s i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n and music.^ - • "Hartc. I hear »n echo. I t Is faint. It la wtk, tut It Is there. So far, far away, It seeus to grow upon the sea so calm. Is i t but an echo of my pastT I bear the thunder drun. I hear the voices singing. I t trows stronger. I t cones nearer. Can It beT Is i t trueT It cones to l i f e . Hie people come. They cone with their paddle song. Around the bend they cone, emerging now into Tlew...." Side 2, song 1 Echo Song - Paddle Song sung by George Clutesi and his / Port Alberni group (W 5) b) Song words. (Adapted by N. Luccock) 1. 0 say, I hear them! Drums! Echoing so f a r away, Voices s i n g j o y f u l l y . I ' l l s t ay! 2. Songs, nearer now. Yes! Louder they sound o'er the sea, Is i t my own people? Can i t be? 3. There, I see them. F r i e n d s ! Singing t h e i r paddling song. Look at them skim along home. Dr. Ida Halpern, i n conversation on October 22, 1976. ^Halpern, Folkways Album FE h^2k brochure, p. h. 6 I b i d . P a d d l e S o n ^ flowing Smooth! d o « F a ay u. ay / hear +tam ! t>r»i»S I ir»tj So far a - wty, K/..andi y s-\ M y . 3 , I V©; - ces Sir o\\ way, Hot o h — way. j e y f o t - f y . I' l l «tay{ lH&TKVHtMTS (introduction-A bars ; r»o interludes) D r a m 6 n f r o . ~ - 2 l»4\r.fi U j » j *j Recorder (fnfro. *" ) ftl | J . 1 | J . j . | J . J . | J . J . i|| 1 J . a? 6 c) M u s i c a l concepts i ) Melody - smrdl,s, ; descending melody l i n e (common i n Indian music); c h i l d r e n should t r y t o s i n g Indian s y l l a b l e s i n smooth phrases. i i ) Rhythm - g meter, t i e d notes, i i i ) Other - recorder notes GA(C). Encourage c h i l d r e n t o s u s t a i n notes f o r t h e i r f u l l value. - a n a c r u s i s : 'Upbeat' which gives rhythm t o the beginning of a song. - crescendo: gradual increase i n volume; performers should t r y t o maintain a slow but even crescendo throughout the song, without a l t e r i n g the tempo. d) I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h other subjects P h y s i c a l Education. George C l u t e s i c a l l e d h i s t r i b e "The Happy .' . g S i n g i n g People." Their songs emphasize group s i n g i n g and dancing. Show C l u t e s i ' s drawing of Nootka sin g e r s (p. 7) on an overhead p r o j e c t o r and read h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of a dance. They c l e a r l y demonstrate the j o y h i s people f i n d i n music. Create a dance about the a r r i v a l of the whaling canoes as the v i l l a g e people wait on shore: A f t e r the a c t o r s have s t a r t e d s i n g i n g , they should g r a d u a l l y begin t o dance, h o l d i n g up canoe paddles. A r t . F i n d examples of Nootka Indian carvings and drawings. Talk w i t h students about what i s i n v o l v e d i n a. whale hunt, then ask them t o draw a whale hunting scene. •7 George C l u t e s i , P o t l a t c h , (Sidney, B.C.: Gray's P u b l i s h i n g , 1969)> p. 26. Indian Performances The singers sang lustily to encourage the troupe of young women of the village who now began to sway to Aiid fro, Their arms outstretched at an easy angle anu their hands held with palms turned upward to denote friendship, goodwill and acceptance to all guests who came with an open countenance and peace within their hearts. As the tempo of singing and the boom of thunder-drums increased in volume so did the swaying of the wall of dancers until the whole column inclined first to one side then to the other, their arms always outstretched, swaying gracefully in a swH^ing motion, gesticulating always in outward and strewing motions to reassure the guests of complete welcome to share and 'partake of their affluencej 8 I b i d . Social Studies. Since Mooachaht (from Nootka Sound), Clayoquot (Clayoquot Sound) and Makah (Neah Bay) a l l speak the same language, they are a l l now called Nootka. Using an overhead projector of' the map (p. 2 ) or individual copies, ask students to print the name of each tribe in the location where i t lives. Nootka tribes were in contact with other tribes living nearby, and borrowed some of their customs. Ask students to print these also: Quileute (La Push); Kwakiutl (Northern Vancouver Island); Salish (near Vancouver). Reading. Read "Legend of the Whale Hunters" (p. 9)- Dominic Andrews, the narrator of this legend, is a member of the Hes-quiaht Band on Vancouver Island, and attended the Christie Indian Residential School at Tofino, B.C. When he was fourteen years old and in Grade Seven, he asked his grandmother to t e l l him her favourite story. He was so impressed, that the next day he repeated the "Legend of the Whale Hunters" to his classmates.^ Dramatize the story, asking students to suggest what might happen to Ki-Yah after he made his wish. Discuss reasons why the Nootka Indians treat the whales with great respect. Read the Eskimo myth "How Seals Were Made":, (p. 38). Compare the ways in which the Copper Eskimos and the Nootka Indians give thanks for a good hunt of seals or whales. B.C. Indian Arts Society, Tales from the Longhouse, (Sidney, B.C.: Gray's Publishing, 1973), p. 59-Indian Legend THE LEGEND OF THE W H A L E HUNTERS Dominic Andrews " To ld by his grandmother Among the Nootka whale hunters, long ago. there lived a brave, Ki-Yah, who was big and strong. Every day he would go out to hunt whales, with the other braves in the village. One.morning, as Ki -Yah prepared to set out for the hunt, he recalled the story that had been repeated so often by the wise, old men of his village. This tale told of a brave who would one day meet the king of the whales and who, upon their meeting, would receive one wish. Soon, all was ready, and Ki-Yah and the other braves set out in their canoes. Ki-Yah's canoe moved swiftly across the water as the braves with him rowed steadily. Then suddenly a heavy mist surrounded them and the ocean grew very rough. Ki-Yah knew that whales were near, but he couldn't see anything. A sudden crash threw Ki-Yah out of the canoe. Although the other braves searched and searched, they could not find him. Sadly, they returned to their village. They did not know that K i - Y a h was, at this moment, having a strange adventure. For, after he had failed out of the canoe, he had been picked up on the back of a whale and taken to the whale kingdom beneath the sea. Now, Ki-Yah stood fearlessly before the throne of the whale king and listened to him speak. The whale king told Ki-Yah that he was the brave chosen to make any wish that he desired. The other whales listened, attentively, for Ki -Yah 's words. They thought that he would ask for many riches and great power. But K i - Y a h knew in his heart what wish he w o u l d make. For although he never expected to be the chosen one, he had often thought about the wish, as the old men in his village repeated the tale. Ki -Yah spoke, and when he had made his wish, all were silent. He had asked that his people might always live in peace with their neighbours. K i - Y a h was truly a wise brave, for to this day. the Nootka Indians have lived in peace. A n d , as a reminder of Ki-Yah's friendship with the whales, the Nootka Indians still carve the image of the whale into their Totem Poles. I b i d . 10 2. " C a l l i n g Song" a) Background Information The s i n g e r . Peter Webster, who sang t h i s song f o r Dr. Ida Halpern, i s the leader of the Ahousaht group. "He i s the owner of many songs of the Webster f a m i l y and i s proud t o have always been recognized as the 'leader' of songs. He a l s o 11 composes h i s own songs and dances." The song. A p a i r of entrance songs i s sung when the dancers are e n t e r i n g the house. Peter Webster e x p l a i n s t h a t the f i r s t song " i s t o be sung when the dancers are p u t t i n g on t h e i r costumes and being prepared f o r the entrance t o dance." The second (see example) i s "the c a l l i n g song f o r the dancers t o come 12 out and l i n e up i n t h e i r dancing p o s i t i o n s . " 13 O r i g i n a l v e r s i o n . The following exanplea havo been transcribod an octave higher than they vers sung: Motive from part A in i t s variation principle: (the long held tones j - d, aro sung in a dear, sustained legato): Solo Beginning of group End of group 9 ^ ^ H a l p e r n , Folkways FE U52^ brochure, p. 5> 1 2 I b i d , p. 6 . 1 3 I b i d . II .a Hit* Drum X X X X X X X i 3 5 m do« C X X X X X X We no. he, (v.l^ Coiw8 ,my l<r«e«ie*, (v.2) y**w hemes, (v.3) Rfta-o*y now, We no. ho, Come Aonce, 7»Jn «ts here, PrMin^-mer? p )*y , if n r 1 y- * f = ^ - -- J # We nA h© 6.) Put a smile U (j.) ftM yon w a v * - r i « r l t (s.) See «f you. can We n*. ho , p » n ypttr <f*ce. t * k e y»«r p l a « e . Keep t h e p * c e / X X X X X X x 35 V X X X X X * 3 e g J p We h o , (Codo^Come oW 4*r*ce, * 1 1 W e no. n o ! C o m e A n J J a n c e ! b) Song words Indian E n g l i s h v. 1 - We na ho (hx) v. 1 - Come, my f r i e n d s , Come and dance, Put a smile upon your face. v. 2 - 0 ey a {hx) v. 2 ~ Leave your homes, J o i n us here, A l l you w a r r i o r s , take your pl a c e . v. 3 - We na ho (hx) v. 3 - Ready now, Drummers p l a y , See i f you can keep the pace! Coda - We na ho ( 2 x ) Coda - Come and dance, Come and dance! c) M u s i c a l concepts i ) Melody - I s m ; g l i s s a n d o (*^Vv); coda, based on the melody of bar 1. Sing the Indian words, v a r y i n g the dynamics (p or f ) on r e p e t i t i o n s . i i ) Rhythm -In Nootka music there i s a sharp co n t r a s t between long and short tones. The long sustained tones ( J ) are some-times separated by p u l s a t i o n s , but i n t h i s example are c l e a r and 1^ steady. L i s t e n f o r these h e l d notes i n the o r i g i n a l r e c o r d i n g . C h i l d r e n might a l s o n o t i c e the s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n i n rhythm and melody between the solo and group s i n g i n g . I b i d , p. 3. d) I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h other subjects Drama. Nootka songs are o f t e n combined w i t h dancing and drama-t i z a t i o n . Act out the words; make up a simple dance, stepping </"5 . A drummer or s o l o i s t could perform the m a t e r i a l before and/or a f t e r the group, or between verses. S o c i a l S t u d i e s . Show p i c t u r e s or f i l m s of Indian f e a s t s or . dancing. E x p l a i n the reasons why Indian songs are r a r e l y heard or seen i n song books (see p. l ) . Contrast Indian and Eskimo ownership of songs (see pp. 1 and 26); d i s c u s s the use of music i n t h e i r l i v e s . Reading. Read the legend about Indian Dances (p. 1*0. A l i c e Underwood, a member of the Tsawout Band, heard t h i s s t o r y from her parents when she was fourteen years o l d . She t o l d i t t o her Grade Seven classmates at Kuper I s l a n d R e s i d e n t i a l School on Vancouver I s l a n d . Ask the c h i l d r e n which two a b i l i t i e s were g r e a t l y improved a f t e r a dancer fl e w i n t o the a i r ( s w i f t n e s s , s t r e n g t h ) . Discuss the reasons why Indians considered these a b i l i t i e s so important. Ask c h i l d r e n t o suggest a b i l i t i e s t h a t they would l i k e t o improve by magical means. A r t . C h i l d r e n might draw a p i c t u r e of the Indian dancer of the legend i n h i s new hat and cloak l e a p i n g over the f i r e i n the moonlight. B.C. Indian A r t s S o c i e t y , op. c i t . , p. 20. INDIAN DANCES Alice Underwood Many countless moons ago when the white snows came, the Indians from all over the Reserve would gather in the Big House. There they would build two big fires to keep out the cold. Day and night the braves put wood on the fires and kept them burning brightly, to keep the cold away from their wives and papooses. At night time just as the moon came up over the mountains, the Indians would dance around the fires and the children would sit at the back watching the big ones dance. Each year a new dancer would be grabbed. He would be put to bed in a far-off corner of the Longhouse while the wives would make his hat and cloak. After this was done they would stand the new dancer on his feet, dress him. and at night he would dance. One night an old Indian Chief spoke in a strange tongue. He spoke thus, "I, Chief Thunderbird, command a new dancer to go into the air." Then he spoke privately to the new dancer. A n d the dancer flew into the air. He even went over the fire. He came down again swift of foot and strong of muscle. Everyone in the Big House wondered, but no one dared to ask. Then in summer when all the Indians left the Big House, old Chief Thunderbird died. The dancer became the next chief and was named Chief Great Eagle. Once again the Indian people went to the Big House. This time when the new dancer was grabbed it was Chief Great Eagle who spoke the strange words and again the Indian dancer was able to go into the air. A n d just as did Chief Great Eagle, the dancer became more swift and more powerful in strength, when he returned to the ground. This went on for many moons. Even now the dancers con-tinue around the big fires. But no one remembers the words to send the dancers into the air. The words were lost during the years. W e know that this happened long ago because our parents tell us the tale. I b i d . 3. "Potlatch Song" a) Background Information 17 Potlatches. In Nootkan society, wealth, family possessions and slaves were considered important. In order to keep his high rank a chief would hold potlatches or great feasts which could last several months. Here he gave away many gifts or privileges before the potlatches were outlawed by the Canadian government in l88k. 18 Potlatch Songs. People attending the ceremonies would sing songs praising the chief who was entertaining them. Then the eldest son, wearing the appropriate mask, would sing songs which boasted of his father's wealth or called out the names of people who were to receive gifts in the potlatch. Younger bro-thers were only allowed to help him with the work. "Potlatch Song". This song was sung to Helen Roberts by Tom of the Cisa'ath tribe. The translation follows: I have tribes gathered in my house. I have tlitlnuktl whale tied at my beach. 1 have runaway slaves landing at my beach. I have sea-otter skins stretched out on my beach. ft Halpern, op.' cit., p. 1. l 8 Helen H. Roberts and Morris Swadesh, Songs of the  Nootka Indians of Western Vancouver Island, (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, Vol. k5, Part 3, June, 1955)» p. 203. Ibid, p. 313. O r i g i n a l v e r s i o n . Ka-chota Soa6 j f r n g by torn, cisa-'atK tr i b e t mas 'ay yi ya kayyi. ya Hay y i ya b) Song -words (adapted by N. Luc cock) R e f r a i n : Welcome, my f r i e n d s , Welcome t o my p o t l a t c h today, I have great wealth, None can compare. 1. Many t r i b e s come t o my house, But I've g i f t s f o r you a l l ; I have great wealth! 2. See the great whale on ray beach, We may f e a s t f o r a month; I have great wealth! 3. Runaway slaves know I'm k i n d , So they l a n d at my beach; I have great wealth! k. Many f i n e s e a - o t t e r s k i n s Are s t r e t c h e d out on my beach'; I have great wealth Roberts, p. 2kk. 17 P o t - l a t c h S o n !3-With enthusiasm r z i I . H*y yi yt\ hay y i y«y y i / A -comedy frienJs, Wellcome t»t»y p»t- Utch to-day, r - v . — i ST" I M - S -h*y yi ya hay yi yA t have «re*t wealth, A/one can com* pare. u n i i i § W.I) Ma-ny tripes come t» our house gut I've If 1 1 1 D ^ . H — f s - 1 \ 1 . J o 1 - J — X , V hay yi y* for you a l l ; I ' Uve ye«t weal th/ » i l • * J > 1)1 * ' 4 * * c) Musical concepts i ) Melody - 1 s m r ; sing the song i n solfege, i n the Nootka language, and f i n a l l y i n English. A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Nootkan songs i s that they begin with s y l l a b l e s only (notice s l u r s ) , then change to words accompanied by b e a t s . ^ Try singing the En g l i s h words i n a leader and follower pattern, with i n d i v i d u a l s singing the verses and classmates j o i n i n g i n on the r e f r a i n . melody and rhythm patterns by echo singing, with the teacher using any pattern with t h i s rhythm that occurs i n the song. Students echo with hand s i g n a l s , then f i n d the place i t occurs i n the song; for example: i i ) Rhythm - good teaching son g for J n . P r a c t i s e bars 1-2 bars 8-9 s sm s s sm m i i i ) Form - A (5 bars) C (5 bars) B (h bars) D (2 bars) Students may notice how the melodies of Sections B and D seem to answer melodies A and C r e s p e c t i v e l y . Halpern, op. c i t . , p. 3 . d) I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h other subjects Drama. Perforin a P o t l a t c h ceremony, i n c l u d i n g welcoming the v i s i t o r s ("a ceremony o f l i f t i n g the v i s i t o r s ' canoe out of the water on heavy poles c a r r i e d by a number of people and thus 22 c a r r y i n g them ashore" ), r e c e i v i n g g i f t s from the v i s i t o r s , 23 e n t e r t a i n i n g them w i t h "dancing or clown performances", i n t r o ducing and p r a i s i n g the c h i e f , f e a s t i n g , and pr e s e n t i n g the presents. Roberts describes the a c t i o n s t o accompany " P o t l a t c h Song" as f o l l o w s : There is a dance which goes with the song performed by two men and two women with upright feathers on cedar bark head-dresses (weHlqim), one feather on the forehead; they wear head-masks (hinkiicim) now but not originally (formerly the head-mask was used only for the wolf crawling dance); they hold a blanket in each hand while dancing a few steps back and forth, gradually fold the blankets over their shoulders and then throw them down in a pile; then they take another pair and keep it up until the number to be given away are down on the ground; the dancers as well as those looking on sing; drums, sticks, and hands are used in accom-paniment. A r t . Make head-dresses or head-masks as described above. Using p a p i e r -mache, t r y making masks s i m i l a r t o the one p i c t u r e d opposite. Nootka Man wi t h Mask, 22 2k Roberts, p. 313. I b i d . 23 25 I b i d . Halpern, op. c i t . , p. 1, Language A r t s . Read the legend of "The F i r s t Totem C a r v e r " ^ 0 below. The author, Judy Thomas, i s a member of the H a l a l t Band. She heard the legend from her grandfather when she was s i x t e e n years o l d and a student at Kuper I s l a n d R e s i d e n t i a l School on Kuper I s l a n d , B.C. THE FIRST T O T E M CARVER Judy Thomas To ld by her grandfather Many years ago before my grandfather's time there lived a young brave named Theomata. He lived by the river's edge in the land of sparkling waters. Theomata spent his time alone while the tribesmen would hunt and fish, and while his mother with the rest of the women would work busily. Often he would silently get into his canoe and cross the waters to the other side. There Theomata would cover his canoe carefully and wander off into the forest to a little clearing where stood a dead cedar tree. Theomata would climb the tree, and with his axe he would cut. shape and chop the tree. He made fantastic shapes of his own design. Beginning to carve from the top to the bottom, he carved an eagle with outstretched wings and ended with a toad. Other animals he made as he worked steadily on. Sometimes he would work for hours until each curve and shape was perfect. In this way he worked to leave something of courage and adventure and hope for the generation to come. Theomata brought a new art into existence though at that time he was not aware of it. O Theomata if you hear me now listen to me carefully. Listen, O listen Theomata. Your great skill is going on. From generation to generation your craft of carving is being handed down. These great forms of yours are known as the Totem Poles. Theomata, Theomata. these great poles have brought honour to our people. It is to you that we give our thanks. It is to you that we owe this means of livelihood. I know for my grandfather has lived mainly on his Totem Pole construction. B. C. Indian A r t s S o c i e t y , op. c i t . , p. 5 0 . 21 Language A r t s (continued). Ask each student t o f i n d out something about h i s own f a m i l y ' s h i s t o r y . Working i n small groups, i n d i v i d u a l students might each design a c r e s t and make up a short legend about the o r i g i n o f the c r e s t or the event which caused i t t o be in c l u d e d on a p o l e . Assemble each group of c r e s t s i n t o a p o l e , and ask the group t o t e l l classmates the h i s t o r y of the imaginary f a m i l y portrayed on the pole. This p r e s e n t a t i o n could be inc l u d e d i n the P o t l a t c h ceremony (see p. 19) a f t e r the " P o t l a t c h Song." S o c i a l Studies. L i k e p o t l a t c h e s , totem poles are symbols of an Indian's s o c i a l rank, achievements, and f a m i l y h i s t o r y . Major events such as wars, marriages and great hunts were recorded on h i s totem pole and i n new songs. The most important c r e s t s of the West Coast are the Wolf, the Raven, the G r i z z l y Bear, the Eagle and the Whale. Most totem poles were carved over a century ago, but many young Indian carvers are now showing i n t e r e s t i n t h i s a r t form. F i n d p i c t u r e s of totem p o l e s . I f p o s s i b l e , see the poles i n Vancouver's Stanley Park and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology, where masks and other examples of West Coast a r t are a l s o on d i s p l a y . 22 h. "Song of a L i t t l e Boy i n Search o f His Grandparents" 27 a) Background Information The Quileute Indians are American neighbours of the Nootka Indians of Vancouver I s l a n d , and t h e i r music i s s i m i l a r t o th a t of the Nootka, o f t e n being i n c l u d e d i n c o l -l e c t i o n s o f Nootka music. This song -was c o l l e c t e d at Neah Bay, Washington on the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca, near Cape F l a t -t e r y , during the summers of 1923 and 1926. The Quileute Indians number l e s s than two hundred and are l o c a t e d on the shore of the P a c i f i c Ocean south of Cape F l a t t e r y . (See the in f o r m a t i o n about Nootka t r i b e s on p. 8) Frances Densmore t e l l s the s t o r y of t h i s song, which i s s a i d t o be very o l d : A l i t t l e boy was born f a r back i n the woods and h i s parents used t o teach him t h i s song so th a t he could go and look f o r h i s grandparents. A f t e r a while the boy's parents d i e d and the boy s t a r t e d out, s i n g i n g t h i s song, t o search f o r h i s grandparents. He only knew t h e i r names, but d i d not know where t o f i n d them. At l a s t he met an o l d man who took him to h i s grandparents. Afterwards he became very r i c h and went t o the moon, and we see h i s face i n the moon at n i g h t . Densmore, p. 3^1. O r i g i n a l v e r s i o n Quileute (Catalog no. 1485) No. 210. Song of a Little Boy in Search of His Grandparents Kecorded by M R S . G I L B E R T H O L D E N V O I C E J r r l O O D B U M J = 100 Drum-rhythm similar to No. 10 f -o • -t>-= 4 = i i rT±- i r r ~ i ^ 4 - — 1 j 1— 1 ' 1 ! 1 , — 0 £J~* o r O f - i 1 =j 1 e • -o- ' i>. r i r -*==• i 1 i S I 1 i— . -3 1 V r 1 1 w=*= 1 f | 1 L-rT [1 1 £ft T R A N S L A T I O N I am going to E'kwali'kwaus (grandfather's name). b) Song words (by H. Luccock, based on s t o r y , p. 22) 1. 0 E'kwali'kwaus, where do you l i v e ? Where are you now, when I need you? 0 E'kwali'kwaus, what w i l l I do Now t h a t they're gone? Yes, my parents are gone. 2. I know what I ' l l do! E'kwali'kwaus, I ' l l go t o you, f o r y o u ' l l help me. 1 want t o be stro n g , j u s t l i k e my grandfather i s now, Then a w a r r i o r I ' l l be. 3. Y o u ' l l watch as I grow, Helping me l e a r n a l l of the ways of the f o r e s t , And then, when I'm st r o n g , I w i l l r e t u r n a l l of t h a t help t o my E'kwali'kwaus. I b i d . * 4 5bw*j of A t i H / e Boy «n Search  .of H>S G r a n d p A r e n f . S d o » C i t s w wkeredo you ^ when f live ? Where are you now need yo«t* 0 e'- k w A l - i - k w a ^ j , m i l . n - i i i wh«X-wM.I. 1 do now -rka-t fheyrc ^ 6ne? Y e s , my p a r - ents Are *3©nC, 25 c) M u s i c a l concepts i ) Melody - s m. A f t e r s y l l a b l e s and hand s i g n a l s have been used, c h i l d r e n might t r y p l a y i n g the song on a xylo-;.-phone. Encourage c h i l d r e n t o create other melodies using the same two notes. i i ) Rhythm - n - r n - j 1 J - / I \2s ^—> Ask c h i l d r e n t o t h i n k of other songs which c o n t a i n the rhythm , then p r a c t i s e c l a p p i n g them c l e a r l y ; f o r example: ir^\m n r~i r~=3|J. I f you're hap-py and you know i t , c l a p your hands. $n\) J rt> i x s~iU Oh my d a r - l i n g , Oh my d a r - l i n g , Oh my d a r - l i n g Clem-en-tine Fo l l o w the same procedure t o teach t r i p l e t s . N otice how the t i e s and anacrusis (upbeat) add f u r t h e r i n t e r e s t t o the rhythm. A drum accompaniment could be played on the beat. i i i ) Form - The c h i l d r e n should recognize the b i n a r y (two-part) form of the song. Notice t h a t the two phrases are i d e n t i c a l except f o r the endings, the second being extended by one bar. C h i l d r e n should t r y to s i n g each phrase smoothly, without a pause f o r breath. i v ) L i s t e n i n g - "Song of a L i t t l e Boy i n Search of i< 29 His Grandparents . From the r e c o r d i n g "Folk Music of the U.S. - Songs of the Nootka and Q u i l e u t e , " (Washington, D.G.: L i b r a r y of Congress, D i v i s i o n of Music, AAFSL32, 1972). 26 d) I n t e g r a t i o n v i t h other subjects  Language A r t s . T e l l the son's legend, then ask the c h i l d r e n t o w r i t e a s t o r y t e l l i n g of the boy's adventures while searching f o r h i s grandparents or while l i v i n g w i t h them. Encourage the c h i l d r e n t o give one word t o e x p l a i n how the g r a n d c h i l d f e e l s i n each verse; f o r example: i ) anxious i i ) e x c i t e d i i i ) c o n f i d e n t . As they s i n g , the c h i l d r e n should t r y t o express i n t h e i r v o i c e s the c h i l d ' s changing f e e l i n g s . Act out the a r r i v a l of the boy at h i s grandparents' house. Read or watch f i l m s about other Indian legends and w r i t e a song about one of them. S o c i a l Studies. Ask c h i l d r e n t o consider what they might do i f t h e i r parents d i e d suddenly. Discuss the important r o l e grand-parents played i n p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s ; compare t h i s w i t h the s i t u a t i o n i n modern urban s o c i e t i e s . Assign research p r o j e c t s about the way of l i f e of the P a c i f i c Coast Indians. P h y s i c a l Education. Ask c h i l d r e n t o march, keeping the beat w i t h a drum, while l i s t e n i n g t o the. o r i g i n a l r e c o r d i n g . Later they could s i n g the words as they march. A r t . C h i l d r e n might draw the boy's face i n the moon. They may wish t o draw a d i f f e r e n t face f o r each v e r s e , then hang them as a mobile. B. SONGS OF THE COPPER ESKIMOS Introduction"^ Eskimos ("eaters of raw f l e s h " ) l i v e i n the A r c t i c regions i n S i b e r i a , A l a s k a , Canada and Greenland. Copper Eskimos l i v e i n the C e n t r a l Canadian A r c t i c near Dolphin and Union S t r a i t (see map, p. 2 ) . Eskimos c a l l themselves " I n u i t " , meaning "The people", because i n the past they were so i s o l a t e d t h a t they thought they were the only people anywhere. Their songs, legends, myths and s t o r i e s t e l l of t h e i r d a i l y s t r u g g l e i n the past t o f i n d food, c l o t h i n g and s h e l t e r . They now have a d i f f e r e n t way of l i f e w i t h other problems, but are showing a renewed i n t e r e s t i n s i n g i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l songs. Eskimo songs were almost the f i r s t very p r i m i t i v e music ever recorded (about 1902). Miss Laura B o l t o n , who has c o l l e c t e d Eskimo songs around Hudson Bay, s t a t e s t h a t "Music and poetry are by f a r the most important of a l l Eskimo a r t s . " Every Eskimo can not only s i n g and dance, but can even compose songs. A good com-poser, or a person who can adapt new words t o o l d songs, i s c o n s i -dered as important as a good hunter. U n l i k e Indian music, every song belongs t o everyone, and a singer may make any changes he wishes. To the Eskimo, the words are not as important as the tune and may be simply nonsense s y l l a b l e s . "^"Charles Hofmann, Drum Dance—Legends, Ceremonies,  Dances, and Songs of the Eskimos, (Agincourt, Gage P u b l i s h i n g , 197^)5 P' 6; see a l s o D. Jenness, Report of the Canadian A r c t i c  E x p e d i t i o n , 1913-18, (Ottawa: F.A. Acland, 1925), p. 12. 26 An Eskimo Family' Kanguq Nuna Iqaluk Paani Grandma Naullaq Tuttu Grandpa Hoffmann, p. 13. -Jack Hodgins, ed., The F r o n t i e r Experience. (Toronto-Macmillan Co. off Canada, 1975), p. 10. Dance-songs• The s o c i a l l i f e of the Copper Eskimo centers around the "kasim" or dance house. Every important event or f e e l i n g was made i n t o a dance-song, which was passed down from o l d e r t o younger generations. There are two types of dance-s o n g s — p i s i k s and a t o n s — w h i c h are d i f f e r e n t o n l y i n the manner of dancing. The drum dancer i n stone, p i c t u r e d below'', i s per-forming i n the manner of a p i s i k dance, according t o Jenness's d e s c r i p t i o n here: In the p i s i k dance the performer beats the drum, i n the centre of a c i r c l e while the other people help him s i n g . The dancer moves slowly round and round the c i r c l e , keeping h i s knees s l i g h t l y bent: sometimes he hops^Lightly on both f e e t ; more oft e n he moves them a l t e r n a t e l y , but without any attempt t o keep time w i t h the a c t u a l drum beats. Hoffmann, p. 6. James Houston, ed., Songs off the Dream People. (Don M i l l s : Longman Canada L t d . , 1972), P. 71, Jenness, p. 10. The dancer i n the poem below 1 i s performing i n the manner of an aton dance, as Jenness describes i t here: In the aton dance e i t h e r the drum i s not used at a l l , or i t i s used by one of the singers i n the c i r c l e . A f t e r the s i n g e r ' s song has begun, he u s u a l l y stops s i n g i n g , but begins t o g e s t i c u l a t e v i o l e n t l y w i t h h i s arms, hopping now on one f o o t , now on the other, whooping w i t h d e l i g h t and d e l i v e r i n g himself over to the w i l d e s t abandon i f the singers are at a l l e n t h u s i a s t i c ' IVORY S E A B I R D Ayii, ayii, ayii, My arms, they wave high in the air, My hands, they flutter behind my back, They wave above my head Like the wings of a bird. Let me move my feet. Let me dance. Let me shrug my shoulders. Let me shake my body. Let me crouch down. My arms, let me fold them. Let me hold my hands under my chin. Central Eskimo Houston, p. 70. "Jenness, p. 10. •30 5 . "A Lucky Hunt" , q a; Background Information' The s i n g e r . In 1915 Dr. Diamond Jenness saw Unek'ag, a Dolphin and Union S t r a i t s g i r l , perform t h i s p i s i k dance song. The very poor q u a l i t y sound on the tape i s due t o an o l d and worn wax c y l i n d e r (Record IV C 2 7 ) . People of "both sexes danced the same way, so i t was not unusual f o r a g i r l t o s i n g a hunting song. Over h a l f of the Copper Eskimo songs are about hunting, because i t i s so important t o t h e i r l i v e s . O r i g i n a l t r a n s l a t i o n . VerseII. pt. 1. , T intend to return again also, ^ _ „ _ „ .. ~*~.~„ "^ ' '•^Sr f ; /? w F r o m the ice I intend to return again also. v Verse 1. .pt. 2. Blubbery animals [seals] when they came a little towards v-vV->••'. ; ^ v - • - me at their holes . i ., i 3 . I quickly.secured one Verse 2. pt. 1. I intendto return again also, <ii^H'&v' . From the land I intend to return again also. . Verse 2. pt. 2. ; :C: Antlered ammals [caribou] when they began to walk v ^ ,vVr ; i^ i i ; J ; '--a • - a w a Y I quicklj secured one. b) Song words (Adapted by N. Luccock) 1 . I saw sea l s at t h e i r hole In the i c e near the North P o l e , So I brought one back. 2 . I saw a n t l e r e d c a r i b o u , Walking f a r from my i g l o o , So I brought one back. Ref. I ye i ye i ye i ye, To the i c e (land) I s h a l l r e t u r n . c) M u s i c a l concepts i ) Melody - s m ( f i r s t i n t e r v a l i n Kodaly approach) i i ) Rhythm - P l a y bars 5 5 6 on a woodblock, i i i ) Other - staccato ( J ), accent ( «J ), repeat ( »f| ) 9 r\ Jenness, p. 6 4 . O r i g i n a l v e r s i o n . 10 . 1 1 S|' P r P r. f.|*| P P 1*71" mi-uftj-a ye ye ye ye i ye i yf i ye . 1* 1 y*'' yAyi y«. 4 A <)a *. • i l V ya. y*-u *: »•. yA l ye I ye l ye iNyc '|j.V o -^cu>.yifii, uip-u-VAl-t*- yd<|Tu-ni-nA do • . d y* i <yp. i-CMj-paJc-tiffj-A i ye i ye i ye i ye . i ye . '. ye i- ye i ye i ye iy<? £ AC 1 A i y& i ye i ye' t ye i ye i • • . ' 1 • Jfc . -ea. i ye A t yd-& y» i y* i ye c ye L ye i ye A i ye cj* ej& he y* i. ye. I -C • cd' • °cd» • V * 4 l cd \ ye niyyuVyil-i pi-Tu-ftl- m- ^ .tu-ni e y& I ya - i..c<vc|paMunj' i. ye i ye 10 T . . , I b i d . 3Z A I ucky H u n With energy U« -^ C l J - y»i- • urn - u - VA I-in /A*,- •"«*- ni - rt O-(vA I («tv s e a l s — at their H o l e _ In fhe t'ce wear I $*tv «n+-lereJ c a r - i - b o u ^ W n l i c m t l far- f r o m - i — «.m i - C A 4 ~ p a k - t u m - A 6) the North Pole, I br»«*aftto*e b a c k . (2.) my 5a I brought one ^ a c k . i ye i ye i ye i ye at-£im-na^-c»n -n«iA«mViim ft.") i ye i ye i y e i y e T© fke ('ee I s h a l l re-turn. (!*) • ye J ye I ye i y e T» t h e lar^ d | s h a l l r e - t a r n . l M S T f ? U M £ M T 5 D r w » y > 0 « t r £ > . a.n<J i n t e r l a c e s - £ ^ A r 5 ^ |||.M|>{ t :|| Pronunciation Gaio'e * a . a s i n f a t h e r ; A < ; „ p ^ M e C a s i n f a t e u a s m r u / e l A.S in f>it " i b i d , p. 33 d) I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h other subjects  Drama. Read the d e s c r i p t i o n of Eskimo dancing (p. 28) and the poem (p. 29). Students might imagine they are i n the dance house during a l o n g w i n t e r n i g h t and take t u r n s performing "A Lucky Hunt." S o c i a l S t u d i e s . P r o j e c t the map (p. 27) on a screen and c i r c l e the words, "Copper Eskimos". Help students t o c a l c u l a t e the d i s -tances between an eastern Eskimo community (e.g., Labrador), a c e n t r a l one (e.g., Copper), and a western one (e.g., West A l a s -kan). Although these Eskimos l i v e d f a r a p a r t , t h e i r songs were 12 o f t e n very s i m i l a r . Ask how t h i s i s p o s s i b l e . (Songs were sung whenever a v i s i t o r a r r i v e d i n a community, and were g r a d u a l l y passed across the a r c t i c . ) A r t . Ask students t o study the photograph of the hunter below, then draw the animal he i s t r y i n g t o catch. I b i d . Hofmann, p. 23. 6. "The Returning Hunter" a) Background Information On r e t u r n i n g from the hunt i n h i s kayak, the hunter sings a song t o t e l l h i s people, w a i t i n g on shore, of h i s ad-v e n t u r e s — t h e j o y of success, an e x c i t i n g chase or the d i s a p -pointment of f a i l u r e to k i l l a s e a l , muskox or cari b o u . Hunters are very concerned about the souls of animals they k i l l . They b e l i e v e t h a t any dead animal may r e t u r n many times i f t r e a t e d w i t h respect during the k i l l . Ik O r i g i n a l v e r s i o n . n r * i n n \ i t b) Song words (by N. Luccock) 1. L i s t e n t o my s t o r y , E a r l y one summer day I paddled f a r away, Much excitement I could f e e l , Hoping t h a t I'd catch a s e a l , I was l u c k y , now there's l o t s of food f o r a l l ! 2 . Hunting was not easy, He swam ahead of me, I fo l l o w e d s i l e n t l y , Close enough t o throw my spear, Hoping t h a t he would not hear. F i r s t w i t h r i f l e , then w i t h spear, I h i t t h a t s e a l ! 1*5 3. Thanks t o N i v i a k t o k ! y She gave me h e l p , She l e t t h i s animal go f r e e , Then I thanked the s e a l , For he l e t me catch him e a s i l y , Yes, my b r o t h e r s , hunting i s the l i f e f o r me! Queen of a l l sea cre a t u r e s . T h e R e t u r n i n g H o t w f e r R h y t h m i c a l l y D r u m X doe G (v.O l»$-ter» t o my s t o - r y , 4 i n n j i g n ^ n j I Ear - ly one *um-h*er day I — pad *d lea far a-way. i X X X X X X M«*k ai-tHt-mut I « l | feet, H . p - . n , «k«» »'J cafcli a MA I , X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X I was lt*ok-y, new there's lots »f -food -for a l l / 36 c) M u s i c a l concepts i ) Melody - I s f o r primary grades; smrdl,s, f o r intermediate grades. Study bars 2-5 from a chart f i r s t , and s i n g w i t h s o l f e g e using hand s i g n a l s , before s i n g i n g words. i i ) Rhythm - used i n various p a t t e r n s . Use the rhythm of bar 2 as o s t i n a t o on a drum. L a t e r , show the growing excitement by f o l l o w i n g the drum markings on the song.page. i i i ) Dynamics - crescendo, p, f. Notice the i n c r e a s i n g movement towards the end of each verse as the hunter's s t o r y becomes more e x c i t i n g . Encourage students t o g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e the volume and tempo t o show they f e e l the growing emotion, then s t a r t the next verse slower and q u i e t e r as the hunter resumes h i s s t o r y . i v ) Form - Each verse has three separate p a r t s — I n t r o -d uction (bar l ) , n a r r a t i v e , and c l o s i n g ( l a s t two b a r s ) . Accompany each p a r t w i t h a d i f f e r e n t sound (drum, c l a p p i n g , stamping, etc) v) L i s t e n i n g - "Hunting S e a l s " " ^ The t e x t of t h i s song goes: "We were hunting s e a l When the mosquitoes were here In the e a r l y summer." From the r e c o r d i n g by Laura B o l t o n , "The Eskimos of Hudson Bay and A l a s k a , " Folkways Album FE hkkk. d) I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h other subjects A r t . V i s i t an a r t g a l l e r y or s t o r e which d i s p l a y s I n u i t s c u l p t u r e and drawings. C o l l e c t i l l u s t r a t i o n s of t h e i r a r t . Drama. Read and dramatize the myth "How Seals Were 18 Made" (p. 38); t r y adding sound e f f e c t s , and ending the s t o r y w i t h the song, "The Returning Hunter." S o c i a l S t u d i e s . Ask why a husky dog would be more u s e f u l than a snowmobile on a s e a l hunt, ( i t t r a v e l s more e a s i l y and q u i e t l y over i c e . ) Determine what d i f f e r e n t uses the Eskimo would make of the s e a l . Discuss what i s happening i n the photo-,18 graph opposite. " ^ B r i a n W. Lewis, ed., Eskimo Myths, (Ottawa, Dept. of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, A r c t i c Reading S e r i e s , Reader 13, 1968), p. 26. "^Hodgins, p. kO. "How Seals Were Made" 38 A raven wanted t o marry a woman. One day he l e f t h i s home i n the mountains and looked f o r a v i l l a g e where some b e a u t i f u l g i r l s l i v e d . When He returned from hunting he always brought food. Soon a young g i r l agreed to marry him so he took her away from the v i l l a g e t o h i s home i n the mountains, but d i d not t e l l her he was a raven. Every day, when h i s w i f e was s t i l l s l e e p i n g , he changed i n t o a raven and went l o o k i n g f o r f i s h . One day, however, the g i r l was awake when her husband changed i n t o a raven. At once she became f r i g h t e n e d and wanted t o escape. Lat e r the g i r l ' s brothers came l o o k i n g f o r her. They were worried because they had not seen her f o r such a long time. When the brothers v i s i t e d the g i r l she t o l d them about the raven-husband. At once they took her down t o t h e i r boat and began the journey home. When the raven returned from hunting he was very angry t o f i n d t h a t h i s w i f e had gone. He was so angry t h a t he beat h i s great wings, making a storm and, by magic, he made huge waves on the sea. When the storm got stronger the brothers i n the boat became f r i g h t e n e d . Water began t o come i n t o the boat. They were c a r r i e d up higher and higher by the waves. The brothers decided t h a t maybe t h e i r s i s t e r was the cause of the great storm. Maybe, because she had married a magic raven, she was a l s o magic; so they threw her out of the boat. In her f e a r the g i r l grasped the side of the boat n e a r l y t u r n i n g i t over. Taking up h i s b i g k n i f e , her o l d e s t brother chopped o f f her f i n g e r s and the g i r l s l i p p e d s l o w l y down i n t o the water. The g i r l was drowned but became N i v i a k t o k , the queen over a l l the creatures i n the sea. Her f i n g e r s that were cut o f f by her brother became s e a l s . Now, when she i s pleased w i t h someone, she w i l l a l l o w him t o k i l l one of her s e a l s . Every hunter, when he catches a s e a l , gives thanks t o N i v i a k t o k , p r o t e c t o r of a l l the animals i n the sea, f o r h e l p i n g him. And to each s e a l he gives a d r i n k of f r e s h water f o r a l l o w i n g i t s e l f t o be caught. 39 7 . "The Raven Sings" a) Background Information P i t s u l a k , of Cape Dorset, B a f f i n I s l a n d , t o l d Charles Hofmann the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about Eskimo Raven Legends: Raven is the large omnivorous bird known in the folktales of Europe, Asia and North America. Because of his character, the raven is condemned in most stories, was made to suffer thirst or to be black. Sometimes he is the bird of ill-omen. In some tales he sees all, knows all, and with his prophetic gifts he is looked upon as a bird of all knowledge. In other tales he is cast but by both men and the birds. Of the many stories told on long winter nights, the Eskimos enjoy the ones about the raven and he is the most popular character. The Indians of the Canadian Northwest also have a wealth of raven legends. b) Song words (by N. Luccock) 1. I want to please my f r i e n d s , the Eskimos, So, hungry as I am, I ' l l f l y south. My l u c k i s gone, f o r when I s t o l e an egg, Owl b i t me, so i t dropped from my mouth. 2. The Eskimos are very hungry now, For soon t h e i r winter food w i l l be gone. They want t o know i f a l l the animals W i l l soon a r r i v e ; i t ' s me they're counting on. 3 . I see the bears and walrus f i g h t on i c e , And there the ca r i b o u walk so slow, Some geese are f l y i n g s w i f t l y overhead; They c a l l t o others r e s t i n g below. k. I s h a l l r e t u r n t o t e l l the Eskimos That soon the animals w i l l be th e r e . But f i r s t I ' l l f i l l my bag w i t h s e a g u l l ' s eggs, For he's a b i r d t h a t I do not f e a r . 5. The Eskimos say th a t I'm greedy, That soon I ' l l l o s e my power t o t a l k , This e x t r a egg I ' l l s t u f f i n t o my mouth, (c l a p hands) Caw! Caw! Caw! Caw! Caw! Hofmann, p. 6'2-4 1 The Raven Sin^s Slow dos<r £4 j n m (v.I) I want to please my fWends, the E a k - S o , h u n - ^ r y a s I am. 1*11 */y *o«th. W y Iwcfc is gone, for when I sfole A n e g g , Owl I f n J J n l j J j b i t n*e so i f dropped from my m o u t K . D r u m ^ I n t r o d u c t i o n * " ^ b A r S ^ 4 7 7 c) Musical concepts i) Melody - Introduce the minor scale. Practise the triad mdl, (bar 3) with hand symbols until children are very familiar with i t . Draw attention also to the raised so - ' s i ' in bars 1 and 5 (so hand sign with opened fingers and hand raised slightly). . Find and sing other examples of minor scales or triads in the Ukrainian "Christmas Carol" (bars 1-2), "Canada, My Country" (bar 1), and "A Sailor's Surprise" (bars 9-13). Compare these examples with the.major triad in "The Returning Hunter" (bar 1). Listen to recordings to develop the students' ability to hear whether a piece of music is major or minor in character. Ask them to describe the different moods they feel as the modality changes. i i ) Rhythm - J , J* J \ tie (jj?)-The tie serves to eliminate the accent of the second tied note, creating a feeling of suspense. It also creates a rhythmic contrast between the two phrases of the song. i i i ) Form - Help students notice that each verse consists of two identical sections, each containing two phrases. The second phrase seems to answer the first. Sing the first phrase to your own words, then ask a student to answer you with his own words, sung to the melody of the second phrase; for example: Teacher - "Susannah, are you feeling well today?" Susannah - "Oh yes, Miss Jones, but I'm so sleepy." k3 d) I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h other subjects  Drama. Create a pageant from the B a f f i n I s l a n d legend, "Why the Raven Cannot Talk" (p. kk) and the song "The Raven Sings" (p. l 6 ) . Form a d i f f e r e n t scene f o r each paragraph, read by a n a r r a t o r . Class members who are not a c t i n g could s i n g the verses of the song i n the manner of a Greek chorus a f t e r each paragraph. Order of p r e s e n t a t i o n : Paragraph 1, verses 1 and 2, p. 2, v. 3, p. 3» v. k, p. k, p. 5, P- 6. A r t . Create simple props t o be used i n the above pageant. 22 See the f i l m , "Legend of the Raven," based on the above s t o r y , and note how c l e v e r l y the stone carvings were used to represent the c h a r a c t e r s . Decide whether the musical score i s appropriate and e f f e c t i v e . Reading. Reread the myth, "How Seals Were Made" (p. 13). Compare the character of the raven i n t h i s s t o r y w i t h that i n "Why the Raven Cannot Talk." Locate other legends, both Eskimo and North-west I n d i a n , which t e l l of the Raven's e x p l o i t s . S o c i a l S t u d i e s . Assign research p r o j e c t s on the p h y s i c a l charac-t e r i s t i c s and h a b i t s of each of the animals mentioned i n "Why the Raven Cannot Talk." Ask each student t o i n d i c a t e on the map (p. 27 - projected) the areas where h i s animal l i v e s , and the best hunting c o n d i t i o n s and weapon f o r c a t c h i n g i t . He might make a model of the weapon t o show the c l a s s . ^Made by I m p e r i a l O i l , Crawley F i l m s , L t d . , 1956. kk Why the Raven Cannot Talk _ The raven was talking one day with his Eskimo friends. They were very unhappy because, although break-up was coming, many people were hungry and would be too weak to hunt when the animals came. They asked the raven if he would fly south to see if the animals were coming yet. The raven wanted to please his Eskimo friends so he flew south. He was very hungry himself and was^ always looking for small animals and eggs to eat. He saw an owl's'nest but, when he tried to take an egg, the owl bit him. He tried to catch a lemming but the lemming was too fast for him: he dived into his hole and the raven was unable to follow. Ahead he could see the broken ice where the bears and the walrus were fighting. On the land the caribou were slowly walking north. Overhead the geese were calling to their brothers who were resting on the land below. The raven thought that he should return to tell the Eskimos that the animals were coming. He was just turning to go home when he saw a seagull's nest. He was not afraid of the seagull so he began to fill his bag full of eggs. When the bag was full there was still one egg left in the nest so he put it into his mouth. When the raven returned, the Eskimos shouted to him, asking him about the animals. The raven tried to talk but could not because of the egg in his beak. All he could say was caw, caw, caw. Then he swallowed the egg. \ ^ He tried to talk again but could not and the Eskimos were so angry that they began to throw rocks at him. Ever since that time the raven has not been able to talk, and Eskimos have always been angry at him. because he was such a greedy bird. ' L e w i s , p . 8. h5 8. "A Weather Chant" 2k a) Background Information Eskimos worship many supern a t u r a l c r e a t u r e s ; some are h e l p f u l , but many can b r i n g harm. The shamans (medicine men) s i n g many songs t o t h e i r s p i r i t s to persuade them t o make the gods stop the bad weather which has prevented hunting. The shaman u s u a l l y goes i n t o a t r a n c e , pretending no one e l s e i s t h e r e , so he might speak t o h i s s p i r i t p r i v a t e l y . No drums are used t o accompany these i n c a n t a t i o n s . b) Song words (Adapted by N. Luccock) 1. L i s t e n guardian s p i r i t , l i s t e n t o my c r i e s , (x2) You're my great companion; y o u ' l l hear my c a l l i n g . 2. We are a l l alone here, There's no one e l s e around, (x2) This i s not a snow-hut; these are not people. 3. Summon a l l your powers to snuff out t h i s storm, (x2) You and I s h a l l dance here, dance ' t i l l the wind stops. B o l t o n , l o c . c i t . 25 E d i t h Fowke, Al a n M i l l s and Helmut Blume, Canada's  Story i n Song, (Toronto: W.J. Gage, i 9 6 0 ) , p. 8. O r i g i n a l v e r s i o n . TSo 104. (To allay Astori>i) frlvyayt?tail<\q,af\uvhq m&n Ju'; ? i? * r r^f r & s « ? .A | i | c . f i / ,< i> I !<• 5 )• • * A (y c ; tau • i - yuao j - ma-an tn -uYH y u - a « j -i .' • JLl , >—s—a \ , 1 „ man t< r7? ^ — E t _ — 1 — * lr Ir | 1? p ^ M I - L -yuaoj-maan n i - u y - yu-aoj-(ext _ . < 1 - — — ' * a i *—TI—.—K-f-tt-; t^-v-T--^r-: * * * -r-w—v-'rr I ' t l l 1 T a j ' - - U — 1 1/ ' 1, —jn J—3—71 ^ At B 4 J J J 1 1 wan A-qe• y-luy- ^ - n u k n i v y o y l u y - AmnuK nud- yinj - i- Ian i n u i y - i - r i j a* . .• >. • P • '..d 4 ' ,. f A ' • ' VOcj in-uk-canj- t-l*n in- u-:ty- i - V J C J . . . a-t&-_ . ni K*-wa<J-ft c]in£y-+un- ,| . d« a 1 * . 1 ! c d T **• : l» c V ok •fau-yu-xvj- mMi in-j tjy- y u - a n j - m a n T a u y u-anrjnian i n - uy- yu-ao?-U 1 : I man & q t - y - l u y - a m n u k nw-yoyluyr amnuktuid • viirj- ,1 - Ian \ n - u - t y - i -L j • i •lc. ' ' voq tn-ukca<y- i-l^n, in'-juj-ty- i- • tii ka-naoj- a _i : & .1 • < • 1 ! : ( • ; i -'I • • : • : j . j ; iv;;|!'F;p.: • ! -Cjln ty- \uriy-! uk . 1 ; ,P:'> r! \ f P - ' ' I'fV O r i g i n a l t r a n s l a t i o n . M y great'companionj my great guardian spirit, M y great companion, my great guardian spirit'.; Our fine incantation, our fine cries. , ' ,; There is'no snow-hut; it is empty of people. He is not a real man; it is empty of people. Underneath it down there let us two search. - ' i V Jenness, p. 325. ' i b i d , p. 1+90. (\ Weather Ch*r\t WJth /eelina ^ « ( r (v.t) lis-ten, AAAre'iAn *pc r « t \ h*s-ten to » y cries, taM,- i - y«A- A m - tnA-an »n - uy , , yw~Atn -mAr\ L»S-ten,a»curc/*i*tr\ s p i - r»t, l/«-te«to my c r t e f , r f * ^ — 1 * i '% J ^ J J 1 LJ—J 1 A . - e^e — y - /wy - A m - n u k n i ' v - y o y - / « y - e » m - n w k 1+8 c) M u s i c a l Concepts i ) Melody - Review the minor s c a l e (see p. 1+2), i n c l u d i n g the t r i a d mdl, (bar 3). Compare phrases 1 and 2 (same rhythm and words; s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n i n melody); co n t r a s t w i t h phrase 3. i i ) Rhythm - , , s l u r . Sing other songs which have the p a t t e r n and encourage c h i l d r e n t o c l a p i t c l e a r l y . For each song determine on which beat t h i s p a t t e r n occurs and i n which p o s i t i o n i t i s most n o t i c e a b l e , (beat 1;), — " A Weather Chant" (beat l ) ; "Happy Bi r t h d a y " (beat 3 ) ; "Song of a L i t t l e Boy i n Search of His Grandparents" (p. 22) (beat 2) i - i i ) Dynamics - p and f ; create a more powerful e f f e c t w i t h the song by s i n g i n g the second verse s o f t e r (p) than the others. 28 i v ) L i s t e n i n g : - "Dance Song and Magic Song"I sung by the same person-: who sang "A Weather Chant" t o Diamond Jenness. 2 o That woman down there beneath the sea, "That Woman Beneath the Sea" s f a e w a n t g t Q h i d e { h e s e a l s f r Q m u $ (A shaman sings t o h i s s p i r i t s ) . These hunters in the dance house, They cannot right matters. They cannot mend matters. Into the spirit world Will go I, Where no humans dwell. Set matters right will I. Set matters right will I. 28 From Jenness, Record IV C 59h, Canadian Ethnology S e r v i c e , Ottawa. 29 Houston, p. 71-U9 d) I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h other s u b j e c t s . 30 A r t . While r e c o r d i n g Eskimo songs, Laura Bolton n o t i c e d t h a t "many amulets are worn ^by shamans} (one man wore 8 0 ) , i n c l u d i n g m i n i a t u r e whips t o d r i v e away e v i l s p i r i t s ; f r o n t t e e t h of ca r i b o u t o b r i n g l u c k i n the ca r i b o u hunt; and a musk ox t o o t h f o r l u c k w i t h salmon." C h i l d r e n could make an amulet, or draw a shaman, w i t h h i s d e c o r a t i o n s , s i n g i n g t o h i s guardian s p i r i t . Composition. Ask c h i l d r e n t o b r i n g an object t o school (or make one) which they t h i n k could be used as a good l u c k charm. Suggest th a t they w r i t e a fantasy d e s c r i b i n g the amulet, t e l l i n g how i t acquired i t s powers, and e x p l a i n i n g where the owner plans t o use i t i n a f u t u r e adventure. Drama. Working i n p a i r s , c h i l d r e n could act out an imaginary meeting between shaman and s p i r i t , w h i l e classmates s i t i n a q u i e t c i r c l e around them. The shaman (or classmates) could begin w i t h the song. Ask each a c t i n g p a i r t o t r y t o e s t a b l i s h a d i f f e r e n t mood from each other p a i r — s e r i o u s , f r i g h t e n i n g , c o m i c a l , t i m i d . Reading. Read the poem "That Woman Beneath the Sea" (p. U 8 ) . Have the c l a s s discuss what problem the hunters i n the poem have been experiencing l a t e l y . N o t i c e how songs and dances can serve as prayers as w e l l as entertainment. S o c i a l S t u d i e s . Ask s e v e r a l students t o make b r i e f r e p o r t s on the r e l i g i o n s of various p r i m i t i v e peoples. I n a d i s c u s s i o n t r y t o determine some common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . B o l t o n , l o c . c i t . 50 Discuss the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the f o l l o w i n g statement and 31 photographs f o r the young people of the n o r t h : For people i n Fort Good Hope, A r c t i c Bay, and the other t h i r t y - s i x thousand spread i n f i f t y - f o u r communities over one m i l l i o n three hundred thousand square m i l e s , the past two decades have brought e l e c t r i c i t y and r i f l e s , spag-h e t t i and c o r n f l a k e s , r a d i o s and schools. Young people now p r e f e r songs i n the Eskimo language accompanied by g u i t a r played "country s t y l e . " Using one of the melodies i n t h i s u n i t , help the c l a s s make up new words which give a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f l i f e i n the north now. You might mention snowmobiles, c a r s , wooden shacks, co-ops, p i p e l i n e s , or l a n d c l a i m s . Government of the North West T e r r i t o r i e s , S p r i n g , 1972), p. 19-9. " L i t t l e S i s t e r L o s t " a) Background Information The singer and her song. Kaneyoq, a Copper Eskimo G i r l from P r i n c e A l b e r t Sound, sang t h i s song t o Diamond Jenness i n 1915- Since t h i s dance song i s an aton (see p. 2 9 ) , the singer was u s u a l l y accompanied by a drum played by a singer i n the c i r c l e . A f t e r beginning the song, the performer stopped 32 s i n g i n g and began dancing e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y . 33 O r i g i n a l t r a n s l a t i o n • Verse 1. pt. 1. • 1 ;. Seeing that I was longing for it, , • • , '.. I gave it a name, the spirit. . : •. ' ' Verse 1. pt. 2. Much blood pours from me [my nose] unexpectedly. I gave it a name, seeing that I recognized it'. Verse 2. pt. 1. I have not finished it [my song] however. I : Whither my little sister, my little Kaniraq [has she . gone].1 Verse 2. pt. 2.:; ;r". Much blood pours from me unexpectedly. ( •!$>• <l'r;": Whither my little sister—-I have not finished it however. 1 This is one ol the songs that waa taught by the Prince Albert sound Eskimos to the Puitdj Eskimos during the summer of 1915 (see Vol. XII, Pt. A . , p. 132). The words are said to have been taken from throe separato songs. ; b) Song words (Adapted by N. Luccock) 1. L i t t l e s i s t e r , where are you? I can't f i n d you i n our warm i g l o o . 2. L i t t l e s i s t e r , where are you? I'm a f r a i d you might have gone o u t s i d e . 3. L i t t l e s i s t e r , where are you? Are you l o s t out i n the c o l d snow storm? k. L i t t l e s i s t e r , there you are! P l a y i n g hide and seek behind Grandma! Jenness, p. 10. I b i d , p. U60. O r i g i n a l v e r s i o n . 3k N o M . ' Record 3EC 58b. J>*e. — from Prince Albert Sound. K&neyoq.Apuivhcj g i r l . B a' t b e f h d ye ye y Ai ye ya i ya yey&-i ya ai ye i-ya- A- i ye ye >©.- &i ye C ^ d1 ye.ya-1 ye t yai t ve va i• va-&' ye <- ya-ai 'Dfeftali-vl.; | j A ye i-ya yi yaai ya - a i ye ye qa,i J I r _E i ya h&iye ye - i - , ye ye y&i ^ t w * l.pt.l. ucp-a-yalua- yi b6 f 1 diti-ac|-ci-ya ima toyri-YaY-i- w& y e V&l .ye ye yeya-a i ya-a't ye t -yai ye ye i ye ye ya yi yaai ya - a- i. ye Corvn.. A1 . i J J J J t , — y • (,8 3 h« b J b6 ye cp\ ye i ya ha-i ya a• u- ya- lum- >ia u-pa.'r.-o-ay.-Y^.^?)-a C •J J J k 4 i i 4 v i i • d d e f A*1 • J J sr-ciaq-ci-ya. t-ms, ft, A C iV it.-a.-yj- valu-a-vi - ya ye i yai i ye ya jflejtain I C o n n i ya-ai ye t y&-ai y«ye- i -ye i-ya yi y^aiya-a i-ye ye cj&i i-ya ha-iya. A1 B 5 i ye ye- i ye-i-yai d-yiuri-if-ya-lu-a-Y'- Y & cu-rmunrnyxnuny i-w& I b i d , p. 216. Liilt Sisiir Lost do* C n r - i " " S — \A JL J 1 1 U — J — = — 1—1 y e y e y e i ( y . 4 ) L i t - t l e s i f t e r , y e i - yA w h e r e a r e y o t c ? t h e » * e y o u a r e / iP Z—, — i i i , n j i y i y a a t y a - A I y e y e ^ a - i (l.) I c a n ' t f i n d y o u m o u r w a r m i g — l o a . ( j . ) I'm a - f r a i d y o u mi^k t have o u t * s i d e . (3.} flre y o u l o s t o u t i n t -he c o W S n o w s f o r m ? f| t ) F / a y i n ^ 'fiitle a n j s e e k ' b e - H t n d < T r - a n J ' m « ! c) M u s i c a l concepts i ) Melody - I s m ; good song f o r i n t r o d u c i n g l a ; two unequal phrases add i n t e r e s t t o the song. i i ) Rhythm - D) ; t i e ( J J ) Use J & t o teach <!• w i t h the same time valu e . i i i ) Tempo ( f a s t - s l o w ) and dynamics ( l o u d - s o f t ) -Sing each verse a l i t t l e f a s t e r and louder than the one b e f o r e , expressing the growing apprehension of the s i n g e r (verses 1-3) and f i n a l l y e x c i t e d r e l i e f (verse k). 35 i v ) L i s t e n i n g - "Dance Song" sung by An'ayog, the Coppermine R i v e r Man who sang " L i t t l e S i s t e r L o s t" f o r Diamond Jenness. d) I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h other s u b j e c t s . Drama. Have three students act out the s t o r y of the song while classmates, s i t t i n g around them, s i n g the words and p l a y a drum. Let one c h i l d or the e n t i r e c l a s s perform the song i n the t r a d i t i o n a l manner of an aton dance. Reading. F i n d d e s c r i p t i o n s of other Eskimo c h i l d r e n ' s games. Ask c h i l d r e n t o read the d e s c r i p t i o n s c a r e f u l l y , then p l a y the games. E x p l a i n t h a t Eskimo c h i l d r e n o f t e n l e a r n games from grandparents r a t h e r than by reading about them. From Jenness, Record IV C 28, Canadian Ethnology S e r v i c e , Ottawa. 55 Project the photograph of the extended Eskimo family (p. 27) on a screen. I d e n t i f y the " l i t t l e s i s t e r " , older c h i l d ( singer), and grandmother. Discuss the r o l e Eskimo grandparents play. Draw att e n t i o n to the s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n of Nootka Indian grandparents (see p. 22). S o c i a l Studies. There are many Eskimo songs about the seasons— the long winter nights and the sunny summer days. The poem below expresses the Eskimos' appreciation of summer a f t e r a hard winter. There i s joy i n f e e l i n g warmth Come int o the world, To watch the sun retrace i t s ancient f o o t p r i n t s i n the summer sky.^g Ask students to f i n d out how and why northern seasons d i f f e r from ours. The photograph opposite should provide part of the answer. Make and compare temperature graphs for Inuvik and Vancouver. Students of S i r Alexander  Mackenzie School i n Inuvik, Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . ^ Hofmann, p. 28. 37 William Wiley, Canada: This land of ours, Elementary  e d i t i o n , (Ginn and Co., 1976), p. 10. C. SONGS OF THE UKRAINIAN-CANADIANS Introduction"*" Ukrainian-Canadians form the f i f t h l a r g e s t e t h nic group i n Canada, a f t e r the B r i t i s h , French, German, and I t a l i a n s . Because of over-population, l o s s of l a n d , heavy t a x a t i o n and p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s , many peasants l e f t the Western Ukraine at the beginning of t h i s century t o s e t t l e i n Canada. Today there are over h a l f a m i l l i o n Ukrainian-Canadians, l i v i n g mostly as farmers i n the P r a i r i e Provinces. Old U k r a i n i a n folksongs s u r v i v e d i n Canada because most immigrants s e t t l e d on uncleared l a n d and farmed l i k e the peasants i n the Old World. Carmen Roy has found that these songs serve t o " r e i n f o r c e U k r a i n i a n ethnic i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n the new 2 and d i f f e r e n t Canadian environment;" f o r example: "Christmas Carols Nos. 1 and 2". Ukrainian-Canadians have a l s o developed a l a r g e reper-t o i r e of songs about t h e i r l i f e i n Canada—songs about hardships, happiness, new ways of l i f e , and the new environment; f o r example: "Canada, My Country" and "My Trusty Ford." R o b e r t B. Klymasz, An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the U k r a i n i a n - Canadian Immigrant Folksong C y c l e , (Ottawa: N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada, B u l l e t i n No. 23h, F o l k l o r e S e r i e s No. 8 , 1970), p. 1; see a l s o Robert B. Klymasz, The U k r a i n i a n Winter Folksong Cycle  i n Canada, (Ottawa: N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada, B u l l e t i n No. 236, F o l k l o r e S e r i e s No. 9, 1970), Preface by Carmen Roy, p. v i i . 2 Klymasz, B u l l e t i n 236, P r e f a c e , p. v i i . 56 57 The Ukrainian-Canadian Christmas  Christmas Day. Although young Ukrainian-Canadians, l i k e other ethnic groups, u s u a l l y c e l e b r a t e Christmas on December 25th, f o r the f i r s t f i f t y years of t h e i r settlement i n Canada, January 7 was regarded as Christmas Day. The f o l l o w i n g legend gives one expl a n a t i o n of why the dates were d i f f e r e n t : When Jesus C h r i s t was born, a s t a r appeared, and a l l peoples went t o see Jesus C h r i s t . The Poles wore s l i p p e r s — t h e y s l i p p e d them on and "foooorrr!"—away they went! But our people, by the time they l a c e d t h e i r shoes, never got there u n t i l two weeks l a t e r . And f o r t h i s reason we c e l e b r a t e on the 7th (of January).^ C a r o l l i n g Customs. Robert Klymasz, the c o l l e c t o r of many U k r a i n -ian-Canadian c a r o l s , has found t h a t "the custom o f house-to-house c a r o l l i n g i s more' popular w i t h Ukrainian-Canadians than w i t h any other ethnic g r o u p . O r i g i n a l l y c a r o l l e r s were young men s i n g i n g at t h e i r g i r l f r i e n d s ' houses. Now they are u s u a l l y church groups asking f o r money f o r the church or community. Carols are a l s o sung at f a m i l y f e s t i v e d inners. C a r o l s . ^ T r a d i t i o n a l l y , U k r a i n i a n Christmas c a r o l s have four separate p a r t s : The i n t r o d u c t i o n ( g r e e t i n g ) , the body(promise of p r o s p e r i t y and a good harvest i n the New Y e a r ) , the c l o s i n g ( b l e s s i n g or wish f o r happiness) and r e f r a i n (prayer - only i n c l a s s i c a l c a r o l s . ) I b i d , p. 10 I b i d , p. 1 1 . 5 I b i d , p. 8. 58 10. "Canada, My Country" a) Background Information^ The Ukrainian immigrants were often troubled by home-sickness, disease, prejudice because they could not speak En g l i s h , or astonishment at the vastness of the Canadian Northwest. In s p i t e of the hardships the Ukrainian immigrants encountered, they were i n most cases successful farmers and content with t h e i r new country. Ukrainian peasant-settlers from Bukowina en route to Edna-Star, Alberta, 1897 (Bukovina - a province of the Ukraine; see poem, p. 6) Klymasz, B u l l e t i n 23*+, p. 1. 7 Vladimir J . Kaye, Early Ukrainian Settlements i n  Canada, 1895-1900, (Toronto: Un i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, I96U), p. 150. O r i g i n a l v e r s i o n and t r a n s l a t i o n . 59 Sung by Mrs. H. Rewakowsky, Canora, Saskatchewan, 1964. - f — r ^ 3 -* it—H—ar Ka - Ha - AO, Ka-Ha - AO, TH npe KpacHHH Kpa - x>, MH * a * a B TO- 61 XH MO, UK * 0 6H B H - KIM pa MH 3F * -9 ? 6H B A - KIM pa - •>. B TO- 61 XH - e - 1101 AK Translation: 1. O Canada, Canada, you beautiful country, We live in you like in some paradise. (2) 2. O Canada, Canada, it is good to live in you, We have enough to eat, we have enough to drink. (2) 3. We have beautiful, fertile fields, Thanks to which we get a lot of money. (2) b) Song words (Adapted by N. Luccock) 1. 0 Canada, Canada, b e a u t i f u l country , We l i v e i n a paradise where I can p l a y and run f r e e . (2) 2. With Canada no other l a n d can compete, For we always have p l e n t y t o d r i n k and t o eat. (2) 3. Our f i e l d s are so f e r t i l e , and summers so sunny, That we're always sure t h a t our crops w i l l b r i n g money. (2) 'Klymasz, B u l l e t i n 23h, p. 62. do*F (v.j) 0 Con-A-oV, Can-«-da, beea-tV-faf c o n n - t r y . We / J / l»ve tn a par-a-oVse wfiere / can pl*y And run /ree, We ItVe »w A p a r - A - d i f e w / > e r « I c a n p^Ay And r u n -free. D r u m (ln"fr«.-j2 DAK^ R e c o r d e r / * » t r © . ^ |(J3JJ IJ I V I UJJU i li J 61 c) M u s i c a l concepts i ) Melody - f m r d t , l , s , (minor); p r a c t i s e the bar 1 p a t t e r n i n s o l f a w i t h the teacher s i n g i n g the f i r s t note on d i f f e r e n t p i t c h e s and c l a s s f i n i s h i n g the bar; compare the major f e e l i n g o f bar 5 w i t h the minor f e e l i n g i n the l a s t bar. i i ) Rhythm - Bar 1 i s a commonly heard U k r a i n i a n rhythm p a t t e r n , which gives the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l i v e l i n e s s t o t h e i r music. Encourage students t o f e e l the rhythm by stepping and c l a p p i n g t o t h i s rhythm: j n i n R L R L R L i i i ) Form - compare the abb form of the t e x t w i t h the abc form of the melody. The repeated t e x t provides emphasis wh i l e the d i f f e r e n t melody allows f o r v a r i e t y . i v ) L i s t e n i n g - "0 Canada, Canada, you b e a u t i f u l ,,9 country. d) I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h other subjects Language A r t s . Ask students t o w r i t e about an experience they remember where t h e i r f e e l i n g s about a pl a c e changed during t h e i r stay or even a f t e r r e t u r n i n g home. A r t . The c l a s s might draw or p a i n t a w a l l mural d e p i c t i n g a P r a i r i e farm community or a l a r g e farm. Sung by Mrs. H. Rewakowsky, Canora, Saskatchewan, 1961* f o r Robert Klymasz; KLY 5 ( 6 9 ) , Canadian Centre f o r F o l k C u l t u r e S t u d i e s , Ottawa. 62 S o c i a l S t u d i e s . Ask students t o read the two Ukrainian-Canadian poems below, then compare the p o i n t s o f view of the two immigrant authors. Ask which poem expresses the same f e e l i n g as the song t e x t . (No. 2) Help students t o r e a l i z e that,, i n time, the second w r i t e r may develop a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e as he becomes more aware of the o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e and more accepting of the d i f f e r e n c e s between Canada and the Ukraine. 1. "Thinking of Bukovina i n Canada" 1 0 by S. Vorobkevych My n a t i v e B u k o v i n a , my b e l o v e d l a n d , W h e n e v e r I , a p o o r o r p h a n , t h i n k o f y o u T e a r s r u n down my f a c e h e r e , i n t h i s s t r a n g e l a n d , W h e r e I am w i t h e r i n g u p l i k e a l e a f i n t h e s u n . H e r e I d o n o t h e a r my m o t h e r t o n g u e , H e r e I f i n d n o n e o f my k i t h a n d k i n , I h a v e h e r e n o f a t h e r , n o r f a m i l y , n o r my own h o u s e . 0 G o d , i t i s h a r d t o l i v e i n a s t r a n g e l a n d . 2. "Go t o Canada" 1 1 . Go .to Canada, don't put it off! Although you'll suffer for a year or two. Later, you and your children W i l l all be living the life of a lord. Here everyone is" equal, A t home or in the lawcourt, everyone is a 'sir'; A n d 160 acres of land is owned By every Harry, Pan'ko or Ivan. Work where you want, mow where you can, — Cut the forest where you please; Work for yourself, not for parasites, A n d pay only five dollars tax. Here everyone pays five dollars, Be he a Ruthenian, Pole, or Englishman; After you've put in your two days on public works, They leave you alone for the rest of the whole year. 1 0 J . B . Rudnyckyj, ed., Ukrainian-Canadian F o l k l o r e , (Winnipeg: U k r a i n i a n Free Academy of Sciences, i 9 6 0 ) , p. 186. i : LKlymasz, B u l l e t i n 23^, p. 9-63 11. "My Trusty Ford" a) Background Information Gradually the customs and t r a d i t i o n s of the Ukraine began t o c l a s h w i t h those already i n Canada. As a r e s u l t , c h i l d -ren began t o show d i s l i k e f o r the o l d t r a d i t i o n s and argue w i t h 12 t h e i r parents about ways of spending t h e i r time and money. In 13 the f o l l o w i n g excerpt, a f a t h e r complains about the breakdown of p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y : Many people had a good life While they lived in Galicia; And here they came to Canada To suffer in their old age. Their sons sit idly in the city And shoot pool, But about their elderly parents They have not a single thought. In "My Trusty Ford" a son r e j e c t s h i s f a t h e r ' s occu-p a t i o n and t h r i f t i n e s s , accepting i n s t e a d the younger generation's d e s i r e f o r a good time, whatever the c o s t . This song i s t y p i c a l i n the use of E n g l i s h words i n a U k r a i n i a n language t e x t (see i t a l i c i z e d words). I r o n i c a l l y , "kara" (car) i n U k r a i n i a n means "punishment." O r i g i n a l words'^ 1. A BEM TaTy HtypHTHca; Ciflra, Bopara — | MHHI TaTy HcypHTHce, Ko6 TO #op#a Mara. 2. E y a y a cripyearu, 3 a ceiTzapr TpySira, TaTO 6u*yT 3a MHOB B3a^y — ' XonyT MeHe 6HTH. 1 2 I b i d , p. 2. 1 3 I b i d , p. 10. ^ I b i d , p. 91. O r i g i n a l t r a n s l a t i o n 1. O my father, all you worry about Is sowing and ploughing: As for me, father, my main worry .'• Is getting myself a Ford. 2. I shall steer all over with i t . . . ' :• » , A n d honk for my sweetheart to come out. Here comes father after me— '. He wants to beat me. 3. Once I came home A t two o'clock in the morning. But father never forgot about m e -rle seized me by the hair. 4. He grabbed me by the_hair A n d scolded me. I said, "Stop, father! Buy some gasoline for the.car!" 5. Early one Sunday morning I got up A n d dressed up like a real sport; I went to the garage To crank up the Ford. 6. I cranked up that Ford A n d put it into high gear, When suddenly I rode into a fence A n d bust the tire. 7. The lights were ruined A n d I couldn't see the road; I hit into a telephone pole A n d broke my legs. 8. I came home— M y legs were broken; Father said, "Sell your Ford To pay for the doctors!" 9. "It would be a pity to sell the Ford, For the Ford works well. A s for my leg, I ' l l hammer a spike into it A n d i t ' l l keep walking alright." 10. But I had to sell the Ford In order to- pay the doctors— Strike up a tune, O musician,— This is the end of this vivat! I b i d , p. 92-93. 65 O r i g i n a l v e r s i o n Sung by Mr. Waller Pasternak, Fork River, Manitoba, 1964. rrn> ; ; — q > h r : . k h—* > r— J J ^ 1 A BBH fa - Ty xy- pH- IH- C«I Cl-« - TH, BO -— * _ _ j — — t — b — ^ — b ' — i . [•- 1 — t. pa - TH MH - Hi Ta - Ty xy - pn - TH-OC ^JD ; K r 1 W> P > -J KoC TO Sop - fia Ma ^ - TH. b) Song words (Adapted by N. Luccock) 1. Father, a l l you t h i n k of i s the ploughing and the sowing, I j u s t want t o buy a Ford and t o keep i t going. 2. Once I came home l a t e at nig h t and f a t h e r grabbed my long h a i r , . "Dad, don't s c o l d me," I implored, "buy some gas f o r my ca r . " 3. I rose e a r l y Sunday knowing my car had a f u l l tank, S t r u t t e d over t o the garage and gave t h a t Ford a good crank. h. Proudly and without a f e a r I pushed the g e a r s h i f t h i g h e r , Suddenly I smashed i n t o a fence and bust the t i r e . 5. I came home—my l e g s were b r o k e n — F a t h e r q u i c k l y locked the doors, S a i d I'd have t o s e l l my Ford j u s t t o pay the doctors. 6. "Please don't make me s e l l the Ford, the damage r e a l l y i s s l i g h t , In my l e g I ' l l pound a spike t o keep i t walking a l l r i g h t . " 7 . But I had t o s e l l the Ford t o pay the doctors' high f e e , Play a tune, musician f r i e n d s , Wow you've heard my s t o r y . I b i d , p. 91. - <1y T r u s t y F o r d o»o*F 3 fv.l) F a f K - c r , * l l y o u M i n k of is ff»e p l o t L t n * mo, Ait S o w I j u s t W A « t t© p u y Ford id t© k e e p i t 30 — ,*ntj. t W i T R v M C r t f r j fln+ro.-4 b+rs\ i n t e r l u d e s - , * bar*} D r u m (Mr*.- <r t>*r^ ft/»© n^ef. 6«tr©.- ff PArl) ^ /3p >Q.| " j p T j r ;| fl/fo xyl. (l*tro. and interlude* '4 l»rl^ ( r . r bars N T » m k o w n ' n e ^ S o f r f y ; / n + r » . - V W * j no I n f e r / n d e s ) J 67 c) M u s i c a l concepts i ) Melody - d i a t o n i c (major s c a l e ) . This i s a good song f o r p r a c t i s i n g s , l , t , d p a t t e r n ; students might take turns p l a y i n g the p a t t e r n each of the three times i t appears. Draw a t t e n t i o n t o the c o n t r a s t i n g r e g i s t e r and s t y l e of bars 5-6. i i ) Rhythm - l i v e l y eighth-note p a t t e r n s . Remind students t o accent the f i r s t note of each bar. 17 i i i ) L i s t e n i n g - "0 my f a t h e r , a l l you worry about" d) I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h other s u b j e c t s . S o c i a l S t u d i e s . A f t e r i n s p e c t i n g a U k r a i n i a n colony i n 1900, a Government agent commented on the "wonderful changes" t h a t were n o t i c e a b l e i n the young people. Read the f o l l o w i n g report"*" t o the c l a s s , then discuss the importance of the l a s t sentence. In a great many instances they speak English fluently and have dis-carded the sheepskins, falling in with the customs of the country with regard to wearing apparel. I was informed that they were anxious to have legislation passed, so that they could substitute their unpronounceable Russian names [sic], as they recognize the difficulty Canadians have in doing business with them, under present circumstances . . . Every evidence goes to show that in an exceedingly short space of time they will drop into the customs and manners of the Country. . ." A r t . The beauty of U k r a i n i a n artwork i s w e l l known. P r a c t i s e d e corating Easter eggs i n the U k r a i n i a n manner. Sung by Walter Pasternak, Fork R i v e r , Manitoba, 196U f o r Robert Klymasz; KLY 5 (55), Canadian Centre f o r F o l k C u l t u r e S t u d i e s , Ottawa. Kaye, p. 367-8.., 68 P h y s i c a l Education. Try t o attend a F o l k F e s t i v a l where Ukrainians are p a r t i c i p a t i n g w i t h t h e i r t y p i c a l l i v e l y dances and c o l o u r f u l costumes (see the photographs below). Learn a simple U k r a i n i a n dance step and perform i t to one of the melodies i n t h i s u n i t . U k r a i n i a n dancers on the grounds of the Manitoba L e g i s l a t i v e  B u i l d i n g . >^  U k r a i n i a n Dancer and Musicians. 19 W i l l i a m Wiley, Canada: This l a n d of ours, Elementary  e d i t i o n , (Ginn and Co., 1976), p. 87. 20 Klymasz, B u l l e t i n 2 3 ^ , p. hQ. 12. "Christmas C a r o l No. 1" a) Background Information According t o the ethnomusicologist, Kenneth Peacock, " t h i s l i t t l e three-note chant i s one of the most m u s i c a l l y a r c h a i c items found i n the r e p e r t o i r e s of Ukrainian-Canadian 21 s i n g e r s . I t s s u r v i v a l spans c e n t u r i e s , p o s s i b l y m i l l e n n i a . " As w e l l as promising a r i c h harvest i n the coming year, t h i s song honours the master of the h o u s e h o l d — h i s a b i l i t y t o run a s u c c e s s f u l farm and thereby have enough money t o give a gold c o i n t o each of the c a r o l l e r s . I t s form i s t r a d i t i o n a l : G r e e t i n g ; promise of many newborn animals; c l o s i n g . Often the 22 rhyme i s repl a c e d by assonance and a l l i t e r a t i o n . b) Song words (Adapted by N. Luccock) 1. G r e e t i n g s , master, greetings at Christmas, Sure l y you have money t o give us. 2. R i s e up, master, look i n your s t a b l e , S p r i n g has brought rewards f o r your kindness. 3. Rise up, master, look i n your s t a b l e , F o a l s and calves and p i g l e t s b r i n g gladness. k. Rise up, master, look i n your s t a b l e , Swarms of bees are proof o f your kindness. 5. Good-night, master, have a good Christmas, Joy i n s p r i n g and b o u n t i f u l harvest. "'"Klymasz, B u l l e t i n 236, p. 19. 2 I b i d , Preface by Carmen Roy, p. v i x . 23 7 0 O r i g i n a l v e r s i o n and t r a n s l a t i o n Sung by Mrs. Anna Zacharuk, 'Tis a bountiful eve on this holy eve! -Is the master of the house at home? I know that he is at home Sitting at the end of the table. • Before him are the holiday breads of spring wheat A n d in each loaf is a golden screw [!] A n d in that screw are a hundred gold coins! For each of us boys there's a gold coin! Let us pool our money A n d buy a horse for our leader! Look! Already our leader struts about pompously Leading a horse behind him! There flew down a swallow • -Which began to chirp A n d call on the master to come outside. " O rise, master, walk about A n d look into your stable! In your stable one beholds your pride A n d the rewards of your kindnesses! The mares have born many foals A n d there are colts everywhere! The cows have born calves A n d there are young steers everywhere! "Arise, O master, walk about A n d look in your stable— The cows have born calves A n d everywhere there are young steers! The sheep have born lambs A n d there are young rams everywhere! "Arise, O master, walk about A n d look in your stable— In your stable one beholds your joy A n d the rewards of your kindnesses! The sows have given birth to piglets A n d everywhere there are young hogs! "Arise, O master, walk about A n d look in your stable! -In your stable one beholds your joy A n d the rewards for your kindnesses! Y o u r bees have multiplied by swarms A n d have flown off into the wide field!" I b i d , pp. 19-21. 71 Carol A/o . l Fast d o = C (v.fy G r e e t - i n a s , m « s ( v . « ) R ise u p , m a s (v.S^ Ri*e u p , m a S Rise * p , m a « « (v.5") G o o d - n i a k t , m a s ter> areet - . ' ^es a t C b r i « t - m a * ! t e r , took m y o u r sta- ble, t e r , l o o k i « y o u r xta-ble, t e r , U»k to. y o u r * t a - tie, t e r , h a v e a. a o o d C h r * s t - m a.*, ft.) S u r e - l y y o u (j.) S p r i n g HaS brouO^kT {j.) f » * l s a n d c a l v e s Swmirm$ oT fc) T o y i n bees S p r m o h a v e m o n - e y t o ^ i v e ui*. r e - w a r d s f o r y o u r k i n d - n 6 S S . a n d p » o - l e f i r b r « n « a f a d - n e X S ' . a r e p r o o f o f y o u r k i n d - n e t s , a n d b o u n t - i - t u l h a r - v e s t . I N S T R U M E N T * l l n t r o * . a n d i n t e r l u d e s - * b a r s N D r u m o r t a m b o u r i n e ^ I n t r o ' bar*} 1 * ? * C • B « S S m e t . Qntrort b a r ^ S o p . K y i . ftntro." • b a r d r = ^ — i • h i K 4 72 c) M u s i c a l concepts i ) Melody - 1 s m; a simple music-reading song f o r beginning Kodaly students. Draw a t t e n t i o n t o the four i d e n t i c a l phrases, v a r i e d only by s l u r s i n bars 1 and 3, and by repeated notes i n the l a s t bar. i i ) Rhythm - ; beginning each phrase w i t h quick notes adds v i t a l i t y t o the song. P r a c t i s e the xylophone p a r t s w i t h patschen f i r s t , i i i ) Other - s l u r i " ) ; t i e s £ i v ) L i s t e n i n g - " U k r a i n i a n Christmas Songs i n Canada." Contrast the commercial nature of t h i s album w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l sound o f songs on the tape. d) I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h other subjects Drama. Prepare a v i s i t of c a r o l l e r s t o a wealthy farmer, i n c l u d i n g the a c t i o n s i m p l i e d by the song words, and perhaps an impromptu dance step during the i n t e r l u d e s . A r t . P a i n t animal f i g u r e s on cardboard; stand them up i n a make-b e l i e v e s t a b l e f o r c a r o l l e r s t o p o i n t at w h i l e s i n g i n g the song. S o c i a l S t u d i e s . Discuss what i s happening i n the photograph (p. 73). Read about other Ukrainian-Canadian Christmas customs i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n (p. 57). Ask each student t o f i n d out about s p e c i f i c customs c e l e b r a t e d by h i s f a m i l y now or i n the past. E t h n i c Folkways FP 828. Christmas "Kut.ja" Custom 73 The ceremonial feast on Christmas Eve begins with kuija, a special dish made with boiled wheat, poppy seed, and honey. The oldest in the household tosses a spoonful at the ceiling; if the kutja sticks fast to the ceiling it is believed that the bees will keep to the hives on the farm during the coming season and, hence, an abundance of honey is assured. Klymasz, B u l l e t i n 2 3 6 , p. 1 3 8 . 13. "Christmas C a r o l Mo. 2" a) Background Information This t r a d i t i o n a l c a r o l shows the importance of farming i n the l i v e s of Ukrainian-Canadian s e t t l e r s . Both the master of the house and h i s lady are p r a i s e d by the singe r s and assured 26 a s s i s t a n c e from God h i m s e l f during t h e i r harvest. See p. 73 f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of one Christmas custom t h a t uses two of the crops mentioned i n t h i s song. b) Song words (Adapted by N. Luccock) 1. Good evening, master, God has blessed your household, He's promised wheat, promised wheat th a t grows h i g h ! May He grant you happiness and good h e a l t h ! 2. Good evening, master, God has ble s s e d your household, He's promised o a t s , yes, one hundred bushels! May He grant you happiness and good h e a l t h f 3. Good evening, madame, God has ble s s e d your household, He's promised seeds, poppy seeds, s i x hundred sheaves! May He grant you happiness and good h e a l t h ! k. Good evening, madame, God has ble s s e d your household, He's promised cukes, b a r r e l s f u l l of cucumbers! May He grant you happiness and good h e a l t h ! 5. A l l t h i s he has promised, such an ample harvest! And now I c l o s e , wishing you a good n i g h t . Hoping t h a t y o u ' l l spend the night i n God's grace! Kenneth Peacock, Twenty Ethnic Songs from Western  Canada, (Ottawa: N a t i o n a l Museum of Canada, 1966), p. 87. 75 O r i g i n a l v e r s i o n and t r a n s l a t i o n Christmas Carol . ' (Ukrainian) * ; > * - . Sung by Zofija Njedzvjec'ka I ' ' Gilbert Plains, Manitoba, 1963 Moderately fast / ^ 100 • (variable) 1. Good evening to you, master of this house! . , The Lord is calling you to His councils. ; He has promised to make your wheat grow high! G o d grant you happiness, health and a long life! 2. Good evening to you, master of this house! . _v » _ The Lord is calling you to His councils. He has promised you to yield a hundred bushels of oats! C„'?r; G o d grant you happiness, health and a long life! .. . 3. Good evening to you, lady of this house! -The Lord is calling you to His councils. He has promised that you shall harvest six hundred sheaves of , , .poppy seeds! J.. \ .. . . . . . . . : „ . = : ' I T " ~ * - - . G o d grant you happiness, health and a long life! — ' — 4. Good evening to you, lady of this house! The Lord is calling you to His councils. " " " " H e has promised to yield two barrels of cucumbers for you! v :. G o d grant you happiness, health and a long life! - -5. A n d on this word I close wishing you to spend the night in God's grace! r t - - : - - i - - . . . - - - . . \ : - — * — Good-night! l ; ' . . ' . A n d on this word I close wishing you to spend the night in God's grace! Z ' Good-night! 27 ' i b i d . 76 Chris+m&s C a r o l No. Z (v -0 G-ood e v e - m w a , » * o s - t e r , G-od Ha* Messed your H » « s e > h * l d , i t flli I f ] £ 3 HeV pro-Mused wKeaf| pro-mifed wheat f U t 4rows hi en t i t ) w May he y * « t you hop-pi-ness and *eod heul+n! trslSTKUMe*TS flt.tro.-4 p a r i ; no in ter/udes) i f i j 1 A — f — > — - P —1 ; 7o.mp. /only lost |t"#»e • 5»p. Kyi. l l n t r * . - * t u r d of e«ck verse) . . 77 c) M u s i c a l concepts i ) Melody - fmrdtl,m, (minor); n o t i c e the a l t e r n a t i n g and i n the modal s c a l e ; p r a c t i s e the minor t r i a d (/bars 1-2, 5) and s c a l e (bars 3-U) u n t i l c h i l d r e n are f a m i l i a r w i t h i t . Each verse begins e n e r g e t i c a l l y w i t h w e l l - d e f i n e d phrases, then g r a d u a l l y becomes more f r e e - f l o w i n g . Encourage c h i l d r e n t o f e e l the change as they s i n g . Perform the song as a two-part round, beginning one bar apart. i i ) Rhythm - Draw a t t e n t i o n t o the energy created by the many 28 i i i ) L i s t e n i n g - "Christmas C a r o l " d) I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h other subjects Drama. Create a f o l k n a t i v i t y p l a y to accompany a performance of the song. Reading. Provide copies of easy Ukrainian-Canadian r e c i p e s f o r Christmas foods (e.g., ' P a t i c a ' ) . Read together and d i s c u s s the methods, then ask groups of c h i l d r e n t o prepare dishes at home, or p o s s i b l y at school w i t h the help of a U k r a i n i a n v i s i t o r . Then have a Ukrainian-Canadian Christmas p a r t y . A r t . Make U k r a i n i a n Christmas decorations. Sung by Z o f i j a IT j e d z v j e c ' k a , G i l b e r t P l a i n s , Manitoba, 1963, f o r Robert Klymasz, KLY 1 ( l ) , Canadian Centre f o r F o l k C u l t u r e S t u d i e s , Ottawa. 78 S o c i a l Studies. Discuss the type of farming c a r r i e d out by Ukrainian-Canadian farmers, as indicated by the song words. Ask i n d i v i d u a l students to research the way i n which each crop 29 i s grown. Ask students to study the photograph below, then suggest an explanation for the Christmas custom the c h i l d r e n are celebrating. (Hay symbolizes a g i f t for the C h r i s t c h i l d ' s manger as w e l l as hopes for a b o u n t i f u l harvest.) ^Klymasz, B u l l e t i n 236, p. 108. 79 A r t . Study the p a i n t i n g below by the well-known U k r a i n i a n -Canadian p a i n t e r , W i l l i a m Kurelek. He e x p l a i n s the scene: When my father sent me and my brother J o h n to high school in Winnipeg, we also went to Ukrainian night school. In the process of retaining our heritage, we became better acquainted with the beauty of Ukrainian carols. A t Christmas, in accor-dance with custom, we were divided into groups and sent out carolling. The boys in the painting are a group of U k r a i n i a n carollers crossing an Edmonton park while the lights of the city glow softly in the background. They carry the traditional star of Bethlehem before them. 30 Young U k r a i n i a n Church C a r o l l e r s 3 W i l l i a m Kurelek, Kurelek's Canada, (Toronto: Pagurian P r e s s , 1975), p. 112-3. D. SONGS OF THE DOUKHOBORS I n t r o d u c t i o n - H i s t o r y of the People"1" The Doukhobors are Russian immigrant i n h a b i t a n t s of western Canada. The f i r s t settlements were i n Saskatchewan and eastern A l b e r t a , farmlands l i k e the steppes. Most of the Douk-hobors moved t o B r i t i s h Columbia around 1908 because of f i n a n c i a l and community problems. There are now more than 20,000 i n Canada, most of whom l i v e i n the West Kootenay r e g i o n , e s p e c i a l l y around Grand Forks. Because of t h e i r strong b e l i e f s i n p a c i f i s m and brotherhood, Doukhobors have continuously s u f f e r e d p e r s e c u t i o n and e x i l e — f i r s t from T a r t a r h i l l s m e n i n R u s s i a , then from Cossack s o l d i e r s , and more r e c e n t l y , from the Canadian government because of misunderstandings over settlement laws. F.M. Mealing describes below t h e i r values and h i s t o r y : The first ideals of Doukhobor faith are pacifism and brotherhood.. Applied to animals, these values include vegetarianism; they are also the rationale of communal living, now almost entirely eroded by the automobile. Apart from references to modesty, no religious explanation is given for conservatism in clothing, most manifest in women's dress, which charac-teristically consists of multiple skirts and petticoats, and a white babushka embroidered with delicate, fragmented floral designs. The Doukhobors aroused the violent opposition of the Czarist bureaus in ' the nineteenth centry when communities in a debated border area refused to arm against possible attack from Armenia. When a military governor warned certain villages to prepare to defend themselves, they responded by burning their weapons, provoking harsh persecution. When Tolstoy heard of the Doukhobors' plight, he decided they were ideal Christians, and, with the help of powerful Quaker meetings in London, helped them to emigrate to Canada between 1899 and 1904. F.M. Mealing, "Sons of Freedom Songs i n E n g l i s h " , Canadian F o l k Music J o u r n a l , (Toronto: Canadian F o l k Music S o c i e t y , V o l . h, 1976), p. 15; see a l s o E l i Popoff, Tanya, (Grand Forks, B.C.: mir P u b l i c a t i o n S o c i e t y , 1975), pp. 207-211. Mealing, p. 15• 80 P e r s e c u t i o n by Cossacks " . . . herded down (he road by mounted Cossacks who couldn't resist to occasionally crack their whips over some unfortunate head." " H i s t o r y C a l l s Us, S p i r i t u a l Brethren" (a recent hymn) History calls us, Spiritual Brethren, To unite for the causes of yore; Our forefathers all lived in Russia^ j And again it brings us to the fore. ) Against churches, and kings, and all armies, They did wrestle without any doubt; Against bloodshed and endless betrayal, ) And the falsehoods the priests (dinned out?), j • Unto death, they stood staunchly and firmly, And were true to the Good of their name, Flinching not before torture and prison; ) Then to Canada bravely they came. ; j ^ Many years we have sojourned, Dear Brethren, In a land that is foreign and cold, And your people still have no conception ) Of the truth that we strive to uphold. j Our life here is not for excesses, But for bringing of life from above; Let Humanity be as one family, ) On the basis of freedom and love, j 'Popoff, p. Bo. Mealing, p. 21. 1899 - Women Plough the P r a i r i e s . 82 They convinced Vanya Glaskov to construct the necessary pulling harness and wooden drawing bars. When these were ready, the women organized carefully by accepting only strong and healthy volunteers from amongst the younger women, who then formed usually into fourteen pairs, hitched themselves to the plough with Vanya Glaskov gripping the handles, and began their laborious work. Within several weeks, the sod of a sizeable patch of virgin meadowland was turned over in this manner. Tanya was exceedingly proud that she was one of the women chosen to do this service for their village. It was a herculean task but Tanya, like the others, did her part, shifting periodically from the lead pair of women to the pair nearest the plough, for these were the two most difficult positions. The lead women had to set a steady pace to prevent the team from becoming jerky and uneven, and the pair nearest the plough had to take the brunt of any extra strain of pulling caused by patches of heavier root systems among the wild prairie growth, y F i r s t Harvest, v i t h Russian Scythes George Woodcock and Ivan Avakumovic, The Doukhobors, (Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), p. 2k. Popoff, p. 119. 'Woodcock, p. 2k. 83 1902 - Thunder H i l l Colony Tanya was also very gratified that the women were so happy in their mutual efforts towards the building of their village homes. Even though she didn't particularly like the job of making the clay mud plaster, she enjoyed the group working sessions tremendously. First, they would make the clay plaster by alternately sprinkling water and finely chopped dried grass-stems on the clay, and then, using their bare feet, kneading everything together into a sticky mixture. With this mixture, they plastered the walls, using their bare hands to apply the plaster. Tanya very quickly came to be considered an expert plasterer, for the walls she worked on looked so smooth and even, that other women were constantly coming to learn from her. Economic l o s s e s and pressures of the 1930's Depression helped separate even f u r t h e r the three main groups of Doukhobors i n Canada: The Community people, who form the l a r g e s t group and want t o live'communally; the Independent Farmers, who purchase t h e i r own l a n d and show i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c s ; and the 2,500 Sons of Freedom, who have become f a n a t i c a l i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o preserve t r u e Doukhoborism, even using t e r r o r i s m t o promote p a c i f i s m . As a r e s u l t of t h i s behavior, many English-Canadians now consider a l l Doukhobors t o be v i o l e n t a l l the time. Popoff, p. 118. 10 8 k I n t r o d u c t i o n - Doukhobor Music. Mealing s t a t e s t h a t "song i s the main d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t r a i t of the Doukhobors, at l e a s t i n Canada. I t i s c e r t a i n l y a c e n t r a l , conspicuous, s u s t a i n i n g element i n t h e i r s o c i e t y . " 1 1 The people a u t o m a t i c a l l y s i n g w h i l e working, v i s i t i n g , and attending r e l i g i o u s gatherings. There are s e v e r a l c h o i r s i n each area, so anyone may belong t o at l e a s t one. Over the c e n t u r i e s the Doukhobors have preserved and developed a unique s t y l e of c h o r a l s i n g i n g . Choir leaders give advice between songs and u s u a l l y s i n g the f i r s t l i n e of a song, but do not conduct. Instruments are not used. Mealing e x p l a i n s how Doukhobors achieve t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c sound: F i r s t , . . . t h e melody i s assigned t o high male and low female v o i c e s , s i n g i n g e i t h e r i n unison or an octave apart. Secondly, the soprano and bass v o i c e s "frame" t h i s core melody, s i n g i n g an approximate f o u r t h or f i f t h i n t e r v a l above or below the core l i n e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . ^ Three types of songs may be h e a r d — r e l i g i o u s psalms and hymns, and n o n - r e l i g i o u s folksongs. The vocabulary i s a mixture of Volga, White Russian and U k r a i n i a n t e x t s . E a r l y i n childhood c h i l d r e n s t a r t l e a r n i n g songs and s i n g i n g s t y l e s . Tunes are passed on o r a l l y , although song t e x t s may be w r i t t e n down. Singers are encouraged t o add v a r i a t i o n s t o the melody or harmony as they s i n g . 10 Mealing, pp. 22-1+. 1 : L I b i d , p. 22. 1 2 I b i d , p. 23. 85 Ik, "In a Pine F o r e s t " a) Background Information "This h i s t o r i c a l Russian l u l l a b y shows evidence of great age. The Tshetchentsi vere an A s i a t i c people who roamed across southern Russia between the e i g h t h and fou r t e e n t h Canada, (Ottawa: N a t i o n a l Museum B u l l e t i n No. 2 1 1 , S e r i e s No 76 1955T7 p. 1 7 . I b i d , p. 3 1 . 86 O r i g i n a l v e r s i o n -and t r a n s l a t i o n . I n a P i n e E o f e S t (mrrativelnlkthy) (Doukhobor) no Eopy TO Eopy Moderate, steady time Sung by Florence A. Makortoff Grand Forks, B.C., July 30, 1963 no 6o - py TO 6o - py, no HO-M do - py, Ta - u xo 36 1 1 I — ^ — — J 1 * E ' J i h s pan 6a - 6ym Ka. In a forest, a pine forest, among the green pine trees An old grandmother was wandering. (2) She was picking mushrooms and berries. (2) Fierce Tartars and Tshetchentsi attacked her. (2) They tied grandma's hands and feet (2) And took her to their lair. (2) They gave grandma three tasks to do: (2) First—to watch the ducks with her eyes; (20 » Second—to comb wool with her hands; (2) Third—to rock the baby with her feet. (2) She rocked it and chanted: (2) "Hush-a-bye, hush-a-bye, hush-a-bye. (2) As your granny's dear, you could be my grandson, (2) But as your father's son you are, to me, a little Tartar. Russian text transcribed by Eli A. Popoff, Grand Forks Translation by Waldemar Kosmin, Ottawa I b i d , pp. 1+0-1. c) Song words (Adapted by N. Luccock) 1. Deep i n a f o r e s t green among the pine t r e e s Deep i n a f o r e s t green w i t h p i n e , There an o l d grandmother wandered, Searching behind every v i n e , 2 . Deep i n a f o r e s t green among the pine t r e e s Deep i n a f o r e s t dark and s t i l l . She p i c k e d the mushrooms and b e r r i e s , Hoping her basket would f i l l . 3. Deep i n a f o r e s t green among the pine t r e e s Deep i n a f o r e s t f u l l of s u r p r i s e , T a r t a r s and Tshetchentsi attacked her, F i e r c e l y they s i l e n c e d her c r i e s . k. Deep i n a f o r e s t green among the pine t r e e s , Deep i n a f o r e s t so unkind, They t r e a t e d grandmother roughly, Both feet and hands d i d they bind. 5. Deep i n a f o r e s t green among the pine t r e e s , Deep i n a f o r e s t so u n f a i r , Grandmother had t o go w i t h them, They c a r r i e d her t o t h e i r l a i r . 6. Deep i n a f o r e s t green among the pine t r e e s , Deep i n a f o r e s t so untrue, They gave poor grandmother three t a s k s , They gave her three jobs t o do. 7. Deep i n a f o r e s t green among the pine t r e e s , Deep i n a f o r e s t deaf t o her c r i e s , F i r s t she must watch o'er the d u c k l i n g s , C a r e f u l l y watch w i t h her eyes. 8. Deep i n a f o r e s t green among the pine t r e e s , Deep i n a f o r e s t f u l l of demands, Second, they gave her some raw wool, Which she must comb w i t h her hands. 9. Deep i n a f o r e s t green among the pine t r e e s , Deep i n a f o r e s t out of the heat, T h i r d , she must care f o r the baby, Rocking h i s c r i b w i t h her f e e t , . Deep i n a f o r e s t green among the pine t r e e s , Deep i n a f o r e s t he didn't c r y , She rocked him g e n t l y and chanted: "Hush, hush-a-bye, hush-a-bye," . Deep i n a f o r e s t green among the pine t r e e s , Deep i n a f o r e s t Grandma was caught, " I ' d l o v e you j u s t l i k e a grandson, I f a T a r t a r ' s son you were not." I n ft P i V > e Forest do«F v.l Peep m A for-e«t areen A - won) tl»« pine trees Deep in A, for*est areen wi4h pine. | n n i j J" ^  i j ^ There An ©Id . arAnJ - mof k>er wan - dered. J i j n i -i SearcK • ina. be- hind ev - cry V i n e . IWSTRurlCHTS f I n t r o . - t b*rS] interludes) 6a<5 xy|. (or voices on f Sop. Kyi. Ontro. — J oArs) 01.1 IJ IJJ P ^ 8 6A^S n»et.j(|ntro.|«-» 4 kgrj^ j rrer i f i r c) M u s i c a l concepts i ) Melody - m r d 1, ( f o p t i o n a l ) ; good song f o r teaching l a , , Students should r e a l i z e t h a t the mostly step-wise movement creates a soothing e f f e c t i n the l u l l a b y . Remind recorder p l a y e r s or v o i c e s s i n g i n g "oo" t o s u s t a i n each note. Some students may l i k e t o t r y improvised harmonizing or embel-lishment o f the melodic l i n e . i i ) Rhythm - U n l i k e "Bye Bye, Baby", the c o n t r a s t i n g words and rhythm here' emphasize the c o n t r a s t between the c r u e l treatment the T a r t a r s gave t o the grandmother and the tender care she gave t o t h e i r baby. This grandmother may have been the v i c t i m of a p a r t i c u l a r " w a r l i k e band headed by Shamil, who had reached legendary fame as an outstanding leader who waged continuous b a t t l e s i n order t o keep the * Kavkaz' mountains as l 6 f r e e t e r r i t o r y f o r h i s band." i i i ) Form - b a s i c a l l y aabb, w i t h v a r i a t i o n s which c h i l d r e n could f i n d by studying the score. 17 i v ) L i s t e n i n g - "In a Pine F o r e s t " Encourage students t o l i s t e n f o r improvised ornaments added by s i n g e r s . For s i m p l i c i t y ' s sake, a l l songs i n t h i s u n i t are w r i t t e n simply as the main melody on which the p a r t s are based, or t h a t a s o l o v o i c e s i n g s . l 6 P o p o f f , p. 33. 17 'Sung by Florence A. Makortoff, Grand Forks, B.C., 1963, f o r Kenneth Peacock; PEA 292 (ink), Canadian Centre f o r Fo l k C u l t u r e S t u d i e s , Ottawa. 90 d) I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h other subjects Drama. Act out the words of the song as the c l a s s s i n g s . S o c i a l S t u d i e s . Study w i t h the c l a s s the h i s t o r y of the Doukhobors (pp. 8 0 - 8 3 ) . Old people l i k e the grandmother played an important pa r t i n f a m i l y and community d e c i s i o n making. Popoff e x p l a i n s : As w i t h most Doukhobor f a m i l i e s , the o l d e r the family member, the more a u t h o r i t y he seemed t o have. Not only were Vanya's f a t h e r and uncles the decision-makers, but t h e i r aged mother, Vanya 1s grandmother, who could h a r d l y do any work, was s t i l l a respected consultant i n a l l matters. Compare the Doukhobor people w i t h a f a m i l y and the Sons of Freedom as a r a d i c a l member of the f a m i l y ; ask students t o suggest p o s s i b l e ways of handling the m i s f i t and of r e a c t i n g t o people outside the f a m i l y . Many Doukhobors p l a n t o e v e n t u a l l y r e t u r n t o R u s s i a ; d i s c u s s the pros and cons of such a move. E x p l a i n the meaning of p a c i f i s m , then have a debate on whether i t i s a good or bad philosophy. Watch the CBC f i l m , "The Doukhobors?" an hourlong 1977 documentary about the h i s t o r y and current problems of these people. Language A r t s . Ask students t o w r i t e an ending t o the n a r r a t i v e of the song, e i t h e r i n prose or poetry. A r t . Suggest -that students draw a p i c t u r e of the grandmother, e i t h e r being captured, or doing her three t a s k s . Make puppets, then put on a show t e l l i n g the s t o r y of the capture. Popoff, p. 3^. 15. "Bye Bye, Baby" a ) Background Information T h i s l u l l a b y , brought from R u s s i a t o Canada, r e f l e c t s the Doukhobors' l o v e of nature. The n i g h t i n g a l e appears f r e -quently i n Russian l i t e r a t u r e as a messenger—hopefully of peace or happy news.' O r i g i n a l v e r s i o n Moderate J = 112 19 Sung by Dora Markin Calgary, Alia., June 14, IVf>4 ' 4- + oa - - K. 6a - - B, ! E h 6 a - w- HKH 6a - » , Ba 10 0 - - Jie-Hb - Ky MO 3= -*—* Ha I T O Ha 30- p t - Ke pe, S i J- ' Be - - ceH - - He - ft y - j r — • — i . - " - " v no - - pe, - * — r a no r i T H I - KM 6o - - s a B T , / t - i — i — - n — ^ — 1 1 — •ft J ' 1 -7 * J 4 r — 4 -B TeM - HOM jie - - ce THe3 - flhl Bb - K)T. •'Kenneth Peacock, Songs of the Doukhobors, (Ottawa: N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada, B u l l e t i n " N o . 231, F o l k l o r e S e r i e s No. 7, 1970), p. 146. O r i g i n a l t r a n s l a t i o n by E l i Popoff At the breaking of the dawn When the springtime is come, Our feathered friends sing. In the dark forest they make their nests. Bye-you, bye-you, bye-youshkl, bye-you,. Go to sleep, my Olenka dear. Nightingale, you nightingale. Do not make [weave] yourself a nest. Fly instead to our orchard And this happy dwelling. Bye-you, bye-you, bye-youshki, bye-you. Go to sleep, my Olenka dear. Who is it that loves you so dearly, Who is it that caresses you so tenderly And stays awake all night Always worrying about your comfort? Bye-you, bye-you, bye-youshki, bye-you. Go to sleep, my Olenka dear. It is our mother dear, It is our precious mother. She is the one who buys us toys A n d always tells us stories. b) Song words (.Adapted by N. Luccock) R e f r a i n (sung a f t e r each v e r s e ) : Bye bye, baby, Go t o s l e e p , my l i t t l e one, Bye bye, baby Olenka, my dear. 1. As dawn breaks o'er the f o r e s t i n the s pringtime, B i r d s b u i l d i n g nests s i n g t h e i r songs without f e a r . 2. N i g h t i n g a l e , n i g h t i n g a l e , do not weave your nest t h e r e , F l y t o our orchard and stay w i t h us here. 3. Who loves you d e a r l y , who holds you t e n d e r l y , Always a comfort when t r o u b l e i s near? U. I t i s our mother, i t ' s our l o v i n g mother, She buys us t o y s , t e l l s us s t o r i e s a l l year. I b i d , pp. lVT-8. &«n*ly Bye Bye. Baby 1 3 - r r t — Kef. 6y« bye, y.l A S J A W H i j b | n j JI breaks ofer-tb - i — h -e for-e*t M» tbe 1 7 ' w ' /#*-flc one, Sfrm^*fVf»»e, J H ( O Bye bye, b*- by 0 - fen-k«,»«\y 4 e * r . (i.)$irJ* V«uU-t»^  «€i+* St'n^ tbtW **n)S wttW»»«t fe«r. INsr*wf*c*rs f f wtr».- 4 b«r< ; n© Interlude*) <o».m»f» ft»tr©.-2 burs) Sal* <yf. ft»ir».«»4 b«r«) r-. T"»C MOT' ! J J f J • 1 " 1 S*«4\>U*ks ltntr». £ 4 ,Sop. x yf... On fVp.- b Ar* ) A I J 3 9h c) M u s i c a l concepts i ) Melody - m r d t ^ s , ( d i a t o n i c s c a l e ) ; discuss the character and mood of the song, created p a r t l y by the step-wise moving melody. Add the descant on soprano xylophone a f t e r the other p a r t s have been learned. i i ) Rhythm - Help the c l a s s set a " r o c k i n g the baby" tempo; doing the a c t i o n s as they s i n g would help. i i i ) Form - two s i m i l a r phrases, repeated c o n t i n u o u s l y , even i n the r e f r a i n . C h i l d r e n might r e a l i z e t h a t the r e p e t i t i o n would help soothe the baby. 21 i v ) L i s t e n i n g - "Bye-you, Bye-you" Hear the Budapest Children's Choir s i n g "In the Green 22 F o r e s t " . Compare the same gentle rhythm of "Bye Bye, Baby" w i t h t h a t of the b e a u t i f u l Hungarian folksong arranged by Kodaly. Ask some c h i l d r e n t o do research on t h i s famous composer and r e p o r t t o the c l a s s . L i s t e n t o pieces of music which cont a i n b i r d sounds played on instruments; f o r example: P r o k o f i e f f - "Peter and the Wolf" Haydn - "Toy Symphony" Mahler - Symphony No. h. Encourage students t o l i s t e n t o b i r d sounds around t h e i r homes, then t r y t o p l a y them on classroom instruments. Sung by Dora Markin, Calgary, 1964, f o r Kenneth Peacock, PEA 319 (2023), Canadian Centre f o r F o l k C u l t u r e S t u d i e s , Ottawa. 22 "The Budapest Children's Choir at Carnegie H a l l , " RCA V i c t o r LM-2861. 95 d) I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h other subjects  Language A r t s . Ask students t o f i n d poems they l i k e about b i r d s , and prepare t o read them t o the c l a s s . A r t . F i n d p i c t u r e s of the n i g h t i n g a l e which c h i l d r e n might copy and hang on mobiles. P a i n t s p r i n g scenes on the window w i t h tempura. S o c i a l Studies. Everyone i n the extended Doukhobor f a m i l y played an important r o l e . Because the young mother had so many household chores, babies were o f t e n cared f o r by grandmothers or o l d e r s i s -t e r s . Only s i x out of t e n or f i f t e e n c h i l d r e n s u r v i v e d i n f a n c y , 23 but those who d i d were u s u a l l y very healthy and strong. Popoff t e l l s about Tanya: The years when Tanya was f o u r , f i v e and s i x were her happiest childhood y e a r s , f o r , although she was seeing and l e a r n i n g more day by day, she was not yet burdened w i t h any r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . . . . A s Tanya passed t e n years of age, she began t o have some r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s such as l o o k i n g a f t e r L i s a , running errands f o r her mother, and h e l p i n g w i t h chores i n the house. Her mother, l o v i n g and hard working as she was, was a l s o a s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n a r i a n . She had a "goose wing" i n the corner which, though commonly used f o r sweeping the house, was o f t en employed f o r d i s c i p l i n a r y measures. Compare the r o l e s of members of the modern "nuclear" f a m i l y w i t h t h a t of the t r a d i t i o n a l Doukhobor "extended" f a m i l y . Help students t o make a chart comparing t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s (number and type) w i t h those of Tanya. Discuss reasons f o r the high i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y r a t e and h e a l t h of the s u r v i v i n g c h i l d r e n . E x p l a i n why the mother had t o be a s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n a r i a n . Popoff, p. 5. I b i d , p. 9. 16; " A S a i l o r ' s S ecret" a) Background Information The only acceptable occupation f o r a Doukhobor g i r l was t h a t of her mother and grandmother before h e r — f a r m e r ' s w i f e , She knew t h a t when she reached approximately age eighteen, her parents would accept a proposal of marriage from the son of good Doukhobor parents and she would be mar-r i e d . Then her l i f e would c o n s i s t of having b a b i e s , washing c l o t h e s i n a l a k e , carding wool, s p i n n i n g , k n i t t i n g , gardening, m i l k i n g , cooking, haying, e t c . I t ' s no wonder, then, t h a t young g i r l s l i k e the ones i n the photograph (p. 102) and i n t h i s song o f t e n dreamed that a p r i n c e would come and c a r r y them away from the hard, u n e x c i t i n g l i f e t h a t l a y ahead. Popoff describes the dreams of one g i r l , Tanya, i n the f o l -lowing excerpt: She kept remembering how she had looked a f t e r L i s a as a baby, how she had combed her h a i r and p r e t t i e d her up as a young g i r l . . . . A n d now she had not seen L i s a f o r s e v e r a l years. She imagined g l o r i o u s romances enrapturing her s i s t e r , f o r L i s a would s u r e l y meet and marry a p r i n c e charming, l i k e the one Tanya had not been able t o g e t . o c . I b i d , p. 93. O r i g i n a l version' A Girl Was Sitting on the Shore P E A 320-2031 Sung by Helen Chernoff and Mrs. M. Kanygin Kylemore, Sask., June 18, 1964 Ha 6e- pe - ry en - OTT fle-BH - na, m -»—i >—r * i * h i r n \ •*— * * r-t h — F Ha mej Ka - - MH mtei njia - TOK, H i J? - K — Ha meji - Ka - MH njia - TOK. \l 1, 1 i — T — — a , 4 = — H 27 O r i g i n a l t r a n s l a t i o n A girl was sitting on the shore Embroidering a kerchief with silk threads. (2) Her work was very beautiful, But she did not have enough silk. (2) 26. Peacock, op. c i t . , p. 155. ^ I b i d , p. 157. O r i g i n a l t r a n s l a t i o n (continued) Luckily a boat appeared In the middle of the clear day. (2) "Dear sailor, have you any silk, Just a little for me?" (2) "We have, for beautiful girls like you, A great variety of silks. (2) "We have white, scarlet and fine silk, And you can have whichever you please. (2) "Be so kind, my dear girl, To come on board my boat [to see]." (2) The beautiful girl went; the sails were lifted, The sailor gave her no silk. (2) But of love and a far-off land Did the sailor sing to her. (2) When the-guitar started to play The girl fell fast asleep. (2) When Marusia woke up All around her was the blue sea. (2) "Oh sailor, sailor, put me back on shore, I feel very seasick because of the waves." (2) "You can ask me for anything but that, I will never part with you. (2) "I have travelled the seas for eight years, But I have never seen a beauty such as you." (2) "There were three sisters in the family; ' One married a count, the other Is a statesman's wife. (2) "But I. the youngest and prettiest of all. Will have to live as a simple sailor's wife." (2) "You are not just a sailor's wife, For I am the son of a king." (2) b) Song words (Adapted by N, Luccock) 1. Once a f a i r maid sat alone on the sand, Holding a k e r c h i e f i n her hand. (2) 2. As she embroidered a rose f i n e and r e d , Soon she had no more s i l k e n thread. (2) 3. Out on the ocean a boat soon appeared, Towards the f a i r maid the s a i l o r steared. (.2) h. "Dear S a i l o r , have you some s i l k t h e re f o r me?" "Yes, my dear g i r l , come here and see." (2) 5. "We have, f o r b e a u t i f u l g i r l s , j u s t l i k e you, Many f i n e s i l k s of red or blue. (2) 6. She went on board never t h i n k i n g she'd s t a y , He r a i s e d the m a i n 1 and s a i l e d away. (2) 7. He had no s i l k , but he clasped her f i n e hands, Promising l o v e and f a r - o f f lands. (2) 8. P l a y i n g h i s g u i t a r , he sang songs of the deep, Soon f a i r Marusia f e l l asleep. (2) 9. When she awoke, no l a n d could she see, Only the waves and b r i g h t blue sea. (2) 10. "Oh s a i l o r , s a i l o r , put me back on shore, Waves make me s i c k , I want no more." (2) 11. "To you, my dear, anything I w i l l g i v e , But I ' l l not leave you, long as I l i v e . " (2) 12. "I've t r a v e l l e d f a r and seen s i g h t s o l d and new, But ne'er a beauty such as you." (2) 13. Then t o the s a i l o r she proudly d i d t e l l How both her s i s t e r s married w e l l . (.2) lh. "One i s a countess, and leads a f i n e l i f e , One i s a wealthy statesman's w i f e . " (2) 15. "But I , the youngest and p r e t t i e s t by f a r , Must be the w i f e of a simple t a r . g (2) 16. "No," he r e p l i e d . "Won't you please take my r i n g , For I'm the e l d e s t son of a k i n g . " References: 1 m a i n s a i l 2 s a i l o r A Sailor 6 Secret" Gently f/*wi*a eJo=C I s 2 (y.l) Once A f*ir mfcio' sat A - /one on +Ke XAnc), HoW- in« A ker - cMef in her hAnd, y — y H#W-,AA A ktr-cAi 'ef m h i r hTn^. Only - 2 0*rsY Recor JerYno in'tvo,; f\*y on A/tern A t e Mtttti o*\y) 8A** met, (fntro.- 4 bars of 0)',3 J . j ) K 4 4 » ' i f i ; r i r i i if i<» c) M u s i c a l concepts i ) Melody - minor s c a l e ; use bars 5 - 8 t o teach the descending minor s c a l e . C h i l d r e n should n o t i c e the one changed note i n the l a s t phrase. An easy recorder part (notes -GABC) i s i n c l u d e d , based on the descant sung by a Doukhobor woman on the tape. i i ) Rhythm - T r i p l e t time; mixed meter (^  and j|) provides i n t e r e s t . Help c h i l d r e n f e e l the emphasis on the lengthened bar. i i i ) Form - B a l l a d , w i t h each verse c o n s i s t i n g of abb l i n e s . The repeated b serves t o emphasize the mood of r e f l e c t i o n or dreaminess. Ask so l o v o i c e s t o s i n g the s a i l o r and maid p a r t s while the c l a s s sings the n a r r a t i o n . 28 i v ) L i s t e n i n g - "A g i r l was s i t t i n g on the shore" d) I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h other subjects Language A r t s . Ask students t o w r i t e a short p l a y which i n c l u d e s a past and fu t u r e of e i t h e r the maid's l i f e or the s a i l o r ' s . Then act i t out, i n c l u d i n g the song i n the middle. Some students might l i k e t o f i n d p i c t u r e s and inform-a t i o n about e a r l y s a i l i n g v e s s e l s and rep o r t t o the c l a s s . Read aloud the s t o r y of "The F l y i n g Dutchman" and l i s t e n t o recordings of music from Wagner's opera. Sung by Mrs. Helen Chernoff and Mrs. Peter Kanygin, Kylemore, Saskatchewan, I96U, f o r Kenneth Peacock; PEA 320 (2031), Canadian Centre f o r F o l k C u l t u r e S t u d i e s , Ottawa. 102 I n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n may know of a s i m i l a r f a i r y t a l e from t h e i r own c u l t u r e t o t e l l to the c l a s s . A r t . Construct props f o r the p l a y , or b u i l d a s h i p out of p o p s i c l e s t i c k s and t o o t h p i c k s . S o c i a l S t u d i e s . Compare the career and marriage expectations Peacock, op. c i t . , p. 129. 103 17- "No Match f o r Me!" a) Background Information In some c o u n t r i e s , even today, marriages are arranged by a matchmaker. Because the job u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s meddling i n other people's a f f a i r s , many jokes have been made about e i t h e r the matchmaker h i m s e l f , the arrangements he has made, or h i s choice of husband or wife f o r someone e l s e . The mention of grandparents i n the l a s t verse i n d i c a t e s the important r o l e they played i n f a m i l y d e c i s i o n making (see p. 90). 30 O r i g i n a l t r a n s l a t i o n M y boyfriend has such a large nose That eight hens and a rooster can perch on it. Gie doo, gie da da, gie da doolya, doolya ya, That eight hens and a rooster can perch on it. My boyfriend would visit me to get better acquainted, But he talked only of the cows that had been milked. Gie doo. gie da da, gie da doolya, doolya ya. But he talked only of the cows that had been milked. M y boyfriend walked me home from the strawberry patch, I thought he would kiss me, but he stood there with his mouth open. Last night I woke up on the oven, 1 grabbed at a sack thinking it was a bridegroom. Don't scold, mother, don't scold me so fiercely, You were no different when you used to come home late. Mother told Peter to go out for a walk, The feather quilt is not yet finished, for the feathers are still on the chickens. They went on a white horse for a match-making. But coming home they forgot to bring the bridegroom along. JMo one was more vexed than our grandfather. Grandmother sat down on a jug threatening to ride off [on it]. I b i d , p. lkh. O r i g i n a l v e r s i o n 31 Fact J = 138 Sung by Dora Mar kin Calgary, Alia., June 14, 1964 * 4- V-4—o-Kax y MO-e - ro MH- JSO - ro a-icy-paT-Hem.- KHH HO- COK, h 1 h T ? — ^ ^ h h I Bo-ceMb Ky- po - ieic ca- flH-jiocb, j;a ,ne-Bfl-Thift ne- Ty-moK. J~i J ^—J** ^ — ^ — — ~ — - — *JL* ' -4- 4- V-^ TaS xy, raft ,na ,na, raft fla ,ny- l a , fly-Jia H, Bo-oeML K y - po - i e K oa-^flH-jioci., fla ^ e - B H - T U 8 n e - T y - m o K . b) Song words (Adapted by N. Luccock) 1. My new boyfriend's nose i s such a s i z e No mask would ever f i t , E i ght hens and a cocky r o o s t e r E a s i l y can perch on i t . Ref. Gie doo, g i e da da, g i e da doolya, doolya y a , Eight hens and a cocky r o o s t e r E a s i l y can perch on i t . T Change a f t e r each verse. My new b o y f r i e n d v i s i t s me, ^ He says he wants t o know me w e l l , But he bores me t a l k i n g Of the cows and m i l k he has t o s e l l . 3. We were matched and soon would marry But my parents f a i l e d , I f e a r : When they rode t o f e t c h the bridegroom. They fo r g o t t o b r i n g him here. h. ( s o f t e r and slower) No one was so disappointed As our dear o l d grandpapa, (now f a s t e r and louder) But the one who s a i d she'd leave us (pause) Was our angry grandmama! I b i d , p. lU3. Wo K U t c h f o r M e ! 105 o W (v-l) Fiy ntrnt bay-fr»en«Ynose «S Sack A size no iw**k WBBU ev-Cr-ftt; lfr JTJTI / J ^ |Tn^[H j -| BijKt Ken* «nd A oock-y roo<t»er £*y~i-ly c>w perck on it. > > > S 3 fftef) <rie aoo——, gic da, dA.—— .^Gie OA dool-yAjd'ool-ynyA, Si'jKt h t » « ani a ceclf-y rooit-er e*f-i-ly eon penek in*t*vi4Emts 6»tro . - 4 bar*; no mter/ude/j Sop, xyl^ Qnfno.- «g b*r< of v«r*e p A r t ) v«»*e on «t. foy,n i y g u I f o u I y c B i . Kef. r H H ? lt ' f Patgcf ien ( I n t r o . - 4 pArv* «f yerxe pAri) flatoharp ( f n t r o . - 4 b«rj of F c n o r J , I stroke perUr) fl* F F f F C , C , . F F II i o 6 c) M u s i c a l concepts i ) Melody - sfmrd ( d i a t o n i c ) ; step-wise movement makes i t a good song t o p r a c t i s e these s y l l a b l e s . G i r l s might s i n g the verses and boys the r e f r a i n s . i i ) Rhythm *- Introduce ; compare the.melodies of verse and r e f r a i n ( v a r i e d f o r i n t e r e s t ) . i i i ) Harmony - Develop students' a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t o n i c (F) and dominant seventh (C^.) chord sounds. i v ) Accompaniments - In each verse c h i l d r e n may s e l e c t a d i f f e r e n t animal sound, rhythm, and notes f o r the soprano xylophone, as suggested by the words; f o r example: "Cock-a-doo-dle-r-doo" "Moo ' " .3 H-/-JJ ID HI u |J= J U :|| "Gid-dy up, gid-dy up" "Waa i " ( l i n e l ) "Roar " ( l i n e 2) v) L i s t e n i n g - "My b o y f r i e n d has such a l a r g e nose" d) I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h other subjects Drama. While seated, c h i l d r e n might act out each verse; f o r example: v. 1 - Hold a r u l e r t o the nose and tap (on each J ) the place where each hen would s i t . v. 2 - M i l k the cows, one p u l l t o each v. 3 - Slap t h i g h s as i f r i d i n g a horse, v. k - ( l i n e l ) Rub the eyes as i f c r y i n g , ( l i n e 2) Shake a f i s t . Sung by Dora Markin, Vera Ewashin and Kay Famiwow, Calgary, A l b e r t a , 1964, f o r Kenneth Peacock, PEA 319 (2021), Canadian Centre f o r F o l k C u l t u r e S t u d i e s , Ottawa. 107 P h y s i c a l Education. Form two c i r c l e s , hoys i n s i d e the g i r l s . L i n e s 1 and 2 - C i r c l e s move i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s as c h i l d r e n run l i g h t l y around, h o l d i n g hands. R e f r a i n - Boys and g i r l s face each o t h e r , then c l a p hands: • > J I J i Own R w i t h Own L w i t h together partner's R together partner's L S o c i a l S t u d i e s. The f o l l o w i n g two quotations describe some of the misunderstandings between younger and o l d e r Doukhobor gener-a t i o n s regarding values and marriage: Couldn't her parents understand t h a t she and the Arishenkovs were so d i f f e r e n t ? . . . I v a n — s h e c a l l e d him V a n y a — s t i l l saw everything through h i s s t a i d , conserva-t i v e , r i g i d , t r a d i t i o n a l i s t f a t h e r ' s eyes. She f e l t no a f f e c t i o n f o r any of the f a m i l y , l e a s t of a l l Vanya! How on e a r t h d i d she ever agree t o go through w i t h t h i s marriage?22 Both Vanya and Fyodor were now grown men and both had become q u i t e headstrong. They had not been as a t -t e n t i v e t o t h e i r parents i n the s t r i c t keeping of a l l the Doukhobor t r a d i t i o n s as the Arishenkovs had always been. They d i d not care t o attend prayer meetings as r e g u l a r l y as Tanya would have l i k e d them.to. They had i n s i s t e d on working outside the community and had be-come acquainted w i t h some r a t h e r questionable c h a r a c t e r s . Tanya and Vanya, i n t h e i r extreme an x i e t y t o change the d i s t r e s s i n g s i t u a t i o n , had pressured Ivan t o marry Loosha O s t r i k o v a . r Discuss the pros and cons of matched marriages. What c r i t e r i a might parents use i n choosing a marriage partner f o r t h e i r c h i l d ? Popoff, p. 28. ^ I b i d , p. 171+. 108 18, "Matchmaker, You Lying R a s c a l " (Lithuanian) a) Background Information This o l d L i t h u a n i a n chant, on the same t o p i c as the previous Doukhohor song, was c o l l e c t e d by Kenneth Peacock i n Ontario i n I967 and i s sung o f t e n at Lithuanian-Canadian gath-e r i n g s . According t o Peacock, the male matchmaker a t a L i t h u -anian wedding was u s u a l l y threatened w i t h hanging f o r having brought the couple together and arranged the wedding; u s u a l l y an e f f i g y was hung while the guests sang t h i s song of r i d i c u l e . 36 O r i g i n a l v e r s i o n and t r a n s l a t i o n . Matchmaker, You Lying Rascal (Pirsly, selma, melagi) PEA 404-2791 s 116, moderate Sun/; by Mrs. Skolaiija Sihilskiene Hespeler. Ontario. October I. 1967 m m Plr - sly, sal - ma, ne- l a - g l , Pirs-daoa g l - r e l Tie-te-1^, Pirsly, selma, melagi, Pirsdams girei vieteh\, Sakei, muro nameliai Irdideli langeliai. Kai as jauna nuvejau, Nieka gera neradau: Medineliai nameliai, Kumscia kisami langeliai. PirSly, Selma, melagi, PirSU\ reiks kart uz virveles! Matchmaker, you lying rascal, While making a match you praised the place, You said it was a brick house With large windows. When I, the young innocent arrived, I found nothing good: A little wooden cottage, Fist-sized windows. Matchmaker, you lying rascal, It will be necessary to hang you by a rope! 35 Kenneth Peacock, A Garland of Rue, L i t h u a n i a n  Folksongs from the Mating C y c l e , (Ottawa: N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada, 1970), p. 27. 36 I b i d . M o d e r a t e J o * 6^ l/£l,3 J J 1 i J n i i ft^H^ i (v.l) PUfon - rwak- € r > lA n i i /ou told A i J n i * »* w—#—-Mow |V « s e e n i t / w A * t t » e ry . iMsr^tfMC^irs ('intro. * * « interludes - 4 p*rs^ ft I to xyl. (i 4 Purs ) S*P±JLyL(l*tr0~ * PArs^ ±s rr~jT 4 Suss m*ft (lntro.-4 pftrsfr frrun* ( I n t r o . - 2 p«rs\ 110 b) Song words (Adapted by N . Luccock) 1. Matchmaker, you t o l d a l i e , Wow I've seen i t , I want t o cry. 2. You s a i d i t was a f i n e l o o k i n g house, I t h i n k i t i s n ' t f i t f o r a mouse. 3. No b i g windows or house made of b r i c k s , J u s t a hut. How s h a l l I get i t f i x e d ? h. Matchmaker, you t o l d a l i e , From a rope I ' l l hang you way up high. c) M u s i c a l Concepts i ) Melody - minor (do r i a n mode on d ) . The simple melody c o n s i s t s of two measures repeated over and over again. C h i l d r e n could transpose the song up one step then p l a y the notes CAG on the recorder. i i ) Rhythm - C h i l d r e n might n o t i c e t h a t the combined e i g h t h and quarter note patt e r n s create a f e e l i n g of energy i n many Eastern European songs. i i i ) L i s t e n i n g - "Matchmaker, Matchmaker" from " F i d d l e r on the Roof". Compare the t r a d i t i o n a l songs, "Matchmaker, You 38 Ly i n g R a s c a l " and "No Match f o r Me!" (p. 106) w i t h each other and w i t h the commercial production. 37 United A r t i s t s Records, Inc. Sung by Mrs. S h o l a c i j a S i h i l s k i e n e , Hespeler, Ontario, 1967, f o r Kenneth Peacock, PEA hok (.2791), Canadian Centre f o r F o l k Culture S t u d i e s , Ottawa. I l l I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h other subjects A r t . C h i l d r e n might draw a p i c t u r e of the house, the weeping b r i d e , or the hanging matchmaker. S o c i a l Studies. Discuss the procedure of matchmaking and the reasons why i t was used. Compare the a t t i t u d e of the b r i d e i n t h i s song w i t h t h a t of the g i r l i n "No Match f o r Me" and i n "Matchmaker, Matchmaker". Study the marriage customs of d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s . Perhaps c l a s s members could f i n d out which customs t h e i r f a m i l i e s have r e t a i n e d or l e f t i n t h e i r homeland. P h y s i c a l Education. Create a dance which expresses the f e e l i n g s of the c h a r a c t e r s ; f o r example: C h i l d r e n form two c i r c l e s , g i r l s i n s i d e boys, w i t h a f r i g h t e n e d matchmaker i n the centre. As boys and g i r l s move i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s , doing the same step, boys f o l d t h e i r arms proudly w h i l e g i r l s shake t h e i r f i s t s a n g r i l y at the matchmaker. Change the matchmaker when the song i s repeated. 3 4 J J i I R f t . stamps, L f t . slaps forward R f t . hops R f i s t shakes R f i s t shakes R f i s t : , shakes ; J J \ L f t . stamps R f t . slaps forward L f t . hops L f i s t shakes L f i s t shakes L f i s t shakes Language A r t s . C h i l d r e n might make up a p l a y about the match-making—the groom's happy p r i d e at having a b r i d e , the angry g i r l ' s a r r i v a l , and the matchmaker's r i t u a l h a n g i n g — i n c l u d i n g the above dance. BIBLIOGRAPHY " A r c t i c i n Colour". Y e l l o w k n i f e : Dept. of Information, Gov't, of the Worth West T e r r i t o r i e s , S p r i n g , 1972. B o l t o n , Laura. "The Eskimos of Hudson Bay and A l a s k a . " Folkways Album FE hkhk and brochure. B.C. Indian A r t s S o c i e t y . Tales from the Longhouse. Sidney, B.C.: Gray's P u b l i s h i n g , 1973-C l u t e s i , George. P o t l a t c h . Sidney, B.C.: Gray's P u b l i s h i n g , 1969. Densmore, Frances. Nootka and Quileute Music. New York: Da Capo Pr e s s , 1972, r e p r i n t of 1939 e d i t i o n . Fowke, E d i t h , Alan M i l l s and Helmut Blume. Canada's Story i n  Song. Toronto: W.J. Gage, i 9 6 0 . Halpern, Ida. "Nootka-Indian Music of the P a c i f i c North West Coast." Folkways Album No. FE U52H, and brochure. Hodgins, Jack, ed. The F r o n t i e r Experience. Toronto: Macmillan Co. of Canada, 1975. Hofmann, Charles. Drum Dance—Legends, Ceremonies, Dances, and  Songs of the Eskimos. Agincourt: Gage P u b l i s h i n g , 197^-Houston, James, ed. Songs of the Dream People. Don M i l l s , Ontario: Longman Canada, 1972. Jenness, D. Report of the Canadian A r c t i c E x p e d i t i o n , 1913-18. Ottawa: F.A. Acland, 1925. Kaye, V l a d i m i r J . E a r l y U k r a i n i a n Settlements i n Canada, 1895-1900. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 196k. Klymasz, Robert B. An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Ukrainian-Canadian Immi- grant Folksong Cycle. Ottawa: N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada. B u l l e t i n No. 23^, F o l k l o r e S e r i e s No. 8, 1970. . The U k r a i n i a n Winter Folksong Cycle i n Canada. Ottawa: N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada. B u l l e t i n No. 236, F o l k l o r e S e r i e s No. 9, 1970. 112 Kurelek, W i l l i a m . Kurelek's Canada. Toronto: Pagurian P r e s s , 1975. Lewis, B r i a n W., ed. Eskimo Myths. Ottawa: Dept. of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, A r c t i c Reading S e r i e s , Reader 13, 1968. Mealing, F.M., "Sons of Freedom Songs i n E n g l i s h , " Canadian F o l k  Music J o u r n a l , V o l . h. Toronto: Canadian F o l k Music S o c i e t y , 1976. Peacock, Kenneth. Twenty Ethnic Songs from Western Canada. Ottawa: N a t i o n a l Museum of Canada, 1966. . A Garland of Rue, Li t h u a n i a n Folksongs from the Mating Cycle. Ottawa: N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada, 1970. . Songs of the Doukhobors. Ottawa: N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada. B u l l e t i n No. 231, F o l k l o r e S e r i e s No. 7, 1970. Popoff, E l i . Tanya. Grand Forks, B.C.: mir P u b l i c a t i o n S o c i e t y , 1975-Roberts, Helen H., and Morris Swadesh. Songs of the Nootka Indians of Western Vancouver I s l a n d . P h i l a d e l p h i a : The Amer-i c a n P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y . V o l . 1+5» Part 3, June, 1955. Rudnyckyj, J.B., ed. Ukrainian-Canadian F o l k l o r e . Winnipeg: U k r a i n i a n Free Academy of Sciences, i 9 6 0 . Wiley, W i l l i a m . Canada: This l a n d of ours, Elementary e d i t i o n . Ginn and Co., 1976. Woodcock, George, and Ivan Avakumovic. The Doukhobors. Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968. Yuzyk, P a u l . U k r a i n i a n Canadians: T h e i r P l a c e and Role i n  Canadian L i f e . Toronto: U k r a i n i a n Canadian Business and P r o f e s s i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n , 1967. 113 INDEX OF MUSICAL CONCEPTS (Songs l i s t e d s e q u e n t i a l l y f o r teaching music reading w i t h the Kodaly approach) Song 1. A Lucky Hunt(32) Melody s m Rhythm Other s t a c c a t o , accent, repeat 2. Christmas C a r o l No. 1(71) I s m n s l u r 3. C a l l i n g Song(11) I s m g l i s s a n d o , p and f , coda k. L i t t l e S i s t e r Lost( 5 3 ) I s m tempo ( f a s t - s l o w ) , p and f 5. P o t l a t c h Song(17) 1 3 m r s l u r , form, r e f r a i n 6. In a Pine Forest (88) m r d 1, ( f opt.) i m p r o v i s a t i o n , rec.(AG), form 7- Matchmaker, You Lying Rascal(109) d 1, s (minor) k t r a n s p o s i t i o n 8. The Returning Hunter(35) s m d 1, s, crescendo, p and f , form 9- Paddle Song(5) smrdl,s, rec.(GAC), c r e s c . , a n a c r u s i s , phrase 10. No Match f o r Me! (105) s f m r d (major) r e f r a i n , harmony, t e x t u r e 11. Bye Bye, Baby(93) major s c a l e m descant, form, r e f r a i n , t e x t u r e 12. My Trusty Ford (66) major s c a l e n xylophone, tam-bourine 13. Canada, My Country(60) minor s c a l e s l u r , form, anacrusis Ik. The Raven Sings minor s c a l e ( s i ) form, anacrusis 15. Christmas C a r o l No. 2(76) minor s c a l e round 16. A Weather Chant (kl) minor s c a l e (mdl, t r i a d ) form, s l u r , p and f 17. A S a i l o r ' s Secret(lOO) minor s c a l e 3 K J rec.(CBAG), b a l l a d 18. Song of a L i t t l e Bov ( 2 M s m anacrusis Ilk 

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