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An exploratory study of Egan’s four stages of educational development and their application to curriculum… Schueler, Annemarie 1980

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AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF EGAN'S FOUR STAGES OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR APPLICATION TO CURRICULUM DESIGN IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION by ANNEMARIE SCHUELER B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Faculty  o f Education'^  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to t h e r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1980  c Annemarie S c h u e l e r , 1980  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by  his  of  this  Date  it  for  freely  permission may  is  financial  Wesbrook  of  British  gain  Columbia  Place  Canada  1W5  (Z^f as /?ro  British  by  for  shall  the  that  not  requirements  Columbia,  I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  understood  of  University  of  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment of  available  permission.  Vancouver, V6T  make  that  in p a r t i a l  the U n i v e r s i t y  purposes  thesis  Department  2075  at  representatives.  written  The  thesis  of  this  or  that  study. thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT  This tion It  study  curriculum u t i l i z i n g  began w i t h  approaches activity both  the premise  programs.  the elementary  The physical theory  they  Although  level  developmental  span t h e y e a r s  mythic, from  the  focuses  finding  answers:  theory  of Piaget"s  to indicate the  of educational  development  stages  should  theory  outlines four  p h i l o s o p h i c , and i r o n i c .  which  curriculum.  theory  such as Egan's.  educational  romantic,  upon f o u r q u e s t i o n s What  that  i s drawn between a p s y c h o l o g i c a l  Educational  s u c h as l e a r n i n g and m o t i v a t i o n  f o r organizing  perspective.  t h e o r i e s have played i n  i s cited  4 to maturity.  of different  deal of  theory, i n terms o f d e s i g n i n g  and comprehensive  principles theory  Research  and an e d u c a t i o n a l  stages:  characteristics  t o program p l a n n i n g a t  and i n p a r t i c u l a r  Egan's t h e o r y  and a comparison  as P i a g e t ' s  development  or non-theoretical  a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a great  developmental  education.curricula.  developmental  approaches  curriculum design  of Piaget's  theory.  have r e s u l t e d i n fragmentary, i n c o n s i s t e n t ,  examines t h e r o l e  education  articulated  e d u c a t i o n a l development  too often e c l e c t i c  recent  secondary  Egan's o r i g i n a l  in  that  Egan's  of c o g n i t i v e development.  physical  stages  Kieran  of s t r u c t u r i n g p h y s i c a l educa-  seem t o l a c k a n e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l  study  limitations  such  the p o s s i b i l i t y  to curriculum design  diversity,  is  explored  aspects  are dealt with  of  through the  i n turn lead directly  With  The  to  i t s educational orientation,  t o which  educators  our end-product be l i k e ?  are interested What  should  we  teach?  When s h o u l d  pervaded with matter stage  we  teach?  the question  to provide  should  we  teach?  of the appropriateness  t o each developmental to stage  How  stage  optimal  and w i t h growth  of structuring  making  through  H i s theory i s  connections  the e n t i r e  subject  from  educational  process. Utilizing study  of the theory  activity  provides  suitable  areas:  us w i t h  activities  at each  meaningful  the study  suggests  the three  might  t h a t Egan's  the physical education  e d u c a t i o n a l - o r i e n t e d paradigm  from k i n d e r g a r t e n  in  curriculum. i n terms o f t h r e e  a n d games.  activities  stages, the  Egan's go a b o u t  theory structuring  be most e d u c a t i o n a l l y  stage.  can o f f e r  theory  i s discussed  gymnastics,  and w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r  development  p h y s i c a l education  a t each stage  dance,  of the four  g u i d e l i n e s a s t o how b e s t we m i g h t  I n summary,  Egan's  d e r i v e d from each  e x p l o r e s ways o f s t r u c t u r i n g  Application broad  the principles  will  to grade twelve. help  from which  Utilizing  affective  and  psychomotor  development.  for  designing p h y s i c a l education  curricula.  i i i  to plan  a more  programs  t h e main p r i n c i p l e s of  development,  Egan's theory  of educational  curriculum planner  s t r u c t u r e more c o h e r e n t  domains o f :  theory  developmental  programs  c o g n i t i v e development,  appears  t o o p e n new  doors  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  i i  Chapter I INTRODUCTION  1  Rationale Purpose o f t h e Study II  1 17  DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM DESIGN  19  P i a g e t s Theory o f C o g n i t i v e Development L i m i t a t i o n o f P i a g e t ' s Theory f o r P r o v i d i n g I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Curriculum Design i n P h y s i c a l Education . What i s an E d u c a t i o n a l Theory o f Development? Egan's Theory o f E d u c a t i o n a l Development  19  1  III  ...  25 35 42  EGAN'S FOUR STAGES OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT . . . .  44  M y t h i c Stage Characteristics P r i n c i p l e s f o r O r g a n i z i n g Knowledge Games The Romantic Stage Characteristics P r i n c i p l e s f o r O r g a n i z i n g Knowledge Games The P h i l o s o p h i c Stage Characteristics P r i n c i p l e s f o r O r g a n i z i n g Knowledge Games I r o n i c Stage Characteristics IV  . .  APPLICATION OF EGAN'S DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM M y t h i c Stage Dance Gymnastics Games General P r i n c i p l e s f o r Organizing A c t i v i t i e s a t t h e M y t h i c Stage iv  45 45 48 49 52 52 54 56 59 59 62 '' 64 65 65 73  . . . .  73 74 80 82  Physical 86  Romantic Stage 88 Dance 89 Gymnastics 94 Games 96 General P r i n c i p l e s f o r Organizing P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m a t t h e Romantic Stage . . 99 P h i l o s o p h i c Stage 101 Dance . 102 Gymnastics 104 Games 106 General P r i n c i p l e s f o r Organizing P h y s i c a l Education Curriculum at the Philosophic Stage 109 I r o n i c Stage I l l V.  SUMMARY  115  BIBLIOGRAPHY  117  v  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Rationale In 1980, t h e f i n d i n g o f t h e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Assessment i n B r i t i s h Columbia suggested t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programs, a t b o t h t h e element a r y and secondary l e v e l , a r e w o e f u l l y i n a d e q u a t e . measured t h e psychomotor and c o g n i t i v e achievement s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n grades 3, 7, and 11.  The assessment o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3000  The r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d  that:  ". . . t h e motor a b i l i t y and f i t n e s s r e s u l t s o f t h e secondary females and of a l l elementary s t u d e n t s g e n e r a l l y r e c e i v e d 'Weak' r a t i n g s The r e s u l t s o f t h e w r i t t e n t e s t measuring knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f concepts i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t improvement i s needed at a l l grade l e v e l s , as a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f q u e s t i o n s r e c e i v e d r a t i n g 2  of  ' l e s s than S a t i s f a c t o r y ' .  was t h a t :  Another major f i n d i n g o f t h e assessment  "There i s a d i s t u r b i n g l y h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f overweight s t u d e n t s , 3  b o t h male and f e m a l e , a t t h e t h r e e l e v e l s a s s e s s e d . " As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s , one o f t h e major  recommendations  s t a t e d by t h e r e p o r t was: •'"British Columbia Assessment o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Summary R e p o r t , December 1979, p. 1. 2  I b i d . , p. 33. 3  I b i d . , p. 1. 1  2  That t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , l o c a l S c h o o l Boards, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and t e a c h e r s of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n ensure t h a t P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n programs p r o v i d e an i n c r e a s e d emphasis on s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g outcomes i n the areas of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , motor a b i l i t y , and knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . P a r t i c u l a r emphasis s h o u l d be p l a c e d on body f a t r e d u c t i o n , c a r d i o - v a s c u l a r endurance, development of fundamental motor s k i l l s , and knowledge b a s i c t o P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . ^ The r e p o r t summarizes t h e p r e s e n t s t a t u s of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e and r e v e a l s the many problems t h a t e x i s t i n the  field.  M a n i f e s t e d i n t h i s r e p o r t , t h e n , i s the need f o r p l a n n e r s of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m t o s e r i o u s l y examine p a s t approaches t o c u r r i c u l u m development and e x p l o r e f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s i n c u r r i c u l a development. U n t i l about 1965,  p h y s i c a l education curriculum planning  concerns  i n Canada c e n t e r e d m a i n l y around debates about w h i c h a c t i v i t i e s be i n c l u d e d i n t h e program and w h i c h a c t i v i t i e s from t h e e x i s t i n g s y l l a b u s .  s h o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d  Dimensions of program c h o i c e s were based  upon a somewhat l i m i t e d v a r i e t y of team games, g y m n a s t i c s , and thenics. stated:  should  calis-  I n 1965, Van V l i e t , w r i t i n g about 'the c u r r i c u l u m today' "To a r e s t r i c t e d program of c a l i s t h e n i c s have been added o t h e r  activities  . . .Curriculum  changes, a c c o r d i n g t o him had  taken  p l a c e , not as a r e s u l t of an expanding t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e , but r a t h e r as a r e s u l t of new  t r e n d s or movements such as Swedish g y m n a s t i c s ,  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  o f new  to  f a c i l i t i e s f o r games such as t e n n i s or swimming.  An h o l i s t i c approach t o c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n was b e i n g l i t t l e more than a p o t p o u r r i of I n 1974,  or due  r a r e l y apparent,  programs  activities.  W i l l g o o s e , w r i t i n g about c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g i n p h y s i c a l  4 I b i d . , p.  47.  "Van V l i e t , M. L., P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n Canada, P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1965), p. 134.  (Scarborough:  3 e d u c a t i o n had t h i s t o say.  " A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e many b e t t e r programs  today than t h e r e used t o be, t h e r e i s a s t r o n g tendency t o s i m p l y r e p e a t each y e a r what went on t h e y e a r b e f o r e . Today, t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f d e s i g n i n g a sound p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m have been acknowledged by most p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s , c o - o r d i n a t o r s , and p l a n n e r s a t t h e m i n i s t r y l e v e l .  A particular  diffi-  c u l t y i n t r y i n g t o d e a l w i t h recommendations such as t h o s e mentioned i n the Summary R e p o r t , i s t h e g e n e r a l l a c k o f agreement as t o what c o n s t i t u t e s a 'good' p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m o r a p h y s i c a l l y  educated  person. Recent approaches t o program p l a n n i n g a t t h e secondary c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a g r e a t d e a l o f d i v e r s i t y . physical fitness.  level are  Some programs emphasize  These types o f programs s t r e s s those  activities  w h i c h p r o v i d e v i g o r o u s e x e r c i s e and improve t h e h e a l t h and f i t n e s s parameters o f :  c a r d i o - v a s c u l a r endurance, f l e x i b i l i t y ,  endurance and s t r e n g t h .  muscular  Such programs s t r e s s good h e a l t h , t h e r e l a t i o n -  s h i p s between p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and n u t r i t i o n , body s t r u c t u r e , and f u n c t i o n and p h y s i o l o g y .  The c r i t e r i a f o r making judgments about what s h o u l d be  i n c l u d e d i n such programs a r e based upon i n f o r m a t i o n from p h y s i o l o g y , motor t h e o r y , m e d i c a l r e p o r t s and a d v i c e from f i t n e s s e x p e r t s such as Cooper.^ Other programs emphasize l i f e time s p o r t s and may, a t t h e h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l , o f f e r m u l t i - a c t i v i t y programs.  Students may choose from a  ^ W i l l g o o s e , C a r l E., The C u r r i c u l u m i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1974), p. 84. ^Cooper, Kenneth H., A e r o b i c s , (New York: 1968).  Bantam Books I n c . ,  4 wide v a r i e t y o f s p o r t o r r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s .  These smorgasborg-type of  programs o f t e n emphasize the ' p l a y ' a s p e c t , t h e i n t r i n s i c e x p e r i e n c e , the s o c i a l i z i n g o b j e c t i v e . v a r i e d , drawing  and  The t h e o r e t i c a l bases of such programs a r e  support from a . v a r i e t y of s o u r c e s .  the c o n c e p t u a l framework i s not a t a l l c l e a r .  However, a t t i m e s ,  Siedentop  states:  "Some  programs a r e so c o n f u s i n g t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s o r t o u t ' a coherent  set  of i d e a s w h i c h might u n d e r g i r d the conduct of the program, and o c c a s i o n a l l y one f i n d s t h a t s e v e r a l c o n t r a d i c t o r y i d e a s a r e p r e s e n t i n the same  ..8 program. Another contemporary approach, which a t times o v e r l a p s w i t h the ' p l a y ' approach, i s t h e h u m a n i s t i c o r p e r s o n - o r i e n t e d program.  Hellison  i n h i s book, Beyond B a l l s and B a t s , d e s c r i b e s such a program. The h u m a n i s t i c approach t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n emphasizes t h e s e a r c h f o r p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y t h a t each of us must s t r u g g l e w i t h t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t c u l t u r e p e r m i t s and our s e l f - a w a r e n e s s demands.^ H u m a n i s t i c based c u r r i c u l a tend t o emphasize the. a f f e c t i v e domain making i t d i f f i c u l t f o r p l a n n e r s t o p r e c i s e l y o u t l i n e o b j e c t i v e s and g o a l s  and  t h e r e f o r e a r e o f t e n s u b j e c t t o t h e k i n d of c r i t i c i s m s t a t e d above by Siedentop. A r e c e n t development t h a t has gained p o p u l a r i t y i s termed t h e systems approach.  P l a n n e r s such as S i n g e r and D i e k " ^ argue t h a t t h i s  approach i s based on t h e most r e c e n t t e c h n o l o g i c a l , s c i e n t i f i c ,  and  e d u c a t i o n a l developments. The systems approach f o c u s e s upon the type of g Siedentop, D a r y l , P h y s i c a l Education: I n t r o d u c t o r y A n a l y s i s , (Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Company P u b l i s h e r s , 1976), p. 245. o H e l l i s o n , Don, Beyond Bats and B a l l s , (Washington: AAPHER P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1978), p. 2. S i n g e r , Robert N., and W a l t e r D i c k , Teaching P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n : A Systems Approach, (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1974). 1 0  5  i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g y which enables s t u d e n t s to a c h i e v e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s , i n a d e f i n e d manner. of  " M e t i c u l o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n and  sequencing  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o n t e n t by t h e t e a c h e r means t h a t the s t u d e n t can  proceed t h r o u g h the c o n t e n t a t h i s own pace, w i t h r e i n f o r c e m e n t b u i l t i n t o the program each time he/she masters a p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l o r s t r a t e g y . " At t h e elementary l e v e l , c u r r i c u l u m concerns a r e c o l o r e d by a d i v e r s i t y of i d e a s .  Many programs have been i n f l u e n c e d by Laban's  t h e o r y of movement.  These movement e d u c a t i o n programs o r g a n i z e a c t i v -  i t i e s around such concepts as body awareness, space, shape, and qualities.  effort  Other programs r e f l e c t the r e s e a r c h and t h e o r y of p e o p l e 12  such as D e l a c a t o and Kephart  i n t h e a r e a of p e r c e p t u a l - m o t o r  ences and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o academic growth. upon the p e r c e i v e d h e a l t h needs of c h i l d r e n .  experi-  S t i l l o t h e r s are based  T o p i c s such as body s t r u c -  t u r e and f u n c t i o n , n u t r i t i o n , s a f e t y and d i s e a s e , comprise a major p o r t i o n of  the c u r r i c u l u m .  C u r r e n t p r e s s u r e s to implement d a i l y p h y s i c a l  t i o n a t the elementary l e v e l a r e a l s o a f f e c t i n g programs. some programs a r e expanding  educa-  As a r e s u l t  t h e scope of a c t i v i t i e s t o i n c l u d e a q u a t i c s ,  outdoor p u r s u i t s , and more, becoming almost m u l t i - a c t i v i t y k i n d s of programs, whereas i n some s c h o o l s d a i l y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n has r e s t r i c t e d t h e scope.  actually  A d a i l y j o g g i n g r o u t e or d i s c o f i t n e s s becomes  the e n t i r e a c t i v i t y program. D e s i g n e r s o f c u r r i c u l a , whether concerned w i t h 'movement* t h e o r y or ' p l a y ' t h e o r y , b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r programs r e p r e s e n t a 'Good' p h y s i c a l " ^ V e r t i n s k y , P a t r i c i a , A l t e r n a t i v e C u r r i c u l u m / T e a c h i n g Models and T h e i r U t i l i t y i n Implementing Secondary P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Programs, mimeographed paper, U.B.C, 1979, pp. 8-9. 12 K e p h a r t , N. C , The Slow L e a r n e r i n the Classroom, C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l P u b l i s h i n g Company), 1960.  (Columbus:  6 education province in  curriculum. to province,  some a r e a s .  tutes  a  takes  place  district  Difficulties  programs tend  to d i s t r i c t ,  to d i f f e r  g r e a t l y from  and even s c h o o l  to school,  i n o b t a i n i n g agreement a s t o what  consti-  'good' c u r r i c u l u m a r e f u r t h e r compounded when o n e e v a l u a t e s at the p r a c t i c a l  grams b y s u p p o r t i n g given  As a r e s u l t  Equipment  program d e c i s i o n s . affect  and f a c i l i t i e s  Teacher b i a s e s  have,  c u r r i c u l u m programs.  "When t h e i n d i v i d u a l resulting  Administrators  d e c i s i o n s made c o n c e r n i n g  t o programs.  future,  level.  teacher  can i n f l u e n c e  what pro-  amount o f t i m e a n d money available will  i n the past,  also  and w i l l  curb  i n the  As D a u g h t r e y h a s p o i n t e d o u t ,  selects  activities  f o r instruction, the  program u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f a c t i v i t i e s  w h i c h he l i k e s and  13 w h i c h he f e e l s teacher year's  was  sufficiently  experienced  program  could  supplemented by Until based  i n the area  games o r s p o r t s , a  i n c l u d e rugby, b a s k e t b a l l , and t r a c k and  past  experiences  even though textbooks  children at different  characterized  ages.  by d i v e r s i t y  i n s p o r t s and t h e i r d i d o u t l i n e need  Mostly,  of thought  however,  at both  field,  personal  and  much  activity  characteristics  curricula  planning  the elementary  have begun t o d i s c u s s  a K-12 a p p r o a c h t o w a r d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  understanding  and t h e  i n greater  based upon an i n c r e a s e d  o f e d u c a t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h .  They  have  13 Daughtrey, Greyson, E f f e c t i v e for  was  level.  More r e c e n t l y , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s detail  i f the  calisthenics.  on t e a c h e r s '  secondary  of t r a d i t i o n a l  Thus,  t h e m i d 60's, t h e r e f o r e , c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s were v e r y  preferences, of  knowledgeable t o teach."  Secondary  Schools,  (Philadelphia:  Teaching W.  i n Physical  B. S a u n d e r s ,  Education,  1973), p . 146.  7 begun to draw i m p l i c a t i o n f o r d e s i g n i n g c u r r i c u l u m from a v a r i e t y of theories:  psychology,  l e a r n i n g , s o c i o l o g y , movement, growth and matura-  t i o n , motor l e a r n i n g , and c o g n i t i v e developmental  theories.  I t i s hoped  t h a t t h e s e t h e o r i e s can h e l p o r g a n i z e c u r r i c u l u m more s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , moving i t away from a mere smorgasborg of a c t i v i t i e s and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t o a p l a c e of importance  advancing  i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m .  P s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s were imported i n t o e d u c a t i o n and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g were o f t e n l i s t e d i n o r d e r t o keep up w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t areas where t h e o r i e s were p e r c e i v e d t o have an even g r e a t e r impact.  For example, L e n e l s t a t e s i n her i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Games i n t h e  Primary School:  " E d u c a t i o n today i s so much concerned  with child  chology and development t h a t t h e r e i s an urgent need f o r t h e i r  psy-  applica-  14 t i o n t o games t e a c h i n g i n l i n e w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s . "  The  translation  of these t h e o r i e s i n t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s was meant t o g i v e c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r s more s u b s t a n t i a l f o c u s i n t h e i r quest f o r d e c i d i n g upon w h i c h a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d and how  b e s t they s h o u l d  be  t e a c h i n g them. Developmental and l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s , i t i s hoped, may  offer  the  c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r a s e t of t o o l s from w h i c h to make more r a t i o n a l p r o gram d e c i s i o n s . O b e r t e u f e r et a l . , suggest t h a t : P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , . . r e q u i r e s the guidance of c a r e f u l l y formul a t e d p r i n c i p l e s , w i t h o u t which i t i s easy t o l o s e s i g h t of what the program i s a t t e m p t i n g t o do, and t h e r e i s t h e danger of e s t a b l i s h i n g a program w h i c h has no concern f o r the end r e s u l t . O b e r t e u f e r goes on t o say, " P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n has s u f f e r e d from b e i n g 14 L e n e l , R. M., Games i n the P r i m a r y S c h o o l , (London: of London P r e s s , 1969), p. 7. York:  University  "'"^Oberteufer, D e l b e r t , and C e l e s t e U l i c h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Harper & Row, 1970), p. 318.  (New  i n u n d a t e d w i t h t o o many p r a c t i t i o n e r s ;  n o t enough a t t e n t i o n has been  16 g i v e n t o t h e o r y and r e a s o n . " Today many new c u r r i c u l a a r e based upon developmental t h e o r i e s . There i s a s t r o n g t h r u s t toward  t h e concept  p l a n n i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programs. cepts.  o f scope and sequence i n  W i l l g o o s e d e f i n e s these  con-  ". . . Scope r e f e r s t o t h e b r e a d t h o f t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  curriculum—what  s h o u l d be taught a t a l l grade l e v e l s .  Sequence,  . . . r e f e r s t o t h e when o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m " " ' " ^ — t h e s k i l l l e v e l s i n each activity.  The new B.C. Secondary P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m , f o r  example, has u t i l i z e d t h e scope and sequence i d e a f o r o r g a n i z i n g t h e e n t i r e program.  I t emphasizes " p r o g r e s s i v e development" s t a t i n g t h a t :  "To p r o v i d e a developmental  framework w h i c h w i l l a s s i s t i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g  the g o a l and l e a r n i n g outcomes o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m , t h e c o u r s e c o n t e n t i s 18 d i v i d e d i n t o seven major a c t i v i t y c a t e g o r i e s . " scope o f t h e program. cating four l e v e l s .  This represents the  F o r each a c t i v i t y i t g i v e s a sequence c h a r t i n d i "Each A c t i v i t y Sequence Chart emphasizes a p r o g r e s -  s i o n from f o u n d a t i o n a l t o more s o p h i s t i c a t e d movement p a t t e r n s .  Gener-  a l l y t h e movement p a t t e r n s a r e c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o b a s i c o r i n d i 19 vidual s k i l l s  f o l l o w e d by team o r group a c t i v i t i e s  the a c t i v i t y c h a r t s themselves  ..."  r e f l e c t a developmental  I n essence,  focus i n the  I b i d .domain. , p. 319.T h i s k i n d o f l e v e l s approach i s a l s o b e i n g psychomotor 1 6  " ^ W i l l g o o s e , C a r l E., The C u r r i c u l u m i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1974), p. 136. 18 M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , Secondary P h y s i c a l C u r r i c u l u m and Resource Guides, V i c t o r i a , 1980, p. 6. 19 I b i d . , p. 15.  utilized  9 i n o r g a n i z i n g K-12  programs.  Jean P i a g e t ' s w e l l d e f i n e d t h e o r y of c o g n i t i v e development has a l s o had a tremendous impact upon c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l , i n c l u d i n g p h y s i c a l education  practices.  G e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s from h i s t h e o r y have l e d  e d u c a t o r s i n t o making i n s t r u c t i o n a l recommendations p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the areas of c u r r i c u l u m s e q u e n c i n g , ology.  c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t , and t e a c h i n g method-  A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no evidence of a s t r i c t l y  designed P i a g e t i a n  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program, t h e r e a r e many a s p e c t s of programs t h a t draw from P i a g e t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l  t h e o r y , and c o n s e q u e n t l y P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y  be used as a major example throughout  this  will  thesis.  C o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n t o P i a g e t ' s  developmental  t h e o r y by B r i t i s h w r i t e r s d e a l i n g w i t h p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m . 20 James makes f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e t o P i a g e t throughout emphasizes t h r e e p o i n t s of P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y .  her book.  She  F i r s t , that c h i l d r e n ,  e s p e c i a l l y a t t h e e a r l y s t a g e s , b e g i n t o l e a r n about t h e w o r l d around them through movements and t h a t t h i s l e a r n i n g o c c u r s as a r e s u l t o f t h e c h i l d i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the environment.  P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n can a i d i n  t h i s development by p r o v i d i n g a s t i m u l a t i n g and v a r i e d environment. T h i s i s a c o n c l u s i o n whose d e s i r a b i l i t y i s r e a d i l y agreed  t o w i t h o u t need  to r e f e r to a complex p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y . Secondly, suggest  she emphasizes  aspects of P i a g e t ' s theory which  ttoat c h i l d r e n s h o u l d p e r f o r m s k i l l s w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  t h a t s k i l l as opposed t o m e c h a n i c a l mastery of a s k i l l .  of  Her t h i r d p o i n t  i s t h a t l a t e r l e a r n i n g b u i l d s upon movements l e a r n e d a t . e a r l i e r  stages.  In o t h e r words, s e q u e n t i a l l e a r n i n g o r development i s i m p o r t a n t . 20 James, J . M y r l e , E d u c a t i o n and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , G. B e l l and Sons, 1967).  (London:  Movement t a s k s or problems p r e s e n t e d the c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l . i n attempting  must t h e r e f o r e be a p p r o p r i a t e t o  James r e c o g n i z e s the problem i n h e r e n t  to a s s e s s the c h i l d ' s stage of thought development.  She  emphasizes the importance of t e a c h e r s b e i n g f a m i l i a r w i t h P i a g e t ' s theory, yet h e s i t a t e s to provide d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n s . t h a t more i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s needed. c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d experiments,  stage  I n f a c t , she warns  " I t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e , t h r o u g h t o f i n d out whether p h y s i c a l movement  of the k i n d expected of c h i l d r e n adds t o , . o r i n any way  affects, a  c h i l d ' s concept of shape, s i z e , time;, measure, whole or p a r t , amongst 21 o t h e r s , and a t w h i c h stages o f a c h i l d ' s development." P i a g e t ' s s t a g e c o n s t r u c t , t h e : i d e a o f sequencing s k i l l s i s perhaps the most a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e of h i s t h e o r y f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s , y e t i t p r o v i d e s o n l y vague g u i d e l i n e s f o r p r a c t i c e .  James admits t h a t "a  great  d e a l more about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and' m e n t a l development s h o u l d be known so t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n can p l a y a p a r t , w i t h proper understanding, c h i l d ' s thought and  full  i n the s t a g e s of the u n f o l d i n g of 22  the  intelligence."  A r n o l d a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d draw from a v a r i e t y of t h e o r i e s t o h e l p e x p l a i n why do.  we do c e r t a i n t h i n g s the way  we  He e x t r a c t s from P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y the importance of p r o v i d i n g the  l e a r n e r w i t h a s t i m u l a t i n g environment.  The  learner interacts with  h i s immediate environment and, t h e r e f o r e , he l e a r n s t h r o u g h d o i n g or as Arnold puts i t :  "The  r i c h and s t i m u l a t i n g v a r i e t y of p l a y a c t i v i t y , as 23 P i a g e t 21acknowledges, i s a b a s i c22 source of i n t e l l e c t u a l growth." I b i d . , p. 18. I b i d . , p. 21. 23 A r n o l d , P. J . , E d u c a t i o n , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and P e r s o n a l i t y Development, (London: Heinemann, 1968), p. 54.  A g a i n , d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c u r r i c u l u m a r e n o t mentioned by A r n o l d . However, i n d i r e c t l y t h i s l a t t e r concept  o f P i a g e t has had an i m p o r t a n t  impact on e d u c a t i o n a l dance and gymnastics  as i t developed  i n Britain.  M o r i s o n , i n h e r book, A Movement Approach t o E d u c a t i o n a l  Gymnastics,  r e i t e r a t e s P i a g e t ' s i d e a t h a t , " C h i l d r e n ' s f u l l and p r o p e r development depends on a c t i v i t y  . . . " and t h a t , "Movement i s a c h i l d ' s f i r s t mode  24 of e x p r e s s i o n and t h e f i r s t means o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g i t s environment." W h i l e no d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o P i a g e t i s g i v e n , one might assume t h a t h i s t h e o r y has shaped programs i n movement e d u c a t i o n where t h e r e i s an emphasis on a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s o f c h i l d r e n a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f development and on l e a r n i n g through d o i n g . approach was t h e e x p l o r a t o r y method.  Accompanying t h i s movement  I t i s c l e a r that Piaget's theory  has i n f l u e n c e d t h e 'movement' t h r u s t and many a u t h o r s , such as L e n e l , make a d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n between P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n practice. In h e r book, L e n e l v e r y c a r e f u l l y s e t s f o r t h s t a g e s o r p r o g r e s s i o n s i n games t e a c h i n g f o r t h e p r i m a r y s c h o o l . from P i a g e t ' s f o u r s t a g e s o f development.  I m p l i c a t i o n s a r e drawn  She suggests t h a t i t i s t h e  t e a c h e r ' s t a s k t o h e l p move s t u d e n t s from one s t a g e onto t h e next p o s i n g t h e r i g h t k i n d s o f problems.  through  F o r example, a t t h e ' I n t u i t i v e '  s t a g e where c h i l d r e n a r e o n l y a b l e t o grasp one r e l a t i o n a t a time and a r e unable t o r e v e r s e a c t i o n s , t h e t e a c h e r i s t o p r o v i d e t h o s e k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h might move t h e c h i l d from t h r o w i n g t h e b a l l i n o n l y one d i r e c t i o n t o e x p l o r i n g v a r i o u s ways o f t h r o w i n g t h e b a l l .  During the  'Concrete O p e r a t i o n s ' s t a g e , c h i l d r e n b e g i n t o r e v e r s e t h e i r a c t i o n s and  24 (London:  M o r i s o n , Ruth, A Movement Approach t o E d u c a t i o n a l J . M. Dent and Sons, 1969), p. 1.  Gymnastics,  12  begin  t o make s e n s e  implications Simple  o f more t h a n  f o r games a n d  sequences or  complicated experience useless  from  i n order  to  teach  t o t e a c h up  The stage and  idea of  w o u l d be  a waste of  environment,  prominent and as  or  reversibility  child  formulates  strategy planning.  are p r e r e q u i s i t e s to derive a  to  more  meaningful  that, " I t i s quite  their  m e n t a l age  from  t h e most  one  stage  onto  advocated  and  i t is a  The  concept  through  drawn f r o m at the  have a l s o  of  the  as  Skills  difficult  tasks  learner interacting  Piaget's theory  been used  too  d i s c o v e r y appears  elementary  a more m a t u r e  implication.  a p p r o p r i a t e f o r each stage;  learning  games, e s p e c i a l l y  3v3)  Lenel concludes  passing  time.  implication  Lenel  xt.  of development, appears' be  a time.  n25  children  movements s h o u l d  the  to  2v2,  f o r the  at  r u l e m a k i n g and  c h i l d r e n beyond  .  crxme n o t  (lvl.,  game s i t u a t i o n s .  to attempt  factor  particularly  formations  situations  one  and  t o be  adapted  school level.  with  another t o movement  Specific  concepts  c o n s t r a i n t s i n t e a c h i n g games  and  gymnastics. Typical  American p u b l i s h e d textbooks  mention Piaget's theory, curriculum edition is  planning.  o f The  only b r i e f l y  devotes  one  The  education  most  c a n be  any  attempt  page t o d e s c r i b i n g the  i n Van  Slooten's  stages  and  of  i t to  theory  physical  implications  article.  for  (1979)  up-to-date  to r e l a t e  comprehensive l i s t  found  seldom  draw i m p l i c a t i o n s  i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , where P i a g e t ' s  mentioned without  Piaget's theory  e l a b o r a t e and  Take f o r example, W i l l g o o s e ' s  Curriculum  education practice. from  l e t alone  of p h y s i c a l  drawn  Here  concludes:  25  Lenel, and  Stoughton,  R.  M.,  1969),  Games i n t h e p.  29.  Primary  School,  (London:  Hodder  he  13 P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y a p p l i e s m a i n l y t o the c o g n i t i v e r e a l m . However, much of what has been o u t l i n e d f o r t h e a d o l e s c e n t by P i a g e t has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f i e l d of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . I m p l i c a t i o n s of P i a g e t ' s Theory f o r P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  P l a y s h o u l d be used f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l world. There i s an i n t e r e s t i n r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . C u r i o s i t y finds expression i n i n t e l l e c t u a l experimentation r a t h e r than a c t i v e p l a y . C h i l d h o o d ends d u r i n g t h i s phase and the c h i l d r e n a r e interested i n adult a c t i v i t i e s . Team games s h o u l d p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e . As many new e x p e r i e n c e s as p o s s i b l e s h o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d . The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o g n i t i o n must be a v a i l a b l e and may be a p p l i e d i n a more i n t e l l e c t u a l approach t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g about a d o l e s c e n t growth and development s h o u l d be d i s c u s s e d and p r e s e n t e d . C r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y such as gymnastics and dance would be beneficial. S t r u c t u r e i s very important i n o r g a n i z a t i o n . Structured t e a c h i n g would be important.26 A l t h o u g h t h i s l i s t of i m p l i c a t i o n s appears r a t h e r i m p r e s s i v e , upon  c l o s e r examination  i t becomes c l e a r t h a t Van S l o o t e n f a i l s t o make con-  n e c t i o n s between what P i a g e t a c t u a l l y says and the i m p l i c a t i o n s he formulated.  has  That i s , a r e they what Van S l o o t e n reads from P i a g e t ' s  work, o r a r e they mere e x t r a p o l a t i o n s based i n p a r t on what P i a g e t  says  and i n p a r t , on common sense? Another a u t h o r who  has r e c e n t l y attempted  t o draw i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n from P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y i s B u r t o n . mentary e d u c a t i o n .  Her f o c u s i s e l e -  A f t e r a d e s c r i p t i o n of P i a g e t ' s four stages  and  h i s t h e o r y of p l a y , she p r e s e n t s t h r e e e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . 1. 2.  The c h i l d must be d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y ready .to a s s i m i l a t e t h e k i n d of i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g p r e s e n t e d ; c e r t a i n k i n d s of e x p e r i e n c e s a r e e s s e n t i a l t o o p t i m a l d e v e l o p ment of t h e c h i l d d u r i n g each developmental p e r i o d ; and  Van S l o o t e n , P h i l i p H., "Four T h e o r i e s of Development and T h e i r I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n of A d o l e s c e n t s , " The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t o r , (December 1974): pp. 182-183.  3.  the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o l e a r n i n each s u c c e s s i v e stage i s p a r t i a l l y determined by the adequacy of h i s or her experience.27 Here a g a i n we see the emphasis on the ' r e a d i n e s s ' aspect  Piaget's theory.  of  I n the second i m p l i c a t i o n , she does not s p e c i f y w h i c h  'kinds of. e x p e r i e n c e s '  a r e b e s t s u i t e d f o r each s t a g e o t h e r t h a n sug-  g e s t i n g t h a t " c h i l d r e n be exposed t o a v a r i e t y o f a c t i o n p a t t e r n s 28 can i m i t a t e , " and t h a t "group a c t i v i t i e s and f r e e i n t e r c h a n g e c h i l d r e n a r e e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s of t h e e l e m e n t a r y - s c h o o l  they  between  l e a r n i n g environ-  29 ment."  The  l a t t e r recommendation i s t o h e l p the c h i l d r e n become  less ego-centric.  Without e l a b o r a t i n g any f u r t h e r , one would  still  remain i n doubt as t o e x a c t l y w h i c h k i n d s of l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s necessary  f o r each s t a g e .  T h i s k i n d of vagueness and  to be p r e v a l e n t among P i a g e t i a n w r i t e r s .  are  g e n e r a l i t y seems  They a l l seem t o agree t h a t  P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y has tremendous i m p o r t a n c e f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ,  but  f a i l t o e s t a b l i s h p r e c i s e g u i d e l i n e s f o r s t r u c t u r i n g l e s s o n s or u n i t s . David E l k i n d who  has spent many y e a r s s t u d y i n g P i a g e t ' s work and  t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n s u b j e c t s from a P i a g e t i a n p e r s p e c t i v e has t h i s t o say about movement c u r r i c u l u m . I n t h e s e domains (movement and g y m n a s t i c s ) as i n o t h e r s , . . . c h i l d r e n can r e a l l y do g r a c e f u l , a p p e a l i n g work i f t h e i r n a t u r a l s p o n t a n e i t y can be encouraged. But t h i s encouragement i s more than p u t t i n g on a r e c o r d and t e l l i n g the c h i l d r e n t o dance, i t i n v o l v e s s e t t i n g a mod.d and a theme f o r w h i c h the music and the  on  movement a r e a n a t u r a l accompaniment.  u  27 B u r t o n , E l s i e C a r t e r , The New P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r Elementary School C h i l d r e n , (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1976), pp. 30-31. 28 29 I b i d . , p. 27. I b i d . , p. 30. 30 E l k i n d , D a v i d , C h i l d Development and E d u c a t i o n — A P i a g e t i a n P e r s p e c t i v e , (New Y o r k : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977), p. 217.  15 Once a g a i n we see the emphasis on the ing.  'natural'-spontaneous  t y p e of l e a r n -  He c l e a r l y s u g g e s t s the c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o move f r e e l y  and c r e a t i v e l y , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g t o l d how Those w r i t e r s who  t o p e r f o r m c e r t a i n movements.  mention P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y seem t o accept i t  u n c r i t i c a l l y , except f o r James, and assume t h a t i t has r e l e v a n c e f o r the f i e l d of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n .  F r e q u e n t l y mentioned i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e f o r :  1) C u r r i c u l u m s e q u e n c i n g and r e a d i n e s s - and,  C h i l d r e n pass t h r o u g h  stages  t h e r e f o r e , s k i l l s must be a p p r o p r i a t e l y arranged and sequenced  i n games s k i l l s ) . ness and not beyond.  C h i l d r e n s h o u l d be taught  t o t h e i r l e v e l of r e a d i -  2) Teaching m e t h o d o l o g y — C h i l d r e n l e a r n by  a c t i n g w i t h the environment and,  (as  inter-  t h e r e f o r e need t o be exposed t o a  v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s f o r o p t i m a l growth.  L e a r n i n g by d o i n g or d i s c o v e r y  l e a r n i n g i s o f t e n advocated. The a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e seems t o i n d i c a t e , t h a t thus f a r , P i a g e t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y has had r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n to p h y s i c a l education curriculum.  Authors r e f e r r i n g to P i a g e t ' s  t h e o r y have f a i l e d t o a r t i c u l a t e p r e c i s e guidance c o n c e r n i n g development i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n .  educational  Furthermore, current research  sug-  g e s t s t h a t i t i s premature t o t r a n s l a t e h i s t h e o r y i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c 3 t i c e as the main c o n s t r u c t s of h i s t h e o r y a r e b e i n g s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d . Chapter two w i l l d i s c u s s the l i m i t a t i o n s of P i a g e t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y i n more d e t a i l , and  suggest t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r i e s such as  or the d e v e l o p m e n t a l scheme, of scope and  Piaget's  sequence, a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o  p r o v i d e a s o l i d t h e o r e t i c a l base f o r c u r r i c u l a p l a n n i n g i n p h y s i c a l education.  S i n c e P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y may  be c o n s i d e r e d a p s y c h o l o g i c a l r a t h e r  31 See: B r a i n e r d , Kuhn, Lawton, and Hooper, Donaldson et a l . For a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s p o i n t see pp. 25-35.  16 than an e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y , i t may  c o n t r i b u t e l e s s to. c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n  i n e d u c a t i o n than has h i t h e r t o been c l a i m e d .  Egan, f o r example, makes  a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y . A c c o r d i n g t o Egan, c u r r i c u l u m development o r ".. . . e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p ment i n v o l v e s a d i a l e c t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n between i n t e l l e c t u a l or psycho32 l o g i c a l development and a l o g i c a l sequencing  of some d i s c i p l i n e a r e a . "  Thus, i f we c o u l d u t i l i z e an e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y t h a t encompasses t h e above a s p e c t s , i t would seem t o a l l o w f o r a more r a t i o n a l approach t o curriculum planning. H i s t o r i c a l l y , a t l e a s t f o u r major developmental  theories focusing  upon the e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t s of c h i l d development have been f o r m u l a t e d . P l a t o i n the R e p u b l i c , and Rousseau i n h i s E m i l e p r o v i d e us w i t h d e t a i l e d t h e o r i e s of e d u c a t i o n a l development. E d u c a t i o n , p r e s e n t s h i s three-phase ment.  Whitehead, i n h i s book, Aims of stage theory of e d u c a t i o n a l develop-  However, t h i s o u t l i n e w h i c h he c a l l s t h e rhythms of e d u c a t i o n ,  i s o n l y s k e t c h e d out v e r y b r i e f l y .  The f o u r t h t h e o r y i s t h a t e x p l i -  c a t e d by Egan i n E d u c a t i o n a l Development.  Drawing from a wide v a r i e t y  of s o u r c e s , Egan has f o r m u l a t e d what he c o n s i d e r s t o be a comprehensive e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y of development. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f o u r developmental  As an e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y i t o u t l i n e s stages.  I t s aim i s e d u c a t i o n  o r i e n t e d and, t h e r e f o r e , f o c u s e s upon t h o s e q u e s t i o n s and problems t o w h i c h e d u c a t o r s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g answers. t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g e d u c a t i o n a r e answered: like? How  What s h o u l d we teach?  Four b a s i c ques-  What s h o u l d our end-product be  When s h o u l d we t e a c h p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g s ?  s h o u l d we t e a c h t h i n g s ? H i s t h e o r y i s pervaded w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n 32 Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 152.  17 of  the appropriateness  stage  and w i t h  making connections  growth through developmental curriculum directly  from stage  the entire educational t h e o r i e s w h i c h may  design,  Egan's  Although  matter  t o each  to stage  process.  developmental  to provide  Unlike  optimal  psychological  o c c a s i o n a l l y have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r  educational  i n making p r a c t i c a l  planning. his  of s t r u c t u r i n g subject  developmental  and r e a s o n a b l e  decisions  Egan a p p l i e s h i s i d e a s m a i n l y  a p p r o a c h a p p e a r s t o h a v e much t o o f f e r  theory  guides  us  i n curriculum  to social  to the area  studies,  of physical  educa-  tion. This in  study  physical education  Egan's  theory  perspective utilizing physical  curriculum  of educational  education  ciples  two w i l l  describe  of educational  a more  a p h y s i c a l education  play  that  appropriate  c u r r i c u l u m by  t o s t r u c t u r e a new k i n d o f  Piaget's  theory  developmental'theory Chapter  development.  f o r organizing from  can o f f e r  the premise  and t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f  physical education.curricula.  how a n e d u c a t i o n a l  derived  and e x p l o r e  theories  curriculum.  f o r designing  possibilities  developmental  of h i s theory  from a p s y c h o l o g i c a l theory. stages  design  development  t h e main p r i n c i p l e s  theory  discuss  investigate the role  from which t o organize  Chapter his  will  o f each  also  differs  e x p l i c a t e Egan's  four w i l l  physical education  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  such as Egan's  three w i l l  Chapter  It will  explore  curriculum  four  some  using  prin-  stage.  Purpose o f t h e Study The 1.  purpose o f t h i s  To e x a m i n e P i a g e t ' s limitations  study  theory  of h i s theory  is: of c o g n i t i v e development  f o r designing  and d i s c u s s t h e  physical education  curricula.  18 2.  To d e s c r i b e what how  c o n s t i t u t e s an e d u c a t i o n a l  d e v e l o p m e n t a l :theory  i t d i f f e r s from a p s y c h o l o g i c a l developmental  theory  such  and  as  Piaget's. 3.  To a r t i c u l a t e mental for  theory.  organizing  appropriate  the four From  stages  of Kieran  Egan's e d u c a t i o n a l  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  p h y s i c a l education  activities will  be  o f each  curricula will  identified.  stage,  develop-  principles  be d i s c u s s e d  and  CHAPTER  II  DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES AND  P H Y S I C A L EDUCATION  CURRICULUM DESIGN  Piaget's  In  recent years  Theory  disciplines  explain  e d u c a t i o n a l phenomena.  developmental  development by  f a r t h e most  most p r o f o u n d Jean is  and  about  the  give a  ment and  the  on  of  applications As  translating  was  tially  h i s theory and  h i s theory  an  of  into  taken  place  and  has  and  h a v e b e e n most  part w i l l  d i s c u s s the  the  for  part  of  of  enthus-  education curricula  this  intellectual  limitations  focus  chapter  develop-  i t s possible  curricula.  interest  q u i t e n a t u r a l t h a t he  first of  had  that his  i s gaining popularity for developing  of h i s d e s c r i p t i o n  become  instruction.  recommendations  The  help  Piaget's cognitive  educator  educators  pre-school level.  first  others, to  theorists  practice  i s not  Nonetheless,  for developing  a process  and  from  from  w r i t i n g s , P i a g e t has  developmental  theory  theories  e x t r a p o l a t i o n has  in particular,  t h a t he  general outline  Piaget's  and  the  both  confesses  second  Much  h e a v i l y on  s o c i o l o g y , and  Through h i s p r o l i f i c  effect  elementary  relied  psychology,  psychology  prominent  Piaget  currently  will  it  as  genetic epistomology.  iastic  at  such  theory.  C o g n i t i v e Development  e d u c a t i o n has  related  from  of  and  r e s e a r c h was  i n the  viewed mental development  of a d a p t a t i o n to the  19  environment.  He  field  as b e i n g was  of  zoology,  essen-  concerned  20 w i t h u n c o v e r i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l changes i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g from b i r t h t o a d o l e s c e n c e .  " P i a g e t wants t o  d i s c o v e r — a n d e x p l a i n — t h e normal c o u r s e o f development. t h a t t h e r e JLS_ a normal c o u r s e :  (ontogenetic),  F o r he b e l i e v e s  a sequence which we a l l f o l l o w , though we  go a t v a r y i n g speeds and some go f u r t h e r t h a n o t h e r s . " '  Intelligence i s  3  t h e n seen as t h e p r o c e s s o f a d a p t a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n . Four c o n c e p t s h e l p e x p l a i n how m e n t a l development o c c u r s : a s s i m i l a t i o n , accommodation,  and e q u i l i b r i u m .  schema,  Schemas a r e t h e c o g n i t i v e  s t r u c t u r e s by w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y adopt t o and o r g a n i z e t h e environment.  They can be thought o f as t h e c o n c e p t s , c a t e g o r i e s , o r  s t r a t e g i e s from w h i c h b e h a v i o r f l o w s when i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e e n v i r o n ment.  A d a p t a t i o n t o t h e environment i n v o l v e s two p r o c e s s e s c a l l e d  a s s i m i l a t i o n and accommodation.  A s s i m i l a t i o n i s when t h e environment  f i t s i n t o t h e a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g schemata.  When t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l  struc-  t u r e s o r schemas c a n n o t a d j u s t t o t h e environment t h e n a change o r c r e a t i o n o f new schemata t a k e s p l a c e .  This i s c a l l e d  accommodation.  E q u i l i b r i u m i s t h e b a l a n c e reached between a s s i m i l a t i o n and accommodation.  A c c o r d i n g t o P i a g e t , c o g n i t i v e development t a k e s p l a c e by a  s e r i e s o f e q u i l i b r i u m and d i s e q u i l i b r i u m s t a t e s . P i a g e t n o t e d t h a t a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f development p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r c o u l d be o b s e r v e d .  identifiable  As a r e s u l t o f h i s s t u d i e s , he  f o r m u l a t e d f o u r main s t a g e s , each s t a g e s h a r i n g common developments o r structures.  P r o g r e s s t h r o u g h t h e s t a g e s i s dependent on t h e development  of t h e e a r l i e r s t a g e s .  The o r d e r i s t h e same f o r a l l c h i l d r e n b u t t h e  r a t e a t w h i c h they p r o c e e d t h r o u g h s t a g e s c a n v a r y .  Age spans f o r  D o n a l d s o n , M a r g a r e t , C h i l d r e n ' s M i n d s , (Glasgow: 1978), p. 130. 1  William  Collins,  21 stages are  1.  normative.  Sensori-motor  Stage ( b i r t h t o 2 y e a r s )  D u r i n g t h e f i r s t few months a f t e r b i r t h the i n f a n t i s busy d i s c o v e r ing  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e n s a t i o n s and motor b e h a v i o r .  At  first  he i s o n l y c a p a b l e o f i n b o r n r e f l e x r e s p o n s e s , but by t h e end o f t h i s s t a g e he w i l l have b u i l t on t o t h e s e r e f l e x schemas and w i l l be of f l e x i b l e p a t t e r n s of b e h a v i o r .  capable  He w i l l be a b l e t o a c t i n t e n t i o n a l l y .  For example, he r e a l i z e s t h a t when he shakes a r a t t l e i t w i l l make a noise. C l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h t h i s development i s t h e n o t i o n of the being egocentric.  Initially,  child  t h e c h i l d i s unable t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e him-  s e l f from the r e s t of t h e w o r l d around him.  G r a d u a l l y , he becomes more  aware and b e g i n s t o d i s t i n g u i s h h i m s e l f from the o b j e c t s around  him.  By age 2, he has c o n s t r u c t e d a p i c t u r e of the immediate environment and o b j e c t s w h i c h make up h i s immediate w o r l d . Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s s t a g e i s t h a t of l e a r n i n g o b j e c t concept  or o b j e c t permanence.  Up u n t i l s i x months t h e c h i l d w i l l  make any e f f o r t t o r e a c h out f o r a handkerchief.  not  toy t h a t has been h i d d e n under a  I t i s not u n t i l about 10 months t h a t he w i l l s e a r c h f o r  the o b j e c t t h a t was  hidden.  By t h e end of t h e s t a g e he w i l l c o n s i s -  t e n t l y l o o k f o r t h e o b j e c t and w i l l have a c q u i r e d t h e development of o b j e c t permanence.  2.  P r e o p e r a t i o n a l Stage ( 2 - 7 a)  Preconceptual  years)  thought  D u r i n g t h i s s t a g e , i n t e l l e c t u a l b e h a v i o r moves from t h e s e n s o r i motor l e v e l to t h e c o n c e p t u a l l e v e l .  The r a p i d language development  22 t h a t t a k e s p l a c e makes i t p o s s i b l e t o e x p l o r e the w o r l d through words and images.  A c t i v i t i e s such as i m i t a t i o n and p l a y become i m p o r t a n t  t h i s stage.  during  By and l a r g e , the c h i l d i s s t i l l v e r y much e g o c e n t r i c .  The w o r l d s t i l l r e v o l v e s around him and he assumes everyone t h i n k s as  he  does. b)  I n t u i t i v e thought,  4-7  " L a c k i n g m e n t a l o p e r a t i o n s , the c h i l d cannot succeed d u r i n g t h i s second p e r i o d i n c o n s t i t u t i n g the most elementary  n o t i o n s of  conserva-  2 t i o n , w h i c h a r e the c o n d i t i o n s of l o g i c a l d e d u c t i b i l i t y . " o f c l a y appear the same s i z e , but when one c h i l d w i l l say t h a t i t has more c l a y .  Thus two  balls  i s r o l l e d i n t o a l o n g shape the  The  c h i l d has d i f f i c u l t y w i t h  t h e s e k i n d s of c o n s e r v a t i o n e x p e r i m e n t s (of mass, w e i g h t , and volume) because he i s r e l y i n g on v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n s . checkers  For example, a row  of  c o n t a i n i n g the same number as another row but w i t h b i g g e r spaces  between each c h e c k e r , w i l l appear t o the c h i l d t o have a l a r g e r number of checkers. developed  G r a d u a l l y toward the end o f t h i s s t a g e the c h i l d w i l l have the t h i n k i n g t o o l s t o understand  the c o n s e r v a t i o n  concepts.  D u r i n g t h i s s t a g e the c h i l d a l s o c o n t i n u e s to be e s s e n t i a l l y egocentric.  Thought c o n t i n u e s t o be i r r e v e r s i b l e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the  c h i l d can not f o l l o w a s e r i e s of r e a s o n i n g s and then r e v e r s e t o the starting point. 3.  Concrete In  i s now  O p e r a t i o n a l (7 - 11  years)  t h i s s t a g e the c h i l d develops  t h e use o f l o g i c a l thought.  He  a b l e t o c o n c e i v e q u a n t i t y , and r e c o g n i z e t h a t volume i s r e l a t e d 2  P i a g e t , Jean, S c i e n c e o f E d u c a t i o n and the P s y c h o l o g y C h i l d , (New York: P e n g u i n Books, 1977), p. 32.  of the  to  shape,  (therefore, short  containers,  and  he  Along with  these  them i n a  series  (A  i s longer  thinks  erties  of  solve  conservation  characteristics (i.e.,  length,  than B).  logically Piaget  can  fat containers  the  outlined five  concrete  pattern)  use  operations  of  i s able  However, h i s  through  has  he  can  as  much t a l l  substance to  and  classify  thinking i s s t i l l  specific  physical  operations  thin  problems).  understand  of v i s i b l e ,  which  hold  objects,  organize  relational 'concrete'  terms as  he  objects.  that  hold  the  children's thinking i n this  propstage  can  handle. 1)  composition—if third  2)  number,  5)  identity—a  of  Although stage  he  problems. thing  to  He the  can  an  c a n c e l l e d by  operation  an  logical  opposite  important.  combines (a +  nullified  c l a s s added  to  a  =  child  a  or  math-  operation.  by  b)  +  several classes c =  a +  combining  (b +  and  c)  i t with  its  same c l a s s .  (A  0)  to a  has  by  limited  opposed  class yields  c l a s s of  gained  constrained  as  that  be  i s also  next  be  whereby e v e r y  can  dogs added  is still  get  z)  i s not  (A - A  the  number t o a n o t h e r number y o u  operation  quantity  tautology—a class  one  7 - 4 = 3 )  order  opposite.  =  an  associativity—is where the  add y  operation  (4+3=7,  4)  (x +  reversibility—is ematical  3)  you  dogs =  greater  having  to other  c l a s s of  objects  i s capable  kinds  dogs)  mental m o b i l i t y i n  to use  i n t h a t he  a  the  of  this  in thinking  of moving  combinative  from  about one  operations.  24 4.  Formal O p e r a t i o n s (11 - 15 y e a r s ) I n f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s the c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s become q u a l i t a t i v e l y  'mature'.  I n P i a g e t ' s own words:  T h i s p e r i o d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n g e n e r a l by t h e conquest o f a new mode o f r e a s o n i n g , one t h a t i s no l o n g e r l i m i t e d e x c l u s i v e l y t o dealing with objects or d i r e c t l y representable r e a l i t i e s , but a l s o employs 'hypotheses', i n o t h e r words, p r o p o s i t i o n s from w h i c h i t i s p o s s i b l e t o draw l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s w i t h o u t i t b e i n g n e c e s s a r y t o make d e c i s i o n s about t h e i r t r u t h o r f a l s i t y b e f o r e examining t h e r e s u l t o f t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s . - ^ The  t y p i c a l t e s t i s t o d i s c o v e r c o m b i n a t i o n s from f i v e g l a s s e s o f c o l o r -  less l i q u i d s to obtain a yellow color.  The s t u d e n t a t t h i s s t a g e goes  about f i n d i n g t h e answer s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . t r a t e s formal operational t h i n k i n g i s : E d i t h i s darker The  than L i l y .  Another problem t h a t  illus-  " E d i t h i s f a i r e r than Susan.  Who i s t h e d a r k e s t ? "  c h i l d t h a t has reached t h i s s t a g e w i l l have no problem i n  o b t a i n i n g a q u i c k answer even though t h e problem i s v e r b a l . i s f r e e d from t h e n e c e s s i t y o f s e e i n g t h e c o n c r e t e  object.  Thinking As e a s i l y  as he h a n d l e s t h i s k i n d o f problem he i s c a p a b l e o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a r g u ments, g e n e r a t i n g  hypothesis  and t h e o r i e s and d e a l i n g w i t h one o r more  v a r i a b l e s a t a time (mass and volume).  He c a n a l s o now t h i n k i n terms  of t h e f u t u r e , c o n s i d e r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s beyond t h e i r present r e a l i t y . P i a g e t uses t h e INRC l o g i c a l group t o d e s c r i b e t h e s t r u c t u r e s underlying formal operational t h i n k i n g .  These l o g i c a l s k i l l s a r e  performed on o p e r a t i o n s  o p e r a t i o n a l stage.  adolescent negation,  from t h e c o n c r e t e  The  can now d e a l w i t h t h e l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f i d e n t i t y , r e c i p r o c i t y , and c o r r e l a t i o n .  3 I b i d . , p. 33.  25 L i m i t a t i o n of P i a g e t ' s Theory f o r P r o v i d i n g I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C u r r i c u l u m Design i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n The f i r s t l i m i t a t i o n has been p i n - p o i n t e d by t h o s e c r i t i c s who  have  4  q u e s t i o n e d t h e essence of h i s t h e o r y . Piaget's stage theory d e s c r i b i n g ?  T h i s i s , what e x a c t l y i s  P i a g e t , of c o u r s e , c l a i m s t h a t he i s  d e s c r i b i n g a ' n a t u r a l ' p r o c e s s of i n t e l l e c t u a l development. him, development l e a d s and determines l e a r n i n g .  And f o r  The d i s t i n c t i o n i s  important to the educator i n p l a n n i n g c u r r i c u l a . As Egan s t a t e s : Whether P i a g e t i s d e s c r i b i n g something n e c e s s a r y about human c o g n i t i v e development, or something c o n t i n g e n t upon e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l i z i n g procedures of p a r t i c u l a r times and p l a c e s , o r some m i x t u r e of the two, i s a q u e s t i o n of importance t o p s y c h o l o g i s t s as w e l l as e d u c a t o r s . . . . I f the d e s c r i p t i o n i s of a developmental p r o c e s s which i s c o n t i n g e n t upon p a r t i c u l a r forms o f e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l i z i n g then we can change the p r o c e s s by changing methods of e d u c a t i n g and s o c i a l i z i n g . Put a t i t s c r u d e s t , i f P i a g e t i s d e s c r i b i n g a p r o c e s s determined by educat i o n , then e d u c a t o r s can l e a r n n o t h i n g from him because he i s merely o b s e r v i n g t h e r e s u l t s of what they have taught.-* U n t i l t h i s q u e s t i o n has been g i v e n f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n , the "theory o f f e r s 5  l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e to the c u r r i c u l u m planner. There a r e o t h e r s such as B r a i n e r d who  r e f u t e the stage concept,  i n s i s t i n g t h a t no e v i d e n c e has been found t o s u p p o r t i t .  He  has  w r i t t e n s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s and books i n which he has s u b j e c t e d a s p e c t s of Piaget's theory to r i g o r o u s s c r u t i n y .  I n one of h i s e a r l i e r  articles,  1973, he reviewed t h e n e o - P i a g e t i a n t r a i n i n g experiments and s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s enough e v i d e n c e t o "conclude t h a t no support f o r a s t a g e v i e w o f c o g n i t i v e development has been d e r i v e d from the n e o - P i a g e t i a n t r a i n i n g  Egan, K i e r a n , " F u r t h e r Comments'on P i a g e t and E d u c a t i o n , " H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l Review, Summer, 1980. ^Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n and P s y c h o l o g y , i n p r e s s , p.  127.  literature."  I n o t h e r words, such P i a g e t i a n concepts as  c o n s e r v a t i o n , and o t h e r s were evidenced t h a n suggested by P i a g e t .  reversibility,  i n c h i l d r e n at e a r l i e r  stages  These k i n d s of experiments c a s t doubt on  P i a g e t ' s c l a i m t h a t he i s d e s c r i b i n g a ' n a t u r a l ' p r o c e s s  of development.  Hence, L e n e l ' s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r games based on P i a g e t ' s n o t i o n o f r e v e r s i b i l i t y s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y  reviewed.  R e s e a r c h e r s have not o n l y q u e s t i o n e d the o r d e r i n g of the  concepts,  but have a l s o c h a l l e n g e d the v e r y concepts P i a g e t uses t o r e p r e s e n t stage.  Margaret Donaldson i n a f a s c i n a t i n g book on how  c h i l d r e n ' s minds  d e v e l o p , has c r i t i c a l l y examined P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y of i n t e l l i g e n c e . argues i n her book " . . .  t h a t the e v i d e n c e now  a  She  compels us t o r e j e c t  c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f Jean P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y of i n t e l l e c t u a l development."^ Donaldson has p r o v i d e d e v i d e n c e from v a r i o u s experiments t h a t  illustrate  t h a t a) " c h i l d r e n a r e not at any s t a g e as e g o c e n t r i c as P i a g e t  has  c l a i m e d " and b) " c h i l d r e n a r e not so l i m i t e d i n a b i l i t y t o r e a s o n g  d e d u c t i v e l y as P i a g e t — a n d  o t h e r s — h a v e claimed."  I t would, t h e r e f o r e ,  indeed be premature t o base c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s upon P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y i n the l i g h t of t h e s e new  findings.  Thus i m p l i c a t i o n s drawn from t h i s ego-  c e n t r i c n o t i o n t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , such as B u r t o n ' s ,  a r e not  and c o u l d have a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on c u r r i c u l u m o r g a n i z i n g . Another problem i n h e r e n t i n a p p l y i n g P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y t o  justified,  education  B r a i n e r d , C h a r l e s J . , " N e o - P i a g e t i a n t r a i n i n g experiments r e visited: I s t h e r e any support f o r the c o g n i t i v e - d e v e l o p m e n t a l stage h y p o t h e s i s ? " C o g n i t i o n 2 (1973): p. 366. ^Donaldson, M., 1978), p. 9. 8  I b i d . , p.  58.  C h i l d r e n ' s Minds, (Glasgow:  William Collins,  27 l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t h i s work, h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s of the v a r i o u s a r e , "almost e n t i r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e , " as Egan has n o t e d .  stages  P i a g e t has,  as  a r e s u l t of numerous t e s t s and o b s e r v a t i o n s , c o l l e c t e d d a t a w h i c h he woven t o g e t h e r t o e x p l a i n c o g n i t i v e — s t a g e by Educators attempting  to assess  concepts.  stage—development.  students' c o g n i t i v e l e v e l s , run i n t o  f i c u l t i e s due t o the v e r y p r e c i s e way  has  P i a g e t has d e s c r i b e d  dif-  particular  D r i v e r makes t h i s p o i n t when d i s c u s s i n g s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m  and P i a g e t ' s s t a g e t h e o r y .  He s t a t e s the problems i n v o l v e d i n s e l e c t i n g  t a s k s w h i c h a r e v a l i d f o r t e s t i n g f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s as a whole c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t each t e s t , t e s t s o n l y a v e r y s p e c i f i c s k i l l ,  therefore, generalizing  the s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o o t h e r t a s k s would not be v a l i d .  She  concludes:  To make p r e d i c t i o n s on the o v e r a l l l e v e l of performance of p u p i l s i n a range o f c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s appears c o m p l e t e l y u n j u s t i f i e d . Many p e o p l e w o r k i n g i n the a r e a o f c o g n i t i v e development admit t h a t the phenomenon o f ' f o r m a l t h i n k i n g e x i s t s , y e t l i k e a s p e c t r e i t eludes capture.9 1  I f we cannot c a p t u r e , or a s s e s s , a s t u d e n t ' s  t h i n k i n g l e v e l , l e t alone  a  c l a s s of s t u d e n t s , t h e n i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s t r u c t u r e sound c u r r i c u l u m t o match c o g n i t i v e l e v e l . I n 1978,  B r a i n e r d c r i t i c a l l y examined the i m p l i c a t i o n s of P i a g e t ' s  c o g n i t i v e developmental theory f o r c u r r i c u l u m sequencing, content, teaching s t r a t e g i e s .  and  H i s argument i s t h a t t h e r e does not e x i s t such a  t h i n g as a stage of c o g n i t i v e development but r a t h e r t h a t the t h e o r y i s p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e and attempts t o e x p l a i n s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s . those a u t h o r s  i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , such as L e n e l , who  Thus,  recommend t h a t  we s h o u l d not attempt t o t e a c h c h i l d r e n t h i n g s t h a t a r e ahead of  their  9 D r i v e r , R o s a l i n e , "When i s a s t a g e not a stage? A critique of P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y of c o g n i t i v e development and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n , " E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 21 (November, 1978), p. 58.  28 c u r r e n t s t a g e o f c o g n i t i v e development a r e l a c k i n g e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e f o r s u g g e s t i n g such i m p l i c a t i o n s .  As B r a i n e r d puts i t :  S i n c e s t a g e and b e h a v i o r a r e t h e same t h i n g , what t h e recommendations a c t u a l l y say i s t h i s : We s h o u l d a v o i d t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n concepts t h a t they do n o t a l r e a d y p o s s e s s . . I f t h i s statement were t o be t a k e n s e r i o u s l y , one wonders what t h e p o i n t o f i n s t r u c t i o n would be.^ He c l e a r l y p i n p o i n t s t h e dilemma t h a t proponents o f c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p mental c u r r i c u l a confront. I f we a r e t o p r o v i d e t h e ' r i g h t k i n d o f l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s ' a t each s t a g e as B u r t o n suggests we s h o u l d do i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , we must be a b l e t o diagnose  then  each c h i l d ' s s t a g e o f c o g n i t i v e development.  Because c o g n i t i v e s t a g e s a r e merely  d e s c r i p t i v e s t a g e s , we c o u l d o n l y  examine c e r t a i n concepts t h a t c h i l d r e n have o r have n o t reached.  But,  i f these measures o f s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s o f v a r i o u s s t a g e s a r e themselves q u e s t i o n a b l e i n t h e l i g h t o f r e c e n t r e s e a r c h t h e n , i n d e e d , t h e t h e o r y has l i t t l e to o f f e r curriculum planners i n p h y s i c a l education. In  t h e l i g h t o f t h i s e v i d e n c e , Van S l o o t e n ' s l i s t o f i m p l i c a t i o n s ,  based m o s t l y on t h e f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e a l s o remains q u e s t i o n a b l e . Those p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r s t h a t agreed upon t h e importance o f matching movement t a s k s t o developmental a r t i c u l a t i n g how t h i s was t o be done.  s t a g e were r a t h e r r e t i c e n t i n They d i d not f o r e s e e t h e problems  i n h e r e n t i n making recommendations from P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y t o p h y s i c a l education.  Furthermore,  P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y g i v e s us t h i s p r e c i s e d e t a i l on  v a r i o u s concepts a t each s t a g e , b u t t e l l s us v e r y l i t t l e about t h e movement from s t a g e t o s t a g e .  " ^ B r a i n e r d , C h a r l e s J . , " C o g n i t i v e Developmental and I n s t r u c t i o n a l Theory," Contemporary E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y 3, (1978): p. 44.  Piaget's  theory  is histinability  to p r e s c r i b e  a p a r t i c u l a r type of l e a r n i n g environment. planners  agree t h a t  ' d i s c o v e r y l e a r n i n g ' or  - '  Most P i a g e t i a n c u r r i c u l u m ' a c t i v i t y l e a r n i n g ' i s the  b e s t method to f o s t e r growth i n the developmental s t a g e s . of P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y , s c h o o l s as K a m i i and through provides  and  developers  DeVries  c r i t i c i z e s Kamii and d e f i n e d and  of P i a g e t i a n c u r r i c u l u m f o r p r e -  have gone so f a r as to advocate development  'self-directed activity'. the o p t i m a l  In other words, the t e a c h e r  environment i n which development may DeVries'  Proponents  merely  occur.  Kuhn  program, on the grounds t h a t i t i s p o o r l y  t h a t t h e r e i s no t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the program,  e s p e c i a l l y when p r e s c r i b i n g t e a c h i n g methods. S i n c e , by and l a r g e , we do not know v e r y much, the recommendat i o n s t h a t c h i l d r e n be l e f t alone to d i r e c t t h e i r own l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y , as i n t u i t i v e l y a p p e a l i n g as the n o t i o n may be, runs the r i s k of b e i n g found a meaningless e d u c a t i o n a l p r e s c r i p t i o n . H Egan a l s o argues t h a t t h e r e i s no p r o o f  of the s u p e r i o r i t y of  ' d i s c o v e r y - l e a r n i n g ' as compared to other methods.  "Despite  the  enthus-  iasm of the P i a g e t i a n i n n o v a t i o n s , the f o u r major P i a g e t i a n programs from which we  have e v a l u a t i o n data show no  significant differences i n c h i l 12  dren's performance from t h a t i n t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l , r e s e a r c h has  . ."  r e v e a l e d t h a t the s e l f - d i s c o v e r y method i s not  the t r a d i t i o n a l method.  He  Brainerd's s u p e r i o r to  summarizes, " I f t r a d i t i o n a l l e a r n i n g  s t r a t e g i e s work b e t t e r than a c t i v e ones, even w i t h P i a g e t ' s own  concepts,  11 Kuhn, Deanna, "The A p p l i c a t i o n of P i a g e t ' s Theory of C o g n i t i v e Development to E d u c a t i o n , " Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review, 3 (August, 1979), p. 351. 12 Egan, K i e r a n , " F u r t h e r Comments on P i a g e t and E d u c a t i o n , " Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review, Summer, 1980, p. 9.  30 why  s h o u l d we  seek to r e p l a c e them w i t h a c t i v e p r o c e d u r e s ? "  f i n d i n g s r e v e a l t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s who  13  advocate u s i n g  These  discovery  methods as a r e s u l t of P i a g e t ' s w r i t i n g , need t o r e v i e w c u r r e n t I n f a c t , B u r t o n mentions t h a t , " P i a g e t ' s work makes r e p e a t e d t o i n f a n t i l e and c h i l d h o o d b e h a v i o r s  research.  reference  t h a t i n v o l v e movement, and  the  r e l e v a n c e of h i s t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s t o the c o n t e n t of t h i s book 14 i s unmistakable."  I t i s obvious that c h i l d r e n i n p h y s i c a l education  l e a r n concepts t h r o u g h movement, however, i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e whether the d i s c o v e r y approach produces b e t t e r r e s u l t s than the d i r e c t or approach.  traditional  Research seems t o t e l l us t h a t the d i s c o v e r y approach i s not  necessarily superior. The  c o n f u s i o n and a m b i g u i t y  t h a t r e s u l t s f o r e x t r a p o l a t i n g such  i d e a s as ' d i s c o v e r y l e a r n i n g ' from the t h e o r y i s e v i d e n t i n the P i a g e t i a n c u r r i c u l u m programs where some proponents use the d i s c o v e r y approach w h i l e o t h e r s use t h e t r a d i t i o n a l approach. t h e o r y has  Hence, i t seems l i k e  l i t t l e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e educator  planning teaching  the strat-  e g i e s as p a r t of the t o t a l c u r r i c u l u m . One  f r e q u e n t l y mentioned i m p l i c a t i o n of P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y f o r educa-  t i o n has t o do w i t h the n o t i o n of r e a d i n e s s .  Readiness i m p l i e s t h a t  the  c h i l d has reached the c o g n i t i v e l e v e l t o a s s i m i l a t e c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s or s k i l l s presented  t o him.  Thus the c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n e r  should  plan  a c t i v i t i e s say, i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t match the d e v e l o p m e n t a l  stage  of the c h i l d . As a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t enough t o a s s e s s 13 B r a i n e r d , C h a r l e s J . , " C o g n i t i v e Developmental and I n s t r u c t i o n a l Theory," Contemporary E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y 3 (1978): p. 47. 14 B u r t o n , E l s i e C a r t e r , The New P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r Elementary School C h i l d r e n , (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1976), p. 26.  31 one c h i l d ' s t h i n k i n g l e v e l l e t a l o n e t h i r t y , even i f the t e a c h e r i s thoroughly  f a m i l i a r w i t h Piaget's stages.  p o i n t t h a t one  Even i f he were a b l e t o p i n -  t h i r d o f a c l a s s c o u l d s o l v e c o n s e r v a t i o n problems of  w e i g h t , one t h i r d c o u l d conserve volume, and one  t h i r d could conserve  q u a n t i t y , of what v a l u e would t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n be f o r p l a n n i n g ball,  dance, or gymnastic l e s s o n s ?  basket-  In connection w i t h .readiness, i t i s  o f t e n s t a t e d t h a t we s h o u l d not expect c h i l d r e n to a c h i e v e beyond t h e i r l e v e l of readiness.  T h i s c o u l d o n l y have a p e r n i c i o u s e f f e c t  as  r e s e a r c h has shown t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e c a p a b l e of l e a r n i n g c o n c e p t s e a r l i e r than p r e s c r i b e d by P i a g e t i n h i s s t a g e t h e o r y . that " . . .  concludes  P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y can p r o v i d e o n l y r a t h e r i m p r e c i s e guidance as  a r e a d i n e s s model.  Seeing t h a t the d a t a from w h i c h the  i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e d e r i v e d a r e themselves v e r y d u b i o u s , hardy indeed One  Egan  educational  i t would be  t o a l l o w them t o g u i d e our t e a c h i n g and c u r r i c u l u m  of P i a g e t ' s e a r l i e r c r i t i c s ,  S u l l i v a n , suggests that  fool-  planning."^ educators  have been too h a s t y i n e x t r a p o l a t i n g i d e a s from P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y  and  a p p l y i n g them t o s t r u c t u r e and sequencing o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n a c u r r i c ulum b e f o r e examining b o t h the r e s e a r c h and h a s t i n e s s , he added, would l e a d t o h a r m f u l  theory very c r i t i c a l l y . educational practices.  This He  s t a t e s t h a t u s i n g P i a g e t ' s s t a g e s as i n d i c a t o r s of " l e a r n i n g r e a d i n e s s , " "seems premature and needs more c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n on b o t h the r e 16 s e a r c h and t h e o r e t i c a l  level."  The a m b i g u i t i e s of P i a g e t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y a r e most e v i d e n t  "^Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n and P s y c h o l o g y ,  i n p r e s s , p.  164.  •J c  S u l l i v a n , Edmund V., P i a g e t and the School C u r r i c u l u m — A Critical A p p r a i s a l , (Toronto: The O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r . S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , 1967), p. 33.  to  t h o s e who  lines.  have attempted  to s t r u c t u r e and sequence c u r r i c u l a a l o n g  such  R e c e n t l y t h e r e have been s e v e r a l attempts made t o s t r u c t u r e p r e -  school c u r r i c u l a u s i n g P i a g e t ' s stage theory.  Four major  experimental  c o g n i t i v e - d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y p r e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a have been implemented. These a r e : 2) W e i k a r t  1) L a v a t e l l i (1973)—the  (1974)—Piaget  (1970, 1 9 7 1 ) — t h e E a r l y C h i l d h o o d  Open Framework Program;  f o r E a r l y Education;  Curriculum;  3) K a m i i and  DeVries  4) Bingham-Newman, Saunders, and  Hooper ( 1 9 7 6 ) — t h e W i s c o n s i n . P i a g e t P r e s c h o o l E d u c a t i o n Program. B r a i n e r d (1978), Lawton and Hooper (1978), and Kuhn (1979) c r i t i c a l l y a n a l y z e t h e s e e a r l y c h i l d h o o d programs based on the mental stages.  A l l t h r e e a u t h o r s p o i n t out t h a t t h e r e i s no  developevidence—  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y based c u r r i c u l a and the t r a d i t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m .  B r a i n e r d , 1978,  concludes t h a t :  "While t h e r e a r e some p o s i t i v e f i n d i n g s t h e r e does not seem t o be e v i d e n c e t h a t would c o n v i n c e a prudent  any  r e a d e r t h a t the l o f t y c l a i m s made  by the d e v e l o p e r s of P i a g e t i a n c u r r i c u l a a r e t r u e .  There appears t o be  no p r o o f of e i t h e r s h o r t o r l o n g - t e r m s u p e r i o r i t y i n P i a g e t - i n s t r u c t e d children.""'"^  Most r e c e n t l y Kuhn, 1979,  reviewed  experimental pre-  s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a t h a t d e r i v e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s from P i a g e t ' s development s t a g e sequences.  She argues " t h a t t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s encoun-  t e r e d i n a t t e m p t i n g t o a p p l y P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y of c o g n i t i v e development t o e d u c a t i o n a r e r e v e a l i n g of the a m b i g u i t i e s t h a t e x i s t w i t h i n the t h e o r y 18 itself."  I n h e r summary she s t a t e s t h a t :  "To t h e e x t e n t  " ^ B r a i n e r d , C h a r l e s J . , P i a g e t ' s Theory of I n t e l l i g e n c e , Cliffs: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1978), p. 295.  (Englewood  18 Kuhn, Deanna, "The A p p l i c a t i o n o f P i a g e t ' s Theory of C o g n i t i v e Development to E d u c a t i o n , " Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review, 3 (August, 1979), p. 346.  33 developmental  stages  a r e not  fully  d e f i n e d , the recommendation  that  19 c u r r i c u l u m be  based  Much o f  the  on  them b e c o m e s a n  problem  lies  i n the  If  o b j e c t i v e s o f many o f  of  concrete o p e r a t i o n a l concepts,  cepts  develop  Other  curricula,  tured  their  tions.  naturally,  then  particularly  programs around  and  utilize  without  are  Piaget  logically i n the  one."  curriculum goals  pre-schools  we  have a  extent  'serious  develop that  r  q u e s t i o n i n g whether  teaching these  strategies  acquisition these  con-  ambiguity'.  mathematics have  logico-mathematicalccon:ce;p':t s and  activity-based  objectives.  postulates that  which w i l l  to the  or  to promote the  s c i e n c e s and  activities  These have been c r i t i c i z e d  to P i a g e t ' s range of they  these  empty  formal  they  are  to the  to develop  s t r a t e g i e s would best  struc-  operarestricted  extent formal  that thought  promote c o g n i t i v e  development. The  above p o i n t s have f o c u s e d  applying  Piaget's developmental  evidence  seems t o  lines  indicate  for structuring  and  sequencing  an  strongly  concepts  the  indicator  each stage.  Therefore,  surely  remain  i n s e c u r e , and  school  and  stantial forced  other  a  case  of readiness.  based  p.  on  346.  Current  used  such  saturated.  t h i s way:  traditional  guide-  research  to c h a r a c t e r i z e  insecure data  will  E v a l u a t i o n of  pre-  "On  The  sound  c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s have n o t  for restructuring  of  secure  for developing  that P i a g e t - o r i e n t e d educators  19 Ibid.,  p r o v i d e us w i t h  content,  B r a i n e r d summarizes  to conclude  establish  problem  limitations  to c u r r i c u l u m development.  t h a t P i a g e t has  curricula  Piagetian-based  gains.  theory  t h a t i t does not  t e a c h i n g methods o r as questions  u p o n some o f t h e  shown  t h e w h o l e , one  have f a i l e d  curricula  subis  to  along Piagetian  ,• ..20 lines. P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n has, f o r one r e a s o n o r a n o t h e r , made few a t t e m p t s i n a p p l y i n g P i a g e t ' s recommendations t o i t s c u r r i c u l u m . present  evidence,  i t may be u n p r o d u c t i v e  I n l i g h t of  t o i n v e s t i g a t e any f u r t h e r con-  n e c t i o n s between P i a g e t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m .  I t may be  b e s t , t h e n , t h a t we examine o t h e r v i a b l e t h e o r i e s t h a t may o f f e r more concrete g u i d e l i n e s . Proponents o f P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y such as S i g e l and C o c k i n g , 1977, admit t h a t many e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e s a r e not " d i r e c t l y broached" i n t h e t h e o r y and t h a t more r e s e a r c h i s needed t o support Nevertheless,  c e r t a i n notions.  t h e y , as many o t h e r f o l l o w e r s , suggest t h a t t h e problem  l i e s i n t r a n s l a t i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l pedagogy. Other e d u c a t o r s  t h i n k t h a t d o i n g more r e s e a r c h on such a t o p i c would be  21 unproductive.  F o r example, Egan suggests t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s  such as P i a g e t ' s have l i t t l e t o o f f e r e d u c a t i o n .  "At p r e s e n t , i t seems  t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i s dominated by p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s t h a t l e a d t o knowledge o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a l u e and i n t e r e s t b u t o f f e r o n l y 22 occasional ' i m p l i c a t i o n s ' f o r education."  He c l a i m s t h a t what we  need i s an e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y o f development " . . . w h i c h f o c u s e s on t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f development, l e a r n i n g , and m o t i v a t i o n and w h i c h d i r e c t l20 y y i e l d s p r i n c i p l e s f o r engaging c h i l d r e n i n l e a r n i n g , f o r u n i t B r a i n e r d , C. J . , P i a g e t ' s Theory o f I n t e l l i g e n c e , Englewood Cliffs: P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1978, p. 298. 21 Egan, K i e r a n , "What does P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y d e s c r i b e ? " H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l Review, Summer, 1980, p. 10. 22 Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New Y o r k : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 5.  35 and  lesson planning,  lated  just The  fers,  such a  such as  Egan's  d e s c r i b e how  i s an  Recognizing  curriculum  nature  criteria  of  focus  of  an  to  why  an  assist  II  23  Egan has  formu-  an  educational  educational us  theory  dif-  developmental  i n making d e c i s i o n s  in  curricula.  the  Theory  limitations  more a p p r o p r i a t e  to  instead  and  Educational  some o f  i t m i g h t be  theories  i s more a p t  physical education  What  theory,  organizing.  theory.  following section w i l l  designing  the  for curriculum  from a p s y c h o l o g i c a l theory  theory  tion  and  of  Development?  of  Piaget's  developmental  f o r the  designer  of  h i s a t t e n t i o n i n the  direction  psychological theories.  educational  theory  and  This  how  i t may  f o r constructing physical education  physical of  educational  section will provide  curricula  educa-  examine  us w i t h  than  better  psychological  theories. According  to Egan,  "the  f u n c t i o n of  an  educational  theory  is  to  24 tell  us  Such a teach 3) our  how  to design  theory  will  curriculum which w i l l  answer f o u r  to produce such people?  when s h o u l d  we  end-product  Plato's, tions,  a  Rousseau's, the  Development, has  24  Ibid  p.  2)  how  particular  resemble?  although  23  teach  questions:  and last,  Educational  formulated  in a brief  h i s own  what we  4)  content  teach  focused manner.  people."  should  such  what k i n d  t h e o r i e s of  Whitehead's, have only  1)  should  things?  produce educated  content?  of  person  development on  these  Egan,  Education  and  will  such  four  as  ques-  in  Educational  which  encompasses  educational  theory  Psychology,  i n press,  6.  Egan, K i e r a n ,  we  p.  203.  36  these q u e s t i o n s . t r a t e s how  F u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e s e f o u r q u e s t i o n s  illus-  e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i e s d i f f e r i n f o c u s from p s y c h o l o g i c a l  theories. 1)  E d u c a t i o n a l end-products.  An e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y w i l l  e x p l i c i t about t h e way we s h o u l d d e s i g n c u r r i c u l a t o produce people.  be  educated  Hence, i t s end-product w i l l be a k i n d of p e r s o n , r a t h e r than a  k i n d of t h i n k i n g as i n P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y . t h e o r y i s a person who  The end-product of P i a g e t ' s  can compute t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e f o r m a l s t a g e .  H i s t h e o r y i s d e s c r i b i n g p r e c i s e l i m i t s o f c o g n i t i v e t h i n k i n g (what i s ) , whereas an e d u c a t i o n t h e o r y i s concerned  w i t h p r e s c r i b i n g the  m e n t a l p r o c e s s n e c e s s a r y t o produce educated  people  (what ought t o b e ) .  P s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s aim a t p r e c i s e l y c h a r a c t e r i z i n g and a l l y i s o l a t i n g c e r t a i n processes.  develop-  scientific-  Educational t h e o r i e s , although  r e f e r r i n g t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s , a r e more g e n e r a l about t h e of the developmental  processes  s t a g e s but v e r y p r e c i s e and p r e s c r i p t i v e about t h e  k i n d o f person r e s u l t i n g t h e r e f r o m . t h e o r y i s an i d e a l k i n d of educated  The  end s t a t e o f an e d u c a t i o n a l  p e r s o n , w h i c h i s a c h i e v e d by  work and i n most cases seldom a c h i e v e d a t a l l .  hard  Whereas, the f o r m a l  opera-  t i o n a l s t a g e , b e i n g the end product o f P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y , i s supposed t o be a c h i e v e d by most people more o r l e s s n a t u r a l l y or  spontaneously.  I f an e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y i s g o i n g t o p r e s c r i b e t h e  end-products  then i t must be v a l u e - l a d e n .  V a l u e d e c i s i o n s must be made a t each  s t a g e a l o n g t h i s developmental  p r o c e s s t o r e a c h t h e s t a g e of  maturity.  educated  Here i t d i f f e r s a g a i n from p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s .  P s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s c l a i m t o be v a l u e - n e u t r a l or o b j e c t i v e . Consequently,  psychological theories with their  distinctively  s c i e n t i f i c f o c u s have l i t t l e t o o f f e r the c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r i n the  37 way p r e s c r i b i n g the n a t u r e of the end p r o d u c t .  Hence, a sound, s e n s i b l e  e d u c a t i o n a l program can o n l y be c o n s t r u c t e d u t i l i z i n g an e d u c a t i o n a l developmental 2)  theory.  What s h o u l d we teach?  The f u n c t i o n of an e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y  i s t o t e l l us what c o n t e n t we s h o u l d t e a c h a t each stage t o produce a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of educated p e r s o n . o f p e r s o n we want t o c r e a t e .  The program w i l l r e f l e c t the k i n d  I n t h i s a r e a of c o n t e n t , p s y c h o l o g i c a l  t h e o r i e s o f f e r us l i t t l e guidance.  T h e o r i e s l i k e P i a g e t ' s a r e not  con-  cerned w i t h c o n t e n t , but r a t h e r w i t h a r e s t r i c t e d range of c o n c e p t s . T h i s r e s t r i c t e d range of concepts o f t e n a c t s as ' r e s t r i c t o r s ' what may  be taught a t c e r t a i n s t a g e s .  limiting  For example, i n h i s t o r y , t h e  25 t o p i c of r e l i g i o n ,  which appears t o r e q u i r e t h e c a p a c i t y of s o p h i s t i -  c a t e d f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s , may  be c o m p l e t e l y d i s m i s s e d i n t h e  elementary  c u r r i c u l u m under the j u s t i f i c a t i o n t h a t younger c h i l d r e n a r e i n c a p a b l e o f g r a s p i n g such s o p h i s t i c a t e d c o n c e p t s . e v e r , w i l l show the t e a c h e r how  An e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y , how-  t h e s e seemingly c o m p l i c a t e d t o p i c s  can  be broken down and t a u g h t so t h a t c h i l d r e n g r a d u a l l y can grasp and make sense out o f almost any t o p i c p r e s e n t e d .  I n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , under-  s t a n d i n g t h e f u n c t i o n s o f h e a r t and the c i r c u l a t o r y system and  their  r e l a t i o n t o e x e r c i s e a r e u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d r a t h e r complex concepts f o r a younger c h i l d t o comprehend. e x c e l l e n t example of how children.  The f i l m , " I am Joe's H e a r t , " i s an  d i f f i c u l t concepts can be made a c c e s s i b l e t o  The f i l m , through humor, p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , and  animation  p r e s e n t s concepts t o t h e c h i l d ' s l e v e l of u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n much the same way  t h a t t h e t e l e v i s i o n program Sesame S t r e e t c a p t u r e s t h e i n t e r e s t of 25 Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n and P s y c h o l o g y , i n p r e s s , pp. 22-27.  38 children. E d u c a t o r s and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s do want t o know what they be t e a c h i n g a t p a r t i c u l a r s t a g e s .  should  The t o p i c o f what content t o i n c l u d e  i s open t o much c o n t r o v e r s y and o f t e n abused o r n e g l e c t e d .  As Daughtrey  a f f i r m s , " I f t h e r e i s one phase o f t e a c h i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t stands out as the most i m p o r t a n t and t o w h i c h t h e l e a s t a t t e n t i o n i s 26 g i v e n , i t i s t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e program." I t seems t h a t i f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s want t o know what c o n t e n t may b e s t a c h i e v e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l ends, they must develop an e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y and n o t 3)  draw  i m p l i c a t i o n s from a p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y .  When s h o u l d we t e a c h p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g s :  ment i s a p r o c e s s .  Educational develop-  I t i s a p r o c e s s o f p r o g r e s s i n g through  d i f f e r e n t stages to a r r i v e a t m a t u r i t y .  qualitatively  A t each s t a g e t h e c h i l d makes  sense o u t o f the w o r l d around h i m i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t manner. That t h e c h i l d ' s t h i n k i n g i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f an a d u l t ' s seems obvious enough.  However, as Whitehead had n o t e d ,  f a c t has n o t been g i v e n enough a t t e n t i o n by c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n e r s .  this He  writes: . . . t h e p u p i l ' s p r o g r e s s i s o f t e n c o n c e i v e d as a u n i f o r m steady advance u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by change o f t y p e o r a l t e r n a t i o n i n pace; f o r example, a boy may be c o n c e i v e d as s t a r t i n g L a t i n a t t e n y e a r s o f age and by a u n i f o r m p r o g r e s s i o n s t e a d i l y d e v e l o p i n g i n t o a c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r a t t h e age o f e i g h t e e n o r twenty. I h o l d t h a t t h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n i s based upon a f a l s e p s y c h o l o g y o f t h e p r o c e s s o f m e n t a l development w h i c h has g r a v e l y h i n d e r e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f o u r methods.^7 Daughtrey, Greyson, E f f e c t i v e Teaching i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , f o r Secondary S c h o o l s , ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : W. B. Saunders Co., 1973), p. 144. 27 Whitehead, A l f r e d N o r t h , The Aims o f E d u c a t i o n , (New York: Mentor Books, 1961), p. 28.  39 L i k e w i s e i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , when s t r i v i n g t o o b t a i n a c e r t a i n l e v e l of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s we p r e s c r i b e s i m i l a r j o g g i n g programs f o r Grade One  and each grade t h e r e a f t e r .  I n each grade u n t i l Grade Twelve,  s t u d e n t s a r e t o get a b i t s t r o n g e r and  faster.  T h i s method of s t r u c -  t u r i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s f o r the young based on a d u l t conc e p t i o n s happens a l l too o f t e n and  can be dangerous.  I t i s dangerous  i n the sense t h a t c h i l d r e n d i f f e r from a d u l t s a n a t o m i c a l l y , ically,  psycholog-  and p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y and, t h e r e f o r e , from the c h i l d ' s  viewpoint  he w i l l l i k e l y become bored w i t h t h e a c t i v i t y i f i t i s not o r g a n i z e d s u i t h i s l e v e l of u n d e r s t a n d i n g  and m a t u r a t i o n .  Imposing the a d u l t  v e r s i o n o f the game as i n the case of i c e hockey, f o o t b a l l , f i e l d or b a s e b a l l can a l s o be condemned f o r i t may  to  hockey,  cause p h y s i c a l i n j u r y or  i n s e c u r i t y w h i c h w i l l d e p r i v e the c h i l d of the j o y o f movement. T h i s form o f s t r u c t u r i n g does not t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n c e r t a i n stages or 'rhythmic  p u l s e s ' o f development.  Whitehead p u t s i t s i m p l y 28  for  us: Now  "We  must garner our crops each i n i t s due  i f we  c o u l d d e s c r i b e or i n d i c a t e t h e s e  season."  'seasons' or s t a g e s  and  a s c e r t a i n c e r t a i n g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s of each s t a g e , t h e n we c o u l d adapt the c u r r i c u l u m to s u i t these stages.  To t h i s end an e d u c a t i o n a l  theory  w i l l p r o v i d e us w i t h guidance. Egan s t a t e s : ... an e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y w i l l seek t o c h a r a c t e r i z e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s i n terms of the c o n t e n t , concepts and s k i l l s most a p p r o p r i a t e l y mastered d u r i n g each s t a g e , and i n terms of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , and forms o f p r e s e n t a t i o n , of knowledge t h a t a r e most m e a n i n g f u l t o s t u d e n t s at each s t a g e . ^ A c c o r d i n g l y , i f our image "of e d u c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y i n v o l v e d c e r t a i n 28  29 I b i d . , p. 32. Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n and P s y c h o l o g y ,  i n p r e s s , p.  10.  freedoms o f e x p r e s s i o n "  i n movement,  "then  we w o u l d  expect  t o know what  30 qualitatively imagine  that  different one s t a g e  movement, w h i l e Likewise, ites  stages  may e m p h a s i z e  another  i n this  lead to this  mature freedom."  the importance o f p r e c i s i o n i n  may e m p h a s i z e more f r e e d o m a n d c r e a t i v i t y .  process,  certain  stages  f o r a c h i e v i n g m a t u r e movement.  will  Mastery  demand  a s e n s e o f r o m a n c e may b e p r e r e q u i s i t e s t o a d v a n c e  or  to arrive  at the f i n a l  r i c u l u m which has f a i l e d  address  Psychological  activities  t h e q u e s t i o n When?  he  i s concerned  to  with  develop  Piaget  naturally  cognitive ability.  with  practical  i n physical  principles  us w i t h  presents  "When  should  any complete  stages  answers  o f development  range o f c o n c e p t s — l o g i c o -  out e a r l i e r ,  Here h i s theory  from which  and i s ,  has f a i l e d t o  He d o e s n o t  of the subject matter  As p o i n t e d  cur-  education?"  or spontaneously.  order  e x a c t l y what he. i s d e s c r i b i n g .  questions,  stage A  aspects,  activities,  fundamental  a restricted  between t h e l o g i c a l  discipline,  t o t h e next  qualitative  of assorted  and s k i l l s  Although  mostly  mathematical—which distinguish  on these  t h e o r i e s do n o t p r o v i d e  to  child's  t o focus  t o one o f t h e most  particular  prerequis-  o f m a t u r e f r e e d o m o f movement.  a mere c o n g l o m e r a t i o n  itself  we t e a c h  stage  certain  o f movement,  or  therefore,  We c a n  and t h e  we a r e u n s u r e a s does n o t s u p p l y us  to structure curriculum i nphysical  education. 4)  How s h o u l d  theory  that  should  teach.  are  we t e a c h  c h a r a c t e r i z e s developmental Appropriate  drawn f r o m e a c h s t a g e .  30  things?  Ibid.,  p . 29.  Implicit stages,  i n an e d u c a t i o n a l i s t h e n o t i o n o f how we  forms o f p r e s e n t a t i o n and t e a c h i n g In physical education  then,  strategies  knowledge  and  41 movement and an  skills  must b e  interesting,  at  the  educational theory  dance or  fitness  application  to  the  be  Piaget's  stage.  us  of  or  solely  we  might  to o f f e r lies  o u t l i n e d and  education  activity  out  are meaningful,  In a p r a c t i c a l  t o how  interest  frequently cited  pointed  attributed  are  they  go  logical,  sense  about  then,  teaching  children.  for their  type  'self-discovery'  r e s e a r c h as  guide  young  processes  E v e n P i a g e t ' s most of  would  that  t h e o r i e s have l i t t l e  comes t o m e t h o d o l o g y Often  so  appropriate  to very  Psychological  cesses.  presented  that  to Piaget's  p o p u l a r i t y recommended  in isolating  takes  place  recommendation  Neither theory, similar  educator  not  i n the  classroom.  for education,  this  self-discovery  educators  pedagogical  long  pro-  little  been s u b s t a n t i a t e d  can  as  when i t  certain  t e s t e d which have  methods has  earlier.  the  that by method  before  techniques.  In 31  short,  "Piaget's In  istics ies  theory  summary, a n  of  developmental  stages aim  and,  development.  As  processes  of  can  educators  important  question  planning  t h e w h a t , when, and  physical  educators  gests  overtones  other  hand, w i t h o u t this  and  of  implication  are an an  will  we  should  seek to o u t l i n e  i n a g e n e r a l way.  a result,  they  the  how.  are  limited  the  Educators  today  a u t h o r i t a r i a n type end-product  of  end  abstract  The  product,  and  most for i t  as  i t sug-  e d u c a t i o n a l system.  end  only  products  flounder will  and  Psychology,  i n press,  p.  On  188.  the  about  somehow  31 Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n  they  especially  end-products  i n m i n d we  t h a t , i n t h e hope t h a t our  character-  i n what  programs.  question of  speak about  teach."  Psychological theor-  therefore, describe precisely  r e l u c t a n t to  ideal  f o r how  physical education  seems t o b e  modifies  trying  no  educational theory  have a s c i e n t i f i c  offer  has  be  42 educated  people.  educational choices  In the following chapters  developmental  i n curriculum  theory  planning  guides  us d i r e c t l y  f o r various  does n o t have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e d u c a t i o n , and  can be a p p l i e d  original leads  Egan,  and comprehensive  the four  questions  and d e s c r i b e s  implications  educators. motivation stages  i t deals  focuses  Educational  What  should  four The  secondary follows  stage level,  theory  that  the complexity  aspects  lead  begins  Firstly, i t  When d u r i n g t h e  things Thus  are best  i t has d i r e c t  of educational  concerns  c e r t a i n phenomena.  phenomena o f d i r e c t  o f development  interest  to  s u c h a s l e a r n i n g and  the characterizations of different  directly  to organizing  i s not only  curriculum.  p s y c h o l o g i c a l development b u t  the c h i l d  sees  Egan has d e f i n e d  mythic,  romantic,  i n the e a r l y grades,  the philosophic at late  thereafter.  a t a g e 4/5 a n d  theory?  How  and d e s c r i b e s  through  from the world. stages:  begins  be taught,  be t a u g h t ,  on t h e i n t e r a c t i v e  development  developmental mythic  education  Development, o u t l i n e s an  should  e n c o m p a s s e s a l l p o s s i b l e ways i n w h i c h d e r i v e s meaning  It  curriculum.  isolated  are dealt with i n turn  of:  with  Educational  which  sensible  Development  the d e s i r a b l e end-product.  u n l i k e psychology which Egan's t h e o r y  of Educational  educational  things  f o r designing  Secondly,  i n making  i t is^ about  What makes i t a n e d u c a t i o n a l  developmental process taught  Egan's  of development.  instead  i n h i s book E d u c a t i o n a l  to maturity.  answers  stages  show how  directly.  Egan's Theory Keiran  I will  the world  characteristics of  p h i l o s o p h i c , and the romantic  secondary,  From t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and  ironic.  at the early  and t h e i r o n i c  e x p l i c a t e d we  can derive  43  p r i n c i p l e s f o r organizing subject matter.  Egan's main c l a i m ".  t h a t at each s t a g e we make sense of the w o r l d i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ways and be o r g a n i z e d  and  . . i s  experience i n s i g n i f -  t h a t t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s r e q u i r e t h a t knowledge  d i f f e r e n t l y t o be most a c c e s s i b l e and  educationally effec-  32  t i v e at each  stage."  I t i s t h e major purpose of t h i s study t o a r t i c u l a t e the i s t i c s of each s t a g e (chapter  t h r e e ) , and  show how  character-  p r i n c i p l e s derived  from t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be u t i l i z e d i n d e s i g n i n g p h y s i c a l education  curriculum.  Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 7.  York:  Oxford  CHAPTER I I I  EGAN'S FOUR STAGES OF EDUCATIONAL  What p r i n c i p l e s revising  old curricula  education  draws i d e a s  development few  are considered  from v a r i o u s  theories.  i n physical education  existing  t h e o r i e s and t h a t v e r y  little  chapter  will  show how  each  Egan's reflections,  stage theory  provides  four  us w i t h  and e x p e r i e n c e s  programs,  developmental  stages  that  Along  with  philosophy  t o works i n o t h e r  that to  support  the developmental  first ment  two s t a g e s should  matter as  h i s claims.  take  In particular,  theories of Piaget  of h i s theory. into  account:  and b) t h e development  emotions, m o r a l i t y ,  have This  educational  p o e t i c s , and disciplines reference  and E r i k s o n i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e t o Egan, c u r r i c u l u m  a) t h e l o g i c a l of the c h i l d ' s framework,  44  'prin-  observations,  h e f r e q u e n t l y makes  According  conceptual  to  d e v e l o p m e n t and  this  of anthropology,  He a l s o r e f e r s  around  f o r building curriculum.  p e r s p e c t i v e he h a s drawn f r o m t h e a r e a s of history.  curriculum  sequence.  from h i s p e r s o n a l  i n teaching.  with  at times,  of educational  principles  has been developed  planners  s t r u c t u r i n g programs  As a r e s u l t ,  Egan's  provided  a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n  an e d u c a t i o n a l l y sound  articulate  including psychological  I t i s evident  has neglected  i n building curricula. to provide  disciplines,  guidelines.  new c u r r i c u l a o r  As has been p o i n t e d o u t ,  These have i n t h e past  planning  failed  when p l a n n i n g  i n p h y s i c a l education?  and sometimes m i s l e a d i n g  ciples'  DEVELOPMENT  development  mind  of subject  (including  etc.).  develop-  such  H i s theory  aspects  i l l u s t r a t e s a process which elaborates the d i f f e r e n t . s t a g e s of c h i l d development and how t h e s e can b e s t be matched t o a p p r o p r i a t e s u b j e c t matter.  P r i n c i p l e s d e r i v e d a t each s t a g e g u i d e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f  curricula... connected.  He a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s how, i n t h i s p r o c e s s , t h e s t a g e s a r e He argues t h a t i n e d u c a t i o n c e r t a i n t h i n g s a r e p r e r e q u i s i t e  t o o t h e r s and t h a t s i m p l y p r e s e n t i n g t o c h i l d r e n watered-down v e r s i o n s of a d u l t concepts  i s n o t o n l y e d u c a t i o n a l l y q u e s t i o n a b l e b u t c a n a l s o be  d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e c h i l d ' s growth.  What f o l l o w s i s an e x p l i c a t i o n o f  t h e f o u r s t a g e s and some g e n e r a l comments p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s t a g e  con-  struct. Mythic  Stage  Characteristics The f i r s t s t a g e o f Egan's e d u c a t i o n a l development encompasses c h i l d r e n between t h e ages o f 4/5 t o 9/10.  T h i s s t a g e Egan c a l l s  mythic  as he v i e w s c h i l d r e n ' s t h i n k i n g t o be s i m i l a r t o t h e k i n d o f t h i n k i n g e v i d e n t i n myth s t o r i e s - .  -There a r e f o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of m y t h i c •  thinking. 1. things.  Myth s t o r i e s p r o v i d e u s e r s w i t h a b s o l u t e and f i x e d accounts o f I n t h i s way they s u p p l y t h e user w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l  security.  C h i l d r e n between t h e ages 4-10 seem t o e s t a b l i s h a sense o f s e c u r i t y i n much t h e same way.  They f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h m a t e r i a l t h a t i s p r e -  sented t o them i n a c l e a r , p r e c i s e , unambiguous manner.  Egan s t a t e s :  . . . c h i l d r e n need t o know how t o f e e l about a t h i n g i n o r d e r f o r t h a t t h i n g t o be c l e a r and m e a n i n g f u l ; they need t o e s t a b l i s h some p e r s o n a l and e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h what i s b e i n g learned.1 ^Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New York: v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 12.  Oxford  Uni-  46 2.  C h i l d r e n a t t h i s s t a g e l a c k what i s c a l l e d a sense of o t h e r n e s s .  Concepts  of h i s t o r i c a l t i m e , p h y s i c a l r e g u l a r i t i e s , l o g i c a l  relationships,  c a u s a l i t y , and g e o g r a p h i c a l space a r e a l l c o n s t r u c t s t h a t t h e c h i l d yet  can not comprehend.  as  F a i r y t a l e s t o r i e s have much i n common w i t h  m y t h i c s t o r i e s as t h e y a l s o l a c k a sense o f o t h e r n e s s .  From t h e s e  s i m p l e u n c o m p l i c a t e d s t o r i e s c h i l d r e n can d e r i v e meaning because t h e s e s t o r i e s a r e a r t i c u l a t e d on b a s i c p a t t e r n s whereby the c h i l d 3.  thinks.  Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of m y t h i c t h i n k i n g i s t h e absence of a  c l e a r sense of t h e w o r l d as autonomous and o b j e c t i v e . see t h e w o r l d as a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y .  C h i l d r e n do not  By and l a r g e t h e y show l i t t l e  con-  cern f o r r e a l i t y , f u n c t i o n i n g i n t h e i r m y t h - l i k e view of the w o r l d . At t h i s s t a g e the c h i l d makes sense o f the o u t s i d e w o r l d i n terms of what i t knows b e s t . tions of:  And what c h i l d r e n r e a l l y know b e s t a r e the human emo-  l o v e , h a t e , f e a r , j o y , good, and bad.  With t h e s e t o o l s ,  they p r o j e c t outward and absorb some meaning f o r themselves. 4.  Myth s t o r i e s a r e u s u a l l y a r r a n g e d and b u i l t upon c e r t a i n b i n a r y  opposites.  For example, t h e o p p o s i t e s c o u l d be between i m p o r t a n t  ments i n t h e l i f e of t h e u s e r s a s :  nature/culture, life/death.  eleThese  k i n d s of b a s i c o p p o s i t e s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e mental l i f e of t h e child.  From f a i r y t a l e s t o r i e s , c h i l d r e n can e a s i l y draw meaning from  t h i n g s put i n b i n a r y terms.  At f i r s t  they can make sense more e a s i l y  i f o n l y a c o u p l e o f concepts a r e p r e s e n t e d a t one t i m e . they approach opposites.  t h e next stage they w i l l  L a t e r on as  l e a r n t o mediate between b i n a r y  For example, i n c r e a t i v e dance, movement sequences c o u l d be  developed around b i n a r y o p p o s i t e s such as anger/peace, sorrow/joy, or d e a t h / l i f e .  storm/calm,  The poem "The Death Dance o f the W h i r l y  Gums" i s v e r y a p p r o p r i a t e as i t c o n t a i n s b o t h b i n a r y o p p o s i t e s combined  47 w i t h human e m o t i o n s . around  binary structures  knowledge i n t h i s the profound fear, most  fascinating  as  easier  a unit will  access Taking  helps  us  be  the  tools  bases  they  of  i s based  just  how  upon t h e b a s i c for children,  e n a b l i n g them t o  thinking  child's  them a n d  thereby absorb  t o him,  t h e more s u c c e s s f u l  through  this  from  which  child's  joy, fear, they  can  have  sense  meaning from  learning w i l l  be.  the world  The  good, bad.  the  intellec-  outward  expands the  to  their  The  the knowledge children  are  These  the world.  "As  of  to l e a r n with  project  c a t e g o r i e s and  knowledge about  moral  In g e n e r a l ,  known i n s i d e w o r l d .  hate,  world  c o n n e c t i o n between the  stage.  c h i l d r e n have a v a i l a b l e  tools  and  into consideration,  i n v o l v e s making  love,  legends  conflicts.  human e m o t i o n s  stage  the  joy,  and  of simple  at the mythic  thinking  mental  stories  at t h i s  categories that  stage,  hate,  are  therein.  of mythic  become t h e i r  the  love,  tale  these kinds  to  s t a g e know b e s t  learn  t h i n g s t h e y know b e s t :  around  fairy  relate  children  i n terms of  and  and  the mythic  find  r e v o l v e around  characteristics  learning  at  absorb  of m o r a l i t y as  to knowledge p r e s e n t e d  outside world tual  children  more e n g a g i n g  these  can b e s t  Hence c h i l d r e n  which  understand  process  What  human e m o t i o n s a n d bad.  conflicts  t h e n b e c o m e s more e f f e c t i v e when o r g a n i z e d  for children  form.  g o o d , and  Therefore,  the  Teaching  closer  presented  develop  initial  set  of  categories. The  important  t h e way  children  tive  these  to  acteristics  of  learn  this  p.  14.  stressed  i n the mythic  characteristics  2 Ibid.,  p o i n t t o be  stage.  and The  stage.  help way  here  the  the  i s that Teachers  child  child  this need  develop  seems t o t o be  fully  the  p e r c e i v e s the world  be  sensicharand  48 makes sense a t t h i s s t a g e of e d u c a t i o n a l development s h o u l d not be upon as immature.  looked  N e i t h e r s h o u l d t h e c h i l d be rushed through t h i s  toward more s o p h i s t i c a t e d ways of t h i n k i n g .  stage  As Egan s t a t e s :  Young c h i l d r e n ' s t h i n k i n g and l e a r n i n g a r e i n i m p o r t a n t q u a l i t a t i v e ways d i f f e r e n t from a d u l t s ' . C h i l d r e n ' s major i n t e l l e c t u a l t o o l s and c a t e g o r i e s a r e not r a t i o n a l and l o g i c a l but e m o t i o n a l and m o r a l . T h i s i s not a c a s u a l nor i n s i g n i f i c a n t difference. I t means t h a t a c c e s s t o t h e w o r l d must be p r o v i d e d i n t h e terms of emotion and m o r a l i t y , o r knowledge w i l l be s i m p l y meaningless. I t w i l l always be p o s s i b l e t o make c h i l d r e n s t o r e t h i n g s i n memory and r e p e a t them on r e q u e s t , but such knowledge w i l l remain i n e r t and w i l l c o n t r i b u t e n o t h i n g toward the d e v e l o p ment o f c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e w o r l d or t h e i r p l a c e i n it. True l e a r n i n g a t t h i s s t a g e must i n v o l v e t h e i r b e i n g a b l e t o absorb t h e w o r l d t o t h e c a t e g o r i e s of t h e i r own v i v i d m e n t a l l i f e and t o d i a l e c t i c a l l y use the w o r l d t o expand the i n t e l l e c t u a l c a t e g o r i e s they have a v a i l a b l e . 3  P r i n c i p l e s f o r O r g a n i z i n g Knowledge The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of m y t h i c t h i n k i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g how  chil-  dren a t t h i s s t a g e l e a r n a r e i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s as they p r o v i d e us w i t h p r i n c i p l e s f o r s t r u c t u r i n g u n i t s and l e s s o n s .  They h e l p us t o under-  s t a n d how we can b e t t e r , m o t i v a t e t h e c h i l d and make d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of knowledge more m e a n i n g f u l  f o r them.  The main p r i n c i p l e s f o r o r g a n i z i n g  c u r r i c u l u m f o r t h i s s t a g e a r e then d e r i v e d from: a b s o l u t e meaning;  binary oppositions;  l a c k of concepts of o t h e r n e s s and sense of an autono-  mous, o b j e c t i v e w o r l d ;  e m o t i o n a l and m o r a l c a t e g o r i e s ;  s t o r y form.  W h i l e a l l p r i n c i p l e s a r e i m p o r t a n t , t h e s t o r y form c o u l d be  con-  s i d e r e d as a v e r y p o w e r f u l medium f o r o r g a n i z i n g knowledge t h a t c h i l d r e n at  the m y t h i c s t a g e can absorb.  and how tales.  Most p e o p l e a r e aware of how  involved  a t t e n t i v e c h i l d r e n can be when r e a d i n g o r l i s t e n i n g t o f a i r y T h i s o c c u r s f o r the v e r y r e a s o n t h a t the b a s i c r e f e r e n t s of  I b i d . , pp. 15-16.  49 f a i r y t a l e , f o l k t a l e s , o r m y t h i c s t o r i e s a r e s i m i l a r t o the i s t i c s of c h i l d r e n ' s t h i n k i n g — h e n c e , ;  ing.  The  character-  the i n t e n s e i n t e r e s t and  understand-  s t o r y i s not o n l y i m p o r t a n t because i t uses such elements as  p o l a r c o n f l i c t s , a b s o l u t e meaning, v i v i d n e s s , images, drama, engagement of f e e l i n g s t o i n v o l v e c h i l d r e n , but a l s o t h a t i t i s a whole and u n i t i n t h a t i t u l t i m a t e l y f i x e s meaning.  complete  I t i s the s t o r y form and  not  the c o n t e n t of s t o r i e s t h a t l i e s at the essence of making knowledge m e a n i n g f u l t o the c h i l d .  The  s t o r y t h a t s e t s up drama and  and  at the b e g i n n i n g ,  elaborates  p l i e s a c l e a r and  s a t i s f y i n g ending i s an i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t Egan  draws between the s t o r y form and  complicates  expectations  them i n the m i d d l e , and  story contents.  sup-  What needs t o be done  i s t o embody knowledge i n t o the s t o r y form t o make i t more a c c e s s i b l e t o young c h i l d r e n at t h i s  stage.  Games Through r e s e a r c h and o b s e r v a t i o n ,  the e d u c a t o r i s l e a r n i n g more and  more about the i m p o r t a n c e of games and p l a y i n the e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . H u i z i n g a , w r i t i n g some f o r t y y e a r s ago play" states that " . . .  on the "Nature and  pure p l a y i s one  S i g n i f i c a n c e of  of the main bases of  civiliza-  4 tion."  I n h i s book he shows how  every f a c e t of s o c i e t y . and  the p l a y - e l e m e n t i s r o o t e d  i n almost  However, he has noted t h a t i n today's s o c i e t y  i n p a r t i c u l a r s p o r t s , the p l a y - s p i r i t i s w i t h e r i n g .  " I n the case of s p o r t we have an a c t i v i t y n o m i n a l l y r a i s e d t o such a p i t c h of t e c h n i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and ness t h a t the r e a l p l a y - s p i r i t i s t h r e a t e n e d  Huizinga  known as p l a y scientific  states: but  thorough-  with e x t i n c t i o n . " ^  4  H u i z i n g a , J.', Homo Ludens: (London: Temple S m i t h , 1970), p. ~*Ibid. , p.  225.  A study of the p l a y element i n c u l t u r e , 23.  50 Perhaps t h i s phenomena r e f l e c t s . i n p a r t t h e l a c k o f awareness educators  have about what Egan c a l l s  . . t h e changing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of c h i l d r e n ' s games," and, i n a d d i t i o n , an awareness o f ". . . t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e games t h a t a r e most s i g n i f i c a n t f o r e n c o u r a g i n g l e a r n i n g at d i f f e r e n t stages o f c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n a l development."^  In other  words, i t would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o o r g a n i z e a d u l t - l i k e games f o r c h i l dren a t the mythic stage.  I n a comprehensive study o f c h i l d r e n ' s games,  Iona and P e t e r Opie p o i n t out t h a t : When g e n e r a l i z i n g about c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y i t i s easy t o f o r g e t t h a t each c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e t o each game, and h i s way o f p l a y i n g i t , i s c o n s t a n t l y changing as he h i m s e l f matures; h i s p r e f e r e n c e s moving from t h e f a n c i f u l t o t h e r i t u a l i s t i c from t h e r i t u a l i s t i c t o t h e romantic ( i . e . , t h e f r e e - r a n g i n g games, 'Hide and Seek,' 'Cowboys and I n d i a n s ' ) , and from t h e romantic t o t h e s e v e r e l y c o m p e t i t i v e . ^ What t h e n a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f games a t t h e m y t h i c  stage.  Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e fundamental u n d e r l y i n g f e a t u r e s o f s t o r i e s a r e a l s o fundamental t o games. n i n g s , m i d d l e s , and endings.  Games, l i k e s t o r i e s , have d e f i n i t e  begin-  Games o f t e n b e g i n w i t h some k i n d o f rhyme,  c o u n t i n g f i s t s as i n "one p o t a t o , two p o t a t o "  o r t h r o u g h "Paper, S c i s -  s o r s , Stone" form o f e l i m i n a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e who i s " i t " o r who s t a r t s the game.  Almost any game s t a r t s w i t h some k i n d o f r i t u a l  add suspense and s e t up e x p e c t a t i o n s .  i n order t o  As Iona and P e t e r Opie s t a t e :  "They ( c h i l d r e n between 6-12) l i k e games w h i c h move i n s t a g e s , i n w h i c h each s t a g e , t h e c h o o s i n g o f l e a d e r s , t h e p i c k i n g - u p o f s i d e s , t h e d e t e r g m i n i n g o f w h i c h s i d e s h a l l s t a r t , a r e almost games i n t h e m s e l v e s . " Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New York: v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 18.  Oxford  ^Opie, Iona and P e t e r , C h i l d r e n ' s Games i n S t r e e t arid (Oxford: C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1969), p. 4. ^ I b i d . , p. 2.  Uni-  Playground,  Whether middle out  the  game i s a  i n which  and  an  As  the  ending  with  chasing,  s u s p e n s e and  which brings  stories,  boundary w i t h i n which but as  absolute  and  i n hopscotch  bound him  or  at  times  witches.  the mythic  c h a o t i c and  "It It  as:  i s not i s not  In  the  of  limit  child  feels  robbers,  child  b a c k he  usually  is precisely this  spatial  i n a world  opposites  upon but  marked and  be  cranes,  seems  clearly fairies  i n a magic w o r l d a knight's  out  rule-  important  boys h i s s i d e s k i r m i s h e s w i t h  a  simple  which  can  becomes an  seems t o b e  rides  carried  establishing  are  c r o w s and  element  is  a  close.  Rules  secure  Binary  beginning  reality  Within  imaginative  other  to a  secure.  cranes.  game t h e  r a c i n g game i t c o n t a i n s  game t e r r i t o r y  c o p s and  a classmate's a party  and  confused.  Here a l s o the  acteristic.  contest  feel  The  crows and  i n many games s u c h  the  children  or  u n c e r t a i n t y of the  games r e d u c e  binding.  adventure,  duelling,  fine  but  to seen  and  charwhere: charger.  Indians,  9 Robbers,  'Men  The are to  pride, how play  Mars'."  b a s i c human e m o t i o n s o f  also very test  from  much a p a r t  s t r e n g t h , to and  an  children  test  element  educators  games, a t  must b e  we  different  which a s s i s t  nerve,  time  need  stages  p.  4.  by  the  games t o  risk-taking.  appears  without  t o be  security,  losing  aware o f  stages  curriculum expert  pain,  marvel  games—can  interest.  characteristics  of development.  often  simplest  hate,  courage,  fortitude,  Adults  t o them t h e  love,  test  that r e q u i r e a sense of  o f d a n g e r and  of  fear,  There are  i n l e a r n i n g at d i f f e r e n t  recognized  ^Ibid.,  games.  involved with—what  for long periods As  of  good, bad,  Those of  of c h i l d r e n ' s  elements of  educational  i n planning  not  the  game  development only  games  52 a c t i v i t i e s but o t h e r types of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , be i t g y m n a s t i c s , dance, or  aquatics.  Chapter f o u r w i l l d e a l w i t h how  the main p r i n c i p l e s ,  d e r i v e d from the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c h i l d r e n ' s t h i n k i n g , can be l a t e d into organizing curriculum i n p h y s i c a l education.  To  trans-  recapitulate,  t h e main p r i n c i p l e s we have f o r o r g a n i z i n g u n i t s a t the m y t h i c s t a g e a r e : 1) the s t o r y form, 2) b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n s , 3) a b s o l u t e meaning, 4) l a c k of  concept o r o t h e r n e s s , 5) l a c k of c l e a r sense of an autonomous, o b j e c -  t i v e w o r l d , and 6) e m o t i o n a l and m o r a l c a t e g o r i e s . The Romantic Stage Characteristics C h i l d r e n i n t h e m y t h i c s t a g e d e r i v e meaning from t h e w o r l d them u s i n g t h e t o o l s of what they know b e s t . t h e i r e m o t i o n a l and m o r a l c a t e g o r i e s .  around  These t o o l s a r e b a s i c a l l y  The m y t h i c s t a g e c o u l d be a n a l o -  gous t o a cocoon i n which t h e c h i l d i s f e e l i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s e c u r e and f u n c t i o n s a d e q u a t e l y i n h i s m y t h - l i k e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e w o r l d .  It i s  d u r i n g t h i s n e x t s t a g e , the r o m a n t i c s t a g e , t h a t the c h i l d b r e a k s out of t h i s cocoon, as i t were, and b e g i n s t o e x p l o r e the l i m i t s of h i s p e r c e i v e d reality.  The s t a g e spans t h e y e a r s from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8/9  The f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  t o 14/15.  of the r o m a n t i c s t a g e i s the p r o g r e s s made  i n d e v e l o p i n g the concepts of ' o t h e r n e s s ' as concepts o f h i s t o r i c a l t i m e , g e o g r a p h i c a l space, p h y s i c a l r e g u l a r i t i e s , l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , causality.  and  C h i l d r e n on t h e b r i d g e between the m y t h i c and r o m a n t i c s t a g e  b e g i n t o seek o t h e r ways t o make sense of t h e w o r l d around them.  They  b e g i n t o f i n d t h a t t h e i r e m o t i o n a l and m o r a l concepts a r e inadequate  and  soon r e a l i z e t h a t knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e of the w o r l d h e l p p r o v i d e t h e growth of the concepts of o t h e r n e s s .  " I t i s i n t h i s sense t h a t c h i l d r e n  b e g i n t o use t h e w o r l d t o t h i n k w i t h . "  Through t h i s expansion  of t h e  concepts o f o t h e r n e s s , t h e s t u d e n t b e g i n s t o d i s c o v e r t h e w o r l d as an autonomous e n t i t y , d i f f e r e n t  from h i m s e l f .  He t h e r e b y l o s e s t h e s e c u r -  i t y he had e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e m y t h i c s t a g e and has t o s t r u g g l e w i t h and explore the boundaries new s e c u r i t y .  o f t h i s new. autonomous w o r l d he f a c e s , t o f i n d h i s  Two s p e c i f i c t a s k s t o e s t a b l i s h a sense o f i n t e l l e c t u a l  s e c u r i t y i n the romantic stage are:  " f i r s t , they must f o r g e a new r e l a -  t i o n s h i p and c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t h e autonomous w o r l d and so a c h i e v e some method o f d e a l i n g w i t h i t s t h r e a t e n i n g a l i e n n e s s , and, second, they have to develop a sense o f t h e i r d i s t i n c t  identity.  One way t h e r o m a n t i c s t u d e n t can d e a l w i t h t h e a l i e n w o r l d he meets i s through r o m a n t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s .  He l o o k s toward  q u a l i t i e s as b r a v e r y , power, n o b i l i t y , courage,  t h o s e elements and  and c r e a t i v i t y , w h i c h  a l l o w him t o t r a n s c e n d t h e t h r e a t s o f t h i s new w o r l d around him. Whether i t be an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e courageous e x p l o r e r s t h a t c r o s s e d t h e mighty waters and c o n t i n e n t s , w i t h t h e genius and i n g e n u i t y o f t h e i n v e n t o r s o f machines o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l  R e v o l u t i o n , w i t h t h e courage and  d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e men who f i r s t conquered Mount E v e r e s t , w i t h t h e energy o f t h e a t h l e t e who r a n t h e f i r s t 4-minute m i l e , o r w i t h t h e h a r mony, n o b i l i t y , and beauty o f A n c i e n t Greece, s t u d e n t s w i l l ,  through  t h e s e k i n d s o f r o m a n t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s , f e e l a sense o f i d e n t i t y i n t h i s mysterious world.  A l s o through t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e s t u d e n t a t t h i s  s t a g e w i l l be s u p p o r t i n g h i s d e v e l o p i n g ego. note w i t h t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  The i m p o r t a n t p o i n t t o  i s t h a t the student explores the r e a l  E g a n , K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New York: v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 28. 1 0  1 : L  I b i d . , p. 29.  Oxford U n i -  54  w o r l d from t h e o u t s i d e inward.  Romantic a s s o c i a t i o n s p r o v i d e d i r e c t  a c c e s s t o t h e m y s t e r i e s of t h e u n i v e r s e u n f o l d i n g i n f r o n t of them. Egan has c a l l e d t h i s s t a g e r o m a n t i c as " i t shares w i t h r o m a n t i c i s m the t e n s i o n t h a t comes from t h e d e s i r e t o t r a n s c e n d a t h r e a t e n i n g r e a l i t y 12 w h i l e s e e k i n g to s e c u r e one's i d e n t i t y w i t h i n i t . "  As a r e s u l t of  t h i s t e n s i o n , s t u d e n t s d u r i n g t h i s s t a g e b e g i n t o show g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n t h e extremes of the r e a l w o r l d .  They a r e f a s c i n a t e d by The Guinness  of World Records, E r i c h Von Daniken's s t o r i e s of t h e Olympic Games.  d e s c r i p t i o n s of h i s t o r y , and  Book  bizarre  Accounts of t h e f a s t e s t , t h e s l o w e s t , the  most p o w e r f u l , the s m a l l e s t and the b i g g e s t a l l h e l p the s t u d e n t t o l o c a t e r e a l i t y and e s t a b l i s h h i s p l a c e , h i s i d e n t i t y w i t h i n . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c — t h e f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h extremes,  Along w i t h t h i s  i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t know-  l e d g e p r e s e n t e d t o s t u d e n t s a t t h i s s t a g e s h o u l d be as ' d i f f e r e n t ' p o s s i b l e , d i f f e r e n t i n the sense t h a t i t p r e s e n t s e x o t i c ,  as  fantastic,  b i z a r r e a c c o u n t s , y e t w i t h r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l t h a t a l l o w s complete  romantic  e x p l o r a t i o n throughout t h i s p e r i o d . P r i n c i p l e s f o r O r g a n i z i n g Knowledge The s t o r y form remains i m p o r t a n t through the r o m a n t i c s t a g e .  The  k i n d s o f s t o r i e s t h a t the s t u d e n t a t t h i s stage f i n d s engaging a r e those w h i c h have complex p l o t s ; imaginary worlds;  have r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l , a l t h o u g h d e a l w i t h  p r e s e n t heroes and h e r o i n e s ;  b r a v e r y and b o l d n e s s .  and p r e s e n t elements  of  I n t h i s sense, i t i s i n t h e r o m a n t i c s t o r y t h a t  t h e s t u d e n t s w i l l f i n d meaning.  For example, the f i l m of Canada's g r e a t  s k i e r , J i m Hunter, would be s u i t a b l e s i n c e t h e v i e w e r can become i n v o l v e d 12 I b i d . , pp. 31-32.  55 as he a s s o c i a t e s h i m s e l f w i t h of  J i m Hunter.  of winning  He c a n i d e n t i f y  medals.  This kind  i n w h i l e t h e same f i l m meaningful. therefore, in  such  with  suited  prove  group  story stage.  t o be more e n g a g i n g  important  characteristic  of the romantic  hobbies.  will  Students  give special  i n g v a s t amounts o f d e t a i l s . facts  and d e t a i l s  photographs lives.  suitable  different  every  a l l appeal  organized educa-  appetite  importance  audience.  be i n t e r e s t e d  interest i n and memoriz-  i n accumulat-  i n t h e N.H.L., o r c o l l e c t i n g  enables  around  him.  of their  the student to E g a n makes  i n capturing romantic The d e t a i l e d ,  where t h e hero  visual  refer-  prin-  portrayal  i s able to tran-  to students during the romantic  f o rdelving  encourages  head-long  into  a specific  stage and,  a r e a and e x p l o r -  or allows f o r a great deal of o f knowledge, t h i s  f o r i t i s during this  and r e t a i n e d .  and f a n a t i c  i n a l l people.  a r o m a n t i c way c a n b e a b s o r b e d ized  less  stage to consider  to collecting  fordetail  and i t s s i m p l e p l o t  When p l a n n i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n great  be  ego-supporting and,  and s t u d y i n g d e t a i l s  of the world  f o ra certain  worlds  detail  appetite  and s c a l e  the romantic  This  this  stars  S t a r Wars a n d i t s s u c c e s s  hisreality,  indeed,  ing  o f e v e r y h o c k e y member  I t seems t h a t  ence t o t h e f i l m  attention  A student might  o f a l l the gymnastic  explore the l i m i t s  scend  engrossed  and h o p e f u l l y more  and l e s s o n s i s t h e f a s c i n a t i o n  of  become  Knowledge and s k i l l s  when p l a n n i n g u n i t s  ciples  and t h e g l o r y  o f s t u d e n t s might  i s , i n fact,  feats  beneficial.  Another  ing  to succeed  students w i l l  shown t o a n o l d e r  f o r the romantic  even d a r i n g and h e r o i c  the struggle  of story,  This type o f romantic  a manner w i l l  tionally  the courageous,  period  that  memorizing.  characteristic material  and g r e a t amounts o f d e t a i l s  i sof  presented i n c a n b e memor-  56 Games The most i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f games a t t h i s s t a g e i s t h a t they ought t o be r e a l i s t i c .  "Games t h a t do n o t adhere t o a r e a l i s t i c  o r p l a u s i b l e w o r l d a r e r e j e c t e d contemptuously  as ' k i d s ' games.  Romantic  13 games i n v o l v e a c o n t e x t i n s u l a t e d by p l a y f u l n e s s . "  Games p l a y e d a t t h e  m y t h i c s t a g e o f t e n i n v o l v e i m a g i n a t i o n where t h e p l a y e r b e l i e v e s moment a r i l y t h a t he ' r i d e s upon a k n i g h t ' s f i n e c h a r g e r ' o r t h a t t h e c h a s e r i s e v i l and h i s t o u c h w i l l  'freeze' the other p l a y e r .  At the romantic  s t a g e , s t u d e n t s l o o k upon t h e s e t y p e s of games as c h i l d i s h .  They p r e f e r  games which a r e more r e a l i s t i c and enable them t o t r a n s c e n d r e a l i t y . For example, t h e s t u d e n t : . . . can be confident.; i n p a r t i c u l a r games, t h a t i t i s h i s p l a c e t o i s s u e commands, t o i n f l i c t p a i n , t o s t e a l p e o p l e ' s p o s s e s s i o n s , t o p r e t e n d t o be dead, t o h u r l a b a l l a c t u a l l y a t someone, t o pounce on someone, o r t o k i s s someone he has caught. In ordinary l i f e e i t h e r he never knows t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s o r , by a t t e m p t i n g them, makes h i m s e l f an o u t c a s t . ^ I n t h i s sense, t h e s t u d e n t uses games t o t r a n s c e n d h i s everyday  reality  and t o s e c u r e h i s own i d e n t i t y . Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s s t a g e i s t h e c a p a c i t y t o form r o m a n t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e elements o f t h e r e a l w o r l d such as b r a v e r y , courage, power, beauty, energy.  Games which embody t h e s e  q u a l i t i e s w i l l h e l p t h e s t u d e n t t r a n s c e n d t h e problems t h a t t h e r e a l w o r l d poses.  A v a r i e t y o f n e t games, r u n n i n g games, and b a t t i n g games  ( i . e . , b a s k e t b a l l , n e t b a l l , d o d g e b a l l , b a t t l e b a l l , hemenway b a l l ) , c o u l d f u l f i l l t h e s t u d e n t ' s d e s i r e t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h a v a r i e t y of r o m a n t i c  1 3  I b i d . , pp. 34-35.  "^Opie, Iona and P e t e r , C h i l d r e n ' s Games i n S t r e e t arid P l a y g r o u n d , (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969), p. 3.  57 qualities.  Lead-up games t o rugby, s o c c e r , f i e l d hockey, or m i n i -  w r e s t l i n g s i t u a t i o n s would be s u i t a b l e .  A c t i v i t i e s w h i c h seem s p e c t a c -  u l a r , c h a l l e n g i n g , rugged, and c o n t a i n a c e r t a i n amount of drama would be a p p r o p r i a t e t o f o s t e r growth through t h i s s t a g e . boy w r o t e about one of h i s f a v o r i t e  One  12-year-old  Oxford  activities:  The c r a z e a t our s c h o o l i s piggy-back f i g h t i n g . Every p l a y t i m e a l l the boys from our s c h o o l c o l l e c t on the f i e l d and f i n d a p a r t n e r b i g g e r than themselves and mount him. . . . To have good f u n you need about t w e n t y boys, t e n mounts and t e n h o r s e s . . . . ^ Another example, s i m i l a r t o t h e above, i s the c h a r i o t r a c e , which,became t h e most p o p u l a r event of a l o c a l s c h o o l ' s i n d o o r t r a c k meet. boys formed t h e c h a r i o t w h i c h resembled The o b j e c t was  a rugby scrum w i t h a r i d e r on t o p .  t o c i r c l e around f o u r p o s t s i n the gym  the team/chariot i n t a c t .  There was  Here f i v e  two t i m e s ,  keeping  p l e n t y of drama and e x c i t e m e n t  as  c h a r i o t s would c o l l i d e w i t h o t h e r c h a r i o t s , c a u s i n g g r e a t p i l e - u p s and confusion.  T h i s s i m p l e r a c e seems t o r e f l e c t t h e essence of t h e  romantic  stage.  Students  c o u l d a l s o be g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n v e n t t h e i r  games.  I f a l l o w e d t o do so, they w i l l u s u a l l y i n c l u d e some r o m a n t i c  own  quality. The s t o r y form remains i m p o r t a n t throughout  the r o m a n t i c s t a g e  can be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g of s k i l l s .  Individual  s k i l l s c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d o r p r a c t i c e d i n terms of b e g i n n i n g s , and endings.  middles,  For example, i n t h r o w i n g , t h e r e i s the p r e p a r a t i o n , g e t t i n g  arms and l e g s i n t o t h e ready p o s i t i o n ; takes p l a c e ;  and  c o n t a c t , the moment where  impact  and the f o l l o w - t h r o u g h , the c o n c l u s i o n of the throw.  t h e s t u d e n t s can get a f e e l of t h e movement p i c t u r e / s t o r y , then c o u l d perhaps be more s u c c e s s f u l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d .  ''""'ibid. , p.  217.  If  skills  Students a t t h i s  58 s t a g e do seem t o p r a c t i c e d e d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t e a c h i n g might f i r s t f o c u s on t h e p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s of the s k i l l or game and  then  move t o the g e n e r a l . The r o m a n t i c s t u d e n t w i l l a l s o show an i n t e r e s t i n the extremes and in details. endurance, how  Game s i t u a t i o n s which a l l o w them to t e s t t h e i r power, a g i l i t y , would be m e a n i n g f u l .  f a s t they can r u n , how  have.  speed,  Students want t o know  f a r they can throw, and how much s t r e n g t h they  The t e a c h e r s h o u l d c a p i t a l i z e on t h i s p e r i o d of m o t i v a t i o n .  D e t a i l s a l s o become v e r y i m p o r t a n t not o n l y i n r u l e s of games, but a l s o i n p e r f o r m i n g s k i l l s , as Mauldon and R e d f e r n have p o i n t e d o u t : When c h i l d r e n r e a c h t h e upper J u n i o r s t a g e (9-13) they b e g i n t o show a g r e a t e r concern f o r t h e " r i g h t " way of d o i n g t h i n g s , and games t e c h n i q u e s a r e no e x c e p t i o n . They want t o know about c o r r e c t g r i p s , how t o p l a c e the f e e t i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , how t o c o l l e c t and throw a rugby b a l l most e f f i c i e n t l y , and so forth. Boys e s p e c i a l l y perhaps are o f t e n keen t o emulate h i g h c l a s s p l a y e r s and t o model t h e i r s t y l e on t h e i r s . ^ I n c h o o s i n g games and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s t h a t w i l l h e l p s t u d e n t s grow i n and through t h i s r o m a n t i c s t a g e , a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s need t o be sidered carefully.  These, i n summary, a r e :  con-  1) e x p l o r i n g t h e l i m i t s of  r e a l i t y t h r o u g h f o c u s s i n g i n t e r e s t on t h e extremes ( e x p a n s i o n from t h e self);  2) r o m a n t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e p o w e r f u l , n o b l e , b r a v e , so as  t o t r a n s c e n d t h e t h r e a t s of t h e w o r l d around them; l e c t i n g f a c t s and memorizing  3) i n t e r e s t i n c o l -  d e t a i l s (the p a r t i c u l a r s ) ;  4) s t o r y  form—  more e l a b o r a t e and d e a l i n g i n t h e r e a l m of t h e p l a u s i b l e , t h e r e a l ;  and  5) d e v e l o p i n g a sense of o t h e r n e s s and d i s c o v e r i n g the autonomous w o r l d . 16 Mauldon E., and H. B. R e d f e r n , Games T e a c h i n g , & Evans, L t d . ) , p. 25.  (London:  MacDonald  59 The P h i l o s o p h i c Stage Characteristics Egan c a l l s t h i s t h i r d s t a g e of e d u c a t i o n a l development the p h i l o sophic stage.  I t spans t h e y e a r s from 14/15  t o 19/20.  He  has  l a b e l l e d i t p h i l o s o p h i c i n t h a t t h e major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s l i k e n e d t o t h e s e a r c h f o r g e n e r a l and p h i l o s o p h i c t r u t h s . Whereas i n t h e r o m a n t i c s t a g e the s t u d e n t f o c u s e d h i s i n t e r e s t  and  a t t e n t i o n on d e t a i l s , p a r t i c u l a r s , extremes, f a c t s , t h e p h i l o s o p h i c s t u dent t r i e s t o connect  a l l the 'fragments.'  everything i s r e l a t e d or i n t e r c o n n e c t e d .  He b e g i n s t o r e a l i z e t h a t I n h i s t o r y , f o r example, where  t h e r o m a n t i c s t u d e n t a s s o c i a t e d h i m s e l f w i t h h e r o e s and heoines b i z a r r e o c c u r r e n c e s , he now,  a t t h e p h i l o s o p h i c s t a g e , needs t o o r g a n i z e  events and d e t a i l s i n t o g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s or schemes. t i o n , t h e r o m a n t i c s t u d e n t may of t h e l u n g s , h e a r t , m u s c l e s ,  or  I n p h y s i c a l educa-  show keen i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c u l a r  aspects  o r bones, whereas the p h i l o s o p h i c s t u d e n t  b e g i n s t o see t h e c o n n e c t i o n of systems and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o f i t n e s s movement.  For example, p r i n c i p l e s f o r i m p r o v i n g s t r e n g t h such as  and  iso-  t o n i c and i s o m e t r i c c o u l d be examined a l o n g w i t h t h e e f f e c t s t h a t t h e s e t y p e s of t r a i n i n g have on t h e h e a r t and l u n g s .  General aspects of  n u t r i t i o n c o u l d be e x p l o r e d and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e x e r c i s e and control.  I n t h i s way,  t h e p h i l o s o p h i c s t u d e n t w i l l show i n t e r e s t i n  t h e g e n e r a l scheme of how complex  weight  t h e body f u n c t i o n s as a u n i t , as a s i n g l e  organism.  The major d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e p h i l o s o p h i c s t a g e , t h e n , i s t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e t r u t h about human p s y c h o l o g y , f o r t h e laws o f h i s t o r i c a l development, f o r t h e t r u t h about how s o c i e t i e s function. T h i s i s , t h e p h i l o s o p h i c f o c u s on the g e n e r a l laws whereby t h e w o r l d w o r k s . ^  "'"'Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New York: v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 51.  Oxford  Uni-  60 The r o m a n t i c s t u d e n t f e l t t h e need t o t r a n s c e n d t h e everyday  world  by a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h elements o f t h e extreme, p o w e r f u l , n o b l e , and h e r o i c . The p h i l o s o p h i c s t u d e n t : becomes aware o f t h e g e n e r a l laws o f n a t u r e , o f human p s y c h o l o g y , o f s o c i a l l i f e , of h i s t o r i c a l development and t h e r e b y b e g i n s t o see h i s p l a c e i n t h i s new, c o m p l i c a t e d scheme.  The s t u d e n t  b e g i n s t o d e f i n e and know h i m s e l f through l e a r n i n g t h e t r u t h s o f t h e w o r l d around him.  W i t h t h i s new p e r s p e c t i v e comes t h e need t o e s t a b l i s h  once a g a i n a sense of i n t e l l e c t u a l s e c u r i t y .  The c h i l d a t t h e end o f  the mythic s t a g e had t o g i v e up h i s m y t h - l i k e w o r l d and e s t a b l i s h a new s e c u r i t y through r o m a n t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s . transition.  Now t h e s t u d e n t f a c e s  another  He l e a v e s t h e r o m a n t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s and b e g i n s t o e s t a b l i s h  h i s p l a c e i n t h e r e a l w o r l d which i s governed by g e n e r a l l a w s . Through t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s of t h e r e a l w o r l d , t h e p h i l o s o p h i c s t u d e n t t u r n s inward.  Egan s t a t e s :  T h i s i s n o t a p r o c e s s o f e x p a n s i o n outwards a l o n g l i n e s of content a s s o c i a t i o n s ; r a t h e r , i t i s a c l o s e r c h a r t i n g of the context w i t h i n which t h e s t u d e n t e x i s t s . I t i s not a f u r t h e r expansion from t h e s e l f , but r a t h e r a c l o s e r approach toward t h e s e l f . 1 8 Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c s t a g e i s t h e c r a v i n g f o r generality.  A l l t h e p a r t i c u l a r s , d e t a i l s , and f a c t s l e a r n e d a t t h e  r o m a n t i c s t a g e a r e now o r g a n i z e d under some g e n e r a l schemes.  Be i t i n  h i s t o r y , i n s c i e n c e , o r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , t h e s t u d e n t "maps t h e g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e r e a l w o r l d i n terms o f v e r y g e n e r a l o r g a n i z i n g 19 grids."  During t h i s p e r i o d , the student i s l i k e l y to l o s e i n t e r e s t i n  the hobbies t h a t o c c u p i e d him d u r i n g t h e r o m a n t i c  stage.  W i t h t h i s c r a v i n g f o r g e n e r a l i t y comes t h e a b i l i t y t o develop abstract i n t e l l e c t u a l tools. ^ I b i d . , pp. 51-52.  F o r example, g e n e r a l concepts such as " ^ I b ' i d . , p. 63.  61 society,  culture,  their  intellectual  these  general  t h e m i n d , e v o l u t i o n , a n d human n a t u r e vocabulary  concepts  i n writing,  and p r i n c i p l e s  become p a r t o f  t h i n k i n g , and s p e e c h .  o f how t h e w o r l d  From  functions, the  students . . .form i d e o l o g i e s and m e t a p h y s i c a l schemes, i n t e l l e c t u a l t o o l s w i t h w h i c h they c a n o r g a n i z e , s i m p l i f y , and r e d u c e even t h e greatest complexities with casual confidence. I d e o l o g i e s and m e t a p h y s i c a l schemes r e p r e s e n t t h e b o l d e s t l i n e s t h a t g i v e o r d e r t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' m e n t a l map o f t h e w o r l d . ^ 0 Another general to  schemes i s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  slot,  third,  etc.  criteria  This  sport  they w i l l  i s that  to gain  over-confident  criterion  they  security.  categories of best, of areas, music,  They w i l l  hierarchies.  to establish  the general  laws,  Students  they  these  ^ I b i d . , p.  54.  at this  level  They f e e l  that  need  the student  will  At f i r s t  wish  second  best,  novels,  they  may  hierarchies while The  some k i n d are likely once they  later  important  of general t o appear have  t o understand towards  to  to establish  i s t o know a b o u t  f o r the teacher  to guide  development.  to establish  know a l l t h e r e  important  and t o be a b l e  educational  f i r s t ' need  and k n o w ^ i t - a l l .  Hence i t i s e x t r e m e l y  of  these  Students  employ more s o p h i s t i c a t e d m u l t i p l e c r i t e r i a .  feature here  acteristic  into  c a r s , a n d many o t h e r s .  a single  d e s i r e t o reduce the world  do i n a v a r i e t y  by w h i c h t o f o r m u l a t e  choose only  hended  they w i l l  this  of hierarchies.  f o r example, hockey p l a y e r s  athletes,  order  feature associated with  compre-  the world. this  the next  char'-  level  62 P r i n c i p l e s f o r Organizing How  Knowledge  might we b e s t o r g a n i z e  s u b j e c t m a t t e r at the p h i l o s o p h i c s t a g e  t o f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l development?  F i r s t of a l l , we must r e c o g n i z e  that  p h i l o s o p h i c s t u d e n t s have a c c e s s t o knowledge t h r o u g h a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t r u t h about the w o r l d .  The  the  s t u d e n t shows i n t e r e s t i n t h a t knowledge  w h i c h a i d s him i n f o r m u l a t i n g , . . . the g e n e r a l schemes w h i c h they i d e n t i f y as e x p r e s s i n g the t r u t h about h i s t o r i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l , or n a t u r a l p r o c e s s e s . For example, i f one a c c e p t s the s i m p l e M a r x i s t i d e o l o g y , t h e n one's i n t e r e s t i s f o c u s e d by t h a t onto the p a r t i c u l a r knowledge t h a t b e s t c l a r i f i e s and s u p p o r t s i t . ^ 1  An i m p o r t a n t p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r p r o g r e s s i n g  i n t o the p h i l o s o p h i c s t a g e of  e d u c a t i o n a l development i s the p o s s e s s i o n  of a l a r g e q u a n t i t y of know-  l e d g e , f o r i f t h e s t u d e n t l a c k s a s u f f i c i e n t amount of knowledge about c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s , he w i l l be u n a b l e t o g e n e r a t e g e n e r a l schemes.  Not  o n l y does he r e q u i r e a l a r g e q u a n t i t y of knowledge, but a l s o a q u a n t i t y of knowledge from a wide v a r i e t y of t o p i c s . w i l l h e l p the s t u d e n t f o r m u l a t e  A v a s t a r r a y of knowledge  p h i l o s o p h i c schemes and a  continued  h e a l t h y dosage of knowledge i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n c r e a s e the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of t h e s e g e n e r a l The  schemes throughout t h i s  s t o r y form s t i l l p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t at t h i s s t a g e , as i t  h e l p s t o o r g a n i z e knowledge i n a way The  stage.  that i s meaningful to  p h i l o s o p h i c s t u d e n t i n h i s quest t o o r g a n i z e  students.  separate pieces  g e n e r a l schemes w i l l f i n d t h e s t o r y form u s e f u l as the g e n e r a l and  into  schemes  i d e o l o g i e s a r e b e s t understood i f the s t u d e n t a p p l i e s a k i n d of p l o t  t o them.  Egan g i v e s an example of t h e t y p e of s t o r y t h a t would  s u i t a b l e f o r the p h i l o s o p h i c p e r s p e c t i v e .  be  S t o r i e s such as a r e i n J o r g e  L o u i s Borges' I n q u i s i t i o n s where t h e r e i s a p l a y w i t h i d e a s as opposed 21 I b i d . , p.  56.  63 to  types  would  of  be  must b e  organize  In  their  sense,  the  him.  them w i t h  they  of  s o c i o l o g y of  s p o r t and  Jean  and  the  student would  and  attitudes  roles  of  schemes and  the p a r t i c u l a r  a  select  generate and  Karen  aiding  an  provide  an  through investi-  Perhaps  athletes the  of  such  as  attitudes,  investigation  of her  own  stage  is  behavior  exercise. aspect  of  teaching at  process  of  knowledge.  to develop  of knowledge i s the key  teacher's role  to a s s i s t  more s o p h i s t i c a t e d agent  to the e x i s t i n g  this  the  i n t e r a c t i o n between the  The  the k i n d of knowledge s u i t a b l e  anomalies  find  Magnussen and  understanding  around  themselves  type  and  i n sports  stimulating.  In t h i s  then,  i n mind  areas w i l l  f o r e x a m p l e , may  exhibited.  the d i a l e c t i c a l  g e n e r a l scheme and  Breadth  be  important  recognition  these  world.  the world  l o o k at o u t s t a n d i n g female  they  actually  as  to  inner  teacher  show i n t e r e s t  t o l e a r n more a b o u t  Gomaneci, and  t o s p o r t and  further  fitness  the  characteristic  o f women i n s p o r t  project,  King, Nadia  personalities,  and  student  complex  The  g e n e r a l laws of  Girls,  roles  this  students w i l l  from which  changing  in this  stage n a r c i s s i s t i c .  f o r g e n e r a l laws. the  One  this  education,  could, i n this  Billie  romantic  g e n e r a l schemes stems f r o m  s u b j e c t s h o u l d keep  springboards  search  gation  the  the p h i l o s o p h i c students'; d e s i r e  i n h i s search f o r the  In p h y s i c a l  psychology,  the  fascinated  p l a c e , t o know t h e m s e l v e s  Egan c a l l s  student  that  i n terms o f  when o r g a n i z i n g t h e aid  extremes t h a t  remembered  the world  to find  this  and  suitable.  It  desire  details  in this  i s to  general organize  i n the development general  process  g e n e r a l s c h e m e s and  as  of  schemes.  information w i l l  call  for  revisions  refinements. Egan summarizes  the  four c r i t i c a l  p o i n t s t o c o n s i d e r when t e a c h i n g  64 at  the p h i l o s o p h i c stage: 1.  The f i r s t comes w i t h t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o t h e s t a g e , a t w h i c h p o i n t s t u d e n t s b e g i n t o f o r m u l a t e from t h e i r r o m a n t i c knowledge some v e r y g e n e r a l scheme o r schemes. . . . The second c r i t i c a l s t e p i s t o encourage t h e development o f f l e x i b i l i t y and commitment t o t h e g e n e r a l scheme. . . . T h i r d , t h e t e a c h e r needs t o be s e n s i t i v e t o j u s t what k i n d of q u e s t i o n , assignment, o r s t i m u l u s t o i n q u i r y w i l l engage s t u d e n t s i n a c q u i r i n g t h a t knowledge w h i c h w i l l b e s t support t h e i r g e n e r a l scheme and a l s o generate anomalies w h i c h w i l l r e q u i r e some r e v i s i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l scheme. . . . The teacher's task i s to p e r s i s t i n s t i m u l a t i n g i n q u i r y i n p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c s u n t i l d i a l e c t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n gets p r o p e r l y underway. F o u r t h , when t h e d i a l e c t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s underway, t h e t e a c h e r ' s t a s k i s t h a t o f a r e g u l a t o r o f t h e p r o c e s s , remaining s e n s i t i v e to the developing s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of general schemes and t h e k i n d o f knowledge s t u d e n t s a r e s e e k i n g , t o body them f o r t h more f u l l y . . . .  2. 3.  4.  Games Egan w r i t e s b r i e f l y about games a t t h e p h i l o s o p h i c l e v e l .  Like  s t o r i e s a t t h i s s t a g e , games tend t o be t a k e n v e r y s e r i o u s l y by t h e student.  " I t i s t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f g e n e r a l schemes t h a t reduce r e a l i t y  and a s s e r t c l e a r r u l e s and r o l e s w h i c h g i v e s l i f e a t t h e p h i l o s o p h i c 23 s t a g e t h e q u a l i t y o f a game."  P l a y e r s a r e t y p i c a l l y v e r y s e r i o u s and  tend t o d e f i n e a c l e a r d i v i s i o n between games o r r e c r e a t i o n a l and t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s .  activities  F o r example, a s e n i o r b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r might  p l a y t h e r o l e o f an a l l - i m p o r t a n t , e l i t i s t , g l o r i f i e d a t h l e t e . act  He would  out h i s r o l e on t h e c o u r t o r o f f w i t h f u l l s e r i o u s n e s s , b e l i e v i n g  t h a t he e p i t o m i z e d a s p e c i a l c a s t o r b r e e d .  Immature s t u d e n t s and  a d u l t s a c t out t h e s e k i n d s o f r o l e s , c o n f u s i n g them w i t h r e a l i t y . I b i d . , pp. 75-76. I b i d . , p. 62.  65 Ironic  Stage  Characteristics The  last  stage  ironic.  A  continues  throughout  reaches  s t u d e n t may  this  final  With  the  comes t h e  i s now  that  of  Truths  The first  ego  can  story  at approximately  Since i t i s here i s referred  t o as  that an  small percentage  the p h i l o s o p h i c stage  age  labelled  19/20  which  the  student  adult.  Egan,  of  students  rather useful  ironic  are  ever  end  pursue  form  determine stage  stage.  the  i s dominant  To  as  of narcissism.  three stages.  At  this  role  units.  Particular-  to the  philo-  This  i s the  primary  cross the b r i d g e to t h i s  k n o w l e d g e f o r i t s own important  perceived  opposed  dominant.  The  stage  into  g e n e r a l scheme.  i n the p a r t i c u l a r ,  p l a y e d an  ironic  i n organizing particulars  g e n e r a l s c h e m e was  found  to the  g e n e r a l s c h e m e s s h o u l d n e i t h e r be  once a g a i n have to r e - e s t a b l i s h  s t a g e marks t h e  developed  the  the i r o n i c  students  security.  Egan  but  s t a g e where t h e  the  from  that  knowledge i n t h e  stage,  stage  only a very  the p a r t i c u l a r s  characteristic  the  that  realization  It  This  adulthood.  transition  t r u e nor f a l s e ,  sophic  this  scheme i s  stage.  as  istic  begin  e d u c a t i o n a l development  e d u c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y he  however, p o i n t s out reach  i n Egan's  not  adult  a new the with  final  intellectual  general a  schemes.  maturely  sake. i n o r g a n i z i n g knowledge i n  s t a g e h o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e no  stories.  states: I n a s f a r a s t h e s t o r y f o r m r e p r e s e n t s an i m p o r t a n t m e t h o d w h e r e b y t h e m i n d i m p o s e s o r d e r on phenomena, a n d t h i s f o r m b e c o m e s i n c r e a s i n g l y more s o p h i s t i c a t e d a n d l e s s d e t e r m i n i n g a s we p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h t h e s t a g e s , we c a n s u g g e s t a s o n e d i m e n s i o n o f a g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l development that i t i s a p r o c e s s which begins w i t h t h e m e n t a l f o r m s d e t e r m i n i n g what i s p e r c e i v e d o f t h e w o r l d and ends w i t h m e n t a l forms c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e complex p a r t i c u l a r r e a l i t y  66 of the w o r l d as f a r as they c a n . There a r e no s t o r i e s o r d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n the world. They a r e c r e a t e d by our i m p o s i t i o n of b e g i n n i n g s and ends.24 L i k e w i s e a t t h e i r o n i c s t a g e , t h e r e a r e no games i n t h e sense o f the s e r i o u s n e s s w i t h which t h e p h i l o s o p h i c mind was i n v o l v e d i n r e c r e a t i o n or games.  "Escape from t h e s e r i o u s games o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c s t a g e , f r e e s  the i r o n i c mind t o i n t r o d u c e t h e m y t h i c , r o m a n t i c ,  and p h i l o s o p h i c senses  of games and p l a y i n t o e v e r y t h i n g , guided by a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i a o f approp25 riateness."  Games a t t h e i r o n i c s t a g e a r e s i m i l a r t o what H e l l i s o n  calls playful spirit.  " P l a y f u l s p i r i t r e f e r s t o a n o n - s e r i o u s , non-  r e f l e c t i v e d i m e n s i o n o f l i f e w h i c h f o c u s e s on t h e moment and on t h e a c t i v i t y f o r i t s own sake r a t h e r t h a n e x t r i n s i c m o t i v e s and 26 goals.  I t i s spontaneous and o f t e n c r e a t i v e . "  preplanned  H e r r i g e l i n h i s book  Zen i n t h e A r t o f A r c h e r y , a l s o p r o v i d e s us w i t h a n . i n s i g h t o f t h e i r o n i c mind's p e r s p e c t i v e i n games. one a n o t h e r ,  "Bow, arrow, g o a l and ego, a l l m e l t i n t o  so t h a t I c a n no l o n g e r s e p a r a t e them. 27  t o s e p a r a t e them has gone."  And even t h e need  P l a y and games a r e i r o n i c i n t h e sense  t h a t b o t h s e r i o u s n e s s and s i n c e r i t y can be combined w i t h p l a y f u l n e s s . General The  f o u r s t a g e s t h a t Egan has a r t i c u l a t e d d e s c r i b e an i d e a l educa-  t i o n a l development. important  Comments on t h e Stage Theory  Egan c l a i m s t h a t what you do i n Grade One i s  to the eventual adult.  E d u c a t i o n a l development i s t h e n a  c u m u l a t24 i v e p r o c e s s whereby25what t h e c h i l d l e a r n s i n t h e e a r l y grades w i l l I b i d . , p. 85. I b i d . , p. 85. 26 H e l l i s o n , Don, Beyond B a l l s and B a t s : A l i e n a t e d (and Other) Youth i n t h e Gym, (Washington: AAHPER P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1978), pp. 4-5. 27 H e r r i g e l , Eugen, Zen i n t h e A r t o f A r c h e r y , (New Y o r k : Vintage Books, 1971), p. 70.  67 have s i g n i f i c a n t importance as t o how w e l l he w i l l l e a r n a t the next s t a g e . I f the f o u n d a t i o n has been a d e q u a t e l y l a i d , t h e n i t i s l i k e l y t h a t subsequent s t a g e s w i l l be a b l e t o expand, e l a b o r a t e , and e n r i c h from t h i s  base.  The s t u d e n t s pass from one s t a g e i n t o t h e n e x t , t a k i n g w i t h them t h e p e r c e p t i o n s and knowledge from the p r e v i o u s s t a g e .  Therefore, i t i s v i t a l  t h a t s t u d e n t s are not rushed through a s t a g e but r a t h e r a r e a l l o w e d t o d e v e l o p f u l l y i n each s t a g e .  Egan r e p e a t s time and t i m e a g a i n t h a t the  "immature r e q u i r e immature c o n c e p t s . " sense of t h e w o r l d d i f f e r e n t l y .  At each s t a g e the s t u d e n t makes  They must be encouraged  t o develop a t  each s t a g e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Egan has o u t l i n e d . t i o n has got t o be done r i g h t t h e f i r s t time around.  Educa-  The end p r o d u c t ,  t h e i r o n i c mind, does r e t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e m y t h i c , r o m a n t i c , and philosophic stages.  I n t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s the s t u d e n t v i r t u a l l y  leaves nothing behind. A l t h o u g h Egan c l a i m s t h a t the sequence of s t a g e s he has d e s c r i b e d i s a n e c e s s a r y sequence, t h a t i s a s t u d e n t cannot r e a c h t h e i r o n i c w i t h o u t p a s s i n g through the o t h e r s , he does s t a t e t h a t f u l l  stage  satisfaction  at a s t a g e i s not n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e e n t e r i n g i n t o the next s t a g e . o t h e r words, a p e r s o n i s not t o t a l l y i n one p a r t i c u l a r s t a g e .  In Ideally,  one s h o u l d t r y and develop as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e t h e c a p a c i t i e s o f each stage, e s p e c i a l l y at the mythic stage.  To i l l u s t r a t e  t h e amount o f  minimum development t h a t needs t o t a k e p l a c e i n o r d e r t o p r o g r e s s through t h e s t a g e s , Egan uses p e r c e n t a g e s which he i n t e n d s t o be r e a d as metaphors.  He s t a t e s :  " I f one hopes t o r e a c h the i r o n i c s t a g e , a t l e a s t  80% of t h e c a p a c i t i e s of the m y t h i c s t a g e , 65% of the r o m a n t i c s t a g e , and 28 50% of t h e p h i l o s o p h i c w i l l need t o be  developed."  Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New York: v e r s i t y28 P r e s s , 1979), p. 96.  Oxford U n i -  68 To  ensure the f u l l  development at each stage,  organized  appropriately f o r that stage.  'aliment'  to further  development.  Knowledge  Knowledge  s t a g e below one's a c h i e v e m e n t s can o n l y be that  i s organized  remain  Therefore,  to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  knowledge  so t h a t i t i s an a l i m e n t important  are not intended development  aspect  accumulating  s u d d e n jumps o c c u r  one  to t h e next  stage  organized  to suit  be  Ultimately, reflects  To p r o m o t e  fully  and  can a l s o  successfully  the success  unruffled Rather,  knowledge w i l l  student, aliment  further and  have reached  i s appropriately organized  the i r o n i c  stage  the  stages  of gradually i s often sporadic, Movement  from  then  c a n be  educational  will  progress  i n this  and  theory.  needs t o be aware o f t h e  and o r g a n i z e knowledge  so t h a t i t  This n e c e s s i t a t e s that the teacher  growth.  an a e s t h e t i c  organize  I f knowledge  t h a t t e a c h e r s have  remain merely e n t e r t a i n i n g  and p r o v i d e s  road  progress  of the stage  stages  to the student.  intellectual  be  furthered.  role  of the d i f f e r e n t  and  will  i s , educational  quite rapidly.  aware o f t h e needs o f t h e s t u d e n t s .  promote  That  with which the student  the important  be a c c e s s i b l e  that teachers  ideas coalesce r a p i d l y .  happen  f o r the  Knowledge  construct i s that  e d u c a t i o n a l development the teacher  characteristics will  on a smooth  i s an  of achievement  stages  be  development.  arid c o n c r e t e .  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  development would  develop  to further  more a n d m o r e k n o w l e d g e .  sometimes  stage  of the d i f f e r e n t  of the stage  t o be i s o l a t e d  does not proceed  i s organized  i t remains imperative  sensitive  Another  that  should  so o r g a n i z e d  'entertaining.'  i n advance o f the student's  'inert.'  knowledge  If this  i s not the case,  to the students  Learning f o r that  pleasure.  of development.  a n d may  be  then  not  that challenges the stage,  Ideally,  serves  as  the teacher  an should  Now  t h a t the f o u r s t a g e s have been d e s c r i b e d , i t might be b e s t  r e t u r n to the f o u r q u e s t i o n s t h a t Egan's e d u c a t i o n a l development  to  theory  w i l l h e l p us answer. 1.  E d u c a t i o n a l end-products.  Egan e n v i s i o n s i s a p e r s o n who p e r s o n who  s t a t e d the end-product t h a t  has reached the I r o n i c s t a g e .  i s knowledgeable, who  a t the i r o n i c stage w i l l be ".  Simply  knows a l o t , who  It' i s a  can t h i n k .  A person  . . a b l e t o p r o p e r l y pursue and  a t r u t h u n i n f e c t e d by our ego's need and  establish  independent o f the s e l f .  achievement and e x p r e s s i o n of such a t r u t h . . .  i s the p r o p e r aim  The of  29 educated p e o p l e . "  Egan g i v e s us o t h e r g l i m p s e s  o f t h e end-product.  The mind of an educated p e r s o n i s " s t o c k e d w i t h f i n e p o e t r y and  prose"  w h i c h " e n r i c h e s b o t h the rhythms of one's language and the range o f one's 30 thought and s e n t i m e n t and p r o v i d e s an i n f i n i t e l y r i c h t r e a s u r e .  ..."  These t r e a s u r e s , among many o t h e r s , (such as b e i n g a b l e t o program a computer), a l l o w s the educated p e r s o n " t o have l i f e and have i t more abundantly."  The  end-product i s a p e r s o n who  of c u l t u r e , i n Oakeshott's words.  can e n t e r the  Egan would agree w i t h Whitehead's  d e s c r i p t i o n of the end-product of h i s c u r r i c u l u m . be  conversation  H i s product  should  able ... t o e x p e r i e n c e the j o y of d i s c o v e r y . . . see t h a t g e n e r a l i d e a s g i v e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the stream of e v e n t s t h a t pour t h r o u g h . . . l i f e , t o prove i d e a s , evoke c u r i o s i t y , judgement and the 'power of m a s t e r i n g a c o m p l i c a t e d t a n g l e of c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e use of t h e o r y i n g i v i n g f o r e s i g h t i n s p e c i a l c a s e s , ' and t o have above a l l , ' s t y l e . ' 3 1 y  I b i d . , p. 89.  I b i d . , p.  48.  31 Egan, K i e r a n , "Some P r e s u p p o s i t i o n s t h a t Determine D e c i s i o n s , " C u r r i c u l u m S t u d i e s , 2 (1978):p. 130.  Curriculum  70 The on  kind  of end-product  Egan's t h e o r y would  ing  qualities.  developed as w e l l  having  their  potential  The i d e a l developed  person w i l l and  courage, person  Qualities  have a t t a i n e d  that  nutrition  psychology This  kind  over  literate  to physical  stage w i l l  also  be b a l a n c e d  o f movement, how  styles  with  Likewise, the  competitiveness  activities.  The  self-discipline,  of our world  The  have a c h i e v e d an have a c q u i r e d  and i t s r e l a t i o n t o  principles  have developed  have gained  fitness  of co-ordinated,  They w i l l  the value of r e c r e a t i o n a l also  areas  o f games a n d a c t i v i t i e s .  functions physiologically  will  have  i n terms o f  performances.  has developed  a variety  o f t h e many f a c e t s  of person w i l l  development  approach  Basic mechanical  and s o c i o l o g y ,  i n specific  endurance i n a general  t h e body works.  The e n d - p r o d u c t  understanding  performance  the follow-  stage w i l l  o f g r a c e and f l o w w i l l  the ironic  and e x e r c i s e .  the i r o n i c  be p h y s i c a l l y  b e a p e r s o n who  t h e body  possesses  a b a l a n c e between t h e s e r i o u s  c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f how  mastered.  skill  strength i n s k i l l  i n their  has reached  k n o w l e d g e o f how  cated  will  education c u r r i c u l u m based  awareness and a sense  and c o n f i d e n c e t h r o u g h  increased  be  will  a kinaesthetic  of p h y s i c a l  end-product  f o r both  end-product  creative joyfulness  ideal  has reached  and c a r d i o - v a s c u l a r  r h y t h m i c a l movement. the q u a l i t i e s  a physical  a i m a t , w o u l d b e a p e r s o n who  T h e p e r s o n who  as muscular  sense.  that  o f movement  a fairly  will  sophisti-  o f movement: activities,  sport and so o n .  an awareness o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l  i n various activities  have  changed  t h e ages. This  image o f t h e i d e a l  end-product  of a physical  ulum f o r m u l a t e d upon Egan's e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l very  close  to the kind  of person  ing,  i n P l a t o ' s t e r m s was meant  that  Plato  to develop  education  t h e o r y b r i n g s us  envisioned. 'courage,'  curric-  Physical  train-  'self-confidence,'  71 and  'energy,' t h e s p i r i t e d elements i n t h e human.  32  However, t o a v o i d  d e v e l o p i n g a "savage v i o l e n c e " t h e s p i r i t e d elements needed t o be b a l a n c e d w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h i c elements t o produce a harmonious d e v e l o p ment.  Perhaps t h e most profound  aspect o f Egan's t h e o r y i s t h a t i t  r e q u i r e s t h e p l a n n e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l a t o be q u i t e c l e a r about t h e n a t u r e o f t h e end-product. Egan, like'many  other educators, b e l i e v e s that education i s not a  democratic process.  On t h e c o n t r a r y , i t i s an e x t r e m e l y d e l i c a t e and  s e r i o u s e n t e r p r i s e i n w h i c h t h o s e t h a t have t h e most e x p e r t i s e s h o u l d become t h e l e a d e r s ( i n c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g ) i n t h e f i e l d .  The  o f f o c u s s i n g on t h e end-product i s r e - i t e r a t e d by Donaldson.  importance "...  t e a c h e r s need t o be c l e a r n o t o n l y about what t h e y would l i k e c h i l d r e n t o become under t h e i r guidance b u t about what c h i l d r e n a r e a c t u a l l y l i k e when 33 the p r o c e s s i s begun." 2.  Egan has p r o v i d e d us w i t h j u s t such a p i c t u r e .  How s h o u l d we teach?  The answer t o how we s h o u l d go about  teaching c e r t a i n things i s inherent i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the four stages.  They w i l l t e l l us how b e s t t o o r g a n i z e knowledge f o r t h a t p a r t i c -  u l a r s t a g e so t h a t i t w i l l be engaging, m e a n i n g f u l , and c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l development o f t h e s t u d e n t . 3.  When s h o u l d we t e a c h p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g s ?  Egan has g i v e n us t h e  approximate age range f o r t h e opening and c l o s i n g o f each s t a g e . 4.  What s h o u l d we teach?  Egan c l a i m s t h a t t h e f o u r s t a g e s o f  e d u c a t i o n a l development a r e s e n s i t i v e p e r i o d s f o r t h e development o f t h e 32 (London: 33  C o r n f o r d , F r a n c i s MacDonald, t r a n s . , The R e p u b l i c o f P l a t o , Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966), p. 101.  Donaldson, M a r g a r e t , 1978), p. 15.  C h i l d r e n ' s M i n d s , (Glasgow:  William Collins,  c a p a c i t i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f each s t a g e .  I n t h i s r e s p e c t they p r o v i d e us  w i t h g u i d e l i n e s as t o what k i n d of c o n t e n t would be most a p p r o p r i a t e . Egan s t a t e s : Content i s t h e f u e l of the p r o c e s s ; w i t h o u t c o n t e n t t h e c a p a c i t i e s t h a t i d e a l l y develop d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i o n cannot be actualized . . . i f a s e n s i t i v e p e r i o d r e p r e s e n t s the time d u r i n g w h i c h t h e p a r t i c u l a r genes a r e r e s p o n s i v e t o r e l e v a n t s t i m u l i , o p t i m a l development r e q u i r e s t h a t t h o s e s t i m u l i be o p t i m a l l y a c c e s s i b l e d u r i n g the p e r i o d . I f the c r i t i c a l p e r i o d i s the p h i l o s o p h i c s t a g e , t h e r e l e v a n t s t i m u l i are g e n e r a l schemes. Among t h e many c u r r i c u l u m recommendations Egan makes throughout book, the c e n t r a l importance  his  o f c o n t e n t i s a r e - o c c u r r i n g theme i n t h e  p r o c e s s of e d u c a t i o n a l development.  The  f o l l o w i n g chapter w i l l focus  on  t h e k i n d s o f c o n t e n t t h a t w i l l be most a p p r o p r i a t e t o encourage d e v e l o p ment a t each s t a g e i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . " i n t r o d u c t i o n of much more knowledge  Egan urges t h a t t h e r e be  an  about t h e w o r l d and human e x p e r i -  35 ence i n t h e e a r l y grades."  He recommends t h a t l e s s time s h o u l d  be  spent on d e b a t i n g methodology and more t i m e on o r g a n i z i n g knowledge f o r each s t a g e .  Teachers would t a k e a more a c t i v e r o l e i n Egan's scheme  i n s t e a d of p l a y i n g o n l y a f a c i l i t a t i v e i s no e d u c a t i o n ;  role.  "Without knowledge t h e r e 36  w i t h l i t t l e knowledge t h e r e i s l i t t l e  The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l attempt  education."  to a p p l y Egan's e d u c a t i o n a l  t h e o r y and the recommendations i m p l i c i t i n i t , t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n curriculum planning.  34 Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New York: v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), pp. 115-116. 3 5  I b i d . , p. 159.  3 6  I b i d . , p.  156.  Oxford  Uni-  CHAPTER IV APPLICATION OF EGAN'S DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM Chapter  t h r e e has o u t l i n e d t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Egan's f o u r s t a g e s  of e d u c a t i o n a l development and has mentioned some g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r o r g a n i z i n g subject matter.  Egan's t h e o r y p o s t u l a t e s t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t s  of a s i x - y e a r o l d c h i l d a r e d i f f e r e n t student.  from those o f a 16-year o l d  Not o n l y a r e t h e i r i n t e r e s t s d i f f e r e n t b u t they make sense o f  t h e w o r l d and e x p e r i e n c e s around them i n d i f f e r e n t ways.  Subject  matter  s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , be o r g a n i z e d so t h a t i t i s a c c e s s i b l e t o t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s t a g e and so t h a t i t w i l l h e l p promote e d u c a t i o n a l development.  Using the  p r i n c i p l e s d e r i v e d from t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e f o u r s t a g e s , t h i s chapter  w i l l e x p l o r e how p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s might b e s t be o r g a n i z e d so t h a t  they a r e b o t h e d u c a t i o n a l l y b e n e f i c i a l and engaging f o r each s t a g e . Each s t a g e w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h r e e broad a c t i v i t y dance, g y m n a s t i c s , and games.  areas:  Although other a c t i v i t i e s are taught,  such as a q u a t i c s and outdoor p u r s u i t s , t h e above a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t h e major c o n t e n t areas o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l a .  M y t h i c Stage At t h e m y t h i c s t a g e , t h e main p r i n c i p l e s we have f o r o r g a n i z i n g l e s sons o r u n i t s a r e :  1) t h e s t o r y form, 2) b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n s , 3) a b s o l u t e  meaning, 4) l a c k o f concept  o f o t h e r n e s s , 5) l a c k o f c l e a r sense o f an  autonomous, o b j e c t i v e w o r l d , and 6) e m o t i o n a l and m o r a l c a t e g o r i e s .  It  should of  be remembered t h a t the c h i l d a t t h i s s t a g e l e a r n s o r makes sense  t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d i n terms of the known i n n e r w o r l d — b a s i c a l l y emo-  t i o n a l and m o r a l c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s .  I t i s a time o f p r o j e c t i n g  outward and a b s o r b i n g what they can. Dance 1.  Creative.  The a r e a of dance i s unique i n the sense t h a t i t  does not n e c e s s a r i l y s e r v e an e x t e r n a l purpose o r g o a l .  F o r example,  i n g y m n a s t i c s and games, s k i l l s w i l l be l e a r n e d f o r a d e f i n i t e p u r p o s e , to  s c o r e a g o a l or t o jump t h e v a u l t i n g box.  However,  . . . i n dance, movement i s used f o r the i n n e r purpose of e x p r e s sion. I n n e r f e e l i n g o r moods, d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y o r t h e a c t of moving i n i t s e l f can provoke movement images, and t h e s e , i n dance, a r e f o r m u l a t e d i n an a r t i s t i c way t h a t h e i g h t e n s and c o n t r o l s the i n i t i a l raw e x p e r i e n c e . ! Because of t h i s unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f dance, Egan's p r i n c i p l e s aid  will  t h e t e a c h e r a g r e a t d e a l i n p l a n n i n g i n d i v i d u a l dance l e s s o n s and  units. Lessons i n dance and g y m n a s t i c s , as they a r e g e n e r a l l y s t r u c t u r e d , 2  have been g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the work of Rudolph Laban.  Laban  a n a l y z e d b a s i c movement s k i l l s and e s t a b l i s h e d f o u r b a s i c q u a l i t i e s of movement:  1) body a c t i o n s , the way i n w h i c h t h e body can move,  2) dynamics, t h e use of t i m e and energy, 3) space awareness, t h e way  the  body uses space, and 4) r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t o what and w i t h whom the c h i l d r e n are  r e l a t i n g t h e i r movements.  The e x p l o r a t o r y or movement e d u c a t i o n  approach i s o f t e n used t o d e v e l o p h i s f o u r components o f movement.  To  ^ C a r r o l l , Jean and P e t e r L o f t h o u s e , C r e a t i v e Dance f o r Boys, (London: MacDonald & Evan L t d . , 1969), p. 11. 2  Laban, Rudolph, Modern E d u c a t i o n a l Dance, (London: Evans, 1948).  Macdonald  &  75 p r o m o t e e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , i t w o u l d b e p o s s i b l e when p l a n n i n g lessons tics  t o combine Laban's p r i n c i p l e s  Egan has o u t l i n e d A  the c h i l d  place  these  basic  locomotor  actions. that to  in  reflects  movements s u c h  these  better kinds  themselves  stories,  the emotional  joy, fear,  and  jumping,  their  human  o r i n body  a fairy-tale  emotions  own f e e l i n g s  i n terms o f  galloping,  would be t o s e l e c t  moral  good, b a d , and  These c o u l d be e x p r e s s e d  of profound  myths,  hate,  as r u n n i n g ,  still,  through  legends,  love,  setting.  the characteris-  stage.  then, would be w i t h  knows b e s t :  i n a movement  Perhaps,  express  tale  f o r the mythic  good p l a c e t o s t a r t  categories  o f movement w i t h  dance  and a l l o w s  story  children  and i m a g i n a t i o n .  o r a n y i m a g i n a t i v e theme c o u l d b e  Fairy-  expressed  movement. At  first  movements s u c h sions  children  as r u n n i n g , hopping,  of fast/slow, strong/light,  movements c o u l d b e b e s t thing  that  sion. dren  c o u l d e x p l o r e o n l y two b a s i c  has a b e g i n n i n g ,  In this  construction  stage,  of the world  of creative  the child  expressing As movement  i n their  will  vocabulary  twisting,  The c h i l d  needs t o f i n d . h i s  likely  dimen-  These  sentence,  a n d comes t o some s o r t  experiences w i l l  world.  some-  of conclu-  help  the c h i l -  with h i s myth-like  space,  h i s p l a c e , and  through  appropriately for this  b e g i n t o g a i n c o n f i d e n c e i n moving h i s body and this  progresses  dance  through  form. this  stage  t h e s e movement, s e n t e n c e s  Movement a c t i o n s w i l l freezing,  a middle,  time—  skipping, with  o f a movement  dance e x p e r i e n c e s arranged  himself through  the c h i l d  leaping,  to provide binary opposition.  i n t h e form  c o n t e x t , movement  gain security  a variety  taught  sliding,  movements a t a  become m o r e r e f i n e d  and s l i d i n g  efforts.  will  and d e v e l o p s become more  combining New  bounding,  a  large  complicated. wheeling,  actions are best  presented,  76 a g a i n , i n b i n a r y terms such as r i s i n g and s i n k i n g , c o n c e p t s of s p a c e , e.g., h i g h and low s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d i n a movement-picture.  Stories  t h a t p o r t r a y c o n f l i c t i n g f o r c e s , engage i m a g i n a t i o n t h r o u g h c h a r a c t e r s l i k e f a i r i e s , w i t c h e s , monsters, p r i n c e s s e s , k i n g s , and dragons, w i l l always be more s t i m u l a t i n g and b e n e f i c i a l t o c h i l d r e n a t the m y t h i c s t a g e . C h i l d r e n need t o be a b l e t o e x p r e s s t h e i r i n n e r f e e l i n g , and t h e i r makebelieve worlds. Egan emphasizes t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s t o r y form throughout h i s book.  The s t o r y form " . . .  must l i e a t t h e h e a r t of a l l a t t e m p t s t o  3 make t h e w o r l d m e a n i n g f u l t o young c h i l d r e n . " " f i x e s meaning" and " l i m i t s r e a l i t y . " which c h i l d r e n w i l l f e e l secure.  I t i s i m p o r t a n t as i t  I t p r o v i d e s the boundary i n  There a r e , of c o u r s e , numerous s t o r i e s  w h i c h would be s u i t a b l e as a b a s i s f o r a movement l e s s o n i n Grades 2 o r 3. 4 One such s t o r y i s t h e s t o r y of Beowulf. l a r g e body p a r t s a r e employed.  Here, b a s i c a c t i o n s u t i l i z i n g  The s t o r y i s r i c h i n b i n a r y o p p o s i t e s :  slow movements of B e o w u l f / f i g h t i n g a c t i o n s ; heavy movements of G r e n d e l ; victory/defeat;  l i g h t movements of a c r o b a t s /  everyone s l e e p i n g / g r e a t f i g h t i n g s c e n e s ;  villain/hero;  celebrations/fear.  The s t o r y a l s o has  the p o t e n t i a l f o r a v a r i e t y o f movements t o c h a l l e n g e t h o s e who may be a b i t f u r t h e r along i n the mythic stage.  At the d r a m a t i c l e v e l , many  b a s i c e m o t i o n a l and m o r a l c o n c e p t s have been tapped such as l o v e , h a t e , f e a r , j o y , good, bad, j e a l o u s y , p a i n .  The u n r e a l and r e a l c h a r a c t e r s ,  and s e t t i n g p r o v i d e i n t e r e s t and freedom f o r t h e i m a g i n a t i o n , w h i c h i s so  3 Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 17. 4Ascough, J u l i a , Dance Program, S u r r e y S c h o o l Board, 1978, pp. 3-6.  77 c r i t i c a l at t h i s s t a g e .  Egan s t a t e s :  An a s p e c t of c o n n e c t i n g t h e c h i l d r e n ' s v i v i d m e n t a l l i f e t o knowledge about the w o r l d , we c a l l the development of imagine a t i o n ; t h a t i s , b e i n g a b l e t o p r o j e c t m e n t a l images onto t h e w o r l d and absorb the w o r l d t o them w i t h ease and f l e x i b i l i t y . ^ The power of the s t o r y form, i n terms of engaging e n t h u s i a s m ,  imagination,  and m o t i v a t i o n , as i n the example above, s h o u l d not be f o r g o t t e n when o r g a n i z i n g c r e a t i v e dance e x p e r i m e n t s . At t h i s s t a g e i t might be b e s t t o accompany movements w i t h some k i n d of p e r c u s s i o n obtained  instrument,  or sound.  A v a r i e t y of rhythms can  be  from the use o f the v o i c e , c l a p p i n g , s t a m p i n g , drums, tambour-  • i n e s , b e l l s , cymbals, and r e c o r d e d  music.  Rhythms a r e e s s e n t i a l a t  the  m y t h i c s t a g e as they a s s i s t i n l e a r n i n g b a s i c movements such as g a l l o p i n g or jumping and a c t as a s t i m u l u s f o r t h e dynamic, b i n a r y k i n d s of a c t i o n s . They a l s o f o c u s on the changes between f a s t / s l o w , strong/weak,/ p u s h / p u l l , sudden/sustained, j o y / p a i n . w i t h a sense of s e c u r i t y .  Rhythms used i n t h e s e ways p r o v i d e c h i l d r e n D a v i d Best s t a t e s t h a t "the r e q u i r e m e n t of  some s o r t of r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n , or the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e l a t i n g t o such a p a t t e r n i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r the c o r r e c t use of rhythm Perhaps i t i s t h i s ' r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n ' t h a t p r o v i d e s c h i l d r e n at m y t h i c s t a g e w i t h a sense of s e c u r i t y . c o u l d , i n d e e d , be the music p h r a s e . contentless story. complicated  and  By c o n v e n t i o n  ..." the  The movement p i c t u r e or s t o r y  Egan w r i t e s :  "Rhythm i s a k i n d of  i t s e t s up e x p e c t a t i o n s , w h i c h a r e  resolved."^  ^Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 27/  York:  Oxford U n i -  ^ B e s t , D a v i d , "Rhythm i n Movement—A P l e a f o r C l a r i t y , " J o u r n a l of Human Movement S t u d i e s , 2, (1976) p. 273. ^E'gan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 143.  York:  Oxford U n i -  78 Not o n l y c o u l d f o l k t a l e s , f a i r y - t a l e s , and legends be  expressed  t h r o u g h movement but a l s o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s own poems and s t o r i e s t h e i r own i m a g i n a t i v e w o r l d s .  representing  C h i l d r e n s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o express  t h e i r dreams and f a n t a s i e s as w e l l as t h e i r f e a r s .  Emotional  c a t e g o r i e s a r e v e r y r e a l t o them a t t h e m y t h i c s t a g e .  and m o r a l  Through c h i l d r e n ' s  own s t o r i e s , t h e t e a c h e r can o b t a i n c l u e s as t o how f a r a l o n g t h e m y t h i c stage t h e c h i l d has p r o g r e s s e d . C r e a t i v e movement l e s s o n themes c o u l d a l s o be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h subject areas.  other  F o r example, l e s s o n s c o u l d complement t h e study o f t h e g  seasons i n a s c i e n c e u n i t . a r e a l l dynamic themes.  The s p r i n g ,  w i n t e r , autumn, w i n d , t h u n d e r ,  Egan s u g g e s t s t h a t c u r r i c u l u m a t t h i s  s h o u l d f o c u s on t h e ". . . most d r a m a t i c 9  stage  and p o w e r f u l themes o f human  l i f e , h i s t o r y , and t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d . " Utilizing  these themes w i t h i n t h e s t o r y i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c r e a t e an  atmosphere i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d can g i v e e x p r e s s i o n t o h i s i n n e r w o r l d and b e t t e r understand t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d .  I f we p l a n c r e a t i v e dance e x p e r i -  ences, employing t h e p r i n c i p l e s Egan has o u t l i n e d , i t seems l i k e l y c h i l d r e n w i l l be g i v e n more o p p o r t u n i t y t o express  their  that  imaginative  w o r l d s , f i n d s e c u r i t y through a c t i o n s , come t o enjoy movement more, and a t the same t i m e p r o v i d e e x p e r i e n c e s  t h a t w i l l a c t as a l i m e n t s i n a s s i s t i n g  e d u c a t i o n a l development t h r o u g h t h i s 2. S i n g i n g games/folk dance.  stage. U n l i k e c r e a t i v e dance, i n s i n g i n g  games and f o l k dance, t h e rhythm, t h e words, and a c t i o n s a r e a l r e a d y s e t , 8 Boorman, J o y c e , C r e a t i v e Dance i n t h e F i r s t Three Grades, (Don Mills: Longman Canada L i m i t e d , 1969), pp. 83-86. Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New Y o r k : Oxford U n i 9 v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 27.  79 traditionally established.  I t i s here t h e n , t h a t t h e t e a c h e r  should  s e l e c t t h o s e dances w h i c h might b e s t p r o v i d e m e a n i n g f u l r h y t h m i c e x p e r i ences.  A t t h e m y t h i c s t a g e , c h i l d r e n have " d i r e c t a c c e s s t o f l i g h t s o f  f a n t a s y " through imaginary  c h a r a c t e r s , or imaginary  places.  In singing  games, c h i l d r e n o f t e n s i n g t h e words and sometimes c l a p t h e rhythms. The  s t o r y form h e r e i s found i n t h e song o r music.  that d i s t i n c t beginnings,  I t remains  m i d d l e , and endings a r e o b v i o u s .  imperative  Children feel  b e t t e r , more s e c u r e when t h e movement sequence o r s t o r y comes t o some k i n d of c o n c l u s i o n .  Appropriate  f o r Grade One would be s i n g i n g games such as  Brownies and Fairies,"'"'"' Ten L i t t l e I n d i a n s , The F a i r i e s ' M o o n l i g h t Dance, and Come, My D o l l y .  Movements a r e s i m p l e , meaning i s c l e a r , and i m a g i n -  a t i o n i s s t i m u l a t e d as i n "wings o f p i n k and r o s y crown."  B i n a r y oppo-  s i t i o n s a r e present  and emotions  i n t h e movements a s :  sleeping/dancing,  such as l o v e , j o y , sadness, and h a p p i n e s s a r e evoked.  I n the s i n g i n g  games i t i s t h e rhythms as much as t h e a c t i o n s t h a t p r o v i d e a harmonious role.  These s i m p l e s i n g i n g games make i t p o s s i b l e f o r c h i l d r e n " . . .  t o e s t a b l i s h some p e r s o n a l and a f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h what i s b e i n g learned""'""'"—be i t t h e b e a u t y o f t h e a p p l e blossom o r t h e f r e e , and l i g h t , dancing of the f a i r i e s . I n t h e e a r l y g r a d e s , f o l k dances p a r a l l e l s i n g i n g games.  At f i r s t ,  dances s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d t h a t u t i l i z e b a s i c locomotor movements such as w a l k i n g , s k i p p i n g , hopping.  Rhythms s h o u l d be c l e a r and d e f i n i t e s i n c e  c h i l d r e n need t o know t h e p r e c i s e , f i x e d meanings.  S u i t a b l e dances might  "^Moses, I r e n e E. P h i l i p s , Rhythmic A c t i o n P l a y s arid Dances, ( S p r i n g f i e l d : M i l t o n B r a d l e y Company, 1915), pp. 100-103. "''"'"Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New York: v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 12.  Oxford U n i -  80 O  be H a n s e l and G r e t e l , Gustaf Dance.  t  s S k a l , Seven Jumps, o r The Shoemaker s  B e f o r e t e a c h i n g t h e dance, t h e t e a c h e r c o u l d p u t t h e dance i n t o  some s t o r y form.  F o r example, the emotions o f t h e l i t t l e o l d shoemaker,  s t r u g g l i n g p a i n f u l l y every day t o make a p a i r o f shoes, c o u l d be h i g h l i g h t e d i n . t h e s t o r y so as t o encourage some k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c h i l d and t h e dance t o be l e a r n e d . the c h i l d ' s i n s i d e w o r l d  The c l e a r e r t h e c o n n e c t i o n  with  ( i n t e l l e c t u a l t o o l s — e m o t i o n a l and m o r a l ) , t h e  more meaning he w i l l d e r i v e from t h e movement e x p e r i e n c e .  As c h i l d r e n  at t h e m y t h i c s t a g e seem t o be c a p a b l e o f d e d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g , i t may be b e s t t o p r e s e n t dances i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y a t f i r s t . f e e l i n g o f t h e dance has been p r e s e n t e d  Once t h e g e n e r a l  t h r o u g h t h e s t o r y and movement  sense, i t then c o u l d be b r o k e n down t o l e a r n s m a l l e r p a r t s w i t h i n t h e whole. Gymnastics Gymnastics i s g e n e r a l l y taught a t t h e elementary l e v e l u s i n g t h e movement e d u c a t i o n approach.  T h i s approach emphasizes e x p l o r a t i o n o f  movement s k i l l s and i s s i m i l a r t o dance i n t h a t i t i s n o t bound by specific organizational rules.  Egan's p r i n c i p l e s c a n , t h e r e f o r e , be  adapted t o o r g a n i z i n g l e s s o n s a t t h e m y t h i c s t a g e .  The e d u c a t i o n move-  ment approach has been d e f i n e d a s : . . . an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d approach o r system o f t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n to become aware o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l a b i l i t i e s and use them e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h e i r , d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g p l a y , work, and creative expression. Through t h e medium o f g y m n a s t i c s , u s i n g s m a l l equipment such as a v a u l t i n g box, o r c l i m b i n g a p p a r a t u s , a c h i l d l e a r n s b a s i c movement s k i l l s which a r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o h i s p h y s i c a l m a t u r i t y and g e n e r a l r e a d i n e s s . 1 2  K i r c h n e r , G l e n n , J e a n Cunningham, and E i l e e n W a r r e l l , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Movement E d u c a t i o n , (Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Company P u b l i s h e r s , 1970), pp. 4-5.  81 Generally,  the lesson  progresses from an opening  w o r k w h e r e some a s p e c t o f movement w h e r e movements Such problems and  Every  child  the problem The  e x p e r i e n c e d on t h e f l o o r  are presented as:  one f o o t ? "  o r "Show me  discovers, posed  such  perilous  curl,  children. moments.  shapes,  are  such can  categories,  as: roll  that  high/low,  "How  answer t o  i t might quietly  smoothly."  and under,  contrasting  emotions  that  will  o p p o s i t e s such  long,  thin,  image s t i m u l i  be b e s t t o encourage  move-  stimulus.  as  stretch/  shapes/round  or verbal  on/ways pictures  A c c o r d i n g t o Egan's  teachers to use phrases  feet  down?"  "Show me  t h r e e o t h e r smooth r o l l s ? " feet  and  these to their  p a r t s , ways o f g e t t i n g  your  those  Explosive  s t i m u l u s o r music  i n gymnastics.  "Think of your  f o r one  s t a g e know b e s t a r e t h e  represent binary  can you b r i n g  found i n  involve heights, f l i g h t ,  using picture  "Can y o u f i n d  how h i g h y o u c a n j u m p . "  outlines  a n d i n v o l v e human  t h e n we must c o n n e c t  movements  more  i t w o u l d be b e s t t o c h o o s e  at t h i s  I t i s n o t common t h a t  g i v e n t o encourage  characteristics  feet."  a theme, o n e theme l a s t i n g  work c o u l d  together/apart, over  off.  original  Lesson  excitement,  I f what c h i l d r e n  travelling  getting  on y o u r  s w i n g i n g , a r e k i n d s o f movements  Apparatus  s h o u l d be chosen feet  o n two h a n d s  f o r d y n a m i c k i n d s o f movement.  experiences i n gymnastics  Themes  of  call  jumping,  e m o t i o n a l and m o r a l ment  stage?  stage  provide adventure,  as c l i m b i n g ,  challenge  a t the mythic  At the mythic  themes o r t a s k s w h i c h that  to the apparatus.  c a n we make e d u c a t i o n a l g y m n a s t i c s  a r e o r g a n i z e d around  o r more l e s s o n s .  movements  ways o f t r a v e l l i n g  work  by t h e t e a c h e r .  to the c h i l d  textbooks usually  are then r e l a t e d  "Can y o u t a k e y o u r w e i g h t  different  to floor  on t o a p p a r a t u s  e x p l o r e s , a n d c r e a t e s h i s own  q u e s t i o n i s how  meaningful  i s developed,  activity,  as r o c k e t s .  how y o u "Show  me  Can y o u s h o o t  82 i n t o t h e a i r when you jump?"  "Can you make a b i g b r i d g e - l i k e shape?"  I t would seem t h a t i f t h e s e types o f a i d s were used throughout t h e u n i t s i n combination w i t h binary opposites s a t i s f a c t i o n , confidence,  c h i l d r e n would l i k e l y d e r i v e more  and meaning from t h e i r movement t a s k s .  Part-  ner work s h o u l d be encouraged as i t h e l p s t h e c h i l d see more c l e a r l y binary  oppositions. The  s t o r y form can a l s o be i n c o r p o r a t e d  i n t o t h e movement t a s k s .  Tasks s h o u l d be u l t i m a t e l y p l a c e d i n a movement sequence, matching t h e theme a t hand. explored.  There needs t o be some l i n k between t h e movements  Too o f t e n c h i l d r e n d i s c o v e r ways o f answering s e v e r a l t a s k s  i n a l e s s o n , b u t t h e t a s k s remain i s o l a t e d c h a l l e n g e s w i t h o u t ing  unit.  They need t o e x p e r i e n c e  any c o n n e c t -  some f e e l i n g o f u n i t y , f l o w , and com-  p l e t i o n i n t h e i r movement sequences o r s t o r i e s .  C h i l d r e n a t the mythic  stage can make sense and u n d e r s t a n d t h i n g s put i n s t o r y form, i n b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n and i n v o l v i n g t h e profound human emotions.  Children at t h i s  s t a g e seem t o d i s p l a y an i n s t i n c t i v e s u r e n e s s o f movement a c t i o n s . Through u t i l i z i n g Egan's p r i n c i p l e s i n l e s s o n p l a n n i n g i t i s hoped t h a t t h i s confidence  i s f o s t e r e d as t h e c h i l d g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p s t h r o u g h t h i s  s t a g e , onto t h e n e x t . Games C h i l d r e n seem t o f u l l y enjoy games and d e r i v e g r e a t e s t meaning and p l e a s u r e from games when they a r e chosen a c c o r d i n g t o p r i n c i p l e s t h a t b e s t p r o v i d e l e a r n i n g ( c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , psychomotor) a t t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f a c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n a l development.  That i s , f o r a 6-year o l d  to p l a y i c e hockey o r b a s e b a l l would n o t be as m e a n i n g f u l t o him as a game o f h i d e and seek o r c a t and mouse.  83 Games a t t h e e a r l y m y t h i c s t a g e s h o u l d r e p l i c a t e the s t r u c t u r e of t h e s t o r y form, t h a t i s , games s h o u l d have b e g i n n i n g s , m i d d l e s , and T h i n k i n g of our own  c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s one p r o b a b l y remembers  ends.  how  c o m p l e t e l y i n v o l v e d one was w i t h h o p s c o t c h , k i c k - t h e - c a n , s k i p p i n g , o r o t h e r games.  The  s t o r y form was  obvious i n t h e s e games.  Egan s t a t e s  t h a t t h e s t o r y form i s i m p o r t a n t as i t i s ". . . a b l e t o reduce and l i m i t r e a l i t y , p r o v i d i n g an arena w i t h i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n may because they know t h e r u l e s .  feel  secure  W i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f the game, t h e meaning 13  of b e h a v i o r i s e s t a b l i s h e d c l e a r l y and p r e c i s e l y . " for  t h e mythic s t a g e might be:  Games a p p r o p r i a t e  Cowboys and I n d i a n s (Brownies and  fairies),  Old Mother W i t c h , Cat and Rat, S t e a l t h e Bacon ( c l u b s n a t c h ) , Crows and 14 Cranes, Man  from Mars.  I n these games, r u l e s a r e s i m p l e , c l e a r  w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d at the beginning.  and  They are a l s o a p p e a l i n g , not o n l y  because s i m p l e s k i l l s such as r u n n i n g , dodging,  tagging, provide a  f e e l i n g o f s e c u r i t y , but a l s o because the b a s i c human emotions a r e involved.  There i s suspense as i n Crows and Cranes, d e c e p t i o n i n  Snatch the C l u b , and p l e n t y o f concern about b e i n g caught o r f e e l i n g o f courage from e s c a p i n g .  These games a l s o have i n common b i n a r y o p p o s i t e s  w h i c h h e l p p r o v i d e c l e a r r o l e d i s t i n c t i o n s and i n v o l v e , t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , the c h i l d ' s i m a g i n a t i o n . C h i l d r e n a t t h e m y t h i c s t a g e w i l l need a l o t of s k i l l p r a c t i c e i n c a t c h i n g , k i c k i n g , t h r o w i n g , dodging, b a t t i n g , and a i m i n g .  They s h o u l d  a l s o be g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r a c t i c e these s k i l l s w i t h a v a r i e t y of 13 Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 18. """^Schurr, E v e l y n L., Movement E x p e r i e n c e s f o r C h i l d r e n , (Englewood Cliffs: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1967), pp. 327-334.  84 b a l l s , b a t s , bean bags, q u o i t s , and v a r i o u s t a r g e t s and g o a l s . c h i l d r e n have been shown t h e c o r r e c t t e c h n i q u e s up t o t h e t e a c h e r  Once t h e  f o r these s k i l l s , i t i s  t o o r g a n i z e p r a c t i c e s i t u a t i o n s t h a t challenge, t h e  c h i l d r e n and i n v o l v e an element o f c o m p e t i t i o n .  L e n e l , i n h e r book,  g i v e s some good examples of how t h i s c o u l d be done. Throw your beanbag i n t h e a i r and c l a p once. Catch i t , throw i t up a g a i n and c l a p t w i c e . See how many times you can c l a p , t h r o w i n g and c a t c h i n g your beanbag. U s i n g b a t s and rubber b a l l s , f i n d t h e b e s t d i s t a n c e f o r exchanging your b a l l and keep exchanging i t . Count t h e number o f h i t s i n t h e r a l l y and t r y t o improve each time. The b a l l may bounce once o r t w i c e . ^ I f t h e r e i s some b i n a r y drama, some e x p e c t a t i o n , some g o a l t o t r y and a c h i e v e , t H e ' c h i l d i s more l i k e l y t o d e r i v e meaning from t h e p r a c t i c e sessions. S k i l l s can soon be p u t i n t o a game s i t u a t i o n .  Rules should  s i m p l e and be g i v e n c l e a r l y i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a secure A p p r o p r i a t e games might be: kick ball.  remain  setting.  nervous wreck, p r i s o n e r b a l l , and c i r c l e  A l o n g w i t h these types o f games, V i n t o n i n h i s book, The  Folkways Omnibus o f C h i l d r e n ' s Games, d e s c r i b e s s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g games t h a t o r i g i n a t e from myths.  These a r e i d e a l s i n c e c h i l d r e n ' s t h i n k i n g  has s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o those o f myth-using p e o p l e .  These games  p r e s e n t b i n a r y drama, have i m a g i n a t i v e c o n t e n t , i n v o l v e t h e p r o f o u n d human emotions, and a r e p r e s e n t e d  i n s t o r y form.  Three r e l e v a n t examples a r e : 16  Badger t h e Sun, P t a r m i g a n s a g a i n s t Ducks, and Shove w i n t e r o u t . R e l a y s have r e c e n t l y taken on a p e r f o r a t i v e meaning today i n p h y s i c a l  "'""'Lenel, R. M. , Games i n t h e P r i m a r y S c h o o l , (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1969), pp. 60, 68 11 c.c VV ii nn tt oo nn ,, II rr ii ss ,, The The F Folkways Omnibus o f C h i l d r e n ' s Games, ( H a r r i s b u r g : S t a c k p o l e Books, 1970), pp. 71-75  85 e d u c a t i o n , as they seem t o i m p l y l o n g l i n e ups, l i t t l e a c t i v i t y , sloppy s k i l l s . t h i s stage.  and  There does seem t o be a p l a c e f o r them, e s p e c i a l l y a t R e l a y s can combine dynamic, b i n a r y a c t i o n s .  between w i n n i n g and l o s i n g , v i c t o r y and d e f e a t .  The s t r u g g l e  R e l a y s can be chosen  so t h a t each c h i l d w i l l e x p e r i e n c e the f e e l i n g of w i n n i n g and b e g i n s to understand  losing.  I f teams a r e s m a l l , 3-4  a c t i v i t y , much f u n , and developmental  c h i l d r e n , then t h e r e i s much  progress.  C u r r e n t l y , t h e r e has been a movement towards emphasizing t i v e s p o r t s and games.  T e r r y O r l i c k has c r e a t e d games i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n  p l a y t o g e t h e r r a t h e r t h a n a g a i n s t one a n o t h e r . ^ not c o m p e t i t i v e .  co-opera-  They a r e c o - o p e r a t i v e ,  However, Egan makes t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t v e r y s t r o n g l y .  We do no s e r v i c e t o c h i l d r e n by i n t r o d u c i n g them o n l y t o the s e c u r e s u r f a c e and not l e t t i n g them see t h a t what they have gone through as i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e i r s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e has gone through i n i t s own way.18 What t h e i n d i v i d u a l goes t h r o u g h , Egan s a y s , a r e t h e " t i t a n i c s t r u g g l e s " for  s u r v i v a l , s e c u r i t y and r e l a t i v e independence.  I t i s important  c h i l d r e n see t h e s e s t r u g g l e s i n t h e w o r l d around them as i t w i l l them make sense o f t h e w o r l d through these s t r u g g l e s t h a t t h e y within.  that  help  feel  Hence, t h e r e i s no purpose i n " b u r y i n g " the n a t u r e of games,  w i n n i n g , and l o s i n g a s p e c t s , but r a t h e r e x p o s i n g them t o t h e s e  real  s t r u g g l e s and a s s i s t i n g them i n d e v e l o p i n g a h e a l t h y u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  c o m p e t i t i o n and e n s u r i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e b o t h w i n n i n g and T h i s i s not t o suggest  losing.  t h a t none of O r l i c k ' s games a r e v a l u a b l e but  r a t h e r t h a t t h o s e games w h i c h p r o v i d e an element of c h a l l e n g e , b i n a r y  " ^ O r l i c k , T e r r y , The C o - o p e r a t i v e S p o r t s and Games Book, C h a l l e n g e Without C o m p e t i t i o n , (New York: Pantheon Books, 1978). 18  Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New York: v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 122.  Oxford U n i -  86 opposition valuable  General  and  i n v o l v e t h e most p r o f o u n d  for children  Principles  Mythic  at  the mythic  f o r Organizing  human e m o t i o n s w o u l d b e  more  stage.  Physical Activities  at  the  Stage The  mythic  preceding  stage  physical  s e c t i o n has  c o u l d be  d e s c r i b e d how  a p p l i e d to the  education.  Some g e n e r a l  the  traditional  observations  characteristics  of  curriculum areas  in  will  be  added  in  the  this  section. 1. the a  What h a p p e n s a t  eventual  adult.  cumulative  stage will  we  provided  the  the  time  (not  time  child  confidence  then  become l e s s i s needed  throwing so  The  capacities and  e d u c a t i o n a l development  is  needs at  a  stage  to  I f the with  develop  l a r g e amount o f and  child and  and  hon-  a basic  is  mind"  provided  more p o i s e  guarding,  degree.  i n the  apparand  con-  (a good  deal  a large variety  a l s o dodging,  be  without  content  this  growth  i s to  Locomotor  mastered  game s k i l l s  skills)  c a t c h i n g but  Here a t  the o u t s i d e world  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s and i s both  this  skills.  security.  and  behind.  of  skills  timing,  on).  kind at  games.  clear,  and  to  p r a c t i c e d and  and  o f movement t a s k s  importance  i t were, upon w h i c h l a t e r  o f movement  t o be  paramount  leaves nothing  s k e l e t o n , as the  i s of  that  . c a p a c i t y to manipulate  achieves  and  2.  present  child  variety  need  stage  mentioned  i n each l e s s o n to p r a c t i c e  only  ities  the  What  .  What  kicking,  the  ".  will  fidence.  The  a great  a variety  a t u s , he  of  place.  skills  child  with  process.  with  locomotor Through  Egan has  are molding  take  the mythic  of  activity  the mythic T h e s e two  fixed  or  content  most a p p r o p r i a t e  s t a g e w o u l d be  dance or  activities  rich  m e a n i n g s , and  are  provide  easy  for unfolding  rhythmical  i n binary access  activ-  opposites,  through  the  basic  87 human e m o t i o n s . rhythm and could  be  skills  The  s t o r y form  a c t i o n s and  i n c l u d e d but  i s basic  t o most  i t appears  t o be  using principles 3.  Along  with  r h y t h m c o u l d be  of  the  the mythic  included.  As  s t o r y form or b i n a r y  ies,  too  the  Children  at  skipping,  age  or  a child  i n n e r rhythm.  seems t o b e  of  very  that  much o f  nature.  At a  of  sitting  t h e movement  and  stage,  a l s o be many  a sensitive  If neglected  lack  grace,  4.  I f the  suggests  intricate Strong,  the  at  flow  only  their  world  and  moral  categor-  a  child and  R h y t h m seems t o b e  should  rhythms  of  a  p e r i o d f o r the an  some m u s i c a l  even be  so b o l d  development  a t h l e t e may  be  as  of  to  singing a  part sense  rhythmical  a  have  a  instrument.  a l l ) movements c o u l d b e  could  a  to  done i n suggest  rhythmical  highly skilled  but  movement.  this  matter  be  on  swing  i t w o u l d make  g y m n a s t i c movements s h o u l d by  rhythm.  jumping,  to observe  Therefore,  of  of  c h a i r — t h e legs run  stage  ( i f not  stage,  the  that  o f movement t h r o u g h  accompanied  One  this of  that  h i s book, t h e n  emphasize  d a n c e s no  clear  emotional  immature r e q u i r e immature c o n c e p t s ,  throughout  p l a n n i n g must  a high  done i n t h i s  then,  sense. the  need  b e i n g — t h e i r inner world.  be  articulated,  make s e n s e o u t  o f humming).  g r a c e f u l r h y t h m i c a l manner. t h i s may  to present  movements—running,  We  on  some k i n d  character  the mythic  that  their  P l a t o o f t e n emphasized  rhythmical  Egan has  make s e n s e o u t  most  gymnastics  T h e y a c c o m p a n y many r h y t h m i c a l movements w i t h  ( o r what their  do  through  stage.  opposites,  hopping—rhythmically.  playground an  this  c h i l d r e n may  i n dance  Educational  more d i f f i c u l t  children  the  represented  games.  characteristics  through so  is easily  the mythic  principle.  how  should  at  be  silly  they  Simple may  chosen b e f o r e  as  stage,  Egan f r e q u e n t l y curriculum  d a n c e s must  appear  to the  complicated  come  before  teacher. syncopated  88 ones a r e attempted. a  Gymnastic  rhythmical context.  children  seem t o t i r e  s h o u l d be of  pursued  imposing  track  or  an  b e f o r e moving  games t a k e  less  quickly.  precedence  the next  stage.  over  involved kinds  sion  w i l d e s t d r e a m s , and  something t h a t w i l l 5.  field,  in this i s an  f i t n e s s — o n e or  into  the p l a y  b r i n g them c l o s e r  Egan s t a t e s t h a t c h i l d r e n  presented  context,  young  o b j e c t i v e then i t  two  their  in  instead  l a p s around  capacities  the  to  the  Hence, s i m p l e c h i l d r e n ' s of  children fears,  be  r h y t h m i c a l gymnastics  to develop  on  their  and  immature need  g y m n a s i u m and of  If fitness  games, d a n c e ,  a d u l t p e r c e p t i o n of The  exercises should  When movements a r e p l a c e d  through  field.  fullest  or o t h e r  a d u l t games.  should to  be  allowed  c r e a t e from  to the world  at the mythic  In  stage  free  the  around  the expres-  inside  out  them.  s e e k ".  . . mean-  19 ing  primarily  they  from  seem t o b e  the  general or  capable  of  deductive  implications  for teaching s k i l l s  that  i s probably  a skill  child  gets  sense  of  best  a general picture  feeling  of  paradigmatic  thinking at  in a l l activity  presented o f what  the whole b e f o r e  organized Egan has around  section w i l l so  i t best  described f o r the  the  romantic  exploration particulars,  1 9  that  e x a m i n e how  Ibid.,  the  160.  stage.  areas.  done.  words  This  It tells so  that  They need  has us  the to  get  a  practiced.  Stage physical  and at  of  education  coheres the  i n v o l v e the  a sense  this  parts are  with  romantic  the  c u r r i c u l u m can  facts  stage.  otherness,  3)  and  be  characteristics Organization  following principles:  in.d e t a i l — c o l l e c t i n g  developing  p.  student  stage w i l l  of r e a l i t y 2)  supports  In other  in i t s entirety  i s t o be  Romantic This  . . . "  1)  an  memorizing  focusing interest  on  89 the  extremes,  something 4)  experiences, nobility, forms,  as d i f f e r e n t  romantic  bravery,  possible  association with  courage,  dealing with  as  reality  and  5)  or  the  from  the  everyday  some human q u a l i t y  such  as  more e l a b o r a t e , s o p h i s t i c a t e d  story  plausible.  Dance 1. explore  Creative. the  reality,  limits  then  transcendent tions with  I f the c e n t r a l  of r e a l i t y  dance a c t i v i t i e s qualities  as  the powerful,  suitable.  and  Movement  characteristic  at  the  same t i m e  c o u l d b e s t be  themes.  themes and  and  skills  the  built  example, figures from  the Knights a movement as  The  Long J o h n  Good,  a  like  focused  on  sequence, drawing Silver and  of actions.  at  and this  themes o f n a t u r e Tennyson,  St. Joan,  associaa l l be  of  now  of  with  music  experience.  sequence.  longer extracts  A c t i o n words  hues of  Volcano,  are also  appropriate. how  romantic  of music  stage  and  themes  can mediate between t h e s e o p p o s i t e s .  stage.  Boorman i l l u s t r a t e s  a fight  dance  a  For  i n combination  a dramatic  as  Thomas  upon such  Whereas a t t h e m y t h i c  expands.  many d i f f e r e n t  Hickok  c o u l d be  capable  b i n a r y opposites, they  soar, w h i r l ,  romantic  c h a r a c t e r s such  a c t i o n s based  Bill  the Ugly  stage are  T h e i r movement v o c a b u l a r y  explored  or Wild  the p o s s i b i l i t y  at t h i s  greater diversity  everyday  these  courageous would  around  i s to  t h e Round T a b l e , L a n c e l o t , S t . F r a n c i s .  t h e Bad  Boys e s p e c i a l l y Students  of  stage  to transcend  express  Napoleon, F l o r e n c e N i g h t i n g a l e , Long John S i l v e r , Becket,  this  organized using  Themes t h a t  noble, brave,  of  the  as  slither,  s t a r k o p p o s i t e s can  earthquake,  this  such  Using  w i n d s t o r m , and t h e poem The  melt,  be  other  Eagle  could p r o v i d e s t i m u l u s of a  by group  dance.  S p a t i a l awareness i s i n c r e a s i n g and the r o m a n t i c s t u d e n t i s  c a p a b l e of a g r e a t e r range of 'group' r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Nevertheless,  t h e s e movement sequences s h o u l d be p a t t e r n e d i n t o a r h y t h m i c a l s t r u c t u r e and s t i l l r e t a i n the s t o r y form.  Egan p o i n t s out t h a t the s t o r y form  remains an i m p o r t a n t v e h i c l e f o r p r e s e n t i n g knowledge, but a t t h i s  stage  i t becomes more e l a b o r a t e and needs t o d e a l w i t h the p l a u s i b l e elements of t h i s world. Any themes t h a t e x p l o r e the l i m i t s of r e a l i t y through extremes or e x t r a o r d i n a r y , d i f f e r e n t e v e n t s , p l a c e s , or people w i l l a l s o prove engagi n g and m e a n i n g f u l .  S t a r Wars music or the music from 2001 .could be  used f o r a dance s e t t i n g such a s :  a moon l a n d i n g , a v i s i t t o a M a r t i a n  c o l o n y , a voyage t o o u t e r space.  Movements emphasizing  different  of energy c o u l d be p r a c t i c e d such as f l y i n g , f a l l i n g , r o l l i n g , and g r i p p i n g .  levels  freezing,  P r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s c o u l d c u l m i n a t e i n a group dance.  U n l i k e themes a t the m y t h i c s t a g e t h e s e themes must c o n t a i n p l a u s i b l e or realistic  details.  The r e a s o n f o r f o c u s i n g on these t y p e s of extremes i s t o s a t i s f y t h e s t u d e n t s ' d e s i r e t o ' f e e l ' d i f f e r e n t forms of l i f e , t h e r e b y e x p l o r i n g the l i m i t s o f the w o r l d around them.  Dance w i l l a l s o h e l p develop  the  sense of o t h e r n e s s i n t h e sense t h a t s t u d e n t s get t o e x p l o r e p h y s i c a l space and r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Through r o m a n t i c a s s o c i a t i o n and i n t e r e s t i n  extremes the s t u d e n t can t r a n s c e n d t h e t h r e a t s t o h i s immature ego moment a r i l y , u n t i l such time as he develops a f u l l e r sense of  identity.  A l o n g w i t h the r o m a n t i c z e s t f o r e x o t i c and b i z a r r e themes, s t u d e n t s a l s o show g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n c o l l e c t i n g f a c t s and memorizing d e t a i l s . . 20  Boorman, J o y c e , C r e a t i v e Dance i n Grades Four t o S i x , (Don Longman Canada L i m i t e d , 1971), p. 37.  Mills:  91 T h i s a l l o w s f o r a tremendous scope o f p o s s i b l e i d e a s . d r e n have memorized i n l a n g u a g e - a r t s ,  Poems t h a t  chil-  c o u l d be put i n t o dance movements.  Egan a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e same theme c o u l d be e x e m p l i f i e d i n d i f f e r e n t subjects.  A s o c i a l s t u d i e s u n i t on t h e g l o r i e s o f Greece c o u l d be  i n t e g r a t e d n i c e l y w i t h dance.  The h e r o i c , adventurous q u a l i t i e s o f 21  Odysseus o r t h e drama o f The S e i g e o f Troy a r e e x c e l l e n t themes.  As  movements become more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and i n v o l v e t h e f i n e r m u s c l e s , t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a p p e t i t e f o r d e t a i l c o u l d a l s o be met by s t r e s s i n g s u b t l e a c t i o n s o f t h e f i n g e r s , t o e s , elbow, v e r t e b r a e , and f a c i a l Percussion instruments  expressions.  can beat out more d e t a i l e d rhythms.  i d e a i s t h a t o f c r e a t i n g a machine.  A favorite  D i f f e r e n t mechanical parts are  p r a c t i c e d and can be c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h p a r t n e r movements. w i s h t o become one g i a n t machine.  The c l a s s may  T h i s i d e a c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o t h e  inventions of the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution.  The a s s o r t m e n t o f m o t i f s , o r  themes, t h a t would be s u i t a b l e a t t h i s s t a g e , seem t o be e n d l e s s .  As  l o n g as t h e s t r e s s i s on r o m a n t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s , d e t a i l s , and extremes embodied i n t h e s t o r y form and r h y t h m i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d , t h e n w i l l d e r i v e meaning from c r e a t i v e dance 2.  F o l k dance.  students  experiences.  F o l k dance s e r v e s as a v e h i c l e f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  the d i f f e r e n t customs, r i t u a l s , b e l i e f s , manners, and o c c u p a t i o n s p e o p l e from v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s . r o m a n t i c about i t ? "  The p l a n n e r  needs t o a s k "What i s  Much of f o l k dance can a c t as an ' a l i m e n t ' f o r  e d u c a t i o n a l development t h r o u g h t h e r o m a n t i c s t a g e . put t o music r e p r e s e n t  of  aspects o f the peoples'  Steps and p a t t e r n s  l i v e s , f o r information  about t h e i r costumes, b e l i e f s , and s t r u g g l e s p r o v i d e a c c e s s t o knowledge through romantic a s s o c i a t i o n s .  The i n t e r e s t i n extremes can a l s o be  21 Cronwell, P a u l , C r e a t i v e Playmaking i n the Primary Chatto & Windus, 1970), pp. 53, 115.  School,  (London:  92 s a t i s f i e d t h r o u g h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of dances from a wide d i v e r s i t y of cultures—Eskimo,  S e r b i a n , German, or Greek.  D i v e r s i t y not o n l y i n  customs and manners, but a l s o i n rhythms t h a t h e l p t e l l the s t o r y of a p e o p l e or p l a c e . such as:  F a c t s and d e t a i l s c o u l d accompany the dance i n a r e a s  d e t a i l s of e t h n i c ornamented embroidered costumes,  l o c a t i o n s , h i s t o r y , f a c t s about unique m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s b a g p i p e s , h a r m o n i c a s , f l u t e s , e t c . ) , a r t and Dances can be s e l e c t e d to express areas.  For example, i f the theme was  geographical  (drums,  music.  themes covered  i n other  subject  courage and s u r v i v a l t h e n i t might  be a p p r o p r i a t e t o choose a dance from S e r b i a .  The  s t a t e of S e r b i a has  a  l o n g h i s t o r y of s t r u g g l e s f o r independence, r e s i s t i n g many i n v a s i o n s throughout the c e n t u r i e s . t h e i r dances.  "The  T h i s courage and  struggle i s reflected i n  proud d i g n i t y , f u l l p o s t u r e of the S e r b i a n dancer 22  is warrior-like i n style." Any  of the e a s i e r K o l o dances as S e l j a n c i c a K o l o , Ersko K o l o , or  Roumansko K o l o would be a p p r o p r i a t e .  The w a l k i n g s t e p s done w i t h  and the tempo of the music b o t h c a p t u r e the proudness of the Another s u i t a b l e dance would be the German, B l a c k s m i t h ' s the energy of the b l a c k s m i t h , t o i l i n g l o n g hours would be The rhythm i s s t r o n g and c l e a r , accented dance r e p r e s e n t s  s t r o n g b e g i n n i n g and  Here  emphasized. The and  the happy,  Dances f o r s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s c o u l d a l s o be l e a r n e d  as  A wedding dance  such as P a t c h Tanz or a dance i n p r a i s e of water l i k e the  J.  Dance.  by the c l a p p i n g sequence.  they o f f e r f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s t o the h a b i t s of p e o p l e .  22  people.  the s t o r y form i n t h a t the two p a r t s , the c l a p p i n g  c i r c l i n g complement each o t h e r — t h e l i v e l y ending.  plie  spirited  Joukowsky, A n a t o l , The T e a c h i n g of E t h n i c Dance, (New L o w e l l P r a t t and Company, 1965), p. 29.  York:  93 I s r a e l i Mayim, would be m e a n i n g f u l t o t h e r o m a n t i c  stage student.  In  Mayim, a j o y o u s , s t r o n g rhythm h e l p s the f e e t a r t i c u l a t e the f o o t p a t t e r n s and the v o i c e a s s i s t s i n s i n g i n g the p r a i s e . of movement p i c t u r e t h e r o m a n t i c  student  i s a b l e t o sense the s p i r i t  f e e l i n g of p e o p l e from a n o t h e r c u l t u r e . "sense of romance."  human q u a l i t i e s by c o n s t a n t  and  I t a l l o w s them t o d e v e l o p a  As Egan s t a t e s " . . .  a d i a l e c t i c a l e x t e n s i o n of the s t u d e n t ' s  Through t h i s k i n d  the r o m a n t i c  concepts,  comparisons w i t h , and  stage i n v o l v e s  f e e l i n g s , and  other  i n h a b i t a t i o n o f , other  23 p e o p l e s i n o t h e r times and 3.  Square dance.  s t u d e n t s access  places." Square dance, l i k e f o l k dance can a l s o g i v e  to knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  s t o r y form, and romantic  association.  of p e o p l e t h r o u g h movement,  A study of p i o n e e r l i f e , the expan-  s i o n of America's w e s t , t h e cowboys, and ranch l i f e a r e a l l c a p t u r e d the many m i x e r s and expresses  square dances.  in  V i r g i n i a R e e l i s a good example.  It  the f r e e , happy s p i r i t o f t h e e a r l y s e t t l e r s i n i t s s t e p s ,  v o i c e accompaniment, and rhythms. d i f f e r e n t l a n d s , the s t u d e n t s  By  ' f e e l i n g ' d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s , from  get t o sense the s c a l e of t h i n g s around  them, h e l p i n g them t o d e v e l o p t h e i r d i s t i n c t i d e n t i t i e s .  Romantic  a s s o c i a t i o n i s t h e v e h i c l e t o p r o v i d e t h i s sense of s e c u r i t y .  Other  s u i t a b l e dances would be Solomon L e v i , Red R i v e r V a l l e y , B u f f a l o G a l s , and Teton M o u n t a i n Stomp.  The  sense of romance i s b e s t invoked  dance i s the outgrowth of a s t o r y , or a theme s t u d i e d i n o t h e r areas.  i f the  curriculum  I n t e r e s t i n extremes c o u l d be s t u d i e d by comparing d i f f e r e n t  c o u n t r y dances.  For example, the b o i s t e r o u s e n e r g e t i c g a i e t y of  V i r g i n i a R e e l , c o u l d be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the c o n t r o l and g r a c e of 23  Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 128.  York:  Oxford  the Patch Uni-  94 Tanz.  Both  stage.  forms of  Steps  students w i l l variety they  of  will  dance w i l l  should not need  be  become t o o  to develop  rhythms and ready  feed  development complicated  confidence  patterns.  through i n these  i n moving t h e i r  Once c o n t r o l  the  and  romantic  dances bodies  security  as to  are  a  evident,  f o r the p h i l o s o p h i c stage.  Gymnastics The skills that  main aim  and  to  at  this  develop  hanging,  Egan suggests  i s to broaden  flexibility  were i n t r o d u c e d a t  body w e i g h t ,  stage  the mythic  curling,  t h a t we  and  ask  the  the  foundation of  confidence.  The  stage, jumping,  stretching, question,  and  "What a r e  b a s i c movements  landing,  flight the  general  transferring  a r e now limits  broadened. and  dimen-  24 sions  of  the  ate content transcend best  for  real  f o r the  learning  motivating  m i g h t be  example,  at  as  on  the  the  and  so  i f the  showing  team a g o l d medal. 24 I b i d . , p . 125.  i n choosing allow the  t u r n i n g , use themes s u c h  films  i n the  as  student  i s the  c o u l d a c t as sport.  Instead of  approprito  a s s o c i a t i o n s would be  f o r transcendence  theme.  the  motivator  the  E a c h movement  of b u i l d i n g  lessons  space,  bending,  stretching,  energy,  courage,  creativity,  on.  lessons are  the  Olympics  romantic  search  a particular  on  us  Themes w h i c h  great achievements  focus  lead  i n gymnastics,  twisting,  beauty,  b e g i n by  competed his  focus  to  through  Hence,  better to  power, g r a c e ,  could  " . . .  f o r c e showing  such  stage.  reality  . . . "  tasks  For  romantic  stage: 25  sequence might  it  the p o s s i b l e ? " ,  h i s everyday  for this  around  and  film  with  an  of the  to  focus  25 p.  the  theme c o u r a g e ,  Japanese gymnastic  already broken  Ibid.,  on  124.  one  t e a m member  leg i n order  to  ensure  who  95 T h i s k i n d o f s t o r y would a p p e a l t o t h e i r a p p e t i t e f o r extremes and the  'different.'  The r e s t o f t h e l e s s o n , on f l o o r and a p p a r a t u s might  f o c u s on courage.  Courage i n w o r k i n g w i t h p a r t n e r s :  o t h e r ' s w e i g h t , courage i n m a i n t a i n i n g flight,  t a k i n g each  b a l a n c e on a p p a r a t u s , courage i n  courage i n l i f t i n g and l o w e r i n g p a r t s , and courage i n t u r n i n g and  t w i s t i n g movements.  Another theme c o u l d be energy.  One c o u l d b e g i n a  l e s s o n by w a t c h i n g a f l o o r e x e r c i s e r o u t i n e and a r o u t i n e on t h e r i n g s , and discuss the d i f f e r e n t energies  i n play.  F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e energy t h a t  i s r e q u i r e d t o do w h i p - l i k e a c t i o n s o f t h e body;  t h e energy  to s e l e c t e d p a r t s o f t h e body, arms, l e g s , h i p s ;  and t h e v a r i o u s  sities  of energy f o r l a n d i n g , b a l a n c i n g ,  l e a p s , and jumps.  discharge inten-  Allowing the  s t u d e n t s t o e x p l o r e t h e s e k i n d s of themes w i l l b r i n g t o them t h e s p i r i t , e x c i t e m e n t , and romance o f g y m n a s t i c s . These k i n d s o f themes w i l l g i v e them t h e freedom t o e x p l o r e , n o t o n l y t h e extremes, b u t a l s o t h e v e r y d e t a i l s o f movement.  Challenging  a p p a r a t u s such as r o p e s , v a u l t i n g b o x e s , and b a r s a r e good i n t h e sense t h a t they c a n attempt t h e s p e c t a c u l a r , t h e extreme i n h e i g h t , d i s t a n c e , and speed.  strength,  I t i s between t h e s e extremes t h a t t h e s t u d e n t  b e g i n s t o g a i n c o n t r o l o f h i s own body and c o n s t r u c t s h i s own i d e n t i t y . Students need t i m e t o exhaust a l l t h e movement p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  The  s t r e s s should be p l a c e d upon b u i l d i n g t h e w i d e s t p o s s i b l e range o f movement s k i l l s .  As M o r r i s o n  says:  "Much l e a p i n g and jumping should  be  i n c l u d e d f o r i f p e o p l e do not ' f l y ' a t t h i s s t a g e , they a r e u n l i k e l y t o . , ,.26 enjoy x t l a t e r . 26 M o r i s o n , Ruth, A Movement Approach t o E d u c a t i o n a l (London: J . M. Dent and Sons L i m i t e d , 1969), p. 151.  G y m n a s t i c s,  96 Games "Romantic games i n v o l v e a h e s i t a n t , a m b i v a l e n t  grappling with 27  s e r i o u s problems i n a c o n t e x t i n s u l a t e d by p l a y f u l n e s s . "  Egan a l s o  suggests t h a t games w h i c h s t u d e n t s f i n d a p p e a l i n g a t t h i s stage d e a l w i t h the p l a u s i b l e world.  They might f i n d games such as hound and r a b b i t  (mythic s t a g e ) r a t h e r c h i l d i s h .  Other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t u d e n t s '  t h i n k i n g such as i n t e r e s t i n extremes, f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h d e t a i l s , s c e n d i n g t h r e a t s o f t h e everyday  tran-  through r o m a n t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s , and  elements o f t h e s t o r y form w i l l h e l p t o b e t t e r o r g a n i z e game s i t u a t i o n s t h a t w i l l be m e a n i n g f u l  and engaging. 28  An a p p r o p r i a t e game would be t h a t o f Agents and S p i e s . i n v o l v e s r u n n i n g , t h r o w i n g , and a c c u r a c y .  T h i s game  I t a l s o i n v o l v e s suspense,  s i n c e there i s a romantic a s s o c i a t i o n i n p l a y i n g the part of the c l e v e r spy o r t h e cunning agent. at  A game t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s e s p e c i a l l y may enjoy 29  t h i s stage i s t h a t of Slaughter.  e x c i t e m e n t , and humor.  Here t h e r e i s p l e n t y o f drama,  I t g i v e s t h e b i g boys a chance t o be t h e hero  and use t h e i r muscle s t r e n g t h and i t g i v e s t h e s m a l l e r boys an o p p o r t u n i t y to  o u t w i t an opponent by w o r k i n g  out o f t h e boundary.  t o g e t h e r t o throw t h e o t h e r team member  D o d g e b a l l games such as Three Team D o d g e b a l l , Space  T r a v e l , Atomic D o d g e b a l l o r B a t t l e b a l l a l l p r o v i d e an arena i n w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s can e x p e r i e n c e c o m p e t i t i o n , t e n s e s i t u a t i o n s , and develop 27 Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), pp. 34-35. 28 S c h u r r , E v e l y n L., Movement E x p e r i e n c e s f o r C h i l d r e n : C u r r i c u l u m and Methods f o r Elementary h o o l The P h y New s i c aGames l E d u c aBook, t i o n , (New (Englewood Cliffs: Fluegelman, Andrew, S ced., York: The PHeadlands r e n t i c e - H aP lr le ,s s 1967), p. 353. , 1976), pp. 101-102. 29  97 confidence  i n b u i l d i n g basic running,  Gradually minor  or lead-up  culminate  and  sports  light  this  at this  spectacular. could  trotters. students  Olympic  record  The  romantic  teacher  skills  life  may a p p e a r  and f l a v o r  Students  record, love  this  or here kind  is  ments t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y p r e p a r e a d d more c o l o r a n d s u s p e n s e .  i m i t a t i n g the Globe-  and t h e y  would  find the  I n t r a c k and  set the high  participate.  field,  jump b a r a t  jump p i t t h e O l y m p i c  record  A n o t h e r way o f impersonations.  F o r example, h e r e  t o throw t h e d i s c u s  to run the hurdles  of display.  shooting,  i n t h e gym b y d e m o n s t r a t i n g  about  is  the giants  of the s k i l l s i s  i n t o t h e gym i s t h r o u g h  t o be a hero  up t o b a t , o r h e r e  new w o r l d  to  students  mastery  task.  h e o r s h e c a n make a p p e a r ' f a n t a s t i c . '  walking  feats  be t h e h i g h -  associations with  i s t h e music  o r mark i n t h e l o n g  probably  h a n d l i n g ' s k i l l s or  of a lesson,  jump, a n d t h e n w a t c h how e a g e r l y bringing  ball  energetically at this  height,  relate  are interested i n details  t o compose a s e q u e n c e  at the start  could  to  and u n b e l i e v a b l e  and u n b e l i e v a b l e  needs  introducing  encourage students  anecdotes,  Romantic  When p r a c t i c i n g  working very could,  When  motivate.  stage.  be encouraged  i n a variety of  The t e a c h e r  The s t u d e n t s  ingenious  A l lthe teacher  teacher  sport.  scored,  would h e l p  game a n d t h e i r  students  could  skills.  r e m a i n c h a l l e n g i n g and  t h e Harlem G l o b e t r o t t e r s would  f o r a student  really  the  with  be d e v e l o p e d  p r a c t i c e should  particular  or height.  extremes and these  and t h r o w i n g  i n a game s i t u a t i o n .  s e t , goals  speed  A visit  of  skills  will  o r games, t h e t e a c h e r  of records  strength,  skills  Skills  the h i s t o r y of that  stories of  games.  i n applying  traditional study  more c o m p l i c a t e d  dodging,  whatever i s Cassy  to set a  i n record  speed.  A l l the actions, the l i t t l e  f o r the great Students  event  i n this  could  stage  be  will  move-  exaggerated constantly  98 request  'Show us how  t o do i t , ' or demand, 'you do i t ! '  These k i n d s of  i d e a s w i l l b e s t f e e d development through t h i s s t a g e and p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h a sense of romance of man's p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l achievements and  adventures. H i s t o r y of t h e Olympic games would a l s o be a s u i t a b l e t o p i c t o be  researched.  S l i d e s c o u l d be shown o f Olympia and the p a r t i c u l a r s of  the events of t h o s e a n c i e n t days such as d e t a i l s of how l a n e was  marked by a s l a b of marble and l a t e r how  i n d i c a t e each r a c e r ' s l a n e .  each r a c e r ' s  s t r i n g s were drawn t o  "By e x h a u s t i v e l y knowing something one  gets  30 a sense of t h e s c a l e o f e v e r y t h i n g . "  T h i s seems t o be t h e essence o f  t h e r o m a n t i c s t a g e and games c o n t e n t can be o r g a n i z e d t o a i d more f u l l y t h i s development. To feed t h e i r a p p e t i t e s f o r t h e b i z a r r e and d i f f e r e n t , c o u l d be t o l d o f how  men  stories  d i s g u i s e d as women a c t u a l l y competed i n women's  events i n t h e Olympic games, o r perhaps s t o r i e s c o u l d be t o l d of the greatest f e a t s accomplished  by J e s s e Owens or Mark S p i t z .  One might say, t h e s e i d e a s and s t o r i e s a r e i n t e r e s t i n g but s h o u l d the s k i l l s be t a u g h t .  how  The i n t e n t i o n of t h e s e i d e a s i s t o p o i n t  out t h a t s k i l l s s h o u l d not be, as they v e r y f r e q u e n t l y a r e , d i s c o n n e c t e d or d i s s o c i a t e d from the human a s p e c t .  Games and s p o r t s k i l l s s h o u l d  r e l a t e d t o some human q u a l i t y such as energy, courage,  self-control,  endurance, s e l f - r e l i a n c e .  Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 35.  York:  Oxford U n i -  be  99 General  Principles  the Romantic It of  the  has  and  powerful,  transcend egos a r e what  face to  a sense  teacher  of  Dance,  until  e n d u r a n c e , and  these  be  lacking 2.  of  i n the  and  s h o u l d be  of  to explore a l l the  The  needs to  test  others  games and  sports are  isolated  little  concern  students  so,  organized  to provide  the p h y s i c a l  body  control,  and  achieved  also  beauty.  at  this  such  the  between  i s beyond.  qualities.  but  can  immature  tension created  w i t h what  be  their  transcendent  emphasized  skills, limits  as h a s  work i n g y m n a s t i c s  that  associations with  doing  r e s o l v e the  students and  Not as  a  only  power,  qualities  as  I f a romantic  stage  sense  i t is likely  to  be  given  of physical  h i s endurance, To  this  been i n d i c a t e d .  seem e s p e c i a l l y  the  end,  movement.  test  his  some  activit-  C r e a t i v e dance,  suitable.  and  C e r t a i n team  also challenging.  characteristics forms  should  dimensions  his strength, test  apparatus  The  By  a l l movement p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  are b e t t e r than  3.  i n developing  adult forever.  Through a v a r i e t y  exhaust  student  ego  appropriate  courageous,  games s h o u l d  i s not  opportunity  courage,  the  world.  their  associated with  energy  assist  can  themes t h a t s u g g e s t  human e x p r e s s i o n s  student  at  t e a c h e r meets the  Through romantic  real  harmony, p o i s e , b a l a n c e ,  of  Curriculum  structuring  e n e r g e t i c , and  they  gymnastics,  common q u a l i t i e s  ies  can  through  identity.  creative,  support  gymnasium t h e  Hence,  ( t h e r e a l w o r l d ) and  large variety  grace,  face.  c h a l l e n g e s of. t h e  given  i s real  that i n the  the  brave,  the  1.  the  said  activities,  confidence the  been  student  physical  for Organizing Physical Education  Stage  of  the romantic  of e x e r c i s e s , c i r c u i t s ,  to a i d development  i n this  stage.  stage,  and  strongly  running  Even simple  suggest  laps w i l l  do  e x e r c i s e s of  the  100 body  can be put i n a form t h a t r e p r e s e n t s  a "movement-picture  into  which  31 the  child  c a n grow."  the p u r s u i t of 4. way  The t e a c h e r  as a c t o r s e r v e s  this  i t i s important  a t hand  stage 5.  arm  a n d humor.  that  stage,  students  when p r e s e n t i n g  connected.  start  aorta,  with  skills  Skills  the d e t a i l s  exhausting  Just because movements  discipline  of  f o r m and e x e c u t i o n  "Quite  recognize  i t may  this  should  shoulder  as:  long  and c h a r a c t e r human  qualities. i n the  a r e more m e a n i n g f u l  to start  at  are the be b e t t e r  capillaries,  that  the extremes, students  Quality  As Egan reminds u s : expression  fail  to  i s a p r e r e q u i s i t ef o r  transcend (Clent:  be  There needs t o  e x p l o r a t i o n and d i s c o v e r y .  proponents of freedom f o r students'  Gymnastic Education,  later  much f o r t e s t i n g  o f a medium  as:  cardio-vascular picture.  needs t o be r e i n f o r c e d .  . . .One c a n n o t  such  position,  oxygen p i c k - u p ,  i n a n u n c o n t r o l l e d manner.  mastery  the p a r t i c -  and e x e r c i s e i t would  ways, does n o t s u g g e s t  movement  ball  d i s s e c t e d and o n l y  very  with  b e p u t on d e t a i l s  movement,  the pulse,  i s a stage  i n endless  freedom of e x p r e s s i o n .  Foundation).  be b e s t  presenting the general  that d i s c i p l i n e d  31B o t h m e r ,  skills  do i n v o l v e t h e m s e l v e s  Emphasis  such  i n a l l of t h i s  commonly  a n d c a n go a  of d i f f e r e n t  s i n c e they  are f i r s t  t o r u n , jump, a n d p l a y  be  role  Through  When d i s c u s s i n g f i t n e s s  and so o n , b e f o r e 6.  in  seem t o e x e r c i s e i n d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g .  foot placement, pushoff,  on implement.  parts  not be s a c r i f i c e d  other.  a n d move t o t h e g e n e r a l .  grip  teachers  demonstrations,  a t any  At t h i s  action,  left  through  than  Therefore, ular  an important  he o r s h e c a n d e m o n s t r a t e a v a r i e t y  Therefore, lesson  should  fitness.  i n s t i m u l a t i n g enthusiasm  izations  to  Rhythmics and g r a c e  conventional  Goethean  forms  Science  until  101 one has t h o r o u g h l y mastered them." 7.  32  There I s s t i l l an emphasis on rhythm a t t h i s s t a g e .  Perhaps  t h i s element o f movement has been n e g l e c t e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s i n p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . tempo.  A c t i v i t i e s a r e performed w i t h o u t much a t t e n t i o n t o  Dance a c t i v i t i e s and even s k i l l s of team games can be accom-  plished i n a rhythmical fashion.  Egan says t h a t " . . . a mind s t o c k e d  w i t h f i n e p o e t r y and p r o s e e n r i c h e s b o t h t h e rhythms o f one's language and t h e range o f one's thoughts and sentiment and p r o v i d e s  an.infinitely  r i c h t r e a s u r e t h a t can be drawn on a t w i l l through t h e r e s t o f one's 33 life."  One c o u l d make t h e comparison t h a t a body s t o c k e d w i t h a  v a r i e t y o f movement s k i l l s and rhythms e n r i c h e s our c a p a c i t y t o enjoy movement throughout  one's l i f e and a p p r e c i a t e t h e a e s t h e t i c s o f movement. P h i l o s o p h i c Stage  The  ' b i t s and p i e c e s , ' t h e f a c t s , t h e a s s o r t e d r o m a n t i c d e t a i l s no  l o n g e r a p p e a l t o t h e p h i l o s o p h i c mind.  I n s t e a d , through t h e r e a l i z a t i o n  t h a t they a r e a p a r t o f t h e l a r g e r world.and a l l i t s l a w s , s t u d e n t s to  begin  s e a r c h f o r t h e 'wholes,' t h e g e n e r a l t r u t h s and laws o f n a t u r e , o f  human p s y c h o l o g y , o f s o c i a l l i f e , o f h i s t o r i c a l development and o f human movement.  T h i s s e a r c h w i l l g i v e them a new founded s e c u r i t y .  i s t h e s e n s i t i v e p e r i o d f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h e c a p a c i t y t o generate  I f this general  schemes and p r i n c i p l e s , then p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be o r g a n i z e d t o l e a d s t u d e n t s i n t o d e v e l o p i n g j u s t such  32  capacities.  Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New Y o r k : v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 144. 33 I b i d . , p. 48.  Oxford  Uni-  102 Dance "The  c o n t e n t t h a t i s o f most importance  f o r the p h i l o s o p h i c s t a g e  t h e n i s t h a t which b e s t enables s t u d e n t s t o compose or t o see g e n e r a l 34 o r g a n i z i n g schemes i n each f i e l d o f i n q u i r y . "  Dance, and i n p a r t i c u l a r  c r e a t i v e o r modern dance i s a good c h o i c e of a c t i v i t y t h r o u g h  which  s t u d e n t s can b e g i n t o f o r m u l a t e the g e n e r a l concepts and laws  governing  human movement.  A l t h o u g h v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of e f f o r t , space, and  s h i p had been p a r t of t h e i r p a s t l e s s o n s , i t i s o n l y now  relation-  t h a t a l l the  e x p e r i e n c e s they have had b e g i n t o c o a l e s c e i n t o g e n e r a l schemes. Through c o n t i n u e d dance e x p e r i e n c e s t h e s t u d e n t w i l l b e g i n t o  understand  the p r i n c i p l e s of e f f o r t , t h a t movement i s i m p e l l e d by e n e r g i e s . w i l l b e g i n t o answer q u e s t i o n s such as "How  They  does t h e body move?"  "What  i s the meaning of movement?" and "What i s t h e q u a l i t y of movement?" An u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p r i n c i p l e s of s p a t i a l d i s p l a c e m e n t s , e.g., movement p a t t e r n s t h a t t h e i r b o d i e s t r a c e i n t h e a i r , w i l l o c c u r . example, from a f i g h t sequence, the t e a c h e r c o u l d ask, "Do  For  the three  blows w i t h which you s t r i k e your p a r t n e r move from t h e c e n t e r of your 35 body, s p o k e - l i k e , or do they h i t a c r o s s , p e r i p h e r a l l y ? "  I f t h e dynamics  of movement and s p a t i a l p r i n c i p l e s a r e t o be c o a l e s c e d d u r i n g t h i s  stage  then the t e a c h e r needs t o p r o v i d e themes o r " p l o t s ' i n w h i c h t h e s e a s p e c t s of movements a r e s t r e s s e d . tackled. aid  More a b s t r a c t k i n d s of themes c o u l d be  More i n t r i c a t e rhythms i n c l u d i n g s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n c o u l d  i n d e v e l o p i n g p r i n c i p l e s of dynamics.  Poems s u i t a b l e t o a c t as  s t i m u l i f o r dance a v a i l a b l e i n S t o k e s ' book a r e : I b i d . , p. 130.  " A l o n e , " "Shapes,"  3 4  35 C a r r o l l , Jean and P e t e r L o f t h o u s e , C r e a t i v e Dance f o r Boys, (London: MacDonald & Evans, L t d . , 1969), p. 34.  103 "Time," and "The  Nightmare."  3fi  Students a t t h i s s t a g e w i l l become more aware of t h e i r own  bodies,  s e n s i n g t o a g r e a t e r degree i t s w e i g h t , b a l a n c e , and p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r co-ordination.  They w i l l seek t o understand  the m e c h a n i c a l p r i n c i p l e s t h a t r e g u l a t e how  body performance  t h e body moves.  of s t a b i l i t y , m o t i o n , and f o r c e c o u l d be s t u d i e d .  They w i l l  through Principles find  e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g t h e i r p o s t u r e and d i s c u s s i o n of t h e g r a v i t y f o r c e s t h a t p l a y upon the body.  I n t h e i r quest f o r the g e n e r a l laws and  t e r n s of the w o r l d , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e r e a l l y a t t e m p t i n g t o know  pat-  themselves. 37  "They l o o k a t t h e w o r l d as t h e y would a m i r r o r , t o see  themselves."  To be a b l e t o f o r m u l a t e t h e s e g e n e r a l concepts about how  t h e body  moves and to be a b l e t o answer such q u e s t i o n s as "What i s g r a c e ,  beauty?"  t h e s t u d e n t s need t o be g i v e n a v a r i e t y and an abundance of dance e x p e r i ences t h a t w i l l h e l p them ' b o d y - f o r t h ' t h e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s , not o n l y through c r e a t i v e or modern dance, but a l s o w i t h j a z z , f o l k , and dance.  square  F o l k dance h e l p s them g a i n a deeper i n s i g h t i n t o t h e w o r l d around  them as w e l l as t h e i r own p e r s o n a l w o r l d .  I f they a r e g i v e n a l e n g t h y  u n i t o f f o l k dance they w i l l b e g i n t o understand product of geographic,  t h a t the dances a r e a  economic, and r e l i g i o u s f a c t o r s and t h a t t h e  music and costumes a r e an e x p r e s s i o n of o t h e r p e o p l e s ' c r e a t i v e powers. Through f o l k dances they w i l l b e g i n t o develop a sense of t h e h i s t o r y of dance-movement from age t o age, from t h e most p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s up t h e modern w o r l d .  until  What i s i m p o r t a n t i s not o n l y t h e q u a n t i t y of dances  36 S t o k e s , E d i t h M., Word P i c t u r e s as a S t i m u l u s f o r C r e a t i v e Dance, (London: MacDonald & Evans, L t d . , 1970). 37 Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 63.  104 but  also  the  others.  For  thinking The  fact  intricate  the  e x i s t e n c e of mankind,  steps suggest life,  meaning of r e l i g i o n dance.  Hasapiko  Other (Zorba's  intricate long  on  film.  should that  can  ways o f r e s o l v i n g  a l l be  Dance) from  Very  Hawaiian  presented  thrilled  of  the  with  class  the  intricate  will to  the  and  and  and  the  s e a r c h e d , f o r i n some the  spirited  as  flowing,  Chinese take  c h a l l e n g i n g dance p a t t e r n s . i n aspects  the  form  dance melodious,  dance, T i n i k l i n g ,  such  i n dance w i l l  show i n t e r e s t  quick  done  Spanish  Flamenco,  dances c o u l d be  shown  lessons seriously I t i s at  of  this  and  stage  choreography  o p p o r t u n i t y to o r g a n i z e group  with  and  will  p r e s e n t a t i o n s as  part  work.  an  develop  be  the  'why.'  the meaning of dance,  dances  than  Philosophic inquiries,  the g r a c e f u l ,  h u l a , Japanese,  Through dance e x p e r i e n c e s awareness,  them.  the P h i l i p p i n e  interested  students w i l l  be  and  t o answer t h e  following  r e p r e s e n t e d and  Greece;  more a p p r o p r i a t e  Chobansko, r e p r e s e n t s  the  a p p r o p r i a t e dances might  Students  be  the  t h e q u e s t i o n s and  Rumanian Medley,  dances,  be  striving  the meaning of music,  bamboo s t i c k s .  Indian  d a n c e s may  the Macedonian dance,  p a t t e r n puts  the meaning of  of  individual  example,  about  opening  that  students w i l l  awareness o f t h e i r an  understanding  own  o f how  develop  body w h i l e moving the p a r t s of  a  kinaesthetic i n space.  t h e body  are  They  related  whole.  Gymnastics In  gymnastics,  their  own  stage  that  principles  students w i l l  performances the  teacher  governing  begin  and  s e e k ways o f  can  introduce the  execution of  skills  to  show a n  improving  interest  skills.  general concepts, i n various areas  i n analyzing I t i s at  laws, of  this  and  gymnastics.  105 M e c h a n i c a l p r i n c i p l e s such as s t a b i l i t y ,  g r a v i t y , and m o t i o n c o u l d  d i s c u s s e d and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o e f f e c t i v e performance. when p e r f o r m i n g  For example,  s k i l l s on the uneven b a r s , pommel h o r s e , or on  the  p a r a l l e l b a r s , the c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y has a tremendous e f f e c t on s u c c e s s f u l e x e c u t i o n of t h e s k i l l .  be  Many s k i l l s on apparatus  or  the floor  have common elements and i t i s up t o the t e a c h e r t o o r g a n i z e themes or s k i l l s i n groups t h a t emphasize s i m i l a r p r i n c i p l e s . theme s w i n g i n g and c i r c l i n g Concepts of f r i c t i o n , skills.  For i n s t a n c e , the  c o u l d be e x p l o r e d on r o p e s , r i n g s , and  c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e , and g r a v i t y c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o  A n o t h e r theme c o u l d be moving and s t o p p i n g whereby  would " . . .  g a i n e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n how  and p r o p e l i t , and how  bars.  students  t o impart impetus t o the body  t o get a g r i p t o check movements f o r purposes 38  such as changing d i r e c t i o n o r h o l d i n g m o t i o n l e s s . "  A p p l i c a t i o n of  movement p r i n c i p l e s c o u l d be p r a c t i c e d i n e i t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l gymnastics o r O l y m p i c / a r t i s t i c gymnastics.  C o n s i d e r i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  p h i l o s o p h i c s t a g e , i t might be b e s t t o move i n t o Olympic g y m n a s t i c s as s t u d e n t s w i l l d e s i r e t o copy what they see a t l i v e television.  Students  e x h i b i t i o n s and  a t t h i s s t a g e a r e a l s o q u i t e capable of p l a n n i n g  t h e i r own  g y m n a s t i c s r o u t i n e s , a n a l y z i n g t h e i r own work, and  others.  V i d e o r e p l a y s can be most u s e f u l f o r t h e s e p u r p o s e s .  Along w i t h mechanical  judging  p r i n c i p l e s of movement, the s t u d e n t w i l l show  i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l concepts  t h a t w i l l h e l p him  'body f o r t h '  schemes r e l a t e d t o t h e f u n c t i o n i n g of the m u s c l e s , h e a r t , and G i r l s and boys may  on  general  lungs.  be i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e laws r e g a r d i n g d e v e l o p i n g muscular  38  (London:  M o r i s o n , R u t h , A Movement Approach t o E d u c a t i o n a l G y m n a s t i c s , J . M. Dent and Sons L t d . , 1969), p. 112.  106  strength, to  the  prevent  boys wishing  the  "bulky"  Principles stretching w i l l  a l l be  be  given  process  of  interaction  knowledge. ulars  look while  s u c h as  student  to b u i l d  of  muscles  retaining  and  the  a high  isometric, isotonic,  s u i t a b l e at  a variety  bulky  still  overload,  this  stage.  situations  between the  S o p h i s t i c a t i o n of  will  up  general  these  mark e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t  wishing  of  fitness.  r e l a x a t i o n , and i s that  underway the  s c h e m e s and  general  level  Important  to get  girls  the  the  dialectical  particular  s c h e m e s v i a more a n d  through  this  partic-  stage.  Games In stage  will  likens  tend  the  their  selves.  copy r o l e s of  schemes o r  game, b e At  To  identity,  characters  and  playing w i l l  times  assist  allow  patterns,  i t individual they  may  students  to  him  offer  to  see  a variety the  general  of  philosophic  like.  distinct  games w h i c h  patterns,  the  rules  serious  t e a m games, o r  outdoor  over-sure  p e r i o d of  Egan  student,  appear very  over-confident, this  the  to a f f i r m  games/sports,  the  they  i n that  i s able  through  at  in fictions  make s t u d e n t s  appear  i n development  c u r r i c u l u m needs  student of  f o r a sense of  This role  activities.  the  to  general  roles.  about  search  p h i l o s o p h i c games t o p h i l o s o p h i c s t o r i e s  through and  their  role  them-  playing,  challenge general  of  the  schemes  games. In  t e a m games, s t u d e n t s  strategies ball,  and  comprehend  game t a c t i c s  zone p l a y s  and  at  general  s u c h as  this  stage  game p a t t e r n s .  receiving, setting  s t r a t e g i e s — a r e a l l appropriate  student  t h a t has student  and  man-to-man a t t a c k i n g f o r m a t i o n s ;  doubles  sophic  will  reached  will  be  patterns  the p h i l o s o p h i c stage.  be  able For  to plan  example,  spiking;  out in  volley-  in basketball,  i n badminton/tennis, that  are  suited for  In a d d i t i o n , the  interested i n analyzing player  interactions,  the  philoand  107 and  specific  rehearsed  strategies w i l l student  will  In  also  want  the  becomes more f u l l y this  stage,  the  experiences in  need  for a  or u n s k i l l e d . of  The  ectomorph, might  security  jock,'  learned.  The  force;  related angles  equipped  rackets  will  such  can  to  of  these  to progress  develop  with  laws. body  the  body  need  and  game  gain  ( f a t body  the  force,  they  aiming  or  of  the  the  role  of  rock  might  attempt  by  presenting  be  of  Through better  (discus,  targets. of  of  application  soccer b a l l s ,  softballs  have  t o make s e n s e  students w i l l  movement  to b r i n g  games t h e y  quest  fundamental p r i n c i p l e s  as  gain  laws o f motion.  kicking  climbing,  golf.  begin  arrows at  more s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r  confidence  comfortable  a b s o r p t i o n , and  throwing  have  role  play  type)  in this  concepts, be  as  i n a l l the  the  during  as P l a t o p u t s i t .  students  They w i l l  also  type), likewise w i l l  these  put,  to  p l a y the  continually  find  that  understand  shots, or  some o f  not  student  squash, badminton),  s h o o t i n g jump  familiar  the  in skills  success  'brute beast'  have a c q u i r e d  general  will  continually  T a i C h i , shot  help  development  i n cross-country running,  i s a time  and  find  does not  endomorph  as  leverage;  o f rebound  (tennis,  javelin), are  The  pieces they  teacher  the understanding and  success  i n r e f e r e n c e to general  concepts  p a r t of  the p h i l o s o p h i c  assist  (muscular  'machismo,' o r a find  To  can  does not  mesomorph  philosophic stage a l l the  skills  t h a t he  football.  together  as  p h i l o s o p h i c student  s l e n d e r body t y p e )  c h a l l e n g e s s o he  in activities  The  that  the  body.  w h e r e a s t h e mesomorph may and  aspect  identity,  i n w h i c h he  The  'athletic  basketball  (thin,  in activities  Kung F u ,  of  a w a r e o f h i s own  the  or  important  sense  ectomorph  a diversity  Player psychology  consider.  h a n d l i n g h i s body so  loser  'plays.'  become a n  to  search  game  swinging shot  Once  game s k i l l s  potential.  able  put,  they they  108 If  students  o f movements, rhythms the  they w i l l  i n different  golf  club  applied  at this  games.  swing,  Principles as  h a v e h a d a good  the lay-up  record  patterns.  will  general  develop  time it  i s only  cepts to  that  exercise how  schemes.  performance, help  build  philosophy interest  In  isolated  aspects  skill acquisition. p r i n c i p l e s of Up u n t i l  smatterings  o f knowledge about  f i t n e s s , but  begin  to coalesce.  acquisition.  this  P h y s i o l o g i c a l con-  systems a l s o  Students r e q u i r e  should  a large  be r e l a t e d  quantity  A crude g e n e r a l i z a t i o n might be t h e f o l l o w i n g : t o good h e a l t h . "  stage  P a r t i c u l a r knowledge,  muscle, heart  topics  be r e s e a r c h e d  i n the area  such as v a l u e  c h i l d r e n and  and p r o g r e s s i o n .  oxygen consumption,  could  t o motor  be  similar exercises,  time to deal with  and c a r d i o - v a s c u l a r  a f f e c t s heart  this  e x e r c i s e might  o f young  and o t h e r  as a p p l i e d  muscle  more s o p h i s t i c a t e d g e n e r a l  During  important, e s p e c i a l l y  A good  abilities  throw.  of  a n o m a l o u s k n o w l e d g e t o d e v e l o p more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  contributes  exercise  t h e rhythm of  adaptation,  the pieces  and s k i l l  knowledge and a l s o general  skill.  a l s o be t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  had been g i v e n  now  new  are also  capacities f o r organizing  or wholes  of neuromuscular  fitness  skills  kinds  to d i s t i n g u i s h various  or the rhythm o f t h e d i s c u s  throwing  such as s p e c i f i c i t y ,  students  i n rhythmical  come t o u n d e r s t a n d  Through t h i s  their  patterns  This w i l l fitness  shot,  to l e a r n i n g a completely observe b a l l  into  s t a g e be a b l e  o f l e a r n i n g motor  different  of experience  They w i l l  to have students  students  deal  r a t e , back problems, tension,  i n sports  an experimental  unit  that  sport  and appearance w i l l a l l  psychology,  and d i s c u s s e d .  competition  f o r example,  schemes.  o f 'women i n s p o r t s '  of s p o r t s ,  "Regular  sociology,  Girls  a n d b o y s may  i n sports,  I organized  drugs with  might  find  and special  be keen on t o p i c s i n sports.  a c l a s s of grade  11  109 girls,  students  investigated  social  i n q u i r y m o d e l , t h a t o f M a s s i a l a s and  students  formulated  disprove  their  opportunity sports,  a hypothesis  original  on y o u n g  changing  roles  Students  showed p a r t i c u l a r  defending this ize Egan  of  their  stage.  the  and  then  Cox,  own  topics.  children  Olympic  positions.  However, i t s h o u l d by  be  evidence  such  of the  remembered  A  to prove  were g i v e n  or  the  as v i o l e n c e i n and  the  topics tackled.  i n discussing, arguing, of u n i t  39 The  i n sports, sport i n j u r i e s ,  This type  knowledge i s m o t i v a t e d  Issues  problems. adopted.  Students  games w e r e a few  interest  was  collected  general statement.  to choose t h e i r  pressures  c u r r e n t s p o r t i s s u e s and  seems v e r y  debating,  suitable  that the d e s i r e to  and  for organ-  t h e n e e d t o b e t t e r know t h e m s e l v e s .  As  states: In t h e s e n s e t h a t s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t i n t h e w o r l d i s p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d n o t t o w a r d f i n d i n g o u t a b o u t t h e w o r l d f o r i t s own sake, but r a t h e r f o r t h e i r s a k e s — t o e s t a b l i s h a sense of t h e i r own i d e n t i t y — I c a l l t h i s s t a g e n a r c i s s i s t i c . 4 0  General P r i n c i p l e s f o r Organizing Physical the P h i l o s o p h i c Stage 1. out  I f s t u d e n t s have had  the mythic  important general  and  romantic  c a p a c i t y of  schemes.  Education  o p t i m a l development  stages  they w i l l  be  Curriculum  of c a p a c i t i e s  ready  to develop  the p h i l o s o p h i c s t a g e , namely t h a t of  Schurr,  41  i n her  textbook  at  throughthe  most  generating  mentions that mechanical  and  39 The  Schueler, Annemarie, P h y s i c a l E d u c a t o r , (May,  "The I n q u i r y M o d e l 1979), p p . 89-92.  in Physical  Education,"  40 Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, versity  Press,  1979), p .  (New'York:  Oxford  Uni-  63.  41 S c h u r r , E v e l y n L . , Movement E x p e r i e n c e s f o r C h i l d r e n : Curriculum and M e t h o d s f o r E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , . ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1967),pp. 147-149.  110 physiological  principles  muscle a c t i o n ,  should  such  as b a s i c concepts  be taught  to elementary  d o n e i f one c o n s i d e r s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s children.  However, i t s h o u l d  principles yet to  the philosophic stage.  generate  stage, their  general  Students  as i t i s through  also  this  t o attempt  the t r a d i t i o n a l  knowledge w i l l  to  offset  play  interest  then  Along  with  this  that they  can begin  be a b l e t o choice,  such  and e x e r c i s e , w i l l  development  the over-confidence  through  play the ideal  F o r example,  as  students  present, v a r i a t i o n s  this  Anomalous stage.  i s also  necessary  students  i f a t a l e n t e d male  student  is  allowed  to  s w e l l out o f p r o p o r t i o n , t a k i n g on an a g g r e s s i v e c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s ,  he  i s likely  to remain  North  develop  a s T a i C h i , Yoga,  and t h e s e r i o u s n e s s w i t h which  activities.  stuck at t h i s  'business'-like approach to p h y s i c a l stage  the  A m e r i c a n j o c k , h i s ego i s l i k e l y  stage.  Stereotype  activities  by o r g a n i z i n g a w i d e r a n g e o f a c t i v i t i e s  camping, h i k i n g ,  kayaking,  recent Assessment  canoeing,  of physical  this  however,  v i e w o f e x e r c i s e , h e a l t h , and f i t n e s s . to help  at  unaware o f t h e r a n g e o f  A l o t o f knowledge and a range o f a c t i v i t i e s  to role  t h a t have not  i d e a s by t h e t e a c h e r ,  or are completely  o f movement  of the  movement.  Exposure t o a c t i v i t i e s  be t h e f u e l  games o r o t h e r  stage  t h e o r i e s and  to students  that they w i l l  come t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f new  F e l d e n k r a i s systems  3.  t o human  and s e c u r i t y .  movement p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  from  complicated  c a n be  s h o u l d be g i v e n a g r e a t e r c h o i c e o f a c t i v i t i e s  are often reluctant  and  that  l e v e r s , and  This  of the particular  I t i s only  schemes r e l a t e d  own i d e n t i t i e s  should  children.  o f body mechanics a r e n o t a c c e s s i b l e  reached  2.  be n o t e d  of gravity,  and a  c a n be p r e v e n t e d i n t h e program,  snow a n d i c e s p o r t s .  education  roles  the grade  then  at this  such  as  In fact, i n  11 s t u d e n t s  rated  Ill outdoor a c t i v i t i e s t h e h i g h e s t i n terms o f enjoyment g a i n e d . 4.  42  At t h i s stage, students e x e r c i s e p r i m a r i l y deductive t h i n k i n g ,  so s k i l l s and knowledges p r e s e n t e d s h o u l d f i r s t f o c u s on t h e g e n e r a l l a w s , c o n c e p t s , p r i n c i p l e s , and move t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r s t o r e f i n e  crude  generalizations. 5.  The t e a c h e r ' s r o l e a t t h i s s t a g e remains c r i t i c a l as p a r t i c u l a r  knowledge needs t o be p r e s e n t e d a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e moments t o keep t h e engine p r o g r e s s i n g f o r w a r d — t o h e l p s t u d e n t s r e f i n e and d e v e l o p more s o p h i s t i c a t e d schemes. ers  T h i s r o l e , Egan s t a t e s , n e c e s s i t a t e s t h a t t e a c h -  have passed t h r o u g h t h i s s t a g e .  I f the p h y s i c a l education teacher  i s s t i l l p l a y i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e ' j o c k ' who never q u i t e made t h e b i g t i m e , t h e n i t remains i m p o s s i b l e f o r him t o a i d t h e development o f s t u d e n t s a t the p h i l o s o p h i c stage. Ironic  Stage  A c c o r d i n g t o Egan, most people r a r e l y p r o g r e s s beyond t h e r o m a n t i c s t a g e and, t h e r e f o r e , s t i l l fewer r e a c h t h e i r o n i c s t a g e .  I t would  indeed be r a r e t h a t a grade 11 o r 12 s t u d e n t w i l l have reached t h i s s t a g e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d i s c u s s b r i e f l y how c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d i n p u r s u i t o f t h a t g o a l and t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o a u t h o r s who have m i s l e a d i n g l y d e s i g n a t e d i r o n i c c a p a c i t i e s t o s t a g e s much e a r l i e r i n the c u r r i c u l u m . Egan s t a t e s t h a t t h e i r o n i c stage i s t h e s e n s i t i v e p e r i o d f o r t h e development o f two a s s o c i a t e d c a p a c i t i e s : f i r s t , t h e c a p a c i t y t o a c c e p t t h e primacy o f p a r t i c u l a r t r u t h s i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f meaning, and second, t h e c a p a c i t y t o 42  B r i t i s h Columbia Assessment o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Summary R e p o r t , December 1979, p. 34.  112 c o n t r o l the c a p a c i t i e s of a l l the previous stages. Together t h e s e p r o v i d e an i m p o r t a n t i n t e l l e c t u a l freedom; a freedom from t h e s e l f and i t s immature needs.^3 Any  a c t i v i t y , s p o r t , o r game would be s u i t a b l e f o r t h e a d u l t who has  a r r i v e d at the i r o n i c stage.  The a d u l t w i l l tend t o s p e c i a l i z e i n one  or two a c t i v i t i e s , f o r through mastery w i l l come t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e o r i e s and g e n e r a l schemes about movement a r e o n l y u s e f u l f o r o r g a n i z i n g particulars.  I t i s now t h a t he sees t h a t t h e p a r t i c u l a r s d e t e r m i n e t h e  g e n e r a l scheme. At t h e i r o n i c stage t h e r e i s no game, dance, o r g y m n a s t i c s i n t h e d i s t i n c t , c o n c r e t e , and c o n f i n e d sense o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c s t a g e , b u t r a t h e r t h e i r o n i c a d u l t i s a b l e t o combine m y t h i c , r o m a n t i c , and p h i l o s o p h i c elements i n t o h i s o r h e r p h y s i c a l p u r s u i t s . a d u l t i s able t o b r i n g together the mythic the r o m a n t i c  sense o f v i v a c i t y and v i t a l i t y  p h i l o s o p h i c sense o f o r g a n i z i n g e x p e r i e n c e s terns.  In a c t i v i t y , the  sense o f i m a g i n a t i o n and drama, i n e x p l o r i n g the l i m i t s , the i n t o g e n e r a l schemes and p a t -  P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l t a k e on t h e q u a l i t i e s o f p l a y f u l n e s s ,  j o y f u l n e s s , s p o n t a n e i t y , and a t t h e same time t h e p e r f o r m e r sense o f a e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e .  may d e r i v e a  The a d u l t who has a r r i v e d a t t h i s s t a g e  be a b l e t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e s p i r i t  will  and f e e l i n g o f t h e a c t i v i t y , t h e essence  and freedom o f movement. B a r t a l and Ne'eman.in t h e i r book, Movement, Awareness and C r e a t i v i t y , speak about movement and dance a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h would l e a d t o body-mind integration.  They d e s c r i b e t h e g o a l s o f movement i n terms such as  " b a l a n c i n g t h e e n e r g i e s f l o w i n g i n t h e body," " f r e e - f l o w i n g movement," "increased consciousness  o f how t h e body works," "harmony."  43 Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New Y o r k : v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 133.  These a r e Oxford  Uni-  113 44 a l l c a p a c i t i e s of the i r o n i c ; a d u l t .  S p i n o , i n h i s book Beyond J o g g i n g ,  p i c t u r e s a new brand o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ; " i n n e r dimension."  one t h a t emphasizes t h e  I n f l u e n c e d a g r e a t d e a l by t h e E a s t e r n p h i l o s o p h i e s ,  through a c t i v i t i e s such as a i k i d o , yoga, and m e d i t a t i o n , he d e s c r i b e s a t h l e t i c s and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n terms o f ". . . combining approaches t o mind and s p i r i t w i t h good p h y s i c a l  imaginative  fundamentals."  H e l l i s o n , i n h i s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n h u m a n i s t i c paradigm, o u t l i n e s one o f t h e g o a l s f o r h i s grade 9 boys as d e v e l o p i n g a p l a y f u l  spirit  w h i c h he d e s c r i b e s a s : ". ." . a n o n - s e r i o u s , n o n - r e f l e c t i v e d i m e n s i o n o f l i f e which f o c u s e s on t h e moment and on t h e a c t i v i t y f o r i t s own sake r a t h e r t h a n e x t r i n s i c motives  and preplanned  goals.  I t i s spontaneous  and o f t e n c r e a t i v e . Csikszentmihalyi, i n h i s research involving athletes i n various f i e l d s , d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s e v e r a l p l a y e r s e x p e r i e n c e d what he c a l l s a "sense o f f l o w . "  P l a y e r s expressed  Egan's i r o n i c s t a g e . t h e i r performance. aesthetic pleasure.  s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o those of  I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e i r egos were no  longer a f f e c t i n g  They c o u l d do t h e a c t i v i t y f o r i t s own s a k e — i t s I n t e r e s t i n g , a l s o , was t h e f i n d i n g t h a t b e g i n n e r s  seldom a c h i e v e d t h i s ' f l o w ' o r ' i n t e g r a t i o n ' s e n s a t i o n .  This c l e a r l y  p o i n t s up t h e f a c t t h a t s t u d e n t s need a good f o u n d a t i o n o f movement e x p e r i e n c e s a t t h e m y t h i c , r o m a n t i c , and p h i l o s o p h i c i n o r d e r t o hope t o achieve the i r o n i c stage.  P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s s h o u l d be s u i t -  a b l e and r e a l i s t i c f o r each s t a g e . 44 Spino, M i k e , Beyond J o g g i n g , (New York: 1976), p. 8. 4 5  p. 5.  B e r k l e y M e d a l l i o n Books,  H e l l i s o n , Don, Beyond B a l l s and B a t s , (Washington:  AAHPER, 1978),  114 The of  adult  the former  spirit  at the ironle  stages;  and f e e l i n g  stage  can experience  For full  Schiller  joyfully,  can f i n d  can sense t h e  can play  the balance  t h e game o r  between mind and  says i t r a t h e r w e l l .  t o speak out once f o r a l l ,  man  only  m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r d h e i s a man,  pletely  can c o n t r o l the c a p a c i t i e s  the sense o f flow,  o f movement, c a n p l a y  d a n c e t h e d a n c e f o r i t s own s a k e , body.  i s o n e who  a man when h e  p l a y s when i n t h e  and he i s o n l y  com-  plays.^  S c h i l l e r , F r i e d r i c h , " L e t t e r s Upon t h e A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n o f Man," v o l . 32, The H a r v a r d C l a s s i c s ed. by C h a r l e s E l i o t , (New Y o r k : P. F. C o l l i e r & Son Co., 1910), p. 266.  CHAPTER V  SUMMARY  This be  has suggested  more m e a n i n g f u l l y  Theories too  thesis  have,  designed  of course,  o f t e n an e c l e c t i c ,  resulted  Psychological cations  i f based  kind of results t h e o r i e s such  tional  theory  education explicated  and a p p l y  Certainly  them t o t h e s t r u c t u r i n g  with  Report.  t o draw  impli-  of curriculum.  t o show a n y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e and t r a d i t i o n a l  i t was d e c i d e d  curricula.  In  t o i n v e s t i g a t e an educa-  Egan's e d u c a t i o n a l developmental h a s b e e n made t o d e v e l o p  theory  a physical  has been education  the theory. there  a r e many ways t o o r g a n i z e  the application  o f Egan's t h e o r y  a new p e r s p e c t i v e u p o n c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n  theory, with  evidence,  and an attempt  framework around  focus  sometimes produce t h e  and e x p l o r e p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n s t o b u i l d i n g p h y s i c a l  curricula.  appears that  t o c u r r i c u l u m design has  as P i a g e t ' s have l e d educators  between P i a g e t i a n - s t r u c t u r e d c u r r i c u l a of the available  theory.  o u t l i n e d i n t h e B.C. A s s e s s m e n t  In g e n e r a l , r e s e a r c h has f a i l e d  light  could  influenced curriculum decisions i n the past but  i n c o n s i s t e n t programs which  from h i s theory  curriculum  upon an e d u c a t i o n a l  n o n - t h e o r e t i c a l approach  i n fragmentary,  unsatisfactory  that physical education  i t s coherent  a set of p r i n c i p l e s  from k i n d e r g a r t e n  developmental from which  t o G r a d e 12.  activities,  but i t  to physical education i n this  orientation,  field.  Egan's  provides  planners  i t i s possible to structure  Moreover, 115  i thelps  may  planners  activities  and t e a c h e r s  116 to answer i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s such a s : What a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d we teach? When and how s h o u l d we t e a c h c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s ?  Inherent i n the theory  i s t h e need f o r e d u c a t o r s t o be e x p l i c i t about t h e k i n d o f end-product they w i s h t o s e e .  I n t h i s sense, t h e t h e o r y p r o v i d e s an a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g ,  comprehensive, developmental  paradigm f o r c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r s .  Egan's  t h e o r y a s s i s t s i n o r g a n i z i n g not o n l y t h e movement o r psychomotor areas but a l s o t h e c o g n i t i v e o r knowledge o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s i n p h y s i c a l education.  T h i s t h e s i s h a s , i n f a c t , shown t h a t h i s t h e o r y may be most use-  f u l i n o r g a n i z i n g a meaningful  developmental  sequence i n a l l a s p e c t s o f  t h e a c t i v i t y program. T h i s t h e s i s has d e a l t w i t h t h e f i r s t s t a g e , t h a t o f a p p l y i n g t h e t h e o r y t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n a t h e o r e t i c a l sense.  A useful follow-  up would be t o e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t some o f t h e i d e a s t h a t have been p r e s e n t e d here.  U n i t s c o u l d be planned and p r e s e n t e d t o s t u d e n t s a t d i f f e r e n t  s t a g e s , o r , t e s t s c o u l d be designed t o diagnose what s t a g e t h e s t u d e n t is at.  T h i s t y p e o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n would seem a n e c e s s a r y  c o n t i n u e d attempt  step i n the  t o r e f i n e and r e l a t e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e .  Egan c o n t i n u a l l y reminds us t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s a 'dangerous b u s i ness' and Whitehead a s s u r e s us t h a t " . . . e d u c a t i o n i s a d i f f i c u l t problem, t o be s o l v e d by no one s i m p l e f o r m u l a . " ^  N e v e r t h e l e s s , phys-  i c a l e d u c a t o r s need t o be c o n t i n u a l l y s t r i v i n g , u t i l i z i n g t h e o r i e s , t o b u i l d a c u r r i c u l u m that w i l l provide a meaningful  p h y s i c a l education  experience to a l l students.  Whitehead, A l f r e d N o r t h , The Aims o f E d u c a t i o n , (New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n Co., 1929), p. 45.  The  BIBLIOGRAPHY A r n o l d , P e t e r . E d u c a t i o n , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and P e r s o n a l i t y ment . London: Heinemann, 1968. Ascough, J u l i a .  Dance Program:  K-7.  Develop-  Surrey School D i s t r i c t ,  Avedon, E l l i o t t M., and B r i a n S u t t o n - S m i t h . Y o r k : John W i l e y & Sons, 1971.  1978.  The Study o f Games.  New  B a r t a l , L e a , and N i r a Ne'eman. Movement Awareness and C r e a t i v i t y . Y o r k : Harper and Row, 1975.  New  B i l b r o u g h , A., and P. Jones. P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e P r i m a r y S c h o o l . London: U n i v e r s i t y o f London P r e s s , 1963. Boorman, J o y c e . C r e a t i v e Dance i n t h e F i r s t Three Grades. Longman, 1969. . C r e a t i v e Dance i n Grades Four t o S i x . 1971. Bothmer.  Gymnastic  Education.  Clent:  Don  Don M i l l s :  Mills:  Longman,  Goethean S c i e n c e F o u n d a t i o n .  B r a i n e r d , C. J . " C o g n i t i v e Development and I n s t r u c t i o n a l Theory," Contemporary E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y 3 (1978):37-50. . " N e o - P i a g e t i a n T r a i n i n g Experiments R e v i s i t e d . I s t h e r e any support f o r t h e C o g n i t i v e - D e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e H y p o t h e s i s ? " C o g n i t i o n 2 (1973):349-70. . P i a g e t ' s Theory of I n t e l l i g e n c e . H a l l , 1978.  Englewood C l i f f s :  Prentice-  Brumbaugh, Robert S., and N a t h a n i e l M. Lawrence. P h i l o s o p h e r s on Education: S i x Essays on t h e Foundations of Western Thought. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1963. Bucher, C h a r l e s A. Foundations of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . C. V. Mosby Company, 1964. B u c k l a n d , Don. 1972.  Gymnastics.  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Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co., 1970. C o r n f o r d , F r a n c i s MacDonald, t r a n s . Oxford P r e s s , 1966.  The R e p u b l i c o f P l a t o .  C o r n w e l l , P a u l . C r e a t i v e Playmaking i n t h e P r i m a r y and Windus, 1970.  London:  School.  Chatto  Daughtrey, Greyson. E f f e c t i v e T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r Secondary S c h o o l s . P h i l a d e l p h i a : W. B. Saunders, 1973. . Methods i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and H e a l t h f o r Secondary P h i l a d e l p h i a : W. B. Saunders, 1967. Donaldson, M a r g a r e t . C h i l d r e n ' s Minds. and Co. L t d . , 1978.  Glasgow:  Schools.  W i l l i a m C o l l i n s Sons  D r i v e r , R o s a l i n d . "When i s a stage n o t a stage? A c r i t i q u e of Piaget's t h e o r y o f c o g n i t i v e development and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o s c i e n c e education." E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h 21 (November 1978):54-61. Egan, K i e r a n . 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