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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A survey of the history and development of education in the Bailiwick of Guernsey, Channel Islands :… Gourley, Ilma C. Salazar 1976

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A SURVEY OF THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN THE BA I L I W I C K OF GUERNSEY, CHANNEL ISLANDS. PRE-REFORMATION - 1976. by ILMA C. SALAZAR GOURLEY B. E d . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF / THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES IN THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FOUNDATIONS We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA O c t o b e r , 1976 (£) l i m a C. S a l a z a r G o u r l e y , 1976 In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and s t u d y . I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thesis fo r f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e i ABSTRACT In w r i t i n g o f Guernsey, h i s t o r i a n s have t r e a t e d e d u c a t i o n i n a p i e c e - m e a l f a s h i o n , making o n l y b r i e f and p a s s i n g mention o f I s l a n d s c h o o l i n g , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e , founded by Queen E l i z a b e t h I i n 1563. The o b j e c t o f t h i s t h e s i s t h e r e f o r e , i s t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f e d u c a t i o n i n Guernsey so t h a t an o v e r a l l s u r v e y may be o b t a i n e d . I n f o r m a t i o n has been g a t h e r e d from h i s t o r i c a l documents and w r i t i n g s , newspapers and t h e R e p o r t s o f the Guernsey E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l , as w e l l as t h o s e o f Her/His M a j e s t y ' s I n s p e c t o r s o f S c h o o l s and o f S c h o o l M e d i c a l O f f i c e r s . I n -f o r m a t i o n was a l s o o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s who were o r are concerned w i t h e d u c a t i o n i n t h e B a i l i w i c k . Aimed a t c o v e r i n g a p e r i o d o f t i m e from p r e - R e f o r m a t i o n u n t i l 1976, the s t u d y r e v e a l s t h e meagre and g r a d u a l b e g i n n i n g s t h a t i s l a n d e d u c a t i o n had. Meagre t o o , a r e the e x i s t i n g r e c o r d s o f t h a t e a r l y e d u c a t i o n , most o f the r e c o r d s h a v i n g been de-s t r o y e d o r h i d d e n by the B e n e d i c t i n e monks p r i o r t o t h e i r de-p a r t u r e from the I s l a n d a t the D i s s o l u t i o n o f the M o n a s t r i e s . \ 2 Pere C a d e l , A r c h i v i s t t o the D i o c e s e o f Coutances i n Normandy, has no r e c o r d s o f e d u c a t i o n i n the I s l a n d . Three p a r i s h s c h o o l s were endowed as e a r l y as 1564, and by t h e end o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , e i g h t o f the t e n p a r i s h e s had a t l e a s t one p a r i s h s c h o o l . The o t h e r p a r i s h e s had s c h o o l s by 1818. D u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r e was growing awareness o f t h e need f o r u n i v e r s a l e d u c a t i o n , and much w e l l - m e a n i n g work was done t o educate the c h i l d r e n o f the poor. The 1857 r e p o r t 3 o f the Ragged S c h o o l i n S t . P e t e r P o r t i s e v i d e n c e o f t h i s . I n 1824 E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e came under e n q u i r y a f t e r c o m p l a i n t s were r e c e i v e d about the M a s t e r ' s i n a d e q u a c i e s as a t e a c h e r . A new c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r the s c h o o l r e s u l t e d , i n 1826. In 1850 a States'* Committee c a r r i e d out an o v e r a l l s u r v e y o f P a r o c h i a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e I s l a n d . In k e e p i n g w i t h the growing i n t e r e s t i n the e d u c a t i o n o f g i r l s , the L a d i e s 1 C o l l e g e Company was formed i n 1872, e s t a b l i s h i n g a s c h o o l t o p r o v i d e an academic 5 t r a i n i n g f o r "the d a u g h t e r s o f Gentlemen" . Numerous p r i v a t e s c h o o l s d i s p e n s e d e d u c a t i o n w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f s u c c e s s . The S t a t e s I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s f o r Boys (1883) and f o r G i r l s (1895) were opened t o p r o v i d e secondary e d u c a t i o n o t h e r t h a n t h a t a t the two C o l l e g e s . The E d u c a t i o n Law (Guernsey) 1893 made the p r o v i s i o n o f p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n i n each p a r i s h mandatory, w i t h expenses and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s b e i n g j o i n t l y s h a r e d by t h e P a r i s h and the S t a t e s . A c u r r i c u l u m was l a i d down and c a p i t a t i o n a l l o w a n c e was endorsed. I n 1900 e d u c a t i o n was made compulsory. The E d u c a t i o n Law o f 19 03 caused each P a r i s h t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l c h i l d r e n w i t h i n t h e p a r i s h b o u n d a r i e s , up t o the age o f t h i r t e e n . The E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l was c o n s t i t u t e d i n 1916, p r o v i d i n g the u n i f o r m i t y and cen-t r a l i s a t i o n a d v i s e d by I n s p e c t o r s from Eng l a n d . I n 1923, the compulsory s c h o o l ages became s i x t o f o u r t e e n . In 19 35, the E d u c a t i o n Law was r e v i s e d so t h a t t h e S t a t e s became w h o l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o s t o f e d u c a t i o n . Begun i n 1936/37, r e - o r g a n i s a t i o n t o p r o v i d e s e n i o r s c h o o l s was b r o u g h t t o an a b r u p t h a l t by the o u t b r e a k o f war i n 19 39. 1940 saw the e v a c u a t i o n o f 4,700 c h i l d r e n . Because o f t h e u niqueness o f the s i t u a t i o n , one s e c t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s i s d e v o t e d t o e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f the German o c c u p a t i o n , 1940-45. The p o s t war p e r i o d saw s c h o o l r e - o r g a n i s a t i o n on t h e l i n e s a d v ocated i n the 1944 B u t l e r A c t , b u t such r e - o r g a n i s a t i o n was n o t complete u n t i l 19 59. The f i r s t E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e r was a p p o i n t e d i n 1954, and the s c h o o l l e a v i n g age was r a i s e d t o f i f t e e n i n 19 62, the same y e a r t h a t L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e came under the S t a t e s o f Guernsey. The e x i s t i n g 19 35 Law, f e l t t o be o u t o f t o u c h w i t h modern t i m e s , was r e p l a c e d w i t h the comprehensive i i i E d u c a t i o n Law o f 19 70. T h i s law makes p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , n o t p r o v i d e d on t h e I s l a n d u n t i l 1953. The C o l l e g e o f F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 19 70, b u t t h e new b u i l d i n g s were n o t a v a i l a b l e u n t i l t h e end o f 19 75. G r e a t though the impetus has been i n e d u c a t i o n i n Guernsey d u r i n g t h e 1970's, the e l e v e n p l u s e x a m i n a t i o n i s r e t a i n e d and comprehensive e d u c a t i o n has r e p e a t e d l y been r e j e c t e d . The r e t e n t i o n i n Guernsey o f a method o f s e l e c t i o n f o r secondary e d u c a t i o n w h i c h i s no l o n g e r acknowledged as b e i n g d e s i r a b l e i n E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n , i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the d e l a y w i t h w h i c h Guernsey e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s have h i s t o r i c a l l y adopted e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m . i v NOTES ABSTRACT 1. The Channel I s l a n d s are d i v i d e d i n t o two areas o f ad-m i n i s t r a t i o n , J e r s e y and Guernsey. Each a r e a i s c a l l e d a B a i l i w i c k and has a B a i l i f f as C h i e f A d m i n i s t r a t o r . The r e f e r e n c e here i s t o the B a i l i w i c k o f Guernsey. The f o r m a t i o n o f the B a i l i w i c k s i s d e s c r i b e d i n P a r t 1 page 3. 2. Guernsey was p a r t o f the D i o c e s e o f Coutances u n t i l 1869. 3. S t . P e t e r P o r t , the town i n Guernsey and the Town P a r i s h . 4. S t a t e s . Throughout t h i s p a p e r , S t a t e s r e f e r s t o the S t a t e s o f D e l i b e r a t i o n , t h e B a i l w i c k p a r l i a m e n t . 5. L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e Magazine 1905 6. C a p i t a t i o n a l l o w a n c e was a bonus payment t o t h e t e a c h e r based on the number o f c h i l d r e n who s u c c e s s f u l l y p a s s e d an a n n u a l e x a m i n a t i o n . V CONTENTS PAGE PART I A B R I E F GEORGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 1 PART I I EARLY EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT i ) B e f o r e 1500 7 i i ) 1500 - 1800 9 i i i ) 1800 - 1850 a) E l e m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n 1 4 b) C h a r i t y s c h o o l s 16 c) P r i v a t e e d u c a t i o n 18 i v ) 1850 - 1900 a) S t a t e A i d 2 1 b) L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e , r e o g a n i z a t i o n a n d t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l . . 2 3 c) D i s s e n t i o n , t h e 189 3 Law a n d c o m p u l s o r y e d u c a t i o n 2 6 PART I I I DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION 1900 - 1939 i ) P r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n . . ...... 30 i i ) S e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n '. 40 i i i ) P u p i l t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g 44 i v ) I n d e p e n d e n t e d u c a t i o n 46 v) S p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n 49 v i ) Roman C a t h o l i c S c h o o l s 50 PART I V EDUCATION DURING THE YEARS OF GERMAN OCCUPATION. 1940 - 1945 54 PART V EDUCATION FROM 1946 - 1969 i ) R e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t 62 V i PAGE i i ) Education i n Alderney 64 i i i ) Private Education 65 iv) The School Library Service 66 v) Special Education 67 vi) Further Education 69 v i i ) Administration "71 v i i i ) The decades of the f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s 73 ix) External examinations i n the schools ; . . 76 x) The H.M.I, i n Guernsey. 77 xi) School Broadcasts 79 x i i ) The School Medical Service 80 PART VI SURVEY OF DEVELOPMENTS IN THE 1970'S i) The New Law 8 2 i i ) Primary Education 84 i i i ) Secondary Education 86 iv) Special Education * 87 v) Further and Adult Education 88 vi) Higher and Teacher Education 91 PART VII RETROSPECT i) Administration 95 i i ) Organization 98 i i i ) Finance 100 iv) Curriculum 102 v) Future Trends 104 v i i PAGE MAPS I. Map of Guernsey showing parishes.. ........106 II. Map to show position of Guernsey i n relationship to Coast of Normandy and the South Coast of England ..... 107 APPENDICES 108 BIBLIOGRAPHY . ..... . . .158 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s would n o t have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e h e l p and guidance o f my committee chairman, Dr. Joseph K a t z . To him, I am i n d e b t e d f o r h i s i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e , always so g e n e r o u s l y g i v e n . To Dr. J o r g a n D a h l i e , I must a l s o e x t e n d my thanks f o r time g e n e r o u s l y o f f e r e d me. The r e s e a r c h n e c e s s a r y t o produce t h i s t h e s i s would have been the more d i f f i c u l t t o a c c o m p l i s h w i t h o u t t h e w i l l i n g h e l p o f r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s and e x - c o l l e a g u e s i n Guernsey. I t i s w i t h thanks t h a t I acknowledge t h e a s s i s t a n c e provided 1:, by a l l t h e s e p e o p l e . 1 PART I A BRIEF GEOGRAPHICAL  AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND When, i n 10 66 A.D. Duke W i l l i a m o f Normandy b e a t th e armies o f H a r o l d o f E n g l a n d , he took w i t h him the Norman I s l a n d s , p a r t o f the Duchy o f Normandy. S i n c e t h a t time t h e s e I s l a n d s have been p a r t o f B r i t i s h Crown p o s s e s s i o n s . The o l d e s t member o f t h e B r i t i s h Commomwealth, the Norman I s l a n d s , renamed the Channel I s l a n d s , have n e v e r been p a r t o f t h e U n i t e d Kingdom. C o n s i s t i n g o f J e r s e y , Guernsey/ A l d e r n e y and S a r k , Herm and J e t h o u , as w e l l as some l e s s e r i s l a n d s , the Channel I s l a n d s are d i v i d e d i n t o two B a i l w i c k s . One i s t h a t o f J e r s e y and the o t h e r o f Guernsey. I t i s w i t h t h i s l a t t e r B a i l i w i c k t h a t t h i s w r i t i n g i s concerned. Guernsey i s s i t u a t e d n i n e t y - t w o m i l e s s o u t h o f Plymouth, E n g l a n d , and some t h i r t y m i l e s t o t h e west o f t h e Cherbourg p e n i n s u l a . There was no r e g u l a r b o a t s e r v i c e u n t i l the m i d d l e o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , p r i o r t o w h i c h communication w i t h E n g l a n d was m a i n t a i n e d by t h e c a r g o v e s s e l s and N a v a l s h i p s w h i c h p l i e d a c r o s s the E n g l i s h Channel. S m a l l v e s s e l s c o u l d c r o s s t o France more e a s i l y , the d i s t a n c e b e i n g so much l e s s t h a n t o the E n g l i s h s o u t h c o a s t . In 1897, t h e new t e l e p h o n e s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d r a p i d c o n t a c t w i t h the E n g l i s h m a i n l a n d . T h i s g e o g r a p h i c a l h a l f - w a y house, was o f g r e a t s e r v i c e i n the p a s t t o p i r a t e s , runaways and p o l i t i c a l r e f u g e e s , and even t o the V i k i n g s , f o r the I s l a n d p r o v i d e d s h e l t e r on one o f the main s e a l a n e s i n European w a t e r s . There i s e v i d e n c e t h a t the Romans visite d ' ? . Guernsey w h i c h t h e y named S a r n i a . Over the c e n t u r i e s , Guernsey has.'become infamous f o r h e r t r e a c h e r o u s c o a s t , s t i l l a menace t o s h i p p i n g w h i c h s t r a y s from c h a r t e r e d seaways. R o b e r t , the S i x t h Duke o f Normandy was a n o t e a b l e v i c t i m o f t h i s c o a s t , and when t h e f l e e t w hich he had r a i s e d t o h e l p Edward the C o n f e s s o r was -— s c a t t e r e d i n a storm, he sought r e f u g e a t L'Abcresse''', which means anchorage. Because o f t h i s e v e n t , R o b e r t o f Normandy endowed a monastery i n the n o r t h o f Guernsey: the Chateau 2 de M a r a i s , b u i l t i n 10 30. S c a r c e though e v i d e n c e i s o f the e a r l y h i s t o r y o f Guernsey, i t i s known t h a t Samson d " A n n e v i l l e , B i s h o p o f D o l , came t o the I s l a n d around the y e a r 52 0 A.D. when the I s l a n d was added t o h i s d i o c e s e . L a t e r , i n 565, a c h a p e l was b u i l t 2 a t the V a l e . A f t e r t h e Norman l o r d s were c o n v e r t e d t o C h r i s t i a n i t y , t h ey c a r r i e d o ut a p e r i o d o f r e f o r m i n t h e i r m o n a s t e r i e s . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n the e x p u l s i o n o f e r r i n g B e n e d i c t i n e monks from Mont S t . M i c h e l . These monks went t o Guernsey where, around 966 A.D. they e s t a b l i s h e d a monastery 3 a t the V a l e , d e d i c a t e d t o S t . M i c h a e l . The I s l a n d was a t t h i s t i me under the B i s h o p r i c o f Coutances, and remained so u n t i l the end o f the R e f o r m a t i o n under E l i z a b e t h I . Thus a l i n k w i t h Normandy was e a r l y e s -t a b l i s h e d i n both language and r e l i g i o n . E a r l y paganism was now d i s p l a c e d by:ChrdWtiiari"iis'-.ty. W i t h W i l l i a m t h e Conqueror on the E n g l i s h t h r o n e , the I s l a n d s were p r o t e c t e d by a more p o w e r f u l monarch than h i t h e r t o . The new K i n g o f E n g l a n d was w e l l aware o f t h e Channel I s l a n d s , f o r i n 10.61 t h e Abbot o f S t . M i c h e l du V a l l e had r e c e i v e d a g r a n t o f l a n d from him, then W i l l i a m I o f Normandy. • S i x I s l a n d churches i n a l l came under W i l l i a m ' s p a t r o n a g e by t h e C h a r t e r o f 1065. I n t h e s e e a r l y y e a r s , Guernsey was v i s i t e d by the r e l i g i o u s and c i v i c l e a d e r s from France and E n g l a n d f o r t h e c o n s e c r a -t i o n s o f I s l a n d c h u r c h e s . An example o f t h i s i s the conse-c r a t i o n o f t h e V a l e Church i n 1117. Among t h o s e p r e s e n t f o r t h e ceremony were the B i s h o p o f Coutances, the Abbot o f S t . M i c h a e l s , t h e Abbess o f Caen as w e l l as e i g h t y - f o u r f e u d a l l o r d s from b o t h E n g l a n d and F r a n c e . A f t e r p o l i t i c a l s e p a r a t i o n from Normandy i n 1204, t h e Channel I s l a n d s were under c o n s t a n t t h r e a t o f a t t a c k by t h e F r e n c h . U n t i l the end o f the N a p o l e o n i c wars, Guernsey was o f m i l i t a r y v a l u e t o E n g l a n d , h e r c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o F r a n c e p r o v i d i n g E n g l a n d w i t h an advance p o s t , and w i t h a n a v a l base 4 from w h i c h t o r a i d the F r e n c h c o a s t . D e s p i t e t h i s , t h e I s l a n d remained i n c o n t a c t w i t h Normandy f o r t r a d e . The Duchy was a l s o a p l a c e o f r e f u g e f o r I s l a n d r e s i d e n t s who were i n t r o u b l e . I t was d u r i n g the m e d i a e v a l y e a r s , when i t i s b e l i e v e d the p o p u l a t i o n numbered i n t h e r e g i o n o f 15,000 , t h a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the I s l a n d s d e v e l o p e d w i t h the appointment o f t h e Wardens o f the I s l a n d s . As r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the K i n g , the Warden was C h i e f A d m i n i s t r a t o r , p r e s i d i n g o v e r t h e A s s i z e s e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e I s l a n d J u r a t s i n t h e "Ro y a l C o u r t s " . When the Warden G r a n d i s o n found h i s d u t i e s i n t e r f e r e d w i t h h i s o b l i g a t i o n s t o the K i n g i n E n g l a n d , d e p u t i e s were a p p o i n t e d so t h a t each B a i l i w i c k had a B a i l i f f . Such independent government remains i n modern days, the C h i e f A d m i n i s t r a t o r b e i n g the B a i l i f f who i s P r e s i d e n t o f the S t a t e s o f D e l i b e r a t i o n and the S t a t e s o f E l e c t i o n , as w e l l as b e i n g a Judge i n t h e R o y a l C o u r t . The E n g l i s h monarch i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a L i e u t e n a n t Governor. I t was K i n g John who p r e s e n t e d Guernsey w i t h a c i v i l c o n s t i t u t i o n , g i v i n g t h e I s l a n d v a l u a b l e p r e v e l e g e s w h i c h have been the b a s i s o f a l l c h a r t e r s and g r a n t s from E n g l a n d u n t i l t h e p r e s e n t day. Such p r i v e l e g e s were c o n f i r m e d by Edward I I I d u r i n g the Hundred Years War, ...we concede f o r o u r s e l v e s and our h e i r s t h a t they h o l d and r e t a i n a l l p r i v e l e g e s , i m m u n i t i e s and customs g r a n t e d by o u r f o r e b e a r s o r o f o t h e r l e g a l compe-t e n c i e s and t h a t they e n j o y them f r e e l y w i t h o u t 7 m o l e s t a t i o n by o u r s e l v e s , our h e i r s , our o f f i c e s . Thus a l t h o u g h t h e language, customs and r e l i g i o u s houses i n Guernsey were f a s h i o n e d a f t e r t h o s e i n Normandy, l e g a l r i g h t s and p r i v e l e g e s stemmed from the E n g l i s h Crown and s t r o n g t i e s w i t h t h e Crown were f o r g e d . The R e f o r m a t i o n saw the e x p u l s i o n o f t h e C a t h o l i c s , and the p a r i s h churches became p a r t o f t h e Deanery o f the D i o c e s e o f W i n c h e s t e r i n the Church o f En g l a n d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e use o f t h e F r e n c h language p e r s i s t e d , and psalms and t h e Book o f Common P r a y e r were p u b l i s h e d i n F r e n c h and were used u n t i l the end o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . As w i l l be seen i n a 4 f u r t h e r s e c t i o n o f t h i s w r i t i n g , t h e use o f t h e F r e n c h language, c o u p l e d w i t h the A n g l i c a n f a i t h , p r o v i d e d o b s t a c l e s t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f i s l a n d c l e r g y and s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . Such d i f f -i c u l t i e s prompted Queen E l i z a b e t h I t o i n t e r e s t , h e r s e l f i n the endowment of e d u c a t i o n a l , i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Guernsey. I t was n o t u n t i l a f t e r the F r e n c h r e v o l u t i o n i n 1789, when t h e Channel I s l a n d s were a r e f u g e f o r F r e n c h R o y a l i s t s , t h a t t h e r e was any r e t u r n t o Roman C a t h o l i c i s m i n Guernsey. I n 1850 the Channel I s l a n d s were i n c l u d e d i n the d i o c e s e o f Southwark, b u t a f t e r some r e - o r g a n i s a t i o n , t h i s was changed t o the Roman C a t h o l i c D i o c e s e o f Portsmouth i n 1882. The I s l a n d s w i t n e s s e d the r i s e o f Methodism i n 1784. A f t e r t a k i n g some y e a r s t o become e s t a b l i s h e d , numbers g r a d u a l l y b u i l t up so t h a t Methodism became a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e i n I s l a n d s o c i e t y . I f fwe 3 r e t u r n . : / t o t f e ^ see t h a t " f e u d a l i s m was s t i l l a l i v e a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e o e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y " and some o f the poor e m i g r a t e d t o t h e new w o r l d h o p i n g f o r a f r e s h s t a r t . There was an i n c r e a s e i n i s l a n d p o p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h i m m i g r a t i o n from 20,827 i n 1821, 9 t o 33,719 i n 1851 r e s u l t i n g i n a s h o r t a g e o f work and low wages. In l a t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a t t h i s p e r i o d o f t i m e , i t may be bourne i n mind t h a t l a r g e numbers o f I s l a n d e r s were unable t o pay v e r y much f o r t h e s c h o o l i n g o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and many c o u l d n o t pay a t a l l . The f i r s t E n g l i s h newspaper was e s t a b l i s h e d i n Guernsey i n 1828, F r e n c h papers b e i n g p u b l i s h e d i n the Channel I s l a n d s u n t i l 1917. W i t h i n the I s l a n d , horse-drawn t r a f f i c l a s t e d i n t o t h e modern motor e r a , b u t t h e r e was a tramway i n s t a l l e d i n 1879. T h i s r a n o from S t . P e t e r P o r t t o S t . Sampson's h a r b o u r i n t h e n o r t h o f the I s l a n d . H a v i n g been superseded by m o t o r - d r i v e n b u s e s , the tramway was a g a i n b r o u g h t i n t o s e r v i c e d u r i n g t h e German O c c u p a t i o n . Throughout h e r modern development, Guernsey has always h e l d g r e a t a f f e c t i o n f o r the B r i t i s h Crown, and t h i s was made e v i d e n t by the I s l a n d e r s who went away t o t h e Boer War as w e l l as t h e many hundreds o f Guernseymen who f o u g h t i n F r a n c e 5 d u r i n g the 1914-18 War. A f l y i n g b o a t s e r v i c e i n the 1920's paved the way f o r an e s t a b l i s h e d a i r r o u t e between E n g l a n d and Guernsey. T h i s t r a n s p o r t supplemented th e c r o s s - c h a n n e l M a i l b o a t steamers. The development o f more f r e q u e n t and r a p i d communication w i t h B r i t a i n c o u l d o n l y draw Guernsey f u r t h e r i n t o the modern w o r l d . T h i s i s apparent i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e I s l a n d s t i l l s t e e r s an i ndependent c o u r s e i n e d u c a t i o n as i n government. I n 1919 women got t h e v o t e , b u t t h i s caused l e s s o f a s t i r t h a n i n E n g l a n d , f o r i n Guernsey a l t h o u g h t h e P a r i s h Douzaine.and C o n s t a b l e s , as w e l l as t h i r t y - t h r e e I s l a n d D e p u t i e s are e l e c t e d by p o p u l a r v o t e , t h e r e are no p a r t y p o l i t i c s . F u r t h e r m o d e r n i s a t i o n , commerce and the g r o w i n g t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y , t r a n s f o r m e d the I s l a n d community i n t o a t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y s o c i e t y . I t was a s o c i e t y d e s t i n e d t o endure o c c u p a t i o n by German t r o o p s d u r i n g the war y e a r s o f 19 40-45. Thus we may b r i e f l y t r a c e the development o f Guernsey from a s m a l l pagan community w i t h s p a r s e m o n a s t i c s e t t l e m e n t , t o a modern community w h i c h p r o v i d e s a l l t h e n e c e s s i t i e s o f modern-day s o c i e t y , a s o c i e t y which demands and s u p p l i e s e d u c a t i o n f o r i t s young. The manner i n which t h i s system o f e d u c a t i o n d e v e l o p e d i s r e v i e w e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g pages/ 6 NOTES PART I 1. L ' A n c r e s s e i s a bay on the n o r t h c o a s t o f Guernsey. 2. W. B e r r y , The H i s t o r y o f t h e I s l a n d o f Guernsey, P a r t  o f the A n c i e n t Duchy o f Normandy, t o t h e Y e a r 1814. (1815) p.241 3. I b i d . p. 241 4. J.H. Le P a t o u r e l , M e d i a e v a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e Channel I s l a n d s . 1194-1399. (1937) p. 31 5. I b i d . p. 32 6. R. L e m p r i e r e , H i s t o r y o f the Channel I s l a n d s . (19 74) p. 30 7. J . U t t l e y , The S t o r y o f t h e Channel I s l a n d s . . (1966) p. 65 8. R. L e m p r i e r e op. c i t . p. 110 9. Census f i g u r e s . See Appendix R PART I I EARLY EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT i) B e f o r e 1500 The i n f l u e n c e o f the Church was f e l t i n Guernsey from t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y when Sampson, B i s h o p o f D o l . a r r i v e d . He i s b e l i e v e d t o be the f i r s t t o b r i n g C h r i s t i a n i t y t o the I s l a n d and a s m a l l c h a p e l was e r e c t e d and named a f t e r him a t the h a r b o u r o f S t . Sampson where he l a n d e d . The m i s s i n a r y s c h o o l w hich M a g l o r i u s founded on Sark ( c i r c . 565 A.D.), may have produced some b r o t h e r s i n c l i n e d t o t e a c h i n g , b u t o f t h i s we have no e v i d e n c e . M a g l o r i u s a l s o b u i l t a c h a p e l a t the V a l e and the Crown gave a s m a l l a n n u a l a l l o w a n c e toward h i s m i s s i o n . In a d d i t i o n , a r e l i g i o u s house was founded on Herm i n t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y . Undoubtedly t h e r e must have been some e d u c a t i o n s u p p l i e d by t h e r e l i g i o u s , f o r t h e r e were i s l a n d e r s e a r l y employed i n the commerce a t t a c h e d t o the f i s h and w o o l i n d u s -t r i e s and t o a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e I s l a n d . One o f t h e s e was John de Roche, who, as Keeper o f t h e I s l a n d s , k e p t t r a d e a c c o u n t s . The H o p i t a l de l a V i l l e r e f e r r e d t o d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f E l i z a b e t h I , was the h o s p i t a l w h i c h had been b u i l t a t Bosq Land i n S t . P e t e r P o r t i n 1362 by a R o y a l endowment from Edward I I I . I t was a r e l i g i o u s e s t a b l i s h m e n t , b u t o f any k i n d o f i n s t r u c t i o n b e i n g g i v e n t h e r e , we have no c e r t a i n knowledge. I n the b e g i n n i n g o f the r e i g n o f Henry V, the p r i o r s a l i e n were s u p p r e s s e d . With t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f the r e m a i n i n g r e l i g i o u s houses by Henry V I I I , t h e monks were f o r d e d t o l e a v e Guernsey, t a k i n g c a r e t o d e s t r o y o r h i d e t h e i r w r i t t e n r e c o r d s b e f o r e t h e y r e t u r n e d t o Normandy. Because t h e monks were the h i s t o r i a n s and r e c o r d e r s o f t h a t p e r i o d , t h e d i s -appearance o f t h e i r w r i t i n g s has p r o d u c e d a d e a r t h o f i n f o r -m a t ion o f the t e n e a r l y churches and f o u r b e n e f i c e s i n Guernsey and o f any s c h o o l s w h i c h may have been a t t a c h e d t o t h e s e churches t h a t were p a r t o f the D i o c e s e o f Coutances. Thomas D i c e y , a u t h o r o f Ah H i s t o r i c a l Account o f Guernsey, p u b l i s h e d i n 1751, t e l l s o f the d i s p o s s e s s e d c l e r g y b u r y i n g 8 t h e i r v e s s e l s , p l a t e and r e c o r d s a t t h e M a g l o r i u s Chapel i n the C l o s du V a l , h o p i n g t o r e t u r n a t some l a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y . Some y e a r s l a t e r , a s c h o o l m a s t e r , John Le P e l l e y , r e c o v e r e d the Monks;' books, vestments and p l a t e and " p r i v a t e l y s o l d them a t a low p r i c e t o some Normans a t Coutances who c u n n i n g l y 2 conveyed them away". i i ) 1500 - 1800 9 The f i r s t c h u r c h r e c o r d s o f the S t . Sampson's r e c t o r s t a r t 3 as l a t e as 1510. I t i s from about t h i s t ime t h a t we have any c e r t a i n knowledge o f the e x i s t e n c e o f a s c h o o l . T h i s i s s u p p l i e d i n the form o f the G i r a r d d i a r y , d a t e d 150 8. T h i s d i a r y was begun by a Jean G i r a r d and h i s f i r s t e n t r i e s i n f e r t h a t t h e r e was a s c h o o l o f s o r t s a t the C a s t e l i n p r e - R e f o r -m a tion days. Jean a p p a r e n t l y h e l p e d a p r i e s t , Denis Qzanne. One o f the l a t e r d i a r i s t s was a P r e v e Le Roy, a s c h o o l m a s t e r o f the S t . M a r t i n ' s s c h o o l i n L a C h a p e l l e de S t . Jean de 4 l a Houguette, i n 1591. I t was t h i s Le Roy's son who t a u g h t a t t h e C a s t e l p a r i s h s c h o o l founded i n 1675 t h r o u g h the g e n e r o s i t y o f a Mrs. de J e r s e y and p e o p l e o f the p a r i s h . Mrs. de J e r s e y gave th e P a r i s h the C hapel o f S t . George i n p e r p e t u i t y , f o r a s c h o o l house. When t i m b e r was needed f o r the r e p a i r o f the C a s t e l Church and s c h o o l , i t was donated by Mary I I . I t i s known t h a t , i n 1564, a p a r i s h s c h o o l i n S t . P e t e r P o r t was endowed, p a r t l y by Queen E l i z a b e t h and p a r t l y by Thomas Le Marquant and J a n n e t t e T h e l r y , h i s w i f e . They made a g i f t o f a house and l a n d on the S l o p e o f S t . J u l i e n so t h a t P a r i s h s c h o o l s might be k e p t t h e r e . They a l s o gave two q u a r t e r s o f a n n u a l wheat r e n t e f o r the s c h o o l master, b u t w i t h t h e p r o v i s o ' t h a t c e r t a i n p r a y e r s be o f f e r e d d a i l y by the s c h o l a r s . " 5 T h i s s c h o o l was known as La P e t i t e E c o l e . In t h e same y e a r , E l i z a b e t h I i s s a i d t o have a l s o endowed a s c h o o l a t S t . P i e r r e du B o i s , g i v i n g 120 l i v r e s f o r i t s upkeep. S t . M a r t i n ' s a l s o had a s c h o o l endowed i n 1564, a house and t w e n t y - f i v e q u a r t e r s o f r e n t e b e i n g g i v e n by the Queen and a p a r i s h r e s i d e n t . An Order i n C o u n c i l o f 1568 gave twenty q u a r t e r s o f wheat r e n t e a n n u a l l y f o r t h e two s c h o o l s i n S t . P e t e r ' s and S t . M a r t i n ' s p a r i s h e s . The r e n t e s were t o be e q u a l l y d i v i d e d between t e a c h e r s from th e p a r i s h e s . In endowing the s c h o o l s , the Queen s t a t e d t h a t a t the s c h o o l s , the p u p i l s s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n " l a lengue 7 du pays" . Many y e a r s l a t e r t h i s had r e p e r c u s s i o n s when some 10 i s l a n d e r s wanted E n g l i s h i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m . The S t . P e t e r ' s s c h o o l f e l l i n t o d i s r e p a i r by 1579 so t h a t i n 1766, p e r m i s s i o n was g r a n t e d from the K i n g f o r a new s i t e t o be o b t a i n e d . T h i s c o s t 1,000 l i v r e s t o u r n o i s and t h e b u i l d i n g p r o v e d t o be a c o n s t a n t s o u r c e o f expense. H o l i d a y s were quoted as b e i n g : ...Quatre semaines dans l e mois d"Aout, douze j o u r s a N o e l , une semaine d u r a n t l e v r a i c de L ' E t e , . . . and i n 1834: " Le j o u r de l a f o i r e de S t . M i c h e l " was added t o t h e l i s There has been some c o n j e c t u r e as t o the v a l i d i t y o f the R o y a l f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e s c h o o l s f o r t h e r e i s no documentary p r o o f o f i t . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h e s c h o o l s p r e - e x i s t e d E l i z a b e t h ' s endowment. The s c h o o l s were s m a l l , a t t e n d a n c e was n o t compul-s o r y and the v e r y b a s i c e d u c a t i o n o b t a i n e d was f o r t h e l o c a l p a r i s h c h i l d r e n . F o r the p o o r , s c h o o l i n g was f r e e , w h i l e o t h e r s p a i d the e q u i v a l e n t o f a few pence p e r week. The Queen s a i d t h a t t h e s e s c h o o l s were t o p r e p a r e c h i l d r e n t o e n t e r h e r new s c h o o l . T h i s was L a Grande E c o l e i n S t . P e t e r P o r t , a grammar s c h o o l , l a t e r known as E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e . I t was i n 1563 t h a t E l i z a b e t h founded a grammar s c h o o l i n Guernsey. The l a n d w i t h w h i c h th e s c h o o l was endowed had b e l o n g e d t o a f r a t e r n i t y o f mendicant f r i a r s known as C o r d e l i e r s I t i s n o t c e r t a i n whether t h i s p r i o r y was abandoned t o the Crown when p r i o r s a l i e n were b a n i s h e d by Henry V, o r by a c t s 9 o f P a r l i a m e n t d u r i n g the r e i g n s o f Henry V I I I and Edward V I . These A c t s made C a t h o l i c p r o p e r t i e s f o r f e i t t o the Crown. D e t a i l s o f the l a n d conceded t o the s c h o o l appear i n Appendix A. The master had t o be s o b e r , o f good morals and a b l e t o t e a c h L a t i n and Greek. He was g i v e n a house and e i g h t y q u a r t e r s o f wheat r e n t e from th e r e c e i p t s o f the Queen i n t h e I s l a n d . The C h a r t e r d i d n o t say who was t o do the c h o o s i n g o f the M a s t e r , o r who would judge h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r the p o s t , b u t i t was i n f e r r e d t h a t t h e Governor o r h i s L i e u t e a a n t s h o u l d a p p o i n t him. Once a p p o i n t e d , the M a s t e r was l i a b l e t o be admonished by the Dean s h o u l d he be c r u e l t o t h e s c h o l a r s . 11 P e r s i s t e n c e i n c r u e l t y would r e s u l t i n d i s m i s s a l by t h e Governor. The c h i l d r e n a d m i t t e d t o the s c h o o l o f Queen E l i z a b e t h were t o be a b l e t o r e a d and w r i t e and t o r e c i t e some o f t h e approved c a t e c h i s m o f the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n . The C h a r t e r o f t h e s c h o o l gave no mention o f the sex o r age o f t h e s t u d e n t s , and made no mention o f t h e p a r e n t a l s t a t u s e i t h e r . The 1563 s t a t u t e gave the aims o f t h e s c h o o l as a thorough knowledge of Grammar. There were t o be s i x c l a s s e s , a l l w i t h L a t i n and Greek. W r i t i n g , S i n g i n g and A r i t h m e t i c were t o be a t t h e M a s t e r ' s d i s c r e t i o n and a l i t t l e p l a y was p e r m i s s a b l e . The main purpose o f t h i s . s c h o o l was t o s u p p l y the i s l a n d w i t h c l e r g y and s c h o o l m a s t e r s . The language b e i n g F r e n c h , t h e r e was d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g n o n - C a t h o l i c F r e n c h s p e a k i n g c l e r g y f o r the I s l a n d , w h i c h was now p a r t o f the D i o c e s e o f W i n c h e s t e r . Moreover, a f t e r the R e f o r m a t i o n , young men were b e i n g s e n t o v e r t o s t u d y D i v i n i t y among P r o t e s t a n t s i n F r a n c e . The i d e a s so g a i n e d were n o t c o n s i s t a n t w i t h t h o s e o f the E n g l i s h c l e r g y . T h e r e f o r e i t was hoped t h a t boys would be p r e p a r e d f o r u n i v e r s i t y i n Guernsey r a t h e r t h a n g o i n g away t o s c h o o l i n F r a n c e , where r e l i g i o u s t h o u g h t was u n s u i t a b l e , o r t o E n g l a n d where th e language was a l i e n . S u p e r s t i t i o n and i g n o r a n c e seem t o have been w i d e s p r e a d i n the I s l a n d a t t h i s time and l i t t l e i n t e r e s t was shown i n E l i z a b e t h ' s Grammar S c h o o l . ^ The Queen's C o u n c i l , w r i t i n g t o t h e Governor i n 1565, a y e a r when t h e r e were t e n s c h o l a r s a t the s c h o o l , i n t i m a t e d t h a t the endowment might be withdrawn i f n e g l e c t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the S c h o o l c o n t i n u e d . I t was t h e r e f o r e s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e any advantage was g a i n e d from the Grammar S c h o o l , and boys were s t i l l s e n t t o E n g l a n d t o be e d u c a t e d f o r t h e Church a t the expense o f the Town Church. The f i r s t M a s t e r was a Dr. A d i a n S a r a v i n , a P r o t e s t a n t r e f u g e e from F l a n d e r s who had been a P r o f e s s o r o f D i v i n i t y a t Leyden. The e x a c t d a t e o f h i s appointment i s n o t c e r t a i n , b u t i t i s b e l i e v e d t o be about 1563. However i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t he d i s l i k e d Guernsey i n t e n s e l y , s a y i n g t h a t ;'the I s l a n d e r s 12 were "barbarous p e o p l e who hate l e t t e r s " . On F e b r u a r y 26, 1564, he wrote t h a t n o t h i n g had been done t o c a r r y out the Commissioner's o r d e r s and t h a t he had o n l y t e n Guernsey 12 s c h o l a r s . The r e s t were E n g l i s h boys. The s c h o o l day was from 7 A.M. u n t i l 11 A.M. and from 1 P.M. u n t i l 5 P.M. P r a y e r s were s a i d a t b e g i n n i n g and e n d i n g o f the s c h o o l day. I n 1635, Guernsey p e t i t i o n e d C h a r l e s I f o r p l a c e s a t O x f o r d and Cam-b r i d g e . Three s c h o l a r s h i p s were o f f e r e d . The aim was t o r e - i n t r o d u c e A n g l i c a n c l e r g y t o t h e I s l a n d , f o r s c h o l a r s h i p h o l d e r s had t o r e t u r n t o the I s l a n d t o t a k e up a l i v i n g . The s c h o l a r s h i p s were i n c r e a s e d t o f i v e i n 1675, (and were s h a r e d w i t h J e r s e y ) , and h o l d e r s might e n t e r the t e a c h i n g o r c l e r i c a l p r o f e s s i o n s . The r e c t o r o f S t . M a r t i n ' s p a r i s h was a l s o the M a s t e r o f the Grammar S c h o o l , and i n 1711 c o m p l a i n t s were made by I s l a n d e r s t h a t he n e g l e c t e d the e d u c a t i o n o f the p u p i l s . Thereupon a c o m b i n a t i o n o f d u t i e s was f o r b i d d e n . There were many d i s p u t e s o v e r money f o r t h e r e were no t r u s t e e s f o r the l i b e r a l endowment, n e i t h e r was t h e r e any s e t t l e d p r i n c i p l e o v e r who would meet the expenses o f r e p a i r s t o the s c h o o l . U n t i l 1748, they were charged t o the I s l a n d , t o the Revenues o f t h e P i e r , t o the Town P a r i s h and i n p a r t , t o t h e M a s t e r . F i n a l l y i t was d e c i d e d t h a t the S t a t e s would u p h o l d and m a i n t a i n t h e s c h o o l and b e a r i n c i d e n t a l expenses. A new s c h o o l b u i l d i n g was completed a t p u b l i c expense (E600 s t e r l i n g ) , i n 1760. Under Dean C r e s p i n , M a s t e r i n 1761, f i f t e e n t o twenty-f i v e boys a t t e n d e d the s c h o o l . Numbers n e v e r exceeded twenty-n i n e and sometimes t h e r e were o n l y one o r two p u p i l s , o r even none. Under t h i s M a s t e r , morning s c h o o l o n l y was r e q u i r e d . The a f t e r n o o n was f o r s t u d i e s a t o t h e r s c h o o l s d o i n g s u b j e c t s n o t a v a i l a b l e a t the Grammar S c h o o l . Toward t h e end o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i t was b e i n g d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e L a t i n and Greek c l a s s i c s t a u g h t a t the Grammar S c h o o l , were n o t s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e young p e o p l e who were t o work i n the I s l a n d . As may be seen i n Appendix B, s c h o o l s were a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d by p a r i s h i o n e r s a t S t . S a v i o u r , S t . Andrew and t h e F o r e s t 13 d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I n 1723, T o r t e v a l a l s o g a i n e d a s c h o o l t h r o u g h the g e n e r o s i t y o f a Mr. Le Marchant. In Fe b r u a r y 1700, the M i n i s t e r o f T o r t e v a l , the Rev. Thomas P i c e t , had w r i t t e n t o the L o r d B i s h o p o f W i n c h e s t e r i n f o r m i n g him o f the c o m p l a i n t s by p a r i s h i o n e r s 13 t h a t they had no s c h o o l . Of t h e s e f o u r s c h o o l s , t h r e e became J u n i o r s c h o o l s i n 1959. There i s no l o n g e r a c h o o l a t T o r t e v a l , and S t . S a v i o u r ' s s c h o o l i s used f o r S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n . The S t a t e s had d e c l a r e d , i n an A c t o f 1700, t h a t e v e r y p a r i s h s h o u l d have a t l e a s t one s c h o o l master and t h a t he be l i c e n s e d by the Dean. The c u r r i c u l u m was l a i d o u t i n the f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i v e t o the s c h o o l m a s t e r who s h o u l d , "...use a l l d i l i g e n c e t o t e a c h the c h i l d r e n t o r e a d and w r i t e , say t h e i r p r a y e r s , and answer t o the c a t e c h i s m , and b r i n g them t o 14 the Sermon and Common p r a y e r . . . " I n t h i s same p e r i o d the C a s t e l s c h o l a r s were moved t o a n o t h e r s c h o o l on t h e s i t e o f a w i n d m i l l , i n 1735. An a d d i t i o n was b u i l t t o ta k e s e v e n t y o r e i g h t y g i r l s , i n 1808. I n 1871, a new b u i l d i n g was completed " f o r t he C a s t e l s c h o o l . The Boys' S c h o o l was r e b u i l t i n 1909. Both t h e s e b u i l d i n g s formed the n u c l e u s o f the expanded, r e n o v a t e d and modernised b u i l d i n g s e n j o y e d s i n c e 1969. In H i s t o r y o f the I s l a n d o f Guernsey, the a u t h o r , W i l l i a m B e r r y , r e f e r s t o a Town H o s p i t a l b e i n g b u i l t i n 1741. T h i s h o s p i t a l was f i n a n c e d by churc h c o l l e c t i o n s and d o n a t i o n s t o t he p o o r . The h o s p i t a l was f o r the f o u n d l i n g , orphan, t h e 15 i n f i r m and the aged, as w e l l as "the f r e n z i e d maniac". The H o s p i t a l opened w i t h 160 inmates. When, i n 1751, Thomas D i c e y r e f e r r e d t o the h o s p i t a l , he wrote o f a s c h o o l m a s t e r and usher b e i n g employed from 1743. Some o f the c h i l d r e n t a u g h t , were o f d e s t i t u t e p a r e n t s , w h i l e o t h e r s were l e f t by s a i l o r s and s o l d i e r s who f r e q u e n t e d the I s l a n d . The s c h o o l m a s t e r had t o r e a d p r a y e r s t o the poor, morning and e v e n i n g , and t o keep a s c h o o l j o u r n a l . Everday hg had t o c a t e c h i s e the c h i l d r e n i n h i s ch a r g e , and t e a c h a l l f i f t y t o r e a d and w r i t e . A 16 t h i r d matron was employed t o t e a c h needlework t o the g i r l s . The C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s i n w h i c h the c h i l d r e n were i n s t r u c t e d , and t h e i r P r o t e s t a n t w o r s h i p , were a c c o r d i n g t o the Church o f Eng l a n d . i i i ) 1800 - 1850 a) E l e m e n t a r y 14 E d u c a t i o n The growing i n t e r e s t i n e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n E n g l a n d , s p r e a d t o Guernsey, and i n t h e f i r s t twenty y e a r s o f the 1800's, s i x new s c h o o l s , o r branches o f s c h o o l s , were e s t a b l i s h e d . I n 1818 S t . Sampson's and t h e V a l e P a r i s h S c h o o l s were opened. They were the l a s t s c h o o l s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d by p a r i s h s u b s c r i p t i o n . A t t h e V a l e s c h o o l those who c o u l d , p a i d two-pence p e r week t o the M a s t e r , who t a u g h t w r i t i n g , r e a d i n g and a r i t h m e t i c i n F r e n c h . A few c h i l d r e n a t the V a l e s c h o o l d i d some E n g l i s h . Payment o f the c o r n r e n t e s was i r r e g u l a r a t S t . Sampson's, where F r e n c h o n l y was used f o r the t h r e e R's, and o n l y h a l f the c h i l d r e n a t t e n d e d . B oth t h e s e s c h o o l s e v e n t u a l l y g a i n e d l a r g e e n r o l m e n t s , and b o t h were p a r t o f the i n i t i a l s c h o o l r e - o r g a n i s a t i o n programme i n 19 36. A t S t . Andrew's, s u b s c r i p t i o n p a i d f o r a new room whi c h c o s t 90 l i v r e s . T h e a d d i t i o n a l s t o r e y a t S t . P i e r r e du B o i s , i n 1815, meant t h a t the p a r i s h was c a t e r i n g f o r i t s g i r l s who d i d needlework and k n i t t i n g as w e l l as r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and a r i t h m e t i c , t h e language o f i n s t r u c t i o n b e i n g F r e n c h . The s a l a r y f o r t h e s c h o o l m i s t r e s s was endowed by t h r e e w e a l t h y p a r i s h i o n e r s who gave one q u a r t e r wheat r e n t e each. A t the H o s p i t a l S c h o o l i n C a s t e l , a M a s t e r and M i s t r e s s were employed t o g i v e e d u c a t i o n i n F r e n c h t o poor c h i l d r e n from a l l t h e c o u n t r y p a r i s h e s . The poor o f the Town a t t e n d e d the N a t i o n a l o r the H o s p i t a l S c h o o l s . A t the former o f t h e s e , some E n g l i s h was t a u g h t . The p r o v i s i o n o f s c h o o l s i n e v e r y p a r i s h meant t h a t t h e r e were e v e n t u a l l y b u t few p e o p l e who c o u l d n o t r e a d o r w r i t e . A t t e n d a n c e i s r e p o r t e d t o have been g e n e r a l l y good. Endowments t o t h e s e s c h o o l s were s m a l l , so t h a t p r o v i s i o n was made from the funds o f E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e . The f i r s t S t a t e a i d t o educa-t i o n i n Guernsey was made i n 1825 when the S t a t e s g r a n t e d £250 pe r annum f o r p a r o c h i a l s c h o o l s . The N a t i o n a l S c h o o l and the B r i t i s h and F o r e i g n S c h o o l p r o v i d e d f r e e e d u c a t i o n f o r p o o r c h i l d r e n i n t h e Town, f o r t h e s c h o o l s were run on v o l u n a t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n s . However tho s e 15 c h i l d r e n who c o u l d , p a i d twopence o r t h r e e p e n c e p e r week o r even a wheat r e n t e . U s i n g B e l l ' s m o n i t o r i a l system, l a r g e r numbers were a b l e t o be t a u g h t a t one t i m e . I n E n g l a n d the aims o f the N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y were t o e n q u i r e i n t o and improve the e d u c a t i o n o f the poor. I n 1833, the F a c t o r y A c t l i m i t e d c h i l d l a b o u r i n E n g l a n d t o t e n hours p e r day. However, i n Guernsey, t h e c h i l d r e n , n e v e r were f a c e d w i t h the a p p a l l i n g c o n d i t i o n s endured by the young i n the E n g l i s h I n d u s t r i a l C e n t r e s . N e i t h e r were t h e r e the v a s t numbers o f c h i l d r e n t o d e a l w i t h , as i n England's i n d u s t r i a l towns. T h e r e f o r e t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l i n Guernsey was i n t e n d e d f o r c h i l d r e n o f a l l c l a s s e s . Those a t t e n d i n g and who c o u l d a f f o r d good c l o t h e s were asked n o t t o wear d r e s s o f f i n e q u a l i t y f o r s c h o o l s . The N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n Guernsey i n 1812, and by 182 4 F r e n c h r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and a r i t h m e t i c and some E n g l i s h were b e i n g t a u g h t t h e r e . 16 b) C h a r i t y S c h o o l s A new s c h o o l was e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e h o s p i t a l i n 1820. The f i f t y g i r l s i n t h i s s c h o o l were e d u c a t e d u n t i l t h e age o f f o u r t e e n when most o f them went i n t o d o m e s t i c s e r v i c e . Some of the boys a t the h o s p i t a l were edu c a t e d a t t h e p a r o c h i a l f r e e s c h o o l and some a t t e n d e d the N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s . A t t h e age o f f o u r t e e n , the boys were a p p r e n t i c e d t o a t r a d e . M orning and e v e n i n g t h e c h i l d r e n a t t e n d e d c h u r c h s e r v i c e t a k e n by t h e M a s t e r o r by the Church o f E n g l a n d C h a p l a i n , who a t t e n d e d t w i c e each week. On Sundays the c h i l d r e n w o r s h i p p e d a t the Town Church. I n 1832 t h e r e were f i f t y - f i v e g i r l s and t h i r t y -n i n e boys a t the H o s p i t a l S c h o o l i n S t . P e t e r P o r t . In 1847, La P e t i t e E c o l e c l o s e d . The s a l e o f the b u i l d i n g s i n 1872 r e a l i s e d £240. These funds were used f o r P a r i s h e d u c a t i o n . Three y e a r s l a t e r , - i n 1847, M i s s A. L i d s t o n e opened t h e Ragged S c h o o l a t t h e t o p o f B e r t h e l o t S t r e e t . I t was f o r c h i l d r e n who were e x t r e m e l y p o o r . A t the s t a r t t h e r e were 10 7 c h i l d r e n , f i f t y - f o u r boys and f i f t y - t h r e e g i r l s . D u r i n g the y e a r t h i r t y boys and se v e n -t e e n g i r l s were removed from the s c h o o l . A c c o u n t i n g f o r t h i s drop i n enrolment i n h e r f i r s t a n n u a l r e p o r t i n 1851, M i s s L i d s t o n e s a i d t h a t f i v e c h i l d r e n had d i e d , f i v e had l e f t the I s l a n d , t w e l v e had gone t o o t h e r s c h o o l s , n i n e had been s e n t t o the H o s p i t a l , e i g h t had gone i n t o s e r v i c e o r found employment o f some k i n d , f o u r were t o o young t o a t t e n d w i t h o u t the c a r e o f an e l d e r s i s t e r who had l e f t , two had gone i n t o the c o u n t r y and two had s t r a y e d . The f i n a l t o t a l number on r o l l i n 1851 was f o r t y - s i x , and a t t e n d a n c e was t h i r t y -e i g h t on average. The s c h o o l work c o n s i s t e d o f l e a r n i n g t o r e a d , w r i t e and do s i m p l e a r i t h m e t i c and t o do needlework. The g i r l s made garments f o r themselves o u t o f new c l o t h o r u s u a l l y from o l d c l o t h i n g donated t o the s c h o o l . M i s s L i d s t o n e r e c o r d s t h a t many o f the c h i l d r e n had n o t one complete p i e c e o f c l o t h i n g on them on e n t e r i n g t h e s c h o o l . Examples o f such c o n d i t i o n s quoted from the 1856 Album o f M i s s L i d s t o n e a r e : 17 Maj o r W e s t c o t t - f o r t y y a r d s o f c a l i c o Mr. E. H u t c h i n s o n - e i g h t y new bonnets Mrs. Maurent - t e n new f r o c k s There was a soup k i t c h e n , and oatmeal was cooked i n t h e schoolroom. One p e r s o n , Lady J e n k i n s o n , s u p p l i e d t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h d i n n e r e v e r y F r i d a y f o r s i x t o seven months. T h i s same l a d y i s r e p o r t e d as o f f e r i n g t o have t w e l v e o r t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n a t h e r house f o r d i n n e r one day each week t h r o u g h o u t the w i n t e r months. M i s s L i d s t o n e c o l l e c t e d h e r s a l a r y (shown i n t h e s c h o o l a c c o u n t s , Appendix D), by g o i n g from door t o door, and on page f o u r o f h e r r e p o r t f o r 1857, she s t a t e s , " I have p a i d above 2,000 v i s i t s t o p a r e n t s and n e i g h b o u r s o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r " . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t she had no ti m e f o r h o l i d a y s f o r she a l s o r a n an E v e n i n g S c h o o l . T h i s was f o r the b e n e f i t o f o l d e r boys who had t o go t o work b u t who wanted t o l e a r n t o r e a d and w r i t e . I n 1857, t h i s d e d i c a t e d e d u c a t i o n i s t r e p o r t e d t h a t i n the seven y e a r s t h a t the s c h o o l had been i n o p e r a t i o n , she had a c c e p t e d boys and g i r l s who l i v e d under "the most extreme c i r c u m s t a n c e o f p o v e r t y and d e s t i t u t i o n " . The c h i l d r e n were a d m i t t e d a t any hour and w i t h o u t l i m i t a t i o n t o age. 18 c) P r i v a t e S c h o o l s An a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e i n 1820 mentions c l a s s e s i n L a t i n , Greek, F r e n c h , B e l l e s L e t t r e s , I t a l i a n , E n g l i s h , M e r c a n t i l e and Maths and Landscape Drawing. There was a r e g u l a r c o u r s e i n R h e t o r i c , L o g i c and C l a s s i c a l E l o -c u t i o n . " I n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h the R o y a l S t a t u t e s , L a t i n and 18 Greek are t a u g h t f r e e o f charge." But i n 1823 c o m p l a i n t s were made a g a i n s t the s t a n d a r d o f e d u c a t i o n and the g e n e r a l r u n n i n g o f the s c h o o l . T h i s provoked the L i e u t e n a n t Governor, S i r John C o l b o r n e , t o a p p o i n t a committee i f e n q u i r y i n 1824 " t o e n q u i r e i n t o the p r e s e n t s t a t e and c o n d i t i o n o f the C o l l e g e " . Immediately a f t e r a p p o i n t i n g the Committee, the t w e n t i e t h M a s t e r , the Rev. N. Carey, was r e t i r e d from h i s p o s t and p r o v i d e d w i t h a p e n s i o n o f £600 p e r annum. The Committee recommended t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be t w e l v e t r u s t e e s and t h a t they be e l e c t e d by the S t a t e s o f the I s l a n d . The V i s i t o r t o the S c h o o l s h o u l d be the B i s h o p o f W i n c h e s t e r and the Dean o f Guernsey would be h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t was f u r t h e r a d v i s e d t h a t the t r u s t e e s s h o u l d be I s l a n d n a t i v e s , n o t absent from the I s l a n d f o r more th a n two y e a r s . They i t was who s h o u l d a p p o i n t o r d i s m i s s the M a s t e r s who must be m i d d l e - a g e d , Church o f E n g l a n d and r e s i d e n t . They were a l s o t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r e f u r b i s h i n g and r e b u i l d i n g o f t h e s c h o o l o r f o r the h i r e o f o t h e r n e c e s s a r y schoolrooms. E x p e r i e n c e seems t o have made the Committee l a y down most p r e c i s e l y , the c o n d i t i o n s f o r the appointment of the M a s t e r o f t h e C o l l e g e . The M a s t e r had t o be a g r a d u a t e w i t h p r i e s t ' s o r d e r s , b u t n o t h o l d i n g a c h u r c h b e n e f i c e , and was t o have a s c h o o l house w i t h t h i r t y p e r c h e s o f l a n d , b u t he had t o keep b o a r d e r s . The M a s t e r was t o have t h r e e c l a s s e s . The second M a s t e r was t o have an apartment p r o v i d e d t o g e t h e r w i t h one s e r v a n t and a c o a l a l l o w a n c e . There was t o be a Usher f o r each under-19 master. F u r t h e r recommendations made by t h i s Committee are d e t a i l e d i n Appendix E. The D i r e c t o r s o f t h e C o l l e g e wanted t o have a c e n t r a l 19 s c h o o l f o r t h e p a r i s h e s i n 1825, b u t w i t h o u t S t a t e s f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , they h e s i t a t e d t o pursue the i d e a . An e f f o r t was made i n subsequent y e a r s t o have an E n g l i s h c l a s s i n S t . P i e r r e du B o i s , b u t a t the expense o f the p a r i s h . P a r i s h -i o n e r s r e f u s e d t o s u p p o r t such a c l a s s q u o t i n g Queen E l i z a b e t h ' s r u l i n g t h a t the c h i l d r e n be t a u g h t i n " l a lengue de l a pays" w h i c h was F r e n c h . Some y e a r s a f t e r t h i s , ah e x t r a E n g l i s h c l a s s was a l l o w e d , b u t t h o s e who s e n t t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n E n g l i s h , had t o pay the s c h o o l m a s t e r t h e m s e l v e s . C o n d i t i o n s a t the C o l l e g e seem t o have improved, f o r a w r i t t e n r e p o r t o f J u l y 1840, made by two p u b l i c e x a m i n e r s , G. Dawson and J . W i l l i a m s , had p r a i s e f o r t h e maths, G r e c i a n drama and t h e s t u d y o f Greek l i t e r a t u r e . L a t i n c o m p o s i t i o n i n the J u n i o r c l a s s e s was s a i d t o be weak. P a r t o f the r e g u l a r C o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n e n a b l e d the boys t o d e l i v e r speeches i n Greek, L a t i n , F r e n c h , German and E n g l i s h . New s t a t u t e s f o r the C o l l e g e were drawn up i n 1852. These; reduced the number o f D i r e c t o r s from t w e l v e ( s i n c e 1824) t o n i n e . The D i r e c t o r s had g e n e r a l s u p e r i n t e n d e n c y and t r u s t e e -s h i p , b u t the scheme o f work was s e t by the P r i n c i p a l who had t o be a graduate o f O x f o r d , Cambridge, Durham o r D u b l i n u n i v e r s i t i e s . As d e c i d e d i n 1824, he had t o be a member o f the Church o f E n g l a n d and be i n H o l y Orders and had t o say 20 p r a y e r s t o b e g i n the s c h o o l day. The s c h o l a r s f e e s were s e t a t E 1 2 p e r annum w i t h e x t r a charges f o r supplementary i n s t r u c t i o n . C u r r i c u l u m was t o i n c l u d e R e l i g i o n and M o r a l I n s t r u c t i o n i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e Church o f En g l a n d . The c u r r i c u l u m was changed t o p r o v i d e a commercial as w e l l as a c l a s s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The n e c e s s a r y undermasters were t o be a p p o i n t e d by the P r i n c i p a l . There were numerous o t h e r p r i v a t e s c h o o l s i n Guernsey d u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The Rev. Matthew G a l l i e n n e t e l l s o f the p r e a c h e r ' s w i f e k e e p i n g a dame s c h o o l w h i c h , as a c h i l d o f f i v e y e a r s o l d , he a t t e n d e d i n 1830. A f t e r t h i s he went on t o a Mr. Hodges t o be t a u g h t L a t i n . He was then e q u i p p e d t o p r o c e e d t o a commercial s c h o o l run by a Mr. Hosack 20 who i s s a i d t o have used " s e v e r e methods". On November 5, 1832, The I s l a n d newspaper, The Comet c a r r i e d an a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r a M i s s S a n f o r d ' s s c h o o l which had opened a t 49 Cornet S t r e e t on October 1 s t . I t c a t e r e d f o r young l a d i e s from 2 t o 4 P.M. d a i l y . Mrs. S a n f o r d ' s a d v e r t i s e m e n t added, "a bad hand c o r r e c t e d i n a f o r t n i g h t o r t h r e e weeks a t most f o r 10/6d. ready money". Mr. S a n f o r d r a n a s c h o o l from 9 A.M. t o t w e l v e noon, and from 1 t o 4 P.M; Mr. H. E r n e r i c de S t . Delnes had an Academy f o r young men o p p o s i t e the f i s h market, and Mr. George Crousaz's Academy h e l d e x a m i n a t i o n s every F r i d a y and was open t o v i s i t o r s a t t h a t t i m e . These are examples o f j u s t some o f the f i f t y -one p r i v a t e s c h o o l s l i s t e d i n G u e r i n ' s Almanac f o r 1849. Of t h e s e , n i n e were b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s . i v ) 1850 - 1900 a) S t a t e s A i d 21 I n 1850, a S t a t e s Committee o f f i v e was formed i n o r d e r t h a t an o v e r a l l s u r v e y o f P a r o c h i a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e I s l a n d might be made. The Committee's work b r o u g h t about some u n i f o r m i t y i n t e a c h i n g methods, and t r i e d t o g i v e an e q u a l amount o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n F r e n c h and E n g l i s h i n the P a r i s h s c h o o l s . The f i r s t S t a t e s g r a n t a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Committee was £235 p e r annum. The second was £215. £27 was p r o v i d e d f o r p r i z e s and £18 f o r t e x t books. The money f o r t h i s came from an i m p o r t duty o f one r s h i l l i n g p e r g a l l o n on l i q u o r , f o r the n e x t f i f t e e n y e a r s . These g r a n t s d i d n o t a f f e c t the N a t i o n a l and B r i t i s h and F o r e i g n S c h o o l s f o r t h e s e came under the Committee o f Educa-t i o n i n En g l a n d . As suc h , they r e c e i v e d a government g r a n t and were s u b j e c t t o i n s p e c t i o n . The S t . P e t e r P o r t Church magazine f o r F e b r u a r y 1870 c o v e r s the r e p o r t o f the E n g l i s h I n s p e c t o r made i n December 1869. Of the Boy's N a t i o n a l S c h o o l he s a i d t h a t the e x a m i n a t i o n r e s u l t s were s a t i s f a c t o r y and showed improvement/ b u t the r e l i g i o u s knowledge i n t h e upper c l a s s e s needed a t t e n t i o n . He found the G i r l s S c h o o l t o be v e r y good and the t e a c h e r s w e l l t r a i n e d . The I n s p e c t o r c r i t i c i s e d t he I n f a n t s S c h o o l f o r h a v i n g t o o many young c h i l d r e n under very young t e a c h e r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , good o r d e r and a t t a i n m e n t were a c h i e v e d . P u p i l t e a c h e r s f o r the N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s i n Guernsey q u a l i f i e d a t B a t t e r s e a C o l l e g e i n London. I n s p i t e o f the g r a n t s from E n g l a n d , the D i r e c t o r o f the N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s , Thomas Brook, who was a l s o R e c t o r o f S t . John's Church i n S t . P e t e r P o r t , asked t h e S t a t e s f o r a g r a n t t o educate the poor i n the N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s . A g r a n t o f £40 was made on c o n d i t i o n t h a t the c h i l d r e n were t a u g h t F r e n c h . I t i s from t h i s t i m e t h a t concern o v e r F r e n c h i n t h e s c h o o l s i s r e c o r d e d . P u b l i c e x a m i n a t i o n s were i n E n g l i s h , and i n 1866 i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t F r e n c h , the o f f i c i a l language o f t h e I s l a n d , was b e i n g r e l e g a t e d t o second p l a c e . I n an attempt t o r e c t i f y t h i s , t h e r e were Fr e n c h e x a m i n a t i o n s and p r i z e s f o r F r e n c h . 22 The e r o s i o n o f F r e n c h as " l a langue du pays" had begun. Over the y e a r s , t h e i m p o r t a t i o n o f E n g l i s h c l e r g y and E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s , as w e l l as a growing a l i g n m e n t w i t h , b u t n e v e r dependency on, E n g l a n d , had a d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t on the use o f F r e n c h i n Guernsey. The i n a d e q u a t e t e a c h i n g o f F r e n c h i n the s c h o o l s c o n t r i b u t e d v e r y l a r g e l y t o the d e c l i n e o f the F r e n c h language i n the B a i l i w i c k . 23 b) L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e , R e - o r g a n i s a t i o n and t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s To t k i s date t h e r e was no s c h o o l f o r g i r l s w h i c h c o r r e s -ponded t o the p r o v i s i o n made f o r boys a t E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e . However, t h e Guernsey L a d i e s ' E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n h e l d c l a s s e s a t C l i f t o n H a l l f o r the h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n o f women d u r i n g the 1860's. I n t e r e s t i n e d u c a t i o n f o r g i r l s grew i n Guernsey, even as i t had a l r e a d y done over the p r e v i o u s twenty y e a r s i n E n g l a n d , and on September 6, 1872, a p r o -v i s i o n a l m e e t i n g was h e l d t o d i s c u s s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a 22 s c h o o l f o r g i r l s w h i c h would be s i m i l a r t o E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e . Two hundred s h a r e s o f f i v e each were s t r u c k and L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e was opened i n 1872 a t C o l l e g e V i l l a i n the Grange. To b e g i n w i t h t h e r e were t e a c h e r s and t w e l v e s t u d e n t s s p r e a d among t h r e e c l a s s e s £ The f i r s t P r i n c i p a l was M i s s Susan Eaton who was from the s t a f f o f Cheltenham L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e . She had worked under M i s s B e a l s , prominent i n e d u c a t i o n i n E n g l a n d . When r e g i s t r a t i o n i n c r e a s e d , the s c h o o l moved t o " D e t r o i t " on t h e Grange. Such e d u c a t i o n o f g i r l s was an e x p e r i m e n t i n Guernsey and the s u p p o r t i t ' needed was g a i n e d when Mr. A. C o l l i n g s gave $500. i n U.S. Bonds, i n 1874, f o r f o u r a n n u a l p r i z e s i n Maths and E n g l i s h . Under F r a l i l e i n Hansknecht, a k i n d e r g a r t e n was opened i n 1883. From 1900, a p l a y i n g f i e l d was r e n t e d f o r hockey. T h i s began a l o n g and proud t r a d i t i o n i n the s p o r t s l i f e o f the s c h o l a r s a t L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e . In t he f i r s t y e a r o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , p r i z e s were awarded f o r F r e n c h , D i v i n i t y , Geography, G y m n a s t i c s , L a t i n and V o l u n t a r y Work. There was a c l a s s hockey p r i z e and a cup 23 f o r swimming. A l i b r a r y , l a b o r a t o r y and a dark room were added t o the s c h o o l . There were 132 g i r l s on the r o l l . The Governor who a t t e n d e d the L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e p r i z e g i v i n g i n October o f 1904, seems t o have h e l d i d e a s on the aims o f the e d u c a t i o n o f g i r l s w h i c h were a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h o s e o f the He a d m i s t r e s s . On t h a t o c c a s i o n he s a i d , " . . . t h e duty o f a l a d y i s t o make a happy home and language s t u d y does n o t a c h i e v e 24 t h i s b u t good c o o k i n g does". W i s h i n g f o r m o d e r a t i o n i n t h e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n programme, the Governor d e p l o r e d t h e l a c k o f t a p e s t r y work and hoop. On p r e s e n t i n g h e r r e p o r t t o t h e assembly, the H e a d m i s t r e s s d e p l o r e d t h a t t h e r e was n o t one 24 u n i v e r s i t y s c h o l a r s h i p a v a i l a b l e f o r g i r l s . Throughout th e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , e d u c a t i o n i n t h e I s l a n d had s t r o n g attachments t o the Church o f E n g l a n d and t h e P a r i s h Sunday S c h o o l s were a p o w e r f u l f o r c e . The e x t e n t o f t h e a t t e n d a n c e i n t h e s e Sunday S c h o o l s may be g a t h e r e d from Appendix F. I n May 1870, the Sunday S c h o o l o f t h e Town Church numbered 600 c h i l d r e n from e i g h t e e n months o f age 25 and up. The M e t h o d i s t s i n t h e I s l a n d o b j e c t e d t o the A n g l i c a n b i a s i n the P a r i s h S c h o o l s , b u t the Roman Churches r a n t h e i r own c h u r c h s c h o o l s . They r e c e i v e d some s m a l l s u b s i d i e s from the S t a t e s . The Roman church had r e t u r n e d t o Guernsey w i t h t h e a r r i v a l o f numbers o f C a t h o l i c s a f t e r the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n o f 1789. The Channel I s l a n d s became a r e f u g e f o r F r e n c h R o y a l i s t s . I n 1872 i t was agreed t h a t V o l u n t a r y s c h o o l s s h o u l d be c o n v e r t e d i n t o P a r i s h s c h o o l s . The C a t h o l i c s c h o o l s c o u l d a c c e p t V o l u n t a r y s c h o o l s t a t u s i f they so w i s h e d . W i t h t h i s agreement t h e r e was a c o s t s h a r i n g a g r e e -ment between th e S t a t e s and the s c h o o l Managers. Guernsey d i d n o t comply w i t h the E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n A c t o f 1870 under w h i c h the s c h o o l s would r e c e i v e g r a n t s f o r compulsory t a x . There was no I m p e r i a l t a x i n the I s l a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , no B r i t i s h g r a n t c o u l d be a c c e p t e d . B r i t a i n o f f e r e d t o p u t Guernsey s c h o o l s on t h e same f o o t i n g as t h o s e i n the I s l e o f Man. Having d e c i d e d a g a i n s t t h i s , the S t a t e s s e t about r e - o r g a n i s i n g the e d u c a t i o n i n the I s l a n d . Thus began a p e r i o d o f p r o g r e s s and e x p a n s i o n . The N a t i o n a l and B r i t i s h and F o r e i g n S c h o o l s were p u t under a Committee f o r P a r o c h i a l E d u c a t i o n . Funds came from the S t a t e s and from a t a x o f £67 p e r y e a r l e v i e d on the r a t e p a y e r s i n S t . P e t e r P o r t . T h i s b r o u g h t t h e s e s c h o o l s the s t a t u s o f p a r i s h s c h o o l s . By 1897, £2,800 was h e l d i n t o t a l endowment, and p r o p o s a l s were made t o o b t a i n s i t e s f o r new p r i m a r y s c h o o l s . E a r l i e r , the S t a t e s had s u g g e s t e d t h e r e be an I n t e r m e d i a t e 25 S c h o o l f o r boys and g i r l s e s t a b l i s h e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e . T h i s would have needed changes i n the C o l l e g e S t a t u t e s so the C o l l e g e D i r e c t o r s opposed i t . As a r e s u l t , the I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s Committee o f t e n was formed, i n 1882. They were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f o u n d i n g o f the I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l f o r Boys i n 1883. I n o r d e r t o a v o i d a r e d u c t i o n o f numbers i n t h e C o l l e g e because o f the e x i s t e n c e o f the I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l , the S t a t e s agreed t h a t , s h o u l d t h e C o l l e g e have l e s s t h a n 150 s t u d e n t s , then the S t a t e s would g r a n t t e n f r e e s c h o l a r s h i p s t o the Upper S c h o o l o f the C o l l e g e from the I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l . E l e v e n y e a r s l a t e r , t he I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l f o r g i r l s was e s t a b l i s h e d . M i s s F o s t e r remained the H e a d m i s t r e s s f o r t h i r t y y e a r s . Two s c h o l a r s h i p s f o r b o y s , t e n a b l e f o r two y e a r s a t the I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l , were g i v e n i n 1885, by Messrs. G u i l l e and A l l e s , I s l a n d P h i l a n t h r o p i s t s . These s c h o l a r s h i p s were g a i n e d t h r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n , were v a l u e d a t £5 each p e r annum, and were open t o boys a t t e n d i n g P r i m a r y s c h o o l s i n e i t h e r t h e town o r t h e c o u n t r y . The Guernsey S c h o o l o f S c i e n c e and A r t opened i t ' s doors i n 1886. These c l a s s e s were h e l d on t h r e e days a week from 10 A.M. t o 1 P.M. and i n the e v e n i n g , from 7 t o 9 P.M., c a r p e n t r y c a r v i n g and c a b i n e t making were t a u g h t . M e c h a n i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g was on two n i g h t each week. Co s t s were t e n s h i l l i n g s p e r term. T h i s s c h o o l h e l d an e x a m i n a t i o n w i t h t h e South K e n s i n g t o n S c h o o l i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e C i t y and G u i l d s o f London e x a m i n a t i o n s . T h i s appeared t o be the b e g i n n i n g s o f t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n Guernsey. However, the S c h o o l o f S c i e n c e and A r t f a i l e d t o d e v e l o p t h e t e c h n i c a l s i d e o f the c u r r i c u l u m . T e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n was e v e n t u a l l y de-v e l o p e d t h r o u g h e v e n i n g c l a s s e s begun a t the I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l f o r boys i n 1922. 26 c) D i s s e n t i o n , the 189 3 Law and t h e Move Toward  Compulsory E d u c a t i o n -By 1890, the I s l a n d seemed t o be l a u n c h e d upon a p r o -g r e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n a l programme, b u t i n June o f 1891, the S t . P e t e r P o r t r a t e p a y e r s w i t h d r e w t h e i r s u p p o r t o f the p a r i s h s c h o o l s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e p e o p l e d i d n o t have t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t the P a r i s h s c h o o l s and were l o a t h e t o s u p p o r t the p u b l i c s c h o o l s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g t a x e s . To p r e v e n t the s c h o o l from c l o s i n g , because o f l a c k o f money, the S t a t e s v o t e d a sum o f £1,000 f o r the s c h o o l i n December o f 1891. A f t e r c o n f e r r i n g w i t h the S t a t e s Committee, t h e r a t e p a y e r s d e c i d e d t o c o n t i n u e w i t h the agreement o f 1872, u n t i l December o f 1892. A t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t i m e , came the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t e d u c a t i o n i n t h e I s l a n d s h o u l d be made compulsory. When a d d i t i o n a l money, amounting t o £250 p e r q u a r t e r was r e q u e s t e d from the P a r i s h f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e p o o r , i n 189 3, the money was r e f u s e d and the s c h o o l s i n S t . P e t e r P o r t had t o c l o s e . A Proje.tf. de L o i , . i n May 1893, c o m p e l l e d the P a r i s h e s t o m a i n t a i n P r i m a r y E d u c a t i o n , and f o r s i x months, the S t a t e s p a i d a l l the c o s t s o f the s c h o o l s i n o r d e r t h a t they might s t a y open. I n August o f t h a t y e a r , the Town r a t e p a y e r s d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e S t a t e s t h a t t h e P r o j e c t de L o i o f May s h o u l d become law. R e g a r d l e s s o f t h i s , t he P r o j e c t was r a t i f i e d by R o y a l A s s e n t and i t became law. T h i s law o f 189 3 made i t mandatory f o r t h e p a r i s h e s t o p r o v i d e P r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n f o r boys, g i r l s and i n f a n t s . The S t a t e s c o u l d determine the number o f s c h o o l s n e c e s s a r y i n . t h e p a r i s h . The s c h o o l s were t o be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e S t a t e s Committee f o r P a r o c h i a l E d u c a t i o n and o f the P a r i s h Committee. Expenses o f b u i l d i n g s and f u r n i s h i n g s were t o be s h a r e d e q u a l l y . S c h o o l pence might n o t exceed 2d p e r week w i t h o u t the consent o f the S t a t e s Committee. R e l i g i o u s I n -s t r u c t i o n i n the P a r i s h s c h o o l s was t o conform t o the d o c t r i n e o f the Church o f En g l a n d and be under the d i r e c t i o n o f a M i n i s t e r o f t h a t c h u r c h . The law s t a t e d t h a t the B r i t i s h and F o r e i g n S c h o o l s and o t h e r V o l u n t a r y s c h o o l s , might t e a c h r e l i g i o n t o conform w i t h t h a t d o c t r i n e e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e i r 27 s o c i e t y . I n s t r u c t i o n i n the s c h o o l s was t o c o v e r r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n , E n g l i s h and F r e n c h , A r i t h m e t i c , Geography, H i s t o r y , W r i t i n g , Drawing, S i n g i n g and Needlework f o r t h e g i r l s . Any s c h o o l which e l e c t e d t o become a V o l u n t a r y s c h o o l would be s u b j e c t t o the same c o n d i t i o n s as t h e P a r i s h s c h o o l s . The P a r i s h o r V o l u n t a r y S c h o o l Committees were t o p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l s n e c e s s a r y f o r i n s t r u c t i o n and c o u l d a p p o i n t and d i s m i s s t e a c h e r s . Each p a r i s h was t o r e a c h agreement w i t h the S t a t e s Committee, on the s a l a r i e s p a i d t o t h e i r t e a c h e r s . The f u r t h e r d e t a i l s o f the 189 3 E d u c a t i o n Law are s u p p l i e d i n a copy o f the law i n Appendix G. T h i s formed th e s u b s t a n c e o f the e d u c a t i o n law w h i c h f o l l o w e d i n 1903, and t h e b a s i s i t p r o v i d e d f o r e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n i n t h e I s l a n d was s t i l l v i s i b l e i n a subsequent law o f 1935. U n t i l t h i s t i m e , most t e a c h e r s were u n q u a l i f i e d , and those who were t r a i n e d were e x p e n s i v e . To p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s f o r t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s t h e r e was p u p i l t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g a t t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l t r a i n i n g c e n t r e a t B a t t e r s e a i n London, b u t no such system e x i s t e d f o r young p e o p l e t o become p u p i l t e a c h e r s i n the Guernsey p a r i s h s c h o o l s . T h e r e f o r e t h e f i r s t p u p i l t e a c h e r c e n t r e i n Guernsey was s e t up under the g u i d a n c e o f M i s s W a g s t a f f , i n 189 8. The c o u r s e a t the p u p i l t e a c h e r c e n t r e f o l l o w e d t h a t o f the E n g l i s h s y l l a b u s . A f t e r com-p l e t i o n , the p u p i l t e a c h e r s were t e c h n i c a l l y , q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s . A new p u p i l t e a c h e r c e n t r e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1902. I t ' s o r g a n i s a t i o n and the p a r t i t p l a y e d i n I s l a n d e d u c a t i o n , i s r e c o u n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n o f t h i s p a per. D e s p i t e t h e e f f o r t s o f the S t a t e s Committee t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n f o r the c h i l d r e n , the law o f 1893 d i d n o t f u l l y meet the demands o f many p e o p l e . A l e t t e r t o t h e e d i t o r , p u b l i s h e d i n the Guernsey News i n A p r i l o f 1893, w h i c h was f i v e months b e f o r e the e d u c a t i o n law came i n t o f o r c e , demanded t h a t e d u c a t i o n be made compulsory. The w r i t e r , "Chef de l a F a m i l l e " , n o t e d t h a t ' a l t h o u g h compulsory e d u c a t i o n would p r o -b a b l y be u n p o p u l a r because o f the i n c r e a s e d e x p e n d i t u r e o f 28 p u b l i c money, he f e l t i t would ensure t h a t c h i l d r e n d i d n o t grow up " i g n o r a n t o f r e l i g i o u s and s e c u l a r t r u t h s " . The w r i t e r o f an o t h e r l e t t e r t o t h e e d i t o r , b u t w r i t t e n i n August 1897, s a i d t h a t he was f o r compulsory e d u c a t i o n b u t "not t o the same degree as i n E n g l a n d and J e r s e y " . A l t h o u g h s c h o o l s were now a v a i l a b l e t o the c h i l d r e n , many d i d n o t a t t e n d . Some o f them worked and some l o o k e d a f t e r younger b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s w h i l s t the p a r e n t s e a r n e d much needed pence. There were a l s o numbers o f young p e o p l e a i m l e s s l y w andering t h e s t r e e t s and l a n e s . As t h e work o f a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n and c o n t r o l o f e d u c a t i o n i n c r e a s e d , i t was found n e c e s s a r y t o a p p o i n t a S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s . I n 189 8, Mr. J . Mundy was a p p o i n t e d t o t h a t o f f i c e . He was no s t r a n g e r t o e d u c a t i o n f o r he had p r e v i o u s l y been o r g a n i s i n g I n s p e c t o r f o r t he D i o c e s e o f W i n c h e s t e r . The problems w h i c h he had t o f a c e and the work he a c c o m p l i s h e d i n h i s f i r s t y e a r o f appointment a re b e s t t o l d i n h i s own words. These form t h e f i r s t r e p o r t on Guernsey P u b l i c P r i m a r y S c h o o l s and are r e p r o d u c e d t o form Appendix H. R e a l i s i n g t h a t a l l the c h i l d r e n were n o t b e n e f i t t i n g from the e d u c a t i o n i n t h e P a r i s h S c h o o l s the S t a t e s Committee f o r P a r o c h i a l E d u c a t i o n b r o u g h t i n the law o f 1900. Le L o i r e l a t i v e a I 1 e d u c a t i o n P r i m a i r e O b l i g a t o i r e 19 00 made compulsory e d u c a t i o n law i n Guernsey. 1900 was t h e s t a r t o f a new c e n t u r y . The y e a r s ahead were t o p r o ve e v e n t f u l i n t h e development o f Guernsey e d u c a t i o n . I t was a p r o g r e s s i o n t h a t g a t h e r e d momentum as ti m e p a s s e d . 29 NOTES PART I I 1. C o l . Wooten, L i h o u I s l a n d . (1964) 2. T. D i c e y , An H i s t o r i c a l Account o f Guernsey. (1751) p. 30 3. V. Carey, Guernsey C u t t i n g s from the. C u r t i s C o l l e c t i o n . (undated) 4. P . J . G i r a r d , The G i r a r d D i a r y . Paper r e a d t o S o c i e t e G u e r n a i s i a i s e . ' (19.75) JS'Ai 5. The Guernsey P r e s s . (190 7) Anon, r e p o r t . 6. I n 1800, 24 f r a n c s = E l = 1 4 l i v r e s t o u r n o i s . 7. M. de G a r i s , The P a r i s h o f S t . P i e r r e du B o i s . S o c i e t e G u e r n a i s i a i s e . V o l . XIV (1946 - 49) 8. I b i d . 9. I . Duncan, The H i s t o r y o f Guernsey. (1814) p. 33 10. P. Le M a i s t r e , H i s t o r i c a l Mss. and E x t r a c t s from C h r o n i c l e s and S t a t e s DocumentiT (1912) 11. V.G. C o l l e n e t t e , E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e . (1563 - 1963) p. 3 12. P.. i 'lie M a i s t r e op. c i t . 13. G.E. Lee, A c t e s des E t a t s de L ' l l e de Guernsey 1651 -1750. V o l . I I p. 99 14. I b i d . p. 75 15. W. B e r r y , The H i s t o r y o f t h e I s l a n d o f Guernsey. (1815) p. 158 16. T. D i c e y o p . c i t . p. 177 17. I b i d p. 404 18. G u e r i n Almanac A d v e r t i s e m e n t , 1820 19. O ther masters were engaged as n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f F r e n c h , Maths, A r c h i t e c t u r e , W r i t i n g and A r i t h m e t i c . The l a s t two s u b j e c t s were t a u g h t i n t h e Lower s c h o o l o n l y . A l l c l a s s e s d i d L a t i n and Greek. A l s o i n the c u r r i c u l u m were: E n g l i s h C l a s s i c s , s c r i p t u r a l and g e n e r a l H i s t o r y , R h e t o r i c , E l o c u t i o n and B e l l e s L e t t r e s . Lessons were from 8:45 A.M. t o 3:15 P.M. on s i x days p e r week. 20. S t a t u t e s o f December 28, 1852 a t C o u r t a t Windsor. 21. Rev. M. G a l l i e n n e , S c h o o l d a y s - R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f Rev. M. G a l T l e n n e . (1901) 22. L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e Magazine 1905 23. I b i d . 24. I b i d . 25. I b i d . 30 PART ITT 1900 - 1939 i ) P r i m a r y E d u c a t i o n The enforcement o f compulsory e d u c a t i o n i n 1900 b r o u g h t a l a r g e i n f l u x o f a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d r e n i n t o the I s l a n d ' s s c h o o l s . As many as 1,20 0 were added t o the d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e count f o r the Island*'" f o r c i n g P a r i s h e s t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l accommo-d a t i o n . Many t e a c h e r s were u n q u a l i f i e d and/or i n e f f i c i e n t , so t h a t i n 1901 t h e C a p i t a t i o n A l l o w a n c e was r e f u s e d t o e i g h t out o f f o r t y - t h r e e s c h o o l s . The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f A t t e n d a n c e O f f i c e r s p r e s e n t e d h i s f i r s t r e p o r t i n November 1901. I n i t he s t a t e d t h a t the weekly a t t e n d a n c e f i g u r e s had r i s e n o v e r t h e p a s t months, from 75% - 90% o f f u l l a t t e n d a n c e . N e v e r t h e -l e s s , t w e n t y - e i g h t p a r e n t s had been p r o s e c u t e d f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s non>- a t t e n d a n c e a t s c h o o l , between J u l y and November o f 1901. The f i n e s imposed ranged from two ^ s h i l l i n g s and s i x pence t o t e n a s ' h i l l i n g s . The f i r s t : ^ i n s p e c t o r o f Guernsey s c h o o l s by one o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s I n s p e c t o r s was made by H.M. C h i e f I n s p e c t o r o f S c h o o l s , Mr. E.M. Kenney H e r b e r t i n t h e autumn o f 1902. He found p l e n t y t o c r i t i c i s e , f o r t h e s c h o o l s were p o o r l y l i g h t e d , b a d l y v e n t i l a t e d and were p r o v i d e d w i t h g r o s s l y i n a d e q u a t e washroom f a c i l i t i e s . The Inspector,; made note o f the f a c t t h a t i t was i m p o r t a n t t o g i v e c h i l d r e n a good f i r s t i m p r e s s -i o n o f s c h o o l l i f e i n t h e I n f a n t S c h o o l , m e n t i o n i n g the I n f a n t s i n t h e Town as b e i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r l y p oor c o n d i t i o n s . He su g g e s t e d t h e S t a t e s b e a r i n mind t h e s t i m u l a t i n g environment o f Edward T h r i n g ' s Uppingham S c h o o l i n Engla n d . Lack o f con-t i n u i t y and u n i f o r m i t y o f p o l i c y among the P a r i s h Committees c o u l d o n l y be d i s a d v a n t a g e o u s t o I s l a n d e d u c a t i o n . There were no u n i f o r m s a l a r i e s , and many o f the t e a c h e r s were v e r y young p u p i l t e a c h e r s . S t a f f i n g the s c h o o l s w i t h q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s was d i f f i c u l t because t e a c h e r s coming from E n g l a n d gave up 2 s u p e r a n n u a t i o n r i g h t s when th e y went t o Guernsey. The low s a l a r i e s p l u s t h e C a p i t a t i o n g r a n t , dependent on an a n n u a l e x a m i n a t i o n , d i d n o t prove a t t r a c t i v e . The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s r e p o r t f o r 190 3 quotes a n n u a l s a l a r i e s , i n E n g l i s h c u r r e n c y , 31 f o r t e a c h e r s h o l d i n g f u l l E n g l i s h c e r t i f i c a t i o n . Guernsey England Men £l28/17/2d. E l 3 4 / 9 / 9 d . Women £ 8 6 / l l / 1 0 d , £ 93/10/4d. T u r n i n g t o c u r r i c u l u m i n t h e s c h o o l s , r e a d i n g was c h o r u s s e d , w h i l e l o n g sums i n a r i t h m e t i c were t a u g h t t o a code r a t h e r t h a n w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g . F r e n c h and E n g l i s h were t a u g h t i n the s c h o o l s , b u t i n t h e c o u n t r y p a r i s h e s , c h i l d r e n from p a t o i s s p e a k i n g homes were a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e knowing n e i t h e r F r e n c h nor E n g l i s h . P a t o i s was never made use o f i n t h e s c h o o l s . A t t h i s t i m e , 1902, P r i m a r y s c h o o l s were under th e c o n t r o l o f t h e S t a t e s P a r i s h Committee and each s c h o o l was the r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y o f a P a r i s h Committee o r Body of T r u s t e e s . The I n t e r -mediate S c h o o l s each had a s e p a r a t e committee as d i d t h e S c i e n c e and A r t S c h o o l . Both the L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e and E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e had t h e i r own Board o f G o v e r n o r s . Each Committee o r Board was independent of the o t h e r s and w i t h o u t r e l a t i o n the one t o t h e o t h e r . V a u v e r t Boys' S c h o o l i n S t . P e t e r P o r t had 150 boys i n t h r e e groups i n one room. N i n e t y c h i l d r e n were housed w i t h a m o n i t o r and a p r o v i s i o n a l a s s i s t a n t , w h i l e i n a room meant t o accommodate f i f t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n , t h e r e were n i n e t y - f o u r p u p i l s . They used desks i n t e n d e d t o s e a t t w e n t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n . I n 4 V a u v e r t t h e r e were t h r e e washrooms f o r 200 g i r l s and x n f a n t s . Hautes C a p e l l e s S c h o o l , i n the n o r t h o f t h e I s l a n d , had n i n e t y i n f a n t s w i t h two m o n i t r e s s e s , w h i l s t the M i s t r e s s t a u g h t s i x t y i n an a d j o i n i n g room. However a new E d u c a t i o n Law was r e g i s t e r e d . 5 i n March 190 3. T h i s was a S t a t e s Order i n C o u n c i l e n t i t l e d P u b l i c P r i m a r y E d u c a t i o n . I t r e p e a l e d the law o f 1893. C o n s i s t i n g o f s i x s e c t i o n s and t h i r t y - s i x s u b s e c t i o n s , (as o u t l i n e d i n Appendix I ) , t h i s new law l a i d down t h a t each p a r i s h was t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a b a s i c e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n f o r e v e r y c h i l d i n the p a r i s h who was under t h i r t e e n , t h e s c h o o l l e a v i n g age. The S t a t e s Committee o f P a r o c h i a l E d u c a t i o n was t o c o n s i s t o f t e n members: w h i l e each P a r i s h Committee was t o have f i v e members, e x c e p t S t . P e t e r P o r t w h i c h had n i n e . S c h o o l expenses were t o be s h a r e d 32 e q u a l l y by the S t a t e s and the p a r i s h , b u t the c h i l d r e n ' s S c h o o l Pence (which might n o t exceed twopence), p l u s the endowment fund o f the s c h o o l , might make up the p a r i s h p o r t i o n o f " O r d i n a r y Expenses of the S c h o o l " . These expenses e x c l u d e d t h e b u i l d i n g and f u r n i s h i n g o f a d d i t i o n s t o and enlargements o f e x i s t i n g s c h o o l s . S u b s e c t i o n 20 o f the Order s t a t e s t h a t the P a r i s h E d u c a t i o n Committees must p r o v i d e the f u r n i s h i n g , h e a t i n g , l i g h t i n g and c l e a n i n g o f t h e i r s c h o o l s . They were a l s o t o s u p p l y books, maps and o t h e r equipment n e c e s s a r y f o r i n -s t r u c t i o n . The s u b j e c t s w h i c h were t o be t a u g h t remained as i n the Law o f 189 3, b u t a n o t e a b l e d e p a r t u r e was t h a t any r e l i g i o n t a u g h t i n the s c h o o l s was t o " be u n d e n o m i n a t i o n a l i n c h a r a c t e r . C h i l d r e n might be withdrawn from R e l i g i o u s I n s t r u c t i o n i f t h i s were the w i s h o f the p a r e n t s . The S t a t e s Committee had t o be c o n s u l t e d i f new s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s were t o be e r e c t e d i n the 7 p a r i s h . C a p i t a t i o n was a b o l i s h e d . A l t h o u g h the law o f 190 3 b r o u g h t about some measure o f c e n t r a l c o n t r o l , each p a r i s h r e t a i n e d much freedom i n the manner i n w h i c h the s c h o o l s were r u n . However the S t a t e s Committe c o u l d i n s p e c t the s c h o o l s and a g e n e r a l i n s p e c t i o n was t o be c a r r i e d out e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s by S p e c i a l I n s p e c t o r s , s t r a n g e r s o t o the S c h o o l s . The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f P r i m a r y S c h o o l s was Mr. J . Munday, who had been a p p o i n t e d i n 189 8. He was S t a t e s I n s p e c t o r and S e c r e t a r y t o the S t a t e s Committee. H i s d u t i e s were v a r i o u s and t h e r e p o r t f o r 1900 (Appendix J ) , g i v e s d e t a i l s o f h i s work. E n g l i s h was g a i n i n g i n p o p u l a r i t y among young p e o p l e i n the c o u n t r y p a r i s h e s , and the S t a t e s Committee p a i d s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o the t e a c h i n g o f F r e n c h . T h i s was o n l y the b e g i n n i n g o f a p e r e n n i a l problem. In 1905, s i x t e e n Bourses were o f f e r e d by the S t a t e s f o r the I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s . E i g h t y - f o u r c a n d i d a t e s a t t e m p t e d the e x a m i n a t i o n . A v i s i t i n g i n s p e c t o r n o t e d t h e improvements, such as d u a l d e s k s , made by 1905. N e v e r t h e l e s s , l i g h t i n g , v e n t i l a t i o n and p r o v i s i o n o f washrooms remained i n a d e q u a t e i n the m a j o r i t y o f s c h o o l s . T h i s H.M.I, s a i d t h a t the d e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n caused o v e r l a p p i n g o f the work. The t e a c h i n g o f r e l i g i o n however, d i d have cne S y l l a b u s o f Work a t the b e g i n n i n g 33 of 1905, to provide some uniformity i n scripture teaching. Improvements which had been made, had raised the costs of schooling i n Guernsey. Even so, they were s t i l l below those i n England and by 1907, the annual cost for educating a c h i l d i n Primary School was £2/12/6d. This compared with £5/15/6d. per c h i l d i n 9 London, and i n the rest of England and Wales, £3/9/3/d. When he returned to Guernsey i n 190 8, H.M.I. Kenney-Herbert rioted the speedy and phenomenal change i n the premises and equipment i n the schools, just s i x years a f t e r his f i r s t v i s i t . But i n s t r u c t i o n he said, was old fashioned, and slave to the examination system. A year l a t e r , the annual examination disappeared. Scholarship examinations were held for Bourses tenable at the Intermediate Schools. The preliminary examination was open to a l l students. As i n the case of i t ' s more recent counterpart, there was no pre-selection by the teachers. The students who did best on the f i r s t examination were e l i g i b l e for the f i n a l t e s t , just thirteen were awarded scholarships. ^  Believing that some re-organisation would prevent overlapping of administration, and possibly reduce the cost of education, the States appointed a committee to investigate the Island system of public education i n d i f f e r e n t grades, i n 1910. I t was the findings of t h i s committee which brought about the law of 1916. Through t h i s law, the Education Council was constituted. The Council was made up of the Intermediate Schools Committees and the States Primary Schools Committee, and was empowered to administer a l l the Public Primary Schools i n the Island, the Intermediate Schools and the Technical and Art Schools. The Council was to have f i f t e e n members, a l l appointed by the States. Of these, at least s i x had to be from the parish of St. Peter Port and a si m i l a r number from the country parishes. The Council could arrange for the inspection of Education and Buildings i n a l l educational i n s t i t u t i o n s and private schools. Should any. private school f a i l to provide a standard of education or premises not at least equal to that i n the public schools, the Council would be able to close the school. Medical inspection and the education of defective children were o f f i c i a l l y referred to for the f i r s t time i n th i s Order i n Council. 34 This Ordres.'en Conseil was brought i n i n the middle of the f i r s t World War, when schools were already suffering from a shortage of s t a f f . Reading was the weakest feature i n the schools, there being poor provision of reading books. This complaint of an H.M.I, i n 1905, plus an urging to raise the school leaving age i n order to be i n l i n e with England, was to be echoed on several occasions i n the years ahead. Because of lack of man-power at home and on the farms, the war years saw a relaxation of the law on attendance. More dispenses which allowed children to leave school p r i o r to the school leaving age, were granted. In 1915, there were twenty-three Primary schools i n Guernsey with f o r t y - s i x departments. Figures for 1913 reveal the schools enrolled 5,529 children, which was 90.4% 12 attendance. Exceptions from schooling came after the age of eleven and standard 3. A c h i l d could be absent for part of two days each week i f employed. In 1916, seventy-eight children of the ages of twelve and thirteen were granted either t o t a l or p a r t i a l dispenses. Some provision was made for the poor. There was a Boot Fund, free medical treatment was given and there were cheap winter meals provided for the necessitous. The Castel Parish Committee i s reported as having voted £10 for the year to provide school dinners. In St. Martin's, ninety-five school children applied for cheap dinners and 13 eighty were found to be i n need. Despite concern over the war, changes continued to be made i n the Island system of education. One such change was the appointment of the f i r s t Secretary to the Education Council. Mr. J . David was appointed on a part-time basis. The Chief Clerk was a Mr. Gavey. U n t i l 1917, each parish had had i t s own schaie of sal a r i e s for teachers and as a r e s u l t the country parishes had fewer q u a l i f i e d teachers. Therefore the adoption of the Guernsey salary scale of 1917, equalized the sa l a r i e s for town and country posts. This coincided with the Fisher Act i n England when there was a revisio n of teachers' salary scales because of i n f l a t i o n . The Board of Education i n London recognised Guernsey teachers, and a further salary scale for 35 G u e r n s e y was a d o p t e d i n 1919. The T e a c h e r s ' S u p e r a n n u a t i o n A c t f o r E n g l a n d and W a l e s was p a s s e d by A c t o f P a r l i a m e n t i n 1918. T h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s became l a w f r o m A p r i l 1, 1919 i n G u e r n s e y , t h e P r o j e t de L o i b e i n g r a t i f i e d b y O r d r e e n C o n s e i l i n J u l y o f 1920. When t h e Burnham s a l a r y s c a l e was i n s t i t u t e d i n E n g l a d and W a l e s , G u e r n s e y a d o p t e d t h i s s c a l e a n d , i n 1925, a w a r d e d t h e Burnham S c a l e s I I ( p r i m a r y ) and I I I t o t e a c h e r s i n t h e I s l a n d . R e f e r r i n g t o t h e w o r k i n t h e P r i m a r y s c h o o l s , i n s p e c t o r s r e g a r d e d t h e t e a c h i n g o f F r e n c h as b e i n g u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . I n t h e r e p o r t o f 1919, t h e I n s p e c t o r w o n d e r e d i f t h e r e s u l t s j u s t i f i e d t h e f i v e h o u r s p e r week s p e n t d o i n g F r e n c h . He a l s o f e l t t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be o n l y two p a r i s h s c h o o l s i n S t . P e t e r P o r t i n s t e a d o f t h r e e , w i t h some d i v i s i o n o f c h i l d r e n a t e l e v e n . M i n d f u l o f t h e I n s p e c t o r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s , i n 1 9 2 1 , The E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l s o u g h t t h e s e r v i c e s o f an A d v i s o r f r o m E n g l a n d , on t h e t e a c h i n g o f F r e n c h . By t h i s t i m e P r i m a r y s c h o o l s w e r e g e n e r a l l y more s a t i s f a c t o r a r i l y h o u s e d , and w i t h Burnham s a l a r y s c a l e and s u p e r a n n u a t i o n o p e r a t i n g i n t h e I s l a n d , G u e r n s e y now h a d no w o r r y o v e r s t a f f i n g t h e s c h o o l s . S m a l l i n f a n t s c h o o l s s t i l l h a d many u n c e r t i f i c a t e d , s u p p l e m e n t a r y and p u p i l t e a c h e r s . H o wever, i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e t e a c h i n g o f F r e n c h was c a u s i n g f u r t h e r w o r r y f o r , a t a t e a c h e r s ' c o n f e r e n c e h e l d i n O c t o b e r o f 1 9 2 1 , t h i s l a n g u a g e p r o b l e m was d i s c u s s e d v e r y f u l l y . Time a l l o t t e d t o E n g l i s h was f e l t t o be a t f a u l t . I n t h e c o u n t r y s c h o o l s , f o u r and a h a l f h o u r s p e r week w e r e s p e n t on E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e , w h i l e i n t h e Town s c h o o l s , w h e r e t h e c h i l d r e n came f r o m E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g homes, s i x a n d t h r e e q u a r t e r s t o e l e v e n h o u r s p e r week w e r e s p e n t i n d o i n g E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . The d e a r t h o f r e a d i n g b o o k s was a g a i n m e n t i o n e d . Re-m a r k i n g on t h e l a n g u a g e d i f f i c u l t y f o r t h e p a t o i s - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n , H.M.I. C h e r r i l l s a i d , ...and my o b s e r v a t i o n s c o n v i n c e me t h a t , i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e G u e r n s e y s c h o o l s , t h e c h i l d r e n ' s k n o w l e d g e o f E n g l i s h , e v e n i n t h e u p p e r c l a s s e s , i s s o l i m i t e d t h a t t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o d e r i v e f u l l b e n e f i t f r o m i n s t r u c t i o n g i v e n them. t h r o u g h t h e medium o f t h a t l a n g u a g e . . . 36 The year following t h i s , French was discontinued i n the Infant schools and i n the f i r s t two standards. This resulted i n more time being devoted to English. As a r e s u l t , children who were 11, 12 or 13 when they reached Standard 3, (the f i r s t year for French) had very l i t t l e t u i t i o n i n French before leaving school. Length of such t u i t i o n was from two to f i v e hours per week, the upper classes spending more hours i n French. Periods were of 30 - 40 minutes duration. In 1929, the r e t i r i n g H.M.I., Mr. A. C h e r r i l l , said that he found only two schools i n the Island had r e a l l y taught French successfully. One was an English school, the other was a Guernsey - French school. Mr. C h e r r i l l 1 s f i n a l recorded remarks were: . . . I t i s unthinkable that French should not be taught i n Guernsey Schools, and i t i s intol e r a b l e ^ that i t should be taught so badly... This Inspector's successor suggested that the Inspector-Organiser of French i n Jersey be i n v i t e d to work i n Guernsey for one or two years. Despite e f f o r t s to improve language teaching, French i s reported as being a problem i n 19 31. In 19 32 a Director for French was engaged by the Council. He suggested there should be a c e r t i f i c a t e for the teaching of French, but t h i s proposed Brenet examination was not accepted by the teachers. M. Ceppi remained as Inspector of French for four years and improvement i n French i n the schools i s noted i n his reports to the Education Council. Mr. Parmee, . the H.M.I, who came to Guernsey i n 1938, was also an Inspector of French. He believed that French should not be compulsory for a l l children. Acting upon t h i s , the Council arranged that French was taught i n the Senior Schools and to the top classes of the Junior schools. After having been recommended for a long time by inspectors, the School Leaving age was raised to fourteen, i n 19 23. By law children were to commence school at the age of six. The Council and the Secretary continued to work to bring about reform i n a system they could now control. In 192 4, a l l teaching appointments had to be made j o i n t l y by the Education Council 37 and t h e P a r i s h C o m m i t t e e c o n c e r n e d , t h e S t a t e s b e i n g r e -s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e w h o l e c o s t o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s . Two p a r t - t i m e n u r s e s w e r e a l s o a p p o i n t e d by t h e C o u n c i l i n 1927 and s c h o o l m e d i c a l i n s p e c t i o n was s t a r t e d . One y e a r l a t e r , a f u l l t i m e n u r s e as w e l l as a p a r t - t i m e n u r s e was e m p l o y e d . The I s l a n d M e d i c a l O f f i c e r o f H e a l t h c o n d u c t e d t h e s e s c h o o l m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s . I t was t h e b e g i n n i n g o f an o r g a n i s e d s y s t e m o f m e d i c a l c a r e w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m , s u c h as h a d l o n g b e e n t h e r u l e i n E n g l a n d n a d W a l e s . I t s b e l a t e d a d o p t i o n i n G u e r n s e y i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f how e d u c a t i o n d e v e l o p e d i n G u e r n s e y i n r e l a t i o n t o e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m s i n E n g l a r i d varid-"Wales. A f t e r t h e d e a t h o f Mr. D a v i d , t h e S e c r e t a r y t o t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l , i n 1928, Mr. A.R. W i n t e r f l o o d was a p p o i n t e d as f u l l - t i m e S e c r e t a r y t o t h e C o u n c i l . I t was an a p p o i n t m e n t t h a t was t o l a s t f o r t w e n t y - s i x y e a r s , y e a r s i n w h i c h i m -p r o v e d e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s became more r e a d i l y a b a i l a b l e t o i s l a n d c h i l d r e n . The i n a u g u r a t i o n o f t h e a n n u a l I s l a n d E i s t e d d f o d i n 1922, h a d s t i m u l a t e d t h e A r t s . T h i s h a d r e p e r c u s s i o n s i n t h e s c h o o l s w h i c h b e g a n t o h a v e e n t r i e s i n c h o i r , e l o c u t i o n a n d E n g l i s h w r i t i n g c o m p e t i t i o n s . As y e t , t h e r e was no s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e o l d e r c h i l d r e n who r e m a i n e d i n t h e P r i m a r y s c h o o l s u n t i l t h e y c o u l d l e a v e a t f o u r t e e n . D i s p e n s e s a t t h i r t e e n w e r e s t i l l p e r m i t t e d and i n f a c t , w e r e a d m i s s a b l e u n t i l two y e a r s a f t e r t h e s e c o n d w o r l d w a r . P r i m a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n h a d l i t t l e o r no s c i e n c e o r i s l a n d h i s t o r y i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m . When t h e new H.M.I, a r r i v e d i n 19 30, he s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p r i m a r y s c h o o l s be r e - o r g a n i s e d i n t o S e n i o r and J u n i o r s c h o o l s as s u g g e s t e d i n t h e Hadow R e p o r t , The E d u c a t i o n o f t h e A d o l e s c e n t . Mr. W i l l i a m s p r o p o s e d S e n i o r s c h o o l s a t S t . Sampson's, i n S t . P e t e r P o r t , and one i n t h e s o u t h , w i t h l o c a l J u n i o r " f e e d e r " s c h o o l s . S t . P e t e r P o r t w o u l d , he b e l i e v e d , n e e d a t h r e e o r f o u r y e a r b u i l d i n g programme t o meet s u c h r e - o r g a n i s a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i f any t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n w e r e t o be o f f e r e d . S u c h e d u c a t i o n was l a c k i n g i n G u e r n s e y p u b l i c s c h o o l s a t t h e t i m e o f t h e r e p o r t . T h i s l a t e s t r e p o r t f r o m t h e I n s p e c t o r 38 p r o m p t e d t h e C o u n c i l t o a p p o i n t a s u b - c o m m i t t e e t o c o n s i d e r t h e r e - o r g a n i s a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n i n G u e r n s e y . I n November o f 19 3 1 , t h e C o u n c i l r e c e i v e d t h e C o m m i t t e e ' s p r o p o s a l s . T h e s e p r o p o s a l s , p l u s t h e I n s p e c t o r ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s made d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s , b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e r e v i s i o n o f t h e 190 3 Law. Thus came a b o u t t h e E d u c a t i o n Law o f 19 35 c o n t a i n e d i n t w e n t y s e c t i o n s ( A p p e n d i x K) w i t h 10 7 s u b -s e c t i o n s . W i t h m i n o r amendments, e d u c a t i o n i n G u e r n s e y was g o v e r n e d by t h i s l a w f o r t h r t y - f i v e y e a r s . The C o u n c i l r e t a i n e d i t s f i f t e e n members a n d t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e P a r i s h C o m m i t t e e s r e m a i n e d u n c h a n g e d , b u t t h e p o w e r s o f t h e P a r i s h C o m m i t t e e s w e r e r e d u c e d , f o r t h e S t a t e s now assumed r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y f o r t h e e n t i r e c o s t o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e P u b l i c s c h o o l s . A P a r i s h O c c u p i e r ' s r a t e o f l J s d . i n t h e p o u n d was l e v i e d as p a r i s h c o n t r i b u t i o n t o w a r d e d u c a t i o n . The C o u n c i l a p p o i n -t e d a S c h o o l M e d i c a l O f f i c e r and i m p r o v e d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e o p e r a t e d i n t h e s c h o o l s . U n d e r t h e l a w , c h i l d r e n b e g a n s c h o o l t h e f i r s t d ay o f t h e t e r m i n w h i c h t h e y became f i v e y e a r s o f a g e . A s t u d e n t m i g h t l e a v e s c h o o l a t t h e e n d o f t h e h a l f t e r m i n w h i c h he became f o u r t e e n . The P r i m a r y s c h o o l s f o l l o w e d a c u r r i c u l u m f e a t u r i n g A r i t h m e t i c , E n g l i s h , N e e d l e w o r k , M u s i c , some D o m e s t i c S c i e n c e a n d . a l i t t l e H i s t o r y and G e o g r a p h y . F r e n c h , u n d e r t h e D i r e c t o r o f F r e n c h , was i m p r o v i n g f r o m a p o i n t o f n e a r e x t i n c t i o n . L i t t l e o r no A r t was done i n t h e s c h o o l s , and t h e h e a v y s t r e s s l a i d u pon P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n E n g l a n d , was m i s s i n g i n t h e G u e r n s e y P r i m a r y s c h o o l s . To f o s t e r P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , l e c t u r e s i n t h e s u b j e c t w e r e p r o v i d e d f o r P r i m a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . The u s e o f r a d i o i n t h e s c h o o l s was g a i n i n g f a v o u r , p r o v i d i n g c u r r e n t e v e n t s and w i d e n i n g t h e c h i l d r e n ' s e x p e r i e n c e . When S e n i o r s c h o o l s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e P r i m a r y s c h o o l s c h a n g e d f r o m t h a t o f an a l l - a g e s c h o o l . S t . P e t e r ' s became t h e S e n i o r s c h o o l f o r t h e w e s t e r n p a r i s h e s i n 19 36, w i t h T o r t e v a l , F o r e s t , and S t . S a v i o u r ' s s c h o o l s b e c o m i n g J u n i o r s c h o o l s . I n t h e N o r t h , S t . Sampson's s c h o o l 39 took a l l the s e n i o r s from 19 37, Hautes C a p e l l e s and the V a l e s c h o o l s b e i n g J u n i o r s c h o o l s . Such r e - o r g a n i s a t i o n showed a need f o r u p d a t i n g b u i l d i n g s , f o r t h e r e had been l i t t l e o r no s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h i r t y y e a r s . The I n f a n t s c h o o l a t S t . Sampson's was r e t a i n e d . W i t h a mood o f e x p a n s i o n w i t h i n the s c h o o l system, a sub-committee o f the C o u n c i l was s e t up i n 19 36 t o i n v e s t i g a t e p r o b a b l e f u t u r e c o s t s o f e d u c a t i o n . F o r 1929, o r d i n a r y e x p e n d i t u r e on e d u c a t i o n had been £51,749 and t h i s had r i s e n t o £59,252 by 1935. The committee e s t i m a t e d a c o s t o f £6 3,405 f o r 19 37, and l o o k i n g 16 ahead, £65,000 f o r 1941. I n a d d i t i o n , the committee e n v i s a g e d an expanded P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n programme p l u s t h e n e c e s s a r y p r o v i s i o n o f gym a p p a r e l , as i n En g l a n d . E s t i m a t e s made no a l l o w a n c e f o r any f u t u r e s c h o o l d e n t i s t o r t e a c h e r o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , b u t the p o s s i b i l i t y o f such p r o v i s i o n was v o i c e d by the committee. I f t h e s e e s t i m a t e s appear c o n s e r v a t i v e i n l i g h t o f modern e d u c a t i o n a l b u d g e t s , i t s h o u l d be r e c o g n i s e d t h a t here was an e f f o r t t o l o o k ahead and t o p l a n , i n o r d e r t h a t more u p - t o - d a t e e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s might be p r o v i d e d i n the I s l a n d . The customary t w i c e y e a r l y v i s i t s o f the H.M.I, from E n g l a n d c o n t i n u e d . The recommendations made by Mr. C. Parmee, who came i n 19 38, c o v e r e d the t e a c h i n g o f F r e n c h , s e n i o r e d u c a t i o n and a g e n e r a l u p g r a d i n g o f the c u r r i c u l u m . B e f o r e t h e s e recommendations c o u l d be a c t e d upon, the E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l was f a c e d w i t h a s i t u a t i o n w hich n e i t h e r budget e s t i m a t e s nor the recommendations o f i n s p e c t o r s c o u l d e i t h e r a s s i s t o r r e c t i f y . 40 i i ) S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n A t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , f r e e p u b l i c s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i n g i n G u e r n s e y was c o n f i n e d t o t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h o s e c h i l d r e n who won s c h o l a r s h i p s t o t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s . From t h e f o r e g o i n g a c c o u n t o f P r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n , i t h a d b e e n s e e n t h a t t h i s number was tsery s m a l l . The s t u d e n t s a t t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s w e r e , f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , f e e p a y e r s , and t h e r e f o r e n o t p u b l i c s t u d e n t s , a l t h o u g h t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s d i d n o t h a v e a B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s . The B o y s ' and G i r l s ' I n t e r m e d i a t e s S c h o o l s e a c h h a d i t s ' C o m m i t t e e , w h i c h , l i k e t h e P a r i s h C o m m i t t e e s , was s u b j e c t t o t h e S t a t e s E d u c a t i o n C o m m i t t e e as o u t l i n e d i n t h e 1903 E d u c a t i o n Law. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Law, s i x t e e n s c h o l a r s h i p s m i g h t be a w a r d e d a n n u a l l y t o c h i l d r e n f r o m P r i m a r y s c h o o l s . I n November o f 1 9 0 5 , a s p e c i a l i n s p e c t i o n was made. The r e s u l t i n g r e p o r t t o t h e S t a t e s on t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s , was p r e s e n t e d b y H.M.I., T.W. Danby, a t a t i m e when t h e r e w e r e 122 b o y s and 79 g i r l s i n t h e s c h o o l s a g e d s e v e n t o s i x t e e n . A c c o r d i n g t o Mr. Danby a c o m p r e h e n s i v e c u r r i c u l u m was f o l l o w e d and a h i g h g r a d e o f e l e m e n t a r y w o r k was a t t a i n e d . As w e l l as e l e m e n t a r y s u b j e c t s ; F r e n c h , G e o m e t r y , A l g e b r a , C h e m i s t r y and P h y s i c s w e r e t a u g h t t o t h e b o y s . They c o u l d t a k e E l e c t r i c i t y a n d M a g n e t i s m a n d B o o k - k e e p i n g t o o . J u s t f o u r b o y s w e r e t a k i n g L a t i n , an o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t , a t t h e t i m e o f t h e r e p o r t . Woodwork was o f f e r e d and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , b u t t h e r e was n o m u s i c . I n a l l t h e u p p e r f o r m s , F r e n c h was t h e l a n g u a g e o f i n s t r u c t i o n . I n i n s p e c t i n g t h e s c h o o l , t h e I n s p e c t o r c a l l e d f o r a s e c o n d a r y t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l . As w e l l as t h e u s u a l E n g l i s h s u b j e c t s , t h e g i r l s d i d F r e n c h , B o t a n y , A l g e b r a , G e o m e t r y , D o m e s t i c S c i e n c e , S i n g i n g , D r a w i n g , N e e d l e w o r k and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . T h e r e was no L a t i n a nd O b j e c t l e s s o n s done i n Forms I and I I . T h e r e w e r e few f a c i l i t i e s f o r b o y s o r g i r l s t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n i n t h e i s l a n d p a s t t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l l e v e l . E x c e p t f o r t h e A r t and T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l , t h e r e w e r e no C o n t i n u a t i o n o r T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s . S t a r t e d i n 1890, t h e G u e r n s e y A r t and 41 Technical School had a s t a f f of six plus a P r i n c i p a l , by 1914. They taught art i n the form of carpentry, carving, machine construction, drawing and building construction, metal work and forge. Once moved to smaller premises, the School became an Art School. By 1914, the s t a f f of the Intermediate School for Boys consisted of the Headmaster, four masters, a carpentry i n s t r u c t o r and a d r i l l i n g and shooting i n s t r u c t o r , while the g i r l s ' school had a Head-mistress and f i v e s t a f f members. Three years l a t e r the Guernsey Directory l i s t s the Boys' School as having 18 4 students. There were seven classrooms, and i n 1917, f i v e boys won scholarships to Elizabeth College. The g i r l s had six forms, and i n 1917, the prize l i s t shows awards for Classwork, French, Maths, Drawing, Needlework, English, Cooking, French Conversation, Nature Study, Swimming and Singing. The Boys had prizes for English, French, Homework, Arithmetic, 17 Woodwork, Maths, Shooting and D i v i n i t y . In 1918, an Order i n Council established 24 bourses to the Intermediate Schools. The schools now numbered 19 8 boys and 170 g i r l s . Of these students, some won scholarships to the Ladies' College or to Elizabeth College. In this way they could continue at school u n t i l they were eighteen. However, i n 1919, some g i r l s stayed on at the Intermediate School u n t i l they were seventeen and then proceeded to Training College i n England. There was a c a l l at t h i s time for an increased number of scholarships to the Colleges. Just s i x g i r l s were awarded scholarships to Ladies' College i n 1919. The parents had not to be able to pay for education i n order that free schooling be given. There were twenty-two scholarship; holders admitted to Elizabeth College i n 1919. The finances of the Intermediate Schools were i n the hands of the Education Council, and they met the cost of free Colleges. In 1920 three boys went to Elizabeth College on scholarships, d i r e c t l y from primary school, and i n 1921, s i x out of a t o t a l of twenty-nine scholarship boys were str a i g h t from primary schools. 42 I n 1 9 2 1 , 200 b o y s a n d o v e r 200 g i r l s w e r e r e g i s t e r e d a t t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s . B e c a u s e o f t h e i n c r e a s e i n n u m b e r s , t o a t o t a l o f 460 i n 19 22, t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s moved t o V a u v e r t . V a u v e r t S c h o o l numbers h a d d e c r e a s e d , s o t h e p u p i l s o f t h a t s c h o o l moved t o B r o c k Road S c h o o l and G r a n v i l l e House. T h i s was t h e same y e a r i n w h i c h t h e Head-m a s t e r o f t h e B o y s ' I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s t a r t e d c o n t i n u a t i o n c l a s s e s f o r m a l e s . They w e r e s u b s i d i z e d by t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l . The 116 on r o l l r e g i s t e r e d , f o r c o u r s e s i n E n g l i s h , F r e n c h , A r i t h m e t i c , G e o g r a p h y , B o o k - k e e p i n g a n d S h o r t h a n d . I n 1923, a new c o o k e r y c e n t r e was o p e n e d and c l a s s e s f r o m e i g h t s c h o o l s , i n c l u d i n g L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e , a t t e n d e d . A woodwork s e c t i o n a l s o b e g a n a t t h e B r o c k Road S c h o o l . The A r t and T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l l e f t t h e C e n t r a l H a l l and moved t o s m a l l e r p r e m i s e s i n Queen's Road. O x f o r d l o c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s w e r e t a k e n , and t h e H.M.I, f e l t t h a t , b y 1 9 2 3 , t h e G i r l s ' I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l , w i t h s u c h a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f o l d e r s t u d e n t s , m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d as a t r u e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . T h i s was when t h e P u p i l T e a c h e r C e n t r e c l o s e d and a b o u t w h i c h d e t a i l s a r e w r i t t e n i n l a t e r p a g e s . The c o n t i n u a t i o n c l a s s e s g a i n e d an i n c r e a s e d s u b s i d y f r o m t h e C o u n c i l s o t h a t , i n 1924, t h e c l a s s e s w e r e open t o women. The i n c l i n a t i o n t o w a r d p r a c t i c a l w o r k , e n c o u r a g e d by s u c c e s s i v e i n s p e c t o r s , c o n t i n u e d , a n d b y 19 29 t h e r e w e r e two f u l l - t i m e D o m e s t i c S c i e n c e t e a c h e r s e m p l o y e d . I n a l l t h e y t a u g h t 295 g i r l s . The woodwork c e n t r e c o n t i n u e d i n w h a t was by now, i n a d e q u a t e a c c o m m o d a t i o n f o r t h e 160 b o y s who w e r e t a u g h t t h e r e . E v e n i n g c l a s s e s i n H o r t i c u l t u r e w e r e h e l d a t t h e C o l l e g e ' s Ozanne l a b o r a t o r y . T h a t t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o be l a c k i n g , was commented upon by t h e S c h o o l I n s p e c t o r i n a r e p o r t f o r 19 30. W i t h t h e i d e a o f s e n i o r s c h o o l s b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e 19 3 0 ' s , came t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m f o r t h e s e s c h o o l s . The I n s p e c t o r a s k e d t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t h r e e y e a r s o f m e r e l y a p o o r t y p e o f p r i m a r y s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e 18 s e n i o r s c h o o l s , be a v o i d e d . O p p o r t u n i t y f o r more c h i l d r e n 43 t o h a v e s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n came w i t h t h e f i n a n c i n g o f more s c h o l a r s h i p s b y t h e S t a t e s i n 19 33. T h e s e w e r e w o r t h £25 e a c h p e r y e a r a t t h e C o l l e g e s a n d £12 e a c h y e a r a t t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s . A new s e c t i o n o f t h e B o y s ' I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l was o p e n e d i n 19 36, a g a i n l o c a t e d a t B r o c k R o a d , a n d t h e c u r r i c u l u m o f t h e G i r l s ' S c h o o l was e x t e n d e d t o i n c l u d e a b u s i n e s s c o u r s e . A t S t . Sampson's, a new p r a c t i c a l c e n t r e i n Woodwork and D o m e s t i c S c i e n c e was b u i l t . I t s e r v e d S t . Sampson's S e n i o r and t h e V a l e and A m h e r s t S c h o o l s . E v e n i n g s c h o o l c l a s s e s came u n d e r t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s C o m m i t t e e i n 19 36, a d d i n g C o n t r u c t i o n a n d E l e c t r i c i t y t o t h e c o u r s e s o f f e r e d i n 19 37. 170 s t u d e n t s w e r e e n r o l l e d i n t h e e v e n i n g c l a s s s e s s i o n i n 1936/37. Of t h e s e o v e r s i x t y w e r e 19 xn t h e c o m m e r c i a l c o u r s e . T h e s e c o u r s e s a p p e a r t o h a v e p r o d u c e d c o m p e t e n t o f f i c e w o r k e r s f o r Mr. F u l f o r d s t a t e s i n h i s r e p o r t , t h a t when w i s h i n g t o f i l l v a c a n c i e s , h e a d s o f b u s i n e s s h o u s e s f r e q u e n t l y r e q u e s t e d E v e n i n g c l a s s s t u d e n t s . T h i s C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n a t t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l e n a b l e d y o u n g p e o p l e t o o b t a i n m a r k e t a b l e s k i l l s w h i c h o t h e r w i s e t h e y w e r e u n a b l e t o a c h i e v e . The r e p o r t w h i c h i s A p p e n d i x L, w i l l more f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e t h e s c o p e o f t h e E v e n i n g C l a s s e s . A t t h e G i r l ' s I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l t h e b u s i n e s s c o u r s e 20 was r e t a i n e d . Some t h i r t y - f o u r y e a r s l a t e r , l i n k b u s i n e s s c o u r s e s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n t h e G i r l s ' S c h o o l and t h e new C o l l e g e o f F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n . S t i m u l a t e d b y t h e 19 35 A c t , e d u c a t i o n i n G u e r n s e y was m o v i n g r a p i d l y t o w a r d some-t h i n g a p p r o a c h i n g t h e g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d o f e d u c a t i o n i n E n g l a n d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e o l d e r c h i l d r e n s t i l l h a d j u s t two t o t h r e e y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g p a s t t h e p r i m a r y l e v e l . I t was o n l y t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e Grammar t y p e o f s c h o o l who c o u l d be s a i d t o e n j o y s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . Any p l a n s w h i c h t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l may h a v e e n t e r t a i n e d t o a l t e r t h i s s i t u a t i o n , w e r e s w e p t away w i t h .the o u t b r e a k o f w a r i n 1939. 44 i i i ) P u p i l T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g P a r t o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n was t h e P u p i l T e a c h e r C e n t r e . The o l d C e n t r e , e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , was d i s s o l v e d i n 1902 and a new scheme was d e v i s e d . M i s s M e l l i s h , who was H e a d m i s t r e s s o f L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e , was a s k e d t o o r g a n i s e a s p e c i a l d e p a r t m e n t f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f P u p i l T e a c h e r s . T h e s e c l a s s e s w e r e a t M y r t l e L o dge i n V a u v e r t a n d w e r e f o r t h e p u p i l t e a c h e r s e m p l o y e d i n t h e P u b l i c P r i m a r y a n d V o l u n t a r y S c h o o l s w h i c h w e r e s u b s i d i z e d b y t h e S t a t e s . The C e n t r e was u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e S t a t e s C o m m i t t e e f o r P a r o c h i a l E d u c a t i o n . M i s s M e l l i s h was s t y l e d S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , w i t h a D i r e c t o r , M i s s M.F. Bro w n . M i s s M e l l i s h t a u g h t S c r i p t u r e and t h e r e w e r e t h r e e maths i n s t r u c t o r s . The s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a l s o d i d D r a w i n g , F r e n c h , B o t a n y and D r i l l . S c i e n c e and P h o n e t i c s w e r e a d d e d i n 1915. I n s t r u c t i o n was f r e e a n d t h e p u p i l t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e d t h e f o l l o w i n g s a l a r i e s : G i r l s £ 10 - £12 - £14 - £16 9 1 B o y s £ 14 - £16 - £18 - £20 To t h o s e p u p i l t e a c h e r s who l i v e d a t some d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e C e n t r e , t h e S t a t e s made g r a n t s t o w a r d t r a v e l l i n g e x p e n s e s . E n t r y was f o r t h e b r i g h t e r c h i l d r e n a g e d 14 t o 1 8 , and i t was a means o f g a i n i n g e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g b e y o n d t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l . The s t a f f o f L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e w e r e i n v o l v e d f o r a b r o a d e n i n g v i e w , a n d a c e r t i f i c a t e d t e a c h e r w o r k e d w i t h t h e p u p i l t e a c h e r s i n m e t h o d o l o g y . S t a f f f r o m E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e and t h e B o y s ' I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l a l s o t a u g h t a t t h e C e n t r e a f t e r 1 9 1 1. The p u p i l t e a c h e r s h a d t h r e e d a y s o f t e a c h i n g e a c h week and two and a h a l f d a y s o f l e s s o n s a t t h e C e n t r e . F e e l i n g t h i s s c h e d u l e was t o o s t r e n u o u s , t h e H.M.I. Mr K e n n e y -H e r b e r t s p o k e o u t a g a i n s t t h i s i n h i s r e p o r t o f O c t o b e r 190 8. P u p i l t e a c h e r s w e r e w i d e l y u s e d , and t h e l i s t s f o r 1914 show t h a t i n t h r e e Town s c h o o l s t h e r e w e r e t w e n t y - t w o p u p i l 22 t e a c h e r s e m p l o y e d . I n t h e s e t h r e e s c h o o l s , e a c h c o n s i s t i n g . " o f I n f a n t s , G i r l s and B o y s d e p a r t m e n t s , t h e t e a c h i n g s t a f f 45 numbered t h i r t y - f o u r p l u s the Headteachers. I n 1917, the L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e became d i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the P u p i l Teacher C e n t r e , and the s t a f f from the G i r l s ' I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l assumed the v a c a n t p o s t s . By the end o f 1917, t h e r e were f i f t e e n boys and s i x t y - o n e g i r l s a t the C e n t r e . Four y e a r s l a t e r the H.M.I, a d v i s e d c l o s i n g the C e n t r e so t h a t i n 19 22 the s t u d e n t s went t o e i t h e r E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e o r t o the G i r l s ' I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l . f o r t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n . I n 1922 t e a c h e r b u r s a r s h i p s were g r a n t e d t o c h i l d r e n l e a v i n g e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l a t f o u r t e e n , a l t h o u g h the most a b l e c h i l d r e n had a l r e a d y moved on s c h o l a r s h i p t o the C o l l e g e s o r the I n t e r -mediate S c h o o l s a t the age o f e l e v e n o r t w e l v e . However, i n 1922, f i v e f o u r t e e n y e a r o l d boys g a i n e d b u r s a r s h i p s a t E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e , and t h r e e g i r l s went t o the I n t e r m e d i a t e 23 S c h o o l through t h e s e b u r s a r i e s . The Ce n t r e f o r P u p i l t e a c h e r s was l e g a l l y c l o s e d by the Order i n C o u n c i l o f J u l y 20, 1925. I n i t i a t e d t o a l l e v i a t e a s h o r t a g e o f t e a c h e r s , developments i n t e a c h e r a v a i l a b i l i t y and t e a c h i n g c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g the p r e c e d i n g .decade, c r e a t e d a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h made i t u n necessary f o r t h e r e t o be a P u p i l Teacher C e n t r e . 46 i v ) Independent E d u c a t i o n The r e v i s i o n o f the s t a t u t e s o f E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e Company d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y have a l r e a d y been o u t l i n e d . These two s c h o o l s remained as the two l e a d i n g independent s c h o o l s a f t e r 1900. T h e i r s e n i o r departments p r o v i d e d secondary e d u c a t i o n u n t i l u n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n c e . Over the y e a r s , the s c h o o l s a c c e p t e d an i n c r e a s i n g number o f f r e e - p l a c e s t u d e n t s from th e I n t e r -mediate S c h o o l s , and e v e n t u a l l y c h i l d r e n were a c c e p t e d on s c h o l a r s h i p s from the p r i m a r y s c h o o l s a t the age o f e l e v e n . Fees a t L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e were p a i d on a term b a s i s . I n 1903, t h e s e ranged f o r £2 p e r term f o r the under n i n e y e a r 24 o l d c h i l d r e n , t o £5/6/8d f o r s t u d e n t s o v e r f i f t e e n . E x t r a s were a d v e r t i s e d , Gym (7/6d) and Drawing (10/-) b e i n g the c h e a p e s t , w h i l e p i a n o and harmony w i t h F r a u l e i h K r u g e r c o s t E2/13/4d p e r term. B o a s t i n g s i x form rooms, a gym," h a l l , b o a r d i n g house and garden w i t h two t e n n i s c o u r t s , an adver-t i s e m e n t i n 1910 s t a t e s t h a t the C o l l e g e was opened f o r the purpose of p r o v i d i n g , a t moderate r a t e s , a sound e d u c a t i o n f o r the d a u g h t e r s o f gentlemen. At the same t i m e , E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e had a P r i n c i p a l , V i c e - P r i n c i p a l and n i n e s t a f f members, o f w h i c h f o u r were 25 c l a s s i c s m a s t e r s . The C o l l e g e a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n 190 3 d e t a i l s the C o l l e g e ' s t w e l v e c l a s s r o o m s , the gymnasium and t h e workshops. I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e was a P r i n c i p a l ' s House w i t h room f o r f o r t y b o a r d e r s . Day boys i n the Lower S c h o o l p a i d from £8 - £12 p e r annum a c c o r d i n g t o age, b u t £14 was charged f o r the boys i n the Upper S c h o o l . Numerous e x t r a s ranged from 10/6d p e r term f o r c a r p e n t r y t o two g u i n e a s per term f o r Navy and Army i n s t r u c t i o n . The o b j e c t o f t h e s e l a s t mentioned c l a s s e s was t o : ... p r e p a r e boys f o r e x a m i n a t i o n s f o r Woolwich and S a n d h u r s t , Navy exams and e n t r a n c e exams f o r Cooper's H i l l and the I n d i a n P o l i c e , w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h 25 g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n and w i t h o u t the expense of a crammer. In 1924 t h e r e were 20 3 on r o l l . The C o l l e g e ' s y e a r l y income was £3,000 i n c l u d i n g a S t a t e s g r a n t . When the S t a t e s assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c o s t s o f e d u c a t i o n i n the I s l a n d , 47 L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e and E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e r e c e i v e d g r a n t s . Each s c h o o l r e t a i n e d i t s own Board o f Governors and E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e k e p t i t s C h a r t e r and S t a t u t e s . The s c h o o l remained a Member o f the Headmasters' Conference. Fees charged i n b o t h s c h o o l s became p a r t o f the g e n e r a l budget, e x c e p t t h o s e i n the two Lower S c h o o l s . As w e l l as the C o l l e g e s , t h e r e was a p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s m a l l p r i v a t e s c h o o l s i n Guernsey. The Guernsey High S c h o o l f o r Boys f i r s t a d v e r t i s e d i n 1906 t h a t t h e P r i n c i p a l , A.N. Le Cheminant would g i v e a "thorough e d u c a t i o n and d i s c i p l i n e f o r a l i m i t e d number o f p u p i l s " , and would "take 27 g r e a t p a i n s w i t h backward boys". Commercial t r a i n i n g , B o ok-keeping, L e t t e r w r i t i n g and S h o rthand were a l s o o f f e r e d . There was a p r e p a r a t o r y c l a s s f o r l i t t l e boys. Fees f o r a l l t h i s were t h i r t y . s h i l l i n g s a term. The Guernsey H i g h S c h o o l p r o s p e r e d , and by 1911 t h e r e was a s t a f f o f f i v e , and the Headmaster. M u s i c and D r i l l i n g and Gym had been added t o the c u r r i c u l u m . When i n s p e c t e d , t h i s s c h o o l was s a i d t o have a good home but i n a d e q u a t e b u i l d i n g s . There were 40 t o 50 s t u d e n t s . I n 1905, a F r o e b e l k i n d e r g a r t e n was opened, and a l s o a d v e r t i s e d , were numerous p r o f e s s o r s o f m usic, German and d a n c i n g . The many s u c c e s s o r s o f Dame s c h o o l s p e r s i s t e d w e l l i n t o the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . E v e n t u a l l y , i n 190 7, a sub-committee o f the S t a t e s E d u c a t i o n Committee^, was a p p o i n t e d t o l o o k i n t o the p r i v a t e s c h o o l s i n the I s l a n d . T h i s was n o t the f i r s t o c c a s i o n when c o n d i t i o n s i n p r i v a t e s c h o o l s i n Guernsey had been c o n s i d e r e d . The a t t e n d a n c e o f f i c e r s u p e r v i s o r , the Rev. H.W. B r o c k , had v i s i t e d p r i v a t e s c h o o l s and g i v e n assessments o f accommodation as e a r l y as 1901. Many p r o v e d t o be c r e d i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s , b u t o f o t h e r s t h e Rev. Brock w r o t e : ...a few o f the w o r s t have been c l o s e d , n o t e a b l y one where I found 35 c h i l d r e n s i t t i n g crowded upon low forms i n a s m a l l i l l - l i g h t e d , w h o l l y u n v e n t i l a t e d a t t i c , r e a c h e d by a s t e p l a d d e r , under the charge of one young and u n q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r . . . V i s i t i n g i n 1908, t h e I n s p e c t o r o f S c h o o l s a i d t h a t a l l p r i v a t e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be i n s p e c t e d and c e r t i f i c a t e d e f f i c i e n t i f t h e y 48 w e r e t o c o n t i n u e o p e r a t i n g . I n 1 9 0 9 , t h e p r i v a t e s c h o o l s h a d a t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t o f 900. T w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e s e w e r e i n t h e i n d e p e n d e n t Roman C a t h o l i c S c h o o l s . E x c e r c i s i n g p o w e r s g a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e 1916 O r d e r i n C o u n c i l , t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l c a r r i e d o u t a f u l l s c a l e i n s p e c t i o n o f p r i v a t e s c h o o l s i n 1917. M o s t w e r e f o u n d t o be g o o d , b u t many w e r e b a d a n d v e r y o u t o f d a t e . As a r e s u l t t h e numbers o f s u c h s c h o o l s w e r e r e d u c e d u n t i l , b y 1 9 2 3 , t h e r e : w e r e t w e n t y - t w o p r i v a t e s c h o o l s o p e r a t i n g i n G u e r n s e y . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s number w e r e t h e L ' I s l e t C a t h o l i c I n f a n t s a n d t h e L 1 I s l e t C a t h o l i c M i x e d S c h o o l s w h i c h h a d n o t become v o l u n t a r y s c h o o l s u n d e r t h e C o u n c i l . M o s t o f t h e p r i v a t e s c h o o l s w e r e r u n by s i n g l e women t e a c h e r s b u t B l a n c h e l a n d e C o n v e n t and L e s V a u x b e l e t s w e r e e x c e p t i o n s . B l a n c h e l a n d e C o n v e n t i n S t . M a r t i n ' s P a r i s h , r e c e i v e d day g i r l s and l a t e r t o o k b o a r d e r s f r o m I n f a n t t o s e c o n d a r y l e v e l s . I t was r u n by t h e s i s t e r s o f t h e S a c r e C o e u r . L e s V a u x b e l e t s C o l l e g e was i n S t . Andrew's P a r i s h a nd was u n d e r t h e management o f t h e B r o t h e r s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n S c h o o l s (de l a S a l l e m o n k s ) . The C o l l e g e h a d an A g r i c u l t u r a l d e p a r t m e n t w i t h a two y e a r c o u r s e o f a g r i c u l t u r e , a l l done i n F r e n c h . T h e r e w e r e F r e n c h a n d E n g l i s h d e p a r t m e n t s w h i c h e d u c a t e d b o t h d a y b o y s and b o a r d e r s f o r O x f o r d e x a m i n a t i o n s . T h i s s c h o o l was c o n s i d e r a b l y c h e a p e r t h a n E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e , d i d n o t demand t h e same s c h o l a r s h i p s e l e c t i o n as d i d t h e o t h e r b o y s ' s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , and i t became v e r y p o p u l a r . N e v e r -t h e l e s s L e s V a u x b e l e t s c l o s e d i n t h e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g t h e s e c o n d w o r l d w a r . 49 v) S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n D e s p i t e an e a r l y a w a r e n e s s a nd d e v e l o p m e n t o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n i n E n g l a n d , G u e r n s e y made b u t d i l a t o r y a t t e m p t t o e m u l a t e t h e E n g l i s h e x a m p l e i n t h e y e a r s p r i o r t o 1939. The E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l , u n d e r i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n o f 1916, became r e s p o s i b l e f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e f e c t i v e c h i l d r e n . I n s p i t e o f t h i s , t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e C o u n c i l h o l d no m e n t i o n o f a n y -t h i n g b e i n g done f o r s u c h c h i l d r e n u n t i l 19 33, when an e x p e r t was c a l l e d i n t o i n v e s t i g a t e c a s e s o f v e r y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . I n 19 34, a h o s p i t a l t e a c h e r was a p p o i n t e d , a n d b y 29 19 35 t h e r e w e r e s e v e n s t u d e n t s a t t h e h o s p i t a l . The S c h o o l M e d i c a l O f f i c e r , a p p o i n t e d s u b s e q u e n t t o t h e 19 35 E d u c a t i o n A c t , was Dr. M c G l a s h e n who was an e x p e r t i n M e n t a l H e a l t h . H i s f i r s t r e p o r t t o t h e S t a t e s was made i n 19 36. I n i t he s t a t e s t h a t s i x s u b n o r m a l l y m e n t a l c h i l d r e n a nd two b l i n d c h i l d r e n h a d b e e n s e n t t o E n g l a n d f o r S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n . He a l s o w r o t e t h a t t h e r e was no s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n f o r b a c k w a r d c h i l d r e n i n t h e i s l a n d . S u c h was s t i l l t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e f i e l d o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n i n G u e r n s e y i n 19 39 . 50 v i ) Roman C a t h o l i c S c h o o l s Under the Law o f 189 3, s c h o o l managers o f C a t h o l i c s c h o o l s might e l e c t t o be p a r t o f the system o f P r i m a r y E d u c a t i o n and be termed V o l u n t a r y S c h o o l s . I n d o i n g s o , the Managers had t o agree t o conform t o the same c o n d i t i o n s as d i d the P a r i s h Committees. J u s t one e x c e p t i o n was made, and t h a t was i n R e l i g i o u s I n s t r u c t i o n . The V o l u n t a r y S c h o o l s c o u l d t e a c h a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own d o c t r i n e . P a r e n t s s t i l l r e t a i n e d the r i g h t t o w ithdraw c h i l d r e n from such i n s t r u c t i o n . The E d u c a t i o n Law o f 1903 r e i t e r a t e d t h i s , and V o l u n t a r y S c h o o l s c o n t i n u e d , b u t the s c h o o l ' s p o r t i o n o f funds which had t o be found t o run the s c h o o l s , was drawn from the c o n g r e g a t i o n o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e C a t h o l i c 'Church and t h e community. The V o l u n t a r y S c h o o l Managers had t o f i n d a l l c o s t s o f b u i l d i n g p r o v i s i o n , maintenance, upkeep, r e p a i r , r e n e w a l and d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g s . H a l f o f t h e c o s t o f f u r n i t u r e , books, s t a t i o n e r y and o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l equipment was p a i d by the S t a t e s , and h a l f by the Managers. The same s h a r i n g a p p l i e d t o l i g h t , f u e l , w a t e r and c l e a n i n g . However, the S t a t e s would pay a l l expenses f o r s a l a r i e s , e x a m i n a t i o n s , s c h o l a r s h i p s and I n s p e c t o r s , i f the s c h o o l worked w i t h i n t h e approved s y l l a b u s . C o s t s f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s , and b u r s a r i e s became the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the S t a t e s i f the Managers agreed t o a b i d e by o t h e r r u l e s f o r P u b l i c P r i m a r y S c h o o l s . The S t a t e s a l s o p a i d h a l f o f t h e r e n t a l v a l u e o f the s c h o o l p r e m i s e s t o t h e S c h o o l Managers. S t . Joseph's c o n g r e g a t i o n s u p p o r t e d the s c h o o l s i n S t . P e t e r P o r t . I n 1901 t h e t r u s t e e s o f S t . Joseph's added 100 p l a c e s t o t h e i r s c h o o l , m a t c h i n g the e x p a n s i o n found n e c e s s a r y i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . I n 1911, t h e F r e n c h nuns opened a s c h o o l i n B u r n t Lane a t t a c h e d t o t h e Church o f N o t r e Dame du R o s a i r e , whose p r i e s t s are from Coutances. I t was a s m a l l s c h o o l w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y d e v e l o p e d i n t o an I n f a n t and J u n i o r s c h o o l , w i t h S t . Joseph's h a v i n g t h e o l d e r c h i l d r e n . There was an a l l - a g e s c h o o l a t D elancey, S t . Sampson's, i n the n o r t h o f the I s l a n d , as w e l l as L ' I s l e t I n f a n t s and Mixed 51 C a t h o l i c S c h o o l s . La Chaumiere was i n S t . Andrew's. C u r r i c u l u m f o l l o w e d the g e n e r a l programme as i n the P a r i s h s c h o o l s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s t e a c h i n g . The s c h o o l s o b s e r v e d s p e c i a l Church H o l i d a y s . That the expenses which the C a t h o l i c S c h o o l Managers had t o meet were d r a s t i c a l l y reduced i n 19 35, when the C o u n c i l assumed f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n , i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s . They were t a k e n from the r e l a t i v e C o u n c i l reports.: V o l u n t a r y S c h o o l ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s c h o o l expenses. £. s. d. 1931 2593 14 5 19 32 2825 11 11 19 3 3 2775 2 6 1934 2897 16 9 1935 303 7 10 1936 328 15 5 1937 322 6 6 W i t h r e - o r g a n i s a t i o n i n t o J u n i o r and S e n i o r S c h o o l s , S t . Joseph's became the C a t h o l i c s e n i o r s c h o o l f o r t h e I s l a n d , and as such had an i n i t i a l e n r o l m e n t o f 80 c h i l d r e n aged 11 t o 14. The L ' I s l e t S c h o o l s and La Chaumiere and Ker M a r i a remained as p r i v a t e s c h o o l s . T h e i r acceptance o f v o l u n t a r y s c h o o l s t a t u s i s r e c o u n t e d e l s e w h e r e i n t h i s paper. Other p r i v a t e C a t h o l i c s c h o o l s were C o r d i e r H i l l , the Convent o f Mercy, Les C o t i l s and Mount P l e a s a n t . A l l t h e s e l a t t e r s c h o o l s were i n S t . P e t e r P o r t . They remained s m a l l and took c h i l d r e n up t o the age o f e i g h t and sometimes, f o r g i r l s , n i n e . Fees were charged and the s c h o o l s , r u n by t h e S i s t e r s , were open t o n o n - C a t h o l i c c h i l d r e n . 52 Thus the B a i l i w i c k of Guernsey had p r o g r e s s e d from the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f compulsory e d u c a t i o n i n 1900 t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a S t a t e f i n a n c e d system o f e d u c a t i o n i n 19 35. B e g i n n i n g t o r e - o r g a n i s e the s c h o o l s w i t h i n t h a t system, and p l a n n i n g ahead f o r f u r t h e r development i n I s l a n d e d u c a t i o n , t h e C o u n c i l was s h o r t l y t o i n d u l g e i n a q u i t e d i f f e r e n t r e -o r g a n i s a t i o n o f s c h o o l s . When B r i t a i n d e c l a r e d war on Germany i n August o f 19 39, a unique p e r i o d i n the a n n a l s o f e d u c a t i o n i n Guernsey was about t o commence. 53 NOTES PART I I I ' 1. E d u c a t i o n C o m m i t t e e . A n n u a l R e p o r t t o S t a t e s f o r 1901. 2. I t was n o t u n t i l 1 9 2 0 . t h a t t h i s was r e c t i f i e d a n d T e a c h e r s ' S u p e r a n n u a t i o n was o p e r a t i v e i n G u e r n s e y as i n E n g l a n d . 3. A n n u a l R e p o r t t o S t a t e s o f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s . 190 3 4. H i s M a j e s t y ' s I n s p e c t o r o f S c h o o l s , R e p o r t f o r 1902. 5. O r d e r i n C o u n c i l . E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n o f O r d r e s e n C o n s e i l , t h e l e g a l t e r m f o r t h e A c t s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t p a s s e d b y t h e S t a t e s . 6. T h i s was r e p e a l e d i n 1916. 7. C a p i t a t i o n . See d e f i n i t i o n i n N o t e 3 o f A b s t r a c t . 8. E d u c a t i o n A c t 190 3. S u b s e c t i o n 18. 9. E d u c a t i o n C o m m i t t e e , o p . c i t . 1907 10. I b i d . 1909 11. D i s p e n s e - F r e n c h p r o n u n c i a t i o n . A t e r m u s e d f o r t h e p e r m i t g r a n t e d t o e n a b l e a c h i l d t o l e a v e s c h o o l b e f o r e t h e o f f i c i a l s c h o o l l e a v i n g a ge. 12. G u e r n s e y D i r e c t o r y . 1915 13. The G u e r n s e y E v e n i n g P r e s s . O c t o b e r , 1916 14. R e p o r t o f H . M i l . f o r 1921. 15. I b i d . 1929 16. E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l , o p . c i t . 1937 17. The G u e r n s e y E v e n i n g P r e s s . November 2, 1917 18. R e p o r t o f H.M.I, f o r 1931. 19. E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l , o p . c i t . 1937 20. L i n k - c o u r s e s - a t e r m u s e d t o d e s c r i b e c o u r s e s a c c e p t e d as p a r t o f t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l c o u r s e , b u t t a k e n b y s t u d e n t s a t t h e C o l l e g e o f F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n . 2 1 . G u e r i n ' s A l m a n a c k , 1912 22. The P r e s s D i r e c t o r y , 1914 23. E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l , o p . c i t . 1922. 24. G u e r i n ' s A l m a n a c k , 190 3 25. By 1 9 1 5 , t h e r e w e r e two c l a s s i c s a n d two modern l a n g u a g e m a s t e r s . 26. G u e r i n ' s A l m a n a c k , A d v e r t i s e m e n t i n 1903 27. I b i d . 1906 28. R e p o r t o f S t a t e s a t t e n d a n c e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t . 1 9 0 1. 29. A n n u a l r e p o r t o f S c h o o l M e d i c a l O f f i c e r o f H e a l t h , 1935. 54 PART I V EDUCATION DURING THE YEARS OF GERMAN OCCUPATION, 1939-1945 The o u t b r e a k o f W o r l d War I I c a u s e d no s p e c i a l f l u r r y i n t h e B a i l i w i c k u n t i l J u n e o f 194 0, when, a f t e r s t o r m i n g t h r o u g h E u r o p e , t h e Germans s t o o d p o i s e d o n t h e F r e n c h c o a s t . B e f o r e enemy t r o o p s a r r i v e d t o o c c u p y G u e r n s e y , t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l d e c i d e d on a p o l i c y o f v o l u n t a r y e v a c u a t i o n t o E n g l a n d f o r a l l s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . J u s t f o r t y - o n e h o u r s a f t e r n o t i c e t h a t e v a c u -a t i o n was t o t a k e p l a c e , 4,700 c h i l d r e n ( 7 2 % o f t h e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n ) " ' " h a d s a i l e d f r o m t h e i s l a n d w i t h t h e i r t e a c h e r s p l u s a s s i s t a n t s . The smoo t h e f f i c i e n c y o f s u c h an e v a c u a t i o n was l a r g e l y due t o t h e e f f o r t s o f Mr. A. W i n t e r f l o o d who, h i m s e l f , r e m a i n e d on t h e i s l a n d i n c h a r g e o f a d e p l e t e d s c h o o l s y s t e m . W i t h t h e c h i l d r e n w e n t 194 t e a c h e r s f r o m t h e S t a t e s s c h o o l s , 2 a n d 300 o t h e r t e a c h e r s a n d h e l p e r s , so t h a t o n l y 12 r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s r e m a i n e d on t h e i s l a n d . As w e l l a s r e g i s t e r i n g 10 39 c h i l d r e n f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , p e o p l e who w e r e r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s o r who w o u l d l i k e t o t e a c h , w e re a l s o r e g i s t e r e d . I n a l l , 40 t e a c h e r s w e r e e v e n t u a l l y a v a i l a b l e f o r s e r v i c e . The s m a l l numbers r e n d e r e d i t n e c e s s a r y t o o r g a n i z e s c h o o l s o n t h e P a r i s h S c h o o l s y s t e m . When t h e e n d o f 1940 a r r i v e d , no f o r m o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n was b e i n g p r o v i d e d f o r I n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l p u p i l s who h a d r e m a i n e d i n G u e r n s e y . By t h e e n d o f 1941 o n l y t h r e e p u b l i c l y owned s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s V a u v e r t , S a r e l a n d T o r t e v a l , w e r e b e i n g u s e d a s s c h o o l s . A l l t h e o t h e r b u i l d i n g s , i n c l u d i n g E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e , h a d b e e n r e q u i s i t i o n e d b y t h e o c c u p y i n g t r o o p s . The d i f f i c u l t y o f p r o v i d i n g c l a s s a c c o m m o d a t i o n was a c o n s t a n t w o r r y t o t h o s e e n d e a v o u r i n g t o c o n t i n u e a s y s t e m o f e d u c a t i o n i n enemy o c c u p i e d t e r r i t o r y . The d e s k s f r o m t h e C a t e l S c h o o l w e r e moved 3 a t l e a s t s i x t i m e s a s t h e Germans r e p e a t e d l y commandeered e a c h s u c c e s s i v e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g . D u r i n g t h e w i n t e r t h e s c h o o l r o o m s w e r e c o l d , f o r c o a l was u n o b t a i n a b l e . T h i s meant t h a t b o t h l e a r n i n g a n d t e a c h i n g t o o k p l a c e u n d e r u n c o m f o r t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s . 55 I n A p r i l o f 1 9 4 1 , t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l o p e n e d a s a m i x e d s c h o o l , b u t on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s . 6 8 s t u d e n t s w e r e a d m i t t e d a f t e r h a v i n g p a s s e d a q u a l i f y i n g e x a m i n a t i o n , a n d a f t e r t h e i r p a r e n t s h a d a g r e e d t o k e e p t h e c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l u n t i l t h e y w e r e a t l e a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s o l d . The c h i l d r e n s p e n t t h e m o r n i n g a t t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l , r e t u r n i n g t o t h e i r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s f o r t h e a f t e r n o o n . The G i r l s ' I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l was u s e d f o r t h e s e s t u d e n t s , b u t by November, t h e Germans h a d r e q u i s -i t i o n e d t h i s s c h o o l t o o . T h i s c o m p e l l e d t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l c l a s s e s t o u s e B u r n t L a n e S c h o o l b u i l d i n g , one w h i c h b e l o n g e d t o t h e Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . D o m e s t i c S c i e n c e a n d n e e d l e w o r k ; c o u l d n o t be t a u g h t due t o a l a c k o f f o o d s t u f f , s o a p a n d s e w i n g m a t e r i a l s . One woodwork c e n t r e was o p e n e d , b u t i t t o o was s u d d e n l y r e q u i s i t i o n e d . However, by m i d - 1 9 4 1 , e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l -i n g f o r a l l a n d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i n g f o r some, was b e i n g p r o v i d e d i n G u e r n s e y . E v e n C o n t i n u a t i o n C l a s s e s w e r e o r g a n i z e d , c a t e r i n g f o r 118 p e o p l e l e a r n i n g German, 32 s t u d y i n g F r e n c h w h i l e 18 w e r e 4 p u r s u i n g a c o u r s e i n B o o k - K e e p i n g . Some d e g r e e o f n o r m a l i t y was b e i n g a c h i e v e d i n an a b n o r m a l s i t u a t i o n . I t was d u r i n g 1941 t h a t t h e F e l d k o m m a n d a n t u r , P r i n c e Von O e t t i n g e n , s u g g e s t e d t h a t German be t a u g h t i n t h e s c h o o l s , b u t on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . Von O e t t i n g e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e be f i v e , 45 m i n u t e p e r i o d s o f German a week, t h a t s h o r t e n i n g o f F r e n c h c l a s s e s be a v o i d e d , b u t t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e l e s s o n s m i g h t be c u r t a i l e d i f n e c e s s a r y . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n 48 c h i l d r e n o v e r t w e l v e y e a r s o f a g e , s t u d y i n g German i n t h e G u e r n s e y s c h o o l s . To meet demand, 5 00 c o p i e s o f t h e t e x t book D e u t s c h e s L e b e n w e r e p r i n t e d l o c a l l y . Of t h e s e , 200 c o p i e s w e n t t o J e r s e y . The S c h o o l M e d i c a l O f f i c e r , D r . M c G l a s h e n , t o o k much c a r e o v e r t h e h e a l t h o f t h e c h i l d r e n , n o t i n g t h a t by t h e autumn o f 1 9 4 1 , t h e c h i l d r e n w e re s h o w i n g s i g n s o f s t r a i n due t o l a c k o f n o u r i s h i n g f o o d and w a r m t h . New s h o e s w e r e u n o b t a i n a b l e , a n d t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l h e l p e d by p r o v i d i n g some f o o t w e a r f o r c h i l d r e n t o c h a n g e i n t o on a r r i v a l i n s c h o o l d u r i n g w e t w e a t h e r . The s c h o o l h o u r s w e r e c h a n g e d s l i g h t l y , so t h a t i n w i n t e r , l e s s o n s b e g a n a t 10:00 A.M. and i n t h e summer a t 9:30 A.M. E v e r y c h i l d h a d h a l f a p i n t o f m i l k d a i l y , p a i d f o r o u t o f p u b l i c f u n d s . 56 F o r a t i m e , communal k i t c h e n s p r o v i d e d m i d d a y m e a l s o n two d a y s e a c h week a t a c h a r g e o f t w o p e n c e t o e a c h c h i l d . The m e a l s were s u b s i d i z e d t o an e q u a l amount b y t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l . When t h e b u i l d i n g s w e r e r e q u i s i t i o n e d , t h e k i t c h e n s h a d t o c l o s e . The R e p o r t f o r 1942 made t o t h e B a i l i f f b y t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l , r e f e r s t o t h e o p e n i n g , i n J a n u a r y , o f t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l on a f u l l - t i m e b a s i s . T h i s e n a b l e d s e l e c t e d s t u d e n t s t o f o l l o w a f u l l t i m e s e c o n d a r y c o u r s e . Much e x t r a t e a c h i n g was done g r a t u i t o u s l y b y t h e R e v e r e n d E. L. F r o s s a r d ( l a t e r The D e a n ) , a n d by t h e R e v e r e n d K i l s h a w . The c u r r i c u l u m f o l l o w e d was D i v i n i t y , E n g l i s h , H i s t o r y , Geography;* . S c i e n c e , M a t h s , F r e n c h , German, P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , A r t and 5 . . . S i n g i n g . May 2 3 r d , 1942 was t h e s c h o o l ' s f i r s t p r i z e g i v i n g o f t h e O c c u p a t i o n . A German s o n g , s u n g b y t h e c h i l d r e n , i s s a i d t o h a v e b e e n a p p r e c i a t e d b y t h e German O f f i c e r g u e s t s . P r i z e s f o r German w e r e p r e s e n t e d , b u t o n l y i n t h e same manner as w e r e t h e p r i z e s f o r F r e n c h a n d E n g l i s h . A l l t h e p r i z e s w e r e p r o v i d e d f r o m G u e r n s e y f u n d s o r w e r e g i f t s f r o m I s l a n d e r s . A t t h i s t i m e , a f e e o f one p o u n d p e r t e r m f o r t u i t i o n was c h a r g e d a t t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l , a l t h o u g h e n t r y was n o t b a r r e d b e c a u s e o f l a c k o f money. By t h e e n d o f 1 9 4 2 , t h e r e w e r e 94 p u p i l s on t h e s c h o o l ' s r e g i s t e r . S c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e f e l l d u r i n g 1 9 4 2 , d e f e c t i v e f o o t w e a r b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d t h e m a i n c o n t r i b u t o r y c a u s e , d e s p i t e t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t . F o l l o w i n g t h e d e p o r t a t i o n o f D r . W. R. M c G l a s h e n , i n S e p t e m b e r , 1 942, t h e I s l a n d M e d i c a l O f f i c e r o f H e a l t h v o l u n t e e r e d t o a c t as S c h o o l M e d i c a l O f f i c e r . E d u c a t i o n became more s t a b i l i z e d d u r i n g 1 942, w i t h German r e q u i s i t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s b e i n g on a much r e d u c e d s c a l e . A s e r i o u s p r o b l e m was t h e s h o r t a g e o f t e a c h e r s f o r an i n c r e a s i n g number o f c h i l d r e n . The C o u n c i l a d v e r t i s e d f o r y o u n g women t o t r a i n u n d e r a c e r t i f i c a t e d t e a c h e r i n an a p p r e n t i c e - t y p e s i t u a t i o n . H o wever, o n l y two g i r l s w e r e t r a i n e d i n t h i s way. They became s u p p l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s . The C o u n c i l h a d h o p e d t o a t t r a c t more g i r l s t o t e a c h . From Mr. P e t e r J . G i r a r d , who a c t e d a s H e a d m a s t e r o f t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l a t t h i s t i m e , i t h a s b e e n l e a r n e d t h a t t h e s e t r a i n e e t e a c h e r s w e r e h i g h c a l i b r e s t u d e n t s who h a d b e e n a t L a d i e s ' 57 C o l l e g e , b u t had n o t gone t o E n g l a n d w i t h t h e i r s c h o o l . Both p r o v e d t o be e x c e l l e n t t e a c h e r s . W i t h the c l o s e o f 1943, o n l y t h r e e p u b l i c s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s were b e i n g used f o r c l a s s e s . The e d u c a t i o n o f the i s l a n d c h i l d r e n was c a r r i e d on i n p r i v a t e houses, Sunday S c h o o l h a l l s and odd rooms, here and t h e r e . The Hautes C a p p e l l e s S c h o o l was s p r e a d o v e r seven d i f f e r e n t l o c a l e s . E v e n t u a l l y twenty-seven d i f f e r e n t b u i l d i n g s were b e i n g used f o r s c h o o l i n g the c h i l d r e n . The I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l r o l l s t a y e d more o r l e s s s t e a d y , w h i l e e n r o l -ment i n n i n e p r i v a t e s c h o o l s i n c r e a s e d from 168 i n 1942 t o 218 i n 1943. As the war y e a r s dragged on, the s c h o o l m e d i c a l s e r v i c e broke down. The M e d i c a l O f f i c e r o f H e a l t h had t o o l i t t l e t i m e r e m a i n i n g from h i s l e g i t i m a t e d u t i e s t o be a b l e t o t e n d the s c h o o l c h i l d r e n w i t h such c l o s e a t t e n t i o n as had Dr. McGlashen. However, s t u d e n t h e i g h t and w e i g h t r e c o r d s were m a i n t a i n e d , and by F e b r u a r y , 1943, i t was apparent t h a t 33% o f the c h i l d r e n had l o s t w e i g h t . The C o u n c i l o b t a i n e d some wooden-soled f o o t w e a r f o r p u p i l s and f r e e m i l k was s t i l l p r o v i d e d i n the s c h o o l s . As i n 1941, midday meals were s e r v e d a t n o m i n a l c o s t , w h i l e i n the c!atel S c h o o l , a f r e e meal was g i v e n t o the c h i l d r e n once a week. The c h i l d r e n ' s p l e a s u r e a t C h r i s t m a s was c a t e r e d f o r . I t may be r e a l i z e d what d i f f i c u l t i e s had t o be overcome t o p r o v i d e a l l c h i l d r e n w i t h a s p e c i a l C h r i s t m a s d i n n e r , as w e l l as a cinema and v a r i e t y performance f o r 900 c h i l d r e n . By now the I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l had s t u d e n t s who were ready t o t a k e the B r i t i s h U n i v e r s i t i e s ' S c h o o l L e a v i n g C e r t i f i c a t e . T h i s b e i n g i m p o s s i b l e t o do, t h e Guernsey S c h o o l L e a v i n g C e r t i f i c a t e e v o l v e d . E l e v e n p u p i l s took t h e e x a m i n a t i o n w h i c h was based on o l d E n g l i s h S c h o o l C e r t i f i c a t e p a p e r s . Examiners were from b o t h Guernsey and J e r s e y . That th e s e e x a m i n a t i o n papers were s t o r e d w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f h a v i n g them s u b m i t t e d t o t h e O f f i c i a l B oard o f Examiners i n E n g l a n d when the war was o v e r , r e f l e c t s the I s l a n d e r s ' u n s werving b e l i e f i n an a l l i e d v i c t o r y . On J anuary 1 8 t h , 1943, the I s l a n d Feldkommandantur o r d e r e d t h a t German be made compulsory i n the s c h o o l s , n o t i n g t h a t the 58 language would be needed u n i v e r s a l l y i n the post-war German dominated w o r l d . Von O e t t i n g e n demanded t h a t he be s u p p l i e d w i t h r e p o r t s on the German language l e a r n i n g . T h i s o r d e r caused some d i s q u i e t among the t e a c h e r s and C o u n c i l , n o t o n l y because th e language r e q u i r e m e n t was compulsory, b u t a l s o because the c h i l d r e n i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s were a l r e a d y b e i n g t a u g h t French and E n g l i s h . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f German meant t h a t many non-academic c h i l d r e n were h a v i n g t o cope w i t h t h r e e l a n g u a g e s . I f one r e c a l l s the language d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n c o u n t r y p a r i s h s c h o o l s d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i t may be r e a l i z e d t h a t f o r P a t o i s - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n , compulsory German became language number f o u r . Of t h e s e f o u r languages t h r e e were a d d i t i o n a l languages. The t e a c h e r o f German a t t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l was the German w i f e o f a former B r i t i s h Army O f f i c e r . The language was t a u g h t i n a l l s c h o o l s w i t h a complete absence o f propaganda. We may note t h a t when the Germans s u r r e n d e r e d i n 1945, the t e a c h i n g ' o f German was a b r u p t l y t e r m i n a t e d . I n F e b r u a r y o f 1944, a S c h o o l L e a v i n g C e r t i f i c a t e e x a m i n a t i o n was h e l d . To the t e n s u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t s , p r o v i s i o n a l c e r t i f i c a t e s were awarded. A f u r t h e r group was p r e p a r e d f o r a s i m l a r exam-i n a t i o n t o be h e l d i n December. The s o l e town e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l r e m a i n i n g t o t h e C o u n c i l was r e q u i s i t i o n e d as a German s t o r e i n F e b r u a r y . T h i s caused the c h i l d r e n a t V a u v e r t S c h o o l t o be t r a n s f e r r e d t o S t . Joseph's b u i l d i n g nearby. The C a t e l S c h o o l s were r e l e a s e d t o t h e C o u n c i l i n August o f 1944, b u t were too n e a r a gun emplacement f o r the c h i l d r e n t o be r e t u r n e d t o t h e b u i l d i n g s . 1944 saw t h e l a s t r a t i o n s o f b i s c u i t s d i s t r i b u t e d among the c h i l d r e n . These b i s c u i t s had been c o n t r i b u t e d by Le Secours N a t i o n a l o f F r a n c e . When the a l l i e s l a n d e d i n F r ance i n June o f 1944, a l l t h e s c h o o l s i n Guernsey were c l o s e d u n t i l the end o f J u l y by which time the immediate e x t e n t o f the e f f e c t on the i s l a n d s had been a s c e r t a i n e d . Such c l o s u r e was t h e o n l y e x c e p t i o n made t o compulsory at t e n d a n c e d u r i n g t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l y e a r t h r o u g h o u t th e O c c u p a t i o n . I n t h i s way, the e d u c a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n d e p a r t e d from normal as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e . Not even a c o l d 1944/45 w i n t e r h a l t e d t h e s c h o o l programme, f o r I s l a n d e r s gave t r e e s 59 f o r f u e l t o p r o v i d e heat i n the c l a s s r o o m s . A t t h e end o f 1944, t h e r e were 122 c h i l d r e n r e g i s t e r e d a t t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l , and 1090 a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s a p a r t from c h i l d r e n i n p r i v a t e s c h o o l s f o r which s t a t i s t i c s a re not a v a i l a b l e . The end o f the German O c c u p a t i o n p r o v i d e d o n l y a b r i e f r e s p i t e from s c h o o l f o r the c h i l d r e n t o c e l e b r a t e the L i b e r a t i o n on May 9 t h , 1945. C l a s s e s were c o n t i n u e d u n t i l the end o f the summer term a c c o r d i n g t o s c h e d u l e . S c h o o l b u i l d i n g s , v a c a t e d by the Germans, were found t o be i n r e a s o n a b l e c o n d i t i o n . They were r e f u r b i s h e d and made ready f o r September s c h o o l i n g w i t h the h e l p o f t h e B r i t i s h M i l i t a r y F o r c e s and German P r i s o n e r s o f War. The Report o f the E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l f o r the y e a r 19 45 s t a t e s t h a t , a t the time o f L i b e r a t i o n , 152 s t u d e n t s were a t t e n d i n g the I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l , 1,087 were i n p u b l i c e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s and 312 were i n P r i v a t e s c h o o l s . The t o t a l o f 1,551 shows an i n c r e a s e o f 450 o v e r the f i g u r e s o f J u l y , 1940. E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l o f f i c i a l s a c c o u n t f o r such an i n c r e a s e i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e were more c h i l d r e n o v e r f o u t e e n y e a r s o f age s t i l l i n s c h o o l i n 1945 than t h e r e were i n 1940. There was a l s o a s m a l l e r p r o -p o r t i o n o f c h i l d r e n under f i v e e v a c u a t e d from the i s l a n d . As t h e s e c h i l d r e n r e a c h e d s c h o o l age, an e q u a l number o f o l d e r s t u d e n t s d i d n o t l e a v e s c h o o l , as o c c u r s i n normal t i m e s . I t has been s t a t e d t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n o f the c h i l d r e n who s t a y e d i n Guernsey d u r i n g t h e O c c u p a t i o n s u f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y and was i n f e r i o r t o t h a t o b t a i n e d by t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s who e v a c u a t e d . Mr. P. J . G i r a r d m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h i s was n o t t h e cas e . The c h i l d r e n who went away were k e p t i n t h e i r s c h o o l groups a t f i r s t , b u t they were b i l l e t e d i n a v a r i e t y o f p l a c e s and s u f -f e r e d much from d i s t u r b a n c e o f r e s i d e n c e . As time p a s s e d , t h e i r I s l a n d t e a c h e r s were d i s p e r s e d , and many o f the I s l a n d s c h o o l s ceased t o e x i s t as such. Thus the c h i l d r e n had t o accustom themselves t o s t r a n g e homes, s t r a n g e s c h o o l s , a d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l u m , and t o d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f speech p a t t e r n s and a c c e n t . Throughout the war the I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s remained i n Rochdale, b u t the t e a c h i n g s t a f f changed as the war p r o g r e s s e d , and as t e a c h e r s v o l u n t e e r e d f o r war s e r v i c e . The G i r l s ' I n t e r -60 mediate S c h o o l was f o r t u n a t e t o keep t h e i r own H e a d m i s t r e s s , M i s s N. Roughton, t h r o u g h o u t the e n t i r e war p e r i o d . The C o l l e g e s remained r e a s o n a b l y i n t a c t . I n h i s memoirs, A Headmaster Remembers, Headmaster Hardy g r a t e f u l l y acknowledges how, i n 1940, t h e D e r b y s h i r e E d u c a t i o n Committee came t o t h e r e s c u e o f E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e , s u p p l y i n g a l l t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s as w e l l as p a y i n g t h e C o l l e g e t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s . There were 150 boys on r o l l and a l l s t u d e n t s o v e r s e v e n t e e n j o i n e d the Home Guard. The E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h the M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h i n London t o arrange f o r the r e t u r n o f Guernsey c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1945. Some r e t u r n e d as they had gone, i n s c h o o l groups, t h e f i r s t a r r i v i n g i n S t . P e t e r P o r t i n mid-J u l y , and the l a s t on September 8 t h . Papers w r i t t e n and marked f o r the Guernsey S c h o o l L e a v i n g C e r t i f i c a t e d u r i n g the O c c u p a t i o n , were s u b m i t t e d t o t h e O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Examining Board. A l l were a c c e p t e d as b e i n g o f the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d f o r t h e U n i v e r -s i t y ' s C e r t i f i c a t e , and were found t o have been marked h a r d e r by I s l a n d examiners than they were i n f a c t , marked by t h e 7 E n g l i s h e xaminers. Having m a i n t a i n e d a system o f e d u c a t i o n i n Guernsey t h r o u g h -o u t the f i v e - y e a r German O c c u p a t i o n , t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l n e x t s e t about the t a s k o f r e o r g a n i s i n g I s l a n d e d u c a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o the 1944 B u t l e r A c t i n E n g l a n d . Much o f t h i s r e o r g a n i s a t i o n was a c c o m p l i s h e d by 1946. However, i t was f o u r t e e n y e a r s b e f o r e the r e o r g a n i s a t i o n o f s c h o o l s recommended i n t h e 1944 E n g l i s h A c t , was completed f o r the e n t i r e I s l a n d . 61 NOTES PART IV 1. Education Council, Annual Report to States. 194 0 2. Ibid. 3. P. J. Girard. Personal interview on August 21st, 1976. 4. Education Council, op. c i t . 1941 5. V. V. Cortvriard, Isolated Island. (1946) p. 62. 6. Ibid. p. 9 7. P. J. Girard. op. c i t . 62 PART V EDUCATION FROM 1946 - 1969 i ) R e o r g a n i z a t i o n and Development A f t e r the war y e a r s came the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the I s l a n d S c h o o l s . From September, 1945 u n t i l J u l y , 1946, the s c h o o l s remained as P a r i s h a l l - a g e s c h o o l s w i t h t h e s c h o o l l e a v i n g age a t f o u r t e e n . That t h e r e had been s e n i o r s c h o o l s i n t h e n o r t h and west o f the I s l a n d s i n c e 19 36 was d i s r e g a r d e d i n view o f the recommendations f o r secondary e d u c a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n the 1944 B u t l e r A c t . The E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l i n t e n d e d t o a c t upon t h e s e recommendations. The C o u n c i l , p l u s the Dean, was p r e s i d e d o v e r by a S e c r e t a r y t o t h e C o u n c i l . I t was n o t u n t i l 1953 t h a t an E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e r was a p p o i n t e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r o f t h e I s l a n d ' s s c h o o l s . However, i t was i n t h e s e f i r s t p ost-war y e a r s t h a t much l o n g - t e r m p l a n n i n g was done. Ideas f o r m u l a t e d by t h e Coun-c i l ' s R e o r g a n i z a t i o n Committeein t h e i r development p l a n d u r i n g the 1940's and e a r l y f i f t i e s , s u b s e q u e n t l y took shape t o become the r e a l i t i e s o f much l a t e r y e a r s . By 194 6, the B u t l e r E d u c a t i o n A c t was b e i n g implemented i n En g l a n d and Wales, and i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h i s , t he Guernsey E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l adopted a s i m i l a r s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Two secondary modern s c h o o l s came i n t o b e i n g . These used the b u i l d i n g s o f what had been P a r i s h S c h o o l s , and w h i c h , p r i o r t o the war had been used as s e n i o r s c h o o l s . S t . Sampson's Secondary Modern S c h o o l i n the n o r t h o f t h e I s l a n d and two ' f e e d e r ' J u n i o r s c h o o l s , the V a l e and Hautes C a p e l l e s , w h i l e p u p i l s from S t . M a r t i n ' s and Amherst J u n i o r s c h o o l s went t o V a u v e r t Secondary Modern S c h o o l i n S t . P e t e r P o r t . The c h i l d r e n from S t . M a r t i n ' s were bused i n t o Town. Western P a r i s h s c h o o l s s t a y e d as a l l - a g e s c h o o l s u n t i l 1959, when a t h i r d secondary modern s c h o o l was completed a t Les Beaucamps. i n the C a s t e l p a r i s h . S t . P i e r r e du B o i s p a r i s h s c h o o l s t a y e d as an a l l - a g e s c h o o l f o r l a c k o f accommodation f o r s e n i o r s i n the west. The I n f a n t s c h o o l s remained u n d i s t u r b e d , o p e r a t i n g as s e p a r a t e departments. The C a t h o l i c s c h o o l s a l s o r e o r g a n i z e d , a l l t h e i r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s 63 becoming p r i m a r y s c h o o l s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f S t . Joseph's S c h o o l i n S t . P e t e r P o r t . T h i s s c h o o l became a Secondary Modern s c h o o l , a l t h o u g h C a t h o l i c c h i l d r e n might a t t e n d t h e o t h e r secondary s c h o o l s i f they chose t o do so. F o r t h i s r e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o o c c u r , the E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l had t o have the s u p p o r t o f t h e P a r o c h i a l E d u c a t i o n Committees and the V o l u n t a r y S c h o o l s ' managers. R e a l -i z i n g t h a t r e o r g a n i z a t i o n would improve s t a n d a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n , these Committees and managers gave t h e i r unanimous s u p p o r t . Thus came i n t o b e i n g a p a t t e r n o f e d u c a t i o n w h i c h s t i l l ( i n 19 76) e x i s t s i n Guernsey. I t s a d o p t i o n meant t h a t the e l e v e n p l u s e x a m i n a t i o n was used as a means o f s e l e c t i n g c h i l d r e n f o r e i t h e r the secondary modern s c h o o l , the I n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l o r f o r e i t h e r o f t h e C o l l e g e s . I t was f u r t h e r d e t e r m i n e d t h a t a d m i s s i o n t o t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s c o u l d be g a i n e d o n l y t h r o u g h e l e v e n p l u s s e l e c t i o n , and u n l i k e the p a s t , no more fee p a y e r s were t o e n t e r the I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s . D u r i n g 1946, v i s i t s o f the s c h o o l I n s p e c t o r s from England resumed. A f t e r r e v i e w i n g the s c h o o l s t h a t y e a r , Mr. C. Parmee, H.M.I., ob s e r v e d t h a t i n i t i a l p o s t war d i f f i c u l t i e s o f r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e h a b i l i t -a t i o n had been overcome. The s c h o o l l e a v i n g age remained a t f o u r t e e n l a r g e l y on the a d v i c e o f t h e H.M.I. I n h i s r e p o r t f o r 1947, Mr. Parmee e x p r e s s e d the o p i n i o n t h a t c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f the e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d have p r i o r i t y , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e r e was a s h o r t a g e o f t e a c h i n g s t a f f and space. Some s l i g h t change was made t o t h e s c h o o l l e a v i n g age i n 194 9 whereby a c h i l d had t o remain i n s c h o o l u n t i l the end o f t h e term i n which he/she became f o u r t e e n . F o r m e r l y , s t u d e n t s c o u l d l e a v e a t the h a l f term f o l l o w i n g t h e f o u r t e e n t h birthday."*" I t was n o t u n t i l September, 1963, t h a t the s c h o o l l e a v i n g age was r a i s e d t o f i f t e e n , a l t h o u g h by t h e n f i f t e e n had been the s c h o o l l e a v i n g age f o r some y e a r s i n E n g l a n d and i n J e r s e y . The r e p o r t o f 1947 r e f e r s t o t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n a t V a u v e r t s c h o o l , w i t h o u t which i t c o u l d n o t be a secondary modern s c h o o l . I n 194 7, the Rev. J e r e m i a h was a p p o i n t e d I n s p e c t o r o f r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n i n the s c h o o l s , and f o r the f i r s t time f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was g r a n t e d t o s t u d e n t s p r o c e e d i n g t o u n i v e r s i t y . 64 i i ) E d u c a t i o n i n A l d e r n e y The i s l a n d o f A l d e r n e y , which had s u f f e r e d so much from enemy o c c u p a t i o n , now handed o v e r the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n i n A l d e r n e y t o the Guernsey E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l . The A l d e r n e y E d u c a t i o n Committee remained and the Guernsey E l e m e n t a r y (Primary) S c h o o l s Committee v i s i t e d A l d e r n e y a n n u a l l y . The r e b u i l d i n g o f A l d e r n e y ' s e d u c a t i o n a l system b r o u g h t about i n c r e a s e o f e x p e n d i t u r e f o r t h e Guernsey C o u n c i l i n 1949. One hundred c h i l d r e n were a t S t . Anne's S c h o o l and a n o t h e r f o r t y were a t ' 2 the Convent S c h o o l run by t h e s i s t e r s o f the Sacre Coeur. In A l d e r n e y , no l e s s than i n Guernsey, s c h o o l accommodation was a problem. The f i r s t s i x s c h o l a r s h i p s were awarded t o A l d e r n e y c h i l d r e n i n 1949, and the Headmaster o f t h e A l d e r n e y S c h o o l s t a r t e d the f i r s t e v e n i n g c l a s s e s . By 1956, t h e r e were f o u r c l a s s e s , e n r o l l i n g t h i r t y s t u d e n t s . R e g i s t r a t i o n i n the A l d e r n e y s c h o o l grew s t e a d i l y u n t i l , 3 i n 1958, t h e r e were 175 c h i l d r e n a t S t . Anne's S c h o o l . I t o p e r a t e d as an a l l - a g e s c h o o l , those c h i l d r e n s e l e c t e d f o r a grammar type o f e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h the e l e v e n p l u s e x a m i n a t i o n , h a v i n g t o go t o Guernsey. The Convent was c l o s e d i n 1955 and the S i s t e r s went t o B l a n c h e l a n d e Convent i n Guernsey. S t . Anne's c o n t i n u e d to be the o n l y s c h o o l i n A l d e r n e y u n t i l the new L a Brecque P r i v a t e S c h o o l was approved i n 1966. A c r a f t c e n t r e was p r o v i d e d i n 1958, as w e l l as a h a l f day s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r p u p i l s c l a s s e d as Slow L e a r n e r s . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , a f u l l t i me E.S.N, c l a s s was i n o p e r a t i o n . I n 1965, a new s c h o o l was b u i l t i n A l d e r n e y . Commer-c i a l s u b j e c t s were then a v a i l a b l e t o s e n i o r s and the s c h o o l was a c c e p t e d as a r e c o g n i z e d e x a m i n i n g c e n t r e f o r the C e r t i f i c a t e o f Secondary E d u c a t i o n . 65 i i i ) P r i v a t e E d u c a t i o n F o l l o w i n g the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f 1946/47, l a r g e r numbers o f ' s c h o l a r s h i p s ' were awarded. The f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s f o r 1949 show the number o f S t a t e s s c h o l a r s a t t e n d i n g grammar s c h o o l s . 142 E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e 121 L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e 184 I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l f o r Boys 4 236 I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l f o r G i r l s E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e , a l t h o u g h w i t h i t s own s t a t u t e s and D i r e c t o r s , became dependent on income from the S t a t e s i n r e t u r n f o r which t h i r t y - f i v e s p e c i a l p l a c e s were g r a n t e d a n n u a l l y t o p r i m a r y s c h o o l p u p i l s , t h r o u g h the e l e v e n p l u s e x a m i n a t i o n . Once accommod-a t i o n was i n c r e a s e d , the same number o f s p e c i a l p l a c e s was g i v e n by L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e , which became a D i r e c t G r a n t s c h o o l . P a r t I I o f t h i s paper r e c o u n t s the f o u n d i n g o f the L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e Company, bu t i n 1962, the £5 s h a r e s were p a i d o f f t o descendants o f the o r i g i n a l 1872 s h a r e h o l d e r s . Mr. G. B r e t t , former A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n , has s a i d t h a t o n l y about twenty-one p e o p l e came f o r w a r d t o c l a i m t h e s e s h a r e s . A f t e r w i n d i n g up the Company, the s c h o o l ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n was r e v i s e d and the Board o f Governors 5 was r e c o n s t i t u t e d . Each o f t h e s e s c h o o l s had i t s own p r e p a r a t o r y department and each was t o t a l l y dependent on the f e e s c h a r g e s . They were and s t i l l a r e , q u i t e independent o f t h e s e n i o r departments. A t e l e v e n , g i r l s p r o c e e d from M e l r o s e Lower S c h o o l i n t o t h e s e n i o r L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e , w h i l e the boys go on t o the Upper C o l l e g e a t t w e l v e o r t h i r t e e n . They c o n t i n u e as f e e p a y e r s i n t h e s e n i o r departments. The f e e s t h u s g a t h e r e d a re deducted from the c o s t s p r o v i d e d by t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l . Whereas t h i r t y y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y , t h e r e had been twenty-two p r i v a t e s c h o o l s , i n 1949 e i g h t p r i v a t e s c h o o l s were i n o p e r a t i o n i n Guernesey. Four o f t h e s e c a t e r e d m o s t l y f o r c h i l d r e n p r o c e e d i n g t o the Lower s c h o o l s o f the C o l l e g e s a t the age o f seven o r e i g h t , w h i l e B l a n c h e l a n d e Convent and Les V a u x b e l e t s C o l l e g e f o r boys (run by t h e de l a S a l l e B r o t h e r s ) were p r i v a t e C a t h o l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s t a k i n g s t u d e n t s up t o and 66 through secondary education. A l l these private schools were run in accordance with the p r e v a i l i n g Education Law of 1935 and were subject to Council inspection and approval. By 1951, the private schools enrolled 587 pupils. Financial d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by the Convent school, Blanchelande, the only Catholic Grammar school i n the Island, caused the Education Council to make a loan to the Convent, and i n 1958, a governing body was set up for Blanchelande. The main purpose of t h i s Governing Board, on which the Education Council had two representatives, was to give guidance i n finance. The School Library Service. A school l i b r a r y service was begun, and a school l i b r a r i a n was appointed i n 1949. I t started with 3,500 books i n c i r c u l -ation. With time, the number of books increased u n t i l , i n 1960, the processing of 13,414 books necessitated the appointment of a second l i b r a r i a n . Working from Granville House, the l i b r a r i a n sent out boxes of books to the schools twice each term. These books were to supplement class l i b r a r i e s . Education Council reports shown that 18,514 books were available to the schools i n 1970. This number-'grew to 22,147 by 1975. 67 v) S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n The autumn o f 1949 saw the a r r i v a l o f a new H.M.I., Mr. C. Harper. I n h i s f i r s t r e p o r t , Mr. Harper s u g g e s t e d t h a t r e o r g a n i z a t i o n be completed w i t h a l l h a s t e t o p r o v i d e a secondary s c h o o l w i t h a r u r a l b i a s t o s e r v e the w e s t e r n p a r i s h e s . He was a l s o c o ncerned w i t h the in a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n f o r S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n . U n t i l t h i s t i m e , 1949, handicapped c h i l d r e n had gone t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i n Engla n d . I n 1949, the house F l o r a v i l l e was used f o r the s o c i a l t r a i n i n g o f m e n t a l l y d e f i c i e n t c h i l d r e n . Twelve c h i l d r e n were e n r o l l e d . Two y e a r s l a t e r t he I n s p e c t o r urged t h a t backward and d u l l c h i l d r e n s h o u l d have s p e c i a l i z e d c a r e . I t was n o t u n t i l September o f 1953 t h a t the V a l n o r d S c h o o l f o r E.S.N, c h i l d r e n opened w i t h f i f t y - f o u r p u p i l s on r o l l . There were f o u r t e a c h e r s . B l i n d , and deaf and the s e v e r e l y handicapped c h i l d r e n were s e n t t o E n g l a n d . There was no o c c u p a t i o n a l c e n t r e t o c a t e r t o t h e needs o f the i n e d u c a b l e c h i l d , who was e x c l u d e d from t h e I s l a n d e d u c a t i o n -a l system. However, i n 1954, w i t h the growth o f V a l n o r d i n t o f i v e c l a s s e s , w i t h s i x t y - t w o c h i l d r e n , t h e C o u n c i l agreed t h a t an O c c u p a t i o n a l C e n t r e s h o u l d be s e t up a t F l o r a v i l l e . The C o u n c i l ' s r e p o r t f o r 1956 r e f e r s t o t h e r e b e i n g n i n e t e e n s t u d e n t s aged f i v e t o s i x t e e n on r o l l a t t h e C e n t r e , w i t h a s t a f f o f two. A few o f thes e c h i l d r e n c o u l d hope t o r e a d and w r i t e and do a l i t t l e a r i t h m e t i c . P a r e n t s were i n v o l v e d i n o u t - o f - s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s . A s t e p f o r w a r d i n S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n a t t h i s t i m e , was t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l and m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s ( through t h e S c h o o l M e d i c a l S e r v i c e ) were made a v a i l a b l e t o handicapped c h i l d r e n under f i v e . A l t h o u g h much a t t e n t i o n had been f o c u s e d f o r many y e a r s on C h i l d Guidance i n E n g l a n d , Guernsey d i d n o t s t a r t a C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c u n t i l 1963. The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e Round T a b l e r s , a p h i l a n t h r o p i c group, f i n a n c e d a b u i l d i n g t o r e p l a c e the i n a d e q u a t e F l o r a v i l l e , as a Day T r a i n i n g C e n t r e f o r c h i l d r e n who were c o n s i d e r e d i n c a p a b l e o f b e n e f i t t i n g from normal e d u c a t i o n i n a S t a t e s S c h o o l . P a r e n t s were n o t c o m p e l l e d t o send t h e i r c h i l d r e n , b u t i t was t h e o n l y p l a c e p r o v i d e d f o r them. The s i t e 68 and maintenance c o s t s were borne by the C o u n c i l who, i n 19 65, opened a J u n i o r Day T r a i n i n g C e n t r e a t the Maurepas. S t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g V a l n o r d S p e c i a l S c h o o l s p e n t one day o f each week w o r k i n g a t a jo b f e l t t o be s u i t a b l e f o r them. They were w i t h t h e same employer each week, and e v e n t u a l l y some were t a k e n on pe r m a n e n t l y . By 1968, t h e r e were e i g h t y - f o u r s t u d e n t s a t V a l n o r d S c h o o l . The s e v e r e l y h a n d i c a p p e d , aged f i v e t o s i x t e e n , were b e i n g educated a t the Maurepas, w h i l e t h e o l d e r ones, aged 16 - 23, were a t F l o r a v i l l e . W i t h t i m e , the l a t t e r s t u d e n t s went t o L a C o r b i n i e r e , an A d u l t T r a i n i n g C e n t r e . I n 1969, t h e s e l a s t two groups o f s t u d e n t s were a l l a t La C o r b i n i e r e , and were the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the Board o f H e a l t h . T h i s l e f t j u s t t h e Maurepas and V a l n o r d s c h o o l under the d i r e c t c o n t r o l o f the E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l . When the 19 70 Law came i n t o f o r c e , t h e r e were t e n c h i l d r e n away i n S p e c i a l S c h o o l s i n E n g l a n d , f o r t y - t h r e e a t 7 the Maurepas and a c o n s t a n t e i g h t y - f o u r a t t e n d e d V a l n a r d S c h o o l . 69 v i ) F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n E v e n i n g c l a s s e s p r o v i d e d F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n , and i n 1947 g t h e r e were 830 s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n 69 c l a s s e s a t n i n e c e n t r e s . R e c r e a t i o n a l and commercial c o u r s e s f i g u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y . A F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e r was a p p o i n t e d , and as time went on, more workshop c o u r s e s were o f f e r e d . T h i s encouraged a few employers t o urge t h e i r employees t o a t t e n d e v e n i n g c l a s s e s . A J o i n t A p p r e n t i c e s h i p and J u v e n i l e Employment Committee worked to encourage e v e n i n g c l a s s e nrolment among young w o r k e r s . I n 9 the 1951/52 y e a r , 1,025 s t u d e n t s were e n r o l l e d i n e v e n i n g c l a s s e s . S t a t i s t i c s f o r 1953 show t h a t 78 e v e n i n g c l a s s e s had 968 e n r o l -ments. 0 F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h e v e n i n g c l a s s e s became more p o p u l a r , u n t i l i n 1961, an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p scheme was i n t r o d u c e d i n t he H o r t i c u l t u r a l I n d u s t r y . Some o f the study was h i n d e r e d because o f the l a c k o f t e c h n i c a l c o l l e g e f a c i l i t i e s . An e x p e r -i m e n t a l c o u r s e i n Bakery was s t a r t e d , u s i n g b a k e r i e s f o r c l a s s e s , and a cour s e i n the H o t e l and C a t e r i n g Trades was proposed. I n a l l , t h e r e were 1,130 s t u d e n t s s p r e a d o v e r 9 3 classes."'""'' The n e x t y e a r , 1962, a two y e a r c o u r s e was s t a r t e d f o r the C i t y and G u i l d s e x a m i n a t i o n i n the C a t e r i n g Trades. F o r c l a s s e s i n Bakery,, A c c o u n t a n c y , B a n k i n g and the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o f e s s i o n s t h e r e was a d i s c o u r a g i n g r e s p o n s e . However, e i g h t e e n s t u d e n t s , under 21 y e a r s o f age, d i d e n r o l l i n a two y e a r c o u r s e i n H o r t i c u l t u r e , i n 196 3. Commercial c o u r s e s f l o u r i s h e d , so t h a t R.S.A. e x a m i n a t i o n s were s u c c e s s f u l l y t a k e n i n 1964. A l t o g e t h e r , 12 t h e r e were 115 c o u r s e s e n r o l l i n g 1,360 s t u d e n t s . In 1964, the S t a t e s r e g i s t e r e d a p p r e n t i c e s h i p agreements were changed, so t h a t a p p r e n t i c e s were c o m p e l l e d t o a t t e n d two e v e n i n g c l a s s e s p e r week. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n employers showing more i n t e r e s t i n c l a s s p r o v i s i o n and i n p a r t - t i m e day r e l e a s e c o n n e c t e d w i t h the gas, c o n f e c t i o n e r y , c a t e r i n g , t ypography and b u i l d i n g t r a d e s . Three y e a r s l a t e r , p l a n s were made f o r a s m a l l T e c h n i c a l - T r a i n i n g C e n t r e t o p r o v i d e b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n . The Cen t r e was t o be used i n day r e l e a s e schemes. T h i s C e n t r e , w h i c h "opened i n 1969 a t La C o u p e r d e r i e , was the f i r s t permanent home s e t a s i d e f o r F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n i n Guernsey. I t was a l s o a f o r e r u n n e r o f t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n . F u r t h e r 70 E d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s number 149, w i t h an e n r o l l m e n t o f 1,837 i n 13 September, 1968. F o r equipment and machinery a t t h e T e c h n i c a l -T r a i n i n g C e n t r e , the S t a t e s v o t e d £9,750 i n 1970. From 1970, the C o l l e g e o f F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n came i n t o b e i n g . 71 v i i ) A d m i n i s t r a t i o n F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o s t u d e n t s p r o c e e d i n g t o C o l l e g e o r U n i v e r s i t y i n E n g l a n d , i n c r e a s e d o v e r the y e a r s . R e l e v a n t C o u n c i l r e p o r t s show t h a t i n 1949, E817 was budgeted f o r u n i v e r s i t y g r a n t s t o two I s l a n d s t u d e n t s . T h i s was more than double the f i r s t g r a n t o f £400 p r o v i d e d f o r one s t u d e n t i n 1947. N i n e t y - n i n e s t u d e n t s were r e c e i v i n g g r a n t s i n 1958, 15 3 i n 196 3, and by 1967, t h e r e were 289 Guernsey s t u d e n t s s t u d y i n g i n the U n i t e d 14 Kingdom, r e c e i v i n g g r a n t s . The c o s t , i n 1967, was £100,000. The f i r s t g r a n t t o a secondary modern s c h o o l s t u d e n t t o go t o a Chef c o u r s e i n London, was made i n 1963. The i n c r e a s e i n the number o f c h i l d r e n w i s h i n g t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n p a s t t h e secondary s t a g e was a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e changes wrought i n the I s l a n d 1 s S c h o o l system. However, the Robbins Re p o r t on H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n i n E n g l a n d , w h i c h recommended an i n c r e a s e i n numbers i n H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , a l s o had some e f f e c t , f o r the R e p o r t recommended the p r o v i s i o n o f 24,000 a d d i t i o n a l p l a c e s i n H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n each y e a r . The s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d , and as improved secondary e d u c a t i o n was p r o v i d e d , so d i d the number o f c h i l d r e n who s t a y e d on p a s t the o f f i c i a l s c h o o l l e a v i n g age. From 5,877 r e g i s t e r e d i n 1946, t h e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n r o s e t o 60,450 i n 1950, t o 7,668 i n 1960 and i n c r e a s e d t o 9,128 i n 1 9 7 0 . 1 5 Together w i t h i n c r e a s e i n s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , was the need f o r an i n c r e a s e d number o f t e a c h i n g s t a f f . I n 1950, t h e r e were 146 q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s employed by t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l . By 1960, t h i s number had r i s e n t o 29 3, w i t h a f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d t o 16 387 t e a c h e r s i n 1970. F i n d i n g s u i t a b l y q u a l i f i e d s t a f f f o r the s c h o o l s has always been d i f f i c u l t , and s t r i n g e n t h o u s i n g laws c o u p l e d w i t h the e x c e e d i n g l y h i g h c o s t o f h o u s i n g , has c o n t r i b u t e d t o such d i f f i c u l t y . The l a c k o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h I n s u r a n c e i s a l s o a d e t e r r a n t t o t h e i m m i g r a t i o n o f E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s . Teachers en j o y s i m i l a r s a l a r i e s , s u p e r a n n u a t i o n and p e n s i o n r i g h t s as do t e a c h e r s i n E n g l a n d . I n 1945, t h e Burnham s a l a r y s c a l e c o n t i n u e d t o be p a i d as i t had been b e f o r e t h e war, and the Houghton S a l a r y Award was g r a n t e d i n 19 75. S u p e r a n n u a t i o n laws were r e d r a f t e d i n 19 59 t o b r i n g them i n t o l i n e w i t h England. 72 When the S e c r e t a r y t o t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l r e t i r e d i n 1954, the E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l d e c i d e d t o a p p o i n t an E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e r . I n O c t o b e r o f 1954, the f i r s t E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e r , Mr. L. K.Redford, commenced du t y . 73 v i i i ) The Decades o f the F i f t i e s and S i x t i e s . C o n t i n u e d Development. A u t h o r i z a t i o n was made by t h e S t a t e s i n 1954 f o r p l a n s t o be p r e p a r e d f o r a new secondary modern s c h o o l a t Les Beaucamps i n t h e C a s t e l p a r i s h . Herm I s l a n d s c h o o l was opened i n 1955 and t e n p u p i l s were r e g i s t e r e d . The acceptance f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n on Herm was a m o r a l one on the p a r t o f the E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l . P r e v i o u s l y , the t e n a n t had p a i d t h e t e a c h e r h i m s e l f . However, as t e n a n t , M a j o r Wood was a B a i l i w i c k t a x p a y e r so the C o u n c i l d e c i d e d t o agree t o h i s r e q u e s t t h a t a s c h o o l be p r o v i d e d f o r the Herm c h i l d r e n . W i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a t e c h n i c a l and commercial based c u r r i c u l u m , the I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s had f o r some time been g r a d u a l l y c h a n g i n g t o become Grammar-Technical S c h o o l s . S i n c e 1950, t r a n s f e r t o t h e C o l l e g e s a f t e r s i x t e e n had n o t been n e c e s s a r y and a secondary e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d i n g S i x t h form work, was a v a i l a b l e a t the I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s . T h e r e f o r e , i n 1955, t h e s c h o o l s became the Guernsey Grammar S c h o o l s . By 1955, t h e S p e c i a l P l a c e e x a m i n a t i o n was t a k e n by a l l c h i l d r e n o v e r e l e v e n and under t w e l v e who were i n p r i m a r y and a l l -age s c h o o l s . The Head t e a c h e r s o f t h e s c h o o l s c o u l d recommend p a r t i c u l a r l y b r i g h t t e n - y e a r o l d s . The e x a m i n a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f I.Q. t e s t s , E n g l i s h and A r i t h m e t i c t e s t s p l u s the s c h o o l Head's r e p o r t s . C h i l d r e n were a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d by the Head-t e a c h e r s o f t h e C o l l e g e s and Grammar S c h o o l s . The C o l l e g e s s e t a s e p a r a t e e x a m i n a t i o n i n E n g l i s h and A r i t h m e t i c f o r c h i l d r e n who had r e a c h e d a c e r t a i n h i g h s t a n d a r d o f work. Two Moray House I.Q. t e s t s were done. S e n i o r t r a n s f e r s were a v a i l a b l e a t the ages o f t w e l v e and t h i r t e e n . I n 1956, i t was d e c i d e d t h a t 30% o f a l l s t u d e n t s i n the e l e v e n p l u s age group s h o u l d have s p e c i a l 17 p l a c e s a v a i l a b l e t o them. T h i s gave g r e a t e r j u s t i c e t o c h i l d r e n b o r n when t h e r e was a h i g h b i r t h r a t e , r a t h e r t h a n i f a s e t number o f S p e c i a l P l a c e s were awarded. There was some s u p p o r t v o i c e d f o r t h e s e t t i n g up o f comprehensive e d u c a t i o n i n 195 8, b u t the C o u n c i l b e l i e v e d t h a t one s c h o o l w i t h 2,300 secondary s t u d e n t s , o r two w i t h 1,150 each on r o l l , would be i m p r a c t i c a b l e because o f c o s t and t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s . A t t h i s t i m e , Les Beaucamps was n e a r i n g 74 c o m p l e t i o n . The c o s t t o e s t a b l i s h comprehensive e d u c a t i o n was p r o h i b i t i v e . T h e r e f o r e , more l i a i s o n was encouraged between the Grammar and Secondary Modern s c h o o l s , and more w e i g h t was g i v e n t o the Headteacher's r e p o r t i n c o n s i d e r i n g a c h i l d f o r a S p e c i a l P l a c e , i n s p i t e o f the e x a m i n a t i o n r e s u l t s . I n t e r v i e w s were f o r b o r d e r l i n e cases o n l y and were w i t h t h e c h i l d p l u s t e a c h e r . M o d i f i c a t i o n s were made t o t h e S e l e c t i o n e x a m i n a t i o n i n 19 65. The I.Q. t e s t s were t o be g i v e n d u r i n g c l a s s time and w i t h o u t w a r n i n g . An assessment o f f o u r y e a r s ' work i n the J u n i o r s c h o o l was a l s o t o a i d s e l e c t i o n . Any f u r t h e r t e s t s were ones g i v e n by t h e C o l l e g e P r i n c i p a l s . I n 1954 and 1955 much d i f f i c u l t y was e x p e r i e n c e d i n the p r i m a r y c l a s s e s i n c o p i n g w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e d s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n , 18 known as 'the b u l g e ' . C o n s t a n t s u r v e y i n g o f numbers o f c h i l d r e n took p l a c e i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t secondary s c h o o l accommodation. 1957 f- 1962 were f o r e c a s t as t h e most d i f f i c u l t y e a r s ahead i n t h i s r e s p e c t . Les Beaucamps Secondary S c h o o l was n o t e x p e c t e d t o be ready f o r o c c u p a t i o n u n t i l e a r l y 1959. I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e annual r e p o r t s o f the C o u n c i l , p r e s e n t e d t o the S t a t e s , c o n s t a n t l y note a d d i t i o n s , renov-a t i o n s and t h e m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f a l l t h e s c h o o l s under t h e i r c o n t r o l . A f t e r 1956, t h e s e i n c l u d e d t h e f o r m e r l y p r i v a t e C a t h o l i c s c h o o l s o f Ker M a r i a and La Chaumiere w h i c h became V o l u n t a r y s c h o o l s . Two y e a r s l a t e r , the S a r e l (which had been o f such v a l i a n t s e r v i c e d u r i n g the German O c c u p a t i o n ) , and Les E t u r s s c h o o l s were c l o s e d . The l a t t e r s c h o o l was used f o r o v e r - s p i l l c l a s s e s d u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1960's when th e C a s t e l S c h o o l was s h o r t o f accommodation. When Les Beaucamps opened i n 1959, the secondary s c h o o l s were f u l l t o o v e r f l o w i n g , f o r 'the b u l g e ' had moved up i n t o the secondary s c h o o l s . I t was a l s o a p p a r e n t t h a t many c h i l d r e n o f f o u r t e e n were s t a y i n g on a t t h e secondary modern s c h o o l s a f t e r t h e s c h o o l l e a v i n g age. Many were t a k i n g R.S.A. e x a m i n a t i o n s i n commercial s u b j e c t s . By 1964, a d d d i t i o n a l c l a s s r o o m s were b u i l t a t Les Beaucamps S c h o o l . In 19 62, came the new c o n s t i t u t i o n 75 o f t h e L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e ( A p p e n d i x M), a n d a p p r o v a l was g i v e n f o r t h e b u i l d i n g o f a new C o l l e g e a t t h e M e l r o s e s i t e i n S t . P e t e r P o r t . The new s c h o o l was r e a d y f o r o c c u p a t i o n i n 1 9 6 5 , a n d t h e L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e p r e m i s e s on t h e G r a n g e was t a k e n o v e r b y t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l . P a r t o f t h e b u i l d i n g was u s e d b y t h e V a u v e r t I n f a n t s S c h o o l t o r e l i e v e c o n g e s t i o n i n V a u v e r t S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l . F o r many y e a r s V a u v e r t S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l h a d b e e n u s i n g b u i l d i n g s n o s t u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r i t s r o l e a s a s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . A new Town s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l was a n e c e s s i t y . The new S t . P e t e r P o r t S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l a t L e s O z o u e t s was r e a d y f o r u s e i n 1968, l e a v i n g t h e o l d V a u v e r t p r e m i s e s t o be o c c u p i e d by t h e Town J u n i o r s . T h i s i n t u r n r e l i e v e d o v e r - c r o w d i n g i n t h e o t h e r l a r g e J u n i o r s c h o o l i n Town, A m h e r s t S c h o o l . U n d e r t h e g u i d a n c e o f t h e E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e r , t h e new E d u c a t i o n Law o f 19 70 was f o r m u l a t e d . T h i s l a w i s d i s c u s s e d i n a f u r t h e r s e c t i o n o f t h i s p a p e r . The same y e a r a b u i l d i n g programme f o r w h i c h ^1,118,00 0 was b u d g e t e d , was a p p r o v e d b y t h e S t a t e s . The e x t e n t o f t h i s programme may be j u d g e d b y r e f e r r i n g t o A p p e n d i x When a l l t h i s programme h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e d , e v e r y s c h o o l i n t h e I s l a n d was e i t h e r new o r c o m p l e t e l y m o d e r n i z e d . T h i s i n c l u d e d L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e a n d t h e A l d e r n e y S c h o o l , a n d a new e n t i t y , a C o l l e g e o f F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n h a d b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d . 76 i x ) E x t e r n a l E x a m i n a t i o n s i n t h e S c h o o l s . A f t e r t h e war y e a r s ended i n 1945, t h e U n i v e r s i t y S c h o o l L e a v i n g C e r t i f i c a t e i n E n g l a n d was r e p l a c e d by t h e G e n e r a l C e r t i f i c a t e o f E d u c a t i o n . I t c o u l d be g a i n e d a t O r d i n a r y , Advanced and S c h o l a r s h i p l e v e l s . When the I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s began t o c a t e r f o r s t u d e n t s p a s t s i x t e e n y e a r s o f age, a l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f the E n g l i s h N a t i o n a l G.C.E. might be attem p t e d by s e n i o r s t u d e n t s a t t h e s e s c h o o l s . S t u d e n t s a t the c o l l e g e s , B l a n c h e l a n d e and Les V a u x b e l e t s were a l s o p r e p a r e d f o r the G.C.E. e x a m i n a t i o n s . In 196 3, a new s c h o o l l e a v i n g c e r t i f i c a t e was a c c e p t e d by the B r i t i s h M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , and the C e r t i f i c a t e o f Secondary E d u c a t i o n came i n t o f u l l o p e r a t i o n i n Guernsey. The C.S.E. e x a m i n a t i o n s were open t o s t u d e n t s who had completed f i v e y e a r s o f secondary e d u c a t i o n . Many c h i l d r e n s t a y e d a t secondary modern s c h o o l i n o r d e r t o t a k e t h e s e e x a m i n a t i o n s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e was h e l d i n the summer term o f 1965. I n 1958, 11.5% o f Guernsey c h i l d r e n s t a y e d on i n Secondary Modern S c h o o l s a f t e r the o f f i c i a l s c h o o l l e a v i n g age o f f o u r t e e n . By 1963, 22.4% o f Secondary Modern s t u d e n t s chose t o remain a t s c h o o l p a s t 15 p l u s . I n E n g l a n d , 9.4% i n t h e Secondary Modern s c h o o l s made a s i m i l a r 19 c h o i c e . The f i r s t e x a m i n a t i o n s , h e l d i n the summer o f 19 65, a t t r a c t e d 33 c a n d i d a t e s from secondary modern s c h o o l s . They wrote i n o v e r f o u r t e e n s u b j e c t s . The Secondary Modern S c h o o l s soon had s i x t h y e a r s t u d e n t s and some t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e Grammar S c h o o l s . A f t e r the new S t . P e t e r P o r t secondary s c h o o l was o p e r a t i o n a l , i t was p l a n n e d t o o f f e r s e l e c t i v e advanced c o u r s e s a t a l l t h r e e Secondary Modern S c h o o l s . Such a p l a n e n a b l e d s e n i o r secondary modern s t u d e n t s t o move among t h e s c h o o l s i n o r d e r t o st u d y a p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e f o r C.S.E. The i n c r e a s i n g number o f s t u d e n t s i n t he secondary modern s c h o o l s p a s t s c h o o l l e a v i n g age, s u s t a i n e d p r e s s u r e on the secondary s c h o o l accommodation i n Guernsey. 77 x) The H.M.I, i n Guernsey We may remember the r e p o r t made by the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f 20 S c h o o l s i n 1900, i n whi c h he r e f e r r e d t o H. M. I n s p e c t o r s o f the E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n Department. T h e i r s u c c e s s o r s c o n t i n u e d t o be a c t i v e l y engaged i n a d v i s i n g t h e Guernsey E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l i n s c h o o l m a t t e r s a f t e r W orld War I I . Twice y e a r l y r e p o r t s on the B a i l i w i c k s c h o o l s which t h e y had v i s i t e d , were p r e s e n t e d , and recommendations made a c c o r d i n g l y . A l t h o u g h i n 1947, H.M.I. Parmee had urged t h e C o u n c i l t o r e t a i n a s c h o o l l e a v i n g age o f 14, i n 1951 h i s s u c c e s s o r s , Mr. B u t l e r , urged t h a t i t be r a i s e d , f o r about h a l f the c h i l d r e n i n Guernsey were b e i n g d e n i e d s c h o o l a f t e r t h e age o f 14. These c h i l d r e n had o n l y 2h o r 3 y e a r s i n 21 a secondary department. I n s p e c t o r B u t l e r a l s o c r i t i c i s e d t h e l a c k o f l i b r a r i e s i n the s c h o o l s , q u o t i n g t h i s as a h i n d r a n c e t o the r e s e a r c h and i n d i v i d u a l work which he advocated. T h i s I n s p e c t o r had been h i g h l y c r i t i c a l o f the Fr e n c h t h a t was b e i n g t a u g h t , f o r he c o n s i d e r e d t h e r e ^ a s too much adademic t r a n s l a t i o n . A f t e r H. M. I . C h a r l e s S t r a f f o r d had v i s i t e d t he B a i l i w i c k i n 1960, h i s r e p o r t mentioned "the f r i g h t e n i n g i m m a t u r i t y o f the 22 f o u r t e e n y e a r o l d s c h o o l l e a v e r s . " L i k e Mr. B u t l e r , S t r a f f o r d a l s o wrote o f t h e d e f i c i e n c y o f l i b r a r y books i n t h e s c h o o l s and c o n c u r r e d w i t h Mr. B u t l e r o v e r the poor s t a n d a r d o f F r e n c h t e a c h i n g i n Guernsey. As a r e s u l t , an I n s p e c t o r o f F r e n c h came from J e r s e y t o see Fre n c h i n the P r i m a r y S c h o o l s i n 196 3. Recommendations made a f t e r t h i s and subsequent i n s p e c t i o n s , seem t o have borne f r u i t , f o r the H.M.I. Repo r t o f 1968 n o t e s t h e improvement i n F r e n c h i n the P r i m a r y s c h o o l s . The I n s p e c t o r ' s r e p o r t f o r 1968 r e f e r r e d t o t h e " r e l e n t l e s s p r e s s u r e " f o r e x p a n s i o n o f c l a s s r o o o m accommodation. Uging t h e C o u n c i l t o embark on a l a r g e - s c a l e b u i l d i n g programme, t h e I n s p e c t o r w r i t e t h a t the C o u n c i l s h o u l d "guard a g a i n s t h e s i t a t i o n i n i n -23 v e s t i n g money i n e d u c a t i o n . " As r e c o r d e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e f o l l o w -i n g y e a r o v e r one m i l l i o n pounds was approved f o r b u i l d i n g e s t i m a t e s . I n 1965, Mr. C. S t r a f f o r d had commented on t h e b e n e f i t s o f s c h o o l swimming p o o l s . By 19 70, t h e r e was a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l p r o v i s i o n o f swimming p o o l s i n the I s l a n d ' s s c h o o l s . A l t h o u g h 78 t h e s e p o o l s were p r o v i d e d by the e f f o r t s and g e n e r o s i t y o f p a r e n t s , maintenance and h e a t i n g became the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l . 79 x i ) S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t s The comprehensive B.B.C. b r o a d c a s t s f o r s c h o o l s had l o n g been an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l s ' t i m e t a b l e s , b u t i t was no t u n t i l 19 62 t h a t t h e B a i l i w i c k had a second T. V. Channel. I t was t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e d t o p u t t e l e v i s i o n i n t o t h r e e s c h o o l s as an ex p e r i m e n t . R e s u l t s o f the exp e r i m e n t were e n c o u r a g i n g b u t no t s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n c l u s i v e t o have T.V. p r o v i d e d i n e v e r y s c h o o l . However, by 1964, t e n s c h o o l s had s e t s . I n 1966, Guernsey and J e r s e y E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l s had d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the B.B.C. o f f i c i a l s f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f l o c a l sound b r o a d c a s t i n g t o t h e s c h o o l s . As a r e s u l t , a p i l o t p r o j e c t i n l o c a l b r o a d c a s t i n g t o the Channel I s l a n d s c h o o l s was u n d e r t a k e n . An a d v i s o r y p a n e l o f t e a c h e r s , t h r e e from each i s l a n d , d e c i d e d on a t o p i c f o r a s e r i e s o f b r o a d c a s t s . There were f o u r t e a c h e r p r o d u c e r s (two from each i s l a n d ) , who gave h a l f time to t h e b r o a d c a s t s . I t was they who a r r a n g e d the d e t a i l s o f the b r o a d c a s t s , t h e ta p e s and the t e a c h e r s ' n o t e s . Once t h e s e had been approved by the A d v i s o r y P a n e l , t h e ta p e s were s e n t t o the B.B.C. s t a t i o n , Les P l a t o n s , t o be b r o a d c a s t . Each s c h o o l term t h e r e was a s e r i e s o f t e n programmes. The E d u c a t i o n Department i n Guernsey p r o v i d e d s t u d i o and work room, p l u s f u r n i s h i n g s and m o b i l e equipment. The B.B.C. e n g i n e e r i n g s t a f f i n s t a l l e d a l l t he f i x e d a p p a r a t u s . Three o f the o r i g i n a l t o p i c s were: Channel I s l a n d Characters,-Pastand P r e s e n t ; F o l k L o r e and Legends; Down on the Beach. The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , The Channel I s l a n d s E d u c a t i o n a l B r o a d c a s t s t o S c h o o l s were o p e r a t i n g on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . 80 x i i ) The S c h o o l M e d i c a l S e r v i c e R e g u l a r m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f s c h o o l c h i l d r e n resumed i n 1945 under Dr. McGlashen, b u t a new M e d i c a l O f f i c e r took h i s p l a c e i n 1953. I t was found n e c e s s a r y t o a p p o i n t a S c h o o l D e n t a l O f f i c e r i n the same y e a r , and by November, 1955, a f u l l S c h o o l D e n t a l S e r v i c e was e s t a b l i s h e d complete w i t h D e n t a l C l i n i c . I n h i s annual r e p o r t s , the S c h o o l M e d i c a l O f f i c e r f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r s t o S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n and, from 19 56, w i t h h i s c o o p e r a t i o n , m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s were made a v a i l a b l e t o handicapped c h i l d r e n o f p r e -s c h o o l age. The S c h o o l O r t h o p t i s t came under t h e c o n t r o l o f the E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l i n 195 7, a l t h o u g h a s e r v i c e had o r i g i n a l l y s t a r t e d i n 194 9. Immunization became p a r t o f the m e d i c a l programme i n t h e s c h o o l s from t h e m i d - f i f t i e s , and a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r a r t h r i t i c c h i l d r e n was s t a r t e d i n 1956. A s t h m a t i c c h i l d r e n were a l s o g i v e n s p e c i a l i s e d c a r e w i t h i n t h e S c h o o l M e d i c a l S e r v i c e . The s t a f f o f t h i s s e r v i c e i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l n u r s e s who p a i d home v i s i t s as w e l l as w o r k i n g i n the s c h o o l s and c l i n i c s . The i n c r e a s e i n the number o f d e n t a l p a t i e n t s from t h e s c h o o l s prompted the appointment o f an A s s i s t a n t D e n t a l O f f i c e r i n 1960. I n 19 67, because o f the demand f o r more d e n t a l a t t e n -t i o n , the C o u n c i l d e c i d e d t h a t a d e n t a l O f f i c e r s h o u l d be a p p o i n t e d f o r t h e A l d e r n e y S e r v i c e . R e p o r t i n g t o t h e C o u n c i l i n 1967, the S c h o o l m e d i c a l O f f i c e r s t a t e d t h a t he found the l e v e l o f h e a l t h among t h e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n the B a i l i w i c k was g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . He d i d , however, note the need f o r n u r s e r y s c h o o l s f o r t h e 3 ^ - 5 y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n . D u r i n g the two and a h a l f decades w h i c h f o l l o w e d the Second World War, t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l had s u p e r v i s e d t h e r e f o r m and m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f e v e r y b r a n c h o f I s l a n d e d u c a t i o n . 81 NOTES PART V 1. Order i n C o u n c i l XXIV 1949. 2. E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l , Annual R e p o r t t o S t a t e s f o r 1949 3. I b i d . 1958 4. I b i d . 1949 5. Order i n C o u n c i l 19 62. Appendix M 6. E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l , op. c i t . 1951. 7. I b i d . 1970 8. I b i d . 1947 9. I b i d . 1952 10. I b i d . 1953 11. I b i d . 1961 12. I b i d . 1963 13. I b i d . 1968 14. I b i d . 1967 15. I b i d . 1950, 16. I b i d . 17. I b i d . 1956 18. I b i d . 1954. 19. I b i d . 1963 20. I b i d . 1900. 21. R eport o f H. 22. I b i d . 1960. 23. I b i d . 1969 . See Appendix N. See Appendix J . 82 PART VI SURVEY OF DEVELOPMENTS IN THE 19 70's i ) The New Law I n Guernsey, the f i r s t y e a r o f t h e s e v e n t i e s u s h e r e d i n a new E d u c a t i o n Law. Because o f t h i s law, new s c h o o l committees were founded. P a r o c h i a l Committees gave way t o P r i m a r y and Sec-ondary Committees. -These had.' powers s i m i l a r t o t h e former P a r i s h Committes, b u t o f t h e i r f i v e members, f o u r were from the p a r i s h and one was a p p o i n t e d by the E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l . A t Les Beaucamps, where the c h i l d r e n came from s e v e r a l p a r i s h e s , t h e r e was one member on the Secondary Committee from each o f the p a r i s h e s from where the s t u d e n t s came. The C o u n c i l a p p o i n t e d an e i g h t h member. The V o l u n t a r y S c h o o l s each had a six-member committee. Four o f the members were f o u n d a t i o n managers o f the s c h o o l , and two were ap-p o i n t e d by t h e C o u n c i l . S e c t i o n 7, s u b s e c t i o n 1 o f the Law s t a t e s t h a t a l l expenses o f t h e s e v o l u n t a r y s c h o o l s would be borne by the S t a t e s , p r o v i d e d t h e s c h o o l managers met t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f upkeep, r e p a i r and d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g . The c o n t r o l and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n a d v i s e d by the S c h o o l I n s p e c t o r s had a c t u a l l y come about, f o r the C o u n c i l was now a b l e t o d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e a l l the s c h o o l committees i n the I s l a n d . A l l S p e c i a l s c h o o l s and the C o l l e g e o f F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n came under the d i r e c t c o n t r o l o f t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l . The Grammar S c h o o l s each had a s c h o o l committee o f s i x members, a l l b e i n g a p p o i n t e d by the E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l . As w e l l as p r o v i d i n g f o r P r i m a r y and Secondary s c h o o l s , the new law r e f e r r e d t o the C o u n c i l h a v i n g r e g a r d f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f n u r s e r y c l a s s e s o r n u r s e r y schools."'" I t a l s o s t a t e d t h a t p r o -v i s i o n be made f o r p u p i l s who s u f f e r from any d i s a b i l i t y o f the mind 2 o r body by p r o v i d i n g s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t . S e c t i o n 19, s u b s e c t i o n 1 f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t a r e g i s t e r e d p u p i l a t a S p e c i a l s c h o o l c o u l d n o t be withdrawn w i t h o u t the consent o f the C o u n c i l . 83 The appointment and d i s m i s s a l o f t e a c h e r s i n S t a t e s and V o l u n t a r y s c h o o l s , came under the s o l e c o n t r o l o f the E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l . R e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n was t o be p r o v i d e d . Both i t and the c o l l e c t i v e w o r s h i p , w i t h which each s c h o o l day s h o u l d b e g i n , had " t o be d i s t i n c t -3 l v e o f any p a r t i c u l a r d e n o m i n a t i o n " . Compulsory s c h o o l ages remained f i v e t o f i f t e e n y e a r s . C h i l d r e n might l e a v e s c h o o l o n l y a t the end o f the s p r i n g o r summer terms. A l l i n s p e c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g t h a t o f r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n , was t o be un d e r t a k e n by p e o p l e a u t h o r i z e d by t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l t o do so. The e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s was t h a t o f the V o l u n t a r y s c h o o l s whose committee o f management might a p p o i n t i n s p e c t o r s o f r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n . Under the 19 70 Law, p a r e n t s had t h e r i g h t t o withdraw t h e i r c h i l d r e n from r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n i f they w i s h e d t o do so. S e c u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n was c o n t r o l l e d by the C o u n c i l i n S t a t e s and V o l u n t a r y s c h o o l s . Whereas the law o f 19 35 had s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d the s u b j e c t s t o be t a u g h t i n the P r i m a r y s c h o o l s , no c u r r i c u l u m was l a i d down i n t h e 19 70 Law. S e c t i o n 53 changed the t i t l e o f the E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e r t o t h a t o f D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n . The Law o f 19 70 was comprehensive, c o v e r i n g t h e many branches o f e d u c a t i o n which had d e v e l o p e d o v e r the p r e c e d i n g t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . The arrangement o f the s e c t i o n s o f the E d u c a t i o n Law (Guernsey) 19 70 i s c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix 0. 84 i i ) P r i m a r y E d u c a t i o n The b u i l d i n g programme on which the C o u n c i l had a l r e a d y embarked, proceeded u n t i l , i n 19 74, a new p r i m a r y s c h o o l was e s t a b l i s h e d a t Mare de C a r e r e t , Cobo, t o s e r v e the c h i l d r e n i n the west c o a s t a r e a . At L a Houguette, a l o n g a w a i t e d p r i m a r y s c h o o l f o r the west was completed i n 19 75. T h i s s c h o o l r e p l a c e d the o l d J u n i o r s c h o o l s o f S t . P e t e r - i n - t h e - W o o d and S t . S a v i o u r . La Houguette was p r o v i d e d w i t h a c o v e r e d swimming p o o l t o compensate f o r the l o s s o f two p o o l s which had been p r o v i d e d by p a r e n t s , a t t h e former s c h o o l s . The c o s t o f t h i s s c h o o l was i n e x c e s s o f £443,000 and was b u i l t t o accommodate 380 c h i l d r e n . Here we amy r u e f u l l y r e c a l l the e s t i m a t e o f £63,405 made i n 19 36 f o r the f o l l o w i n g y e a r ' s e d u c a t i o n expenses. The p r i m a r y s c h o o l i n Herm was p r o v i d e d w i t h new accommodation i n 19 70, when a former b a r n was r e m o d e l l e d and made i n t o a modern schoolroom. 19 74 w i t n e s s e d t h e amalgamation o f two Roman C a t h o l i c p r i m a r y s c h o o l s and t h e c l o s u r e o f a t h i r d . Ker M a r i a became the I n f a n t S c h o o l w h i l e Delancey took a l l the J u n i o r C a t h o l i c c h i l d r e n i n the N o r t h . La Chaumiere P r i m a r y S c h o o l i n S t . Andrew's p a r i s h was c l o s e d , due t o t h e d w i n d l i n g number o f s t u d e n t s . To c a t e r f o r t h e s e changes, an amendment o f the 19 70 O r d i n a n c e was n e c e s s a r y t o form a s i n g l e s c h o o l committee f o r t h e new amalgamated s c h o o l . T h i s new committee was t o be known as the S t . Mary and S t . M i c h a e l Roman C a t h o l i c P r i m a r y S c h o o l Committee. When the secondary a c c -ommodation a t A t . Joseph's was v a c a t e d , the c h i l d r e n o f N o t r e Dame du R o s a i r e moved i n . C h i l d r e n had f o r m e r l y e n t e r e d s c h o o l the term i n which they r e a c h e d f i v e y e a r s o f age. T h i s was changed i n 19 72, and a one y e a r e n t r y o f I n f a n t s was a c h i e v e d when c h i l d r e n began s c h o o l a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the y e a r i n w h i c h they became f i v e . The E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l ' s r e p o r t f o r 1972 r e f e r r e d t o t h e B r i t i s h government's w h i t e paper, A Framework f o r E x p a n s i o n , which d e a l t w i t h the e x p a n s i o n o f n u r s e r y s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . T h i s a s p e c t o f e a r l y e d u c a t i o n was t o be s t u d i e d by the C o u n c i l , However, i n 1973, 85 t h e C o u n c i l r e p o r t e d t h a t n u r s e r y e d u c a t i o n c o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d u n t i l o t h e r major p r o j e c t s had been d e a l t w i t h by t h e C o u n c i l . J u n i o r s c h o o l s c o n t i n u e d w i t h the s e l e c t i v e e l e v e n p l u s e x a m i n a t i o n . T h i s s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e was changed i n 19 75 and the i n t e r v i e w s f o r t h e Grammar s c h o o l s as w e l l as the two C o l l e g e s , were a b o l i s h e d . To r e p l a c e the i n t e r v i e w s , the D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n p l u s a p a n e l o f h e a d t e a c h e r s v i s i t e d the s c h o o l s f o r c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h the c l a s s t e a c h e r s and h e a d t e a c h e r s . 86 i i i ) Secondary E d u c a t i o n C l o s e t o t h e new p r i m a r y s c h o o l a t Cobo, the Mare de C a r t e r e t Secondary S c h o o l was completed, and o c c u p i e d i n F e b r u a r y , 19 75. T h i s b r o u g h t the f u l l complement o f secondary modern s c h o o l s i n the i s l a n d t o f o u r . S t . Joseph's Secondary Modern S c h o o l was c l o s e d i n 19 74. Numbers a t t e n d i n g t h e s c h o o l had been v e r y low, and t h e Roman C a t h o l i c a u t h o r i t i e s had d e c i d e d t h a t , f o r the f u t u r e , C a t h o l i c e d u c a t i o n a t t h e secondary l e v e l would be based a t B l a n c h e l a n d e . T h i s convent s c h o o l would become a g r a n t - a i d e d s c h o o l and would be c o - e d u c a t i o n a l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f C a t h o l i c e d u c a t i o n had t o be post-poned i n 19 75 because o f t h e e x c e s s i v e c o s t s e s t i m a t e d a t B l a n c h e l a n d e . I n 1973, a C a r e e r s A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e was e s t a b l i s h e d t o h e l p b o t h secondary and p o s t secondary s t u d e n t s . L e c t u r e s were a l s o g i v e n i n the' secondary s c h o o l s by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e armed s e r v i c e s . Her M a j e s t y ' s I n s p e c t o r o f S c h o o l s , Mr. B u r n s , r e p o r t i n g t o t h e S t a t e s ' i n 1973, remarked t h a t t h e r e was a need f o r more generous a s s i s t a n c e i n secondary s c h o o l s . He a l s o drew a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a c t ' t h a t i n E n g l a n d t h e r e had been major changes i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n , ones which were l a c k i n g i n 4 Guernsey. Re f e r e n c e was a l s o made i n t h i s r e p o r t t o t h e s c h o o l l e a v i n g age i n E n g l a n d o f s i x t e e n . D u r i n g 19 74, l i n k c o u r s e s a t t h e C o l l e g e o f F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e s e n i o r s t u d e n t s i n the G i r l s ' Grammar S c h o o l . These c l a s s e s gave a p o s t '0' l e v e l s i x t h form s e c r e t a r i a l c o u r s e . Some o f the f o u r t h and f i f t h form s t u d e n t s a l s o a t t e n d e d l i n k c o u r s e s i n s e c r e t a r i a l work. Some i n t e g r a t i o n o f c l a s s e s between the Boys' and G i r l s ' Grammar s c h o o l s was e f f e c t e d , b u t t h e i d e a t o e s t a b l i s h a c o e d u c a t i o n a l s c h o o l was d i s m i s s e d . O u t s i d e the c l a s s r o o m , s h i p ' s c r u i s e s were und e r t a k e n and i n 1973, s i x t y s i x t h - f o r m s t u d e n t s a t t e n d e d a s i x t h form c o n f e r e n c e run by the Commonwealth I n s t i t u t e . The number o f s t u d e n t s s t a y i n g i n t h e f i f t h and s i x t h y e a r i n t h e secondary modern s c h o o l s i n -c r e a s e d . A t t h e end o f 19 75, t h e r e were 9,763 s c h o o l c h i l d r e n 5 b e i n g educated i n Guernsey, and 226 i n A l d e r n e y . 87 i v ) S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n The need f o r S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o grow i n t h e 19 70's. I n 19 71, the p r o j e c t a t t h e Maurepas S c h o o l , t o meet the needs o f t h e s e v e r e l y handicapped, was completed. T h i s new s c h o o l p r o v i d e d accommodation f o r t h i r t y - t w o c h i l d r e n , w h i l e e i g h t y - f o u r E.S.N, c h i l d r e n were a t V a l n o r d . The 1972 r e p o r t r e f e r -r e d t o the need f o r the s e t t i n g up o f a U n i t f o r t h e Deaf. I n 19 73, t h e C o u n c i l r e p o r t e d t h a t such a / u n i t was o p e r a t i o n a l and s i t u a t e d a t F l o r a v i l l e . i n V a u v e r t . B e i n g a d j a c e n t t o V a u v e r t P r i m a r y S c h o o l , i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o normal s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s , a d v i s e d by the I n s p e c t o r , was f a c i l i t a t e d . A t t h i s t i m e , t h e r e were j u s t e i g h t c h i l d r e n i n r e s i d e n t i a l S p e c i a l s c h o o l s i n E n g l a n d , and by 19 75, t h i s number had dropped t o s i x . Of t h e s e c h i l d r e n , t h r e e were b l i n d , one was dea f , one was h a e m o p h i l i c and one was mal-a d j u s t e d . When the new p r i m a r y s c h o o l was b u i l t a t La Houguette, the s t u d e n t s a t Maurepas were moved i n t o S t . S a v i o u r ' s P r i m a r y B u i l d i n g which was adapted f o r i t s new r o l e . T h i s r e l i e v e d a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h had been p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t , f o r t h e number o f c h i l d r e n who needed t r e a t m e n t such as the Maurepas p r o v i d e d , had a l m o s t d o u b l e d i n t h e f i v e y e a r s p e v i o u s t o 1973. P r e f a b r i c a t e d c l a s s r o o m s had t o be e r e c t e d f o r e x t r a accommodation. V a l n o r d too was n o t l a r g e enough f o r a l l the E.S.N, c h i l d r e n who needed s p e c i a l i z e d c a r e . I n 19 73, p l a n s f o r a new s c h o o l f o r S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n were i n c l u d e d i n t h e l o n g term C a p i t a l Works Programme. The Head t e a c h e r a t V a l n o r d S c h o o l asked t h e C o u n c i l f o r improved accommodation i n 19 75. She a l s o r e q u e s t e d an assessment u n i t and s p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r c h i l d r e n under seven y e a r s . E v e n t u a l l y t h e b u i l d i n g v a c a t e d by Maurepas c h i l d r e n i n 19 75 was r e - e q u i p p e d as an assessment c e n t r e f o r the b e n e f i t o f c h i l d r e n whom the S c h o o l M e d i c a l O f f i c e r termed as b e i n g " a t r i s k 7 o f n e e d i n g s p e c i a l i s e d e d u c a t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t " A t L a C o r b m e r i e , the s t u d e n t s o f o v e r s i x t e e n y e a r s o f age remained under the Board o f H e a l t h . From a d e l a y e d s t a r t i n the p r o v i s i o n o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n f o r h e r handicapped c h i l d r e n , Guernsey had made f a i r p r o g r e s s d u r i n g the f i v e y e a r s p r i o r t o 1975. 88 v) F u r t h e r and A d u l t E d u c a t i o n When the E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l made a g r a n t toward the C o n t i n -u a t i o n C l a s s e s f o r Males i n 1922, i t i s d o u b t f u l i f t h e y e n v i s a g e d the C o l l e g e o f F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n w h i c h came i n t o b e i n g i n 19 70. Y e t i t was from such humble b e g i n n i n g s t h a t the most r e c e n t and most e x p e n s i v e e n t e r p r i s e i n modern Guernsey e d u c a t i o n sprang. In P a r t V o f t h i s paper the growth o f the E v e n i n g c l a s s e s and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a T e c h n i c a l T r a i n i n g C e n t r e a t La C o u p e r d e r i e , has a l r e a d y been n o t e d . I n t h e f i v e y e a r s w i t h w h i c h t h i s s e c t i o n i s c o n c erned, the C o l l e g e o f F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n has grown apace. In i t s f i r s t s m a l l c e n t r e , t h e r e was a C a r p e n t r y and J o i n e r y workshop, a S c i e n c e l a b , a l i b r a r y and a l e c t u r e room. G e n e r a l E n g i n e e r i n g , Motor V e h i c l e E n g i n e e r i n g , Plumbing and H a i r d r e s s i n g c o u r s e s were o f f e r e d .up t o I n t e r m e d i a t e C r a f t l e v e l . Some C i t y and G u i l d s e x a m i n a t i o n s were t a k e n a f t e r p r e p a r a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s by e i g h t f u l l - t i m e and f o u r p a r t - t i m e l e c t u r e r s . There were 24 8 s t u d e n t s on day r e l e a s e d u r i n g the f i r s t y e a r o f o p e r a t i o n as a C o l l e g e . A c o u r s e i n H o r t i c u l t u r e and the Commercial c o u r s e s were a l s o o f f e r e d , b u t seven d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s were used f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , p e n d i n g the b u i l d i n g o f a C o l l e g e . In 19 71, t h e s e b u i l d i n g s i n c l u d e d F l o r a v i l l e , and t h e former L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e b u i l d i n g , as w e l l as G r a n v i l l e House and t h e . H o r t i c u l t u r a l Department a t t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n . When the s i t e f o r t h e C o l l e g e o f F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n was p u r c h a s e d a t La Vrangue Manor i n 1971, t h e r e were t e n l e c t u r e r s and one t e c h n i c i a n as w e l l as the P r i n c i p a l . 2 76 s t u d e n t s were on p a r t - t i m e day r e l e a s e and e v e n i n g c o u r s e s . Of t h e s e , 190 were r e g i s t e r e d g a p p r e n t i c e s . T h i r t y - f i v e were p a r t - t i m e G.C.E. "0" l e v e l c a n d i d a t e s . From Oc t o b e r , 1971, the E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l became r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a p p r e n t i c e s h i p scheme. A d v i s o r y Trade P a n e l s were a l s o s e t up t o a d v i s e on t r a d e problems and on the c o u r s e s f o r t h e C o l l e g e . A s p e c i a l I n s p e c t o r came t o v i s i t t he C o l l e g e o f F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n i n 1972. He s a i d the increase:" i n the day r e l e a s e scheme was en c o u r a g i n g . E i g h t new c o u r s e s were added d u r i n g t h e y e a r , i n c l u d i n g a Radio and T.V. and E l e c t r o n i c s Mechanics c o u r s e . I n b u i l d i n g , a f u l l t e c h n o l o g i c a l C e r t i f i c a t e c o u r s e was o f f e r e d . W h i l s t such e x p a n s i o n was o c c u r r i n g , c a r e was t a k e n t h a t the E v e n i n g c l a s s e s 89 expanded w i t h o u t o v e r l a p p i n g the work o f t h e C o l l e g e . The 19 73 r e p o r t o f t h e C o u n c i l on F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t most c o u r s e s were g o i n g w e l l . C o n s u l t a t i o n s were h e l d w i t h the Chamber o f Commerce and o t h e r I s l a n d B u s i n e s s and Trade A s s o c i a t i o n s . T ogether p l a n s were c o n s i d e r e d f o r f u t u r e c o u r s e s a t the C o l l e g e . Some c o u r s e s had n o t p r o s p e r e d as had been hoped. The Guernsey Grower's C e r t i f i c a t e c o u r s e had no i n t a k e f o r two s e s s i o n s , w h i l e a f t e r the f i r s t y e a r t h e r e was a v e r y h i g h drop o u t r a t e i n the L a d i e s H a i r d r e s s i n g Course. F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , i n 19 72, motor v e h i c l e mechanics c o u l d work toward t h e C i t y and G u i l d s Advanced C e r t i f i c a t e and e n t e r f o r the N a t i o n a l C r a f t s -man's C e r t i f i c a t e . The problem o f accommodation was r e f e r r e d t o by a v i s i t i n g examiner i n Roof C o n s t r u c t i o n . S u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e s c a l e o u t d o o r p r o j e c t s f o r the s t u d e n t s were n o t p o s s i b l e because 9 o f l i m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s . V o c a t i o n a l e v e n i n g c o u r s e s c o n t i n u e d f o r t h o s e unable t o a t t e n d d u r i n g t h e day, b u t i t became mandatory f o r Day r e l e a s e s t u d e n t s t o a t t e n d two e v e n i n g c l a s s e s p e r week i n a d d i t i o n t o the day spent w o r k i n g a t the C o l l e g e . D i f f i c u l t i e s i n accommodation p e r s i s t e d and a l t h o u g h seven new c o u r s e s were added i n 1974, n a t u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n c o u l d n o t be made u n t i l t h e new b u i l d i n g was completed. The B u s i n e s s S t u d i e s s e c t i o n was i n g r e a t demand, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e e v e n i n g . T h i s department i n c r e a s e d i t s L i n k c o u r s e s w i t h the G i r l s ' Grammar S c h o o l . I n September, 19 75, an a d u l t l i t e r a r y c o u r s e was i n a u g u r a t e d . F o r t y - e i g h t l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , whose' problems were a t v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f E n g l i s h , e n r o l l e d i n the s e c o u r s e s . By 19 75, p a r t o f the new C o l l e g e b u i l d i n g was completed and the workshop b l o c k became o p e r a t i o n a l . I n January o f 19 76, the t e a c h i n g b l o c k , w h i c h i n c l u d e s the B u s i n e s s S t u d i e s s e c t i o n , was o c c u p i e d . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C a t e r i n g b l o c k was begun i n the summer o f 19 76. Employing a t e a c h i n g s t a f f o f t w e n t y - s i x , the C o l l e g e e n r o l l e d 642 s t u d e n t s i n the academic y e a r 19 75/76. Of th e s e o n l y s i x t e e n a r e on a f u l l - t i m e basis.''""'" The e x t e n t o f 90 t h e c o u r s e s c o v e r i n g P a r t - t i m e D a y - r e l e a s e c o u r s e s and E v e n i n g c l a s s e s may be judged on r e f e r r i n g t o Appendix P. I n making p o s s i b l e the p r o v i s i o n o f such c o u r s e s a t t h e C o l l e g e o f F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n , the E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l r e c o g n i z e d and met a l o n g - f e l t want i n Guernsey e d u c a t i o n . 91 v i ) H i g h e r and Teacher E d u c a t i o n The C o u n c i l c o n t i n u e d t o s u p p o r t needy s t u d e n t s a t i n s t i t u t i o n s o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d Kingdom, and i n 1975 t h e number o f s t u d e n t s r e c e i v i n g g r a n t s was 2 76. A l t h o u g h the Open U n i v e r s i t y o f G r e a t B r i t a i n r e c e i v e d i t s C h a r t e r i n J u l y , 1969, the c o u r s e s were not a v a i l a b l e t o would-be s t u d e n t s i n Guernsey because t h e B.B.C. 2 Channel, used t o r e l a y t h e l e c t u r e s , was n o t r e c e i v e d i n Guernsey, and w i l l n o t be u n t i l F e b r u a r y o f 1977. I t was t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y f o r s p e c i a l f i l m s t o be l o a n e d t o Channel I s l a n d s t u d e n t s and a t u t o r - c o u n s e l l o r f o r t h e Channel I s l a n d s was a p p o i n t e d . A room a t F l o r a v i l l e was made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e Open U n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s and a t u t o r - c o u n s e l l o r f o r t h e Channel I s l a n d s was a p p o i n t e d . A room a t F l o r a v i l l e was made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e Open U n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s on f o u r n i g h t s p e r week, and v i d e o c a s s e t t e r e c o r d e r s and f i l m s were s u p p l i e d by t h e B.B.C. I n 1971, t h e r e were two s t u d e n t s . T h i s i n c r e a s e d t o f i v e i n 19 72, w i t h s e v e n t e e n r e g i s t r a t i o n s i n 1973. I n 19 74, when t h i r t y - t w o s t u d e n t s were r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e Open U n i v e r s i t y programmes, i t was c l e a r the F l o r a v i l l e , . accommodation was t o o s m a l l . Con-s e q u e n t l y the Open U n i v e r s i t y C e n t r e moved t o p a r t o f G r a n v i l l e House i n 19 75, and i n t h a t same y e a r the i s l a n d g a i n e d h e r f i r s t Open U n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e . Over the y e a r s , i n - s e r v i c e c o u r s e s had been h e l d f o r I s l a n d t e a c h e r s and i n h i s r e p o r t f o r 1972, the H.M.I.,Mr. W i l l i a m s , r e f e r r e d t o t h e James r e p o r t on Teacher E d u c a t i o n and T r a i n i n g . He s t r e s s e d the a d v i s a b i l i t y and advantages o f i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and c a l l e d f o r a Teachers' C e n t r e i n Guernsey. As i n the p a s t , the C o u n c i l p a i d heed t o t h e I n s p e c t o r ' s a d v i c e , and i n 19 73, a Teachers' C e n t r e was equipped and s e t up a t Les V a u x b e l l e t s . A warden f o r t h e C e n t r e was a p p o i n t e d . A u d i o -v i s u a l f a c i l i t i e s were p r o v i d e d i n the C e n t r e as w e l l as r e p r o g r a p h i c machines. The C e n t r e was t o be used f o r t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r f i r s t y e a r o f t e a c h i n g a p a r t from t h e r e g u l a r i n - s e r v i c e 12 f o r a l l I s l a n d t e a c h e r s who, i n 1973, numbered 419. I n 1974, t h e C o u n c i l r e c o r d e d t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t the C e n t r e was p r o v i n g to be a v a l u a b l e i n v e s t m e n t . W i t h a t o t a l o f 46 3 f u l l - t i m e 13 and s e v e n t e e n p a r t - t i m e t e a c h e r s i n 19 75, a p r o f e s s i o n a l 92 c e n t r e was a n e c e s s i t y i f t h e i n - s e r v i c e programmes a d v o c a t e d by t h e new I n s p e c t o r o f S c h o o l s f o r t h e Channel I s l a n d s were t o become a r e a l i t y . When I n s p e c t o r Burns s t a r t e d work i n Guernsey i n 19 73, he o u t l i n e d a new p a t t e r n f o r h i s work. Two weeks p e r y e a r were t o c o n s i s t o f i n f o r m a l v i s i t s t o the s c h o o l s . The Head t e a c h e r would suggest t h e agenda f o r such v i s i t s and t h e H.M.I, would p r o v i d e Notes f o r t h e C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f Head and S t a f f r a t h e r than a f u l l s c h o o l i n s p e c t i o n r e p o r t t o t h e C o u n c i l . F o r one week each y e a r , t h e r e would be f o r m a l f u l l i n s p e c t i o n by a team o f I n s p e c t o r s . T h i s i n s p e c t i o n would be o f one secondary and two p r i m a r y s c h o o l s , o r on a l l s c h o o l s b u t on one a s p e c t o f t h e s c h o o l s . T h i s might be suggested by the H.M.I., the D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n , o r the s c h o o l s t h e m s e l v e s . A f t e r such an i n s p e c t i o n , t h e r e would be a j o i n t d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the Head t e a c h e r s c o n c e r n e d , and a 14 D i s c u s s i o n Report would summarize the views o f t h e I n s p e c t o r s . The new I n s p e c t o r o f S c h o o l s f e l t t h a t t h i s arrangement would ensure t h a t each s c h o o l would have an i n f o r m a l v i s i t e v e r y o t h e r y e a r , and "a d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t " e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e i n s p e c t i o n s i n 1974 c o v e r e d the t o p i c s : F o r c h i l d r e n under f i v e ; Arrangements f o r slow l e a r n e r s and the T e a c h i n g o f r e a d i n g . I n 1974, Mr. Burns and t h r e e o t h e r H. M. I n s p e c t o r s made two v i s i t s each, wrote f o u r t e e n f o r m a l r e p o r t s , gave t e n Notes o f V i s i t t o t h e s c h o o l s , two D i s c u s s i o n papers and memoranda on the C o l l e g e o f F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n , the development o f the T e a c h e r s ' 15 C e n t r e , as w e l l as a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l . D u r i n g the I n s p e c t o r s ' v i s i t i n 19 75, two o f them spe n t two days i n s p e c t i n g t h e academic o r g a n i z a t i o n o f E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e and a r e p o r t was w r i t t e n f o r t h e C o l l e g e Board o f D i r e c t o r s . T h i s was i n a d d i t o n t o the i n s p e c t i n g o f the s c h o o l s c o n t r o l l e d by the E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l . I t may be c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e a d v i c e o f I n s p e c t o r Burns w i l l i n f l u e n c e the p o l i c y and a c t i o n s o f t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l i n t h e second h a l f o f the 1970's, even as i n s p e c t o r s e x e r t e d i n f l u e n c e i n t h e p a s t . The y e a r s o f 1970 - 1975 were y e a r s o f 93 r a p i d development, y e a r s i n which i t might appear t h a t , i n the f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n , Guernsey was making up f o r l o s t t i m e . 94 NOTES PART V I 1. E d u c a t i o n Law 1970. P a r t I I I s u b s e c t i o n 2(b) 2. I b i d . P a r t I V S u b s e c t i o n 2 ( c ) 3. I b i d . 4. T h i s r e f e r s t o c h a n g e s i n e d u c a t i o n i n E n g l a n d w h i c h o r g a n i z e d s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n o n n o n - s e l e c t i v e l i n e s , i . e . c o m p r e h e n s i v e s c h o o l s , a n d p r o v i d e d n u r s e r y e d u c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n u n d e r f i v e y e a r s o f a g e . 5. E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l . A n n u a l R e p o r t t o S t a t e s f o r 19 75. 6. I b i d . 7. The G u e r n s e y E v e n i n g P r e s s . F e b r u a r y , 19 76. 8. E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l . R e p o r t t o S t a t e s o n F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n 9. I b i d . 1973. 10. I b i d . 1975 11. I b i d . 1975 12. E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l . A n n u a l R e p o r t t o S t a t e s , f o r 1973 13. I b i d . 1975. 14 . R e p o r t o f H.M.I, f o r 1973. 15. I b i d . 1974. 95 PART V I I RETROSPECT i ) A d m i n i s t r a t i o n P r i o r t o 1 8 0 0 , a t t e m p t s w e re made t o p r o v i d e some r u d i m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n m o s t o f t h e p a r i s h e s i n G u e r n s e y , b u t f o r t h e mos t p a r t , t h e s e p a r i s h s c h o o l s w e r e p r i v a t e l y endowed. By 1 8 1 8, e a c h p a r i s h h a d a s c h o o l , b u t e a c h was s o l e y a p a r i s h i n t e r e s t , a n d i t was n o t u n t i l t h e m i d d l e o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ' . t h a t some c o n c e r n was r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e S t a t e s f o r p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n on an I s l a n d - w i d e b a s i s . The s u r v e y o f t h e P a r o c h i a l s c h o o l s i n s t i t u t e d i n 1 8 5 0 , was t h e f i r s t o f i t s k i n d , a n d t h e f i v e - m a n S t a t e s C o m m i t t e e w h i c h c o n d u c t e d t h e s u r v e y , was t h e f i r s t C o m m i t t e e f o r E d u c a t i o n i n G u e r n s e y . Aware o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s a v a i l a b l e t o a few a t E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e , r u n by a B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s s i n c e 1 8 2 4 , t h e S t a t e s a p p o i n t e d a C o m m i t t e e t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e n e w l y o p e n e d I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l f o r B o y s i n 1882. T h i s was t h e f i r s t s c h o o l , c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e S t a t e s w h i c h was n o t e s s e n t i a l l y t o s e r v e t h e c h i l d r e n o f one p a r i s h . I n l i k e m anner, t h e G i r l s ' I n t e r -m e d i a t e S c h o o l was a v a i l a b l e t o c h i l d r e n from, a l l o v e r t h e i s l a n d , when i t o p e n e d i n 1 8 9 5 . T h i s t r e n d t o w a r d some t y p e o f c e n t r a l c o n t r o l o v e r e d u c a t i o n b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e E d u c a t i o n Law o f 189 3, t h e f i r s t s u c h l a w i n G u e r n s e y . W h i l s t n o t u n i v e r s a l l y - p o p u l a r i n i t i a l l y , i t was e v e n t u a l l y a c c e p t e d a n d g a v e r i s e t o o p i n i o n s i n f a v o u r o f c o m p u l s o r y e d u c a t i o n . W i t h t h e c e r t a i n p r o v i s i o n o f s c h o o l s i n e v e r y p a r i s h , t h e n e e d f o r c h a r i t y s c h o o l s was g o n e , f o r S c h o o l P e n c e w e r e n o t a s k e d o f t h e -poor. When t h e S t a t e s r e c o g n i z e d t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n , s c h o o l s w h i c h w e r e r u n b y s u b s c r i p t i o n , i n o r d e r t h a t p o o r c h i l d r e n m i g h t become l i t e r a t e , w e r e n o t r e q u i r e d . However, s u c h s c h o o l s h a d s e r v e d many h u n d r e d s o f c h i l d r e n w e l l , a n d among them w e r e some o f t h e p a r e n t s o f l a t e r y e a r s who s u p p o r t e d t h e l a w w h i c h made e d u c a t i o n c o m p u l s o r y 96 i n 1900. From t h a t t i m e , c h i l d r e n o v e r f i v e and under t h i r t e e n y e a r s o f age were r e q u i r e d t o a t t e n d s c h o o l . To f a c i l i t a t e t h e s e new c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the E d u c a t i o n Law o f 190 3 was r a t i f i e d by the S t a t e s , s e t t i n g o u t an I s l a n d - w i d e law, b u t l e a v i n g c e r t a i n powers i n the hands o f t h e P a r i s h Committees. D e s p i t e t h e s e p a r o c h i a l powers, the S t a t e s i n s i s t e d on b e i n g c o n c e r n e d i n d e v e l o p -ments i n P a r i s h e d u c a t i o n . Thus, t h e S t a t e s a s s e r t e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n as A d m i n i s t r a t o r - i n - C h i e f . U n t i l 1915, i t was t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f P r i m a r y S c h o o l s who was concerned w i t h t h e d a i l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l s o f r u n n i n g p a r i s h e d u c a t i o n . D u r i n g the y e a r s o f h i s t e n u r e o f o f f i c e , e d u c a t i o n i n the I s l a n d remained a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l f o r the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f I s l a n d c h i l d r e n . As independent s c h o o l s , E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e and the L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e p r o v i d e d secondary e d u c a t i o n , as w e l l as the I n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , as time p a s s e d , g r e a t e r numbers o f s c h o l a r s h i p s i n t o t h e secondary s h c o o l s became a v a i l a b l e t o a c a d e m i c a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . The y e a r 1916 was a n o t a b l e m i l e s t o n e i n t h e development o f e d u c a t i o n i n Guernsey, f o r i n t h a t y e a r , t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l was c o n s t i t u t e d . Thus was formed the S t a t e s ' a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body f o r I s l a n d E d u c a t i o n . W i t h i t s f o r m a t i o n , the C o u n c i l d e c i d e d t o a p p o i n t a S e c r e t a r y t o the C o u n c i l . Throughout th e s e y e a r s , the a d v i c e o f S c h o o l I n s p e c t o r s from E n g l a n d had been sh r e w d l y l i s t e n e d t o , and w i t h t i m e and c a u t i o n such a d v i c e was g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w e d . The I n s p e c t o r s were a b l e t o view the I s l a n d ' s s c h o o l s w i t h f r e s h eyes. They c o u l d b r i n g w i t h them the e x p e r i e n c e o f the w i d e r and more p r o g r e s s i v e system from w h i c h t h e y came. I n n o v a t i v e , a d a p t a b l e and d i p l o m a t i c , t h e s e I n s p e c t o r s c o n t i n u e d t o i n f l u e n c e the development o f t h e I s l a n d ' s s c h o o l i n g through the 1920's and 19 30's. P a r t o f such i n f l u e n c e was t h e i d e a f o r the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f P a r i s h s c h o o l s i n t o P r i m a r y and S e n i o r s c h o o l s . W i t h f u r t h e r C e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n needed t o f a c i l i t a t e t h i s r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , the p r e v a i l i n g E d u c a t i o n Law o f 1903 was r e v i s e d . Thus came about the E d u c a t i o n Law o f 1935. C o v e r i n g many f a c e t s o f I s l a n d s c h o o l i n g , the law made the S t a t e s w h o l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o s t o f e d u c a t i o n . T h i s c u r t a i l e d the powers o f t h e 97 P a r i s h C o m m i t t e e s . The r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l s was q u i c k l y b e g u n a f t e r t h e 19 35 O r d e r i n C o u n c i l was made l a w . B u t f o r t h e o u t b r e a k o f w a r , p r o g r e s s m i g h t h a v e c o n t i n u e d , a n d i t was n o t u n t i l t h e German o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e I s l a n d came t o a n e n d , t h a t t h e E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l c o u l d o n c e a g a i n p u r s u e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a n o r m a l s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . A f t e r e l e c t i n g t o f o l l o w t h e E n g l i s h B u t l e r A c t o f 1 9 4 4 , an d t o s e t up a t h r e e - t i e r s y s t e m o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , t h e C o u n c i l s p e n t t h e n e x t y e a r s s u p e r v i s i n g an e x t e n s i v e b u i l d i n g programme s o t h a t t h a t s y s t e m m i g h t be i m p e l e m e n t e d . A f t e r 1 9 5 4 , t h e C h i e f A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f t h i s programme was t h e E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e r . The l a w o f 1935 was t h e e x i s t i n g l a w u n t i l 1 9 7 0 . By t h e n t h e L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e was u n d e r S t a t e s s u p e r v i s i o n , a n d E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e r e c e i v e d b l o c k g r a n t s f r o m t h e S t a t e s . S p e c i a l p l a c e s a t t h e s e a n d t h e Grammar ( f o r m e r l y I n t e r m e d i a t e ) s c h o o l s became nu m e r o u s . The C o u n c i l p r e s e n t e d t h e i r p r o j e t de L o i t o t h e S t a t e s , a n d i t became t h e E d u c a t i o n Law o f 19 70. T h i s c o m p r e h e n s i v e l a w b r o u g h t p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e I s l a n d more d i r e c t l y i n t o l i n e w i t h t h a t p r o v i d e d i n E n g l a n d a n d W a l e s . 98 i i ) O r g a n i z a t i o n The P a r i s h s c h o o l s o f the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y were concerned o n l y w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r p a r i s h , a n d w i t h o u t any r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e s c h o o l s o f o t h e r p a r i s h e s i n the I s l a n d . T h i s meant t h a t t h e r e was no u n i f o r m i t y o f e d u c a t i o n f o r I s l a n d c h i l d r e n . I n a l l t h e p r i m a r y p a r i s h s c h o o l s , o n l y a b a s i c e d u c a t i o n was p r o v i d e d . Once some c e n t r a l i z a t i o n was b r o u g h t about w i t h a S t a t e s Committee f o r E d u c a t i o n i n P a r o c h i a l S c h o o l s , a g r e a t e r degree o f u n i f o r m i t y o f p r o v i s i o n o f s c h o o l i n g was a c h i e v e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n was a l l t h a t was a v a i l a b l e t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f c h i l d r e n . A c l a s s i c a l e d u c a t i o n had been a v a i l a b l e f o r many y e a r s a t E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e , where, a f t e r the 1824 r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , c o n d i t i o n s improved, and by the m i d d l e o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a good secondary e d u c a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e f o r boys whose p a r e n t s c o u l d a f f o r d t o pay the s c h o o l f e e s . From 1872, g i r l s m i ght o b t a i n a s i m i l a r t y p e o f e d u c a t i o n a t L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e , an e s s e n t i a l l l y f e e - p a y i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t . Fee p a y e r s a t t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s a l s o o b t a i n e d secondary e d u c a t i o n , b u t a t f e e s c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r than t h o s e o f t h e C o l l e g e s . T h i s was l a r g e l y t r u e u n t i l 19 36, when an e f f o r t was made to r e o r g a n i z e the s c h o o l s t o p r o v i d e S e n i o r s c h o o l s f o r the o l d e r c h i l d r e n , i n s t e a d o f t h e r e b e i n g o n l y A l l - A g e P r i m a r y S c h o o l s . A f t e r t h e Second World War, t h e system whereby c h i l d r e n a r e s e n t a t e l e v e n y e a r s o f age i n t o one o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f secondary s c h o o l s , was adopted. T h i s system p e r s i s t s i n 1976. T e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e as p a r t o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i n g . S c h o o l s under the a u t h o r i t y o f the Roman Church, w h i c h a r e r u n as V o l u n t a r y S c h o o l s , have reduced i n number d u r i n g the l a s t f i f t y y e a r s , as have the P r i v a t e S c h o o l s . T h e r e f o r e , d u r i n g some 200 y e a r s , the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n Guernsey has changed from an e l e m e n t a r y p a r i s h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n t o one t h a t i s compulsory i n p r i m a r y s c h o o l s 99 u n t i l e l e v e n y e a r s o f age, f o l l o w e d by secondary e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l u n t i l a t l e a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s o f age. T h i s i n t u r n may be f o l l o w e d by s t u d i e s a t the C o l l e g e o f F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n , w h i l e H i g h e r e d u c a t i o n o u t s i d e t h e I s l a n d i s a v a i l a b l e t o a l l I s l a n d s t u d e n t s who q u a l i f y f o r i t , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r a b i l i t y t o pay f o r such e d u c a t i o n . 100 i i i ) F i n a n c e No system o f e d u c a t i o n may be r u n w i t h o u t adequate f i n a n c i n g , and the e a r l y s c h o o l s i n Guernsey were no e x c e p t i o n . P r o v i d e d w i t h endowment and p a r i s h s u b s c r i p t i o n : , t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n was, i n most c a s e s , supplemented by the c h i l d r e n t a k i n g s c h o o l pence w h i c h g e n e r a l l y amounted t o twopence p e r week. E s s e n t i a l l y a P a r i s h s c h o o l , t h e f i n a n c e s were a l s o t h e r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y o f the P a r i s h . I t was found, however, t h a t t h e s e were n o t enough, and money was made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e P a r i s h s c h o o l s from the E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e f u n d s . T h i s s c h o o l had been''well endowed and c o u l d a f f o r d t o a s s i s t t h e f i n a n c e s o f the p a r i s h s c h o o l s . Not u n t i l the m i d d l e o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y d i d the s c h o o l s r e c e i v e a S t a t e s g r a n t . From then-'••on, g r a n t s from the S t a t e s were v e r y s m a l l , b u t i t was a r e c o g n i t i o n o f the r e s p o n s -i b i l i t y o f the S t a t e s t o c o n t r i b u t e towards e d u c a t i o n . W i t h the assumption o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n e d u c a t i o n , the S t a t e s adopted a c o s t - s h a r i n g system f o r f i n a n c i n g the I s l a n d s c h o o l s . The 189 3 and 190 3 Laws o f E d u c a t i o n made the P a r i s h e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h a l f o f t h e r u n n i n g c o s t s o f t h e s c h o o l s . Because t h e i r f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were c o n s i d e r a b l e , so were the powers t h a t t h e P a r i s h Committees r e t a i n e d . I t was n o t u n t i l 19 35 t h a t the S t a t e s assumed f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the f i n a n c i n g o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n Guernsey. T h i s d e c i s i o n o f t h e S t a t e s was u n d o u b t e d l y governed by the g r e a t e r degree o f p r o s -p e r i t y i n t h e economic l i f e o f the I s l a n d . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the m a j o r i t y o f t h e s c a t t e r e d r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n , as w e l l as t h e Town p a r i s h r e s i d e n t s , were p o o r e r and numbered b u t 20,000. By the 1930's the p o p u l a t i o n had d o u b l e d and modern communications had caused commerce t o f l o u r i s h , so t h a t t h e Exchequer o f the S t a t e s c o u l d b e a r th e c o s t s . The n e c e s s i t y f o r o v e r a l l c o n t r o l o f e d u c t i o n , must a l s o have prompted the S t a t e s t o p r o v i d e the I s l a n d Department o f E d u c a t i o n w i t h a l a r g e r s hare o f t h e budget. When r e o r g a n i z a t i o n proceeded i n 194 6, and new s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s were needed, e d u c a t i o n c o s t s s o a r e d . They have 101 c o n t i n u e d t o do so e v e r s i n c e . However, t h i s has l a r g e l y been due t o the e x t e n t o f the b u i l d i n g programme. A f u r t h e r expense has been the v e r y l a r g e number o f c h i l d r e n who are g r a n t e d S p e c i a l P l a c e s a t the secondary grammar s c h o o l s . A d o p t i o n o f the E n g l i s h s a l a r y s c a l e s has p r o v i d e d a w e l l q u a l i f i e d t e a c h i n g s t a f f , b u t t h e s e s a l a r i e s form a v e r y l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e E d u c a t i o n b i l l . U n l e s s t h e r e . i s an u n u s u a l i n c r e a s e i n the c h i l d p o p u l a t i o n i n Guernsey, the new b u i l d i n g s s h o u l d prove t o be adequate f o r some t i m e , t h e r e b y l e a v i n g more money a v a i l a b l e f o r o t h e r a s p e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n . 102 i v ) C u r r i c u l u m In the e a r l y P a r i s h P r i m a r y s c h o o l s , the c u r r i c u l u m was governed by the P a r i s h Committee. I n s t r u c t i o n was i n F r e n c h , and c o v e r e d Reading, W r i t i n g and A r i t h m e t i c , w i t h Needlework f o r g i r l s . A p a r t from t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a l i t t l e E n g l i s h , such was the c u r r i c u l u m i n t h e p a r i s h s c h o o l s u n t i l the 189 3 Law d i c t a t e d the s u b j e c t s which must be t a u g h t . The law's r e q u i r e m e n t i n c l u d e d some H i s t o r y and Geography, S c r i p t u r e , M u s i c and S i n g i n g , and E n g l i s h was t o be t a u g h t i n a l l s c h o o l s . A t the P r i v a t e s c h o o l s , o t h e r s u b j e c t s were a v a i l a b l e t o t h o s e who c o u l d pay t h e f e e s , w h i l e a t E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e , a f u l l c l a s s i c s programme was o f f e r e d from the e a r l y e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the s c h o o l . As t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y advanced, the c u r r i c u l u m i n t h e secondary s c h o o l s widened i n scope t o c o v e r commercial s u b j e c t s a t E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e and a t t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l s . Because the I s l a n d i s o c i e t y was becoming more i n v o l v e d i n the modern commercial w o r l d , e d u c a t i o n changed t o equip s t u d e n t s t o t a k e t h e i r p l a c e i n t h a t w o r l d . T h i s i s apparent i n t r a c i n g the development o f c u r r i c u l u m i n the Guernsey s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t the l a s t two hundred y e a r s . The i s o l a t i o n o f the I s l a n d p e o p l e was matched by t h e i s o l a t i o n o f e a r l y P a r i s h e d u c a t i o n . Improved communication - r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n - i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , have each p l a y e d t h e i r p a r t i n w i d e n i n g the scope o f the c u r r i c u l u m p r o v i d e d i n t h e s c h o o l . These media made a modern and p r o g r e s s i v e o u t s i d e w o r l d e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e t o I s l a n d e r s . The need f o r F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n became a p p a r e n t i n the 1920's, so t h a t E v e n i n g c l a s s e s were much i n demand. A d d i t i o n a l c o u r s e s were o f f e r e d when the need a r o s e , and as f i n a n c e s p e r m i t t e d . As t e c h n i c a l knowledge became n e c e s s a r y i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y -o r i e n t e d w o r l d , so d i d t h e t e c h n i c a l s i d e o f e d u c a t i o n need t o be p r o v i d e d i n t h e s c h o o l s . I t was i n the I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s where t h i s need was p a r t i a l l y met. When r e o r g a n i z a t i o n took p l a c e , f i r s t i n 1936, and l a t e r (and more f u l l y ) , i n 1946, i t was n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e a c u r r i -culum w h i c h was s u i t a b l e f o r s e n i o r c h i l d r e n . T h i s was a c h a l l e n g e 103 to t h e secondary modern s c h o o l s , w h i c h f o r a l o n g t i m e , was o n l y d i f f i d e n t l y met. The S c h o o l I n s p e c t o r seems t o have been aware o f t h i s , f o r els e w h e r e i n t h i s paper, he i s quoted as h a v i n g some concern t h a t a t r u e secondary e d u c a t i o n be p r o v i d e d f o r the o l d e r s t u d e n t s . V a u v e r t secondary modern s c h o o l was p a r t i c u l a r l y l a c k i n g i n such p r o v i s i o n . T h i s was r e c t i f i e d w i t h t h e b u i l d i n g o f the new S t . P e t e r P o r t secondary s c h o o l . The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n programmes c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e E n g l i s h s c h o o l s , have been a p a r t o f Guernsey s c h o o l i n g s i n c e 1945. E v e r y s c h o o l has a P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t , i n c l u d i n g the P r i m a r y s c h o o l s . Almost e v e r y s h c o o l i n the I s l a n d has a swimming p o o l . 104 v) F u t u r e Trends Throughout the development o f e d u c a t i o n i n Guernsey s i n c e 1850, we see a growing c o n t r o l by a c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y . P a r i s h P r i m a r y and Secondary Committees s t i l l e x i s t , b u t f o r the f u t u r e , we may wonder i f they f i l l a v e r y v i t a l r o l e . I n the p a s t we have seen t h i r t e e n , f i f t e e n o r t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s e l a p s e between t h e w r i t i n g o f new laws f o r e d u c a t i o n i n Guernsey. Wi t h p r o v i s i o n s made i n the new law n o t y e t f u l l y implemented (e.g. i n S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n ) , i t i s d o u b t f u l i f the near f u t u r e w i l l produce a new E d u c a t i o n Law. The 19 70 Law was but t h r e e y e a r s o l d when changes i n the E n g l i s h system o f e d u c a t i o n made the system o u t l i n e d i n t h e law, a l r e a d y o u t o f d a t e . I t was then t h a t the s c h o o l l e a v i n g age i n E n g l a n d and Wales was r a i s e d t o s i x t e e n and comprehensive e d u c a t i o n a t t h e secondary l e v e l was adopted. T h i s f o l l o w s a p a t t e r n w h i c h , on r e f l e c t i o n , has been c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f ed-u c a t i o n i n Guernsey i n r e l a t i o n t o t h a t i n Engla n d . Compulsory e d u c a t i o n i n En g l a n d was law i n 1870, b u t Guernsey w a i t e d f o r t h i r t y more y e a r s b e f o r e f o l l o w i n g s u i t . I n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the I s l a n d d i d n o t have an E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e r u n t i l 1954, w h i l s t i n E n g l a n d , D i r e c t o r s o f E d u c a t i o n had been o p e r a t i n g f o r many y e a r s . S u c c e s s i v e H.M.I.'s have c o n s t a n t l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y been u r g i n g the Guernsey E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l t o meet problems i m m e d i a t e l y , and n o t t o d e l a y i n p r o v i d i n g a system o f e d u c a t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n Engla n d . Most n o t e a b l e f o r d e l a y has been the p r o v i s i o n o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , o f T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n and o f L i b r a r i e s . S h o u l d the p a t t e r n o f e v e n t s seen i n the r e c e n t p a s t , c o n t i n u e , t h e s e t h r e e f a c e t s o f e d u c a t i o n w i l l q u i c k l y d e v e l o p t o be f u l l and i n t e g r a l p a r t s o f I s l a n d e d u c a t i o n . A l r e a d y they have a s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n d e v e l o p e d on wh i c h t o b u i l d , so t h a t t h e devleopment o f an adequate S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n Programme, a f u l l T e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e and o f s c h o o l L i b r a r i e s , may be e x p e c t e d w i t h i n the n e x t few y e a r s . Other q u e s t i o n s which come t o mind a r e t h e p r o v i s i o n o f 105 N u r s e r y E d u c a t i o n , the r a i s i n g o f the s c h o o l l e a v i n g age and the change o v e r t o Comprehensive E d u c a t i o n . There are a l r e a d y ( i n 1976), s e v e r a l p r i v a t e n u r s e r y groups o p e r a t i n g i n the I s l a n d , so t h a t we may w e l l see t h e a d o p t i o n o f p u b l i c n u r s e r y e d u c a t i o n i n t h e near f u t u r e . A g a i n s t i t i s a q u e s t i o n o f f i n a n c e . S h o u l d o t h e r needs a r i s e w h i c h th e S t a t e s c o n s i d e r t o be o f a more u r g e n t n a t u r e , p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c n u r s e r y e d u c a t i o n w i l l a g a i n be d e l a y e d . I t would seem improb a b l e t h a t t h e s c h o o l l e a v i n g age be r a i s e d i n t h e f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e . There i s a n i l - r a t e o f unemployment i n the p r e s e n t s c h o o l l e a v i n g group, and w i t h an e x p a n s i o n o f c o u r s e f a c i l i t i e s a t the C o l l e g e o f F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n on the Day-Release scheme, i t i s d o u b t f u l i f the p r e s e n t age o f f i f t e e n w i l l be r a i s e d t o match the s c h o o l l e a v i n g age o f s i x t e e n i n E ngland. In c o n s i d e r i n g comprehensive e d u c a t i o n i n Guernsey, we f i n d t h a t n o t o n l y the S t a t e s , b u t a l s o the t e a c h e r s have v o t e d to r e t a i n t h e e l e v e n p l u s e x a m i n a t i o n as a method o f s e l e c t i o n f o r s econdary e d u c a t i o n . The C o u n c i l would have t o meet p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t s t o adopt Comprehensive secondary e d u c a t i o n , f o r one l a r g e o r two s m a l l e r s c h o o l s would have t o be b u i l t . T r a n s -p o r t a t i o n f o r s t u d e n t s t o come from a l l p a r t s o f t h e I s l a n d , t o a c e n t r a l l y s i t u a t e d s c h o o l , would pose problems t o o . Comprehensive E d u c a t i o n would a l s o d e s t r o y some o f the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and t r a d i t i o n s o f I s l a n d l i f e , so t h a t Guernsey may w e l l c o n t i n u e f o r a l o n g time on the i n d e p e n d e n t p a t h she p r e s e n t l y f o l l o w s i n c o n t i n u i n g s e l e c t i v e secondary e d u c a t i o n . Expenses i n s u p p o r t o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n w i l l p r o b a b l y i n c r e a s e , even as they have i n c r e a s e d o v e r the p a s t t h i r t y y e a r s . The e v i d e n t p r o g r e s s i o n i n t h e r e c e n t p a s t , w i t h a c a u t i o u s keeping-o f the E d u c a t i o n a l P u r s e , may auger w e l l f o r the f u t u r e d e v e l o p -ment o f e d u c a t i o n i n the B a i l i w i c k o f Guernsey. I 12)6 Map I GUERNSEY V A L E V*** C ^ U " • • , S T S A M P S O K Richmond a ST PETER f QKT-; Map t o show the P a r i s h e s o f Guernsey. - ma 107, o ^U ! t o i ^ < ^ | ^ m o u # ^ o « ^ Parted loiinieittotttt) . ,, „ ffUP M \ i ^ -4 . Map to show the Geographical P o s i t i o n of Guernsey  i n Relationship to the Normandy Coast and the  South Coast of England. ' * f i r < \ < v . /^ is.^ rv. I JEJ;•..tv-NSf-'rtrinc iQni i n ^ r & p 5 & IgdMtr aTauJtaitMUU Qtoulancei NiUeuiai'&s-PoieUs (5rau ville - , #attcaU| tfJLancoet 4-ontaut tot jftjlflictyel 108 APPENDIX A LAND ENDOWMENT TO ELIZABETH I'S GRAMMAR SCHOOL A s s i g n e d and conceded f o r the use o f the s c h o o l f o r e v e r -the Temple and Church f o r m e r l y b e l o n g i n g t o t h e minor o r mendicant f r i a r s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e b u r i a l ground t o t h e N o r t h . T w e n t y - s i x Guernsey perches and t h e ground encompassed by t h e c l o i s t e r s p l u s an a d j o i n i n g t h i r t y p e r ches a c c o r d i n g t o the l i m i t s o f t h e o l d w a l l s and b o u n d a r i e s . l o g APPENDIX B LIST OF ENDOWED SCHOOLS IN EACH PARISH IN THE YEARS 1824 - 1827 NO. PARISH POP: TYPE OF NO. WHEN & BY WHOM NO. OF HOUSE "SALARY SALARY SCHOOL ENDOWED QTRES. LAND & OF OF CASH MASTER MISTRESS 1. St. Peter Port - 11,173 College 1 Free c h a r i t y 1 Na t i o n a l 2 H o s p i t a l 2 2. C a s t e l - 1,747 Free 2 schools H o s p i t a l 2 3. St. Martin's 1,429 4. The Vale 1,215 5. St. P i e r r e du Bois 1,093 St. Saviour 1,022 St. Sampson 838 St. Andrew 799 9. The Forest 611 10. T o r t e v a l 375 Free 1 school Free P a r i s h 1 P a r i s h 2 P a r i s h 2 P a r i s h 1 P a r i s h 1 1563 1564 1812 1820 1675 1808 1565 E l i z . I 78/1/5 h house £145/10 & land E l i z . I 25/-/- house & I n d i v i d u a l Subs & Sermons £ 40/0/0 P a r i s h i o n e r s Mrs. de Jersey & p a r i s h i o n e r s A l l country parishes E l i z . I & I n d i v i d u a l 301vre £ 70/0/0'£40/0/0 legacy £ 40/0/0 house & £ 22/10/0£l5/0/0 £325/10 E 10/0/0 30/-/-11/-/-P a r i s h 1 1818 P a r i s h i o n e r s 13/1/2£ 47 p.a.£ 27/0/0 1564 1815 1736 1818 1741 1741 1723 E l i z . I (fo r boys) (f o r g i r l s ) 14/-/-120 l v r e £ 17/0/0 - t r n s P a r i s h P a r i s h 20/-/-22/-/-P a r i s h & 32/-/-i n 1823 Bishop of Winton P a r i s h Mr. Le Marchant 12/-/-11/-/-£ 17/0/0 £17/0/0 £16/10/0 £l2/0/C £10/0/0 £ 8/5/0 TOTAL: 20,302 21 272/-/-From J . Jacobs, Annals of some of the B r i t i s h Norman I s l e s , p. 404 H Q APPENDIX WHAT BOYS AND GIRLS WERE TAUGHT St. Peter Port L a t i n & Greek French, Eng., W r i t i n g & A r i t h m e t i c Eng., Reading, W r i t i n g & Needlework French, reading, w r i t i n g , Needleword, k n i t t i n g & Ar i t h m e t i c C a s t e l French only. W r i t i n g , A r i t h m e t i c , reading, Needlework & k n i t t i n g 3. St. M a r t i n French reading, w r i t i n g & A r i t h m e t i c The Vale French, w r i t i n g , A r i t h -metic, a few d i d E n g l i s h St. P i e r r e du Bois French only. Three R's & Needlework & k n i t t i n g f o r g i r l s College branch St. Saviour F r e n c h , w r i t i n g , a r i t h -metic, a few d i d E n g l i s h , no needlework St. Sampson French only. Three R's Needlework f o r g i r l s St. Andrew French & E n g l i s h . Three R's The Forest French only. Reading, w r i t i n g & a r i t h m e t i c 10. T o r t e v a l (1824) (1827) GIRLS BOYS TOTAL POP: GIRLS BOYS T0TAI (1827) - 13 13 12,132 — 103 103 12 70 82 12 60 72 107 96 203 66 101 167 47 52 99 36 44 80 80 80 160 1,830 numbers not 240 20 30 50 given 34 30 100 130 1,632 30 100 130 30 40 70 1,343 30 40 70 60 60 120 1,179 60 60 120 7 45 52 50 80 130 1,057 50 100 150 70 70 140 939 70 70 140 s 47 56 103 948 35 50 85 25 45 70 631 numbers not 80 given 25 35 60 425 I I tl 70 French only. Reading, a r i t h m e t i c & w r i t i n g . From J . Jacobs. Annals of Some of the B r i t i s h Norman I s l e s , p. 403 I l l APPENDIX D ABSTRACT OF THE ACCOUNTS ST. PETER PORT RAGGED SCHOOL IN ACCOUNT WITH MISS LIDSTONE FOR THE YEAR ENDING MAY 26TH, 1857 ,  By balance of l a s t year Subs & Donations I n t e r e s t on money recvd. E s d 12-12-7-3/4 49-17-Ok 10-0 To one year's s a l a r y , Miss L i d s t o n . D i t t o f o r monitor School r e q u i s i t e s , r e p a i r s & f u e l Books f o r school P r i n t i n g report Balance to new account s d 40-0-0 12-0 5-11-9*4 13-11 1-14-0 „ 14- 7 - i i 5 ; E 62-19-7^ TO TREASURER IN a/c WITH THE EVENING ADULT SCHOOL FOR THE YEAR ENGING MAY 26TH, 1857  By balance By c o l l e c t i o n s from boys toward expenses By c o n t r i b u t i o n s £ s d 1- 10-5% 8-8k 2- 4-2 To gas consumed To p r i n t i n g , e t c . To coals & candles P e n c i l s & s t a t i o n e r y Cleaning room Whitewashing of room & s c u l l e r y To carpenter f o r sundry expenses Balance i n hand E s d 1-2-4 4- 3 16-11 13- 2 5- 0 12- 0 9- 4 9- 3 3 4-12-3y-4 E 4-12-3*5 From Album of Founder of the Ragged School (1857) 112 APPENDIX E RECOMMENDATIONS MADE BY COMMITTEE OF ENQUIRY FOR THE FURTURE MANAGEMENT OF ELIZABETH COLLEGE, 1824 That g i r l s be i n a d m i s s a b l e . That t h e r e s h o u l d never be more tha n 150 s t u d e n t s . The ages o f t h e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be e i g h t t o f o u r t e e n . No s t u d e n t may s t a y a t t h e C o l l e g e a f t e r n i n e t e e n y e a r s o f age. The s i x c l a s s e s a r e t o be e q u a l i n number. A q u a r t e r l y t r a n s f e r i s t o be made from J u n i o r t o S e n i o r Department F o u n d a t i o n boys a r e t o g e t books and s t a t i o n e r y . Fees o f 12 p e r annum t o be cha r g e d i n s t e a d o f the customary g u i n e a t o t he M a s t e r a t New Y e a r , p l u s one s h i l l i n g t o s e r v a n t f o r sweeping and h a l f a crown t o t h e Ma s t e r f o r c o a l s . 113 APPENDIX F SUNDAY SCHOOLS IN GUERNSEY SUPPORTED BY VOLUNTARY SUBSCRIPTION AND SERMONS IN 1824, PARISH NO. OF SOCIETY ATTACHED WHEN NO. OF SCHOOLS TO CHURCH ESTABLISHED SCHOLARS LANGUAGE ST. PETER PORT CASTEL ST. MARTIN THE VALE ST. PIERRE DU BOIS Sf. SAVIOUR ST. ANDREW LA FORET TORTEVAL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ST. SAMPSON 0 17 Church 1820 Ladies N a t i o n a l 1818 Wesley & 1815 Ebenezer Independent 1822 French Independent 1822 E n g l i s h Church 1808 Wesleyan 1819 Church 1814 Independent 1814 French Church 1818 Church 1814 Wesleyan Church Church Independent French Church 1816 Church 1816 718 45 260 50 50 200 80 200 45 80 170 70 60 2,275 French & E n g l i s h E n g l i s h French & E n g l i s h French E n g l i s h French French French French French French 1814 Discontinued 1825 1813 140 French 1816 70 French 1816 45 French French French By 1827 St. Sampson's had a Sunday School. Of t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of 21,177 114 ( i n 1827) 3,133 c h i l d r e n were i n Sunday School. From J . Jacobs. Annals of Some of the B r i t i s h Norman I s l e 115 Appendix G- . 3c^ L O I S U E L ' I N S T K U C T I O N P U B L I Q U E P E I M A I E E , \Adoplccpar les Elals le 9 A01U, 1893, cl sanclionncepar Ordrc de. Sit Ma/cstd en Coiiscil. CIIAPITBIi! PREMIEi:;, ])os J'kolas cl do lour Organisation. 1.—Los paroissos do cotlo ilo—clinctrac dans l ' c t c i i u i i o do son tcrritoire—sont tennos do pourvoir et do rnniutonir, avec l'aido qu'i l plaira aux E t a t s lour accoi 'dor ct l'ccolagc qu'clles rccevrout des enfants, une Education P r i m a i r e , bonno ot suftisante, pour tout e n f a n t y dcinourant qvii desiro s'en provaloir. j . 2 . — L o s Ecoles pour 1'jnstrnctiou publiquo primaire soroufc cellos deja cxistantos, ou ci-apros crigces, que les Etats r.iironl. accoptecs comme Eeoles primaires. 3.—Dans chaquc paroisso i l devrri y avoir a u inohtc wn?. Ecolo publique pour gnrcous ct fillcs:, et, s ' i l y a l ieu, u.,;/ Ecolo enfantino. Les EUfcs d c t e r m i n c ; O i i l do temps h nuh-s lo nombro d'Ecoles qu'i l convic.idra d'njontcr dai..; chftcuue d.-s .. paroisscs. .? 4.—La surveillanco ct la direction des Ecoles pvu/;:cmos primaires d'une paroisso sont confides ; 1° Au Corn i to tics Kfc«ats pour I'lTducation Psroissis lc . • 2" A u n Coniite de la paroisso—lo tout, comiuo est ci-apros iiuliqne. 5.—Les frais enconrus pour la Latisse ou l'agrandissement d ' u n e Ecolo pnbliquo priniairo ot pour s o n nmcr.ble.men.fc soront fournis moitii; pas les E t a t s ct moi tie par la paroisso. Les frais annucls de reparation c o m m o aussi do cout d'cnire— . ticu ot do maintion d'uno Ecolo publiqne primaire ot. toute clioso fourmo pour la di to Ecolo (a l'cxccption do ce qui 116 . . . 4 conatitnera Dej.v • Extraordinaire commo ost ci-apres I;; •'eiiiu) for moron fc les Dcp-.mses Ordinairos do l'Ecole, c i coront fournis moitio p:-. les Etats et moitiu par la paroirfso; mais seront les ce ibutions dos enfants (Anglice School-Ponco) consees fornnn partie do la proportion fournio par la paroisso. T o u t ce qui est classe d a n B cette loi commo DepeiiHO E x t r a o r d i n a i r o sera a la charge exclusivo dos Etats. C — L o personnel enseignant d'uno Ecole publiquo primair-Q. J recovra pour salairos :—1° L e traitcmont formant partio des Deponses O r d i n a i r o s ; 2" L'augmcntalion comprise dans les Deponses Extiaordinaires : 3° L a primo aceordee aux Ecoles dans los quolk:: les bourses etablics par les E t a t s seront gagnces; ct 4° La primo accordeo comme Capitation sur la recommenda-tion de 1'Inspecteur des Ecoles. 7. — - T o u t enfant residant dans une paroisse (a 1'cxcoption des internes des hospices publics qui no pourront l'etrc sans 1'asseutiment des Chefs do F a m i l l o do la paroisse oil tel hospico est etabli.) sera admissible aax Ecoles pnbliques primairos etablics dans cette paroisse et tout enfant, etant elevf: dans uno Ecole publiquo prirnairc, ponrra coneourir, 6 0 u s les conditions qui seront fixees de temps en temps par lo C - "iiilc dos Etats, pour les Bourses pour Icsquelles i l j aura d i . - . examo'is d'annee en annee. L e Comite de chaque paroisso fixera les ecolnges payables par les enfants. Ces ecolages n e pourront excedor doux pennis par semaiue sans Tassentiinent du Comite des Etats. . 8. '—""/Instruction Religieuse dans les Ecoles pnbliques primaires sera conformo aux doctrines dp l 'Egl iso Anglicane t ct sera sous la direction de l 'Autorite Ecclesiastique, 1 • niello toutefois ne dcvrii so sorvir d'autres livres d'enseigne-.-''^ merit que do la Sainle B i b l e ; bien entendn que dans les cas oiiS-*' 1 il existe des contrnts d'une ecole dont les dispositions vdnt a Tcnoontre do cet article, les dites dispositions seront rcspeclues. Si toutefois les Etats acceptent comme Ecoles P r i m aires le:: Ecoles deja existnntes dites " B r i t i s h and Foreign S c l i o- j i s , " situues h V a u v e r t en l a paroisse do St. Pit.; i Port, l ' instruction roligiouso qui y sera donneo sera reglik selon l o s principes qui regissent los Ecoles de la Societe dito " B r i t i s h and Foreign School Socioty " etablic a Londres. Bien enlendu que nul enfant no sera c o n train t do recevoir aucune instruction religicnso dans uno Ecolo Primaire, si lo 117 i enfant expnmo par ecnt sa volonte a cot efTet. ™ ~ g ' 9.^ L'enseiqnement dans- les "Ecoles? publiqnea ..priEuBlros-c,.,. J ,.- vr r^ai Instruction Religieuse _ w „ 'f •"' ' Langoea Anglaiso cfc Francaiso t eleogi'aphie ( ^ ^ ' " pi toirc " ' :;•'.•«•. . JOcritnre. , Dc sm ct Chant 'Et dan's lew Ecoles des Fiilcs, Travaux d'Aiguillo' " "Bien • cntendu ques le Com 1 to dos Etats aura la faculte do . -modiQer.selon les cas le conrsasnivredans chaque Ecole. • 10.—Oatro les -Ecoles primaires dont, il est . ci-dessus iparle les Etats .poarront, dans 1'interct general de l'education .-...dana nne paroisse; Recorder,s'll y a lieu, aux,Ecoles volontaires : > j: 'vponr ,1 education priinairo ;quiy sont ou qui pourront y etro • : • etablics lememe subsido et.aux enfants appartenant ans ditos Ecoles les Dieines avant3ges que ceux qui seront accordes aux Ecoles publiqnes primaires ; pourvu que le- Comite do l'Ecolo .volontaire so' declare prct u romplir ,les memes devoirs et • ^obligations que coux qui sont "imposes; 'aux Comites do paroisso et a so conformer a tonics •. Ic3 dispositions dc cette ; i o i ; - Bien. ;ontchdu;,tontesVfoi\s^  que l'instruction- religieuse qui sera donnee par .lo Comite d'uno: Ecole volontaire sera conforme a la doctrine de leur confession: Cependanfc nnl enfant no sera contraint do la recevoir si son pore ou sa mere; ou autro personne ayant la garde du dit enfant expriino par ^ cnt sa volontt. a cet offct CHAPITRE II. , 11.—Les sal ICH - d'Eeolo de vron t etre s u fiisam in en t eel airees* -saines et d'une Otendae projwrtioneo au hombre dos iecoliors; r r r A%—In; salubrite des bailments scolaires- est'soumise^ au': controle du Comity des Etats qui ordonnera conjointemeritp avec le Comite do la paroisso les tnesures qu'ils jugerontneces^ • sasres. - Les-.frais. encourus .forraeront partio .des depenses-ordinairo de Panneo. 3 f , G 118 4 13.—Tons les fols que lo Comite des Etats crolra qu'il est".... J i&jcesauiro-de faire batir ouagrandir nno-Eoolo pubhque primaire ^ ™<i; il E'nbonohera avce le Ck)tnit6 de.rlo paroisse, choisirs avec lni" -^^ ^^7 •le si toot • fera 'preparer conjoinitemen tj'Aveo^o^djtw.Gomite l^es^^ plansetdevi8 de8'OTnstructions761i"^ es?cnarig propose do faire. Et seront les dits plins et dens, lorsque fi completes, envoyes ou President des Etats, avec .l'eBtimation^s -taut du prix'd'achat dn terrain que -du cout du: travail propose/^ -ponr etre lo tont mis devant les Etats ^sS^ 5 • 14.—La pr6paration des 'dits plans et.'dovis-et do l'estimation ftjt&jj dn cout sera faite par le Comite des, Etats seal, -s'll n'existe .-,>.&» spas do Comite de paroisse, on si le Comite1 do paroisso -:ref use on neglige d'yprendrepart; ' * n ; J s ; '!,?••;••,•'!. : ^ : " ; ; j f o . : . ? * . . v , i-.r,-.-.' 1 5 .—S i les Etats lorsque consnltes sont d'avis qu'il con vient do faire batir ouagrandir uno Ecolo et que les plans etdevis a oux prcscntes meritent leur consideration, lis seront appeles a'-decidcr a une prochame seance s'lls sont d'avis d'adopter los dita plans et de vis et d'antoriscr . lenr Comite d'Edncation a fairo l'acqnisition dn terrain et a faire construire ou agrandir ,:• smvant le cas la dite Ecole moyennanfc le cout estime. ••lG.-r-IiO:;Comit6-.de-la paroisse, (on, s'il n'en existe pas les Connclables de la paroisso), devra apres nno deliberation affirm-:->ri*;: ativodes Etats. prendre les mesnres nccessairos pour faire do . suito voter par la paroisse ponr etre levee par voio :de taxo :1a proportion do la paroisso pour l'achat du dit terrain ct;pour-^i• : la dite construction oule dit agrandissement. Cas avenantque la sommeil lever excedeun penni par .Quartier -sur, le total de la.cotisation do la paroisso sur les Livres de Taxo, les Chefs de Fttinillo pourront decider que le montant a fonrnir no sera love qu'a raison d'un penni par Qaartier" par. an jusqu'a entier pt'iemont., .-Dans ce cas; les Etats "avanceront toutes eommes • •; •iiccossaires pour completer la proportion de la paroisse pour-, l'achat du terrain et. pour la batisseou I'agrandissement de , J.'Ecole et anront droit de:;reclamer annuellement des Conne-. tables le rembours d'une eommeequivalento a. celle qu'ils ont, i 6 tcV autorifles a lever sur la" paroisse ^ durant la "dite annee -pour.l, snbvenir aux frais du dit achat et de la dite batisso on agrandissement, et ce aveo mterets sur le piod de trois pour .cent par an sur la balancerestant alors due sur la dite 'avance..' 119 "^' £'~I7^±Casavepantqn^Ip'clirComiie on'"Jes 'dits Conncfabloslj *»*.: ou quedurant^les deux mois qui•suivront.]a.-.Dei)beration;des| Etats -suno application.^iilar^uritponp^BnYKeraede'apourjilo^ i . montant reqms ,n'ait pas ete faite par les -dits Connt «' *7 " tables^  la Conr en "Corps sur 'rapplicatiW'd"uv'Cdlnitus'desI >^vLtats (etoapres quo coiinaissance en aura;-,;eto.'donnee,vaux ;dits C$3OD notables) ordonnora aux.. Connetables:.efc,rDouzoniers .de la * "^""r paroisse^ dans lo lcmp3,et sur. la porno - qu'il plaira a la Conr S •H;.-... fixer,,do lover par voie 'de taxo le-montant representant la ; - " i : proportion do la paroisso ;ponr*l achat- du terrain -et.'pour'la- ' ;: construction on J'agrandissernent ,;de, l'Ecole/. procisement-dc « :v>i'-la mutnormaniero quo siun rRomcde ;pour le'ditimontant avait; '^^ cte'octroye'snr.'-.rappIication'^ des '^dits^CoQn t^abies, "cl ensuite i <• -de Terser le dit imontnnt entre -les mains du Tresoner dos 'i v>: Etats commo la proportion de la paroisse- ±. .. • •-18.—Les penalitospourront-etre..augmentes: jusqu'a -co quo - vies CoDuetablos ct Douzoniers de da paroisse:;aientaobtomp<>re 1 aux ordres do la Cour , i ' CUAPITRE III -AutoriUe PrCposics d I'lns'rilcticm Ptimaire r j 19 —Lo Comite actucl des Etits pour l'Education Paroissiale continucra cn charge , bien cntendu que sur les dix mombre's • ••.-icornposatit •prescnternent' lo dit ;Cbaifce; :<il devra'••*y nvoir 'a' .mesurc quo les circonstanccs lopermettront, trois des mcrubre* ;:.:,:;-a.npf).-irtenant;a :sla:j;paroisso.^ de,tSt.'^ Pjerre':>Port'..'.et.^ .'trdis-auxv parois5C3;;-do:;^.Li-jvcanipague.^ Le Comite -sora:: toujours; renoinole par" les Etits Lo> deux.plus nnciens Membres* orliront d«. chargo chaquo arince lis seront re eligiblos Lo . plus ancien des Jures-Justiciors-isur: le Comite on sera.lo President d^ offjce.: " • -. .:•<:•• -<r • ." •"•^seu,^^^ ' •"•20— Lo Comit* d'Ldocilion Parois&iale norame par lei Etalsl • n-glera'chaquo annec lo plan,-Anghce" Code""'de '^Instruction" •1° *a;donnera dans chaquo Ecolcet.prescrira les livres, cartes^ e» autres chosesnwcs.sairesaj.'instructi .r!J,?,S?M .^-*»>-!*.* couT.qu^.dtsirent.formerpartioduperBonni30 cnseignan t et fcra f aire l'lnspection et.l'examen des Ecoles touted IOIH et quantc- soit pir les'Merribros dn ditComito soitpar sonf Inspectcur. ^ Lo d.t Com.te reprwoni e r a 1e^ Etats en ce qui' / 120 rogardo les frais d'entrctien et de maintien des* Ecoles ot fourmra annuellement;auxiEtatB;*pni sRapport sur rEtat_ des j dites Ecolos » ^ ~ J 4 1. f; 21 —Atissitflt que cette loi viondra en force il sera forme": '-.dans chaquq paroisso ua-Comitd d'Edncahon compose do nenf' m ombres pour la ville et paroisse de Saint Pierre Port etde: cinq mombres pour los autres-paroisscs^de vl^vexwpteique^ •dans los cas ou lo nombre* du -.Comite^d'nne paroisse est .:fixi\^ d'aprcs les contra Is constitutifs d'uno ecole, le nombre ainsi •fixe constitute™ le Comite do la -dite paroisse;;-*Les Chefs do .": -Fanullo do la villo. ehront huit -des nenf membres et les; Chofs do Famille des paroisscs ;do- la campagne qnatre :des cinq'membres pour lo termo de quatrc ans. Deux membres ; du Comite de la paroisse de la ville et un membre du Comite. dos paroisscs de la campagno sortiront'four a tour d'oflice ' chaque annee.mais l i s seront toujours re-eligibles. - Le Recteur • do la paroisse sera d'offico membre. et-President du Com ite de S A paroisse et pourra nommer parmi les membres du Comitd un ' Vice-President pour le.-representer en cas d'absence. Cinq membres, lo President on -Vice-President jcompns, formoront un quorum dans.le Comite de la- paroisse de. la. ville et trois/ •dans los Comites des paroisscs do la campagne. .-. - b x ' & . . - . . - a •22.—Le Comite d Education ..d'uno paroisso-reprcsenleravlp:; ..paroisso. dans tontco qmregardo les frais demaintion et d'entretien de ses Ecoles. II nommera et congediera les roaitreB • ot waitresses etleurs assistants ; Bien entendn que le Comite •' des -'Etats pourra faire examiner les candidate pour, t el les • charges et refuser cenx de la competence desquelsilne serait pas satisfaiti r. Mais seront les -certificate, de-capacite donnes . par le Coiuild du Conseil Pnvo poor-l'Edncction accepted comme preuve do competence, exceptepour la'laugue FrancaisoN-, Lo Comite , d-Education vd'une. paroisse pourvoira • aussi a ,l'ameublement,-»u chauflagei^l'eclairageet au nettoiement de isos Ecoles, fourmra les livres ot cartes et. toute autre chose neces-;: isairo-pour rinstruction.et choisira les-:prix?jusqu'a concurrence.'1:; i.dn montant qursera. place a lonr-disposition par. le-Comite des -•'•<-' Etats sur la recommendation ;de I'lbspccteur'.des Ecoles- * II ? .-,r>Teillerav&.]a-:<'-disciplinev.8co!astiquej:/fera"-Tisite',sdes registros,^: jreglcra. les sdevoirs- -dos: maitres, des maitresses et do leure ^assistantsV :Jo;. t ou t iconformeme cntos dans lo code imia par lo Comite des Etats. <? ^  121 9 i ". . 23. —Durant le mois tie Janvier do chaque annee lo Comite des Etats precedent a roller conjoin tomcnt. avec le Comite d'Edueation do chacuno des paroisscs do l'ilc le montant roquis poor snbvonir aux depen.scs ordinairos do lours Ecoles pour l'annee courante en y comprenant la balanco active on passive, selon lo cas, sur les comptes de l'annee precedcutc. 24. —S ' i l h'cxisto pas do Comite de paroisse ou si le Comile Vj Jiyant-etp duement convoquc A 1'eftet no so presento pas lo jour et a l'heure indiques par lo Comite des 'Etats le snsdifc regie-ment so fera par lo Comite des Etats seul et aura la memo validite que s'il avait ete fait conjointrncnt par les deux . Comites. 25. —Cas.avenant quo' les deux Comites no soiont pas d'accord sur lo montant rcquis pour les depenscs ordinairos de l'anneo lour diffurond sera soumis par le Comite des Etats a la Cour en corps laquelle apres avoir entendu 1R3 parties reglera dofinitivement et sans appol le montant rcquis pour les depenses ordinairos de l'anneo. 2G.—Lorsque lo montant rcquis. pour los depenses ordinaires d:une anneo aura ete dtfinitivcment regie soit par un accord intervenu entro los Comites ou par le Comite des Etats seul dans l'absence d'un Comitu do la paroisse soit par une decision de la Cour en corps, lo Comite de la paroisso (ou s'il n'existe pas do Comite, les Connetables do la paroisso) devra dc suite prendre les mesures necessaircs pour fairo voter par la paroisse pour etre levee par voio de taxo la proportion quo lu dito paroisse est tenuo do fournir. 27.—Cas avenant que le Comite do la paroisse (on irlenr ./f^Vlefaut les Connetables do la paroisse) neglige de ce fairs ou • Sj>que dans les deux mois qui. suivront lo reglcmont sn'sdit uno-application pour un remede pour, le montant requis n'ait pas ete faito a la Cour par les Connetables do la paroisso, la Cour en corps sur I'application du Comite des Etats ot apres que connaissanco en aura ete donnee aux Carnietables do la paroisse, ordonncra aux Connetables et Douzcnicrs- de la paroisse dans lo temps et sur la peine qu'il plaira a la Cour fixer, de lever par voie do taxe lc montant -rcpivsontant la proportion de la paroisso pour l'annee courante, precisumcnt de la memo manioro que si un Remedo ponr lu dit montant avait ete octroye sur I'application des dits Connetables eu cusuite de 122 Appendix G' . ; . - " . 1.0 '-  :" . vorsor lo dit montant entro les mains dn .Trcsoricr des;Etats commo In proportion do. In paroissa pour la dite annee. Lo jugemcrit do la Cour sera final et Bans nppol.. . . ' . 28.—Et pourront les penalitcs etro augmcntees'jusqu'u ce i quo les Connetables et Donzeuiers aient obtempere aux ordres j do la Cour. ' i 29.—Aussi longtoraps ct aussi' souvont qu'il n'existe pa-dans uno paroisso un Comite d'Edueation dc la paroisse elii commo sus est dit, lo Coinito des Etats reunira les devoirs des deux Comitus et tout ce qu'il fera aura la memo force et validite I ot liorn la paroisso de la mome maniore que s'il avait ete fait j par les deux Comites conjointement. | CHAPITEE IV. ! Traitemeuis. j 30.—Lo Comite des Etats reglera avec lo Comite de la j paroisso dans laquelle une Ecole publique primaire est situee, le I nombro do Mnitrcs, Maitrcsscs, et Assistants a employer dans | la dite Ecolo et les traiteinents aunuels qu'il convient de leur j nttribucr respectivement. S'il s'elovo des differonds a ce sujet entro les denx Comites, ils seront resolus par les Etats de Deliberation snr une application qui leur on sera faite par leur ; Com i to. \ 31.—S'il n'existe pas do Comite de paroisse, ou.si Ic Comite ! nyant ete dnemcnt conveque a l'cffet ne se presente pas le jour j et a l'hcaro indiques par le Comite des Etats, le susdit regie-f " rocnt se fera par le Comite des Etats seul et aura la meme ! validite ques'il avait etefaitpar les deux Comites conjointement. 32.—Les iraitcments qui seront fixes soit par les deux Comite:.' ; conjointeinciit, soit en cas de diflerend entre eux par les Etats, j formeront partio des depenses ordinaires d'nne Ecolo. i Lo trailement fixe au moment de l'election d'un membre du I personnel enseignant ne pourra etre diiniuue aussi longtemps 1 quo le titnlaire sora en fonction, sans l'asscntiment du Comitu j des Etats. • i 33.'—Dans les cas exceptionnels le Iraiternent do tout membre ! dn porsonnel enseignant pourra etre aug'mente par le Comite j ' des Etats, a sa discretion. Et formera cotto augmentation partio des depenscs estraordinaircs do 1'EcoIe. . 123 • ~ • Appendix H 6 REPORT. 1899 HBOlKBBfeBsterThe amount of time which may be given to the teaching, of French in any school has been limited to five hours per week. This means that Town children who, as a rule, never hear any French but what is taught in school, may no longer sacrifice all other subjects in a vain endeavour to become as proficient in that language as are other scholars who never speak any other tongue in their own homos. I have every desire to foster as union as possible the native language of these islands, and I regret that greater efforts are not made in Country Schools to encourage the correct use of both languages by conversational and other oral lessons. In a country school I have heard a teacher give ,the following direction:—' Mettai' votre writing sur les lines," and it is often' gravely asserted that such a wretched, hotch-potch. of three tongues is "French." I must protest against any such assumption. By all means let us encourage the teaching of French, but lot it be understood that it is French; that it is of secondary importance to the official language of the British Empire; and that its study may not monopolise more attention or time than any one class subject can fairly claim. THE TEACHING STAFF. Twelve months ago the .question of the future supply of Teachers was a serious one. On one hand,. School Committees, seeking in vain for efficient teachers and finding none, appointed anybody,.however incompetent, who chose to apply for a vacant post. On the other, hand, young teachers were hopeless and discouraged, unable to compete with pupil teachers across the Channel, finding 4t impossiblo to attain to the efficiency aud the status which a Training College Career can give, and taught, perhaps by seniors, who themselves could not pass their own examinations. It is not surprising,'therefore, that parents refused to accept for their children a career with such gloomy prospects. But, thanks to the hearty co-operatiou of tho Education Committee and the loyal support of tlie majority of tho States, all this has been changed. By the establishment of the Pupil Teacher Centre tho position df the Guernsey Pupil Teacher has been transformed from one of cruel hardship to one which many an English Pupil Teacher would regard with envy.. Thanks to the untiring energy and skill of Miss Wag-staff, whose qualifications for the post she tills are of the highest possible character, wo may confidently predict for our young teachers a training which will be invaluable to them in after life, both as students and as teachers. For the aims of the "Centre " are not limited to giving instruction. By means of model and criticism lessons its pupils are trained and exercised in the art of teaching, and are taught those principles which guide the professional teachor as distinguished from the inexperienced amateur. .Although technically called a " Committee for Primary Schools," the Education Committee by the 124 Appendix H REPORT 7 foundation of the Pupil Teacher Centre has enlarged its aims and responsibilities in the direction of Secondary Education; but the step baa been one which no one can possibly regret. Some twenty additional candidates for the office of pupil teacher have presented themselves during the past twelve months, and these include young people of unusual promise and ability. In short, to use the words of an English Inspector of Schools, '.'.Guernsey may well be proud of its PupU Teacher Centre." As regards the superior grades of our teaching stall, I can only endorse the remargin my first report that there is'the widest possible diversity. The majority, I am glad to say, are working .witli increased 'zeal, enterprise, aud success, achieving results with, which any: community might well be satisfied. Pressure will iu time be brought to bear on the inefficient minority, with.a view to spurring them to greater efforts. Should this fail, the interests of their schools will demand their supersession, by more capable and energetic teachers. ADMINISTRATION AND CONTKOL. In methods of administration, many thorough reforms have been effected. A code of regulations has been sanctioned by the Committee, schemes of work for the assistance of teachers have been prepared, a register of schools has been compiled, salaries have been readjusted, and many inequalities of payment have been removed. Local committees and individual members are assisted and aJjvised whenever necessary, w the "Bequiaition Room" specimens of modern iurniture and apparatus have been collected for the guidance of Committees and Teachers; schools are constantly visited, and their work supervised; the monetary incentive to efficiency known as capitation is awarded on a basis likely to encourage progress, and is entirely withheld whenever a school fails to reach a creditable level of efficiency; States certificates are to be awarded to successful elder scholars, in order that their parents and themselves may have tangible proof of their progress. In these and in many other ways what greatly resembled chaos is being brought to a state of regulated order, and a system of Cerural Control is gradually being established. In addition, two great reforms have been initiated ; all the Primary Schools of the island are to be subject to one and the same law, and Compulsory Education becomos an accomplished fact The regulations for the award of Scholarships to the Secondary School have boon made more stringent. Jt is worthy of passing note that a former scholar of our Primary Schools lias climbed all the rounds of the Education ladder, and from the University of Oxford has entered the Indian Civil Service. 125 Appendix H 8 R E P O R T Owing to the courtesy ot* tho English Education Department our teachers are now examined on the papers set in England, and in other ways our system of education has been brought into line with that on the other side of the Channel. To conclude with my own personal record. In my threefold capacity of Superintendent of Primary Schools, States Inspector, and Secretary of the States Committee, the nature of my duties has varied in a remarkable degree: at one moment I may be called upon to initiate a system of Education, at another to report on plans for a new school, and at another to inspect a consignment of school apparatus on the "White Rock." The following is a summary of what 1 have been able to accomplish in the sixteen months that have elapsed since my appointment :•— I. —-As Superintendent of Schools I have 1. — P a i d 323 visits to Schools. 2. —Attended and addressed seven Parish Meetings. 3. —V i s i t e d tho Pupil Teacher classes on 38 occasions. 4. —M a d o nine official examinations of plans for new schools or school enlargements. 5. —Addressed four meetings of Teachers. 6. —Attended eleven prize distributions. 7. —Prepared 32 reports or special memoranda. *""'"- 8.—Attended the office and requisition room for the purpose of interviewing teachers and others on 60 occasions, and had 469 interviews elsewhere. J).—Attonded three Eduoational Conferences in England. 10. — Issued a code, schemes of work and other regulations. II. — A s States Inspector I have 1. —M a d o 50 official inspections of schools, examined the work ot 4,043 scholars, and issued Reports. 2. — H e l d one examination for Junior Scholarships, preparing questions, marking papers, and issuing a report, 3. — H e l d three examinations of Pupil Teachers. 4. —Organized a scheme of Capitation and of Prizes. III. — A s Secretary of the States Committee I have 1.—Attended 46 meetings of the States or Parochial Committees, at several of which I have been responsible for the minutes. 126 A p p e n d i x H REPORT. 9 2. —Solccted about 1,000 prizes for the annual distributions. 3. —Mado a journey to England to interview candidates for the office of Director of the Pupil Teacher Centre. 4. — I n a l l , 1,440 official letters, forma and circulars have been addressed and posted. As ill spito of frequently working from thirteen, to fourteen hours a day, I found it imposible to keep pace with the demands of my work, the States Committee, last November kindly allowed me to avail myself of clerical assistance, when necessary. I regret that owing to faulty registration in several departments, it has not beon possible for me tills year to compile accurate statistics relating to our schools, but, approximately, the 41 departments under the .subvention of the States have 4,!>34 children on the books, of whom 3,745 are in average attendance and 4,043 wore present at the official examinations. I cannot close without expressing my hearty thanks to the President and members of. the States for their kind support and encouragement, to Sir George Kekewich, K.C.B., several of H.M. Inspectors and other officers of tho English Education Department, for much valuable assistance and advice; and lastly, but with especial gratitudo for the unvarying. consideration and help so readily given, to yourself and to all other members of the States Committee- to whose zeal and enthusiasm is largely due the fact that the present condition of Education in Guernsey, in spite of serious defects, is one of healthy and vigorous progress. I have, &c, &c , January 1, 1900. J O H N A. M.I"NDAY. Appendix. STATISTICS RELATING TO PRIMARY SCHOOLS—GUERNSEY. Number of Institutions, 20. Number of Departments, 41. Total School Accommodation, 5.6G0. Number on Books, 4,934. Estimated number of Children in the Island of school ago, 7,000. Total Average Attendance, 3,745. Present at Examination, 4,043. Percentage of Average Attendance to Scholars on Register, 75'9 „ „ „ „ England and Wales, 810'. 127 Appendix H 10 R E P O R T . Percentage of children above Standard IV—Guernsey, 107. — England, 19-4. Avorage cost per unit of Average Attendance for Salaries, including Capitation—Guernsey £1 11 1 Ditto, Voluntary Schools—England £1 12 S> Ditto, Board Schools—England £2 3 4 Cost per head of the population of Guernsey for Primary Education, including Administration, Inspection, Capitation ami Scholarships 5s. Id. Cost per head of the population of England for Primary Education, excluding new buildings, Administration and Inspection 7s. 6d. Number of departments to which Capitation was awarued, 27. Nine of these wore " commended " or " highly commended " by the State* Committee. Five departments were " warned " that improvement would be looked for next year. Number of departments to which no Capitation was awarded, 14. Number of departments to which tho States Committee cannot recommend the States to give any subvention, 1. 128 APPENDIX I SECTION HEADINGS OF THE 190 3 EDUCATION (GUERNSEY) LAW 1. S c h o o l s and t h e i r O r g a n i z a t i o n . 2. The B u i l d i n g s . 3. A u t h o r i t i e s t o C o n t r o l P u b l i c P r i m a r y E d u c a t i o n . 4. S a l a r i e s 5. A u x i l i a r y Expenses 5. F i n a n c e . 129 ; Appendix. J I .—SUMMARY OK DUTIES, 1900. —As Superintendent of Schools, I have (a) Paid 141 visits to Schools. (6) Visited the Pupil Teacher Centre on 19 occasions. (c) Examined the plans of nine Schools, new or eidarged. (d) Addressed three meetings of Teachers or Pupil Teacher Students. (e) Attended 35 Prize Distributions. >-..(/) Prepared 86 memoranda or Special Reports. (g) Attended the Education Office whenever not engaged elsewhere and have had 449 interviews or Conferences. (h) Attended, by request, two Parish Meetings. (i) Made 35 visits to sites for Schools or to buildings in course of erection. —As States inspector, I have (a) Held 57 Official Inspections of Schools. Examined tho work of 4,540 Scholars and issued Reports. (b) Held two Examinations for Junior Scholarships, preparing questions, marking Exercises and issuing Lists and Reports. (c) On eight occasions conducted Examinations of Pupil Teachers. (d) Allocated Capitation and Prhie-money in accordance with Articles 22 and 34 (d) of the Education Law. -TAS Secretary to the States Committee, I have (a) Attended, and kept the minutes of 40 States Committee Meetings. REPORT. (6) Conferred with live Parish Cor~i..;,u;e>.. (c) Attended, at the request of tuo Prciuont, eight Sutcs Meetings. (d) Examined tho Accounts and Estimate:: of 42 Schools. (e) In the absence of a Parish Committee for St. Peter-Port the local administration of the Town States has devolved on the States Committoe and its Officers. In all, 1,343 official letters, forms and circulars have been sent from the Office during the year. II.—STATISTICS RELATING TO PRIMARY SCHOOLS. (Last year's llgurca arc givob ill iiradiow.; Number of Institutions, 25 (26). Number of Departments, 43 (41). Total School Accommodation, 5,694 (5,600). Number on Hooks, 5,226 (4,934). Estimated number of Children in the Island of school age 7,000 (7,0o0). Total average attendance, 3,935 (3,745). Present at Exam., -»,d40 (4,043V Percentage of children present at Examination, 88'8 (80). Percentage of Average Attendance to Scholars on Register, 75'5 (75-9). „ „ „ • . „ England and Wales, 82 (Sro). Percentage of Scholars above Standard IV—Guernsey, 107 (10-7). —England, 20-5 (19'4). Average cost per unit of Average Attendance for Salaries including Capitation—Guernsey £1 9s. yd. ( £ i lis. id.) Ditto, Voluntary Schools—England £1 13s. l i d . (£1 12s. yd.) Ditto, Board Schools—England £2 3s. 6d. (£2 3s. 4d.) Number of Departments to which Capitation wus awarded, 29 (27). Number of these "commended" or "highly commended" by the States Committeo, 14 (9). Number of Departments ' warned" that improvement would be looked for n e x t year, 5 (5). Number of Departments to which part capitation was awarded, 4 (0). Number of Departments to which no Capitation was awarded, 9 (14). Number of Departments to which tho States Committee cannot recommend the States to give any Subvention, 0 (1). 1 3 1 APPENDIX K SECTION HEADINGS OF THE 19 35 EDUCATION (GUERNSEY) LAW. 1. E x p e n s e s o f E l e m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n 2. P r e m i s e s 3. E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l 4. P a r o c h i a l E d u c a t i o n C o m m i t t e e 5. H a u t e s C a p e l l e s S c h o o l 6. C l o s d u V a l l e S c h o o l 7. P r o c e d u r e a t P a r i s h M e e t i n g s 8. D i s t r i c t c o n f e r e n c e s 9. Use o f S c h o o l P r e m i s e s 10. S c h o o l s a n d t h e i r O r g a n i z a t i o n 11. E l e m e n t a r y a n d P r i v a t e S c h o o l B u i l d i n g s 12. C o m p u l s o r y E d u c a t i o n 13. S c h o o l A t t e n d a n c e 14. A t t e n d a n c e a t T r a i n i n g C e n t r e s 15. P r i v a t e S c h o o l s 16. M i s c e l l a n e o u s , i n c l u d i n g p o w e r t o i n s p e c t . 17. S c h o l a r s h i p s 18. A p p o i n t m e n t , T r a n s f e r a n d D i s m i s s a l o f T e a c h e r s 19. F i n a n c i a l P r o v i s i o n s . 132 . A p p e n d i x L ' • States^ Intermediate School for Boys, Brock .Road, June, 1937. D E A R SIR, - l , ^ \ . . " I have the honour to submit a short report on the Guernsey Evening SCJIQOI for the Educational Year 1930-7. The School held two sessions':.; the first from October 12tli to December 18th, 1936, and the/second from January 18th to A p r i l 2nd, 1937. The Courses for students offered and the Staff engaged were :— B O O K - K E E P I N G . —H . G. Broughton, Chartered Accountant. C H O R A L SOC IETY (with Voice deduction).—T. Williams, B . A . , and Mrs. Williams. : : C O O K E R Y .—M i s s A . MacPhail , • Diploniee Glasgow and W. of Scotland. - ' • ... C O U N T R Y D A N C I N G A N D K E E P P I T CLASS for Women Stu-dents.—Miss W . M . Hopkins-Jones, Diploniee Anstey, P . T . C . D R A M A T I C A N D L I T E R A R Y SOCEETY.-TTMI-S.- G . M . Dowty. • ' E N G L I S H.—T . Williams, B . A . - . • 133 Appendix I 3,0 Ai'l'JKNDlOE. ENGLISH for Foi*eign Students,~T. Williams, B . A . FRENCH.—C. J . Lo PelJey, B.A* (Hons. French). GERMAN.—L. Paul. GYMNASTICS and KEEP FIT ( ^ A s s f p r M e n Students.—A. S. Lockyer, Late Army Instructor, o: MATHEMATICS.—F. E . Fulfqrd, B.Sc., : Inter. B . A . , Maths., • • Stage V . , 1st Class.. •:..•"*.'•'. SHORTHAND.—Miss V. Stookwell, M.I.P.S. TYPEWRITING.—H. G, Broughton, Chartered Secretary. Classes were held on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Fridays. . . - . ' ' • . . A l l the coui'ses, -with the exception of French, which was un-accountably neglected for the first time since the Evening School was inaugurated in 1922, and the women's keep fit class, which also for'the first time wa»s sparsely peopled, were taken up enthusiasti-cally, and the classes were regularly attended. During,'-the two sessions, 170 students attended the school— which is about the average attendance number for the last four years —the purely commercial classes, book-keeping, shorthand and type-writing proving the most popular and accounting for over 60 students. Some pleasing results were obtained in public examinations and tests. Thirteen students in the Book-keeping Class took the Royal Society of Arts Examination and al l were successful, reflecting much credit on both teacher and taught; McMahon, a Post Office Messenger and a student in the Mathematics and English Classes, gained 2nd place in an All-England Examination for messengers for promotion ; the Choral Society retained a Choir Trophy—won in 1935—at the Local Eisteddfod in November 1936 and the Voice-Speaking Choir acquitted itself well at the same;Festival It is pleasing to record that, quite a num ber of business men now make it a practice of applying to the Evening School for suitable young people when vacancies in their: offices need filling and although I can scarcely claim that the School is;-a local Employment Bureau, yet I can state that, mainly through the good offices of Mr. H . G. Broughton, my Book-keeping and Typewriting Teacher, many students have obtained posts or improved their-positions during the past few years. IV—1938 Appendix I A I ' l 'KNDKM-i Incidentally, this interest a n d help ascribed to one member of the Staff is shown equally by the rest, a l l of whom, experts i n their sub-jects and enthusiastic teachers, render invaluable service and merit-m y Irighest appreciation. The E v e n i n g School, with fifteen years of completed service, can r ight ly c laim to be an integral part of the educational scheme of the Island. Its continued success, part icular ly on its Commercia l side, tempts me to suggest an experiment in Technical E d u c a t i o n . ..Tlie"States' E lec tr ica l and Engineering Departments, live Island B u i l d i n g Industry , the local Gas Company and the numerous' M o t o r Works in our midst employ many youths who would undoubtedly welcome courses of a technical nature designed for their benefit and probable advancement. A set of instruct ive lectures on E l e c t r i c a l Engineer ing, for example, developed o n pract ica l l i n e s — t h e amount of theory ex-plained being kept well wi th in the scope of the average' lad engaged i n the E l e c t r i c a l Trade, and the higher technicalit ies of the subject ; not too deeply delved into at first, would, I feel 'sure, .attract a n d interest many, as would a class i n P r a c t i c a l Geometry a n d B u i l d i n g Construct ion, leading to the reading and prepar ing of A r c h i t e c t u r a l Drawings Tlie^experhnent I suggest, therefore, is that ( b u r s t s in Elec-t r i c i t y and B u i l d i n g Construct ion be included, i n the E v e n i n g School •Curriculum for next year '(11)37-8) and' if. successful, further courses i n motor engineering and gas-seryiee -might subsequently f o l l o w ; , suitable lecturers and demonstrators, I k n o w , .are-'available. A p p r e c i a t i v e of y o u r k i n d l y interest i n t'.e act ivi t ies a n d develop-ment of. the E v e n i n g School, i n the direction of which I l ihd m u c h j*>.y- . ' %:\ " .. ' ; J have the honour to be, Sir . ;.- ' .•'•••• Y o u r obedient Servant, ' '; • ^ ; ; - : F R E D E R I C K E . E U L F O K D . Geoffrey A . Carey. Esq. , President, Guernsey E v e n i n g School Committee, TV-r.tvu* 135 A p p e n d i x Projet de Loi referred to in the foregoing Order in Council. V \ P R O J E T D E L O I ENTITLED The Ladies' College (Guernsey) Law, " ^Arrangement of sections. Section - : PART I . _ -;• . Interpretation i. Interpretation. PART II Dissolution of The Guernsey Ladies' College, Limited. "2. Vesting of real property of the Company in the States. 3. Vesting of personal property in the new Board of Governors. 4. Dissolution of the Company. 5. Payments to shareholders of the Company. PART III Reconstitution of the Ladies' College, Guernsey. 6. Reconstitution of the Ladies' College, Guernsey. 7. Constitution of the Board of Governors. . 8. Chairman and Vice-Chairman ot the Board of Governors. 9. Meetings of the Board and minutes. 10. Governors not to have any interest in the sup-ply of work or goods to the Board, etc. 11. Board of Governors to be a body corporate. 136 Appendix M Section .„ ,. - . . ... . PART IV,; „ 0 Miscellaneous provisions, q 12. Powers of the States to make Ordinances. 13. Inspection, records and returns.^„ ;^ g^ . -^  14. Financial provisions..,,"^ , " 15. Annual report of Headmistress. [ . V " " . 16. Communications between the Board and the ^ S t a t e s- ' r f c -17. Amendment of Education Law. ;.; .. V V 18. Citation and commencement. ; " T • "-!"•'?"'-" " ' ' •'. '".:">.-".' "'-m\'';-•>••' '" ' t • . - . v * . ^ , , •- }' . . . .,9 "it . . . . . . . . "•• -.. . -.- r 137 8 registered on the twenty-first day of March, nineteen hundred and eight; " the Education Council " means the States Educa-tion Council; , " legal disability " means certification as a person of unsound mina\ subjection to guardianship, being an inmate for reasons of mental illness of any hospital or other institution, or under-, going a sentence of imprisonment; " pupil" means a person for whom education may be provided in the College under the provisions of this Law and any Ordinance made there-under. •*V: PART n r Dissolution of The Guernsey Ladies' College, Limited. Vesting of 2. There shall, on the appointed day and by virtue' oFthr'com? °f this Law, vest in the States the whole of the real pany in the property belonging to the Company immediately States. - before that day subject to any " rentes " or other. charges affecting such real property or any part thereof immediately before that day. - •/ re-vest ing of 3. (1) There shall, on the appointed day and by. P f " * ^ i r °" virtue of this Law, vest in the Board of Governors perty of the _ ' Company in constituted under the provisions of section seven of Governors ° f t n * s ^ a w a ^ equipment, furniture, books or other per-constituted sonal property belonging to the Company imrhe-Pai^in diately before that day and all rights and liabilities of this Law. to which the Company was entitled or subject imme-diately before that day other than any rights and liabilities which shall vest in the States under the provisions of section two of this Law. (2) Any personal property which shall vest in the said Board of Governors under the provisions of sub-138 section (i) of this section and which was, immediately before the appointed day, held by the Company on trust for any purpose shall be held by the said Board of Governors on trust for that purpose. * • ... ' 4. The Company shall as from the appointed day Dissolution be dissolved, ,.. . . cL^y. 5. The States shall, as soon as may be after the Payments to appointed day, pay to any person who immediately o { t n e before that day was the holder of any shares in the Company. Company five pounds - sterling in respect of each of .-^'wj the shares so held by him. • / - ? ^ ^ - . ! ' ' ' ^ t u V ^ f i ! . ; c - ./ • . .... . . s -^ i r . i i c u j'sx^ • .' • C P A R T i^^^X*^g^;'^ v^--' ' Reconstitution of the Ladies' College, Guernsey:'? 6. (1) The school conducted by the Company shall, Reconstitu-as from the appointed day, be reconstituted in accord- Ladies' ance with the provisions of this Law and of any College,--— Ordinance made thereunder and shall continue to G u e m s e y -be known as " T h e Ladies' College, Guernsey" (here-': 0. inafter referred to as "the College").;' ••'••'> : v ^ v - ^ ^ / j ^ V " ; ; (2) Subject to the provisions of the next succeed-•'.•>•;•£; ing subsection, the College shall be conducted - in'; >?£x"$* -v7.: accordance with the provisions of this Law and of any Ordinance made thereunder as a school for->'^r ' girls and shall be divided into two separate schools/ v^ C^ '-that is to say— ; . v v i ; - - , - -v.... •/ f.-^  Vy^y-S-'^-O^-y^:--(a) a school to be known as " the Upper School" '..'. in which there shall be provided full-time V -education suitable to the requirements of /; pupils who have attained the age of eleven . years but who have not attained the age of nineteen years; and ... v (b) a school to be known as " the Lower School" (hereinafter referred to as " the Lower 139 l O School") in which there shall be provided full-time education suitable to the require-ments of pupils who have not attained the age of eleven years. (3) The Board of Governors constituted under the, provisions of the next succeeding section may authorise the admission of boy pupils to the Lower School subject to and in accordance with the provi-sions of any Ordinance made under this Law. C o n s t i t u t i o n 7. (1) The College shall be conducted in accord: of the B o a r d a n c e w j t ^ ^  p r o v i s i o n s 0 f fais Law and of any of Governors. r \ * Ordinance made thereunder by a board to be called " The Board of Governors " (hereinafter referred to as " the Board "), which shall consist of— (a) a Chairman appointed by the States who shall be a member of the States; (b) two governors appointed by the States; ^ -(c) two governors appointed by the Education Council; and- r-(d) two governors appointed by the Chairman and the governors referred to in the last two preceding paragraphs. (2) The Chairman and governors to be first ap-; pointed under this section shall be appointed as soon as may be after the coming into force of this Part of this Law...... . v.,..- •...;.;->, c..; • (3) Of the two governors first appointed by the States, one shall retire on the thirtieth day of April, nineteen hundred and sixty-four, and the other shall retire on the thirtieth day of April, nineteen hundred and sixty-five, and the order of their retirement shall be determined by agreement between themselves or, failing such agreement, by lot. . : (4) Of the two governors first appointed by the Education Council, one shall retire on the thirtieth 140 day of April, nineteen hundred and sixty-four, and the other shall retire on the thirtieth day of April, nineteen hundred and sixty-five, and the order of their retirement shall be determined by agreement between themselves or, failing such agreement, by lot.-(5) Of the two governors first appointed in accord-ance with the provisions of paragraph (d) of subsec-tion (1) of this section, one shall retire on the thirty-first day of May, nineteen hundred and sixty-four, and the other shall retire on the thirty-first day of May, nineteen hundred and sixty-five, and the order of their retirement shall be determined by agreement between themselves or, failing such agreement, by lot. (6) Subject to the provisions of the last three preceding subsections and of the next two succeeding s u b s e c t i o n s — „ > >• ; (a) a governor appointed by the States or by the Education Council shall hold office jEor_a period of three years' computed from the thirtieth day of April in the year of his appointment; : ' ;. _ " (b) a governor appointed in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (d) of subsection (1) of this section shall hold office for a period of three years computed from the thirty-first:.. day of May in the year of his appointment. ' (7) A governor shall cease to hold office if he— -(a) becomes insolvent or makes any arrange- -; ment or composition with his creditors;..;;..:'. '• (b) "becomes subject to legal disability;: V-or-;'.* (c) resigns his office;.. . . (d) shall during any period of twelve consecutive months have been absent without the per-mission of the Board from all the meetings . of the Board held during that period. 141 13 (8) If any person ceases to hold the office of governor otherwise than by effluxion of time then, unless the vacancy thereby created occurs within the sixty days next preceding the day on which he would have ceased to hold that office by effluxion of time, a governor to replace that person shall be appointed— (a) if that person was appointed by the States, by the States; (b) if that person was appointed by the Educa-tion Council, by the Education Council; (c) if that person was appointed in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (d) of sub-section (i) of this section, in accordance with those provisions; and the governor so appointed to replace that person shall, subject to the provisions of the last preceding subsection, hold office for the unexpired portion of. the term of office of that person. (9) A person who ceases to be a governor shall-not thereby be ineligible for re-appointment to the Board. (10) The Headmistress and any other member of the teaching staff of the College shall not. be eligible for appointment to the Board.\r.*<- - . Chairman 8. (1) Subject to the provisions of the next two Cta'rman of s u c c e e m n g subsections, the Chairman of the Board the Board of shall hold office for a period of three years computed ^Governors. f r o m the thirtieth day of April in the year of his appointment. ~ " (2) The Chairman of the Board shall cease to hold office if he— (a) becomes insolvent or makes any arrange-. ment or composition with his creditors;. 142 i3 . .:v:----(b) becomes subject to legal disability;; (c) resigns his office; , • : . (d) ceases to be a member of the States; .-:/ (e) shall during any period of twelve consecutive months have been absent without permis- . " sion of the Board from all the meetings of -the Board held during that period, ^ji/iit . (3) If any person ceases to hold the office of. Chairman of the Board otherwise than by effluxion of time then, unless the vacancy thereby created . 1'"; occurs within the sixty days next preceding the day " on which he would have ceased to hold that office by effluxion of time, a member of the States shall be appointed by the States to replace that person and •'. shall, subject to the provisions of the last preceding, subsection, hold office for the unexpired portion of, > the term of office of that person. ; •' (4) The Board shall from"time"to" time~appoint -;; one of the governors to be the Vice-Chairman of the Board and may at any time revoke any such appoints. ment. • •-;. ."-v. Uyu^  > ^ A t " •'... • _r]. (5) A person who has ceased to hold the office" -^-y. of Chairman or Vice-Chairman of the Board shall'. ' r l>. not thereby be ineligiblefor re-appointment as Chair-man or Vice-Chairman of the Board, as ihe case'' . may be. ... . / (6) In the absence of the Chairman and Vice- '.'''^.'.1 Chairman of the Board, a meeting of the Board shall' • • be presided over by one of the governors appointed ..' by the members present at the meeting. y-i o • q. CO A meeting of the Board shall be held at Meetings of 1 j ' • T 1 the Board of least once during every school term. Governors . and minutes. 143 . V \ '-4 (2) A meeting of the Board may be convened by the Chairman or by any two governors. (3) The quorum for a meeting of the Board shall be the Chairman and three governors or, in the absence of the Chairman, four governors. (4) Each governor present at a meeting of the Board, other than any governor presiding at the meeting, shall have one vote and in the case of an equal division of votes the Chairman or the governor so presiding, as the case may be, shall have a casting vote. \ (5) The decision of a majority of the governors present at a meeting of the Board shall be a decision of the Board. (6) The Board shall cause minutes of all proceed-ings at meetings of the Board to be entered in books kept for that purpose. (7) Any such minute of any. proceedmgs„at„a meeting of the Board, if purporting to be signed by rhe Chairman or by the governor presiding at tie meeting, as the case may be, or by the Chairman or" by the governor presiding at the next succeeding meet-ing, as the case may be, shall be evidence of the proceedings. '. - - ^ i . (8) Subject to the provisions of this Part of this Law the Board shall regulate its own procedure..^ Governors io. Except in such circumstances as the Educa-"ny interest6 t ' o n Council may approve, a governor shall not in the supply have any interest in the supply of work or goods to" ' gooldTto °the t n e Board and shall not receive any remuneration' Board, etc. from the Board. Board of I I . (1) The Board shall be a body corporate and Governors to s n a i j ^ a c o m m o n seal and in relation to the be a body . corporate. exercise of its functions under this Law and of any 144 '5 Ordinance made thereunder shall have all .such powers as if it were a limited liability company derivr ing the same under Article VI of the Law entitled " Loi relative aux Societes Anonymes ou a Respon-sabilite Limitee " and registered on the twenty-first day of March, nineteen hundred and eight (2) The application of the seal of the Board shall - . -': ' -be authenticated by the Chairman and any governor thereunto authorised by the Board or by two • governors thereunto authorised by the Board. (3) Any document purporting to be an instru-ment made or issued by the Board and to be sealed ..-; -as aforesaid shall be received in evidence and be deemed to be such an instrument without further - , proof unless the contrary is shown. ,. •'. c a T , : - L i . ' (4) The Board shall, as soon as may be after the . coming into force of this Part of this Law, establish . '. and shall thereafter maintain in this Island an..office——'—— at which all instruments for service upon the Board. . may be served and to and at which notices to be„, given to the Board may be sent and delivered. " , J ^ ; / . . (5) Notice of the situation of the office1 established by the Board in accordance with the pro- .;* '• visions of the last preceding subsection and of any' change thereof shall be given by the Board in writing ' to Her Majesty's Greffier within the seven days next, following the establishment of the office or of the change of the situation thereof, as the case may be. :• ; ' PART IV'-;-:-r ' - - : K ' Miscellaneous Provisions "•• ' - ! 12. (1) The States may from time to time by Ordin- Powers of the , • • t w . States to ance make provision for regulating— m a k e !' - Ordinances. 145 16 y (a) the appointment and dismissal of the Head-mistress and assistant teachers of the College; (b) the salaries payable to the Headmistress and assistant teachers of the College; (c) the general conduct, organisation and cur- . riculum of the College; (d) die admission of pupils to the College and the retention of pupils at the College; (e) the charging of fees or other charges in res-pect of the education provided for any pupil at the College or otherwise and the amount-of such fees or other charges; .- . > ./,»>;:: and different provisions may be so made in relation-to different persons or different categories of persons. (2) Any Ordinance made under this section may contain such incidental or supplementary provisions;. as appear to "the States to" be expedient for the pur-poses of the Ordinance. , (3) Any power conferred by this section to make -. any Ordinance shall include the power to vary or repeal any Ordinance so made by a subsequent^. Ordinance. . . ~ • . , inspection, 13. The Board s h a l l — ;--s4i^ x^ |?acj%s records and V-v-' r .-• 1 i>v returns. (a) in addition to the books of account required to be kept in accordance with the provisions of the next succeeding section, keep such . records as the Education Council may from time to time require; . (b) permit any person authorised in that behalf by the Education Council to examine any such books of account and records at such.* « 146 jo i&icaasjv Financial 1 7 times as the Education Council may reason-ably direct; ... ;. . ; . :•<•. ,.. (c) make such returns and furnish such informa-tion to the Education Council as the Education Council may from time to time require; . . (d) permit any person appointed for the purpose of inspecting educational establishments *. under any enactment relating to education- : for the time being in force in England and who shall be authorised in that behalf by ?%i the Education Council to inspect the College1 at such times as the Education Council may ; ' reasonably direct.,; 7.- j * y T iir'£t-. v . ... . •. \ ? ' ^ v „ c ^ 4. The Board shafl—-.nrKO••Ui:i\?''• '«* (a) cause to be kept proper books of account with ProTlsl0n*? respect to all sums of money received and' • expended by the Board and the matters in*~ respect of which the receipt and expenditure takes place and shall in' each year submit such books for audit by an auditor approved by the Education Council; (b) as soon as may be after any audit under the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section, present to the Education Council for submis-sion to the States a copy of the accounts to which the audit relates and the auditor's report thereon; -' . ; (c) on or before such day as the Education Council may from time to time direct, cause a statement to be presented to the Education„' Council for submission to the States specify-ing the estimated expenditure and estimated income of the Board during the ensuing year. 147 r8 Annual report of Head, mistress. Communica-tions between the Board and the States. 15. The Headmistress of the College shall at the end of each school year submit to the Board a written report on the general state of the College and such report shall be presented by the Board to the Educa-tion Council for submission to the States. 16. All communications between the Board and the States shall he made through the Education Council. ^Education I ? ' R e f e r e n c e s i n the Education Law (Guernsey), Law. '935' t o the Ladies' College shall be deemed to be references to the College. Citation and commence-ment. 18. (1) This Law may be cited as the Ladies' Col-lege (Guernsey) Law, 1962. (2) This Law shall come into force on such day as shall be appointed in that behalf by Ordinance of the States and different days may be so appointed as respects the coming into force of different pro-visions of this-.Law.~. . _ — R. H. VTDELO, ^ ^ Her Majesty's Gremer. ^. ; A p p e n d i x N i . , • • •• • 149 Appendix 0 5 Projet de Loi referred to in the foregoing Order in Council PROJET DE LOI ^  ^ ENTITLED • " j The Education (Guernsey) Law, 1970, ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS : Section -f-' PART i , X7X ";}.../•" I INTERPRETATION Tretation. • PART n •-••-•«•• '•> - : ! CONSTITUTION OF THE STATER ,5? EDUCATION COUNCIL - V H ^ Constitution of the States Education Council. PART IH 3r, THE STATUTORY SYSTEM OF EDUCATION 3. Stages and purposes of statutory system, of education. v 4. Duty of the Council to secure provision of primary and secondary schools. -5. States' schools, voluntary schools, nursery schools, and special schools. .<•, i t 6. Constitution of Primary Schools Committees and Secondary Schools Committees..H > ^ r 7. Maintenance of voluntary schools.*.'*)' •*' > S. Secular instruction in States' schools and. in voluntary schools. .% ' _v • ;.-crnr./I' "pr-150 6 Section 9. Appointment and dismissal of teachers in States* schools and in voluntary schools. 10. General provisions as to religious education in States' schools and in voluntary schools. 11. Special provisions as to religious education in States' schools. 12. Special provisions as to religious education in voluntary schools. 13. Saving as to position of teachers. 14. Education of pupils requiring special educa-tional treatment. \ 15. Duty of the Council to ascertain what children require special educational treatment. , . 16. Compulsory school age. 17. Duty of parents to secure the education of their children. 18. School attendance orders. 19. Additional provisions as to compulsory attend-ance at special schools. ~ ~ ' £T 20. Duty of parents to secure regular attendance of registered pupils. 21. Enforcement of school attendance.-. 22. School attendance of vagrant children. 23. General duties of the Council with respect' to-further education. T . ; PART IV INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS V? 24. Registration of independent schools! 25. Complaints. - " j ••• / 26. Determination of complaints by the Royal^ ' Court. 27. Enforcement. 28. Removal of disqualifications. • y / 151 Section . ' "". .• :;v PART V .. . r: TRAINING IN LIEU OF EDUCATION OF , CHILDREN UNSUITABLE FOR EDUCATION 29. Medical examination and classification of child-ren unsuitable for education. - J"' . ."7 ' •• c; .-ssai- •' 30. Review of classification. ....... 31. Supplementary provisions as to classification...^' 32. Power to compel attendance at training centres.; 33. Provisions as to regular attendance for training;-PART VISTV,",'c['n'j; ^ J ! i ° ^ ' 34. Pupils to be educated in accordance with wishes of their parents^--"•^ • ^ - • ' - J - ^ - ^ — 35. Inspection of schools7*sd aataJoa^woQ '-36. Registration of pupils at schools?""''^ '• 37. . Medical inspection and medical and dental , treatment of pupils.'7 '^"^ ir;;:!»% 38. Power, to ensure deanliness!' ' ~ •- , >. V • • 39. Supplementary provisions as to medical examinations and inspections.-'aP'• l1*^- ~*''c 40. Provision of board and lodging otherwise than at boarding schools.^ j j r. i ; CK:iiX.*& -M 41. Provision of clothing.*;: - ^ i 42. Recovery of cost of boarding accommodation and of clothing. -•-.....••;=: - • ^ - K 43. Provision of facilities for recreation and social and physical training. 44. Provision of transport and other facilities. 152 8 • Section .-..rf 45. Power to provide primary and secondary educa-tion otherwise than,at school. 46. Adaptation of enactments relating to the employment of children or young persons: 47. Power of the Council to prohibit or restrict employment of children." : ' ' ' " ' . " _ ' . 48. No fees to be charged in schools maintained by the States. . . . - , • 49. Power of the Council to give financial assistance. in respect of children attending schools and students attending institutions of further ; education. ;. ^g^,^^,-,. 50. Youth employment service. . .\\TNe/ 51. Educational research. :.-:-r.~'i_• \J-^t;\~rJ&~;y~y-*yr-' 52. Educational c o n f e i ^ c c 8 ; w " ' . • . :^ - *r-53. Appointment of Director of Education. ;,T ' £^v 54. Annual report by the Council to the States.' 55. Communications between the Colleges and the States. :P _ V ." v - . ' * - ^ . . ' ; . 56. Provisions as to evi<len&J.:^.j.. v L , ; |i ^ 57. Provisions as to regulations, orders and direc-tions under this Law. . ,. i , ' 58. Service of documents. • _ >'"'. - j& .« 59. ' Savings. j ^ ^ ^ ^ f V ^ f J ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ -60. Repeals. .•,..„- '^.zUscA 1 6 ^ ^ * ; : 61. Citation and commencement*^'"^ *:' " SCHEDULE: REPEALS i , , *, 153 Appendix p PART-TIME D A Y RELEASE COURSES N A M E OF COURSE No. in Course . , . )c''-'-- . Number oi »'titdci provider at present iii Cours-1974-75 . Carpentry and Joinery .. Construction Technicians Full-time Cert, in building crafts Block hrjjytg and Concreting Plumbing" Work ... Business Studies (Day-Release) ('Link Courses) (ONC) Basic Cookery for Catering Industry ... E k e ' Install. A-B-C ... Install. & Telecomms. Techs Raciio, T.V. and Elect. . Mechanics Mechanical Engineering Craft Studies Mcch. Ens;. Technicians Motor Vehicle Craft Studies ... '•' Motor Vehicle Techs. ... Welding Craft Practice ... • Fabrication Craft Studies ... Hairdressing ... ... ... Guernsey Cert, in Horticulture General Horticulture ... . English for Overseas Students ... 4 4 ! 2 5 1 3 4 ) 3 I 3 2 4. 2 67 3 25 31. 4 IS i>. I • i'i i i '?! I 35 4 33 3-r 24 4 A 1 ' 'c A 21 1 4 _i 4 -1 — c 2 1 i 13 3* (6 3 . '-Ii 36 1 5 i? ,0 30 TOTAL NO. OF STUDENTS "Combined with' 1st year Mech. Eng. Craft Studies.-154 A p p e n d i x P ) 11 S" EVENING CENTRE ACTIVITIES GROUP ANALYSIS TYPE OF COURSE No. of Classes No. ol Enrolments Telecommunications and related Courses 3 30 G.C.E. O and A level courses ... 10 157 Shorthand 4 73 Typewriting • • 7 120 Institute of Bankers Course ..; 3 24 Book-keeping and Accounts ... ; ... 1 16 Horticultural ... 2 31 Playgroup Leaders and Helpers ... 2 19 Recreational, Cultural and Physical Courses 131 2184 Navigational Classes ... 8 163 171 2817 155 APPENDIX Q MAJOR BUILDING PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN BY THE STATES EDUCATION COUNCIL SINCE 1950 I N ADDITION TO THE PROVISION OF PLAYING F I E L D S . 1950 'Grange C l u b ' b o u g h t a n d r e n o v a t e d f o r E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e . 1951 S t . P e t e r ' s S c h o o l a n d H a u t e s C a p e l l e s S c h o o l - e x t e n s i v e r e n o v a t i o n s . 1952 P o r t a b l e h u t s a t C a s t e l a n d S t . A n d r e w ' s S c h o o l s . 1956 A m h e r s t - T h r e e new c l a s s r o o m s . 195 8 T h r e e l a b s a n d c l a s s r o o m s a t B o y s ' Grammar S c h o o l . S t . J o s e p h ' s - l a r g e e x t e n s i o n 19 59 L e s Beaucamps S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l c o m p l e t e d . New l a b a t G i r l s ' Grammar S c h o o l . T h r e e c l a s s r o o m s a t L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e . 19 61 S t . Sampson's I n f a n t s S c h o o l c o m p l e t e d . 1962 L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e - p l a n s f o r new s c h o o l a c c e p t e d . 19 63 E x t e n s i o n s a t S t . Sampson's a n d S t . M a r t i n ' s S c h o o l s 19 64 A d d i t i o n a l c l a s s r o o m s a t L e s Beaucamps S c h o o l W o r k s h o p s a t B o y s ' Grammar S c h o o l . D o m e s t i c S c i e n c e i m p r o v e m e n t s a t S t . J o s e p h ' s S c h o o l E x p a n s i o n o f S t . Sampson's C r a f t C e n t r e . 19 65 L a r g e e x t e n s i o n s t o S t . J o s e p h ' s a n d S t . Sampson's S c h o o l s . New B i o l o g y l a b a t G i r l s ' Grammar S c h o o l 1966 New S t . P e t e r P o r t S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l a t L e s O z o u e t s a p p r o v e d . New A l l age s c h o o l i n A l d e r n e y . 1968 A m e r h e r s t a n d V a u v e r t S c h o o l s - e x t e n s i v e m o d e r n i z a t i o n . 19 69 New P h y s i c s l a b a t G i r l s ' Grammar S c h o o l . B u i l d i n g a n d r e n o v a t i o n a t C a s t e l S c h o o l . 1970 One c l a s s r o o m c o n v e r s i o n i n Herm. M a u r e p a s S c h o o l f o r H a n d i c a p p e d - e x t e n d e d a n d r e n o v a t e d . 19 72 V a l e a n d H a u t e s C a p e l l e s S c h o o l s - r e n o v a t i o n a n d m o d e r n i z a t i o n . 19 74 One b u i l d i n g f o r K e r M a r i a a n d D e l a n c e y P r i m a r y . L a Mare de C a r t e r e t P r i m a r y S c h o o l , Cobo - c o m p l e t e d 19 75 L a Mare de C a r t e r e t S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l , Cobo - c o m p l e t e d L a H o u g u e t t e P r i m a r y S c h o o l - c o m p l e t e d E x t r a c l a s s r o o m s a t M a u r e p a s . 156 S t . S a v i o u r ' s S c h o o l - r e n o v a t i o n s f o r use i n S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n . 19 75 C o l l e g e o f F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n - t e a c h i n g and w o r k s h o p b l o c k s c o m p l e t e d . 157 APPENDIX R FIGURES OF 19 31 CENSUS AND THOSE OF PREVIOUS CENTURY 1821 2D,827 1831 ...26,128 1841 .28,521 1851 33,719 1861 35, 365 1871 33,936 1881 35,257 1891 37,716 1 9 0 1 . 43,042 1911 45,001 1921 40,529 1931 42, 743 From G o v e r n m e n t O f f i c e o f G u e r n s e y 30/5/31 1941 23,874 1948 42,118 From S t a t e s I n s u r a n c e A u t h o r i t y S t a t i s t i c s (1948) 158 APPENDIX S  EXAMINATION SET J ULY 14TH, 18 79 SCRIPTURE HISTORY - CLASSES I I & I I I 1. G i v e a s h o r t a c c o u n t o f t h e r e i g n o f J e h u . 2. The H i s t o r y o f t h e G o l d e n C a l v e s . 3. What w e r e t h e v a r i o u s f o r m s o f i d o l a t o r y p r a c t i s e d i n I s r a e l a f t e r t h e d i v i s i o n ? 4. D e s c r i b e t h e e x t e n t o f S o l o m o n ' s K i n g d o m . 5. E x p l a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p h r a s e s : -a) The C i t y o f D a v i d b) He r e s t o r e d t h e c o a s t o f I s r a e l . c) Then Moab r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t I s r a e l . d) And J u d a h was p u t t o t h e w o r s t b e f o r e I s r a e l . 6. M e n t i o n t h e e v e n t s c o n n e c t e d w i t h : -Shechem, G i l g a l , Damascus, D o t h a n . 7. Who w e r e , H adad, B e n - h a d a d , S h a l l u m , N a b a t ? F r o m n e w s p a p e r c u t t i n g i n C u r t i s C o l l e c t i o n . No s c h o o l named b u t t h o u g h t t o be o f E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e . 159 APPENDIX T PRAYER SAID BY CHILDREN OF THE RAGGED SCHOOL BEFORE MORNING SCHOOL. 0 GodI we t h a n k t h e e f o r b r i n g i n g us h e r e t o l e a r n Thy Word and t h e way t o H e a v e n . T e a c h us how t o p r a y a n d w h a t t o p r a y f o r . P a r d o n o u r s i n s f o r J e s u ' s S a k e . Wash them away i n H i s P r e c i o u s B l o o d . G i v e us g r a c e t o o b e y o u r t e a c h e r s a n d a l l t h a t h a v e r u l e o v e r u s . Keep t h e d o o r o f o u r l i p s ; s e t a w a t c h b e f o r e o u r m o u t h , t h a t we t e l l no l i e s . H e l o us t o k e e p o u r h a n d s f r o m s t e a l i n g . C o n v e r t o u r p a r e n t s . Be p l e a s e d t o g i v e us f o o d and c l o t h i n g a nd b l e s s t h e i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t may be g i v e n u s . Do i t a l l f o r J e s u ' s s a k e , Amen. From F i r s t A n n u a l R e p o r t o f The R a g g ed S c h o o l , S t . P e t e r P o r t . May 2 6 t h , 1851 160 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. A n s t e d , D. & L a t h a m , R.G. The Channel- I s l a n d s . (W. H. A l l e n , L o n d o n 1860) 2. B e r r y , W i l l i a m ( o f t h e C o l l e g e o f Arms,^ London) The H i s t o r y o f t h e I s l a n d o f G u e r n s e y , p a r t o f  t h e A n c i e n t Duchy o f Normandy, t o t h e y e a r 1814. 3. C a r e y , V e r a . G u e r n s e y C u t t i n g s , f r o m t h e C u r t i s C o l l e c t i o n . ( u n d a t e d ) 4. C o l l e n e t t e , V.G. E l i z a b e t h C o l l e g e , 1 5 6 3 - 1 9 6 3 . ( G u e r n s e y 1963) 5. C o r t v r i a r d , V.V. I s o l a t e d . I s l a n d . ( G u e r n s e y 1946) 6. Cox, C. S t . P e t e r P o r t i n Bygone T i m e s . P a p e r r e a d t o S o c i e t e ' G u e r n a i s i a i s e , V o l : V 1893. 7. de G a r i s , M a r i e . The P a r i s h o f S t . P i e r r e - d u - B o i s a n d some o f i t s I n h a b i t a n t s i n t h e E i g h t e e n t h & E a r l y N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s . P a p e r r e a d t o S o c i e t e G u e r n a i s i a i s e . T r a n s a c t i o n s o f S o c . G u e r n . V o l : X I V 1 9 4 6 - 4 9 . 8. D i c e y , Thomas. An H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t o f G u e r n s e y . (London 1751) 9. D u ncan, I . The H i s t o r y o f G u e r n s e y . (Longman, Brown & G r e e n , L o n d o n 1814) 10. D u r a n d , C o l . C. J . E a r l y V i c t o r i a n G u e r n s e y . I n T r a n s a c t i o n s o f S o c i e t e G u e r n a i s i a i s e , V o l : X I I I 1 9 3 7 - 4 5 . . 1 1 . G a l l i e n n e , Rev. M. S c h o o l d a y s - R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f Rev. M. G a l l i e n n e p r e s e n t e d b y h i s s o n . (The S t a r , G u e r n s e y 1901) 12. G i r a r d , P. J . The G i r a r d D i a r y a s c i t e d t o S o c i e t e G u e r n a i s i a i s e , M a r c h , 1975. (1509) 1 3 . G r o s s e , C h a n n e l I s l a n d s . Maps & L e t t e r s f r o m w r i t e r ' s own s t u d y . T i t l e page l o s t , b u t n o t e d a s b e i n g o f 1773 e d i t i o n . 14. H a r d y , F. A H e a d m a s t e r Remembers 1924 - 39. ( G u e r n s e y 1969) 15. I n g l i s , H e n r y D. The C h a n n e l I s l a n d s , V o l : I I ( w h i t t a k e r , T r e a c h e r , A r n o t & Co. L o n d o n 18 34) 16. J a c o b , J o h n . A n n a l s o f Some o f t h e B r i t i s h Norman I s l e s c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e B a i l i w i c k o f G u e r n s e y f r o m P r i v a t e M s s .  d o c u m e n t s a n d f o r m e r H i s t o r i a n s . P a r t I ( P a r i s 1830) y 17. L ee,^G.E. R e c t e u r de S t . P e t e r P o r t . A c t e s d e s E t a t s de L ' l l e de G u e r n e s e y V o l : I I 1 6 5 1 - 1 7 8 0 . ( B i c h a r d e t C i e . 1907) 18. L e M a i s t r e , P. H i s t o r i c a l Mss. & E x t r a c t s f r o m C h r o n i c l e s a n d S t a t e D ocuments. ( G u e r n s e y P r e s s . O c t . 2 2 - 3 0 , 1 9 1 2 ) . 161 19. L e m p r i e r e , R. H i s t o r y o f t h e Channel I s l a n d s . (London 1974) 20. Le P a t o u r e l , J . H. The B e g i n n i n g s o f S t . P e t e r P o r t . T r a n s a c t i o n s o f S o c i € t e G u e r a i s i a i s e V o l : X I I _~9~33-36. 21. Le P a t o u r e l , J.H. M e d i a e v a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e Channel I s l a n d s , 1199 - 1399. (0. U. P r e s s 1937) 22. L i d s t o n e , A. Album-' o f the Founder o f the Ragged S c h o o l s . (S. B e r b e t , Guernsey 1857) 23. A N a t u r a l i s t . Rambles among the Channel I s l a n d s . ( S o c i e t y f o r the P r o m o t i n g o f C h r i s t i a n Knowledge, London. Undated) 24. P i t t s , John Linwood. Guernsey & i t s B a i l i w i c k , A Guide and a G o s s i p . (Gardner, Guernsey. 1889) 25. Read, D.B., Q. C. The L i f e and Times o f M a j o r - G e n e r a l S i r I s a a c B rock. ( B r i g g s , T o r o n t o . 1864) 26. Rooke, O c t a v i u s . The Channel I s l a n d s . (Booth, London. 185 8) 27. A Twenty Y e a r s R e s i d e n t . The P r i v i l e g e d I s l a n d s . (Payne, Guernsey 1840) 28. U t t l e y , J . The S t o r y o f t h e Channel I s l a n d s . (London 1966). NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS 29. The Comet. Monday, November 5 t h , 1832 30. G u e r i n ' s Almanack. 1820, 1897, 1903-1913 (Guernsey) 31. Guernsey A d v e r t i s e r & Weekly C h r o n i c l e . June 5 t h , 1886 32. Guernsey Almanack. 1849 ( B r o u a r d , Guernsey) 33. The Guernsey E v e n i n g P r e s s August 30th , 1897 March, 1907 November 2nd, 1917 June 1 9 t h , 1940 J a n u a r y 1 8 t h , 196 7 August 30th , 1967 A p r i l 2 8 t h , 1970 December 2nd, 1970 A p r i l 8 t h , 1971 March 2 1 s t , 1972 J u l y 9 t h , 1973 June 2 5 t h , 1974 March 2 6 t h , 1975 34. The Guernsey News. A p r i l , 1893 May, 1904 162 35. The L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e M a g a z i n e V o l : I #1 J u l y , 1905 36. M e r c u r e de G e r n e s e y . L e 11 a v r i l 1829 37. S t . P e t e r P o r t C h u r c h M a g a z i n e . F e b r u a r y , M a r c h & May, 1870. DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS 38. The D i s c i p l i n e s E c c l e s i a s t i c a l a p p r o v e d a n d c o n f i r m e d b y A u t h o r i t y i n a S y n o d h o l d e n i n G u e r n s e y J u n e 2 8 t h , 1576, and c o n f i r m e d by G o v e r n o r s 1 1 t h - 1 7 t h , O c t o b e r , 1697. 39. C o l b o r n e , S i r J o h n . H. E. L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r . K.C.B. E n q u i r y i n t o t h e P r e s e n t S t a t e & C o n d i t i o n o f E l i z a b e t h  C o l l e g e , 1824. 40. S t a t u t e s o f December 2 8 t h , 1852. a t C o u r t a t W i n d s o r . 4 1 . L i d s t o n e , A. R e p o r t on t h e Ragged S c h o o l i n S t . P e t e r P o r t . 1852 42. E x a m i n e r s ' R e p o r t o f J u l y 8 t h , 1840. by P u b l i c E x a m i n e r s , G. Dawson a n d J . W i l l i a m s . 4 3 . O z a r d , E.C. P r o c u r e u r du R o i . R e c u e i l D ' o r d r e s e n C o n s e i l e n r e g i s t r e s u r l e s r e c o r d s de L ' l l e de G u e r n e s e y , d e p u i s  L'Anee 1800. V o l : I 19 0 3 ( B u r e a u de l a G a z e t t e O f f i c i e l l e , G u e r n s e y 1903) 44. R e p o r t on E d u c a t i o n - 1911 by M. E. S a d l e r ( D i r e c t o r o f S p e c i a l I n q u i r i e s a n d R e p o r t s t o B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n ) . 4 5 . A n n u a l R e p o r t s t o t h e S t a t e s o f G u e r n s e y by E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l 1899 - 1975. 46. R e p o r t s o f H e r / H i s M a j e s t y ' s I n s p e c t o r s o f S c h o o l s t o t h e S t a t e s o f G u e r n s e y . 1902 - 1975. 47. F i g u r e s o f 19 31 C e n s u s a n d t h o s e o f P r e v i o u s C e n t u r y f r o m G o v e r n m e n t O f f i c e o f G u e r n s e y , May 3 0 t h , 19 31. 4 8. N o t e s o n P o p u l a t i o n o f G u e r n s e y . S t a t e s I n s u r a n c e A u t h o r i t y , 1948. 49. O r d e r i n C o u n c i l . December 1 2 t h , 1 8 9 3 , a t C o u r t ' a t W i n d s o r . 50. O r d r e s e n C o n s e i l , G u e r n s e y - A u g u s t 9 t h , 1893 M a r c h 7 t h , 1903 November 4 t h , 1905 J u l y 2 9 t h , 1916 S e p t e m b e r 2 7 t h , 1918 J u l y 1 7 t h , 1920 J u l y 2 0 t h , 1925 A p r i l 1 3 t h , 1935 O c t o b e r 1 5 t h , 1949 (amendment) 163 F e b r u a r y 2 0 t h , 1962 (amendment) O c t o b e r 1 s t , 1962 May 5 t h , 1970 51. O r d i n a n c e o f S t a t e s O c t o b e r 2 8 t h , 1970 F e b r u a r y 2 4 t h , 1971 52. G u e r n s e y C o l l e g e o f F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n - Handbook, 1976/77 INTERVIEWS 53. P e t e r J . G i r a r d , A u g u s t 2 1 s t , 1976 54. E. G. B r e t t , A u g u s t 1 7 t h , 1976. 

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