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The gas fired pottery kiln design and use for schools Place, Martin Halstead 1977

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THE  GAS  DESIGN  FIRED AND  POTTERY KILN-  U S E FOR  SCHOOLS  By  MARTIN B.Ed.,  HALSTEAD PLACE  University of British  A THESIS THE  Columbia,  1972  SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT REQUIREMENTS MASTER  FOR T H E DEGREE  OF  OF A R T S  in  THE  FACULTY  (Graduate  OF  GRADUATE •_ STUDIES  Division)  (Faculty of Education) We  accept to  this  thesis  the required  THE U N I V E R S I T Y  Martin  conforming  standard  OF B R I T I S H  September, ©  as  COLUMBIA  1977  Halstead  Place,  1977  OF  In  presenting  this  requirements British freely I  an  Columbia, available  further  agree  this  thesis  Head  of  is  for  my  for  thesis  in  advanced  I  agree  for that  reference  and  study.  permission  or  for  purposes by  copying  financial  gain  shall  his/her or  not  may  be  be  of  shall  i t  copying  of  granted  of  of  make  by  representatives.  allowed  the  University  extensive  publication  this  without  the It  thesis my  permission.  MARTIN  Department The  the  Library  that  written  at  the  scholarly  Department  degree  fulfillment  that  understood  for  partial  o f _ _ _  University  2075 W e s b r o o k Vancouver,  of  British  51ace,  Canada  V6T  1W5  Date  "SEPTEMBER  1977  Columbia  HALSTEAD  PLACE  B.Ed.  ABSTRACT At  the time  reliable ion  of publication of this  t e c h n i c a l data  and o p e r a t i o n  tions  have  some  information aspects use  on  o f gas  stitutions  or and  lines  and  explain  to  illegally  i t necessary  f u l f i l l  results.  so t h a t  an  ness  o f a v a r i e t y o f designs  had  authorities Columbia using were able  igation  construct  very  little  two m a i n  t o design,  more  without  i n relevant  about  over  secondly These  public i n -  build  and  of their  students  o f combustion  firing  apparent  guide-  safe  that  and  hampering  inexpensive  the useful-  kiln  design  he two  i n  British  and t e s t e d  sources  to p u b l i c a t i o n time.  F o r t h e most  comes  from  con-  consulted  gas k i l n s built  and  of  part  informal  kilns  information  locations to publications  operation  easily  available.  jurisdiction and  to  publications, could  d i r e c t i o n s , the author  collected.  into kiln  I f o n e was  and v a r i o u s  efficient,  for information  and A l b e r t a  compared up  and u t i l i z e d  having  the data  i f any  few p u b l i c a -  part  kilns  the education  I t becomes  can be b u i l t  search  built  teachers  kiln  struction  A  available i n previous  t h e t r a d i t i o n a l methods  are necessary  This  kilns.  are available.  Students,  are finding  i t s unique  the design,  but f o r t h e most  designs  unsafe  gas k i l n s  fully  pottery  little  the p r o p o r t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the various'  be m a n u f a c t u r e d .  operate  fired  the information  inefficient,  a v a i l a b l e on  information  o f gas k i l n  only  was  thesis  avail-  the investinstruction  - -  from  a  number  provincial It very  has  and  controlled to  be  of  The broad  been  the  testing  that  the  u s e f u l guide  to  safe,  kiln  design.  and  and have  The  dynamics  shown  u s i n g more  This  and  result  of  elaborate from  parts.  ing  a  gas  kiln,  kiln,  and  lastly  insulation paper books.  as  A  brief the  of  and  they (see  which are  paper  future  essay  model  examples using  to  are  serve The  research  covered  bibliography)  done w i t h  seem  the  para-  in benefits. and  closer  c o n t r o l s and  further  as  a  with  investigation improve  handbook  thesis a a  and  i s set rational  gas  fired  kiln  which out  the  for  hav-  pottery  firing  laying^application  i n the  not  covered  Olsen  and  in  is  in  logs  model.  construction are  well  and  p a r a m e t e r s may  for designing  the  design  important  and  establishing  of  re-  preliminary  be  and  a  a  kilns.  construction, brick arch  only  is  are  improvement are  could  i n design  i s designed  designed  Methods  and  pollution  of kiln  high  equipment  this  and  interrelated  very  applied research.  three  from k i l n s  a  Much more  safety of  thesis  parts  there  given  efficient  main  design  f u r t h e r improvements  efficiency  operators  that  parameters  control  of kiln  thesis.  finding  dynamically  pollution  guidelines used  even  researcher's  indication  in this  b u i l d e r s and  inspectors.  design  efficiency  the  8  successful kiln  dimensional  meters  the  gas  strong  liable  of  - -^t  of  this  Rhodes  iv. TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT TABLE  i  OF CONTENTS  v i .  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  v i i .  INTRODUCTION  1.  EMBARKING  WHY  A  GAS  ON  THIS  VENTURE  CONSIDER:  KILN?  2.  T H E MODEL FOR D E S I G N I N G A  "  .  i v .  TABLES  BEFORE  i  GAS  KILN.  Basic Design i n K i l n Proportions L o c a t i n g trie K i l n Indoor v s . Outdoor Choosing K i l n Building Materials The Methoed o f D e t e r m i n i n g H a r d B r i c k E q u i v a l e n t s (H.B.E.) How B i g S h o u l d a K i l n B e ? Vs. I n t e r f a c e Temperatures N a t u r a l Gas o r P r o p a n e B e f o r e D e c i d i n g on Propane S i z e and Type o f K i l n B a s i c D e s i g n i n Gas K i l n s . Chamber Shape D e t e r m i n i n g t h e V o l u m e lYi<~d'd-X z*.^:-:^:^ W i t h i n a Sprung A r c h The C a t e r n a r y A r c h Burner P o r t and E x i t F l u e S i z e s The b u r n e r P o r t s The Chimney H e i g h t P r o x i m i t y o f Chimney t o Windows and A i r Intakes Proximity o f P r e s s u r e Zones , The C o m b u s t i o n P r o c e s s i n t h e kiln.-., . Burners Gas I n p u t i n B.T.U. f o r Gas K i l n s '.The G a s I n p u t ' The S e t t i n g F l o o r A r e a  KILNS DESIGNED  USING  THE  7. 9. 11. 14. 17. 22. 24. 26. ©8. 29. 31. • 32. 33. 34. 34. 38. 39. 39. 40. 42. 45. 47. 50  MODEL  24 C u b i c F o o t D o w n d r a f t G a s K i l n D e s i g n Summary o f D i m e n s i o n s o f a K i l n U s i n g t h e Model Provided Small Downdraft K i l n Design  51. 52. 54.  V... Table  o f Contents  (cont.d)  Small Crossdraft Small  Updraft  Kiln  55.  Kiln  56.  APPENDIX B e f o r e F i r i n g Your K i l n f o r t h e F i r s t Time Safe k i l n Operating Procedures ; S h u t Down P r o c e d u r e Do's a n d D o n ' t s o f K i l n F i r i n g Recommended S a f e t y E q u i p m e n t f o r S c h o o l U s e Kiln Sitter Thermocouple Auto. Shut O f f  58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 6-3. 63.  N a t u r a l Gas B u r n e r I n s t a l l a t i o n Instructions Gas L i n e s T o K i l n s Propane I n s t a l l a t i o n I n s t r u c t i o n s Safety p i l o t mounting Instructions Recommended K i l n C o n s t r u c t i o n a n d I n s t a l l a t i o n Requirements f o r A l b e r t a I n s t a l l a t i o n Requirements f o rK i l n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia T a b l e 9.21.6.a. N a t i o n a l B u i l d i n g Code  64. 65. 66. 67.  KILN  TEST  kiln  Kiln  "A"  Kiln  "B"  FIRING  REFERANCE  70. 72.  REPORTS  Ideal  KILN  68.  74. ..I  94.  LOG  104.  CITATIONS  111.  BIBLIOGRAPHY A D D I T I O N A L CERAMICS  84.  112. BOOKS  113.  TABLES  Approximate Hard  Brick  Natural  Cold  Face  20a. Temperatures  Temperatures  Gas  Input  Gas  Input  C.S.A.  .i  *. '  Ambient  21. 25. 27a.  Temperatures  I n p u t s and Chimney  Table  19.  Gas/Propane  Sustained Kiln  Equivalents  Equivalents  Approximate interface  Refractory  Flue  28a.  Sizes  37. 47.  i n B.T.U.  9.21.6.A. B149.1  f o r Gas K i l n s  National - 1971  B u i l d i n g Code Table  25  .-  49. J 2  (73^  ;  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  -viir.\  '  i I should l i k e t o thank a l l t h e a r t i s t s ,  craftsmen,  in-  s p e c t o r s , and engineers who have a s s i s t e d me w i t h t h i s paper. S p e c i f i c a l l y Stan C l a r k e , and Jim C l a c h r i e , who a r e so h e l p f u l and generous w i t h a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e , Mr. W.R. Montgomery o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Gas A u t h o r i t y , and the many anonimous k i l n owners who submitted t h e i r e f f o r t s t o t e s t s . L a s t l y , I should l i k e t o thank t h e f a r s i g h t e d , p a t i e n t , master educator and f r i e n d Sam Black f o r h i s constant encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e , and Graeme Chalmers f o r h i s p a t i e n t understanding and h e l p f u l c o r r e c t i o n s t o content and format.  1. INTRODUCTION  The  purpose  a method  of  will  meet  will  also  serve  and  pottery  It those safe  up  and  that  future  schools  the  of  as  an  It  i s not  information  i n the  and  for the  and  build  and  model  gas  or  of  a  model kiln  used  propane  authorities of  gas  British  operation,  compliment  but  to  guide  to  efficient, i t is are  .that  use  of  a  nec-  in a  gas  program.  place-all  rather  f o r gas  already  an  and  education  paper  a  kilns  education  their  as  Further  i n c l u d i n g the  in this  Bibliography.  operate  show t h a t  ceramic  serve  kiln.  to modern m a t e r i a l s to  The  province  thesis will  consider part  of  u s e f u l gas  proceedures,  c o n t r o l l e d gas  intended  information  listed  design,  will  any  use  of publication.  this  school  and  schools.  i n designing  listed  time  integral  construction  be  show by  efficient  o f most  thesis will a  i s to  Recommended  that  to  this  part  kiln  the  pollution  essary  kiln  will  want  safe,  assist  kiln.  to  a  thesis  needs  to  i s hoped  who  hoped  of  the  inspectors  Columbia  this  designing  that  fired  of  to  and  published  types restrict  propane  kiln  references  2. BEFORE  EMBARKING ON  A these  gas k i l n  money  input  o f energy  quiring  Each k i l n unique  If firing  I  kiln "To  an  electric be  believe  i n full  Nevertheless to  take  research."^ ^  In fact  i f any  and  but  before  have  Each  and  a  of vast  i n ac-  reliable  liabilities. i t s own  requirement  energy  t o escape  to  find  after  a  to fire  several  of  gas than  firings  controlled. very  natural  of results  i t i s more  the tedium  and s k i l l  only  and  philosophical  advantage  interested  day c o n s i d e r t h a t  adjustment  control  i t w o u l d be  ceramics,  requires  and w i l l  i n time  each  i t i s this  i t i s t o know  KILN?  problems.  determinable that  cost  i n design  kilns  kilns.  integral  than  gas k i l n  i s little  t o use a gas k i l n  much more  GAS  i s a b i g investment  o f the person  investment  A  considered wisely  and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  small electric  a craftsman  well  an  you p l a n  being  A  there  answers t o these  results  not  with  requires  modern  be  gas k i l n  cases  i s an adventure  be met  must  WHY  for firing  as t o t h e requirements,  requirements  adequate  A  on t h e p a r t  I n most  CONSIDER;  advantages  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  i t .  information  can  h a s many  construction.  time,  kiln  VENTURE  and t h e disadvantages  beginning  must  THIS  part  t h a t makes  firing  o f the ceramic  important  i n precise  phenomenon  t o know what  detail  why  of the results  o f modern  a  process. works  i t works  absurd;-*:for a n y c r a f t s m a n  of  today  scientific  well. not  The the  In a r t giving  t h e happy  the  craftsman  should  not t o always up t h e f u l l  learn  dominate  control  accident that plays  generation  aspects of  artist  natural process,  will. of  modern  such  insure dull  with  and impose  insures the  an important  o f new a n d c r e a t i v e : i d e a s .  i n a r t would  t o work  advent  part i n  The l o s s  and monotonous  their  of  such  production  works. "The  beyond  beauty  t o which  the highest  that  t h e S u n g p o t t e r s a t t a i n e d was f a r  from  i t s beginnings  i n J o s i a h Wedge-  (2) wood  the E n g l i s h p o t t e r s ever  aimed a t . "  The  speaksssof  buted  beauty  to the pursuit  artist-craftsmen summed ents  Bernard  should  working cess.  come  with Fire  ceramic  of results.  pursue  up i n t h e s e  Leach  their  lines.  i n contact with  and s t i l l  experience  c a n be, and perhaps  The ably  elements  a primary  obtained.  i s , being  stud-,  experience  process  gas t h a t  The- p r o c e s s  o f t h e Sung p o t t e r s t o t h e ease  lost  of  like  of  pro-  of the  this  ex-  firing the craft-  and r e l i a b l e  results  heating.  organic  compared  part  o f t h e ceramic  and i t i s w i t h modern  ceramics  electrical  which  i s f o r t h e most  the essential  remains  c a n be e a s i l y  of  contri-  A r t i s t - c r a f t s m e n and t h e i r  perience  manship  The b a s i s upon  goals  one o f t h e primary was  c a n be. e a s i l y  beauty  of fired  to the results  ceramics  of electrical  cannot  be  heating.  favourThe  lusters,  r e d u c t i o n s p o t s , c o l o u r s and  ceramics  has  t h a t m y s t i c a l look o f h a v i n g been touched  by-  nature.  The  e s s e n t i a l experiences  easily  denied  c a n be  and  the h e r i t a g e o f generations  k n o w l e d g e o f gas  scientific  firing  cannot  be  The  i s l o s t never  to  fully  t h e p r o c e s s must be  The  of  modern gas  engineers  be  s a f e l y and  efficiently  i f any  o r p r o p e r l y done.  One  i s the concern  combus-  practiced  firing  little  pollution  "hands-on"  c a r r i e d out.  There i s  f i n a n c i a l means o f m o s t l e a d s one  to the r e a l i z a t i o n  p e r l y or i n p o o r l y designed k i l n s . are p o l l u t i n g the atmosphere  by  and  reduction f i r i n g These k i l n s  firing  ceramic  a good number o f a r t i s t - c r a f t s m e n p l a c e t h e m s e l v e s a h i g h degree o f h e a l t h hazard  before  that reduction  e q u i p m e n t t o c o n t r o l o r guage r e d u c t i o n  This situation  but  concerns  Without proper be  a  o f the major  done so t h a t v e r y  i s generated.  i t i s f a r beyond the  artists.  a  explained easily  l e a r n e d and  i n s t r u c t i o n t h i s p r a c t i c e cannot little  strong  or i l l u s t r a t e d without  t h e o r y c a n be  experienced,  c a n be  firing  very  a t t a i n e d without  experienced  it  such  safely  be  a l s o one  c h e m i s t r y o f r e d u c t i o n atmosphere  combustion type k i l n .  from  f i r i n g has  l e s s o n t h a t cannot  t i o n atmosphere.  in  and  attained again. The  and  of a process  fired  a g e n e r a t i o n o f l e a r n e r s because o f convenience  simplicity be  toasted look of  and  that others impro-  operators  f a r beyond the n e c e s s a r y  re-  quirements Gas is  fora quality  kilns  o f being  have  able kilns.  a r e many.  The main  a  temperatures  full  The  spectrum  higher  chemicals tion  much h i g h e r  The advantages advantage  These hazardous  being  temperature because  other  eratures ledge  knowledge i n clay  safer  glaze  temperatures  than  fired  i n low  chemicals  and g l a z e s  o f working  a r e t h e modern  tool  experiences  t o be o b t a i n e d  and such  learning important would  to later elements  dangers  the processes  cannot  that  and i twould  the pollution  r e q u i r e d by modern  when t h e s t u d e n t s  ensures  go o n i n c e r a m i c s  uating Such  becoming  to learn  with  func-  high  insures a strong basic  Gas k i l n s  and a b l e  toxic  replace their  craftsmen.  able  temperature.  formula.  and experience  be learned e a r l y  at  i n creating  t h e u s e o f most  i s quickly  should  unavoidable  at this  that  essential  the use o f  temperature  key elements  avoid  ceramics  to avoid  a r e almost  i n glazes  glazes  and.that  able  found  compounds  of colours  advantage  o f higher  and a r e c e r t a i n l y  i n the ceramic The  firing.  but clear  a n d c a r c i n o g e n i c compounds  glazes. low  one f i n a l  to attain  electrical  toxic  reduction  perhaps  and unsafe  fewer  that  be o v e r l o o k e d  these  experiences avail-  Leaving  would  i n s u r e t h a t more  firing  artist-  allows  necessary.  even w i t h  know-  are- e a s i l y  students  temp-  such  learn the  students  a gas k i l n  perpet-  habits of the unskilled.  i n a n a g e when p e o p l e a r e  6.  turning  t o gas k i l n s  i n e v e r g r o w i n g numbers.. I t i s t h e t i m e  to provide  the education  generation  of potters  ed  necessary t o insure  generate b e t t e r  the next  and a r t i s t - c r a f t s m e n a r e p r o p e r l y  i n modern t e c h n i q u e s and T h o s e who c r e a t e  that  train-  processes.  a r t works must make e v e r y a t t e m p t t o  s t a n d a r d s b y s e t t i n g a n example t o be compared T  to,  and p r a c t i s e d s o t h a t  efforts,  s t u d e n t s can measure t h e i r  the efforts o f their  ancestors  so t h a t  tribution  and p l a c e  c u l t u r e and t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e i r  t h e y c a n draw c o n c l u s i o n s  c e s s a l t h o u g h complex h a s v e r y cultural  show t h a t  important  s i g n i f i c a n c e and t h a t  We must  see that  safe,  reliable  made a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t s a n d t h a t provide ed  a continuing  con-  artistic,  pro-  scientific  be t h e l e s s e r b e c a u s e o f and u s e f u l s y s t e m s a r e research  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y that  by a n o n g o i n g a r t i s t i c a l l y  the ceramic  by i g n o r i n g o r s u b s t i t u t i n g  inadequate systems o u r s o c i e t y w i l l it.  as t o t h e i r  i n society.  We a s a r t i s t - c r a f t s m e n must  and  personal  and t r a i n i n g  i s e a r n e d and reward-  and c u l t u r a l l y  gifted  society.  T H E MODEL FOR D E S I G N I N G A  ADAPTED  FROM R E S E A R C H  BY J I M C L A C H E R I E  BOOKS OF D A N I E L RHODES AND AND  RESEARCH  KILN.  FRED  ON K I L N S I N B R I T I S H BY T H E AUTHOR.  OLSEN COLUMBIA  7. BASIC DESIGN  IN KILN  Studies a  strong  i n both Alberta  reliability  specifications. who  wishes  work.  suffice  These the  guidelines  guidelines  Columbia  kiln  A  should  safe  proportions  with  and  and u s e f u l k i l n s . kiln  sufficient  of kilns  simply  in efficient,  help  shown  be h e l p f u l t o anyone  i s not the only  survey  used  should  have  safe  i n serving  as  The  design  that  heat  could  points  out  and u s e f u l  starting  prokilns.  points for  future. The  as  kilns  in  very  in  "Kiln  concepts  Design The  kilns  are very  these  ancient  probably fact  used shall  but be  designed  and O p e r a t i o n "  different designs.  t h e most  from The  i n the Orient  and o l s e n  t h e wood  spaces  and  Rhodes Book"  i n modern  straw k i l n s  gas of  f o r combustion  noticeable different  the proportions  Europe  i n "The K i l n  required  are probably  as o l d  and  p r o p o r t i o n a l l y as  significantly  f o r our purposes  difference. f o r each  f o r gas and  fuel  propane  same.  Proportional relationships  (3)  are practically  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and p r o p o r t i o n s  the proportions  the  proportion  K i l n s designed  e a r l y times were  out.  are  of kiln  themselves.  point  In  efficient,  any chamber  for a kiln.  portional  guidelines  designed  Almost  and B r i t i s h  i n the use o f design  These  to design  proportionally will  PROPORTIONS.  design  in kilns  i s derived  that  operate  a t by comparing more  efficiently  sizes  and  and  with  (•  8.  ease i n o b t a i n i n g most o f t h e d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t s . designs o f s i m i l a r gas f i r e d equipment can g i v e and p r o p o r t i o n  information  the e s s e n t i a l requirements.  for designing  efficiency  t h a t w i l l make f o r comparison o f The f o l l o w i n g • g u i d e l i n e s a r e  p r o p o r t i o n a l i n nature and should p r o v i d e point  Secondly,  a basic starting  a k i l n t h a t has been found t o be s a f e ,  e f f i c i e n t , and economical by the author and many other  kiln  building enthusiasts.  Throughout the g u i d e l i n e s  reference  a r e made t o pcJint out t h e v a r i a b l e s  and  t o resources  section  boundaries from which b e t t e r designs can be adapted.  LOCATING THE KILN. 1.  ZONING REGULATIONS AND BY-LAWS FOR THE LOCATION OF YOUR KILN.  2. V6  PROXIMITY AND HEIGHT OF ALL TALL BUILDINGS, TREES OR BARRIERS.  3.  ELEVATION AND DRAINAGE OF LAND.  4.  PREVAILING WIND DIRECTION.  5.  PROXIMITY OF THE CHIMNEY OUTLET TO WINDOWS AND AIR INTAKES INTO NEARBY BUILDINGS.  6.  THE GAS SOURCE.  7.  A SEPARATE KILN AND WORK AREA.  8.  VENTILATION OF KILN AREA..  9.  ACCESS FOR SERVICE AND CLEARANCE FOR SAFETY.  10.  VANDALISM AND CURIOSITY SEEKER CONTROL AND SAFETY.  The  f i r s t and f i n a l a u t h o r i t y h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n i n your  k i l n b u i l d i n g should be the b u i l d i n g and gas i n s p e c t o r and  the f i r e marshal f o r propane.  f o r gas  Check and make sure you  have a l l the AUTHORITIES HAVING JURISDICTION l i s t e d and checked w i t h b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h any c o n s t r u c t i o n . In any o f my k i l n b u i l d i n g experiences-and i n the v a s t majority  o f research  I have found t h a t the i n s p e c t o r s were  i n t e r e s t e d and h e l p f u l r a t h e r than o b s t r u c t i v e and b u r e a u c r a t i c . T h i s i s somewhat the case because many i n s p e c t o r s have not seen  10. kilns This  o r h a v e any g u i d e l i n e s i s convenient  ivity  leads  but t h i s  can create  and f u t u r e g a s k i l n  to a k i l n  regarding  f o r t h e p o t t e r who wants room  i n h i s design  inspector  or regulations  producing p o l l u t i o n  for creat-  problems  enthusiasts  them.  f o r that  i f the c r e a t i v i t y  and o b v i o u s  safety  hazards. Be area  you p l a n  should kiln  s u r e y o u meet a l l t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s to build.  I f the k i l n  n o t have any d i f f i c u l t y  i s part  will  f o r zoning  be a hobby y o u  i n a r e s i d e n t i a l area,  o f a business venture or a t a school  ent  r e q u i r e m e n t s w i l l h a v e t o be met f o r w o r k e r s  and  f i r e safety.  Remember  i t i s better  r e q u i r e m e n t s and be INSURED f o r s a f e t y ' s ing  data  the  guidelines provided  approval.  like  i n the  i f the  then  differ-  compensation  t o meet o r s u r p a s s sake.  After  collect-  s a f e t y c o d e s a n d b y - l a w s draw up a d e s i g n and s u b m i t  i t f o r i n s p e c t i o n and  using  INDOOR V S .  OUTDOOR.  Kilns  have  ifications. posed  An outdoor  t o t h e elements  ing  that  the  elements.  i s used  Kilns useful, Any rain and  specifications  kiln  i s exposed  a n d snow.  This  professional When  considering  temperature  and heat  i s difficult  causes  a great  deal  an outdoor loss  the  loss  due t o p r e v a i l i n g  has a roof  WIND V E L O C I T Y I N M.P.H.  and  loss with  build-  of i t s protection  t o load  1  a kiln  wall  and  expense. of  ambient  important  exposed  t o wind, factor.  1620  illustrates wall  both hobbiest  HEAT LOSS I N B . T . U . P E R SQ. F T .  1040  a kiln  during  can be an important  10  from  less  and f i r e  i s a very  but i s s t i l l wind  t o be  the concept  420  above  tend  from  t o operate and m a i n t a i n .  0  20  heat  kiln  due t o wind  a kiln  chart  i n an unoccupied  o f replanning  When  The  i s ex-  d e l a y a n d -can c o s t  factor. heat  costly  class-  that  t o t h e elements  and more  or indoor  as a k i l n  f o rt h e purpose  exposed  efficient  that  i s defined  or i s installed  solely  totally  less  kiln  as t o outdoor  the effect  a t 40 d e g r e e s  outside  temperature  that  wind  F. o u t d o o r  has on  temperature  o f 220 d e g r e e s  F.  Note  that  high  as  that  protect of  the  the  the k i l n One  frost.  firing  the  They  also  cost  i f not  severely tected  kiln  are  seekers  can  winds  and  to  four  good  times  economy  insulate  the  as to  walls  brick  parts The of  of  like cost  damage due  and  to moisture  insulation  burners  not  i s also  mention  substantial  of maintaining.a  strong changes.is  to  and  fully  substantial  enough  argument  against  similarly  the  exposed  kiln.  The  swimming  p o o l under  considered "attractive  hazards"  and  protected.  burned be  held  attractive a  to  enclosing i t .  last  may  on  exposed  to a  you  do  It i s therefore  from  of  properly  very  M.P.H. i s a l m o s t  consider brick  or mortally  kiln  20  wind.  i s treated are  at  well.  i s one  kiln  bility  by  making  a  child  or  a  extremely  f o r such  be  unpro-  a misfortune.  hazardous  o f damage t o b o t h  lia-  animal  contact with your  responsible  and  great deal  Should  are  the  and  curiosity  themselves  and  kiln. Kilns the  building and  very  climate  There  for  outdoor  equipment.  warrant  the  no  of metal  in a  Kilns  loss  Decomposition  exposed  law.  with  must  oxidation  kiln  heat  purpose  and  or k i l n  source  building  s h o u l d be  of  gas  housed separate  shed  building  from  s h o u l d be  and  inspector.  in a  A  small metal  expressly  a l l other buildings.  close  s h o u l d meet  designed  to  the  ceramics  a l l requirements garden  shed  of  makes  This studio  -  the an  excel-  lent  kiln  other ations ing  shed w i t h  building and w i t h  Codes  made  only  a  fire  resistant  proper  i n Appendix)  few m i n o r  ventilation  adjustments needed.  Any  to the required  specific-  would  (see  suffice.  Build-  CHOOSING K I L N A fuel  kiln  and  truly  money  building.  economy With  out  Using on  to heat  blankets  simply  of  you  as  and  or  g i v e way A  a  gas  your  return  Kilns  the a  to  Hard  fire  bricks  reach  Used  at kiln  be  be  to  degree  say  fire  F.  brick  to  and  expense  each decompose  find  i t would  to  is  time  mixed  impossible to  c o n s i d e r e d as  in out  be  dis-  2400  degrees  that would ?  investment  s h o u l d be  expected.  in direct  association  invested any  be  and  melt  temperature.  should  will  with  almost  kiln  brick  re-build  decomposes  surely  in  insulation  of hard  and  more  It is  down b u i l d i n g  effort  designed  1800  block  will  Needless  kiln  i n some  return  get  gas  have.  maturity they  i t i s almost  brick.  this  will  require  insulation  inces  slow  brick  their  brick  and  a  built  investment.  school or  will  save.  s h o u l d be  pecting  material  i n time,  o f used  reasonable  nine  to  more  rating  have  brick,  expensive.  to build  F.  insulation four  you  expense o f  and  quickly.  asterous  avoid the  date  you  a home, w i l l  insulation  of  fairly  rating  less  use  and  temperature  like  the  firing  the  to  re-cycled  will  the  modern  occasion cost  than  MATERIALS.  i s a machine which,  false  fiber  BUILDING  in heavily  r e t u r n s by  Secondly  teaching situation  your  with  what  must  you  i f you  product  plan to u t i l i z e  you  which  i n a l l investments  expecially  selling  i f you  As  from  to  invest.  are  regain  the k i l n  consider that  ex-  any  in loss  of  product  by  s t u d e n t s due  w i l l o n l y show y o u r t h a t any p o o r passed  and is  heat  retention  considered. factor.  very  insulation,  but w i t h  little  or not  This type o f k i l n  will  although there i s s u f f i c i e n t  light  i n weight,  sufficient  factor,  insulations i t with  c o o l down much t o o q u i c k l y insulation  s u l a t i o n does not a b s o r b h e a t ,  because  t h e r e i s no h e a t  i t i s designed  t h e r e f o r e t h e wares l o s e t h e i r h e a t  good  hea4 r e t e n t i o n .  i s o n l y t h e wares a r e g e t t i n g heated,  permit.  be  important  insulation  W i t h modern f i b e r  a kiln  ation w i l l  firing habits w i l l  Durability,  to b u i l d  That  and  building materials several  possible  tention.  operation  students.  When c h o o s i n g - k i l n s h o u l d be  d e s i g n and  l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and  design characteristics  on t o y o u r  factors  t o poor k i l n  re-  the i n -  t o keep i t i n ,  as q u i c k l y  as t h e  T h i s seems t o be much- q u i c k e r t h a n  insuli s good  (4) for  t h e wares  cooling.  The  .  Kiln  cooling of  c u t t i n g b a c k s'llowly on this practice  designs fiber  t h e gas  s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d type k i l n s  c a n be  during the c o o l i n g  t a k e s more t i m e on  seems t o be  r e t e n t i o n and The  insulation  heat  efficient  i s b e s t worked o u t by  i n s u l a t i o n methods t o h a r d b r i c k .  slowed  by  cycle,  but and  gas.  a balance o f i n s u l a t i o n  t h a t makes f o r an  factor  slow  the p a r t o f the operator  a g r e a t d e a l more money t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e There  for  factor, kiln  heat  design.  comparing v a r i o u s  This gives the hard  brick  equivalent,  ( s e e H.B.E. p a g e )  has  been  and  forty-five  Heat  found  that  inchesHof  retention  insulation design brick  that will  ratio,  seems  brick  1  efficient hard  this  per cent  of the k i l n  brick  and  brick  speak  o f ,brick  as  i t will  be most  equivalence  thin  construction  that  of hard  efficient page)  and  economical,  A  some  suspect  that  the heat  suspect  that  by volume  the  should  t o t h e flame.  that be  When I "  brick.  should  n o t be  built  or insulating blankets  balance  a  like  i s approximately  a kiln  brick  where  absorb  i n s u l a t i n g and h a r d  I believe  layer  exposed  thirty  in insulation.  I would  I  kilns i t  o f between  i n kilns  i n i t that  not r e t a i n the heat.  Combinations  found  retention.  s h o u l d be  I mean b o t h  To be p r a c t i c a l of a  brick  i s more o f a guess,  fifty  entirely  have walls  used  heat  various  kilns  or h a r d b r i c k i s used.  have b e t t e r  this  comparing  t o be m o s t l y  has m a t e r i a l s  although  By  o f both  (see Suggested  seems  Kiln  to  Wall  17. T H E METHOD The mal  i n BTU  ductivity  (k) v a r i e s  2000 d e g r e e s ,  it  can be determined  Thermal  that  to  attempt  have  temperatures resulting  brick  t h e H.B.E.  con-  increases.  i s 10.2  t h e (k) f a c t o r s  t h e H.B.E.  of this  rating  materials  (H.B.E.) i s insulating vary according I t would  s i z e and s i m p l i c i t y ,  o f space  H.B.E.  manufacturers  averaged.  significance.  at a l l  and s i m p l i c i t y  by d i f f e r e n t  be an approximation,  of little  fire-  f o reach m a t e r i a l  F o r reasons  together and t h e i r  shown c a n o n l y  t o 3.7" o f h a r d  equivalent  of similar properties  will.be  From  of thematerial.  i n a paper  temperatures.  error  per inch  temperature  brick  o f comparing  temperature  be i m p r a c t i c a l  grouped  on t h e sides  factor o f the various  the hard  o r average  products been  "K"  T h e "K" . f a c t o r a n d t h u s  p o s s i b l e mean also;  brick  to list  o f heat  t h e i n s u l a t i n g p r o p e r t y o f 1" o f  a n d i s a c o n v e n i e n t means  therefore  i s ther-  the thermal  t h e (k) o f h a r d  i s equivalent  o f hard  t h e mean  that  a material  recommended  11.1 a t 2400 d e g r e e s .  to  to  therefore  u p t o a maximum  By comparingsYthe  properties.  through  :  brick.  obtained  Units)  as' t h e t e m p e r a t u r e  26 i n s u l a t i n g b r i c k  that  c  F o r example,  at  No.  insulating ability  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s show t h e (k) b y a l i n e a t  temperatures  the product.  (H.B.E.)  c o n d u c t i v i t y i s t h e measure  I t can be seen  Most manufacturers  for  o f thermal  Thermal  (British  thickness.  various  HARD B R I C K E Q U I V A L E N T S  accepted measure  conductivity.  flow of  OF D E T E R M I N I N G  As a l l  we b e l i e v e t h e  18. The  t a b l e m a r k e d APPROXIMATE  some o f t h e m o r e c o m m o n l y u s e d and  their  per  inch  approximate of thickness.  average  REFRACTORY  refractories hard  A l l other  brick  required  i  by u s i n g  t h e method  described.  lists  and i n s u l a t i o n s  equivalents  (5) termined  EQUIVALENTS  H.B.E.  (H.B.E.)  c a n be de-  APPROXIMATE REFRACTORY EQUIVALENTS  CLASSIFICATION AND SERVICE TEMPERATURE'  CANADIAN REFRACTORIES  A.P. GREEN  PLIBRICO !  APPROXIMATE HARD BRICK EQUIVALENT PER INCH THICKNESS  3000°INTERMEDIATE HARD BRICK  CLAYBURN  DEFCO  CLAYBURN  1"  2800°INSULATING FIRE BRICK No.28  H W 28  G28  GR28  2.85"  2600°INSULATING FIRE BRICK No.26  H W 26  G26  GR26  3.7"  2400°INSULATING CASTABLE  iDUROLITE 24  KAST-O-LITE  PLICAST  3.6"  2300°INSULATING FIRE BRICK No.23  H W 23  G23  GR23  5.5"  2000°INSULATING FIRE BRICK No.20  H W 20  G20  GR20 ..  5.7"  2000°-2200°CASTABLE INSULATION  DUROLITE 22  CAST. INSUL. 20  PLICAST  5.5"  1600°-1800°CASTABLE INSULATION  NOVALITE  CASTABLE BLOCK  VERILITE  8.5"  CLASSIFICATION FIBROUS BLANKET 2300° CLASSIFICATION BLOCK INSULATION CLASSIFICATION 2000°-2200°VERMICULITE LOOSE FILL INSULATION  A.P. GREEN & PLIBRICO  STEELE BROS. & CAI\IADIAN REF.  FIBERFRAX  KAOWOOL  JOHNS MANSVILLE THERMOBESTOUS  (1200°)  ZONOLITE ZONOLITE VERMICULITE  3.4"  A A.P. GREEN  PLIBRICO  BLOCK IN. 1900  BLOCK 201  10.5"  CANADIAN REFRACTORIES MICALITE VERMICULITE  6"  20. The  list  below g i v e s  of refractories their  some o f t h e p r a c t i c a l  a n d i n s u l a t i o n s from t h e p r e v i o u s  ations,  t h e "K"  f a c t o r from t h r e e m a n u f a c t u r e r s  a n d t h e r e f o r e , may n o t a g r e e w i t h  shown b y any one m a n u f a c t u r e r .  ing,  decided lenght  regard,  upon a c c o r d i n g of life  suppliers.  not  listed cases  This  such as s a l t  the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f r e f r a c t o r y must  of instructors,  i s particularly designs.  experienced  t r u e when u s i n g This  duty type  t o obtain a reasonable  upon, y o u a r e r e a d y t o d e s i g n  potters materials  i s especially  g l a z i n g , where a h i g h  i n order  of glaz-  I t i s wise i n t h i s  Once t h e r e f r a c t o r y and t o t a l w a l l t h i c k n e s s  the  specific-  t o i t s temperature use, type  or experimental  b r i c k must be u s e d  The t y p e  d e s i r e d , and c o s t .  t o ask t h e advice  and  in  p a g e , and  a p p r o x i m a t e t o t a l H.B.E. shown, h a s been a r r i v e d a t by-  averaging  be  combinations  o f hard  kiln  has been  true  life.  decided  t h e w a l l and r o o f , o r t o check  c o l d f a c e and i n t e r f a c e ^ t e m p e r a t u r e w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f  t h e m a t e r i a l s menthoned  i n this  paper.  H.B.E.  REFRACTORY  4k" 4%" 4h" 4h"  #26 #26 #26 #26 #26  Insul. Insul. Insul. Insul. Insul.  PLUS Brick Brick Brick Brick Brick  4h" #26 I n s u l . ; • B f i e k 4h" # 2 8 I n s u l . B r i c k 4h" H a r d B r i c k 4h" H a r d B r i c k 4%" H a r d B r i c k 4k" 2 4 0 0 ° - 2 5 0 0 ° Castable  16. 16. 16. 16. 16.  6" 6" 6" 6" 6"  1 6 . 6" 1 2 . 8" 4. 5" 4. 5" 4. 5" 1 6 . 2"  INSULATION  None 1" B l o c k 2" B l o c k  Insul. Insul.  4k" #20 I n s . B r i c k 3" 1 6 0 0 ° - 1 8 0 0 ° c a s t . Insulation 4V  Zonolite  4k" #20 I n s u l . B r . 4k" #20 I n s u l . B r . 5" 2 0 0 0 ° - 2 2 0 0 ° c a s t . 4k" Z o n o . + 4 " Com. Brick 3" 1 6 0 0 ° - 1 8 0 0 ° Castable  '  H.E • E .  H.B.E. TOTAL  0. 0" 1 0 . 5" 2 1 . 0" 2 5 . 6" 2 5 . 5"  16.6" 27 . 1 " 37.6" 42.2" 42.1"  2 7 . 0" 2 5 . 6" 2 5 . 6" 2 7 . 5" 4. 0"  43.6" 38.4" 31.1" 32.0" 35.5"  2 5 . 5"  41.7"  21. Cold A good k i l n 32" o r m o r e .  Face  Temperatures  s h o u l d h a v e a H.B.E. w a l l t h i c k n e s s o f a b o u t  The t a b l e below  gives t h e approximate  o r o u t s i d e t e m p e r a t u r e s when f i r i n g  coldface  t o cone-9 o r 2400°F.  The t e m p e r a t u r e s shown a r e b a s e d on m a n u f a c t u r e r s  specifica-  tions,  i t i s hard-  ly  a l t h o u g h t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s may a p p e a r h i g h ,  f e a s a b l e t o r e d u c e them  expensive i n s u l a t i o n . glass,  or other  be r e d u c e d v e r y  f u r t h e r by t h e use o f r e l a t i v e l y  By a p p l i c a t i o n  low p r i c e d  of foil  insulations,  covered  fiber-  t h e t e m p e r a t u r e may  inexpensively.  APPROXIMATE COLD FACE TEMPERATURES  TOTAL H.B.E.  APPROXIMATE COLD FACE TEMPERATURES  30  292°F.  32  282°F.  34  274°F.  36  266°F.  38  260°F.  40  253°F.  42  246°F.  22. HOW  BIG  SHOULD A  When o n e ation size  as  begins  the  BE? to  size  choose  becomes  i s the' u s e a b l e  space  i s important  for the  space size  to  KILN  of  these wares  individual  potter  and  the  the  very  type  important.  in a kiln amount  the  type  decision  o f wares o f wares  may  be  must  take  sified  requirements  such  a program.  simple  outline  A  A  S I M P L E METHOD OF  account The  SIZE  the  For  the more  following size  that the  time  often meets  firing  kilns the  to  labour  for the  cu.  range  i s much more  f t . range.  f t . range.  are  designed  h a p p y medium  t o keep  18-24  cu.  is a  REQUIREMENTS of product  to  be  fired.  firing  of a k i l n that are d e s i r p o r c e l a i n , temps, e t c .  SUGGESTIONS:  potter  of kilns  diver-  requirements.  E s t i m a t e t h e number o f u s e s able. Example - s c u l p t u r e ,  too  the  when d e s i g n i n g  3.  MODEST  sizes  loaded,  D e t e r m i n e amount o f p r o d u c t b e t w e e n p o s s i b l e and r e - c y c l e t i m e s . M u l t i p l y by cu. f t .  quire  50  KILN  This  2.  kiln  ity  but  by  wares.  produced.  i n estimating kiln  DETERMINING  i s meant  D e t e r m i n e max. and min. Estimate i n cu. f t .  FEW  of  into  be  consider-  1.  A l l A  assist  What  to  easy  f o r s c h o o l s one  to  the  for stacking  a kiln  of  of kiln  up  to with  f i l l  far too  i s one i t or  For  the  diversified Research  that to  but  does  seems  not  In  the  professional  does  spend  production.  part-time producer  large  a  the  size  or  small.  not  re-  great vast  is in  deal  majorthe  and  school  the  be  i n the  afeo.ve  to  support  the  theory  that  1 feel  seems t o p r e v a i l .  b i g as a n o t h e r part  A kiln  needs t o be t w i c e o r more as  i f i t i s t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  i s due t o t h e l o n g e r r e - c y c l e t i m e s  mediate s i z e d  larger.  This i n  n e e d e d by t h e s e  inter-  kilns.  TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION A L L OF THE FACTORS OF THE PREVIOUS PAGE AND THE SUGGESTIONS OF THIS PAGE BEFORE DESIGNING From t h e s e  estimations calculate  n e e d e d between a w e e k l y , b i - w e e k l y Consider and  o r monthly  times.  P l u s any m a r k e t i n g  In schools these  size  i s sufficient.  schedule. grazing  o r s t u d i o management  t a s k s m u s t n o t be  F o r most s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s and h o b b i e s t s ft.  firing  i n your estimation o f production bisquing,  trimming  routines.  t h e amount o f s p a c e  This size of k i l n  overlooked. t h e 18-24 c u .  gives a f i r i n g  time  o f 8 h o u r s a n d a 24-36 h o u r r e - c y c l e t i m e  (meaning c o o l down,  emptying and r e s t a c k i n g t i m e ) .  i s convenient f o r  firing  This size  d u r i n g a work d a y a n d a l s o r e - c y c l e & o i q u i c k l y enough f o r  2 o r more l o a d s p e r week.  A kiln  one-third larger w i l l r e -  q u i r e up t o 1 0 0 % l o n g e r t o r e ^ c y c l e and w i l l be  as u s e f u l o r p r o v i d e a s much e f f i c i e n c y  Larger k i l n s , and tion  however, do a l l o w  are useful i n f i r i n g a r e a s where t h e y  provided.  for firing  t h e r e f o r e not  i n the long run. larger  l a r g e amounts o f p r o d u c t s  are designed  to f i t the k i l n  products i n producspace  24. INTERFACE The between  TEMPERATURES interface  temperature  the outside-  of the refractory  of  the insulation.  This  to  choose  insulation  t h e bright  thickness on  t o be u s e d .  several  factors,  temperature  be known  for the refractory  The i n t e r f a c e  i n order and t h e w a l l  temperature  i s  dependent  such as:  thickness.  c)  The i n s u l a t i o n  and  thickness.  d)  The ambient  ture.  o f these  lower  the higher  temperature  work  the interface  and c o l d  t h e lower  conductivity;  and t h e lower  ocity;  t h e lower  the interface  H.B.E.  26 o r N o . castable  that  o f No.  wall  gives  thicknesses  28 i n s u l a t i n g refractory  face  using  firebrick.  and f i b r o u s  2 6 , t h e same c o l u m n  interface  t h e wind  vel-  temperatures f o r firebrick,  A s t h e H.B.E.  c a n be  The  temperature.  hard  ceramic  face  or the  temperature.  the interface when  face  tempera-  and c o l d  the  and t h e g r e a t e r and c o l d  face  thickness  the higher face  the hot  o r t h e lower t h e  the interface  the cold  temperature  table  thickness  the insulation  t h e ambient  various  to decide both the  The h i g h e r  The g r e a t e r  following  velocity.  temperature.  lower  The  and wind  together  the refractory  conductivity;  the thermal  conductivity  temperature  and i n t e r f a c e  temperature.  thermal  factors  The g r e a t e r  thermal  to  must  surface  and  face  2500°  and t h e i n s i d e  point  The h o t face temperature. The r e f r a c t o r y t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y  temperature;  No.  at the  a) b)  A l l cold  i s the temperature  blanket  used.  of  2400°-  i s close  INTERFACE  T O T A L HARD BRICK EQUIV.  TEMPERATURES  INTERFACE  4V  HARD  l  BRICK  NO.  TEMPERATURES  4V  26 I N S U L .  NO.  28 INSUL.  30  2160°F  1360°F  1625°F  31  2l70°F  1440°F  1670°F  32  2175°F  1490°F  1710°F  33  2180°F  1515°F  1740°F  . 34  2190°F  1530°F  1750°F  35  2195°F  1550°F  36  2200°F  1590°F  1760°F o 1725 F  38  2204°F  1630°F  1820°F  40  2210°F  1680°F  1850°F  42  2215°  1725°F  F  -  1875°F  NATURAL GAS  OR  26.  PROPANE?  T h e r e a r e two t y p e s o f gas u s e d i n most gas t h a t  comes p i p e d  propane.  kilns,  i n t o t h e house o r s t u d i o ,  and  natural bottled  N a t u r a l gas has t h e a d v a n t a g e o f c o n v e n i e n c e and  lower p r i c e ,  w h i l e propane, h a s  less  r e g u l a t i o n and more  flex-  ibility. N a t u r a l gas h a s two b a s i c d i s t r i b u t i o n areas the o l d e r column)  low p r e s s u r e s y s t e m  is still  regulator  i n use.  and t h e l i n e  handle that  load.  The  The m a i n  systems.  (4 o u n c e s o r 7"  water  i s c o n t r o l l e d by a  t o your house o r s t u d i o line  I n some  district  i s sized  to  from t h e m a i n w o u l d h a v e t o be  c h a n g e d t o accommodate t h e k i l n .  T h i s w o u l d be an e x p e n s i v e  venture. In most is  a r e a s a system o f h i g h e r p r e s s u r e ,  r e g u l a t e d down t o 4 o u n c e s j u s t b e f o r e t h e m e t e r .  case a l i n e your k i l n larger Which  c a n be a t t a c h e d b e f o r e t h e r e g u l a t o r  site  gas l i n e  p.s.i., In  this  and t a k e n t o  f o r a second meter or a l a r g e r meter w i t h a c a n be i n s t a l l e d where t h e e x i s t i n g m e t e r i s .  s y s t e m y o u c h o o s e becomes a m a t t e r o f w h i c h i s more  economical to a s s i s t  f o r your s i t u a t i o n .  itive,  The gas company w i l l  glad  e x i s t , o r where t h e e x p e n s e i s p r o h i b -  p r o p a n e becomes t h e more e c o n o m i c a l s y s t e m .  o f propane a l s o fully  be  you.  Where no gas l i n e s  be  10-15  incurs  portable.  l e s s permanent  fixtures  The  use  and i n d e e d  T h i s c o n v e n i e n c e makes p r o p a n e  can  attractive  to the s t u d i o ,  or school s i t u a t i o n  permanent p r o t e c t i o n a k i l n a small K i l n  and gas  n a t u r a l gas  istics. Gas  it  causes  needs o r t o t h o s e who h a v e  y o u r k i l n make s u r e y o u  the only  consider  and^propane have v e r y d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r -  The e f f e c t s m a n i f e s t burners  down due t o t h e  cannot p r o v i d e  requirement.  When y o u a r e d e s i g n i n g that  that  themselves  f o r n a t u r a l gas must n o t be p l a c e d u p s i d e -  f a c t t h a t n a t u r a l gas  problems  i n two s i m p l e w a y s .  is  lighter  for the proper function of  than a i r  the burner.  and  27a.  NATURAL  GAS  PROPANE  - C L E A R ALMOST (Has a d d e d safety)  ODORLESS odorant f o r  - C L E A R ALMOST (Has  - CONSIDERED NON-TOXIC  -  -  -  B.T.U. 1000  PER CU. F T .  added  CONSIDERED B.T.U. 2450  ODORLESS odorant)  NON-TOXIC  P E R CU.  F T . OF  GAS  -  -  --  - WEIGHT P E R I M P . G A L . OF  B.T.U. PER IMP. GAL. LIQUID 110,000  LIQUID  -- S P E C I F I C .6  G R A V I T Y OF ( A I R 1.0)  GAS  -  5.1  OF  POUNDS  S P E C I F I C G R A V I T Y OF 1.5 ( A I R 1.0)  GAS .  i  -  - S P E C I F I C G R A V I T Y OF L I Q U I D  -  -  -  - B O I L I N G POINT - 4 4 ° F o r - 4 2 ° C  -  .51  10 C U . FT. OF A I R TO 1 C U . F T . OF GAS  BURN  TEMPERATURE  - FLAME T E M P E R A T U R E  LOWER AND U P P E R L I M I T S OF FLAMMABILITY 2.15%-9.5%  - 24 C U . F T . OF A I R TO BURN  IGNITION  1.0)  1 C U . F T . OF  -  (WATER  650°C  1879°C  4 3 . 6 C U . F T . OF A I R TO 1 IMP. G A L . OF L I Q U I D IGNITION  -  GAS  FLAME  TEMPERATURE  TEMPERATURE  BURN  650°C  1924°C 1  -  28. B E F O R E D E C I D I N G ON A gas  propane  form  PROPANE  tank holds  a t -44°F.  This  liquid gas form  through  a pressure regulator  the  (which  of  gas  propane  which  o f propane  to the burners  i s normally under  boils  liquid  causes  the liquid  propane  of the kiln.  p r e s s u r e from  sure  a tank  i n t h e t a n k may  and heat  NOTE:  to cool  the expansion  freeze  APPROVED  TO A PROPANE  cooling  also i n -  f o r t h e demand  causing a  STORAGE  loss  TANK  SHOULD NOT  BY ANY  or eliminate  OUT  to  f i t t h e demand m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g w i t h t h e  dealer  T H E CHART L I S T E D ON THE  SIZE  OF  the freezing  i n which  problem  THE NEXT  PAGE  NECESSARY  proper  the tanks w i l l  s h o u l d be a b l e t o s o l v e  TANK  DAN-  UNDER  -  reduce  o f the area  UN-  IS A  To  MINING  required  o f gas p r e s -  BE CARRIED  CIRCUMSTANCES.  propane  This  A s t h e demand f o r  MEANS TO I N C R E A S E V A P O U R I Z A T I O N ,  GEROUS P R A C T I S E AND  temperatures  from  required.  A P P L Y I N G HEAT  ANY  type  i s used  When  process described.  slightly.  the refridgeration  I f too small  liquid  by t h e b o i l i n g  propane  increases  creases. the  i n the tank  a  i s drawn o f f  t h e gas t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ) i s drawn o f f i t i s r e p l a c e d  the  Any  into  this  sizes  ambient  operate. problem.  SHOULD H E L P YOU TO F I T YOUR  tank  IN DETER-  NEEDS.  28a.  SUSTAINED AMBIENT TEMP. DEGREES FAHREN.  >:  STANDARD UPRIGHT 420 L B S . I C C CONTAINER  AVERAGE HORIZON 4 9 9 WATER G A L . CAP.. CONTAINER  AVERAGE HORIZON 995 WATER GAL. CAP. 1 CONTAINER  -40  2, 3 0 0  5,400  27,300  50,200  -30  8,200  19,200  95,700  125,500  -20  14,000  32,900  164,100  201,900  -10  1 9 , 900  46,600  232,500  427,600  0  25,800  63,000  300,800  553,600  10  31,700  74,126  369,200  679,400  20  37,500  87,800  437,600  8 0 5 , 2.00  30  43,400  101,600  506,000  931,100  40  49,300  115,300  574,400  1,056,900  50  55,100  129,000  642,800  1,182,700  60  61,900  142,700  711,200  1,308,622  70  66,900  156,500  779,500 -  1,434,400  80  72,700  170,200  847,900  1,560,200  FIND TO  STANDARD UPRIGHT 100 L B S . I C C CON-,. T A I N E R "~  OPERATE  TANK S I Z E  SUSTAINED AMBIENT IN.  FIND  CONTAINER.  TEMPERATURE  B . T . U . s N E E D E D TO  THAT K I L N  OPERATE  IS  KILN.  LIKELY LOCATE  29. S I Z E AND  T Y P E OF  KILN  When o n e b e g i n s  to design  a kiln  seem  The shape  and s i z e  to arise.  draft. put  The arguements  the choice  costs. of  The  kilns  i s a matter  following  i s designed  THE UPDRAFT  continue  several  to point  -  ECONOMICAL TO B U I L D . GOOD U S A B L E S P A C E V S . RATIO.  -  R E Q U I R E S A HOOD T O . C O L L E C T H E A T TO D I S P U R S E O U T S I D E .  -  CAN B E DANGEROUS DUE TO G E T T I N G I N T O K I L N SHED.  -  T E N D E N C Y TO H E A T  HAS A SIZE  -  T E N D E N C Y TO HAVE  CO  UNEVENLY. REDUCTION.  KILN  -  MORE D I F F I C U L T  TO  -  SEEMS TO G E T MORE U S E HEAT INPUT.  -  EVEN  -  STRONGER R E D U C T I O N  -  CAN TRAP GAS FLAMEOUT AND  -  COSTLY USABLE  BUILD OUT  OF  HEATING. TENDENCY  I N CHAMBER I N A EXPLODE I F IGNITED. SPACE VS.  areas,  SIZE  desires  but  demands  comparisons  o u t some  and  and t h e type  o f d i f f e r i n g uses,  KILN  T H E DOWNDRAFT  of kiln  i n several  descriptions,  POOR  biases  o f these  and  of  simply and  analysis  biases.  30. S I Z E AND  T Y P E OF  KILN  A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e many o t h e r k i l n d e s i g n s u s e d i n k i l n c o n s t r u c t i o n these a r e t h e b a s i c shapes. The u s e o f v a r i o u s a r c h s t y l e s a n d domes c a n b e o b t a i n e d , b u t e x o t i c d e s i g n s t e n d t o t a k e more t i m e and m a t e r i a l s t o execute, and l i t t l e i f any advantage i s gained. T h e m a i n a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e two t y p e s o f k i l n s shown h e r e a r e e c o n o m i c s a n d s p a c e ratio.  THE  CROSS D R A F T  KILN  -  A GOOD U S A B L E S P A C E V S . K I L N VOLUMN D E S I G N .  TOTAL  -  A  KILNS  -  TENDS  THE  GOOD D E S I G N TO  FIRE  CLIMBING  FOR  SMALL  UNEVENLY.  CHAMBER  KILN  -  MOST E C O N O M I C A L L A R G E  -  CAN  BE DESIGNED  CAPACITY  SO  2  BE  USED  UPDRAFT.-  2  n d  FOR  CHAMBER BISQUE  CAN OR  GLAZE.  -  FIRES  EVENLY"  -  G E T S G O O D U S E OF F U E L DUE TO 2 CHAMBER. d  n  CHAMBER  KILN IS  BASIC DESIGN IN GAS KILNS. On efficient  this point  almost a l l designers  shape t o h e a t  width equals  length.  rule t o allow  i s a cube.  That  There a r e s l i g h t  agree.  The most  i s height  equals  variations to this  for e f f i c i e n t use o f materials  eliminate needless thesmost p a r t  CHAMBER SHAPE  shapes and t o  c u t t i n g and waste o f r e f r a c t o r i e s .  remain as c l o s e l y t o a cube i n t e r i o r  For  shape as  you c a n . "A CUBE IS&THE BEST A L L ROUND SHAPE FOR A K I L N . When t h i n k i n g o f t h e k i l n as a cube shape, t h e b e s t d e s i g n f o r an updraft k i l n i s with the arch on t o p o f t h e c u b e a n d n o t c o n tained within. Increasing the h e i g h t o f t h e c u b e chamber w i t h a f i x e d width, decreases t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f f i r i n g w i t h an even temperature throughout t h e k i l n . Increasing the length o f the cube h a s no e f f e c t o n t h e e v e n f i r i n g efficiency o f the k i l n , hence t h e developement o f t u n n e l k i l n s , and o t h e r l o n g tube type k i l n s used commercially. It should  i s g e n e r a l l y accepted  be r o u g h l y  that thek i l n  (inside total)  a cube i n p r o p o r t i o n " . I t  t o k e e p a l l d i m e n s i o n s t o f u n c t i o n s o f 9" o r 4% o r "3 b r i c k )  i n w i d t h and depth,  and i n h e i g h t  i s also 11  best  (1 b r i c k  to functions  32. DETERMINING  THE  VOLUME W I T H I N A  S i n c e most roof  design  and  designs since  SPRUNG  of kilns  this  shape  use a seems  ARCH sprung t o add  arch  for the  efficiency  to  it  both  the directioning  a method  of determining  necessary Since arch  i s quite  following  complicated,  t o t h e edge  rise  (B).  (see  above  f o r determining  simplified  chart)  and  the transfer  t h e volumn w i t h i n  i f a c c u r a t e measurement  the formula  height  o f t h e flame  a  o f volumns  sprung  of  arch i s  i s t o be  t h e volumn w i t h i n a  J i m C l a c h e r i e recommends  estimate.  of the arch  For the height, (A), t o t h i s  add  take 2/3  heat,  made. sprung  the the of the  33. THE  CATERNARY.ARCH  The c a t e r n a r y a r c h h a s many a d v a n t a g e s i n k i l n design. The a r c h c r e a t e s a smooth f l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n t h a t g e n t l y d i r e c t s both flame and heat. T h i s i n t u r n c r e a t e s a minimum o f d i s t u r b a n c e , making t h e f i r i n g o f a k i l n a l i t t l e more e f f i c ient. The a r c h a l s o seems t o c r e a t e a s h a p e t h a t makes h e a t and flame r i s e and t r a n s f e r more e f f i c i e n t . The c a t e r n a r y a r c h h a s d i s a d v a n t a g e s , t h e main one b e i n g the cost o f c u t t i n g normally square b r i c k into angles t o c r e a t e t h e a r c h shape. The c o s t o f c u t t i n g t h e b r i c k i n l a b o u r , and t h e l o s s o f t h e c u t o f f b r i c k makes t h i s construction costly. K i l n s with sprung archs rather than Caternary arches create s i m i l a r advantages i n a k i l n a t minimal c o s t s .  PLANNING  T H E PROPORTIONS  DETERMINING  THE  VOLUME  AREA  =  4/3 x  VOLUME  =  4/3  x  OF A  CATERNARY  a X b a x  b x  depth  ARCH.  34. BURNER PORT AND "Inlet the  simple  flues  are  EXIT  flue  FLUE  SIZES  areas must  reason  of  'what  restricted,  be  equal  comes  this  will  to  exit  i n must slow  go  flue  areas  out .  If  1  down t h e  for  exit  f l o w and  retard  (7) combustion  efficiency,  Unlike  Rhodes,  flue,  riurner  port  least  attempts  as  i n the  ities in  or  chimney  above  i n s i m p l e r terms  the  B.T.U.s In  space  B.T.U.s  square  every inch  of  flue  is  the  the  required  simple  insulated  per  the  statement,  h i s research compiles  These  seems  to balance  thereby making  THE  who  and  in.  in.  thereby  an  the  requires put  X  chimney  i n p u t and  does  not of  suggest the  input  and  number  of  i s the  who  i n B..T.U. p e r area  the  the k i l n  equal  The  final  to  kiln.  to  s h o u l d be  input.  must  sq.  volume o f p r o p e r l y  which  required  capac-  Clacherie  ( 1 5 , 000.).. o f B . T . U . s a port  at  output  burner  input.  chimney  volume  equasion  Olsen  for  have  For an  part  of  heat. 1  sq.  every  equal  amount  the  equasion  chimney height..  BURNER An  PORTS  everage  burner  port  size  8,000 B . T . U . p e r  square  inch  of burner  ience  sizes  equation of  the  area.  pick  and  i n through  port  temperature".  arbitrarily  power  of  the  height  exit  8,000 B . T . U . s  and  to  average  to heat  of burner  exit  the  flue  terms,  are  but  retarding  of  construction,  most  burner  appears  t o be (8)  port.'  ports are  approximately  For 4%"  wide  conven(h  brick)  35. by  5"  high  (2 c o u r s e s ) .  B.T.U. p e r s q u a r e  inch  Kilns  will  o f burner  fire  port  colouration  i n t h e flame  i s visable,  inefficient  combustion.  Since 4 V  than  necessary,  insulation It  they  fire  can be  brick,  i s recommended  that  area. which  |by^ 5"  reduced  watching  well  later  After i s a  to  this  sure  16,000 dis-  sign  of  i s usually  larger  by  soft  f o r flame  burner  w i t h up  fitting  discolouration.  p o r t s be  angled  upwards  o an  an a n g l e  flow  leasurely  accomplished mounted duce  i n both  s i d e mounted  The purpose  efficiency  the bag w a l l . burners  of angling  It  complete  the  This  fron^  the burner  flames can  and  be  rear  i s to re-  that  causes  capacity.-  o r more  that  are vented  courses  a l l flue  below the  products, i n -  o u t t h e chimney,  during  firing. i s an  efficient  wares.  to insure  carbon monoxide  reduction  burner  exit  two  and  o f t h e flame  i n the burner's  p o r t s s h o u l d be  of the flue  cluding  to  o f f t h e horizonta-1 so t h a t  t u r b u l e n c e and r e - d i r e c t i o n i n g  Burner  to  30  and u n o b s t r u c t e d up  burners.  reduced  top  o f about  easy  kilns  combustion  port Once  rule  t o remember  i s i n allowing including  before attempting a burner  t h e dampers  i n design that  the burner  the secondary to transfer  can e f f i c i e n t l y  c a n b e made  for safe  do  and  to  the key  properly  a i r entering  that  heat  its-job  the  to the  alterations,  economical  reduction  firing.  \  It burner in  i s obvious  i n B.T.U.  t h e chimney.  that  t h e more b u r n e r s o r t h e l a r g e r t h e  r a t i n g and p o r t  the greater  volume  required  37.  KILN  USABLE VOLUME Cu. F t .  I N P U T S & CHIMNEY  APPROX. INPUT B.T.U.  PER  FLUE  SIZES  INPUT CU. F T . B.T.U.  CHIMNEY F L U E S I Z E AT 8000 B.T.U. PER SQ. I N S .  12  425,000  35,400  53  14  440,000  31,400  55  16  465,000  29,000  58  18  480,000  26,700  60  20  500,000  25,000  62.5  22  520,000  23,600  65  24  535,000  22,300  67  26  555,000  21,300  70  28  575,000  20,500  72  30  590,000  19,700  74  32  615,000  19,200  71  34  625,000  18,400  78  36  650,000  18,000  81  1/ From input It  t h e above  i t can be seen  p e r c u . f t .can be given  would  be best  Note 36 C u . F t .  that  that  shown a s a c u r v e d a 9 x  9 flue  will  that  no a c c u r a t e  will  apply  line handle  on a  to a l l  arbitrarysizes.  graph.  any k i l n  up t o  38. THE  CHIMNEY The  high  HEIGHT  chimney o r stack  enough  to create  through  the burner  damper,  and  hot  gasses w i l l  have an  also  i t high  so  i t will  in  area  and  as  a  less  a matter  i n height  smaller  i n area  o f the~many  completely•accurate  right  height.  temperature,  The  a l l attempt  tight  or  loose  be  i n enough  A  floor,  sufficient a i r to  stack  and h e i g h t  a matter  can be  of  bigger draw  taller.  of determining  exactly  chimney i s determined b u t and  t o overcome  to  create  variable i n resistance there  of a  and  that  a n d h a v e t h e same o r s i m i l a r but  be  resistance  the fact  i s not simply  o f volume.  must  s t a c k i n g o f wares  will  effect  the  by i t s  aforementioned  the chimney d r a f t .  i s no '  resistSimply  the stack  the  by  resistance.  The allow  stack  method  draft  area  ances  creating  The  setting  overcome  I t should draw  called  t o overcome  wares,  kiln  naturally rise.  but rather  one  sufficient  shelves,  atmosphere.  Because  i t i s xometimes  i n a downdraft  height,  stack  draft  ports,  enough  oxidising  as  e a s i e s t method  approximately  4"  of determining  of stack  height  stack  height  f o r each  i s to  cubic  foot  of  that  this  i s  (12) total  kiln  twice  t h e amount  area. input.  space.  It i s also  I t i s interesting of height 1"  as  of height  i s required f o r every  t o note  for flue  and  4,000 B . T . U . s  chimney of  39. PROXIMITY OF  CHIMNEY TO WINDOWS AND  When l o c a t i n g t h e k i l n chimney o r firing  stack  i s not  AIR  consider  INTAKES  the  effluent  always s a f e t o b r e a t h .  c a r b o n m o n o x i d e i s formed' and stack.  stantial distance  from windows o r a i r i n t a k e s  are occupied.  vapour are buildings  formed. as y o u  This p o l l u t i o n  should  During  oxidation firing  Follow  t h e m o s t up  can  obtain.  When  escapes i n t o the  phere through the  that  from  the  reduction atmos-  be k e p t a  sub-  in buildings  o n l y h e a t and  to date guide to  (see B u i l d i n g Codes and  water  such  Safety  Codes i n A p p e n d i x )  PROXIMITY OF The any  area  PRESSURE ZONES  terminus o f the  c l o s e to a b u i l d i n g or  created high pressure erally  chimney s h o u l d  i f you  keep the  s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n 10  zone w i l l  n o t be  located i n  l a r g e s t r u c t u r e where a w i n d prevent  proper  venting.  t e r m i n u s a minimum o f 2 f t . a b o v e  f t . there  should  be  no  venting  4 (OFTWlMO  Genany  problem,  (9)  40. THE  COMBUSTION  Very of  This  and  KILN  process i s a mixture o f the  the  f o r optimum g e n e r a t i o n o f h e a t .  two  sources o f a i r at the burner.  and  gas  itself,  and  ignition  the secondary  consume a l l o f t h e  is  important  o f the  a i r from  the  generates Once  and  i n the  generally  proper requires  the mixture o f a i r i n the  burner  the burner p o r t used  to  fuel  for e f f i c i e n t F o r gas  heat.  combust-  inspectors  t o the i n h e r e n t problems o f  individual  envir-  h e a l t h hazard produced combustion  this  and  when there-  carbon monoxide.  a k i l n i s designed  heat  f l o w r e s t r i c t i o n and  tion  firing  the  fuel  This  a k i l n d e s i g n w i l l not a l l o w f o r complete by  heat  The generation o f heat  fuel usually  i n k i l n design.  c o n c e r n due  onmental p o l l u t i o n  simple  f u e l t o g e n e r a t e t h e maximum amount o f  i s a major problem an  a i r , and  of the generated  Firstly,  T h e p r o p e r m i x t u r e o f a i r and ion  fuel,  burning  burner.  b u r n e r m i x e s t h e a i r and  for primary  i s the  d i f f e r e n c e between  c o n t r o l o f the heat.  i n a gas k i l n comes from T h e gas  T h e one  a k i l n i s the t r a n s f e r  the required  ratio  THE  generation of heat.  combustion and  IN  simply put the p r o c e s s o f combustion  a fuel.  their  PROCESS  easily,  f o r e f f i c i e n t combusM)on  adjustments  e f f i c i e n t l y and  and  c a n be made f o r r e d u c -  a t a minimum o f damage t o  environment. When c o n s i d e r i n g t y p e s o f b u r n e r s and  their  function  41. the  most  quired ber heat  important  design considerations  f o r combustion  space.  When  generated  location  both  a t the burner  considering  by t h e burner  the burner (measured  a r e t h e space r e port itself  a n d i n t h e chamt h e iamount o f  i n B.T.U.)  and t h e  o f the burners.  Generally are  better  ter  control  throughout  than  speaking one l a r g e  on p r i m a r y the  firing.  i n kiln burner.  design This  2,  4,  or 6  burners  i s due i n p a r t  heating of the k i l n  to bet-  and on even h e a t i n g  ,42. BURNERS There  a r e two b a s i c  types  kilns.  The f o r c e d a i r burner  creased  cost  quires.  This  potters. more  This  burner  by a pyrometer.  handy  The probably  itself  and t h e e l e c t r i c i t y range  i t s advantages,  i t reo f most  i t tends easily  i s i t c a n be t u r n e d  control  pottery  due t o t h e i n -  i tout o f the price have  i n most  t o be  con-  u p , down o r  o f a pyrometer.  This i s  c o l l e g e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and  should  considered.  inspirating t h e most  i s simply  collecting  i s n o t a s common  That  impulse  f o rschools,  seriously  burner  does  used  and i thas t h e c a p a c i t y o f being  by e l e c t r i c a l  very be  u s u a l l y puts  efficient  trolled off  o f the burner  o f burners  burner.is  flexible a chamber  t h e most  and r e l i a b l e . with  common The  burner  and i s  inspirating  gas f o r c e d through  an  a i r and gas i n t h e v e n t u r i and t h e flame  orifice  being  ig-  (13) nited  at the nozel.  built  and u t i l i z e d  M a n y homemade A l f r e d by p o t t e r s .  They  expensive,  b u t n o t as e f f i c i e n t  the market  that  I nor  a r e approved  d o n o t recommend  should  they  that  encourage  a r e s e v e r a l models  price  and need. Burners a r e a f f e c t e d  burners  can be e f f i c i e n t  or inexpensive  are and i n -  as models  on  by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . schools  their  There  type  design  students  on t h e market  by k i l n  and b u i l d  t o do so  that w i l l  design  burners,  either.  meet  every  and t h e l o c a t i o n o f  43. the  burner  i s o f 'major  in  such  a way  of  disturbance.  safety.  and r e a r  along  the It  which  more  will  c a n be  the type  speaking,  space  kilns  and k i l n s  best.  natural  Keeping  with  combustion  each  other  and  at the  with  f o r more  ideally  flows  through  draft  kiln  generated  appears  efficient  Burners up  o f flame  but  the front  t o be  rather  by t h e b u r n e r .  i s l o n g e r and  requires  and r e a r  configur-  i n high pressure  a i r type  B.T.U.  the concept  flame.  unobstructed  design i s best,  burners.  ratings  propane  Where  on b u r n e r s  lower exist  feasible.  a way  o f a minimum  combustion.  as t o m i n i m i z e s h o u l d be  the k i l n  until  the wares.  This  of disturbance to  Burners  should  the redirectioning  be of the  located  so the flame  flows  combustion  i s complete.  Then  i s possible  both  i n up  and  down  design.  Burners  whichever  a n d a minumum  o f which  gas o r lower  i n such  floor  located  o r , as i n the. d e s i g n s p r o v i d e d ,  the forced  located  the  opposing  combustion  This  s m a l l e r chamber i s  flame  passage  efficient  where t h e flame  t o complete  seems  the  free  s h o u l d be  sides.  one s u i t s  pressure  insure  located  of the k i l n  ation  a  This  i s not a matter  Generally  A burner  as t o a l l o w the flame  Burners  front  importance.  c a n be  located  of the kiln, allows  so that, t h e flame  passes  s e t a t 90° t o t h e v e r t i c a l ,  f o r the best  results  f o r the costs  through  or 60°, involved.  44. Different  burners w i l l require d i f f e r i n g  Burners  f o r n a t u r a l gas  inverted position  as t h i s  should never  to r i s e  and  a l s o c a n be a h a z a r d d u r i n g i g n i t i o n .  may  be  be  (being l i g h t e r  advantageous  problem.  (propane  be  requirements. installed  opposes the n a t u r a l tendency  gas  inverted  space  t h a n a i r ) and  reduces  i n an of  the  efficiency  Propane  burners  i s h e a v i e r than a i r ) i f t h i s  i s to  i n l o c a t i o n s where h e i g h t o f a k i l n i s a  45. GAS INPUT IN B.T.U. FOR GAS KILNS The amount o f gas and the .number o f burners r e q u i r e d t o fire a kiln  i s a matter o f debate and great importance.  l y put, a k i l n w i l l reach temperature fuel  i s used.  Simp-  e v e n t u a l l y if-enough  The excess f u e l used i n such f i r i n g i s not o n l y  expensive, but a l s o a g r e a t c o n t r i b u t o r t o p o l l u t i o n .  Kilns  u s i n g too much f u e l r e q u i r e more burners, i n c r e a s i n g b u i l d i n g c o s t s , and a r e much harder t o c o n t r o l i n t h e e a r l y  firing  stages due t o h i g h output d e s i g n . The o p p o s i t e problem too  i s o f course even more c o s t l y .  s m a l l a gas l i n e o r propane tank f o r the k i l n  is installed  If  requirements  the temperature w i l l not be reached.  There a r e s e v e r a l g u i d e l i n e s l i s t e d  i n the k i l n books  suggested i n t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y , and burner manufacturers can g i v e you d e t a i l e d burner r a t i n g s on v a r i o u s types o f burners, (see  Burners and S p e c i f i c a t i o n s i n Appendix)  The major prob-  lem o f k i l n d e s i g n i s knowing how much i n p u t a k i l n w i l l r e q u i r e t o meet c e r t a i n requirements.  Given that a k i l n i s  1  p r o p e r l y i n s u l a t e d , p r o t e d t e d from the elements, and f i r e d p r o p e r l y , the amount o f gas i n terms o f B.T.U. per hour and the number o f burners w i l l be a great d e a l l e s s than one might expect o r would f i n d  i n a k i l n not meeting these requirements.  The matter o f f i n d i n g optimum k i l n requirements  remains  a matter o f r e s e a r c h and under each s e t o f circumstances o f \  46. k i l n c o n s t r u c t i o n the needs must be met as are needed.  Kiln  requirements vary a g r e a t d e a l even under normal c o n d i t i o n s , and under extreme c o n d i t i o n s the requirements may accurate  as i s needed.  not be as  47. THE  GAS  INPUT  Since in  heating  the  cept  t h e wares,  amount,  average  there  the required  heat,  may  of firing).  To  long  can vary  illustrate  b e t w e e n two  this,  as, a (ex-  below i s  actual kilns  and  "A"  KILN  "B"  AVERAGE  14,700  32,300  23,000  8,700  25,000  15,500  3,400  6,173  7,100  52,900  100,100  81,000  16,600  5, 600  8,000  per cu.f t .  o f u s a b l e volume B.T.U. p e r c u . f t . o f t o t a l volume B.T.U. p e r s q . i n . o f chimney area B.T.U. p e r s q . f t . of setting floor B.T.U. p e r s q . i n of burner port  NOTE:  the losses  As  tested.  KILN B.T.U.  loss.  i s used  n o t know t h e d i f f e r e n c e  (B.T.U.) c o m p a r i s o n of the kilns  o f t h e gas consumed  i s a huge h e a t  and t h e p o t t e r  f o r the cost  gas i n p u t  the  a t i n y percentage  wares r e c e i v e  great  a  only  The extreme  differences  between k i l n s  "A"  and  "B".  B o t h a r e t u r n i n g o u t a g o o d p r o d u c t , y e t k i l n "A" i s doing so w i t h l e s s than \ o f t h e gas used i n k i l n "B". Both are indoor kilns. Some o f t h e f a c t o r s put  determining  o r a f f e c t i n g t h e gas i n -  required are: Size  of the  Co-efficient Weight Ambient  kiln o f heat  transfer  of the walls  o f t h e wares temperature  ( i f outdoors)  and  roof  48.  Wind v e l o c i t y ( i f outdoors) K i l n atmosphere ( o x i d i z i n g o r reducing) D r a f t through the k i l n  (see "Chimney Height")  O v e r a l l combustion e f f i c i e n c y I t i s a good idea t o use the above as a c h e c k l i s t o f the possible variables  i f a k i l n does not f u n c t i o n as i s expected.  49.  GAS  INPUT  IN B.T.U.  FOR GAS K I L N S  "CHART"  The c h a r t shown w i l l g i v e t h e a p p r o x i m a t e g a s i n p u t s f o r k i l n s o f a b o u t 32" o f h a r d b r i c k equivalent walls. I n p u t s may b e s l i g h t l y r e duced f o r i n d o o r k i l n s and k i l n s o f e x c e p t i o n a l l y high hard brick equivalent wall construct i o n o r s l i g h t l y increased f o routdoor k i l n s .  USABLE VOLUME  The  B.T.U. INPUT  USABLE VOLUME  12  425,000  24  535,000  14  440,000  26  555,000  16  465,000  28  575,000  18  480,000  30  590,000  20  500,000  32  .615,000  22  520,000  34  625,000  36  650,000  variety  of kiln  requirements f o r k i l n s  met  the specifications  and  as i t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n  requirements be  B.T.U. INPUT  listed.  listed  not having  a r e t o o numerous t o l i s t  of this  forefficient kilns  paper  these  to give  here,  design  requirements  w i l l not  •50. THE  S E T T I N G FLOOR The  draft rier  amount  kilns  also.  o f space  i s very  o r damper  problem  If  this  stacked effect  be  combustion  amount  the k i l n caused  may  recommends  This  seems  which  c a n be  become  seen  i n most  as.poor  can a c t as a  flow o f heat.  stacking  area  i s used  bar-  This  o f wares i n a  i n the floor or burner  area  port  kiln should  area.  when w a r e s a r e  i n the floor  draft  floor  setting be  left  research, but the  Below t h i s  amount  through  is  u n a f f e c t e d b y t h e damper  adjustment  as  uneconomical  space.  use o f k i l n  u p a n d down  closely  i n e f f i c i e n t due t o t h e dampering  opening  6%-10%.  i n both  area  8% o f t h e s e t t i n g  to hold  can be  exit  o f space  by reduced  Clacherie  variables  as t h i s  t h e space  equal to the flue  minimum  rule  important,  the floor  c o m p l i c a t e d by over  For proper  least  through  r e s t r i c t i n g the proper  c a n be  at  AREA  draft  the burner  space. open.  successful i s affected, port  and, above t h i s  which point,  50a  KILNS  DESIGNED  USING  THE  MODEL  24 C U B I C  FOOT DOWNDRAFT GAS  DESIGNED  USING  KILN  DESIGN  51.  THE MODEL P R O V I D E D  T H E WIDTH: 27" u s a b l e w i d t h i s a h a n d y w i d t h (3 f u l l T o t h i s a d d 2 b a g w a l l s 2%" e a c h O u t s i d e b a g w a l l s t h e b u r n e r s p a c e 2/6%"  or 6 half  TOTAL The h o t f a c e r e f r a c t o r y Insulation fire brick  bricks)  I N S I D E WIDTH  2/4%" 2/4%" T O T A L O U T S I D E WIDTH  THE  27" 5" 13" 45" 9" 9" 63"  HEIGHT: SINCE A BRICK  I S 2%"  THICK EACH  COURSE W I L L  BE FUNCTIONS  OF  2%"  SUMMARY Usable  OF DIMENSIONS  OF A K I L N  T H E MODEL P R O V I D E D .  Volume  27" W. x A v . H e i g h t o r 2 3.9 c u . f t . Total  USING  o f 34" x 4 5 " D e e p  = 41,310  cu.  Volume Bottom s e c t i o n : 45" W x 30" H x 45" D = 60,760 c u . Volume w i t h i n a r c h : 4 5 " x 6" H ( 2 / 3 o f 9") x 4 5 " D TOTAL  Setting  = 12,150 72,800 c u . i n s . 42.1 c u . f t .  = =  W x 45" D  Openings  Through  =  1,215 s q .  =  8.44 s q .  theSetting  8% o f 1 , 2 1 5 s q . i n s . Chimney  Flue  =  Port  For Chimney At At Gas  ins. f t .  Floor  =  97 s q .  ins.  ( 9 " x 9")  Area  Approximately Burner  ins.  Area  81 s q . i n s .  Exit  cu.  ins.  «  Floor  27"  Flue  ins.  81 s q .  ins.  Size  convenience  4V  x 5" x 6  ports  Height 3.6" h e i g h t 4" height  per total per total  cu. f t . = cu. f t . =  3.6 x 4 2 . 1 = 1 2 V 4 x 42.1 = 14'  Input May  vary  RECOMMEND  greatly 23,000  according B.T.U.  t o l o c a t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n .  per usable  cu.  f t .  53. 24  CUBIC  FOOT DOWNDRAFT  GAS  KILN  DESIGN  Arch An average r i s e f o r an a r c h From t h e b o t t o m o f t h e v e n t  i s approximately to the top of the floor  9" 10"  TOTAL S i n c e a k i l n i s 45" t o t a l i n s i d e w i d t h , i t s h o u l d be a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same i n h e i g h t , i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e cube d e s i g n r e q u i r e d . 45" - 19" = 26". This i s not a f u n c t i o n o f 2%", s o 2 7 " w o u l d b e b e t t e r a n d w o u l d m a k e t h e s i d e w a l l 11 c o u r s e s i n h e i g h t a b o v e t h e f l o o r . Summary  of  Height INCHES  INSULATING  COURSE ON  FOUNDATION  2%"  1  7%" 2%"  3 1  27%" 40" 36%"  11 16  30"  12  H E I G H T OF V E N T O U T L E T S E T T I N G FLOOR I F B R I C K S E T T I N G FLOOR MAY B E A h" - 1" K I L N FROM T H E TOP OF S E T T I N G F L O O R TO T H E TOP OF T H E S I D E WALL FROM FOUNDATION TO TOP OF S I D E WALL USABLE HEIGHT ABOVE S E T T I N G FLOOR H E I G H T FROM TOP OF F L U E E X I T T O TOP OF The  S I D E WALL  COURSES  SHELF  Depth  I n o r d e r t o k e e p t h e t o t a l i n s i d e d e s i g n as a cube t h e d e p t h from t h e i n s i d e o f t h e d o o r t o t h e i n s i d e r e a r s h o u l d b e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 5 " (5 b r i c k s ) o r 4 0 % " ( 4 % b r i c k s ) . G i v e n t h a t t h e 45" t h i c k n e s s i s u t i l i z e d a n d t h a t t h e door i s b r i c k e d i n 2 t h i c k n e s s e s , t h e o u t s i d e depth w i l l be 4 5 " + 9" ( r e a r w a l l ) + 9" ( d o o r ) = 63" t o t a l K I L N S L A R G E R THAN T H I S MODEL A R E D I F F I C U L T TO LOAD C O N S I D E R A T I O N T O CAR OR S H U T T L E K I L N S I S A D E S I G N I D E A irv r; .t i 1- (-•&< * "- i -ii ' •  19"  54. SMALL  DOWN D R A F T  KILN  DESIGN  -  C U B I C F E E T OF U S A B L E B . T . U . MAX. 150,000  -  S E T T I N G FLOOR A R E A 3 . 3 7 5 s q . f t . o r 4 8 6 CHIMNEY F L U E 2 2 . 5 s q . i n . CHIMNEY H E I G H T 4 0 . 5 i n . @ 4 " / c u . f t .  -  USABLE SPACE T O T A L VOLUME  18 x 27 x  SPACE  27 x 27 x  6.38 sq.i n .  2 2 . 5 = 1 0 , 9 3 5 * 1 7 2 8 = 6.328 22.5 = 16,402.5 * 1728 =  -  BRICK  -  BRICK TYPE K  SIZE  4.5" 26  x  9" x  9.492  cu.ft.  cu.ft.  2.5"  insulating  firebrick  INSULATION  1900  block  55. S M A L L CROSS Approx.  DRAFT  KILN  10 c u . f t . o f u s a b l e  space.  f&OO'  27"  x  27" x  28" = 11.81 c u . f t . t o t a l  22"  x  27" x  28" =  9.625  space  cu. f t . usable  space  SLOCK  frtSOLAT/OAt  56a  APPENDIX  57.  The f o l l o w i n g pages are designed t o a s s i s t i n f i r i n g a gas or propane k i l n .  They are intended t o a s s i s t an o p e r a t o r  who has had p r e v i o u s experience or t r a i n i n g w i t h gas k i l n s . I f t h e operator has had no p r i o r  experience w i t h k i l n s i t  i s s t r o n g l y recommended t h a t R i t c h i e ' s book on Gas K i l n  Firing  and p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p be obtained and followed f o r the f i r s t few f i r i n g s .  58. BEFORE  F I R I N G YOUR K I L N  THE F I R S T  sure a l l tests, carried out.  TIME  1.  Make been  2.  Make s u r e readied.  3.  T e s t each shut o f f , p i l o t l i g h t and burner f o r m i n i m u m a n d maximum o p e r a t i o n a n d a u t o off.  4.  T e s t each operation burners w i and a v o i d  5.  Test automatic shut i n an emergency.  fire  recommendations  and i n s p e c t i o n s have  e x t i n g u i s h e r s and s a f e t y  proceedures  are  individually safety shut  shut o f f p i l o t l i g h t and burner i n a group f o r m i n i m u m a n d maximum o p e r a t i o n . Make s u r e l l n o t b a c k f i r e , a n d i f t h e y d o how t o c o r r e c t the situation. offs  t o make  sure  they  will  perform  59. SAFE KILN OPERATING PROCEEDURES PLOT A L L INFORMATION ON THE KILN FIRING  LOG.  1.  Make s u r e a l l b u r n e r s a r e i n o f f p o s i t i o n b e f o r e t u r n i n g on gas a t t h e m e t e r .  2. t  Make s u r e a l l b u r n e r s a r e r e a d y t o l i t f h t , p o r t s open e t c . Make s u r e gas m a i n a t m e t e r i s on,and t h e n t h e m a i n n e x t to the k i l n  3.  Make s u r e damper o n t h e s t a c k i s o p e n .  4.  I g n i t e a p i l o t l i g h t by h o l d i n g t h e s w i t c h a t t h e s o l i n o i d v a l v e and t o u c h i n g t h e b u r n e r w i t h a l i g h t e d m a t c h .  5.  light  6.  Warm t h e k i l n  7.  T u r n on t h e b u r n e r s t o t h e l o w e s t s e t t i n g a t w h i c h a s t e a d y f l a m e w i l l h o l d . Make s u r e t h e p r i m a r y a i r a t t h e b a s e o f t h e b u r n e r i s a d j u s t e d t o a l l o w f o r minimum a i r flow. •  8.  T u r n up gas a s t e m p e r a t u r e r i s e i n d i c a t e s , and t u r n up t h e p r i m a r y a i r f l o w w i t h t h e gas a s n e e d e d .  9.  When t h e k i l n r e a c h e s 1000°C, o r where a good r e d h e a t i s v i s a b l e , r e d u c t i o n f i r i n g may be i m p l i m e n t e d . A s i m p l e methoed o f r e d u c t i o n f i r i n g i s t o u s e t h e l a s t \ hour o f t h e f i r i n g c y c l e t o reduce.  a l lpilot  lights.  from t h e p i l o t  lights  15 m i n . t o % h r .  To i m p l i m e n t r e d u c t i o n f i r i n g c l o s e o f f t h e damper a t t h e s t a c k u n t i l f l a m e i s v i s a b l e i n t h e s t a c k . Back o f f u n t i l i t d i s a p p e a r s . Now a d j u s t so t h a t t h e f l a m e i s n o t i c a b l e . T e s t t h e r e d u c t i o n by o p e n i n g a spy h o l e i n t h e k i l n , i f flame a p p e a r s a good r e d u c t i o n i s underway. I f b l a c k smoke o r s o o t i s b u i l d i n g up on t h e s p y h o l e s o r damper y o u a r e o v e r r e d u c ing the f i r i n g . I f a stronger reduction i s necissary close o f f primary a i r a t the burner. NOTE REDUCTION FIRING CAUSES POLLUTION USE I T DISCRIMINATLY. WHEN THE KILN REACHES THE DESIRED TEMPERATURE I T I S TIME FOR THE SHUT DOWN PROCEEDURE.  60. SHUT DOWN  PROCEDURE  1.  Shut  2.  C l o s e t h e damper  3.  Shut  4.  Close the burner  5.  Log t h e pyrometer  6.  Kiln  NOTE:  o f f the burner  valves.  on t h e s t a c k .  o f f t h e gas mains.  must  ports. temperature.  be below  250°c  before  THE SURFACE TEMPERATURE RISE  FOR  3-4 MORE HOURS.  ARE L E F T NEAR  THE  KILN.  opening.  OF T H E K I L N W I L L C O N T I N U E MAKE  SURE NO  TO  COMBUSTABLES  61. DO's  AND  DON'TS  OF K I L N  FIRING  I g n i t e t h e p i l o t l i g h t b e f o r e t u r n i n g on t h e gas b u r n e r . DO NOT t u r n on t h e gas a t t h e m a i n w i t h o u t m a k i n g s u r e t h e burners are shut o f f . A l w a y s make s u r e t h e k i l n d o o r i s open when i g n i t i n g burners without p i l o t l i g h t s so t h a t gas w i l l n o t b u i l d up i n t h e k i l n chamber. DO NOT l e a v e k i l n d o o r c l o s e d when n o t i n u s e . (To a v o i d gas b u i l d up i f l e a k s o c c u r . ) DO u s e k i l n wash o n s h e l v e s o f t e n . DO NOT  a l l o w unknown c l a y o r g l a z e t o be s t a c k e d  i n the  kiln. T r a i n a l l persons a s s o c i a t e d with the k i l n i n i t s safe o p e r a t i o n and p o s t p r o c e d u r e s where t h e y a r e e a s i l y a c c e s s a b l e , i n c a s e y o u a r e u n a v o i d a b l e c a l l e d away. DO NOT a l l o w a k i l n t o go u n a t t e n d e d periods without the operator checking.  an  DO NOT a l l o w open a c c e s s "unaware" p u b l i c .  t o your k i l n  f o r prolonged  -  i t can  burn  62; RECOMMENDED NO  KILN  SHOULD  UNATTENDED,  be  BE B U I L T  SCHOOL  I N A SCHOOL,  WITHOUT T H E F O L L O W I N G shut  offs  USE  OR WHERE I T W I L L  GO  EQUIPMENT:  1.  Thermocouple burner.  2.  A damper  3.  A pyrometer designed t o shut o f f t h e burner a t maximum t e m p e r a t u r e s , with thermocouple o f platinum and p l a t i n u m - r h o d i u m shielded i n porcelain.  4.  A l o c k a b l e gas main away f r o m t h e k i l n .  5.  A  I must  S A F E T Y E Q U I P M E N T FOR  that w i l l  l o c k a b l e door  and p i l o t  only  close  shut  to kiln  and  useful  t o o many  and r e l i a b l e .  Secondly  every  accessable and  shed.  equipment  false  on  90-95% o f t h e chimney.  o f feasily  d o n o t recommend a d d i t i o n a l  function without  lights  shut  because  the k i l n  downs i f i t i s t o  the operator  of the k i l n  i m u s t make prime  the o p e r a t i o n and f u n c t i o n o f t h e k i l n  their  responsibility. Kilns  no  as  other  without  where  persons pilot  the operator shall  lights,  have  i s i n full  access,  thermocouples  attendance,  can be operated and  pyrometers.  and where easily  63. KILN  SITTER A kiln  the k i l n phere  sitter  sitter  c a n be u s e d  i s not designed  o r a t high temperatures.  because o f t h i s  and t h e i r  q u a l i t y platinum-platinum an  t o shut o f f a gas k i l n , b u t t o work i n r e d u c t i o n atmosThey c a n f a i l more o f t e n  function  rhodium thermocouple  i n d u s t r i a l pyrometer w i t h auto,  ilities.  I strongly  c a n be r e p l a c e d b y a good attached  shut o f f o r h o l d  to  capab-  recommend t h e p y r o m e t e r t y p e o f c o n t r o l .  THERMOCOUPLE AUTO. SHUT OFF A  thermocouple  small e l e c t r i c a l  i s a d e v i c e t h a t senses heat and sends a  current to a device that  flow t o both p i l o t  lights  and main b u r n e r s .  s h u t o f f t h e gas i f f o r any r e a s o n prevents  t h e flame  any p o s s i b l e b u i l d up o f g a s s e s  shed  that  c o u l d be i g n i t e d  tion  or explosion.  controls  accidently  t h e gas  This device goes, o u t ,  will  t h i s -.  i n t h e chamber o r  causing rapid  combus-  HERITAGE KILN BURNERS  64.  NATURAL GAS BURNER INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS IMPORTANT NOTICE:' THESE BURNERS MUST BE INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE REGULATIONS OF THE AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICTION IN YOUR AREA. BURNERS SHOULD BE INSTALLED BY A LICENSED GAS FITTER ON A PERMIT FROM THE ENFORCING AUTHORITY. These burners are designed and o r i f i c e d to be operated at the accepted natural gas pressure of 7 i n s . Water Column. A l l l i n e s should be sized i n accordance with l o c a l regulations to supply the correct 7 i n s . Water Column pressure. (See Table 1) Natural Gas burners may be i n s t a l l e d with the burner venturi facing upwards, or horizontal but never with the port downwards. Be sure that the valve, o r i f i c e and burner are i n a true straight l i n e as i n F i g . 1. Because k i l n s vary so much i n shape, s i z e , and design, suitable burner brackets cannot be supplied by the burner manufacturer. Burner brackets as shown i n F i g . 2 must be provided which w i l l securely hold the burners i n the proper p o s i t i o n i n a fixed r e l a t i o n to the k i l n port as shown i n F i g . 3. Burner o r i f i c e s are supplied d r i l l e d No. 18 W.G. for approximately 125,000 BTU , or i f k i l n information was supplied to the manufacturer may be d r i l l e d to the minimum that may be required. If you do not reach temperature do not assume that the gas input i s too low since there are several other factors which may also affect, the temperatures such as: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)  Bag wall too high or too low. Wares stacked too c l o s e l y . I n s u f f i c i e n t combustion space from wall to bag wall. Over reduction (high percentage of unburned gas). Over oxidation (too much a i r cooling the k i l n ) . I n s u f f i c i e n t insulation. Too high a gas input f o r the combustion space.  When a l l factors have been considered and i f you s t i l l suspect the gas input i s too low, increase the size one wire gauge size. (See Table 2). If the temperature goes up you may be on the r i g h t course. I f possible use a pyrometer for your f i r s t few f i r i n g s . If the temperature goes down you are probably passing more gas than there i s combustion space for or than can be properly vented due to various r e s t r i c t i o n s as mentioned above. I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the i n s t a l l e r to apply for an inspection or test to the authority having j u r i s d i c t i o n i n your area. This i s for your protection.  65. NATURAL GAS  NATURAL GAS  GAS L I N E S T O K I L N S  ( a t 7" W. C. w i t h not over KILN VOLUME GAS I N P U T -  15  •200  250  300  3A  3A  3A  3A  3A  6  350  Tioo  1450  Ik  500  Flow through an o r i f i c e at 7 Ins. Water Column P r e s s . ( 4 Oz.)  .5" W. C. drop)  18  550  18  600  20  ML  21*  700  28 800  it  _3A  3A  lh  1*  14-4 h  li  21  850  1*  ih  lh  1*  ii  lh 1*  If  li  Table 1  1* 1*  1*  It  500  li  1000  1*  1* 1*  1*  1(0  1*  1200  O r i f i c e Size D.M.S. Wire Gauge  Thousands o f B.T.U.  27 26 25 24 23 5/32" 22 21 20 19 18 11/64" 17 16 15 14 13 3/16" 12 11 10 9  90 94.5 98 101 104 107 108 111 113 121 125 129 131 137 142 145 150 154 156 160 164 168 173  Table 2  —P-ROPANE-BURNER-INSTALLATION- INSTRUCTIONS  BURNERS SHOULD BE INSTALLED BY A LICENSED GAS FITTER ON A PERMIT FROM THE ENFORCING AUTHORITY. 1.  These burners are designed and o r i f i c e d to be operated a t accepted propane p r e s s u r e of I I i n s . Water Column.  2.  Tank s i z e should be as shown In Table 1 to ensure proper supply pressure at- the lowest temperature at which you wish t o f i r e .  3.  A l l l i n e s should be s i z e d i n accordance with l o c a l r e g u l a t i o n s t o supply the c o r r e c t 11 i n s . Water Column pressure. (See Table 2)  4.  Propane burners may be i n s t a l l e d w i t h the burner v e n t u r i f a c i n g upwards, downwards o r h o r i z o n t a l .  5.  Be sure that the v a l v e , o r i f i c e and burner are i n a t r u e s t r a i g h t l i n e as i n F i g . 1 .  6.  Because k i l n s v a r y so much i n shape, s i z e , and d e s i g n , s u i t a b l e burner b r a c k e t s cannot be s u p p l i e d by the burner manufacturer. Burner b r a c k e t s as shown i n F i g . 2 must be provided which w i l l s e c u r e l y h o l d the b u r n e r s i n the proper p o s i t i o n In a f i x e d r e l a t i o n to the k i l n p o r t as shown i n F i g . 3 .  7.  If you do not r e a c h temperature there are s e v e r a l other f a c t o r s which may a l s o a f f e c t the temperatures such as: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)  Bag w a l l too h i g h o r too low. Wares stacked too c l o s e l y . I n s u f f i c i e n t combustion space from w a l l to bag w a l l . Over r e d u c t i o n Over o x i d a t i o n (too much a i r c o o l i n g the k i l n ) . Insufficient insulation Too h i g h a gas Input f o r the combustion space.  When a l l f a c t o r s have been considered and i f you s t i l l suspect the gas input i s too low, i n c r e a s e the s i z e one wire gauge s i z e . (See T a b l e 3) I f the temperature goes up you may be on the r i g h t c o u r s e . I f p o s s i b l e u s e a pyrometer f o r your f i r s t few f i r i n g s . I f the temperature goes down you a r e probably p a s s i n g more gas than there i s combustion space f o r or than can be p r o p e r l y vented due to v a r i o u s r e s t r i c t i o n s as mentioned above. 8.  I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the i n s t a l l e r to apply f o r an i n s p e c t i o n or t e s t to. the a u t h o r i t y having j u r i s d i c t i o n i n your area. T h i s i s f o r your p r o t e c t i o n .  Input In Thds. BTU 250 300 350 400 450 500 625 750 875' 1000 1250  K l i n Usable Cu. F t . 4 6 8 12 15 18 2 32 35  D i s t a n c e from L a s t Stage Rep.ulatoi to Burners 10' 20' 30' 50' 60' 40' 80' 100'  k  3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 1 1 1 1  lk  3/4 3/4 3/4 1 1 1 1  ik lk ik lk  3/4 3/4 1 1 1 1  3/4 1. ' 1 1 1 1  lk lk lk  lk lk lk  Hi  lk  Table 2  3/4 1 1 . 1 1  lk lk lk lk lh lk  1 1 1 1  lk lk lk lk lk lk lk  1 1 1  lk lk lk lk lk lk lk 2  1 1  lk lk lk lk lk lh Vt lk z  -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80  the  Burner o r i f i c e s a r e s u p p l i e d d r i l l e d No. 30 W. G. f o r approximately 115,000 BTU of propane, or i f k i l n information was s u p p l i e d to the manufacturer may be d r i l l e d to the minimum t h a t may be r e q u i r e d .  Standard Upright 100 lb. ICC Container.  Standard Upright 420 l b . ICC Container. '  Average . Horizon. 499 W a t e r Gallons Capacity Container."  Average Horizon. 995 Water Gallons Capacity Container.  2,300 8,200 14,000 19,900 : 25,800 31,700 37,500 . 43,400 49,300 55,100 61,900 . 66,900 72,700  5,400 19,200 32,900 46,600 60,300 74,126 87,800 101,600 115,300 129,000 142,700 156,500 170,200  27,300 95,700 164,100 232,500 300,800 369,200 437,600 506,000 574,400 642,800 711,200 779,500 847,900  50,200 125,500 201,900 427,800 553,600 . 679,400 805 200 931,100 1,056,900 1,182,700 1,308,622 1,434,400 1,560,200  Sustained Ambient Temp. Degrees Fahren.  IMPORTANT NOTICE: THESE BURNERS MUST BE INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE REGULATIONS OF THE AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICTION IN YOUR AREA.  '  .  T  Table 1 PROPANE.. INPUT at 11" Water Column Pressure Wire Gauge Drill 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27  Input B.T.U./Hr. 77,400 81,125 85,170 90,800 92,500 96,000 101,000 108,070 123,875 138,840 . 148,000 155,650  Table 3  Fig.  2  67. SAFETY PILOT MOUNTING INSTRUCTIONS  For proper  pilot  i n s t r u c t i o n s be c a r e f u l l y nel  and w i t h  operation, i t i s imperative that f o l l o w e d by c o m p e t e n t  the approval of the authority  licensed  having  person-  jurisdiction  A convenient burner is  these  opening  size  4 V w i d e b y 5" (2 c o u r s e s h i g h ) .  At t h e bottom, p l a c e a p i e c e o f No. 26 o r 28 i n s u l a t i n g b r i c k 1" thick.  In t h i s ,  groove  1" w i d e x 1" deep as shown.  Place thep i l o t about  V  less this  test 1.  i n this  back from  a n g l e d upwards  30°  o f f horizontal.  No s a f e t y p i l o t  i nthis  Slowly  close  valve u n t i l on  port  approximately Bracket  pilot  position.  application  i s c a r r i e d o u t and passed.  groove  the burner  and  securely  PILOT TURN-DOWN TEST:  c u ta tapered  i s complete unMain  Turn-Down  the p i l o t t h e flame  the thermocouple i s  just barely touching the 2.  thermocouple.-  At this pilot be  point,the  flame  should  intersecting  still  t h e c o u r s e o f t h e main b u r n e r  If not, relocate p i l o t 3.  I fvisually  t o accomplish  this.  s a t . i n 2; open m a i n ' b u r n e r f i r i n g  to check f o r proper  flame.  valve  ignition.  WHEN COMPLETED, REQUEST AN INSPECTION BY THE ENFORCING AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICTION IN YOUR AREA.  68.  Recommended K i l n Construction and I n s t a l l a t i o n Requirements I n s t a l l a t i o n of K i l n s (a)  A gas k i l n s h a l l not be i n s t a l l e d within the l i v i n g area of a residence.  (b)  When a gas k i l n i s i n s t a l l e d i n a b u i l d i n g or a room attached to an occupied b u i l d i n g the common w a l l or walls s h a l l have a 1 hour f i r e resistance r a t i n g .  (c)  Where a gas k i l n i s i n s t a l l e d i n a room adjacent to a work area; means s h a l l be provided to screen or p a r t i t i o n the k i l n area from the work area by means acceptable to the enforcing authority.  Construction Indoor k i l n s s h a l l be constructed with walls and roof equivalent i n i n s u l a t i n g properties to 26" of hard f i r e b r i c k . Safety Controls (a)  Safety shut-off controls s h a l l be provided on indoor k i l n s f o r a l l burners which are not under constant supervision. This requirement s h a l l not apply to k i l n s i n s t a l l e d outdoors or i n an unoccupied b u i l d i n g used s o l e l y to protect the k i l n from the elements.  (b)  K i l n s having on-off automatic temperature controlled burners s h a l l be provided with safety shut o f f controls on a l l burners.  (c)  K i l n s f i r e d with L. P. gases s h a l l have safety controls which cut o f f both main and p i l o t burners when required as i n (a) and (b) above.  Combustion A i r & V e n t i l a t i o n The k i l n room or k i l n area as i n 1 (b) or (c) s h a l l be provided with a combustion a i r i n l e t close to f l o o r l e v e l and a v e n t i l a t i o n outlet at c e i l i n g to be 50% greater than that required by Clause A.2.1 of C. S. A. B149.1 (1974). Clearances and Venting of Indoor K i l n s (a)  The minimum clearance from the top, sides and rear to combustible material s h a l l be 48". This distance may be reduced when i n s u l a t i o n acceptable to the enforcing authority i s provided but i n no case may be l e s s than 24">  (b)  Clause 6.2.8.6 (7) of the National Building Code states ( i n b r i e f ) every metal chimney designed f o r use a t over 538 C (1000°F) s h a l l be l i n e d with at l e a s t 4%" of f i r e b r i c k or other material providing equivalent temperature protection. Since 2V' of a 2500°F castable i n s u l a t i n g r e f r a c t o r y would be equal i n i n s u l a t i n g properties to 8",of hard f i r e b r i c k , i t would be considered acceptable.  (c)  Clause 6.2.8.6 (9) of the National Building Code states: "Except as provided i n sentence (10), every i n t e r i o r metal chimney s h a l l have a clearance of at l e a s t 3 f t . (915 MM) to combustible material within the storey i n which the heating appliance i s contained". Sentence (10) states: "Where a metal chimney passes through a combustible roof assembly,  69. - 2 «rr<Sfc  the clearance between the chimney and the nearest combustible m a t e r i a l may be reduced to 12 i n . (305 MM) provided the metal chimney i s guarded by a metal thimble extending at ]>1 l e a s t 9" (229 MM) above and 9" (229 MM) below \ the roof construction. Such thimbles s h a l l have double c y l i n d r i c a l walls with a v e n t i l '. , ated space between the walls and between the metal chimney and thimble, and the clearance between the metal thimble and the combustible material s h a l l be at least 6 i n . (152 MM)". The sketch may make t h i s a l i t t l e c l e a r e r .  1 12.  (d)  Where an updraft type k i l n i s vented by means of a canopy and s i n g l e w a l l metal vent, the clearance s h a l l be 18". This clearance may be reduced when protection i s provided i n accordance with Table 4.3.8.2.of C. S. A. B149.1 (1974;) or i f provided with an i n s u l a t i n g thimble as i n ( c ) .  (e)  Clause 9.21.6.1 of the same code states "The clearance between concrete or mansonry chimneys and combustible framing s h a l l be not l e s s than 2" for i n t e r i o r and f o r e x t e r i o r s . Since this clause does not take the temperature into consideration, 6" would be a more r e a l i s t i c distance. In any case, i t i s generally accepted throughout the gas industry that no combustible m a t e r i a l should be permitted to reach a temperature i n excess of 45°C (117°F).  T A B L E 4.3.8.2 Clearance* With Specified Forms of Protacttont Whore tho Required Clearance With N o Protection l a :  Typo of Protection a) Vrin asbestos millboard spaced out t in  38 Inches  18 Inches  Above  Sldee and Rear  Flue Pipe  Above  Side* and Rear  Flue Pipe  12 Inches  9 In.  8 Inches  Above  Eldea end Rear  Flue Pipe  Above  Sides and Rear  30  18  30  15  9  12  9  6  6  3  b)  O.0l3-in(No.28MSG) sheet metal on V*-ln asbestos millboard  24  16  24  12  9  12  9  6  4  3  c)  0.013-ln(No.28MSG) sheet metal spaced out 11n  i  18  12  18  9  6  9  6  4  4  2  2  d) 0.u13-in(No.28MSG) sheet metal on %An asbestos millboard spaced out t In  18  12  18  9  6  9  6  4  4  ej Vh-trt asbestos cement covering on heating appliance  2  2  13  12  36  9  6  18  6  4  9  2  1  13  12  18  6  4  4  4  2  2  ' 18  12  12  4  3  3  2  2  2  2  36  36  36  • 18  18  18  12  12  9  4  4  36  36  38  18  18  18  12  12  9  3  3  1) Vt-ln asbestos mil (board on 1-in mineral woo! baits reinforced with wire mesh or equivalent 8) 0.026-in(No.22MSG) sheet metal on l>tn mineral wool batts reinforced wish wire mesh or equivalent h) '/«->n asbestos cement Board or Vt-in asbestos millboard I) V«-in cellular asbestos . n< . _._*_.  -  6  \  '  '  2  ,  2  * u c l e a r a n c e s g i v e n rn tncnes.  * S^IMI™ SJ^JS"  rSSnffi  *  i n  .l  i c a , e d  ,  (•>  Bb0v8  ' B» clearances shall be measured from the outer surface of tha appliance to the combustible material " ™° " «™ be such a , ,o interfere with ft.  no^otecti^  NOTE: Spacers shall be of non-combustible material.  C 0 m b U S , i b l 9  m a , e  a l  M  , n n o  s h a  70. our file :  D-02-02  your file  GOVERNMENT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA D E P A R T M E N T O F PUBLIC W O R K S  Safety  Engineering  Services  Division  N o v e m b e r 1975  TO ALL INSPECTORS AND CONTRACTORS '  GAS FIRED POTTERY KILNS An increasing number of gas fired kilns are being installed throughout the Province and i t has become necessary to set out the following guidelines for their installation. 1. A gas fired k i l n shall not be installed within the l i v i n g area of a residence. 2. Where a gas fired k i l n i s installed i n a room adjacent to a work area the k i l n area shall be partitioned or screened from the work area i n a manner acceptable to the enforcing authority. 3.  Safety shut-off controls shall be provided on indoor kilns. for a l l burners which are not under constant supervision. This requirement shall not apply to kilns installed outdoors or i n an unoccupied building used solely to protect the k i l n from the elements.  4.  Kilns having on~-off automatic temperature controlled burners shall be provided with safety shut-off controls on a l l burners.  5.  The minimum clearance from the top, sides and rear of a k i l n to combustible construction shall be 48", except that this distance may be reduced when insulation acceptable to this Branch i s provided. In no case shall the clearance be less t h a n ^ "  2  TABLE NATIONAL Forming  Part  CLEARANCE  9.21.6.A. B U I L D I N G CODE  of Article  BETWEEN A  PROTECTED  9.21.6.5.  FLUE PIPE  COMBUSTIBLE  AND  MATERIAL  Type o f p r o t e c t i o n a p p l i e d t o t h e combustible m a t e r i a l unless otherwise s p e c i f i e d and c o v e r i n g a l l ' s u r f a c e s w i t h i n 18 i n . o f t h e f l u e pipe.  C l e a r a n c e between f l u e p i p e and combustible material. in.  V asbestos m i l l b o a r d spaced out 1" b y n o n c o m b u s t i b l e m a t e r i a l 0.0129" s h e e t m e t a l millboard  on V  1  1  2  asbestos 12  0.012 9" s h e e t m e t a l s p a c e d o u t 1" by n o n c o m b u s t i b l e m a t e r i a l  " 9  0.-0129" s h e e t m e t a l o n 1/8" a s b e s t o s m i l l b o a r d s p a c e d o u t 1" b y n o n combustible m a t e r i a l  9  1%" a s b e s t o s flue pipe  9  cement  c o v e r i n g on  0 . 0 2 5 9 " s h e e t m e t a l o n 1" m i n e r a l wool b a t t s r e i n f o r c e d w i t h w i r e mesh or e q u i v a l e n t  3  :73. C.S.A. B149.1 - 1971 TABLE 25 (See C l a u s e  4.3.8.2.)  CLEARANCE WITH S P E C I F I E D FORMS OF PROTECTION Where  Type  of Protection  V  asbestos  Clearance  (  Above  a)  the Required  W i t h No P r o t e c t i o n I s : 36 I n c h e s 18 I n c h e s ^Sides Sides and Rear  (Flue  11  Above  Pipe  and Rear  Flue Pipe  mill-  b o a r d s p a c e d o u t 1" 0 . 0 1 2 9 " ( N 6 . 2 8 MSG) sheet m e t a l on V asbestos m i l l b o a r d  30  18  30  15  9  12  24  18  24  12  9  12  o u t 1" 0 . 0 1 2 9 " ( N o . 2 8 5 MS.G) s h e e t m e t a l o n 1/8" asbestos m i l l b o a r d  18  12  18  9  6  9  spaced  18  12  18  9  6  9  18  12  36  9  6  18  18  12  18  6  6  6  s h e e t m e t a l o n 1" m i n e r a l wool batts r e i n f o r c e d w i t h v:^l w i r e mesh o r e q u i v .  18  12  12  4  3  3  h)  i j "a s b e s t o s cement board or V asbestos m i l l b o a r d  36  36  36  18  18  18  i)  V  36  36  36  b)  c)  d)  e)  f)  0 . 0 1 2 9 " ( N o . 2 8 MSG) sheet metal spaced ;  o u t 1"  lh" a s b e s t o s c e m e n t c o v e r i n g on h e a t i n g appliance Jj" a s b e s t o s millboard wool  on  batts  forced mesh g)  1"  with  mineral reinwire  or equivalent  0.0259"  (N5.22CSMSG)  .  cellular  asbestos  18  •!  18  18  KILN TEST REPORTS  76. PLEASE  INDICATE  MAKE T H E  A L L OF T H E  INFORMATION  REMEMBERED OR  YOUR  INFORMATION  ABOUT  YOUR K I L N  AS A C C U R A T E AS YOU CAN.  RECALLED  PLEASE  GUESS AND  T H A T YOU  I F SOMETHING  MARK  CAN  CANNOT  BE  I T ACCORDINGLY.  NAME  ADDRESS PHONE HAS  YOUR K I L N  BEEN  INSPECTED  BY T H E F I R E M A R S H A L L GAS  HAVE  4.  YOU  C O N S U L T E D ANY  REGUARDING  AND  DESIGN  AND  ADDRESSES I F P O S S I B L E . Jim C l a c h e r i e . Stan  PLEASE  OF YOUR K I L N ? I F SO P L E A S E  LIST  .  I F YOUR  FOUND H E L P F U L -  "Kilns,  Olsen  -  "The K i l n  K I L N WAS  e  INSPECTOR  THE  CONSTRUCTION  INDICATE  THE  NAMES  OTHER  PUBLICATIONS  INFORMATION.  Rhodes  GAS  Y  Clarke,  B O O K S , P A M P H L E T S , T H E S I S OR  IN WHICH YOU  5.  ONE  __ _ JL  Designs  &  Operation"  Book"  PURCHASED  PLEASE  INDICATE  THE  MANUFACTURERS  NAME ADDRESS  AND  ANY  INFORMATION  REGUARDING  PLEASE DAY.  7.  1  7  PLEASE  FEEL IS  HELPFUL  T H E E F F I C I E N C Y OF T H I S  Very  6.  YOU  Good  INDICATE MONTH  STATE  A  KILN.  u  g  D A T E T H E K I L N WAS V F & P  '  7  T H E NUMBER  THE APPROXIMATE  INDICATE  THE  AMOUNT O F  OR  FIRST  FIRED.  4  OF  INDICATE  INSTALLED  FIRINGS  C O S T OF A  F U E L USED  T H E K I L N HAS  MADE  FIRING  IN A T Y P I C A L  50  approx.  $7.00  FIRING  KILN  DESIGN  I S YOUR  77.  KILN  UPDRAFT DOWNDRAFT CROSSDRAFT  IF  OTHER  PLEASE  SPECIFY  SPRUNG  ARCH  CATERNARY  ARCH  CUBE ROUND IF  OTHER  I F YOUR  PLEASE  KILN  E A C H CHAMBER A  SKETCH  SPECIFY  I S MULTI-CHAMBERED BY NUMBERING  WIDTH.  T H E OUTER  HEIGHT. DEPTH.  FROM  HEIGHT.  FROM  ON T H E R E V E R S E S I D E  EXAMPLE.  3, AND  SO ON.  FOR  INCLUDE  IDENTIFIED.  EXTERNAL. E X T R E M I T Y ACROSS T H E FRONT  63"  ^  .  120" 63"  INTERNAL. I N T E R N A L WIDTH  HOT  F A C E T O HOT  FACE.  45" .  FROM TOP OF V E N T O FROM  AND  BE  2,  FRONT TO BACK  WIDTH. MAXIMUM  WALL,  CAN  1,  T H E INFORMATION  FROM B A S E T O TOP OF K I L N .  PROPORTIONS O F K I L N  DEPTH.  INDICATE  T H E CHAMBERS  SO T H A T T H E CHAMBERS  PROPORTIONS OF T H E K I L N  PLEASE  ROOF  TOP OF LOWER MOST S H E L F T O TOP OF I N S I D E . INSIDE  OF C L O S E D DOOR TO  OF T H I S  PAGE P L E A S E  I N C L U D E T H I C K N E S S , MAKE, \  INSIDE  REAR.  SKETCH THE K I L N TYPE  37".  FLOOR,  OF M A T E R I A L S  \  $R\CKS  PROM  49".  USED.  USABLE  KILN  WIDTH  Tti..  SPACE-  SPACE  FLOOR  DEPTH  OF  - THE  FLUE  SIZE  SETTING  'ARES.  yg  - T H E D I S T A N C E BETWEEN BAG W A L L S . I F NO BAG WALLS D I S T . OF S E T WARES  HEIGHT- THE DISTANCE  SIZE  FOR  OF  TO  FROM T H E  THE  INSIDE  DISTANCE  TOP  FROM T H E  DOOR TO  THE  OPENING  - THE  OPENING AT  TOPOF THE  INSIDE  THE  INSIDE  REAR  EXHAUST  EXIT  OF  OF  OF  THE  27"  USABLE KILN ~  ^8"  THE KILN.  36"  VENT 7.5"  FROM CHAMBER  H O R I Z O N T A L D I S T A N C E FROM I N S I D E F L U E O P E N I N G TO THE V E R T I C A L S H A F T OF T H E CHIMNEY. VERTICAL SIZE  RISE  OF V E R T C A L HEIGHT  OF  1.8"  I F ANY 9" X  SHAFT VERTICAL  SHAFT  9"  (CHIMNEY)  DAMPER PLEASE  SKETCH  POSITIONS PLEASE  IN LOCATION  DURING  INDICATE  IF  POSSIBLE  FIRING %  CLOSED  FOR  HOURS  INDICATED  0  6 1  7 50  2  850  14  3  950  15  4  IP  5  11100!7  * BURNERS TYPE-  I F PURCHASED S T A T E  MAKE Clacherie  MODEL MANUFACTURER ADDRESS IF  HOME MADE A  INDICATE  SIZE  SKETCH OF  WOULD- B E  ORIFICE  W  G  S  HELPFUL 1  8  12  shut  5  13  0  16  down  DUMBER OF BURNERS INCLUDE  L O C A T I O N O F BURNERS  B.T.U.RATING  O F 1 BURNER  DO YOU HAVE PILOT  CIRCLE LITES  KILN  ON T H E K I L N  P E R HOUR  FULL  SKETCH OPEN  90,000  B  j  T  >  I F YES A U T O - S A F E T Y SHUT O F F  SITTER  ELECTRONIC  KILN  CONTROL NO  PYROMETER  BURNER  PLEASE  I N D I C A T E ANY OTHER  CONTROLS  PORTS  SIZE  O F BURNER  SIZE  O F A N Y SECONDARY A I R SOURCES  FUEL CIRCLE  PORT(SIZE  O F O P E N I N G BURNER  T O K I L N ) 4"  X  5"  ==^  T H E C O R R E C T ONE  NATURAL  GAS  WOOD  PROPANE  OTHER  PLEASE  SPECIFY  OIL  TIME AMOUNT  OF TIME  TEMPERATURE TIME  USED  IN A TYPICAL  FIRING  10  REACHED  TO REACH TEMPERATURE  12  L E N G T H O F SOAK TOTAL  FIRING  TIME  FROM  S T A R T TO SHUT  DOWN  IF  HOURS 14  _MIN.  HOURS  _MIN.  S T A R T UP TO T E M P E R A T U R E  &  BACK  DOWN  MIN. TO UNLOADING  36 HOURS  YOU FAMILIAR SO S T A T E  MIN.  2 0 HOURS  TEMPERATURE.  ARE  HOURS  2  C O O L DOWN T I M E TOTAL TIME  14 h r s ,  WITH  T H E DANGERS  OF REDUCTION F I R I N G ?  T H E DANGERS.  CO + E x p l o s i o n  i f reignition  MIN.  PLEASE  PLOT  ON  THIS  GRAPH  A  TYPICAL FIRING.  i i  1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4  10  INDICATE  ANY  PROBLEMS  WIND  RAIN  OUTSIDE  TEMP.  FUEL  HUMIDITY  PLEASE  WRITE  FUNCTIONED  CREATED  UP  GAS  A  BRIEF TO  steam (PRESSURE) SERVICE  PARAGRAPH  THIS  DURING  POINT.  A Honey.  FIRING  BY:  PROPANE COOL  TANK  SPOTS  IN  FREEZING KILN  REDUCTION  INDICATING  HOW  YOUR  KILN  HAS  1 5  PLEASE ANY  MAKE A  S K E T C H OF YOUR  PLANS YOU MADE. MAKE  SINCE  TO  IMPROVE  THE  KILN  SURE YOU  OR  I N C L U D E A COPY  I N C L U D E ANY  CHANGES  OPERATION.  s e e 24 c u . f t . k i l n  i n Appendix.  (PHOTO) YOU  OF  MADE  PLEASE INCLUDE IS  SKETCH  A LOCATION  DRAWING  U S U A L WIND D I R E C T I O N , T A L L  E X P O S E D OR  I F I T I S INCLOSED,  O F YOUR K I L N ON YOUR TREES,BUILDINGS, THE DISTANCE  OR S T U D I O ^ V E N T I L A T I O N , I F A P P L I C A B L E AND  PROPERTY  ETC. I F KILN  FROM YOUR HOUSE  FLUE ARE  HELPFUL.  Ishould as  like  many k i l n  t o thank sites  not  mind having  out  the area  you f o r your  as p o s s i b l e  your  kiln  effort.  i n t h e near  photographed  below. I n d i c a t e  a map  I t i s my future.  please  hope  by  i tmight  filling be  NAME, .  i  PHONE  MAP:  YOU  DO NOT MIND H A V I N G ME  PUBLICATION SIGNING  necessary.  .  ADDRESS  IF  visit  I f you would  indicate  i fyou think  to  OR  REFER  TO OTHER A R T I S T S  THE SPACE  TO YOUR K I L N  PLEASE  INDICATE  PROVIDED  THANK  YOU...  IN A  THESIS  THIS  BY  .  86. PLEASE INDICATE ALL OF THE INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR KILN THAT YOU CAN MAKE THE INFORMATION AS ACCURATE AS YOU CAN. IF SOMETHING CANNOT BE REMEMBERED OR RECALLED PLEASE GUESS AND MARK IT ACCORDINGLY. 1.  YOUR NAME ADDRESS PHONE  2.  _^ .  ;  :  „  HAS YOUR KILN BEEN INSPECTED BY THE FIRE MARSHALL GAS INSPECTOR  3.  HAVE YOU CONSULTED ANY ONE REGUARDING THE CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN OF YOUR KILN? IF SO PLEASE INDICATE THE NAMES AND ADDRESSES IF POSSIBLE. PLEASE LIST BOOKS,PAMPHLETS,THESIS OR OTHER  PUBLICATIONS  IN WHICH YOU FOUND HELPFUL INFORMATION. .  Rhodes  -  " K i l n s , Design & Operation"  IF YOUR GAS KILN WAS PURCHASED PLEASE INDICATE THE MANUFACTURERS NAME ADDRESS AND ANY INFORMATION YOU FEEL IS HELPFUL REGUARDING THE EFFICIENCY OF THIS KILN. Expensive t o operate  PLEASE INDICATE DATE THE KILN WAS DAY.  7.  MONTH  July  yp-ap  INSTALLED OR FIRST FIRED.  ' 70  PLEASE STATE THE NUMBER OF FIRINGS THE KILN HAS MADE  INDICATE THE APPROXIMATE COST OF A FIRING  INDICATE THE AMOUNT OF FUEL USED IN A TYPICAL FIRING  1  0  0  $35  '  s  ^  KILN  87.  DESIGN  I S YOUR K I L N  UPDRAFT DOWNDRAFT CROSSDRAFT  IF  OTHER  PLEASE  SPECIFY  '  SPRUNG  ARCH  CATERNARY  ARCH  CUBE ROUND IF  OTHER  PLEASE  SPECIFY  I F YOUR K I L N  I S MULTI-CHAMBERED  E A C H CHAMBER  BY NUMBERING  A  SKETCH  PLEASE  INDICATE  T H E CHAMBERS  SO T H A T T H E CHAMBERS  CAN  BE  1, 2,  T H E INFORMATION  3, AND  SO ON.  FOR  INCLUDE  IDENTIFIED.  PROPORTIONS OF T H E K I L N E X T E R N A L . WIDTH.  T H E OUTER  HEIGHT. DEPTH.  PROPORTIONS  FROM FROM  FRONT  AND  ROOF  5'  TO BACK  £J  I N T E R N A L WIDTH  HOT  FACE  FROM  TOP OF LOWER MOST S H E L F  •  TO HOT  FACE.  3.5'  o  OF V E N T O  INSIDE  OF C L O S E D DOOR TO  OF T H I S  PAGE P L E A S E  I N C L U D E T H I C K N E S S , MAKE,  TO TOP. OF I N S I D E .  3.9 .  INSIDE  4'  REAR.  SKETCH THE K I L N TYPE  7  K23  1  FLOOR,  OF M A T E R I A L S USED.  EXAMPLE,  I  X  5'2".  TOP  FROM  FRONT  KILN.  FROM  ON T H E R E V E R S E S I D E WALL,  THE  INTERNAL.  MAXIMUM  HEIGHT.  DEPTH.  B A S E TO TOP OF  OF K I L N  WIDTH.  E X T R E M I T Y ACROSS  BRICKS' RMRGY  PP-OM ^  Co.  USABLE  KILN SPACE- Tta.. SPACE  FOR  SETTING  ;  88.  ARES.  WIDTH - THE DISTANCE BETWEEN BAG WALLS. I F NO BAG WALLS DIST. OF SET WARES  2'  HEIGHT- THE DISTANCE FROM THE TOPOF THE USABLE FLOOR TO THE INSIDE TOP OF THE K l l S  3.9'  DEPTH - THE DISTANCE FROM THE INSIDE OF THE DOOR TO THE INSIDE REAR OF THE KILN.  4'  S I Z E OF FLUE OPENING - THE EXHAUST VENT S I Z E OF OPENING AT EXIT FROM CHAMBER  7' x  HORIZONTAL DISTANCE FROM INSIDE FLUE OPENING TO THE VERTICAL SHAFT OF THE CHIMNEY.  9'  3'  VERTICAL RISE I F ANY S I Z E OF VERTCAL  SHAFT  9'  HEIGHT OF VERTICAL SHAFT  (CHIMNEY)  X 9'  10'  DAMPER PLEASE SKETCH  IN LOCATION  I F POSSIBLE  POSITIONS DURING FIRING PLEASE INDICATE % CLOSED FOR HOURS INDICATED  0  6  7  !  8  1  9  12  13 14 50  10 50  1 5  50  1 6  50  11 5 0 i v  BURNERS TYPE- I F PURCHASED STATE MAKE MODEL MANUFACTURER ADDRESS I F HOME MADE A SKETCH WOULD BE INDICATE  S I Z E OF ORIFICE  HELPFUL  89.  DUMBER OF BURNERS INCLUDE LOCATION OF BURNERS ON THE KILN SKETCH B.T.U.RATING OF 1 BURNER PER HOUR FULL OPEN  DO YOU HAVE  120.000  B. T. U.  C I R C L E I F YES  PILOT L I T E S  AUTO-SAFETY SHUT OFF  KILN SITTER  ELECTRONIC KILN CONTROL  PYROMETER  PLEASE INDICATE ANY OTHER CONTROLS  BURNER PORTS S I Z E OF BURNER PORT(SIZE OF OPENING BURNER TO KILN )2.5 X 3" S I Z E OF ANY SECONDARY A I R SOURCES  X  FUEL CIRCLE THE CORRECT ONE NATURAL GAS  WOOD  PROPANE  OTHER PLEASE  SPECIFY  OIL  TIME AMOUNT OF TIME USED IN A TYPICAL FIRING TEMPERATURE REACHED TIME TO REACH TEMPERATURE  10  2JL_  LENGTH OF SOAK  HOURS HOURS  TOTAL FIRING TIME START TO SHUT DOWN  21  COOL DOWN TIME  24 HOURS  TOTAL TIME FROM START UP TO TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE.  ARE  20  YOU FAMILIAR WITH THE DANGERS  I F SO STATE THE DANGERS.  &  HOURS  MIN. _MIN. MIN. MIN.  BACK DOWN TO UNLOADING 48 HOURS  OF REDUCTION FIRING ?  MIN.  90. PLEASE PLOT ON THIS GRAPH A TYPICAL FIRING,  1500°C 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100°C 7  8  10  11  12  13  14  Reduction INDICATE ANY  PROBLEMS CREATED DURING FIRING  WIND ' OUTSIDE TEMP. HUMIDITY  RAIN  PROPANE TANK  FUEL GAS  BY:  (PRESSURE)  SERVICE  COOL SPOTS IN KILN REDUCTION  PLEASE WRITE A BRIEF PARAGRAPH INDICATING FUNCTIONED UP TO THIS POINT.  FREEZING  HOW  YOUR KILN  HAS  15  16  PLEASE ANY  MAKE A  PLANS  SINCE  TO  YOU  S K E T C H OF YOUR MADE. MAKE  IMPROVE  THE  KILN  SURE YOU  OPERATION.  OR  I N C L U D E A COPY  I N C L U D E ANY  CHANGES  (PHOTO) YOU  OF  MADE  PLEASE INCLUDE IS  SKETCH  A  LOCATION  DRAWING  U S U A L WIND D I R E C T I O N , T A L L  E X P O S E D OR  I F I T IS INCLOSED,  O F YOUR K I L N ON YOUR TREES,BUILDINGS, THE DISTANCE  OR S T U D I O ^ V E N T I L A T I O N , I F A P P L I C A B L E AND  PROPERTY  ETC. I F KILN  FROM YOUR HOUSE  FLUE ARE  HELPFUL.  Ishould l i k e t o thank you f o r your e f f o r t . as many k i l n s i t e s  93. I t i s my hope t o v i s i t  as p o s s i b l e i n the near f u t u r e . I f you would  not  mind having your k i l n photographed p l e a s e i n d i c a t e by f i l l i n g  out  the area below. I n d i c a t e a map i f you t h i n k i t might be necessary.  NAME,  ;  ADDRESS  ,  PHONE  . [  MAP:  IF YOU DO NOT MIND HAVING ME REFER TO YOUR KILN IN A THESIS PUBLICATION OR TO OTHER ARTISTS PLEASE INDICATE THIS BY SIGNING THE SPACE PROVIDED THANK YOU...  . ,  PLEASE  INDICATE  MAKE T H E  INFORMATION  REMEMBERED OR  1.  INFORMATION  ABOUT  AS A C C U R A T E AS YOU  RECALLED  PLEASE  GUESS AND  YOUR K I L N  CAN.  I F SOMETHING  MARK  I T ACCORDINGLY.  CAN.  CANNOT  HAS  _  ,  YOUR K I L N  BEEN  ;  INSPECTED  BY T H E F I R E MARSHALL GAS  HAVE YOU  C O N S U L T E D ANY  AND  DESIGN  AND  ADDRESSES  PLEASE  OF YOUR  LIST  I N WHICH YOU  I F YOUR  GAS  ONE  REGUARDING  K I L N ? I F SO P L E A S E  INSPECTOR  THE  CONSTRUCTION  INDICATE  THE  NAMES  I F POSSIBLE.  B O O K S , P A M P H L E T S , T H E S I S OR FOUND H E L P F U L  K I L N WAS  OTHER  PUBLICATIONS  INFORMATION.  PURCHASED  PLEASE  INDICATE  THE  MANUFACTURERS  NAME ADDRESS  AND  ANY  INFORMATION  REGUARDING  6.  7.  BE  ^  m  PHONE  3.  T H A T YOU  YOUR NAME ADDRESS  2.  A L L OF T H E  FEEL IS  HELPFUL  T H E E F F I C I E N C Y OF T H I S  PLEASE  INDICATE  DAY  MONTH  PLEASE  YOU  STATE  D A T E T H E K I L N WAS  KILN.  INSTALLED  OR  FIRST  YEAR  T H E NUMBER O F  INDICATE  THE APPROXIMATE  INDICATE  THE  AMOUNT OF  FIRINGS  C O S T OF A  F U E L USED  T H E K I L N HAS  MADE  FIRING  IN A T Y P I C A L  FIRING  FIRED.  KILN DESIGN  IS YOUR KILN  97.  UPDRAFT DOWNDRAFT CROSSDRAFT  IF OTHER PLEASE SPECIFY  SPRUNG ARCH CATERNARY ARCH CUBE ROUND IF OTHER PLEASE SPECIFY  IF YOUR KILN IS MULTI-CHAMBERED PLEASE INDICATE THE INFORMATION FOR EACH CHAMBER BY NUMBERING THE CHAMBERS 1, 2, 3, AND SO ON. INCLUDE A SKETCH  SO THAT THE CHAMBERS CAN BE IDENTIFIED.  PROPORTIONS OF THE KILN EXTERNAL. WIDTH. THE OUTER EXTREMITY ACROSS THE FRONT  X  HEIGHT. FROM BASE TO TOP OF KILN.  .  DEPTH. FROM FRONT TO BACK  PROPORTIONS OF KILN INTERNAL. WIDTH. MAXIMUM INTERNAL WIDTH HOT FACE TO HOT FACE. HEIGHT. FROM TOP OF VENT O FROM TOP OF LOWER MOST SHELF TO TOP OF INSIDE. DEPTH. FROM INSIDE OF CLOSED DOOR TO INSIDE REAR.  ON THE REVERSE SIDE OF THIS PAGE PLEASE SKETCH THE KILN FLOOR, WALL, AND ROOF INCLUDE THICKNESS, MAKE, TYPE OF MATERIALS USED. EXAMPLE.  \ \ ^RICKS'  FB.OM  FAifcGY  J( Co.  .  USABLE KILN  S P A C E - Th.. S P A C E FOR S E T T I N G  ARES.  WIDTH - THE D I S T A N C E BETWEEN BAG W A L L S . I F NO BAG W A L L S D I S T . OF S E T WARES H E I G H T - THE D I S T A N C E FROM THE TOP OF THE U S A B L E FLOOR TO T H E I N S I D E TOP OF THE K l l S  DEPTH  - THE D I S T A N C E FROM THE I N S I D E OF THE DOOR TO THE I N S I D E REAR OF THE K I L N .  S I Z E OF F L U E O P E N I N G  - THE  EXHAUST  VENT  S I Z E OF O P E N I N G A T E X I T FROM CHAMBER H O R I Z O N T A L D I S T A N C E FROM I N S I D E F L U E O P E N I N G TO THE V E R T I C A L S H A F T OF THE C H I M N E Y . V E R T I C A L R I S E I F ANY S I Z E OF V E R T C A L HEIGHT  SHAFT  OF V E R T I C A L S H A F T  (CHIMNEY)  DAMPER PLEASE SKETCH  I N LOCATION  P O S I T I O N S DURING F I R I N G PLEASE I N D I C A T E % CLOSED  I F POSSIBLE  FOR HOURS I N D I C A T E D  BURNERS T Y P E - I F PURCHASED  S T A T E MAKE Homemade MODEL MANUFACTURER ADDRESS  I F HOME MADE A S K E T C H WOULD B E H E L P F U L I N D I C A T E S I Z E OF O R I F I C E  WGS  10  JUMBER  99.  O F BURNERS  INCLUDE  L O C A T I O N O F BURNERS  B . T . U . R A T I N G O F 1 BURNER  DO Y O U HAVE PILOT KILN  CIRCLE LITES  P E R HOUR  SKETCH  F U L L OPEN  Approx.  200,000  B  >  T  I F YES A U T O - S A F E T Y SHUT O F F  SITTER  ELECTRONIC  PYROMETER  BURNER  ON T H E K I L N  PLEASE  KILN  CONTROL  I N D I C A T E ANY OTHER  CONTROLS  PORTS  SIZE  O F BURNER  SIZE  O F A N Y SECONDARY  FUEL CIRCLE  PORT(SIZE  O F O P E N I N G BURNER  TO K I L N ) " X * " 5  A I R SOURCES  6  5  X  T H E C O R R E C T ONE  NATURAL  GAS  WOOD  PROPANE  OTHER  PLEASE  SPECIFY  OIL  TIME AMOUNT  OF TIME  TEMPERATURE  USED  IN A T Y P I C A L  FIRING  REACHED  TIME TO REACH TEMPERATURE  HOURS  L E N G T H O F SOAK  HOURS  TOTAL  FIRING  TIME  S T A R T T O SHUT DOWN  C O O L DOWN T I M E TOTAL TIME  FROM  _MIN.  HOURS  _MIN,  HOURS  S T A R T UP T O T E M P E R A T U R E  TEMPERATURE.  &  BACK  DOWN  MIN. TO U N L O A D I N G  HOURS  ARE YOU FAMILIAR IF  o C MIN,  WITH  T H E DANGERS  SO S T A T E T H E DANGERS.  Explosion.  OF REDUCTION F I R I N G ?  MIN  >  T J |  100. PLEASE PLOT ON THIS GRAPH A TYPICAL FIRING.  r -  1500°C ti  1  1  j  1  1  1  j  1  1  j  1  1  1400  1  •  -  1300 1200 1100 1000 900  •  800 700 600  1  500  1 t  400  :  :  300  1  200  1  100°C  j 1  2  INDICATE ANY  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  PROBLEMS CREATED DURING FIRING  WIND  RAIN  OUTSIDE TEMP.  FUEL  HUMIDITY  GAS  11  Uneven  temp,  (PRESSURE)  COOL SPOTS IN KILN  SERVICE  REDUCTION  a t e n d o f some  front  14  BY:  HOW  FUNCTIONED UP TO THIS POINT. pressure  13  PROPANE 'TANK FREEZING  PLEASE WRITE A BRIEF PARAGRAPH INDICATING  Loses  12  to rear,  firings.  and  sides.  YOUR KILN  HAS  15  16  PLEASE ANY  MAKE A  PLANS  SINCE  TO  YOU  S K E T C H OF YOUR MADE. MAKE  IMPROVE  THE  SURE  KILN YOU  OPERATION.  OR  I N C L U D E A COPY  I N C L U D E ANY  CHANGES  (PHOTO) YOU  OF  MADE  1 0 1  *  PLEASE INCLUDE IS  SKETCH  A LOCATION  DRAWING  U S U A L WIND D I R E C T I O N , T A L L  E X P O S E D OR  I F I T IS INCLOSED,  O F YOUR K I L N  ON YOUR  TREES,BUILDINGS, THE DISTANCE  OR S T U D I O ^ V E N T I L A T I O N , I F A P P L I C A B L E AND  PROPERTY *  ETC. I F KILN  FROM YOUR HOUSE  FLUE ARE  HELPFUL.  Ishould as  like  many k i l n  t o thank sites  not  mind having  out  the area  you f o r your  as p o s s i b l e  your  kiln  effort.  i n the near  photographed  below. I n d i c a t e  a map  I t i s my future.  please  hope  I f you would  indicate  i fyou think  NAME  by  i tmight  filling be  ,  ADDRESS  .  :  MAP:  YOU  DO NOT MIND H A V I N G ME  PUBLICATION SIGNING  OR  REFER  TO OTHER A R T I S T S  THE SPACE  TO YOUR K I L N  PLEASE  INDICATE  PROVIDED  THANK  YOU....  necessa  .  PHONE  IF  103 visit  to  IN A  THESIS  THIS  BY  .  104.  KILN 18  CU.FT.  F I R I N G LOG  GAS  USING  FOR  KILN BUILT  BY AUTHOR  MODEL P R O V I D E D .  105. Firing KILN KILN  LOAD D I S C R I P T I O N  DATE:  1.  8.  2.  S a t . Nov. 20, 1976  - B e g i n r e d u c i n g p o r t s 30%, Damper 50%, S p y h o l e s show s m a l l f l a m e , T o p & Bot-.t-.om 6 down .  .  _3.  No. 1  F I R I N G LOG  9.  4.  10 .  5.  n  6.  1 7.  7-  .  KTT.N  SMOKTNO DTTFI  TO  TTJSTTTATTriW  RTTCTJ O F F . 11:30  TYPE  a.m.  O F DAY  Sunny  (Warm)  Rain  Cloudy  Wind  Dull  Direction NONE Speed  GRAPH 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100*  / \  —-V  /  7  / 1  S  /  1  i  2  i  3  1 2  \  y  4  i  -  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15' 16  17  18  19  20  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  17  18  19  20  •'<  3 4 DAMPER % OPEN  1  2  •3  4  16  106. 10  -  F i r i n g No. 2 KILN FIRING  K I L N LOAD  LOG  DISCRIPTION  4  A l l4 burners  5  Damper h e a t  DATE: F r i . N o v . 2 6 , 1976  low as p o s s i b l e  -12  noon, open damper &  good - 2:00 o p e n  8  turned  11:30  door  a l l 4 t o 50%  reduction  9:30 a.m.  ports  remove  cycle plugs,  create  draft 4:00  T Y P E OF DAY Sunny  (Cold)  p.m.  Rain  Cloudy  Wind D i r e c t i o n NONE Speed  Dull  GRAPH 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100  2 2:  8 BURNERS _ 1 % OPEN 2  DAMPER % OPEN  1 0 1 1 12  1 3 1 4 15 16 17 1 8 1 9 2 0  107 10  KILN  KILN  LOAD  DISCRIPTION  3:45  p.m.  ON  12  1:40 a.m.  a.m.  noon  Open  OPENING  TYPE  OF  Sunny  OFF  -  a l l dampers, —  No.  3  DATE:  N o v . 2 7/77  LOG  85 p i e c e s  10-1045° 10:00  FIRING  Firing  loaded  soak plugs  EXCELLENT  f o r 30 m i n . & ports.  FIRING  DAY (Clear  +  Cold)  Rain  Cloudy  Wind  Dull  Direction 20 mph, South &  Speed  Gusting West  GRAPH 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200  y s  100  S %  OPEN  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  1. 2 3 4  DAMPER %  OPEN  10  KILN  KILN  LOM)  FIRING  Firing  No. 4  DATE:  D e c . 22/76  LOG  DISCRIPTION  1 ? wnnw Could  have  f i r e d much  some w a r p i n g  TYPE  quicker  o f wares  OF DAY  Sunny  (Clear)  Rain  Cloudy  Wind  Direction NONE  Dull  Speed (SE  1 5 mph  - end o f  firing)  GRAPH 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000  s  900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 1 S %  OPEN  -  -  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  1 2  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  -  3 4 DAMPER % OPEN  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  10  -  Firing KILN  KILN  LOAD  No. 5  LOG  DISCRIPTION  11  -  FIRING  DATE:  May  29, 1977  A.M. 4  coilbuilt  3  large  vases  f o r G. H a n i s  bowls  Porcelain  Sculpture  Stoneware  Gas TYPE  Meter  147.5  OF DAY  Sunny  Rain  Cloudy  Wind  Direction NIL  Dull  Speed  GRAPH  150o| 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800B 700 600 500 4001 300| 200|  /  s  i o o | ^  I  1  S  DAMPER OPEN  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  1 2 3 4  %  2  -J  1  1  -1-10, 10  KILN  KILN  FIRING  Firing  No. 6  DATE:  A p r . 11/77  LOG  LOAD D I S C R I P T I O N Large Vases 21 m u g s  f o r B.C.T.F.  4  bowls  large  Eng. Teach.  Assoc.  Beads Sculpture  TYPE  OF DAY  Sunny +  Rain Wind  Cloudy Dull  Direction SW + S E 5-15 mph  Speed  ,  GRAPH •*  1  1500 1400 1300  i •  i  1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300  s  N  s  \  200 100  %  £ OPEN  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  1 2 3 4  DAMPER % OPEN  REFERENCE  CITATIONS  L e a c h , B.; London,  A P o t t e r s Book. 1967 pp. 189.  Ibid  5.  pp.  R h o d e s , D.; Chilton  Feber &  Faber L t d .  Kilns Design, Construction Book Co., P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1968  Olsen, F.L.; California,  The K i l n Book. 1973 p p . 25.  and  Keramos  Books,  C o l s o n , F.A.; Kiln Building with Van Nostrand, R e i n h o l d , N.Y.,  Space Age 1975.  Clacherie, J . ; Kiln Calgary, Alberta.  Alberta  R i t c h i e , R.W.; California, Olsen,  F.L.;  Ibid.  pp.  Provincial  Gas  D.;  Clacherie,  D.;  pp.  25  K i l n Pamphlet Authority.  Inspection 1968  J.;  pp.  Ibid.  pp.  Codes.  77  118  Research.  Materials.  Gas  Keramos  27  Ibid. Rhodes,  Kiln Firing. pp. 30-31.  1973  Clacherie, J . ; A l b e r t a Gas  Rhodes,  Gas 1975  Pamphlet.  Operation. pp. 116-140.  Authority,  Books,  BIBLIOGRAPHY Ball,  F.C.; Keramous  Syllabus f o r Beginning Books, B a s s e t t , C a l i f .  Ball,  F.C.; Keramous  Syllabus f o r Advanced Books, B a s s e t t , C a l i f .  Clacherie, J . K i l n Pamphlet. Calgary, Alberta.  A  Olsen, F.L.; California. R h o d e s , D.; Chilton  Potters 1967.  The K i l n Book. 1973.  Kilns: Book Co.  R i t c h i e , R.W.; California,  Book.  Ceramics. 1972.  Alberta  C o l s o n , F.A.; K i l n Building with V a n N o s t r a n d , R e i n h o l d , N.Y. L e a c h , B.; London,  Ceramics. 1971.  Gas  Space Age 1975.  Faber &  Keramous  Authority,  Materials.  Faber L t d . ,  Books,  Design, C o n s t r u c t i o n and Philadelphia, 1968.  Gas K i l n 1975.  Firing.  Keramous  Operation  Books,  113. A D D I T I O N A L CERAMICS Ball, A  F.C. and Wheel.  Berensohn, Simon  P.; and  BOOKS  Lovoos, J a n i c e ; Making Pottery Without Van Nostrand, R e i n h o l d , N.Y. 1965. F i n d i n g O n e ' s Way W i t h Schuster, N.Y. 1972.  C a r d e w , M.;  Pioneer  Dodd,  Dictionary of  A.E.;  Littlefield, Dickerson, Van  Raku  Nostrand  Ceramics.  Co.,  N.J.  N.Y.  Understanding Pottery F a b e r L t d . , London,  and  1972.  P o t t e r y Making: A Complete Guide. and Sons L t d . London, 1974.  I n d u s t r i a l Ceramics: U n i v e r s i t y Press. N.Y.  G r e e n , D.; Faber  1964.  Handbook.  Reinhold•Ltd.,  Dickerson, J . ; Thomas N e l s o n F r e n c h , N.; Oxford  Pottery.  Adams a n d  J.;  Clay.  Tableware. 1972. Glazes. 1963.  Grebanier, J . ; Chinese Stoneware Glazes. W a t s o n - G u p t i l l P u b l i c a t i o n s , N.Y. 1975. Hamilton,  D.;  Thames Nelson,  and  A and  B.;  Clarke,  and  Ceramics.  Ltd.  London,  Ceramics:  Rinehart  B.;  Adams Leach,  Hudson  G.C.;  Holt, Leach,  Pottery  and  A  Potters  Winston,  Inc.  1974. Handbook. N.Y.  1971.  P o t t e r ' s Work.  Mackay The  Irwin  Ltd.  Potters and  Co.  1967. Challenge. Ltd.  Canada.  1975.  Reeve, J . ; T h e P o t t e r s Raw M a t e r i a l s . Vancouver School of A r t . 1973. Rhodes,  D.;  Chilton Rhodes,  D.;  Chilton  Clay  and  Book Co.  Glazes  Stoneware and Book Co.,  f o r the  Potter.  Pennsylvania,  1957.  Porcelain.  Pennsylvania,  1959.  114. Additional Rhodes,  Ceramics  D.;  Chilton  Books  Pottery Book  Co.  (cont.d)  Form. Ontario.  1976.  R i e g g e r , H.; Raku: A r t and Technique. Van Nostrand Reinhold. N.Y. 1970. R u s c o e , W.; Academy  Glazes Editions.  for the Potter. 1974.  

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