UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Education through art : curriculum materials for use in elementary and secondary schools and in teacher… Steggles, George Henry 1977

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1977_A8 S74.pdf [ 10.72MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055698.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055698-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055698-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055698-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055698-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055698-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055698-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055698-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055698.ris

Full Text

EDUCATION THROUGH ART: CURRICULUM MATERIALS FOR USE IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND IN TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMMES By GEORGE HENRY STEGGLES N.D.D. Ministry of Education, London, 1950 A.T.C. London University Institute of Education, 195k A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION, GRADUATE DIVISION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF May, © George Henry BRITISH COLUMBIA 1977 Steggles, 1977 i i In presenting this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of M The University of Br i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5" Date t i i i i ABSTRACT This thesis represents the writer's belief that art possesses unique qualities which make i t indispensable i n general education. In the attempt to show that this view of art as a v i t a l agent for learning i s not new, he points to h i s t o r i c a l example. He claims that organized society has since antiquity given art a primary role i n education, and that this concept i s supported by the pronouncements of some of the great-est philosophers and educators i n the history of mankind. In arguing the case f o r a re-appraisal of the aims of art educa-tion, the point i s made that, i n spite of i t s great potential as a dynamic force i n our school curricula, art i s barely tolerated as a "fringe" sub-ject by today's administrators. Believing that the choice for art educators l i e s between the two conflicting positions of "integration or isolation," the writer declares his support for the principle of integration. He claims that important gains have been made i n the past by those art educators who have, by i n -terpreting the writings of Sir Herbert Read, followed a policy of educa-tion through art. In c a l l i n g for a vigorous exposition of this policy, the view i s advanced that the present-day i l l s which beset art education w i l l need drastic treatment i f art i s to realize i t s f u l l potential as a major com-ponent i n education. Generalists, as well as specialist art teachers, w i l l have to be convinced of the strong catalystic value of art i n the learning process. One way i n which teachers might be helped to educate through art, the writer suggests, would be through curriculum materials designed for iv that purpose and developed for use in teacher education programmes and school classrooms generally. With this central thesis of education through art in mind, the writer describes the development of a proto-type curriculum kit, "The Mask." Data is gathered through field-work in the public school system and in teacher education programmes, with the researcher directly in-volved as a participant/observer. Consisting of slides, taped music and teaching notes, the kit is aimed at an integrated approach to learning through art. Although the theme has the needs of elementary school social studies in view, the researcher stresses the flexibility of purpose which he intends for the materials. Despite the necessarily limited number of opinions he was able to gather, the encouraging response from student-teachers, art teachers, and teacher educators leads the researcher to the conclusion that there is a need for curriculum materials that will help teachers to educate through art. Ha further concludes that the need exists, not only at elementary level, but in secondary schools, as well as in teacher education program-mes. In terms of future action, the main implication is that an attempt should be made to satisfy that need. This will involve the development of a series of curriculum packages, diverse of theme, but united in their underlying purpose of education through art. V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF PLATES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i Chapter I. INTRODUCTION: A BRIEF HISTORICAL SURVEY OF THE PLACE OF ART IN EDUCATION 2 II . THE PRIMARY ROLE OF ART IN EDUCATION: CONFLICTING VIEWS 10 III . CURRICULUM MATERIALS FOR EDUCATION THROUGH ART 29 IV. "THE MASK": A CURRICULUM KIT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION THROUGH ART . UO Development and Testing of the Curriculum K i t : "The Mask" hh V. CONCLUSIONS 53 BIBLIOGRAPHY 56 APPENDIX A. GRAPHS SHOWING THE RESPONSES OF UBC STUDENT-TEACHERS TO SIX KEY QUESTIONS. FIGURES 1-6 58 B. TEACHING NOTES DESIGNED FOR USE WITH THE CURRICULUM KIT . . . . . 6U v i . LIST GP PLATES Plate Page 1. Slide Showing Finished Papier-mache Mask from Section Sixteen of the Curriculum Kit, "THE MASK" 1 2. Slide Showing Finished Papier-mache Mask from Section Sixteen of the Curriculum Kit, "THE MASK" 28 3. Papier-mache Mask by Grade Eight Student at a Vancouver Junior High School . . • . • 36 li . Papier-mache Mask being worn by Grade Eight Student at a Vancouver Junior High School 37 5". Papier-mache Masks by Grade Eight Students at a Vancouver Junior High School 38 6. Papier-mache Masks by Third-year Student-Teachers, University of British Columbia . . . . . . . . 39 ^ It to ^ C > Y K pGVUu ~£LtX) tLsi* l*S \ LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Showing the Percent Response Recorded by Eighty Student-Teachers in Answer to the Following Question: "Do You Think the Materials Would Serve to Enrich a Grade Four Unit on Primitive Man in Social Studies?" 2. Showing the Percent Response Recorded by Eighty Student-Teachers in Answer to the Following Question: "Do You Think the Materials Gould be Successfully Used to Motivate a Grade Four Class to Make a Mask?" 3» Showing the Percent Response Recorded by Eighty Student-Teachers in Answer to the Following Question: "Do You Think the Materials Would be Effective in Helping to Integrate Subject Areas, i.e., Social Studies and Art?" . . . . lu Showing the Percent Response Recorded by Eighty Student-Teachers in Answer to the Following Question: "Do You Think the Sequence Demonstrating the Steps in Making a Mask is Effective?" . . . . 5*. Showing the Percent Response Recorded by Eighty Student-Teachers in Answer to the Following Question: "Do You Think 'The Mask' Could be Adapted for Use With Other Age Groups at Appropriate Times, Hallowe'en, for Example?" . . . . . . 6. Showing the Percent Response Recorded by Eighty Student-Teachers in Answer to the Following Question: "Do You Think the Materials Increased Your Knowledge of the Subject Area, i.e., the Art of Primitive Man?" v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to record ray appreciation of the help and encouragement I have received at a l l stages of this work from my adviser, Dr, Graeme Chalmers. I also wish to acknowledge the support of the other members of my thesis committee, Professor Sam Black and Dr. James Gray. My thanks are also due to my son Ian, who played a most important part i n the development of the curriculum kit, and to my wife Zena, whose advice was invaluable, and whose patience was limitless. Finally, I acknowledge my debt to a l l the student-teachers, teacher educators, serving teachers, and students who gave me so much help in developing the curriculum materials. 1. Plate 1. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION: A BRIEF HISTORICAL SURVEY OF THE PLACE OF ART IN EDUCATION Art education, in the sense of training people to become artists or skilled craftsmen, has a long history in the affairs of man. In an-cient Egypt, for example, belief in l i f e after death and the ritual wor-ship of powerful gods, created sacred traditions in art which had to be handed on, A system of apprenticeship was presided over by the priests to ensure the supply of artist-craftsmen. So i t has been throughout his-tory. Society creates a demand for art and organizes the training pro-grammes which are considered necessary to satisfy that demand. This was certainly the case in nineteenth-century Bid tain. In a nation which was committed to industrial expansion there was a clear need for skilled artisans and, perhaps more important, well-trained designers who would help British merchants in their efforts to compete with the high quality of French manufactures. Faced with the compelling arguments of the industrialists which, based as they were on simple economics, were difficult to refute, the British Government had l i t t l e choice. The estab-lishment, in 1837, of the f i r s t public School of Design with a curriculum aimed at meeting this need, was inevitable. These are, of course, isolated examples. Art as a powerful ex-pression of man's religious beliefs is a phenomenon which can be traced back to the cave-dwellers. The apprentice system of art education devised by the priests of ancient Egypt has its counterparts in Europe during the Middle Ages and the period of the Renaissance, while the utilitarian 2. 3. philosophy which led to the British Government's notorious "South Kensing-ton System" of art education has found f u l l f r u i t i o n i n the technical and vocational training which i s dispensed by the vast polytechnic organiza-tions i n present-day Britain. The problem arises, i t seems, when art i s seen, not as an agent for the enhancement of man's religious or p o l i t i c a l aspirations, nor when i t i s deemed an economic necessity, but rather, when i t i s considered as one of several subjects to be taught i n a l i b e r a l scheme of education. This idea has i t s roots i n Greek philosophy, i n Plato's vision of an ideal society dominated by an e l i t e , whose members would strive to attain virtue through an education based on the arts. Plato's pupil Aristotle (381*-322 B.C.) i n his discourse on art and experience leaves us i n no doubt as to his views on the importance of art: . . . yet we think that knowledge and understanding belong to art rather than to experience, and we suppose artists to be wiser than men of experience (which implies that Wisdom depends i n a l l cases rather on knowledge); and this because the former know the cause, but the latter do not. For men of experience know that the thing i s so, but do not know why, while the others know the 'why' and the cause . . . . And i n general i t i s a sign of the man who knows" and of the man who does not know, that the former can teach, and therefore we think art more truly knowledge than experience i s : for artists can teach, and men of mere experience cannot.1 The e l i t i s t aims of art education were also much i n evidence i n Europe during the eighteenth century. Drawing masters were i n demand for the instruction of young women of gentle birth, for drawing was regarded Aristotle, Metaphysics, Book A, Chapter I, i n The Loeb Classical Library, translated by Paul Shorey (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1930-1935), reprinted i n G i l l e t , Margaret, Readings i n the History  of Education (Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 1969), p. hl» h. as a genteel accomplishment in a lady of rank. Young men were usually taught what were considered to be more manly skills, although John Locke writing i n I693 had this to say concerning the education he thought would be appropriate for the son of a wealthy friend: . . . When he can write- well and quick, I think i t may be convenient not only to continue the exercise of his hand in writing, but also to improve the use of i t farther in drawing; a thing very useful to a Gentleman in several Occasions; but especially i f he travel, as that which helps a man often to express in a few lines well put to-gether, what a whole sheet of paper in Writing would not be able to represent and make intelligible.2 Jean Jacques Rousseau, the eminent French philosopher and educator, placed great stress on the value of art in education. Like John Locke before him he was interested in the education of privileged people to f i t them for their station in l i f e . In 1760 he proposed a scheme of education that was revolutionary at that time. It was designed for Smile, "an im-aginary boy of wealth and rank." Rousseau presented his argument with great eloquence: A l l children in the course of their endless imitation try to draw; and I would have Emile cultivate this art, not so much for art's sake, as to give him exactness of eye and flexibility of hand • . • • We shall colour prints, we shall paint, we shall daub; but in a l l our daubings we shall be searching out the secrets of nature, and whatever we do shall be done under the eye of that master.3 Perhaps the f i r s t reference to art education as a pleasurable ex-perience in its own right i s the one made by the disciples of Rousseau, 2Locke, J. Thoughts Concerning Education 1693 (Cambridge: U.P., 193U), pp. 136-137. ^Rousseau, J.J. Emile, Book I, 1760 (London: Dent, 1911 and 1950), reprinted in Sutton7~Gordon, Artisan or Artist? (London: Pergamon Press, 1967), pp. 26-27. 5" R.Ii. Edgeworth and his wife Maria. They educated their own four children along progressive lines and recorded their ideas in a book. Speaking of the importance of drawing, they declare: . . . no toy, which we could invent for them, would give them half so much pleasure as a pencil. If we do not put a pencil into their hands before they are able to do any-thing with it , but make random marks all over a paper, it will long continue a real amusement and occupation.^ 1 At the beginning of the nineteenth century the views of the re-nowned Swiss educator Johann Pestalozzi were held in the highest esteem. He conducted courses based on his methods and educators from all over the world made the pilgrimage to Switzerland to listen to him expounding his ideas. Describing his methods as "the psychologizing of learning,H he was convinced that there were great benefits to be gained by the practice of drawing. In his book which was written in 1801 he develops this theory: . . . by exercises in lines, angles, and curves . . . a readiness in gaining sense impressions of all things is produced in the children, as well as skill of hand, of which the effect will be to make everything that comes within the sphere of their observation, gradually clear and plain. . . . the wish to draw and the capacity of measuring, which are developed naturally and easily in the child (as compared to the toil with which he is taught read-ing and writing) must be restored to him with greater art or more force, if we would not injure him more than the reading can ever be worth.5 Pestalozzi's insistence that methods of teaching must be based upon study of the child has been a major influence in modem educational thought. E^dgeworth, R.L., and M. Practical Education, Vol. I (London: Johnson, 1798). ^Pestalozzi, J.H. How Gertrude Teaches Her Children. 1801, (trans. Holland and Turner), Cooke, E. (ed.), (Sonnenschein, I89U), reprinted in Sutton, Gordon, Artisan or Artist? (London: Pergamon Press, 1967), pp. 29-33. The child-centred approach which ia so evident in the progressive school programmes of today has i t s beginnings in the theories and the methods developed by this great man. Among the many distinguished visitors to Pestalozzi's school at Tverdon were the German educators Herbart and Froebel. There can be no doubt that Friedrich Froebel, who was later to found the kindergarten movement, was deeply impressed by the experience. He certainly shared many of Pestalozzi's views on education, including the value he placed upon the study of art. Writing in the year 1826, he seems to take up the theme at the point where, twenty-five years earlier, Pestalozzi had left i t : • . . The word and the drawing, therefore, belong together inseparably, as light and shadow, night and day, soul and body do. The faculty of drawing i s , therefore, as much innate in the child, in man, as is the faculty of speech, and demands its development and cultivation as imperatively as the latter; experience shows this clearly in the child's love of drawing, in the child's instinctive desire for drawing.6 This statement by Froebel is a testimonial to his stature as an educator. Furthermore, i t sets him apart as a man of vision, for i t was made some eighty years before the phenomenal impact of "child art" which was to revolutionize the teaching of art as a school subject. Froebel*s words represent ideas which were s t i l l considered radical during the f i r s t decade of the twentieth century, ideas which flowered so brilliantly in the pioneer work of Franz Cizek at his Jugendkunstklasse i n Vienna, and "Froebel, Friedrich. The Education of Man (trans. Hailman, W.N., 1887), (New York: Appleton, 1905), reprinted in Sutton, Gordon, Artisan  or Artist? (London: Pergamon Press, 1967), p. 36. 7. which were attracting the attention of art educators in North America through the work of Arthur Wesley Dow, If Gizek, as is so often claimed, was truly the discoverer of creative ability in children—"the eternal art," as he described i t , then Froebel, speaking as he does of "the child's instinctive desire for draw-ing," must be given credit, at the very least, for some remarkably proph-etic thinking. Should further illustration of this last point be needed, i t can surely be found in the words of a British art educator whose contribution to the development of art as an important and respected part of the curri-culum in public schools has been enormous. Written one hundred and twenty-two years after Froebel's statement, Marion Richardson's words deal with the same concept, but add lustre to i t by the sense of convic-tion gained through her own enlightened teaching: Over and over again my story returns to the fact that children visualise naturally. They bring this precious gift, perhaps the subtlest and most delicate part of their spiritual endowment, and offer i t to us whenever we teach art. Without i t we should indeed be helpless; for the truth is that art cannot be taught, but in sympathy i t can be shared. I see pictures. Will you show me how to paint them? It is as though they knew that these mental images may die, like empty day dreams, or live as joyful expression.7 The case for including art as a subject in general education is now almost universally accepted. Most of the modern philosophies of art education acknowledge their debt to the theories of Rousseau, Pestalozzi and Froebel, and to the inspiring work of great teachers like Cizek, Dow and Richardson. The fact remains, however, that art s t i l l tends to be ^Richardson, Marion. Art and The Child (London: University of London Press, 1°U8), p p, 81±-85t 8. regarded as a "fringe" activity in many public school systems, a time-killing pastime to be tolerated for its therapeutic value. The reasons for this are plain to see. Instead of a strong and united advocacy for art as a vital component in the school curriculum, a fragmented and apologetic plea is presented by art educators that art should be allowed a little more time. In this writer's opinion nothing less than a complete reappraisal of the aims of art education will do. It is surely time for all art educators to reject any suggestion that their subject is capable of playing only a frivolous role. We live in an age when economic cuts are the order of the day. If the arts are to survive in our schools we must be prepared to offer the strongest reasons for their retention in the curriculum. The inspir-ation for that argument may well be discovered once more in the educational ideas of Plato which have been eloquently presented to us through the med-ium of Sir Herbert Head's interpretive analysis. The thesis being presented here supports the concept which is im-plicit in Read's phrase "education through art," and suggests that there is growing concern among art educators for the diminishing role of art in the public schools. In the writer's view the remedy may lie, not so much in the defence of a weakened position, as in the promotion of a dynamic philosophy argued from a position of strength. Dick Field, writing in 1970, underlines the urgency of the problem: . . . It must be emphasized that unless art can come out of the art rooms, unless i t can play its true part in integrative projects, it may be doomed to a limited and dwindling role as therapy or recreation." "Field, Dick. Change in Art Education (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970), p. 105. ~~ ~ 9. Sharing Dick Field's concern, this writer will present evidence that there are many other art educators who subscribe to the view that art is not merely necessary in general education, but that i t has a prim-ary role to play in the learning process. To support this argument, evi-dence will be presented in the following manner: The concept of "education through art" will be examined through the pub-lications of Sir Herbert Read. The influence of Read's ideas will be traced through the formation of the Society for Education Through Art in Britain, and through the important advances that have been made in art education as a result of his inspirational leadership* An attempt will be made to show that, in spite of the gains that have been made in the past, art education is now losing ground. The grow-ing volume of statements by modern art educators which express concern over "the dwindling role of art" in our schools will be cited as evidence. It will be suggested that the case for art as a vital component in general education is very much a live issue, and that proof of this fact may be found in the arguments of art educators who, in significant numbers, are urging that the isolation of art in our schools must cease. V CHAPTER II THE PRIMARY ROLE OF ART IN EDUCATION: CONFLICTING VIEWS Sir Herbert Read (1893-1968), was a distinguished poet and critic of art and literature. He was also an author whose philosophical views in the field of politics and sociology were highly influential in his time. But perhaps the most remarkable thing about him was the contribution he made in the field of art education, since he made no claim to be either an artist or a teacher. His many books on art education or, more correctly, education through art, have had a profound effect upon the teaching of art in Brit-ain and have established him as a major influence internationally. The best known of his books, Education Through Art, became an inspiration to many leading British art educators after the second world war. The t i t l e of the book was adopted in the formation of the Society for Education Through Art and Read remained President of that organization until his death in 1968. The Society s t i l l flourishes in Britain and there are affiliated groups in countries like Canada, Australia and New Zealand which use the t i t l e , and pay l i p service, at least, to the concept in which Read passion-ately believed, the theme to which he returns again and again in his books. In the opening words of Education Through Art we are introduced to that theme very directly: The thesis which is to be put forward in this book i s not original. It was very explicitly formulated by Plato many 10. 11 centuries ago, and I have no other ambition than to trans-late his view of the function of art in education into terms which are directly applicable to our present needs and conditions* • . • The thesis i s : that art should be the basis of education.9 Read develops this idea very persuasively in his contribution to a UNESCO symposium in 1953» Th© phrase referred to i s , of course, "educa-tion through art." The particular point of view which I represent in this symposium becomes immediately evident i f emphasis is given to the preposition in the above phrase: not education i n art, nor the place of art in education, but education by  means of art. It is claimed that the experience involved in the process of artistic creation (and here i t i s necess-ary to emphasize the word "creation," for sometimes i t is confused with the secondary process of appreciation) is in itself an educative one, and that art is therefore an essential instrument in any complete system of education. . . . Art is also—and its educative importance derives largely from this fact—a social process, for i t is essentially a means of communication. . . . One of the principal aims of education should be to preserve what every child is born with—a physical intensity of percep-tion and sensation.10 It is not difficult to understand how welcome these ideas were to art edu-cators in post-war Britain who were striving to establish their subject in the schools of an education system which was in the process of being re* built. There can be no doubt that tremendous gains were, in fact, made for the cause of art in the schools. With the example of pioneers like Marion Richardson and R.R. Tomlinson to encourage them, and the evangel-is t i c zeal of a prominent man of letters to illuminate their case, i t is small wonder that so many leading art teachers saw membership of the ^Read, Herbert. Education Through Art (New York: Pantheon Books Inc., 1958), p. 1. 1GRead, Herbert. Education and Art, A Symposium, ed. Edwin Ziegfeld (UNESCO, 1953), pp. 25-27. 12. Society as a necessary step in securing a primary place for art in educa-tion. To these teachers, whose interests ranged from kindergarten class-rooms to university fine arts studios, many of whom were struggling to teach their subject in less than ideal conditions, Read's words had a tonic effect: . . . art cannot be learned by precept, by any verbal in-struction. It i s , properly speaking, a contagion, and passes like fire from spirit to spirit. But always as a meaningful symbol, and as a unifying symbol. We do not insist on education through art for the sake of art, but for the sake of l i f e itself .H In 19$h there was an important development. The movement succeeded in establishing under the auspices of UNESCO an International Society for Education Through Art which led to the formation of branches throughout the world. Two years later, in a statement of his credo, Read referred to this achievement and to the difficulties encountered by the movement in its advocacy of the policy of education through art: The main difficulty encountered in our exposition of this policy is due to a misunderstanding of what we mean by the word ar t — a word as ambiguous as the word education. But again one must persist in using the conventional word and trust that the challenging association of these two misunderstood words will produce some illumination in the public mind. What I have in my own mind is a complete fusion of the two concepts, so that when I speak of art I mean an educational process, a process of upbringing; and when I speak of education I mean an artistic process, a process of self-creation. As educators, we look at the process from the outside; as artists, we look at the same process from the inside; and both processes, integrated, make the complete man." 1 1Ibid., pp. 20-27. ^Read, Herbert. The Redemption of the Robot (New York: Trident Press, 1966), pp. xxviii-xxix. 13. L i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y seemed to be experienced by the art teachers i n British schools i n following the policies of the Society, however, for i t was surely due to their enthusiastic interpretation of those policies into r e a l i s t i c classroom practice that many of Read's avant garde ideas were implemented. In view of the growing importance of art i n British schools, a leading art educator, Kenneth Jameson, was able to make a glowing re-port i n Berlin i n 1962, when he addressed the Fede'ration Internationale pour 1'Education Artistique. He also used the occasion to reaffirm the aims of the movement for which he was acting as spokesman: We believe i n Education i n Art, but we believe and seek to further, more than anything else, the process of Education through Art. Not merely to teach superficial s k i l l s , but to educate, using art as the agent, the whole personality . . . to help the child to discover the world around him, and having discovered i t , to identify himself with i t , and so to find, and to edu-cate, himself.!3 Despite Jameson's heartening words,-evidence suggests that ground has already been lost since the foregoing statement was made, and that Field's prediction concerning the "dwindling role" of art i n the schools i s a very r e a l i s t i c one, not only i n Britain, but also i n Canada, and, judging by the statements issuing from some American art educators, i n the United States as well. Another British educator who has expressed misgivings over the status of art i n the school system i s Kurt Rowland. In 1968 he stated: . . . the chief claims of art education to inclusion i n the syllabus appear to be based on vague hopes that such a 'cultural' discipline may have a liberating effect on •^Jameson, Kenneth. "Report on Art Education i n Great Britain," Athene, Vol. 10, No. ii (Spring 1963), p. 16. (Society for Education Through Art, London, 1963.) a i i . certain latent qualities and lead to an unspecified en-hancement of the personality* It is not surprising that school art, which seems to have such woolly aims, has become a fringe subject and is thought to be less essen-tial than ''recognized1* subjects which are considered indispensable to vocational training*!'1 Rowland's attack on the "woolly aims" of school art is based on the same diagnosis as that made by Field* The malaise is a serious one, and if art education is going to survive in any worthwhile form when schools are being urged "to return to the basics," there will have to be a close ex-amination made at all levels of the public education system* Art educa-tors must do some serious thinking once more concerning the role of art in our schools* They must be prepared to identify their own aims and pur-poses in teaching art, and to bring the strongest possible arguments to bear on what they conceive to be the function of art in education. Evidence presented so far indicates that possibly the problem is crystallized in the choice between two basic positions—"integration or isolation*" Thomas Munro, a prominent American educator, writing as long ago as 19lil, puts the question very clearly: What we believe as to the social functions of art will in-fluence our ways of relating art to the rest of the curr-iculum, will make us present it as detached and trivial, or as an integral, vital factor in society, • • • Still heatedly argued back and forth is the question of "inte-gration" versus "isolation"—shall art be taught as a separate subject and department, or be merged with others, as in the project method, core curriculum, and similar procedures? If the former, how can it be kept from ex-cessive specialization, aloofness, and artificiality? If the latter, how can it avoid being overwhelmed by other approaches and made a mere handmaid to other departments, ^Rowland, Kurt. Educating The Senses (Oinn and Company, 1968), p. 5*. 15 as in the making of posters for English and social stud-ies?^ Leon Winslow, in a book written in 19U9, makes his position per-fectly clear, at least as far as the elementary school curriculum is con-Throughout the elementary school, art may broadly be con-ceived of as a component part and frequently as the out-growth of the entire school curriculum. Because some experience with art is involved in almost every field of human endeavor, the subject helps the pupil to learn more effectively, the pursuit of it being essential to his liberal education on intellectual as well as aesthetic grounds. . . . The school subject called art is then an organized body of creative and appreciative experience with the materials, growing out of the life of the child. Since the modern curriculum is made up of experiences that are vital and real to him, art in the school should also afford a logical culmination for these experiences, be-cause to be genuine, art must be experience that is vital. If the child is encouraged to express himself freely through art mediums, he will from choice often use for his inspiration those currieular experiences This declaration by Winslow, an American, provides a direct link with what was happening in British schools at that time, for it seems also to bring practical experience and professional insight to bear on the edu-cational theories of Herbert Read. It also points to the undoubted fact that true integration across the subject areas can occur very readily and naturally in the elementary school curriculum where there are few time-table restraints compared with the highly specialized secondary school sys--'Munro, Thomas. "Some Basic Problems in Art Education," in the qOth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education (Bloondng-ton, Illinois: Public School Publishing Company, 19U1), pp. 16-U5. ^Winslow, Leon Loyal. The Integrated School Art Program (New York: McGraw-Hill, 19U9), p. 51. cerned: tem. 16 The theme is taken up again by two other North American art edu-cators, Charles Gaitskell and Al Hurwitz. In their book on art methods for the elementary school which appeared in 1970, they make a strong case for integration and a direct reference to Read and his philosophy of edu-cation: That other subjects should serve as a basis for children's art work is educationally sound in principle . . . whereas the mechanistic psychologists believed that learning can best occur when school subjects are broken down into their smallest parts, the Gestalt psychologists disputed this assertion and proved that just the reverse is true. Wholes, not parts, are primary, they asserted. Learning occurs best, not when subjects are dissected, but when they are combined* • • • If one examines the "grass roots of art," to borrow Sir Herbert Read's evocative phrase, the distinctive quali-ties of visual art become lass apparent as one compares the formal characteristics of art to those of its neigh-bours. As an example, design features, such as line* rhythm, and pattern, have their counterparts in music, drama, and dance. For this reason design components are often used as the basis for many related art programs.*-7 With such compelling arguments for integration of school subjects and such widespread advocacy for art as a fundamental part of the element-ary school curriculum, some exciting work was being done in schools on both sides of the Atlantic* In 1962 the American art educator June King McFee was able to report: Children are using art as a means of learning as well as expressing. Art is an important avenue for analyzing and discriminating perceptions, for organizing these con-cepts in their interactions, and then symbolizing them so they can be understood by others. Painting a picture or a mural is as good a summary of learning as a written 1 7Gaitskell, Charles, and Hurwitz, Al. Children and Their Art (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1970), pp. h08-l*09* 17. report. In some ways its richer symbolism may increase retention. Certainly children can organize in drawing more complex ideas than they can in writing.18 McFee's words read almost like a postscript to the ideas expressed by Froebel over one and one quarter centuries before. His conviction that children are endowed with innate artistic ability, and that art is as natural a means of communication as the spoken or written word, is re-inforced by her statement. Furthermore, McFee describes what i s , surely, an admirable situation and one with which any good elementary teacher will be familiar, a situation in which art is used as naturally and as spontan-eously as language for the communication of ideas, for the solving of problems, and for the joyful enrichment of learning. This fundamental view of art in the elementary classroom is under-lined in a book by John Sawyer and Italo de Francesea which appeared in 1971: Art has no subject-matter barriers: and therefore i t i s a means of uniting a l l learnings. Primarily, . . . the aim of art education at the elementary school level is as follows: (1) to integrate the child's art learnings with his total educational foundation; (2) to develop children whose intellectual, emotional, social growth, physical, perceptual, aesthetic, and creative components are integrated into a harmonious unity through the quali-ties of art.1° It would seem, judging by the force of a l l these arguments, that the concept of education through art is well understood, at least as i t ^McFee, June King. "Implications for Change in Art Education," Western Arts Bulletin, September, 1962, reprinted in Elliot W. Eisner and David W. Ecker, Readings in Art Education (Waltham, Mass.: 1966), p. 191. ^Sawyer, John R., and de Francesco, Italo L, Elementary School  Art for Classroom Teachers (New York: Harper and Row, 1971), p. 13d. 18. applies in our elementary schools. In fact, although many teachers do make imaginative use of art as a catalyst for the total learning experien-ces of their students, there are probably s t i l l too many classrooms that bear visual witness to the teacher's total inadequacy in this area. In this writer's opinion, the art methods courses which are taught in teacher education programmes at our colleges and universities have a clear respons-i b i l i t y to remedy this inadequacy. It is in these courses that attitudes will be formed by student-teachers; they will either be convinced through the evidence of their own experience that art has unique qualities when employed in the total process of learning, or they will embark upon their careers as teachers with art vaguely categorized in their minds as a use-ful and soporific fringe activity for those aimless moments which seem to surface mainly on Friday afternoons. If this writer's case for art as a primary educational function has been directed mainly at the elementary school, i t is not because he regards that case as inappropriate for secondary education, but rather, because the generalist approach which characterizes elementary teaching finds a natural outlet in the concept of integrated learning. Further-more, although there is much to be done at elementary level, a great deal has already been accomplished as June King McFee has indicated. In the "open classroom!', concept of education which has been a feature of British primary and junior schools for many years, integration is taken for gran-ted. An example of this in practice is given in a book published in 1968. The authors are the head teachers of an infant and a primary school which are combined on the same campus. Talking of their school's "integrated day," they explain: 19, The integrated day could be described as a school day which is combined into a whole and has the minimum of timetabling. Within this day there is time and oppor-tunity in a planned educative environment for the social, intellectual, emotional, physical and aesthetic growth of the child at his own rate of development* • • • The natural flow of activity, imagination, lang-uage, thought and learning which is in itself a continu-ous process is not interrupted by a r t i f i c i a l breaks such as the conventional playtime or subject barriers. • • • As the child works, he is involved with learning as an integrated unit, coping perhaps with a foray into maths, science, geography, art or English in a short space of time, through the use of books, material and equipment which may lead him into various channels* Subject barriers are extraneous* No limit is set to the exploration involved, which may go off at any tangent into any sphere of learning. Different subjects are also cemented by the free use of language. If we take for example any one term such as 'three dimensional', this is used in science, maths, English, construction or art and the child may have experience of and explore 3D within a framework where they are a l l interwoven and almost indistinguishable one from the other . . . . 2 0 From the foregoing example there can be no doubt of the vi t a l con-tribution art can make in a system of education which is geared to inte-grated learning. Many art educators, however, believe that the lessons which have been learned through work with younger children have important implications for secondary art programmes, and that a way must be found to overcome the isolation of art which occurs in the highly specialized teach-ing of high school subjects. Many North American art educators echo the concerns of Field and Rowland in Britain. They view the weakening status of high school art with obvious alarm. These words taken from an article by Junius Eddy, for example, have an ironic ring: 2®Brown, Mary, and Precious, Norman. The Integrated Day in the  Primary School (New York: Ballantine Books, 1968), pp. 3-U. 20 I wonder i f the tendency to think in terms of subject matter about the rest of the curriculum hasn't placed us in an untenable position when i t comes to a considera-tion of curriculum reform in the arts. It seems to have forced us, perhaps without our knowing i t , to deal with the arts as separate, compartmentalized boxes of subject matter—so that we wind up being grateful i f we get more time for art or music at the junior high level, and simply dazzled i f we get a chance to introduce creative dramat-ics or dance in the primary school.21 The dangers of isolation are outlined in a cryptic article in which Donald Amstine proposes a solution that would f i t quite happily into the "integrated day" of a British "open classroom." He declares that: . . . art studied in school that is disconnected from the natural and social events which are its chief source of meaning and significance is at best an esoteric amusement and at worst a bore. And history and sciences that are presented in isolation from the aspects of immediate aesthetic appeal which constitute the very motivation for their cognitive study are at best mere rituals to perform and at worst a form of persecution. What I am proposing is a conception of aesthetic education in which a l l stud-ies are initiated and carried forward by what is of immed-iate appeal and in which sensitivity to artistic presenta-tions themselves i s maintained and developed, because what is presented i s perceptibly significant to the world in which students live.22 Amstine, having left us in no doubt as to his position on integra-tion of the high school curriculum, makes an interesting assessment of the function a specialist art teacher might have within such a framework: As an aesthetic consultant, the art teacher can both help increase the meaning and import of other school studies and at the same time increase sensitivity to aesthetic ^Sddy, Junius. The Upsidedown Curriculum, from Cultural Affairs, (Associated Councils of the Arts, Summer, 1970), reprinted in Hardiman, George W., and Zernich, Theodore, Curricular Considerations for Visual Arts  Education (Champaign: Stipes Pub. Co., 197b), p. 53. 22Arnstine, Donald. "The Aesthetic as a Context for General Education," Studies in Art Education, (Autumn, 1966), pp. 13-22. 21, qualities and to art itself.° By way of rounding off this case for an integrated system of edu-cation within which art is allotted a primary role, and before looking at some of the objections which have been expressed to this concept, i t might be appropriate to consider the quiet but, nevertheless, powerful argument made by A.W. Foshay against the division created by our education systems between the arts and the so-called academic subjects. In an article writ-ten in 1973 for the journal Art Education, he states: The traditions of the arts, and of the academic fields, separate the two to the disadvantage of both. To view the arts as playful and private, and the formal academic pursuits as work-oriented and serious, is to separate them and to rob general education of its humane meanings. In the final analysis, i t is to rob education of any serious meaning—it is to make i t merely academic. Foshay continues his common-sense statement with a gentle direct-ive aimed at "arts people." He suggests, as Amstine does, that the rem-edy for a sad state of affairs is in the hands of the art teachers, that their contribution to the school curriculum should not be a t r i v i a l one, but one of fundamental importance. He points out that: General education and the arts are, or ought to be, a seam-less web. The isolation of the arts serves neither the arts nor general education nor the students very well. The initiative for a remedy can be taken by arts people who will begin to help children give aesthetic expression to general education themes. The other side of i t — t h a t side in which general education enters into the arts—will appear as a necessity.2u Foshay"s image of the school curriculum as a "seamless web" with ^Ibid., pp. 13-22. ^Foshay, A.W. "The Arts in General Education," from Art Educa-tion, Vol. 26, No. 6 (September, 1973), reprinted in Hardiman, George W., and Zernich, Theodore, Curricular Considerations for Visual Arts Education (Champaign: Stipes Pub. Co., 197U), pp. 23-32. 22. art woven firmly into the fabric along with the other subjects is one that appeals to this writer, and, he believes, to a large and still growing number of art educators wherever the value of art in schools is recog-nized. In presenting what he considers to be strong evidence to support this position, however, he is aware that opposing views do exist. For example, many art educators, although they may not necessarily oppose in-tegration of their subject, seem to be more aligned to a concept of educa-tion in, rather than through art. This would certainly seem to be the case where many members of the American based National Art Education Association are concerned. One of the commonest arguments used by art teachers is that the process of integration places art in an inferior position relative to other subjects. They claim that art becomes a handmaiden, and is used merely as a means to illustrate learning in other parts of the curriculum. Frank Wachowiak and Theodore Ramsay, in a book which is widely used by elementary school teachers and art educators, express this view with some feeling: . . . another distinct handicap to a qualitative art pro-gram is the continued emphasis on misguided correlation practices where teachers use art to make other subjects more palatable and in the process often kill the child's love for art. But even here, there is much confusion among the writings of some of our art educators. We find them warning us against letting art become the slave of other areas in one breath and in the next suggesting a project of realistic clay vegetables to be used in a con-sumer's math project. 25 This is, of course, a real danger. But it could also be argued that a secondary role for art is only created where there is ignorance of W^achowiak, Frank, and Ramsay, Theodore. Emphasis: Art (Scran-ton, Penn.: International Textbook Company, 1965), p. 5. 23. the dynamic potential that is inherent in art as an agent for learning. No teacher who really appreciates this characteristic of art will allow its emasculation by other subjects. This statement by Dick Field brings out this point: i . . . we realize that we approach the matter of cross-subject teaching against a background of misunderstanding and dis-appointment. In the past too many attempts at collaboration have failed, generally because the role of art is supposed by others to be secondary, to be illustrative, or to give form to other people's ideas. This is entirely to miss the point that art has its own insights and offers its own structure of understanding. . . • But in order to play this primary role, art needs at each point of contact an advocate; and this in turn means that the art teacher must be convinced of the contribution his subject can bring.26 The traditional fear of art teachers that in an integrated pro-gramme of school studies art will become "the slave of other areas" can be understood in the light of past experience. It i s , however, a l i t t l e more difficult to sympathize with another argument against integration which asserts that art, under these circumstances, w i l l assume for itself a dom-inant posture. This is a recurring theme in the writings of Vincent Lanier, who makes no secret of his view of art as a peripheral activity in the school curriculum, dismissing as arrogant those who hold to a philoso-phy of education through art. In his entertaining review of the aims of art education which he bases on twenty-five years of experience, "A Plague On A l l Your Houses," Lanier, in discussing the place of art education in the formal educational process, tells us that: . . . It cannot, in my opinion, take a place in the core or centre of education since i t does not possess those inherent ^ F i e l d , Dick.v Change in Art Education (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970), p. 105*7 \ 2U qualities involved in the central issue of education, which is or should be the development of those concepts and skills necessary to understand and alter society. If schooling does nothing else, i t must at least engage the student in that continuing dialogue and supportive study which clarifies the ways in which the social, economic, and political world around him works and how that world might be improved. This dialogue and these supportive studies must be carried on primarily (though not exclusively, as we shall later see) through the medium of verbal language, the principal medium in which significant ideas about the world can be stated, exam-ined, tested, and evaluated. Thus the central currency of the school is words.27 In opposition to the main point at issue in the foregoing state-ment, there is considerable evidence to show that art does possess the "inherent qualities involved in the central issue of education," that art can and should play an important part in clarifying for the student "the ways in which the social, economic, and political world around him works and how that world might be improved." Furthermore, while i t would be foolish to deny that "the central currency of the school is words," i t seems equally foolish to deny the existence in the school of other vi t a l currencies, including art. This would be to deny the opinions, quoted earlier in this paper, of some of the most eminent educators and philoso-phers in history. There i s one part of Vincent Lanier's article with which the writer of this thesis, along with the British and North American art edu-cators he has quoted, would surely agree. Lanier states that: Like most school subjects, art has been an academic exer-cise, sometimes entertaining, often boring, occasionally irksome, but rarely i f ever related to the world outside the classroom or important to the world inside. . . . We ^Lanier, Vincent. "A Plague On A l l Your Houses," Art Education, Vol. 27, No. 3 (1973), pp. 12-1$. 25 remain a peripheral area of education, long on boastful claims and short on achievements—a condition which "you gotta have art" buttons will never improve.28 This i s precisely what Field, Rowland, Eddy, Arnstine, and so many other art educators are concerned about. But they believe the cause of the malady lies i n the isolated and often frivolous stance of art in the schools, and, i f ever art is to relate to the world inside or outside the classroom, i t will not be from Lanier's fringe position that this will be achieved, but as a structural thread i n Foshay's "seamless web." Without wishing to doubt the sincerity of Vincent Lanier's beliefs, the conviction remains that art is capable of playing a primary role in an integrated school curriculum. And, for a final justification of this view-point there could hardly be a better argument than that of Sir Herbert Read: . . . art is not to be treated as something external which has to be inserted into the general scheme of education. Nor, on the other hand, can education be regarded as some-thing which can never be complete without art. There is a certain way of l i f e which we hold to be good, and the creat-ive activity we call art is essential to i t . Education is nothing but an initiation into this way of l i f e , and we believe that in no way is that initiation so successfully achieved as through the practice of art. Art, that is to say, is a way of education—not so much a subject to be taught as a method of teaching any and a l l subjects.29 Apparently i t is what Lanier describes as the "instrumentalist position" in the ideas of Read that he takes exception to. In a recent article he delivers a frontal attack on those Canadian art educators who form the membership of the Canadian Society for Education Through Art and, 28Ibld.« pp. 12-15. 2%ead, Herbert. The Redemption of the Robot (New York: Trident Press, 1966), pp. xxviii-xxix. 26. presumably, support the ideals of an education through art. To ignore, as Vincent Lanier appears to do, the work of many leading art educators who have interpreted Read's central idea of education through art into practical terms for the classroom, who have demonstrated (with Read's en-thusiastic blessing) that art does indeed have an intrinsic value as an agent for learning in a general programme of education, is to ignore a conviction that is gathering strength once more in the minds of an in-creasing number of art educators. As this writer has tried to show, they are dismayed by the corrosive effect on art in the schools as a result of the "ostrich" policy of isolation. They urge that i t is not only educa-tionally sound for art to take its rightful place along with the other core subjects of an integrated curriculum, but that i t would serve art's best interests as well, since there is no reason to assume that any loss of art's unique qualities and characteristics will result from the process of integration. Canadian art educators should see Vincent Lanier's enigmatic pos-ture as a mask for his true role as "devil's advocate." He will have done them a great service i f he has caused them to look once more at a philoso-phy of art education which has led to some impressive achievements in the past and is capable of pointing the way out of the quicksands of present day isolation. There can be no questioning the urgency of the situation, nor should we assume that the problem is confined to Canadian schools. Sylvia K. Corwin is assistant principal and supervisor of art at John F. Kennedy High School, The Bronx, New York. She warns us: We can no longer afford the luxury of playing yesterday's art teacher role: sign-painter, jack of a l l grades, baby-sitter, decorator, doodler. We must demonstrate, visibly, 27 how a sound high school art program does more than open the door to reading and problem-solving for many young-sters* We must show how cumulative, exploratory, and developmental art experiences bring exciting new dimen-sions to learning—in a l l disciplines—for a l l children. . . . In every school, every day, art teachers must demonstrate forcefully the value of our subject. Our collective ingenuity, talent, and intelligence must be directed to translating the language of art to our col-leagues, at each level of school authority. And we must surely reach out to include parents and the community in our efforts. The time is now.-3 3°Corwin, Sylvia K. "The Time is Now," Focus Elementary Art  Education (N.A.E.A., 1976), pp. 95-96, reprinted from Art Teacher, Vol 3, No. 1, (Winter, 1973). Plate 2. CHAPTER III CURRICULUM MATERIALS FOR EDUCATION THROUGH ART This researcher believes, and has t r i e d to show, that the prin-ciples underlying the theory of education through art are educationally sound. When these principles are intelligently applied they bring remark-able results, as witness, for example, the much admired British system of primary education i n which art has been a naturally integrated and v i t a l component for many years. It i s not surprising that so few teachers practise those princip-les, because much depends on the teacher's own i n i t i a t i v e and on the qual-i t y of his professional training. Too often the generalist elementary teacher receives l i t t l e or no training i n art i n his teacher education programme. When art courses are offered they often appear as an elective i n competition with several other subjects. I f the student teacher elects an art education course he w i l l find, more often than not, that i t i s taught i n isolation from a l l the other courses he i s taking. Thus, unless he i s fortunate enough to be accepted i n one of the more progressive tea-cher education programmes, the elementary teacher may embark upon his teaching career with no experience or understanding of an Integrated pro-gramme of studies, he may know nothing of team teaching or of the value of learning centres, he could, conceivably, have had no training i n art. In fact, the model set before him during several years of study at college or university, may have misled him completely regarding his role as a teacher i n a modern elementary classroom. 29. 30. In view of this unhappy state of affairs, i t would seem reasonable to expect that materials and teaching kits would be available that would help to f i l l some of those gaps in the teacher's professional knowledge and, perhaps even more important, offer him practical assistance in his task of enriching the content, as well as expanding the frontiers of his teaching. In fact, a wide choice of curriculum materials do exist. A selec-tion of teaching "packages" or "kits" often feature prominently in the resource centre or library of a modern school, while the well-stocked curriculum laboratories in colleges and faculties of education proclaim the importance of such devices in the preparation of teachers. Most subject areas seem to be represented, including the "core" disciplines of mathematics and language arts, where materials, often in the form of games or instructional kits, have been designed to reinforce concepts like number and word skills in younger children. Materials may be inspirational or motivational in their purpose, as for example, pack-ages containing visual and aural presentations which are used to encourage creative writing at various age levels. There are learning packages which help to illuminate many aspects of social studies, science, and even music, but, although there is a growing interest in curriculum materials for edu-cation in art, there seems to have been l i t t l e or no attempt to produce kits or packages to support the ideas which were discussed in the previous chapter. If art is ever to achieve its rightful place in Foshay's "seam-less web," every effort must be made, in this researcher's opinion, to educate teachers to see art, not as a f r i l l , but as a foundation upon which to build their teaching. In other words: to educate through art. 31. Believing that this end will best be served by designing a series of teaching kits that will directly help generalist teachers, as well as specialist art teachers, to educate through art, this researcher has att-empted to develop such a kit. Before describing the process, a brief sur-vey of existing art education curriculum materials is appropriate. There i s , of course, a rich choice of slides, film-strips, films, charts, and other visual aids from which the art teacher may obtain valu-able assistance in enriching his school programme. Apart from the tradi-tional subject-matter like art history or art appreciation, there is a wealth of material directed at areas of interest which have surfaced more recently, for example, the movement toward the study of art in relation to the environment, or the "basic design" approach to art education. Some of these visual aids are accompanied by audio tapes or phono-graph records and are often presented as a boxed kit along with a guide for the use of the teacher or the student in the classroom. A good example of this type of art education kit is the one used in the audio-visual slide programmes produced by The Center For Humanities^" which are designed for the purpose of aesthetic education. In addition to audio and visual components a kit may contain other related materials, as in the one designed by Kurt Rowland^ which includes work-books as well as film-strips and audio-tapes. There can be l i t t l e doubt, however, that the most prolific source of packages and kits for use in art education i s the Viking Press in New York which produces a wide ^Learning to See and Understand: Developing Visual Literacy (The Center for Humanities, Inc., 191k), ^Rowland, Kurt. Sight and Insight (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1973). 32. variety of aesthetic education materials for CEMREL (the Central Midwestern Regional Educational Laboratory). The approach of this organization, at least in some respects, goes part of the way toward the goal of education through art, since there i s an attempt to integrate the subject areas in the packages designed for younger children, and there is an emphasis on the arts as a vehicle to promote primary skills, and to promote the study of the environment. In other respects, however, CEMREL packages seem to this researcher to provide too much. Instead of functioning as a start-ing-point or a springboard for the teacher's ideas, or as a motivational device for the student's independent studies, they tend to over-direct the process of learning with a profusion of sophisticated materials. An article by Gilbert A. Clark which was published in the Septem-ber, 1975 issue of Art Education should be of considerable interest to art educators. Entitled "Art Kits and Caboodles" i t describes the work done by Clark and his associates in developing Art-Kits and Caboodles which are designed, to use the author's own words: . . . for use in the art classroom as motivational, en-richment, and independent inquiry materials. They are to be used to expand and strengthen the teacher's art pro-gramme. They are to be selected and used by teachers and students as an extension of the instructional program offered by schools. Clark goes on to give these definitions: A kit is a packaged collection of related materials de-signed to teach the user a predetermined content specific to the arts in conceptual, historical, critical, or aes-thetic dimensions. Kits are assembled and created from related but diverse packageable materials. The related-ness of their diverse contents i s their strength. . . . A caboodle is a variation of a kit. Caboodles are packaged collections of related materials designed to provide the user experiences with content specific to the arts in conceptual, historical, critical, or aesthetic dimensions. . . . Kits are designed for specific instruction. 33. Caboodles are designed for learning outcomes, learning experiences without such predictable definition.33 The only point on which this researcher would take issue with Clark, i s the apparent restriction he places on the use of art k i t s . Without wishing to deny the value of such materials "in the art class-room," and while f u l l y supporting Clark's statement as to their purpose i n an art programme, there would, i n this researcher's view, be an even greater value i f the materials were designed for more flexible use. For i n recalling the central issue of "integration or isolation," and the ar-guments presented i n Chapter II of this thesis, curriculum kits which were designed for education through, rather than i n art, would i n no way lose their value i n art programmes, but would, surely, play an even more import-ant role. By giving direct help to the generalist teacher, by encouraging him to educate through art, the integral qualities of art as a primary component i n education would become apparent. In considering a theme for a curriculum k i t that would help teach-ers to educate through art, almost any subject area offers r i c h p o s s i b i l i -t i e s . In fact, the theme chosen here seemed to be an ideal one i n many respects, for i n dealing with an important facet of the art of primitive man, there were, apart from the obvious uses i n a school art programme, some interesting opportunities for expanding and illuminating the work i n social studies, drama, language arts and music. Since the modern approach to social studies i s primarily concerned with man i n relation to society, his environment, his religious beliefs, ^Clark, Gilbert A. "Art Kits and Caboodles: Alternative Learn-ing Materials for Education i n the Arts," i n Art Education, Vol. 28, No. 5 (September, 1975), pp. 27-30. 3U. his p o l i t i c s j and since the consideration of these and other factors f i g -ure prominently when man expresses his ideas through the arts, i t follows that any study of man's development must be concerned with the a r t i s t i c manifestations of our own and other cultures. Thus, the f i e l d of social studies offers a wealth of particularly appropriate themes for a curricu-lum k i t which i s aimed at education through art. In selecting the art of primitive man as a subject, this researcher had the needs of the generalist teacher, as well as those of the element-ary student, very much i n mind. By means of a further process of selec-tion, the mask seemed to have even greater potential and f l e x i b i l i t y , for i t has always reflected an important cultural and psychological aspect of man i n the more " c i v i l i z e d " as well as the primitive societies. The k i t was, therefore, created as a resource package which would not be restricted to use i n an art room, but would be of practical help to generalist teachers as an aid to integrated learning through art. It was developed to include the following components: 1. Slides: seventy i n number and arranged into sixteen sections. The f i r s t f i f t e e n sections deal with the psychological and cultural purposes of the mask i n the affairs of man, while the f i n a l section shows a step-by-step approach to making a mask suitable for the classroom. A l l the slides were made by , the researcher from original sources, as well as from books on the subject and from museum collections. 2. Audio Cassette Tape: prepared by the researcher for the pur-pose of complementing the visual experience of the slides. Tribal music from several of the regions i s represented i n the k i t . 3. Teaching Notes: for the use of the individual student or the teacher when working with the materials. Appendix B. The arrangement of the k i t into several sections of slides i s made i n the interests of f l e x i b i l i t y . Thus, each section may be used independ-ently of the others to meet the needs of different age groups or to satisfy 35". the requirements of specific subject areas l i k e Drama, Language Arts or Music. The teaching notes are designed to motivate a s p i r i t of enquiry i n the students. In the attempt to achieve this objective, they are more concerned with posing questions than with providing answers. 36. Plate 3. Plate h. 33. Plate 5. 39 CHAPTER IV "THE MASK": A CURRICULUM KIT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION THROUGH ART From the outset this curriculum kit was planned to satisfy more than one purpose. The very nature of i t s subject matter makes its uses in school art programmes fairly obvious. By judicious selection from the slides and by appropriate adjustment of aims, the art teacher should be able to adapt the materials for use at various age levels in high school and in elementary art classes. Apart from the more obvious use i n the art programme as a means of motivation, or as a source of enrichment, or (and this is most important) as a starting-point for further inquiry by groups or individual students, this researcher believes that the kit has an important function when seen as part of an integrated approach to learning. As an example of this point, i t should provide valuable help to the generalist elementary teacher who is planning a social studies unit on primitive man. The powerful vis-ual impact of the masks should, by arousing the interest of the students, generate that spirit of inquiry without which work in social studies or any other subject becomes a mere academic exercise. The slides have been developed with this objective in view at a l l times. It is hoped that they will act as a catalyst in encouraging a flow of purposeful research by the students, and that the teacher will present them in the interests of motivation and enrichment, and that they will not be seen as ends in themselves. Ul. In the belief that this attempt to foster a dynamic learning situ-ation must be the central aim of this kit, examples of masks have been in-cluded from several different cultures. The subject is introduced by showing that the urge to dress up and to ''assume a mask" is a strong hu-man characteristic, and that this urge is s t i l l present in a l l of us. The modern city-dweller who paints his face in the spirit of the carnival is linked with the tribesmen in Australia and Africa who, in painting their faces and bodies for initiation ceremonies, are following strict tribal law. Thus, the f i r s t section of slides i s intended to be thought-pro-voking. What is the origin of modern man's urge to assume another identity by applying a mask of paint? Is there any deeper religious significance involved when he plays the role of a clown? Why is the wearing of a mask so important in primitive tribal ceremonies? Consideration of questions like these should lead to research by students in order to find the ans-wers. The rest of the slides are arranged in small groups, mainly accord-ing to geographic origin of the masks. Exceptions to this are the sections on funerary masks and theatrical masks, both of which draw their examples from widely different cultures. Each of the sections tries to show that, although the design of the masks may vary from culture to culture, their underlying purpose remains the same. In submerging his own identity for whatever ceremonial reason, the tribesman re-affirms his support for the religious, sociological, and political aspirations of his tribe; by strict observance of traditional ritual, he is helping to preserve his cultural heritage. tt2. i One of the main points to be brought out here is that the mask is not primarily conceived by primitive man as a work of art. It has a pre-ordained function in the ceremonial l i f e of the tribe, and in view of this, i t i s regarded as a purely utilitarian object. Only through the eyes of the "civilized" outsider are masks and other tribal artifacts seen as art objects. However, this fact should in no way inhibit the student's appreci-ation of the aesthetic qualities of the masks. The art of primitive man is represented in the museums and galleries of the world, and the study of these examples should help the student to understand why. Although the images do tend to speak for themselves, students should be made aware of some of the more subtle qualities present in them. For example, many of the African masks have won the admiration of modern artists like Picasso, Braque, and Epstein, since they were "discovered" at the end of the last century. The reasons for this are made clear by studying the sheer art-istry of these masks; the sensitivity with which they are carved, the rich surface treatment of some, in contrast with the restraint of others. This sort of appraisal should lead to an awareness of those images which are designed to shock, and those that have a more gentle message. It should also lead to an appreciation of the techniques used by the carver to express these feelings. This researcher believes that one of the desirable outcomes of using this kit is an awakened interest in the student to design and con-struct a mask for himself. While the specialist art teacher will readily see the motivational use of the materials in that part of his programme that deals with three-dimensional design, i t must be emphasized that the U3. kit i s primarily intended for the generalist teacher who Is interested in an integrated approach to learning. The last section o f slides was de-signed with this non-specialist type of teacher in mind. The simple and economical variation of the papier mache method which is illustrated in section sixteen of the slides is ideal for a classroom with limited re-sources. At the same time i t should be stressed that the method shown i s just one way of making a mask. There are many other suitable procedures with which the teacher should try to familiarize himself. The main reas-ons for featuring this particular method are: the scope i t offers for the imaginative use of discarded materials, its directness, i t s cheapness, and, perhaps most important, the ease with which individual ideas may be ex-pressed. Most teachers will agree that the abstract nature of the learning that takes place through the medium of books has a limited value when working with younger children. This fact is brought home very clearly, for example, in elementary social studies. In the attempt to bring past civilizations or remote regions to l i f e in the minds of the children, the progressive teacher recognizes the need to supplement the knowledge to be gained from books. Visual aids of a l l kindsj music, drama, and art activi-ties, can a l l do much to ensure the active interest and involvement of the students. No social studies project, however, that does not concern i t -self with people can hope to promote any valuable understanding of other cultures. Students who are given every opportunity to experience, as realistically as possible, what i t would be like to be a North American Indian or an African tribesman, for example, will surely gain far clearer insights concerning those cultures than could be obtained from books alone. ill*. It follows then, that the study of the masks which are presented in this kit should lead to inquiry into the life-styles of the people who made them. By studying the purposes to which the masks were put the stud-ent should see some purpose in making one for himself, and in the process, perhaps, coming a l i t t l e nearer to a genuine feeling of empathy for a way of l i f e that i s far removed from his own. The inclusion in the kit of tribal music from several of the re-gions which are represented, is intended to further enrich the visual ex-perience of the slides. The cassette tape may be used in conjunction with the viewing of the masks or as background music to provide "atmosphere" during the mask-making and other activities. Again, as with the slides, i t is stressed that the music should be used as a starting-point for the students' own investigations and experiments. Some students, for instance, might well be encouraged to compose and record on tape their own versions of "tribal music." The third component of the kit consists of notes on the slides for the teacher or the individual student who may be working independently with the materials. Development and Testing of the Curriculum Kit: "The Mask" In the process of developing the kit the opinions of teachers in training, experienced elementary and secondary teachers in the field, art educators, and teacher educators have been sought at every stage. From the original collection of one hundred and eighty slides that were made for the purpose, the final selection of seventy was arrived at after sev-eral t r i a l presentations to groups of student teachers. At a very early stage a selection of the slides was used, together with the music, in a presentation to a group of ten junior high school students in Vancouver. By carrying out the mask-making project with this group, this researcher was able to gain some impressions regarding the effectiveness of the mater-ials as a means of motivation; furthermore, he was able to see at first hand how effective the instructional section of the slides was in helping the students to construct a mask (see plates 3, U, and 5). This particu-lar experience was also helpful in that it pointed the need for flexibil-ity in the kit, to allow easy selection from the visual materials in order to meet specific needs. In Chapter III some critical observations were made concerning the need for more integration of disciplines in our teacher education program-mes. In view of this, it seemed reasonable to elicit the opinions of / student-teachers after explaining to them the purposes of the kit and pre-senting the contents for their consideration. Of the eighty student-teachers who took part in the three presentations that were made, all were involved in art education courses, thirty-three were third year students and forty-seven were in their fourth year. This meant that all the par-ticipants had classroom experience and, from their vantage-point of teach-ers-in-training, could reasonably be expected to have a direct interest in the issues represented by the kit, and opinions as to its potential value to them as teachers. The comments of the third-year students were very helpful in deter-mining what would be a suitable number of slides to use with elementary children; how and when to introduce the music in a presentation, and in their response to the educational ideas which were implicit in the object-ives of the kit. As this group was also asked to make a mask as an outcome 1*6. of the presentation (plate 6), this proved to be a helpful t r i a l run in the direct use of the materials* After further editing of the slides and the music, a presentation was made to the fourth-year student-teachers in which an explanation of the kit's purposes was given along with a t r i a l run of the slides and music. - Due to limited time being available, this group was unable to carry out the mask-making project. A l l eighty student-teachers were enrolled in the current element-ary teacher education programme at the University of British Columbia's Faculty of Education. In an attempt to record their opinions concerning the effectiveness of the kit and its potential value to them as generalist teachers, a l l eighty student-teachers were asked to respond to a question-naire immediately after the presentations were completed. Their responses to six key questions are shown as graphs in figures 1-6, Appendix A. Since the opinions of teacher-educators who are also specialists in art education were considered by this researcher to be of major value, the three faculty members were invited to observe the presentations which were made to their groups. They were asked to respond to the following questions: 1* Did you like the materials? 2. Would i t be in your interests to use them? 3, Would you use them i f they were available? U. Have you any suggestions for the improvement of the materials? In quoting directly from the written replies to these questions, the individual faculty members are distinguished by the letters A, B, and C. 1. Did you like the materials? A : I certainly liked the slides and very much enjoyed the i*7. presentation. The large double-section of graduating students were most interested and considered the exper-ience both interesting and appropriate for their teaching situations. 8 : Yes. C t There were some excellent slides of masks. I also thought the method of mask-making and the finished masks were very-well done. I did not see the actual instruction of tech-niques, so cannot comment. 2. Would i t be in your interests to use them? A : The collection of well chosen slides and related information was unique and therefore of real value to teachers of inter-mediate age children. Being a one-of-its-kind collection I would most certainly use the material—either in the class-rooms or for teachers in training at U.B.C. B : Yes. C : Yes, the slides would be quite useful to me or any other art teacher familiar with masks and the art of the cultures involved. Not sure they could be handled by novices in the form which I saw. 3« WOULD you use them i f they were available? A : I certainly would use the material i f i t were available (I introduce the subject of MASKS each year to my students. A readily available set of material would be most valuable). B : Yes. C : I definitely would make use of many of the slides of African, Indian, Oceanic, Asian, and children's masks. If there are slides available of the techniques (I did not see any in my brief visit) I would be interested in using them. Also slides on pattern and decoration. h» Have you any suggestions for the improvement of the materials? A : I can think of very l i t t l e in the way of improvement. Poss-ibly when i t comes to the making of masks an emphasis on the purpose of masks (expressions that might be considered) and on the visual elements of form, line, colour and pattern. B : Yes. 1) a brief written explanation of each mask so I can read or relate the information while I show the slides. 2) more slides of "contemporary" (in our culture and/or B.C.multi-cultures) masks; both physical and psycho-logical. C : Possibly: a l i s t of objectives for various levels co-ordinated slide-tapes with musical background evaluative materials (questions "blown-up" visuals to display (follow-up materials charts on pattern and line (check-lists, quiazes The suggestions made by the teacher-educators i n reply to question four were most helpful i n the next stage of editing the slides, and i n con-sidering the lay-out and the content of the teaching notes which accompany them. Their reactions, along with those of the student-teachers i n their classes, were generally very encouraging. Finally, i n order to gather opinions from experienced teachers i n the British Columbia public school system, a group of ten members of a U.B.C. art education graduate seminar was given an explanation of the k i t and i t s purposes, followed by a presentation of the materials. Eight of the group were practising teachers with several years experience ranging across the grades four to twelve. The other two members of the group were teacher-educators with extensive elementary and secondary experience, as well as their long involvement i n teacher preparation. Immediately following the presentation, the participants were asked to record their opinions by responding to a questionnaire. A summary of their answers to each question now follows: 1. Do you think the materials would serve to enrich a grade four  unit on Primitive Man i n Social Studies? Seven replied: "yes"; One replied: "certainly"; One replied: "definitely"; One replied: "very good way to organize a unit i n Social Studies." 2. Do you think the materials could be successfully used to  motivate a grade four class to make a mask? Nine replied: "yes"; One replied: "excellent motivation"; h9. One added: "but I would suggest there i s a need to draw images from the students' personal mythology rather than just synthesizing images from other cultures"; One added: "but I would l i k e to see a few more masks of un-painted wood, e.g., original Haida masks were done i n natural wood." 3. Do you think the materials would be effective i n helping to  integrate subject areas, i . e . , Social Studies and Art? Seven replied: "yes"; One replied: "very definitely"; One replied: "good integration"; One replied: "as the package exists now, this seems the most effective use—i.e., Socials and Art." U. Do you think the sequence demonstrating the steps i n making a mask i s effective? Two replied: One replied: One replied: One replied: One replied: One replied: One replied: One replied: One replied: "yes"; "yes, very good"; "yes, perhaps other methods should be used"; "yes, perhaps suggest alternative methods of building masks"; "yes, stress that this i s one alternative only"; "yes, perhaps more on basic construction than on finished masks"; "I would include an alternative method i n the notes"; "perhaps i t would be helpful to show at least two other methods of building foundations—not just scrap boxes—should show the use of tape/wire"; "perhaps more on various ways of forming paper to create eyes, noses, etc." 5". Do you think "THE MASK" could be adapted for use with other  age groups at appropriate times. Hallowe'en, for example? Five replied: "yes"; Two replied: One replied: One replied: One replied: "certainly"; "other age groups yes. Not at appropriate times"; "yes, sequence very adaptable"; "indeed y e s — i n fact this i s where the strength l i e s . Masks must be related to the interest (child or material taught)." 6. Would you use the materials i f they were available? "yes"; Nine replied: One replied: "yes, but my personal bias is stated above i n number two" (this i s a reference to the suggest-ion made i n answer to question number two that 5"0. •there is a need to draw images from the stud-ents 1 personal mythology . . .')• Apart from the encouragingly supportive tenor of this group's re-plies, the many ideas and suggestions they put forward were a strong in-fluence in the final decisions that were made concerning the contents, the uses, and the general design of the kit. For example, the replies to question four very strongly underlined this researcher's own position in respect of the instructional sequence of the slides. As was stated earlier in this chapter, it is important for the teacher using the kit to make the students aware of alternative meth-ods of building masks, and, if possible, help them to explore some of these other methods. This researcher fully appreciates this point and has tried to focus upon it in the teaching notes. It will also be a major consideration in any revision of the slide sequence he is able to make. The field-work which has been described up to this point has, of course, been very important. By attempting to gather the opinions of pro-fessionally-involved groups, this researcher has simply followed a necess-ary part of the design process. For by consulting those who may be said to fairly represent the future consumer, the designer can shape the prod-uct to meet the need. That there is a need for this particular curriculum kit, is but one of the implications suggested by the field-work. This- researcher would venture the opinion that there is a need for other packages, dealing with a variety of themes, and aimed, also, at an integrated approach to learning through art. Moreover, he would suggest that the need exists, not only at elementary school level, but in secondary schools, as well as in teacher education programmes. 5 1 . Another important implication points to the problems which are in-volved in trying to satisfy a demand for a product. In planning the next stage of the kit's development, and with the goal of commercial publication in mind, design procedures will again be followed. By means of consulta-tions with educational administrators, funding agencies, and commercial publishing houses, i t is hoped that answers to some important questions will be forthcoming. These questions are set out in a book by J. Chris-topher Jones. They are intended to gather answers about the product from sources best qualified to offer them. They ask: Can i t be made cheaply enough with available resources? Can i t be distributed through available channels? What appearance, performance, reliability, etc., is required? To what extent will i t be compatible with, or competitive with, other products? To what extent will i t restructure the existing situation to create new demands, opportunities and problems? To what extent are its effects, and side-effects, acceptable to a l l concerned?34 Important as these considerations are, even i f the materials should f a i l to meet the criteria for publication, there would appear to be an im-portant use for them in a more limited context. This researcher has been heartened by the generally warm response to the materials shown by teach-ers, student-teachers, and teacher educators in the course of the field-work he has attempted so far. This leads him to his final conclusion con-cerning what may, perhaps, be the most important implication of a l l for his future action as a teacher educator. For the interest shown in the mater-ials at a professional level must surely be an indication of their poten-t i a l value as a stimulus for local curriculum development. This will be 3kjones, J. Christopher. Design Methods: Seeds of Human Futures (London: Wiley-Interscienee, 1970), p. 8. an undoubted asset to a person who i s closely involved with the day-to day tasks associated with the preparation of teachers. CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS This writer's main thesis has been that art has a primary role to play i n general education. He has tried to show that this i s by no means a new idea; that, i n fact, organized society has recognized this quality i n art for thousands of years. He has attempted to trace the development of this concept through the recorded statements of some of the great p h i l -osophers and educators i n our history. In attempting to argue the case for a re-appraisal of the aims of art education, he points to the urgency of the situation; There i s i n -creasing concern among art educators that, i n spite of the advances that have been made, art education remains a "fringe" subject i n our school curricula, and, as such, i s barely tolerated by administrators. Art educators are faced with the choice between two r i v a l posi-tions: "integration or isolation." In declaring his support for those who strongly recommend integration, this writer believes that important advances have been made i n the past by those art educators who followed a policy of education through art. I f any lasting solution i s to be found, i t may well be found through a vigorous exposition of this policy or an up-to-date interpretation of i t . But for art to become a dynamic component i n general education, i t s unique catalystic qualities w i l l have to be better understood by generalist teachers, as well as specialist teachers of art. One way to help teachers to educate through art, i t i s suggested, 5 3 . 5h. would be to develop acceptable curriculum materials for that purpose which are designed for use i n teacher education programmes and i n school class-rooms generally. Thus, the curriculum k i t which i s associated with this study has been developed with the central thesis of education through art i n mind. It i s seen as a proto-type for a series of curriculum packages, diverse i n their approach, but related by a strong underlying theme. In the process of developing "The Mask", this researcher has been personally involved i n gathering data through extensive field-work. By working directly with students i n the public school system as well as with student-teachers i n teacher education programmes, he has been able to form a favourable opinion of the k i t i n action. Although the number of opinions recorded has been necessarily limited, support for the kit and for the edu-cational philosophy i t represents has been quite marked among the student-teachers who were exposed to i t . Certainly, the reactions of these groups were very in f l u e n t i a l i n the decision-making that formed a major part of the design process. Perhaps even more encouraging has been the response of those ex-perienced teachers and teacher educators who took part i n the presenta-tions of the materials. Apart from their support of the k i t as i t stands, their observations have generated many ideas for i t s refinement and for i t s future development along with other related curriculum packages. This researcher concludes that there i s a need for curriculum materials that w i l l help teachers to educate through a r t . He believes, moreover, that the position he advocates i n this thesis i s supported by some of the strongest arguments i n educational history, and that the very survival of art education may well be in the hands of art educators them-selves. For they should be advocating the integration of art into the mainstream of education and not attempting to defend a position that is being steadily eroded. In short, this researcher concludes that art does indeed have a primary role to play in general education, and that there is a need for curriculum materials that will help to sustain that role. 56. BIBLIOGRAPHY Arnstine, Donald. "The Aesthetic as a Context for General Education," Studies i n Art Education, Autumn, 1966. pp. 13-22. Brown, Mary, and Norman Precious. The Integrated Day i n the Primary  School. New York: Ballantine Books, 1968. Binder, Pearl. Magic Symbols of the World. London: Paul Hamlyn, 1972. Burland, Cottie. North American Indian Mythology. London: Paul Hamlyn, 1965. Clark, Gilbert A. "Art Kits and Caboodles: Alternative Learning Materials for Education i n the Arts," Art Education, 28, 5 (September 1975), 27-30. Cole, Iiuella. A History of Education. New York: Rinehart and Company, 1957. Combs, Arthur W. The Professional Education of Teachers. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc. Corwin, Sylvia K. "The Time i s Now," Focus Elementary Art Education. N.A.E.A., (1976), 95-96. Eisner, W., and David W. Ecker. Readings i n Art Education. Waltham, Mass.: Blaisdell Publishing Co., 1966. Field, Dick. Change i n Art Education. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970. Gaitskell, Charles, and A l Hurwitz. Children and Their Art. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1970. G i l l e t , Margaret. Readings i n the History of Education. Toronto: McGraw-H i l l , 1969. Hardiraan, George W., and Theodore Zernich. Curricular Considerations for  Visual Arts Education. Champaign: Stipes Publishing Co., 197k. Jameson, Kenneth. "Report on Art Education i n Great Britain," Athene, 10, k (Spring 1963), 16. (Society for Education Through Art, London.) Jones, J . Christopher. Design Method: Seeds of Human Futures. London: Wiley-Interscience, 1970. Lanier, Vincent. "A Plague On A l l Your Houses," Art Education, 27, 3, (1973), 12-15. McFee, June King. "Implications for Change i n Art Education," Western  Arts Bulletin, September, 1962. 57. Munro, Thomas. "Some Basic Problems in Art Education," Uoth Yearbook of  the National Society for the Study of Education. Bloomington, Illinois: Public School Publishing Company, 1941. Pappas, George. Concepts in Art and Education. London: Collier-MacMillan, 1970. Parrinder, Geoffrey. African Mythology. London: Paul Hamlyn, 1967. Poignant, Roslyn. Oceanic Mythology. London: Paul Hamlyn, 1967. Read, Herbert. Education Through Art. New York: Pantheon Books Inc., 1958. Read, Herbert. Education and Art, A Symposium. Edwin Ziegfeld (ed.) UNESCO, 195II Read, Herbert. The Redemption of the Robot. New York: Trident Press, 1966, Richardson, Marion. Art and The Child. London: University of London Press, 19li8. Rowland, Kurt. Educating The Senses. Ginn and Company, 1968. Rowland, Kurt. Sight and Insight. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1973. Sawyer, John R., and Italo L. de Francesco, Elementary School Art for  Classroom Teachers. New York: Harper and Row, 1971. Skelton, Robin. Herbert Read: A Memorial Symposium. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1970 Sutton, Gordon. Artisan or Artist? London: Pergamon Press, 1967. Wachowiak, Frank, and Theodore Ramsay. Emphasis: Art. Scranton, Perm.: International Textbook Company, 1965. Winslow, Leon Loyal. The Integrated School Art Program. New York: McGraw-Hill, 19U9. 57a APPENDIX A PER CENT RESPONSE $8 100 80 60 T 20 CERTAINLY DO I THINK SO TO SOME EXTENT I I DON'T THINK SO I I CERTAINLY DO NOT F i g . 1 - Showing the percent response recorded by 80 student-teachers i n answer t o the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : DO YOU THINK THE MATERIALS WOULD SERVE TO ENRICH A GRADE FOUR UNIT ON PRIMITIVE MAN IN SOCIAL STUDIES? PER CENT RESPONSE 59. 100 80 6o 1 20 CERTAINLY DO I THINK SO TO SOME EXTENT 1 I DON'T THINK SO 1 I CERTAINLY DO NOT -P i g . 2 - Showing the percent response recorded by 80 st u d e n t - t e a c h e r s i n answer t o the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : DO YOU THINK THE MATERIALS COULD BE SUCCESSFULLY USED TO MOTIVATE A GRADE FOUR- CLASS TO MAKE A MASK? PER CENT RESPONSE 60. 100 80 6o 1 40 *T 20 "I I I CERTAINLY DO I THINK SO TO SOME EXTENT i " I DON'T THINK SO 1 ™ I CERTAINLY DO NOT F i g . 3 - Showing the percent response recorded by 80 student-teachers i n answer to the following question* DO YOU THINK THE MATERIALS WOULD BE EFFECTIVE IN HELPING TO INTEGRATE SUBJECT AREAS, i . e . , SOCIAL STUDIES AND ART? PER CENT RESPONSE 61 . 100 80 60 i 4o H 20 H CERTAINLY DO I THINK SO TO SOME EXTENT 1 I DON'T THINK SO ,—> I CERTAINLY DO NOT Fig. 4- - Showing the percent response recorded by 80 student-teachers in answer to the following question* DO YOU THINK THE SEQUENCE DEMONSTRATING THE STEPS IN MAKING A MASK IS EFFECTIVE? PER CENT RESPONSE 62. 100 J 80. 60 ho 20 CERTAINLY DO I THINK SO TO SOME EXTENT 1 I DON'T THINK SO CERTAINLY DO NOT F i g . 5 - Showing the percent response recorded "by 80 s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s i n answer t o the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n ! DO YOU THINK "THE MASK" COULD BE ADAPTED FOR USE WIH OTHER AGE GROUPS AT APPROPRIATE TIMES. HALLOWE'EN, FOR EXAMPLE? 63. PER CENT RESPONSE 100 J 80 60 bo 20 1 I DON'T THINK SO 1 I CERTAINLY DO NOT CERTAINLY DO I THINK SO TO SOKE EXTENT Fig. 6 - Showing the percent response recorded by 80 student-teachers in answer to the following question; DO YOU THINK THE MATERIALS INCREASED YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE SUBJECT AREA, i.e. THE ART OF PRIMITIVE•MAN? 63a APPENDIX B 70 COLOUR SLIDES TO BE USED WITH THIS THESIS ARE AVAILABLE FOR CONSULTATION AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAi' AT THE ADDRESS BELOW:-U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n The L i b r a r y 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6T 1W5 u 61*. THE MASK AN INTEGRATED CURRICULUM KIT TEACHING NOTES • i _ _ _ _ _ THE MASK - AN INTEGRATED CURRICULUM KIT. Teach i n g Notes: I t cannot be t o o s t r o n g l y emphasized t h a t these m a t e r i a l s a r e not presented as ends i n themselves, but r a t h e r , as a s t a r t i n g - p o i n t f o r f u r t h e r i n -q u i r y by groups or by i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . While the use of the m a t e r i a l s as a source of e n r i c h -ment or as a means of m o t i v a t i o n would be f a i r l y obvious i n an a r t programme, i t Is hoped t h a t the g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r w i l l f i n d them p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e when used as p a r t of an i n t e g r a t e d app-roach t o l e a r n i n g . When used, f o r example, i n a s o c i a l s t u d i e s u n i t on p r i m i t i v e man, they should a c t as a c a t a l y s t i n the encouragement of p u r p o s e f u l r e s e a r c h by the s t u d e n t s . I t i s i n t h i s s p i r i t t h a t t he ques-65. tions in these notes have been asked. They are intended to "be thought-provoking. In seeking answers to these questions i t is anticipated that students will be motivated into asking questions of their own. If, by generating such a spirit of inquiry, this kit can help to foster a dynamic learning situation, then one of its most important aims will have been achieved. EACH SLIDE IS NUMBERED AND IS REFERRED TO IN THE FOLLOWING NOTES. BOTH SLIDES AND NOTES ARE ARRANGED IN SECTIONS TO ALLOW FLEXIBLE USE OF THE MATERIALS. IT IS SUGGESTED THAT TEACHERS READ THE NOTES BEFORE USING THE SLIDES. Section One: DRESSING UP Slides 1, 2, 3, and 4... Everybody likes to dress up and "put on a mask", just as these children and adults are doing at the Vancouver Sea Festival in British Columbia. They are dis-guised as: 1 - "Batman and Robin"; 2 - "Raggedy Ann"; 3 - "Bayman", 4- - "Clown". WHY DO WE LIKE TO DRESS UP AND "PUT ON A MASK"? IS THERE A MORE SERIOUS MEANING BEHIND THE FUN OF A CARNIVAL? j PERHAPS THE SLIDES HAVE GIVEN YOU SOME IDEAS OF ! YOUR OWN - THINK ABOUT THEK WHEN YOU VIEW THE j NEXT SECTION. j j j i 66 Section Twos THE PAINTED MASK Slides 5» 6, 7» 8, and 9... People may have different reasons for painting their faces. Sometimes they will "put on a face" to cel-ebrate very important occasions, and for some i t is part of a daily routine. Here are some examples from different parts of the worlds 5 - "Morning make-up", Canada; 6 - "Rice Fest-ival", Osaka, Japan; 7 and 8 - "Initiation Ceremonies", N.W. Australia; 9 - "Initiation Ceremony", Ivory Coast, Africa. WHY DO WESTERN WOMEN PAINT THEIR FACES? WHY IS THE RICE HARVEST I"MPORTANT TO THE JAPANESE? WHAT IS AN INITIATION CEREMONY? TRY TO FIND OUT WHY TRIBESMEN LIKE THE AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES DECORATE THEIR FACES SO CAREFULLY. Section Three: CEREMONIAL MASKS': N. AMERICAN INDIANS Slides 10, 11, 12, and 13... By wearing animal masks in ceremonial dances, Indians who lived by hunting believed that the spirits would re-ward them with success in the hunt. Other tribes who practised agriculture wore masks which were designed to celebrate the various stages of the growth cycle. Masks were also used to scare away evil spirits. 10 - "Buffalo Dance", Mandan Indians; 11 - Iroq-uois "Straw Mask"; 12 and 13 - "False Face" masks. Seneca and Iroquois. CAN YOU THINK OF AN AGRICULTURAL FESTIVAL THAT IS CELEBRATED I N OUR OWN SOCIETY? 67. S e c t i o n Four: THREE MASKS ASSOCIATED WITH DEATH AND BURIAL CEREMONIES S l i d e lfr - " F u n e r a l Mask of the Pharoah Tutankhamen", A n c i e n t Egypt. The E g y p t i a n s be-l i e v e d i n l i f e a f t e r death and t h a t the mask would h e l p the Pharoah on h i s journey i n t o the next w o r l d i ' S l i d e 15 - "Death Mask of O l i v e r Cromwell", England, 1 7 t h . Century. An e a r l y example of a mask made by t a k i n g a c a s t d i r e c t l y from the dead person's f e a t u r e s . S l i d e 16 - "Mask Made From Human S k u l l " , from the S e p i c R i v e r a r e a , New Guinea. A s a c r e d t r i b -a l o b j e c t f o r c e r e m o n i a l a n c e s t o r worship. WHAT MATERIALS DO YOU THINK WERE USED TO MAKE THE BEAUTIFUL EGYPTIAN MASK? DID YOU NOTICE THE FINE DECORATION OF THE SEPIC RIVER MASK? S e c t i o n F i v e : TRIBAL MASKS DESIGNED TO SCARE S l i d e l 7 - "Club-house Mask", Sepic R i v e r , New Guinea . A l a r g e mask which would be placed over the doorway of a s e c r e t s o c i e t y hut t o s c a r e o f f i n t r u d e r s . S l i d e 18 - "Ceremonial Mask", Bakuba T r i b e , B e l -g i a n Congo, A f r i c a . Note the powerful e f f e c t . S l i d e 19 - "Ceremonial Mask", Bakongo T r i b e , B e l g i a n Congo. Used i n t r i b a l dance-ceremonies t o d r i v e away e v i l s p i r i t s . The p i e c e s of m i r r o r were p l a c e d i n the mask t o r e f l e c t the "magic" l i g h t from the f i r e . S l i d e 20 - "Dan" T r i b e , I v o r y Coast. Another mask made t o shock - t h i s time by b o l d c a r v i n g . S l i d e 21 - " G o r i l l a Mask", I v o r y Coast, A f r i c a . A dance mask worn i n the b e l i e f t h a t the wearer would g a i n some of the animal's f e a r f u l power. 68. Section Six: TRIBAL MASKS WITH A GENTLE MESSAGE Slides 22, 23, and 2fr... These masks seem to be expressing more peaceful ideas than those of the last section. The fine carving and the sensitive painted decoration give them an air of tranquil-ity and well-being. They were probably used in ceremonies which reflected the happier side of tribal l i f e . It is superb work like this which had such a pro-found effect on artists like Picasso and others when African tribal art was ''discovered" around the end of the last century. 22 - "Guro" Tribe, Ivory Coast; 23 - "Baluba" Tribe, Belgian Congo; 2k - "Basonge" Tribe, Bel-gian Congo. THE LAST TWO SECTIONS HAVE.SHOWN' HOW PATTERN CAN BE USED TO SHOCKOR TO SOOTHE. HOW IS THIS DONE? Section Seven: ANIMAL MASKS AND TRIBAL MYTHOLOGY Slide 25 - "Antelope Mask", Guro Tribe, Ivory Coast. A magnificent example of African carving. With hunting such an important part of l i f e , the tribesman had a warm respect for the animals that supplied him with food. This mask expresses far more than the mere likeness of the antelope. Slide 26 - "Hare Mask",Yoruba Tribe, Nigeria. The hare is a favourite character in Yoruba leg-ends. The stories are thought to have been taken to America by slaves, thus inspiring the famous "Brer Rabbif'adventures. Slide 27 - "Ancestor Mask", Yoruba, Nigeria. Another mask which illustrates tribal mythology. This type was worn on top of the head and was used to commemorate the deeds of ancestral heroes. WHY WERE MASKS AN IMPORTANT MEANS OF PRESERVING MYTHOLOGICAL STORIES AND LEGENDS? Section Eight: MASKS WORN AS A SYMBOL OF RANK Slides 28 and 29... "Ornamental Mask", Benin, Nigeria. This finely-carved mask is thought to date from the 16th. Century. It is made from ivory and inlaid with copper. Designed to show the importance of the wearer, i t would be worn around the neck rather than on the face. Slide 30 - "Ornamental Mask", Benin, Nigeria. A fine example of the bronze-casting which has made the Benin region of Nigeria famous. This mask is quite small and was worn by a king or other high-ranking official slung at the waist. Note the frogs and snakes used as d.ecoration on the face. Probably made in the 18th. Century. CAN YOU THINK OF EXAMPLES FROM OUR OWN SOCIETY WHERE HIGH OFFICIALS WEAR ORNAMENTAL SYMBOLS WHICH REFLECT THEIR RANK? Section Nine: THEATRICAL MASKS Slides 31 bo 35»«« Actors have used masks to help them portray characters since ancient times. Here are examples from different parts of the world: 31 - "Modern Mime Artiste", France; 32 - "Noh" Mask, used in traditional Japanese plays; 33 - "Modern Swiss Theatrical Mask". A mask used in a modern production of an Ancient Greek play by Aristophanes. Both the Greeks and the Romans made extensive use of masks in the theatre; 34- and 35 - "Theatrical Masks", Sri Lanka. The richly decorated masks of Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon) are a strong cultural tradition in that country. TRY TO FIND OTHER EXAMFLES OF THE DRAMATIC USE OF MASKS. 70. Section Ten: MASKS USED TO CURE SICKNESS Slides 36, 37, and. 38... The Shaman or "Medicine Man" has always "been an important person in prim-itive societies. He was much ln demand as the person who could drive out evil spirits, includ-those spirits who were responsible for human sickness. These brightly-coloured examples from Sri Lanka illustrate the importance placed on the mask as an aid to the Shaman: Slides 36 and 37 - "Medicine Masks", Sri Lanka. The Shaman's collection of masks would cover a wide range of; sickness, with each one designed for a specific cure. It is interesting to spec-late on the nature of the illnesses represented here. Slide 38 - "Multi-purpose Medicine Mask", Sri Lanka. This remarkable example represents a large number of ailments and was probably used vrhen the Shaman was unsure of his diagnosis. Section Eleven: ESKIMO SPIRIT MASKS Slides 39 and 40... These two masks from Alaska clearly illustrate the Eskimo belief that a l l creatures possess an "innua" or spirit. Slide 39 shows a seal with its spirit in the form of a human head emerging from i t . The "Grouse Mask" shown in Slide 40 has also two images. From one viewpoint It represents a human head, and from another a bird. Slides 41 and 4 2 . . . Eskimo masks often have a feeling of gentleness about them and they some-r times display a sense of humour. Slide 41 repre-sents a woman in a typical light-hearted way, while 42 shows us a fine example of sensitive Eskimo carving in this small mask made from ivory. WHY WOULD THE SEAL AND THE GROUSE BE IMPORTANT TO ESKIMO PEOPLE? HOW WOULD ESKIMOS OBTAIN IVORY? \ 71. S e c t i o n Twelve: MASKS WHICH EXPRESS STRONG EMOTIONS S l i d e s 43, 44, 45, and 46... Four powerful examples of the c a r v i n g s k i l l which we a s s o c i a t e w i t h the North West Coast I n d i a n s . Three of the f i v e main t r i b a l groups are r e p r e s e n t e d here. We see once a g a i n how important " a r t " was i n the l i f e of the tribesman. H i s b e l i e f s about l i f e and death, h i s , constant s t r u g g l e w i t h the f o r c e s of n a t u r e , h i s r e l i g i o u s i d e a s , i n f a c t , a l l the concerns of t r i b a l l i f e had t o be g i v e n v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n . S l i d e 43 - "Dead Man Mask", T l i n g i t t r i b e . S l i d e 44 - "Wind Mask", T s i m s h i a n t r i b e . S l i d e 45 - "Dance Mask", K w a k i u t l t r i b e . S l i d e 46 - " S e c r e t S o c i e t y Mask", K w a k i u t l t r i b e . WHY DO YOU THINK WOOD-CARVING WAS SO STRONGLY FEATURED IN THE ART OF NORTH WEST COAST INDIANS? S e c t i o n T h i r t e e n : MASKS WHICH FEATURE HUMANS S l i d e s 47, 48, and 49... Masks from t h r e e d i f f -erent North West Coast I n d i a n t r i b e s which show the importance of the human head, i n t r i b a l a r t . S l i d e 47 - "Human Mask", T l i n g i t t r i b e . A f i n e example of a "trophy" mask, pai n t e d and g i v e n the a d d i t i o n a l d e c o r a t i o n of a f r i n g e of human h a i r . T h i s was u s u a l l y h a i r t a k e n from an enemy s c a l p which the owner b e l i e v e d would p r o v i d e him w i t h magic p r o t e c t i o n . S l i d e 48 shows another v e r s i o n of t h i s type of mask from the K a i d a t r i b e . S l i d e 49- "Moon Mask", K w a k i u t l t r i b e . A r e a l i s t -i c a l l y carved mask which was probably used i n the s t o r y - t e l l i n g which was an important means of handing on t r i b a l myths and legends. WHY WAS STORY-TELLING SO IMPORTANT TO NORTH WEST COAST INDIANS? 72. Section Fourteen: ARTICULATED MASKS Slides 50» 51, and 52... Dance masks made by North West Coast Indians often had cleverly des-igned moving parts. These two examples of Kwak-iut l tribal masks would be worn by actors port-raying mythological characters. It is important to remember that the long winter nights were en-riched by ceremony, and that these masks would be given additional effect by the flickering light from the fires, thus adding to the dramatic quality of the legends. Slides 50 and 51 - "Sun Mask" in the closed and open positions. A human face with large curved nose and fan-like rays is traditional Kwakiutl symbol for the sun. Slide 52 - "Dance Mask" representing mythical bird-creature whose wings open up to reveal hum-an head. Section Fifteen: MASKS WHICH FEATURE ANIMALS Slides 53» 54, and 55.• • Animals played a very important part in the lives of North West Coast Indians. In a society which was so dependent on hunting and fishing, i t is not surprising that the legends which were passed on from generation to generation are so f u l l of characters based on creatures of the earth, the sea, and the sky. Slide 53 - "Killer Whale Carrying Off Humans", Tsimshian tribe. The killer whale was the enemy to the fishermen of the North West Coast because of the damage he could do to the nets. Hence he is featured in many of the stories. Slides 54 and 55 - Two bird masks used in the winter dances of the Kwakiutl tribe. Number 55 represents "Crooked Beak of the Sky". HOW MANY ANIMAL CHARACTERS CAN YOU IDENTIFY IN N.W. COAST INDIAN MYTHOLOGY? 73 S e c t i o n S i x t e e n : MAKING A MASK BY THE PAPIER-MACHE METHOD STAGE ONE: S l i d e 56 - Empty d e t e r g e n t p a c k a g e s a r e c u t up i n t o s t r i p s two t o t h r e e i n c h e s w i d e . ( S t r o n g , f l e x i b l e c a r d f r o m any o t h e r s o u r c e may be u s e d ) S l i d e s 57, 58, and 59 - T h e s t r i p s a r e s t a p l e d e n d - t o - e n d a n d f i t t e d t o t h e h e a d o f t h e w e a r e r . S l i d e 60 - T h e f o r m i s b u i l t up by means o f a d d -i t i o n a l s t r i p s s t a p l e d t o t h e b a s e . S l i d e s 61, 62, a n d 63 - T h e m a i n f e a t u r e s a r e m o d e l l e d w i t h a v a r i e t y o f d i s c a r d e d p a c k a g i n g m a t e r i a l o r f o l d e d s c r a p s o f c a r d . T h e s e a r e s t a p -l e d o r t a p e d i n t o p l a c e and t h e whol e f o r m i s t h e n c o v e r e d w i t h t h r e e o r f o u r l a y e r s o f w e l l p a s t e d n e w s p a p e r * S e c t i o n S i x t e e n : MAKING A MASK BY THE PAPIER-MACHE METHOD STAGE TWO: S l i d e s 64, 65» a n d 66 - A f t e r d r y i n g , a d d i t i o n a l d e t a i l s a r e a p p l i e d . ( A t t h i s s t a g e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o s e a r c h o u t and e x p e r i m e n t w i t h a v a r i e t y o f d i s c a r d e d m a t e r i a l s w h i c h m i g h t be a d a p t e d f o r e y e s , n o s e , t e e t h , o r o t h e r f e a t -u r e s ) . When m o d e l l i n g i s c o m p l e t e , a c o a t o f tem-p e r a p a i n t i s a p p l i e d a n d a l l o w e d t o d r y b e f o r e f u r t h e r p a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n i s , a d d e d . S l i d e 67 - H o l e s a r e p u n c h e d n e a r edge o f mask and s t r a n d s o f r a f f i a a r e i n s e r t e d w i t h t h e ends k n o t t e d i n s i d e . ( A g a i n , t h i s s h o u l d b e a n o p p o r t -u n i t y f o r e x p e r i m e n t w i t h a l l k i n d s o f m a t e r i a l s a d a p t e d f o r u s e a s h a i r ) . 74. Section Sixteen: MAKING A MASK BY THE PAPIER-MACHE METHOD Slide 68'shows the finished, mask being worn. (It should be stressed that masks which are intended to be worn on the face should be de-signed to allow the wearer reasonably clear vision). Slides'69 and 70 show some alternative const-ruction techniques being used on a second mask which represents a horned animal. PLEASE MOTE THAT THE MASK-MAKING METHOD SHOWN IN SECTION SIXTEEN IS NOT INTENDED FOR COPYING BY THE STUDENTS. THERE ARE MANY WAYS TO MAKE A MASK AND THIS ONE HAS BEEN PRESENTED IN THE HOPE OF PROVIDING A STARTING-POINT FOR INDIVID-UAL EXPERIMENT. -< 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0055698/manifest

Comment

Related Items