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An exploratory study of Egan’s four stages of educational development and their application to curriculum… Schueler, Annemarie 1980

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AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF EGAN'S FOUR STAGES OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR APPLICATION TO CURRICULUM DESIGN IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Fa c u l t y of Education'^ We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming ANNEMARIE SCHUELER by to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1980 c Annemarie Schueler, 1980 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e (Z^f as /?ro ABSTRACT T h i s study e x p l o r e d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s t r u c t u r i n g p h y s i c a l educa-t i o n c u r r i c u l u m u t i l i z i n g K i e r a n Egan's e d u c a t i o n a l development t h e o r y . I t began w i t h t h e premise t h a t too o f t e n e c l e c t i c o r n o n - t h e o r e t i c a l approaches t o c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n have r e s u l t e d i n fragmentary, i n c o n s i s t e n t , a c t i v i t y programs. A l t h o u g h r e c e n t approaches t o program p l a n n i n g a t bot h the elementary secondary l e v e l a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a g r e a t d e a l o f d i v e r s i t y , they seem t o l a c k an e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e . The study examines t h e r o l e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r i e s have p l a y e d i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t of P i a g e t " s t h e o r y of c o g n i t i v e development. Research i s c i t e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f P i a g e t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l theory, i n terms o f d e s i g n i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . c u r r i c u l a . Egan's t h e o r y o f e d u c a t i o n a l development i s a r t i c u l a t e d and a comparison i s drawn between a p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y such as P i a g e t ' s and an e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y such as Egan's. Egan's o r i g i n a l and comprehensive e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y o u t l i n e s f o u r d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s : m y t h i c , r o m a n t i c , p h i l o s o p h i c , and i r o n i c . The s t a g e s span t h e y e a r s from 4 t o m a t u r i t y . E d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f development such as l e a r n i n g and m o t i v a t i o n a r e d e a l t w i t h through t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s which i n t u r n l e a d d i r e c t l y t o p r i n c i p l e s f o r o r g a n i z i n g c u r r i c u l u m . With i t s e d u c a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , the t h e o r y f o c u s e s upon f o u r q u e s t i o n s t o which e d u c a t o r s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g answers: What s h o u l d our end-product be l i k e ? What s h o u l d we teach? When s h o u l d we teach? How s h o u l d we teach? H i s t h e o r y i s pervaded w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n of t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f s t r u c t u r i n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r t o each de v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e and w i t h making c o n n e c t i o n s from s t a g e to s t a g e t o p r o v i d e o p t i m a l growth through the e n t i r e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . U t i l i z i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e s d e r i v e d from each of the f o u r s t a g e s , t h e stud y e x p l o r e s ways of s t r u c t u r i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m . A p p l i c a t i o n of t h e t h e o r y a t each s t a g e i s d i s c u s s e d i n terms of t h r e e b r o a d a c t i v i t y a r e a s : dance, gy m n a s t i c s , and games. Egan's t h e o r y p r o v i d e s us w i t h g u i d e l i n e s as to how b e s t we might go about s t r u c t u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s and which p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s might be most e d u c a t i o n a l l y s u i t a b l e at each s t a g e . In summary, the study s u g g e s t s t h a t Egan's t h e o r y o f e d u c a t i o n a l development can o f f e r t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n e r a more m e a n i n g f u l e d u c a t i o n a l - o r i e n t e d paradigm from which t o p l a n programs from k i n d e r g a r t e n t o grade t w e l v e . U t i l i z i n g t h e main p r i n c i p l e s of Egan's t h e o r y w i l l h e l p s t r u c t u r e more co h e r e n t d e v e l o p m e n t a l programs i n t h e t h r e e domains o f : a f f e c t i v e development, c o g n i t i v e development, and psychomotor development. Egan's t h e o r y appears t o open new doors f o r d e s i g n i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l a . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 Ra t i o n a l e 1 Purpose of the Study 17 I I DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM DESIGN 19 P i a g e t 1 s Theory of C o g n i t i v e Development 19 L i m i t a t i o n of Pia g e t ' s Theory f o r P r o v i d i n g I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Curriculum Design i n P h y s i c a l Education . 25 What i s an Educational Theory of Development? . . . 35 Egan's Theory of Edu c a t i o n a l Development 42 I I I EGAN'S FOUR STAGES OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT . . . . 44 Mythic Stage 45 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 45 P r i n c i p l e s f o r Organizing Knowledge 48 Games 49 The Romantic Stage 52 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 52 P r i n c i p l e s f o r Organizing Knowledge 54 Games 56 The P h i l o s o p h i c Stage 59 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 59 P r i n c i p l e s f o r Organizing Knowledge 62 '' Games 64 I r o n i c Stage . . 65 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 65 IV APPLICATION OF EGAN'S DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM 73 Mythic Stage 73 Dance 74 Gymnastics . . . . 80 Games 82 General P r i n c i p l e s f o r Organizing P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t i e s at the Mythic Stage 86 i v Romantic Stage 88 Dance 89 Gymnastics 94 Games 96 General P r i n c i p l e s f o r Organizing P h y s i c a l Education Curriculum at the Romantic Stage . . 99 P h i l o s o p h i c Stage 101 Dance . 102 Gymnastics 104 Games 106 General P r i n c i p l e s f o r Organizing P h y s i c a l Education Curriculum at the P h i l o s o p h i c Stage 109 I r o n i c Stage I l l V. SUMMARY 115 BIBLIOGRAPHY 117 v CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Ra t i o n a l e In 1980, the f i n d i n g of the P h y s i c a l Education Assessment i n B r i t i s h Columbia suggested that p h y s i c a l education programs, at both the elemen-t a r y and secondary l e v e l , are w o e f u l l y inadequate. The assessment measured the psychomotor and c o g n i t i v e achievement of approximately 3000 school students i n grades 3, 7, and 11. The report i n d i c a t e d t h a t : ". . . the motor a b i l i t y and f i t n e s s r e s u l t s of the secondary females and of a l l elementary students g e n e r a l l y received 'Weak' r a t i n g s The r e s u l t s of the w r i t t e n t e s t measuring knowledge and understand-in g of concepts i n p h y s i c a l education i n d i c a t e d that improvement i s needed at a l l grade l e v e l s , as a l a r g e percentage of questions r e c e i v e d r a t i n g 2 of ' l e s s than S a t i s f a c t o r y ' . Another major f i n d i n g of the assessment was t h a t : "There i s a d i s t u r b i n g l y high incidence of overweight students, 3 both male and female, at the three l e v e l s assessed." As a r e s u l t of these f i n d i n g s , one of the major recommendations s t a t e d by the report was: •'"British Columbia Assessment of P h y s i c a l Education, Summary Report, December 1979, p. 1. 2 I b i d . , p. 33. 3 I b i d . , p. 1. 1 2 That the M i n i s t r y of Education, l o c a l School Boards, adminis-t r a t o r s , and teachers of P h y s i c a l Education ensure that P h y s i c a l Education programs provide an increased emphasis on student l e a r n i n g outcomes i n the areas of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , motor a b i l i t y , and knowledge and understanding of P h y s i c a l Education. P a r t i c u l a r emphasis should be placed on body f a t r e d u c t i o n , c a r d i o - v a s c u l a r endurance, development of fundamental motor s k i l l s , and knowledge b a s i c to P h y s i c a l Education.^ The report summarizes the present status of p h y s i c a l education i n the province and r e v e a l s the many problems that e x i s t i n the f i e l d . Manifested i n t h i s r e p o r t , then, i s the need f o r planners of p h y s i c a l education c u r r i c u l u m to s e r i o u s l y examine past approaches to c u r r i c u l u m development and explore f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s i n c u r r i c u l a development. U n t i l about 1965, p h y s i c a l education c u r r i c u l u m planning concerns i n Canada centered mainly around debates about which a c t i v i t i e s should be included i n the program and which a c t i v i t i e s should be e l i m i n a t e d from the e x i s t i n g s y l l a b u s . Dimensions of program choices were based upon a somewhat l i m i t e d v a r i e t y of team games, gymnastics, and c a l i s -t h e n i c s . In 1965, Van V l i e t , w r i t i n g about 'the c u r r i c u l u m today' s t a t e d : "To a r e s t r i c t e d program of c a l i s t h e n i c s have been added other a c t i v i t i e s . . . C u r r i c u l u m changes, according to him had taken p l a c e , not as a r e s u l t of an expanding t h e o r e t i c a l base, but r a t h e r as a r e s u l t of new trends or movements such as Swedish gymnastics, or due to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of new f a c i l i t i e s f o r games such as t e n n i s or swimming. An h o l i s t i c approach to c u r r i c u l u m design was r a r e l y apparent, programs being l i t t l e more than a p o t p o u r r i of a c t i v i t i e s . In 1974, Willgoose, w r i t i n g about c u r r i c u l u m planning i n p h y s i c a l 4 I b i d . , p. 47. "Van V l i e t , M. L., P h y s i c a l Education i n Canada, (Scarborough: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1965), p. 134. 3 education had t h i s to say. "Although there are many b e t t e r programs today than there used to be, there i s a strong tendency to simply repeat each year what went on the year before. Today, the d i f f i c u l t i e s of designing a sound p h y s i c a l education c u r r i c u l u m have been acknowledged by most p h y s i c a l education teachers, c o - o r d i n a t o r s , and planners at the m i n i s t r y l e v e l . A p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i -c u l t y i n t r y i n g to deal w i t h recommendations such as those mentioned i n the Summary Report, i s the general l a c k of agreement as to what c o n s t i -t u t e s a 'good' p h y s i c a l education c u r r i c u l u m or a p h y s i c a l l y educated person. Recent approaches to program planning at the secondary l e v e l are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a great deal of d i v e r s i t y . Some programs emphasize p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . These types of programs s t r e s s those a c t i v i t i e s which provide vigorous e x e r c i s e and improve the h e a l t h and f i t n e s s parameters of: c a r d i o - v a s c u l a r endurance, f l e x i b i l i t y , muscular endurance and stre n g t h . Such programs s t r e s s good h e a l t h , the r e l a t i o n -ships between p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and n u t r i t i o n , body s t r u c t u r e , and f u n c t i o n and physiology. The c r i t e r i a f o r making judgments about what should be included i n such programs are based upon i n f o r m a t i o n from physiology, motor theory, medical r e p o r t s and advice from f i t n e s s experts such as Cooper.^ Other programs emphasize l i f e time sports and may, at the high school l e v e l , o f f e r m u l t i - a c t i v i t y programs. Students may choose from a ^Willgoose, C a r l E., The Curriculum i n P h y s i c a l Education, (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1974), p. 84. ^Cooper, Kenneth H., Aerobics, (New York: Bantam Books Inc., 1968). 4 wide v a r i e t y of sport or r e c r e a t i o n areas. These smorgasborg-type of programs o f t e n emphasize the 'play' aspect, the i n t r i n s i c experience, and the s o c i a l i z i n g o b j e c t i v e . The t h e o r e t i c a l bases of such programs are v a r i e d , drawing support from a . v a r i e t y of sources. However, at times, the conceptual framework i s not at a l l c l e a r . Siedentop s t a t e s : "Some programs are so confusing that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to s o r t out'a coherent set of ideas which might undergird the conduct of the program, and occasion-a l l y one f i n d s that s e v e r a l c o n t r a d i c t o r y ideas are present i n the same ..8 program. Another contemporary approach, which at times overlaps w i t h the 'play' approach, i s the humanistic or person-oriented program. H e l l i s o n i n h i s book, Beyond B a l l s and Bats, describes such a program. The humanistic approach to p h y s i c a l education emphasizes the search f o r personal i d e n t i t y that each of us must s t r u g g l e w i t h to the extent that c u l t u r e permits and our self-awareness demands.^ Humanistic based c u r r i c u l a tend to emphasize the. a f f e c t i v e domain making i t d i f f i c u l t f o r planners to p r e c i s e l y o u t l i n e o b j e c t i v e s and goals and t h e r e f o r e are o f t e n subject to the k i n d of c r i t i c i s m s t a t e d above by Siedentop. A recent development that has gained p o p u l a r i t y i s termed the systems approach. Planners such as Singer and Diek"^ argue that t h i s approach i s based on the most recent t e c h n o l o g i c a l , s c i e n t i f i c , and educational developments. The systems approach focuses upon the type of g Siedentop, D a r y l , P h y s i c a l Education: Introductory A n a l y s i s , (Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Company P u b l i s h e r s , 1976), p. 245. o H e l l i s o n , Don, Beyond Bats and B a l l s , (Washington: AAPHER P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1978), p. 2. 1 0 S i n g e r , Robert N., and Walter Dick, Teaching P h y s i c a l Education: A Systems Approach, (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1974). 5 i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g y which enables students to achieve s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s , i n a defined manner. "Meticulous o r g a n i z a t i o n and sequencing of p h y s i c a l education content by the teacher means that the student can proceed through the content at h i s own pace, w i t h reinforcement b u i l t i n t o the program each time he/she masters a p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l or s t r a t e g y . " At the elementary l e v e l , c u r r i c u l u m concerns are c o l o r e d by a d i v e r s i t y of ideas. Many programs have been i n f l u e n c e d by Laban's theory of movement. These movement education programs organize a c t i v -i t i e s around such concepts as body awareness, space, shape, and e f f o r t q u a l i t i e s . Other programs r e f l e c t the research and theory of people 12 such as Delacato and Kephart i n the area of perceptual-motor e x p e r i -ences and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to academic growth. S t i l l others are based upon the perceived h e a l t h needs of c h i l d r e n . Topics such as body s t r u c -t u r e and f u n c t i o n , n u t r i t i o n , s a f e t y and disease, comprise a major p o r t i o n of the c urriculum. Current pressures to implement d a i l y p h y s i c a l educa-t i o n at the elementary l e v e l are a l s o a f f e c t i n g programs. As a r e s u l t some programs are expanding the scope of a c t i v i t i e s to i n c l u d e a q u a t i c s , outdoor p u r s u i t s , and more, becoming almost m u l t i - a c t i v i t y kinds of programs, whereas i n some schools d a i l y p h y s i c a l education has a c t u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d the scope. A d a i l y jogging route or disco f i t n e s s becomes the e n t i r e a c t i v i t y program. Designers of c u r r i c u l a , whether concerned w i t h 'movement* theory or 'play' theory, b e l i e v e that t h e i r programs represent a 'Good' p h y s i c a l " ^ V e r t i n s k y , P a t r i c i a , A l t e r n a t i v e Curriculum/Teaching Models and  Their U t i l i t y i n Implementing Secondary P h y s i c a l Education Programs, mimeographed paper, U.B.C, 1979, pp. 8-9. 12 Kephart, N. C , The Slow Learner i n the Classroom, (Columbus: Charles E. M e r r i l l P u b l i s h i n g Company), 1960. 6 e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m . As a r e s u l t programs ten d t o d i f f e r g r e a t l y from p r o v i n c e t o p r o v i n c e , d i s t r i c t t o d i s t r i c t , and even s c h o o l t o s c h o o l , i n some a r e a s . D i f f i c u l t i e s i n o b t a i n i n g agreement as to what c o n s t i -t u t e s a 'good' c u r r i c u l u m a r e f u r t h e r compounded when one e v a l u a t e s what takes p l a c e a t the p r a c t i c a l l e v e l . A d m i n i s t r a t o r s can i n f l u e n c e p r o -grams by s u p p o r t i n g d e c i s i o n s made c o n c e r n i n g amount o f time and money g i v e n t o programs. Equipment and f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e w i l l a l s o curb program d e c i s i o n s . Teacher b i a s e s have, i n t h e p a s t , and w i l l i n the f u t u r e , a f f e c t c u r r i c u l u m programs. As Daughtrey has p o i n t e d o u t , "When the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s e l e c t s a c t i v i t i e s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , the r e s u l t i n g program u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f a c t i v i t i e s which he l i k e s and 13 which he f e e l s s u f f i c i e n t l y knowledgeable t o t e a c h . " Thus, i f t h e t e a c h e r was e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e a r e a o f t r a d i t i o n a l games or s p o r t s , a y e a r ' s program c o u l d i n c l u d e rugby, b a s k e t b a l l , and t r a c k and f i e l d , supplemented by c a l i s t h e n i c s . U n t i l t h e mid 60's, t h e r e f o r e , c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s were v e r y much based on t e a c h e r s ' p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s i n s p o r t s and t h e i r p e r s o n a l a c t i v i t y p r e f e r e n c e s , even though t e x t b o o k s d i d o u t l i n e need and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c h i l d r e n a t d i f f e r e n t ages. M o s t l y , however, c u r r i c u l a p l a n n i n g was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i v e r s i t y of thought a t b o t h t h e elementary and t h e secondary l e v e l . More r e c e n t l y , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s have begun t o d i s c u s s i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l a K-12 approach toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n based upon an i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e d u c a t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . They have 13 Daughtrey, Greyson, E f f e c t i v e T e a c h i n g i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , f o r Secondary S c h o o l s , ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : W. B. Saunders, 1973), p. 146. 7 begun to draw i m p l i c a t i o n f o r designing c u r r i c u l u m from a v a r i e t y of t h e o r i e s : psychology, l e a r n i n g , s o c i o l o g y , movement, growth and matura-t i o n , motor l e a r n i n g , and c o g n i t i v e developmental t h e o r i e s . I t i s hoped that these t h e o r i e s can help organize c u r r i c u l u m more s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , moving i t away from a mere smorgasborg of a c t i v i t i e s and advancing p h y s i c a l education to a place of importance i n the school curriculum. P s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s were imported i n t o education and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c u r r i c u l u m planning were o f t e n l i s t e d i n order to keep up w i t h other subject areas where t h e o r i e s were perceived to have an even greater impact. For example, Lenel s t a t e s i n her i n t r o d u c t i o n to Games i n the  Primary School: "Education today i s so much concerned w i t h c h i l d psy-chology and development that there i s an urgent need f o r t h e i r a p p l i c a -14 t i o n to games teaching i n l i n e w i t h other s u b j e c t s . " The t r a n s l a t i o n of these t h e o r i e s i n t o p h y s i c a l education p r a c t i c e s was meant to give c u r r i c u l u m designers more s u b s t a n t i a l focus i n t h e i r quest f o r d e c i d i n g upon which a c t i v i t i e s should be included and how best they should be teaching them. Developmental and l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s , i t i s hoped, may o f f e r the c u r r i c u l u m designer a set of t o o l s from which to make more r a t i o n a l pro-gram d e c i s i o n s . Oberteufer et a l . , suggest t h a t : P h y s i c a l education, . . r e q u i r e s the guidance of c a r e f u l l y formu-l a t e d p r i n c i p l e s , without which i t i s easy to l o s e s i g h t of what the program i s attempting to do, and there i s the danger of e s t a b l i s h i n g a program which has no concern f o r the end r e s u l t . Oberteufer goes on to say, " P h y s i c a l education has s u f f e r e d from being 14 L e n e l , R. M., Games i n the Primary School, (London: U n i v e r s i t y of London Press, 1969), p. 7. "'"^Oberteufer, D e l b e r t , and Celeste U l i c h , P h y s i c a l Education, (New York: Harper & Row, 1970), p. 318. inundated w i t h too many p r a c t i t i o n e r s ; not enough a t t e n t i o n has been 16 given to theory and reason." Today many new c u r r i c u l a are based upon developmental t h e o r i e s . There i s a strong t h r u s t toward the concept of scope and sequence i n planning p h y s i c a l education programs. Willgoose d e f i n e s these con-cepts. ". . . Scope r e f e r s to the breadth of the p h y s i c a l education curriculum— w h a t should be taught at a l l grade l e v e l s . Sequence, . . . r e f e r s to the when of the curriculum""'"^—the s k i l l l e v e l s i n each a c t i v i t y . The new B.C. Secondary P h y s i c a l Education Curriculum, f o r example, has u t i l i z e d the scope and sequence idea f o r o r g a n i z i n g the e n t i r e program. I t emphasizes "progressive development" s t a t i n g t h a t : "To provide a developmental framework which w i l l a s s i s t i n accomplishing the goal and l e a r n i n g outcomes of the cu r r i c u l u m , the course content i s 18 d i v i d e d i n t o seven major a c t i v i t y c a t e g o r i e s . " This represents the scope of the program. For each a c t i v i t y i t gives a sequence chart i n d i -c a t i n g four l e v e l s . "Each A c t i v i t y Sequence Chart emphasizes a progres-s i o n from f o u n d a t i o n a l to more s o p h i s t i c a t e d movement p a t t e r n s . Gener-a l l y the movement patterns are categorized according to b a s i c or i n d i -19 v i d u a l s k i l l s f ollowed by team or group a c t i v i t i e s . . . " In essence, the a c t i v i t y c h arts themselves r e f l e c t a developmental focus i n the psychomotor domain. This k i n d of l e v e l s approach i s a l s o being u t i l i z e d 1 6 I b i d . , p. 319. "^Willgoose, C a r l E., The Curriculum i n P h y s i c a l Education, (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1974), p. 136. 18 M i n i s t r y of Education, Secondary P h y s i c a l Curriculum and  Resource Guides, V i c t o r i a , 1980, p. 6. 19 I b i d . , p. 15. 9 i n o r g a n i z i n g K-12 programs. Jean P i a g e t ' s w e l l defined theory of c o g n i t i v e development has a l s o had a tremendous impact upon current e d u c a t i o n a l , i n c l u d i n g p h y s i c a l education p r a c t i c e s . General p r i n c i p l e s from h i s theory have l e d educators i n t o making i n s t r u c t i o n a l recommendations p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the areas of c u r r i c u l u m sequencing, c u r r i c u l u m content, and teaching method-ology. Although there i s no evidence of a s t r i c t l y designed P i a g e t i a n p h y s i c a l education program, there are many aspects of programs that draw from P i a g e t ' s developmental theory, and consequently Piaget's theory w i l l be used as a major example throughout t h i s t h e s i s . Considerable a t t e n t i o n has been given to Piaget's developmental theory by B r i t i s h w r i t e r s d e a l i n g w i t h p h y s i c a l education c u r r i c u l u m . 20 James makes frequent reference to Piaget throughout her book. She emphasizes three p o i n t s of Piaget's theory. F i r s t , that c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y at the e a r l y stages, begin to l e a r n about the world around them through movements and that t h i s l e a r n i n g occurs as a r e s u l t of the c h i l d i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the environment. P h y s i c a l education can a i d i n t h i s development by p r o v i d i n g a s t i m u l a t i n g and v a r i e d environment. This i s a c o n c l u s i o n whose d e s i r a b i l i t y i s r e a d i l y agreed to without need to r e f e r to a complex p s y c h o l o g i c a l theory. Secondly, she emphasizes aspects of Piaget's theory which suggest ttoat c h i l d r e n should perform s k i l l s w i t h an understanding of that s k i l l as opposed to mechanical mastery of a s k i l l . Her t h i r d p o i n t i s that l a t e r l e a r n i n g b u i l d s upon movements learned a t . e a r l i e r stages. In other words, s e q u e n t i a l l e a r n i n g or development i s important. 20 James, J . Myrle, Education and P h y s i c a l Education, (London: G. B e l l and Sons, 1967). Movement tasks or problems presented must t h e r e f o r e be appropriate to the c h i l d ' s developmental l e v e l . James recognizes the problem inherent i n attempting to assess the c h i l d ' s stage of thought development. She emphasizes the importance of teachers being f a m i l i a r w i t h P i a g e t ' s stage theory, yet h e s i t a t e s to provide d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n s . In f a c t , she warns that more i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s needed. " I t should be p o s s i b l e , through c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d experiments, to f i n d out whether p h y s i c a l movement of the kind expected of c h i l d r e n adds to,.or i n any way a f f e c t s , a c h i l d ' s concept of shape, s i z e , time;, measure, whole or p a r t , amongst 21 others, and at which stages of a c h i l d ' s development." Piaget's stage c o n s t r u c t , the:idea of sequencing s k i l l s i s perhaps the most a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e of h i s theory f o r p h y s i c a l educators, yet i t provides only vague g u i d e l i n e s f o r p r a c t i c e . James admits that "a great d e a l more about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and' mental development should be known so that p h y s i c a l education can play a f u l l p a r t , w i t h proper understanding, i n the stages of the u n f o l d i n g of the 22 c h i l d ' s thought and i n t e l l i g e n c e . " Arnold a l s o suggests that p h y s i c a l education should draw from a v a r i e t y of t h e o r i e s to help e x p l a i n why we do c e r t a i n t h i n g s the way we do. He e x t r a c t s from P i a g e t ' s theory the importance of p r o v i d i n g the l e a r n e r w i t h a s t i m u l a t i n g environment. The l e a r n e r i n t e r a c t s w i t h h i s immediate environment and, t h e r e f o r e , he l e a r n s through doing or as Arnold puts i t : "The r i c h and s t i m u l a t i n g v a r i e t y of play a c t i v i t y , as 23 Piaget acknowledges, i s a b a s i c source of i n t e l l e c t u a l growth." 21 22 I b i d . , p. 18. I b i d . , p. 21. 23 Arnold, P. J . , Education, P h y s i c a l Education and P e r s o n a l i t y Development, (London: Heinemann, 1968), p. 54. Again, d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r cu r r i c u l u m are not mentioned by Arnold. However, i n d i r e c t l y t h i s l a t t e r concept of Piaget has had an important impact on edu c a t i o n a l dance and gymnastics as i t developed i n B r i t a i n . Morison, i n her book, A Movement Approach to Educational Gymnastics, r e i t e r a t e s P i aget's idea t h a t , " C h i l d r e n ' s f u l l and proper development depends on a c t i v i t y . . . " and t h a t , "Movement i s a c h i l d ' s f i r s t mode 24 of expression and the f i r s t means of i n v e s t i g a t i n g i t s environment." While no d i r e c t reference to Piaget i s given, one might assume that h i s theory has shaped programs i n movement education where there i s an emphasis on a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s of c h i l d r e n at d i f f e r e n t stages of development and on l e a r n i n g through doing. Accompanying t h i s movement approach was the exp l o r a t o r y method. I t i s c l e a r that Piaget's theory has i n f l u e n c e d the 'movement' t h r u s t and many authors, such as L e n e l , make a d i r e c t connection between P i a g e t ' s theory and p h y s i c a l education p r a c t i c e . In her book, Lenel very c a r e f u l l y sets f o r t h stages or progres-sions i n games teaching f o r the primary school. I m p l i c a t i o n s are drawn from Piaget's four stages of development. She suggests that i t i s the teacher's task to help move students from one stage onto the next through posing the r i g h t kinds of problems. For example, at the ' I n t u i t i v e ' stage where c h i l d r e n are only able to grasp one r e l a t i o n at a time and are unable to reverse a c t i o n s , the teacher i s to provide those kinds of a c t i v i t i e s which might move the c h i l d from throwing the b a l l i n only one d i r e c t i o n to e x p l o r i n g v a r i o u s ways of throwing the b a l l . During the 'Concrete Operations' stage, c h i l d r e n begin to reverse t h e i r a c t i o n s and 24 Morison, Ruth, A Movement Approach to Educational Gymnastics, (London: J . M. Dent and Sons, 1969), p. 1. 12 b e g i n to make sense of more than one f a c t o r a t a time. L e n e l f o r m u l a t e s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r games and p a r t i c u l a r l y r u l e making and s t r a t e g y p l a n n i n g . Simple sequences o r f o r m a t i o n s ( l v l . , 2v2, 3v3) a r e p r e r e q u i s i t e s t o more c o m p l i c a t e d s i t u a t i o n s i n o r d e r f o r t h e c h i l d t o d e r i v e a m e a n i n g f u l e x p e r i e n c e from game s i t u a t i o n s . L e n e l c o n c l u d e s t h a t , " I t i s q u i t e u s e l e s s t o attempt to t e a c h c h i l d r e n beyond t h e i r m ental age and i t i s a . n 2 5 crxme not t o t e a c h up to x t . The i d e a of c h i l d r e n p a s s i n g from one s t a g e onto a more mature s t a g e of development, a p p e a r s ' t h e most advocated i m p l i c a t i o n . S k i l l s and movements s h o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r each s t a g e ; too d i f f i c u l t t a s k s would be a waste of time. The concept of the l e a r n e r i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the environment, or l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h d i s c o v e r y appears to be a n o t h e r prominent i m p l i c a t i o n drawn from P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y and adapted t o movement and games, e s p e c i a l l y a t t h e elementary s c h o o l l e v e l . S p e c i f i c c o n c e p t s as r e v e r s i b i l i t y have a l s o been used as c o n s t r a i n t s i n t e a c h i n g games and gymnastics. T y p i c a l American p u b l i s h e d t e x t b o o k s of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n seldom mention P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y , l e t a l o n e e l a b o r a t e and draw i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g . Take f o r example, W i l l g o o s e ' s u p - t o - d a t e ( 1 9 7 9 ) e d i t i o n of The C u r r i c u l u m i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , where P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y i s o n l y b r i e f l y mentioned w i t h o u t any attempt to r e l a t e i t to p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e . The most comprehensive l i s t o f i m p l i c a t i o n s drawn from P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y can be found i n Van S l o o t e n ' s a r t i c l e . Here he d e v o t e s one page to d e s c r i b i n g the s t a g e s and c o n c l u d e s : 2 5 L e n e l , R. M., Games i n the P r i m a r y S c h o o l , (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 2 9 . 13 Piaget's theory a p p l i e s mainly to the c o g n i t i v e realm. However, much of what has been o u t l i n e d f o r the adolescent by Piaget has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f i e l d of p h y s i c a l education. I m p l i c a t i o n s of Piaget's Theory f o r P h y s i c a l Education: 1. Play should be used f o r understanding the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l world. 2. There i s an i n t e r e s t i n r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . 3. C u r i o s i t y f i n d s expression i n i n t e l l e c t u a l experimentation r a t h e r than a c t i v e play. 4. Childhood ends during t h i s phase and the c h i l d r e n are i n t e r e s t e d i n a d u l t a c t i v i t i e s . 5. Team games should play an important r o l e . 6. As many new experiences as p o s s i b l e should be introduced. 7. The opportunity f o r c o g n i t i o n must be a v a i l a b l e and may be a p p l i e d i n a more i n t e l l e c t u a l approach to p h y s i c a l education. 8. An understanding about adolescent growth and development should be discussed and presented. 9. C r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y such as gymnastics and dance would be b e n e f i c i a l . 10. S t r u c t u r e i s very important i n o r g a n i z a t i o n . Structured teaching would be important.26 Although t h i s l i s t of i m p l i c a t i o n s appears r a t h e r impressive, upon c l o s e r examination i t becomes c l e a r that Van Slooten f a i l s to make con-nections between what Piaget a c t u a l l y says and the i m p l i c a t i o n s he has formulated. That i s , are they what Van Slooten reads from P i a g e t ' s work, or are they mere e x t r a p o l a t i o n s based i n part on what Piaget says and i n p a r t , on common sense? Another author who has r e c e n t l y attempted to draw i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p h y s i c a l education from Piaget's theory i s Burton. Her focus i s e l e -mentary education. A f t e r a d e s c r i p t i o n of Piaget's four stages and h i s theory of p l a y , she presents three educational i m p l i c a t i o n s . 1. The c h i l d must be developmentally ready .to a s s i m i l a t e the k i n d of i n f o r m a t i o n being presented; 2. c e r t a i n kinds of experiences are e s s e n t i a l to optimal develop-ment of the c h i l d during each developmental p e r i o d ; and Van Slooten, P h i l i p H., "Four Theories of Development and Their I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the P h y s i c a l Education of Adolescents," The P h y s i c a l  Educator, (December 1974): pp. 182-183. 3. the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to l e a r n i n each successive stage i s p a r t i a l l y determined by the adequacy of h i s or her experience.27 Here again we see the emphasis on the 'readiness' aspect of Piaget's theory. In the second i m p l i c a t i o n , she does not s p e c i f y which 'kinds of. experiences' are best s u i t e d f o r each stage other than sug-gesting that " c h i l d r e n be exposed to a v a r i e t y of a c t i o n p a t t e r n s they 28 can i m i t a t e , " and that "group a c t i v i t i e s and f r e e interchange between c h i l d r e n are e s s e n t i a l aspects of the elementary-school l e a r n i n g environ-29 ment." The l a t t e r recommendation i s to help the c h i l d r e n become l e s s e g o - c e n t r i c . Without e l a b o r a t i n g any f u r t h e r , one would s t i l l remain i n doubt as to e x a c t l y which kinds of l e a r n i n g experiences are necessary f o r each stage. This k i n d of vagueness and g e n e r a l i t y seems to be prevalent among P i a g e t i a n w r i t e r s . They a l l seem to agree that Piaget's theory has tremendous importance f o r p h y s i c a l education, but f a i l to e s t a b l i s h p r e c i s e g u i d e l i n e s f o r s t r u c t u r i n g lessons or u n i t s . David E l k i n d who has spent many years studying P i a g e t ' s work and teaching c h i l d r e n subjects from a P i a g e t i a n p e r s p e c t i v e has t h i s to say about movement cur r i c u l u m . In these domains (movement and gymnastics) as i n o t h e r s , . . . c h i l d r e n can r e a l l y do g r a c e f u l , appealing work i f t h e i r n a t u r a l spontaneity can be encouraged. But t h i s encouragement i s more than p u t t i n g on a record and t e l l i n g the c h i l d r e n to dance, i t i n v o l v e s s e t t i n g a mod.d and a theme f o r which the music and the on movement are a n a t u r a l accompaniment. u 27 Burton, E l s i e C a r t e r , The New P h y s i c a l Education f o r Elementary  School C h i l d r e n , (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1976), pp. 30-31. 28 29 I b i d . , p. 27. I b i d . , p. 30. 30 E l k i n d , David, C h i l d Development and E d u c a t i o n — A P i a g e t i a n  P e r s p e c t i v e , (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1977), p. 217. 15 Once again we see the emphasis on the 'natural'-spontaneous type of l e a r n -i n g . He c l e a r l y suggests the c h i l d r e n should be allowed to move f r e e l y and c r e a t i v e l y , r a t h e r than being t o l d how to perform c e r t a i n movements. Those w r i t e r s who mention Piaget's theory seem to accept i t u n c r i t i c a l l y , except f o r James, and assume that i t has relevance f o r the f i e l d of p h y s i c a l education. Frequently mentioned i m p l i c a t i o n s are f o r : 1) Curriculum sequencing and readiness-- C h i l d r e n pass through stages and, t h e r e f o r e , s k i l l s must be a p p r o p r i a t e l y arranged and sequenced (as i n games s k i l l s ) . C h i l d r e n should be taught to t h e i r l e v e l of r e a d i -ness and not beyond. 2) Teaching methodology—Children l e a r n by i n t e r -a c t i n g w i t h the environment and, t h e r e f o r e need to be exposed to a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s f o r optimal growth. Learning by doing or discovery l e a r n i n g i s o f t e n advocated. The a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e seems to i n d i c a t e , that thus f a r , Piaget's developmental theory has had r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e d i r e c t a p p l i c a -t i o n to p h y s i c a l education curriculum. Authors r e f e r r i n g to P i a g e t ' s theory have f a i l e d to a r t i c u l a t e p r e c i s e guidance concerning e d u c a t i o n a l development i n p h y s i c a l education. Furthermore, current research sug-gests that i t i s premature to t r a n s l a t e h i s theory i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l prac-3 t i c e as the main cons t r u c t s of h i s theory are being s e r i o u s l y questioned. Chapter two w i l l d i s c u s s the l i m i t a t i o n s of P i a g e t ' s developmental theory i n more d e t a i l , and suggest that developmental t h e o r i e s such as P i a g e t ' s or the developmental scheme, of scope and sequence, are i n s u f f i c i e n t to provide a s o l i d t h e o r e t i c a l base f o r c u r r i c u l a planning i n p h y s i c a l educa-t i o n . Since Piaget's theory may be considered a p s y c h o l o g i c a l r a t h e r 31 See: B r a i n e r d , Kuhn, Lawton, and Hooper, Donaldson et a l . For a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s p o i n t see pp. 25-35. 16 than an educational theory, i t may c o n t r i b u t e l e s s to. c u r r i c u l u m design i n education than has h i t h e r t o been claimed. Egan, f o r example, makes a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between p s y c h o l o g i c a l and educational theory. According to Egan, cur r i c u l u m development or ".. . . educational develop-ment i n v o l v e s a d i a l e c t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n between i n t e l l e c t u a l or psycho-32 l o g i c a l development and a l o g i c a l sequencing of some d i s c i p l i n e area." Thus, i f we could u t i l i z e an e d u c a t i o n a l theory that encompasses the above aspects, i t would seem to a l l o w f o r a more r a t i o n a l approach to c u r r i c u l u m planning. H i s t o r i c a l l y , at l e a s t four major developmental t h e o r i e s focusing upon the e d u c a t i o n a l aspects of c h i l d development have been formulated. P l a t o i n the Republic, and Rousseau i n h i s Emile provide us w i t h d e t a i l e d t h e o r i e s of educational development. Whitehead, i n h i s book, Aims of  Education, presents h i s three-phase stage theory of e d u c a t i o n a l develop-ment. However, t h i s o u t l i n e which he c a l l s the rhythms of education, i s only sketched out very b r i e f l y . The f o u r t h theory i s that e x p l i -cated by Egan i n Educational Development. Drawing from a wide v a r i e t y of sources, Egan has formulated what he considers to be a comprehensive edu c a t i o n a l theory of development. As an e d u c a t i o n a l theory i t o u t l i n e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of four developmental stages. I t s aim i s education o r i e n t e d and, t h e r e f o r e , focuses upon those questions and problems to which educators are i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g answers. Four b a s i c ques-t i o n s concerning education are answered: What should our end-product be l i k e ? What should we teach? When should we teach p a r t i c u l a r things? How should we teach things? His theory i s pervaded w i t h the question 32 Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1979), p. 152. 17 of the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of s t r u c t u r i n g s u b j e c t m a tter t o each d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e and w i t h making c o n n e c t i o n s from s t a g e t o sta g e t o p r o v i d e o p t i m a l growth t h r o u g h the e n t i r e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . U n l i k e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r i e s which may o c c a s i o n a l l y have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n , Egan's e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y g u i d e s us d i r e c t l y i n making p r a c t i c a l and r e a s o n a b l e d e c i s i o n s i n c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g . A l t h o u g h Egan a p p l i e s h i s i d e a s m a i n l y t o s o c i a l s t u d i e s , h i s approach appears t o have much to o f f e r t o the a r e a o f p h y s i c a l educa-t i o n . T h i s s t u d y w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r o l e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r i e s p l a y i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n and e x p l o r e the premise t h a t Egan's t h e o r y of e d u c a t i o n a l development can o f f e r a more a p p r o p r i a t e p e r s p e c t i v e from which t o o r g a n i z e a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m by u t i l i z i n g t h e main p r i n c i p l e s of h i s t h e o r y t o s t r u c t u r e a new k i n d o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m . Chapter two w i l l d e s c r i b e P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y and the l i m i t a t i o n s of h i s t h e o r y f o r d e s i g n i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . c u r r i c u l a . I t w i l l a l s o d i s c u s s how an e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l ' t h e o r y such as Egan's d i f f e r s from a p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y . Chapter t h r e e w i l l e x p l i c a t e Egan's f o u r s t a g e s of e d u c a t i o n a l development. Chapter f o u r w i l l e x p l o r e some p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r o r g a n i z i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m u s i n g p r i n -c i p l e s d e r i v e d from the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each s t a g e . Purpose o f t h e Study The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s : 1. To examine P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y of c o g n i t i v e development and d i s c u s s t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f h i s t h e o r y f o r d e s i g n i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l a . 18 2. To d e s c r i b e what c o n s t i t u t e s an e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l :theory and how i t d i f f e r s from a p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y such as P i a g e t ' s . 3. To a r t i c u l a t e the f o u r s t a g e s o f K i e r a n Egan's e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p -mental t h e o r y . From the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each s t a g e , p r i n c i p l e s f o r o r g a n i z i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l a w i l l be d i s c u s s e d and a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d . CHAPTER I I DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM DESIGN P i a g e t ' s Theory of C o g n i t i v e Development In r e c e n t y e a r s e d u c a t i o n has r e l i e d h e a v i l y on t h e o r i e s from r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s such as p s y c h o l o g y , s o c i o l o g y , and o t h e r s , to h e l p e x p l a i n e d u c a t i o n a l phenomena. Much e x t r a p o l a t i o n has t a k e n p l a c e from d e v e l o p m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y and i n p a r t i c u l a r , from P i a g e t ' s c o g n i t i v e development t h e o r y . Through h i s p r o l i f i c w r i t i n g s , P i a g e t has become by f a r t h e most prominent of the d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r i s t s and has had t h e most p r o f o u n d e f f e c t on b o t h t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f i n s t r u c t i o n . Jean P i a g e t c o n f e s s e s t h a t he i s not an e d u c a t o r and t h a t h i s f o c u s i s g e n e t i c e p i s t o m o l o g y . N o n e t h e l e s s , e d u c a t o r s have been most enthus-i a s t i c about t r a n s l a t i n g h i s t h e o r y i n t o recommendations f o r e d u c a t i o n and c u r r e n t l y h i s t h e o r y i s g a i n i n g p o p u l a r i t y f o r d e v e l o p i n g c u r r i c u l a a t the elementary and p r e - s c h o o l l e v e l . The f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l g i v e a g e n e r a l o u t l i n e o f h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p -ment and the second p a r t w i l l d i s c u s s the l i m i t a t i o n s o f i t s p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r d e v e l o p i n g c u r r i c u l a . As P i a g e t ' s f i r s t i n t e r e s t and r e s e a r c h was i n t h e f i e l d o f z o o l o g y , i t was q u i t e n a t u r a l t h a t he viewed m e n t a l development as b e i n g e s s e n -t i a l l y a p r o c e s s o f a d a p t a t i o n t o the environment. He was concerned 19 20 w i t h uncovering the developmental changes i n the i n d i v i d u a l ( o n t o g e n e t i c ) , i n c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g from b i r t h to adolescence. "Piaget wants to d i s c o v e r — a n d e x p l a i n — t h e normal course of development. For he b e l i e v e s that there JLS_ a normal course: a sequence which we a l l f o l l o w , though we go at v a r y i n g speeds and some go f u r t h e r than others." 3' I n t e l l i g e n c e i s then seen as the process of adaptation and o r g a n i z a t i o n . Four concepts help e x p l a i n how mental development occurs: schema, a s s i m i l a t i o n , accommodation, and e q u i l i b r i u m . Schemas are the c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s by which i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y adopt to and organize the environment. They can be thought of as the concepts, c a t e g o r i e s , or s t r a t e g i e s from which behavior flows when i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the environ-ment. Adaptation to the environment i n v o l v e s two processes c a l l e d a s s i m i l a t i o n and accommodation. A s s i m i l a t i o n i s when the environment f i t s i n t o the already e x i s t i n g schemata. When the i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r u c -tures or schemas can not adjust to the environment then a change or c r e a t i o n of new schemata takes p l a c e . This i s c a l l e d accommodation. E q u i l i b r i u m i s the balance reached between a s s i m i l a t i o n and accommoda-t i o n . According to P i a g e t , c o g n i t i v e development takes place by a s e r i e s of e q u i l i b r i u m and d i s e q u i l i b r i u m s t a t e s . Piaget noted that at va r i o u s stages of development i d e n t i f i a b l e p atterns of behavior could be observed. As a r e s u l t of h i s s t u d i e s , he formulated four main stages, each stage sharing common developments or s t r u c t u r e s . Progress through the stages i s dependent on the development of the e a r l i e r stages. The order i s the same f o r a l l c h i l d r e n but the r a t e at which they proceed through stages can vary. Age spans f o r 1Donaldson, Margaret, Children's Minds, (Glasgow: W i l l i a m C o l l i n s , 1978), p. 130. 21 stages are normative. 1. Sensori-motor Stage ( b i r t h to 2 years) During the f i r s t few months a f t e r b i r t h the i n f a n t i s busy d i s c o v e r -i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between sensations and motor behavior. At f i r s t he i s only capable of inborn r e f l e x responses, but by the end of t h i s stage he w i l l have b u i l t on to these r e f l e x schemas and w i l l be capable of f l e x i b l e p atterns of behavior. He w i l l be able to act i n t e n t i o n a l l y . For example, he r e a l i z e s that when he shakes a r a t t l e i t w i l l make a noi s e . C l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h t h i s development i s the n o t i o n of the c h i l d being e g o c e n t r i c . I n i t i a l l y , the c h i l d i s unable to d i f f e r e n t i a t e him-s e l f from the r e s t of the world around him. G r a d u a l l y , he becomes more aware and begins to d i s t i n g u i s h himself from the objects around him. By age 2, he has constructed a p i c t u r e of the immediate environment and objects which make up h i s immediate world. Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s stage i s t h a t of l e a r n i n g object concept or object permanence. Up u n t i l s i x months the c h i l d w i l l not make any e f f o r t to reach out f o r a toy that has been hidden under a handkerchief. I t i s not u n t i l about 10 months that he w i l l search f o r the object that was hidden. By the end of the stage he w i l l c o n s i s -t e n t l y look f o r the object and w i l l have acquired the development of object permanence. 2. P r e o p e r a t i o n a l Stage ( 2 - 7 years) a) Preconceptual thought During t h i s stage, i n t e l l e c t u a l behavior moves from the s e n s o r i -motor l e v e l to the conceptual l e v e l . The r a p i d language development 22 that takes place makes i t p o s s i b l e to explore the world through words and images. A c t i v i t i e s such as i m i t a t i o n and play become important during t h i s stage. By and l a r g e , the c h i l d i s s t i l l very much ego c e n t r i c . The world s t i l l r evolves around him and he assumes everyone t h i n k s as he does. b) I n t u i t i v e thought, 4 - 7 "Lacking mental operations, the c h i l d cannot succeed during t h i s second p e r i o d i n c o n s t i t u t i n g the most elementary notions of conserva-2 t i o n , which are the c o n d i t i o n s of l o g i c a l d e d u c t i b i l i t y . " Thus two b a l l s of c l a y appear the same s i z e , but when one i s r o l l e d i n t o a long shape the c h i l d w i l l say that i t has more c l a y . The c h i l d has d i f f i c u l t y w i t h these kinds of conservation experiments (of mass, weight, and volume) because he i s r e l y i n g on v i s u a l perceptions. For example, a row of checkers c o n t a i n i n g the same number as another row but w i t h bigger spaces between each checker, w i l l appear to the c h i l d to have a l a r g e r number of checkers. Gradually toward the end of t h i s stage the c h i l d w i l l have developed the t h i n k i n g t o o l s to understand the conservation concepts. During t h i s stage the c h i l d a l s o continues to be e s s e n t i a l l y ego-c e n t r i c . Thought continues to be i r r e v e r s i b l e suggesting that the c h i l d can not f o l l o w a s e r i e s of reasonings and then reverse to the s t a r t i n g p o i n t . 3. Concrete Operational (7 - 11 years) In t h i s stage the c h i l d develops the use of l o g i c a l thought. He i s now able to conceive q u a n t i t y , and recognize that volume i s r e l a t e d 2 Piaget, Jean, Science of Education and the Psychology of the  C h i l d , (New York: Penguin Books, 1977), p. 32. t o shape, ( t h e r e f o r e , s h o r t f a t c o n t a i n e r s can h o l d as much t a l l t h i n c o n t a i n e r s , and he can s o l v e c o n s e r v a t i o n of s u b s t a n c e p r o b l e m s ) . A l o n g w i t h t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s he i s a b l e to c l a s s i f y o b j e c t s , o r g a n i z e them i n a s e r i e s ( i . e . , l e n g t h , p a t t e r n ) and u n d e r s t a n d r e l a t i o n a l terms (A i s l o n g e r than B ) . However, h i s t h i n k i n g i s s t i l l ' c o n c r e t e ' as he t h i n k s l o g i c a l l y through the use of v i s i b l e , p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s . P i a g e t has o u t l i n e d f i v e s p e c i f i c o p e r a t i o n s t h a t h o l d the p r o p -e r t i e s o f c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s which c h i l d r e n ' s t h i n k i n g i n t h i s s t a g e can h a n d l e . 1) c o m p o s i t i o n — i f you add one number t o a n o t h e r number you get a t h i r d number, (x + y = z) 2) r e v e r s i b i l i t y — i s an o p e r a t i o n whereby ev e r y l o g i c a l o r math-e m a t i c a l o p e r a t i o n can be c a n c e l l e d by an o p p o s i t e o p e r a t i o n . ( 4 + 3 = 7 , 7 - 4 = 3 ) 3) a s s o c i a t i v i t y — i s an o p e r a t i o n t h a t combines s e v e r a l c l a s s e s and where the o r d e r i s not i m p o r t a n t . (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) 4) i d e n t i t y — a q u a n t i t y can be n u l l i f i e d by combining i t w i t h i t s o p p o s i t e . (A - A = 0) 5) t a u t o l o g y — a c l a s s added to a c l a s s y i e l d s the same c l a s s . (A c l a s s of dogs added to a c l a s s of dogs = a c l a s s of dogs) A l t h o u g h the c h i l d has g a i n e d g r e a t e r mental m o b i l i t y i n t h i s s t a g e he i s s t i l l c o n s t r a i n e d by h a v i n g to use o b j e c t s i n t h i n k i n g about problems. He i s a l s o l i m i t e d i n t h a t he i s c a p a b l e of moving from one t h i n g t o the next as opposed to o t h e r k i n d s of c o m b i n a t i v e o p e r a t i o n s . 24 4. Formal Operations (11 - 15 years) In formal operations the c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s become q u a l i t a t i v e l y 'mature'. In Piaget's own words: This p e r i o d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n general by the conquest of a new mode of reasoning, one that i s no longer l i m i t e d e x c l u s i v e l y to de a l i n g w i t h objects or d i r e c t l y representable r e a l i t i e s , but al s o employs 'hypotheses', i n other words, p r o p o s i t i o n s from which i t i s p o s s i b l e to draw l o g i c a l conclusions without i t being necessary to make d e c i s i o n s about t h e i r t r u t h or f a l s i t y before examining the r e s u l t of t h e i r implications.-^ The t y p i c a l t e s t i s to discover combinations from f i v e glasses of c o l o r -l e s s l i q u i d s to o b t a i n a yellow c o l o r . The student at t h i s stage goes about f i n d i n g the answer s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . Another problem that i l l u s -t r a t e s formal o p e r a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g i s : " E d i t h i s f a i r e r than Susan. E d i t h i s darker than L i l y . Who i s the darkest?" The c h i l d that has reached t h i s stage w i l l have no problem i n ob t a i n i n g a quick answer even though the problem i s v e r b a l . Thinking i s freed from the n e c e s s i t y of seeing the concrete o b j e c t . As e a s i l y as he handles t h i s k ind of problem he i s capable of c o n s t r u c t i n g argu-ments, generating hypothesis and t h e o r i e s and d e a l i n g w i t h one or more v a r i a b l e s at a time (mass and volume). He can a l s o now t h i n k i n terms of the f u t u r e , c o n s i d e r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s beyond t h e i r present r e a l i t y . Piaget uses the INRC l o g i c a l group to describe the s t r u c t u r e s u n d e r l y i n g formal o p e r a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g . These l o g i c a l s k i l l s are performed on operations from the concrete o p e r a t i o n a l stage. The adolescent can now deal w i t h the l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of i d e n t i t y , negation, r e c i p r o c i t y , and c o r r e l a t i o n . 3 I b i d . , p. 33. 25 L i m i t a t i o n of Piaget's Theory f o r P r o v i d i n g I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Curriculum Design i n P h y s i c a l Education The f i r s t l i m i t a t i o n has been pin-pointed by those c r i t i c s who have 4 questioned the essence of h i s theory. This i s , what e x a c t l y i s Piaget's stage theory d e s c r i b i n g ? P i a g e t , of course, claims that he i s d e s c r i b i n g a ' n a t u r a l ' process of i n t e l l e c t u a l development. And f o r him, development leads and determines l e a r n i n g . The d i s t i n c t i o n i s important to the educator i n planning c u r r i c u l a . As Egan s t a t e s : Whether Piaget i s d e s c r i b i n g something necessary about human c o g n i t i v e development, or something contingent upon ed u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l i z i n g procedures of p a r t i c u l a r times and p l a c e s , or some mixture of the two, i s a question of importance to p s y c h o l -o g i s t s as w e l l as educators. . . . I f the d e s c r i p t i o n i s of a developmental process which i s contingent upon p a r t i c u l a r forms of education and s o c i a l i z i n g then we can change the process by changing methods of educating and s o c i a l i z i n g . Put at i t s crudest, i f Piaget i s d e s c r i b i n g a process determined by educa-t i o n , then educators can l e a r n nothing from him because he i s merely observing the r e s u l t s of what they have taught.-* U n t i l t h i s question has been given f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n , the 5"theory o f f e r s l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e to the c u r r i c u l u m planner. There are others such as Brainerd who r e f u t e the stage concept, i n s i s t i n g that no evidence has been found to support i t . He has w r i t t e n s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s and books i n which he has subjected aspects of Piaget's theory to r i g o r o u s s c r u t i n y . In one of h i s e a r l i e r a r t i c l e s , 1973, he reviewed the neo-Piagetian t r a i n i n g experiments and s t a t e d that there i s enough evidence to "conclude that no support f o r a stage view of c o g n i t i v e development has been derived from the neo-Piagetian t r a i n i n g Egan, K i e r a n , "Further Comments'on Piaget and Education," Harvard  Educational Review, Summer, 1980. ^Egan, K i e r a n , Education and Psychology, i n press, p. 127. l i t e r a t u r e . " In other words, such P i a g e t i a n concepts as r e v e r s i b i l i t y , c o nservation, and others were evidenced i n c h i l d r e n at e a r l i e r stages than suggested by P i a g e t . These kinds of experiments cast doubt on Piaget's c l a i m that he i s d e s c r i b i n g a ' n a t u r a l ' process of development. Hence, Lenel's i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r games based on Piaget's n o t i o n of r e v e r s i b i l i t y should be c a r e f u l l y reviewed. Researchers have not only questioned the o r d e r i n g of the concepts, but have a l s o challenged the very concepts Piaget uses to represent a stage. Margaret Donaldson i n a f a s c i n a t i n g book on how c h i l d r e n ' s minds develop, has c r i t i c a l l y examined Piaget's theory of i n t e l l i g e n c e . She argues i n her book " . . . that the evidence now compels us to r e j e c t c e r t a i n features of Jean Piaget's theory of i n t e l l e c t u a l development."^ Donaldson has provided evidence from v a r i o u s experiments that i l l u s t r a t e that a) " c h i l d r e n are not at any stage as egocentric as Piaget has claimed" and b) " c h i l d r e n are not so l i m i t e d i n a b i l i t y to reason g d e d u c t i v e l y as P i a g e t — a n d o t h e r s — h a v e claimed." I t would, t h e r e f o r e , indeed be premature to base c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s upon Pi a g e t ' s theory i n the l i g h t of these new f i n d i n g s . Thus i m p l i c a t i o n s drawn from t h i s ego-c e n t r i c n o t i o n to p h y s i c a l education, such as Burton's, are not j u s t i f i e d , and could have a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on c u r r i c u l u m o r g a n i z i n g . Another problem inherent i n applying Piaget's theory to education B r a i n e r d , Charles J . , "Neo-Piagetian t r a i n i n g experiments r e -v i s i t e d : Is there any support f o r the cognitive-developmental stage hypothesis?" Cognition 2 (1973): p. 366. ^Donaldson, M., Children's Minds, (Glasgow: W i l l i a m C o l l i n s , 1978), p. 9. 8 I b i d . , p. 58. 27 l i e s i n the f a c t that h i s work, h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s of the v a r i o u s stages are, "almost e n t i r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e , " as Egan has noted. Piaget has, as a r e s u l t of numerous t e s t s and observations, c o l l e c t e d data which he has woven together to e x p l a i n c o g n i t i v e — s t a g e by stage—development. Educators attempting to assess students' c o g n i t i v e l e v e l s , run i n t o d i f -f i c u l t i e s due to the very p r e c i s e way Piaget has described p a r t i c u l a r concepts. D r i v e r makes t h i s p o i n t when d i s c u s s i n g science c u r r i c u l u m and Piaget's stage theory. He s t a t e s the problems i n v o l v e d i n s e l e c t i n g tasks which are v a l i d f o r t e s t i n g formal operations as a whole c o n s i d e r i n g that each t e s t , t e s t s only a very s p e c i f i c s k i l l , t h e r e f o r e , g e n e r a l i z i n g the students' a b i l i t y to other tasks would not be v a l i d . She concludes: To make p r e d i c t i o n s on the o v e r a l l l e v e l of performance of p u p i l s i n a range of c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s appears completely u n j u s t i f i e d . Many people working i n the area of c o g n i t i v e development admit that the phenomenon of 'formal t h i n k i n g 1 e x i s t s , yet l i k e a spectre i t eludes capture.9 I f we cannot capture, or assess, a student's t h i n k i n g l e v e l , l e t alone a c l a s s of students, then i t i s impossible to s t r u c t u r e sound c u r r i c u l u m to match c o g n i t i v e l e v e l . In 1978, B r a i nerd c r i t i c a l l y examined the i m p l i c a t i o n s of P i a g e t ' s c o g n i t i v e developmental theory f o r c u r r i c u l u m sequencing, content, and teaching s t r a t e g i e s . His argument i s that there does not e x i s t such a t h i n g as a stage of c o g n i t i v e development but r a t h e r that the theory i s purely d e s c r i p t i v e and attempts to e x p l a i n s p e c i f i c behaviors. Thus, those authors i n p h y s i c a l education, such as L e n e l , who recommend that we should not attempt to teach c h i l d r e n things that are ahead of t h e i r 9 D r i v e r , R o s a l i n e , "When i s a stage not a stage? A c r i t i q u e of Piaget's theory of c o g n i t i v e development and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to science education," E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 21 (November, 1978), p. 58. 28 current stage of c o g n i t i v e development are l a c k i n g e m p i r i c a l evidence f o r suggesting such i m p l i c a t i o n s . As Brainerd puts i t : Since stage and behavior are the same t h i n g , what the recom-mendations a c t u a l l y say i s t h i s : We should avoid teaching c h i l d r e n concepts that they do not already possess. . I f t h i s statement were to be taken s e r i o u s l y , one wonders what the p o i n t of i n s t r u c t i o n would be.^ He c l e a r l y p i n p o i n t s the dilemma that proponents of c o g n i t i v e develop-mental c u r r i c u l a confront. I f we are to provide the ' r i g h t k i n d of l e a r n i n g experiences' at each stage as Burton suggests we should do i n p h y s i c a l education, then we must be able to diagnose each c h i l d ' s stage of c o g n i t i v e development. Because c o g n i t i v e stages are merely d e s c r i p t i v e stages, we could only examine c e r t a i n concepts that c h i l d r e n have or have not reached. But, i f these measures of s p e c i f i c behaviors of v a r i o u s stages are themselves questionable i n the l i g h t of recent research then, indeed, the theory has l i t t l e to o f f e r c u r r i c u l u m planners i n p h y s i c a l education. In the l i g h t of t h i s evidence, Van Slooten's l i s t of i m p l i c a t i o n s , based mostly on the formal o p e r a t i o n a l stage a l s o remains questionable. Those p h y s i c a l education authors that agreed upon the importance of matching movement tasks to developmental stage were r a t h e r r e t i c e n t i n a r t i c u l a t i n g how t h i s was to be done. They d i d not foresee the problems inherent i n making recommendations from P i a g e t ' s theory to p h y s i c a l edu-c a t i o n . Furthermore, Piaget's theory gives us t h i s p r e c i s e d e t a i l on various concepts at each stage, but t e l l s us very l i t t l e about the move-ment from stage to stage. " ^ B r a i n e r d , Charles J . , " C o g n i t i v e Developmental and I n s t r u c t i o n a l Theory," Contemporary Educational Psychology 3, (1978): p. 44. Piaget's theory i s h i s t i n a b i l i t y to prescribe - ' a p a r t i c u l a r type of learning environment. Most Piagetian curriculum planners agree that 'discovery learning' or ' a c t i v i t y learning' i s the best method to foster growth i n the developmental stages. Proponents of Piaget's theory, and developers of Piagetian curriculum for pre-schools as Kamii and DeVries have gone so far as to advocate development through ' s e l f - d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t y ' . In other words, the teacher merely provides the optimal environment i n which development may occur. Kuhn c r i t i c i z e s Kamii and DeVries' program, on the grounds that i t i s poorly defined and that there i s no t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the program, e s p e c i a l l y when pres c r i b i n g teaching methods. Since, by and large, we do not know very much, the recommenda-tions that c h i l d r e n be l e f t alone to d i r e c t t h e i r own learning a c t i v i t y , as i n t u i t i v e l y appealing as the notion may be, runs the r i s k of being found a meaningless educational p r e s c r i p t i o n . H Egan also argues that there i s no proof of the s u p e r i o r i t y of 'discovery-learning' as compared to other methods. "Despite the enthus-iasm of the Piagetian innovations, the four major Piagetian programs from which we have evaluation data show no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n c h i l -12 dren's performance from that i n t r a d i t i o n a l school, . ." Brainerd's research has revealed that the s e l f - d i s c o v e r y method i s not superior to the t r a d i t i o n a l method. He summarizes, " I f t r a d i t i o n a l learning strategies work better than active ones, even with Piaget's own concepts, 11 Kuhn, Deanna, "The A p p l i c a t i o n of Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development to Education," Harvard Educational Review, 3 (August, 1979), p. 351. 12 Egan, Kieran, "Further Comments on Piaget and Education," Harvard  Educational Review, Summer, 1980, p. 9. 30 13 why should we seek to replace them w i t h a c t i v e procedures?" These f i n d i n g s r e v e a l that p h y s i c a l educators who advocate using discovery methods as a r e s u l t of Piaget's w r i t i n g , need to review current research. In f a c t , Burton mentions t h a t , "Piaget's work makes repeated reference to i n f a n t i l e and childhood behaviors that i n v o l v e movement, and the relevance of h i s t h e o r e t i c a l formulations to the content of t h i s book 14 i s unmistakable." I t i s obvious that c h i l d r e n i n p h y s i c a l education l e a r n concepts through movement, however, i t i s questionable whether the discovery approach produces b e t t e r r e s u l t s than the d i r e c t or t r a d i t i o n a l approach. Research seems to t e l l us that the discovery approach i s not n e c e s s a r i l y s u p e r i o r . The confusion and ambiguity that r e s u l t s f o r e x t r a p o l a t i n g such ideas as 'discovery l e a r n i n g ' from the theory i s evident i n the P i a g e t i a n c u r r i c u l u m programs where some proponents use the d i s c o v e r y approach w h i l e others use the t r a d i t i o n a l approach. Hence, i t seems l i k e the theory has l i t t l e to c o n t r i b u t e to the educator planning teaching s t r a t -egies as part of the t o t a l c u r r iculum. One f r e q u e n t l y mentioned i m p l i c a t i o n of Piaget's theory f o r educa-t i o n has to do w i t h the n o t i o n of readiness. Readiness i m p l i e s that the c h i l d has reached the c o g n i t i v e l e v e l to a s s i m i l a t e c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s or s k i l l s presented to him. Thus the c u r r i c u l u m planner should p l a n a c t i v i t i e s say, i n p h y s i c a l education that match the developmental stage of the c h i l d . As already pointed out, i t i s d i f f i c u l t enough to assess 13 B r a i n e r d , Charles J . , " C o g n i t i v e Developmental and I n s t r u c t i o n a l Theory," Contemporary Educational Psychology 3 (1978): p. 47. 14 Burton, E l s i e C a r t e r , The New P h y s i c a l Education f o r Elementary  School C h i l d r e n , (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1976), p. 26. 31 one c h i l d ' s t h i n k i n g l e v e l l e t alone t h i r t y , even i f the teacher i s thoroughly f a m i l i a r w i t h Piaget's stages. Even i f he were able to p i n -p o i n t that one t h i r d of a c l a s s could s o l v e conservation problems of weight, one t h i r d could conserve volume, and one t h i r d could conserve q u a n t i t y , of what value would t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n be f o r planning basket-b a l l , dance, or gymnastic lessons? In connection w i t h .readiness, i t i s o f t e n s t a t e d that we should not expect c h i l d r e n to achieve beyond t h e i r l e v e l of readiness. This could only have a p e r n i c i o u s e f f e c t as research has shown that c h i l d r e n are capable of l e a r n i n g concepts e a r l i e r than p r e s c r i b e d by Piaget i n h i s stage theory. Egan concludes that " . . . Piaget's theory can provide only r a t h e r imprecise guidance as a readiness model. Seeing that the data from which the educational i m p l i c a t i o n s are derived are themselves very dubious, i t would be f o o l -hardy indeed to a l l o w them to guide our teaching and c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g . " ^ One of P i a g e t ' s e a r l i e r c r i t i c s , S u l l i v a n , suggests that educators have been too hasty i n e x t r a p o l a t i n g ideas from Piaget's theory and applying them to s t r u c t u r e and sequencing of subject matter i n a c u r r i c -ulum before examining both the research and theory very c r i t i c a l l y . This h a s t i n e s s , he added, would lead to harmful educational p r a c t i c e s . He s t a t e s that using Piaget's stages as i n d i c a t o r s of " l e a r n i n g r e a d i n e s s , " "seems premature and needs more c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n on both the r e -16 search and t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l . " The ambiguities of Piaget's developmental theory are most evident "^Egan, K i e r a n , Education and Psychology, i n press, p. 164. •J c S u l l i v a n , Edmund V., Piaget and the School C u r r i c u l u m — A C r i t i c a l  A p p r a i s a l , (Toronto: The Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r . S t u d i e s i n Education, 1967), p. 33. to those who have attempted to s t r u c t u r e and sequence c u r r i c u l a along such l i n e s . Recently there have been s e v e r a l attempts made to s t r u c t u r e pre-school c u r r i c u l a using Piaget's stage theory. Four major experimental cognitive-developmentally preschool c u r r i c u l a have been implemented. These are: 1) L a v a t e l l i (1970, 1 9 7 1 ) — t h e E a r l y Childhood Curriculum; 2) Weikart ( 1 9 7 3 ) — t h e Open Framework Program; 3) Kamii and DeVries ( 1 9 7 4 ) — P i a g e t f o r E a r l y Education; 4) Bingham-Newman, Saunders, and Hooper ( 1 9 7 6 ) — t h e Wisconsin.Piaget Preschool Education Program. Brainerd (1978), Lawton and Hooper (1978), and Kuhn (1979) c r i t i c a l l y analyze these e a r l y childhood programs based on the develop-mental stages. A l l three authors p o i n t out that there i s no e v i d e n c e — no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between these developmentally based c u r r i c u l a and the t r a d i t i o n a l c urriculum. B r a i n e r d , 1978, concludes t h a t : "While there are some p o s i t i v e f i n d i n g s there does not seem to be any evidence that would convince a prudent reader that the l o f t y claims made by the developers of P i a g e t i a n c u r r i c u l a are t r u e . There appears to be no proof of e i t h e r short or long-term s u p e r i o r i t y i n P i a g e t - i n s t r u c t e d children.""'"^ Most r e c e n t l y Kuhn, 1979, reviewed experimental pre-school c u r r i c u l a that d e r i v e t h e i r e d u cational o b j e c t i v e s from Piaget's development stage sequences. She argues "that the d i f f i c u l t i e s encoun-te r e d i n attempting to apply P i a g e t ' s theory of c o g n i t i v e development to education are r e v e a l i n g of the ambiguities that e x i s t w i t h i n the theory 18 i t s e l f . " In her summary she s t a t e s t h a t : "To the extent " ^ B r a i n e r d , Charles J . , Piaget's Theory of I n t e l l i g e n c e , (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1978), p. 295. 18 Kuhn, Deanna, "The A p p l i c a t i o n of Piaget's Theory of C o g n i t i v e Development to Education," Harvard Educational Review, 3 (August, 1979), p. 346. 33 developmental s t a g e s a r e not f u l l y d e f i n e d , the recommendation t h a t 19 c u r r i c u l u m be based on them becomes an empty one." Much of the problem l i e s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m g o a l s or o b j e c t i v e s . I f o b j e c t i v e s of many o f t h e s e p r e - s c h o o l s a r e to promote the a c q u i s i t i o n of c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n a l c o n c e p t s , and P i a g e t p o s t u l a t e s t h a t t h e s e con-c e p t s develop n a t u r a l l y , then l o g i c a l l y we have a ' s e r i o u s a m b i g u i t y ' . Other c u r r i c u l a , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e s c i e n c e s and mathematics have s t r u c -t u r e d t h e i r programs around a c t i v i t i e s which w i l l d e v e lop f o r m a l o p e r a -t i o n s . These have been c r i t i c i z e d t o the e x t e n t t h a t they a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o P i a g e t ' s range of logico-mathematicalccon:ce;p':t rs and to t h e e x t e n t t h a t they u t i l i z e a c t i v i t y - b a s e d t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o d e v e l o p f o r m a l thought w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n i n g whether t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s would b e s t promote c o g n i t i v e development. The above p o i n t s have f o c u s e d upon some of the l i m i t a t i o n s o f a p p l y i n g P i a g e t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y to c u r r i c u l u m development. The e v i d e n c e seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t i t does not p r o v i d e us w i t h s e c u r e g u i d e -l i n e s f o r s t r u c t u r i n g and s e q u e n c i n g c o n t e n t , f o r d e v e l o p i n g sound t e a c h i n g methods or as an i n d i c a t o r o f r e a d i n e s s . C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h s t r o n g l y q u e s t i o n s the c o n c e p t s t h a t P i a g e t has used to c h a r a c t e r i z e each s t a g e . T h e r e f o r e , c u r r i c u l a based on such i n s e c u r e d a t a w i l l s u r e l y remain i n s e c u r e , and problem s a t u r a t e d . E v a l u a t i o n of p r e -s c h o o l and o t h e r P i a g e t i a n - b a s e d c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s have n o t shown sub-s t a n t i a l g a i n s . B r a i n e r d summarizes t h i s way: "On t h e whole, one i s f o r c e d t o c o n c l u d e t h a t P i a g e t - o r i e n t e d e d u c a t o r s have f a i l e d t o e s t a b l i s h a case f o r r e s t r u c t u r i n g t r a d i t i o n a l c u r r i c u l a a l o n g P i a g e t i a n 19 I b i d . , p. 346. , • ..20 l i n e s . P h y s i c a l education has, f o r one reason or another, made few attempts i n a p p lying Piaget's recommendations to i t s curriculum. In l i g h t of present evidence, i t may be unproductive to i n v e s t i g a t e any f u r t h e r con-nections between Piaget and p h y s i c a l education curriculum. I t may be best, then, that we examine other v i a b l e t h e o r i e s that may o f f e r more concrete g u i d e l i n e s . Proponents of Piaget's theory such as S i g e l and Cocking, 1977, admit that many edu c a t i o n a l issues are not " d i r e c t l y broached" i n the theory and that more research i s needed to support c e r t a i n n o t i o n s . Nevertheless, they, as many other f o l l o w e r s , suggest that the problem l i e s i n t r a n s l a t i n g the developmental theory i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l pedagogy. Other educators t h i n k that doing more research on such a t o p i c would be 21 unproductive. For example, Egan suggests that p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s such as Piaget's have l i t t l e to o f f e r education. "At present, i t seems that educational research i s dominated by p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s that lead to knowledge of p s y c h o l o g i c a l value and i n t e r e s t but o f f e r only 22 o c c a s i o n a l ' i m p l i c a t i o n s ' f o r education." He claims that what we need i s an edu c a t i o n a l theory of development " . . . which focuses on the educational aspects of development, l e a r n i n g , and m o t i v a t i o n and which d i r e c t l y y i e l d s p r i n c i p l e s f o r engaging c h i l d r e n i n l e a r n i n g , f o r u n i t 20 B r a i n e r d , C. J . , Piaget's Theory of I n t e l l i g e n c e , Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1978, p. 298. 21 Egan, K i e r a n , "What does Piaget's theory d e s c r i b e ? " Harvard  Educational Review, Summer, 1980, p. 10. 22 Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1979), p. 5. 35 and l e s s o n p l a n n i n g , and f o r c u r r i c u l u m o r g a n i z i n g . II 23 Egan has formu-l a t e d j u s t such a t h e o r y . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i l l d e s c r i b e how an e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y d i f -f e r s , from a p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y and why an e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y such as Egan's i s more apt to a s s i s t us i n making d e c i s i o n s i n d e s i g n i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l a . R e c o g n i z i n g some of the l i m i t a t i o n s o f P i a g e t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y , i t might be more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e d e s i g n e r of p h y s i c a l educa-t i o n c u r r i c u l u m to f o c u s h i s a t t e n t i o n i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i e s i n s t e a d of p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l examine the n a t u r e of an e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y and how i t may p r o v i d e us w i t h b e t t e r c r i t e r i a f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l a than p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s . A c c o r d i n g to Egan, "the f u n c t i o n of an e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y i s t o 24 t e l l us how t o d e s i g n a c u r r i c u l u m which w i l l produce educated p e o p l e . " Such a t h e o r y w i l l answer f o u r q u e s t i o n s : 1) what c o n t e n t s h o u l d we t e a c h t o produce such people? 2) how s h o u l d we t e a c h such c o n t e n t ? 3) when s h o u l d we t e a c h p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g s ? 4) what k i n d of p e r s o n w i l l our end-product resemble? E d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i e s of development such as P l a t o ' s , Rousseau's, and Whitehead's, h ave f o c u s e d on t h e s e f o u r ques-t i o n s , a l t h o u g h t h e l a s t , o n l y i n a b r i e f manner. Egan, i n E d u c a t i o n a l  Development, has f o r m u l a t e d h i s own e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y which encompasses What i s an E d u c a t i o n a l Theory of Development? 23 I b i d p. 6. 24 Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n and P s y c h o l o g y , i n p r e s s , p. 2 0 3 . 3 6 these questions. Further examination of these four questions i l l u s -t r a t e s how e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i e s d i f f e r i n focus from p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s . 1) Educational end-products. An e d u c a t i o n a l theory w i l l be e x p l i c i t about the way we should design c u r r i c u l a to produce educated people. Hence, i t s end-product w i l l be a kind of person, r a t h e r than a k i n d of t h i n k i n g as i n Piaget's theory. The end-product of Piaget's theory i s a person who can compute the operations of the formal stage. His theory i s d e s c r i b i n g p r e c i s e l i m i t s of c o g n i t i v e t h i n k i n g (what i s ) , whereas an education theory i s concerned w i t h p r e s c r i b i n g the develop-mental process necessary to produce educated people (what ought to be). P s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s aim at p r e c i s e l y c h a r a c t e r i z i n g and s c i e n t i f i c -a l l y i s o l a t i n g c e r t a i n processes. Educational t h e o r i e s , although r e f e r r i n g to p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects, are more general about the processes of the developmental stages but very p r e c i s e and p r e s c r i p t i v e about the kind of person r e s u l t i n g therefrom. The end s t a t e of an educational theory i s an i d e a l k i n d of educated person, which i s achieved by hard work and i n most cases seldom achieved at a l l . Whereas, the formal opera-t i o n a l stage, being the end product of Piaget's theory, i s supposed to be achieved by most people more or l e s s n a t u r a l l y or spontaneously. I f an educational theory i s going to p r e s c r i b e the end-products then i t must be value-laden. Value d e c i s i o n s must be made at each stage along t h i s developmental process to reach the stage of educated ma t u r i t y . Here i t d i f f e r s again from p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s c l a i m to be v a l u e - n e u t r a l or o b j e c t i v e . Consequently, p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s w i t h t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e l y s c i e n t i f i c focus have l i t t l e to o f f e r the c u r r i c u l u m designer i n the 37 way p r e s c r i b i n g the nature of the end product. Hence, a sound, s e n s i b l e e d u c a t i o n a l program can only be constructed u t i l i z i n g an e d u c a t i o n a l developmental theory. 2) What should we teach? The f u n c t i o n of an e d u c a t i o n a l theory i s to t e l l us what content we should teach at each stage to produce a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of educated person. The program w i l l r e f l e c t the k i n d of person we want to cre a t e . In t h i s area of content, p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s o f f e r us l i t t l e guidance. Theories l i k e P i a get's are not con-cerned w i t h content, but r a t h e r w i t h a r e s t r i c t e d range of concepts. This r e s t r i c t e d range of concepts o f t e n acts as ' r e s t r i c t o r s ' l i m i t i n g what may be taught at c e r t a i n stages. For example, i n h i s t o r y , the 25 t o p i c of r e l i g i o n , which appears to r e q u i r e the c a p a c i t y of s o p h i s t i -cated formal o p e rations, may be completely dismissed i n the elementary c u r r i c u l u m under the j u s t i f i c a t i o n that younger c h i l d r e n are incapable of grasping such s o p h i s t i c a t e d concepts. An e d u c a t i o n a l theory, how-ever, w i l l show the teacher how these seemingly complicated t o p i c s can be broken down and taught so that c h i l d r e n g r a d u a l l y can grasp and make sense out of almost any t o p i c presented. In p h y s i c a l education, under-standing the f u n c t i o n s of heart and the c i r c u l a t o r y system and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to e x e r c i s e are u s u a l l y considered r a t h e r complex concepts f o r a younger c h i l d to comprehend. The f i l m , " I am Joe's Heart," i s an e x c e l l e n t example of how d i f f i c u l t concepts can be made a c c e s s i b l e to c h i l d r e n . The f i l m , through humor, p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , and animation presents concepts to the c h i l d ' s l e v e l of understanding i n much the same way that the t e l e v i s i o n program Sesame Street captures the i n t e r e s t of 25 Egan, K i e r a n , Education and Psychology, i n press, pp. 22-27. 38 c h i l d r e n . Educators and p h y s i c a l educators do want to know what they should be teaching at p a r t i c u l a r stages. The t o p i c of what content to i n c l u d e i s open to much controversy and o f t e n abused or neglected. As Daughtrey a f f i r m s , " I f there i s one phase of teaching p h y s i c a l education that stands out as the most important and to which the l e a s t a t t e n t i o n i s 26 given, i t i s the s e l e c t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s f o r the program." I t seems that i f p h y s i c a l educators want to know what content may best achieve t h e i r e d u cational ends, they must develop an ed u c a t i o n a l theory and not d r a w i m p l i c a t i o n s from a p s y c h o l o g i c a l theory. 3) When should we teach p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g s : Educational develop-ment i s a process. I t i s a process of progressing through q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t stages to a r r i v e at ma t u r i t y . At each stage the c h i l d makes sense out of the world around him i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t manner. That the c h i l d ' s t h i n k i n g i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from that of an a d u l t ' s seems obvious enough. However, as Whitehead had noted, t h i s f a c t has not been given enough a t t e n t i o n by c u r r i c u l u m planners. He w r i t e s : . . . the p u p i l ' s progress i s o f t e n conceived as a uniform steady advance u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by change of type or a l t e r n a t i o n i n pace; f o r example, a boy may be conceived as s t a r t i n g L a t i n at ten years of age and by a uniform progression s t e a d i l y developing i n t o a c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r at the age of eighteen or twenty. I hold that t h i s conception of education i s based upon a f a l s e psychology of the process of mental development which has gravely hindered the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of our methods.^7 Daughtrey, Greyson, E f f e c t i v e Teaching i n P h y s i c a l Education, f o r Secondary Schools, ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : W. B. Saunders Co., 1973), p. 144. 27 Whitehead, A l f r e d North, The Aims of Education, (New York: Mentor Books, 1961), p. 28. 39 Likewise i n p h y s i c a l education, when s t r i v i n g to o b t a i n a c e r t a i n l e v e l of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s we p r e s c r i b e s i m i l a r j o g g i n g programs f o r Grade One and each grade t h e r e a f t e r . In each grade u n t i l Grade Twelve, students are to get a b i t stronger and f a s t e r . This method of s t r u c -t u r i n g p h y s i c a l education a c t i v i t i e s f o r the young based on a d u l t con-ceptions happens a l l too o f t e n and can be dangerous. I t i s dangerous i n the sense that c h i l d r e n d i f f e r from a d u l t s a n a t o m i c a l l y , psycholog-i c a l l y , and p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y and, t h e r e f o r e , from the c h i l d ' s viewpoint he w i l l l i k e l y become bored w i t h the a c t i v i t y i f i t i s not organized to s u i t h i s l e v e l of understanding and maturation. Imposing the adult v e r s i o n of the game as i n the case of i c e hockey, f o o t b a l l , f i e l d hockey, or b a s e b a l l can a l s o be condemned f o r i t may cause p h y s i c a l i n j u r y or i n s e c u r i t y which w i l l deprive the c h i l d of the j o y of movement. This form of s t r u c t u r i n g does not take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n c e r t a i n stages or 'rhythmic p u l s e s ' of development. Whitehead puts i t simply 28 f o r us: "We must garner our crops each i n i t s due season." Now i f we could describe or i n d i c a t e these 'seasons' or stages and a s c e r t a i n c e r t a i n general p r i n c i p l e s of each stage, then we could adapt the c u r r i c u l u m to s u i t these stages. To t h i s end an e d u c a t i o n a l theory w i l l provide us w i t h guidance. Egan s t a t e s : . . . an e d u c a t i o n a l theory w i l l seek to c h a r a c t e r i z e develop-mental stages i n terms of the content, concepts and s k i l l s most a p p r o p r i a t e l y mastered during each stage, and i n terms of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , and forms of p r e s e n t a t i o n , of knowledge that are most meaningful to students at each s t a g e . ^ A c c o r d i n g l y , i f our image "of educational m a t u r i t y i n v o l v e d c e r t a i n 28 I b i d . , p. 32. 29 Egan, K i e r a n , Education and Psychology, i n press, p. 10. freedoms o f e x p r e s s i o n " i n movement, " t h e n we would expect t o know what 30 q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s l e a d t o t h i s mature freedom." We can imagine t h a t one s t a g e may emphasize the importance o f p r e c i s i o n i n movement, w h i l e another may emphasize more freedom and c r e a t i v i t y . L i k e w i s e , i n t h i s p r o c e s s , c e r t a i n s t a g e s w i l l demand c e r t a i n p r e r e q u i s -i t e s f o r a c h i e v i n g mature movement. Mastery o f movement, d i s c i p l i n e , o r a sense o f romance may be p r e r e q u i s i t e s t o advance t o the next s t a g e or t o a r r i v e a t the f i n a l s t a g e o f mature freedom o f movement. A c u r -r i c u l u m which has f a i l e d t o f o c u s on t h e s e q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s , and i s , t h e r e f o r e , a mere c o n g l o m e r a t i o n o f a s s o r t e d a c t i v i t i e s , has f a i l e d t o addr e s s i t s e l f t o one of the most fundamental q u e s t i o n s , "When s h o u l d we t e a c h p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and s k i l l s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ? " P s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s do not p r o v i d e us w i t h any complete answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n When? A l t h o u g h P i a g e t p r e s e n t s s t a g e s o f development he i s concerned m o s t l y w i t h a r e s t r i c t e d range o f c o n c e p t s — l o g i c o -m a t h e m a t i c a l — w h i c h d e v e l o p n a t u r a l l y or s p o n t a n e o u s l y . He does not d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e l o g i c a l o r d e r of t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r and t h e c h i l d ' s c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y . As p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , we a r e unsure as t o e x a c t l y what he. i s d e s c r i b i n g . Here h i s t h e o r y does not s u p p l y us w i t h p r a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s from which t o s t r u c t u r e c u r r i c u l u m i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 4) How s h o u l d we t e a c h t h i n g s ? I m p l i c i t i n an e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s , i s the n o t i o n o f how we sh o u l d t e a c h . A p p r o p r i a t e forms of p r e s e n t a t i o n and t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s a r e drawn from each s t a g e . I n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n then, knowledge and 30 I b i d . , p. 29. 41 movement s k i l l s must be p r e s e n t e d so t h a t they a r e m e a n i n g f u l , l o g i c a l , and i n t e r e s t i n g , a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t a g e . In a p r a c t i c a l sense th e n , an e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y would g u i d e us t o how we might go about t e a c h i n g dance or f i t n e s s t o v e r y young c h i l d r e n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s have l i t t l e t o o f f e r t h e e d u c a t o r when i t comes to methodology f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t l i e s i n i s o l a t i n g c e r t a i n p r o -c e s s e s . O f t e n p r o c e s s e s a r e o u t l i n e d and t e s t e d which have l i t t l e a p p l i c a t i o n t o the type of e d u c a t i o n t h a t t a k e s p l a c e i n the c l a s s r o o m . Even P i a g e t ' s most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d recommendation f o r e d u c a t i o n , t h a t of ' s e l f - d i s c o v e r y ' o r a c t i v i t y methods has not been s u b s t a n t i a t e d by r e s e a r c h as p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r . N e i t h e r can t h i s s e l f - d i s c o v e r y method be a t t r i b u t e d s o l e l y t o P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y , as e d u c a t o r s l o n g b e f o r e P i a g e t ' s p o p u l a r i t y recommended s i m i l a r p e d a g o g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s . In 31 s h o r t , " P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y has no i m p l i c a t i o n f o r how we s h o u l d t e a c h . " In summary, an e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y w i l l seek to o u t l i n e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s i n a g e n e r a l way. P s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r -i e s have a s c i e n t i f i c aim and, t h e r e f o r e , d e s c r i b e p r e c i s e l y a b s t r a c t p r o c e s s e s of development. As a r e s u l t , they a r e l i m i t e d i n what they can o f f e r e d u c a t o r s p l a n n i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programs. The most imp o r t a n t q u e s t i o n seems t o be the q u e s t i o n o f t h e end p r o d u c t , f o r i t m o d i f i e s the what, when, and how. E d u c a t o r s today and e s p e c i a l l y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s a r e r e l u c t a n t to speak about end-products as i t sug-g e s t s o v e r t o n e s of an a u t h o r i t a r i a n type of e d u c a t i o n a l system. On th e o t h e r hand, w i t h o u t an i d e a l end-product i n mind we o n l y f l o u n d e r about t r y i n g t h i s and t h a t , i n t h e hope t h a t our end p r o d u c t s w i l l somehow be 31 Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n and P s y c h o l o g y , i n p r e s s , p. 188. 42 educated p e o p l e . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s I w i l l show how Egan's e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y g u i d e s us d i r e c t l y i n making s e n s i b l e c h o i c e s i n c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g f o r v a r i o u s s t a g e s of development. I t does not have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e d u c a t i o n , i n s t e a d i t is^ about e d u c a t i o n and can be a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y . Egan's Theory o f E d u c a t i o n a l Development K e i r a n Egan, i n h i s book E d u c a t i o n a l Development, o u t l i n e s an o r i g i n a l and comprehensive e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y t h a t b e g i n s a t age 4/5 and l e a d s to m a t u r i t y . What makes i t an e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y ? F i r s t l y , i t answers the f o u r q u e s t i o n s o f : What s h o u l d be t a u g h t , When d u r i n g the de v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s t h i n g s s h o u l d be t a u g h t , How t h i n g s a r e b e s t taught and d e s c r i b e s t h e d e s i r a b l e end-product. Thus i t has d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r d e s i g n i n g c u r r i c u l u m . S e condly, i t d e a l s w i t h t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l c o n c e r n s u n l i k e p s y c h o l o g y which i s o l a t e d and d e s c r i b e s c e r t a i n phenomena. Egan's t h e o r y f o c u s e s on t h e i n t e r a c t i v e phenomena of d i r e c t i n t e r e s t t o e d u c a t o r s . E d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f development such as l e a r n i n g and m o t i v a t i o n a r e d e a l t w i t h through t h e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s which i n t u r n l e a d d i r e c t l y t o o r g a n i z i n g c u r r i c u l u m . E d u c a t i o n a l development i s not o n l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l development but encompasses a l l p o s s i b l e ways i n which the c h i l d sees t h e w o r l d and d e r i v e s meaning from the w o r l d . Egan has d e f i n e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f f o u r d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s : m y t h i c , r o m a n t i c , p h i l o s o p h i c , and i r o n i c . The m y t h i c s t a g e b e g i n s i n t h e e a r l y g rades, the r o m a n t i c a t t h e e a r l y secondary l e v e l , t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a t l a t e secondary, and t h e i r o n i c f o l l o w s t h e r e a f t e r . From the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e x p l i c a t e d we can d e r i v e 43 p r i n c i p l e s f o r o r g a n i z i n g subject matter. Egan's main c l a i m ". . . i s that at each stage we make sense of the world and experience i n s i g n i f -i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ways and that these d i f f e r e n c e s r e q u i r e that knowledge be organized d i f f e r e n t l y to be most a c c e s s i b l e and e d u c a t i o n a l l y e f f e c -32 t i v e at each stage." I t i s the major purpose of t h i s study to a r t i c u l a t e the c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of each stage (chapter t h r e e ) , and show how p r i n c i p l e s d e r i v e d from these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be u t i l i z e d i n designing p h y s i c a l educa-t i o n c u r riculum. Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1979), p. 7. CHAPTER I I I EGAN'S FOUR STAGES OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT What p r i n c i p l e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d when p l a n n i n g new c u r r i c u l a or r e v i s i n g o l d c u r r i c u l a i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ? As has been p o i n t e d o u t , e d u c a t i o n draws i d e a s from v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s , i n c l u d i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l development t h e o r i e s . These have i n the p a s t p r o v i d e d p l a n n e r s w i t h few and sometimes m i s l e a d i n g g u i d e l i n e s . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n has n e g l e c t e d s t r u c t u r i n g programs around e x i s t i n g t h e o r i e s and t h a t v e r y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n t o ' p r i n -c i p l e s ' i n b u i l d i n g c u r r i c u l a . As a r e s u l t , programs, a t t i m e s , have f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e an e d u c a t i o n a l l y sound d e v e l o p m e n t a l sequence. T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l a r t i c u l a t e Egan's f o u r s t a g e s of e d u c a t i o n a l development and show how each s t a g e p r o v i d e s us w i t h p r i n c i p l e s f o r b u i l d i n g c u r r i c u l u m . Egan's t h e o r y has been d e v e l o p e d from h i s p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , r e f l e c t i o n s , and e x p e r i e n c e s i n t e a c h i n g . A l o n g w i t h t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e he has drawn from the a r e a s o f a n t h r o p o l o g y , p o e t i c s , and p h i l o s o p h y o f h i s t o r y . He a l s o r e f e r s t o works i n o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s t h a t s u pport h i s c l a i m s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , he f r e q u e n t l y makes r e f e r e n c e t o the d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r i e s o f P i a g e t and E r i k s o n i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e f i r s t two s t a g e s of h i s t h e o r y . A c c o r d i n g to Egan, c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p -ment s h o u l d t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t : a) t h e l o g i c a l development of s u b j e c t m a t t e r and b) t h e development of t h e c h i l d ' s mind ( i n c l u d i n g such a s p e c t s as emotions, m o r a l i t y , c o n c e p t u a l framework, e t c . ) . H i s t h e o r y 44 i l l u s t r a t e s a process which elaborates the d i f f e r e n t . s t a g e s of c h i l d development and how these can best be matched to appropriate subject matter. P r i n c i p l e s d erived at each stage guide the o r g a n i z a t i o n of cur r i c u l a . . . He a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s how, i n t h i s process, the stages are connected. He argues that i n education c e r t a i n things are p r e r e q u i s i t e to others and that simply presenting to c h i l d r e n watered-down v e r s i o n s of a d u l t concepts i s not only e d u c a t i o n a l l y questionable but can a l s o be de t r i m e n t a l to the c h i l d ' s growth. What f o l l o w s i s an e x p l i c a t i o n of the four stages and some general comments p e r t a i n i n g to the stage con-s t r u c t . Mythic Stage C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The f i r s t stage of Egan's educational development encompasses c h i l d r e n between the ages of 4/5 to 9/10. This stage Egan c a l l s mythic as he views c h i l d r e n ' s t h i n k i n g to be s i m i l a r to the k i n d of t h i n k i n g evident i n myth stories-. -There are four c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of mythic • t h i n k i n g . 1. Myth s t o r i e s provide users w i t h absolute and f i x e d accounts of t h i n g s . In t h i s way they supply the user w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l s e c u r i t y . C h i l d r e n between the ages 4-10 seem to e s t a b l i s h a sense of s e c u r i t y i n much the same way. They f e e l comfortable w i t h m a t e r i a l that i s pre-sented to them i n a c l e a r , p r e c i s e , unambiguous manner. Egan s t a t e s : . . . c h i l d r e n need to know how to f e e l about a t h i n g i n order f o r that t h i n g to be c l e a r and meaningful; they need to estab-l i s h some personal and e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h what i s being learned.1 ^Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i -v e r s i t y Press, 1979), p. 12. 46 2. C h i l d r e n at t h i s stage l a c k what i s c a l l e d a sense of otherness. Concepts of h i s t o r i c a l time, p h y s i c a l r e g u l a r i t i e s , l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c a u s a l i t y , and geographical space are a l l c o n s t r u c t s that the c h i l d as yet can not comprehend. F a i r y t a l e s t o r i e s have much i n common w i t h mythic s t o r i e s as they a l s o l a c k a sense of otherness. From these simple uncomplicated s t o r i e s c h i l d r e n can d e r i v e meaning because these s t o r i e s are a r t i c u l a t e d on b a s i c patterns whereby the c h i l d t h i n k s . 3. Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of mythic t h i n k i n g i s the absence of a c l e a r sense of the world as autonomous and o b j e c t i v e . C h i l d r e n do not see the world as a separate e n t i t y . By and l a r g e they show l i t t l e con-cern f o r r e a l i t y , f u n c t i o n i n g i n t h e i r m yth-like view of the world. At t h i s stage the c h i l d makes sense of the outside world i n terms of what i t knows best. And what c h i l d r e n r e a l l y know best are the human emo-t i o n s of: l o v e , hate, f e a r , j o y , good, and bad. With these t o o l s , they p r o j e c t outward and absorb some meaning f o r themselves. 4. Myth s t o r i e s are u s u a l l y arranged and b u i l t upon c e r t a i n b i n a r y opposites. For example, the opposites could be between important e l e -ments i n the l i f e of the users as: n a t u r e / c u l t u r e , l i f e / d e a t h . These kinds of b a s i c opposites play an important part i n the mental l i f e of the c h i l d . From f a i r y t a l e s t o r i e s , c h i l d r e n can e a s i l y draw meaning from things put i n b i n a r y terms. At f i r s t they can make sense more e a s i l y i f only a couple of concepts are presented at one time. L a t e r on as they approach the next stage they w i l l l e a r n to mediate between b i n a r y opposites. For example, i n c r e a t i v e dance, movement sequences could be developed around binary opposites such as anger/peace, storm/calm, sorrow/joy, or d e a t h / l i f e . The poem "The Death Dance of the W h i r l y Gums" i s very appropriate as i t contains both b i n a r y opposites combined 47 w i t h human emotions. T e a c h i n g t h e n becomes more e f f e c t i v e when o r g a n i z e d around b i n a r y s t r u c t u r e s f o r c h i l d r e n can b e s t absorb and r e l a t e t o knowledge i n t h i s form. What c h i l d r e n a t t h e m y t h i c s t a g e know b e s t a r e t h e p r o f o u n d human emotions and bases o f m o r a l i t y as l o v e , h a t e , j o y , f e a r , good, and bad. Hence c h i l d r e n f i n d f a i r y t a l e s t o r i e s and l e g e n d s most f a s c i n a t i n g as they r e v o l v e around t h e s e k i n d s o f s i m p l e c o n f l i c t s . T h e r e f o r e , a u n i t which i s based upon the b a s i c human emotions and m o r a l c o n f l i c t s w i l l be more engaging f o r c h i l d r e n , e n a b l i n g them to have e a s i e r a c c e s s to knowledge p r e s e n t e d t h e r e i n . T a k i n g t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of m y t h i c t h i n k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , h e l p s us u n d e r s t a n d j u s t how c h i l d r e n l e a r n a t t h i s s t a g e . In g e n e r a l , t h e p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g a t t h e m y t h i c s t a g e i n v o l v e s making sense of the o u t s i d e w o r l d i n terms of th e c h i l d ' s known i n s i d e w o r l d . The i n t e l l e c -t u a l t o o l s and c a t e g o r i e s t h a t c h i l d r e n have a v a i l a b l e t o l e a r n w i t h a r e t h e t h i n g s t h e y know b e s t : l o v e , h a t e , j o y , f e a r , good, bad. These become t h e i r t h i n k i n g t o o l s from which they can p r o j e c t outward t o t h e i r w o r l d around them and t h e r e b y absorb meaning from t h e w o r l d . The c l o s e r the c o n n e c t i o n between the c h i l d ' s c a t e g o r i e s and the knowledge p r e s e n t e d t o him, t h e more s u c c e s s f u l l e a r n i n g w i l l be. "As c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p through t h i s s t a g e , knowledge about t h e w o r l d expands the i n i t i a l s e t o f m e n t a l c a t e g o r i e s . The i m p o r t a n t p o i n t to be s t r e s s e d h e r e i s t h a t t h i s seems t o be t h e way c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n t h e mythic s t a g e . Teachers need to be s e n s i -t i v e t o t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and h e l p t h e c h i l d d e v e l o p f u l l y t h e c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s s t a g e . The way t h e c h i l d p e r c e i v e s the w o r l d and 2 I b i d . , p. 14. 48 makes sense at t h i s stage of educational development should not be looked upon as immature. Neither should the c h i l d be rushed through t h i s stage toward more s o p h i s t i c a t e d ways of t h i n k i n g . As Egan s t a t e s : Young c h i l d r e n ' s t h i n k i n g and l e a r n i n g are i n important q u a l i -t a t i v e ways d i f f e r e n t from a d u l t s ' . C h i l d r e n ' s major i n t e l l e c -t u a l t o o l s and c a t e g o r i e s are not r a t i o n a l and l o g i c a l but emotional and moral. This i s not a casual nor i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . I t means that access to the world must be provided i n the terms of emotion and m o r a l i t y , or knowledge w i l l be simply meaningless. I t w i l l always be p o s s i b l e to make c h i l d r e n s t o r e things i n memory and repeat them on request, but such knowledge w i l l remain i n e r t and w i l l c o n t r i b u t e nothing toward the develop-ment of c h i l d r e n ' s understanding of the world or t h e i r place i n i t . True l e a r n i n g at t h i s stage must i n v o l v e t h e i r being able to absorb the world to the c a t e g o r i e s of t h e i r own v i v i d mental l i f e and to d i a l e c t i c a l l y use the world to expand the i n t e l l e c t u a l c a t e g o r i e s they have a v a i l a b l e . 3 P r i n c i p l e s f o r Organizing Knowledge The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of mythic t h i n k i n g and understanding how c h i l -dren at t h i s stage l e a r n are important aspects as they provide us w i t h p r i n c i p l e s f o r s t r u c t u r i n g u n i t s and lessons. They help us to under-stand how we can better, motivate the c h i l d and make d i f f e r e n t kinds of knowledge more meaningful f o r them. The main p r i n c i p l e s f o r o r g a n i z i n g c u r r i c u l u m f o r t h i s stage are then derived from: b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n s ; absolute meaning; l a c k of concepts of otherness and sense of an autono-mous, o b j e c t i v e world; emotional and moral c a t e g o r i e s ; s t o r y form. While a l l p r i n c i p l e s are important, the s t o r y form could be con-sidered as a very powerful medium f o r o r g a n i z i n g knowledge that c h i l d r e n at the mythic stage can absorb. Most people are aware of how i n v o l v e d and how a t t e n t i v e c h i l d r e n can be when reading or l i s t e n i n g to f a i r y t a l e s . This occurs f o r the very reason that the b a s i c r e f e r e n t s of I b i d . , pp. 15-16. 49 f a i r y t a l e , f o l k t a l e s , or mythic s t o r i e s are s i m i l a r to the c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of c h i l d r e n ' s t h i n k i n g — ; h e n c e , the intense i n t e r e s t and understand-i n g . The s t o r y i s not only important because i t uses such elements as p o l a r c o n f l i c t s , absolute meaning, v i v i d n e s s , images, drama, engagement of f e e l i n g s to i n v o l v e c h i l d r e n , but a l s o that i t i s a whole and complete u n i t i n that i t u l t i m a t e l y f i x e s meaning. I t i s the s t o r y form and not the content of s t o r i e s that l i e s at the essence of making knowledge meaningful to the c h i l d . The s t o r y that s e t s up drama and expectations at the beginning, elaborates and complicates them i n the middle, and sup-p l i e s a c l e a r and s a t i s f y i n g ending i s an important d i s t i n c t i o n that Egan draws between the s t o r y form and s t o r y contents. What needs to be done i s to embody knowledge i n t o the s t o r y form to make i t more a c c e s s i b l e to young c h i l d r e n at t h i s stage. Games Through research and o b s e r v a t i o n , the educator i s l e a r n i n g more and more about the importance of games and play i n the educational s e t t i n g . Huizinga, w r i t i n g some f o r t y years ago on the "Nature and S i g n i f i c a n c e of p l a y " s t a t e s that " . . . pure play i s one of the main bases of c i v i l i z a -4 t i o n . " I n h i s book he shows how the play-element i s rooted i n almost every fa c e t of s o c i e t y . However, he has noted that i n today's s o c i e t y and i n p a r t i c u l a r s p o r t s , the p l a y - s p i r i t i s w i t h e r i n g . Huizinga s t a t e s : "In the case of sport we have an a c t i v i t y nominally known as play but r a i s e d to such a p i t c h of t e c h n i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and s c i e n t i f i c thorough-ness that the r e a l p l a y - s p i r i t i s threatened w i t h e x t i n c t i o n . " ^ 4 Huizinga, J.', Homo Ludens: A study of the p l a y element i n c u l t u r e , (London: Temple Smith, 1970), p. 23. ~*Ibid. , p. 225. 50 Perhaps t h i s phenomena r e f l e c t s . i n part the l a c k of awareness educators have about what Egan c a l l s . . the changing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c h i l d r e n ' s games," and, i n a d d i t i o n , an awareness of ". . . the features of the games that are most s i g n i f i c a n t f o r encouraging l e a r n i n g at d i f f e r e n t stages of c h i l d r e n ' s educational development."^ In other words, i t would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e to organize a d u l t - l i k e games f o r c h i l -dren at the mythic stage. In a comprehensive study of c h i l d r e n ' s games, Iona and Peter Opie point out t h a t : When g e n e r a l i z i n g about c h i l d r e n ' s play i t i s easy to fo r g e t that each c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e to each game, and h i s way of p l a y i n g i t , i s cons t a n t l y changing as he hi m s e l f matures; h i s preferences moving from the f a n c i f u l to the r i t u a l i s t i c from the r i t u a l i s t i c to the romantic ( i . e . , the free-ranging games, 'Hide and Seek,' 'Cowboys and I n d i a n s ' ) , and from the romantic to the severely competitive.^ What then are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of games at the mythic stage. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the fundamental u n d e r l y i n g f e a t u r e s of s t o r i e s are als o fundamental to games. Games, l i k e s t o r i e s , have d e f i n i t e begin-nings, middles, and endings. Games o f t e n begin w i t h some k i n d of rhyme, counting f i s t s as i n "one potato, two potato" or through "Paper, S c i s -s o r s , Stone" form of e l i m i n a t i o n to determine who i s " i t " or who s t a r t s the game. Almost any game s t a r t s w i t h some k i n d of r i t u a l i n order to add suspense and set up expectations. As Iona and Peter Opie s t a t e : "They ( c h i l d r e n between 6-12) l i k e games which move i n stages, i n which each stage, the choosing of l e a d e r s , the picking-up of s i d e s , the deter-g mining of which s i d e s h a l l s t a r t , are almost games i n themselves." Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i -v e r s i t y P r ess, 1979), p. 18. ^Opie, Iona and Peter, Children's Games i n Street arid Playground, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969), p. 4. ^ I b i d . , p. 2. Whether the game i s a c h a s i n g , d u e l l i n g , o r r a c i n g game i t c o n t a i n s a m i d d l e i n which t h e suspense and u n c e r t a i n t y of t h e b e g i n n i n g i s c a r r i e d out and an ending which b r i n g s the c o n t e s t to a c l o s e . As w i t h s t o r i e s , games reduce and l i m i t r e a l i t y e s t a b l i s h i n g a boundary w i t h i n which c h i l d r e n f e e l s e c u r e . Rules a r e u s u a l l y s i m p l e but a b s o l u t e and b i n d i n g . The game t e r r i t o r y i s p r e c i s e l y marked out as i n h o p s c o t c h or crows and c r a n e s . W i t h i n t h i s s p a t i a l and r u l e -bound adventure, the mythic c h i l d f e e l s s e c u r e i n a w o r l d which seems to him a t times c h a o t i c and c o n f u s e d . B i n a r y o p p o s i t e s can be c l e a r l y seen i n many games such a s : cops and r o b b e r s , crows and c r a n e s , f a i r i e s and w i t c h e s . Here a l s o t h e i m a g i n a t i v e element becomes an i m p o r t a n t c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c . In t h e game t h e c h i l d seems t o be i n a magic w o r l d where: " I t i s not a c l a s s m a t e ' s back he r i d e s upon but a k n i g h t ' s f i n e c h a r g e r . I t i s not a p a r t y of o t h e r boys h i s s i d e s k i r m i s h e s w i t h but I n d i a n s , 9 Robbers, 'Men from Mars'." The b a s i c human emotions of good, bad, f e a r , s e c u r i t y , l o v e , h a t e , a r e a l s o v e r y much a p a r t of games. There a r e games to t e s t courage, t o t e s t s t r e n g t h , to t e s t n e r v e , t h a t r e q u i r e a sense of f o r t i t u d e , p a i n , p r i d e , and an element o f danger and r i s k - t a k i n g . A d u l t s o f t e n m a r v e l how c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d w i t h — w h a t appears to them the s i m p l e s t g a m e s — c a n p l a y f o r l o n g p e r i o d s of time w i t h o u t l o s i n g i n t e r e s t . As e d u c a t o r s we need to be aware of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c h i l d r e n ' s games, at d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s of development. Those elements o f the game which a s s i s t i n l e a r n i n g a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s of e d u c a t i o n a l development must be r e c o g n i z e d by the c u r r i c u l u m e x p e r t i n p l a n n i n g not o n l y games ^ I b i d . , p. 4. 52 a c t i v i t i e s but other types of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , be i t gymnastics, dance, or a q u a t ics. Chapter four w i l l d eal w i t h how the main p r i n c i p l e s , derived from the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c h i l d r e n ' s t h i n k i n g , can be t r a n s -l a t e d i n t o o r g a n i z i n g c u r r i c u l u m i n p h y s i c a l education. To r e c a p i t u l a t e , the main p r i n c i p l e s we have f o r o r g a n i z i n g u n i t s at the mythic stage are: 1) the s t o r y form, 2) binary o p p o s i t i o n s , 3) absolute meaning, 4) l a c k of concept or otherness, 5) l a c k of c l e a r sense of an autonomous, objec-t i v e world, and 6) emotional and moral c a t e g o r i e s . The Romantic Stage C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s C h i l d r e n i n the mythic stage d e r i v e meaning from the world around them using the t o o l s of what they know best. These t o o l s are b a s i c a l l y t h e i r emotional and moral c a t e g o r i e s . The mythic stage could be analo-gous to a cocoon i n which the c h i l d i s f e e l i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l l y secure and f u n c t i o n s adequately i n h i s myth-like c o n s t r u c t i o n of the world. I t i s during t h i s next stage, the romantic stage, that the c h i l d breaks out of t h i s cocoon, as i t were, and begins to explore the l i m i t s of h i s perceived r e a l i t y . The stage spans the years from approximately 8/9 to 14/15. The f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the romantic stage i s the progress made i n developing the concepts of 'otherness' as concepts of h i s t o r i c a l time, geographical space, p h y s i c a l r e g u l a r i t i e s , l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and c a u s a l i t y . C h i l d r e n on the bridge between the mythic and romantic stage begin to seek other ways to make sense of the world around them. They begin to f i n d that t h e i r emotional and moral concepts are inadequate and soon r e a l i z e that knowledge and experience of the world help provide the growth of the concepts of otherness. " I t i s i n t h i s sense that c h i l d r e n begin to use the world to t h i n k w i t h . " Through t h i s expansion of the concepts of otherness, the student begins to discover the world as an autonomous e n t i t y , d i f f e r e n t from h i m s e l f . He thereby l o s e s the secur-i t y he had e s t a b l i s h e d i n the mythic stage and has to s t r u g g l e w i t h and explore the boundaries of t h i s new. autonomous world he faces , to f i n d h i s new s e c u r i t y . Two s p e c i f i c tasks to e s t a b l i s h a sense of i n t e l l e c t u a l s e c u r i t y i n the romantic stage are: " f i r s t , they must forge a new r e l a -t i o n s h i p and connections w i t h the autonomous world and so achieve some method of d e a l i n g w i t h i t s threatening a l i e n n e s s , and, second, they have to develop a sense of t h e i r d i s t i n c t i d e n t i t y . One way the romantic student can deal w i t h the a l i e n world he meets i s through romantic a s s o c i a t i o n s . He looks toward those elements and q u a l i t i e s as bravery, power, n o b i l i t y , courage, and c r e a t i v i t y , which a l l o w him to transcend the t h r e a t s of t h i s new world around him. Whether i t be an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the courageous e x p l o r e r s that crossed the mighty waters and c o n t i n e n t s , w i t h the genius and in g e n u i t y of the inventors of machines of the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n , w i t h the courage and determination of the men who f i r s t conquered Mount Everest, w i t h the energy of the a t h l e t e who ran the f i r s t 4-minute m i l e , or w i t h the har-mony, n o b i l i t y , and beauty of Ancient Greece, students w i l l , through these kinds of romantic a s s o c i a t i o n s , f e e l a sense of i d e n t i t y i n t h i s mysterious world. A l s o through these a s s o c i a t i o n s , the student at t h i s stage w i l l be supporting h i s developing ego. The important p o i n t to note w i t h t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s that the student explores the r e a l 1 0Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i -v e r s i t y Press, 1979), p. 28. 1 : L I b i d . , p. 29. 54 world from the outside inward. Romantic a s s o c i a t i o n s provide d i r e c t access to the mysteries of the universe u n f o l d i n g i n f r o n t of them. Egan has c a l l e d t h i s stage romantic as " i t shares w i t h romanticism the t e n s i o n that comes from the d e s i r e to transcend a t h r e a t e n i n g r e a l i t y 12 w h i l e seeking to secure one's i d e n t i t y w i t h i n i t . " As a r e s u l t of t h i s t e n s i o n , students during t h i s stage begin to show great i n t e r e s t i n the extremes of the r e a l world. They are f a s c i n a t e d by The Guinness Book  of World Records, E r i c h Von Daniken's d e s c r i p t i o n s of h i s t o r y , and b i z a r r e s t o r i e s of the Olympic Games. Accounts of the f a s t e s t , the slowest, the most powerful, the smallest and the biggest a l l help the student to l o c a t e r e a l i t y and e s t a b l i s h h i s p l a c e , h i s i d e n t i t y w i t h i n . Along w i t h t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c — t h e f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h extremes, i t i s obvious that know-ledge presented to students at t h i s stage should be as ' d i f f e r e n t ' as p o s s i b l e , d i f f e r e n t i n the sense that i t presents e x o t i c , f a n t a s t i c , b i z a r r e accounts, yet w i t h r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l that allows complete romantic e x p l o r a t i o n throughout t h i s p e r i o d . P r i n c i p l e s f o r Organizing Knowledge The s t o r y form remains important through the romantic stage. The kinds of s t o r i e s that the student at t h i s stage f i n d s engaging are those which have complex p l o t s ; have r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l , although d e a l w i t h imaginary worlds; present heroes and heroines; and present elements of bravery and boldness. In t h i s sense, i t i s i n the romantic s t o r y that the students w i l l f i n d meaning. For example, the f i l m of Canada's great s k i e r , Jim Hunter, would be s u i t a b l e s i n c e the viewer can become i n v o l v e d 12 I b i d . , pp. 31-32. 55 as he a s s o c i a t e s h i m s e l f w i t h the courageous, even d a r i n g and h e r o i c f e a t s o f J i m Hunter. He can i d e n t i f y w i t h the s t r u g g l e t o succeed and the g l o r y o f w i n n i n g medals. T h i s k i n d o f s t o r y , s t u d e n t s w i l l become engros s e d i n w h i l e t h e same f i l m shown t o an o l d e r group o f s t u d e n t s might be l e s s m e a n i n g f u l . T h i s t y p e o f romantic s t o r y i s , i n f a c t , e g o - s u p p o r t i n g and, t h e r e f o r e , s u i t e d f o r t h e romantic s t a g e . Knowledge and s k i l l s o r g a n i z e d i n such a manner w i l l p r o ve to be more engaging and h o p e f u l l y more educa-t i o n a l l y b e n e f i c i a l . Another i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the r o m a n t i c s t a g e t o c o n s i d e r when p l a n n i n g u n i t s and l e s s o n s i s t h e f a s c i n a t i o n and f a n a t i c i n t e r e s t i n h o b b i e s . Students w i l l g i v e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o c o l l e c t i n g and memoriz-i n g v a s t amounts of d e t a i l s . A s t u d e n t might be i n t e r e s t e d i n accumulat-i n g f a c t s and d e t a i l s of every hockey member i n the N.H.L., or c o l l e c t i n g photographs o f a l l the gymnastic s t a r s and s t u d y i n g d e t a i l s o f t h e i r l i v e s . I t seems t h a t t h i s a p p e t i t e f o r d e t a i l e n a b l e s t h e s t u d e n t t o e x p l o r e t h e l i m i t s and s c a l e o f t h e w o r l d around him. Egan makes r e f e r -ence t o the f i l m S t a r Wars and i t s s u c c e s s i n c a p t u r i n g r o m a n t i c p r i n -c i p l e s s u i t a b l e f o r a c e r t a i n a u d i e n c e . The d e t a i l e d , v i s u a l p o r t r a y a l o f d i f f e r e n t w o r l d s and i t s s i m p l e p l o t where the hero i s a b l e t o t r a n -scend h i s r e a l i t y , a l l a p p e a l t o s t u d e n t s d u r i n g the r o m a n t i c s t a g e and, i n d e e d , the ro m a n t i c i n a l l p e o p l e . T h i s a p p e t i t e f o r d e l v i n g head-long i n t o a s p e c i f i c a r e a and e x p l o r -i n g every d e t a i l encourages or a l l o w s f o r a g r e a t d e a l of memorizing. When p l a n n i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f knowledge, t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s o f g r e a t importance f o r i t i s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n a r o m a n t i c way can be absorbed and g r e a t amounts o f d e t a i l s can be memor-i z e d and r e t a i n e d . 56 Games The most important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of games at t h i s stage i s that they ought to be r e a l i s t i c . "Games that do not adhere to a r e a l i s t i c or p l a u s i b l e world are r e j e c t e d contemptuously as ' k i d s ' games. Romantic 13 games i n v o l v e a context i n s u l a t e d by p l a y f u l n e s s . " Games played at the mythic stage o f t e n i n v o l v e imagination where the p l a y e r b e l i e v e s momen-t a r i l y that he 'r i d e s upon a knight's f i n e charger' or that the chaser i s e v i l and h i s touch w i l l 'freeze' the other p l a y e r . At the romantic stage, students look upon these types of games as c h i l d i s h . They p r e f e r games which are more r e a l i s t i c and enable them to transcend r e a l i t y . For example, the student: . . . can be confident.; i n p a r t i c u l a r games, that i t i s h i s place to i s s u e commands, to i n f l i c t p a i n , to s t e a l people's possessions, to pretend to be dead, to h u r l a b a l l a c t u a l l y at someone, to pounce on someone, or to k i s s someone he has caught. In or d i n a r y l i f e e i t h e r he never knows these experiences o r , by attempting them, makes himself an o u t c a s t . ^ In t h i s sense, the student uses games to transcend h i s everyday r e a l i t y and to secure h i s own i d e n t i t y . Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s stage i s the c a p a c i t y to form romantic a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h the elements of the r e a l world such as bravery, courage, power, beauty, energy. Games which embody these q u a l i t i e s w i l l help the student transcend the problems that the r e a l world poses. A v a r i e t y of net games, running games, and b a t t i n g games ( i . e . , b a s k e t b a l l , n e t b a l l , dodgeball, b a t t l e b a l l , hemenway b a l l ) , could f u l f i l l the student's d e s i r e to a s s o c i a t e w i t h a v a r i e t y of romantic 1 3 I b i d . , pp. 34-35. "^Opie, Iona and P e t e r , Children's Games i n Street arid Playground, (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r ess, 1969), p. 3. 57 q u a l i t i e s . Lead-up games to rugby, soccer, f i e l d hockey, or m i n i -w r e s t l i n g s i t u a t i o n s would be s u i t a b l e . A c t i v i t i e s which seem spectac-u l a r , c h a l l e n g i n g , rugged, and c o n t a i n a c e r t a i n amount of drama would be appropriate to f o s t e r growth through t h i s stage. One 12-year-old Oxford boy wrote about one of h i s f a v o r i t e a c t i v i t i e s : The craze at our school i s piggy-back f i g h t i n g . Every playtime a l l the boys from our school c o l l e c t on the f i e l d and f i n d a partner bigger than themselves and mount him. . . . To have good fun you need about twenty boys, ten mounts and ten horses. . . . ^ Another example, s i m i l a r to the above, i s the c h a r i o t race, which,became the most popular event of a l o c a l school's indoor t r a c k meet. Here f i v e boys formed the c h a r i o t which resembled a rugby scrum w i t h a r i d e r on top. The object was to c i r c l e around four posts i n the gym two times, keeping the team/chariot i n t a c t . There was plenty of drama and excitement as c h a r i o t s would c o l l i d e w i t h other c h a r i o t s , causing great p i l e - u p s and confusion. This simple race seems to r e f l e c t the essence of the romantic stage. Students could a l s o be given the opportunity to invent t h e i r own games. I f allowed to do so, they w i l l u s u a l l y i n c l u d e some romantic q u a l i t y . The s t o r y form remains important throughout the romantic stage and can be incorporated i n t o the t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g of s k i l l s . I n d i v i d u a l s k i l l s could be introduced or p r a c t i c e d i n terms of beginnings, middles, and endings. For example, i n throwing, there i s the p r e p a r a t i o n , g e t t i n g arms and legs i n t o the ready p o s i t i o n ; c o n tact, the moment where impact takes place; and the follow-through, the c o n c l u s i o n of the throw. I f the students can get a f e e l of the movement p i c t u r e / s t o r y , then s k i l l s could perhaps be more s u c c e s s f u l l y accomplished. Students at t h i s ''""'ibid. , p. 217. 58 stage do seem to p r a c t i c e deductive t h i n k i n g which i n d i c a t e s that teaching might f i r s t focus on the p a r t i c u l a r aspects of the s k i l l or game and then move to the general. The romantic student w i l l a l s o show an i n t e r e s t i n the extremes and i n d e t a i l s . Game s i t u a t i o n s which a l l o w them to t e s t t h e i r speed, endurance, power, a g i l i t y , would be meaningful. Students want to know how f a s t they can run, how f a r they can throw, and how much stre n g t h they have. The teacher should c a p i t a l i z e on t h i s p e r i o d of m o t i v a t i o n . D e t a i l s a l s o become very important not only i n r u l e s of games, but a l s o i n performing s k i l l s , as Mauldon and Redfern have pointed out: When c h i l d r e n reach the upper J u n i o r stage (9-13) they begin to show a greater concern f o r the " r i g h t " way of doing t h i n g s , and games techniques are no exception. They want to know about c o r r e c t g r i p s , how to place the fee t i n c e r t a i n circumstances, how to c o l l e c t and throw a rugby b a l l most e f f i c i e n t l y , and so f o r t h . Boys e s p e c i a l l y perhaps are o f t e n keen to emulate h i g h -c l a s s p l a y e r s and to model t h e i r s t y l e on t h e i r s . ^ In choosing games and other a c t i v i t i e s that w i l l help students grow i n and through t h i s romantic stage, a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s need to be con-s i d e r e d c a r e f u l l y . These, i n summary, are: 1) e x p l o r i n g the l i m i t s of r e a l i t y through f o c u s s i n g i n t e r e s t on the extremes (expansion from the s e l f ) ; 2) romantic a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h the powerful, noble, brave, so as to transcend the t h r e a t s of the world around them; 3) i n t e r e s t i n c o l -l e c t i n g f a c t s and memorizing d e t a i l s (the p a r t i c u l a r s ) ; 4) s t o r y f o r m — more elaborate and d e a l i n g i n the realm of the p l a u s i b l e , the r e a l ; and 5) developing a sense of otherness and d i s c o v e r i n g the autonomous world. 16 Mauldon E., and H. B. Redfern, Games Teaching, (London: MacDonald & Evans, L t d . ) , p. 25. 59 The P h i l o s o p h i c Stage C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Egan c a l l s t h i s t h i r d stage of e d u c a t i o n a l development the p h i l o -sophic stage. I t spans the years from 14/15 to 19/20. He has l a b e l l e d i t p h i l o s o p h i c i n that the major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s l i k e n e d to the search f o r general and p h i l o s o p h i c t r u t h s . Whereas i n the romantic stage the student focused h i s i n t e r e s t and a t t e n t i o n on d e t a i l s , p a r t i c u l a r s , extremes, f a c t s , the p h i l o s o p h i c s t u -dent t r i e s to connect a l l the 'fragments.' He begins to r e a l i z e that everything i s r e l a t e d or interconnected. In h i s t o r y , f o r example, where the romantic student a s s o c i a t e d himself w i t h heroes and heoines or b i z a r r e occurrences, he now, at the p h i l o s o p h i c stage, needs to organize events and d e t a i l s i n t o general patterns or schemes. In p h y s i c a l educa-t i o n , the romantic student may show keen i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c u l a r aspects of the lungs, h e a r t , muscles, or bones, whereas the p h i l o s o p h i c student begins to see the connection of systems and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to f i t n e s s and movement. For example, p r i n c i p l e s f o r improving s t r e n g t h such as i s o -t o n i c and i s o m e t r i c could be examined along w i t h the e f f e c t s that these types of t r a i n i n g have on the heart and lungs. General aspects of n u t r i t i o n could be explored and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to e x e r c i s e and weight c o n t r o l . In t h i s way, the p h i l o s o p h i c student w i l l show i n t e r e s t i n the general scheme of how the body f u n c t i o n s as a u n i t , as a s i n g l e complex organism. The major d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the p h i l o s o p h i c stage, then, i s the search f o r the t r u t h about human psychology, f o r the laws of h i s t o r i c a l development, f o r the t r u t h about how s o c i e t i e s f u n c t i o n . This i s , the p h i l o s o p h i c focus on the general laws whereby the world w o r k s . ^ "'"'Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i -v e r s i t y P r ess, 1979), p. 51. 60 The romantic student f e l t the need to transcend the everyday world by a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h elements of the extreme, powerful, noble, and h e r o i c . The p h i l o s o p h i c student : becomes aware of the general laws of nature, of human psychology, of s o c i a l l i f e , of h i s t o r i c a l development and thereby begins to see h i s place i n t h i s new, complicated scheme. The student begins to d e f i n e and know himself through l e a r n i n g the t r u t h s of the world around him. With t h i s new persp e c t i v e comes the need to e s t a b l i s h once again a sense of i n t e l l e c t u a l s e c u r i t y . The c h i l d at the end of the mythic stage had to give up h i s myth-like world and e s t a b l i s h a new s e c u r i t y through romantic a s s o c i a t i o n s . Now the student faces another t r a n s i t i o n . He leaves the romantic a s s o c i a t i o n s and begins to e s t a b l i s h h i s place i n the r e a l world which i s governed by general laws. Through t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n of the general features of the r e a l world, the p h i l o s o p h i c student turns inward. Egan s t a t e s : This i s not a process of expansion outwards along l i n e s of content a s s o c i a t i o n s ; r a t h e r , i t i s a c l o s e r c h a r t i n g of the context w i t h i n which the student e x i s t s . I t i s not a f u r t h e r expansion from the s e l f , but r a t h e r a c l o s e r approach toward the s e l f . 1 8 Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the p h i l o s o p h i c stage i s the c r a v i n g f o r g e n e r a l i t y . A l l the p a r t i c u l a r s , d e t a i l s , and f a c t s learned at the romantic stage are now organized under some general schemes. Be i t i n h i s t o r y , i n sc i e n c e , or i n p h y s i c a l education, the student "maps the general features of the r e a l world i n terms of very general o r g a n i z i n g 19 g r i d s . " During t h i s p e r i o d , the student i s l i k e l y to l o s e i n t e r e s t i n the hobbies that occupied him during the romantic stage. With t h i s c r a v i n g f o r g e n e r a l i t y comes the a b i l i t y to develop a b s t r a c t i n t e l l e c t u a l t o o l s . For example, general concepts such as ^ I b i d . , pp. 51-52. "^Ib'id., p. 63. 61 s o c i e t y , c u l t u r e , the mind, e v o l u t i o n , and human n a t u r e become p a r t o f t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l v o c a b u l a r y i n w r i t i n g , t h i n k i n g , and speech. From t h e s e g e n e r a l c o n c e p t s and p r i n c i p l e s o f how the w o r l d f u n c t i o n s , t h e s t u d e n t s . . .form i d e o l o g i e s and m e t a p h y s i c a l schemes, i n t e l l e c t u a l t o o l s w i t h which they can o r g a n i z e , s i m p l i f y , and reduce even t h e g r e a t e s t c o m p l e x i t i e s w i t h c a s u a l c o n f i d e n c e . I d e o l o g i e s and m e t a p h y s i c a l schemes r e p r e s e n t t h e b o l d e s t l i n e s t h a t g i v e o r d e r to t h e s t u d e n t s ' mental map o f the world. ^ 0 Another f e a t u r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s d e s i r e t o re d u c e the w o r l d t o g e n e r a l schemes i s t h e development of h i e r a r c h i e s . Students w i l l w i s h to s l o t , f o r example, hockey p l a y e r s i n t o c a t e g o r i e s o f b e s t , second b e s t , t h i r d , e t c . T h i s they w i l l do i n a v a r i e t y o f a r e a s , music, n o v e l s , a t h l e t e s , s p o r t c a r s , and many o t h e r s . They w i l l need t o e s t a b l i s h c r i t e r i a by which t o f o r m u l a t e t h e s e h i e r a r c h i e s . At f i r s t t hey may choose o n l y a s i n g l e c r i t e r i o n t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s e h i e r a r c h i e s w h i l e l a t e r t hey w i l l employ more s o p h i s t i c a t e d m u l t i p l e c r i t e r i a . The i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e h e r e i s t h a t they f i r s t ' need t o e s t a b l i s h some k i n d o f g e n e r a l o r d e r t o g a i n s e c u r i t y . Students a t t h i s l e v e l a r e l i k e l y t o appear o v e r - c o n f i d e n t and k n o w ^ i t - a l l . They f e e l t h a t once they have compre-hended the g e n e r a l laws, they know a l l t h e r e i s t o know about t h e w o r l d . Hence i t i s extr e m e l y important f o r the t e a c h e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h i s char'-a c t e r i s t i c and t o be a b l e t o gu i d e t h e s t u d e n t towards the next l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a l development. ^ I b i d . , p. 54. 62 P r i n c i p l e s f o r Organizing Knowledge How might we best organize subject matter at the p h i l o s o p h i c stage to f u r t h e r educational development? F i r s t of a l l , we must recognize that p h i l o s o p h i c students have access to knowledge through a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the t r u t h about the world. The student shows i n t e r e s t i n that knowledge which aids him i n f o r m u l a t i n g , . . . the general schemes which they i d e n t i f y as expressing the t r u t h about h i s t o r i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l , or n a t u r a l processes. For example, i f one accepts the simple M a r x i s t ideology, then one's i n t e r e s t i s focused by that onto the p a r t i c u l a r knowledge that best c l a r i f i e s and supports i t . ^ 1 An important p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r progressing i n t o the p h i l o s o p h i c stage of e d u c a t i o n a l development i s the possession of a l a r g e q u a n t i t y of know-ledge, f o r i f the student l a c k s a s u f f i c i e n t amount of knowledge about c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s , he w i l l be unable to generate general schemes. Not only does he r e q u i r e a l a r g e q u a n t i t y of knowledge, but a l s o a q u a n t i t y of knowledge from a wide v a r i e t y of t o p i c s . A vast array of knowledge w i l l help the student formulate p h i l o s o p h i c schemes and a continued healthy dosage of knowledge i s necessary to increase the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of these general schemes throughout t h i s stage. The s t o r y form s t i l l p lays an important part at t h i s stage, as i t helps to organize knowledge i n a way that i s meaningful to students. The p h i l o s o p h i c student i n h i s quest to organize separate pieces i n t o general schemes w i l l f i n d the s t o r y form u s e f u l as the general schemes and i d e o l o g i e s are best understood i f the student a p p l i e s a kind of p l o t to them. Egan gives an example of the type of s t o r y that would be s u i t a b l e f o r the p h i l o s o p h i c p e r s p e c t i v e . S t o r i e s such as are i n Jorge Louis Borges' I n q u i s i t i o n s where there i s a p l a y w i t h ideas as opposed 21 I b i d . , p. 56. 63 t o t y p e s of d e t a i l s and extremes t h a t f a s c i n a t e d the r o m a n t i c s t u d e n t would be s u i t a b l e . I t must be remembered t h a t t h e p h i l o s o p h i c students'; d e s i r e t o o r g a n i z e t h e w o r l d i n terms o f g e n e r a l schemes stems from the i n n e r d e s i r e t o f i n d t h e i r p l a c e , to know themselves i n t h i s complex w o r l d . In t h i s sense, Egan c a l l s t h i s s t a g e n a r c i s s i s t i c . The t e a c h e r t h e n , when o r g a n i z i n g the s u b j e c t s h o u l d keep t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n mind and a i d t h e s t u d e n t i n h i s s e a r c h f o r t h e g e n e r a l laws of the w o r l d around him. In p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , s t u d e n t s w i l l show i n t e r e s t i n s p o r t s p s y c h o l o g y , s o c i o l o g y of s p o r t and f i t n e s s as t h e s e a r e a s w i l l p r o v i d e them w i t h s p r i n g b o a r d s from which to l e a r n more about themselves through the s e a r c h f o r g e n e r a l laws. G i r l s , f o r example, may f i n d an i n v e s t i -g a t i o n of t h e c h a n g i n g r o l e s of women i n s p o r t s t i m u l a t i n g . Perhaps they c o u l d , i n t h i s p r o j e c t , l o o k a t o u t s t a n d i n g female a t h l e t e s such as B i l l i e J ean K i n g , N a d i a Gomaneci, and Karen Magnussen and the a t t i t u d e s , p e r s o n a l i t i e s , and r o l e s they e x h i b i t e d . In t h i s t y p e of i n v e s t i g a t i o n the s t u d e n t would a c t u a l l y be a i d i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h e r own b e h a v i o r and a t t i t u d e s t o s p o r t and e x e r c i s e . One f u r t h e r i m p ortant a s p e c t of t e a c h i n g a t t h i s s t a g e i s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f the d i a l e c t i c a l p r o c e s s of i n t e r a c t i o n between the g e n e r a l schemes and th e p a r t i c u l a r knowledge. The t e a c h e r ' s r o l e i s to o r g a n i z e and s e l e c t t h e k i n d of knowledge s u i t a b l e t o a s s i s t i n t h e development of a g e n e r a l scheme and t o d e v e l o p more s o p h i s t i c a t e d g e n e r a l schemes. B r e a d t h of knowledge i s the key agent i n t h i s p r o c e s s as i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l g e n e r a t e anomalies to t h e e x i s t i n g g e n e r a l schemes and c a l l f o r r e v i s i o n s and r e f i n e m e n t s . Egan summarizes the f o u r c r i t i c a l p o i n t s t o c o n s i d e r when t e a c h i n g 64 at the p h i l o s o p h i c stage: 1. The f i r s t comes w i t h the t r a n s i t i o n to the stage, at which po i n t students begin to formulate from t h e i r romantic knowledge some very general scheme or schemes. . . . 2. The second c r i t i c a l step i s to encourage the development of f l e x i b i l i t y and commitment to the general scheme. . . . 3. T h i r d , the teacher needs to be s e n s i t i v e to j u s t what k i n d of question, assignment, or stimulus to i n q u i r y w i l l engage students i n a c q u i r i n g that knowledge which w i l l best support t h e i r general scheme and a l s o generate anomalies which w i l l r e q u i r e some r e v i s i o n of the general scheme. . . . The teacher's task i s to p e r s i s t i n s t i m u l a t i n g i n q u i r y i n p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c s u n t i l d i a l e c t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n gets p r o p e r l y underway. 4. Fourth, when the d i a l e c t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s underway, the teacher's task i s that of a r e g u l a t o r of the process, remain-ing s e n s i t i v e to the developing s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of general schemes and the k i n d of knowledge students are seeking, to body them f o r t h more f u l l y . . . . Games Egan w r i t e s b r i e f l y about games at the p h i l o s o p h i c l e v e l . L i k e s t o r i e s at t h i s stage, games tend to be taken very s e r i o u s l y by the student. " I t i s the i m p o s i t i o n of general schemes that reduce r e a l i t y and a s s e r t c l e a r r u l e s and r o l e s which gives l i f e at the p h i l o s o p h i c 23 stage the q u a l i t y of a game." P l a y e r s are t y p i c a l l y very s e r i o u s and tend to de f i n e a c l e a r d i v i s i o n between games or r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r occupations. For example, a se n i o r b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r might play the r o l e of an a l l - i m p o r t a n t , e l i t i s t , g l o r i f i e d a t h l e t e . He would act out h i s r o l e on the court or o f f w i t h f u l l s eriousness, b e l i e v i n g that he epitomized a s p e c i a l cast or breed. Immature students and ad u l t s act out these kinds of r o l e s , confusing them w i t h r e a l i t y . I b i d . , pp. 75-76. I b i d . , p. 62. 65 I r o n i c Stage C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The l a s t s t a g e i n Egan's e d u c a t i o n a l development scheme i s l a b e l l e d i r o n i c . A s t u d e n t may b e g i n t h i s s t a g e a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y age 19/20 which c o n t i n u e s throughout a d u l t h o o d . S i n c e i t i s h e r e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t r e a c h e s e d u c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y he i s r e f e r r e d t o as an a d u l t . Egan, however, p o i n t s out t h a t o n l y a v e r y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s e v e r r e a c h t h i s f i n a l s t a g e . With the t r a n s i t i o n from t h e p h i l o s o p h i c s t a g e to t h e i r o n i c s t a g e comes the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the g e n e r a l schemes s h o u l d n e i t h e r be p e r c e i v e d as t r u e nor f a l s e , but r a t h e r u s e f u l i n o r g a n i z i n g p a r t i c u l a r s i n t o u n i t s . I t i s now t h a t t h e p a r t i c u l a r s d e t e r m i n e the g e n e r a l scheme. P a r t i c u l a r -i s t i c knowledge i n t h e i r o n i c s t a g e i s dominant as opposed t o th e p h i l o -s o p h i c s t a g e where t h e g e n e r a l scheme was dominant. T h i s i s t h e p r i m a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e i r o n i c s t a g e . To c r o s s t h e b r i d g e t o t h i s f i n a l s t a g e , the s t u d e n t s once a g a i n have to r e - e s t a b l i s h a new i n t e l l e c t u a l s e c u r i t y . T r u t h s a r e found i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r , not the g e n e r a l schemes. T h i s s t a g e marks the end o f n a r c i s s i s m . The a d u l t w i t h a m a t u r e l y d e v e l o p e d ego can pursue knowledge f o r i t s own sake. The s t o r y form p l a y e d an important r o l e i n o r g a n i z i n g knowledge i n the f i r s t t h r e e s t a g e s . At t h i s s t a g e however, t h e r e a r e no s t o r i e s . Egan s t a t e s : In as f a r as the s t o r y form r e p r e s e n t s an important method whereby the mind imposes o r d e r on phenomena, and t h i s form becomes i n c r e a s -i n g l y more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and l e s s d e t e r m i n i n g as we p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h the s t a g e s , we can suggest as one dimension o f a g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r -i z a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l development t h a t i t i s a p r o c e s s which b e g i n s w i t h the mental forms d e t e r m i n i n g what i s p e r c e i v e d of the w o r l d and ends w i t h mental forms conforming t o t h e complex p a r t i c u l a r r e a l i t y 66 of the world as f a r as they can. There are no s t o r i e s or d i s -c o n t i n u i t i e s i n the world. They are created by our i m p o s i t i o n of beginnings and ends.24 Likewise at the i r o n i c stage, there are no games i n the sense of the seriousness w i t h which the p h i l o s o p h i c mind was i n v o l v e d i n r e c r e a t i o n or games. "Escape from the se r i o u s games of the p h i l o s o p h i c stage, f r e e s the i r o n i c mind to introduce the mythic, romantic, and p h i l o s o p h i c senses of games and play i n t o everything, guided by a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i a of approp-25 r i a t e n e s s . " Games at the i r o n i c stage are s i m i l a r to what H e l l i s o n c a l l s p l a y f u l s p i r i t . " P l a y f u l s p i r i t r e f e r s to a non-serious, non-r e f l e c t i v e dimension of l i f e which focuses on the moment and on the a c t i v i t y f o r i t s own sake r a t h e r than e x t r i n s i c motives and preplanned 2 6 goals. I t i s spontaneous and o f t e n c r e a t i v e . " H e r r i g e l i n h i s book Zen i n the A r t of Archery, a l s o provides us w i t h a n . i n s i g h t of the i r o n i c mind's p e r s p e c t i v e i n games. "Bow, arrow, goal and ego, a l l melt i n t o one another, so that I can no longer separate them. And even the need 27 to separate them has gone." Pla y and games are i r o n i c i n the sense that both seriousness and s i n c e r i t y can be combined w i t h p l a y f u l n e s s . General Comments on the Stage Theory The four stages that Egan has a r t i c u l a t e d d e s c r i b e an i d e a l educa-t i o n a l development. Egan claims that what you do i n Grade One i s important to the eventual a d u l t . E d u c a t i o n a l development i s then a cumulative process whereby what the c h i l d l e a r n s i n the e a r l y grades w i l l 24 25 I b i d . , p. 85. I b i d . , p. 85. 26 H e l l i s o n , Don, Beyond B a l l s and Bats: A l i e n a t e d (and Other) Youth  i n the Gym, (Washington: AAHPER P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1978), pp. 4-5. 27 H e r r i g e l , Eugen, Zen i n the Art of Archery, (New York: Vintage Books, 1971), p. 70. 67 have s i g n i f i c a n t importance as to how w e l l he w i l l l e a r n at the next stage. I f the foundation has been adequately l a i d , then i t i s l i k e l y that subse-quent stages w i l l be able to expand, e l a b o r a t e , and e n r i c h from t h i s base. The students pass from one stage i n t o the next, t a k i n g w i t h them the per-ceptions and knowledge from the previous stage. Therefore, i t i s v i t a l that students are not rushed through a stage but r a t h e r are allowed to develop f u l l y i n each stage. Egan repeats time and time again that the "immature r e q u i r e immature concepts." At each stage the student makes sense of the world d i f f e r e n t l y . They must be encouraged to develop at each stage according to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Egan has o u t l i n e d . Educa-t i o n has got to be done r i g h t the f i r s t time around. The end product, the i r o n i c mind, does r e t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the mythic, romantic, and p h i l o s o p h i c stages. In t h i s e d u cational process the student v i r t u a l l y leaves nothing behind. Although Egan claims that the sequence of stages he has described i s a necessary sequence, that i s a student cannot reach the i r o n i c stage without passing through the others, he does s t a t e that f u l l s a t i s f a c t i o n at a stage i s not necessary before e n t e r i n g i n t o the next stage. In other words, a person i s not t o t a l l y i n one p a r t i c u l a r stage. I d e a l l y , one should t r y and develop as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e the c a p a c i t i e s of each stage, e s p e c i a l l y at the mythic stage. To i l l u s t r a t e the amount of minimum development that needs to take place i n order to progress through the stages, Egan uses percentages which he intends to be read as meta-phors. He s t a t e s : " I f one hopes to reach the i r o n i c stage, at l e a s t 80% of the c a p a c i t i e s of the mythic stage, 65% of the romantic stage, and 28 50% of the p h i l o s o p h i c w i l l need to be developed." 28 Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i -v e r s i t y P r ess, 1979), p. 96. 68 To ensure t h e f u l l development a t each s t a g e , knowledge s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y f o r t h a t s t a g e . Knowledge so o r g a n i z e d i s an ' a l i m e n t ' t o f u r t h e r development. Knowledge t h a t i s o r g a n i z e d f o r t h e s t a g e below one's achievements can o n l y be ' e n t e r t a i n i n g . ' Knowledge t h a t i s o r g a n i z e d i n advance o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s s t a g e o f achievement w i l l r emain ' i n e r t . ' T h e r e f o r e , i t remains i m p e r a t i v e t h a t t e a c h e r s be s e n s i t i v e t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s and o r g a n i z e knowledge so t h a t i t i s an a l i m e n t t o f u r t h e r development. Another i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e s t a g e c o n s t r u c t i s t h a t t h e s t a g e s a r e not i n t e n d e d to be i s o l a t e d arid c o n c r e t e . That i s , e d u c a t i o n a l development does not proceed on a smooth u n r u f f l e d r o a d o f g r a d u a l l y a c c u m u l a t i n g more and more knowledge. R a t h e r , p r o g r e s s i s o f t e n s p o r a d i c , sometimes sudden jumps o c c u r and i d e a s c o a l e s c e r a p i d l y . Movement from one s t a g e t o t h e next can a l s o happen q u i t e r a p i d l y . I f knowledge can be o r g a n i z e d t o s u i t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t a g e t h e n e d u c a t i o n a l development would be s u c c e s s f u l l y f u r t h e r e d . U l t i m a t e l y , t h e s u c c e s s w i t h which the s t u d e n t w i l l p r o g r e s s and d e v e l o p r e f l e c t s the important r o l e t h a t t e a c h e r s have i n t h i s t h e o r y . To promote e d u c a t i o n a l development the t e a c h e r needs t o be aware of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s and o r g a n i z e knowledge so t h a t i t w i l l be a c c e s s i b l e t o the s t u d e n t . T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e s t h a t the t e a c h e r be f u l l y aware of the needs of t h e s t u d e n t s . I f t h i s i s not the c a s e , t h e n knowledge w i l l remain m e r e l y e n t e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s t u d e n t s and may n o t promote f u r t h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l growth. L e a r n i n g t h a t c h a l l e n g e s t h e s t u d e n t , and i s a p p r o p r i a t e l y o r g a n i z e d f o r t h a t s t a g e , s e r v e s as an a l i m e n t and p r o v i d e s an a e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e . I d e a l l y , t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d have reached t h e i r o n i c s t a g e o f development. Now that the four stages have been de s c r i b e d , i t might be best to r e t u r n to the four questions that Egan's edu c a t i o n a l development theory w i l l help us answer. 1. Educational end-products. Simply s t a t e d the end-product that Egan e n v i s i o n s i s a person who has reached the I r o n i c stage. It' i s a person who i s knowledgeable, who knows a l o t , who can t h i n k . A person at the i r o n i c stage w i l l be ". . . able to p r o p e r l y pursue and e s t a b l i s h a t r u t h u n i n f e c t e d by our ego's need and independent of the s e l f . The achievement and expression of such a t r u t h . . . i s the proper aim of 29 educated people." Egan gives us other glimpses of the end-product. The mind of an educated person i s "stocked w i t h f i n e poetry and prose" which "enriches both the rhythms of one's language and the range of one's 30 thought and sentiment and provides an i n f i n i t e l y r i c h t r e a s u r e . . . . " These t r e a s u r e s , among many others, (such as being able to program a computer), allows the educated person "to have l i f e and have i t more abundantly." The end-product i s a person who can enter the conversation of c u l t u r e , i n Oakeshott's words. Egan would agree w i t h Whitehead's d e s c r i p t i o n of the end-product of h i s c u r r i c u l u m . His product should be able . . . to experience the j o y of discovery . . . see that general ideas g i v e an understanding of the stream of events that pour through . . . l i f e , to prove ideas, evoke c u r i o s i t y , judgement and the 'power of mastering a complicated t a n g l e of circumstances, the use of theory i n g i v i n g f o r e s i g h t i n s p e c i a l cases,' and to have above a l l , ' s t y l e . ' 3 1 y I b i d . , p. 89. I b i d . , p. 48. 31 Egan, K i e r a n , "Some Presuppositions that Determine Curriculum D e c i s i o n s , " Curriculum S t u d i e s , 2 (1978):p. 130. 70 The k i n d of end-product t h a t a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m based on Egan's t h e o r y would aim a t , would be a p e r s o n who p o s s e s s e s the f o l l o w -i n g q u a l i t i e s . The p e r s o n who has reached the i r o n i c s t a g e w i l l have de v e l o p e d t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r b o t h s k i l l performance i n s p e c i f i c a r e a s as w e l l as muscular and c a r d i o - v a s c u l a r endurance i n a g e n e r a l f i t n e s s sense. The i d e a l end-product w i l l be p h y s i c a l l y l i t e r a t e i n terms o f h a v i n g d e v e l o p e d a k i n a e s t h e t i c awareness and a sense o f c o - o r d i n a t e d , r h y t h m i c a l movement. Q u a l i t i e s o f g r a c e and f l o w w i l l be b a l a n c e d w i t h the q u a l i t i e s of p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h i n s k i l l p erformances. L i k e w i s e , the p e r s o n w i l l have a t t a i n e d a b a l a n c e between the s e r i o u s c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s and c r e a t i v e j o y f u l n e s s i n t h e i r approach t o p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . The i d e a l end-product w i l l be a p e r s o n who has develop e d s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , courage, and c o n f i d e n c e through a v a r i e t y o f games and a c t i v i t i e s . The p e r s o n t h a t has reached t h e i r o n i c s t a g e w i l l a l s o have a c h i e v e d an i n c r e a s e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f how the body works. They w i l l have a c q u i r e d knowledge of how the body f u n c t i o n s p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y and i t s r e l a t i o n t o n u t r i t i o n and e x e r c i s e . B a s i c m e c h a n i c a l p r i n c i p l e s of movement w i l l be mastered. The end-product w i l l have d e v e l o p e d a f a i r l y s o p h i s t i -c a t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the many f a c e t s o f our w o r l d of movement: s p o r t p s y c h o l o g y and s o c i o l o g y , the v a l u e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , and so on. T h i s k i n d o f p e r s o n w i l l a l s o have g a i n e d an awareness o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l development o f movement, how s t y l e s i n v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s have changed over t h e ages. T h i s image of t h e i d e a l end-product o f a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c -ulum f o r m u l a t e d upon Egan's e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y b r i n g s us v e r y c l o s e t o t h e k i n d o f p e r s o n t h a t P l a t o e n v i s i o n e d . P h y s i c a l t r a i n -i n g , i n P l a t o ' s terms was meant t o d e v e l o p 'courage,' ' s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , ' 71 32 and 'energy,' the s p i r i t e d elements i n the human. However, to avoid developing a "savage v i o l e n c e " the s p i r i t e d elements needed to be balanced w i t h the p h i l o s o p h i c elements to produce a harmonious develop-ment. Perhaps the most profound aspect of Egan's theory i s that i t re q u i r e s the planners of p h y s i c a l education c u r r i c u l a to be q u i t e c l e a r about the nature of the end-product. Egan, like'many other educators, b e l i e v e s that education i s not a democratic process. On the co n t r a r y , i t i s an extremely d e l i c a t e and seri o u s e n t e r p r i s e i n which those that have the most e x p e r t i s e should become the leaders ( i n c u r r i c u l u m planning) i n the f i e l d . The importance of f o c u s s i n g on the end-product i s r e - i t e r a t e d by Donaldson. " . . . teachers need to be c l e a r not only about what they would l i k e c h i l d r e n to become under t h e i r guidance but about what c h i l d r e n are a c t u a l l y l i k e when 33 the process i s begun." Egan has provided us w i t h j u s t such a p i c t u r e . 2. How should we teach? The answer to how we should go about teaching c e r t a i n things i s inherent i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the four stages. They w i l l t e l l us how best to organize knowledge f o r that p a r t i c -u l a r stage so that i t w i l l be engaging, meaningful, and c o n t r i b u t e to the edu c a t i o n a l development of the student. 3. When should we teach p a r t i c u l a r things? Egan has given us the approximate age range f o r the opening and c l o s i n g of each stage. 4. What should we teach? Egan claims that the four stages of educational development are s e n s i t i v e periods f o r the development of the 32 Cornford, F r a n c i s MacDonald, t r a n s . , The Republic of P l a t o , (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1966), p. 101. 33 Donaldson, Margaret, Children's Minds, (Glasgow: W i l l i a m C o l l i n s , 1978), p. 15. c a p a c i t i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of each stage. In t h i s respect they provide us w i t h g u i d e l i n e s as to what k i n d of content would be most appropriate. Egan s t a t e s : Content i s the f u e l of the process; without content the c a p a c i t i e s that i d e a l l y develop during the process of education cannot be a c t u a l i z e d . . . i f a s e n s i t i v e p eriod represents the time during which the p a r t i c u l a r genes are responsive to r e l e v a n t s t i m u l i , optimal development r e q u i r e s that those s t i m u l i be o p t i m a l l y a c c e s s i b l e during the p e r i o d . I f the c r i t i c a l p e r i o d i s the p h i l o s o p h i c stage, the r e l e v a n t s t i m u l i are general schemes. Among the many c u r r i c u l u m recommendations Egan makes throughout h i s book, the c e n t r a l importance of content i s a r e - o c c u r r i n g theme i n the process of e d u c a t i o n a l development. The f o l l o w i n g chapter w i l l focus on the kinds of content that w i l l be most app r o p r i a t e to encourage develop-ment at each stage i n p h y s i c a l education. Egan urges that there be an " i n t r o d u c t i o n of much more knowledge about the world and human e x p e r i -35 ence i n the e a r l y grades." He recommends that l e s s time should be spent on debating methodology and more time on o r g a n i z i n g knowledge f o r each stage. Teachers would take a more a c t i v e r o l e i n Egan's scheme in s t e a d of p l a y i n g only a f a c i l i t a t i v e r o l e . "Without knowledge there 36 i s no education; w i t h l i t t l e knowledge there i s l i t t l e education." The f o l l o w i n g chapter w i l l attempt to apply Egan's e d u c a t i o n a l theory and the recommendations i m p l i c i t i n i t , to p h y s i c a l education c u r r i c u l u m planning. 34 Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i -v e r s i t y Press, 1979), pp. 115-116. 3 5 I b i d . , p. 159. 3 6 I b i d . , p. 156. CHAPTER IV APPLICATION OF EGAN'S DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM Chapter three has o u t l i n e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Egan's four stages of e d u c a t i o n a l development and has mentioned some general p r i n c i p l e s f o r org a n i z i n g subject matter. Egan's theory p o s t u l a t e s that the i n t e r e s t s of a s i x - y e a r o l d c h i l d are d i f f e r e n t from those of a 16-year o l d student. Not only are t h e i r i n t e r e s t s d i f f e r e n t but they make sense of the world and experiences around them i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Subject matter should, t h e r e f o r e , be organized so that i t i s a c c e s s i b l e to that p a r t i c u l a r stage and so that i t w i l l help promote educational development. Using the p r i n c i p l e s derived from the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the four stages, t h i s chap-t e r w i l l explore how p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s might best be organized so that they are both e d u c a t i o n a l l y b e n e f i c i a l and engaging f o r each stage. Each stage w i l l be considered i n the l i g h t of three broad a c t i v i t y areas: dance, gymnastics, and games. Although other a c t i v i t i e s are taught, such as aquatics and outdoor p u r s u i t s , the above are g e n e r a l l y considered the major content areas of p h y s i c a l education c u r r i c u l a . Mythic Stage At the mythic stage, the main p r i n c i p l e s we have f o r o r g a n i z i n g l e s -sons or u n i t s are: 1) the s t o r y form, 2) b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n s , 3) absolute meaning, 4) l a c k of concept of otherness, 5) l a c k of c l e a r sense of an autonomous, o b j e c t i v e world, and 6) emotional and moral c a t e g o r i e s . I t should be remembered that the c h i l d at t h i s stage l e a r n s or makes sense of the outside world i n terms of the known inner w o r l d — b a s i c a l l y emo-t i o n a l and moral conceptual c a t e g o r i e s . I t i s a time of p r o j e c t i n g outward and absorbing what they can. Dance 1. C r e a t i v e . The area of dance i s unique i n the sense that i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y serve an e x t e r n a l purpose or goal. For example, i n gymnastics and games, s k i l l s w i l l be learned f o r a d e f i n i t e purpose, to score a goal or to jump the v a u l t i n g box. However, . . . i n dance, movement i s used f o r the inner purpose of expres-s i o n . Inner f e e l i n g or moods, d i r e c t o b servation of e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y or the act of moving i n i t s e l f can provoke movement images, and these, i n dance, are formulated i n an a r t i s t i c way that heightens and c o n t r o l s the i n i t i a l raw experience.! Because of t h i s unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of dance, Egan's p r i n c i p l e s w i l l a i d the teacher a great d e a l i n planning i n d i v i d u a l dance lessons and u n i t s . Lessons i n dance and gymnastics, as they are g e n e r a l l y s t r u c t u r e d , 2 have been g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the work of Rudolph Laban. Laban analyzed b a s i c movement s k i l l s and e s t a b l i s h e d four b a s i c q u a l i t i e s of movement: 1) body a c t i o n s , the way i n which the body can move, 2) dynamics, the use of time and energy, 3) space awareness, the way the body uses space, and 4) r e l a t i o n s h i p s , to what and w i t h whom the c h i l d r e n are r e l a t i n g t h e i r movements. The e x p l o r a t o r y or movement education approach i s o f t e n used to develop h i s four components of movement. To ^ C a r r o l l , Jean and Peter Lofthouse, C r e a t i v e Dance f o r Boys, (London: MacDonald & Evan L t d . , 1969), p. 11. 2 Laban, Rudolph, Modern Ed u c a t i o n a l Dance, (London: Macdonald & Evans, 1948). 75 promote e d u c a t i o n a l development, i t would be p o s s i b l e when p l a n n i n g dance l e s s o n s t o combine Laban's p r i n c i p l e s o f movement w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s Egan has o u t l i n e d f o r t h e mythic s t a g e . A good p l a c e t o s t a r t then, would be w i t h t h e e m o t i o n a l and mo r a l c a t e g o r i e s t h e c h i l d knows b e s t : l o v e , h a t e , j o y , f e a r , good, bad, and p l a c e t h e s e i n a movement s e t t i n g . These c o u l d be e x p r e s s e d i n terms of b a s i c locomotor movements such as r u n n i n g , jumping, g a l l o p i n g , o r i n body a c t i o n s . Perhaps, b e t t e r s t i l l , would be to s e l e c t a f a i r y - t a l e s t o r y t h a t r e f l e c t s t h e s e k i n d s o f p r o f o u n d human emotions and a l l o w s c h i l d r e n t o e x p r e s s themselves t h r o u g h t h e i r own f e e l i n g s and i m a g i n a t i o n . F a i r y -t a l e s t o r i e s , l e g e n d s , myths, or any i m a g i n a t i v e theme c o u l d be e x p r e s s e d i n movement. At f i r s t c h i l d r e n c o u l d e x p l o r e o n l y two b a s i c movements a t a t i m e — movements such as r u n n i n g , hopping, s l i d i n g , l e a p i n g , s k i p p i n g , w i t h dimen-s i o n s o f f a s t / s l o w , s t r o n g / l i g h t , t o p r o v i d e b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n . These movements c o u l d be b e s t taught i n t h e form o f a movement s e n t e n c e , some-t h i n g t h a t has a b e g i n n i n g , a m i d d l e , and comes to some s o r t o f c o n c l u -s i o n . I n t h i s c o n t e x t , movement e x p e r i e n c e s w i l l l i k e l y h e l p t h e c h i l -d r e n g a i n s e c u r i t y i n t h e i r w o r l d . The c h i l d w i t h h i s m y t h - l i k e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the w o r l d needs t o f i n d . h i s space, h i s p l a c e , and through a v a r i e t y o f c r e a t i v e dance e x p e r i e n c e s a r r a n g e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y f o r t h i s s t a g e , t h e c h i l d w i l l b e g i n t o g a i n c o n f i d e n c e i n moving h i s body and e x p r e s s i n g h i m s e l f t h r o u g h t h i s dance form. As the c h i l d p r o g r e s s e s t h r o u g h t h i s s t a g e and d e v e l o p s a l a r g e movement v o c a b u l a r y t h e s e movement, se n t e n c e s w i l l become more c o m p l i c a t e d . Movement a c t i o n s w i l l become more r e f i n e d combining bounding, w h e e l i n g , f r e e z i n g , t w i s t i n g , and s l i d i n g e f f o r t s . New a c t i o n s a r e b e s t p r e s e n t e d , 76 again, i n b i n a r y terms such as r i s i n g and s i n k i n g , concepts of space, e.g., high and low should be presented i n a movement-picture. S t o r i e s that p o r t r a y c o n f l i c t i n g f o r c e s , engage imagination through characters l i k e f a i r i e s , w itches, monsters, p r i n c e s s e s , k i n g s , and dragons, w i l l always be more s t i m u l a t i n g and b e n e f i c i a l to c h i l d r e n at the mythic stage. C h i l d r e n need to be able to express t h e i r inner f e e l i n g , and t h e i r make-b e l i e v e worlds. Egan emphasizes the importance of the s t o r y form throughout h i s book. The s t o r y form " . . . must l i e at the heart of a l l attempts to 3 make the world meaningful to young c h i l d r e n . " I t i s important as i t " f i x e s meaning" and " l i m i t s r e a l i t y . " I t provides the boundary i n which c h i l d r e n w i l l f e e l secure. There are, of course, numerous s t o r i e s which would be s u i t a b l e as a b a s i s f o r a movement l e s s o n i n Grades 2 or 3. 4 One such s t o r y i s the s t o r y of Beowulf. Here, b a s i c a c t i o n s u t i l i z i n g l a r g e body p a r t s are employed. The s t o r y i s r i c h i n b i n a r y o p p o s i t e s : slow movements of B e o w u l f / f i g h t i n g a c t i o n s ; l i g h t movements of acrobats/ heavy movements of Grendel; everyone sleeping/great f i g h t i n g scenes; v i c t o r y / d e f e a t ; v i l l a i n / h e r o ; c e l e b r a t i o n s / f e a r . The s t o r y a l s o has the p o t e n t i a l f o r a v a r i e t y of movements to challenge those who may be a b i t f u r t h e r along i n the mythic stage. At the dramatic l e v e l , many ba s i c emotional and moral concepts have been tapped such as l o v e , hate, f e a r , j o y , good, bad, j e a l o u s y , pain. The u n r e a l and r e a l c h a r a c t e r s , and s e t t i n g provide i n t e r e s t and freedom f o r the imagination, which i s so 3 Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1979), p. 17. 4 Ascough, J u l i a , Dance Program, Surrey School Board, 1978, pp. 3-6. 77 c r i t i c a l at t h i s stage. Egan s t a t e s : An aspect of connecting the c h i l d r e n ' s v i v i d mental l i f e to knowledge about the world, we c a l l the development of imagine a t i o n ; that i s , being able to p r o j e c t mental images onto the world and absorb the world to them w i t h ease and f l e x i b i l i t y . ^ The power of the s t o r y form, i n terms of engaging enthusiasm, imagination, and m o t i v a t i o n , as i n the example above, should not be f o r g o t t e n when or g a n i z i n g c r e a t i v e dance experiments. At t h i s stage i t might be best to accompany movements w i t h some kin d of percussion instrument, or sound. A v a r i e t y of rhythms can be obtained from the use of the v o i c e , c l a p p i n g , stamping, drums, tambour-•ines, b e l l s , cymbals, and recorded music. Rhythms are e s s e n t i a l at the mythic stage as they a s s i s t i n l e a r n i n g b a s i c movements such as g a l l o p i n g or jumping and act as a stimulus f o r the dynamic, b i n a r y kinds of a c t i o n s . They a l s o focus on the changes between f a s t / s l o w , strong/weak,/ p u s h / p u l l , sudden/sustained, j o y / p a i n . Rhythms used i n these ways provide c h i l d r e n w i t h a sense of s e c u r i t y . David Best s t a t e s that "the requirement of some s o r t of r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n , or the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e l a t i n g to such a p a t t e r n i s a necessary c o n d i t i o n s f o r the c o r r e c t use of rhythm . . . " Perhaps i t i s t h i s ' r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n ' that provides c h i l d r e n at the mythic stage w i t h a sense of s e c u r i t y . The movement p i c t u r e or s t o r y could, indeed, be the music phrase. Egan w r i t e s : "Rhythm i s a kind of c o n t e n t l e s s s t o r y . By convention i t sets up expectations, which are complicated and r e s o l v e d . " ^ ^Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i -v e r s i t y P r ess, 1979), p. 27/ ^Best, David, "Rhythm i n Movement—A Pl e a f o r C l a r i t y , " J o u r n a l of  Human Movement Studies, 2, (1976) p. 273. ^E'gan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford Uni -v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 143. 78 Not only could f o l k t a l e s , f a i r y - t a l e s , and legends be expressed through movement but a l s o the c h i l d r e n ' s own poems and s t o r i e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r own imaginative worlds. C h i l d r e n should be allowed to express t h e i r dreams and f a n t a s i e s as w e l l as t h e i r f e a r s . Emotional and moral categ o r i e s are very r e a l to them at the mythic stage. Through c h i l d r e n ' s own s t o r i e s , the teacher can o b t a i n clues as to how f a r along the mythic stage the c h i l d has progressed. C r e a t i v e movement le s s o n themes could a l s o be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h other subject areas. For example, lessons could complement the study of the g seasons i n a science u n i t . The s p r i n g , w i n t e r , autumn, wind, thunder, are a l l dynamic themes. Egan suggests that c u r r i c u l u m at t h i s stage should focus on the ". . . most dramatic and powerful themes of human 9 l i f e , h i s t o r y , and the n a t u r a l world." U t i l i z i n g these themes w i t h i n the st o r y i t i s p o s s i b l e to create an atmosphere i n which the c h i l d can give expression to h i s inner world and b e t t e r understand the ou t s i d e world. I f we plan c r e a t i v e dance e x p e r i -ences, employing the p r i n c i p l e s Egan has o u t l i n e d , i t seems l i k e l y that c h i l d r e n w i l l be given more opportunity to express t h e i r i maginative worlds, f i n d s e c u r i t y through a c t i o n s , come to enjoy movement more, and at the same time provide experiences that w i l l act as aliments i n a s s i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l development through t h i s stage. 2. Singing games/folk dance. U n l i k e c r e a t i v e dance, i n s i n g i n g games and f o l k dance, the rhythm, the words, and a c t i o n s are already s e t , 8 Boorman, Joyce, C r e a t i v e Dance i n the F i r s t Three Grades, (Don M i l l s : Longman Canada L i m i t e d , 1969), pp. 83-86. 9 Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i -v e r s i t y Press, 1979), p. 27. 79 t r a d i t i o n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d . I t i s here then, that the teacher should s e l e c t those dances which might best provide meaningful rhythmic e x p e r i -ences. At the mythic stage, c h i l d r e n have " d i r e c t access to f l i g h t s of fantasy" through imaginary c h a r a c t e r s , or imaginary p l a c e s . In s i n g i n g games, c h i l d r e n o f t e n s i n g the words and sometimes cla p the rhythms. The s t o r y form here i s found i n the song or music. I t remains imperative that d i s t i n c t beginnings, middle, and endings are obvious. C h i l d r e n f e e l b e t t e r , more secure when the movement sequence or s t o r y comes to some k i n d of conclusion. Appropriate f o r Grade One would be s i n g i n g games such as Brownies and Fairies,"'"'"' Ten L i t t l e Indians, The F a i r i e s ' Moonlight Dance, and Come, My D o l l y . Movements are simple, meaning i s c l e a r , and imagin-a t i o n i s st i m u l a t e d as i n "wings of pink and rosy crown." Binary oppo-s i t i o n s are present i n the movements as: sleeping/dancing, and emotions such as l o v e , j o y , sadness, and happiness are evoked. In the s i n g i n g games i t i s the rhythms as much as the a c t i o n s that provide a harmonious r o l e . These simple s i n g i n g games make i t p o s s i b l e f o r c h i l d r e n " . . . to e s t a b l i s h some personal and a f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h what i s being learned""'""'"—be i t the beauty of the apple blossom or the f r e e , and l i g h t , dancing of the f a i r i e s . In the e a r l y grades, f o l k dances p a r a l l e l s i n g i n g games. At f i r s t , dances should be s e l e c t e d that u t i l i z e b a s i c locomotor movements such as walking, s k i p p i n g , hopping. Rhythms should be c l e a r and d e f i n i t e s i n c e c h i l d r e n need to know the p r e c i s e , f i x e d meanings. S u i t a b l e dances might "^Moses, Irene E. P h i l i p s , Rhythmic A c t i o n P l a y s arid Dances, ( S p r i n g f i e l d : M i l t o n Bradley Company, 1915), pp. 100-103. "''"'"Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i -v e r s i t y Press, 1979), p. 12. 80 O t be Hansel and G r e t e l , Gustaf s S k a l , Seven Jumps, or The Shoemaker s Dance. Before teaching the dance, the teacher could put the dance i n t o some s t o r y form. For example, the emotions of the l i t t l e o l d shoemaker, s t r u g g l i n g p a i n f u l l y every day to make a p a i r of shoes, could be h i g h -l i g h t e d i n . t h e s t o r y so as to encourage some k i n d of r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c h i l d and the dance to be learned. The c l e a r e r the connection w i t h the c h i l d ' s i n s i d e world ( i n t e l l e c t u a l t o o l s — e m o t i o n a l and moral), the more meaning he w i l l d e r i v e from the movement experience. As c h i l d r e n at the mythic stage seem to be capable of deductive t h i n k i n g , i t may be best to present dances i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y at f i r s t . Once the general f e e l i n g of the dance has been presented through the s t o r y and movement sense, i t then could be broken down to l e a r n smaller p a r t s w i t h i n the whole. Gymnastics Gymnastics i s g e n e r a l l y taught at the elementary l e v e l using the movement education approach. This approach emphasizes e x p l o r a t i o n of movement s k i l l s and i s s i m i l a r to dance i n that i t i s not bound by s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r u l e s . Egan's p r i n c i p l e s can, t h e r e f o r e , be adapted to o r g a n i z i n g lessons at the mythic stage. The education move-ment approach has been defined as: . . . an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d approach or system of teaching c h i l d r e n to become aware of t h e i r p h y s i c a l a b i l i t i e s and use them e f f e c t i v e l y i n their, d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g p l a y , work, and c r e a t i v e expression. Through the medium of gymnastics, using small equipment such as a v a u l t i n g box, or c l i m b i n g apparatus, a c h i l d l e a r n s b a s i c movement s k i l l s which are appropriate to h i s p h y s i c a l maturity and general readiness.12 K i r c h n e r , Glenn, Jean Cunningham, and E i l e e n W a r r e l l , Introduc- t i o n to Movement Education, (Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Company P u b l i s h e r s , 1970), pp. 4-5. 81 G e n e r a l l y , t h e l e s s o n p r o g r e s s e s from an ope n i n g a c t i v i t y , t o f l o o r work where some a s p e c t o f movement i s d e v e l o p e d , on to a p p a r a t u s work where movements e x p e r i e n c e d on t h e f l o o r a r e th e n r e l a t e d t o t h e a p p a r a t u s . Such problems a r e p r e s e n t e d a s : "Can you take your weight on two hands and one f o o t ? " or "Show me d i f f e r e n t ways o f t r a v e l l i n g on your f e e t . " E v ery c h i l d d i s c o v e r s , e x p l o r e s , and c r e a t e s h i s own o r i g i n a l answer to the problem posed by the t e a c h e r . The q u e s t i o n i s how can we make e d u c a t i o n a l gymnastics more m e a n i n g f u l t o t h e c h i l d a t t h e mythic stage? L e s s o n o u t l i n e s found i n te x t b o o k s u s u a l l y a r e o r g a n i z e d around a theme, one theme l a s t i n g f o r one or more l e s s o n s . At the mythic s t a g e i t would be b e s t t o choose t h o s e themes or t a s k s which c a l l f o r dynamic k i n d s o f movement. E x p l o s i v e movements t h a t p r o v i d e adventure, e x c i t e m e n t , and i n v o l v e human emotions such as c l i m b i n g , jumping, s w i n g i n g , a r e k i n d s of movements t h a t w i l l c h a l l e n g e c h i l d r e n . Apparatus work c o u l d i n v o l v e h e i g h t s , f l i g h t , and p e r i l o u s moments. I f what c h i l d r e n at t h i s s t a g e know b e s t a r e t h e e m o t i o n a l and mo r a l c a t e g o r i e s , then we must connect t h e s e t o t h e i r move-ment e x p e r i e n c e s i n gymnastics u s i n g p i c t u r e s t i m u l u s o r music s t i m u l u s . Themes s h o u l d be chosen t h a t r e p r e s e n t b i n a r y o p p o s i t e s such as s t r e t c h / c u r l , f e e t t o g e t h e r / a p a r t , over and under, l o n g , t h i n , shapes/round shapes, t r a v e l l i n g h i g h / l o w , c o n t r a s t i n g p a r t s , ways o f g e t t i n g on/ways of g e t t i n g o f f . I t i s not common t h a t image s t i m u l i or v e r b a l p i c t u r e s a r e g i v e n t o encourage movements i n gy m n a s t i c s . A c c o r d i n g t o Egan's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i t might be b e s t t o encourage t e a c h e r s to use p h r a s e s such a s : "How q u i e t l y can you b r i n g your f e e t down?" "Show me how you can r o l l smoothly." "Can you f i n d t h r e e o t h e r smooth r o l l s ? " "Show me how h i g h you can jump." "Think o f your f e e t as r o c k e t s . Can you shoot 82 i n t o the a i r when you jump?" "Can you make a b i g b r i d g e - l i k e shape?" I t would seem that i f these types of aids were used throughout the u n i t s i n combination w i t h binary opposites c h i l d r e n would l i k e l y d e r i v e more s a t i s f a c t i o n , confidence, and meaning from t h e i r movement ta s k s . P a r t -ner work should be encouraged as i t helps the c h i l d see more c l e a r l y b inary o p p o s i t i o n s . The s t o r y form can a l s o be incorporated i n t o the movement tasks. Tasks should be u l t i m a t e l y placed i n a movement sequence, matching the theme at hand. There needs to be some l i n k between the movements explored. Too o f t e n c h i l d r e n discover ways of answering s e v e r a l tasks i n a l e s s o n , but the tasks remain i s o l a t e d challenges without any connect-ing u n i t . They need to experience some f e e l i n g of u n i t y , flow, and com-p l e t i o n i n t h e i r movement sequences or s t o r i e s . C h i l d r e n at the mythic stage can make sense and understand things put i n st o r y form, i n bin a r y o p p o s i t i o n and i n v o l v i n g the profound human emotions. C h i l d r e n at t h i s stage seem to d i s p l a y an i n s t i n c t i v e sureness of movement a c t i o n s . Through u t i l i z i n g Egan's p r i n c i p l e s i n l e s s o n planning i t i s hoped that t h i s confidence i s f o s t e r e d as the c h i l d g r a d u a l l y develops through t h i s stage, onto the next. Games Ch i l d r e n seem to f u l l y enjoy games and d e r i v e greatest meaning and pleasure from games when they are chosen according to p r i n c i p l e s that best provide l e a r n i n g ( c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , psychomotor) at the v a r i o u s stages of a c h i l d ' s educational development. That i s , f o r a 6-year o l d to play i c e hockey or b a s e b a l l would not be as meaningful to him as a game of hide and seek or cat and mouse. 83 Games at the e a r l y mythic stage should r e p l i c a t e the s t r u c t u r e of the s t o r y form, that i s , games should have beginnings, middles, and ends. Thinking of our own childhood experiences one probably remembers how completely involved one was w i t h hopscotch, k i c k - t h e - c a n , s k i p p i n g , or other games. The s t o r y form was obvious i n these games. Egan s t a t e s that the s t o r y form i s important as i t i s ". . . able to reduce and l i m i t r e a l i t y , p r o v i d i n g an arena w i t h i n which c h i l d r e n may f e e l secure because they know the r u l e s . W i t h i n the l i m i t s of the game, the meaning 13 of behavior i s e s t a b l i s h e d c l e a r l y and p r e c i s e l y . " Games appropriate f o r the mythic stage might be: Cowboys and Indians (Brownies and f a i r i e s ) , Old Mother Witch, Cat and Rat, S t e a l the Bacon (club snatch), Crows and 14 Cranes, Man from Mars. In these games, r u l e s are simple, c l e a r and w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d at the beginning. They are a l s o appealing, not only because simple s k i l l s such as running, dodging, tagging, provide a f e e l i n g of s e c u r i t y , but a l s o because the b a s i c human emotions are i n v o l v e d . There i s suspense as i n Crows and Cranes, deception i n Snatch the Club, and p l e n t y of concern about being caught or f e e l i n g of courage from escaping. These games a l s o have i n common bi n a r y opposites which help provide c l e a r r o l e d i s t i n c t i o n s and i n v o l v e , to a c e r t a i n extent, the c h i l d ' s imagination. C h i l d r e n at the mythic stage w i l l need a l o t of s k i l l p r a c t i c e i n c a t c h i n g , k i c k i n g , throwing, dodging, b a t t i n g , and aiming. They should a l s o be given the opportunity to p r a c t i c e these s k i l l s w i t h a v a r i e t y of 13 Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i -v e r s i t y Press, 1979), p. 18. """^Schurr, Evelyn L., Movement Experiences f o r C h i l d r e n , (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1967), pp. 327-334. 84 b a l l s , bats, bean bags, q u o i t s , and va r i o u s t a r g e t s and goals. Once the c h i l d r e n have been shown the c o r r e c t techniques f o r these s k i l l s , i t i s up to the teacher to organize p r a c t i c e s i t u a t i o n s that challenge, the c h i l d r e n and i n v o l v e an element of competition. L e n e l , i n her book, gives some good examples of how t h i s could be done. Throw your beanbag i n the a i r and c l a p once. Catch i t , throw i t up again and cla p twice. See how many times you can c l a p , throwing and ca t c h i n g your beanbag. Using bats and rubber b a l l s , f i n d the best d i s t a n c e f o r exchanging your b a l l and keep exchanging i t . Count the number of h i t s i n the r a l l y and t r y to improve each time. The b a l l may bounce once or t w i c e . ^ I f there i s some bin a r y drama, some expec t a t i o n , some goal to t r y and achieve, tHe'child i s more l i k e l y to d e r i v e meaning from the p r a c t i c e sessions. S k i l l s can soon be put i n t o a game s i t u a t i o n . Rules should remain simple and be given c l e a r l y i n order to provide a secure s e t t i n g . Appropriate games might be: nervous wreck, p r i s o n e r b a l l , and c i r c l e k i c k b a l l . Along w i t h these types of games, Vinto n i n h i s book, The Folkways Omnibus of Children's Games, describes s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g games that o r i g i n a t e from myths. These are i d e a l s i n c e c h i l d r e n ' s t h i n k i n g has s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to those of myth-using people. These games present b i n a r y drama, have imaginative content, i n v o l v e the profound human emotions, and are presented i n s t o r y form. Three r e l e v a n t examples are: 16 Badger the Sun, Ptarmigans against Ducks, and Shove winter out. Relays have r e c e n t l y taken on a p e r f o r a t i v e meaning today i n p h y s i c a l "'""'Lenel, R. M. , Games i n the Primary School, (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1969), pp. 60, 68 1 c. V i n t o n , I r i s , The F burg: Stackpole Books, 1970), pp. 71-75 1 c V i n t o n , I r i s , The Folkways Omnibus of Children's Games, ( H a r r i s -85 education, as they seem to imply long l i n e ups, l i t t l e a c t i v i t y , and sloppy s k i l l s . There does seem to be a place f o r them, e s p e c i a l l y at t h i s stage. Relays can combine dynamic, bi n a r y a c t i o n s . The s t r u g g l e between winning and l o s i n g , v i c t o r y and defeat. Relays can be chosen so that each c h i l d w i l l experience the f e e l i n g of winning and begins to understand l o s i n g . I f teams are s m a l l , 3-4 c h i l d r e n , then there i s much a c t i v i t y , much fun, and developmental progress. C u r r e n t l y , there has been a movement towards emphasizing co-opera-t i v e sports and games. Terry O r l i c k has created games i n which c h i l d r e n play together r a t h e r than against one a n o t h e r . ^ They are c o - o p e r a t i v e , not competitive. However, Egan makes the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t very s t r o n g l y . We do no s e r v i c e to c h i l d r e n by i n t r o d u c i n g them only to the secure surface and not l e t t i n g them see that what they have gone through as i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e i r s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e has gone through i n i t s own way.18 What the i n d i v i d u a l goes through, Egan says, are the " t i t a n i c s t r u g g l e s " f o r s u r v i v a l , s e c u r i t y and r e l a t i v e independence. I t i s important that c h i l d r e n see these s t r u g g l e s i n the world around them as i t w i l l help them make sense of the world through these s t r u g g l e s that they f e e l w i t h i n . Hence, there i s no purpose i n "burying" the nature of games, winning, and l o s i n g aspects, but r a t h e r exposing them to these r e a l s t r u g g l e s and a s s i s t i n g them i n developing a healthy understanding of competition and ensuring that c h i l d r e n experience both winning and l o s i n g . This i s not to suggest that none of O r l i c k ' s games are v a l u a b l e but r a t h e r that those games which provide an element of challenge, b i n a r y " ^ O r l i c k , T e r ry, The Co-operative Sports and Games Book, Challenge  Without Competition, (New York: Pantheon Books, 1978). 18 Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i -v e r s i t y P r ess, 1979), p. 122. 86 o p p o s i t i o n and i n v o l v e the most p r o f o u n d human emotions would be more v a l u a b l e f o r c h i l d r e n a t t h e mythic s t a g e . G e n e r a l P r i n c i p l e s f o r O r g a n i z i n g P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t i e s a t the  M y t h i c Stage The p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n has d e s c r i b e d how t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the m y t h i c s t a g e c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m a r e a s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Some g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s w i l l be added i n t h i s s e c t i o n . 1. What happens at the mythic s t a g e i s of paramount importance to the e v e n t u a l a d u l t . Egan has mentioned t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l development i s a c u m u l a t i v e p r o c e s s . The c h i l d l e a v e s n o t h i n g b e h i n d . Here a t t h i s s t a g e we a r e m o l d i n g the s k e l e t o n , as i t were, upon which l a t e r growth w i l l t a k e p l a c e . What the c h i l d t h e n needs at t h i s s t a g e i s t o be p r o v i d e d w i t h a g r e a t v a r i e t y of movement s k i l l s . Locomotor and hon-locomotor s k i l l s need time to be p r a c t i c e d and mastered t o a b a s i c degree. Through the ". . . c a p a c i t y t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d i n t h e mind" the c h i l d a c h i e v e s c o n f i d e n c e and s e c u r i t y . I f the c h i l d i s p r o v i d e d w i t h a v a r i e t y o f movement t a s k s and game s k i l l s w i t h and w i t h o u t appar-a t u s , he w i l l become l e s s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s and d e v e l o p more p o i s e and con-f i d e n c e . What i s needed i s b o t h a l a r g e amount o f c o n t e n t (a good d e a l o f time i n each l e s s o n t o p r a c t i c e s k i l l s ) and a l a r g e v a r i e t y o f s k i l l s (not o n l y t h r o w i n g and c a t c h i n g but a l s o dodging, g u a r d i n g , t i m i n g , k i c k i n g , and so o n ) . 2. The k i n d of a c t i v i t y or c o n t e n t most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r u n f o l d i n g t h e c a p a c i t i e s a t t h e mythic s t a g e would be dance or r h y t h m i c a l a c t i v -i t i e s and games. These two a c t i v i t i e s a r e r i c h i n b i n a r y o p p o s i t e s , p r e s e n t c l e a r , f i x e d meanings, and p r o v i d e easy a c c e s s t h r o u g h t h e b a s i c 87 human emotions. The s t o r y form i s e a s i l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n dance through rhythm and a c t i o n s and i s b a s i c to most games. E d u c a t i o n a l gymnastics c o u l d be i n c l u d e d but i t appears to be more d i f f i c u l t t o p r e s e n t t h e s k i l l s u s i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e mythic s t a g e . 3. A l o n g w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Egan has a r t i c u l a t e d , t h a t of rhythm c o u l d be i n c l u d e d . As c h i l d r e n make sense out of t h e i r w o r l d through t h e s t o r y form or b i n a r y o p p o s i t e s , e m o t i o n a l and moral c a t e g o r -i e s , so too t h e c h i l d r e n may make sense out of movement thr o u g h rhythm. C h i l d r e n a t t h i s age do most o f t h e i r m o v e m e n t s — r u n n i n g , jumping, s k i p p i n g , h o p p i n g — r h y t h m i c a l l y . We need o n l y t o o b s e r v e a c h i l d on a p l a y g r o u n d or a c h i l d s i t t i n g on a h i g h c h a i r — t h e l e g s r u n and swing t o an i n n e r rhythm. They accompany many r h y t h m i c a l movements w i t h s i n g i n g (or what seems t o be some k i n d of humming). Rhythm seems to be a p a r t o f t h e i r v e r y b e i n g — t h e i r i n n e r w o r l d . T h e r e f o r e , i t would make sense t h a t much o f the movement done i n t h i s s t a g e s h o u l d be of a r h y t h m i c a l n a t u r e . P l a t o o f t e n emphasized t h a t gymnastic movements s h o u l d have a r h y t h m i c a l c h a r a c t e r and a l s o be accompanied by some m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t . At t h e mythic s t a g e , then, many ( i f not a l l ) movements c o u l d be done i n a g r a c e f u l r h y t h m i c a l manner. One c o u l d even be so b o l d as t o suggest t h a t t h i s may be a s e n s i t i v e p e r i o d f o r t h e development of a r h y t h m i c a l sense. I f n e g l e c t e d at t h i s s t a g e , an a t h l e t e may be h i g h l y s k i l l e d but l a c k t h e g r a c e , t h e f l o w of movement. 4. I f t h e immature r e q u i r e immature c o n c e p t s , as Egan f r e q u e n t l y s u g g e s t s throughout h i s book, th e n a t the m y t h i c s t a g e , c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g must emphasize t h i s p r i n c i p l e . Simple dances must come b e f o r e i n t r i c a t e dances no matter how s i l l y t hey may appear t o th e t e a c h e r . S t r o n g , c l e a r rhythms s h o u l d be chosen b e f o r e c o m p l i c a t e d syncopated 88 ones a r e attempted. Gymnastic or o t h e r e x e r c i s e s s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d i n a r h y t h m i c a l c o n t e x t . When movements a r e p l a c e d i n t h i s c o n t e x t , young c h i l d r e n seem t o t i r e l e s s q u i c k l y . I f f i t n e s s i s an o b j e c t i v e then i t s h o u l d be pursued through games, dance, and r h y t h m i c a l gymnastics i n s t e a d of imposing an a d u l t p e r c e p t i o n of f i t n e s s — o n e o r two l a p s around the t r a c k or f i e l d . The immature need to d e v e l o p t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s t o t h e f u l l e s t b e f o r e moving i n t o t h e next s t a g e . Hence, s i m p l e c h i l d r e n ' s games t a k e precedence over i n v o l v e d k i n d s o f a d u l t games. In the gymnasium and on the p l a y f i e l d , c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be a l l o w e d f r e e e x p r e s -s i o n of t h e i r w i l d e s t dreams, and f e a r s , t o c r e a t e from t h e i n s i d e out something t h a t w i l l b r i n g them c l o s e r t o t h e w o r l d around them. 5. Egan s t a t e s t h a t c h i l d r e n a t t h e m y t h i c s t a g e seek ". . . mean-19 i n g p r i m a r i l y from the g e n e r a l or p a r a d i g m a t i c . . . " In o t h e r words they seem t o be c a p a b l e of d e d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g a t t h i s s t a g e . T h i s has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g s k i l l s i n a l l a c t i v i t y a r e a s . I t t e l l s us t h a t a s k i l l i s p r o b a b l y b e s t p r e s e n t e d i n i t s e n t i r e t y so t h a t t h e c h i l d g ets a g e n e r a l p i c t u r e o f what i s to be done. They need to get a sense of f e e l i n g o f the whole b e f o r e t h e p a r t s a r e p r a c t i c e d . Romantic Stage T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l examine how p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m can be o r g a n i z e d so t h a t i t b e s t s u p p o r t s and coheres w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Egan has d e s c r i b e d f o r t h e s t u d e n t a t t h e r o m a n t i c s t a g e . O r g a n i z a t i o n around the r o m a n t i c s t a g e w i l l i n v o l v e t h e f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s : 1) an e x p l o r a t i o n o f r e a l i t y i n . d e t a i l — c o l l e c t i n g f a c t s and memorizing p a r t i c u l a r s , 2) d e v e l o p i n g a sense of o t h e r n e s s , 3) f o c u s i n g i n t e r e s t on 1 9 I b i d . , p. 160. 89 the extremes, something as d i f f e r e n t as p o s s i b l e from the everyday e x p e r i e n c e s , 4 ) romantic a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h some human q u a l i t y such as n o b i l i t y , b r a v e r y , courage, and 5 ) more e l a b o r a t e , s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t o r y forms, d e a l i n g w i t h r e a l i t y o r t h e p l a u s i b l e . Dance 1. C r e a t i v e . I f t h e c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s s t a g e i s to e x p l o r e t h e l i m i t s o f r e a l i t y and a t the same time to t r a n s c e n d everyday r e a l i t y , then dance a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d b e s t be o r g a n i z e d u s i n g t h e s e t r a n s c e n d e n t q u a l i t i e s as themes. Themes t h a t e x p r e s s r o m a n t i c a s s o c i a -t i o n s w i t h t h e p o w e r f u l , n o b l e , b r a v e , and the courageous would a l l be s u i t a b l e . Movement themes and s k i l l s b u i l t around c h a r a c t e r s such as Napoleon, F l o r e n c e N i g h t i n g a l e , Long John S i l v e r , S t . Joan, Thomas a Becket, t h e K n i g h t s o f t h e Round T a b l e , L a n c e l o t , S t . F r a n c i s . F o r example, a movement sequence, drawing a c t i o n s based upon such r o m a n t i c f i g u r e s as Long John S i l v e r or W i l d B i l l H i c k o k i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h music from The Good, the Bad and t h e U g l y c o u l d be a d r a m a t i c dance e x p e r i e n c e . Boys e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a f i g h t sequence. Students a t t h i s s t a g e a r e c a p a b l e of l o n g e r e x t r a c t s of music and a g r e a t e r d i v e r s i t y o f a c t i o n s . Whereas at the mythic s t a g e themes f o c u s e d on b i n a r y o p p o s i t e s , t h e y now can mediate between t h e s e o p p o s i t e s . T h e i r movement v o c a b u l a r y expands. A c t i o n words such as s l i t h e r , m e l t , s o a r , w h i r l , and many d i f f e r e n t hues of the s t a r k o p p o s i t e s can be e x p l o r e d a t t h i s s t a g e . V o l c a n o , earthquake, windstorm, and o t h e r themes of n a t u r e a r e a l s o a p p r o p r i a t e . U s i n g the poem The E a g l e by Tennyson, Boorman i l l u s t r a t e s how t h i s c o u l d p r o v i d e s t i m u l u s of a group dance. S p a t i a l awareness i s i n c r e a s i n g and the romantic student i s capable of a greater range of 'group' r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Nevertheless, these movement sequences should be patterned i n t o a r h y t h m i c a l s t r u c t u r e and s t i l l r e t a i n the s t o r y form. Egan p o i n t s out that the s t o r y form remains an important v e h i c l e f o r presenting knowledge, but at t h i s stage i t becomes more elaborate and needs to deal w i t h the p l a u s i b l e elements of t h i s world. Any themes that explore the l i m i t s of r e a l i t y through extremes or e x t r a o r d i n a r y , d i f f e r e n t events, p l a c e s , or people w i l l a l s o prove engag-in g and meaningful. Star Wars music or the music from 2001 .could be used f o r a dance s e t t i n g such as: a moon l a n d i n g , a v i s i t to a M artian colony, a voyage to outer space. Movements emphasizing d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of energy could be p r a c t i c e d such as f l y i n g , f a l l i n g , r o l l i n g , f r e e z i n g , and g r i p p i n g . P r a c t i c e sessions could culminate i n a group dance. U n l i k e themes at the mythic stage these themes must c o n t a i n p l a u s i b l e or r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l s . The reason f o r f o c u s i n g on these types of extremes i s to s a t i s f y the students' d e s i r e to ' f e e l ' d i f f e r e n t forms of l i f e , thereby e x p l o r i n g the l i m i t s of the world around them. Dance w i l l a l s o help develop the sense of otherness i n the sense that students get to explore p h y s i c a l space and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Through romantic a s s o c i a t i o n and i n t e r e s t i n extremes the student can transcend the t h r e a t s to h i s immature ego momen-t a r i l y , u n t i l such time as he develops a f u l l e r sense of i d e n t i t y . Along w i t h the romantic zest f o r e x o t i c and b i z a r r e themes, students a l s o show great i n t e r e s t i n c o l l e c t i n g f a c t s and memorizing details.. 20 Boorman, Joyce, C r e a t i v e Dance i n Grades Four to S i x , (Don M i l l s : Longman Canada L i m i t e d , 1971), p. 37. 91 This allows f o r a tremendous scope of p o s s i b l e ideas. Poems that c h i l -dren have memorized i n language-arts, could be put i n t o dance movements. Egan a l s o suggests that the same theme could be exem p l i f i e d i n d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s . A s o c i a l s t u d i e s u n i t on the g l o r i e s of Greece could be in t e g r a t e d n i c e l y w i t h dance. The h e r o i c , adventurous q u a l i t i e s of 21 Odysseus or the drama of The Seige of Troy are e x c e l l e n t themes. As movements become more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and i n v o l v e the f i n e r muscles, the c h i l d r e n ' s a p p e t i t e f o r d e t a i l could a l s o be met by s t r e s s i n g s u b t l e a c t i o n s of the f i n g e r s , toes, elbow, vertebrae, and f a c i a l expressions. Percussion instruments can beat out more d e t a i l e d rhythms. A f a v o r i t e idea i s that of c r e a t i n g a machine. D i f f e r e n t mechanical parts are p r a c t i c e d and can be co-ordinated w i t h partner movements. The c l a s s may wish to become one giant machine. This idea could be r e l a t e d to the inv e n t i o n s of the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . The assortment of m o t i f s , or themes, that would be s u i t a b l e at t h i s stage, seem to be endless. As long as the s t r e s s i s on romantic a s s o c i a t i o n s , d e t a i l s , and extremes embodied i n the s t o r y form and r h y t h m i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d , then students w i l l d e r i v e meaning from c r e a t i v e dance experiences. 2. Folk dance. F o l k dance serves as a v e h i c l e f o r understanding the d i f f e r e n t customs, r i t u a l s , b e l i e f s , manners, and occupations of people from v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s . The planner needs to ask "What i s romantic about i t ? " Much of f o l k dance can act as an 'aliment' f o r educational development through the romantic stage. Steps and patterns put to music represent aspects of the peoples' l i v e s , f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r costumes, b e l i e f s , and s t r u g g l e s provide access to knowledge through romantic a s s o c i a t i o n s . The i n t e r e s t i n extremes can a l s o be 21 Cronwell, P a u l , C r e a t i v e Playmaking i n the Primary School, (London: Chatto & Windus, 1970), pp. 53, 115. 92 s a t i s f i e d through an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of dances from a wide d i v e r s i t y of c u l t u r e s — E s k i m o , Serbian, German, or Greek. D i v e r s i t y not only i n customs and manners, but a l s o i n rhythms that help t e l l the s t o r y of a people or place. Facts and d e t a i l s could accompany the dance i n areas such as: d e t a i l s of ethnic ornamented embroidered costumes, geographical l o c a t i o n s , h i s t o r y , f a c t s about unique musical instruments (drums, bagpipes, harmonicas, f l u t e s , e t c . ) , a r t and music. Dances can be s e l e c t e d to express themes covered i n other subject areas. For example, i f the theme was courage and s u r v i v a l then i t might be appropriate to choose a dance from Serbia. The s t a t e of Serbia has a long h i s t o r y of s t r u g g l e s f o r independence, r e s i s t i n g many inv a s i o n s throughout the c e n t u r i e s . This courage and s t r u g g l e i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r dances. "The proud d i g n i t y , f u l l posture of the Serbian dancer 22 i s w a r r i o r - l i k e i n s t y l e . " Any of the e a s i e r Kolo dances as S e l j a n c i c a Kolo, Ersko K o l o , or Roumansko Kolo would be appropriate. The walking steps done w i t h p l i e and the tempo of the music both capture the proudness of the people. Another s u i t a b l e dance would be the German, Blacksmith's Dance. Here the energy of the b l a c k s m i t h , t o i l i n g long hours would be emphasized. The rhythm i s strong and c l e a r , accented by the c l a p p i n g sequence. The dance represents the s t o r y form i n that the two p a r t s , the c l a p p i n g and c i r c l i n g complement each o t h e r — t h e strong beginning and the happy, l i v e l y ending. Dances f o r s p e c i a l occasions could a l s o be learned as they o f f e r f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s to the h a b i t s of people. A wedding dance such as Patch Tanz or a dance i n p r a i s e of water l i k e the s p i r i t e d 22 Joukowsky, A n a t o l , The Teaching of E t h n i c Dance, (New York: J . L o w e ll P r a t t and Company, 1965), p. 29. 93 I s r a e l i Mayim, would be meaningful to the romantic stage student. In Mayim, a joyous, strong rhythm helps the f e e t a r t i c u l a t e the foot pat-terns and the v o i c e a s s i s t s i n s i n g i n g the p r a i s e . Through t h i s k i n d of movement p i c t u r e the romantic student i s able to sense the s p i r i t and f e e l i n g of people from another c u l t u r e . I t allows them to develop a "sense of romance." As Egan s t a t e s " . . . the romantic stage i n v o l v e s a d i a l e c t i c a l extension of the student's concepts, f e e l i n g s , and other human q u a l i t i e s by constant comparisons w i t h , and i n h a b i t a t i o n o f , other 23 peoples i n other times and p l a c e s . " 3. Square dance. Square dance, l i k e f o l k dance can a l s o give students access to knowledge and understanding of people through movement, s t o r y form, and romantic a s s o c i a t i o n . A study of pioneer l i f e , the expan-s i o n of America's west, the cowboys, and ranch l i f e are a l l captured i n the many mixers and square dances. V i r g i n i a Reel i s a good example. I t expresses the f r e e , happy s p i r i t of the e a r l y s e t t l e r s i n i t s s t e p s , v o i c e accompaniment, and rhythms. By ' f e e l i n g ' d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s , from d i f f e r e n t lands, the students get to sense the s c a l e of things around them, h e l p i n g them to develop t h e i r d i s t i n c t i d e n t i t i e s . Romantic a s s o c i a t i o n i s the v e h i c l e to provide t h i s sense of s e c u r i t y . Other s u i t a b l e dances would be Solomon L e v i , Red R i v e r V a l l e y , B u f f a l o Gals, and Teton Mountain Stomp. The sense of romance i s best invoked i f the dance i s the outgrowth of a s t o r y , or a theme st u d i e d i n other c u r r i c u l u m areas. I n t e r e s t i n extremes could be studied by comparing d i f f e r e n t country dances. For example, the b o i s t e r o u s energetic g a i e t y of the V i r g i n i a R e e l , could be contrasted w i t h the c o n t r o l and grace of Patch 23 Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i -v e r s i t y Press, 1979), p. 128. 94 Tanz. Both forms of dance w i l l f e e d development th r o u g h t h e r o m a n t i c s t a g e . Steps s h o u l d not become too c o m p l i c a t e d i n t h e s e dances as s t u d e n t s w i l l need to d e v e l o p c o n f i d e n c e i n moving t h e i r b o d i e s to a v a r i e t y of rhythms and p a t t e r n s . Once c o n t r o l and s e c u r i t y a r e e v i d e n t , they w i l l be ready f o r t h e p h i l o s o p h i c s t a g e . Gymnastics The main aim a t t h i s s t a g e i s to broaden the f o u n d a t i o n of g e n e r a l s k i l l s and t o develop f l e x i b i l i t y and c o n f i d e n c e . The b a s i c movements t h a t were i n t r o d u c e d a t t h e mythic s t a g e , jumping, l a n d i n g , t r a n s f e r r i n g body weight, hanging, c u r l i n g , s t r e t c h i n g , and f l i g h t a r e now broadened. Egan s u g g e s t s t h a t we ask t h e q u e s t i o n , "What a r e the l i m i t s and dimen-24 s i o n s of the r e a l and the p o s s i b l e ? " , to l e a d us i n c h o o s i n g a p p r o p r i -a t e c o n t e n t f o r t h e r o m a n t i c s t a g e . Themes which a l l o w t h e s t u d e n t to t r a n s c e n d h i s everyday r e a l i t y t hrough r o m a n t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s would be the b e s t f o r t h i s s t a g e : " . . . t h e s e a r c h f o r t r a n s c e n d e n c e i s t h e m o t i v a t o r 25 f o r l e a r n i n g . . . " Hence, i n gymnastics, f i l m s c o u l d a c t as the m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e showing g r e a t achievements i n the s p o r t . Each movement sequence might f o c u s on a p a r t i c u l a r theme. I n s t e a d of b u i l d i n g l e s s o n s around t a s k s such as t w i s t i n g , t u r n i n g , use of space, b e n d i n g , s t r e t c h i n g , i t might be b e t t e r t o f o c u s on themes such as energy, courage, c r e a t i v i t y , power, g r a c e , beauty, and so on. F o r example, i f the l e s s o n s a r e t o f o c u s on the theme courage, one c o u l d b e g i n by showing the f i l m o f t h e Japanese gymnastic team member who competed a t the Olympics w i t h an a l r e a d y broken l e g i n o r d e r t o ensure h i s team a g o l d medal. 24 25 I b i d . , p. 125. I b i d . , p. 124. 95 This k i n d of s t o r y would appeal to t h e i r a p p e t i t e f o r extremes and the ' d i f f e r e n t . ' The r e s t of the l e s s o n , on f l o o r and apparatus might focus on courage. Courage i n working w i t h p a r t n e r s : t a k i n g each other's weight, courage i n maintaining balance on apparatus, courage i n f l i g h t , courage i n l i f t i n g and lowering p a r t s , and courage i n t u r n i n g and t w i s t i n g movements. Another theme could be energy. One could begin a les s o n by watching a f l o o r e x e r c i s e r o u t i n e and a r o u t i n e on the r i n g s , and discuss the d i f f e r e n t energies i n p l a y . For in s t a n c e , the energy that i s r e q u i r e d to do w h i p - l i k e a c t i o n s of the body; the energy discharge to s e l e c t e d p a r t s of the body, arms, l e g s , h i p s ; and the v a r i o u s i n t e n -s i t i e s of energy f o r l a n d i n g , b a l a n c i n g , l e a p s , and jumps. A l l o w i n g the students to explore these kinds of themes w i l l b r i n g to them the s p i r i t , excitement, and romance of gymnastics. These kinds of themes w i l l give them the freedom to explore, not only the extremes, but a l s o the very d e t a i l s of movement. Challenging apparatus such as ropes, v a u l t i n g boxes, and bars are good i n the sense that they can attempt the s p e c t a c u l a r , the extreme i n h e i g h t , s t r e n g t h , d i s t a n c e , and speed. I t i s between these extremes that the student begins to gain c o n t r o l of h i s own body and co n s t r u c t s h i s own i d e n t i t y . Students need time to exhaust a l l the movement p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The s t r e s s should be placed upon b u i l d i n g the widest p o s s i b l e range of move-ment s k i l l s . As Morrison says: "Much l e a p i n g and jumping should be included f o r i f people do not ' f l y ' at t h i s stage, they are u n l i k e l y to . , ,.26 enjoy xt l a t e r . 26 Morison, Ruth, A Movement Approach to Educational Gymnastics, (London: J . M. Dent and Sons L i m i t e d , 1969), p. 151. 96 Games "Romantic games i n v o l v e a h e s i t a n t , ambivalent g r a p p l i n g w i t h 27 s e r i o u s problems i n a context i n s u l a t e d by p l a y f u l n e s s . " Egan a l s o suggests that games which students f i n d appealing at t h i s stage deal w i t h the p l a u s i b l e world. They might f i n d games such as hound and r a b b i t (mythic stage) r a t h e r c h i l d i s h . Other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of students' t h i n k i n g such as i n t e r e s t i n extremes, f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h d e t a i l s , t r a n -scending t h r e a t s of the everyday through romantic a s s o c i a t i o n s , and elements of the s t o r y form w i l l help to b e t t e r organize game s i t u a t i o n s that w i l l be meaningful and engaging. 28 An a p p r o p r i a t e game would be that of Agents and Spies. This game in v o l v e s running, throwing, and accuracy. I t a l s o i n v o l v e s suspense, s i n c e there i s a romantic a s s o c i a t i o n i n p l a y i n g the part of the c l e v e r spy or the cunning agent. A game that the students e s p e c i a l l y may enjoy 29 at t h i s stage i s that of Slaughter. Here there i s pl e n t y of drama, excitement, and humor. I t gives the b i g boys a chance to be the hero and use t h e i r muscle s t r e n g t h and i t gives the smaller boys an opportunity to outwit an opponent by working together to throw the other team member out of the boundary. Dodgeball games such as Three Team Dodgeball, Space T r a v e l , Atomic Dodgeball or B a t t l e b a l l a l l provide an arena i n which the students can experience competition, tense s i t u a t i o n s , and develop 27 Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i -v e r s i t y P r ess, 1979), pp. 34-35. 28 Schurr, Evelyn L., Movement Experiences f o r C h i l d r e n : Curriculum  and Methods f o r Elementary School P h y s i c a l Education, (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1967), p. 353. 29 Fluegelman, Andrew, ed., The New Games Book, (New York: The Headlands Press, 1976), pp. 101-102. 97 c o n f i d e n c e i n b u i l d i n g b a s i c r u n n i n g , dodging, and th r o w i n g s k i l l s . G r a d u a l l y more c o m p l i c a t e d s k i l l s w i l l be de v e l o p e d i n a v a r i e t y o f minor o r lea d - u p games. S k i l l s p r a c t i c e s h o u l d remain c h a l l e n g i n g and c u l m i n a t e i n a p p l y i n g s k i l l s i n a game s i t u a t i o n . When i n t r o d u c i n g t r a d i t i o n a l s p o r t s or games, the t e a c h e r c o u l d encourage s t u d e n t s t o st u d y the h i s t o r y o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s p o r t . The t e a c h e r c o u l d r e l a t e s t o r i e s of r e c o r d s s e t , g o a l s s c o r e d , a n e c d o t e s , and u n b e l i e v a b l e f e a t s of s t r e n g t h , speed o r h e i g h t . The s t u d e n t s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n d e t a i l s and extremes and th e s e would h e l p m o t i v a t e . A v i s i t w i t h t h e Harlem G l o b e t r o t t e r s would p r o b a b l y be t h e h i g h -l i g h t f o r a s t u d e n t a t t h i s s t a g e . Romantic a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h the g i a n t s of t h i s game and t h e i r i n g e n i o u s and u n b e l i e v a b l e mastery o f the s k i l l s i s r e a l l y s p e c t a c u l a r . When p r a c t i c i n g b a l l h a n d l i n g ' s k i l l s or s h o o t i n g , s t u d e n t s c o u l d be encouraged t o compose a sequence i m i t a t i n g t h e Gl o b e -t r o t t e r s . A l l t h e t e a c h e r needs i s t h e music and they would f i n d t h e s t u d e n t s working v e r y e n e r g e t i c a l l y a t t h i s t a s k . In t r a c k and f i e l d , the t e a c h e r c o u l d , a t t h e s t a r t of a l e s s o n , s e t the h i g h jump bar a t Olympic r e c o r d h e i g h t , or mark i n t h e l o n g jump p i t t h e Olympic r e c o r d jump, and the n watch how e a g e r l y s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e . Another way of b r i n g i n g r o m a n t i c l i f e and f l a v o r i n t o t h e gym i s thr o u g h i m p e r s o n a t i o n s . The t e a c h e r may appear to be a hero i n t h e gym by d e m o n s t r a t i n g whatever s k i l l s he o r she can make appear ' f a n t a s t i c . ' F o r example, h e r e i s Cassy w a l k i n g up to b a t , o r h e r e i s about t o throw t h e d i s c u s t o s e t a new w o r l d r e c o r d , o r he r e i s to r u n the h u r d l e s i n r e c o r d speed. Students l o v e t h i s k i n d o f d i s p l a y . A l l t h e a c t i o n s , the l i t t l e move-ments t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y p r e p a r e f o r the g r e a t event c o u l d be exagger a t e d t o add more c o l o r and suspense. Students i n t h i s s t a g e w i l l c o n s t a n t l y 98 request 'Show us how to do i t , ' or demand, 'you do i t ! ' These kinds of ideas w i l l best feed development through t h i s stage and provide students w i t h a sense of romance of man's p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l achievements and adventures. H i s t o r y of the Olympic games would a l s o be a s u i t a b l e t o p i c to be researched. S l i d e s could be shown of Olympia and the p a r t i c u l a r s of the events of those ancient days such as d e t a i l s of how each ra c e r ' s lane was marked by a s l a b of marble and l a t e r how s t r i n g s were drawn to i n d i c a t e each ra c e r ' s lane. "By e x h a u s t i v e l y knowing something one gets 30 a sense of the s c a l e of e v e r y t h i n g . " This seems to be the essence of the romantic stage and games content can be organized to a i d more f u l l y t h i s development. To feed t h e i r a p p e t i t e s f o r the b i z a r r e and d i f f e r e n t , s t o r i e s could be t o l d of how men d i s g u i s e d as women a c t u a l l y competed i n women's events i n the Olympic games, or perhaps s t o r i e s could be t o l d of the greatest f e a t s accomplished by Jesse Owens or Mark S p i t z . One might say, these ideas and s t o r i e s are i n t e r e s t i n g but how should the s k i l l s be taught. The i n t e n t i o n of these ideas i s to point out that s k i l l s should not be, as they very f r e q u e n t l y are, disconnected or d i s s o c i a t e d from the human aspect. Games and sport s k i l l s should be r e l a t e d to some human q u a l i t y such as energy, courage, s e l f - c o n t r o l , endurance, s e l f - r e l i a n c e . Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i -v e r s i t y Press, 1979), p. 35. 99 G e n e r a l P r i n c i p l e s f o r O r g a n i z i n g P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m a t  the Romantic Stage I t has been s a i d t h a t i n t h e gymnasium the t e a c h e r meets the ego of the s t u d e n t f a c e to f a c e . Hence, through s t r u c t u r i n g a p p r o p r i a t e p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , t h e t e a c h e r can a s s i s t the s t u d e n t i n d e v e l o p i n g c o n f i d e n c e and a sense of i d e n t i t y . Through r o m a n t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e p o w e r f u l , b r a v e , c r e a t i v e , e n e r g e t i c , and courageous, s t u d e n t s can t r a n s c e n d t h e c h a l l e n g e s of. t h e r e a l w o r l d . By d o i n g so, t h e i r immature egos are g i v e n support u n t i l they can r e s o l v e t h e t e n s i o n c r e a t e d between what i s r e a l (the r e a l world) and t h e i r c o n c e r n w i t h what i s beyond. 1. Dance, gymnastics, and games s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d t o p r o v i d e a l a r g e v a r i e t y o f themes t h a t suggest t r a n s c e n d e n t q u a l i t i e s . Not o n l y t h e common q u a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p h y s i c a l body such as power, endurance, and energy s h o u l d be emphasized but a l s o t h e q u a l i t i e s as g r a c e , harmony, p o i s e , b a l a n c e , c o n t r o l , and beauty. I f a r o m a n t i c sense of t h e s e human e x p r e s s i o n s i s not a c h i e v e d a t t h i s s t a g e i t i s l i k e l y t o be l a c k i n g i n the a d u l t f o r e v e r . 2. Through a v a r i e t y of s k i l l s , s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y to e x p l o r e a l l t h e l i m i t s and dimensions o f p h y s i c a l movement. The s t u d e n t needs to t e s t h i s s t r e n g t h , t e s t h i s endurance, t e s t h i s courage, exhaust a l l movement p o s s i b i l i t i e s . To t h i s end, some a c t i v i t -i e s a r e b e t t e r t h a n o t h e r s as has been i n d i c a t e d . C r e a t i v e dance, and a p p a r a t u s work i n gymnastics seem e s p e c i a l l y s u i t a b l e . C e r t a i n team games and s p o r t s a r e a l s o c h a l l e n g i n g . 3. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e r o m a n t i c s t a g e , s t r o n g l y suggest t h a t i s o l a t e d forms of e x e r c i s e s , c i r c u i t s , and r u n n i n g l a p s w i l l do l i t t l e t o a i d development i n t h i s s t a g e . Even s i m p l e e x e r c i s e s of t h e 100 body can be put i n a form t h a t r e p r e s e n t s a "movement-picture i n t o which 31 the c h i l d can grow." Rhythmics and g r a c e s h o u l d not be s a c r i f i c e d i n the p u r s u i t of f i t n e s s . 4. The t e a c h e r as a c t o r s e r v e s an im p o r t a n t r o l e and can go a l o n g way i n s t i m u l a t i n g enthusiasm and humor. Through s k i l l s and c h a r a c t e r -i z a t i o n s he or she can demonstrate a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t human q u a l i t i e s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s important t h a t t e a c h e r s do i n v o l v e themselves i n the l e s s o n a t hand th r o u g h d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , s i n c e they a r e more m e a n i n g f u l a t t h i s s t a g e t h a n a t any o t h e r . 5. At t h i s s t a g e , s t u d e n t s seem to e x e r c i s e i n d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g . T h e r e f o r e , when p r e s e n t i n g s k i l l s i t may be b e s t t o s t a r t w i t h t h e p a r t i c -u l a r and move to the g e n e r a l . Emphasis s h o u l d be put on d e t a i l s such a s : arm a c t i o n , f o o t placement, p u s h o f f , s h o u l d e r movement, b a l l p o s i t i o n , g r i p on implement. S k i l l s a r e f i r s t d i s s e c t e d and o n l y l a t e r a r e t h e p a r t s connected. When d i s c u s s i n g f i t n e s s and e x e r c i s e i t would be b e t t e r t o s t a r t w i t h the d e t a i l s such a s : t h e p u l s e , oxygen p i c k - u p , c a p i l l a r i e s , a o r t a , and so on, b e f o r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e g e n e r a l c a r d i o - v a s c u l a r p i c t u r e . 6. J u s t because t h i s i s a s t a g e v e r y much f o r t e s t i n g the extremes, e x h a u s t i n g movements i n e n d l e s s ways, does not suggest t h a t s t u d e n t s be l e f t t o r u n , jump, and p l a y i n an u n c o n t r o l l e d manner. There needs t o be d i s c i p l i n e i n a l l of t h i s movement e x p l o r a t i o n and d i s c o v e r y . Q u a l i t y of form and e x e c u t i o n needs t o be r e i n f o r c e d . As Egan reminds us: " Q u i t e commonly proponents of freedom f o r s t u d e n t s ' e x p r e s s i o n f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t d i s c i p l i n e d mastery o f a medium i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r freedom of e x p r e s s i o n . . . .One cannot t r a n s c e n d c o n v e n t i o n a l forms u n t i l 31 Bothmer, Gymnastic E d u c a t i o n , ( C l e n t : Goethean S c i e n c e F o u n d a t i o n ) . 101 32 one has thoroughly mastered them." 7. There Is s t i l l an emphasis on rhythm at t h i s stage. Perhaps t h i s element of movement has been neglected i n recent years i n p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . A c t i v i t i e s are performed without much a t t e n t i o n to tempo. Dance a c t i v i t i e s and even s k i l l s of team games can be accom-p l i s h e d i n a rh y t h m i c a l f a s h i o n . Egan says that " . . . a mind stocked w i t h f i n e poetry and prose enriches both the rhythms of one's language and the range of one's thoughts and sentiment and provides a n . i n f i n i t e l y r i c h t r easure that can be drawn on at w i l l through the r e s t of one's 33 l i f e . " One could make the comparison that a body stocked w i t h a v a r i e t y of movement s k i l l s and rhythms enriches our cap a c i t y to enjoy movement throughout one's l i f e and appreciate the a e s t h e t i c s of movement. P h i l o s o p h i c Stage The ' b i t s and pi e c e s , ' the f a c t s , the assorted romantic d e t a i l s no longer appeal to the p h i l o s o p h i c mind. Instead, through the r e a l i z a t i o n that they are a part of the l a r g e r world.and a l l i t s laws, students begin to search f o r the 'wholes,' the general t r u t h s and laws of nature, of human psychology, of s o c i a l l i f e , of h i s t o r i c a l development and of human movement. This search w i l l give them a new founded s e c u r i t y . I f t h i s i s the s e n s i t i v e p e r i o d f o r developing the c a p a c i t y to generate general schemes and p r i n c i p l e s , then p h y s i c a l education a c t i v i t i e s could be organized to lead students i n t o developing j u s t such c a p a c i t i e s . 32 Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i -v e r s i t y P r ess, 1979), p. 144. 33 I b i d . , p. 48. 102 Dance "The content that i s of most importance f o r the p h i l o s o p h i c stage then i s that which best enables students to compose or to see general 34 o r g a n i z i n g schemes i n each f i e l d of i n q u i r y . " Dance, and i n p a r t i c u l a r c r e a t i v e or modern dance i s a good choice of a c t i v i t y through which students can begin to formulate the general concepts and laws governing human movement. Although v a r i o u s aspects of e f f o r t , space, and r e l a t i o n -s h i p had been part of t h e i r past l e s s o n s , i t i s only now that a l l the experiences they have had begin to coalesce i n t o general schemes. Through continued dance experiences the student w i l l begin to understand the p r i n c i p l e s of e f f o r t , that movement i s impelled by energies. They w i l l begin to answer questions such as "How does the body move?" "What i s the meaning of movement?" and "What i s the q u a l i t y of movement?" An understanding of the p r i n c i p l e s of s p a t i a l displacements, e.g., move-ment pa t t e r n s that t h e i r bodies t r a c e i n the a i r , w i l l occur. For example, from a f i g h t sequence, the teacher could ask, "Do the three blows w i t h which you s t r i k e your partner move from the center of your 35 body, s p o k e - l i k e , or do they h i t across, p e r i p h e r a l l y ? " I f the dynamics of movement and s p a t i a l p r i n c i p l e s are to be coalesced d u r i n g t h i s stage then the teacher needs to provide themes or " p l o t s ' i n which these aspects of movements are s t r e s s e d . More a b s t r a c t kinds of themes could be t a c k l e d . More i n t r i c a t e rhythms i n c l u d i n g s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n could a i d i n developing p r i n c i p l e s of dynamics. Poems s u i t a b l e to act as s t i m u l i f o r dance a v a i l a b l e i n Stokes' book are: "Alone," "Shapes," 3 4 I b i d . , p. 130. 35 C a r r o l l , Jean and Peter Lofthouse, C r e a t i v e Dance f o r Boys, (London: MacDonald & Evans, L t d . , 1969), p. 34. 103 3fi "Time," and "The Nightmare." Students at t h i s stage w i l l become more aware of t h e i r own bodies, sensing to a greater degree i t s weight, balance, and p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n . They w i l l seek to understand body performance through the mechanical p r i n c i p l e s that r e g u l a t e how the body moves. P r i n c i p l e s of s t a b i l i t y , motion, and f o r c e could be s t u d i e d . They w i l l f i n d e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g t h e i r posture and d i s c u s s i o n of the g r a v i t y f o r c e s that play upon the body. In t h e i r quest f o r the general laws and pat-terns of the world, the students are r e a l l y attempting to know themselves. 37 "They look at the world as they would a m i r r o r , to see themselves." To be able to formulate these general concepts about how the body moves and to be able to answer such questions as "What i s grace, beauty?" the students need to be given a v a r i e t y and an abundance of dance e x p e r i -ences that w i l l help them 'body-forth' the general p r i n c i p l e s , not only through c r e a t i v e or modern dance, but a l s o w i t h j a z z , f o l k , and square dance. F o l k dance helps them gain a deeper i n s i g h t i n t o the world around them as w e l l as t h e i r own personal world. I f they are given a lengthy u n i t of f o l k dance they w i l l begin to understand that the dances are a product of geographic, economic, and r e l i g i o u s f a c t o r s and that the music and costumes are an expression of other peoples' c r e a t i v e powers. Through f o l k dances they w i l l begin to develop a sense of the h i s t o r y of dance-movement from age to age, from the most p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s up u n t i l the modern world. What i s important i s not only the q u a n t i t y of dances 36 Stokes, E d i t h M., Word P i c t u r e s as a Stimulus f o r C r e a t i v e Dance, (London: MacDonald & Evans, L t d . , 1970). 37 Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i -v e r s i t y Press, 1979), p. 63. 104 but a l s o the f a c t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l dances may be more a p p r o p r i a t e than o t h e r s . F o r example, the Macedonian dance, Chobansko, r e p r e s e n t s the t h i n k i n g about the e x i s t e n c e of mankind, s t r i v i n g t o answer the 'why.' The opening p a t t e r n p u t s t h e q u e s t i o n s and t h e f o l l o w i n g q u i c k and i n t r i c a t e s t e p s suggest ways of r e s o l v i n g them. P h i l o s o p h i c i n q u i r i e s , the meaning of l i f e , the meaning of music, the meaning of dance, and the meaning of r e l i g i o n can a l l be r e p r e s e n t e d and searched, f o r i n some form o f dance. Other a p p r o p r i a t e dances might be th e s p i r i t e d dance Hasapiko (Zorba's Dance) from Greece; t h e g r a c e f u l , f l o w i n g , m e l o d i o u s , i n t r i c a t e Rumanian Medley, and t h e P h i l i p p i n e dance, T i n i k l i n g , done w i t h l o n g bamboo s t i c k s . Very i n t r i c a t e dances such as t h e S p a n i s h Flamenco, I n d i a n dances, Hawaiian h u l a , Japanese, and C h i n e s e dances c o u l d be shown on f i l m . Students i n t e r e s t e d i n dance w i l l t a k e l e s s o n s s e r i o u s l y and s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d c h a l l e n g i n g dance p a t t e r n s . I t i s a t t h i s s t a g e t h a t the s t u d e n t s w i l l show i n t e r e s t i n a s p e c t s of choreography and w i l l be t h r i l l e d w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y to o r g a n i z e group p r e s e n t a t i o n s as p a r t o f t h e c l a s s work. Through dance e x p e r i e n c e s s t u d e n t s w i l l d e v e l o p a k i n a e s t h e t i c awareness, an awareness o f t h e i r own body w h i l e moving i n space. They w i l l d e v e l o p an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how t h e p a r t s of the body a r e r e l a t e d t o the whole. Gymnastics I n g y m n a s t i c s , s t u d e n t s w i l l b e g i n to show an i n t e r e s t i n a n a l y z i n g t h e i r own performances and seek ways of i m p r o v i n g s k i l l s . I t i s a t t h i s s t a g e t h a t t h e t e a c h e r can i n t r o d u c e t h e g e n e r a l c o n c e p t s , laws, and p r i n c i p l e s g o v e r n i n g e x e c u t i o n of s k i l l s i n v a r i o u s a r e a s of g y m n a s t i c s . 105 Mechanical p r i n c i p l e s such as s t a b i l i t y , g r a v i t y , and motion could be discussed and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to e f f e c t i v e performance. For example, when performing s k i l l s on the uneven bars, pommel horse, or on the p a r a l l e l b a rs, the center of g r a v i t y has a tremendous e f f e c t on the s u c c e s s f u l execution of the s k i l l . Many s k i l l s on apparatus or f l o o r have common elements and i t i s up to the teacher to organize themes or s k i l l s i n groups that emphasize s i m i l a r p r i n c i p l e s . For i n s t a n c e , the theme swinging and c i r c l i n g could be explored on ropes, r i n g s , and bars. Concepts of f r i c t i o n , c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e , and g r a v i t y could be r e l a t e d to s k i l l s . Another theme could be moving and stopping whereby students would " . . . gain experience and l e a r n how to impart impetus to the body and propel i t , and how to get a g r i p to check movements f o r purposes 38 such as changing d i r e c t i o n or h o l d i n g motionless." A p p l i c a t i o n of movement p r i n c i p l e s could be p r a c t i c e d i n e i t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l gymnastics or O l y m p i c / a r t i s t i c gymnastics. Considering the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p h i l o s o p h i c stage, i t might be best to move i n t o Olympic gymnastics as students w i l l d e s i r e to copy what they see at l i v e e x h i b i t i o n s and on t e l e v i s i o n . Students at t h i s stage are a l s o q u i t e capable of planning t h e i r own gymnastics r o u t i n e s , a n a l y z i n g t h e i r own work, and judging others. Video rep l a y s can be most u s e f u l f o r these purposes. Along w i t h mechanical p r i n c i p l e s of movement, the student w i l l show i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l concepts that w i l l help him 'body f o r t h ' general schemes r e l a t e d to the f u n c t i o n i n g of the muscles, h e a r t , and lungs. G i r l s and boys may be i n t e r e s t e d i n the laws regarding developing muscular 38 Morison, Ruth, A Movement Approach to Educational Gymnastics, (London: J . M. Dent and Sons L t d . , 1969), p. 112. 1 0 6 s t r e n g t h , the boys w i s h i n g t o b u i l d up b u l k y muscles and the g i r l s w i s h i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e " b u l k y " l o o k w h i l e s t i l l r e t a i n i n g a h i g h l e v e l of f i t n e s s . P r i n c i p l e s such as o v e r l o a d , i s o m e t r i c , i s o t o n i c , r e l a x a t i o n , and s t r e t c h i n g w i l l a l l be s u i t a b l e a t t h i s s t a g e . Important i s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t be g i v e n a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s t o get underway the d i a l e c t i c a l p r o c e s s of i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e g e n e r a l schemes and th e p a r t i c u l a r knowledge. S o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f t h e s e g e n e r a l schemes v i a more and p a r t i c -u l a r s w i l l mark e d u c a t i o n a l development through t h i s s t a g e . Games In t h e i r s e a r c h f o r a sense of i d e n t i t y , s t u d e n t s a t the p h i l o s o p h i c s t a g e w i l l tend t o copy r o l e s of c h a r a c t e r s i n f i c t i o n s they l i k e . Egan l i k e n s p h i l o s o p h i c games t o p h i l o s o p h i c s t o r i e s i n t h a t the s t u d e n t , t hrough the g e n e r a l schemes or p a t t e r n s , i s a b l e to a f f i r m d i s t i n c t r u l e s and r o l e s . T h i s r o l e p l a y i n g w i l l make s t u d e n t s appear v e r y s e r i o u s about t h e i r game, be i t i n d i v i d u a l games/sports, team games, or outdoor a c t i v i t i e s . At times t h e y may appear o v e r - c o n f i d e n t , o v e r - s u r e o f them-s e l v e s . To a s s i s t i n development through t h i s p e r i o d of r o l e p l a y i n g , t h e c u r r i c u l u m needs t o o f f e r a v a r i e t y o f games which c h a l l e n g e the s t u d e n t and a l l o w him to see the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s , t h e g e n e r a l schemes of games. In team games, s t u d e n t s a t t h i s s t a g e w i l l be a b l e t o p l a n out s t r a t e g i e s and comprehend g e n e r a l game p a t t e r n s . F o r example, i n v o l l e y -b a l l , game t a c t i c s such as r e c e i v i n g , s e t t i n g and s p i k i n g ; i n b a s k e t b a l l , zone p l a y s and man-to-man a t t a c k i n g f o r m a t i o n s ; i n b a d m i n t o n / t e n n i s , d o u b l e s s t r a t e g i e s — a r e a l l a p p r o p r i a t e p a t t e r n s t h a t a r e s u i t e d f o r t h e s t u d e n t t h a t has reached t h e p h i l o s o p h i c s t a g e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p h i l o -s o p h i c s t u d e n t w i l l be i n t e r e s t e d i n a n a l y z i n g p l a y e r i n t e r a c t i o n s , and 107 and s p e c i f i c r e h e a r s e d game ' p l a y s . ' P l a y e r p s y c h o l o g y as p a r t of game s t r a t e g i e s w i l l a l s o become an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t t h a t the p h i l o s o p h i c s t u d e n t w i l l want to c o n s i d e r . In the s e a r c h f o r a sense of i d e n t i t y , the p h i l o s o p h i c s t u d e n t a l s o becomes more f u l l y aware of h i s own body. To a s s i s t development d u r i n g t h i s s t a g e , the ectomorph ( t h i n , s l e n d e r body type) w i l l need t o have e x p e r i e n c e s i n a c t i v i t i e s i n which he can f i n d s u c c e s s and g a i n c o n f i d e n c e i n h a n d l i n g h i s body so t h a t he does n o t c o n t i n u a l l y p l a y t h e r o l e o f t h e l o s e r o r u n s k i l l e d . The mesomorph (muscular body t y p e ) , l i k e w i s e w i l l need a d i v e r s i t y of c h a l l e n g e s so he does not c o n t i n u a l l y p l a y t h e r o l e o f t h e ' a t h l e t i c j o c k , ' 'machismo,' or a 'brute b e a s t ' as P l a t o p u t s i t . The ectomorph, might f i n d s u c c e s s i n c r o s s - c o u n t r y r u n n i n g , r o c k c l i m b i n g , or Kung Fu, whereas the mesomorph may not f i n d t h e s e as c o m f o r t a b l e as b a s k e t b a l l and f o o t b a l l . The endomorph ( f a t body type) might g a i n s e c u r i t y i n a c t i v i t i e s such as T a i C h i , shot p u t , or g o l f . The p h i l o s o p h i c s t a g e i s a time t h a t the s t u d e n t s attempt t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r a l l t h e p i e c e s they have a c q u i r e d i n a l l t h e games they have l e a r n e d . The t e a c h e r can h e l p t h e s t u d e n t i n t h i s quest by p r e s e n t i n g s k i l l s i n r e f e r e n c e to g e n e r a l laws. They w i l l b e g i n t o make sense of c o n c e p t s r e l a t e d t o l e v e r a g e ; body f o r c e , a b s o r p t i o n , and a p p l i c a t i o n o f f o r c e ; a n g l e s o f rebound and u n d e r s t a n d t h e laws o f motion. Through the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e s e g e n e r a l c o n c e p t s , s t u d e n t s w i l l be b e t t e r a b l e and equipped t o p r o g r e s s i n s k i l l s be they k i c k i n g s o c c e r b a l l s , s w i n g i n g r a c k e t s ( t e n n i s , squash, badminton), t h r o w i n g s o f t b a l l s ( d i s c u s , shot p u t , j a v e l i n ) , s h o o t i n g jump s h o t s , or a i m i n g arrows a t t a r g e t s . Once they a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h some o f the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s of game s k i l l s t h e y w i l l d e v e l o p more s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r movement p o t e n t i a l . 108 I f s t u d e n t s have had a good d e a l o f e x p e r i e n c e i n r h y t h m i c a l k i n d s of movements, they w i l l a t t h i s s t a g e be a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h v a r i o u s rhythms i n d i f f e r e n t games. They w i l l come to u n d e r s t a n d the rhythm of the g o l f c l u b swing, t h e l a y - u p s h o t , or the rhythm o f t h e d i s c u s throw. P r i n c i p l e s o f l e a r n i n g motor s k i l l s a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t , e s p e c i a l l y as a p p l i e d to l e a r n i n g a c o m p l e t e l y new s k i l l . A good e x e r c i s e might be to have s t u d e n t s o b s e r v e b a l l t h r owing a b i l i t i e s o f young c h i l d r e n and r e c o r d d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s . Through t h i s and o t h e r s i m i l a r e x e r c i s e s , s t u d e n t s w i l l d e v e lop t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s f o r o r g a n i z i n g i s o l a t e d a s p e c t s i n t o g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s or wholes as a p p l i e d t o motor s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n . T h i s w i l l a l s o be the a p p r o p r i a t e time t o d e a l w i t h p r i n c i p l e s o f f i t n e s s s u ch as s p e c i f i c i t y , a d a p t a t i o n , and p r o g r e s s i o n . Up u n t i l t h i s time s t u d e n t s had been g i v e n s m a t t e r i n g s of knowledge about f i t n e s s , but i t i s o n l y now t h a t t h e p i e c e s b e g i n t o c o a l e s c e . P h y s i o l o g i c a l con-c e p t s o f neuromuscular and c a r d i o - v a s c u l a r systems a l s o s h o u l d be r e l a t e d to f i t n e s s and s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n . Students r e q u i r e a l a r g e q u a n t i t y o f knowledge and a l s o anomalous knowledge t o d e v e l o p more s o p h i s t i c a t e d g e n e r a l schemes. A crude g e n e r a l i z a t i o n might be t h e f o l l o w i n g : " R e g u l a r e x e r c i s e c o n t r i b u t e s t o good h e a l t h . " P a r t i c u l a r knowledge, f o r example, how e x e r c i s e a f f e c t s h e a r t muscle, h e a r t r a t e , back problems, s p o r t performance, oxygen consumption, muscle t e n s i o n , and appearance w i l l a l l h e l p b u i l d more s o p h i s t i c a t e d g e n e r a l schemes. D u r i n g t h i s s t a g e t o p i c s i n s p o r t s p s y c h o l o g y , s o c i o l o g y , and p h i l o s o p h y c o u l d be r e s e a r c h e d and d i s c u s s e d . G i r l s might f i n d s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e a r e a o f 'women i n s p o r t s ' and boys may be keen on t o p i c s such as v a l u e of s p o r t s , c o m p e t i t i o n i n s p o r t s , drugs i n s p o r t s . In an e x p e r i m e n t a l u n i t t h a t I o r g a n i z e d w i t h a c l a s s of grade 11 109 39 g i r l s , s t u d e n t s i n v e s t i g a t e d c u r r e n t s p o r t i s s u e s and problems. A s o c i a l i n q u i r y model, t h a t of M a s s i a l a s and Cox, was adopted. The s t u d e n t s f o r m u l a t e d a h y p o t h e s i s and then c o l l e c t e d e v i d e n c e to prove o r d i s p r o v e t h e i r o r i g i n a l g e n e r a l statement. Students were g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o choose t h e i r own t o p i c s . I s s u e s such as v i o l e n c e i n s p o r t s , p r e s s u r e s on young c h i l d r e n i n s p o r t s , s p o r t i n j u r i e s , and the changing r o l e s of the Olympic games were a few of t h e t o p i c s t a c k l e d . Students showed p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n d i s c u s s i n g , a r g u i n g , d e b a t i n g , and d e f e n d i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . T h i s t y p e of u n i t seems v e r y s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s s t a g e . However, i t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t t h e d e s i r e to organ-i z e knowledge i s m o t i v a t e d by the need t o b e t t e r know themsel v e s . As Egan s t a t e s : In t h e sense t h a t s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t i n the w o r l d i s p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d not toward f i n d i n g out about the w o r l d f o r i t s own sake, but r a t h e r f o r t h e i r s a k e s — t o e s t a b l i s h a sense of t h e i r own i d e n t i t y — I c a l l t h i s s t a g e n a r c i s s i s t i c . 4 0 G e n e r a l P r i n c i p l e s f o r O r g a n i z i n g P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m a t  the P h i l o s o p h i c Stage 1. I f s t u d e n t s have had o p t i m a l development of c a p a c i t i e s t h r o u g h -out t h e mythic and r o m a n t i c s t a g e s they w i l l be ready t o d e v e l o p t h e most imp o r t a n t c a p a c i t y of t h e p h i l o s o p h i c s t a g e , namely t h a t of g e n e r a t i n g 41 g e n e r a l schemes. S c h u r r , i n h e r t e x t b o o k mentions t h a t m e c h a n i c a l and 39 S c h u e l e r , Annemarie, "The I n q u i r y Model i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , " The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t o r , (May, 1979), pp. 89-92. 40 Egan, K i e r a n , E d u c a t i o n a l Development, (New'York: Oxfor d U n i -v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 63. 41 S c h u r r , E v e l y n L., Movement E x p e r i e n c e s f o r C h i l d r e n : C u r r i c u l u m  and Methods f o r Elementary S c h o o l P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , . (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1967),pp. 147-149. 110 p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s such as b a s i c concepts o f g r a v i t y , l e v e r s , and muscle a c t i o n , s h o u l d be taught t o elementary c h i l d r e n . T h i s can be done i f one c o n s i d e r s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s t a g e o f t h e c h i l d r e n . However, i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t c o m p l i c a t e d t h e o r i e s and p r i n c i p l e s o f body mechanics a r e not a c c e s s i b l e t o s t u d e n t s t h a t have not y e t r e a c h e d t h e p h i l o s o p h i c s t a g e . I t i s o n l y t h e n t h a t they can b e g i n t o g e n e r a t e g e n e r a l schemes r e l a t e d t o human movement. 2. S t u d e n t s s h o u l d be g i v e n a g r e a t e r c h o i c e o f a c t i v i t i e s a t t h i s s t a g e , as i t i s thr o u g h t h i s i n t e r e s t t h a t they w i l l be a b l e t o de v e l o p t h e i r own i d e n t i t i e s and s e c u r i t y . A l o n g w i t h t h i s c h o i c e , however, s h o u l d a l s o come t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f new i d e a s by the t e a c h e r , as s t u d e n t s a r e o f t e n r e l u c t a n t to attempt or a r e c o m p l e t e l y unaware o f t h e range of movement p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Exposure t o a c t i v i t i e s s u ch as T a i C h i , Yoga, and F e l d e n k r a i s systems of movement and e x e r c i s e , w i l l present, v a r i a t i o n s from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l view o f e x e r c i s e , h e a l t h , and f i t n e s s . Anomalous knowledge w i l l be the f u e l t o h e l p development through t h i s s t a g e . 3. A l o t o f knowledge and a range of a c t i v i t i e s i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o o f f s e t the o v e r - c o n f i d e n c e and the s e r i o u s n e s s w i t h which s t u d e n t s p l a y games or o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . F o r example, i f a t a l e n t e d male s t u d e n t i s a l l o w e d t o r o l e p l a y t h e i d e a l N o r t h American j o c k , h i s ego i s l i k e l y t o s w e l l out o f p r o p o r t i o n , t a k i n g on an a g g r e s s i v e c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s , then he i s l i k e l y t o remain s t u c k a t t h i s s t a g e . S t e r e o t y p e r o l e s and a ' b u s i n e s s ' - l i k e a p p roach t o p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s can be p r e v e n t e d a t t h i s s t a g e by o r g a n i z i n g a wide range of a c t i v i t i e s i n the program, such as camping, h i k i n g , k a y a k i n g , c a n o e i n g , snow and i c e s p o r t s . I n f a c t , i n the r e c e n t Assessment of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n the grade 11 s t u d e n t s r a t e d I l l 42 outdoor a c t i v i t i e s the highest i n terms of enjoyment gained. 4. At t h i s stage, students e x e r c i s e p r i m a r i l y deductive t h i n k i n g , so s k i l l s and knowledges presented should f i r s t focus on the general laws, concepts, p r i n c i p l e s , and move to the p a r t i c u l a r s to r e f i n e crude g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . 5. The teacher's r o l e at t h i s stage remains c r i t i c a l as p a r t i c u l a r knowledge needs to be presented at the appropriate moments to keep the engine progressing f o r w a r d — t o help students r e f i n e and develop more s o p h i s t i c a t e d schemes. This r o l e , Egan s t a t e s , n e c e s s i t a t e s that teach-ers have passed through t h i s stage. I f the p h y s i c a l education teacher i s s t i l l p l a y i n g the r o l e of the 'jock' who never q u i t e made the b i g time, then i t remains impossible f o r him to a i d the development of students at the p h i l o s o p h i c stage. I r o n i c Stage According to Egan, most people r a r e l y progress beyond the romantic stage and, t h e r e f o r e , s t i l l fewer reach the i r o n i c stage. I t would indeed be r a r e that a grade 11 or 12 student w i l l have reached t h i s stage. Nevertheless, i t i s important to di s c u s s b r i e f l y how c u r r i c u l u m should be organized i n p u r s u i t of that goal and to draw a t t e n t i o n to authors who have m i s l e a d i n g l y designated i r o n i c c a p a c i t i e s to stages much e a r l i e r i n the c u r r i c u l u m . Egan s t a t e s that the i r o n i c stage i s the s e n s i t i v e p e r i o d f o r the development of two as s o c i a t e d c a p a c i t i e s : f i r s t , the c a p a c i t y to accept the primacy of p a r t i c u l a r t r u t h s i n the composition of meaning, and second, the c a p a c i t y to 42 B r i t i s h Columbia Assessment of P h y s i c a l Education, Summary Report, December 1979, p. 34. 112 c o n t r o l the c a p a c i t i e s of a l l the previous stages. Together these provide an important i n t e l l e c t u a l freedom; a freedom from the s e l f and i t s immature needs.^3 Any a c t i v i t y , s p o r t , or game would be s u i t a b l e f o r the a d u l t who has a r r i v e d at the i r o n i c stage. The adult w i l l tend to s p e c i a l i z e i n one or two a c t i v i t i e s , f o r through mastery w i l l come the r e a l i z a t i o n that t h e o r i e s and general schemes about movement are only u s e f u l f o r o r g a n i z i n g p a r t i c u l a r s . I t i s now that he sees that the p a r t i c u l a r s determine the general scheme. At the i r o n i c stage there i s no game, dance, or gymnastics i n the d i s t i n c t , concrete, and confined sense of the p h i l o s o p h i c stage, but ra t h e r the i r o n i c adult i s able to combine mythic, romantic, and p h i l o -sophic elements i n t o h i s or her p h y s i c a l p u r s u i t s . In a c t i v i t y , the adul t i s able to b r i n g together the mythic sense of imagination and drama, the romantic sense of v i v a c i t y and v i t a l i t y i n e x p l o r i n g the l i m i t s , the p h i l o s o p h i c sense of o r g a n i z i n g experiences i n t o general schemes and pat-t e r n s . P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l take on the q u a l i t i e s of p l a y f u l n e s s , j o y f u l n e s s , spontaneity, and at the same time the performer may d e r i v e a sense of a e s t h e t i c pleasure. The adult who has a r r i v e d at t h i s stage w i l l be able to experience the s p i r i t and f e e l i n g of the a c t i v i t y , the essence and freedom of movement. B a r t a l and Ne'eman.in t h e i r book, Movement, Awareness and C r e a t i v i t y , speak about movement and dance a c t i v i t i e s which would lead to body-mind i n t e g r a t i o n . They de s c r i b e the goals of movement i n terms such as "balancing the energies f l o w i n g i n the body," " f r e e - f l o w i n g movement," "increased consciousness of how the body works," "harmony." These are 43 Egan, K i e r a n , Educational Development, (New York: Oxford U n i -v e r s i t y Press, 1979), p. 133. 113 44 a l l c a p a c i t i e s of the i r o n i c ; a d u l t . Spino, i n h i s book Beyond Jogging, p i c t u r e s a new brand of p h y s i c a l education; one that emphasizes the "inne r dimension." Influenced a great deal by the Eastern p h i l o s o p h i e s , through a c t i v i t i e s such as a i k i d o , yoga, and m e d i t a t i o n , he describes a t h l e t i c s and p h y s i c a l education i n terms of ". . . combining imaginative approaches to mind and s p i r i t w i t h good p h y s i c a l fundamentals." H e l l i s o n , i n h i s p h y s i c a l education humanistic paradigm, o u t l i n e s one of the goals f o r h i s grade 9 boys as developing a p l a y f u l s p i r i t which he describes as: ". ." . a non-serious, n o n - r e f l e c t i v e dimension of l i f e which focuses on the moment and on the a c t i v i t y f o r i t s own sake r a t h e r than e x t r i n s i c motives and preplanned goals. I t i s spontaneous and o f t e n c r e a t i v e . C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i , i n h i s research i n v o l v i n g a t h l e t e s i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s , discovered that s e v e r a l p l a y e r s experienced what he c a l l s a "sense of flow." P l a y e r s expressed s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to those of Egan's i r o n i c stage. In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e i r egos were no longer a f f e c t i n g t h e i r performance. They could do the a c t i v i t y f o r i t s own s a k e — i t s a e s t h e t i c pleasure. I n t e r e s t i n g , a l s o , was the f i n d i n g that beginners seldom achieved t h i s 'flow' or ' i n t e g r a t i o n ' sensation. This c l e a r l y p o i n t s up the f a c t that students need a good foundation of movement experiences at the mythic, romantic, and p h i l o s o p h i c i n order to hope to achieve the i r o n i c stage. P h y s i c a l education o b j e c t i v e s should be s u i t -able and r e a l i s t i c f o r each stage. 44 Spino, Mike, Beyond Jogging, (New York: Berkley M e d a l l i o n Books, 1976), p. 8. 4 5 H e l l i s o n , Don, Beyond B a l l s and Bats, (Washington: AAHPER, 1978), p. 5. 114 The a d u l t a t the i r o n l e s t a g e i s one who can c o n t r o l t h e c a p a c i t i e s o f t h e former s t a g e s ; can e x p e r i e n c e t h e sense o f f l o w , can sense t h e s p i r i t and f e e l i n g of movement, can p l a y j o y f u l l y , can p l a y t h e game o r dance t h e dance f o r i t s own sake, can f i n d t h e b a l a n c e between mind and body. S c h i l l e r says i t r a t h e r w e l l . For t o speak out once f o r a l l , man o n l y p l a y s when i n the f u l l meaning of t h e word he i s a man, and he i s o n l y com-p l e t e l y a man when he p l a y s . ^ S c h i l l e r , F r i e d r i c h , " L e t t e r s Upon the A e s t h e t i c Education of Man," v o l . 32, The Harvard C l a s s i c s ed. by Charles E l i o t , (New York: P. F. C o l l i e r & Son Co., 1910), p. 266. CHAPTER V SUMMARY T h i s t h e s i s has suggested t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m c o u l d be more m e a n i n g f u l l y d e s i g n e d i f based upon an e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y . T h e o r i e s have, o f c o u r s e , i n f l u e n c e d c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s i n t h e p a s t but too o f t e n an e c l e c t i c , n o n - t h e o r e t i c a l approach t o c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n has r e s u l t e d i n fragmentary, i n c o n s i s t e n t programs which sometimes produce t h e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y k i n d o f r e s u l t s o u t l i n e d i n t h e B.C. Assessment R e p o r t . P s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s such as P i a g e t ' s have l e d e d u c a t o r s t o draw i m p l i -c a t i o n s from h i s t h e o r y and a p p l y them t o t h e s t r u c t u r i n g o f c u r r i c u l u m . In g e n e r a l , r e s e a r c h has f a i l e d to show any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between P i a g e t i a n - s t r u c t u r e d c u r r i c u l a and t r a d i t i o n a l c u r r i c u l a . I n l i g h t o f t h e a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e , i t was d e c i d e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e an educa-t i o n a l t h e o r y and e x p l o r e p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n s t o b u i l d i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l a . Egan's e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y has been e x p l i c a t e d and an attempt has been made to de v e l o p a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n framework around the t h e o r y . C e r t a i n l y t h e r e a r e many ways t o o r g a n i z e a c t i v i t i e s , but i t appears t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f Egan's t h e o r y t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n may fo c u s a new p e r s p e c t i v e upon c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n i n t h i s f i e l d . Egan's t h e o r y , w i t h i t s c o h e r e n t d e v e l o p m e n t a l o r i e n t a t i o n , p r o v i d e s p l a n n e r s w i t h a s e t of p r i n c i p l e s from which i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s t r u c t u r e a c t i v i t i e s from k i n d e r g a r t e n t o Grade 12. Moreover, i t h e l p s p l a n n e r s and t e a c h e r s 115 116 to answer important questions such as: What a c t i v i t i e s should we teach? When and how should we teach c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s ? Inherent i n the theory i s the need f o r educators to be e x p l i c i t about the kind of end-product they wish to see. In t h i s sense, the theory provides an all-encompassing, comprehensive, developmental paradigm f o r c u r r i c u l u m designers. Egan's theory a s s i s t s i n o r g a n i z i n g not only the movement or psychomotor areas but a l s o the c o g n i t i v e or knowledge o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s i n p h y s i c a l educa-t i o n . This t h e s i s has, i n f a c t , shown that h i s theory may be most use-f u l i n o r g a n i z i n g a meaningful developmental sequence i n a l l aspects of the a c t i v i t y program. This t h e s i s has d e a l t w i t h the f i r s t stage, that of applying the theory to p h y s i c a l education i n a t h e o r e t i c a l sense. A u s e f u l f o l l o w -up would be to e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t some of the ideas that have been presented here. U n i t s could be planned and presented to students at d i f f e r e n t stages, o r , t e s t s could be designed to diagnose what stage the student i s a t . This type of experimentation would seem a necessary step i n the continued attempt to r e f i n e and r e l a t e theory and p r a c t i c e . Egan c o n t i n u a l l y reminds us that education i s a 'dangerous b u s i -ness' and Whitehead assures us that " . . . education i s a d i f f i c u l t problem, to be solved by no one simple formula."^ Nevertheless, phys-i c a l educators need to be c o n t i n u a l l y s t r i v i n g , u t i l i z i n g t h e o r i e s , to b u i l d a c u r r i c u l u m that w i l l provide a meaningful p h y s i c a l education experience to a l l students. Whitehead, A l f r e d North, The Aims of Education, (New York: The MacMillan Co., 1929), p. 45. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ar n o l d , P e t e r . Education, P h y s i c a l Education and P e r s o n a l i t y Develop- ment . London: Heinemann, 1968. Ascough, J u l i a . Dance Program: K-7. Surrey School D i s t r i c t , 1978. Avedon, E l l i o t t M., and B r i a n Sutton-Smith. The Study of Games. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1971. B a r t a l , Lea, and N i r a Ne'eman. Movement Awareness and C r e a t i v i t y . New York: Harper and Row, 1975. 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