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The role of adult education in the adoption of innovations by cocoa growers in Ghana Opare, Kwadwo Dua 1976

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THE ROLE OF ADULT EDUCATION IN THE ADOPTION OF INNOVATIONS BY COCOA GROWERS IN GHANA by KWADWO DUA OPARE Diploma i n Ag r i c . , T r o p i c a l A g r i c . College, Deventer, The Netherlands, 1965 Diploma i n A g r i c . Educ. and Extension, T r o p i c a l A g r i c . College, Deventer, The Netherlands, 1966 B.Sc.(Agric.), M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , Montreal, 1968 M.Sc, Un i v e r s i t y of Guelph, Guelph, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1976 © Kwadwo Dua Opare, 1976 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Faculty of Education The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 ABSTRACT This study was designed to analyse the adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s among cocoa growers i n Ghana and to r e l a t e i t to the correctness of t h e i r knowledge of p r i n c i p l e s underlying the recommended p r a c t i c e s , the growers' sources of cocoa husbandry information, and selected personal and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the growers; and to ex-amine the r e l a t i o n s h i p s discovered and to draw recommendations which w i l l a s s i s t the Ghana Government i n programmes to increase cocoa production. In. order to study these r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a personal interview, using a structured interview schedule, was employed to c o l l e c t the data from a sample of 1,191 cocoa growers i n Ghana. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t associations were found between the adoption of recommended cocoa prac-t i c e s and the correctness of growers' knowledge of p r i n c i p l e s underlying a recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e ; 2) adult education sources of information; and 3) i n d i v i d u a l grower's output of cocoa. The study ind i c a t e d that although the possession of c o r r e c t knowledge of or.i.nciples was c r u c i a l to the adoption of the innovations, the mere pos-session was not always s u f f i c i e n t motivation to e f f e c t adoption. An equally important f a c t o r was adult education sources of information. In addition, there was no i n d i c a t i o n that the adoption of recommended prac-t i c e s was more c l o s e l y l i n k e d with correctness of knowledge than with i i i i i a dult education sources of information. Among the personal and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s studied, number of wives, number of c h i l d r e n , advisory r o l e and number of years engaged i n cocoa growing were p o s i t i v e l y asso-c i a t e d with adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s . Male growers were more apt to adopt innovations than female growers. Age was not r e l a t e d to adoption. L i t e r a c y was p o s i t i v e l y associated with adoption of recom-mended p r a c t i c e s . The study shows that possession of c o r r e c t knowledge of p r i n -c i p l e s i s c r u c i a l to adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s . Thus, access to formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s could contribute to the improved performance of cocoa growers i n Ghana. An obvious mechanism for improvement i s adult education f o r the growers. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES . i x Chapter I. THE PROBLEM SITUATION 1 INTRODUCTION 1 THE PROBLEM OF LOW COCOA PRODUCTION . . . . . . . 2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 9 METHODOLOGY 10 The S e t t i n g 10 The Sample 10 Data C o l l e c t i o n . ., 12 V a l i d i t y of the Instrument . . . . . 13 R e l i a b i l i t y of the Instrument 14 S e l e c t i o n of Innovations . . . . . . . . . . 17 Measures of Adoption Behaviour . 21 Estimates of Measurement R e l i a b i l i t y . . . . . . 26 Measures of Personal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . . . . 26 Measures of Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 27 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY . 28 I I . THEORETICAL FRAME OF REFERENCE AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE . . . 29 i v V Chapter Page NATURAL SOCIETAL SETTING 29 FORMAL INSTRUCTIONAL SETTING 30 CLASSIFICATION OF SOURCES OF INFORMATION 35 PERSONAL AND ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH ADOPTION 39 HYPOTHESES 44 DATA ANALYSIS . 46 III. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE 48 PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS 48 Age 48 Sex of Grower . 49 Number of Wives 50 Number of Children 51 Literacy 52 ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS 53 Cocoa Growing Experience 53 Cocoa Production 54 ADOPTION BEHAVIOUR 56 Number of Practices Adopted . . . 56 Correct Knowledge of Principles on Recommended Practices 59 Instructional Source of Information . . . . . . . 61 Advisory Role 61 SUMMARY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE 64 v i Chapter Page ANALYSIS OF PREDICTORS OF ADOPTION 67 Testing of Hypotheses 67 J o i n t Influence of Adoption and Other Inde-pendent Variables on Cocoa Production 72 J o i n t Influence of Independent Variables and the Adoption of Recommended Cocoa P r a c t i c e s . . . 73 DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS 75 IV. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . 77 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY 77 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS 77 RECOMMENDATIONS 78 REFERENCES 83 APPENDIX 90 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 91 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. World Cocoa S t a t i s t i c s 7 2. Proportion of Perfect Matches between Test and Retest Response Scores to Selected Questions 16 3. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n by Sources of Information 37 4. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Age 48 5. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Sex 49 6. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by M a r i t a l Status 50 7. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Number of Wives 51 8. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Number of Children 51 9. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by L i t e r a c y . . . . . . . . . . 52 10. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Formal Education 53 11. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Cocoa Growing Experience 54 12. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Cocoa Production . . . . . . 55 13. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by t h e i r Advisory Role 61 14. Means, Standard Deviations and Possible Ranges for Ten Predictor Variables (1,191 Respondents) . . . . 64 15. C o r r e l a t i o n of Ten Variables with Adoption and Cocoa Production 65 16. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of Three Predictor Variables with Cocoa Production 66 v i i v i i i Table Page 17. Six Variables which P r e d i c t Cocoa Production 73 18. Four Variables which P r e d i c t Adoption 74 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Cocoa i n Ghana 6 2. Census Enumeration Areas i n Cocoa B e l t Selected f o r F i e l d Survey 11 3. Paradigm of Sources of Information and Resultant Adoption Behaviour 35 4. A Model of Adoption of Recommended Cocoa P r a c t i c e s Cycle . • 43 5. Number of Recommended Cocoa P r a c t i c e s which were Adopted 57 6. Discrepancies between Correct Knowledge and Actual Adoption 58 7. Correct Knowledge on Recommended Cocoa Pr a c t i c e s - . 60 8. Formal I n s t r u c t i o n a l S e t t i n g Sources of Information on Recommended Cocoa P r a c t i c e s 62 9. The Relationship between Correct Knowledge and Formal I n s t r u c t i o n a l S e t t i n g Sources of Information 63 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to express my appreciation to the members of my committee, Professors Coolie Verner, John C o l l i n s , James Thornton, Dale Rusnell, and D. J . Dorling f o r t h e i r continuing assistance, advice and support over the period of t h i s study. In p a r t i c u l a r , I am indebted to Professor Coolie Verner who went so f a r i n h i s generosity as to continue to pro-vide d i r e c t i o n and guidance from h i s s a b b a t i c a l , and Professor John C o l l i n s who a s s i s t e d i n the an a l y s i s f a r beyond the c a l l of duty. The author i s indebted to the Ghana Cocoa Research Co-ordinating Committee f o r providing the funds f o r the data c o l l e c t i o n and the Univer-s i t y of Ghana-University of Guelph P r o j e c t (C.I.D.A.) f o r granting me the fellowship. I am g r a t e f u l to Professors James Shute, D i r e c t o r of Ghana-Guelph Project, Douglas Ple t c h , P r o j e c t Leader (1973-74), and Gary Dickinson, P r i n c i p a l of East Kootenay College, f o r t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l contributions at d i f f e r e n t stages of the study. Much c r e d i t goes to my parents, Papa Kwasi Opare and Mammy Adwoa Ataa f o r providing me i n s p i r a t i o n , moral support and by foregoing t h e i r own needs i n order to use t h e i r meagre income from cocoa growing to educate me. The author wishes to express great appreciation to h i s wife, Frema, who provided encouragement and d i s p l a y of patience needed to com-p l e t e the programme. F i n a l l y , the author i s indebted to the cocoa growers i n Ghana who were kind enough to contribute t h e i r time f o r the interviews. x CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM SITUATION INTRODUCTION The cocoa tree , Theobroma cacao, an indigenous plant to the upper Amazon basin i n South America, i s documented to have been grown i n the Gold Coast (Ghana) as e a r l y as 1815 but the crop d i d not spread due to i n t e r n a l wars (Beckett, 1972). The Basel Church Mission c u l t i v a t e d cocoa i n a h o r t i c u l t u r a l garden from pods they had brought from Surinam (Dutch Guiana). The f i r s t harvesting of the cocoa from the Mission garden was recorded i n 1886 (Beckett, 1972). Out o f the pods harvested, seeds were sown i n other nearby Mission house gardens. This exotic p l a n t a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of Ghanaians and the demand to t r y the new p l a n t l e d to such p i l f e r i n g that the Mission houses had to fence t h e i r gardens. Cocoa became an important commercial crop and spread to a l l p a rts of the f o r e s t b e l t a f t e r the return of a Ghanaian, Tetteh Quarshie, from Fernando Po, an Island i n the Gulf of Guinea, i n 1879. Having worked i n Fernando Po, Tetteh Quarshie saw the importance of cocoa as a commercial crop and brought pods to sow i n Ghana. Cocoa had been introduced i n t o the Islands of the Gulf of Guinea i n the seventeenth century by the Spanish, the Dutch, and the Portuguese. The importance of cocoa i n Ghana economy r e s u l t e d i n the estab-lishment of a Cocoa Research S t a t i o n at Tafo i n 1938 to i n v e s t i g a t e cocoa husbandry problems. The Cocoa Research S t a t i o n became the West A f r i c a n Cocoa Research I n s t i t u t e (W.A.C.R.I.) i n 1944 serving Ghana and other 2 West A f r i c a n cocoa growing areas. In 1963, the research organization be-came the n a t i o n a l cocoa research organization, Cocoa Research I n s t i t u t e of Ghana (Beckett, 1972). Although cocoa research has been going on i n Ghana f o r at l e a s t t h i r t y - s e v e n years, the average y i e l d achieved by cocoa grower i s about 300 pounds of dry cocoa beans per acre compared with about 800 pounds on research farms. THE PROBLEM OF LOW COCOA PRODUCTION The Cocoa Research I n s t i t u t e of Ghana, which s c i e n t i f i c a l l y sup-ports the cocoa industry; the Cocoa D i v i s i o n of the M i n i s t r y of Cocoa A f f a i r s , whose main function i s t o . " s e l l " and d i f f u s e the research f i n d -ings of cocoa research to cocoa growers; and the Ghana Government are a l l concerned with the wide gap between research f i n d i n g s and what the aver-age cocoa grower i n Ghana p r a c t i c e s on h i s farm. Their concern stems from the f a c t that modernization of the cocoa industry i s of major impor-tance to Ghana since her economy depends, to a large extent, on the incomes that accrue from the s a l e of cocoa on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l market. In most developing countries, there are research findings a v a i l -able to increase food production and to reduce c h i l d - b i r t h s while there i s lack o f t e c h n i c a l know-how on how r a p i d l y and e f f e c t i v e l y to teach people to use these research f i n d i n g s . Hagerstrand (1968:177) in d i c a t e d that " d i f f u s i o n of innovation i s all-important p a r t of the economic growth i n a l l countries but p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n those that need develop-ment. Thus a s i g n i f i c a n t question i s to f i n d out how the d i f f u s i o n of innovations can be accelerated." Pool (1963:249) suggested that 3 transforming t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e w i l l require "the development of a s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e towards the adoption of new p r a c t i c e . I t i s only that kind of i n t e r n a l change i n the l a t e n t s t r u c t u r e of h i s (the peasant's) a t t i t u d e s that would produce s e l f - s u s t a i n e d movement toward modernization." Jones, quoted by the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement of A g r i c u l -t u r a l Sciences i n A f r i c a stated: The l a g between knowledge and p r a c t i c e i s u s u a l l y long, but i n some parts of A f r i c a i t has seemed to be i n f i n i t e . The value of research f i n d i n g s , however great, remains p o t e n t i a l only u n t i l they are t r a n s -mitted to him who w i l l use them i n productive p r a c t i c e s . A g r i c u l -t u r a l research s t a t i o n s i n many parts of t r o p i c a l A f r i c a now are r e p o s i t o r i e s of knowledge that would profoundly a f f e c t p r o d u c t i v i t y but they have encountered continuing d i f f i c u l t y i n p u t t i n g t h i s knowledge to work. Both continued research and expanded and more imaginative educational programmes w i l l be required . . . . (O.E.C.D., 1975: i i i ) Commenting on the performance of cocoa growers i n Ghana, a Com-missioner f o r M i n i s t r y of Cocoa A f f a i r s stated: One i s tempted to admit that Government has not been g e t t i n g the value for the money spent on cocoa research and cocoa r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . (Benasko, 1973:6) A Cabinet M i n i s t e r i n the erstwhile Progress Party Government Administration i n d i c a t e d : The stagnation of a g r i c u l t u r e over large areas of the world i s due to f a i l u r e by a g r i c u l t u r a l science to evolve s u i t a b l e technologies and to propagate them e f f e c t i v e l y among farmers. (Mensah, 1966: 1979) Hoffer and Strangland (1958) stressed that perhaps p r o f i t alone i s not 4 s u f f i c i e n t motivation to influence adoption of farm p r a c t i c e s since i n most cases the innovation being introduced has proved to be remunerative but adoption f a i l s to occur, nonetheless. Rogers and Shoemaker (1971: 142) have in d i c a t e d that "economic p r o f i t a b i l i t y may be even l e s s impor-tant for peasant farmers i n l e s s developed countries." This view i s sup-ported by studies among peasant farmers i n Punjabi, India ( F l i e g e l et a l . , 1968). Rogers and Shoemaker (1971:143) furt h e r quoted from the President's Science Advisory Committee report of 1967 which states that "to induce farmers [in the United States] to change, the p o t e n t i a l pay-o f f must be h i g h — n o t 5 to 10 per cent but 50 to 100 per cent." This suggests that a broader and more comprehensive explanation of the adop-t i o n behaviour of farmers needs to be achieved. This study was designed to analyse the adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s among cocoa growers i n Ghana and to r e l a t e i t to the growers' sources of cocoa husbandry information, t h e i r knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying the innovation and t h e i r personal and economic status i n d i c a t o r s ; and to r e l a t e these fin d i n g s to the theory of method and other research on the adoption of innovations. Although t h i s study draws he a v i l y upon l i t e r a t u r e on the theory of method (Verner, 1962, 1975) and on the concept of adoption of innovation, i t i s unique i n some respects due to the f a c t that the a s s o c i a t i o n between for m a l i t y of the source of growers' information, correctness of growers' knowledge of p r i n c i p l e s underlying innovations and t h e i r ultimate e f f e c t on changes i n behaviour (adoption) have not been put f o r t h per se i n any adoption study i n Ghana. 5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Cocoa i s grown on 3.6 m i l l i o n acres representing about 70 per cent of the c u l t i v a t e d land i n Southern Ghana or 56 per cent of a l l c u l -t i v a t e d land i n Ghana (Figure 1). The cocoa industry provides employment f o r about 15 per cent o f the labour force and contributes about 65 per cent of the f o r e i g n exchange from exports. The c o n t r i b u t i o n of the cocoa industry to the Government's revenue i s about 30 per cent (Bank of Ghana, 1974). The importance of Ghana i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade i s due to the country's p o s i t i o n as the l a r g e s t producer and exporter of cocoa, account-ing f o r about 30 per cent of the world cocoa exports. In recent years Ghana's cocoa production has been d e c l i n i n g although the p r i c e of cocoa on the world market i s high (Table 1). The d e c l i n e of cocoa production i n Ghana and the increase i n the production of cocoa by other countries, threatens Ghana's r o l e as the dominant cocoa producing country i n the world. Another concern f o r the d e c l i n e i n Ghana's cocoa production i s due to the f a c t that Ghana's current cocoa production i s f a r below the quota granted her under the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Cocoa Agreement (580,900 tons), but the mechanisms of the Agreement provide that i f Ghana's production f a l l s below 465,000 tons i n any of the crop seasons,^ the quota w i l l have to be renegotiated and reduced (Bank of Ghana, 1974). The d e c l i n i n g trend i n Ghana's cocoa production i s a l l e g e d to be due to a number of f a c t o r s , prominent among which i s the u n s c i e n t i f i c farm husbandry of growers i n Ghana despite the f a c t that researchers have made di s c o v e r i e s which when adopted can lead to increases i n y i e l d s . ^ Refers to cocoa seasons before September 1976. F I G U R E 1 DISTRIBUTION OF COCOA 7 TABLE 1 WORLD COCOA STATISTICS Total World's Ghana1s Ghana's Fraction Year Output Output of (Kilotons) (Kilotons) World Production 1959-60 1,039 317 30.5 1960-61 1,173 433 36.9 1961-62 1,124 410 36.5 1962-63 1,158 422 36.4 1963-64 1,218 436 35.8 1964-65 1,484 557 37.5 1965-66 1,208 410 33.9 1966-67 1,336 376 28.1 1967-68 1,341 415 30.9 1968-69 1,227 334 27.2 1969-70 1,424 409 28.7 Source: J. E. A. Manu, "Cocoa in Ghana's Economy," Cocoa Economics Re-search Conference, Accra, 9-12 Apr i l 1973, p. 2. 8 An e d i t o r i a l i n the Ghana Daily Graphic (1974:24 May) stated " i t appears that one of the leading causes of the d e c l i n e i n production i s that cocoa farming has remained f a r too long a t r a d i t i o n a l industry which has been denied a basis f o r modernization." The Cocoa Research I n s t i t u t e of Ghana i s constantly developing and t e s t i n g new ideas to solve cocoa husbandry problems. The I n s t i t u t e i conducts research under c o n t r o l l e d laboratory conditions as w e l l as on small scale f i e l d experiments i n the various e c o l o g i c a l zones. The Cocoa Production D i v i s i o n repeats the research findings of the I n s t i t u t e on a large scale on farms and on agronomy s t a t i o n s . A discovery made i s passed to a j o i n t t e c h n i c a l committee of the Cocoa Research I n s t i t u t e and Cocoa Production D i v i s i o n f or c r i t i c a l evaluation of i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y and f i n a l l y , i f the committee i s convinced of the usefulness of the f i n d -ing, the Government i s then advised to take the required a c t i o n . The Cocoa Production D i v i s i o n then c a r r i e s out the Government's cocoa p o l i c y through the p r o v i s i o n of inputs and extension s e r v i c e s . There are, therefore, research f i n d i n g s a v a i l a b l e i n the research stat i o n s i n Ghana to increase cocoa production but there i s lack of a b i l i t y to r a p i d l y and e f f i c i e n t l y e f f e c t adoption of the research f i n d -ings by cocoa growers. The adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s i s of great importance i f cocoa production i s to improve. Rogers and Shoemaker stated that: A f u r t h e r reason f o r the prime focus on innovativeness i n d i f f u s i o n research, e s p e c i a l l y i n l e s s developed countries, i s that innovative-ness i s the best s i n g l e i n d i c a t o r of modernization. Innovativeness in d i c a t e s behavioural change, the ultimate goal of modernization pro-grams, rather than c o g n i t i v e or a t t i t u d i n a l change. (1971:175-76) 9 RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The d e c i s i o n to adopt a recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e by a cocoa grower i s influenced by many f a c t o r s , among which are the source from which the grower obtains information about the new p r a c t i c e , the c o r r e c t -ness of the grower's knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying the recom-mended p r a c t i c e as well as the personal and economic status of the grower. Ghana Government, and organizations i n t e r e s t e d i n the moderniza-t i o n of cocoa husbandry cannot s u c c e s s f u l l y e f f e c t the adoption of improved cocoa p r a c t i c e s through l e g i s l a t i o n but can influence the de-c i s i o n making process of the grower through adult education. Adult educators can provide the cocoa grower with c o r r e c t information of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying a recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e through organized edu-c a t i o n a l programmes. The objectives of t h i s study, therefore, are twofold. The f i r s t o b jective i s to e s t a b l i s h the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the adoption of recom-mended cocoa p r a c t i c e s among Ghana cocoa growers, and: 1) the c o r r e c t understanding of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying the recom-mended p r a c t i c e s ; 2) the educational formality of the information source; 3) whether adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s i s more c l o s e l y l i n k e d with the correctness of the grower's knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying the recommended p r a c t i c e s than with the educational formality of the information source; and 10 4) personal and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of cocoa growers. The second obj e c t i v e i s to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p s discovered and to draw recommendations which w i l l a s s i s t the Ghana Government i n programmes to increase cocoa production. METHODOLOGY The S e t t i n g No one cocoa growing area could c o n f i d e n t l y be considered to be representative of a l l cocoa areas i n Ghana. In t h i s study, therefore, a random sample of 1,191 cocoa growers was selected from a l l parts of the cocoa growing b e l t to represent the estimated 300,000 cocoa growers i n Ghana. The Sample A three-stage random sampling procedure was used to s e l e c t the sample f o r t h i s study. F i f t e e n census enumeration areas (Figure 2) cover-ing the whole cocoa growing b e l t were drawn from a l i s t of cocoa producing enumeration areas compiled by the I n s t i t u t e of S t a t i s t i c a l , S o c i a l and Economic Research of the Uni v e r s i t y of Ghana, Legon, using a table of ran-dom numbers. One l o c a l i t y was randomly selected from a l i s t of l o c a l i t i e s i n each enumeration area and a number of households were then selected randomly i n each l o c a l i t y . The number of enumeration areas, l o c a l i t i e s and respondents selected was determined by f i n a n c i a l and time r e s t r i c t i o n s . Rogers et a l . commented: i FIGURE 2 C E N S U S E N U M E R A T I O N A R E A S IN C O C O A B E L T S E L E C T E D F O R F I E L D S U R V E Y 11 12 . . . In l e s s developed countries, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the r u r a l sections of such nations, the most important, and often the most f r u s t r a t i n g problem f a c i n g the survey researcher i s the absence of r e l i a b l e frames from which to sample . . . Under these circumstances, c r e a t i v e sampling techniques must be used i n order to approximate a random sample which allows one to c o n f i d e n t l y generalize from the sample to the population. (1970:2-31) Ghana r u r a l areas are no exception to the non-existence of sam-p l i n g frames. Selected l o c a l i t i e s were di v i d e d i n t o sample blocks de-f i n e d by roads and footpaths entering the l o c a l i t y . Depending on the estimated number of houses i n a l o c a l i t y , a number of households were selected randomly s t a r t i n g from a randomly selected household to ensure that the households selected were dispersed geographically, and a l s o to give each household a chance to be included i n the sample. Every p r i n -c i p a l decision-maker of a cocoa farm l i v i n g i n a selected household was interviewed. Data C o l l e c t i o n The a n a l y t i c a l survey method was used and the p r i n c i p a l means of data c o l l e c t i o n was a personal interview, using a structured interview schedule (see Appendix). The interview schedule was aimed at s o l i c i t i n g information on: 1) Adoption Behaviour—Respondents were asked questions regarding * t h e i r adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s , t h e i r c o r r e c t understanding of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying recommended p r a c t i c e s , t h e i r s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and a d v i s o r y r o l e . 13 2) Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s — Q u e s t i o n s asked i n t h i s section con-s i s t e d of t h e i r cocoa growing experience and production. 3) Personal Characteristics—Respondents were asked questions regard-ing t h e i r age, sex, m a r i t a l status, number of wives, number of ch i l d r e n , and l i t e r a c y . V a l i d i t y of the Instrument In order to ensure that the schedule would measure what i t was intended to measure, i t was drawn i n the En g l i s h language and i t was d i s -cussed with personnel from the Cocoa Economic Research Unit of the Uni v e r s i t y of Ghana to determine the content and face v a l i d i t y . Their comments and suggestions were r e l a t e d to the l o g i c a l order of the ques-ti o n s as well as wording. The schedule was then revised and administered to twenty cocoa farmers. This p r e t e s t r e s u l t e d i n changing some of the questions. For example, i t was found that the l i n g u i s t i c measurement u n i t s , such as a 'rope'(of a f i x e d length) and 'arm s t r e t c h ' (a space covered by a man's extended arms) were u n r e l i a b l e measurements of s i z e of farms since the words meant d i f f e r e n t lengths i n d i f f e r e n t areas. C e r t a i n terms i n vogue with the growers were encountered and these helped i n t r a n s l a t i n g some of the En g l i s h words in t o the vernacular during interviews. Some of the o r i g i n a l questions, such as: "How many c h i l d r e n are i n your household?" was reworded to read: "How many c h i l d r e n do you (yourself) have?" This change was imperative since a l l c h i l d r e n from the extended family would be included i n the respondent's answer. 14 In order to measure l i t e r a c y , respondents were asked to read a passage on a card which stated: "Many thanks for your co-operation i n t h i s study, please write your name at the back of the card." This approach d i d not meet with the approval of most respondents; therefore, the s e l f - d e f i n e d measure of l i t e r a c y was substituted. I t was found that most of the respondents d i d not know t h e i r age; i therefore, h i s t o r i c a l events were used to get an approximate measure i n -cluding: "Were you born i n the year King Prempeh I was e x i l e d to the Seychelles Island by the C o l o n i a l Government?" (1900). "Were you born i n the year King Prempeh I returned from e x i l e ? " (1924). "Were you born i n the Yaa Asantewaa War?" (1900). "Were you born i n the year of the major earthquake i n Ghana?" (1939). "Were you born during the e c l i p s e of the sun?" (1947). R e l i a b i l i t y of the Instrument The r e t e s t method was used to determine the s t a b i l i t y of response scores of ten randomly selected cocoa growers over a period of one month. Ten questions selected randomly from the interview schedule were admin-i s t e r e d to these respondents. One point was awarded f o r every response at the i n i t i a l t e s t . A f t e r the i n i t i a l t e s t , no i n d i c a t i o n was made to show any signs that the t e s t may be repeated at another time. A f t e r a period of one month, the same ten cocoa growers were r e -tested using the same questions but i n a d i f f e r e n t sequence. Each r e t e s t response which p e r f e c t l y matched the e a r l i e r t e s t was assigned a score of one, however, i f the response at the r e t e s t d i f f e r e d from the e a r l i e r 15 t e s t , a zero point was awarded. The t e s t and r e t e s t scores were matched to f i n d the proportion o f p e r f e c t matches i n each of the ten questions. The main obje c t i v e was to f i n d out whether the response scores at the e a r l i e r t e s t i n g were consistent with the r e t e s t responses. The mean pro-po r t i o n of pre/post t e s t matches was .80 which shows a high consistency r e l i a b i l i t y . Table 2 i s presented to show the questions as well as the proportions of p e r f e c t matches between the t e s t and r e t e s t scores. (See p. 26 for estimates of respective r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the content areas.) The interviews were conducted between Ju l y and September, 1973 by s i x students from the Faculty of A g r i c u l t u r e , U n i v e r s i t y of Ghana, who had had several years f i e l d experience i n a g r i c u l t u r e . T r a i n i n g was provided to ensure consistent i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the questions i n the l o c a l d i a l e c t s and to standardize interviewing techniques. The author t r a v e l l e d with the survey team to inform the c h i e f s of the purpose of the survey and to seek co-operation from the cocoa growers i n the l o c a l i -t i e s v i s i t e d . There are b a s i c a l l y two main forms of agrarian farm organizations i n Ghana cocoa growing areas, (1) the v i l l a g e settlement with cocoa farms scattered around a v i l l a g e , and (2) homesteads i n bigger farms where the grower l i v e s on h i s production u n i t . A cocoa grower who l i v e s i n a home-stead maintains a home i n h i s v i l l a g e which he v i s i t s on market days, f e s t i v e days, or when summoned by the v i l l a g e c h i e f . The customary drinks (schnapps) were presented to the c h i e f s f o r l e g i t i m a t i o n of the survey and to inform growers l i v i n g i n homesteads to come to the v i l l a g e f o r the purpose of the survey. 16 TABLE 2 PROPORTION OF PERFECT MATCHES BETWEEN TEST AND RE-TEST RESPONSE SCORES TO SELECTED QUESTIONS Questions Proportion of Pre/Post Test Matches 1. For how many years have you been engaged n Q_ i n cocoa growing? 2. How many loads of cocoa from your own farm ^ gg di d you a c t u a l l y s e l l l a s t cocoa season? 3. What i s your age? 0.60 4. Can you read a newspaper (e.g., Graphic, Q g Q  Times)? 5. How many c h i l d r e n do you (yourself) have? 0.90 6. When mistletoes appear on your cocoa trees do you remove them or leave them on the 0.80 cocoa tree (refers to the l a s t f i v e years)? 7. Why do you remove or do not remove the o n mistletoes? 8. Which source of information provided you with the most i n f l u e n t i a l information leading you to remove or not to remove these mistletoes? 0.90 9. What do you do when you spot a swollen shoot diseased cocoa tree on your farm? Do you remove the diseased tree only, remove the diseased tree plus healthy g^ trees i n contact with the diseased t r e e , do not remove i t or report to Cocoa Production D i v i s i o n O f f i c i a l s to remove i t (refers to the l a s t f i v e years)? 10. Why do you remove the diseased tree only, remove diseased tree plus healthy trees i n contact, not remove i t or report the 0.70 disease to Cocoa Production D i v i s i o n o f f i c i a l s to remove i t ? Mean Proportion of Per f e c t Matches 0.80 17 In order to encourage good responses and v a l i d answers, i n t e r -views with respondents were conducted i n the homes of the growers i n the evenings a f t e r they had returned from t h e i r farms. This informal approach was necessary to e s t a b l i s h proper rapport with respondents as well as to make them f e e l free and be frank about t h e i r responses without fear. Through t h i s approach, the enumerators had an opportunity to i observe respondents' personal reactions to the questions, to probe r e -sponses and to encourage t a l k i n g . The l e g i t i m a t i o n of the survey by the c h i e f s made the respondents who were not used to such i n v e s t i g a t i o n s not r e s i s t a n t to the interviews since the c h i e f s communicated the purpose and implications of the survey to the respondents before the survey. This informal atmosphere i n which the interviews were conducted and the l e g i t i m a t i o n of the survey by the c h i e f s encouraged good r e -sponses, provided v a l i d answers and prevented r e f u s a l s . S e l e c t i o n of Innovations The Cocoa Research I n s t i t u t e of Ghana and the Cocoa Production D i v i s i o n of the M i n i s t r y of Cocoa A f f a i r s recommend a number of improved cocoa husbandry p r a c t i c e s to Ghana cocoa growers. For the purpose of t h i s study, a group of cocoa experts from the Cocoa Research I n s t i t u t e , Cocoa Production D i v i s i o n and the Cocoa Economic Research Unit of the Uni v e r s i t y of Ghana selected a number of cocoa recommendations which, when adopted, should r e s u l t i n increased y i e l d s . The selected p r a c t i c e s were as follows: 18 M i s t l e t o e — T h e mistletoe, Tapinanthus bangowensis, i s the com-monest semi-parasitic plant which a f f e c t s the y i e l d of cocoa trees. By means of a haustorium, the mistletoe attaches i t s e l f to a branch of the cocoa tree r e s u l t i n g i n the formation of a cankerous growth with the surrounding host t i s s u e s . The semi-p a r a s i t i c nature of the mistletoe r e s u l t s i n the reduction of the photosynthetic p o t e n t i a l of the cocoa tree as w e l l as drawing on some of the food f o r the pl a n t and f i n a l l y i t k i l l s the branch to which i t i s attached. Heavy i n f e s t a t i o n of mistletoe r e s u l t s i n reduced y i e l d s and the ultimate death of the tree. The broken canopy caused by the death of the cocoa trees, r e s u l t i n g from the mistletoe attack, a t t r a c t s the cocoa capsids (Room, 1969:522-27). Birds are frequent v i s i t o r s to the mistletoe p l a n t . The flesh y part of the f r u i t s i s eaten by o l i v e - b e l l i e d sunbird, Cinnyris chloropygius. The bi r d s disperse the seeds of the f r u i t by rubbing t h e i r beaks onto other branches to get r i d of the s t i c k y seeds glued to t h e i r beaks. Insects, e s p e c i a l l y ants, Crematogaster and Oecophylla, carry the seeds to other p l a n t s . Mistletoe i s e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l l e d by pruning the p a r a s i t e from the cocoa branches to which i t i s attached. Swollen Shoot—The Swollen Shoot i s a vi r u s disease transmitted by the Mealy bug, Pseudococcus n j a l e n s i s , Pseudococcus c i t r i , or F e r r i s i a v i r g a t a . The mealy bug sucks the sap of the cocoa tree by p i e r c i n g the t i s s u e of the plant, thus transmitting the v i r u s 19 i t had c o l l e c t e d from a diseased tree to a healthy one. The adult mealy bug i s usually sedentary and c r y p t i c i n habit and i s therefore i n e f f e c t i v e i n the spread of the disease. The nymphs, however, are very a c t i v e during the f i r s t i n s t a r and move from tree to tree, thus spreading the v i r u s . The mealy bug i s occa-s i o n a l l y c a r r i e d over long distances by the wind. The c o n t r o l of Swollen Shoot i s to remove diseased trees together with a l l the adjacent trees i n contact with the diseased tr e e . 3. Turning—Good fermentation i s required i f the f i n a l cocoa i s to have the necessary flavour required f o r the manufacture of choco-l a t e . This i s achieved through heat and a temperature ranging between 47° and 51° Centigrade i s maintained during the e n t i r e fermentation period. Underfermentation r e s u l t s i n s l a t y and deep purple beans and overfermentation reduces the required q u a l i t i e s , such beans do not lend themselves to the manufacture o f good chocolate as they r e s u l t i n b i t t e r and s t r i n g e n t t a s t e . Such poor q u a l i t y cocoa fetches lower p r i c e s . The cocoa pods harvested are cracked open with a blunt cut-lass and the placenta i s then removed. The commonest fermenta-t i o n p r a c t i c e i s to place banana leaves on the ground i n a r a d i a l fashion with the bases overlapping. The fr e s h cocoa beans are heaped at the centre and the banana leaves folded over to cover the whole p i l e of cocoa. The heap i s then weighted with s t i c k s or stones to make the cover secure. Cocoa growers are advised to turn and mix t h e i r cocoa on the t h i r d and f i f t h day of 20 fermentation. The turning and mixing ensure even fermentation. Spraying—Capsids, D i s t a n t i e l l a theobroma and Sahlbergella singu- l a r i s , are serious pests o f cocoa i n Ghana. Taylor (1954) e s t i -mated losses due to capsid as between 60,000 and 80,000 tons of cocoa beans per year (15% to 20% of n a t i o n a l production). E l l i o t (1974) estimated y i e l d increases through capsid c o n t r o l i n the i Ivory Coast as 25 per cent. During feeding capsids i n j e c t poisonous s a l i v a (which prob-ably a s s i s t s i n the e x t r a c t i o n of sap from the plant) i n t o the cocoa plant t i s s u e leaving a black puncture which i s e a s i l y i n -fected by a fungus, Colonedri r e g i d i u s s u l a . The l e s i o n s caused through the feeding of the i n s e c t e i t h e r k i l l s the p l a n t or at the l e a s t delays young plants from reaching bearing stage by several years. The shoots of mature trees as w e l l as the pods are also attacked by capsids- Capsid i n f e s t a t i o n becomes serious when more trees i n an area are attacked forming a "capsid pocket." Capsid pockets j o i n to form a vast continuum of complete devesta-t i o n — " a capsid b l a s t . " The cocoa trees severely attacked scarcely survive i f l e f t untreated. The pest i s c o n t r o l l e d by a routine spraying of cocoa trees using Gammalin 20 (lindane B.H.C.) at the rate of 15 ounces i n 5 gallons of water per acre. Both the spraying machines and the i n s e c t i c i d e s used i n spraying are h e a v i l y subsidized by the Government (C.R.I.G., n.d.:2). Harvesting—Much cocoa i s l o s t through infrequent harvesting, 21 e s p e c i a l l y the Amazon and Hybrid v a r i e t i e s . Since the optimum i n t e r v a l between harvests i s twenty-one days, growers are advised to harvest t h e i r cocoa pods at that i n t e r v a l . Frequent harvest-ing also prevents the incidence of blackpod d i s e a s e — a fungal disease caused by Phythophthora palmivora (Urquhart, 1961). Measures of Adoption Behaviour The measures of adoption behaviour were computed i n the follow-ing ways: 1. Adoption Score—The extent of a cocoa grower's adoption p r a c t i c e s was defined o p e r a t i o n a l l y i n terms of h i s scores on ad hoc i n d i c e s . A numerical value of zero was assigned to non-adoption and of one to the adoption of each p r a c t i c e . Thus, a respondent who had followed a l l the f i v e recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s i n the preced-ing f i v e years attained a t o t a l score of f i v e p o i n t s . One po i n t was attained by a grower who reported to operate according to each of the following categories and zero po i n t was awarded f o r non-conformance to each of the recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s : a) Mistletoe control—Grower who states that he prunes the semi-p a r a s i t i c mistletoe pl a n t from the cocoa branch to which i t i s attached. b) Swollen shoot—Grower who claims to uproot a swollen shoot diseased cocoa tree as well as a l l healthy cocoa trees i n contact with the diseased tree or i n v i t e s the Cocoa Production 22 D i v i s i o n to perform the uprooting. c) Turning fermenting cocoa—Grower who reports turning and mix-ing the fermenting heap of cocoa twice, the t h i r d and f i f t h day, during the fermenting period. d) Spraying against capsids—Grower who says that he sprays h i s mature trees with Gammalin 20 at the rate of 15 ounces per 5 gallons water per acre of cocoa farm i n August, September, October, and December. e) Harvesting--Grower who reports harvesting r i p e cocoa pods at an i n t e r v a l of twenty-one days throughout the whole year. 2. Correctness of Knowledge Index Computation—A cocoa grower who had c o r r e c t knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying each of the f i v e recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s was awarded two points while i n -c o r r e c t knowledge received one point. A numerical value of zero was assigned to respondents who had no knowledge—either c o r r e c t or i n c o r r e c t . (The zero scores were not used i n the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis.) The t o t a l correctness of knowledge index f o r each grower could range from zero to ten p o i n t s . Two points were awarded to each grower who made the following c o r r e c t responses: a) Mistletoe c o n t r o l — M i s t l e t o e reduces the cocoa plant's poten-t i a l i n food preparation as w e l l as drawing on some of the food for the p l a n t and f i n a l l y k i l l s the branch to which i t i s attached. b) Swollen shoot disease c o n t r o l — S w o l l e n shoot i s a v i r u s 23 disease spread by mealy bugs onto healthy trees i n contact with diseased tr e e . There i s no cure apart from c u t t i n g out. c) Turning of fermenting heap—Turning and mixing of fermenting cocoa beans on the t h i r d and f i f t h day of fermentation. This procedure r e s u l t s i n even fermentation and prevents poor q u a l i t y beans-slaty and deep purple beans. d) Spraying—Spraying k i l l s the cocoa capsids which feed on the cocoa plants r e s u l t i n g i n retarded growth, l e s i o n s and death of the cocoa tr e e . e) Harvesting—The harvesting of r i p e cocoa pods at twenty-one days i n t e r v a l prevents germination of the beans and the spread of cocoa diseases (e.g., blackpod). Incorrect Knowledge P r i n c i p l e s — T h e following are examples of the i n c o r r e c t knowledge of p r i n c i p l e s underlying recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s that some respondents i n d i c a t e d . These responses r e -ceived a score of one. a) Mistletoe c o n t r o l — •Another plant growing on a cocoa tree i s normal f o r some plan t s . (Probably, the respondents are comparing the growth of mistletoe on cocoa trees with budding and g r a f t i n g among some h o r t i c u l t u r a l p l a n t s , such as c i t r u s . ) •Mistletoe, a small plant, cannot harm a b i g cocoa tr e e . b) Swollen shoot disease c o n t r o l — •The sickness of the cocoa tree i s due to the exhausted con-d i t i o n of nutrients i n the s o i l . •When a human being i s s i c k , he i s cured why should a 24 diseased cocoa tree be " k i l l e d " and not cured. •The incidence of a disease i n my farm i s beyond my c o n t r o l , I b e l i e v e I am unlucky. •The diseased cocoa plant s t i l l bears f r u i t s therefore i t cannot be a l l that " s i c k . " c) Turning of fermenting cocoa heap— •Good drying compensates f or not turning the fermenting heap. •Good fermentation can be achieved without turning the f e r -menting heap. d) Spraying against capsid p e s t — •The i n s e c t pest w i l l move a f t e r a while. •The i n s e c t pest cannot l i v e f o r any length of time, there-fore, why should money and e f f o r t be wasted i n spraying. e) H a r v e s t i n g — •The beans are not heavy i f harvested i n the "Ag r i c u l t u r e way"; and weigh l e s s when the cocoa i s s o l d r e s u l t i n g i n le s s return i n money. 3. Formality of Source of Information Index—Operationally, the sources of information used by Ghana cocoa growers were dichoto-mized i n t o formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l sources and natural s o c i e t a l sources of information. This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based on the categories of Verner and Gubbels (1967:30); Verner (1975:2); and Uwakah (1975:138). The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of sources of information i s , therefore, as follows: 25 a) Formal I n s t r u c t i o n a l Sources of In f o r m a t i o n — •Cocoa D i v i s i o n Technical O f f i c e r s . •Cocoa D i v i s i o n Demonstrations and Shows i n v o l v i n g Technical O f f i c e r s . •Commercial Salesmen. •Farmers' T r a i n i n g Schools. •Purchasing Agents (Cocoa Graders). •Information Services Technical O f f i c e r s . b) Natural S o c i e t a l Sources of I n f o r m a t i o n — •News B u l l e t i n s or Posters. •Radio or Rediffusion. •Fellow Farmers. •Peddlers. •Family or Re l a t i v e s . •Own Experience. In computing the formality index, one poin t was awarded f o r each recommended innovation f o r which the respondent obtained i n -formation from the natural s o c i e t a l sources of information. Two points were assigned to a respondent who used i n s t r u c t i o n a l sources of information f o r each p r a c t i c e . A numerical value of zero was assigned to respondents who d i d not remember t h e i r source of information. (The zero scores were not used i n the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis.) The t o t a l score f o r each respondent, therefore, i s made up of the t o t a l score f o r each of the f i v e recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s and t h i s ranges from zero to ten points. 26 4. Advisory Role Index Computation—Advisory r o l e was measured by a "Yes" (2) or "No" (1) response to a question i f the respondent had advised another cocoa grower i n the preceding f i v e years. Estimates of Measurement R e l i a b i l i t y In i n t e r p r e t i n g s o c i a l research, the matter of measurement r e l i -a b i l i t y merits considerable a t t e n t i o n since i n the absence of a measure-ment r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t , one does not know whether ones instrument i s consistent i n measuring what i t i s designed to measure. The three measurements, adoption score, correctness of knowledge index and formality index were, therefore, subjected to the c o e f f i c i e n t alpha (Nunnally, 1967) measurement o f i n t e r n a l consistency to f i n d the proportion of the t o t a l variance i n the measurement that i s true v a r i -ance. C o e f f i c i e n t alpha provides an accurate estimate of content r e l i -a b i l i t y . The measure of i n t e r n a l consistency ( c o e f f i c i e n t alpha) f o r each of the three measurements i s reasonably s a t i s f a c t o r y . The estimates of measurement r e l i a b i l i t y are .76 for Adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s score, .64 f o r Correctness of Knowledge index, and .80 for Formality of the source of information index. Measures of Personal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of respondents were measured as follows: 1. Age—was s e l f - d e f i n e d and given i n years. 2. Sex—was categorised as male or female. Values assigned were "1" 27 fo r male and "2" for female. 3. Number o f Wives—was measured by the number of females a grower was married to at the time of the survey. 4. Children—was defined as the number of c h i l d r e n i n the immediate family regardless of t h e i r ages or current residences. 5. L i t e r a c y — ( s e l f - d e f i n e d ) was measured by the a b i l i t y of the re-spondent to read a few l i n e s of any of the l o c a l newspaper. Respondents were grouped i n t o i l l i t e r a t e s (1) and l i t e r a t e s (2). 6. Formal Education—was defined as the number of years of formal schooling completed as gleaned from a d i r e c t question. Measures of Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of respondents were measured i n the f o l -lowing manner: 1. Experience—was measured by the number of years the grower had been engaged i n cocoa growing. 2. Cocoa Production—was defined as the number of loads (each load being 60 pounds dry cocoa) of cocoa d e l i v e r e d to the market that cocoa season and was used to measure both income and farm s i z e . This measurement approach was taken because most growers do not know the s i z e of t h e i r farms. Rogers et a l . (1970:4-9) in d i c a t e d that "such q u a n t i f i c a t i o n i s simply not part of the v i l l a g e r ' s l i f e s t y l e . " P o l l y H i l l (1956:85) suggested that "anyone study-ing the [Ghana] cocoa farmer must therefore c o l l e c t information on s i z e [of farms] for himself." 28 Resources d i d not permit t h i s approach i n t h i s study. P o l l y H i l l (1956:84) indi c a t e d that "measurement i n terms of loads not only r e f l e c t the way the economist thinks, but i t i s also i n e v i -table when resources f o r field-work are small." Cocoa production i n t h i s research does not, therefore, n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e e f f i c i e n c y . ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY The report began with an o u t l i n e of the problem t h i s study was designed to in v e s t i g a t e and an explanation of the objectives of the research as w e l l as the methodology used i n c o l l e c t i n g the data. The second chapter provides the t h e o r e t i c a l frame of reference underlying the research and a review of the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to the study. The r e s u l t s o f the empirical a n a l y s i s of the data and the major find i n g s as well as a discu s s i o n of the fi n d i n g s are included i n Chapter three. A fourth chapter concludes the report with a summary and recommendations reached as a r e s u l t of the a n a l y s i s . CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAME OF REFERENCE AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A review of r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e influenced the formulation of the hypotheses tested as w e l l as the s e l e c t i o n of p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s and the d i r e c t i o n s of the p r e d i c t i o n s . The t h e o r e t i c a l framework which guided t h i s study was the theory of method i n adult education postulated by Verner (1962, 1975) and the concept of adoption; these provided the basis f o r examining the adoption behaviour of cocoa growers i n Ghana. Adult learning normally takes place e i t h e r i n the natural s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g or i n a formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g that i s designed to f a c i l i -tate learning. NATURAL SOCIETAL SETTING In the Natural S o c i e t a l S e t t i n g adults l e a r n : i n the every day experiences a t work or at l e i s u r e . They pass t h e i r l i f e span i n an environment i n which new information and the oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r new experiences surround and permeates t h e i r conscious-ness l i k e the a i r they breathe. An adult can l e a r n by reading, by conversation, by observing and by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the on going l i f e about him. Such l e a r n i n g as may occur i n t h i s s e t t i n g i s achieved l a r g e l y by chance and i t tends to be sporadic and unsystematic. Furthermore, i t i s casual and i n c i d e n t a l as w e l l as i n e f f i c i e n t and uncertain. I n s t i t u t i o n s that operate on the l e v e l of the general d i f f u s i o n of information are a part of t h i s complex s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g . The information which they d i f f u s e spreads i n t o the t o t a l environment of the person where chance alone determines i t s reception and impact which i t makes i n the l i f e of the i n d i v i d u a l . The general dissemina-t i o n of information i s used by an i n s t i t u t i o n when i t seeks to induce 29 30 changes i n knowledge, a t t i t u d e s , values, or behaviour i n general through persuasion or psychic contagion. I n s t i t u t i o n s employ mass media to t h i s end, thus, newspapers, radio, t e l e v i s i o n , b u l l e t i n s , e x h i b i t s and advertisements are the p r i n c i p a l means for the general dissemination of information. (Verner, 1975:3) When adults l e a r n i n the natural s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g , information on innovations i s received mainly through devices, such as b u l l e t i n s , radio and t e l e v i s i o n , but such devices cannot teach by themselves nor do they have a feedback mechanism between the learner and the source of i n -formation that i s c r i t i c a l to successful learning. Although some s e l f -education may occur i n the natural s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g , such l e a r n i n g i s l a r g e l y by chance and i n e f f i c i e n t when compared with l e a r n i n g achieved under the supervision of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent. S o c i e t i e s that need ra p i d change among people, w i l l f i n d i t unwise to depend on s e l f -education due to the complexity of the information being communicated. FORMAL INSTRUCTIONAL SETTING Learning i n the Formal I n s t r u c t i o n a l S e t t i n g i s provided: when an i n d i v i d u a l or i n s t i t u t i o n purposely creates a s i t u a t i o n i n which the achievement of s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g by a s p e c i f i c population i s under the d i r e c t i o n and continuing supervision of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent. This process i s employed by those i n s t i t u t i o n s that seek to provide opportunities f o r continuous l e a r n i n g through systematic education. (Verner, 1975:3) The involvement of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent i n the formal i n s t r u c -t i o n a l s e t t i n g r e s u l t s i n crea t i n g s i t u a t i o n s "so that adults have exper-iences i n which both information and c o n t r o l of the appropriate i n t e l l e c t u a l behaviour are syste m a t i c a l l y acquired simultaneously" 31 (Verner, 1975:4). The i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent arranges a developmental sequence of i n t e l l e c t u a l behaviour such as reading, t h i n k i n g and observ-ing that are structured around the material to be l e a r n t . To a s s i s t learning, the learning tasks are arranged from the known to the unknown, from concrete to abstract, and from simple to the complex. The i n s t r u c -t i o n a l agent not only arranges the learning tasks i n order to e f f e c t a change i n behaviour but also s e l e c t s the appropriate i n s t r u c t i o n a l tech-nique that w i l l help the learner to perform each learning task. Instruc-t i o n a l agents, who are external to the learner, have s p e c i a l s k i l l s , i n s i g h t s and o b j e c t i v i t y to d i r e c t the educational process. The formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g i s a function of adult education since adult education i s any planned and organized a c t i v i t y provided by an i n d i v i d u a l , an i n s t i t u t i o n , or any other s o c i a l instrumentality that i s intended s p e c i f i c a l l y to a s s i s t an adult learn and which i s under the immedi-ate and continuing supervision of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent who manages the conditions f o r lear n i n g i n such a way as to f a c i l i t a t e the suc-c e s s f u l achievement of the lear n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . (Verner, 1975:8) The d e f i n i t i o n i s in t e r p r e t e d to exclude a l l those a c t i v i t i e s and experiences which occur by chance and includes a l l le a r n i n g exper-iences which r e s u l t from supervised i n s t r u c t i o n . Economic growth i s generated through investment i n c a p i t a l equip-ment and men. Therefore, i n order to improve the q u a l i t y of manpower, i t i s e s s e n t i a l to provide education. A report by the Organization f o r Economic Co-operation and Development stated: . . . the improvement i n the "human f a c t o r " accounts for a major part of economic growth. In p r a c t i c e , of course, improvements i n the 32 q u a l i t y of manpower and of machinery go hand i n hand; they both r e -f l e c t the greater e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the human f a c t o r — w h i c h i s , or should be, an aim as w e l l as a r e s u l t of education. (1961:23-24) Formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g sources of information may be even more important among i l l i t e r a t e growers i n developing countries since self-education may be minimal i n such s o c i e t i e s . Verner and M i l l e r d stated that: an adult education a c t i v i t y may present information but because i t i s i n s t r u c t i o n a l i t also f a c i l i t a t e s l e a r n i n g and encourages the use of the information. Thus, the c r u c i a l measure i s that of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education and, . . . t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n does have a s i g n i f i -cant r e l a t i o n s h i p to the adoption of innovations. Reducing the edu- ' c a t i o n a l component therefore, may not m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t the d i f f u s i o n of information but i t w i l l a f f e c t the ultimate adoption of innova-t i o n s . (1966:49) Verner and M i l l e r d concluded: In view of the s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p of adult education to adop-t i o n , an increase i n systematic educational a c t i v i t i e s would enhance the increased rate of adoption of new innovations among farmers. (1966:74) Rogers and Capener (1960:24-25) observed that farmers who use the extension agent [ i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent] as a source of information have higher adoption scores. Rogers (1973:174) reported an observation made by Srinivasan and Kachirayan that "the proportion of malpractices . . . appears to be much less among those informed (about vasectomy) by the v i l l a g e o f f i c i a l s or health s t a f f than among those informed by canvassers or other vasecto-mized persons." Wilkening et a l . (1962) i n d i c a t e d that farmers who depend l e a s t 33 upon other farmers adopt more innovations. I t i s evident that 'friends and neighbours' do not have the same advantages i n spreading information as the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent and again 'friends and neighbours' are not paid to spread information since t h e i r major r o l e , unlike the i n s t r u c -t i o n a l agent, i s not to teach other farmers about new p r a c t i c e s . The i n a b i l i t y of farmers to induce adoption of innovation i n any s i g n i f i c a n t way among other farmers may be a r e s u l t of "a prophet i s not without honour except i n h i s home town and among h i s own r e l a t i v e s and i n h i s own household." Lionberger (1960:103) stated that "high dependence on r e l a t i v e s and friends as sources of information i s usu a l l y negatively associated with the adoption of farm p r a c t i c e s , " but there i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n -ship between adoption and "the use of such sources as the county agent, college of a g r i c u l t u r e , and vocational a g r i c u l t u r a l teachers [ i n s t r u c -t i o n a l agents]." The negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between adoption and the r e l i a n c e on r e l a t i v e s and friends may be due to a general low l e v e l of knowledge on new p r a c t i c e s by the informants. Commenting on the spread of innovations through other farmers Rogers stated: l e a r n i n g of a p r a c t i c e from r e l a t i v e s and other farmers i s somewhat analogous to l i f t i n g oneself by one's bootstrap, f o r ego's peers are not l i k e l y to be much bett e r informed than ego. The farmer who learns from h i s peers i s lear n i n g second or third-hand information, which may have l o s t much of i t s o r i g i n a l accuracy. (1958:156) A farmer who had t r i e d an innovation and had f a i l e d to obtain good r e -s u l t s , may give a biased report about the innovation which may hinder 34 the adoption of the innovation by other farmers seeking information from him (Rogers, 1958). Sometimes opinion leaders who spread information on new p r a c t i c e s do not keep up-to-date i n current recommendations and may therefore d i f f u s e inaccurate information. Wilkening (1952b) found that l o c a l sources of information are j u s t s l i g h t l y better than the average farmer who seeks information from the source. Figure 3 i s presented to show diagramatically the r e l a t i o n s h i p between adoption of innovations, correctness of the grower's knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying the recommended p r a c t i c e s and sources from which the grower obtains information about new p r a c t i c e s . CLASSIFICATION OF SOURCES OF INFORMATION Various researchers have used d i f f e r e n t methods to c l a s s i f y i n f o r -mation sources i n the a n a l y s i s of adoption research. E a r l y c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n schemes consisted of sub-divisions such as impersonal, personal, and sel f - c a t e g o r i e s — m a s s media, peers, o r a l extension and commercial sources (Mason, 1964:40-52). Rogers and others (1962:179ff.; 1969:149; 1971: 252-60) have c l a s s i f i e d sources of information i n t o personal and imper-sonal, and cosmopolite versus l o c a l i t e . Verner and others (1966, 1967) have developed a l t e r n a t i v e c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n s of a source based on o r i g i n or the nature of i t s a c t i v i t y . Their c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by o r i g i n resembles the t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n model and co n s i s t s of the following sub-categories: Government—information sources o r i g i n a t i n g with f e d e r a l or pro-v i n c i a l governments. Figure 3 PARADIGM OF SOURCES OF INFORMATION AND RESULTANT ADOPTION BEHAVIOUR SOCIAL INSTITUTION SETTINGS FOR ADULT LEARNING SOURCES OF INFORMATION CLIENTELE (RECIPIENTS OF INFORMATION) ADOPTION/NON-ADOPTION FORMAL INSTRUCTION HIGHER PROBABILITY OF CORRECT INFORMATION SOCIAL INSTITUTION ADOPTION FARMERS LOWER PROBABILITY OF CORRECT INFORMATION NATURAL SOCIETAL SETTING NON ADOPTION Opare, 1976 36 Commercial—information sources o r i g i n a t i n g with business agents or establishments dealing with farmers. Farm O r g a n i z a t i o n — i n f o r m a t i o n sources o r i g i n a t i n g from farmers* organizations, such as co-operatives or commodity a s s o c i a t i o n s . P e r s o n a l — i n f o r m a t i o n sources that l i e within the farmer's per-sonal o r b i t such as h i s fri e n d s or neighbours, h i s family or h i s own observation and experience. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of sources of information by nature of the a c t i v i t y r e s u l t s i n a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between those sources of information which are i n s t r u c t i o n a l i n nature and those that accomplish the general dissem-i n a t i o n of information. This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n introduces the concept of education i n r e l a t i o n to the d i r e c t e d behavioural change desired. The sub-categories i n t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n are as follows: P e r s o n a l — d i r e c t face-to-face communication between communicator and the r e c e i v e r . Mass—information media d i r e c t e d to farmers i n general and i n which there i s no p r o v i s i o n f o r two-way communication. I n s t r u c t i o n a l Group—educational a c t i v i t i e s i n which information i s presented to a number of farmers simultaneously and i n which there i s an opportunity f o r two-way communication. Ind i v i d u a l I n s t r u c t i o n a l — e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s conducted with one farmer at a time, such as farm v i s i t s by the D i s t r i c t A g r i -c u l t u r i s t . Verner and Gubbels (1967:30) used c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of sources of 37 TABLE 3 CLASSIFICATION BY SOURCES OF INFORMATION Nature of the Source of Information A r - t - i v i f v General farm magazines M Spe c i a l dairy magazines M B.C. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e p u b l i c a t i o n s ! M Canada Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e p u b l i c a t i o n s M NATURAL Radio M SOCIETAL T e l e v i s i o n M M SETTING Newspapers Neighbours and friends M Wife, c h i l d r e n or r e l a t i v e s M Observation of other farms P Foreign t r a v e l P Own experience P A g r i c u l t u r e f i e l d days IG A g r i c u l t u r e meetings & adult education courses IG Vocational a g r i c u l t u r e courses IG FORMAL Farm organization meetings IG INSTRUCTIONAL D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t II II SETTING Vet e r i n a r i a n Dairy Herd Improvement Assoc. Supervisor I I Salesmen or dealers II V i s i t to experimental farm II Milk vendor fieldman II Key: M = Mass P = Personal IG = I n s t r u c t i o n a l Group II = In d i v i d u a l I n s t r u c t i o n a l 38 information by nature of the a c t i v i t y to c l a s s i f y twenty-eight d i f f e r e n t sources of information reported i n t h e i r study of Dairy Farm Operators i n the Lower Fraser V a l l e y (Table 3) . Sim i l a r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a source of information by the nature of the a c t i v i t y has been reported by Uwakah (1975) i n N i g e r i a , a West A f r i c a n country. The Nigerian c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are as follows (Uwakah, 1975:138): In d i v i d u a l I n s t r u c t i o n a l — 1. Farm v i s i t s by agents 2. Home v i s i t s by agents 3. O f f i c e v i s i t s by farmers 4. [Agents] Home v i s i t s by farmers 5. Telephone c a l l s I n s t r u c t i o n a l Group (Involving an a g e n t ) — 6. Demonstrations 7. F i e l d t r i p s 8. Special meetings 9. Short courses 10. Lectures and t a l k s 11. F i e l d days 12. Fi l m shows Mass Communication ( D e v i c e s ) — 13. C i r c u l a r l e t t e r s 14. Extension newsletters 15. Newspaper a r t i c l e s 39 16. Radio 17. T e l e v i s i o n 18. Messages and Announcements PERSONAL AND ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH ADOPTION i The s e t t i n g s f o r adult learning, knowledge of innovations and adoption do not e x i s t i n vacuo but are influenced by c e r t a i n personal and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the grower. Therefore, i n order to be t t e r understand adoption, an a n a l y s i s of personal and economic charac-t e r i s t i c s may provide some d i r e c t i o n . A number of f a c t o r s have been i d e n t i f i e d by other researchers which c o n s i s t e n t l y discriminate between adopters and non-adopters. In c e r t a i n studies, age has been found to be r e l a t e d to l e s s moti vation and, r i s k taking. As age advances, one i s not motivated to f i n d new means of s o l v i n g problems. Age has therefore been found to be nega-t i v e l y r e l a t e d to adoption behaviour (Leuthold, 1966; Anderson et a l . , 1956). Verner and Gubbels (1967) found that age per se i s not r e l a t e d to adoption. Research data on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between age and adoption behaviour seems inconclusive, though the trend i n d i c a t e s that younger farmers are more l i k e l y to adopt an innovation than are older farmers. In a farm enterprise, the r o l e of the farm wife i s r e l a t e d to the performance of the husband i n h i s farm business. The wife acts as an accountant, supervises the business sometimes and purchases inputs f o r the farm when she t r a v e l s to market centres (Sawer, 1974). Leuthold (1966) has suggested that the farm wife's education i s a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r 40 predictor of the adoption behaviour than is the husband's education. The number of children l i v i n g at home was observed by South, Hansbrought and Betrand (1965) as positively related to the adoption of recommended practices. This may be due to the fact that younger people are more susceptible to new ideas and therefore influence their parents to accept them. The adoption of an innovation may also be a means of security or investment for the children. Verner and Gubbels (1967) found that as income increases, the number of children i n the family increases; and as the income goes up, the D i s t r i c t Agriculturist makes more farm v i s i t s resulting i n an increase i n adoption scores. Education prepares one to make rational decisions between alter-natives based on the analysis of facts presented. Certain research studies have observed a positive relationship between education (as measured by years of school completed) and adoption (Gross, 1949) while many others have found no relationship between education and adoption (Belcher, 1958; Verner and Millerd, 1966; Graham, 1954). This inconsis-tency led to an examination of the kind of education rather than the number of years one had spent at school. This indepth analysis revealed interesting results. The recency of the education and i t s relevance was found to be positively related to adoption (Leuthold, 1966; Van den Ban, 1957; Wilkening, 1952; Verner and Gubbels, 1967; Verner and Millerd, 1966). The relationship between size of farm and adoption behaviour has been studied frequently but the findings have not been consistent regard-ing the direction of the relationship. Some have observed a positive 41 r e l a t i o n s h i p between s i z e of farm and adoption (Wilkening, 1952; Van den Ban, 1957). Some others have observed no r e l a t i o n s h i p . Copp (1956) stated that the operator's scale of operations and p r o d u c t i v i t y are bett e r i n d i c a t o r s of adoption. McMillion (1960) also found that the c a p i t a l value of a farm i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to adoption. Verner and Gubbels (1967) observed that the number of young stock a Lower Fraser V a l l e y d a i r y farmer has on h i s farm i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the adoption of farm innovations. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between adoption and farm income has been found to be intermingled (Copp, 1956; Verner and Gubbels, 1967). Verner and Gubbels (1967) observed that as dair y farmers incomes go up, the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t v i s i t s the farms more often and t h i s appears to r e s u l t i n a higher adoption score. Copp (1956) found that where incomes are high, adoption i s a l s o high, and where adoption i s high, income i s l i k e l y to be high a l s o . Wilson and Gallup (1955) reported that education, s i z e of farm, contact with extension s t a f f , and socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a farmer are r e l a t e d to h i s adoption of recommended farm p r a c t i c e s i n the United States. From Holland, Van den Ban (1957) found progressive farmers were those with l a r g e r farms, younger, had received v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r e , were more modern i n t h e i r s t y l e of l i v i n g and were members of farmers' organizations. Copp (1958) stated that the s o c i a l p o s i t i o n of a farmer as i n d i c a t e d by h i s age, education, l e v e l of l i v i n g , and a c t i v i t y i n community a f f a i r s i s associated with h i s adoption behaviour. 42 Verner and M i l l e r d (1966:71) concluded that " e a r l i e r adopters have a be t t e r than average economic status and a higher average p a r t i c i -pation i n educational programs. Age per se, i s not an important charac-t e r i s t i c and neither are years of school completed, tenure, community p a r t i c i p a t i o n , or community perception." Verner and M i l l e r d (1966) sug-gested that c e r t a i n socio-economic v a r i a b l e s are i n t e r r e l a t e d , as such they are not independently r e l a t e d to the adoption of farm p r a c t i c e s (age, schooling, income and adoption). Gross and Taves, i n t h e i r Iowa study, concluded that: In a l l instances, acceptors read more c o l l e g e b u l l e t i n s than non-acceptors, p a r t i c i p a t e d more a c t i v e l y i n community a f f a i r s , had l a r g e r farms, and moved l e s s frequently a f t e r they began to farm; i n ad d i t i o n , f o r each of the ten p r a c t i c e s studied, a greater propor-t i o n of acceptors than non-acceptors balanced t h e i r accounts r e g u l a r l y , had c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the 4-H and F.F.A. pro-grams, and were p a r t i c i p a n t s i n A.A.A. (1952:322) Evidence presented by the t h e o r e t i c a l frame of reference and the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed, r e l a t e d to the theory of method and the concept of adoption, postulates r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s which have r e s u l t e d i n a d e r i v a t i o n of a model of adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s c y c l e (Figure 4). In t h i s model the d e l i v e r y system (formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g and natural s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g sources of information) provides the grower with knowledge (correct or incorrect) and the knowledge made a v a i l a b l e to the grower may or may not r e s u l t i n adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s . The adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s leads to increased cocoa production or revenue from the farm and higher socio-economic status which i n turn Figure 4 SOCIAL STATUS INDICATORS (HIGH »LOW) •LITERACY • ADVISING OTHER FARMERS • NUMBER Of CHILDREN •SEX • NUMBER Of YEARS AS COCOA GROWER •AGE • NUMBER Of WIVES  ADOPTERS 1 NON—ADOPTERS V WSTLETOf •PRUNES SEMI-PARASITIC MISTLETOE PLANT F ROM COCOA TREES •DOES NOT PRUNE MISTLETOE A S RECOMMENDED 2. SWOLLEN SHOOT • UPROOT OlSEASEO COCOA PLANT AND HEALTHY COCOA TREES IN CONTACT OR INVITES COCOA PRODUCTION DIVISION TO UPROOT • DOES NOT UPROOT NOR CALLS COCOA DIVISION STAFF TO UPROOT AS RECOMMENDED X TURNING FERMENTING COCOA • TURNS AND MIXES FERMENTING HEAP TWICE - 3rd wd S * DAY • DOES NOT TURN AS RECOMMENDED 4. SPRAYINO •SPRAYS COCOA WITH GAMMALIN » f IS<M:B0> WATER) IN AUGUST. SEPTEMBER. OCTOBER AND DECEMBER • DOES NOT SPRAY AS RECOMMENDED ft. HARVESTING • RtPED COCOA POOS ARE HARVESTED AT 21 DAYS INTERVAL • DOCS NOT HARVEST AS RECOMMENDED FORMAL INSTRUCTIONAL SETTINGS SOURCES OF INFORMATION NATURAL SOCIETAL SETTINGS SOURCES OF INFORMATION • COCOA DIVISION TECHNICAL OFFICERS • COCOA DIVISION VISITS IN-VOLVING TECHNICAL OFFICER • NEWS BULLETINS • RADIO OR RE DIFFUSION • FAMILY OR RELATIVES • COMMERCIAL SALESMEN •FELLOW FARMERS • FARMERS TRAINING COURSES • INFORMATION SERVICES • INFORMATION SERVICES TECHNICAL OFFICERS • OWN EXPERIENCE •PEDDLERS CORRECT KNOWLEDGE INCORRECT KNOWLEDGE t. MISTLETOE •REDUCES PHOTOS YN THE TIC POTENTIAL ORAW9 ON HOST PLANT FOOD KILLS HOST PLANT • REASONSOTHER THAN THE CORRECT REASONS S. SWOLLEN SHOOT •A VIRUS DISEASE TRANSMITTED BY MEALY BUGS-NO TREATMENT •REASONS OTHER THAN CORRECT REASONS S. TURNING FERMENTINQ COCOA • EVEN FERMENTATION WHICH PREVENTS SLATY AND DEEP PURPLE BEANS • REASONS OTHER THAN CORRECT REASONS «. SPRAYING •PREVENTS OR KILLS CAPSIOS WHICH KILL COCOA TREES •REASONS OTHER THAN CORRECT REASONS ft. HARVESTING •PREVENTS GERMINATE0 BEANS AND SPREAD OF DISEASES • REASONS OTHER THAN CORRECT REASONS O p m 1976 44 induces the grower to adopt more recommended p r a c t i c e s and thus the cy c l e continues. HYPOTHESES On the basis of the foregoing d i s c u s s i o n , i t i s po s s i b l e to state a number of d i r e c t i o n a l hypotheses, concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s , correctness of growers' knowledge of p r i n c i p l e s underlying the recommended p r a c t i c e s , f o r m a l i t y of the source of the information and selected personal and economic status i n d i c a t o r s : Hypothesis 1 . The adoption score f o r cocoa growers i n Ghana on selected recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s i s p o s i t i v e l y asso-c i a t e d with the correctness of grower's knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying the recommended p r a c t i c e s . This hypothesis was established upon the l o g i c a l assumption that the average cocoa grower would be more l i k e l y to adopt a recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e i f he understands why i t i s advisable or necessary f o r him to follow the recommended p r a c t i c e . Hypothesis 2. The adoption score f o r cocoa growers i n Ghana on selected recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s i s p o s i t i v e l y asso-c i a t e d with the for m a l i t y of the source of the information, on the recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s . I t i s reasonable to assume that the for m a l i t y of the information 45 source should be p o s i t i v e l y associated with adoption score because the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g source provides an educational environment f o r the growers to le a r n about the recommended p r a c t i c e , and t h i s encour-ages behavioural change. Hypothesis 3. The adoption score f o r cocoa growers i n Ghana on selected recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s i s more s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with the correctness of growers' knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying the recommended p r a c t i c e s than i t i s with the for m a l i t y of the source of the information. This hypothesis was established upon the assumption that cocoa growers w i l l tend more strongly to adopt an innovation i f they understand why i t i s necessary to follow the p r a c t i c e than merely obtaining informa-t i o n from formal sources. Hypothesis 4. The adoption score f o r cocoa growers i n Ghana on selected recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s i s p o s i t i v e l y asso-c i a t e d with each of the following personal and economic status i n d i c a t o r s : •Age. •Sex. •Number of wives. •Number of c h i l d r e n i n household. •Litera c y . •Number of years i n cocoa growing. 46 •Cocoa production (income). •Advisory r o l e . This hypothesis was established upon the assumption that c e r t a i n personal and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f f e c t the adoption behaviour of growers. DATA ANALYSIS A f t e r the interviews were completed and the schedules edited, the data were punched onto data processing cards f o r computer a p p l i c a t i o n . The hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s were explored by c o r r e l a t i n g each p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e with adoption score to assess the strength and d i r e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p (see Table 15 [p. 65]). The adoption score was computed on the basis of the a c t u a l number of innovations adopted. In the c o r r e l a -t i o n and regression a n a l y s i s , the o r d i n a l scales and the dichotomous nominal v a r i a b l e s were treated as i n t e r v a l scales i n accordance with the r a t i o n a l e advanced by Hays (1963), Labovitz (1970), and B j e r r i n g (1972). In t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e , the .05 l e v e l was accepted but the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e i s i n d i c a t e d where i t occurs. Since Pearsonian c o r r e l a t i o n compares p a i r s of v a r i a b l e s taken s i n g l y , i t i s necessary to i n v e s t i g a t e the d i s t i n c t n e s s of these indepen-dent v a r i a b l e s when combined s e v e r a l l y and a l s o to determine the amount of variance the combined v a r i a b l e s explain. With a large sample as the case i s i n t h i s study, the meaningful-ness of s i g n i f i c a n c e becomes a problem since small values of c o r r e l a t i o n 47 may be s i g n i f i c a n t . The data were therefore f u r t h e r explored by step-wise regression a n a l y s i s . The routine c a l c u l a t e d a stepwise regression using a l l the independent v a r i a b l e s i n the p r e d i c t o r equation. Variables which d i d not make s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the t o t a l variance ex-plained were eliminated u n t i l a 'core' of best p r e d i c t o r s of cocoa pro-duction and adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s was obtained i n the s o l u t i o n . The s i n g l e c r i t e r i o n used to enter a v a r i a b l e i n t o the regres-sion equation was that i t s c o r r e l a t i o n with the dependent v a r i a b l e had to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . CHAPTER I I I CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE Previous research has i n d i c a t e d that c e r t a i n personal and econ-omic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w e l l as adoption behaviour of a population are r e l a t e d to the adoption of innovations. These data about each respondent i n the sample were c o l l e c t e d and have been discussed under three major d e s c r i p t i v e categories; personal and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as w e l l as adoption behaviour. PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS Age Data i n Table 4 i n d i c a t e the age d i s t r i b u t i o n o f respondents i n t h i s study. Table 4 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY AGE Age Category Number Per Cent 20 - 30 175 15% 31 - 40 260 22 41 - 50 271 23 Over 50 468 40 T o t a l 1,174* 100% a Seventeen of the respondents d i d not know t h e i r ages. The age d i s t r i b u t i o n of growers i n Ghana i s s i m i l a r to most farm popula-t i o n patterns: the d i s t r i b u t i o n was skewed towards the upper age. The age groups from twenty to t h i r t y years contained 15 per cent of the 48 49 sample, thirty-one to f o r t y had 22 per cent, while forty-one to f i f t y had 23 per cent. On the other hand, the f i f t y r o n e years or older group was 40 per cent of the respondents. The average age of a grower was f o r t y - e i g h t years. This i s con-s i s t e n t with the findings of Boateng (1974) who ind i c a t e d that the aver-age age of a Ghana grower was f i f t y years. j Age c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y with numbers of years respondents had been engaged i n cocoa growing (r = .62, df = 1,152, p < .01), number o f wives (r = .15, df = 845, p < .01), sex (r = .11, df = 1,162, p < .01), number of c h i l d r e n i n the household (r = .46, df = 1,023, p < .01) and cocoa production (r = .19, df = 1,047, p < .05) but negatively c o r r e l a t e d with l i t e r a c y (r = -.38, df = 1,154, p < .01). Sex of Grower The average Ghanaian woman i s very e n t e r p r i s i n g . Some sectors of the economy are almost completely dominated by women; such as the marketing of t e x t i l e s and foodstuffs. Two out of ten growers were women (Table 5). TABLE 5 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX Sex of Grower Number Per Cent Male 976 83% Female 201 17 T o t a l l,177 a 100% a Responses were not ascertained from 14 respondents. There were s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r sex with advisory r o l e of 50 the respondents (r = -.26, df = 1,161, p < .01), l i t e r a c y (r = -.26, df = 1,156, p < .01) and cocoa production (r = -.22, df = 1,049, p < .01). Thus, male growers were more l i k e l y to advise others, to be l i t e r a t e and to have higher cocoa production. Number of Wives As shown by Table 6, most of the respondents i n the sample (72 per cent) were married while a smaller number was e i t h e r s i n g l e , widowed, divorced or separated (28 per cent). TABLE 6 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MARITAL STATUS M a r i t a l Status Number Per Cent Married 852 72% Single 339 28 T o t a l 1,191 100% About three quarters of the married men respondents were monoga-mous while one-quarter were polygamous. The average grower had 1.4 wives. The breakdown of the number of wives i s shown i n Table 7. The number of wives a grower had seems to portray h i s s o c i a l status. Respondents who had many wives seem to be r i c h e r (higher cocoa production) (r = .24, df = 764, p < .01), had many c h i l d r e n i n the house-hold (r = .38, df = 925, p < .01), and often advised other growers (r = .12, df = 1,159, p < .01). The age of the respondents was p o s i t i v e l y associated with the number of wives they had (r = .15, df = 845, p < .01). 51 TABLE 7 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY NUMBER OF WIVES Number of Wives Number Per Cent One 635 74% Two 157 18 Three 39 5 Over Three 21 2 To t a l 852 99% a a Does not equal 100 per cent due to rounding e r r o r s . Number of Children The respondents had an average of 7.1 c h i l d r e n . Some 13 per cent had no c h i l d r e n , 42 per cent had between one and f i v e c h i l d r e n , while 30 per cent had between s i x and ten c h i l d r e n . More than ten c h i l d r e n were reported by 15 per cent of the sample (Table 8). TABLE 8 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY NUMBER OF CHILDREN Number of Children Number Per Cent None 157 13% 1 - 5 501 42 6 - 10 353 30 Above 10 180 15 To t a l 1,191 100% The number of c h i l d r e n i n the household was found to be p o s i -t i v e l y r e l a t e d to age (r = .46, df = 1,023, p < .01), number of wives 52 (r = .38, df = 823, p < .01), advisory r o l e (r = .12, df = 1,019, p < .01), the number of years the respondent had been growing cocoa (r = .38, df = 1,011, p < .01) and cocoa production (r = .29, df = 925, p < .01). There was, however, a negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between number of c h i l d r e n i n the respondents' household and t h e i r a b i l i t y to read or write (r = -.17, df = 1,016, p < .01). Li t e r a c y The data i n d i c a t e that three out of four respondents were i l l i t -erate on the basis of the s e l f - d e f i n e d a b i l i t y of respondents to read any of the Ghana newspapers (Table 9) TABLE 9 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY LITERACY Se l f - d e f i n e d A b i l i t y to read a newspaper Number Per Cent Able ( l i t e r a t e ) 292 25% Not.Able ( i l l i t e r a t e ) 875 75 T o t a l l ,167 a 100% a Twenty-four respondents d i d not respond. The average respondents had 2.7 years of formal education (Table 10) . As might be expected, l i t e r a c y was negatively r e l a t e d to years respondents had been growing cocoa (r = -.29, df = 1,139, p < .01), age (r = -.23, df = 1,156, p < .01), number of c h i l d r e n i n the household (r = -.17, df = 1,016, p < .01), but p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the advisory 53 rol e of respondents (r = .12, df = 1,154, p < .01). TABLE 10 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY FORMAL EDUCATION Formal Education Number Per Cent None 752 64% Mass Education (1 yr.) 40 1 3 70% I l l i t e r a t e Class 1-3 (1-3 yrs.) 33 3 J Standard 1-5 (4-8 yrs.) Standard 6-7 (9-10 yrs.) 88 210 > 8 18 30% b F u n c t i o n a l l y L i t e r a t e Post Standard 7 (above 10 yrs.) 47 4 J T o t a l l,170 a 100% Responses f or twenty-one people were not ascertained. UNESCO considers a minimum of four years of schooling (U.S. fourth-grade) as a requirement f o r the t y p i c a l i n d i v i d u a l to reach and maintain f u n c t i o n a l l i t e r a c y (Rogers and Svenning, 1969:76). This o b v i -ously d i f f e r s from country to country. ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS Cocoa Growing Experience Most of the respondents were experienced growers although within the past ten years, a new crop of growers had entered the cocoa growing industry. The average grower had 19.7 years (Table 11) of experience. The number of years the respondents had been growing cocoa was found to be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to age (r = .62, df = 1,151, p < .01), number of wives (r = .10, df = 837, p < .01), number of c h i l d r e n i n the household (r = .38, df = 1,011, p < .01), and cocoa production (r = .23, df = 1,038, p < .01). There was a negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between the 54 number of years the respondents had been growing cocoa and t h e i r a b i l i t y to read or write (r = - .29, df = 1,142, p < .01) . TABLE 11 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY COCOA GROWING EXPERIENCE Years of Experience Number Per Cent Less than 5 139 12% 5 - 1 0 302 26 1 1 - 1 5 141 12 16 - 20 118 10 2 1 - 2 5 74 6 2 6 - 3 0 94 8 Over 30 299 26 T o t a l l ,167 a 100% a There was no response from twenty--four people. The more years of cocoa growing experience, the l e s s l i k e l y the respondents were able to read or write. This i s probably explained by the f a c t that farming, i n a few years past, was looked upon as an industry fo r i l l i t e r a t e s . The recent p o l i c i e s of the various Ghana Governments (e.g., "Go back to the land" and "Rural Development Programmes") have been i n the d i r e c t i o n of encouraging educated people to go i n t o farming. Cocoa Production The average grower's production was found to be 42.6 loads (2,256 pounds dry cocoa) which brings i n an income of (f:511 ($452) . This f i n d i n g i s supported by Boateng (1974) who found the average income of a Ghana 55 grower to be <f:500 ($420.60). Respondents with production above f i f t y - o n e loads of cocoa made up the la r g e s t s i n g l e category. This group included 26 per cent of the sample. At the other extreme i s another category of respondents who made up 20 per cent of the respondents who harvested and sol d one to ten loads of cocoa. Another 15 per cent harvested and so l d between eleven and twenty loads of dry cocoa while 12 per cent s o l d be-tween twenty-one and t h i r t y loads of cocoa. Those with thirty-one to fo r t y loads, made up 9 per cent while 7 per cent harvested and so l d be-tween forty-one and f i f t y loads. The cocoa trees of 11 per cent of the sample have not s t a r t e d bearing (Table 12). TABLE 12 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY COCOA PRODUCTION a Loads Harvested and Sold Number Approximate Mean Value (<£) Per Cent Not bearing 132 - 11% 1 - 1 0 233 <j: 66 20 11 - 20 180 <{: 186 15 21 - 30 144 (J: 306 12 31 - 40 111 <{: 426 9 41 - 50 78 (j: 546 7 Over 50 313 cj:i,200 26 T o t a l 1,191 100% a 1 load = 60 pounds = <j:i2 ($10.60). The y i e l d s from respondents' cocoa farms were p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the number of years the respondents had been growing cocoa (r = .23, df = 1,038, p < .01), t h e i r advisory r o l e (r = .16, df = 1,045, p < .01), 56 age (r = .19, df = 1,047, p < .01) and number of wives (r = .24, df = 764, p < .01). Although there was a negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between cocoa production and l i t e r a c y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p was weak r e s u l t i n g i n non-s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n (r = -.04, df = 1,040, p = n.s.). ADOPTION BEHAVIOUR Number of P r a c t i c e s Adopted On the average, respondents have adopted about two out of the f i v e recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s (Figure 5). A comparison of the propor-tions of respondents who have adopted each of the f i v e recommended prac-t i c e s and t h e i r c o r r e c t knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying the recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s shows that the mere possession of c o r r e c t knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying a recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e does not n e c e s s a r i l y motivate respondents to adopt the recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e (Figure 6). The l a r g e s t gap i s found between the possession of c o r r e c t knowledge on swollen shoot disease and the adoption of i t s recom-mended co n t r o l p r a c t i c e . This huge gap needs some comments. A diseased swollen shoot cocoa tree continues to produce pods u n t i l i t f i n a l l y , d i e s . Despite the f a c t that the tree i s diseased, the grower continues to get some income from the tree and finds i t d i f f i c u l t to remove the diseased tree as w e l l as healthy trees i n contact with the diseased t r e e . The grower has a l s o some emotional attachment to the trees which have been h i s main source of income f o r years. These have an e f f e c t on the grower's d e c i s i o n to adopt the c o n t r o l p r a c t i c e . Before about 1961, the Ghana Government had a compulsory c u t t i n g out Figure 5 NUMBER OF RECOMMENDED COCOA PRACTICES WHICH WERE ADOPTED CO H UJ Q Z o a. co LU DC L L O DC LU CO 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 8.0% 0 30.9% 41.8% 16.9% Mean 1.90 2.3% 0.2% 5 NUMBER OF INNOVATIONS ADOPTED Figure 6 DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN CORRECT KNOWLEDGE AND ACTUAL ADOPTION FOR EACH OF FIVE RECOMMENDED COCOA PRACTICES 1 0 0 9 5 % 8 4 % ••48%v 9 4 % 39% Mistletoe Control Swollen Shoot Control Turning Fermenting Beans Spraying Capsid Pest Proper Harvesting Procedure ADOPTION CORRECT KNOWLEDGE OF PRINCIPLES 59 programme which circumvented t h i s problem. Within the terms of the pro-gramme, the Government provided the labour to remove the diseased cocoa trees as w e l l as healthy cocoa trees i n contact and the growers were com-pensated for each cocoa tree removed. Through the compulsory c u t t i n g out programme, about 63 m i l l i o n cocoa trees were cut out between 1946 and 1957 and another 44.6 m i l l i o n between 1957 and 1961 (Asumaning, n.d.). Since 1962, growers have been asked to remove diseased cocoa trees from t h e i r farms without any compensation except that the grower can ask the s t a f f of the Cocoa Production D i v i s i o n to remove the trees for him. The growers have been r e l u c t a n t to cut out the diseased cocoa plants as w e l l as healthy cocoa trees i n contact. Asumaning (n.d.) i n d i c a t e d that between 1963 and 1964, out of the 1.5 m i l l i o n cocoa trees marked out f o r destruction by growers, only about 100,000 were a c t u a l l y removed. I t seems, the present p o l i c y of voluntary c u t t i n g out of diseased cocoa trees as w e l l as healthy cocoa trees i n contact by the growers themselves or by the s t a f f of the Cocoa Production D i v i s i o n , on the i n v i t a t i o n of the grower, without any f i n a n c i a l compensation, has not met with any appreciable response from the growers. Correct Knowledge of P r i n c i p l e s on Recommended Prac t i c e s  Figure 7 shows the number of p r a c t i c e s and the proportions of respondents who have c o r r e c t knowledge on them. On the average, respon-dents had c o r r e c t knowledge on about three recommended p r a c t i c e s . Figure 7 CORRECT KNOWLEDGE OF PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING RECOMMENDED COCOA PRACTICES CO LU Q Z o Q. CO LU DC L U o DC LU CQ 385 350 315 280 245 210 175 140 105 70 35 4 .0% 0 16.9% 28.5% 31.4% 16.8% Mean 2.58 2.4% NUMBER OF RECOMMENDED PRACTICES o 61 Instructional Source of Information The respondents obtained information from instructional sources on about two innovations on the average (Figure 8). It appears that respondents use more instructional sources of information i f the recom-mended practice i s complex or technical. When this source i s used, respondents appear to have a better understanding of the reasons why a recommended practice has to be adopted. Such is the case, as vividly shown by swollen shoot disease control and spraying against capsids (Figure 9). Advisory Role Fifty-eight per cent of the respondents indicated that they have advised other growers about matters concerning cocoa husbandry such as weeding, marketing, obtaining seeds, within the previous five years. The quality of the advice given was not measured (Table 13). TABLE 13 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY THEIR ADVISORY ROLE Advisory Role Number Per Cent Yes No 490 683 42% 58 Total l,173 a 100% a No responses were obtained from eighteen people. Advisory role index was positively associated with number of chil-dren in the household (r = , .12, df = 1,019, p < .01), number of wives Figure 8 FORMAL INSTRUCTIONAL SETTING SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON RECOMMENDED COCOA PRACTICES 500 {2 450 z LLJ Q 400 z o a. 350 LLI CC 3 0 0 L L O 2 5 0 CC LU CD 2 0 0 150 100 50 29.2% 35.1% 22.3% Mean 1.76 9.8% 2.7% 0.9% ] NUMBER OF RECOMMENDED PRACTICES ro Figure 9 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORRECT KNOWLEDGE AND FORMAL INSTRUCTIONAL SETTING SOURCES OF INFORMATION 95% 84% :-7€%» 94% Mistletoe Control Swollen Shoot Control Fermenting Beans Spraying Capsid Pest Proper Harvesting Procedure FORMAL INSTRUCTIONAL SETTING SOURCES OF INFORMATION CORRECT PRINCIPLES (FORMAL AND INFORMAL) 64 (r = .12, df = 839, p < .01), l i t e r a c y (r = .12, df = 1,154, p < .01), cocoa production (r = .16, df = 1,045, p < .01), while negatively re-l a t e d to sex (males more l i k e l y to advise) (r = -.26, df = 1,161, p < .01) Age was not r e l a t e d to the advisory r o l e of respondents. SUMMARY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE The eleven most c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s on which the sample of Ghana cocoa growers were assessed are summarized i n Tables 14, 15, and 16. The f i r s t f i v e of these v a r i a b l e s are personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s measures, two economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s measures, and the remaining four measures r e l a t e to adoption behaviour. TABLE 14 MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS AND POSSIBLE RANGES FOR TEN PREDICTOR VARIABLES (1,191 Respondents) Variable Mean S.D. Possible Range (observed) Age (years) 48.07 15.06 20 - 80 Sex - Male ' 83% Female 17% Number of Wives 1.35 0.69 1 - 5 Number of Children 7.11 5.41 0 - 3 0 L i t e r a c y - I l l i t e r a t e 75% L i t e r a t e 25% (Formal Education i n Years. 2.69 4.08 0 - 1 2 ) Cocoa Growing Experience 19.72 14.02 1 - 5 0 Cocoa Production (60 lbs.=l load) 42.60((j:511) -38.57 0 - 150 Adoption Score 1.90 0.79 0 - 5 Correctness of Knowledge Index 6.00 1.95 0 - 1 0 Formality of Information Source Index 5.25 1.75 0 - 1 0 Advising Other Cocoa Growers - Yes 58% No 42% TABLE 15 CORRELATION OF TEN VARIABLES WITH ADOPTION AND COCOA PRODUCTION Variables C o r r e l a t i o n 3 Adoption Score W i t h Cocoa Production N b Age ' .04 .19 1,047 Sex -.12 -.23 1,049 Number of Wives .07 .24 764 Number of Children .10 .29 925 L i t e r a c y .08 -.04 1,040 Cocoa Growing Experience .06 .23 1,048 Cocoa Production .21 - 989 Adoption Score - — .21 989 Correctness of Knowledge Index .34 .21 1,051 Formality of Information Source Index .31 .18 1,050 Advising Other Cocoa Growers .10 .16 1,045 a C o r r e l a t i o n s l a r g e r than .062 are s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . N represents the number of observations. Where N for adoption d i f f e r s from N for cocoa produc-t i o n , the more conservative f i g u r e i s shown. TABLE 16 INTERCORRELATIONS3 OF THREE PREDICTOR VARIABLES WITH COCOA PRODUCTION Variable Adoption Score Correctness of Knowledge Index Formality of Information Source Index Cocoa Production Adoption Score 1.00 Correctness of Knowledge Index .34 1.00 Formality of Information Source Index ,31 .53 1.00 Cocoa Production .21 .20 ,18 1.00 Cor r e l a t i o n s l a r g e r than .062 are s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . 67 ANALYSIS OF PREDICTORS OF ADOPTION Testing of Hypotheses 1. Adoption and Knowledge The f i r s t hypothesis tested was that the adoption score i s p o s i -t i v e l y associated with the correctness of the growers' knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying the recommended p r a c t i c e s . The hypothesis was confirmed (r = .34, df = 1,092, p < .01). One can therefore conclude that among growers i n Ghana, those with a corre c t understanding of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying recommended p r a c t i c e s w o u l d seem to adopt them. 2. Adoption and Source of Information The second hypothesis was that the adoption score i s p o s i t i v e l y associated with the for m a l i t y of the source of the information on the recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s . A s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p was found (r = .31, df = 1,086, p < .01), therefore, one can conclude that growers i n Ghana w o u l d seem to adopt recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s when they obtain information about them from adult education sources. 3. Adoption versus Knowledge and Sources The t h i r d hypothesis was that the adoption score i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y associated with the correctness of growers' knowledge of p r i n c i p l e s underlying the recommended p r a c t i c e s rather than with the formality of the source of the information. The d i f f e r e n c e between the two c o r r e l a -t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t values, correctness of knowledge and formality of the 68 source of the information [(r = .34) - (r = .31) = r .03], was subjected to the H o t e l l i n g ' t ' t e s t f o r c o r r e l a t e d c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ( G i l f o r d , 1956:190). The a n a l y s i s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (t = 1.18, df = 1,086, p = n.s.). This f i n d i n g shows that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t tendency for correctness of knowledge to be more c l o s e l y l i n k e d with adoption than with adult education sources of the information. 4. Adoption versus Personal and Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Since the actions of people may be p a r t i a l l y explained by t h e i r personal and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the data was fur t h e r analysed by t e s t i n g f or r e l a t i o n s h i p s between adoption behaviour, and personal and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Thus, the fourth hypothesis was that the adoption score i s p o s i t i v e l y associated with selected personal and econ-omic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . a) Age The hypothesis p r e d i c t i n g a p o s i t i v e s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between age of growers and the adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s was not supported at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e (r = .04, df = 1,081, p = n.s.). This f i n d i n g i s consistent with those of Verner and M i l l e r d (1966), Verner and Gubbels (1967), Sawer (1974), and Clark and Akinbode (1968). Rogers and Shoemaker (1971:186), however, i n d i -cated that probably the age at the time of adoption rather than the age at the time of the interview i s r e l a t e d to adoption. 69 b) Sex Score The r e l a t i o n s h i p between adoption and sex i n d i c a t e d that males were more apt to adopt innovations than were female growers (r = -.12, df = 1,082, p < .01). This r e l a t i o n s h i p may be due to the f a c t that the males have more p h y s i c a l strength to carry out innovations which require manual labour than do females. A t y p i c a l example i s that female growers f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible, to climb a cocoa tree to cut down mistletoes. In some of the c o n t r o l methods, the female has to depend on farm labourers. In the absence of farm labourers, most females may f i n d i t r e l a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t to adopt some of the c o n t r o l methods which require manual labour. Some females, sometimes, are expected to check with t h e i r husbands before adopting an innova-t i o n which requires some expenditure, while the males may choose to adopt an innovation without consulting the wife. I t i s , therefore, not s u r p r i s i n g that male growers adopt more recommended p r a c t i c e s than females. c) Number of Wives The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the number of wives and adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s was found associated (r = .07, df = 805, p < .05). Thus, an increase i n the number of wives tends to increase adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s . d) Number of Children The sub-hypothesis p r e d i c t i n g a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between 70 adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s and number of c h i l d r e n was supported (r = .10, df = 953, p < .01). This i s consistent with the findings of South, Hansbrought and Betrand (1965), Clark and Akinbode (1968) and Alleyne and Verner (1969). Alleyne and Verner (1969) observed a low c h i -square value even though the r e l a t i o n s h i p was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . This r e l a t i o n s h i p may be due to a number of f a c t o r s , among which are that c h i l d r e n are sometimes a source of labour to the farm ente r p r i s e . Also that young people tend to be receptive to new ideas and may encourage t h e i r parents to t r y new ideas. This r e l a t i o n s h i p may also be due to the idea of parents adopting innovations as an insurance f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . On the other hand, adopters may be more economically solvent, hence they can a f f o r d more c h i l d r e n . e) L i t e r a c y The sub-hypothesis p r e d i c t i n g a p o s i t i v e s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -ship between adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s and l i t e r a c y was supported at the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e (r = .08, df = 1,073, p < .01). This f i n d i n g i s supported by Goldsen and R a l i s (1957)* who found that l i t e r a t e v i l l a g e r s were more innovative than i l l i t e r -ates. Rahim (1961)* i n h i s studies i n Pakistan observed l i t e r a c y to be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to adoption. Wright et a l . (1967:17)* * C i t e d i n Rogers and Svenning (1969). 71 indica t e d that Guatemalan l i t e r a t e peasants were more innovative than i l l i t e r a t e s . This i s , however, at variance with Graham (1954), Belcher (1958), and Clark and Akinbode (1968). A p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s to be expected since l i t e r a c y widens ones experience beyond the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l e v e l and t h i s should accelerate the acceptance and adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s . f) Advising Other Farmers A p o s i t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was observed i n the as s o c i a t i o n between growers o f f e r i n g advice to other growers and the adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s (r = .10, df = 1,079, p < .01). This i n d i c a t e s that those growers who advise others are normally people p r a c t i c i n g the innovation recommended. Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s g) Number of Years i n Cocoa Growing The hypothesis p r e d i c t i n g a p o s i t i v e s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between cocoa growing experience and the adoption of recommended . cocoa p r a c t i c e s was supported at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e (r = .06, df = 1,073, p < .05). This i s at variance with Verner and M i l l e r d (1966), Verner and Gubbels (1967), Alleyne and Verner (1969), and Clark and Akinbode (1968). The Cocoa Production D i v i s i o n i s the p r i n c i p a l source of i n -formation a v a i l a b l e to growers i n Ghana. Those growers who have been growing cocoa f o r a longer period of time may have established 72 contact with the D i v i s i o n and therefore, take advantage of i t s educational programmes. h) Cocoa Production The v a r i a b l e , cocoa production, which i s the ultimate aim i n adopting recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s , showed a higher s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p with the adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s than d i d any other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s studied (r = .21, df = 989, p < .01). However, i t cannot be determined whether the production per acre i s greater among adopters since s i z e of farm was not measured. This p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p r e s u l t s because adopters may have l a r g e r farms and therefore enjoy the advantages of economy of sca l e . The p o s i t i v e s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between adoption and farm production i s consistent with the fi n d i n g s of Clark and Akinbode (1968), Alleyne and Verner (1969), and Sawer (1974). J o i n t Influence of Adoption and Other Inde-pendent Variables on Cocoa Production  The j o i n t r e l a t i o n s h i p of independent v a r i a b l e s ; sex, number of wives, number of c h i l d r e n , l i t e r a c y , number of years i n cocoa growing, advisory r o l e , adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s , formality of the source of information, and correctness of knowledge; to cocoa production was assessed i n a separate regression a n a l y s i s . Of the o r i g i n a l nine independent v a r i a b l e s entered i n the a n a l y s i s , s i x p r e d i c t o r s ; number of c h i l d r e n , sex, adoption score, years 73 engaged i n cocoa growing, number of wives and correctness of knowledge; were retained i n the f i n a l regression equation and j o i n t l y accounted f o r 19.3 per cent of the variance i n 'explaining' cocoa production. I t i s evident that the number of c h i l d r e n i n the growers household was of s i g n i f i c a n t value i n p r e d i c t i n g cocoa production (Table 17). TABLE 17 SIX VARIABLES WHICH PREDICT COCOA PRODUCTION Core Variables Cumulative Proportion of V a r i a t i o n Explained F. Prob. Number of Children .082 0.0000 Sex .121 0.0000 Adoption Score .142 0.0000 Years i n Cocoa Growing .167 0.0000 Number of Wives .182 0.0001 Correctness of Knowledge .193 0.0001 R 2 .193 J o i n t Influence of Independent Variables and the Adoption of Recommended Cocoa P r a c t i c e s I t was speculated that correctness of knowledge underlying a recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e , the formality of the source of the informa-t i o n , and c e r t a i n personal and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would j o i n t l y p r e d i c t adoption since each of the v a r i a b l e s contributes towards adoption i n i t s own way. The r e l a t i v e contributions of these several independent v a r i a b l e s to adoption was assessed i n a stepwise regression a n a l y s i s to determine the proportion of variance i n adoption explained by the 74 independent v a r i a b l e s considered j o i n t l y . The most important p r e d i c t o r was found to be correctness of know-ledge which explained 11.7 per cent of the variance i n adoption. The combination of correctness of knowledge and formality of the source of information accounted for 13.9 per cent of the variance i n adoption. Cocoa production and l i t e r a c y were a l s o retained i n the f i n a l p r e d i c t i o n equation. These four p r e d i c t o r s j o i n t l y accounted f o r 16.1 per cent of the variance i n adoption l e a v i n g 83.9 per cent of the variance a t t r i b u t e d to other factors (Table 18). TABLE 18 FOUR VARIABLES WHICH PREDICT ADOPTION Core Variables Cumulative Proportion of V a r i a t i o n Explained F. Prob. Correctness of Knowledge Formality of Information Source Cocoa Production L i t e r a c y .117 .139 .157 .161 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0174 .161 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that sex, number of wives, number of c h i l d r e n , number of years engaged i n cocoa growing, and advising r o l e of the cocoa grower d i d not emerge as s i g n i f i c a n t contributors toward explain-ing the variance i n adoption and were therefore eliminated from the f i n a l p r e d i c t i n g equation. Thus the personal and economic factors investigated, with the exception of cocoa production and l i t e r a c y , appear to have had l i t t l e bearing upon explaining the variance i n adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s . 75 DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS The r e s u l t s presented i n the previous sections of t h i s chapter h i g h l i g h t e d i n t e r e s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The correctness of knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying recom-mended cocoa p r a c t i c e s appears to be the best p r e d i c t o r of adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s . This i n d i c a t e s that those growers i n Ghana who have a c o r r e c t understanding of the p r i n c i p l e s underlying recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s are more l i k e l y to adopt them. Therefore, t h i s suggests that to accelerate the adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s i n Ghana, cocoa growers must be taught to understand the p r i n c i p l e s underlying the recom-mended p r a c t i c e s being promoted. But the possession of c o r r e c t knowledge alone i s not always s u f f i c i e n t motivation to e f f e c t adoption of the recommended p r a c t i c e s . In a d d i t i o n to providing c o r r e c t knowledge, (' ' growers must also be motivated to adopt through educational programmes. The adopters of recommended p r a c t i c e s i n Ghana are more l i k e l y to use adult education sources o f information p a r t i c u l a r l y when the p r a c t i c e s are complex i n nature as i s the case with swollen shoot disease c o n t r o l and spraying against capsids. There i s no i n d i c a t i o n that the adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s i s more c l o s e l y l i n k e d with correctness of knowledge than with adult education sources of the information. Among the personal and economic v a r i a b l e s studied, number of wives, number of c h i l d r e n , l i t e r a c y , advisory r o l e , number of years en-gaged i n cocoa growing, and cocoa production, are p o s i t i v e l y associated with the adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s among Ghana growers. 76 Cocoa production (income) and l i t e r a c y are the best p r e d i c t o r s , among the personal and economic v a r i a b l e s , of adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s . I t was found that age neither encouraged nor hindered the adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s . Male growers are more apt to adopt the innovations than female growers. The adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s per se by Ghana growers i s of l i t t l e b e n e f i t unless i t r e s u l t s i n increased cocoa production, which means more income f o r the grower and for the t o t a l economy of Ghana. This study shows c l e a r l y that adopters of recommended p r a c t i c e s are more l i k e l y to have increased cocoa production. Government therefore, has s u f f i c i e n t reason to promote the adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s among growers. CHAPTER IV SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY The general purpose of the study was to explore the r e l a t i o n s h i p i between the adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s by growers i n Ghana, and the correctness of t h e i r knowledge of p r i n c i p l e s underlying the recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s , formality of the source of information used by growers, and selected perspnal and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the growers. S p e c i f i c a l l y examined were p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s hypothesized to be associated with the adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s . Subjects f o r the study were a sample of 1,191 cocoa growers i n Ghana. The survey was conducted during July, August, and September of 1973. The data were c o l l e c t e d i n personal interviews, and analysed using simple c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and stepwise regression a n a l y s i s . The .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was used i n the ana l y s i s of the data. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS Focusing on d i r e c t i o n a l hypotheses, the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s y i e l d e d the following s a l i e n t f i n d i ngs; 1. The correctness of knowledge of p r i n c i p l e s underlying a recom-mended cocoa p r a c t i c e was p o s i t i v e l y associated with the adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s by growers i n Ghana. 2. Adult education sources of information used by growers i n Ghana 77 78 were p o s i t i v e l y associated with the adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s . 3. The hypothesis that the adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s i s more c l o s e l y associated with correctness of knowledge underlying the pr a c t i c e s than with the adult education source of information, was not supported. 4. Among the personal and economic v a r i a b l e s , number of wives, number of c h i l d r e n , advisory r o l e , number of years engaged i n cocoa farming and cocoa production were p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s . 5. Age was not r e l a t e d to the adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s . 6. Sex was found to be negatively r e l a t e d to adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s . Male growers were more apt to adopt the recommended p r a c t i c e s than female growers. 7. L i t e r a c y and adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s were p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d . 8. The above r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s " s t a t i s t i c a l l y explained" a t o t a l of 16.1 per cent of the o v e r a l l variance, leaving 83.9 per cent unaccounted f o r . Further studies are l i k e l y to reduce t h i s . RECOMMENDATIONS The study shows that possession of c o r r e c t knowledge of p r i n -c i p l e s i s c r u c i a l to adoption of recommended cocoa p r a c t i c e s . Thus, access to formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s could contribute to the improved performance of cocoa growers i n Ghana. An obvious mechanism f o r 79 improvement i s adult education for the growers. Some of the ways i n making the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s e f f e c t i v e are: 1. Induction and Inservice Training Programme The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the Technical O f f i c e r s responsible f o r pro-v i d i n g the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s depends, to a large extent, on t h e i r competencies i n teaching adults as w e l l as t h e i r t e c h n i c a l knowledge of cocoa husbandry. The Technical O f f i c e r s are very knowledgeable on the t e c h n i c a l aspects of cocoa hus-bandry but lack t r a i n i n g i n adult education (Opare, 1973). The Cocoa Production D i v i s i o n therefore needs to develop com-prehensive induction and i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programmes f o r future and present extension workers. Such a t r a i n i n g programme must be expected to provide the extension workers with competencies i n planning, sequencing, implementing, and evaluating l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r growers based on sound p r i n c i p l e s of adult l e a r n -ing and i n s t r u c t i o n . The Cocoa Production D i v i s i o n may u t i l i z e the e x i s t i n g f a c i l -i t i e s at the U n i v e r s i t i e s , a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e s , and farm i n s t i -tutes f o r the t r a i n i n g programmes. Q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r s i n adult education and cocoa husbandry are a v a i l a b l e at the Univer-s i t i e s and other higher i n s t i t u t i o n s . 2. Organizing Educational A c t i v i t i e s f o r Growers The major function of the extension workers should be i n organiz-ing educational a c t i v i t i e s f o r cocoa growers. The Cocoa Production 80 D i v i s i o n c u r r e n t l y provides farmer t r a i n i n g courses on sixteen Cocoa Agronomy Stations, each course l a s t i n g a f o r t n i g h t . Each s t a t i o n organizes twenty courses annually and intake i s l i m i t e d to t h i r t y - s i x growers. The p a r t i c i p a n t s are provided with free boarding and lodging as well as an allowance of 50 pesewas (45<?) per diem. Other extension services a c t i v i t i e s of the D i v i s i o n include farm v i s i t s , s t a t i o n v i s i t s by growers, a g r i c u l t u r a l shows, open days, radio, and posters. I t i s suggested that a l l extension workers organize farmer t r a i n i n g courses i n the v i l l a g e s under t h e i r c o n t r o l u t i l i z i n g the e x i s t i n g v i l l a g e classrooms and community centres. Such educational programmes should be designed to ensure that the growers become in t e r e s t e d i n the recommended p r a c t i c e s , to a s s i s t them i n the evaluation of the new p r a c t i c e and to encour-age them to a c t i v e l y t r y out the recommended p r a c t i c e s . In order to a i d learning, the material to be l e a r n t should be near r e a l i t y and a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the growers i n the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y should be encouraged. The extension worker needs to aim at smaller groups of people f o r the learning a c t i v i t i e s since p a r t i -c i p a t i o n increases with smaller group s i z e . Proper s e l e c t i o n of techniques and devices should accelerate l e a r n i n g . The extension worker must therefore s e l e c t the most s u i t a b l e techniques and devices for s p e c i f i c behavioural o b j e c t i v e s and learning tasks. For example, techniques such as the l e c t u r e , debate, a panel and f i e l d t r i p s are mainly used f o r acquiring information, while buzz 81 groups, group d i s c u s s i o n and r o l e p laying are techniques f o r applying knowledge. One of the important techniques f o r acquir-ing a s k i l l i n a g r i c u l t u r e i s the process demonstration followed by ac t u a l p r a c t i c e . In the process demonstration, the extension o f f i c e r demonstrates how, for example, to spray cocoa trees against pests and explains the method used step-by-step while the growers watch and l i s t e n . The demonstration i s u s u a l l y f o l -lowed by the growers p r a c t i c i n g what has been demonstrated under the guidance of the extension o f f i c e r . This approach helps the grower to understand the procedure before t r y i n g to follow i t himself. The educational a c t i v i t i e s should be planned f o r growers of mixed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . For example, since the male growers tend to adopt more innovations than females, i n a group s i t u a t i o n the males may tend to influence the females to adopt the recommended innovations. Adoption i s a s o c i a l l y based behavioural change and must therefore be d i r e c t e d to groups not i n d i v i d u a l s . A mixed group of males and females would tend to c o r r e c t the present s i t u a t i o n at the farmer t r a i n i n g courses where almost a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s are males despite the f a c t that 17 per cent of the growers are females. 3. A v a i l a b i l i t y of Inputs The Cocoa Production D i v i s i o n should make a v a i l a b l e the necessary inputs (seedlings, c u t l a s s e s , spraying machines, i n s e c t i c i d e s , etc.) growers need i n order to adopt the recommended cocoa 82 p r a c t i c e s . Such inputs should be made a v a i l a b l e i n convenient s i z e s and locatio n s so that growers can obtain them without much hustle. I t w i l l be f r u s t r a t i n g f o r a grower to t r a v e l a long distance j u s t to purchase, say one bag of f e r t i l i z e r or one c u t l a s s . P r o v i s i o n of Transportation One of the major problems facing an extension worker i n Ghana i s the lack of transportation (Opare, 1973). The Cocoa Production D i v i s i o n has to provide a means of transport i f extension workers are to reach most growers i n scattered and remote v i l l a g e s . 83 84 Alleyne, P. E. and Coolie Verner. 1969 The Adoption and Rejection of Innovations by Strawberry Growers  i n the Lower Fraser V a l l e y . Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics. Anderson, M. A., L. E. Cains, E. D. Heady, and E. L. Baum. 1956 An Appraisal of Factors A f f e c t i n g the Acceptance and Use of Fer- t i l i z e r i n Iowa, 1953. Sp e c i a l Report No. 16, Iowa State College (June). Asumaning, J . A. n.d. Some Problems of Cocoa Production i n Ghana. Paper Presented at a Conference on A g r i c u l t u r a l Research P r i o r i t i e s f o r Economic Development i n A f r i c a . Bank of Ghana. 1974 "Increasing the Current Cocoa Producer P r i c e . " Memorandum (July 18) . Beal, George M. and Donald N. Si b l e y . 1967 Adoption of A g r i c u l t u r a l Technology by the Indians of Guatemala. Ames: Iowa State U n i v e r s i t y , Rural S o c i o l o g i c a l Report 62. Beckett, W. H. 1972 Koransang Cocoa Farm 1904-1970. Technical P u b l i c a t i o n s Series No. 31. I n s t i t u t e of S t a t i s t i c a l , S o c i a l and Economic Research, Legon. Belcher, John C. 1958 "Acceptance of the Salk P o l i o Vaccine." Rural Sociology 23: 158-70. Bernasko, F. G. 1973 "Increased P r o d u c t i v i t y i n Cocoa Trade." Journal of the Ghana  Cocoa Marketing Board 54:6. B j e r r i n g , J . H. 1972 A Survey of S t a t i s t i c a l Programs. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre. Boateng, M. T. 1974 Some Facts About Cocoa Production. Accra: Ghana Cocoa Marketing Board, Research Dept. (June). Clark, R. C. and I. Akimbode. 1968 Factors Associated with Adoption of Three Farm-Practices i n the  Western State, N i g e r i a . I f e : U n i v e r s i t y of If e Press. Copp, James H. 1956 Personal and S o c i a l Factors Associated with the Adoption of 85 Recommended Farm Prac t i c e s Among Cattlemen. Manhattan, Kansas: A g r i c u l t u r a l Experimental S t a t i o n . Technical B u l l e t i n 83. 1958 "Towards Generalization i n Farm P r a c t i c e Research." Rural S o c i - ology 23: 103-11. Cocoa Research I n s t i t u t e of Ghana. n.d. Compounds E f f e c t i v e Against Capsids. Tafo, Ghana: C.R.I.G. E l l i o t , H. J . C. 1973 "Cocoa i n the Ivory Coast." Cocoa Economics Research Conference  Paper, Accra, A p r i l 9-12. F l i e g e l , Frederick C. et a l . 1968 "A Gross National Comparison of Farmers' Perception of Innovations as Related to Adoption Behavior." Rural Sociology 33:437-49. Ghana "Daily Graphic." 1974 Accra: May 24. Graham, L. Saxon 1954 " C u l t u r a l Compatibility i n the Adoption of T e l e v i s i o n . " S o c i a l  Forces 33:166-70. Gross, Neal. 1949 "The D i f f e r e n t i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Accepters and Non-Accepters of an Approved A g r i c u l t u r a l Technological P r a c t i c e . " Rural S o c i - ology 14:148-56. Gross, Neal and Marvin J . Taves. 1952 " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Associated with Acceptance of Recommended Farm P r a c t i c e s . " Rural Sociology 17:321-27. G u i l f o r d , J . P. 1956 Fundamental S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. Hagerstrand. Torsten. 1968 Innovation D i f f u s i o n as a_ S p a t i a l Process. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press. Hays, W. L. 1963 S t a t i s t i c s f o r Psychologist. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Hoffer, Charles R. and Dale Stargland. 1958 "Farmers' Att i t u d e s and Values i n Relation to Adoption of Approved Pr a c t i c e s i n Corn Growing." Rural Sociology 23:112-20. 86 Labovitz, S. 1970 "The Assignment of Numbers to Rank Order Categories." American  S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 35:515-24. Leuthold, Frank O. 1966 Communication and D i f f u s i o n of Improved farm P r a c t i c e s i n Two Northern Saskatchewan Farm Communities. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan: Canadian Centre for Community Studies. Lionberger, Herbert F. 1960 Adoption of New Ideas and P r a c t i c e s : A Summary of the Research Dealing with the Acceptance of Technological Change i n A g r i c u l -ture with Implications f or Action i n F a c i l i t a t i n g Such Change. Ames: Iowa State U n i v e r s i t y Press B u l l e t i n . 1970 Adoption of New Ideas and P r a c t i c e s • Ames: Iowa U n i v e r s i t y Press. McMillion, Martin B. 1960 The Sources of Information and Factors which Influence Farmers  i n Adopting Recommended Pr a c t i c e s i n Two New Zealand Counties. Church Place Publisher: U n i v e r s i t y of New Zealand, Technical B u l l e t i n 19. Manu, J . E. A. 1973 "Cocoa i n Ghana's Economy." Cocoa Economics Research Conference  Paper, Accra, A p r i l 9-12. Mason, Robert G. 1964 "The Use o f Information Sources i n the Process of Adoption." Rural Sociology 29:40-52. Marsh, Paul and Lee A. Coleman. 1955 "The Relation of Farmer C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to the Adoption of Recom-mended Farm P r a c t i c e s . " Rural Sociology 20:289-96. Mensah, J . H. 1966 "Need for Research." Getting A g r i c u l t u r e Moving, V o l . 1. Ed., Raymond E. Borton. New York: The A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Council Inc. Nunnally, Jum C. 1967 Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Opare, K. D. 1973 "Problems of A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension i n Ghana." Universitas 2: 142-53. Organization For Economic Co-operation and Development. 1961 P o l i c y Conference on Economic Growth and Investment i n Education. O.E.C.D. Conference Paper, Washington, pp. 23-24. 87 1975 Report of the Second General Conference, A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement of A g r i c u l t u r a l Sciences i n A f r i c a (A.A.A.S.A) Dakar, Senegar, March 24-28, p. I I I . Pedersen, H. A. 1951 " C u l t u r a l Differences i n the Acceptance of Recommended P r a c t i c e s . " Rural Sociology 16:37-49. P o l l y H i l l 1956 The Gold Coast Cocoa Farmer. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press. Pool, I t h i e r De Sola. 1963 "Mass Media and P o l i t i c s . " Communications and P o l i t i c a l Develop- ment. Ed., Lucian W. Pye. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press. Rogers, Everett M. 1958 "A Conceptual Variable Analysis of Technological Change." Rural  Sociology 23:136-37. 1962 D i f f u s i o n of Innovations. New York: The Free Press. 1973 Communication Strategies for Family Planning. New York: The Free Press. Rogers, Everett M., J . A. A s c r o f t , and N. G. Roling. 1970 D i f f u s i o n of Innovations i n B r a z i l , N i g e r i a and India. East Lansing: Department of Communication, Michigan State U n i v e r s i t y . Rogers, Everett M. and H. R. Capener 1960 The County Extension Agent and His Constituents. Wooster: Ohio A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment St a t i o n , Research B u l l e t i n 858. Rogers, Everett M. and Floyd Shoemaker. 1971 Communication of Innovations. New York: The Free Press. Rogers, Everett M. and Lynne Svenning. 1969 Modernization Among Peasants. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Room, P. M. 1969 Proceedings of 3rd I n t e r n a t i o n a l Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, pp. 522-27. Sawer, Barbara. 1974 The Role of the Wife i n Farm Decisions. Vancouver: Adult Educa-t i o n Research Centre, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Rural Sociology Monograph #5. 88 South, Donald R. et a l . 1965 Factors Related to the Adoption of Woodland Management P r a c t i c e s . Baton Rouge: A g r i c u l t u r e Experiment Station, B u l l e t i n 603. Uwakah, C. J . 1975 "Cross-Cultural D i f f u s i o n of Adult Education: The Role of A g r i -c u l t u r a l Extension S t a f f i n E.C.S. N i g e r i a . " Unpublished Ed. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n . Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Adult Education Research Centre. Urquhart, D. H. 1961 Cocoa. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Van den Ben, A. W. 1957 "Some C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Progressive Farmers i n the Netherlands." Rural Sociology 22: 205-12. Verner, Coolie 1962 A Conceptual Scheme f o r the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f  Processes for Adult Education. Washington, D.C.: Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n . 1968 C u l t u r a l D i f f u s i o n and Adult Education, Adult Leadership 17: 49-51, 91-93. 1971 Psychological Factors i n Adult Learning and I n s t r u c t i o n . T a l l a -hassee, F l o r i d a : Research Information Processing Centre, Depart-ment of Adult Education. 1975 "Fundamental Concepts i n Adult Education. Internationales Jahrbach, edited by J . H. K n o l l . B e r l i n : Bertelsmann U n i v e r s i t a t s v e r l a g . Verner, Coolie and Peter M. Gubbels. 1967 The Adoption or Rejection of Innovations by Dairy Farm Operators  i n the Lower Fraser V a l l e y . Ottawa: A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics Research Council of Canada. Verner, Coolie and Frank W. M i l l e r d . 1966 Adult Education and the Adoption of Innovations. Vancouver: Department of A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Wilkening, Eugene A. 1952a Acceptance of Improved Farm Pr a c t i c e s i n Three Coastal P l a i n  Counties. Raleigh: North C a r o l i n a A g r i c u l t u r a l Experimental Stat i o n Technical B u l l e t i n No. 98. 1952b "Informal Leaders and Innovators i n Farm P r a c t i c e s . " Rural S o c i - ology 17:272-75. 89 Wilkening, Eugene A., Joan T u l l y , and Hartley Presser. 1962 "Communication and Acceptance of Recommended Farm P r a c t i c e s Among Dairy Farmers of Northern V i c t o r i a . " Rural Sociology 27:116-97. Wilson, Meredith C. and Glady Gallup. 1955 Extension Teaching Methods. Washington: United States Department of A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Service. C i r c u l a r No. 495. APPENDIX 90 91 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE THE ROLE OF ADULT EDUCATION IN THE ADOPTION OF INNOVATIONS BY COCOA GROWERS IN GHANA CODE: INTERVIEWER 1 = WESTERN 2 = CENTRAL 3 = EASTERN REGION . SAMPLE NO 4 = VOLTA 5 = ASHANTI 6 = BRONG AHAFO NAME OF VILLAGE Hel l o , I'm from the U n i v e r s i t y of Ghana, Legon and I am one of the students the Chief announced w i l l be asking questions about cocoa growing and y o u r s e l f . As the Chief i n d i c a t e d , a l l the information that you give me w i l l be s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l , and w i l l be used f o r s t a t i s t i -c a l summaries only. A. TO BEGIN, I WOULD LIKE TO ASK QUESTIONS DEALING WITH YOUR COCOA FARMS. ALL QUESTIONS ON THE COCOA PRACTICES REFER TO THE PRECEDING FIVE YEARS. 1. For how many years have you been engaged i n cocoa farming? MISTLETOE 2. When mistletoe and epiphites appear on your cocoa trees do you 1. Remove them 2. Leave them on the trees A. Why? B. Which source of information provided you with the most i n f l u e n t i a l 92 information leading you to remove or not to remove these para-s i t e s ? °... FREQUENCY OF HARVESTING What i s the i n t e r v a l between two harvests i n the same season? A. Why do you harvest i n t h i s way? B. Which source of information provided you with the most i n f l u e n t i a l information leading you to harvest t h i s way? INTERVIEWER: One harvest i s when the whole farm has been harvested. I t may take 5 days from s t a r t of harvesting to f i n i s h but t h i s i s considered as ONE harvesting. SWOLLEN SHOOT What do you do when you spot a swollen shoot diseased cocoa on your farm? 1. Remove the diseased tree only 2. Remove diseased tree plus those trees i n contact with the diseased tree 3. Do not remove i t 4. Report to Cocoa D i v i s i o n S t a f f 5. Other (specify) A. Why? B. Which source of information provided you with the most i n f l u e n t i a l information leading you to adopt t h i s p r a c t i c e ? 93 TURNING 5. How many times do you turn your fermenting heap of cocoa? 1. None 2. Once 3. Twice 4. Thrice 5. Four or more A. Why? B. Which source of information provided you with the most i n f l u e n t i a l information leading to those fermenting p r a c t i c e s ? SPRAYING AGAINST CAPSIDS 6 . Within the past f i v e years, have you continuously been spraying your farm against cocoa capsid pests? 1. Yes 2. No a) How many times i n a year do you spray your cocoa trees against capsids? In which months? Number of Times Months 1. Once 2. Twice 3. Thrice 4. Four times 5. More than four A. Why? 94 B. Which source of information provided you with the most i n f l u e n -t i a l information leading to t h i s p r a c t i c e ? 7. How many loads of cocoa from your own farm d i d you a c t u a l l y s e l l l a s t cocoa season? (1 load = 60 l b s . ) . 0. None 1. 1 - 10 2. 11 - 20 3. 21 - 30 4. 31 - 40 5. 41 - 50 6. 51 - 100 7. more than 100 8. Judging by your own experience, what do you think i s the most impor-tant bottleneck i n your cocoa farming? 9. How can the bottleneck be improved? B. MY NEXT SET OF QUESTIONS ARE ABOUT YOURSELF AND YOUR FAMILY 10. Sex of Respondent? 1. Male 2. Female 11. What i s your age? ^ 1. 2 0 - 3 0 years 2. 3 1 - 4 0 years 3. 4 1 - 5 0 years 4. Above 50 years 12. Are you 1. Married 2. Single 3. Divorced, separated, widower, e t c . 13. I f married, how many wives do you have? 1. One 2. Two 3. Three 4. Four 5. More than four 14. How many c h i l d r e n do you (yourself) have? 0. None 1. 1 - 2 2. 3 - 5 3. 6 - 1 0 4. 1 1 - 2 0 5. Over 20 15. Have you i n the l a s t f i v e years constantly been advising other cocoa growers on cocoa husbandry? 1. Yes 2. No 16. Can you read a newspaper (Graphic, Times, etc.)? 1. Yes 2. No What was the highest c l a s s you reached at school? 1. None 2. Mass Education 3. Class 1-3 4. Standard 1-5 5. Standard 6-7 ( 6. Above Standard 7. E N D T H A N K Y O U SOURCES OF INFORMATION Cocoa D i v i s i o n Technical O f f i c e r s Cocoa D i v i s i o n Visits-Demonstration Farm (Involving Extension O f f i c e r ) News B u l l e t i n and Posters I Radio or Rediffusion Farmers Tr a i n i n g Courses Family or Relatives Farmers Organizations Fellow Farmers Commercial Salesmen Own Experience Purchasing Agents N.A. 

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