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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The gas fired pottery kiln design and use for schools Place, Martin Halstead 1977

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THE GAS FIRED POTTERY KILN-DESIGN AND USE FOR SCHOOLS By MARTIN HALSTEAD PLACE B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE •_ STUDIES (G r a d u a t e D i v i s i o n ) (Faculty of Education) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1977 © M a r t i n H a l s t e a d P l a c e , 1977 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s / h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f _ _ _ T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k 5 1 a c e , V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D a t e "SEPTEMBER 1977 MARTIN HALSTEAD PLACE B.Ed . ABSTRACT A t t h e t i m e o f p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s l i t t l e i f any r e l i a b l e t e c h n i c a l d a t a was a v a i l a b l e on t h e d e s i g n , c o n s t r u c t i o n a nd o p e r a t i o n o f gas f i r e d p o t t e r y k i l n s . A few p u b l i c a -t i o n s h a v e some i n f o r m a t i o n b u t f o r t h e m o s t p a r t v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e v a r i o u s ' a s p e c t s o f gas k i l n d e s i g n s a r e a v a i l a b l e . I f one was t o u s e o n l y t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n p r e v i o u s p u b l i c a t i o n s , i n e f f i c i e n t , u n s a f e and i l l e g a l l y b u i l t k i l n s c o u l d e a s i l y be m a n u f a c t u r e d . S t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s and v a r i o u s p u b l i c i n -s t i t u t i o n s a r e f i n d i n g i t n e c e s s a r y t o d e s i g n , b u i l d and o p e r a t e gas k i l n s t o f u l f i l l t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s o r f u l l y e x p l a i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l methods o f c o m b u s t i o n f i r i n g a nd i t s u n i q u e r e s u l t s . I t becomes more a p p a r e n t t h a t g u i d e -l i n e s a r e n e c e s s a r y so t h a t an e f f i c i e n t , s a f e and i n e x p e n s i v e k i l n c a n be b u i l t and u t i l i z e d w i t h o u t h a m p e r i n g t h e u s e f u l -n e s s o f a v a r i e t y o f d e s i g n s a v a i l a b l e . T h i s s e a r c h f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t k i l n d e s i g n and c o n -s t r u c t i o n h a d two m a i n d i r e c t i o n s , t h e a u t h o r c o n s u l t e d a u t h o r i t i e s h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r gas k i l n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d A l b e r t a and s e c o n d l y h e b u i l t a n d t e s t e d k i l n s u s i n g t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d . T h e s e two s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n were compared i n r e l e v a n t l o c a t i o n s t o p u b l i c a t i o n s a v a i l -a b l e up t o p u b l i c a t i o n t i m e . F o r t h e most p a r t t h e i n v e s t -i g a t i o n i n t o k i l n o p e r a t i o n comes from i n f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n - - - -^t from a number o f s u c c e s s f u l k i l n b u i l d e r s and o p e r a t o r s and p r o v i n c i a l gas i n s p e c t o r s . I t h a s b e e n t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s f i n d i n g t h a t t h e r e i s a v e r y s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e p a r a m e t e r s g i v e n a r e a r e -l i a b l e and 8 u s e f u l g u i d e t o s a f e , e f f i c i e n t and p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l l e d k i l n d e s i g n . The m a i n p a r t s o f k i l n d e s i g n seem t o be d i m e n s i o n a l and d y n a m i c a l l y i n t e r r e l a t e d and t h e p a r a -m e t e r s o f d e s i g n h a v e shown a v e r y h i g h improvement i n e f f i c i e n c y and p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l w h i c h a r e i m p o r t a n t b e n e f i t s . The d y n a m i c s o f k i l n d e s i g n a r e o n l y p r e l i m i n a r y and b r o a d i n t h i s t h e s i s . Much more c o u l d be done w i t h c l o s e r t e s t i n g u s i n g more e l a b o r a t e e q u i p m e n t and c o n t r o l s and w i t h t h e g u i d e l i n e s u s e d from t h i s p a p e r and f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n e v e n f u r t h e r improvements i n d e s i g n p a r a m e t e r s may i m p r o v e t h e e f f i c i e n c y and s a f e t y o f f u t u r e k i l n s . T h i s t h e s i s i s d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e as a handbook w h i c h i s t h e r e s u l t o f a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h . The t h e s i s i s s e t o u t i n t h r e e p a r t s . A b r i e f e s s a y e s t a b l i s h i n g a r a t i o n a l f o r h a v -i n g a gas k i l n , t h e m o d e l f o r d e s i g n i n g a gas f i r e d p o t t e r y k i l n , and l a s t l y examples o f r e s e a r c h and k i l n f i r i n g l o g s from k i l n s d e s i g n e d u s i n g t h e m o d e l . Methods o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , b r i c k l a y i n g ^ a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n s u l a t i o n and a r c h c o n s t r u c t i o n a r e n o t c o v e r e d i n t h i s p a p e r as t h e y a r e w e l l c o v e r e d i n t h e O l s e n and Rhodes b o o k s . ( s e e b i b l i o g r a p h y ) i v . TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i . TABLE OF CONTENTS i v . TABLES v i . ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v i i . INTRODUCTION 1. BEFORE EMBARKING ON THIS VENTURE CONSIDER: WHY A GAS KILN? 2. THE MODEL FOR DESIGNING A GAS KILN. B a s i c D e s i g n i n K i l n P r o p o r t i o n s 7. L o c a t i n g t r i e K i l n 9. I n d o o r v s . O u t d o o r 11. C h o o s i n g K i l n B u i l d i n g M a t e r i a l s 14. The M e t h o e d o f D e t e r m i n i n g H a r d B r i c k E q u i v a l e n t s (H.B.E.) 17. How B i g S h o u l d a K i l n Be? V s . 22. I n t e r f a c e T e m p e r a t u r e s 24. N a t u r a l Gas o r P r o p a n e 26. B e f o r e D e c i d i n g o n P r o p a n e - © 8 . S i z e and Type o f K i l n 29. B a s i c D e s i g n i n Gas K i l n s . Chamber Shape 31. D e t e r m i n i n g t h e Volume lYi<~d'd-X z*.^:-:^:^ • W i t h i n a S p r u n g A r c h 32. The C a t e r n a r y A r c h 33. B u r n e r P o r t a n d E x i t F l u e S i z e s 34. The b u r n e r P o r t s 34. - The Chimney H e i g h t 38. P r o x i m i t y o f Chimney t o Windows and A i r I n t a k e s 39. P r o x i m i t y o f P r e s s u r e Z o n e s , 39. The C o m b u s t i o n P r o c e s s i n t h e kiln.-., . 40. B u r n e r s 42. Gas I n p u t i n B.T.U. f o r Gas K i l n s 45. " '.The Gas I n p u t ' 47. The S e t t i n g F l o o r A r e a 50 KILNS DESIGNED USING THE MODEL 24 C u b i c F o o t D o w n d r a f t Gas K i l n D e s i g n 51. Summary o f D i m e n s i o n s o f a K i l n U s i n g t h e M o d e l P r o v i d e d 52. S m a l l D o w n d r a f t K i l n D e s i g n 54. V... T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s ( c o n t . d ) S m a l l C r o s s d r a f t K i l n 55. S m a l l U p d r a f t K i l n 56. APPENDIX B e f o r e F i r i n g Y o u r K i l n f o r t h e F i r s t Time 58. S a f e k i l n O p e r a t i n g P r o c e d u r e s ; 59. S h u t Down P r o c e d u r e 60. Do's and D o n ' t s o f K i l n F i r i n g 61. Recommended S a f e t y E q u i p m e n t f o r S c h o o l Use 62. K i l n S i t t e r 6-3. T h e r m o c o u p l e A u t o . S h u t O f f 63. N a t u r a l Gas B u r n e r I n s t a l l a t i o n I n s t r u c t i o n s 64. Gas L i n e s To K i l n s 65. P r o p a n e I n s t a l l a t i o n I n s t r u c t i o n s 66. S a f e t y p i l o t m o u n t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s 67. Recommended K i l n C o n s t r u c t i o n and I n s t a l l a t i o n R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r A l b e r t a 68. I n s t a l l a t i o n R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r K i l n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 70. T a b l e 9.21.6.a. N a t i o n a l B u i l d i n g Code 72. KILN TEST REPORTS I d e a l k i l n 74. K i l n "A" . . I 84. K i l n "B" 94. KILN FIRING LOG 104. REFERANCE CITATIONS 111. BIBLIOGRAPHY 112. ADDITIONAL CERAMICS BOOKS 113. TABLES A p p r o x i m a t e R e f r a c t o r y E q u i v a l e n t s 19. H a r d B r i c k E q u i v a l e n t s 20a. A p p r o x i m a t e C o l d F a c e T e m p e r a t u r e s *. 21. i n t e r f a c e T e m p e r a t u r e s . i ' 25. N a t u r a l G a s / P r o p a n e 27a. S u s t a i n e d A m b i e n t T e m p e r a t u r e s 28a. K i l n I n p u t s and Chimney F l u e S i z e s 37. Gas I n p u t 47. Gas I n p u t i n B.T.U. f o r Gas K i l n s .- 49. T a b l e 9.21.6.A. N a t i o n a l B u i l d i n g Code J 2 -C.S.A. B149.1 - 1971 T a b l e 25 ( 7 3 ^ ;-viir.\ ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ' i I should l i k e to thank a l l the a r t i s t s , craftsmen, i n -spectors, and engineers who have assisted me with t h i s paper. S p e c i f i c a l l y Stan Clarke, and Jim Clachrie, who are so help-f u l and generous with advice and assistance, Mr. W.R. Mont-gomery of the P r o v i n c i a l Gas Authority, and the many anon-imous k i l n owners who submitted t h e i r e f f o r t s to te s t s . Lastly, I should l i k e to thank the far sighted, patient, master educator and friend Sam Black for h i s constant en-couragement and assistance, and Graeme Chalmers for his patient understanding and h e l p f u l corrections to content and format. 1. INTRODUCTION The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o show by u s e o f a m o d e l a method o f d e s i g n i n g a s a f e , e f f i c i e n t and u s e f u l gas k i l n t h a t w i l l meet t h e n e e d s o f m o s t s c h o o l s . The m o d e l u s e d w i l l a l s o s e r v e t o a s s i s t i n d e s i g n i n g any gas o r p r o p a n e f i r e d p o t t e r y k i l n . Recommended p r o c e e d u r e s , a u t h o r i t i e s and i n s p e c t o r s w i l l be l i s t e d f o r t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a up t o t h e t i m e o f p u b l i c a t i o n . I t i s h o p e d t h a t t h i s t h e s i s w i l l s e r v e as a g u i d e t o t h o s e who want t o d e s i g n , b u i l d and o p e r a t e an e f f i c i e n t , s a f e and p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l l e d gas k i l n . F u r t h e r i t i s h o p e d t h a t t h i s t h e s i s w i l l show t h a t gas k i l n s a r e a n e c -e s s a r y p a r t o f a s c h o o l c e r a m i c e d u c a t i o n and .that i n f u t u r e s c h o o l s w i l l c o n s i d e r i n c l u d i n g t h e u s e o f a gas k i l n as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m . I t i s n o t i n t e n d e d i n t h i s p a p e r t o p l a c e - a l l t y p e s o f k i l n i n f o r m a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n , b u t r a t h e r t o r e s t r i c t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o modern m a t e r i a l s f o r gas and p r o p a n e k i l n c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d t o c o m p l i m e n t a l r e a d y p u b l i s h e d r e f e r e n c e s l i s t e d i n t h e B i b l i o g r a p h y . 2. BEFORE EMBARKING ON THIS VENTURE CONSIDER; WHY A GAS KILN? A gas k i l n h a s many a d v a n t a g e s f o r f i r i n g c e r a m i c s , b u t t h e s e and t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s must be c o n s i d e r e d w i s e l y b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n . A gas k i l n i s a b i g i n v e s t m e n t o f t i m e , money and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A gas k i l n r e q u i r e s a v a s t i n p u t o f e n e r g y on t h e p a r t o f t h e p e r s o n i n t e r e s t e d i n a c -q u i r i n g i t . I n m o s t c a s e s t h e r e i s l i t t l e i f any r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n as t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s , c o s t and l i a b i l i t i e s . E a c h k i l n i s a n a d v e n t u r e i n d e s i g n and w i l l h a v e i t s own u n i q u e r e q u i r e m e n t s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . E a c h r e q u i r e m e n t must be met w i t h an i n v e s t m e n t i n t i m e and e n e r g y t o f i n d a d e q u a t e a n swers t o t h e s e p r o b l e m s . I f y o u p l a n t o u s e a gas k i l n t o e s c a p e t h e t e d i u m o f f i r i n g s m a l l e l e c t r i c k i l n s e a c h day c o n s i d e r t h a t a gas k i l n r e q u i r e s much more a d j u s t m e n t and s k i l l t o f i r e t h a n modern e l e c t r i c k i l n s . I n f a c t o n l y a f t e r s e v e r a l f i r i n g s c a n r e s u l t s be d e t e r m i n a b l e and c o n t r o l l e d . I b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s t h i s v e r y n a t u r a l phenomenon o f n o t b e i n g i n f u l l c o n t r o l o f r e s u l t s t h a t makes f i r i n g a k i l n an i n t e g r a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l p a r t o f t h e c e r a m i c p r o c e s s . "To a c r a f t s m a n i t i s more i m p o r t a n t t o know what works w e l l t h a n i t i s t o know i n p r e c i s e d e t a i l why i t works w e l l . N e v e r t h e l e s s i t w o u l d be absurd;-*:for any c r a f t s m a n t o d a y n o t t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e r e s u l t s o f modern s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h . " ^ ^ The modern a r t i s t c r a f t s m a n s h o u l d l e a r n t o work w i t h t h e n a t u r a l p r o c e s s , n o t t o a l w a y s d o m i n a t e and impose t h e i r w i l l . I n a r t g i v i n g up t h e f u l l c o n t r o l i n s u r e s t h e a d v e n t o f t h e happy a c c i d e n t t h a t p l a y s s u c h an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f new and c r e a t i v e : i d e a s . The l o s s o f s u c h a s p e c t s i n a r t w o u l d i n s u r e d u l l a nd monotonous p r o d u c t i o n o f w o r k s . "The b e a u t y t o w h i c h t h e Sung p o t t e r s a t t a i n e d was f a r b e y o n d t h e h i g h e s t t h a t from i t s b e g i n n i n g s i n J o s i a h Wedge-(2) wood t h e E n g l i s h p o t t e r s e v e r a i m e d a t . " The b e a u t y B e r n a r d L e a c h speaksssof c a n be. e a s i l y c o n t r i -b u t e d t o t h e p u r s u i t o f r e s u l t s . The b a s i s upon w h i c h a r t i s t - c r a f t s m e n p u r s u e t h e i r g o a l s i s f o r t h e mos t p a r t summed up i n t h e s e l i n e s . A r t i s t - c r a f t s m e n and t h e i r s t u d - , e n t s s h o u l d come i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e e s s e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e o f w o r k i n g w i t h one o f t h e p r i m a r y e l e m e n t s o f t h e c e r a m i c p r o -c e s s . F i r e was and s t i l l r e m a i n s a p r i m a r y p r o c e s s o f t h e c e r a m i c e x p e r i e n c e and i t i s w i t h modern gas t h a t t h i s ex-p e r i e n c e c a n be e a s i l y o b t a i n e d . The- p r o c e s s o f f i r i n g c e r a m i c s c a n be, and p e r h a p s i s , b e i n g l o s t l i k e t h e c r a f t -m a n s h i p o f t h e Sung p o t t e r s t o t h e e a s e and r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s o f e l e c t r i c a l h e a t i n g . The o r g a n i c b e a u t y o f f i r e d c e r a m i c s c a n n o t be f a v o u r -a b l y compared t o t h e r e s u l t s o f e l e c t r i c a l h e a t i n g . The l u s t e r s , r e d u c t i o n spots, c o l o u r s and t o a s t e d look o f f i r e d ceramics has t h a t m y s t i c a l look o f having been touched by-nature. The e s s e n t i a l experiences o f a process can be e a s i l y denied a g e n e r a t i o n o f l e a r n e r s because o f convenience and s i m p l i c i t y and the h e r i t a g e o f g e n e r a t i o n s i s l o s t never t o be a t t a i n e d a g a i n . The knowledge o f gas f i r i n g has a l s o one very s t r o n g s c i e n t i f i c l e s s o n t h a t cannot be a t t a i n e d without a combus-t i o n atmosphere. The chemistry o f r e d u c t i o n atmosphere f i r i n g cannot be f u l l y experienced or i l l u s t r a t e d without a combustion type k i l n . The t h e o r y can be e x p l a i n e d e a s i l y but the process must be experienced, l e a r n e d and p r a c t i c e d b e f o r e i t can be s a f e l y or p r o p e r l y done. One o f the major concerns o f modern gas engineers i s the concern t h a t r e d u c t i o n f i r i n g be s a f e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y done so t h a t very l i t t l e p o l l u t i o n from such f i r i n g i s generated. Without proper "hands-on" i n s t r u c t i o n t h i s p r a c t i c e cannot be c a r r i e d out. There i s l i t t l e i f any equipment to c o n t r o l or guage r e d u c t i o n f i r i n g and i t i s f a r beyond the f i n a n c i a l means o f most ceramic a r t i s t s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n leads one t o the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t a good number o f a r t i s t - c r a f t s m e n p l a c e themselves and o t h e r s i n a h i g h degree o f h e a l t h hazard by r e d u c t i o n f i r i n g impro-p e r l y or i n p o o r l y designed k i l n s . These k i l n s and o p e r a t o r s are p o l l u t i n g the atmosphere f a r beyond the necessary r e -q u i r e m e n t s f o r a q u a l i t y r e d u c t i o n f i r i n g . Gas k i l n s h a v e one f i n a l b u t c l e a r a d v a n t a g e a n d . t h a t i s o f b e i n g a b l e t o a t t a i n much h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e s t h a n e l e c t r i c a l k i l n s . The a d v a n t a g e s o f h i g h e r f i r e d c e r a m i c s a r e many. The m a i n a d v a n t a g e b e i n g a b l e t o a v o i d t h e u s e o f t o x i c and c a r c i n o g e n i c compounds f o u n d i n low t e m p e r a t u r e g l a z e s . T h e s e h a z a r d o u s compounds a r e a l m o s t u n a v o i d a b l e a t low t e m p e r a t u r e s and a r e c e r t a i n l y k e y e l e m e n t s i n c r e a t i n g a f u l l s p e c t r u m o f c o l o u r s i n g l a z e s a t t h i s t e m p e r a t u r e . The h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e g l a z e s a v o i d t h e u s e o f most t o x i c c h e m i c a l s b e c a u s e o t h e r s a f e r c h e m i c a l s r e p l a c e t h e i r f u n c -t i o n i n t h e c e r a m i c g l a z e f o r m u l a . The k n o w l e d g e and e x p e r i e n c e o f w o r k i n g w i t h h i g h temp-e r a t u r e s i n c l a y and g l a z e s i n s u r e s a s t r o n g b a s i c know-l e d g e t h a t i s q u i c k l y b e c o m i n g r e q u i r e d by modern a r t i s t -c r a f t s m e n . Gas k i l n s a r e t h e modern t o o l t h a t a l l o w s t h e s e e s s e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e s t o be o b t a i n e d and s u c h e x p e r i e n c e s s h o u l d b e l e a r n e d e a r l y when t h e s t u d e n t s are- e a s i l y a v a i l -a b l e and a b l e t o l e a r n t h e p r o c e s s e s n e c e s s a r y . L e a v i n g s u c h l e a r n i n g t o l a t e r e n s u r e s t h a t fewer s t u d e n t s w o u l d l e a r n t h e i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s and i t w o u l d i n s u r e t h a t more s t u d e n t s w o u l d go on i n c e r a m i c s p e r h a p s e v e n w i t h a gas k i l n p e r p e t -u a t i n g t h e p o l l u t i o n and u n s a f e f i r i n g h a b i t s o f t h e u n s k i l l e d . S u c h d a n g e r s c a n n o t be o v e r l o o k e d i n an age when p e o p l e a r e 6. t u r n i n g t o gas k i l n s i n ever growing numbers.. I t i s the time t o p r o v i d e the education necessary t o i n s u r e t h a t the next g e n e r a t i o n o f p o t t e r s and a r t i s t - c r a f t s m e n are p r o p e r l y t r a i n -ed i n modern techniques and pr o c e s s e s . Those who c r e a t e a r t works must make every attempt t o generate b e t t e r standards by s e t t i n g an example t o be compared T to, and p r a c t i s e d so t h a t students can measure t h e i r p e r s o n a l e f f o r t s , the e f f o r t s o f t h e i r c u l t u r e and the e f f o r t s o f t h e i r a n c e s t o r s so t h a t they can draw c o n c l u s i o n s as t o t h e i r con-t r i b u t i o n and p l a c e i n s o c i e t y . We as a r t i s t - c r a f t s m e n must show t h a t the ceramic p r o -cess although complex has very important a r t i s t i c , s c i e n t i f i c and c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and t h a t by i g n o r i n g o r s u b s t i t u t i n g inadequate systems our s o c i e t y w i l l be the l e s s e r because o f i t . We must see t h a t s a f e , r e l i a b l e and u s e f u l systems are made a v a i l a b l e t o students and t h a t r e s e a r c h and t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e a c o n t i n u i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t i s earned and reward-ed by an ongoing a r t i s t i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y g i f t e d s o c i e t y . THE MODEL FOR DESIGNING A KILN. ADAPTED FROM RESEARCH BY J I M CLACHERIE BOOKS OF DANIEL RHODES AND FRED OLSEN AND RESEARCH ON KILNS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA BY THE AUTHOR. 7. BASIC DESIGN IN KILN PROPORTIONS. S t u d i e s i n b o t h A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a v e shown a s t r o n g r e l i a b i l i t y i n t h e u s e o f d e s i g n p r o p o r t i o n s and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . T h e s e g u i d e l i n e s s h o u l d be h e l p f u l t o anyone who w i s h e s t o d e s i g n e f f i c i e n t , s a f e and u s e f u l k i l n s . The p r o p o r t i o n a l l y d e s i g n e d k i l n i s n o t t h e o n l y k i l n d e s i g n t h a t w i l l work. A l m o s t any chamber w i t h s u f f i c i e n t h e a t c o u l d s u f f i c e f o r a k i l n . A s u r v e y o f k i l n s s i m p l y p o i n t s o u t p r o -p o r t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s u s e d i n e f f i c i e n t , s a f e and u s e f u l k i l n s . T h e s e g u i d e l i n e s s h o u l d h e l p i n s e r v i n g as s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r t h e f u t u r e . The c o n c e p t s o f k i l n p r o p o r t i o n a r e p r a c t i c a l l y a s o l d as k i l n s t h e m s e l v e s . K i l n s d e s i g n e d i n t h e O r i e n t and E u r o p e i n v e r y e a r l y t i m e s were d e s i g n e d p r o p o r t i o n a l l y as Rhodes (3) (• i n " K i l n D e s i g n and O p e r a t i o n " and o l s e n i n "The K i l n Book" p o i n t o u t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s and p r o p o r t i o n s i n modern gas k i l n s a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h e wood and s t r a w k i l n s o f t h e s e a n c i e n t d e s i g n s . The s p a c e s r e q u i r e d f o r c o m b u s t i o n a r e p r o b a b l y t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t l y n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e . I n f a c t t h e p r o p o r t i o n s a r e p r o b a b l y d i f f e r e n t f o r e a c h f u e l u s e d b u t f o r o u r p u r p o s e s t h e p r o p o r t i o n s f o r gas and p r o p a n e s h a l l be t h e same. P r o p o r t i o n a l d e s i g n i s d e r i v e d a t by c o m p a r i n g s i z e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n k i l n s t h a t o p e r a t e more e f f i c i e n t l y and w i t h 8. ease i n obtaining most of the desirable e f f e c t s . Secondly, designs of si m i l a r gas f i r e d equipment can give e f f i c i e n c y and proportion information that w i l l make for comparison of the e s s e n t i a l requirements. The following•guidelines are proportional i n nature and should provide a basic s t a r t i n g point for designing a k i l n that has been found to be safe, e f f i c i e n t , and economical by the author and many other k i l n b uilding enthusiasts. Throughout the guidelines section reference to resources are made to pcJint out the variables and boundaries from which better designs can be adapted. LOCATING THE KILN. 1. ZONING REGULATIONS AND BY-LAWS FOR THE LOCATION OF YOUR KILN. 2. V6 PROXIMITY AND HEIGHT OF ALL TALL BUILDINGS, TREES OR BARRIERS. 3. ELEVATION AND DRAINAGE OF LAND. 4. PREVAILING WIND DIRECTION. 5. PROXIMITY OF THE CHIMNEY OUTLET TO WINDOWS AND AIR INTAKES INTO NEARBY BUILDINGS. 6. THE GAS SOURCE. 7. A SEPARATE KILN AND WORK AREA. 8. VENTILATION OF KILN AREA.. 9. ACCESS FOR SERVICE AND CLEARANCE FOR SAFETY. 10. VANDALISM AND CURIOSITY SEEKER CONTROL AND SAFETY. The f i r s t and f i n a l authority having j u r i s d i c t i o n i n your k i l n b u i l ding should be the bu i l d i n g and gas inspector for gas and the f i r e marshal for propane. Check and make sure you have a l l the AUTHORITIES HAVING JURISDICTION l i s t e d and check-ed with before proceeding with any construction. In any of my k i l n building experiences-and i n the vast majority of research I have found that the inspectors were interested and h e l p f u l rather than obstructive and bureaucratic. This i s somewhat the case because many inspectors have not seen 10. k i l n s or have any g u i d e l i n e s o r r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g them. T h i s i s convenient f o r the p o t t e r who wants room f o r c r e a t -i v i t y i n h i s de s i g n but t h i s can c r e a t e problems f o r t h a t i n s p e c t o r and f u t u r e gas k i l n e n t h u s i a s t s i f the c r e a t i v i t y leads t o a k i l n p roducing p o l l u t i o n and obvious s a f e t y hazards. Be sure you meet a l l the requirements f o r zoning i n the area you p l a n t o b u i l d . I f the k i l n w i l l be a hobby you should not have any d i f f i c u l t y i n a r e s i d e n t i a l area, i f the k i l n i s p a r t o f a business venture or a t a s c h o o l then d i f f e r -ent requirements w i l l have t o be met f o r workers compensation and f i r e s a f e t y . Remember i t i s b e t t e r t o meet or surpass requirements and be INSURED f o r s a f e t y ' s sake. A f t e r c o l l e c t -i n g data l i k e s a f e t y codes and by-laws draw up a d e s i g n u s i n g the g u i d e l i n e s p r o v i d e d and submit i t f o r i n s p e c t i o n and ap p r o v a l . INDOOR VS. OUTDOOR. K i l n s h a v e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s a s t o o u t d o o r o r i n d o o r c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n s . An o u t d o o r k i l n i s d e f i n e d a s a k i l n t h a t i s ex-p o s e d t o t h e e l e m e n t s o r i s i n s t a l l e d i n an u n o c c u p i e d b u i l d -i n g t h a t i s u s e d s o l e l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f i t s p r o t e c t i o n from t h e e l e m e n t s . K i l n s t o t a l l y e x p o s e d t o t h e e l e m e n t s t e n d t o be l e s s u s e f u l , l e s s e f f i c i e n t a n d more c o s t l y t o o p e r a t e and m a i n t a i n . Any k i l n t h a t i s e x p o s e d i s d i f f i c u l t t o l o a d and f i r e d u r i n g r a i n a nd snow. T h i s c a u s e s d e l a y and -can c o s t b o t h h o b b i e s t and p r o f e s s i o n a l a g r e a t d e a l o f r e p l a n n i n g and e x p e n s e . When c o n s i d e r i n g an o u t d o o r k i l n t h e c o n c e p t o f a m b i e n t t e m p e r a t u r e and h e a t l o s s due t o w i n d i s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r . When a k i l n h a s a r o o f b u t i s s t i l l e x p o s e d t o wind, t h e h e a t l o s s due t o p r e v a i l i n g w i n d c a n be an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r . WIND VELOCITY HEAT LOSS IN IN M.P.H. B.T.U. PER SQ. FT. 0 420 10 1040 1 20 1620 The c h a r t a b o v e i l l u s t r a t e s t h e e f f e c t t h a t w i n d h a s on h e a t l o s s from a k i l n w a l l a t 40 d e g r e e s F. o u t d o o r t e m p e r a t u r e and w i t h a k i l n w a l l o u t s i d e t e m p e r a t u r e o f 220 d e g r e e s F. N o t e t h a t t h e h e a t l o s s a t 20 M.P.H. i s a l m o s t f o u r t i m e s as h i g h as t h a t w i t h no w i n d . I t i s t h e r e f o r e good economy t o p r o t e c t t h e o u t d o o r k i l n from w i n d s and t o i n s u l a t e t h e w a l l s o f t h e k i l n v e r y w e l l . One must a l s o c o n s i d e r b r i c k damage due t o m o i s t u r e and f r o s t . D e c o m p o s i t i o n o f b r i c k a n d i n s u l a t i o n n o t t o m e n t i o n o x i d a t i o n o f m e t a l p a r t s l i k e b u r n e r s i s a l s o s u b s t a n t i a l on e x p o s e d e q u i p m e n t . The c o s t o f m a i n t a i n i n g . a f u l l y e x p o s e d k i l n i n a c l i m a t e o f s t r o n g c h a n g e s . i s s u b s t a n t i a l enough t o w a r r a n t t h e c o s t o f e n c l o s i n g i t . T h e r e i s one l a s t argument a g a i n s t t h e e x p o s e d k i l n . The f i r i n g k i l n i s t r e a t e d s i m i l a r l y t o a swimming p o o l u n d e r t h e law. T hey a r e c o n s i d e r e d " a t t r a c t i v e h a z a r d s " and a r e a l i a -b i l i t y i f n o t p r o p e r l y p r o t e c t e d . S h o u l d a c h i l d o r a n i m a l be s e v e r e l y o r m o r t a l l y b u r n e d by m a k i n g c o n t a c t w i t h y o u r u n p r o -t e c t e d k i l n y o u may be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u c h a m i s f o r t u n e . K i l n s a r e v e r y a t t r a c t i v e and e x t r e m e l y h a z a r d o u s and c u r i o s i t y s e e k e r s c a n do a g r e a t d e a l o f damage t o b o t h t h e m s e l v e s and t h e k i l n . K i l n s s h o u l d be h o u s e d i n a b u i l d i n g d e s i g n e d e x p r e s s l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e a n d s e p a r a t e from a l l o t h e r b u i l d i n g s . T h i s b u i l d i n g o r k i l n s h e d s h o u l d be c l o s e t o t h e c e r a m i c s s t u d i o -and s o u r c e o f gas and s h o u l d meet a l l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e b u i l d i n g i n s p e c t o r . A s m a l l m e t a l g a r d e n s h e d makes an e x c e l -l e n t k i l n s h e d w i t h o n l y a few m i n o r a d j u s t m e n t s n e e d e d . Any o t h e r b u i l d i n g made f i r e r e s i s t a n t t o t h e r e q u i r e d s p e c i f i c -a t i o n s and w i t h p r o p e r v e n t i l a t i o n w o u l d s u f f i c e . ( s e e B u i l d -i n g Codes i n A p p e n d i x ) CHOOSING KILN BUILDING MATERIALS. A k i l n i s a m a c h i n e w h i c h , l i k e a home, w i l l r e q u i r e more f u e l and money t o h e a t t h e l e s s i n s u l a t i o n y o u h a v e . I t i s t r u l y f a l s e economy t o a v o i d t h e e x p e n s e o f i n s u l a t i o n i n k i l n b u i l d i n g . W i t h modern i n s u l a t i o n b r i c k , b l o c k i n s u l a t i o n and f i b e r b l a n k e t s t h e u s e o f f o u r t o n i n e i n c e s o f h a r d b r i c k i s s i m p l y o u t o f d a t e and e x p e n s i v e . U s i n g r e - c y c l e d m a t e r i a l w i l l s l o w down b u i l d i n g t i m e and on o c c a s i o n c o s t y o u more i n t i m e , e f f o r t and r e - b u i l d e x p e n s e t h a n y o u w i l l s a v e . H a r d f i r e b r i c k decomposes w i t h e a c h f i r i n g and as b r i c k s r e a c h t h e i r m a t u r i t y t h e y w i l l decompose f a i r l y q u i c k l y . U s e d b r i c k w i l l a l m o s t s u r e l y be m i x e d i n t e m p e r a t u r e r a t i n g and i t i s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o f i n d o u t t h e r a t i n g o f u s e d b r i c k . N e e d l e s s t o s a y i t w o u l d be d i s -a s t e r o u s t o b u i l d a gas k i l n d e s i g n e d t o f i r e t o 2400 d e g r e e s F. and h a v e b u i l t i n some 1800 d e g r e e F. b r i c k t h a t ? w o u l d m e l t o r g i v e way a t t h i s t e m p e r a t u r e . A gas k i l n s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as i n v e s t m e n t from w h i c h a r e a s o n a b l e r e t u r n s h o u l d b e e x p e c t e d . As i n a l l i n v e s t m e n t s y o u r r e t u r n w i l l be i n d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h what y o u i n v e s t . K i l n s s h o u l d be i n v e s t e d i n h e a v i l y e x p e c i a l l y i f y o u a r e e x -p e c t i n g t o g e t any r e t u r n s b y s e l l i n g y o u r p r o d u c t t o r e g a i n t h e i n v e s t m e n t . S e c o n d l y i f y o u p l a n t o u t i l i z e t h e k i l n i n a s c h o o l o r t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n y o u must c o n s i d e r t h a t any l o s s o f product by students due t o poor k i l n d e s ign and o p e r a t i o n w i l l o n l y show your l a c k o f knowledge and p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and t h a t any poor d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f i r i n g h a b i t s w i l l be passed on t o your students. When choosing- k i l n b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s s e v e r a l important f a c t o r s should be c o n s i d e r e d . D u r a b i l i t y , i n s u l a t i o n f a c t o r , and heat r e t e n t i o n f a c t o r . With modern f i b e r i n s u l a t i o n s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o b u i l d a k i l n v e ry l i g h t i n weight, w i t h good i n s u l a t i o n , but w i t h l i t t l e or not s u f f i c i e n t hea4 r e t e n t i o n . T h i s type o f k i l n w i l l c o o l down much too q u i c k l y because although t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t i n s u l a t i o n t h e r e i s no heat r e -t e n t i o n . That i s o n l y the wares are g e t t i n g heated, the i n -s u l a t i o n does not absorb heat, i t i s designed t o keep i t i n , t h e r e f o r e the wares l o s e t h e i r heat as q u i c k l y as the i n s u l -a t i o n w i l l permit. T h i s seems to be much- q u i c k e r than i s good (4) f o r the wares . K i l n designs should be designed f o r slow c o o l i n g . The c o o l i n g o f f i b e r type k i l n s can be slowed by c u t t i n g back s'llowly on the gas d u r i n g the c o o l i n g c y c l e , but t h i s p r a c t i c e takes more time on the p a r t o f the o p e r a t o r and a great d e a l more money to p r o v i d e f o r the gas. There seems t o be a balance o f i n s u l a t i o n f a c t o r , heat r e t e n t i o n and heat t h a t makes f o r an e f f i c i e n t k i l n d e s i g n . The i n s u l a t i o n f a c t o r i s b e s t worked out by comparing v a r i o u s i n s u l a t i o n methods to hard b r i c k . T h i s g i v e s the hard b r i c k e q u i v a l e n t , ( s e e H.B.E. page) By c o m p a r i n g v a r i o u s k i l n s i t ha s b e e n f o u n d t h a t e f f i c i e n t k i l n s h a v e w a l l s o f between t h i r t y a nd f o r t y - f i v e i n c h e s H o f h a r d b r i c k e q u i v a l e n c e i n i n s u l a t i o n . H e a t r e t e n t i o n seems t o be m o s t l y f o u n d i n k i l n s where some i n s u l a t i o n 1 b r i c k o r h a r d b r i c k i s u s e d . I w o u l d s u s p e c t t h a t a d e s i g n t h a t h a s m a t e r i a l s u s e d i n i t t h a t a b s o r b t h e h e a t l i k e b r i c k w i l l h a v e b e t t e r h e a t r e t e n t i o n . I s u s p e c t t h a t t h e r a t i o , a l t h o u g h t h i s i s more o f a g u e s s , i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h a t f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e k i l n c o n s t r u c t i o n by volume s h o u l d be b r i c k and t h i s b r i c k s h o u l d be e x p o s e d t o t h e f l a m e . When I " speak o f , b r i c k I mean b o t h i n s u l a t i n g and h a r d b r i c k . To be p r a c t i c a l I b e l i e v e t h a t a k i l n s h o u l d n o t be b u i l t e n t i r e l y o f a t h i n l a y e r o f h a r d b r i c k o r i n s u l a t i n g b l a n k e t s as i t w i l l n o t r e t a i n t h e h e a t . A b a l a n c e o f b o t h seems t o be most e f f i c i e n t and e c o n o m i c a l , ( s e e S u g g e s t e d K i l n W a l l C o m b i n a t i o n s page) 17. THE METHOD OF DETERMINING HARD BRICK EQUIVALENTS (H.B.E.) The a c c e p t e d m e a s u r e o f t h e r m a l i n s u l a t i n g a b i l i t y i s t h e r -m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y . T h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y c i s t h e m e a s u r e o f h e a t f l o w i n BTU ( B r i t i s h T h e r m a l U n i t s ) t h r o u g h a m a t e r i a l p e r i n c h o f t h i c k n e s s . I t c a n be s e e n t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h e t h e r m a l c o n -d u c t i v i t y (k) v a r i e s as': t h e t e m p e r a t u r e on t h e s i d e s i n c r e a s e s . M o s t m a n u f a c t u r e r s s p e c i f i c a t i o n s show t h e (k) b y a l i n e a t v a r i o u s t e m p e r a t u r e s up t o a maximum recommended t e m p e r a t u r e f o r t h e p r o d u c t . F o r example, t h e (k) o f h a r d b r i c k i s 10.2 a t 2000 d e g r e e s , 11.1 a t 2400 d e g r e e s . From t h e (k) f a c t o r s i t c a n be d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e i n s u l a t i n g p r o p e r t y o f 1" o f No. 26 i n s u l a t i n g b r i c k i s e q u i v a l e n t t o 3.7" o f h a r d f i r e -b r i c k . By comparingsYthe "K" f a c t o r o f t h e v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s t o t h a t o f h a r d b r i c k t h e h a r d b r i c k e q u i v a l e n t (H.B.E.) i s o b t a i n e d and i s a c o n v e n i e n t means o f c o m p a r i n g i n s u l a t i n g p r o p e r t i e s . The "K" . f a c t o r and t h u s t h e H.B.E. v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e mean o r a v e r a g e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e m a t e r i a l . I t w o u l d t h e r e f o r e be i m p r a c t i c a l i n a p a p e r o f t h i s s i z e a nd s i m p l i c i t y , t o a t t e m p t t o l i s t t h e H.B.E. r a t i n g f o r e a c h m a t e r i a l a t a l l p o s s i b l e mean t e m p e r a t u r e s . F o r r e a s o n s o f s p a c e and s i m p l i c i t y a l s o ; p r o d u c t s o f s i m i l a r p r o p e r t i e s b y d i f f e r e n t m a n u f a c t u r e r s h a v e been g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r and t h e i r H.B.E. a v e r a g e d . As a l l t e m p e r a t u r e s shown c a n o n l y be an a p p r o x i m a t i o n , we b e l i e v e t h e r e s u l t i n g e r r o r w i l l . b e o f l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e . 18. The t a b l e m arked APPROXIMATE REFRACTORY EQUIVALENTS l i s t s some o f t h e more commonly u s e d r e f r a c t o r i e s and i n s u l a t i o n s and t h e i r a p p r o x i m a t e a v e r a g e h a r d b r i c k e q u i v a l e n t s (H.B.E.) p e r i n c h o f t h i c k n e s s . A l l o t h e r r e q u i r e d H.B.E. c a n be d e -(5) t e r m i n e d b y u s i n g t h e method d e s c r i b e d . i APPROXIMATE REFRACTORY EQUIVALENTS CLASSIFICATION AND SERVICE TEMPERATURE' CANADIAN REFRACTORIES A.P. GREEN PLIBRICO APPROXIMATE HARD BRICK EQUIVALENT PER INCH !THICKNESS 3000°INTERMEDIATE HARD BRICK CLAYBURN DEFCO CLAYBURN 1" 2800°INSULATING FIRE BRICK No.28 H W 28 G28 GR28 2.85" 2600°INSULATING FIRE BRICK No.26 H W 26 G26 GR26 3.7" 2400°INSULATING CASTABLE iDUROLITE 24 KAST-O-LITE PLICAST 3.6" 2300°INSULATING FIRE BRICK No.23 H W 23 G23 GR23 5.5" 2000°INSULATING FIRE BRICK No.20 H W 20 G20 GR20 .. 5.7" 2000°-2200°CASTABLE INSULATION DUROLITE 22 CAST. INSUL. 20 PLICAST 5.5" 1600°-1800°CASTABLE INSULATION NOVALITE CASTABLE BLOCK VERILITE 8.5" CLASSIFICATION A.P. GREEN & PLIBRICO STEELE BROS. & CAI \IADIAN REF. FIBROUS BLANKET 2300° FIBERFRAX KAOWOOL 3.4" CLASSIFICATION JOHNS MANSVILLE A A.P. GREEN PLIBRICO BLOCK INSULATION THERMOBESTOUS (1200°) BLOCK IN. 1900 BLOCK 201 10.5" CLASSIFICATION ZONOLITE CANADIAN REFRACTORIES 2000°-2200°VERMICULITE LOOSE FILL INSULATION ZONOLITE VERMICULITE MICALITE VERMICULITE 6" 2 0 . The l i s t below g i v e s some o f the p r a c t i c a l combinations o f r e f r a c t o r i e s and i n s u l a t i o n s from the p r e v i o u s page, and t h e i r approximate t o t a l H.B.E. shown, has been a r r i v e d a t by-averaging the "K" f a c t o r from t h r e e manufacturers s p e c i f i c -a t i o n s , and t h e r e f o r e , may not agree w i t h the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s shown by any one manufacturer. The type o f r e f r a c t o r y must be decided upon a c c o r d i n g t o i t s temperature use, type o f g l a z -ing , lenght o f l i f e d e s i r e d , and c o s t . I t i s wise i n t h i s regard, t o ask the ad v i c e o f i n s t r u c t o r s , experienced p o t t e r s and s u p p l i e r s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e when u s i n g m a t e r i a l s not l i s t e d or experimental d e s i g n s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n cases such as s a l t g l a z i n g , where a h i g h duty type o f hard b r i c k must be used i n order t o o b t a i n a reasonable k i l n l i f e . Once the r e f r a c t o r y and t o t a l w a l l t h i c k n e s s has been decided upon, you are ready t o design the w a l l and ro o f , o r t o check the c o l d f a c e and i n t e r f a c e ^ temperature w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f the m a t e r i a l s menthoned i n t h i s paper. REFRACTORY H.B.E. PLUS INSULATION ' H.E • E . H.B.E. TOTAL 4k" #26 I n s u l . B r i c k 16. 6" None 0. 0" 16.6" #26 I n s u l . B r i c k 16. 6" 1" B l o c k I n s u l . 10. 5" 27 .1" 4%" #26 I n s u l . B r i c k 16. 6" 2" B l o c k I n s u l . 21. 0" 37.6" 4h" #26 I n s u l . B r i c k 16. 6" 4k" #20 I n s . B r i c k 25. 6" 42.2" 4h" #26 I n s u l . B r i c k 16. 6" 3" 1 6 0 0 ° - 1 8 0 0 ° c a s t . I n s u l a t i o n 25. 5" 42.1" 4h" #26 I n s u l . ; • B f i e k 16. 6" 4 V Z o n o l i t e 27. 0" 43.6" 4h" #28 I n s u l . B r i c k 12. 8" 4k" #20 I n s u l . B r . 25. 6" 38.4" 4h" H a r d B r i c k 4. 5" 4k" #20 I n s u l . B r . 5" 2 0 0 0 ° - 2 2 0 0 ° c a s t . 25. 6" 31.1" 4h" H a r d B r i c k 4. 5" 27. 5" 32.0" 4%" H a r d B r i c k 4. 5" 4k" Zono.+4" Com. 4. 0" 35.5" 4k" 2 4 0 0 ° - 2 5 0 0 ° 16. 2" B r i c k 3" 1 6 0 0 ° - 1 8 0 0 ° 25. 5" 41.7" C a s t a b l e C a s t a b l e 21. C o l d Face Temperatures A good k i l n should have a H.B.E. w a l l t h i c k n e s s o f about 32" o r more. The t a b l e below g i v e s the approximate c o l d f a c e or o u t s i d e temperatures when f i r i n g t o cone-9 or 2400°F. The temperatures shown are based on manufacturers s p e c i f i c a -t i o n s , although the temperatures may appear high, i t i s hard-l y f e a s a b l e t o reduce them f u r t h e r by the use o f r e l a t i v e l y expensive i n s u l a t i o n . By a p p l i c a t i o n o f f o i l covered f i b e r -g l a s s , or other low p r i c e d i n s u l a t i o n s , the temperature may be reduced very i n e x p e n s i v e l y . APPROXIMATE COLD FACE TEMPERATURES TOTAL H.B.E. APPROXIMATE COLD FACE TEMPERATURES 30 292°F. 32 282°F. 34 274°F. 36 266°F. 38 260°F. 40 253°F. 42 246°F. 22. HOW BIG SHOULD A KILN BE? When one b e g i n s t o c h o o s e t h e t y p e o f k i l n t h e c o n s i d e r -a t i o n as t o t h e s i z e becomes v e r y i m p o r t a n t . What i s meant by s i z e i s the' u s e a b l e s p a c e i n a k i l n f o r s t a c k i n g w a r e s . T h i s s p a c e i s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e amount o f wares t o be l o a d e d , t h e s i z e o f t h e s e wares and t h e t y p e o f wares p r o d u c e d . F o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l p o t t e r t h e d e c i s i o n may be e a s y b u t when d e s i g n i n g a k i l n f o r s c h o o l s one must t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e more d i v e r -s i f i e d r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s u c h a p r o g r a m . The f o l l o w i n g i s a s i m p l e o u t l i n e t o a s s i s t i n e s t i m a t i n g k i l n s i z e r e q u i r e m e n t s . A SIMPLE METHOD OF DETERMINING KILN S I Z E REQUIREMENTS 1. D e t e r m i n e max. and m i n . s i z e s o f p r o d u c t t o be f i r e d . E s t i m a t e i n c u . f t . 2. D e t e r m i n e amount o f p r o d u c t between p o s s i b l e f i r i n g and r e - c y c l e t i m e s . M u l t i p l y by c u . f t . 3. E s t i m a t e t h e number o f u s e s o f a k i l n t h a t a r e d e s i r -a b l e . Example - s c u l p t u r e , p o r c e l a i n , temps, e t c . A FEW MODEST SUGGESTIONS: A l l t o o o f t e n k i l n s a r e d e s i g n e d f a r t o o l a r g e o r s m a l l . A k i l n t h a t meets t h e happy medium i s one t h a t does n o t r e -q u i r e t h e p o t t e r t o l a b o u r t o f i l l i t o r t o spend a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e f i r i n g t o k e e p up w i t h p r o d u c t i o n . I n t h e v a s t m a j o r -i t y o f k i l n s f o r t h e p a r t - t i m e p r o d u c e r t h e s i z e i s i n t h e 18-24 c u . f t . r a n g e . F o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l and s c h o o l t h e r a n g e i s much more d i v e r s i f i e d b u t seems t o be i n t h e afeo.ve 50 c u . f t . r a n g e . R e s e a r c h d o e s n o t s u p p o r t t h e t h e o r y t h a t 1 f e e l seems to p r e v a i l . A k i l n needs to be twice or more as b i g as another i f i t i s to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r . T h i s i n p a r t i s due to the longer r e - c y c l e times needed by these i n t e r -mediate s i z e d k i l n s . TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION ALL OF THE FACTORS OF THE PREVIOUS PAGE AND THE SUGGESTIONS OF THIS PAGE BEFORE DESIGNING From these e s t i m a t i o n s c a l c u l a t e the amount o f space needed between a weekly, bi-weekly or monthly f i r i n g schedule. Consider i n your e s t i m a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n b i s q u i n g , g r a z i n g and trimming times. P l u s any marketing or s t u d i o management r o u t i n e s . In schools these tasks must not be overlooked. For most s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s and h o b b i e s t s the 18-24 cu. f t . s i z e i s s u f f i c i e n t . T h i s s i z e o f k i l n g i v e s a f i r i n g time o f 8 hours and a 24-36 hour r e - c y c l e time (meaning c o o l down, emptying and r e s t a c k i n g t i m e ) . T h i s s i z e i s convenient f o r f i r i n g d u r i n g a work day and a l s o re-cycle&oiquickly enough f o r 2 or more loads per week. A k i l n o n e - t h i r d l a r g e r w i l l r e -q u i r e up t o 100% longer t o r e ^ c y c l e and w i l l t h e r e f o r e not be as u s e f u l or p r o v i d e as much e f f i c i e n c y i n the long run. Larger k i l n s , however, do a l l o w f o r f i r i n g l a r g e r products and are u s e f u l i n f i r i n g l a r g e amounts o f products i n produc-t i o n areas where they are designed t o f i t the k i l n space p r o v i d e d . 24. INTERFACE TEMPERATURES The i n t e r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e i s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e p o i n t between t h e o u t s i d e - o f t h e r e f r a c t o r y and t h e i n s i d e s u r f a c e o f t h e i n s u l a t i o n . T h i s t e m p e r a t u r e must be known i n o r d e r t o c h o o s e t h e b r i g h t i n s u l a t i o n f o r t h e r e f r a c t o r y and t h e w a l l t h i c k n e s s t o be u s e d . The i n t e r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e i s d e p e n d e n t on s e v e r a l f a c t o r s , s u c h a s : a) The h o t f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e . b) The r e f r a c t o r y t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y and t h i c k n e s s . c) The i n s u l a t i o n t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y and t h i c k n e s s . d) The a m b i e n t t e m p e r a t u r e and w i n d v e l o c i t y . A l l o f t h e s e f a c t o r s work t o g e t h e r t o d e c i d e b o t h t h e c o l d f a c e and i n t e r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e . The h i g h e r t h e h o t f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e ; t h e h i g h e r t h e i n t e r f a c e and c o l d f a c e t e m p e r a -t u r e . The g r e a t e r t h e r e f r a c t o r y t h i c k n e s s o r t h e l o w e r t h e t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y ; t h e l o w e r t h e i n t e r f a c e and c o l d f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e . The g r e a t e r t h e i n s u l a t i o n t h i c k n e s s o r t h e l o w e r t h e t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y ; t h e h i g h e r t h e i n t e r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e and t h e l o w e r t h e c o l d f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e . The l o w e r t h e a m b i e n t t e m p e r a t u r e and t h e g r e a t e r t h e w i n d v e l -o c i t y ; t h e l o w e r t h e i n t e r f a c e and c o l d f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e g i v e s t h e i n t e r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e s f o r v a r i o u s H.B.E. w a l l t h i c k n e s s e s when u s i n g h a r d f i r e b r i c k , No. 26 o r No. 28 i n s u l a t i n g f i r e b r i c k . As t h e H.B.E. o f 2 4 0 0 ° -2 5 0 0 ° c a s t a b l e r e f r a c t o r y and f i b r o u s c e r a m i c b l a n k e t i s c l o s e t o t h a t o f No. 26, t h e same column c a n be u s e d . INTERFACE TEMPERATURES TOTAL HARD INTERFACE TEMPERATURES BRICK EQUIV. 4V l 4V HARD BRICK NO. 26 INSUL. NO. 28 INSUL. 30 2160°F 1360°F 1625°F 31 2l70°F 1440°F 1 6 7 0 ° F 32 2175°F 1490°F 1710°F 33 2180°F 1515°F 1740°F . 34 2190°F 1530°F 1750°F 35 2195°F 1550°F 1760°F 36 2200°F 1590°F o 1725 F 38 2204°F 1630°F 1820°F 40 2210°F 1680°F 1850°F 42 2 2 1 5 ° F 1725°F - 1875°F 26. NATURAL GAS OR PROPANE? There are two types o f gas used i n most k i l n s , n a t u r a l gas t h a t comes p i p e d i n t o the house or s t u d i o , and b o t t l e d propane. N a t u r a l gas has the advantage o f convenience and lower p r i c e , w h i l e propane, has l e s s r e g u l a t i o n and more f l e x -i b i l i t y . N a t u r a l gas has two b a s i c d i s t r i b u t i o n systems. In some areas the o l d e r low p r e s s u r e system (4 ounces or 7" water column) i s s t i l l i n use. The main i s c o n t r o l l e d by a d i s t r i c t r e g u l a t o r and the l i n e t o your house or s t u d i o i s s i z e d t o handle t h a t l o a d . The l i n e from the main would have t o be changed t o accommodate the k i l n . T h i s would be an expensive venture. In most areas a system o f h i g h e r p r e s s u r e , 10-15 p . s . i . , i s r e g u l a t e d down t o 4 ounces j u s t b e f o r e the meter. In t h i s case a l i n e can be att a c h e d b e f o r e the r e g u l a t o r and taken t o your k i l n s i t e f o r a second meter or a l a r g e r meter w i t h a l a r g e r gas l i n e can be i n s t a l l e d where the e x i s t i n g meter i s . Which system you choose becomes a matter o f which i s more economical f o r your s i t u a t i o n . The gas company w i l l be g l a d t o a s s i s t you. Where no gas l i n e s exist, o r where the expense i s p r o h i b -i t i v e , propane becomes the more economical system. The use o f propane a l s o i n c u r s l e s s permanent f i x t u r e s and indeed can be f u l l y p o r t a b l e . T h i s convenience makes propane a t t r a c t i v e t o the s t u d i o , o r s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n t h a t cannot p r o v i d e the permanent p r o t e c t i o n a k i l n needs o r t o those who have o n l y a s m a l l K i l n and gas requ i rement . When you a r e d e s i g n i n g your k i l n make sure you c o n s i d e r t h a t n a t u r a l gas and^propane have ve ry d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s . The e f f e c t s m a n i f e s t themselves i n two s imp le ways. Gas burner s f o r n a t u r a l gas must not be p l a c e d u p s i d e -down due t o the f a c t t h a t n a t u r a l gas i s l i g h t e r than a i r and i t causes problems f o r the p roper f u n c t i o n o f the b u r n e r . 27a. NATURAL GAS PROPANE - CLEAR ALMOST ODORLESS (Has a d d e d o d o r a n t f o r s a f e t y ) - CLEAR ALMOST ODORLESS (Has added o d o r a n t ) - CONSIDERED NON-TOXIC - CONSIDERED NON-TOXIC - B.T.U. PER CU. FT. 1000 - B.T.U. PER CU. FT. OF GAS 2450 - - B.T.U. PER IMP. GAL. OF LIQUID 110,000 -- - WEIGHT PER IMP. GAL. OF LIQUID 5.1 POUNDS -- S P E C I F I C GRAVITY OF GAS .6 (AIR 1.0) - S P E C I F I C GRAVITY OF GAS 1.5 (AIR 1.0) . i - - S P E C I F I C GRAVITY OF LIQUID .51 (WATER 1.0) - - LOWER AND UPPER LIMITS OF FLAMMABILITY 2.15%-9.5% - - BOILING POINT -44°F o r -42°C - 10 CU. FT. OF AIR TO BURN 1 CU. FT. OF GAS - 24 CU. FT. OF AIR TO BURN 1 CU. FT. OF GAS - - 43.6 CU. F T . OF AIR TO BURN 1 IMP. GAL. OF LIQUID - IGNITION TEMPERATURE 650°C IGNITION TEMPERATURE 650°C - FLAME TEMPERATURE 1879°C - FLAME TEMPERATURE 1924°C 1 -28. BEFORE DECIDING ON PROPANE A p r o p a n e t a n k h o l d s l i q u i d p r o p a n e w h i c h b o i l s i n t o a gas form a t -44°F. T h i s gas form o f p r o p a n e i s drawn o f f t h r o u g h a p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r t o t h e b u r n e r s o f t h e k i l n . When t h e gas ( w h i c h i s n o r m a l l y u n d e r p r e s s u r e from t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e gas t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ) i s drawn o f f i t i s r e p l a c e d from t h e l i q u i d i n t h e t a n k by t h e b o i l i n g p r o c e s s d e s c r i b e d . T h i s c a u s e s t h e l i q u i d p r o p a n e t o c o o l s l i g h t l y . As t h e demand f o r p r o p a n e i n c r e a s e s t h e r e f r i d g e r a t i o n t y p e c o o l i n g a l s o i n -c r e a s e s . I f t o o s m a l l a t a n k i s u s e d f o r t h e demand r e q u i r e d t h e l i q u i d i n t h e t a n k may f r e e z e c a u s i n g a l o s s o f g a s p r e s -s u r e and h e a t r e q u i r e d . NOTE: APPLYING HEAT TO A PROPANE STORAGE TANK BY ANY UN-APPROVED MEANS TO INCREASE VAPOURIZATION, IS A DAN-GEROUS PRACTISE AND SHOULD NOT BE CARRIED OUT UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES. -To r e d u c e o r e l i m i n a t e t h e f r e e z i n g p r o b l e m p r o p e r t a n k s i z e s t o f i t t h e demand must be c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g w i t h t h e a m b i e n t t e m p e r a t u r e s o f t h e a r e a i n w h i c h t h e t a n k s w i l l o p e r a t e . Any p r o p a n e d e a l e r s h o u l d be a b l e t o s o l v e t h i s p r o b l e m . THE CHART LISTED ON THE NEXT PAGE SHOULD HELP YOU IN DETER-MINING THE S I Z E OF TANK NECESSARY TO F I T YOUR NEEDS. 28a. SUSTAINED AMBIENT TEMP. DEGREES FAHREN. STANDARD UPRIGHT 100 LBS. ICC CON-,. TAINER "~ > : STANDARD UPRIGHT 420 LBS. ICC CON-TAINER AVERAGE HORIZON 499 WATER GAL. CAP.. CONTAINER AVERAGE HORIZON 995 WATER GAL. CAP. 1 CONTAINER -40 2, 300 5,400 27,300 50,200 -30 8,200 19,200 95,700 125,500 -20 14,000 32,900 164,100 201,900 -10 19, 900 46,600 232,500 427,600 0 25,800 63,000 300,800 553,600 10 31,700 74,126 369,200 679,400 20 37,500 87,800 437,600 805, 2.00 30 43,400 101,600 506,000 931,100 40 49,300 115,300 574,400 1,056,900 50 55,100 129,000 642,800 1,182,700 60 61,900 142,700 711,200 1,308,622 70 66,900 156,500 779,500 - 1,434,400 80 72,700 170,200 847,900 1,560,200 FIND SUSTAINED AMBIENT TEMPERATURE THAT KILN IS L I K E L Y TO OPERATE IN. FIND B.T.U.s NEEDED TO OPERATE KILN. LOCATE TANK S I Z E CONTAINER. 29. S I Z E AND TYPE OF KILN When one b e g i n s t o d e s i g n a k i l n s e v e r a l b i a s e s and d e s i r e s seem t o a r i s e . The shape and s i z e o f k i l n a nd t h e t y p e o f d r a f t . The a r g u e m e n t s c o n t i n u e i n s e v e r a l a r e a s , b u t s i m p l y p u t t h e c h o i c e i s a m a t t e r o f d i f f e r i n g u s e s , demands and c o s t s . The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s , c o m p a r i s o n s and a n a l y s i s o f k i l n s i s d e s i g n e d t o p o i n t o u t some o f t h e s e b i a s e s . THE UPDRAFT KILN  - ECONOMICAL TO BUILD. HAS A GOOD USABLE SPACE VS. S I Z E RATIO. - REQUIRES A HOOD TO.COLLECT HEAT TO DISPURSE OUTSIDE. - CAN BE DANGEROUS DUE TO CO GETTING INTO KILN SHED. - TENDENCY TO HEAT UNEVENLY. - TENDENCY TO HAVE POOR REDUCTION. THE DOWNDRAFT KILN - MORE DIFFICULT TO BUILD - SEEMS TO GET MORE USE OUT OF HEAT INPUT. - EVEN HEATING. - STRONGER REDUCTION TENDENCY - CAN TRAP GAS IN CHAMBER IN A FLAMEOUT AND EXPLODE I F IGNITED. - COSTLY USABLE SPACE VS. S I Z E 30. S I Z E AND TYPE OF KILN A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e many o t h e r k i l n d e s i g n s u s e d i n k i l n c o n s t r u c t i o n t h e s e a r e t h e b a s i c s h a p e s . The u s e o f v a r i o u s a r c h s t y l e s a n d domes c a n be o b t a i n e d , b u t e x o t i c d e s i g n s t e n d t o t a k e more t i m e and m a t e r i a l s t o e x e c u t e , and l i t t l e i f any a d v a n t a g e i s g a i n e d . The m a i n a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e two t y p e s o f k i l n s shown h e r e a r e e c o n o m i c s and s p a c e r a t i o . THE CROSS DRAFT KILN  - A GOOD USABLE SPACE VS. TOTAL KILN VOLUMN DESIGN. - A GOOD DESIGN FOR SMALL KILNS - TENDS TO FIRE UNEVENLY. THE CLIMBING CHAMBER KILN - MOST ECONOMICAL LARGE CAPACITY KILN - CAN BE DESIGNED SO 2 CHAMBER IS UPDRAFT.-- 2 n d CHAMBER CAN BE USED FOR BISQUE OR GLAZE. - FIRES EVENLY" - GETS GOOD dUSE OF FUEL DUE TO 2 n CHAMBER. BASIC DESIGN IN GAS KILNS. CHAMBER SHAPE On t h i s p o i n t almost a l l d e s i g n e r s agree. The most e f f i c i e n t shape t o heat i s a cube. That i s h e i g h t equals width equals l e n g t h . There are s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s t o t h i s r u l e t o a l l o w f o r e f f i c i e n t use o f m a t e r i a l s shapes and t o e l i m i n a t e needless c u t t i n g and waste o f r e f r a c t o r i e s . For thesmost p a r t remain as c l o s e l y t o a cube i n t e r i o r shape as you can. "A CUBE IS&THE BEST ALL ROUND SHAPE FOR A KILN. When t h i n k i n g o f the k i l n as a cube shape, the best d e s i g n f o r an u p d r a f t k i l n i s w i t h the arch on top o f the cube and not con-t a i n e d w i t h i n . I n c r e a s i n g the he i g h t o f the cube chamber w i t h a f i x e d width, decreases the e f f -i c i e n c y o f f i r i n g w i t h an even temperature throughout the k i l n . I n c r e a s i n g the l e n g t h o f the cube has no e f f e c t on the even f i r i n g e f f i c i e n c y o f the k i l n , hence the developement o f t u n n e l k i l n s , and other long tube type k i l n s used commercially. I t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted t h a t the k i l n ( i n s i d e t o t a l ) should be roughly a cube i n p r o p o r t i o n " . I t i s a l s o best to keep a l l dimensions t o f u n c t i o n s o f 9" or 4%11 (1 b r i c k or "3 b r i c k ) i n width and depth, and i n h e i g h t t o f u n c t i o n s 32. DETERMINING THE VOLUME WITHIN A SPRUNG ARCH S i n c e most d e s i g n s o f k i l n s u s e a s p r u n g a r c h f o r t h e r o o f d e s i g n and s i n c e t h i s s h a p e seems t o add e f f i c i e n c y t o it b o t h t h e d i r e c t i o n i n g o f t h e f l a m e and t h e t r a n s f e r o f h e a t , a method o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e volumn w i t h i n a s p r u n g a r c h i s n e c e s s a r y i f a c c u r a t e measurement o f volumns i s t o be made. S i n c e t h e f o r m u l a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e v o l u m n w i t h i n a s p r u n g a r c h i s q u i t e c o m p l i c a t e d , J i m C l a c h e r i e recommends t h e f o l l o w i n g s i m p l i f i e d e s t i m a t e . F o r t h e h e i g h t , t a k e t h e h e i g h t t o t h e edge o f t h e a r c h ( A ) , t o t h i s a d d 2/3 o f t h e r i s e ( B ) . (s e e above c h a r t ) 33. THE CATERNARY.ARCH The c a t e r n a r y a r c h has many a d v a n t a g e s i n k i l n d e s i g n . The a r c h c r e a t e s a smooth f l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n t h a t g e n t l y d i r -e c t s b o t h f l a m e and h e a t . T h i s i n t u r n c r e a t e s a minimum o f d i s t u r b a n c e , m a k i n g t h e f i r i n g o f a k i l n a l i t t l e more e f f i c -i e n t . The a r c h a l s o seems t o c r e a t e a shape t h a t makes h e a t a n d f l a m e r i s e a n d t r a n s f e r more e f f i c i e n t . The c a t e r n a r y a r c h h a s d i s a d v a n t a g e s , t h e m a i n one b e i n g t h e c o s t o f c u t t i n g n o r m a l l y s q u a r e b r i c k i n t o a n g l e s t o c r e a t e t h e a r c h s h a p e . The c o s t o f c u t t i n g t h e b r i c k i n l a b o u r , and t h e l o s s o f t h e c u t o f f b r i c k makes t h i s c o n s t r u c -t i o n c o s t l y . K i l n s w i t h s p r u n g a r c h s r a t h e r t h a n C a t e r n a r y a r c h e s c r e a t e s i m i l a r a d v a n t a g e s i n a k i l n a t m i n i m a l c o s t s . PLANNING THE PROPORTIONS OF A CATERNARY ARCH. DETERMINING THE VOLUME AREA = 4/3 x a X b VOLUME = 4/3 x a x b x d e p t h 34. BURNER PORT AND EXIT FLUE SIZES " I n l e t f l u e a r e a s must be e q u a l t o e x i t f l u e a r e a s f o r t h e s i m p l e r e a s o n o f 'what comes i n must go o u t 1 . I f e x i t f l u e s a r e r e s t r i c t e d , t h i s w i l l s l o w down t h e f l o w and r e t a r d (7) c o m b u s t i o n e f f i c i e n c y , t h e r e b y r e t a r d i n g t h e t e m p e r a t u r e " . U n l i k e Rhodes, who seems t o a r b i t r a r i l y p i c k s i z e s f o r f l u e , r i u r n e r p o r t and c himney h e i g h t and O l s e n who a t l e a s t a t t e m p t s t o b a l a n c e t h e e q u a t i o n o f i n p u t and o u t p u t as i n t h e above s t a t e m e n t , b u t does n o t s u g g e s t b u r n e r c a p a c -i t i e s o r i n s i m p l e r t e r m s t h e power o f t h e i n p u t . C l a c h e r i e i n h i s r e s e a r c h c o m p i l e s an a v e r a g e i n p u t i n B..T.U. p e r s q . i n . t h e r e b y m a k i n g t h e f l u e e x i t a n d c h i m n e y a r e a e q u a l t o t h e B.T.U.s r e q u i r e d t o h e a t t h e volume o f t h e k i l n . I n s i m p l e t e r m s , t h e e q u a s i o n i s t h e v olume o f p r o p e r l y i n s u l a t e d s p a c e r e q u i r e s X number (15, 000.).. o f B.T.U.s t o h e a t . T h e s e B.T.U.s a r e p u t i n t h r o u g h a p o r t w h i c h s h o u l d be 1 s q . i n . p e r e v e r y 8,000 B.T.U.s o f r e q u i r e d i n p u t . F o r e v e r y s q u a r e i n c h o f b u r n e r p o r t t h e k i l n must h a v e an e q u a l amount o f f l u e e x i t and c h i m n e y a r e a . The f i n a l p a r t o f t h e e q u a s i o n i s t h e c h i m n e y height.. THE BURNER PORTS An e v e r a g e b u r n e r p o r t s i z e a p p e a r s t o be a p p r o x i m a t e l y (8) 8,000 B.T.U. p e r s q u a r e i n c h o f b u r n e r p o r t . ' F o r c o n v e n -i e n c e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , most b u r n e r p o r t s a r e 4%" w i d e (h b r i c k ) 35. b y 5" h i g h (2 c o u r s e s ) . K i l n s w i l l f i r e w e l l w i t h up t o 16,000 B.T.U. p e r s q u a r e i n c h o f b u r n e r p o r t a r e a . A f t e r t h i s d i s -c o l o u r a t i o n i n t h e f l a m e i s v i s a b l e , w h i c h i s a s u r e s i g n o f i n e f f i c i e n t c o m b u s t i o n . S i n c e 4 V |by^ 5" i s u s u a l l y l a r g e r t h a n n e c e s s a r y , t h e y c a n be r e d u c e d l a t e r by f i t t i n g s o f t i n s u l a t i o n f i r e b r i c k , w a t c h i n g f o r f l a m e d i s c o l o u r a t i o n . I t i s recommended t h a t b u r n e r p o r t s be a n g l e d upwards o an an a n g l e o f a b o u t 30 o f f t h e h o r i z o n t a - 1 so t h a t t h e f l a m e s f l o w l e a s u r e l y and u n o b s t r u c t e d up t h e b a g w a l l . T h i s c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n b o t h s i d e mounted b u r n e r s and f r o n ^ and r e a r mounted b u r n e r s . The p u r p o s e o f a n g l i n g t h e b u r n e r i s t o r e -duce t u r b u l e n c e a n d r e - d i r e c t i o n i n g o f t h e f l a m e t h a t c a u s e s r e d u c e d e f f i c i e n c y i n t h e b u r n e r ' s c a p a c i t y . -B u r n e r p o r t s s h o u l d be two o r more c o u r s e s b e l o w t h e t o p o f t h e f l u e e x i t t o i n s u r e t h a t a l l f l u e p r o d u c t s , i n -c l u d i n g c a r b o n m o n o x i d e a r e v e n t e d o u t t h e chimney, d u r i n g r e d u c t i o n f i r i n g . I t i s an e a s y r u l e t o remember i n d e s i g n t h a t t h e k e y t o e f f i c i e n t k i l n s i s i n a l l o w i n g t h e b u r n e r t o p r o p e r l y c o m p l e t e c o m b u s t i o n i n c l u d i n g t h e s e c o n d a r y a i r e n t e r i n g t h e b u r n e r p o r t b e f o r e a t t e m p t i n g t o t r a n s f e r t h a t h e a t t o t h e w a r e s . Once a b u r n e r c a n e f f i c i e n t l y do i t s - j o b a l t e r a t i o n s , t o t h e dampers c a n be made f o r s a f e and e c o n o m i c a l r e d u c t i o n f i r i n g . \ I t i s obvious t h a t the more burners or the l a r g e r the burner i n B.T.U. r a t i n g and p o r t the g r e a t e r volume r e q u i r e d i n the chimney. 37. KILN INPUTS & CHIMNEY FLUE SIZES USABLE VOLUME Cu. F t . APPROX. INPUT B.T.U. INPUT PER CU. F T . B.T.U. CHIMNEY FLUE S I Z E AT 8000 B.T.U. PER SQ. INS. 12 425,000 35,400 53 14 440,000 31,400 55 16 465,000 29,000 58 18 480,000 26,700 60 20 500,000 25,000 62.5 22 520,000 23,600 65 24 535,000 22,300 67 26 555,000 21,300 70 28 575,000 20,500 72 30 590,000 19,700 74 32 615,000 19,200 71 34 625,000 18,400 78 36 650,000 18,000 81 1/ From t h e abo v e i t c a n be s e e n t h a t no a c c u r a t e a r b i t r a r y -i n p u t p e r c u . f t . c a n be g i v e n t h a t w i l l a p p l y t o a l l s i z e s . I t w o u l d b e b e s t shown a s a c u r v e d l i n e o n a g r a p h . N o t e t h a t a 9 x 9 f l u e w i l l h a n d l e any k i l n up t o 36 Cu. F t . 38. THE CHIMNEY HEIGHT The chimney o r s t a c k as i t i s xometimes c a l l e d must be h i g h enough t o c r e a t e d r a f t s u f f i c i e n t t o overcome r e s i s t a n c e t h r o u g h t h e b u r n e r p o r t s , s h e l v e s , w a res, s e t t i n g f l o o r , and damper, and a l s o i n a d o w n d r a f t k i l n overcome t h e f a c t t h a t h o t g a s s e s w i l l n a t u r a l l y r i s e . I t s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t t o h a v e i t h i g h enough so i t w i l l draw i n enough a i r t o c r e a t e an o x i d i s i n g a t m o s p h e r e . The s t a c k i s n o t s i m p l y a m a t t e r o f h e i g h t , b u t r a t h e r a m a t t e r o f volume. A s t a c k c a n be b i g g e r i n a r e a a n d l e s s i n h e i g h t and h a v e t h e same o r s i m i l a r draw as a s t a c k s m a l l e r i n a r e a b u t t a l l e r . B e c a u s e o f the~many v a r i a b l e i n r e s i s t a n c e t h e r e i s no ' one c o m p l e t e l y • a c c u r a t e method o f d e t e r m i n i n g e x a c t l y t h e r i g h t h e i g h t . The d r a f t o f a chimney i s d e t e r m i n e d b y i t s t e m p e r a t u r e , a r e a and h e i g h t b u t and a f o r e m e n t i o n e d r e s i s t -a n c e s a l l a t t e m p t t o overcome t h e chimney d r a f t . S i m p l y t h e t i g h t o r l o o s e s t a c k i n g o f wares w i l l e f f e c t t h e s t a c k by c r e a t i n g r e s i s t a n c e . The e a s i e s t method o f d e t e r m i n i n g s t a c k h e i g h t i s t o a l l o w a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4" o f s t a c k h e i g h t f o r e a c h c u b i c f o o t o f (12) t o t a l k i l n s p a c e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h i s i s t w i c e t h e amount o f h e i g h t as i s r e q u i r e d f o r f l u e a n d chimney a r e a . I t i s a l s o 1" o f h e i g h t f o r e v e r y 4,000 B.T.U.s o f i n p u t . PROXIMITY OF CHIMNEY TO WINDOWS AND AIR INTAKES 39. When l o c a t i n g the k i l n c o n s i d e r the e f f l u e n t from the chimney or stack i s not always s a f e to b r e a t h . When r e d u c t i o n f i r i n g carbon monoxide i s formed' and escapes i n t o the atmos-phere through the s t a c k . T h i s p o l l u t i o n should be kept a sub-s t a n t i a l d i s t a n c e from windows or a i r i n t a k e s i n b u i l d i n g s t h a t are occupied. D u r i n g o x i d a t i o n f i r i n g o n l y heat and water vapour are formed. Foll o w the most up to date guide to such b u i l d i n g s as you can o b t a i n . (see B u i l d i n g Codes and S a f e t y Codes i n Appendix) PROXIMITY OF PRESSURE ZONES The terminus o f the chimney should not be l o c a t e d i n any area c l o s e to a b u i l d i n g or l a r g e s t r u c t u r e where a wind c r e a t e d h i g h p r e s s u r e zone w i l l prevent proper v e n t i n g . Gen-e r a l l y i f you keep the terminus a minimum o f 2 f t . above any s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n 10 f t . t h e r e should be no v e n t i n g problem, (9) 4 (OFT-W l M O 40. THE COMBUSTION PROCESS IN THE KILN V e r y simply put the process o f combustion i s the b u r n i n g o f a f u e l . T h i s process i s a mixture o f the f u e l , a i r , and t h e i r g e n e r a t i o n o f heat. The one d i f f e r e n c e between simple combustion and a k i l n i s the t r a n s f e r o f the generated heat and the r e q u i r e d c o n t r o l o f the heat. The g e n e r a t i o n o f heat i n a gas k i l n comes from the burner. The gas burner mixes the a i r and the f u e l i n the proper r a t i o f o r optimum g e n e r a t i o n o f heat. T h i s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e s two sources o f a i r a t the burner. F i r s t l y , the mixture o f a i r and gas f o r primary i g n i t i o n o f the f u e l u s u a l l y i n the burner i t s e l f , and the secondary a i r from the burner p o r t used t o consume a l l o f the f u e l t o generate the maximum amount o f heat. The proper mixture o f a i r and f u e l f o r e f f i c i e n t combust-i o n i s a major problem i n k i l n d e s i g n . F o r gas i n s p e c t o r s t h i s i s an important concern due to the i n h e r e n t problems o f e n v i r -onmental p o l l u t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l h e a l t h hazard produced when a k i l n d e s i g n w i l l not a l l o w f o r complete combustion and t h e r e -by generates carbon monoxide. Once a k i l n i s designed f o r e f f i c i e n t combusM)on and heat flow r e s t r i c t i o n and adjustments can be made f o r reduc-t i o n f i r i n g e a s i l y , e f f i c i e n t l y and a t a minimum o f damage to the environment. When c o n s i d e r i n g types o f burners and t h e i r f u n c t i o n 41. t h e m ost i m p o r t a n t d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e t h e s p a c e r e -q u i r e d f o r c o m b u s t i o n b o t h a t t h e b u r n e r p o r t and i n t h e cham-b e r s p a c e . When c o n s i d e r i n g t h e b u r n e r i t s e l f t h e iamount o f h e a t g e n e r a t e d b y t h e b u r n e r (measured i n B.T.U.) and t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e b u r n e r s . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g i n k i l n d e s i g n 2, 4, o r 6 b u r n e r s a r e b e t t e r t h a n one l a r g e b u r n e r . T h i s i s due i n p a r t t o b e t -t e r c o n t r o l on p r i m a r y h e a t i n g o f t h e k i l n and on e v e n h e a t i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e f i r i n g . ,42. BURNERS T h e r e a r e two b a s i c t y p e s o f b u r n e r s u s e d i n most p o t t e r y k i l n s . The f o r c e d a i r b u r n e r i s n o t as common due t o t h e i n -c r e a s e d c o s t o f t h e b u r n e r i t s e l f and t h e e l e c t r i c i t y i t r e -q u i r e s . T h i s u s u a l l y p u t s i t o u t o f t h e p r i c e r a n g e o f mos t p o t t e r s . T h i s b u r n e r does h a v e i t s a d v a n t a g e s , i t t e n d s t o be more e f f i c i e n t and i t h a s t h e c a p a c i t y o f b e i n g e a s i l y c o n -t r o l l e d by a p y r o m e t e r . T h a t i s i t c a n be t u r n e d up, down o r o f f by e l e c t r i c a l i m p u l s e c o n t r o l o f a p y r o m e t e r . T h i s i s v e r y handy f o r s c h o o l s , c o l l e g e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and s h o u l d be s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d . The i n s p i r a t i n g b u r n e r . i s t h e most common b u r n e r and i s p r o b a b l y t h e most f l e x i b l e and r e l i a b l e . The i n s p i r a t i n g b u r n e r i s s i m p l y a chamber w i t h gas f o r c e d t h r o u g h an o r i f i c e c o l l e c t i n g a i r and gas i n t h e v e n t u r i and t h e f l a m e b e i n g i g -(13) n i t e d a t t h e n o z e l . Many homemade A l f r e d t y p e b u r n e r s a r e b u i l t and u t i l i z e d by p o t t e r s . They c a n be e f f i c i e n t a nd i n -e x p e n s i v e , b u t n o t as e f f i c i e n t o r i n e x p e n s i v e as m o d e l s on t h e m a r k e t t h a t a r e a p p r o v e d b y t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . I do n o t recommend t h a t s c h o o l s d e s i g n and b u i l d b u r n e r s , n o r s h o u l d t h e y e n c o u r a g e t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o do so e i t h e r . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l m o d e l s on t h e m a r k e t t h a t w i l l meet e v e r y p r i c e and n e e d . B u r n e r s a r e a f f e c t e d by k i l n d e s i g n and t h e l o c a t i o n o f 43. t h e b u r n e r i s o f 'major i m p o r t a n c e . A b u r n e r s h o u l d be l o c a t e d i n s u c h a way as t o a l l o w t h e f l a m e f r e e p a s s a g e and a minumum o f d i s t u r b a n c e . T h i s w i l l i n s u r e e f f i c i e n t c o m b u s t i o n and s a f e t y . B u r n e r s c a n be l o c a t e d o p p o s i n g e a c h o t h e r a t t h e f r o n t and r e a r o f t h e k i l n o r , as i n the. d e s i g n s p r o v i d e d , a l o n g t h e s i d e s . I t i s n o t a m a t t e r o f w h i c h d e s i g n i s b e s t , b u t r a t h e r w h i c h one s u i t s t h e t y p e o f f l a m e g e n e r a t e d by t h e b u r n e r . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , where t h e f l a m e i s l o n g e r and r e q u i r e s more s p a c e t o c o m p l e t e c o m b u s t i o n t h e f r o n t and r e a r c o n f i g u r -a t i o n seems b e s t . T h i s a p p e a r s t o be i n h i g h p r e s s u r e p r o p a n e k i l n s and k i l n s w i t h t h e f o r c e d a i r t y p e b u r n e r s . Where l o w e r p r e s s u r e n a t u r a l gas o r l o w e r B.T.U. r a t i n g s on b u r n e r s e x i s t a s m a l l e r chamber i s f e a s i b l e . K e e p i n g w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f a minimum o f d i s t u r b a n c e t o t h e f l a m e f o r more e f f i c i e n t c o m b u s t i o n . B u r n e r s s h o u l d be l o c a t e d i n s u c h a way as t o m i n i m i z e t h e r e d i r e c t i o n i n g o f t h e f l a m e . B u r n e r s i d e a l l y s h o u l d be l o c a t e d so t h e f l a m e f l o w s u n o b s t r u c t e d up t h e k i l n u n t i l c o m b u s t i o n i s c o m p l e t e . Then f l o w s t h r o u g h t h e w a r e s . T h i s i s p o s s i b l e b o t h i n up and down d r a f t k i l n d e s i g n . B u r n e r s c a n be l o c a t e d so t h a t , t h e f l a m e p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e f l o o r o f t h e k i l n , s e t a t 9 0 ° t o t h e v e r t i c a l , o r 6 0 ° , w h i c h e v e r a l l o w s f o r t h e b e s t r e s u l t s f o r t h e c o s t s i n v o l v e d . 44. D i f f e r e n t burners w i l l r e q u i r e d i f f e r i n g space requirements. Burners f o r n a t u r a l gas should never be i n s t a l l e d i n an i n v e r t e d p o s i t i o n as t h i s opposes the n a t u r a l tendency o f the gas to r i s e (being l i g h t e r than a i r ) and reduces e f f i c i e n c y and a l s o can be a hazard d u r i n g i g n i t i o n . Propane burners may be i n v e r t e d (propane i s h e a v i e r than a i r ) i f t h i s i s to be advantageous i n l o c a t i o n s where h e i g h t o f a k i l n i s a problem. 45. GAS INPUT IN B.T.U. FOR GAS KILNS The amount of gas and the .number of burners required to f i r e a k i l n i s a matter of debate and great importance. Simp-l y put, a k i l n w i l l reach temperature eventually if-enough fu e l i s used. The excess f u e l used i n such f i r i n g i s not only expensive, but also a great contributor to p o l l u t i o n . K i l n s using too much fu e l require more burners, increasing b u i l d i n g costs, and are much harder to control i n the early f i r i n g stages due to high output design. The opposite problem i s of course even more costly . I f too small a gas l i n e or propane tank for the k i l n requirements i s i n s t a l l e d the temperature w i l l not be reached. There are several guidelines l i s t e d i n the k i l n books suggested i n the bibliography, and burner manufacturers can give you detailed burner ratings on various types of burners, (see Burners and Specifications i n Appendix) The major prob-lem of k i l n design i s knowing how much input a k i l n w i l l re-quire to meet certain requirements. Given that a k i l n i s 1 properly insulated, protedted from the elements, and f i r e d properly, the amount of gas i n terms of B.T.U. per hour and the number of burners w i l l be a great deal less than one might expect or would find i n a k i l n not meeting these requirements. The matter of finding optimum k i l n requirements remains a matter of research and under each set of circumstances of \ 46. k i l n construction the needs must be met as are needed. K i l n requirements vary a great deal even under normal conditions, and under extreme conditions the requirements may not be as accurate as i s needed. 47. THE GAS INPUT S i n c e o n l y a t i n y p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e gas consumed i s u s e d i n h e a t i n g t h e wares, t h e r e i s a huge h e a t l o s s . As l o n g a s , t h e wares r e c e i v e t h e r e q u i r e d h e a t , t h e l o s s e s c a n v a r y a g r e a t amount, and t h e p o t t e r may n o t know t h e d i f f e r e n c e ( e x -c e p t f o r t h e c o s t o f f i r i n g ) . To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s , b e l o w i s a gas i n p u t (B.T.U.) c o m p a r i s o n between two a c t u a l k i l n s and t h e a v e r a g e o f t h e k i l n s t e s t e d . KILN "A" KILN "B" AVERAGE B.T.U. p e r c u . f t . o f u s a b l e volume 14,700 32,300 23,000 B.T.U. p e r c u . f t . o f t o t a l volume 8,700 25,000 15,500 B.T.U. p e r s q . i n . o f c himney a r e a 3,400 6,173 7,100 B.T.U. p e r s q . f t . o f s e t t i n g f l o o r 52,900 100,100 81,000 B.T.U. p e r s q . i n o f b u r n e r p o r t 16,600 5, 600 8,000 NOTE: The e x t r e m e d i f f e r e n c e s between k i l n s "A" and "B". B o t h a r e t u r n i n g o u t a good p r o d u c t , y e t k i l n "A" i s d o i n g so w i t h l e s s t h a n \ o f t h e gas u s e d i n k i l n "B". B o t h a r e i n d o o r k i l n s . Some o f t h e f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n i n g o r a f f e c t i n g t h e gas i n -p u t r e q u i r e d a r e : S i z e o f t h e k i l n C o - e f f i c i e n t o f h e a t t r a n s f e r o f t h e w a l l s and r o o f W e i g h t o f t h e wares Ambient t e m p e r a t u r e ( i f o u t d o o r s ) 48. Wind v e l o c i t y ( i f outdoors) K i l n atmosphere (oxidizing or reducing) Draft through the k i l n (see "Chimney Height") Overall combustion e f f i c i e n c y I t i s a good idea to use the above as a checklist of the possible variables i f a k i l n does not function as i s expected. 49. GAS INPUT IN B.T.U. FOR GAS KILNS "CHART" The c h a r t shown w i l l g i v e t h e a p p r o x i m a t e gas i n p u t s f o r k i l n s o f a b o u t 32" o f h a r d b r i c k e q u i v a l e n t w a l l s . I n p u t s may be s l i g h t l y r e -d u c e d f o r i n d o o r k i l n s and k i l n s o f e x c e p t i o n -a l l y h i g h h a r d b r i c k e q u i v a l e n t w a l l c o n s t r u c -t i o n o r s l i g h t l y i n c r e a s e d f o r o u t d o o r k i l n s . USABLE B.T.U. VOLUME INPUT USABLE VOLUME B.T.U. INPUT 12 425,000 24 535,000 14 440,000 26 555,000 16 465,000 28 575,000 18 480,000 30 590,000 20 500,000 32 .615,000 22 520,000 34 36 625,000 650,000 The v a r i e t y o f k i l n r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r k i l n s n o t h a v i n g met t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s l i s t e d a r e t o o numerous t o l i s t h e r e , and as i t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s p a p e r t o g i v e d e s i g n r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r e f f i c i e n t k i l n s t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s w i l l n o t be l i s t e d . •50. THE SETTING FLOOR AREA The amount o f s p a c e t h r o u g h t h e f l o o r i n b o t h up and down d r a f t k i l n s i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t , as t h i s a r e a c a n a c t as a b a r -r i e r o r damper r e s t r i c t i n g t h e p r o p e r f l o w o f h e a t . T h i s p r o b l e m c a n be c o m p l i c a t e d by o v e r s t a c k i n g o f wares i n a k i l n a l s o . F o r p r o p e r c o m b u s t i o n t h e s p a c e i n t h e f l o o r a r e a s h o u l d a t l e a s t be e q u a l t o t h e f l u e e x i t a r e a o r b u r n e r p o r t a r e a . I f t h i s minimum amount o f s p a c e i s u s e d when wares a r e c l o s e l y s t a c k e d t h e k i l n may become i n e f f i c i e n t due t o t h e d a m p e r i n g e f f e c t c a u s e d by r e d u c e d o p e n i n g i n t h e f l o o r s e t t i n g s p a c e . C l a c h e r i e recommends 8% o f t h e s e t t i n g f l o o r be l e f t o p e n . T h i s r u l e seems t o h o l d i n most r e s e a r c h , b u t t h e s u c c e s s f u l v a r i a b l e s c a n be 6%-10%. Below t h i s amount d r a f t i s a f f e c t e d , w h i c h c a n be s e e n a s . p o o r d r a f t t h r o u g h t h e b u r n e r p o r t w h i c h i s u n a f f e c t e d by t h e damper a d j u s t m e n t and, above t h i s p o i n t , as u n e c o n o m i c a l u s e o f k i l n s p a c e . 50a KILNS DESIGNED USING THE MODEL 24 CUBIC FOOT DOWNDRAFT GAS KILN DESIGN 51. DESIGNED USING THE MODEL PROVIDED THE WIDTH: 27" u s a b l e w i d t h i s a handy w i d t h (3 f u l l o r 6 h a l f b r i c k s ) 27" To t h i s add 2 bag w a l l s 2%" e a c h 5" O u t s i d e bag w a l l s t h e b u r n e r s p a c e 2/6%" 13" TOTAL INSIDE WIDTH 45" The h o t f a c e r e f r a c t o r y 2/4%" 9" I n s u l a t i o n f i r e b r i c k 2/4%" 9" TOTAL OUTSIDE WIDTH 63" THE HEIGHT: SINCE A BRICK IS 2%" THICK EACH COURSE WILL BE FUNCTIONS OF 2%" SUMMARY OF DIMENSIONS OF A KILN USING THE MODEL PROVIDED. U s a b l e Volume 27" W. x Av. H e i g h t o f 34" x 45" Deep = 41,310 c u . i n s . o r 2 3.9 c u . f t . T o t a l Volume Bottom s e c t i o n : 45" W x 30" H x 45" D = 60,760 c u . i n s . Volume w i t h i n a r c h : 45" x 6" H (2/3 o f 9") x 45" D = 12,150 c u . i n s . TOTAL = 72,800 c u . i n s . = 42.1 c u . f t . « S e t t i n g F l o o r 27" W x 45" D = 1,215 s q . i n s . = 8.44 s q . f t . O p e n i n g s T h r o u g h t h e S e t t i n g F l o o r 8% o f 1,215 s q . i n s . = 97 s q . i n s . Chimney F l u e A r e a = 81 s q . i n s . (9" x 9") F l u e E x i t A r e a A p p r o x i m a t e l y 81 s q . i n s . B u r n e r P o r t S i z e F o r c o n v e n i e n c e 4V x 5" x 6 p o r t s Chimney H e i g h t A t 3.6" h e i g h t p e r t o t a l c u . f t . = 3.6 x 42.1 = 1 2 V A t 4" h e i g h t p e r t o t a l c u . f t . = 4 x 42.1 = 14' Gas I n p u t May v a r y g r e a t l y a c c o r d i n g t o l o c a t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n . RECOMMEND 23,000 B.T.U. p e r u s a b l e c u . f t . 53. 24 CUBIC FOOT DOWNDRAFT GAS KILN DESIGN  A r c h A n a v e r a g e r i s e f o r an a r c h i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9" From t h e b o t t o m o f t h e v e n t t o t h e t o p o f t h e f l o o r 10" TOTAL 19" S i n c e a k i l n i s 45" t o t a l i n s i d e w i d t h , i t s h o u l d be a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same i n h e i g h t , i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e cube d e s i g n r e q u i r e d . 45" - 19" = 26". T h i s i s n o t a f u n c t i o n o f 2%", so 27" w o u l d be b e t t e r and w o u l d make t h e s i d e w a l l 11 c o u r s e s i n h e i g h t above t h e f l o o r . Summary o f H e i g h t INCHES COURSES INSULATING COURSE ON FOUNDATION 2%" 1 HEIGHT OF VENT OUTLET 7%" 3 SETTING FLOOR I F BRICK 2%" 1 SETTING FLOOR MAY BE A h" - 1" KILN SHELF FROM THE TOP OF SETTING FLOOR TO THE TOP OF THE SIDE WALL 27%" 11 FROM FOUNDATION TO TOP OF SIDE WALL 40" 16 USABLE HEIGHT ABOVE SETTING FLOOR 36%" HEIGHT FROM TOP OF FLUE EXIT TO TOP OF SIDE WALL 30" 12 The D e p t h I n o r d e r t o k e e p t h e t o t a l i n s i d e d e s i g n as a cube t h e d e p t h from t h e i n s i d e o f t h e d o o r t o t h e i n s i d e r e a r s h o u l d be a p p r o x i m a t e l y 45" (5 b r i c k s ) o r 40%" (4% b r i c k s ) . G i v e n t h a t t h e 45" t h i c k n e s s i s u t i l i z e d and t h a t t h e d o o r i s b r i c k e d i n 2 t h i c k n e s s e s , t h e o u t s i d e d e p t h w i l l be 45" + 9" ( r e a r w a l l ) + 9" (door) = 63" t o t a l KILNS LARGER THAN THIS MODEL ARE DIFFICULT TO LOAD CONSIDERATION TO CAR OR SHUTTLE KILNS IS A DESIGN IDEA irv r; .t i 1- (-•&< * "- i -ii ' • 54. SMALL DOWN DRAFT KILN DESIGN - CUBIC FEET OF USABLE SPACE 6.38 - B.T.U. MAX. 150,000 - SETTING FLOOR AREA 3.375 s q . f t . o r 486 s q . i n . - CHIMNEY FLUE 22.5 s q . i n . - CHIMNEY HEIGHT 40.5 i n . @ 4 " / c u . f t . - USABLE SPACE 18 x 27 x 22.5 = 10,935 * 1728 = 6.328 c u . f t . - TOTAL VOLUME 27 x 27 x 22.5 = 16,402.5 * 1728 = 9.492 c u . f t . - BRICK S I Z E 4.5" x 9" x 2.5" - BRICK TYPE K 26 i n s u l a t i n g f i r e b r i c k INSULATION 1900 b l o c k 55. SMALL CROSS DRAFT KILN A p p r o x . 10 c u . f t . o f u s a b l e s p a c e . f&OO' SLOCK frtSOLAT/OAt 27" x 27" x 28" = 11.81 c u . f t . t o t a l s p a c e 22" x 27" x 28" = 9.625 c u . f t . u s a b l e s p a c e 56a APPENDIX 57. The following pages are designed to a s s i s t i n f i r i n g a gas or propane k i l n . They are intended to a s s i s t an operator who has had previous experience or t r a i n i n g with gas k i l n s . I f the operator has had no p r i o r experience with k i l n s i t i s strongly recommended that Ritchie's book on Gas K i l n F i r i n g and professional help be obtained and followed for the f i r s t few f i r i n g s . 58. BEFORE FIRING YOUR KILN THE FIRST TIME 1. Make s u r e a l l t e s t s , r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s and i n s p e c t i o n s h a v e b e e n c a r r i e d o u t . 2. Make s u r e f i r e e x t i n g u i s h e r s and s a f e t y p r o c e e d u r e s a r e r e a d i e d . 3. T e s t e a c h s h u t o f f , p i l o t l i g h t and b u r n e r i n d i v i d u a l l y f o r minimum a n d maximum o p e r a t i o n and a u t o s a f e t y s h u t o f f . 4. T e s t e a c h s h u t o f f p i l o t l i g h t and b u r n e r i n a g r o u p o p e r a t i o n f o r minimum and maximum o p e r a t i o n . Make s u r e b u r n e r s w i l l n o t b a c k f i r e , and i f t h e y do how t o c o r r e c t and a v o i d t h e s i t u a t i o n . 5. T e s t a u t o m a t i c s h u t o f f s t o make s u r e t h e y w i l l p e r f o r m i n an emergency. 59. SAFE KILN OPERATING PROCEEDURES PLOT ALL INFORMATION ON THE KILN FIRING LOG. 1. Make sure a l l burners are i n o f f p o s i t i o n b e f o r e t u r n i n g on gas at the meter. 2. Make sure a l l burners are ready t o l i t f h t , p o r t s open e t c . Make sure gas main a t meter i s on,and then the main next t t o the k i l n 3. Make sure damper on the stack i s open. 4. I g n i t e a p i l o t l i g h t by h o l d i n g the switch at the s o l i n o i d v a l v e and tou c h i n g the burner w i t h a l i g h t e d match. 5. l i g h t a l l p i l o t l i g h t s . 6. Warm the k i l n from the p i l o t l i g h t s 15 min. to % h r . 7. Turn on the burners to the lowest s e t t i n g a t which a steady flame w i l l h o l d . Make sure the primary a i r a t the base o f the burner i s a d j u s t e d t o a l l o w f o r minimum a i r flow. • 8. Turn up gas as temperature r i s e i n d i c a t e s , and t u r n up the primary a i r flow w i t h the gas as needed. 9. When the k i l n reaches 1000°C, or where a good r e d heat i s v i s a b l e , r e d u c t i o n f i r i n g may be implimented. A simple methoed o f r e d u c t i o n f i r i n g i s to use the l a s t \ hour o f the f i r i n g c y c l e t o reduce. To impliment r e d u c t i o n f i r i n g c l o s e o f f the damper a t the s t a c k u n t i l flame i s v i s a b l e i n the stack. Back o f f u n t i l i t d i s a p p e a r s . Now a d j u s t so t h a t the flame i s n o t i c a b l e . Test the r e d u c t i o n by opening a spy h o l e i n the k i l n , i f flame appears a good r e d u c t i o n i s underway. I f b l a c k smoke or soot i s b u i l d i n g up on the spy h o l e s or damper you are over reduc-i n g the f i r i n g . I f a s t r o n g e r r e d u c t i o n i s n e c i s s a r y c l o s e o f f primary a i r a t the burner. NOTE REDUCTION FIRING CAUSES POLLUTION USE IT DISCRIM-INATLY. WHEN THE KILN REACHES THE DESIRED TEMPERATURE IT IS TIME FOR THE SHUT DOWN PROCEEDURE. 6 0 . SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE 1. S h u t o f f t h e b u r n e r v a l v e s . 2. C l o s e t h e damper on t h e s t a c k . 3. S h u t o f f t h e gas m a i n s . 4. C l o s e t h e b u r n e r p o r t s . 5. L o g t h e p y r o m e t e r t e m p e r a t u r e . 6. K i l n must be b e l o w 2 5 0 ° c b e f o r e o p e n i n g . NOTE: THE SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF THE KILN WILL CONTINUE TO RISE FOR 3-4 MORE HOURS. MAKE SURE NO COMBUSTABLES ARE L E F T NEAR THE KILN. 61. D O's AND D O N ' T S OF K I L N F I R I N G I g n i t e the p i l o t l i g h t b e f o r e t u r n i n g on the gas burner. DO NOT t u r n on the gas a t the main without making sure the burners are shut o f f . Always make sure the k i l n door i s open when i g n i t i n g burners without p i l o t l i g h t s - so t h a t gas w i l l not b u i l d up i n the k i l n chamber. DO NOT leave k i l n door c l o s e d when not i n use. (To a v o i d gas b u i l d up i f leaks occur.) DO use k i l n wash on sh e l v e s o f t e n . DO NOT a l l o w unknown c l a y or g l a z e t o be stacked i n the k i l n . T r a i n a l l persons a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the k i l n i n i t s s a f e o p e r a t i o n and po s t procedures where they are e a s i l y a c c e s s -a b l e , i n case you are unavoidable c a l l e d away. DO NOT a l l o w a k i l n t o go unattended f o r prolonged p e r i o d s without the op e r a t o r checking. DO NOT a l l o w open access t o your k i l n - i t can burn an "unaware" p u b l i c . 62; RECOMMENDED SAFETY EQUIPMENT FOR SCHOOL USE NO KILN SHOULD BE BUILT IN A SCHOOL, OR WHERE I T WILL GO UNATTENDED, WITHOUT THE FOLLOWING EQUIPMENT: 1. T h e r m o c o u p l e s h u t o f f s and p i l o t l i g h t s on e v e r y b u r n e r . 2. A damper t h a t w i l l o n l y c l o s e 90-95% o f t h e chimney. 3. A p y r o m e t e r d e s i g n e d t o s h u t o f f t h e b u r n e r a t maximum t e m p e r a t u r e s , w i t h t h e r m o c o u p l e o f p l a t i n u m and p l a t i n u m - r h o d i u m s h i e l d e d i n p o r c e l a i n . 4. A l o c k a b l e gas m a i n s h u t o f f e a s i l y a c c e s s a b l e a n d away from t h e k i l n . 5. A l o c k a b l e d o o r t o k i l n and s h e d . I do n o t recommend a d d i t i o n a l e q u i p m e n t b e c a u s e t h e k i l n must f u n c t i o n w i t h o u t t o o many f a l s e s h u t downs i f i t i s t o be u s e f u l and r e l i a b l e . S e c o n d l y t h e o p e r a t o r o f t h e k i l n i must make t h e o p e r a t i o n and f u n c t i o n o f t h e k i l n as t h e i r p r i m e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . K i l n s where t h e o p e r a t o r i s i n f u l l a t t e n d a n c e , a n d where no o t h e r p e r s o n s s h a l l h a v e a c c e s s , c a n be o p e r a t e d e a s i l y w i t h o u t p i l o t l i g h t s , t h e r m o c o u p l e s and p y r o m e t e r s . 63. KILN SITTER A k i l n s i t t e r can be used t o shut o f f a gas k i l n , but the k i l n s i t t e r i s not designed t o work i n r e d u c t i o n atmos-phere or at h i g h temperatures. They can f a i l more o f t e n because o f t h i s and t h e i r f u n c t i o n can be r e p l a c e d by a good q u a l i t y platinum-platinum rhodium thermocouple a t t a c h e d t o an i n d u s t r i a l pyrometer w i t h auto, shut o f f or h o l d capab-i l i t i e s . I s t r o n g l y recommend the pyrometer type o f c o n t r o l . THERMOCOUPLE AUTO. SHUT OFF A thermocouple i s a d e v i c e t h a t senses heat and sends a s m a l l e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t t o a d e v i c e t h a t c o n t r o l s the gas flow t o both p i l o t l i g h t s and main burners. T h i s d e v i c e w i l l shut o f f the gas i f f o r any reason the flame goes, out, t h i s -. prevents any p o s s i b l e b u i l d up o f gasses i n the chamber or shed t h a t c o u l d be i g n i t e d a c c i d e n t l y c a u s i n g r a p i d combus-t i o n or e x p l o s i o n . HERITAGE KILN BURNERS NATURAL GAS BURNER INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS 64. IMPORTANT NOTICE:' THESE BURNERS MUST BE INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE REGULATIONS OF THE AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICTION IN YOUR AREA. BURNERS SHOULD BE INSTALLED BY A LICENSED GAS FITTER ON A PERMIT FROM THE ENFORCING AUTHORITY. These burners are designed and orificed to be operated at the accepted natural gas pressure of 7 ins. Water Column. A l l lines should be sized in accordance with local regulations to supply the correct 7 ins. Water Column pressure. (See Table 1) Natural Gas burners may be installed with the burner venturi facing upwards, or horizontal but never with the port downwards. Be sure that the valve, o r i f i c e and burner are in a true straight line as in Fig. 1. Because kilns vary so much in shape, size, and design, suitable burner brackets cannot be supplied by the burner manufacturer. Burner brackets as shown in Fig. 2 must be provided which w i l l securely hold the burners i n the proper position in a fixed relation to the k i l n port as shown in Fig. 3. Burner orifices are supplied d r i l l e d No. 18 W.G. for approximately 125,000 BTU , or i f k i l n information was supplied to the manufacturer may be d r i l l e d to the minimum that may be required. If you do not reach temperature do not assume that the gas input is too low since there are several other factors which may also affect, the temperatures such as: (a) Bag wall too high or too low. (b) Wares stacked too closely. (c) Insufficient combustion space from wall to bag wall. (d) Over reduction (high percentage of unburned gas). (e) Over oxidation (too much air cooling the ki l n ) . (f) Insufficient insulation. (g) Too high a gas input for the combustion space. When a l l factors have been considered and i f you s t i l l suspect the gas input is too low, increase the size one wire gauge size. (See Table 2). If the temperature goes up you may be on the right course. If possible use a pyrometer for your f i r s t few firings. If the temperature goes down you are probably passing more gas than there i s combustion space for or than can be properly vented due to various restrictions as mentioned above. It i s the responsibility of the installer to apply for an inspection or test to the authority having jurisdiction in your area. This i s for your protection. 65. NATURAL GAS GAS L I N E S TO KILNS (at 7" W. C. with not over .5" W. C. drop) 15 KILN VOLUME GAS INPUT - •200 3 A 3 A 250 3A 3 A _3A 3 A 300 3 A If 350 6 Tioo 1* I t 1450 lh li Ik 500 18 550 18 600 14-4 h lh 1* 1* 20 ML lh 21* 700 i t 1* li 28 ih ii 800 1* 1* 21 850 1* 1* 1* li 500 1* 1* 1000 1* 1(0 1200 NATURAL GAS Flow through an o r i f i c e at 7 Ins. Water Column Press. ( 4 Oz.) O r i f i c e Size D.M.S. Wire Gauge  T a b l e 1 27 26 25 24 23  5/32" 22 21 20 19 18  11/64" 17 16 15 14 13  3/16" 12 11 10 9 Thousands of B.T.U. 90 94.5 98 101 104  107 108 111 113 121 125  129 131 137 142 145 150  154 156 160 164 168 173 T a b l e 2 —P-ROPANE-BURNER-INSTALLATION- INSTRUCTIONS IMPORTANT NOTICE: THESE BURNERS MUST BE INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE REGULATIONS OF THE AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICTION IN YOUR AREA. BURNERS SHOULD BE INSTALLED BY A LICENSED GAS FITTER ON A PERMIT FROM THE ENFORCING AUTHORITY. 1. These burners are designed and o r i f i c e d to be operated a t the accepted propane pressure of II ins. Water Column. 2. Tank size should be as shown In Table 1 to ensure proper supply pressure at- the lowest temperature at which you wish t o f i r e . 3. A l l l i n e s should be sized in accordance with l o c a l regulations t o supply the correct 11 i n s . Water Column pressure. (See Table 2) 4. Propane burners may be i n s t a l l e d with the burner venturi facing upwards, downwards or horizontal. 5 . Be sure that the valve, o r i f i c e and burner are in a true straight l i n e as i n F i g . 1 . 6. Because k i l n s vary so much in shape, size, and design, suitable burner brackets cannot be supplied by the burner manufacturer. Burner brackets as shown in Fig. 2 must be provided which w i l l securely hold the burners in the proper position In a fixed r e l a t i o n to the k i l n port as shown i n Fig. 3 . 7. Burner o r i f i c e s are supplied d r i l l e d No. 30 W. G. for approximately 115,000 BTU of propane, or i f k i l n information was supplied to the manufacturer may be d r i l l e d to the minimum that may be required. If you do not reach temperature there are several other factors which may also a f f e c t the temperatures such as: (a) Bag w a l l too high or too low. (b) Wares stacked too closely. (c) I n s u f f i c i e n t combustion space from wall to bag w a l l . (d) Over reduction (e) Over oxidation (too much a i r cooling the k i l n ) . (f) I n s u f f i c i e n t insulation (g) Too high a gas Input for the combustion space. When a l l factors have been considered and i f you s t i l l suspect the gas input i s too low, increase the size one wire gauge size. (See Table 3) If the temperature goes up you may be on the right course. If possible use a pyrometer for your f i r s t few f i r i n g s . If the temperature goes down you are probably passing more gas than there i s combustion space for or than can be properly vented due to various r e s t r i c t i o n s as mentioned above. 8. It i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the i n s t a l l e r to apply for an inspection or test to. the authority having j u r i s d i c t i o n i n your area. This i s for your protection. Input In Thds. BTU K l i n Usable Cu. F t . Distance from Last Stage Rep.ulatoi to Burners 1 0 ' 2 0 ' 3 0 ' 4 0 ' 5 0 ' 6 0 ' 8 0 ' 1 0 0 ' 250 4 k 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 1 1 1 300 6 3/4 3/4 3/4 1. ' 1 1 1 1 350 8 3/4 3/4 1 1 1 . 1 1 lk 400 12 3/4 1 1 1 1 1 lk lk 450 15 3/4 1 1 1 1 lk lk lk 500 18 3/4 1 1 1 lk lk lk lk 625 2 1 1 lk lk lk lk lk lk 750 32 1 ik lk lk lk lk lk lh 8 7 5 ' 35 1 lk lk lk lk lk lk Vt 1000 1 ik lh lk lk lk 1250 lk lk H i lk lk lk 2 z Table 2 S u s t a i n e d A m b i e n t T e m p . D e g r e e s F a h r e n . S t a n d a r d U p r i g h t 1 0 0 l b . I C C C o n -t a i n e r . S t a n d a r d U p r i g h t 4 2 0 l b . I C C C o n -t a i n e r . ' A v e r a g e . H o r i z o n . 4 9 9 W a t e r G a l l o n s C a p a c i t y C o n t a i n e r . " A v e r a g e H o r i z o n . 9 9 5 W a t e r G a l l o n s C a p a c i t y C o n t a i n e r . - 4 0 2 , 3 0 0 5 , 4 0 0 2 7 , 3 0 0 5 0 , 2 0 0 - 3 0 8 , 2 0 0 1 9 , 2 0 0 9 5 , 7 0 0 1 2 5 , 5 0 0 - 2 0 ' 1 4 , 0 0 0 3 2 , 9 0 0 1 6 4 , 1 0 0 2 0 1 , 9 0 0 - 1 0 1 9 , 9 0 0 : 4 6 , 6 0 0 2 3 2 , 5 0 0 4 2 7 , 8 0 0 0 2 5 , 8 0 0 6 0 , 3 0 0 3 0 0 , 8 0 0 5 5 3 , 6 0 0 1 0 3 1 , 7 0 0 7 4 , 1 2 6 3 6 9 , 2 0 0 . 6 7 9 , 4 0 0 2 0 - 3 7 , 5 0 0 . 8 7 , 8 0 0 4 3 7 , 6 0 0 8 0 5 T 2 0 0 3 0 4 3 , 4 0 0 1 0 1 , 6 0 0 5 0 6 , 0 0 0 9 3 1 , 1 0 0 4 0 4 9 , 3 0 0 1 1 5 , 3 0 0 5 7 4 , 4 0 0 1 , 0 5 6 , 9 0 0 5 0 5 5 , 1 0 0 1 2 9 , 0 0 0 6 4 2 , 8 0 0 1 , 1 8 2 , 7 0 0 6 0 6 1 , 9 0 0 . 1 4 2 , 7 0 0 . 7 1 1 , 2 0 0 1 , 3 0 8 , 6 2 2 7 0 6 6 , 9 0 0 1 5 6 , 5 0 0 7 7 9 , 5 0 0 1 , 4 3 4 , 4 0 0 8 0 7 2 , 7 0 0 1 7 0 , 2 0 0 8 4 7 , 9 0 0 1 , 5 6 0 , 2 0 0 PROPANE.. INPUT at 11" Water Column Pressure Wire Gauge Input D r i l l B.T.U./Hr. 38 77,400 37 81,125 -36 85,170 35 90,800 34 92,500 -33 96,000 32 101,000 31 108,070 30 123,875 29 138,840 . 28 148,000 27 155,650 Table 3 Table 1 Fig. 2 SAFETY PILOT MOUNTING INSTRUCTIONS 67. For proper p i l o t o p e r a t i o n , i t i s imperative t h a t these i n s t r u c t i o n s be c a r e f u l l y f o l l o w e d by competent l i c e n s e d person-n e l and with the appro v a l of the a u t h o r i t y having j u r i s d i c t i o n A convenient burner opening s i z e i s 4 V wide by 5" (2 courses high) . At the bottom, p l a c e a p i e c e of No. 26 or 28 i n s u l a t i n g b r i c k 1" t h i c k . In t h i s , c u t a tapered groove 1" wide x 1" deep as shown. Pl a c e the p i l o t i n t h i s groove about V back from the burner p o r t and angled upwards approximately 30° o f f h o r i z o n t a l . Bracket p i l o t s e c u r e l y i n t h i s p o s i t i o n . PILOT TURN-DOWN TEST: No s a f e t y p i l o t a p p l i c a t i o n i s complete un- l e s s t h i s t e s t i s c a r r i e d out and passed. Main Turn-Down 1. Slowly c l o s e the p i l o t v a l v e u n t i l the flame on the thermocouple i s j u s t b a r e l y t o u c h i n g the thermocouple.-2. At t h i s p o i n t , the p i l o t flame should s t i l l be i n t e r s e c t i n g the course of the main burner flame. I f not, r e l o c a t e p i l o t to accomplish t h i s . 3. I f v i s u a l l y sat. i n 2; open main'burner f i r i n g v a l v e to check f o r proper i g n i t i o n . WHEN COMPLETED, REQUEST AN INSPECTION BY THE ENFORCING AUTHORITY  HAVING JURISDICTION IN YOUR AREA. 6 8 . Recommended Kiln Construction and Installation Requirements Installation of Kilns (a) (b) (c) A gas k i l n shall not be installed within the l i v i n g area of a residence. When a gas k i l n i s installed in a building or a room attached to an occupied building the common wall or walls shall have a 1 hour f i r e resistance rating. Where a gas k i l n i s installed in a room adjacent to a work area; means shall be provided to screen or partition the k i l n area from the work area by means acceptable to the enforcing authority. Construction Indoor kilns shall be constructed with walls and roof equivalent in insulating properties to 26" of hard firebrick. Safety Controls (a) (b) (c) Safety shut-off controls shall be provided on indoor kilns for a l l burners which are not under constant supervision. This requirement shall not apply to kilns installed outdoors or i n an unoccupied building used solely to protect the k i l n from the elements. Kilns having on-off automatic temperature controlled burners shall be pro-vided with safety shut off controls on a l l burners. Kilns f i r e d with L. P. gases shall have safety controls which cut off both main and p i l o t burners when required as in (a) and (b) above. Combustion Air & Ventilation The k i l n room or k i l n area as i n 1 (b) or (c) shall be provided with a com-bustion a i r inlet close to floor level and a ventilation outlet at ceiling to be 50% greater than that required by Clause A.2.1 of C. S. A. B149.1 (1974). Clearances and Venting of Indoor Kilns The minimum clearance from the top, sides and rear to combustible material shall be 48". This distance may be reduced when insulation acceptable to the enforcing authority i s provided but in no case may be less than 24"> Clause 6.2.8.6 (7) of the National Building Code states (in brief) every metal chimney designed for use at over 538 C (1000°F) shall be lined with at least 4%" of firebrick or other material providing equivalent temperature protection. Since 2V' of a 2500°F castable insulating refractory would be equal in insulating properties to 8",of hard firebrick, i t would be considered acceptable. (c) Clause 6.2.8.6 (9) of the National Building Code states: "Except as provided in sentence (10), every interior metal chimney shall have a clearance of at least 3 f t . (915 MM) to combustible material within the storey in which the heating appliance i s contained". Sentence (10) states: "Where a metal chimney passes through a combustible roof assembly, (a) (b) 69. - 2 (d) (e) 1 12. « r r < S f c the clearance between the chimney and the nearest combustible material may be reduced to 12 in . (305 MM) provided the metal chimney i s guarded by a metal thimble extending at ]>1 least 9" (229 MM) above and 9" (229 MM) below \ the roof construction. Such thimbles shall have double cylindrical walls with a v e n t i l - '. , ated space between the walls and between the metal chimney and thimble, and the clearance between the metal thimble and the combustible material shall be at least 6 i n . (152 MM)". The sketch may make this a l i t t l e clearer. Where an updraft type k i l n i s vented by means of a canopy and single wall metal vent, the clearance shall be 18". This clearance may be reduced when protection i s provided in accordance with Table 4.3.8.2.of C. S. A. B149.1 (1974;) or i f provided with an insulating thimble as in (c). Clause 9.21.6.1 of the same code states "The clearance between concrete or mansonry chimneys and combustible framing shall be not less than 2" for interior and for exteriors. Since this clause does not take the temperature into consideration, 6" would be a more r e a l i s t i c distance. In any case, i t i s generally accepted throughout the gas industry that no combustible material should be permitted to reach a temperature in excess of 45°C (117°F). T A B L E 4.3.8.2 Clearance* With Specified Forms of Protacttont Whore tho Required Clearance With No Protection la : Typo of Protection 38 Inches 18 Inches 12 Inches 9 In. 8 Inches Above Sldee and Rear Flue Pipe Above S ide* and Rear Flue Pipe Above E ldea end Rear Flue Pipe Above Sides and Rear a) Vrin asbestos millboard spaced out t in 30 18 30 15 9 12 9 6 6 3 ' 2 b) O.0l3-in(No.28MSG) sheet metal on V*-ln asbestos millboard 24 16 24 12 9 12 9 6 4 3 i c) 0.013-ln(No.28MSG) sheet metal spaced out 11n 18 12 18 9 6 9 6 4 4 2 2 d) 0.u13-in(No.28MSG) sheet metal on %An asbestos millboard spaced out t In 18 12 18 9 6 9 6 4 4 2 2 ej Vh-trt asbestos cement covering on heating appliance 13 12 36 9 6 18 6 4 9 2 1 1) Vt-ln asbestos mil (board on 1-in mineral woo! baits reinforced with wire mesh or equivalent 8) 0.026-in(No.22MSG) sheet metal on l>tn mineral wool batts reinforced wish wire mesh or equivalent 13 ' 18 12 12 18 -12 6 4 \ 3 6 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 ' 2 , 2 h) '/«->n asbestos cement Board or Vt-in asbestos millboard 36 36 36 • 18 18 18 12 12 9 4 4 I) V«-in cellular asbestos . n< . _._*_. 36 36 38 18 18 18 12 12 9 3 3 * u c l e a r a n c e s g i v e n rn tncnes. * S^ IMI™ SJ^ JS" i n . l i c a , e d , (•>Bb0v8' B» clearances shall be measured from the outer surface of tha appliance to the combustible material r S S n f f i C 0 m b U S , i b l 9 m a , e " a l - M , n n o ™° s h a " «™ be such a , ,o interfere with ft. * n o ^ o t e c t i ^ NOTE: Spacers shall be of non-combustible material. 70. D-02-02 our file : your file GOVERNMENT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS S a f e t y E n g i n e e r i n g S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n N o v e m b e r 1975 TO ALL INSPECTORS AND CONTRACTORS ' GAS FIRED POTTERY KILNS An increasing number of gas fired kilns are being installed throughout the Province and i t has become necessary to set out the following guidelines for their installation. 1. A gas fired kiln shall not be installed within the living area of a residence. 2. Where a gas fired kiln i s installed in a room adjacent to a work area the kiln area shall be partitioned or screened from the work area in a manner acceptable to the enforcing authority. 3. Safety shut-off controls shall be provided on indoor kilns. for a l l burners which are not under constant supervision. This requirement shall not apply to kilns installed outdoors or in an unoccupied building used solely to protect the kiln from the elements. 4. Kilns having on~-off automatic temperature controlled burners shall be provided with safety shut-off controls on a l l burners. 5. The minimum clearance from the top, sides and rear of a kiln to combustible construction shall be 48", except that this distance may be reduced when insulation acceptable to this Branch is provided. In no case shall the clearance be less t h a n ^ " 2 TABLE 9.21.6.A. NATIONAL BUILDING CODE F o r m i n g P a r t o f A r t i c l e 9.21.6.5. CLEARANCE BETWEEN A FLUE PI P E AND PROTECTED COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL Type o f p r o t e c t i o n a p p l i e d t o t h e c o m b u s t i b l e m a t e r i a l u n l e s s o t h e r -w i s e s p e c i f i e d and c o v e r i n g a l l ' s u r f a c e s w i t h i n 18 i n . o f t h e f l u e p i p e . C l e a r a n c e between f l u e p i p e and c o m b u s t i b l e m a t e r i a l . i n . V a s b e s t o s m i l l b o a r d s p a c e d o u t 1" b y n o n c o m b u s t i b l e m a t e r i a l 1 1 2 0.0129" s h e e t m e t a l on V a s b e s t o s m i l l b o a r d 12 0.012 9" s h e e t m e t a l s p a c e d o u t 1" " by n o n c o m b u s t i b l e m a t e r i a l 9 0.-0129" s h e e t m e t a l on 1/8" a s b e s -t o s m i l l b o a r d s p a c e d o u t 1" by non-c o m b u s t i b l e m a t e r i a l 9 1%" a s b e s t o s cement c o v e r i n g on f l u e p i p e 9 0.0259" s h e e t m e t a l on 1" m i n e r a l w o o l b a t t s r e i n f o r c e d w i t h w i r e mesh o r e q u i v a l e n t 3 :73. C.S.A. B149.1 - 1971 TABLE 25 (See Clause 4.3.8.2.) CLEARANCE WITH SPECIFIED FORMS OF PROTECTION Type o f P r o t e c t i o n Where t h e R e q u i r e d C l e a r a n c e W i t h No P r o t e c t i o n I s : 36 I n c h e s 18 I n c h e s Above ^ S i d e s and R e a r ( F l u e P i p e 1 1 Above ( S i d e s and R e a r F l u e P i p e a) V a s b e s t o s m i l l -b o a r d s p a c e d o u t 1" 30 18 30 15 9 12 b) 0.0129" (N6.28 MSG) s h e e t m e t a l on V a s b e s t o s m i l l b o a r d 24 18 24 12 9 12 c) 0.0129" (No.28 MSG) s h e e t m e t a l s p a c e d o u t 1" 18 12 18 9 6 9 d) 0.0129" (No.28 5;MS.G) s h e e t m e t a l on 1/8" a s b e s t o s m i l l b o a r d s p a c e d o u t 1" 18 12 18 9 6 9 e) lh" a s b e s t o s cement c o v e r i n g on h e a t i n g a p p l i a n c e 18 12 36 9 6 18 f) Jj" a s b e s t o s m i l l -b o a r d on 1" m i n e r a l w o o l b a t t s r e i n -f o r c e d w i t h w i r e mesh o r e q u i v a l e n t 18 12 18 6 6 6 g) 0.0259" (N5.22CSMSG) s h e e t m e t a l on 1" m i n e r a l w o o l b a t t s r e i n f o r c e d w i t h v:^l w i r e mesh o r e q u i v . 18 12 12 4 3 3 h) i j " a s b e s t o s cement b o a r d o r V a s b e s -t o s m i l l b o a r d 36 36 36 18 . 18 18 i ) V c e l l u l a r a s b e s t o s 36 36 36 •! 18 18 18 KILN TEST REPORTS 76. PLEASE INDICATE A L L OF THE INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR KILN THAT YOU CAN MAKE THE INFORMATION AS ACCURATE AS YOU CAN. I F SOMETHING CANNOT BE REMEMBERED OR RECALLED PLEASE GUESS AND MARK IT ACCORDINGLY. YOUR NAME ADDRESS PHONE HAS YOUR KILN BEEN INSPECTED BY THE FIRE MARSHALL _ _ Y _ e J L GAS INSPECTOR HAVE YOU CONSULTED ANY ONE REGUARDING THE CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN OF YOUR KIL N ? I F SO PLEASE INDICATE THE NAMES AND ADDRESSES I F POSSIBLE. J i m C l a c h e r i e . S t a n C l a r k e , 4. PLEASE L I S T BOOKS,PAMPHLETS,THESIS OR OTHER PUBLICATIONS IN WHICH YOU FOUND HELPFUL INFORMATION. . Rhodes - " K i l n s , D e s i g n s & O p e r a t i o n "  O l s e n - "The K i l n Book" 5. I F YOUR GAS KILN WAS PURCHASED PLEASE INDICATE THE MANUFACTURERS NAME ADDRESS AND ANY INFORMATION YOU FEEL IS HELPFUL REGUARDING THE EFFICIENCY OF THIS KILN. V e r y Good 6. PLEASE INDICATE DATE THE KILN WAS INSTALLED OR FIRST FIRED. DAY. 1 7 MONTH A u g V F & P ' 7 4 7. PLEASE STATE THE NUMBER OF FIRINGS THE KILN HAS MADE 50 a p p r o x . INDICATE THE APPROXIMATE COST OF A FIRING $7.00 INDICATE THE AMOUNT OF FUEL USED IN A TYPICAL FIRING KILN DESIGN 77. IS YOUR KILN UPDRAFT DOWNDRAFT CROSSDRAFT I F OTHER PLEASE SPECIFY SPRUNG ARCH CATERNARY ARCH CUBE ROUND I F OTHER PLEASE SPECIFY I F YOUR KILN IS MULTI-CHAMBERED PLEASE INDICATE THE INFORMATION FOR EACH CHAMBER BY NUMBERING THE CHAMBERS 1, 2, 3, AND SO ON. INCLUDE A SKETCH SO THAT THE CHAMBERS CAN BE IDENTIFIED. PROPORTIONS OF THE KILN EXTERNAL. WIDTH. THE OUTER EXTREMITY ACROSS THE FRONT 63" ^ . HEIGHT. FROM BASE TO TOP OF KILN. 120" DEPTH. FROM FRONT TO BACK 63" PROPORTIONS OF KILN INTERNAL. WIDTH. MAXIMUM INTERNAL WIDTH HOT FACE TO HOT FACE. 45" . HEIGHT. FROM TOP OF VENT O FROM TOP OF LOWER MOST SHELF TO TOP OF INSIDE. 49". DEPTH. FROM INSIDE OF CLOSED DOOR TO INSIDE REAR. 37". ON THE REVERSE SIDE OF THIS PAGE PLEASE SKETCH THE KILN FLOOR, WALL, AND ROOF INCLUDE THICKNESS, MAKE, TYPE OF MATERIALS USED. EXAMPLE. \ \ $R\CKS P R O M USABLE KILN SPACE- Tti.. SPACE FOR SETTING 'ARES. yg WIDTH - THE DISTANCE BETWEEN BAG WALLS. 27"  I F NO BAG WALLS DIST. OF SET WARES HEIGHT- THE DISTANCE FROM THE TOPOF THE USABLE FLOOR TO THE INSIDE TOP OF THE KILN ~ ^ 8 " DEPTH - THE DISTANCE FROM THE INSIDE OF THE DOOR TO THE INSIDE REAR OF THE KILN. 36" S I Z E OF FLUE OPENING - THE EXHAUST VENT SIZE OF OPENING AT EXIT FROM CHAMBER 7 . 5 " HORIZONTAL DISTANCE FROM INSIDE FLUE OPENING TO THE VERTICAL SHAFT OF THE CHIMNEY. 1.8" VERTICAL RISE I F ANY S I Z E OF VERTCAL SHAFT 9 " X 9 " HEIGHT OF VERTICAL SHAFT (CHIMNEY) DAMPER PLEASE SKETCH IN LOCATION I F POSSIBLE POSITIONS DURING FIRING PLEASE INDICATE % CLOSED FOR HOURS INDICATED 0 6 12 1 7 50 13 2 850 14 3 950 1 5 4 I P 5 0 16 5 11100! 7 * s h u t down BURNERS TYPE- I F PURCHASED STATE MAKE C l a c h e r i e MODEL MANUFACTURER ADDRESS I F HOME MADE A SKETCH WOULD- BE HELPFUL INDICATE S I Z E OF ORIFICE W G S 1 8 DUMBER OF BURNERS INCLUDE LOCATION OF BURNERS ON THE KILN SKETCH B.T.U.RATING OF 1 BURNER PER HOUR FULL OPEN 90,000 B j T > DO YOU HAVE CIRCLE I F YES PILOT L I T E S AUTO-SAFETY SHUT OFF KILN SITTER ELECTRONIC KILN CONTROL PYROMETER PLEASE INDICATE ANY OTHER CONTROLS NO BURNER PORTS SI Z E OF BURNER PORT(SIZE OF OPENING BURNER TO KILN) 4" X 5" SIZ E OF ANY SECONDARY AIR SOURCES = = ^ FUEL CIRCLE THE CORRECT ONE  NATURAL GAS WOOD PROPANE OTHER PLEASE SPECIFY OIL TIME AMOUNT OF TIME USED IN A TYPICAL FIRING 12 TEMPERATURE REACHED TIME TO REACH TEMPERATURE HOURS HOURS LENGTH OF SOAK 2 TOTAL FIRING TIME START TO SHUT DOWN 14 HOURS COOL DOWN TIME 20 HOURS 14 h r s , MIN. 10 _MIN. _MIN. MIN. TOTAL TIME FROM START UP TO TEMPERATURE & BACK DOWN TO UNLOADING TEMPERATURE. 36 HOURS MIN. ARE YOU FAMILIAR WITH THE DANGERS OF REDUCTION FIRING ? I F SO STATE THE DANGERS. CO + E x p l o s i o n i f r e i g n i t i o n P L E A S E PLOT ON T H I S GRAPH A T Y P I C A L F I R I N G . i i 10 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 I N D I C A T E ANY PROBLEMS C R E A T E D D U R I N G F I R I N G B Y : WIND O U T S I D E TEMP. H U M I D I T Y R A I N steam PROPANE TANK F R E E Z I N G F U E L ( P R E S S U R E ) COOL SPOTS I N K I L N GAS S E R V I C E R E D U C T I O N P L E A S E W R I T E A B R I E F P A R A G R A P H I N D I C A T I N G HOW YOUR K I L N HAS F U N C T I O N E D UP TO T H I S P O I N T . A Honey. PLEASE MAKE A SKETCH OF YOUR KILN OR INCLUDE A COPY (PHOTO) OF ANY PLANS YOU MADE. MAKE SURE YOU INCLUDE ANY CHANGES YOU MADE SINCE TO IMPROVE THE OPERATION. see 24 cu. f t . k i l n i n Appendix. PLEASE SKETCH A LOCATION DRAWING OF YOUR KILN ON YOUR PROPERTY INCLUDE USUAL WIND DIRECTION,TALL TREES,BUILDINGS, ETC. I F KILN IS EXPOSED OR I F IT IS INCLOSED, THE DISTANCE FROM YOUR HOUSE OR STUDIO^VENTILATION,IF APPLICABLE AND FLUE ARE HELPFUL. I s h o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k y o u f o r y o u r e f f o r t . I t i s my hope t o v i s i t as many k i l n s i t e s as p o s s i b l e i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . I f you w o u l d n o t m i n d h a v i n g y o u r k i l n p h o t o g r a p h e d p l e a s e i n d i c a t e by f i l l i n g o u t t h e a r e a below. I n d i c a t e a map i f y o u t h i n k i t m i g h t be n e c e s s a r y . NAME, . ADDRESS i . . PHONE MAP: I F YOU DO NOT MIND HAVING ME REFER TO YOUR KILN IN A THESIS PUBLICATION OR TO OTHER ARTISTS PLEASE INDICATE THIS BY SIGNING THE SPACE PROVIDED THANK YOU... 86. PLEASE INDICATE ALL OF THE INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR KILN THAT YOU CAN MAKE THE INFORMATION AS ACCURATE AS YOU CAN. IF SOMETHING CANNOT BE REMEMBERED OR RECALLED PLEASE GUESS AND MARK IT ACCORDINGLY. 1. YOUR NAME  ADDRESS _^ PHONE . ; : „ 2. HAS YOUR KILN BEEN INSPECTED BY THE FIRE MARSHALL GAS INSPECTOR 3. HAVE YOU CONSULTED ANY ONE REGUARDING THE CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN OF YOUR KILN? IF SO PLEASE INDICATE THE NAMES AND ADDRESSES IF POSSIBLE. PLEASE LIST BOOKS,PAMPHLETS,THESIS OR OTHER PUBLICATIONS IN WHICH YOU FOUND HELPFUL INFORMATION. . Rhodes - "Kilns, Design & Operation" IF YOUR GAS KILN WAS PURCHASED PLEASE INDICATE THE MANUFACTURERS NAME ADDRESS AND ANY INFORMATION YOU FEEL IS HELPFUL REGUARDING THE EFFICIENCY OF THIS KILN. Expensive to operate  PLEASE INDICATE DATE THE KILN WAS INSTALLED OR FIRST FIRED. DAY. MONTH July yp-ap ' 70 7. PLEASE STATE THE NUMBER OF FIRINGS THE KILN HAS MADE 1 0 0 ' s ^ INDICATE THE APPROXIMATE COST OF A FIRING $35 INDICATE THE AMOUNT OF FUEL USED IN A TYPICAL FIRING KILN DESIGN 87. IS YOUR KILN UPDRAFT DOWNDRAFT CROSSDRAFT I F OTHER PLEASE SPECIFY ' SPRUNG ARCH CATERNARY ARCH CUBE ROUND I F OTHER PLEASE SPECIFY I F YOUR KILN IS MULTI-CHAMBERED PLEASE INDICATE THE INFORMATION FOR EACH CHAMBER BY NUMBERING THE CHAMBERS 1, 2, 3, AND SO ON. INCLUDE A SKETCH SO THAT THE CHAMBERS CAN BE IDENTIFIED. PROPORTIONS OF THE KILN EXTERNAL. WIDTH. THE OUTER EXTREMITY ACROSS THE FRONT HEIGHT. FROM BASE TO TOP OF KILN. DEPTH. FROM FRONT TO BACK PROPORTIONS OF KILN INTERNAL. WIDTH. MAXIMUM INTERNAL WIDTH HOT FACE TO HOT FACE. 3.5' o HEIGHT. FROM TOP OF VENT O FROM TOP OF LOWER MOST SHELF TO TOP. OF INSIDE. 3.9 1. DEPTH. FROM INSIDE OF CLOSED DOOR TO INSIDE REAR. 4' 5' X 5'2". £J • ON THE REVERSE SIDE OF THIS PAGE PLEASE SKETCH THE KILN FLOOR, WALL, AND ROOF INCLUDE THICKNESS, MAKE, TYPE OF MATERIALS USED. EXAMPLE, I 7 K23 BRICKS' PP-OM RMRGY ^ Co. USABLE KILN SPACE- Tta.. SPACE FOR SETTING ;ARES. 8 8 . WIDTH - THE DISTANCE BETWEEN BAG WALLS. 2' IF NO BAG WALLS DIST. OF SET WARES HEIGHT- THE DISTANCE FROM THE TOPOF THE USABLE FLOOR TO THE INSIDE TOP OF THE K l l S 3 . 9 ' DEPTH - THE DISTANCE FROM THE INSIDE OF THE DOOR TO THE INSIDE REAR OF THE KILN. 4' SIZE OF FLUE OPENING - THE EXHAUST VENT SIZE OF OPENING AT EXIT FROM CHAMBER HORIZONTAL DISTANCE FROM INSIDE FLUE OPENING TO THE VERTICAL SHAFT OF THE CHIMNEY. VERTICAL RISE IF ANY SIZE OF VERTCAL SHAFT HEIGHT OF VERTICAL SHAFT (CHIMNEY) DAMPER PLEASE SKETCH IN LOCATION IF POSSIBLE 7' x 9'  3' 9' X 9'  10' POSITIONS DURING FIRING PLEASE INDICATE % CLOSED FOR HOURS INDICATED 0 6 12 7 13 ! 8 14 1 9 50 1 5 50 10 50 1 6 50 11 50 i v BURNERS TYPE- IF PURCHASED STATE MAKE MODEL MANUFACTURER ADDRESS IF HOME MADE A SKETCH WOULD BE HELPFUL INDICATE SIZE OF ORIFICE DUMBER OF BURNERS INCLUDE LOCATION OF BURNERS ON THE KILN SKETCH B.T.U.RATING OF 1 BURNER PER HOUR FULL OPEN 89. 120.000 B. T. U. DO YOU HAVE CIRCLE IF YES PILOT LITES AUTO-SAFETY SHUT OFF KILN SITTER ELECTRONIC KILN CONTROL PYROMETER PLEASE INDICATE ANY OTHER CONTROLS BURNER PORTS SIZE OF BURNER PORT(SIZE OF OPENING BURNER TO KILN)2.5X 3" SIZE OF ANY SECONDARY AIR SOURCES X FUEL CIRCLE THE CORRECT ONE NATURAL GAS WOOD PROPANE OTHER PLEASE SPECIFY OIL TIME AMOUNT OF TIME USED IN A TYPICAL FIRING 2JL_ TEMPERATURE REACHED TIME TO REACH TEMPERATURE LENGTH OF SOAK HOURS HOURS TOTAL FIRING TIME START TO SHUT DOWN 21 HOURS COOL DOWN TIME 24 HOURS 20 10 MIN. _MIN. MIN. MIN. TOTAL TIME FROM START UP TO TEMPERATURE & BACK DOWN TO UNLOADING TEMPERATURE. 48 HOURS MIN. ARE YOU FAMILIAR WITH THE DANGERS OF REDUCTION FIRING ? IF SO STATE THE DANGERS. 90. PLEASE PLOT ON THIS GRAPH A TYPICAL FIRING, 1500°C 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100°C 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Reduction INDICATE ANY PROBLEMS CREATED DURING FIRING BY: WIND RAIN PROPANE TANK FREEZING ' OUTSIDE TEMP. FUEL (PRESSURE) COOL SPOTS IN KILN HUMIDITY GAS SERVICE REDUCTION PLEASE WRITE A BRIEF PARAGRAPH INDICATING HOW YOUR KILN HAS FUNCTIONED UP TO THIS POINT. PLEASE MAKE A SKETCH OF YOUR KILN OR INCLUDE A COPY (PHOTO) OF ANY PLANS YOU MADE. MAKE SURE YOU INCLUDE ANY CHANGES YOU MADE SINCE TO IMPROVE THE OPERATION. PLEASE SKETCH A LOCATION DRAWING OF YOUR KILN ON YOUR PROPERTY INCLUDE USUAL WIND DIRECTION,TALL TREES,BUILDINGS, ETC. I F KILN IS EXPOSED OR I F IT IS INCLOSED, THE DISTANCE FROM YOUR HOUSE OR STUDIO^VENTILATION,IF APPLICABLE AND FLUE ARE HELPFUL. 93. Ishould l i k e to thank you for your e f f o r t . It i s my hope to v i s i t as many k i l n s i t e s as possible in the near future. I f you would not mind having your k i l n photographed please indicate by f i l l i n g out the area below. Indicate a map i f you think i t might be necessary. NAME, ; ADDRESS , . . PHONE [ , MAP: IF YOU DO NOT MIND HAVING ME REFER TO YOUR KILN IN A THESIS PUBLICATION OR TO OTHER ARTISTS PLEASE INDICATE THIS BY SIGNING THE SPACE PROVIDED THANK YOU... PLEASE INDICATE A L L OF THE INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR KILN THAT YOU CAN. MAKE THE INFORMATION AS ACCURATE AS YOU CAN. I F SOMETHING CANNOT BE REMEMBERED OR RECALLED PLEASE GUESS AND MARK IT ACCORDINGLY. 1. YOUR NAME ADDRESS m ^ PHONE _ , ;  2. HAS YOUR KILN BEEN INSPECTED BY THE FIRE MARSHALL GAS INSPECTOR 3. HAVE YOU CONSULTED ANY ONE REGUARDING THE CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN OF YOUR K I L N ? I F SO PLEASE INDICATE THE NAMES AND ADDRESSES I F POSSIBLE. PLEASE L I S T BOOKS,PAMPHLETS,THESIS OR OTHER PUBLICATIONS IN WHICH YOU FOUND HELPFUL INFORMATION. I F YOUR GAS KILN WAS PURCHASED PLEASE INDICATE THE MANUFACTURERS NAME ADDRESS AND ANY INFORMATION YOU FEE L IS HELPFUL REGUARDING THE EFFICIENCY OF THIS KILN. 6. PLEASE INDICATE DATE THE KILN WAS INSTALLED OR FIRST FIRED. DAY MONTH YEAR 7. PLEASE STATE THE NUMBER OF FIRINGS THE KILN HAS MADE INDICATE THE APPROXIMATE COST OF A FIRING INDICATE THE AMOUNT OF FUEL USED IN A TYPICAL FIRING KILN DESIGN 97. IS YOUR KILN UPDRAFT DOWNDRAFT CROSSDRAFT IF OTHER PLEASE SPECIFY SPRUNG ARCH CATERNARY ARCH CUBE ROUND IF OTHER PLEASE SPECIFY IF YOUR KILN IS MULTI-CHAMBERED PLEASE INDICATE THE INFORMATION FOR EACH CHAMBER BY NUMBERING THE CHAMBERS 1, 2, 3, AND SO ON. INCLUDE A SKETCH SO THAT THE CHAMBERS CAN BE IDENTIFIED. PROPORTIONS OF THE KILN EXTERNAL. WIDTH. THE OUTER EXTREMITY ACROSS THE FRONT X . HEIGHT. FROM BASE TO TOP OF KILN. . DEPTH. FROM FRONT TO BACK PROPORTIONS OF KILN INTERNAL. WIDTH. MAXIMUM INTERNAL WIDTH HOT FACE TO HOT FACE. HEIGHT. FROM TOP OF VENT O FROM TOP OF LOWER MOST SHELF TO TOP OF INSIDE. DEPTH. FROM INSIDE OF CLOSED DOOR TO INSIDE REAR. ON THE REVERSE SIDE OF THIS PAGE PLEASE SKETCH THE KILN FLOOR, WALL, AND ROOF INCLUDE THICKNESS, MAKE, TYPE OF MATERIALS USED. EXAMPLE. \ \ ^RICKS' FB.OM FAifcGY J( Co. USABLE K I L N SPACE- Th.. SPACE FOR SETTING ARES. WIDTH - THE DISTANCE BETWEEN BAG WALLS. I F NO BAG WALLS DIST. OF SET WARES HEIGHT- THE DISTANCE FROM THE TOP OF THE USABLE FLOOR TO THE INSIDE TOP OF THE K l l S DEPTH - THE DISTANCE FROM THE INSIDE OF THE DOOR TO THE INSIDE REAR OF THE K I L N . S I Z E OF FLUE OPENING - THE EXHAUST VENT S I Z E OF OPENING AT E X I T FROM CHAMBER HORIZONTAL DISTANCE FROM I N S I D E FLUE OPENING TO THE V E R T I C A L SHAFT OF THE CHIMNEY. V E R T I C A L R I S E I F ANY S I Z E OF VERTCAL SHAFT HEIGHT OF V E R T I C A L SHAFT (CHIMNEY) DAMPER PLEASE SKETCH IN LOCATION I F POSSIBLE POSITIONS DURING F I R I N G PLEASE INDICATE % CLOSED FOR HOURS INDICATED BURNERS TYPE- I F PURCHASED STATE MAKE Homemade MODEL MANUFACTURER ADDRESS I F HOME MADE A SKETCH WOULD BE HELPFUL INDICATE S I Z E OF O R I F I C E WGS 10 99. JUMBER OF BURNERS INCLUDE LOCATION OF BURNERS ON THE KILN SKETCH B.T.U. RATING OF 1 BURNER PER HOUR FULL OPEN A p p r o x . 200,000 B > T > T J | DO YOU HAVE CIRCLE I F YES PILOT LIT E S AUTO-SAFETY SHUT OFF KILN SITTER ELECTRONIC KILN CONTROL PYROMETER PLEASE INDICATE ANY OTHER CONTROLS BURNER PORTS SI Z E OF BURNER PORT(SIZE OF OPENING BURNER TO KILN) 5 " X 6 * 5 " SIZE OF ANY SECONDARY AIR SOURCES X FUEL CIRCLE THE CORRECT ONE NATURAL GAS WOOD PROPANE OTHER PLEASE SPECIFY OIL TIME AMOUNT OF TIME USED IN A TYPICAL FIRING TEMPERATURE REACHED o C MIN, _MIN. _MIN, MIN. TIME TO REACH TEMPERATURE HOURS LENGTH OF SOAK HOURS TOTAL FIRING TIME START TO SHUT DOWN HOURS COOL DOWN TIME HOURS TOTAL TIME FROM START UP TO TEMPERATURE & BACK DOWN TO UNLOADING TEMPERATURE. HOURS MIN ARE YOU FAMILIAR WITH THE DANGERS OF REDUCTION FIRING ? I F SO STATE THE DANGERS. E x p l o s i o n . 100. PLEASE PLOT ON THIS GRAPH A TYPICAL FIRING. 1500°C ti r - 1 1 j 1 1 1 1 1 j j 1 1 1 1400 • -1300 1200 1100 1000 900 • 800 700 600 1 500 1 t 400 : : 300 1 200 1 100°C j 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 INDICATE ANY PROBLEMS CREATED DURING FIRING BY: WIND RAIN PROPANE 'TANK FREEZING OUTSIDE TEMP. FUEL (PRESSURE) COOL SPOTS IN KILN HUMIDITY GAS SERVICE REDUCTION PLEASE WRITE A BRIEF PARAGRAPH INDICATING HOW YOUR KILN HAS FUNCTIONED UP TO THIS POINT. L o s e s p r e s s u r e a t end o f some f i r i n g s . U neven temp, f r o n t t o r e a r , and s i d e s . PLEASE MAKE A SKETCH OF YOUR KILN OR INCLUDE A COPY (PHOTO) O F 1 0 1 * ANY PLANS YOU MADE. MAKE SURE YOU INCLUDE ANY CHANGES YOU MADE SINCE TO IMPROVE THE OPERATION. PLEASE SKETCH A LOCATION DRAWING OF YOUR KILN ON YOUR PROPERTY * INCLUDE USUAL WIND DIRECTION,TALL TREES,BUILDINGS, ETC. I F KILN IS EXPOSED OR I F IT IS INCLOSED, THE DISTANCE FROM YOUR HOUSE OR STUDIO^VENTILATION,IF APPLICABLE AND FLUE ARE HELPFUL. 103 I s h o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k y o u f o r y o u r e f f o r t . I t i s my hope t o v i s i t as many k i l n s i t e s as p o s s i b l e i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . I f you w o u l d n o t m i n d h a v i n g y o u r k i l n p h o t o g r a p h e d p l e a s e i n d i c a t e by f i l l i n g o u t t h e a r e a b elow. I n d i c a t e a map i f y o u t h i n k i t m i g h t be n e c e s s a NAME , . ADDRESS : . . PHONE MAP: I F YOU DO NOT MIND HAVING ME REFER TO YOUR KILN IN A THESIS PUBLICATION OR TO OTHER ARTISTS PLEASE INDICATE THIS BY SIGNING THE SPACE PROVIDED THANK YOU.... 104. KILN FIRING 18 CU.FT. GAS KILN USING MODEL LOG FOR BUILT BY AUTHOR PROVIDED. 105. F i r i n g No. 1 KILN FIRING LOG KILN LOAD DISCRIPTION DATE: S a t . Nov. 20, 1976 1. 8. - B e g i n r e d u c i n g p o r t s 30%, Damper 50%, 2. S p y h o l e s show s m a l l f l a m e , . Top & Bot-.t-.om 6 down . _3. 9. 4. 1 0 . 5. n 6. 1 7 . 7- . KTT.N SMOKTNO DTTFI T O T T J S T T T A T T r i W RTTCTJ OFF. 11:30 a.m. TYPE OF DAY Sunny (Warm) R a i n C l o u d y Wind D i r e c t i o n NONE D u l l Speed GRAPH DAMPER % OPEN 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 / 900 800 \ 700 — - V \ 600 y 500 / 400 300 200 7 / 100* / 1 i i - i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15' 16 17 18 19 20 S 1 •'< 2 3 4 1 2 •3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 106. 10 -K I L N F I R I N G LOG F i r i n g No. 2 K I L N LOAD D I S C R I P T I O N 4 A l l 4 b u r n e r s l o w a s p o s s i b l e DATE: F r i . Nov. 26, 1976  - 1 2 noon, o p e n damper & p o r t s 5 Damper h e a t good - 2:00 o p e n d o o r 8 t u r n e d a l l 4 t o 5 0 % 11:30 r e d u c t i o n c y c l e 9:30 a.m. remove p l u g s , c r e a t e d r a f t TYPE OF DAY Sunny ( C o l d ) C l o u d y D u l l 4:00 p.m. R a i n W i n d D i r e c t i o n NONE S p e e d GRAPH 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 BURNERS _1 % OPEN 2 DAMPER % OPEN 2: 2 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 107 10 - F i r i n g No. 3 KILN FIRING LOG KILN LOAD DISCRIPTION DATE: Nov. 2 7/77 3:45 p.m. ON 85 p i e c e s l o a d e d  1 0 - 1 0 4 5 ° 1:40 a.m. OFF - soak f o r 30 m i n .  10:00 a.m. Open a l l dampers, p l u g s & p o r t s .  12 noon OPENING — EXCELLENT FIRING TYPE OF DAY Sunny ( C l e a r + C o l d ) C l o u d y D u l l R a i n Wind D i r e c t i o n S peed 20 mph, G u s t i n g S o u t h & West GRAPH 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 y 700 600 500 400 s 300 200 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 S 1. 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 % OPEN DAMPER % OPEN 10 -KILN LOM) DISCRIPTION KILN FIRING LOG F i r i n g No. 4 DATE: Dec. 22/76 1 ? wnnw C o u l d h a v e f i r e d much q u i c k e r  some w a r p i n g o f wares  TYPE OF DAY Sunny ( C l e a r ) C l o u d y D u l l GRAPH R a i n Wind D i r e c t i o n NONE Speed (SE 15 mph - end o f f i r i n g ) 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 - -1000 s 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 S 1 -2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 % OPEN DAMPER % OPEN 10 -KILN FIRING LOG KILN LOAD DISCRIPTION 11 A.M. F i r i n g No. 5 DATE: May 29, 1977 4 c o i l b u i l t v a s e s f o r G. H a n i s 3 l a r g e b o w l s - P o r c e l a i n S c u l p t u r e S t o n e w a r e Gas M e t e r 147.5 TYPE OF DAY Sunny C l o u d y D u l l R a i n Wind D i r e c t i o n N I L Speed GRAPH 150o| 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 / 900 800B 700 600 500 s 4001 300| 200| i o o | ^ I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 S 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 - J DAMPER % OPEN -1-10, 10 - F i r i n g No. 6 KILN FIRING LOG KILN LOAD DISCRIPTION DATE: A p r . 11/77 L a r g e V a s e s  21 mugs f o r B.C.T.F. Eng. T e a c h . A s s o c .  4 l a r g e b o w l s  Beads  S c u l p t u r e  TYPE OF DAY Sunny + C l o u d y D u l l , R a i n W ind D i r e c t i o n SW + SE Speed 5-15 mph GRAPH 1500 •* 1 1400 i 1300 • 1200 i 1100 1000 s 900 N 800 700 s 600 500 \ 400 300 200 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 £ 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 % OPEN DAMPER % OPEN REFERENCE CITATIONS L e a c h , B.; A P o t t e r s Book. F e b e r & F a b e r L t d . London, 1967 pp. 189. I b i d pp. 5. Rhodes, D.; K i l n s D e s i g n , C o n s t r u c t i o n and O p e r a t i o n . C h i l t o n Book Co., P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1968 pp. 116-140. O l s e n , F . L.; The K i l n Book. Keramos Books, C a l i f o r n i a , 1973 pp. 25. C o l s o n , F.A.; K i l n B u i l d i n g w i t h S p a c e Age M a t e r i a l s . V an N o s t r a n d , R e i n h o l d , N.Y., 1975. C l a c h e r i e , J . ; K i l n P a m p h l e t . A l b e r t a Gas A u t h o r i t y , C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a . R i t c h i e , R.W.; Gas K i l n F i r i n g . Keramos Books, C a l i f o r n i a , 1975 pp. 30-31. O l s e n , F.L.; 1973 pp. 25 I b i d . pp. 27 C l a c h e r i e , J . ; K i l n P a m p h l e t R e s e a r c h . A l b e r t a Gas A u t h o r i t y . P r o v i n c i a l Gas I n s p e c t i o n C o d e s . Rhodes, D.; 1968 pp. 118 C l a c h e r i e , J . ; I b i d . I b i d . Rhodes, D.; pp. 77 BIBLIOGRAPHY B a l l , F.C.; S y l l a b u s f o r B e g i n n i n g C e r a m i c s . Keramous Books, B a s s e t t , C a l i f . 1971. B a l l , F.C.; S y l l a b u s f o r A d v a n c e d C e r a m i c s . Keramous Books, B a s s e t t , C a l i f . 1972. C l a c h e r i e , J . K i l n P a m p h l e t . A l b e r t a Gas A u t h o r i t y , C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a . C o l s o n , F.A.; K i l n B u i l d i n g w i t h S p a c e Age M a t e r i a l s . V a n N o s t r a n d , R e i n h o l d , N.Y. 1975. L e a c h , B.; A P o t t e r s Book. F a b e r & F a b e r L t d . , London, 1967. O l s e n , F . L .; The K i l n Book. Keramous Books, C a l i f o r n i a . 1973. Rhodes, D.; K i l n s : D e s i g n , C o n s t r u c t i o n and O p e r a t i o n C h i l t o n Book Co. P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1968. R i t c h i e , R.W.; Gas K i l n F i r i n g . Keramous Books, C a l i f o r n i a , 1975. 113. ADDITIONAL CERAMICS BOOKS B a l l , F.C. and L o v o o s , J a n i c e ; M a k i n g P o t t e r y W i t h o u t A W h e e l . V a n N o s t r a n d , R e i n h o l d , N.Y. 1965. B e r e n s o h n , P.; F i n d i n g One's Way W i t h C l a y . Simon and S c h u s t e r , N.Y. 1972. Cardew, M.; P i o n e e r P o t t e r y . Dodd, A.E.; D i c t i o n a r y o f C e r a m i c s . L i t t l e f i e l d , Adams and Co., N . J . 1964. D i c k e r s o n , J . ; Raku Handbook. V a n N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d • L t d . , N.Y. 1972. D i c k e r s o n , J . ; P o t t e r y M a k i n g : A C o m p l e t e G u i d e . Thomas N e l s o n and Sons L t d . London, 1974. F r e n c h , N.; I n d u s t r i a l C e r a m i c s : T a b l e w a r e . O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . N.Y. 1972. G r e e n , D.; U n d e r s t a n d i n g P o t t e r y G l a z e s . F a b e r and F a b e r L t d . , London, 1963. G r e b a n i e r , J . ; C h i n e s e S t o n e w a r e G l a z e s . W a t s o n - G u p t i l l P u b l i c a t i o n s , N.Y. 1975. H a m i l t o n , D.; P o t t e r y and C e r a m i c s . Thames and Hudson L t d . London, 1974. N e l s o n , G.C.; C e r a m i c s : A P o t t e r s Handbook. H o l t , R i n e h a r t a n d W i n s t o n , I n c . N.Y. 1971. L e a c h , B.; A P o t t e r ' s Work. Adams and Mackay L t d . 1967. L e a c h , B.; The P o t t e r s C h a l l e n g e . C l a r k e , I r w i n and Co. L t d . Canada. 1975. Reeve, J . ; The P o t t e r s Raw M a t e r i a l s . V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l o f A r t . 1973. Rhodes, D.; C l a y and G l a z e s f o r t h e P o t t e r . C h i l t o n Book Co. P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1957. Rhodes, D.; S t o n e w a r e a n d P o r c e l a i n . C h i l t o n Book Co., P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1959. 114. A d d i t i o n a l C e r a m i c s Books ( c o n t . d ) Rhodes, D.; P o t t e r y Form. C h i l t o n Book Co. O n t a r i o . 1976. R i e g g e r , H.; Raku: A r t and T e c h n i q u e . -V a n N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d . N.Y. 1970. Ruscoe, W.; G l a z e s f o r t h e P o t t e r . Academy E d i t i o n s . 1974. 

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