Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Psycho-social concomitants of motivational orientation in a group of older adult education participants Riddell, Beverly Gail 1976

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1976_A8 R53.pdf [ 4.2MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055688.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055688-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055688-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055688-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055688-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055688-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055688-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055688-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055688.ris

Full Text

PSYCHO-SOCIAL CONCOMITANTS OF MOTIVATIONAL ORIENTATION IN A GROUP OF OLDER ADULT EDUCATION PARTICIPANTS by B e v e r l y G a i l R i d d e l ! B .A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e FACULTY OF EDUCATION We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t he r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Sep tember , 1976 0 Beverly Gail Riddell, 1976 In presenting th i s thes i s in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of this thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Depa rtment The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 i ABSTRACT The pu rpo se o f t h i s s t u d y was t o show t h a t , i n t h e ca se o f o l d e r a d u l t s , m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a r e r e l a t e d t o c e r t a i n p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e l a t e r y e a r s . F o l l o w i n g r e t i r e m e n t , a d u l t s f a c e t h e l o s s o f a number o f r o l e s . Ways o f a d a p t i n g t o l o s s o r change must be s o u g h t . P l a n n e r s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs f o r o l d e r p e o p l e s h o u l d be aware o f changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e o l d e r p e r s o n , and c r e a t e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e a d a p t a t i o n t o o l d age. To t h i s e n d , a s t u d y o f m o t i v e s and t h e i r c o n c o m i t a n t needs was c o n d u c t e d w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 118 r e t i r e d p e o p l e r e s i d i n g i n G r e a t e r Vancouve r . The s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o r e v e a l a r e l a t i o n s h i p between one m o t i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ( E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n ) and p a r t i c i p a n t s ' l e v e l s o f l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n , a d j u s t m e n t t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s o f l a t e r l i f e and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . B o s h i e r ' s (1976a) E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e was employed t o measure m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Responses f r om t h e s c a l e were f a c t o r a n a l y z e d and o r t h o g o n a l l y r o t a t e d t o p r oduce f o u r " o r i e n t a t i o n s " - - E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n , S o c i a l W e l f a r e , S o c i a l C o n t a c t and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t . F a c t o r s c o r e s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h r e l e v a n t demog raph i c d a t a and t h e t h r e e measures o f p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Respondent s m o t i v a t e d t o a t t e n d f o r E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n m a n i f e s t e d low l e v e l s o f l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n , a d j u s t m e n t t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s o f l a t e r l i f e and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . These r e s p o n d e n t s a l s o t ended t o have a l o w e r e d u c a t i o n a l backg round and p r e v i o u s j o b l e v e l t han t h o s e who were no t m o t i v a t e d by E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n m o t i v e s . i i B o s h i e r ( 1 971 , 1976, 1976a) and Haag (1976) a n a l y z e d m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c l a i m e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between t h e s e m o t i v e s and M a s l o w ' s g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y m o d e l . They see t h e E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r as b e i n g i n d i c a t i v e o f d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . The p r e s e n t s t u d y has added v a l i d i t y t o t h e o r i z i n g u n d e r t a k e n i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h by i n d i c a t i n g t h a t , amongst o l d e r a d u l t s , t h e E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r i s r e l a t e d t o d e f i c i e n c i e s i n l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n , a d j u s t m e n t and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t i s c on tended t h a t c o u r s e s p r e s e n t l y o f f e r e d by i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t he o l d e r a d u l t a r e n o t m e e t i n g t h e s p e c i a l needs o f t h e c l i e n t e l e . I f m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e mea su red , t h e r e s u l t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n can a i d t h e p l a n n e r i n d e s i g n i n g a c o m p a t i b l e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t f o r t h e o l d e r p e r s o n . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i TABLES v i FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. The P r ob l em 1 B. Pu rpo se o f t h e s t u d y 2 C. P r o p o s i t i o n s f o r r e s e a r c h 4 D. C l a r i f i c a t i o n o f te rms used i n t h i s s t u d y 4 E: P l a n o f t h e s t u d y :5 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE A. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t he o l d e r a d u l t p a r t i c i p a n t . . . . 7 1. T h r e e f o r c e s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e o l d e r a d u l t 7 2. S t u d i e s on a g i n g and a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e l a t e r y e a r s 9 B. E d u c a t i o n a l needs o f t h e o l d e r a d u l t 13 C. M o t i v a t i o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n 16 D. M o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n . . . . 20 E. Summary 23 CHAPTER I I I INSTRUMENT SELECTION AND DEVELOPMENT A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 24 B. S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c Data 25 C. E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e 28 D. L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n Index - A 30 E. Deve l opmenta l Task s o f L a t e r L i f e S c a l e 32 F. S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e 35 i v Page CHAPTER IV METHODOLOGY A. P o p u l a t i o n 38 B. Method o f o b t a i n i n g p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h e s u r v e y . . . . 39 C. Data co l l e c t i o n 39 D. Data a n a l y s i s p l a n 43 CHAPTER V RESULTS A. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Cou r se p a r t i c i p a n t s 45 Sex 46 M a r i t a l s t a t u s 46 Age 46 B i r t h p l a c e 46 O c c u p a t i o n and r e t i r e m e n t 46 E d u c a t i o n a l background 47 P r e s e n t r e s i d e n c e 47 Cou r se s 48 B. E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e - F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e and L a b e l l i n g 52 D e s c r i p t i o n o f f a c t o r a n a l y s i s 52 F a c t o r r o t a t i o n 52 L a b e l l i n g f a c t o r s 56 F a c t o r s t r u c t u r e a f t e r r o t a t i o n 57 F a c t o r c o n t e n t . . • 57 C. C o r r e l a t i o n o f f a c t o r s c o r e s w i t h o t h e r measures -T e s t i n g t h e h ypo the se s 62 S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n 63 A d j u s t m e n t t o Deve l opmenta l t a s k s o f l a t e r l i f e . . . 64 L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n Index - A 65 D. C o r r e l a t i o n o f s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a w i t h E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e f a c t o r s c o r e s 65 Age 65 O c c u p a t i o n 65 M a j o r employment 66 E d u c a t i o n a l backg round 66 V Page E. D i s c u s s i o n o f r e s u l t s 67 CHAPTER VI IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 70 A. What t h i s s t u d y has a c c o m p l i s h e d 70 B. L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y 73 C. Summary and c o n c l u d i n g remarks 74 APPENDICES REFERENCES v i TABLES T a b l e Page 1. I tem Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , and I tem/who le c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e Deve l opmen ta l Task s o f L a t e r L i f e s c a l e 34 2. I tem Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s and I tem/who le c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t he S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e 36 3. Respondent s c l a s s i f i e d by i n s t i t u t i o n and c o u r s e t y p e . . . 40 4. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o f o r m e r o c c u p a t i o n 49 5. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o e d u c a t i o n a l backg round 50 6. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o c o u r s e t y p e . . . 51 7. I tems and F a c t o r L o a d i n g s f o r t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e a f t e r O r t h o g o n a l R o t a t i o n . 54 8. I n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r l o a d i n g s : F a c t o r I, E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n 58 9. F a c t o r I I , S o c i a l W e l f a r e . . 59 10. F a c t o r I I I , S o c i a l C o n t a c t . 60 11 . F a c t o r IV, C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t 61 12. C o r r e l a t i o n s between E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e f a c t o r s c o r e s and t h r e e s c a l e s i n d i c a t i n g some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e o l d e r a d u l t 63 13. C o r r e l a t i o n s between E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e f a c t o r s c o r e s and r e l e v a n t s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a 67 v i i i FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1. H y p o t h e s i z e d i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h p r o v i d e d a f ramework f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y 6 2. M a s l o w ' s h i e r a r c h y o f needs 14 3. H y p o t h e s i z e d cau se s o f m o t i v a t i o n i n t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t 17 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a u t h o r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s a d e b t o f t hank s t o Dr. Roger B o s h i e r , who o r i g i n a t e d t h e l i n e o f r e s e a r c h pu r sued h e r e , and who r e n d e r e d i n -v a l u a b l e g u i d a n c e i n c a r r y i n g o u t t h i s p r o j e c t . Thanks a r e a l s o g i v e n t o Dr. Da l e R u s n e l l and Dr. John B. C o l l i n s f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g t he f i n a l s t a g e s o f t h i s p ape r . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. The P r ob l em O l d e r a d u l t s who have r e t i r e d f r o m t h e work f o r c e have been r e c e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d as a g roup o f c l i e n t s f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p rog rams . T h e i r m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n such programs a r e f r e q u e n t l y c o n -n e c t e d w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t , upon r e t i r e m e n t , t h e y have been r e l e g a t e d t o a m i n o r r o l e i n s o c i e t y . V a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s have u n d e r t a k e n programs t o h e l p r e t i r e d p e o p l e overcome f e e l i n g s o f a l i e n a t i o n and u s e l e s s n e s s w h i c h many o l d e r p e o p l e e x p r e s s ( S a r v i s , 1973 ; Knox 1968 ) . A l l t o o o f t e n , however , program p l a n n e r s n e g l e c t t h e s p e c i f i c s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs o f o l d e r p e o p l e and c o n c e n t r a t e i n s t e a d on s u p e r f i c i a l a c t i v i t i e s : b i n g o , c a r d games, c a r p e t b o w l i n g , random " f i e l d t r i p s " , and t h e l i k e . As Bagger o b s e r v e s : Many o f t he c o l l e g e s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n o f f e r i n g ' c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n ' t o o l d e r a d u l t s . Bu t none o f t h e c o u r s e s t h e y p l a n a r e d e s i g n e d t o u n d e r t a k e t h e work o f p r e p a r i n g t h e s e o l d e r a d u l t s t o work t owa rd t h e s o c i a l changes t h a t t h e more aware and r e s e n t f u l o l d p e o p l e w i s h and need t o a c c o m p l i s h f o r t h e m s e l v e s and f o r t h e on - coming g e n e r a t i o n s . ( 1975 , p. 7) I f e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e e l d e r l y were c o n c e i v e d w i t h due r e g a r d f o r t h e g r o u p ' s r e a l needs and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s m i g h t c e n t r e more on h e l p i n g t h e r e t i r e d p e r s o n t o d e a l w i t h h i s s i t u a t i o n , a n d , u l t i m a t e l y , t o b r i n g abou t some changes by h i s own d e s i g n . The p r o c e s s o f d e t e r m i n i n g program o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e o l d e r a d u l t i s c omp lex . I t w i l l g e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e an a n a l y s i s o f t h e t o t a l 2 l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , and a d e t a i l e d knowledge o f t h e p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e l d e r l y p e o p l e . Some i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e i n s o u r c e s such as s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e p o r t s , bu t i n f o r m a t i o n about b a s i c needs and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r program i s l e s s a c c e s s i b l e . A n a l y s e s o f p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a d u l t s as t h e y r e l a t e t o m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n have o n l y r e c e n t l y been seen as r e l e v a n t t o t h e a d u l t e d u c a t o r . More d a t a must be c o l l e c t e d so t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f such s t u d i e s f o r a l l age g roups may be a s s e s s e d . B. Pu rpo se o f t h e S tudy A c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l o f m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n must t a k e a c c o u n t o f t h e c l i e n t s ' own e x p r e s s i o n o f r e a s on s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a p rog ram, b u t s h o u l d a v o i d a f a c i l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f m o t i v e s w i t h i n t e r e s t s i n a s p e c i f i c c o u r s e c o n t e n t . Recen t a n a l y s e s s u g g e s t m o t i v e s a r e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o needs and o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a r -t i c u l a r g r o u p s . B o s h i e r and P e t e r s a r gue t h a t : M o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n appea r t o be s u r f a c e m a n i f e s -t a t i o n s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s w h i c h a r e i n t u r n r e l a t e d t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s and p s y c h o - s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e v a r i o u s age and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s . (1976) • I f t r u e , t h i s f u r n i s h e s t h e program p l a n n e r w i t h t h e key e l e m e n t o f a p r o p e r t h e o r e t i c a l mode l . The pu rpo se o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was t o t e s t t h e c o n t e n t i o n as i t a p p l i e s t o t h e r e c o g n i z a b l e " age and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p " o f o l d e r a d u l t s . O l d e r a d u l t s f a c e a number o f u n i q u e p r o b l e m s . E x i t f r om t h e work f o r c e , d e a t h o f a s p o u s e , d i s p l a c e m e n t f r om t h e f a m i l y home o r any 3 number o f o t h e r u n s e t t l i n g e v e n t s can g i v e r i s e t o need s . The need may, f o r e x a m p l e , be t o s o c i a l i z e w i t h p e e r g roup members, o r t o l e a r n a new hobby t o pu r sue d u r i n g l e i s u r e t i m e . U l t i m a t e l y , t h e r e t i r e d pe r s on may be m o t i v a t e d t o m i n i m i z e u n r e s t by r e a c t i n g t o t h e s i t u a t i o n . He may j o i n a c l u b , t a k e up an i n d i v i d u a l p u r s u i t o r a t t e n d c o u r s e s t o meet t h e need . M o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n r e s e a r c h e r s ( e . g . B o s h i e r , 1971 ; B u r g e s s , 1971 ; M o r s t a i n & S m a r t , 1974) have i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l c l u s t e r s o f r e a s on s a p p a r e n t l y r e f l e c t i n g needs w h i c h impe l p e o p l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . These o r i e n t a t i o n s (and t h e i r c o n c o m i t a n t needs ) a r e a g e - r e l a t e d . Of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o o l d e r a d u l t s i s an " E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n " f a c t o r w h i c h i s assumed t o be r e l a t e d t o needs t h a t a r e c r i t i c a l t o a l l p e o p l e bu t p a r t i c u l a r l y dominant amongst o l d e r a d u l t s . In p r e v i o u s m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s t u d i e s t h e f a c t o r E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n has been composed o f i t ems such as "To g e t r e l i e f f r om b o r e d o m " , "To s t o p m y s e l f becoming a v e g e t a b l e " , and o t h e r i t e m s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t bo th t h e h i g h and l ow ends o f t h e engagement . . . d i s engagement c on t i nuum t h a t dom ina te s t he s o c i a l g e r o n t o l o g y l i t e r a t u r e . The s p e c i a l r e l e v a n c e o f E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n chosen f o r t h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e d t he m a j o r f o c u s f o r t he a n a l y s i s w h i c h f o l l o w s . The s t u d y i n v o l v e d a p o p u l a t i o n o f r e t i r e d p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r ams , and f o c u s e d on t h e p a r t i c u l a r needs t h e y s h a r e because o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n t h e l i f e c y c l e and s o c i e t y . An a t t e m p t was made t o measure m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and t o a s c e r t a i n t h e deg ree t o w h i c h t h e s e m o t i v e s were r e l a t e d t o c e r t a i n 4 m e a s u r a b l e p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e o l d e r a d u l t : s o c i a l p a r -t i c i p a t i o n , s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e l a t e r y e a r s , and a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s o f l a t e r l i f e as w e l l as t h e u s u a l m e d i a t i n g v a r i a b l e s such as s e x , a ge , and p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n . C. P r o p o s i t i o n s f o r Re sea r ch T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n r e a s on s and c e r t a i n p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h may be p e c u l i a r t o t he o l d e r a d u l t . The m a j o r p r o p o s i t i o n s a r e t h a t : 1. E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n c o r r e l a t e s w i t h l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e o l d e r p e r s o n ; 2. E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n c o r r e l a t e s w i t h d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s o f l a t e r l i f e ; 3. E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n c o r r e l a t e s w i t h s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e o l d e r a d u l t . D. C l a r i f i c a t i o n o f Terms used i n t h i s S tudy The f o l l o w i n g terms a r e used and r e q u i r e d e f i n i t i o n . 1. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n t h e f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g : T h i s s e t t i n g comes i n t o b e i n g " . . . when an e d u c a t i o n a l a gen t d e s i g n s a sequence o f t a s k s u s i n g s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g p r o c e d u r e s t o h e l p an a d u l t a c h i e v e a m u t u a l l y a g r e e a b l e l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e ' 1 ( V e r n e r & B o o t h , 1964, p. l ) ' . . 2. O l d e r a d u l t , r e t i r e d p e r s o n , s e n i o r c i t i z e n : Any p e r s o n , aged 55 o r o l d e r who has r e t i r e d f r om t h e work f o r c e , 5 o r who works i n t h e home, b u t whose s p o u s e , i f l i v i n g , has r e t i r e d f r om t h e work f o r c e . 3. Need: A p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r p h y s i o l o g i c a l gap between what e x i s t s now, and some d e s i r e d c o n d i t i o n — a n i m b a l a n c e , o r l a c k o f h o m e o s t a s i s . Needs r e f l e c t t h e immed ia te s i t u a t i o n o f t h e a d u l t and h e l p d e t e r m i n e m o t i v e s . 4. M o t i v a t i o n : An i n n e r s t a t e w h i c h i s i n p a r t a c q u i r e d o r l e a r n e d . C h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r o u s a l o f e n e r g y , e f f o r t t owa rd s a c c o m p l i s h i n g a g o a l , p e r s i s t e n c e u n t i l c o n d i t i o n s change. E. P l a n o f t h e S tudy C h a p t e r I p r o v i d e s an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e p r ob l em and s t a t e s t h e p r o -p o s i t i o n ' s t o be t e s t e d . C h a p t e r I I r e v i e w s t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f o l d e r a d u l t s as t h e y r e l a t e t o t h e commun i ty , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and needs w h i c h may a r i s e as a r e s u l t o f r e t i r e m e n t and o l d age. S t u d i e s a n a l y z i n g bo th s u p e r f i c i a l and i n - d e p t h ways o f d e t e r m i n i n g needs and m o t i v a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e d i s c u s s e d . The r e v i e w c o n c l u d e s w i t h an o v e r v i e w o f m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n r e s e a r c h . C h a p t e r I I I , I n s t r u m e n t Deve lopment , d i s c u s s e s t h e f o u r a s p e c t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , n ame l y , s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a , E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i -p a t i o n S c a l e , S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e , L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n I n d e x , and A d j u s t m e n t t o Deve lopmenta l Tasks S c a l e . R e l i a b i l i t y o f a l l measures i s d i s c u s s e d . P o p u l a t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and d a t a a n a l y s i s p l a n a r e i n c l u d e d i n C h a p t e r IV. R e s u l t s o f t he s t u d y appea r i n C h a p t e r V, w h i l e d i s c u s s i o n , c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s appea r i n C h a p t e r V I . CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE The l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between some un i que c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t he o l d e r a d u l t , and m o t i v a t i o n f o r p a r t i c i -p a t i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i s shown i n F i g u r e 1, and r e f l e c t s t h e p r ob l em i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s s t u d y : CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OLDER ADULT F o r c e s a f f e c t i n g o l d e r p e o p l e S t u d i e s on a g i n g and a d j u s t m e n t 1 EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF THE OLDER ADULT G e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f needs Ways o f a s s e s s i n g needs MOTIVES FOR PARTICIPATION Gene ra l p a r t i c i p a t i o n p a t t e r n s M o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n F i g u r e 1. H y p o t h e s i z e d i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h p r o v i d e d a f ramework f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y 7 The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l e a r n e r , h i s needs and m o t i v a t i o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e assumed t o complement each o t h e r ( D o u g l a h , 1970 ) . M o t i v e s and needs o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s do n o t e x i s t i n i s o l a t i o n , bu t a r e r e l a t e d t o o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t he i n d i v i d u a l . Fo r e x a m p l e , B o s h i e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t " . . . m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s a r e m e a n i n g f u l l y r e l a t e d t o o t h e r s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s " ( 1976a , p. 1 0 ) . The c h a p t e r examines f o r c e s i n t h e o l d e r a d u l t w h i c h may r e s u l t i n needs and c o n c o m i t a n t m o t i v e s w h i c h impe l o l d e r a d u l t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e . As w e l l , a b r i e f r e v i e w o f f i v e t h e o r i e s o f a g i n g i s p r e s e n t e d , w h i c h d i s -cu s se s r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d by g e r o n t o l o g i s t s abou t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and needs o f l a t e r a d u l t h o o d . "Need s " and ways o f a s s e s s i n g them a r e d i s c u s -s e d . S t u d i e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n p l a c e t h e f o c u s o f needs a s se s sment on p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , r a t h e r than t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e a d u l t . A. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e O l d e r A d u l t P a r t i c i p a n t 1. Th ree f o r c e s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e o l d e r a d u l t S o c i a l f o r c e s A r e t i r e d p e r s o n has l i v e d t h r o u g h p r o f o u n d s o c i a l and t e c h n o -l o g i c a l change s . Two w o r l d w a r s , a ma jo r d e p r e s s i o n , and t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f mach ines as a m a j o r component i n modern l i f e have f o r c e d t h e pe r s on o v e r s i x t y t o adap t t o e v e r - c h a n g i n g s i t u a t i o n s . The i n d i v i d u a l must become used t o a f l u i d , m o b i l e p o p u l a t i o n base w i t h emphas i s on u r b a n , r a t h e r t han r u r a l d w e l l i n g s . Each o p t i o n t h e a d u l t choose s i n v o l v e s a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . As Knox n o t e s : 8 Fo r good o r i l l , t h e r a p i d r a t e o f s o c i a l change i s t he dominant f o r c e p r o d u c i n g an i n c r e a s e d s o c i e t a l r e q u i r e m e n t f o r more and b e t t e r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . ( 1968 , p. 6) Modern N o r t h Amer i c an c u l t u r e v a l u e s y o u t h . A r e t i r e d p e r s o n s e r v e s no r e a l pu rpo se t o t he commun i ty , and i s o f t e n g i v e n s e g r e g a t e d h o u s i n g , and " b u s y - w o r k " t o command a t t e n t i o n u n t i l d e a t h . As C o w g i l l n o t e s : A v a l u e s y s tem w h i c h emphas i ze s ego deve l opmen t and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c a c h i e v e m e n t p l a c e s t h e o l d e r pe r s on a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e as compared w i t h a v a l u e s y s tem wh i ch submerges t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e g roup w h i c h i n t u r n p r o v i d e s s e c u r i t y f o r dependent o r i n c a p a c i t a t e d members. ( 1972 , p. 12) O l d e r a d u l t s must i d e n t i f y w i t h a community wh i ch s u p p o r t s them f i n a n c i a l l y , bu t t e n d s t o r e j e c t them s o c i a l l y and l a r g e l y e x c l u d e s them f r om the power s t r u c t u r e . The a c c e p t a n c e and i n c l u s i o n o f o l d e r a d u l t s a t t h e community l e v e l v a r i e s f r om r u r a l t o u rban p o p u l a t i o n s , s i z e o f r e t i r e d p o p u l a t i o n , and w i t h whoever w i e l d s p o l i t i c a l power a t t h e moment. P s y c h o l o g i c a l f o r c e s R o l e changes caused by a g i n g and f o r c e d r e t i r e m e n t may g i v e r i s e t o needs . Los s o f employment and b u s i n e s s f r i e n d s may cau se l o n e l i n e s s f o r a c a r e e r p e r s o n , w h i l e someone who has s p e n t t h i r t y y e a r s i n t h e home may r e s e n t t h e sudden i n t r u s i o n o f a n e w l y - r e t i r e d s pou se . D i m i n i s h e d i n come, grown c h i l d r e n l e a v i n g home, and t h e p r e s s u r e s o f mov ing t o s m a l l e r l i v i n g q u a r t e r s a l l c r e a t e c o n f l i c t s i n o l d e r a d u l t s . P h y s i o l o g i c a l f o r c e s Pe rhaps one o f t h e most d i f f i c u l t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e o l d e r a d u l t 9 i s t h e c h o i c e o f a c c e p t i n g and a d a p t i n g t o i n c r e a s e d f r a i l t y and i l l h e a l t h i n l a t e r y e a r s . Because o f m e d i c a l advance s however , a p e r s o n l i v e s many more y e a r s t han d i d any o f h i s f o r e f a t h e r s . T h i s l o n g e r p e r i o d o f l i f e , c o u p l e d w i t h r e d u c t i o n s i n r e t i r e m e n t age r e v e a l s a n o t h e r p r ob l em p e c u l i a r t o t h e o l d e r a d u l t — c o n s t r u c t i v e use o f up t o .30 y e a r s o f l e i s u r e t i m e . 2. S t u d i e s on a g i n g and a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e l a t e r y e a r s The s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l f o r c e s a c t i n g upon o l d e r a d u l t s cause them t o r e a c t i n a v a r i e t y o f ways . The f o l l o w i n g s t u d i e s a n a l y z e d some o f t h e s e r e a c t i o n s , and i n some c a s e s n u r t u r e d t h e o r i e s w h i c h p r o v i d e a f ramework f r om w h i c h t o l o o k a t t h e un i que c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e o l d e r a d u l t . Many t h e o r i e s o f and i d e a s about changes w h i c h o c c u r i n l a t e r -l i f e have been p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e p a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s . P r i o r t o 1960, a l m o s t no work had been done i n t he a r e a , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f H a v i g h u r s t (1948) and o t h e r s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o . Cumming and Henry (1961) p u b l i s h e d t h e i r t h e o r y o f d i s e n g a g e m e n t , w h i c h had grown o u t o f t h e Kansas C i t y S t udy o f A d u l t L i f e . D u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d , r e s u l t s w h i c h c h a l l e n g e d t h i s t h e o r y were p u b l i s h e d , u s i n g t h e i d e n t i c a l p o p u l a t i o n ( N e u g a r t e n , e t a l , 1961 ) . The c o n c e n t r a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h p roduced two i m p o r t a n t t h e o r i e s o f a g i n g have been f o l l o w e d by a l a r g e number o f d i s s e n t i n g j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s and o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s . Not a l l t h e d i s s e n t e r s have i n t r o d u c e d new t h e o r i e s , no r even o f f e r e d a l t e r n a t i v e s . Some have c o n d u c t e d t h e i r own r e s e a r c h w h i c h p u r p o r t s t o i n v a l i d a t e p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . L i t t l e e f f o r t has been made t o r e p l i c a t e e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h . 10 D i sengagement and a c t i v i t y t h e o r i e s In t h e i r book, Growing O l d : t h e P r o c e s s o f D i sengagement d imming and Henry (1961) c i t e f i n d i n g s f r om t h e Kansas C i t y S t udy o f A d u l t L i f e t o a rgue t h a t s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w i t h d r a w a l i s normal and i n e v i t a b l e f o r o l d e r a d u l t s . Bo th s o c i e t y and t h e a g i n g i n d i v i d u a l s want t h i s w i t h -d r awa l t o o c c u r ; i t i s s a i d t o be a c o r r e l a t e o f s u c c e s s f u l a g i n g . O l d e r a d u l t s a r e s a i d t o become p a s s i v e , p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e m s e l v e s and w i l l c e a s e t o f u n c t i o n n o r m a l l y i n s o c i e t y . T h i s t h e o r y has been c r i t i c i z e d f r om many p o i n t s o f v i e w by r e s e a r c h e r s who c l a i m t h a t d i s e n g a g e m e n t , i f i t e x i s t s , a f f e c t s o n l y a s m a l l m i n o r i t y o f t h e o l d e r p o p u l a t i o n (Back & Ge r gen , 1966 ) . A r g u i n g a g a i n s t t h e d i sengagement t h e o r y , Cavan e t a l . , ( 1 9 4 9 ) , and Pa lmore ( 1 9 6 8 ) , f e e l t h a t s o c i e t y a l l o w s o n l y one m a j o r r o l e f o r o l d e r a d u l t s ; t h a t o f " r e t i r e d p e r s o n " . The a u t h o r s a d v o c a t e a c t i v i t y , r a t h e r than p a s s i v i t y , w i t h o l d e r a d u l t s j o i n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , l e a r n i n g s k i l l s and p a r t i c i p a t i n g f u l l y i n s o c i e t y . R o l e t h e o r y and t h e aged as a s u b c u l t u r e U s i n g r o l e t h e o r y and g roup i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , Rose ( 1 9 6 8 ) , c l a i m s h i s i d e a s p a r a l l e l bu t do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y oppose t h o s e o f d i s engagement t h e o r i s t s . S i n c e N o r t h Ame r i c an s o c i e t y i s a g e - g r a d e d , s u b - c u l t u r e s f l o u r i s h ( E i s e n s t a d t , 1956 ) . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r t h e modern r e t i r e d p e r s o n , who may l i v e a n e a l t h y l o n g l i f e , and t end s t o r e s i d e i n a r e t i r e m e n t community o r own home r a t h e r t han w i t h c h i l d r e n . Any d i sengagement w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e i s c r e a t e d by a s o c i e t y w h i c h d e n i e s h im j o b s , l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s and o t h e r a c t i v e p o s i t i o n s . 11 A l t h o u g h a r e t i r e d p e r s o n may l o s e many f u n c t i o n s such as b r e a d -w i n n e r , homeowner, head o f h o u s e h o l d , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r t h a t pe r s on t o assume new and c h a l l e n g i n g r o l e s ( B l a u , 1 973 ) . These r o l e s must n o t i n c l u d e "make work " t a s k s wh i ch h e l p t o pass t i m e . R a t h e r , o l d p e o p l e s h o u l d b e g i n t o b ru sh up f o r g o t t e n s k i l l s t h r o u g h A d u l t B a s i c E d u c a t i o n , v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , and o t h e r a r e a s w h i c h w i l l r e - i n t r o d u c e them t o p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e ( B u l t e n a & O y l e r , 1 9 7 1 ) . Depend ing on a w ide v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l , economic , h e a l t h and p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s , o l d e r a d u l t s v a r y i n t h e i r app roach t o o l d age and s h o u l d be encou raged t o d e v e l o p t h o s e commitments and r o l e s w h i c h s a t i s f y them. D e v e l o p m e n t a l , o r L i f e C y c l e t h e o r y L i f e c y c l e i s d e f i n e d as t h o s e s t a g e s o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e , d u r i n g w h i c h d e v e l o p m e n t a l c r i s e s w i l l o c c u r ( E r i k s o n , 1968 ) . The i n d i v i d u a l w i l l e i t h e r cope o r f a i l t o cope w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n . L i f e c y c l e t h e o r i s t s c o n s i d e r t h a t needs depend upon t h e h i s t o r y and p e r s o n a l o f each p e r s o n . L a t e r s t a g e s o f t h e c y c l e a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a more r e s t r i c t e d l i f e space i n such a r e a s as income and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s . Such p rob lems c o u p l e d w i t h i n e v i t a b l e p h y s i c a l d e c l i n e may cause t h r e a t and a n x i e t y and o f t e n " p l a n l e s s n e s s and r e s i g n a t i o n " ( P r e s s e y & K u h l e n , 1957, p. 2 9 6 ) . By s t u d y i n g t he l i f e c y c l e , s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s can c o n -t r i b u t e t o t h e a d j u s t m e n t and c o p i n g b e h a v i o u r s o f t h e o l d e r pe r s on (Youmans, 1969 ) . L i f e c y c l e t h e o r y a l s o emphas i ze s t he d i f f e r e n c e s between t h o s e r e t i r i n g now and t h o s e who have been r e t i r e d many y e a r s . The " y o u n g e r " g roup has f e w e r c h i l d r e n , h i g h e r i n come , and b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n than t h e " o l d e r " g roup and has a l r e a d y begun t o make g r e a t e r 12 demands on s o c i e t y f o r a c t i v i t y c e n t r e s , r e t i r e m e n t v i l l a g e s and e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s ( C a i n , 1967 ) . H a v i g h u r s t a d v o c a t e s t h e l i f e - c y c l e o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y a p p r o a c h . He i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s a c c o m p l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e who l e l i f e c y c l e , i n c l u d i n g t h e l a t e r y e a r s , and c o d i f i e d dominan t r o l e s o f p r o g r e s s i v e l y a g i n g a d u l t s ( 1948 , 1964 ) . Each r o l e becomes a d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k , wh i ch o f t e n must be a d j u s t e d t o o r a c c o m p l i s h e d i n a v e r y s h o r t t i m e . R e t i r e m e n t , f o r e x a m p l e , makes demands o f r a p i d a d j u s t m e n t n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e p e r s o n whose employment has r e c e n t l y t e r m i -n a t e d . Needs a r i s i n g o u t o f t he t a s k o f a d j u s t i n g t o r e t i r e m e n t a r e no t p r e s e n t l y b e i n g met , e i t h e r by b u s i n e s s o r by a d u l t e d u c a t o r s . The f i n a l two s t a g e s o f l i f e , age 60 t o 70 and age 70 t o 9 0 , t e n d t o o c c u r d u r i n g and a f t e r t h e r e t i r e m e n t p r o c e s s . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t t i m e i p e r i o d , t he o l d e r a d u l t must p l a n f o r r o l e c h a n g e s , by c o n s i d e r i n g h i s h e a l t h , f i n a n c e s , a d j u s t i n g t o dea th o f s p o u s e , and o t h e r a r e a s w h i c h c o m p r i s e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s o f l a t e r l i f e . Up t o age 70 , c l a i m s : v * H a v i g h u r s t , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n m i g h t h e l p t o enhance t h e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n and a i d i n a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e s e e a r l y p o s t - r e t i r e m e n t d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s . Many o f H a v i g h u r s t ' s o r i g i n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s a r e now o u t o f d a t e and must be adap ted t o s u i t s o c i a l changes w h i c h have o c c u r r e d , d u r i n g t h e p a s t 20 y e a r s . However , t he i d e a o f p o r t r a y i n g t h e l i f e c y c l e as a s e r i e s o f t a s k s t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d has been a c c e p t e d by many s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and a d u l t e d u c a t o r s ( K u r t z & Wo lk , 1975 ) . 13 B. E d u c a t i o n a l Needs o f t he O l d e r A d u l t S t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d by g e r o n t o l o g i s t s d u r i n g t h e l a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s have r e v e a l e d t h a t some o l d e r p e o p l e w i s h t o r ema i n a l o o f f r om s o c i e t y , w h i l e o t h e r s w i s h t o i d e n t i f y c l o s e l y , e i t h e r w i t h t h e i r own age group o r w i t h t h e community a t l a r g e . A l l o f t h e s e p e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e e n f o r c e d l e i s u r e , c e r t a i n t a s k s t o w h i c h t h e y must a d a p t , and a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r deg ree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i f e . A l t h o u g h " t h e o r i e s " a r e c r e a t e d and d i s s e c t e d r e g u l a r l y , some needs o f o l d e r a d u l t s a r e no t met by s o c i e t y . G e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l needs Much o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on " n e e d s " f o r o l d e r a d u l t s i s a c t u a l l y an a n a l y s i s o f i n t e r e s t s . H i e m s t r a ( 1 9 7 2 ) , a s k s what t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f o l d e r p e o p l e a r e , w h i l e H a v i g h u r s t (1976) and Marcus (1972) see needs o f o l d e r a d u l t s as b e i n g e i t h e r e x p r e s s i v e o r i n s t r u m e n t a l i n n a t u r e . McC l u s k y (1971) d e f i n e s f o u r needs o f o l d e r a d u l t s : c o p i n g , e x p r e s s i v e , c o n t r i b u t i v e and i n f l u e n c e . S a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e s e needs can l e a d t o m a i n t e n a n c e o f w e l l - b e i n g and c o n t i n u e d g r o w t h . Needs can be d e s c r i b e d as an i m b a l a n c e o r gap between what i s and what s h o u l d be. They r e f l e c t a p e r s o n ' s immed ia te s i t u a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e h i s m o t i v e s . Thus needs a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o m o t i v e s , bu t d i f f e r f r om i n t e r e s t s , w h i c h a r e " a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e modes o f o v e r t b e h a v i o u r " (Knox , 1968 ) . Needs have been v a r i o u s l y t y p e d . Leagans (1964) sees needs f a l l i n g i n t o p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l o r i n t e g r a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s , w i t h bo th f e l t and u n f e l t needs e x i s t i n g i n each c a t e g o r y . Bo th community and i n d i v i d u a l needs must be c o n s i d e r e d when programming (McMahon, 1970; 14 M i l l e r , 1967 ) . Atwood and E l l i s (1971) d e s c r i b e needs as e i t h e r p r e s -c r i p t i v e o r m o t i v a t i o n a l . They c l a i m t h a t e d u c a t o r s s h o u l d c o n s i d e r needs f r om t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f l i f e - s p a n a p p r o a c h e s , much l i k e H a v i g h u r s t and Mas low, where c e r t a i n t a s k s must be c o m p l e t e d a t p a r t i c u l a r s t a g e s i n l i f e . Mas low (1962) a rgues t h a t b a s i c needs a r e a r r a n g e d i n a h i e r a r c h y . As t h e l o w e r o r d e r needs a r e s a t i s f i e d , needs on t he n e x t l e v e l become i m p o r t a n t . Fo r e x a m p l e , when b a s i c needs such as hunger and t h i r s t a r e s a t i s f i e d , s a f e t y needs b e g i n t o t a k e p r e c e d e n c e . As needs on one l e v e l a r e s a t i s f i e d , a r e s i d u a l s t a t e o f t e n s i o n , u n c e r t a i n t y o r p a i n w i l l r e s u l t u n t i l t h e need on t h e n e x t s t e p i s met . F i g u r e 2. M a s l o w ' s H i e r a r c h y o f Needs Two t y p e s o f m o t i v a t i o n a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l , Mas low c l a i m s . " D e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n " i s r e p r e s e n t e d by an a t t e m p t t o s a t i s f y t h e l o w e r o r d e r needs on t h e h i e r a r c h y , w h i l e " g r o w t h m o t i v a t i o n " i n c l u d e s an a t t e m p t t o r e a l i z e s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , w h i c h o c c u r s a f t e r b a s i c needs 15 have been s a t i s f i e d . A c c o r d i n g t o Mas low, few i n d i v i d u a l s a t t a i n t h i s s t a t e o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , w h i c h comes o n l y when a l l p r i o r needs a r e s a t i s f i e d , and t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s no l o n g e r m o t i v a t e d f o r r e a s o n s o f d e f i c i e n c y . The a d u l t e d u c a t o r s h o u l d be aware t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l r e v e a l d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f needs wh i ch must be me t , and t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o Mas low, t h e l o w e r o r d e r , o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d needs must be d e a l t w i t h v e r y d i f f e r e n t l y than needs w h i c h g i v e r i s e t o g rowth m o t i v a t i o n . Ways o f d e t e r m i n i n g needs The programmer w i l l be aware t h a t c e r t a i n needs a r e p r e s e n t i n e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l . However, t he p r ob l em o f d i a g n o s i n g needs and d e s i g n i n g programs w h i c h w i l l meet them, i s a d i f f i c u l t t a s k . Q u e s t i o n s t h e programmer can ask b e f o r e e s t a b l i s h i n g program o b j e c t i v e s a r e : a) Which programs a r e p r e s e n t l y e n j o y e d o r f ound t o be u s e f u l by t h e c l i e n t e l e ? b) How can s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t e l e be a s c e r t a i n e d ? c ) What needs m o t i v a t e t he c l i e n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s ? d) How do t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c l i e n t s a f f e c t t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e ( t h i s i n c l u d e s g roup norms, p a t t e r n s o f a d j u s t m e n t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n , d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k a c c o m p l i s h m e n t , l i f e c y c l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) ? 16 I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f an o l d e r p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h undergoes " m a j o r and a b r u p t c hange s " (Knox , 1968) d u r i n g r e t i r e m e n t y e a r s . By s i m p l y a s k i n g r e s p o n d e n t s f o r demog raph i c i n f o r m a t i o n and c o u r s e c h o i c e t h e r e s e a r c h e r o r programmer f a i l s t o d e t e r m i n e t h o s e needs wh i ch may u l t i m a t e l y m o t i v a t e p e o p l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e , and w h i c h s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d when p l a n n i n g p rog rams . I t i s i m p o r t a n t , t h e r e f o r e , t o a s s e s s a l l l e v e l s o f needs f o r t h i s u n i que group o f a d u l t s , and t o a s s e s s them a d e q u a t e l y . As Kauffmann s t a t e s : The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l needs o f o l d e r pe r s on s i m p l i e s more t han a l i s t i n g o f s t a t e m e n t s p e o p l e make about s ometh i n g t h e y d o n ' t have bu t w a n t , about c h a n g i n g what t h e y have f o r s ometh i n g e l s e . A need may be d e f i n e d as t h e r e c o g n i z e d d i s -p a r i t y between what i s f o r what m i gh t be. T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n m i g h t be i n t h e s t r e a m o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f an i n d i v i d u a l , b u t he m i g h t no t be aware o f i t a t a l l . . . " ( 1967 ; p. 1 6 ) . A g a i n , t h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s , how can needs be measured and a c t e d upon by t h e a d u l t e d u c a t o r ? B o s h i e r and P e t e r s (1976) f e e l t h a t "many ' i n t e r n a l ' d e t e r m i n a n t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n such as needs and i n t e r e s t s may be i n f e r r e d once t h e e d u c a t o r knows t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s m o t i v e s f o r p a r -t i c i p a t i o n . " C. M o t i v a t i o n f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n Maslow a r gue s t h a t needs e x i s t i n a h i e r a r c h y , and t h a t l o w e r o r d e r d e f i c i t needs must be g r a t i f i e d b e f o r e h i g h e r o r d e r , o r g rowth needs emerge. The m o t i v a t i o n s o f t h o s e w i t h l o w e r o r d e r needs i s s a i d t o d i f f e r , as w e l l . I f , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e b a s i c need f o r s a f e t y i s no t me t , t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be i n s e c u r e , and d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s s i t u a t i o n . The m o t i v e s w h i c h grow o u t o f t h i s need wou l d d i f f e r f r om t h e m o t i v e s o f 17 t h e s e l f - a c t u a l i z e d i n d i v i d u a l who i s i n t e n t upon s a t i s f y i n g h i g h e r -o r d e r needs r e l a t i n g t o h i s own p o t e n t i a l f o r g a i n i n g k n o w l e d g e , d e e p e n i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and so f o r t h . The s i t u a t i o n can be r e p r e s e n t e d d i a g r a m a t i c a l l y as f o l l o w s ( F i g u r e 3): PRE-PARTICIPATION PARTICIPATION HIGHER ORDER NEED I TENSION, EAGERNESS GROWTH MOTIVATION • LEARNING ENVIRONMENT' LOWER ORDER NEED MORE COVERT DISSATISFACTION FRUSTRATION DEFICIENCY MOTIVATION iLEARNING ENVIRONMENT • t i MORE OVERT F i g u r e 3. H y p o t h e s i z e d c a u s e s o f m o t i v a t i o n i n t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t . S o c i a l f o r c e s , p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an a d u l t can g i v e r i s e t o e i t h e r h i g h e r o r l o w e r - o r d e r need s . The s t a t e o f e a g e r n e s s o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w h i c h r e s u l t s c a u s e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o be 18 m o t i v a t e d t o a c t i n some way. H i g h e r - o r d e r needs g i v e r i s e t o g rowth m o t i v a t i o n , w h i l e l o w e r - o r d e r needs r e s u l t i n d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . B o s h i e r (1973) employed a cong ruence model and s u g g e s t e d t h a t g rowth and d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n ( o p e r a t i n g p r i o r t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) a l s o a f f e c t t h e b e h a v i o u r o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t s a f t e r t h e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e has commenced. In F i g u r e 3 , t h e d o t t e d l i n e s a r e used t o s u g ge s t t h a t e f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g f rom t h e p r e s e n c e o f d e f i c i e n c y and g rowth m o t i v a t i o n ( p r i o r t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) may pe r vade t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g and perhaps i n f l u e n c e l e a r n i n g , s a t i s f a c t i o n and p e r s i s t e n c e . However, t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y does n o t c o n c e r n t h e p o s t - e n r o l l m e n t b e h a v i o u r o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . The program p l a n n e r who wants more p s y c h o - s o c i a l d a t a on p a r t i c i -p a n t s , i s f a c e d w i t h a d i l emma. S h o u l d needs be a s s e s s e d i n t h e hope t h a t t h e e d u c a t o r can i n f e r i n f o r m a t i o n on m o t i v a t i o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a b i t s be a n a l y z e d , and needs i n f e r r e d f rom t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n ? Thus f a r , t he l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w has f o c u s e d on t h e f o r m e r c a t e g o r y . T h i s s t u d y h y p o t h e s i z e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o t i v a t i o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e o l d e r a d u l t . A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f o l l o w s . G e n e r a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n P a t t e r n s B r unne r (1959) showed t h a t t h e r e were two t y p e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t u d i e s , t h o s e w h i c h a n a l y z e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , and t h o s e a t t e m p t i n g t o a s c e r t a i n d i f f e r e n c e s between p a r t i c i p a n t s and non -p a r t i c i p a n t s . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t end t o have a h i g h 19 s c h o o l o r c o l l e g e b a c k g r o u n d , be a c t i v e i n t h e community and have a m i d d l e c l a s s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n a f t e r age 50 g e n e r a l l y d e c r e a s e s . N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s t e n d t o have l o w - s t a t u s j o b s , l e s s e d u c a t i o n , and a h i s t o r y o f b e i n g ' n o n - j o i n e r s ' ( W i l e n s k y , 1 962 ) . Con -f l i c t i n g d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e on d e c l i n e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h age. W i l e n s k y c l a i m e d a d e f i n i t e d e c l i n e o c c u r s a f t e r age 6 0 ; however , l a t e r r e s e a r c h showed t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f o l d e r a d u l t s r ema in c o n s t a n t , and t h a t a c t i v i t y depends on s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s and s t a t u s w i t h i n t h e l i f e c y c l e ( V i d e b e c k & Knox, 1965 ) . D i c k i n s o n (1971) f ound t h a t a d u l t s w i t h a c o n c e p t o f l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and a h i s t o r y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , w i l l a t t e n d c o u r s e s more f r e q u e n t l y t han t h o s e who e x p r e s s l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n l i f e -l o n g l e a r n i n g . A s u r v e y on t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f o l d e r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d i n p a r t , t h a t t h e y a r e g e n e r a l l y i n good h e a l t h , l i v e i n t h e i r own homes, and have ongo i n g c o n t a c t w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ( R o b i n s o n , 1972 ) . They do n o t d i f f e r f r om o l d e r non -p a r t i c i p a n t s i n te rms o f a ge , e d u c a t i o n a l backg round and f o r m e r j o b s t a t u s . A n o t h e r s t u d y o f o l d e r a d u l t s showed a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a t i o n and l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n i f h e a l t h and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s were n o t c o n t r o l l e d . I f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were c o n t r o l l e d , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p was f ound t o be i n s i g n i f i c a n t ( B u l l & A u c o i n , 1 975 ) . M o t i v a t i o n Re sea r ch As e a r l y as 1961 a d u l t e d u c a t o r s were c o n c e r n e d w i t h l o o k i n g a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n te rms o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s , d i s engagement t h e o r y , and 20' a d j u s t m e n t t o l i f e (Knox & V i d e b e c k , 1963 ; Knox & S j o g r e n , 1 962 ) . Hou le (1961) a rgued t h a t t h r e e " t y p e s " c o v e r e d a l l r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . He c l a i m e d p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e e i t h e r a) goa l o r i e n t e d , where e d u c a t i o n i s used as a means o f a c h i e v i n g c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s , b) a c t i v i t y o r i e n t e d , where a d u l t s a t t e n d f o r r e a s o n s o t h e r t han t h e c o n t e n t o r pu rpo se o f t h e a c t i v i t y , o r c ) l e a r n i n g o r i e n t e d , when knowledge i s s ought f o r i t s own s a ke . These t y p e s a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d pu re s i n c e t h e a d u l t p a r t i c i p a n t may be m o t i v a t e d i n more t han one a r e a a t a g i moment, bu t one o r i e n t a t i o n i s s a i d t o be dom inan t . M i l l e r (1967) s u b s e q u e n t l y d e v e l o p e d a way o f a n a l y z i n g p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . A needs h i e r a r c h y , he a r g u e s , o n l y p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n s m o t i v a t i o n . S o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s such as c u l t u r e and k i n s h i p p a t t e r n s a r e a l s o r e l a t e d t o m o t i v e s . The b a s i c needs combined w i t h s o c i a l f o r c e s w i l l e i t h e r cau se o r p r e v e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . A n o t h e r s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g M a s l o w ' s s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n c o n c e p t s t o f a c i l i t a t e s u c c e s s f u l r e t i r e m e n t t h r o u g h a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . O l d e r a d u l t s c o u l d be t a u g h t t o meet change and f r u s t r a t i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y (Keahey & Seaman, 1974 ) . The a u t h o r s encou rage t h e use o f p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s and o t h e r measures t o d e t e r m i n e needs . D. M o t i v a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n S i n c e H o u l e ' s t h r e e - f a c t o r t y p o l o g y emerged, t h r e e i n s t r u m e n t s have been d e s i g n e d t o measure ' l e a r n i n g ' o r ' m o t i v a t i o n a l ' o r i e n t a t i o n s : t h e C o n t i n u i n g L e a r n i n g Index ( S h e f f i e l d , 1 9 6 4 ) ; Reasons f o r E d u c a t i o n a l 21 P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e ( B u r g e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) ; and t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e ( B o s h i e r , 1 971 , 1976, 1 9 7 6 a ) . H o u l e ' s t y p o l o g y was u sed as a b a s i s f o r c r e a t i n g i t e m s . D i s c u s s i o n o f measurement and f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e above t h r e e s c a l e s w i l l a p p e a r i n C h a p t e r I I I . U s i n g t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e , B o s h i e r (1971) t e s t e d H o u l e ' s t y p o l o g y . F o r t y - e i g h t r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n were a s s e m b l e d , and t h e r e s u l t i n g s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 233 r andomly s e l e c t e d New Z e a l a n d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s . Responses were f a c t o r a n a l y z e d , 1 w i t h 14 f a c t o r s e m e r g i n g . B o s h i e r i n t r o d u c e d t h e n o t i o n o f M a s l o w ' s g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n t h e o r y h e r e , c l a i m i n g t h a t i t s r e l e v a n c e t o , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ough t t o be t e s t e d on e x t r eme g roup s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . He a r gued t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n s tems f r o m m o t i v e s w h i c h a r e more comp lex t h a n t h o s e o r i g i n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d by H o u l e . B o s h i e r (1976a) a t t e m p t e d t o d e p i c t p a r t i c i p a n t s as e i t h e r " l i f e - c h a n c e " ( d e f i c i e n c y ) o r " l i f e - s p a c e " ( g r owth ) m o t i v a t e d . A m i n o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s composed o f l i f e - s p a c e p e o p l e , who a r e i n d e p e n d e n t , t o l e r a n t and mov ing t o w a r d s s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . L i f e - c h a n c e m o t i v a t e d a d u l t s a r e p u r p o r t e d t o be f u l f i l l i n g t h e l o w e r o r d e r needs on M a s l o w ' s h i e r a r c h y ( p h y s i c a l , s a f e t y , dependence) , and must s a t i s f y e x t e r n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s as w e l l as i n t e r n a l n eed s . B o s h i e r 1 s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c o n f i r m t h a t y o u n g e r p e o p l e t e n d t o be more " l i f e - c h a n c e " o r i e n t e d t h a n o l d e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , and t h a t " l i f e -s p a c e " m o t i v a t e d p e o p l e a r e i n a h i g h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b r a c k e t t h a n a r e " l i f e - c h a n c e " p a r t i c i p a n t s . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t p e o p l e i n d i f f e r e n t age and s o c i a l g r oup s e n r o l l f o r r e a s o n s r e l a t e d t o p s y c h o - s o c i a l e v e n t s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e b e h a v i o u r . In t h e c a s e o f o l d e r a d u l t s , t h e e v e n t s m i g h t 22 be r e t i r e m e n t , w h i c h i s accompan ied by l o s s o f i n come , s t a t u s , and s o c i a l l i f e . One o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n f a c t o r s t o emerge i n B o s h i e r ' s s t u d y was E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n . H a a g ' s (1976) s t u d y c o r r o b o r a t e d t h e same f a c t o r . The E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r o f B o s h i e r ' s E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e was s e l e c t e d f o r use i n t h i s s t u d y , s i n c e i t was f e l t t h a t many o l d e r a d u l t s wou ld p a r t i c i p a t e t o s a t i s f y d e f i c i e n c y , o r l o w e r o r d e r need s . O l d e r a d u l t s undergo r a p i d r o l e change i n v o l v i n g l a r g e - s c a l e a d j u s t m e n t s t o l o n e l i n e s s , i l l h e a l t h , s t r a i n e d f i n a n c e s and t h e knowledge t h e y a r e l e s s u s e f u l t o s o c i e t y t han when t h e y worked and headed f a m i l y g r o u p s . The h y p o t h e s e s i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e n , f o c u s on t h e E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r o f t he E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e as b e i n g most r e l e v a n t t o t he program p l a n n e r who must t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l l t h e changes o c c u r r i n g i n t he o l d e r a d u l t d u r i n g p o s t - r e t i r e m e n t y e a r s . Haag ( 1 9 7 6 ) , u s i n g B o s h i e r ' s E . P . S . , h y p o t h e s i z e d g r owth and d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n s as b e i n g r e l a t e d t o : a) c o n t i n u o u s o r s p o r a d i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and b) t o age ( o r s t a g e i n t h e l i f e c y c l e ) and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . H i s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t g r o w t h -m o t i v a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s t e n d t o be c o n t i n u o u s l e a r n e r s , somewhat o l d e r and o f h i g h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s t han d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d r e s p o n -d e n t s . D e f i c i e n c y - m o t i v a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e y o u n g e r , more s p o r a d i c l e a r n e r s and o f l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s than g r o w t h - m o t i v a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s . B o s h i e r s u g ge s t s t h a t l i f e chance and l i f e space m o t i v a t i o n a r e o p p o s i t e ends o f a s i n g l e c o n t i n u u m . He a l l o w e d f o r t he f a c t t h a t t h e 23 con t i nuum may c u t a c r o s s m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s i n an o r t h o g o n a l o r o b l i q u e manner. He s u g ge s t s t h a t t h e a s s i g n a t i o n o f " c h a n c e " and " s p a c e " l a b e l s t o E .P.S . f a c t o r s i s t e n u o u s , bu t i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t Haag f ound s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between measures o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n and t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e f a c t o r s c o r e s , B o s h i e r has t e n t a t i v e l y s u g g e s t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s l i n e a l . A l l o f t h e p r e c e d i n g s t u d i e s o f m o t i v a t i o n a l o r d e n t a t i o n a r e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l , and t he r e s u l t s t end t o a p p l y t o t h o s e a d u l t s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a t i n s t i t u t i o n s s p o n s o r i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s . T h e r e f o r e , u n l i k e t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e age o f p a r t i c i p a n t s se ldom r i s e s above 45 o r 50. Summary S e v e r a l f o r c e s a c t upon o l d e r a d u l t s , c a u s i n g needs t o a r i s e . The needs may be r e s o l v e d o r i g n o r e d , depend i n g on t h e i n d i v i d u a l . A p e r s o n can " d i s e n g a g e " and r e f u s e t o have c o n t a c t w i t h t h e community o r a l t e r -n a t i v e l y , may become i n v o l v e d i n t h e community i n a number o f ways . One o f t h e ways t h e pe r s on may become i n v o l v e d i s by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s . However, t h e o l d e r a d u l t ' s m o t i v e s , o r r e a s on s f o r a t t e n d i n g w i l l d i f f e r w i t h t he i n d i v i d u a l , depend i ng on b a c k g r o u n d , s t a t e o f h e a l t h , and o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o a s c e r t a i n m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , w h i c h i n t u r n r e f T e c t t he more b a s i c needs so t h a t t h e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t can meet t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l needs . One way o f h e l p i n g t o d e t e r m i n e m o t i v e s i s by a s c e r t a i n i n g t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s , and c o r r e l a t i n g t h e s e o r i e n t a t i o n s w i t h p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e a d u l t p a r t i c i p a n t . 24 CHAPTER I I I INSTRUMENT SELECTION AND DEVELOPMENT A. I n t r o d u c t i o n The p r e c e d i n g l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i n d i c a t e s t h a t program p l a n n e r s s h o u l d g a t h e r d a t a abou t m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and acknow ledge t h a t m o t i v e s a r e r e l a t e d t o o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s l i f e . T h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a body o f knowledge p e r t a i n i n g t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , needs and m o t i v a t i o n o f t h e o l d e r a d u l t p a r t i c i p a n t . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n , and t h r e e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e o l d e r a d u l t : s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e l a t e r y e a r s , a d j u s t m e n t t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s o f l a t e r y e a r s , and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e r e t i r e d p e r s o n . I n s t r u m e n t s m e a s u r i n g m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were o b t a i n e d , and a c o r r e l a t i o n a l s t u d y c o n d u c t e d . B o s h i e r ' s (1976a) E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e was employed t o measure m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . One o f t h e f a c t o r s t o emerge was e n r o l l m e n t f o r E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n r e a s o n s . Measures o f some p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r a s p e c t s w h i c h r e l a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t he o l d e r a d u l t were o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t he use o f t h r e e i n s t r u m e n t s : 1. L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n Index - A ( L S I - A ) 2. Deve l opmenta l Task s o f L a t e r L i f e S c a l e 3. S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e • T O e g b H e n S a t i s f a c t i o r i f I n d e x 'STACflteugSHifi-eSAafrasi961) has been used e x t e n s i v e l y t o measure c o n t e n t m e n t w i t h l i f e i n l a t e r y e a r s . An i n s t r u m e n t 25 d e v e l o p e d by K u r t z & Wolk (1975) t o measure H a v i g h u r s t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s o f l a t e r l i f e was a l s o employed i n t h i s s t u d y . A measure o f s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t he o l d e r a d u l t was d e s i g n e d and p r e - t e s t e d . S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a were o b t a i n e d f o r t h e p o p u l a t i o n . S i n c e m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s i n o l d e r a d u l t s have no t p r e v i o u s l y been a n a l y z e d , i t was f e l t t h a t b a s e - l i n e i n f o r m a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y t o t h i s s t u d y . Ma r ke r v a r i a b l e s such as age , sex and f o r m e r o c c u p a t i o n were i n c l u d e d . R e s u l t s o f demograph i c d a t a were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s c o r e s on t h e above measures i n d i c a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f o l d e r a d u l t s , i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The main v a r i a b l e s employed i n t h i s s t u d y were t h e f o u r f a c t o r s d e r i v e d f r om t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e and s c o r e s o b t a i n e d f rom the L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n Index - A, A d j u s t m e n t t o Deve l opmenta l Task s o f L a t e r Y e a r s , and a measure o f s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h e i r sequence i n t he q u e s t i o n n a i r e was as f o l l o w s ( Append i x B ) : Page 1: S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a Pages 2 -4 : E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e Pages 5 & 6: S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e Page 7: A d j u s t m e n t t o Deve l opmenta l Ta sk s Page 8: L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n Index - A B. S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c Data The d a t a were c o l l e c t e d i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n abou t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t he group t e s t e d , and t o a s c e r t a i n whe the r any s o c i o -demograph i c v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o s c o r e s on t he above-ment i oned s c a l e s . The f i r s t f o u r q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n e d s e x , m a r i t a l 26 s t a t u s , d a t e o f b i r t h and c i t y o f o r i g i n . Q u e s t i o n f i v e a s k e d : WHAT WAS YOUR OCCUPATION BEFORE RETIREMENT? ( p l e a s e be v e r y s p e c i f i c about y o u r f o r m e r work - e . g . t e a c h e r i n 7 - t e a c h e r s c h o o l , manager o f a s m a l l t r u c k i n g f i r m ) I f you were a h o u s e w i f e f o r most o f y o u r a d u l t l i f e , p l e a s e w r i t e i n t he word " h o u s e w i f e " , and i n b r a c k e t s , g i v e t h e s p e c i f i c t i t l e o f t h e work you d i d b e f o r e becoming a h o u s e w i f e . Respondent s were t hen a sked how many y e a r s and months t h e y had been r e t i r e d , s i n c e 65 i s no l o n g e r a d e f i n i t i v e age f o r r e t i r e m e n t . " E d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s " were e s t a b l i s h e d t h r ough use o f a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e : WHAT IS YOUR HIGHEST EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION? ( check o n l y one box) I ) no f o r m a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n {""""1 c o m p l e t e d e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l r*~l g r ade 12 g r a d u a t i o n o r o v e r s e a s e q u i v a l e n t IZ3 p o s t - s e c o n d a r y o r t r a d e q u a l i f i c a t i o n ( e . g . v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , b u s i n e s s d i p l o m a , e t c . ) \ | u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e ( s ) A s i x - c h o i c e i t e m c o n c e r n e d h o u s i n g a r r angemen t . Respondent s were a sked w h e t h e r t h e y l i v e d i n t h e i r own home, w i t h a r e l a t i v e , i n an apa r tmen t b l o c k , a r e t i r e d p e r s o n ' s r e s i d e n c e , b o a r d i n g home, o r " o t h e r " . The " o t h e r " c a t e g o r y p r o ved u n n e c e s s a r y , s i n c e a l l answers f e l l w i t h i n t he p r e v i o u s f i v e c a t e g o r i e s . Respondent s were a sked t o p l a c e t he c o u r s e name a t t h e t o p o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . These t i t l e s were l a t e r d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r b road c a t e g o r i e s : 27 1. V e r b a l s k i l l s 2. Mo to r s k i l l s 3. L i b e r a l a r t s 4. A d j u s t m e n t t o r e t i r e m e n t These c a t e g o r i e s were chosen s u b j e c t i v e l y a f t e r s c r u t i n i z i n g c o u r s e o f f e r i n g s f r o m s e v e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r i n g programs f o r r e t i r e d p e o p l e . A c o m p l e t e l i s t o f c o u r s e s and c a t e g o r i e s i s p r o v i d e d i n T a b l e 3. S t a t u s o f f o r m e r o c c u p a t i o n ( q u e s t i o n 5) was coded i n a c c o r d a n c e : w i t h B l i s h e n ' s (1967) a n a l y s i s o f Canad ian Census d a t a where o c c u p a t i o n s a r e o r d e r e d i n a c c o r d w i t h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . The r ank s were d e r i v e d by B l i s h e n t h r ough a r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s o f income and e d u c a t i o n . We igh t s were a s s i g n e d t o each o c c u p a t i o n and i t s mean rank c a l c u l a t e d . Fo r pu rpo se s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e l i s t o f s t a t u s e s was d i v i d e d i n t o n i n e c a t e g o r i e s , o f w h i c h o n l y t h e t o p seven were r e p r e s e n t e d among t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . The f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s , such as d o c t o r s and l a w y e r s . C a t e g o r y two was r e p r e s e n t e d by owners and managers o f b u s i n e s s , w h i l e t h e t h i r d c a t e g o r y c o n t a i n e d t e a c h e r s , s t e n o g r a p h e r s and a t h l e t e s . L e v e l f o u r i n c l u d e d fo remen i n i n d u s t r y , n u r s e s and some c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , w h i l e t h e f i f t h c a t e g o r y l i s t e d m i l l w r i g h t s , i n s p e c t o r s and p o s t m a s t e r s . C a t e g o r y s i x i n c l u d e d s a l e s c l e r k s and s t e w a r d s , w h i l e t h e s e v e n t h l e v e l c o n t a i n e d bus d r i v e r s , mechan i c s and f u r n i t u r e make r s . The e i g h t h c a t e g o r y l i s t e d t a i l o r s , t a x i d r i v e r s ; and l a b o r e r s , j a n i t o r s and cooks f e l l i n t o t h e f i n a l c a t e g o r y o f B l i s h e n ' s s c a l e . These examples a r e o n l y i n d i c a t i v e o f t he t y p e o f o c c u p a t i o n s 28 l i s t e d on B l i s h e n ' s more c o m p r e h e n s i v e s c a l e . As p a r t o f t h e same q u e s t i o n r e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r o r no t t h e y had been w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e home f o r most o f t h e i r a d u l t l i f e . I f t h e y had s p e n t most o f t h e i r l i v e s engaged i n t h e work f o r c e , t h e y were a s ked t o s t a t e t h e i r f o r m e r o c c u p a t i o n . A c a t e g o r y o f " m a j o r employment " ( i n home o r o u t s i d e work f o r c e ) was t hu s c r e a t e d . C. E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e The n o t i o n o f m e a s u r i n g " m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n " grew o u t o f H o u l e ' s t h r e e - f a c t o r t y p o l o g y o f g o a l , a c t i v i t y and l e a r n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n . S e v e r a l s c a l e s were r e c e n t l y d e v e l o p e d t o measure m o t i v e s ( B o s h i e r 1971 , 1976a ; S h e f f i e l d , 1964; B u r g e s s , 1 971 ) . I tems a r e f a c t o r a n a l y z e d i n t o c l u s t e r s , w h i c h o f t e n have l a b e l s such as " P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancemen t " , o r " S o c i a l W e l f a r e " . Each r e s e a r c h e r used a d i f f e r e n t s c a l e f o r t h e deg ree o f i n f l u e n c e o f each i t e m ( B u r g e s s : 7 - p o i n t s c a l e , S h e f f i e l d : 5 - p o i n t s c a l e , B o s h i e r ( 1 9 7 6 a ) : 4 - p o i n t s c a l e ) . Bu rges s o b t a i n e d a f i f t e e n - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n , f r om w h i c h seven o r i e n t a t i o n s were d e r i v e d , w h i l e S h e f f i e l d and B o s h i e r (1976a) o b t a i n e d f i v e and s i x f a c t o r s r e s p e c t i v e l y . S h e f f i e l d ' s s c a l e was used by D i c k i n s o n and C l a r k ( 1 9 7 5 ) , who e x t r a c t e d e i g h t f a c t o r s i n a s t u d y o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n t h e h e a l t h s c i e n c e s . M o r s t a i n and Smart (1974) a t t e m p t e d t o r e p l i c a t e B o s h i e r ' s (1971) s t u d y and used t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e E .P .S . can r e f l e c t t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f d i f -f e r e n t r e a s on s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s . M o r s t a i n and S m a r t ' s r e s p o n d e n t s were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e age g r o u p s . I t was c l a i m e d t h a t t he need f o r " S o c i a l C o n t a c t " and " S o c i a l W e l f a r e " d e c l i n e s 29 w i t h age. Fo r pu rpo se s o f t he p r e s e n t s t u d y , however , M o r s t a i n & S m a r t ' s age c a t e g o r i e s a r e t oo g r o s s t o be m e a n i n g f u l . The o l d e s t g roup c o n -t a i n e d a l l r e s p o n d e n t s o v e r t h e age o f 41 y e a r s . B o s h i e r (1976a) a r gue s t h a t m o t i v a t i o n changes w i t h age. " l i f e c h a n c e " and " l i f e s p a c e " o r i e n t a t i o n s change as p a r t i c i p a n t s c o m p l e t e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r s t a g e s i n t h e l i f e c y c l e . O l d e r a d u l t s , f o r e x a m p l e , wou ld t end t o p a r t i c i p a t e l e s s , as t h e r e wou ld be no " J o b Advancement " f a c t o r p r e s e n t t o m o t i v a t e them. B o s h i e r ' s s o l u t i o n i n c l u d e d s i x f a c t o r s ; 1. E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n — p e r s o n p a r t i c i p a t e s t o r e l i e v e boredom, remedy d e f i c i e n c y i n s o c i a l l i f e . 2. P r o f e s s i o n a l A d v a n c e m e n t — p e r s o n wants t o f a c i l i t a t e j o b advancement . 3. S o c i a l w e l f a r e — p e r s o n w i s h e s t o a c q u i r e knowledge r e q u i r e d t o a c h i e v e s o c i a l o r community o b j e c t i v e . 4. S o c i a l C o n t a c t — p e r s o n w i s h e s t o meet new f r i e n d s , improve s o c i a l l i f e . 5. E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s — p e r s o n a t t e n d s t o c a r r y o u t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f f r i e n d , s o c i a l w o r k e r o r o t h e r p e r s o n . 6. C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t — p e r s o n a t t e n d s f o r t h e p l e a s u r e o f l e a r n i n g . Recent f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e cau sed B o s h i e r (1976a) t o d rop e i g h t i t e m s f r o m the 4 8 - i t e m s c a l e , and t o r educe t h e n i n e - p o i n t s c a l e t o f o u r s t e p s . A r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d on t he r e v i s e d 4 0 - i t e m s c a l e by Haag ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Mean t e s t - r e t e s t 30 r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r a l l i t ems was .60, e s t a b l i s h i n g r e l i a b i l i t y (n=42). F o r pu rpo se s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , f i v e i t ems were d e l e t e d f r om B o s h i e r ' s s c a l e . Each d e l e t e d i t e m l o a d e d i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s on t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l advancement f a c t o r , none i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e l i f e o f a r e t i r e d p e r s o n . The f i v e i t ems d ropped w e r e : 1. t o s e c u r e p r o f e s s i o n a l advancement 2. t o g i v e me h i g h e r s t a t u s i n my j o b 3. t o e s cape t he i n t e l l e c t u a l na r r ownes s o f my o c c u p a t i o n 4. t o i n c r e a s e my j o b competence 5. t o meet f o r m a l r e q u i r e m e n t s Between 10 and 14 i t ems were t y p e d on each page o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w i t h t h e " no i n f l u e n c e " end o f t h e s c a l e a l t e r n a t i n g f rom l e f t t o r i g h t w i t h each q u e s t i o n ( Append i x B.), t o h e l p a v o i d r e s p o n s e b i a s . I n s t r u c t i o n s and sample q u e s t i o n s a r e as f o l l o w s : P l e a s e i n d i c a t e be low t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h each o f t h e r e a s o n s l i s t e d be low i n f l u e n c e d you t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s c o u r s e o r p rog ram. C i r c l e one c a t e g o r y f o r each q u e s t i o n . Sometimes t h e "much i n f l u e n c e " c a t e g o r y i s on t h e r i g h t - h a n d s i d e o f t h e page , somet imes i t i s on t he l e f t . No r e a s o n f o r e n r o l l i n g i s any more o r l e s s d e s i r a b l e t h a n any o t h e r r e a s o n . P l e a s e be f r a n k . The re a r e no r i g h t o r wrong an swe r s . 23. To p r o v i d e a c o n t r a s t Much Mode ra te L i t t l e No t o t h e r e s t o f my l i f e i n f l u e n c e i n f l u e n c e i n f l u e n c e i n f l u e n c e 24. To g e t a b reak i n t h e No L i t t l e Mode ra te Much r o u t i n e o f home o r work i n f l u e n c e i n f l u e n c e i n f l u e n c e i n f l u e n c e D. L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n Index - A T h i s i n d e x was d e s i g n e d by N e u g a r t e n , e t a l . (1961) i n c o n j u n c t i o n 31 w i t h t h e L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n R a t i n g ( L . S . R . ) f o r use i n t h e Kansas C i t y S tudy o f A d u l t L i f e . The L . S . I . - A i s a s e l f - r e p o r t i n d e x , w h i l e t h e L.S.R. i s based on r a t i n g s made by t r a i n e d e x p e r t s and v a l i d a t e d a g a i n s t a pane l o f e x p e r t s . These measures can be used a l o n e o r t o g e t h e r . The c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e two i n s t r u m e n t s has been e i t h e r .55 (n=177) o r .56 (n=281) (Neuga r ten e t . a l , 1961 ; Wood e t . a l , 1 969 ) . T h i s s t u d y used o n l y t he L . S . I . - A s e l f - r e p o r t i n d e x , as m o d i f i e d by Adams ( 1 9 6 9 ) . The i n s t r u m e n t has been w i d e l y used and t e s t e d ( B u l l & A u c o i n , 1975; Wood e t . a l , 1969; Adams, 1 9 6 9 ) , and c o n s i s t s o f 20 i t ems wh i ch p u r p o r t t o measure f i v e components a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l i f e s a t i s -f a c t i o n . These a r e : z e s t f o r l i f e , r e s o l u t i o n / f o r t i t u d e , c o n g r u e n c e , p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t , happy mood t o n e . Sample i t e m s i n c l u d e : Yes No Most o f t h e t h i n g s I do a r e b o r i n g o r monotonous I have made p l a n s f o r t h i n g s I ' l l be d o i n g a month o r a y e a r f r o m now Wood e t a l e l e c t e d t o d rop seven o f t h e twen t y i t ems f r om t h e s c a l e a f t e r c o r r e l a t i n g L.S.R. and L . S . I . - A i t e m s . Adams' l a t e r a n a l y s i s , u s i n g 507 s u b j e c t s , however , d e t e r m i n e s r e l i a b i l i t y o f a l l t h e i n d e x i t e m s , number o f f a c t o r s measured by t h e i n d e x , and t h e number o f components r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e i n d e x . Two o f t h e o r i g i n a l twen t y i t ems p e r f o r m e d p o o r l y when s u b j e c t e d t o i t e m / w h o l e c o r r e l a t i o n s and were l a t e r d r o p -ped by Adams, s i n c e t h e y a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y .07 and .008 o f t h e v a r i a n c e r e s p e c t i v e l y . N e u g a r t e n ' s w e i g h t e d s c o r i n g was d i s c a r d e d by Adams i n f a v o r o f a s s i g n i n g one p o i n t f o r each c o r r e c t an swe r , s i n c e a 32 c o r r e l a t i o n o f .97 was f ound between t h e w e i g h t e d measurement and u s ua l method o f s c o r i n g . Adams f e e l s t h a t L . S . I . - A p r o v i d e s a f a i r measure o f l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e o l d e r a d u l t f o r bo th u rban and r u r a l popu -l a t i o n s , a f t e r t h e two i t ems a r e d r o p p e d , and h i s r e v i s e d s c a l e i s u sed i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . E. Deve l opmenta l Task s o f L a t e r L i f e S c a l e T h i s i n s t r u m e n t was c r e a t e d by K u r t z and Wolk (1975) i n an a t t e m p t t o measure t h e deg ree t o wh i ch r e t i r e d p e o p l e a c c o m p l i s h H a v i g h u r s t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s ( o r r o l e s ) o f l a t e r l i f e . Some o f t h e t a s k a c c o m p l i s h m e n t w h i c h t h e i n d e x a t t e m p t s t o measure a r e : a d j u s t m e n t t o r e t i r e m e n t and r e d u c e d i n come, d e a t h o f spouse and e s t a b l i s h i n g a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h o n e ' s age g r oup . Seven t y p e s o f t a s k s a r e mea su red , w i t h two q u e s t i o n s f o r each t a s k . One q u e s t i o n a t t e m p t s t o l o o k a t b e h a v i o u r , t he o t h e r a t t h e p e r c e p t u a l d i m e n s i o n s o f each t a s k . Fo r e xamp le : Deve l opmenta l t a s k : E s t a b l i s h i n g a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h o n e ' s age group  B e h a v i o u r a l a s p e c t : I a v o i d b e i n g w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e P e r c e p t u a l a s p e c t : Mak ing new f r i e n d s i s h a rd f o r me Deve l opmenta l t a s k : A d o p t i n g and a d a p t i n g s o c i a l r o l e s i n a f l e x i b l e way  B e h a v i o u r a l a s p e c t : I s t i l l do many w o r t h w h i l e t h i n g s P e r c e p t u a l a s p e c t : Younger p e o p l e can do most t h i n g s b e t t e r t han o l d e r p e o p l e Items a r e answered by p l a c i n g a check i n e i t h e r t he " y e s " o r " n o " c o l umn . Maximum o b t a i n a b l e i n t h e f o u r t e e n - i t e m s c a l e i s f o u r t e e n p o i n t s . 33 I n s t r u c t i o n s and sample q u e s t i o n s appea r b e l o w : PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ACCORDING TO WHETHER FOR YOU THE ANSWER IS MAINLY " Y E S " , OR MAINLY "NO"  YES NO 1. Reduced s t r e n g t h keeps me f r o m d o i n g t h e t h i n g s I need t o do 2. One can l e a r n t o l i v e a good l i f e even i n r e d u c e d h e a l t h K u r t z & Wolk s u b m i t t e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t t o a pane l o f t h e i r c o l -l e a gue s who a r e p u r p o r t e d t o be e x p e r t s i n human d e v e l o p m e n t , and who ag reed w i t h t he e s c o r i n g key . They c l a i m t h a t c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y has been e s t a b l i s h e d . K u r t z & Wolk c o r r e l a t e d t h e s c o r e s o f t h e D e v e l o p m e n t a l Ta sk s q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h t h e L . S . I . - A ( r=.52 p < . 0 1 ) . They i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e measure c o u l d be i m p r o v e d , b u t does measure a s p e c t s o f c o n t i n u e d g rowth and a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s o f l a t e r l i f e . Fo r pu rpo se s o f t h e s t u d y , i t e m / w h o l e c o r r e l a t i o n s were checked i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h r e l i a b i l i t y . T a b l e 1 p r e s e n t s means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and i t e m / w h o l e c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e f o u r t e e n i t e m s o f t h e s c a l e . A l l i t e m s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d t o t h e who le s c a l e s c o r e and ranged f rom a low o f .22 f o r "I a v o i d b e i n g w i t h o l d p e o p l e " t o a h i g h o f .59 f o r " R e t i r e m e n t i s as w o r t h w h i l e as work " (p < . 0 5 ) . The mean i t e m / w h o l e c o r r e l a t i o n s c o r e was r=.43 (n=85). 34 TABLE 1 MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS AND ITEM/WHOLE CORRELATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS OF LATER L I FE SCALE I tem Mean S.D. I tem/Whole C o r r e l a t i o n * 1. Reduced s t r e n g t h keeps me f r om d o i n g t h e t h i n g s I need t o do .69 .46 . 3 2 * 2. One can l e a r n t o l i v e a good l i f e even i n r educed h e a l t h .92 .26 . 4 3 * 3. I manage t o l i v e a good l i f e even w i t h l i m i t e d income .93 .26 . 3 8 * 4. R e t i r e m e n t i s as w o r t h w h i l e as work .75 .44 . 5 9 * 5. I f i n d i t ( o r wou ld f i n d i t ) d i f f i c u l t t o l i v e a l o n e .64 .48 . 4 0 * 6. A s u r v i v i n g husband o r w i f e can l e a r n t o g e t a l o n g .82 .39 . 34 * 7. I a v o i d b e i n g w i t h o l d p e o p l e .89 .31 . 2 2 * 8. Mak ing new f r i e n d s i s ha rd f o r me .76 .43 . 5 3 * 9. I s t i l l do many w o r t h w h i l e t h i n g s .88 .35 . 5 4 * 10. Younger p e o p l e can do most t h i n g s b e t t e r t han o l d e r p e o p l e .59 .49 . 5 6 * 11 . My l i v i n g a r r angement s s u i t me f i n e .86 .35 . 5 1 * 12. I wou ld be s a t i s f i e d o n l y l i v i n g i n my own h o u s e h o l d .56 .50 . 3 7 * 13. F a m i l y and f r i e n d s h e l p when I have t r o u b l e s .87 .34 . 4 5 * 14. I c o u l d a c c e p t b e i n g dependent on my c h i l d r e n o r on o t h e r s .24 .43 . 3 6 * * r < . 1 8 , d f = 8 3 , p < .05 * i n c l u d e s c o n t r i b u t i o n o f i t e m t o w h o l e - s c a l e s c o r e 35 F. S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e Most o f t h e s i x t e e n i t ems f o r t h i s s c a l e were a d a p t e d f r om o t h e r s c a l e s mea su r i n g use o f l e i s u r e t i m e ( e . g . L i t c h f i e l d , 1965 ; B l a u , 1973 ) . They c o n c e r n a l l a r e a s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , bo th w i t h f r i e n d s and t h e community a t l a r g e , as w e l l as t h e l e s s s o c i a l p u r s u i t s w h i c h i n d i c a t e an i n t e r e s t i n t h e w o r l d , f o r e x a m p l e , r e a d i n g books and news-p a p e r s . Respondent s were a sked t o rank t h e i r l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n on a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e f o r each q u e s t i o n by c i r c l i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e number, f o r examp le : I v i s i t e d w i t h r e l a t i v e s i n t h e i r home 1. E v e r y day o r apa r tmen t 2. Once a week 3. Once a month 4. Once a y e a r 5. Not a t a l l A pane l o f f i v e a d u l t e d u c a t o r s f r om t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Re sea r ch C e n t r e a t U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co l umb i a r e v i e w e d t h e s c a l e and h e l p e d c l a r i f y q u e s t i o n s and w o r d i n g . The f i n a l t h r e e q u e s t i o n s on t h e s c a l e , w h i c h r e l a t e t o v o t i n g b e h a v i o u r , were combined t o f o rm one q u e s t i o n , b r i n g i n g t he number o f q u e s t i o n s down t o f o u r t e e n . The q u e s t i o n s were p r e - t e s t e d and an i t e m / w h o l e a n a l y s i s c o n d u c t e d t o e s t a b l i s h u n i d i m e n -s i o n a l i t y ( T a b l e 2 ) . The mean i t e m / w h o l e c o r r e l a t i o n was .64 (n=85). Two i t e m / w h o l e c o r r e l a t i o n s were i n t h e r e v e r s e d i r e c t i o n t o t h e one h y p o t h e s i z e d ( i n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e y were n e g a t i v e l y , r a t h e r t han p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t he w h o l e - s c a l e s c o r e ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e i t em/who l e a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d a t a t i m e when i t was t o o l a t e t o d r op t he u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i t ems f rom t h e s c a l e . In any s ub sequen t use o f t h e 36 s c a l e i t wou ld be d e s i r a b l e t o e i t h e r d rop t h e " o f f e n d i n g " i t e m s o r c o n d u c t a n o t h e r a n a l y s i s e x a m i n i n g t h e u n i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f t h e s c a l e . Our a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g t h e S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e was weakened because o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e s e two i t ems bu t t h e s c a l e was deemed t o be s u f -f i c i e n t l y i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t f o r t h e a n a l y s i s a t t e m p t e d h e r e . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e r e s p o n d e n t s and d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . I m p l i c a t i o n s o f u s i n g a p o p u l a t i o n o f o l d e r a d u l t s w i t h p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s a r e a l s o d i s c u s s e d . TABLE 2 MEANS, STANDARDS DEVIATIONS AND ITEM/WHOLE CORRELATIONS FOR SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCALE (n=20 p r e t e s t s u b j e c t s ) I tem Mean S t a n d a r d I tem/Whole D e v i a t i o n C o r r e l a t i o n 1. I a t t e n d e d m o v i e s , p l a y s o r c o n c e r t s 3.10 1.02 - .20 2. I r e a d a newspaper 1.45 .99 .39 3. I h e l p e d c a r e f o r a n o t h e r p e r s o n ( o t h e r than spouse) 4.05 1.53 .30 4. I t ook an o v e r n i g h t ( o r l o n g e r ) p l e a s u r e t r i p 2.75 1.44 .10 5. I p a r t i c i p a t e d i n v o l u n t e e r community work 4.30 1.12 .35 6. I a t t e n d e d m e e t i n g s o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n , a s s o c i a t i o n o r c l u b 2.30 1.12 .33 7. I r e ad books f o r t h e pu rpo se o f l e a r n i n g about s ometh ing 2.00 1.25 .17 8. I a t t e n d e d a hobby o r c r a f t g roup 3.70 1.30 .17 9. I v i s i t e d w i t h n e i g h b o r s o r f r i e n d s 3.00 .91 .51 10. I a t t e n d e d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s a t n i g h t s c h o o l 3.25 1.55 .49 11 . I c a r r i e d on a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a s t r a n g e r on a bu s , a t a pa rk 2.80 1.40 .81 12. I v i s i t e d w i t h r e l a t i v e s i n t h e i r home o r apa r tmen t 2.75 .78 .39 13. I t a l k e d s o c i a l l y o v e r t h e phone 2.10 .96 .36 14. I v o t e d i n t h e l a s t F e d e r a l e l e c t i o n 1.00 0.00 * 15. I v o t e d i n t h e l a s t P r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n 1.00 0.00 * 16. I v o t e d i n t h e l a s t M u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n 1.15 .36 - .20 Means f o r 20 p r e t e s t s u b j e c t s 2.70 .98 .30 Means f o r 84 p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e main s t u d y 3.50 1.05 .64 * These two i t ems had a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f z e r o and were t hu s no t amenable t o c o r r e l a t i o n . GO 38 CHAPTER IV METHODOLOGY A. P o p u l a t i o n The p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y was 118 o l d e r a d u l t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c o u r s e s d e s i g n e d e s p e c i a l l y f o r r e t i r e d p e o p l e and s p o n s o r e d by v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n c l a s s e s w i t h i n a t w e n t y - m i l e r a d i u s o f downtown Vancouve r were a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , s i n c e most a c t i v i t i e s f o r o l d e r a d u l t s i n Vancouve r c o u l d no t be c o n s i d e r e d as a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . I n e l i g i b l e g roups wou ld i n c l u d e community c e n t r e -based c l a s s e s on b r i d g e , c h e s s , c a r p e t b o w l i n g , where a member o f t he c l u b s e r v e s as c o - o r d i n a t o r o f t h e a c t i v i t y , bu t where no i n s t r u c t i o n a l a gen t i s p r e s e n t . Cou r se p a r t i c i p a n t s were chosen f r om a v a r i e t y o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s . P a r t i c i p a n t s were known t o r e s i d e i n a v a r i e t y o f l i v i n g accommodat i on s , s i n c e some c l a s s e s s u r v e y e d t o o k p l a c e w i t h i n r e t i r e m e n t homes and a s s o c i a t e d d n o p - i n c e n t r e s , w h i l e o t h e r s were h e l d i n community c e n t r e s and e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n any g i v e n c o u r s e was v e r y s m a l l ; o f t e n n o t e x c e e d i n g t h r e e o r f o u r . C e r t a i n t y p e s o f c o u r s e s , such as p o t t e r y and o t h e r c r a f t s a t t r a c t e d l a r g e r numbers , f o r example t e n t o f i f t e e n p e o p l e pe r c l a s s . In o r d e r t o c o l l e c t an adequa te number o f c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o v i s i t t e n c e n t r e s w h i c h h e l d c o u r s e s f o r o l d e r p e o p l e . A l i s t o f c o u r s e s , s p o n s o r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n and number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s appea r s i n T a b l e 3. 39 B. Method o f o b t a i n i n g p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h e s u r v e y D u r i n g t h e t i m e p e r i o d t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d and answered ( J a n u a r y / F e b r u a r y , 1 976 ) , new c l a s s e s f o r o l d e r a d u l t s were b e g i n n i n g i n many c e n t r e s . Many o f t h e s e c l a s s e s c o u l d no t be c o n s i d e r e d as f a l l i n g w i t h i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ; t h e r e f o r e i t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t f e w e r t han 250 o l d e r a d u l t s wou ld make up t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e G r e a t e r Vancouve r a r e a . R a t h e r t han s a m p l i n g some p o r t i o n o f t h i s p o p u l a t i o n , i t was d e c i d e d t o v i s i t each c e n t r e and have as many c o u r s e p a r t i c i p a n t s as p o s s i b l e r e spond t o t he q u e s t i o n n a i r e , thus t h e r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e f l e c t t h e p o p u l a t i o n , r a t h e r than j u s t a s amp le . T h i s a l t e r n a t i v e was c h o s e n , because l i m i t e d f u n d i n g f o r programming means t h e c o u r s e s a r e h e l d e r r a t i c a l l y and b m ' e f l y . They a r e somet imes p o o r l y a t t e n d e d . I t was t h e r e f o r e i m p o s s i b l e t o f i n d a l a r g e enough p o p u l a t i o n f r o m w h i c h t o o b t a i n a random s amp le . Some c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were made f o r t he t y p e o f c o u r s e b e i n g t a k e n by t he i n d i v i d u a l . Cou r se s were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s and r e s p o n d e n t s chosen so t h a t each c o u r s e c a t e g o r y c o n t a i n e d r o u g h l y t h e same number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . Because t h e c o u r s e s were open o n l y t o r e t i r e d p e o p l e and t h e i r s p o u s e s , no d i f f i c u l t y was e x p e r i e n c e d i n n a r r o w i n g t h e f i e l d o f c o u r s e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o f i t t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f " r e t i r e d p e r s o n " . C. Data C o l l e c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o c l a s s e s 40 TABLE 3 RESPONDENTS CLASSIF IED BY INSTITUTION AND COURSE TYPE iame o f I n s t i t u t i o n Cour se name Number Number c o m p l e t i n g i n c l a s s q u e s t i o n n a i r e West P o i n t Grey R e c r e a t i o n P r o j e c t New H o r i z o n s ( F e d e r a l Dept . o f H e a l t h & W e l f a r e ) Cedar C o t t a g e Ne i ghbo rhood House Community C e n t r e d C o l l e g e i f a r i t h e R^t '4 ' redr(NewS-Horn izohedsponsored) S u n r i s e P a v i l i o n D rop -In C e n t r e Se ton V i l l a R e t i r e m e n t R e s i d e n c e Edmonds House D r o p - i n C e n t r e and S e n i o r C i t i z e n h i g h r i s e S t . P a u l ' s Church Annex ( d r o p - i n c e n t r e ) S i l v e r Ha rbou r Manor ( d r op i n c e n t r e ) B u r q u i t l a m C e n t r e f o r S e n i o r s Mak ing R e t i r e m e n t 15 work f o r you C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g 9 H e a l t h f o r S e n i o r s 20 A n t h r o p o l o g y 10 L i t e r a t u r e A p p r e c i a t i o n 7 10 8 C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g P a i n t i n g F r ench Ce r am i c s A r t Q u i l t i n g L e c t u r e L i p Read ing F rench E x e r c i s e M u s i c A p p r e c i a t i o n G l e e C l u b A r t Pho tog r aphy Canada and t h e Wo r l d Today ( Spon so red by Simon F r a s e r U n i v . ) E x e r c i s e C r a f t s E x e r c i s e c l a s s F r ench P o t t e r y C r a f t s C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g 10 7 9 9 8 5 5 5 9 7 5 7 7 10 9 9 7 8 8 208 5 1 4 4 3 3 7 6 4 6 4 3 118 4iii o f p o t e n t i a l r e s p o n d e n t s d u r i n g J a n u a r y and F e b r u a r y , 1976. S e v e r a l weeks were r e q u i r e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1. Weather c o n d i t i o n s cau sed s e v e r a l c l a s s e s t o be c a n c e l l e d f o r up t o t h r e e weeks . 2. Many c o u r s e s were n o t underway by t h e b e g i n n i n g o f J a n u a r y . C o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a was c o n d u c t e d on t h e t h i r d o r f o u r t h c l a s s , when e n r o l m e n t had s t a b i l i z e d . 3. A l l c o u r s e s had s m a l l numbers o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ; t h e r e f o r e i t was n e c e s s a r y t o s u r v e y t e n g roups i n o r d e r t o g a t h e r o v e r 100 r e s p o n d e n t s . 4 . C l a s s e s f o r o l d e r a d u l t s ( o t h e r t han p u r e l y r e c r e a t i o n a l ) a r e d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d w i t h i n t h e c i t y , and i t was n e c e s s a r y t o t r a v e l some d i s t a n c e t o f i n d a p p r o p r i a t e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . An a t t e m p t was made t o have p o t e n t i a l r e s p o n d e n t s f i l l o u t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e C f ou r page s , bo th s i d e s o f t he page) d u r i n g c l a s s t i m e . I t became o b v i o u s a f t e r two c l a s s e s had been app roached t h a t t h i s method was d i f f i c u l t f o r o l d e r p e o p l e . The f o l l o w i n g p rob lems emerged: 1. C l a s s t i m e i s o f t e n s h o r t (1/2 t o 1 hour ) because o f t h e age and p h y s i c a l f r a i l t y o f some p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h e r e f o r e , I n s t r u c t o r s and p a r t i c i p a n t s r e s e n t e d g i v i n g up c l a s s t i m e t o f i l l o u t a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 2. O l d e r a d u l t s i n t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d o f Vancouve r who a t t e n d -d r o p - i n c e n t r e s have been " s u r v e y e d t o d e a t h " by c i t y d e p a r t m e n t s , p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n b r a n c h e s , o r f e d e r a l h e a l t h and w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s . The re were t h o s e who were 4? u n w i l l i n g , i n many c a s e s , t o s i t down d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f a c l a s s and f i l l o u t y e t a n o t h e r f o r m . 3. Because o f t h e p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f many o l d e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r a c l a s s t o c o m p l e t e t h e fo rms was up t o 45 m i n u t e s . ; : E a r s i g h t e d n e s s , a r t h r i t i s and o t h e r p h y s i c a l i n c a p a c i t i e s made i t d i f -f i c u l t f o r some p a r t i c i p a n t s t o c o m p l e t e t he f o rm a t a l l . 4. Lack o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n and d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e E n g l i s h l anguage were a l s o b a r r i e r s f o r p o t e n t i a l r e s p o n d e n t s , who, i n some c a s e s , c o u l d no t u n d e r s t a n d a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s . When a l l t h e above f a c t o r s were c o n s i d e r e d , a new c o u r s e o f a c t i o n was d e v e l o p e d . Respondent s were i s s u e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s by t h e r e s e a r c h e r , who e x p l a i n e d each a s p e c t and a s ked t h a t t h e f o r m be r e t u r n e d f o r t h e n e x t c l a s s . In t h i s way, t he f o rm c o u l d be t a k e n home and answered a t t h e l e i s u r e o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . The r e s e a r c h e r was aware t h a t t h e r e t u r n r a t e wou ld d i m i n i s h . As e x p e c t e d , t h e r e t u r n r a t e o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was f a i r l y l ow . Two-hundred and f i f t y fo rms were d i s t r i b u t e d , and 144 were r e t u r n e d . Twen ty -s i x were u n u s a b l e , 118 were c o m p l e t e e x c e p t f o r t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e , l e a v i n g 85 wh i ch were w h o l l y c o m p l e t e d . G i v e n t h e number o f l i m i t a -t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d by many p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h e f a i r l y low r a t e o f r e t u r n s was no t s u r p r i s i n g . Had t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e been c o m p l e t e d i n c l a s s , many o f t h o s e who o t h e r w i s e wou ld choose no t t o c o m p l e t e a f o r m may have succumbed t o pee r g roup and i n s t r u c t o r p r e s s u r e , and done so u n w i l l i n g l y . Such a n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g m i g h t e a s i l y b i a s r e s p o n s e s . 43 I m p ! i c a t i o n s Ca sua l o b s e r v a t i o n l e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o b e l i e v e t h a t becau se o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y men t i oned b a r r i e r s h i n d e r i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l r e s p o n d e n t s , t h o s e who d i d c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e may no t be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e o l d e r p o p u l a t i o n . Fo r e x a m p l e , p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s such as a r t h r i t i s wou ld no t p r e d o m i n a t e i n t h o s e a d u l t s who d i d r e s p o n d . As w e l l , r e a s on s g i v e n f o r r e f u s i n g t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e wou ld i n d i c a t e t h a t t h o s e w i t h a more p o s i t i v e s e l f - i m a g e t ended t o be w i l l i n g t o h e l p w i t h such a p r o j e c t . Many o l d e r a d u l t s who r e f u s e d t o r e spond f e l t t h e i r v i ews were u n i m p o r t a n t , and t h a t t h e i r e f f o r t s t o f i l l o u t a f o rm wou ld no t be a p p r e c i a t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . Some p o t e n t i a l r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t t h e y had no knowledge w h i c h c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . S u b j e c t i v e l y , i t wou l d appea r t h a t t h o s e r e t i r e d p a r t i c i p a n t s who c o n s e n t e d t o f i l l o u t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were more p h y s i c a l l y c a p a b l e , p o s s e s s a more p o s i t i v e s e l f - i m a g e , and r e a c h e d a h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l t han t h o s e who r e f u s e d t o r e s p o n d . D. Data A n a l y s i s P l a n T h i s s t u d y was c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between one m o t i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n ) and t h r e e measures o f p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t he o l d e r a d u l t p a r t i c i p a n t . I t was t hu s n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s o f t he v a r i a b l e s . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e s c o r e s p r o d u c e d a number o f m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , s c o r e s o f w h i c h were t h e n c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . 44 F requency c o u n t s o f nomina l s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a were f i r s t o b t a i n e d . V a r i a b l e means, and a c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x were o b t a i n e d f o r t h e t o t a l number o f r e s p o n d e n t s (n=118). T h i s number i n c l u d e s t h e 33 r e s p o n d e n t s who f a i l e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e p o r -t i o n o f t he q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x was a l s o o b t a i n e d f o r t h o s e 85 r e s p o n d e n t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e e n t i r e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Raw d a t a f rom t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e were t h e n f a c t o r -a n a l y z e d and f a c t o r s c o r e s p roduced f r om r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s . A l l e l e v e n f a c t o r s w i t h e i g e n v a l u e s g r e a t e r than 1.00 were o r t h o g o n a l l y r o t a t e d t o p roduce f o u r f a c t o r s f o r s ub sequen t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i -p a t i o n S c a l e f a c t o r s c o r e s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h demog raph i c d a t a , l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n , a d j u s t m e n t and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e s . A n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d o n l y on t h e d a t a o f t h e 85 r e s p o n d e n t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e e n t i r e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( t h e 33 r e s p o n d e n t s who d i d no t c o m p l e t e t h e E .P .S . were e x c l u d e d ) . 45 CHAPTER V RESULTS OF THE STUDY C h a p t e r V f i r s t d e t a i l s t h e s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . A second s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e f a c t o r s and t h e t h r e e i n s t r u m e n t s a t t e m p t i n g t o measure s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a d j u s t m e n t t o t he d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s o f l a t e r l i f e , and l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t he l a t e r y e a r s . The h ypo the se s f o r t h e s t u d y were as f o l l o w s : 1. T h a t E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n c o r r e l a t e s w i t h l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n ; o l d e r pe r s on s w i t h h i g h E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n m o t i v e s w i l l e x h i b i t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n on measures o f l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n . 2. T ha t E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n c o r r e l a t e s w i t h a d j u s t m e n t t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s ; o l d e r pe r s on s w i t h h i g h E s cape/ S t i m u l a t i o n m o t i v e s w i l l e x h i b i t m a l a d j u s t m e n t on measures o f a d j u s t m e n t t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s o f l a t e r l i f e . 3. T ha t E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n c o r r e l a t e s w i t h s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; o l d e r pe r s on s w i t h h i g h E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n m o t i v e s w i l l e x h i b i t low l e v e l s o f s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Cou r se P a r t i c i p a n t s The o l d e r a d u l t p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h i s s t u d y r e s i d e i n u rban a r e a s v a r y i n g f r om h i g h t o l o w - d e n s i t y p o p u l a t i o n s . They were assumed t o be i n adequa te o r good h e a l t h , s i n c e most were a b l e t o t r a v e l t o and f r om a d r o p - i n c e n t r e f o r t h e r e t i r e d . Many p a r t i c i p a n t s spoke o f e y e s i g h t and h e a r i n g p r o b l e m s ; bu t t h e s e d e f i c i e n c i e s were o f t e n b e i n g compensated f o r 46 i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . Sex The p r e s e n t s t u d y d i d no t employ random s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s bu t r e v e a l s t h a t o f t he 118 r e s p o n d e n t s , o n l y t w e n t y (17 p e r c e n t ) were m a l e , w h i l e n i n e t y - e i g h t (83 p e r c e n t ) were f e m a l e . M a r i t a l S t a t u s Widowed women (and men) a c c o u n t e d f o r t he l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s (45 p e r c e n t ) , w h i l e 46 (39 p e r c e n t ) were m a r r i e d . S i n g l e , d i v o r c e d and s e p a r a t e d a d u l t s a c c o u n t f o r 19 p a r t i c i p a n t s , o r 16 p e r c e n t o f t he t o t a l number o f r e s p o n d e n t s (n=118). Age The mean age o f r e s p o n d e n t s c o m p l e t i n g t h e e n t i r e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was 69.7 y e a r s (n=85). When t h e 33 r e s p o n d e n t s who d i d n o t c o m p l e t e t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e were a d d e d , t h e mean age o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n c r e a s e d t o 70.2 y e a r s (n=118). The y o u n g e s t r e s p o n d e n t o f r e t i r e m e n t age was 50 , and t h e o l d e s t was 86 y e a r s o f age. B i r t h p l a c e S i x t y - o n e (52 p e r c e n t ) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were o f Canad i an b i r t h w h i l e 46 (38 p e r c e n t ) were bo rn i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . Of t h e r e m a i n i n g p a r t i -c i p a n t s , s i x (5 p e r c e n t ) were bo rn i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s and f i v e (4 p e r c e n t were bo rn i n o t h e r a r e a s o f t he w o r l d (n=118). O c c u p a t i o n and R e t i r e m e n t The B l i s h e n s c a l e was a d a p t e d t o d e t e r m i n e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a n d i n g 47 by o c c u p a t i o n ( see C h a p t e r I I I ) . An a d d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r y was e s t a b l i s h e d (0 ) t o code women who had n e v e r worked o u t s i d e t h e home. Those women who had worked a t any p o i n t i n t h e i r l i v e s f o r a number o f y e a r s ( equa l o r g r e a t e r than t h e number o f y e a r s s p e n t e n t i r e l y i n t h e home) were c o n s i d e r e d t o have had o c c u p a t i o n s , and were i n c l u d e d i n t h e B l i s h e n c a t e g o r i e s (n=118). T a b l e 4 r e v e a l s t h a t 60 o f t h e 118 r e s p o n d e n t s f e l l i n t o t h e t o p t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s , e x c l u d i n g t he " h o u s e w i f e " (0) c a t e g o r y . T h i r t y - e i g h t (31 p e r c e n t ) were i n c l u d e d i n t he l o w e r f o u r c a t e g o r i e s . A l t h o u g h many o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were o l d e r women who by t r a d i t i o n a r e homemakers, 67 o f them (57 p e r c e n t ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r ma jo r employment t h r ough t h e y e a r s was o u t s i d e t h e home, whereas 51 (43 p e r c e n t ) c l a s s i f i e d t h e m s e l v e s as c a r e e r h o u s e w i v e s , who may have b r i e f l y worked b e f o r e m a r r i a g e and a f t e r c h i l d r e n l e f t home. E d u c a t i o n a l Backg round A l t h o u g h many o l d e r a d u l t s a r e t o d a y f u n c t i o n a l l y i l l i t e r a t e due t o l a c k o f t e a c h i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e c e n t u r y , t he e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f t h i s p o p u l a t i o n appea r t o be g e n e r a l l y h i g h . On l y t h r e e r e s p o n d e n t s had no f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d , whereas 89 (76 p e r c e n t ) c l a i m t o have c o m p l e t e d e i t h e r s e c o n d a r y s h c o o l , v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , o r u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e ( s ) ( T a b l e 5 ) . P r e s e n t R e s i d e n c e Rob i n son (1972) c o n c l u d e d t h a t o l d e r a d u l t s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s t end t o be autonomous and w i s h t o r ema in i n t h e i r 48 own homes as l o n g as p o s s i b l e . F i f t y - t w o r e s p o n d e n t s (44 p e r c e n t ) owned t h e i r own h o u s e s , w h i l e 36 (31 p e r c e n t ) m a i n t a i n e d s e l f - c o n t a i n e d a p a r t m e n t s u i t e s . S i n c e two o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l c e n t r e s s u r v e y e d a r e a t t a c h e d t o s e n i o r c i t i z e n ' s h o u s i n g c o m p l e x e s , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t 29 (35 p e r c e n t ) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r e s i d e d i n such d w e l l i n g s . Most o f t h e 29 l i v e d i n S e t on V i l l a , a r e t i r e m e n t home w h i c h p r o v i d e s mea l s f o r r e s i d e n t s . None o f t he p a r t i c i p a n t s r e s i d e d w i t h r e l a t i v e s , w h i l e o n l y one l i v e d i n a b o a r d i n g home (n=118). Cou r se s Respondent s were f a i r l y w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d amongst t h e f o u r c o u r s e c a t e g o r i e s : motor s k i l l s , v e r b a l s k i l l s , l i b e r a l a r t s , and a d j u s t i n g t o r e t i r e m e n t ( T a b l e 6 ) . T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n was i n t e n t i o n a l , so t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a l l t y p e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s m i g h t be s t u d i e d . In f a c t , a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f c o u r s e s p r o v i d e d f o r o l d e r a d u l t s wou ld f a l l i n t o t h e moto r s k i l l s a r e a , w i t h f e w e r c e n t r e s p r o v i d i n g f o r o t h e r t y p e s o f needs . 49 TABLE 4 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO FORMER OCCUPATION B l i s h e n Code Former O c c u p a t i o n Number o f Respondent s P e r c e n t o f Respondent s 0 C a r e e r Hou sew i f e 21 18 1 P r o f e s s i o n a l ( d o c t o r , l a w y e r , p r o f e s s o r ) 20 17 2 E x e c u t i v e , manager 14 12 3 O the r w h i t e c o l l a r p r o f e s s i o n s 26 22 4 M e c h a n i c s , mach ine o p e r a t o r s 7 6 5 O f f i c e c l e r k , mach ine o p e r a t o r s 13 11 6 S a l e s c l e r k , e l e c t , w o r k e r s 11 9 7 H o u s e k e e p e r s , deckhands 6 5 TOTAL 118 100% 50 TABLE 5 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l Number o f P e r c e n t o f Respondent s Respondent s No q u a l i f i c a t i o n s 3 2.5 E l e m e n t a r y S choo l 26 22.0 Seconda r y S choo l 34 29.0 V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g 39 33.0 U n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e ( s ) 16 13.5 TOTAL 118 100% t 51 TABLE 6 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO COURSE TYPE Cour se Type Number P e r c e n t Mo to r s k i l l s 47 40 A r t - p a i n t i n g c r o c h e t i n g , q u i l t i n g p o t t e r y , c e r a m i c s V e r b a l S k i l l s 33 28 F r e n c h L i p - r e a d i n g C r e a t i v e w r i t i n g L i b e r a l A r t s 21 18 A n t h r o p o l o g y Economics A d j u s t i n g t o A g i n g S t . J o h n ' s Ambulance 17 14 H e a l t h f o r S e n i o r s Mak ing R e t i r e m e n t work f o r you TOTAL: 118 100% 52 B. E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e - F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e and L a b e l l i n g  D e s c r i p t i o n o f F a c t o r A n a l y s i s Data f r om t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e (n=85) were s u b j e c t e d t o f a c t o r a n a l y s i s ( p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s and o r t h o g o n a l r o t a t i o n ) . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s r educe s a l a r g e number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s t o a s m a l l e r number o f f undamenta l v a r i a b l e s . By u s i n g t h i s p r o c e s s , t he s m a l l e r number o f v a r i a b l e s can t hen be c o n v e n i e n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . The minimum number o f f a c t o r s a d e q u a t e l y a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x i s e s t a b l i s h e d , and t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e named a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h e y a p p a r e n t l y r e p r e s e n t (Z imbardo & Ruch, 1975 ) . In t he p r e s e n t s t u d y , f o r e x a m p l e , one o f t h e f a c t o r s e x t r a c t e d was l a b e l l e d " C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t " , s i n c e a l l o f t h e f i v e i t ems r e f e r t o t he r e s p o n d e n t s ' p r o f e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g . F a c t o r s c o r i n g i s i m p o r t a n t , as i t r e v e a l s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e e n r o l l e d f o r r e a s o n s d e s c r i b e d i n ithe i t e m s . W i t h o u t such s c o r i n g , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o s t a t e t h a t p e o p l e e n r o l f o r any o f t h e r e a s on s i d e n t i f i e d . F a c t o r R o t a t i o n The i n i t i a l f a c t o r i n g and r o t a t i o n p roduced e l e v e n f a c t o r s w i t h e i g e n v a l u e s g r e a t e r than 1.00. Of t h e s e f a c t o r s , seven c o n t a i n e d t h r e e i t ems o r f e w e r ( f a c t o r s I I , IV, V I I , V I I I , IX and X I ) . These e l e v e n f a c t o r s a c c o u n t f o r 75 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e . S i n c e m i n o r f a c t o r s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r y t o t he pu rpo se s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t he d a t a was o r t h o -g o n a l l y r o t a t e d t o p roduce t h r e e , f o u r and f i v e - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s . 53 C a t t e l l ' s (1966) S c r e e t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t , o f t he t h r e e p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s , a f o u r f a c t o r s o l u t i o n and r o t a t i o n b e s t s e r v e d t h e pu rpo se s o f t h i s s t u d y . P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s u s i n g t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e ( M o r s t a i n & Smar t , 1974; Haag, 1976; B o s h i e r , 1976a) have f ound a f i v e o r s i x f a c t o r s o l u t i o n t o be most a p p r o p r i a t e . S i n c e , f o r t h e pu rpo se s o f t h i s s t u d y , a l l i t e m s p e r t a i n i n g t o employment were d e l e t e d f rom t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e , t h e l o s s o f one f a c t o r ( P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement) was e x p e c t e d . I tems w h i c h l o a d e d .40 o r more a f t e r r o t a t i o n were i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e s p e c t i v e f a c t o r s ( T a b l e 7 ) . The f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e r e p r o d u c e d i n T a b l e 7 r e s u l t e d i n f o u r o r i e n t a t i o n s . These f o u r f a c t o r s a c c o u n t e d f o r 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e . S u b s e q u e n t l y , f o u r f a c t o r s c o r e s were p roduced f o r each r e s p o n d e n t , r e v e a l i n g t he e x t e n t t o wh i ch each p a r t i c i p a t e d f o r a g i v e n r e a s o n , o r m o t i v e . F a c t o r s c o r e s were n o r m a l i z e d so t h a t t h e mean e q u a l s z e r o , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n e q u a l s + o r - one . (no page. 54 e x i s t s ) 55 TABLE 7 ITEMS AND FACTOR LOADINGS OF THE EDUCATION PARTICIPATION SCALE AFTER ORTHOGONAL ROTATION* Items I II I I I IV Escape S o c i a l S o c i a l C o g n i t i v e S t i m u l a t i o n W e l f a r e C o n t a c t I n t e r e s t 4. To g e t r e l i e f from boredom * .70 • .10 .11 -.25 7. To overcome the f r u s t r a t i o n o f day to day l i v i n g * .69 .03 -.04 -.15 24. To g e t a break i n the r o u t i n e o f home or work * .68 .18 -.27 .22 13. To keep up w i t h c o m p e t i t i o n * .61 -.27 -.15 -.01 20. To have a few hours away from r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s * .60 .04 -.11 .23 26. To keep up w i t h o t h e r s * .55 -.39 -.23 .07 5. To c a r r y out the recommendation o f some a u t h o r i t y * .54 -.35 -.13 .16 10. To s t o p m y s e l f from becoming a " v e g e t a b l e " * .54 .00 -.18 -.28 15. To g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o my p e r s o n a l problems * .53 -.22 .05 .15 8. To be a c c e p t e d by o t h e r s * .52 -.33 -.31 .06 35. To comply w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s from.someone e l s e * .50 -.27 -.21 .16 31. To comply w i t h the s u g g e s t i o n s o f someone e l s e * .48 -.10 .01 .16 17. To escape t e l e v i s i o n . * .47 -.14 -.15 -.07 29. To escape an unhappy r e l a t i o n s h i p * .47 -.23 .05 -.12 9. To supplement a narrow p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n * .45 -.32 -.15 -.26 30. To p r o v i d e a c o n t r a s t t o my p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n * .45 -.24 -.13 .01 28. To m a i n t a i n or improve my s o c i a l p o s i t i o n * .44 . -.30 -.29 .13 23. To p r o v i d e a c o n t r a s t - t o the r e s t o f my l i f e * .41 . . -.06 -.25 .11 2. To s h a r e a common i n t e r e s t w i t h my spouse or f r i e n d .10 *_ .49 -.11 -.21 19. To g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o humon r e l a t i o n s .27 *_ .55 .10 -.31 11. To a c q u i r e knowledge t o h e l p w i t h o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s .25 * _ .73 .09 .10 3. To become more e f f e c t i v e as a c i t i z e n .17 +_ .73 -.09 -.12 34. To improve my a b i l i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n community work .09 +_ .75 -.•21 .10 18. To p r e p a r e f o r community s e r v i c e .14 *_ .80 -.02 .13 25. To improve my a b i l i t y t o s e r v e mankind .01 *- .83 -.19 .00 27. To improve my s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .20 -.33 *_ .63 .20 12. To f u l f i l a need f o r p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and f r i e n d s h i p s .22 -.07 *_ .69 .00 33. To make new f r i e n d s .23 -.15 *_ .76 .01 14. To p a r t i c i p a t e i n group a c t i v i t y .13 .03 *- .81 .00 22. To become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h c o n g e n i a l people .14 -.08 *_ .82 -.21 16. To h e l p me earn a d e g r e e , d i p l o m a o r c e r t i f i c a t e 32. To l e a r n j u s t f o r the sake o f l e a r n i n g 1. To seek knowledge f o r i t s own sake 21. To l e a r n j u s t f o r the j o y o f l e a r n i n g 6. To s a t i s f y an e n q u i r i n g mind .26 -.07. •-• .16 .39 .11 .14 -.07 *-.59 .05 • -.11 .19 - *-.67 .10 -.08 -.15 *-.69 -".08 -.10 .22 *-.72 Sum o f squared f a c t o r - l o a d i n g s d i v i d e d by sum o f communalities .34 .27 .21 .16 V a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r 24. .79 9.27 8.14 6.77 C u m u l a t i v e v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r 24. .79 . 34.07 42.22 48.99 56 Append i x " A " c o n t a i n s a l i s t i n g o f t he E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e i t ems w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d t h e E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r i n B o s h i e r ' s ( 1 9 7 6 a ) , Haag ' s (1976) and M o r s t a i n & S m a r t ' s (1974) s t u d i e s . I t must be r e i t e r a t e d t h a t i n t he p r e s e n t s t u d y t h e a u t h o r employed a c o a r s e r s o l u t i o n t han had been used i n t h e f i v e - f a c t o r B o s h i e r , s i x - f a c t o r Haag and s i x - f a c t o r M o r s t a i n & Smart s t u d i e s . Thu s , t h e p r e s e n t E s cape/ S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r c o n t a i n s some i t ems w h i c h have l o a d e d on t h e E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s f a c t o r i n s t u d i e s e m p l o y i n g f i n e r f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s . However, o f i m p o r t a n c e t o t h i s s t u d y i s t h e f a c t t h a t a l l i t e m s t h a t have c o n s t i t u t e d t h e E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r i n t h e p r e v i o u s l y men t i oned s t u d i e s a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r o f t h i s s t u d y . A l t h o u g h no t e x a c t l y i d e n t i c a l , t h e p r e s e n t E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r does s t r o n g l y r e s e m b l e Haag ' s c ompa rab l e f a c t o r . Thus H a a g ' s c o r r e l a t i o n s between E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r s c o r e s and measures o f n e u r o t i c i s m and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . L a b e l l i n g F a c t o r s F a c t o r l a b e l s , E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n , S o c i a l W e l f a r e , S o c i a l C o n t a c t and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e used by M o r s t a i n & Smar t , B o s h i e r and Haag. Names f o r t h e f o u r f a c t o r s used i n t h i s s t u d y were a p p l i e d o n l y a f t e r each i t e m i n t h e f a c t o r was c a r e f u l l y s c r u t i -n i z e d , and i t was d e c i d e d t h a t a l l i t e m s were r e l a t e d t o t h e f a c t o r l a b e l under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A l l e i g h t e e n i t ems i n t he E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r c o n c e r n e d i n d i v i d u a l s m o t i v a t e d t o a t t e n d a c o u r s e i n o r d e r t o e s cape f r om o r a v o i d a n o t h e r t a s k . Fo r e xamp le , i t e m s f a l l i n g i n t o t h i s f a c t o r 57 i n c l u d e : "To e s cape t e l e v i s i o n " , "To e s cape an unhappy r e l a t i o n s h i p " , "To have a few hours away f r om r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . " I tems i n t h e S o c i a l W e l f a r e f a c t o r c o n c e r n t h e d e s i r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f o r community i n v o l v e m e n t and h e l p , f o r e xamp le ; "To become more e f f e c t i v e as a c i t i z e n " , o r "To g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o human r e l a t i o n s " . The f i v e i t e m s i n t h e S o c i a l C o n t a c t f a c t o r a r e r e l a t e d t o g roup o r p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t ; "To make new f r i e n d s " , "To p a r t i c i p a t e i n g roup a c t i v i t y " . The C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t f a c t o r c o n s i s t s o f f i v e i t ems r e l a t e d t o an e x p r e s s e d d e s i r e t o " Seek knowledge f o r i t s own s a k e " , o r " l l e a r n f o r t h e sake o f l e a r n i n g " . F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e a f t e r R o t a t i o n A l l 35 E .P .S . i t ems used were c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e f o u r f a c t o r s . I tems i n a l l o f t h e f a c t o r s were p u r e , s i n c e none l o a d e d s i g -n i f i c a n t l y on any o t h e r f a c t o r . T h i s was a s a t i s f y i n g a n a l y s i s because i n most p r e v i o u s f a c t o r i n g s o f m o t i v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s ' t he re a r e u s u a l l y " p a s s e n g e r " i t ems w i t h low l o a d i n g s on a l l f a c t o r s o r " i m p u r e " i t e m s w h i c h l o a d on more t han one f a c t o r . There were no p a s s e n g e r o r impure i t ems i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . F a c t o r C o n t e n t F a c t o r I: A l l t he i t ems i n F a c t o r I, E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n c o n c e r n o v e r -coming d e f i c i e n c y , f o r e x a m p l e ; t o e s cape an unhappy r e l a t i o n s h i p , o r f i n d r e l i e f f r om boredom. T h i s f a c t o r c o n t a i n s 18 o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s 35 i t ems and a c c o u n t s f o r 24.9 pe r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e . 58 TABLE 8 ITEMS AND LOADINGS FOR ESCAPE/STIMULATION FACTOR (FACTOR I ) I tem F a c t o r Number L o a d i n g 4 To g e t r e l i e f f r om boredom .70 7 To overcome t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f day t o day l i v i n g .69 24 To g e t a b reak i n t h e r o u t i n e o f home o r work .68 13 To keep up w i t h c o m p e t i t i o n .61 20 To have a few hour s away f r om r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .60 26 To keep up w i t h o t h e r s .55 5 To c a r r y ou t t h e recommendat ion o f some a u t h o r i t y .54 10 To s t o p m y s e l f f r om becoming a " v e g e t a b l e " .54 15 TO: g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o my p e r s o n a l p rob lems .5)3 8 To be a c c e p t e d by o t h e r s .52 35 To comply w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s f r om someone e l s e .50 31 To comply w i t h t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f someone e l s e .48 17 To e s cape t e l e v i s i o n .48 29 To e scape an unhappy r e l a t i o n s h i p .47 9 To supp lement a na r row p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n • 45 30 To p r o v i d e a c o n t r a s t t o my p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n .45 28 To m a i n t a i n o r improve my s o c i a l p o s i t i o n .44 23 To p r o v i d e a c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e s t o f my l i f e • 4 i 59 F a c t o r I I : S o c i a l W e l f a r e c o n t a i n s seven i t e m s , a l l o f w h i c h p e r t a i n t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s s t a t e d d e s i r e t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h e communi ty . T h i s f a c t o r c o n t a i n s 7 i t ems and a c c o u n t s f o r 9.27 pe r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e . TABLE 9 ITEMS AND LOADINGS FOR SOCIAL WELFARE FACTOR (FACTOR I I ) I tem F a c t o r Number L o a d i n g 22 To s h a r e a common i n t e r e s t w i t h my spouse o r -..!?§• f r i e n d 19 To g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o human r e l a t i o n s .55 11 To a c q u i r e knowledge t o h e l p w i t h o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s .73 3 To become more e f f e c t i v e as a c i t i z e n .73 34 To improve my a b i l i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n community work ..75 18 To p r e p a r e f o r community s e r v i c e .80 25 To improve my a b i l i t y t o s e r v e mank ind .83 60 F a c t o r I I I : F i v e i t ems c o n s t i t u t e S o c i a l C o n t a c t . A l l r e l a t e t o r e s p o n -d e n t s ' e x p r e s s e d d e s i r e t o improved q u a l i t y o r q u a n t i t y o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , f o r e x a m p l e , t o make new f r i e n d s , o r p a r t i c i p a t e i n g roup a c t i v i t y . T h i s f a c t o r a c c o u n t s f o r 8 .14 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e . TABLE 10 ITEMS AND LOADINGS FOR SOCIAL CONTACT FACTOR (FACTOR I I I ) I tem F a c t o r Number L o a d i n g 27 To improve my s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s - . 6 3 12 To f u l f i l a need f o r p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s - . 6 9 and f r i e n d s h i p s 33 To make new f r i e n d s - . 76 14 To p a r t i c i p a t e i n g roup a c t i v i t y -.81 22 To become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h c o n g e n i a l p e o p l e - / § % F a c t o r IV: The f o u r t h f a c t o r , C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t , c o n t a i n s f i v e i t e m s , each r e l a t i n g t o a d e s i r e t o l e a r n f o r t h e sake o f l e a r n i n g . T h i s f a c t o r a c c o u n t s f o r 6.77 pe r c e n t o f t he t o t a l v a r i a n c e . 61 TABLE 11 ITEMS AND LOADINGS FOR COGNITIVE INTEREST FACTOR (FACTOR IV) I tem F a c t o r Number L o a d i n g 16 To h e l p me e a r n a d e g r e e , d i p l o m a o r c e r t i f i c a t e (.39) 32 To l e a r n j u s t f o r t h e s ake o f l e a r n i n g --59 1 To seek knowledge f o r i t s own sake -.'&?> 21 To l e a r n j u s t f o r t h e j o y o f l e a r n i n g - . 6 9 6 To s a t i s f y an e n q u i r i n g mind R e l a t i o n s h i p o f f a c t o r s t o t h e g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y model B o s h i e r (1971) s u g g e s t e d t h a t E .P .S . f a c t o r s c o u l d u l t i m a t e l y be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h measures o f d e f i c i e n c y and g rowth m o t i v a t i o n , as d e p i c t e d by Mas low ( 1 9 6 2 ) . B o s h i e r ' s (1976a) s t u d y o f n i g h t s c h o o l p a r t i c i p a n t s a t t e m p t e d t o i s o l a t e f a c t o r s r e v e a l i n g e i t h e r g rowth o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v e s o r r e a s on s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , he c l a i m e d t h a t t h e E s cape/ S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r i s i n d i c a t i v e o f d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n , w h i l e S o c i a l W e l f a r e and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t f a c t o r s may i n d i c a t e g rowth m o t i v a t i o n . Haag i s o l a t e d t h r e e E .P .S . f a c t o r s w h i c h were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h measures o f d e f i c i e n c y o r g rowth m o t i v a t i o n . One i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r , he c l a i m e d , i s a " r e a s o n a b l y v a l i d i n d i c a t o r o f d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n " . (1976s , p. 5 4 ) , 62 H i gh s c o r e s on t h i s f a c t o r c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h h i g h deg ree s o f n e u r o t i c i s m and low s c o r e s on t h e measure o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . The g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y model was d e v e l o p e d t o show t h a t m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e no t i n d e p e n d e n t , bu t r e l a t e d t o age , p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s and o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an i n d i v i d u a l . C. C o r r e l a t i o n o f F a c t o r S c o r e s w i t h L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n I ndex , A d j u s t m e n t t o Deve l opmenta l Task s o f t h e L a t e r Y e a r s , and S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e - T e s t i n g t h e Hypothese s  In t he f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , r e a d i n g o f t h e s i g n a p p e a r i n g i n f r o n t o f each E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e f a c t o r r e q u i r e s c a r e . The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s a f u n c t i o n . o f t h e p o l a r i t y o f t h e f a c t o r . Fo r examp le : F a c t o r I, E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n i s s c o r e d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f h i g h need f o r E scape and S t i m u l a t i o n . L o g i c a l l y t h e n , L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n c o r r e l a t e s n e g a t i v e l y w i t h E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n s i n c e " e s c a p i n g " i s t h e r e v e r s e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n . E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e f a c t o r s c o r e s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n Index - A, A d j u s t m e n t t o L a t e r L i f e S c a l e , and S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e s c o r e s ' ( T a b l e 1 2 ) . The h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s were as f o l l o w s : t h a t o l d e r p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f o r E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n r e a s on s w i l l a l s o e x p e r i e n c e a low deg ree o f l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n , low a d j u s t m e n t t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s o f l a t e r l i f e , and low deg ree o f s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 63 TABLE 12 CORRELATION BETWEEN E .P .S . FACTOR SCORES AND THREE SCALES INDICATING SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OLDER ADULT V a r i a b l e F a c t o r I F a c t o r I I F a c t o r I I I F a c t o r IV E s cape/ S o c i a l S o c i a l C o g n i t i v e S t i m u l a t i o n W e l f a r e C o n t a c t I n t e r e s t (+) * * * (-) (-) (-) S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n .18* S c a l e ( l ow s c o r e i n d i c a t e s h i g h l e v e l o f p a r -t i c i p a t i o n ) A d j u s t m e n t t o D e v e l o p - -.31 menta l t a s k s o f l a t e r l i f e S c a l e ( h i g h s c o r e i n d i c a t e s h i g h l e v e l o f a d j u s t m e n t L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n Index - . 26 1 1 ( h i g h s c o r e i n d i c a t e s h i g h l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n ) ** .29 ** - . 19^ ,10 .04 .06 - . 0 7 . 23 * .02 .03 * r > . 1 83 , d f=83 , p < .05 (one t a i l e d t e s t ) * * r > . 256 , d f=83 , p < .01 (one t a i l e d t e s t ) * * * p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e s i g n s i n d i c a t e d i r e c t i o n o f f a c t o r l o a d i n g S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n r B o s h i e r (1976a) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h o s e e n r o l l i n g i n c o u r s e s f o r E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n a r e a l s o i n v o l v e d i n a h i g h e r number o f m e e t i n g s and o t h e r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s than low E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n s c o r e r s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y , d e a l i n g s t r i c t l y w i t h r e t i r e d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s , h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t t h o s e m o t i v a t e d by E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n w i l l be l ow 64 s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t o r s . There was a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n ( r = . 18 , p < .05) between S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e s and E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r s c o r e s . Respondents m o t i v a t e d by E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n do i n d e e d p a r t i c i p a t e l e s s i n s o c i a l and community a c t i v i t i e s t han r e s p o n d e n t s no t m o t i v a t e d by E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and S o c i a l W e l f a r e f a c t o r s c o r e s ( r = . 2 9 ) . S c o r e s on t he C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t f a c t o r o f t he E .P .S . were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e s ( r = . 2 3 , p < . 0 5 ) , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a h i g h l e v e l o f s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s e n j o y e d by r e s p o n d e n t s m o t i v a t e d by C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t . The c o r r e l a t i o n between S o c i a l C o n t a c t f a c t o r and S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n s c a l e s c o r e was i n s i g n i f i c a n t ( r = . 0 4 ) . A d j u s t m e n t t o t h e Deve l opmenta l Task s o f L a t e r L i f e As h y p o t h e s i z e d , d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y w i t h E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r s c o r e s ( r = - . 3 1 , p '< . 0 1 ) . Those r e s p o n -d e n t s who a r e a p p a r e n t l y c o p i n g w e l l w i t h d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k a c c o m p l i s h -ment a r e no t m o t i v a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e because o f a d e s i r e f o r E s cape/ S t i m u l a t i o n . A p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p was shown between a h i g h l e v e l o f a d j u s t m e n t t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s and a t t e n d a n c e i n a d u l t c o u r s e s f o r S o c i a l W e l f a r e r e a s o n s . S o c i a l C o n t a c t and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t f a c t o r s were no t r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e a d j u s t m e n t t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s s c o r e s . 65 L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n Index - A On l y one o f t h e f o u r E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e f a c t o r s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h i s measure o f l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n . Those r e s p o n d e n t s e n -r o l l e d f o r E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n r e a s o n s d i d n o t a c h i e v e h i g h s c o r e s on t h e L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n I ndex . The re was a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n ( r = - . 2 6 ) between t h e two v a r i a b l e s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h o s e o l d e r a d u l t s e n r o l l e d f o r E s cape/ S t i m u l a t i o n wou ld a l s o e x p e r i e n c e a low deg ree o f l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n , a d j u s t -ment t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s o f l a t e r l i f e , and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s has been shown t o be t h e c a s e . A l l t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t he E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r o f B o s h i e r ' s E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e . D. S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a Age Age c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h S o c i a l W e l f a r e f a c t o r s c o r e s , bu t was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e o t h e r t h r e e f a c t o r s o f t he E .P .S . The o l d e r t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , t he l e s s l i k e l y t h e y were t o i n d i c a t e S o c i a l W e l f a r e as a m o t i v a t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s ( r = . 2 5 , p < . 0 1 ) . O c c u p a t i o n S i n c e a l l r e s p o n d e n t s were r e t i r e d t h i s v a r i a b l e r e f e r s t o t h e most r e c e n t j o b h e l d b e f o r e r e t i r e m e n t . Fo r t h e pu rpo se s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s " C a r e e r Hou sew i ve s " who had n e v e r worked f o r wages , s a l a r y , commi s s i on e t c . , were d e l e t e d . W i t h t h e d e l e t i o n o f t h e s e p e o p l e , and o t h e r r e s p o n d e n t s who had no t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y c o m p l e t e d t h e E .P .S . and/o r t he demograph i c q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e n f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s was r educed t o 74. The c o r r e l a t i o n between E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n and O c c u p a t i o n j u s t f a i l e d t o a t t a i n s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e .05 l e v e l ( r = . 1 8 , d f = 72 , .05 < p < .10) b u t s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t pe r s on s f o r m e r l y o f low o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s were more i n c l i n e d t o be m o t i v a t e d by E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n (a d e f i c i e n c y f a c t o r ) t han were 66 pe r s on s who f o r m e r l y o c c u p i e d h i g h s t a t u s o c c u p a t i o n s . E .P .S . S o c i a l C o n t a c t f a c t o r s c o r e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o o c c u p a t i o n . P e r s on s f o r m e r l y o f low o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s (on B l i s h e n ' s s c a l e ) w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r S o c i a l C o n t a c t t han pe r s on s o f h i g h s t a t u s ( r = . 2 7 , d f = 7 2 , p < .01 - o n e - t a i l e d t e s t ) . T h i s r e s u l t i s c o n g r u e n t w i t h B o s h i e r 1 s (1971) f a c t o r i n g w h i c h l o c a t e d " S o c i a l C o n t a c t " among t h e o t h e r d e f i c i e n c y f a c t o r s . In v i e w o f t h e f a c t Haag ' s (1976) r e s u l t s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between S o c i a l C o n t a c t and N e u r o t i c i s m o r S e l f A c t u a l i z a t i o n ( r = .01 and -.01 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) t h e p s y -c h o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h i s f a c t o r a r e s t i l l u n c l e a r . However, t h e need f o r s o c i a l c o n t a c t i s a c e n t r a l p r o b l e m e n c o u n t e r e d by o l d e r a d u l t s so t h i s c o r -r e l a t i o n adds t o t h e v a l i d i t y o f t he r e l a t i o n s h i p s h y p o t h e s i z e d by B o s h i e r ( 1 976a ) . M a j o r Employment The re was a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r s c o r e s and " o u t s i d e emp loyment " . In o t h e r w o r d s , p e o p l e w i t h a h i s t o r y o f b e i n g i n t h e work f o r c e f o r many y e a r s were no t m o t i v a t e d t o a t t e n d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s f o r E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n ( r = - . 2 9 , p < . 0 1 ) . The " m a j o r employment " v a r i a b l e showed no s i g n i f i c a n c e when c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e o t h e r t h r e e f a c t o r s c o r e s . E d u c a t i o n a l Backg round E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l and E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n s c o r e s were n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d ( r = . 37 , p < . 0 1 ) . Thus p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h h i g h E s cape/ S t i m u l a t i o n s c o r e s had s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s c o r e s t han p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h l ow E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n s c o r e s . H i gh E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n s c o r e s were t h e r e f o r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n . H i gh s c o r e s i n S o c i a l C o n t a c t and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t f a c t o r s , w h i c h may be i n d i c a t i v e o f g rowth m o t i v a t i o n , were p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . 67 TABLE 13 CORRELATION BETWEEN E .P .S . FACTOR SCORES AND RELEVANT SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC DATA V a r i a b l e F a c t o r I E s cape/ S t i m u l a t i o n (+) * * * F a c t o r I I S o c i a l W e l f a r e (-) F a c t o r I I I S o c i a l C o n t a c t (-) F a c t o r IV C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t (-) Age .08 . 2 5 * * .06 .11 O c c u p a t i o n .<T8 - . 1 7 ' M a j o r employment _ _ 29** - . 1 3 00 - . 0 5 E d u c a t i o n a l Backg round - . 3 7 * * .06 . 1 9 * . 1 8 * *r>;.183, df=83', p < .05 (One t a i l e d t e s t ) * * r > . 2 5 6 ; d f=83 , p < .01 (One t a i l e d t e s t ) * * * p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e s i g n s i n d i c a t e d i r e c t i o n o f f a c t o r l o a d i n g #r>.19, df=72, p < .05 (One t a i l e d t e s t ) E. D i s c u s s i o n o f r e s u l t s The h ypo the se s f o r t h e s t u d y w e r e : 1. Tha t E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n c o r r e l a t e s w i t h l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n ; o l d e r pe r son s w i t h h i g h E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n m o t i v e s w i l l e x h i b i t d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n on measures o f l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n . 2. Tha t E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n c o r r e l a t e s w i t h a d j u s t m e n t t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s ; o l d e r pe r s on s w i t h h i g h E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n m o t i v e s w i l l e x h i b i t m a l a d j u s t m e n t on measures o f a d j u s t m e n t t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s o f l a t e r l i f e . 3. Tha t E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n c o r r e l a t e s w i t h s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; o l d e r 68 pe r son s w i t h h i g h E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n m o t i v e s w i l l e x h i b i t low l e v e l s o f " s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n " . T e s t i n g t h e hypo the se s Those o l d e r a d u l t s who a r e low s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t o r s t ended t o be E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n m o t i v a t e d , w h i c h B o s h i e r (1976a) and Haag (1976) have shown t o be r e l a t e d t o d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . These r e s p o n d e n t s appea red t o be i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d i s e n g a g i n g f r om s o c i e t y and p a r t i c i p a t e t o e s cape f r om a d o m e s t i c p r ob l em o r c o n d i t i o n . Those r e s p o n d e n t s who s c o r e d low on t h e measures o f a d j u s t m e n t t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s , and l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n were a l s o p a r t i c i p a t i n g f o r E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n r e a s o n s , i n d i -c a t i n g d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . H i gh s c o r e r s on t h e t h r e e measures o f p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s t ended t o p a r t i c i p a t e f o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t and S o c i a l w e l f a r e r e a s o n s . S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a r e v e a l e d t h a t few o l d e r men were p a r -t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e c l a s s e s s u r v e y e d . T h i s may be p a r t l y due t o t h e f a c t women l i v e l o n g e r t han men. As w e l l , few a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s f o r t h e r e t i r e d pe r s on appea l t o what has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a c c e p t a b l e a c t i v i t y f o r men. Fo r e xamp le , men t end no t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e many a r t s and c r a f t s , g l e e c l u b and d a n c i n g c o u r s e s o f f e r e d by community c e n t r e s and r e s i d e n c e s f o r t h e r e t i r e d . These c o u r s e s outnumber o t h e r a v a i l a b l e t y p e s o f e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e o l d e r a d u l t . Most r e s p o n d e n t s were widowed and m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r own r e s i d e n c e and were r e a s o n a b l y w e l l - e d u c a t e d . 69 Respondents t ended t o be " y o u n g " (under 70) and p h y s i c a l l y and f i n a n c i a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t . Demographic v a r i a b l e s and f a c t o r s c o r e s . Demographic v a r i a b l e s w h i c h c o r r e l a t e d w i t h E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r s c o r e s were " m a j o r e m p l o y m e n t " , " e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d " and " o c c u p a t i o n " * . Those who had s p e n t many y e a r s i n t h e home, had a l i m i t e d f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l backg round o r had worked i n a low s t a t u s o c c u p a t i o n were i n c l i n e d t o be more E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n m o t i v a t e d t han t h o s e who had been i n t he work f o r c e , worked i n a h i g h s t a t u s o c c u p a t i o n o r whose e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l was s u b s t a n t i a l . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t o l d e r a d u l t s a r e m o t i v a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s no t n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d t o c o u r s e c o n t e n t , bu t t o v a r i o u s p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and l i f e s t y l e s . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l summar ize t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y and a t t e m p t t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s and l o o k a t i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e r e s e a r c h f o r t h e program p l a n n e r and t he r e s e a r c h e r . * r = . 1 8 , d f = 7 2 , .05 <p < .10 70 CHAPTER VI IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS A. What t h i s s t u d y has a c c o m p l i s h e d In o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y some o f t h e l e s s o b v i o u s needs o f a c l i e n t e l e , t he program p l a n n e r must go beyond a s k i n g what s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t . T h i s s t u d y a rgues f o r a more c omprehen s i v e a n a l y s i s o f m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , w h i c h a r i s e o u t o f needs . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y c r i t i c a l i n t h e ca se o f t h e o l d e r a d u l t p a r -t i c i p a n t , who has l a r g e amounts o f l e i s u r e t i m e t o f i l l , and who f a c e s a number o f u n i q u e p rob lems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g i n g . R e s u l t s o f t he p r e s e n t s t u d y r e v e a l a c l e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f o r r e a s o n s o f E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n and low l e v e l s o f a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s o f l a t e r l i f e , l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e l a t e r y e a r s , and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e t i r e m e n t . Those o l d e r a d u l t s e n r o l l e d f o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t r e a s o n s , on t h e o t h e r hand , e x h i b i t e d a h i g h e r l e v e l o f a d j u s t m e n t , s a t i s f a c t i o n and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S e v e r a l p o i n t s have been r a i s e d and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . They m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d by t he program p l a n n e r o r r e s e a r c h e r who i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e o l d e r a d u l t . New Knowledge T h i s s t u d y has f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e . Four c l e a r f a c t o r s emerged, c o n t a i n i n g no " p a s s e n g e r " o r " i m p u r e " i t e m s . R e s u l t s o f t h e 71 s t u d y c o n t r i b u t e f u r t h e r t o t h e g e n e r a l i z e a b i l i t y o f t he E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e . C o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r and l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n , a d j u s t m e n t t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n f u r t h e r r e v e a l t h a t m o t i v e s a r e l i n k e d t o p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Haag (1976) showed t h a t E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e f a c t o r s a r e r e l a t e d t o n e u r o t i c i s m and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . B o s h i e r (1976a) f ound t h a t m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s a r e r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a ge , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and amount o f p r e v i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . In t h e ca se o f t h e o l d e r a d u l t , p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h may have been p r e s e n t d u r i n g t he l i f e c y c l e may become more marked a f t e r r e t i r e m e n t . S t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s may o c c u r d u r i n g r e t i r e m e n t wh i ch c o u l d c r e a t e new need s , and h e n c e , m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Fo r e xamp le , t h e e m p t i n e s s o f i n c r e a s e d l e i s u r e h o u r s , l o s s o f s p o u s e , home o r some p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t i e s may a l l p l a y a p a r t i n m o t i v a t i n g t h e o l d e r a d u l t t o p a r t i c i p a t e . A p p l i c a t i o n o f Knowledge P l a n n e r s o f programs f o r r e t i r e d pe r s on s se ldom have e i t h e r t h e s t a f f o r r e s o u r c e s t o c o n d u c t a f u l l - s c a l e needs a s se s sment w i t h t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . They a r e u s u a l l y y ounge r a d u l t s , who have no d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g r e t i r e d f r om the work f o r c e and who c anno t be f u l l y c o g n i z a n t o f t h e p rob lems f a c e d by a d u l t s who no l o n g e r work . I t appea r s t h a t m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s and r e l a t e t o a l l a s p e c t s o f a p e r s o n ' s l i f e , bo th p a s t and p r e s e n t . Thus i f m o t i v e s 72 a r e measured t h e y can p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n t o t h e programmer who w i s h e s t o d e s i g n c o m p a t i b l e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s f o r o l d e r a d u l t s . Cou r se s w h i c h appea r t o a t t a c k p rob lems o f a g i n g a r e o f f e r e d a t many i n s t i t u t i o n s . However, no r e s e a r c h has been c o n d u c t e d w h i c h i n d i -c a t e s p a r t i c i p a n t ' s r e l a t i v e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e t o cope a f t e r t a k i n g p a r t i n a c o u r s e such as "The P s y c h o l o g y o f A g i n g " , o r " C r e a t i v e Use o f L e i s u r e T i m e " . Most p e o p l e , t o o , a r e f u n n e l l e d i n t o a r t s and c r a f t s because t h e y a r e no t aware o f t he o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h c o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e t o them. Such c o u r s e s can be m e a n i n g f u l o n l y i f t h e r e a l m o t i v e s f o r a t t e n d a n c e a r e made c l e a r t o t h o s e r u n n i n g t h e p rog rams . I f , f o r e xamp le , an o l d e r a d u l t r e v e a l s a h i g h s c o r e on t h e E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r o f t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e , t h e c o u r s e s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d t o meet t h e d e f i c i e n c y needs r e v e a l e d . W e l l - a r t i c u l a t e d c o u r s e s w h i c h f o c u s on c o p i n g mechan i sms , i n t e r p e r s o n a l and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d , s i n c e t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s r o o m p r o c e s s e s f a i l t o open c h a n n e l s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d be encou raged t o d e s i g n t h e i r own p rog r ams , and t o g i v e maximum i n p u t d u r i n g c l a s s t i m e . They wou ld t h e r e f o r e be e s c a p i n g t o a c h a l l e n g i n g , f l u i d and e n j o y a b l e s i t u a t i o n o v e r w h i c h t h e y had a t l e a s t p a r t i a l c o n t r o l . F u t u r e Re sea r ch S i n c e a d u l t e d u c a t o r s do no t know whe the r c o u r s e s f o r o l d e r a d u l t s a c t u a l l y c o n t r i b u t e t o i n c r e a s e d l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n , no j u s t i f i -c a t i o n can be made f o r c o n t i n u i n g such p rog rams . E x p e r i m e n t s c o u l d be d e s i g n e d w h i c h examine c o n t e n t , and d e s i g n and management o f i n s t r u c t i o n 73 i n e d u c a t i o n a l programs t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h e n v i r o n m e n t s a r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e needs o f t h e r e t i r e d p e r s o n . A l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y d e t e r m i n i n g whe the r m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n change w i t h a g i n g wou ld be o f h e l p t o a d u l t e d u c a t o r s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f d e f i c i e n c y and g rowth m o t i v a t i o n t o t h e f a c t o r s i n B o s h i e r 1 s E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e has been p a r t i a l l y v a l i d a t e d by t h i s s t u d y , bu t r e q u i r e s a p p l i c a t i o n t o o t h e r g roups o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s . B. L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S tudy 1. T h i s s t u d y does no t i n c l u d e a l l p o s s i b l e t y p e s o f o l d e r a d u l t p a r t i c i p a n t s . Respondent s were chosen f r om a g e - s e g r e g a t e d c l a s s e s w h i c h were h e l d s t r i c t l y f o r t h e r e t i r e d p e r s o n . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t r e t i r e d p a r t i c i p a n t s o f g e n e r a l l y - a v a i l a b l e c o u r s e s wou l d r e v e a l a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t han t h o s e r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . I t was no t f e a s i b l e , however , t o s e a r c h ou t an adequa te number o f t h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o i n c l u d e i n t he s u r v e y . 2. Whereas t h e t h r e e i n s t r u m e n t s m e a s u r i n g p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s were d e s i g n e d f o r c o l l e c t i n g d a t a on t h e r e t i r e d p e r s o n , B o s h i e r ' s E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e was d e v e l o p e d f o r use upon a more g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n — a n y a d u l t p a r t i c i p a n t i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . As s u c h , t h e s c a l e does n o t i n c l u d e i t ems w h i c h may be p e c u l i a r t o t h e s p e c i a l needs and m o t i v e s o f t h e o l d e r a d u l t . Fo r e x a m p l e , t h e i r m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i -p a t i o n may grow o u t o f t h e f a c t t h e y a r e e x c l u d e d f rom some o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s because o f t h e i r advanced age ( s o c i a l l y o s t r a c i z e d ) , o r because 74 o f a f a i l u r e t o cope w i t h t h e f i n a n c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , o r h e a l t h p rob lems un i que t o r e t i r e m e n t and o l d age. Thus i f a r e t i r e d p e r s o n was m o t i v a t e d t o a t t e n d an e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y by a need t o cope w i t h one o f t h e above p r o b l e m s , no i t e m wou ld e x i s t on B o s h i e r ' s E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a -t i o n Scail.e w h i c h c o u l d l o g i c a l l y e x p l a i n t h i s r e a s o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The i t e m w h i c h g i v e s as a r e a s o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n " t o overcome t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f day t o day l i v i n g " i s t o o g e n e r a l . "To g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s " may a p p r o x i m a t e t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s r e a s o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , bu t t h i s i s t h e o n l y i t e m w h i c h comes c l o s e t o v o i c i n g t h e need f o r deve l opment o f " c o p i n g m e c h a n i s m s " . In o r d e r t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e o l d e r a d u l t ' s r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , new i t ems such as t he f o l l o w i n g wou ld be r e q u i r e d : "To h e l p me a d j u s t t o t h e p r o c e s s o f a g i n g " " B e c a u s e some a c t i v i t y i s e x p e c t e d o f t h e o l d e r a d u l t " "To meet o t h e r r e t i r e d p e o p l e " "To h e l p me cope w i t h t h e p rob lems o f r e t i r e m e n t " C. Summary and C o n c l u d i n g Remarks 1. Summary T h i s s t u d y f o l l o w s o t h e r s , such as B o s h i e r (1976a) and S h e f f i e l d (1964) i n a r g u i n g t h a t an a n a l y s i s o f m o t i v e s and o t h e r p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e a d u l t can p r o v i d e g e n e r a l i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e scope o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ' n eed s , f r om w h i c h m e a n i n g f u l programs can be d e s i g n e d . The a d u l t r e s p o n d e n t s (118 o l d e r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s ) were m o t i v a t e d t o s a t i s f y t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and needs by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w examined s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l 75 and p h y s i o l o g i c a l f o r c e s p r e s e n t i n t he o l d e r a d u l t w h i c h may u l t i m a t e l y cause him t o p a r t i c i p a t e , and l o o k e d a t ways o f a n a l y z i n g bo th needs and p a r t i c i p a t i o n p a t t e r n s o f a d u l t . F o r t h i s s t u d y , one r e a s o n , o r m o t i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( E s cape/ S t i m u l a t i o n ) was i s o l a t e d f rom B o s h i e r 1 s E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e and c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h r e e i n d i c a t o r s o f p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t he o l d e r a d u l t , measured by t he L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n Index - A, D e v e l o p , menta l Task s o f L a t e r L i f e S c a l e , and a measure o f S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o l d e r a d u l t s . C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s o f t he v a r i a b l e s were d e r i v e d . The E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e was f a c t o r a n a l y z e d and o r t h o g o n a l l y r o t a t e d t o p r o -duce f o u r f a c t o r s , l a b e l l e d E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n , C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t , S o c i a l C o n t a c t and S o c i a l W e l f a r e . A l l E .P .S . i t ems used were c o n t a i n e d i n t h e f o u r f a c t o r s , w i t h no p a s s e n g e r o r impure i t e m s . F a c t o r s c o r e s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h r e e measures o f p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; t h e t h r e e h ypo the se s were c o n f i r m e d . The o l d e r a d u l t r e s p o n d e n t s o f t h i s s t u d y who e n r o l l e d f o r r e a s on s o f E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n a l s o d i s p l a y e d a low l e v e l o f l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e l a t e r y e a r s , a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s o f l a t e r l i f e , and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 2. C o n c l u d i n g remark s When o l d e r a d u l t s a r e " p u t o u t t o p a s t u r e " a t t h e age o f 60 o r 6 5 , t h e y a r e f a c e d w i t h many c h a l l e n g e s . Rap i d change has become t he r u l e i n modern s o c i e t y , r e q u i r i n g a d u l t s a t a l l s t a g e s o f t h e l i f e c y c l e t o adap t t o s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s may i n c l u d e c o m p l i c a t e d f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , t he c h a n g i n g r o l e o f women, o r t h e f a c t t h a t i n c r e a s e d l e i s u r e t i m e i s 76 becoming a v a i l a b l e t o most p e o p l e . Fo r t h e s e and o t h e r r e a s o n s , t h e sense o f w e l l - b e i n g and f u t u r e i n t h e r e t i r e d p e r s o n may wane. I n t e r -v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s d e v e l o p e d by a d u l t e d u c a t o r s can t e a c h s k i l l s and c o p i n g mechanisms f o r f u t u r e changes and p r e s s u r e s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l [ B i r r e n & W o o d r u f f ^ 1 9 7 3 ) . A g r e a t d e a l o f r e - e d u c a t i o n and c r e a t i o n o f new r o l e s f o r o l d e r pe r s on s must be u n d e r t a k e n by a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , f o r : U n l e s s t h e r e a r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r o l d e r pe r s on s t o c o n t i n u e t o l e a r n and r e - l e a r n t h e f a c t s and f o r c e s t h a t w i l l be o p e r a t i n g i n s o c i e t y i n t h e t w e n t y - f i r s t c e n t u r y , a s u b - c u l t u r e o f t h e a g e d , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i s o l a t e d f rom younge r age g r o u p s , w i l l d e v e l o p . . .'" ( V i c k e r y , 1972, p. 19) S o c i a l g e r o n t o l o g i s t s have begun t o l a y some o f t h e g r o u n d -work w h i c h a d u l t e d u c a t o r s must c o n t i n u e i n o r d e r t o h e l p d e a l c o n s t r u c -t i v e l y w i t h t h e v a s t numbers o f w e l l - e d u c a t e d , a c t i v e r e t i r e d p e o p l e who make up a l a r g e segment o f s o c i e t y , bu t whose p rob lems i n a d j u s t i n g t o o l d age a r e many. I t i s c l e a r t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n , r a t h e r t han d i s engagement s h o u l d be a c r i t e r i a o f s u c c e s s f u l a g i n g . Both d e f i c i e n c y and g r o w t h -m o t i v a t e d p e o p l e p r e s e n t l y p a r t i c i p a t e and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s a t i s f y i n g many o f t h e i r needs i s t h e c h a l l e n g e o f t he a d u l t e d u c a t o r . Programs a r e needed w h i c h h e l p t he o l d e r a d u l t u n d e r s t a n d and e n j o y o l d a ge , cope w i t h change and d e v e l o p a r e a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e t owa rd s l i f e w h i c h may r e s u l t i n t he emergence o f a g rowth m o t i v a t e d , o r s e l f - a c u t a l i z e d p e r s o n . S t u d i e s such as t h e p r e s e n t one f o c u s on p s y c h o - s o c i a l m o t i v e s o r r e a s on s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t he o l d e r a d u l t . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d l e a d t o an awareness on t h e p a r t o f t h e a d u l t e d u c a t o r t h a t a w ide v a r i e t y o f l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s must be a v a i l a b l e t o t h e o l d e r a d u l t . They must be c o n g r u e n t w i t h h i s i n t e r e s t i n c o u r s e c o n t e n t , bu t more i m p o r t a n t l y , w i t h t he needs and m o t i v e s w h i c h impe l h im t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 78 APPENDIX A ITEMS AND LOADINGS IiN THE ESCAPE/STIMULATION FACTOR OF THE EDUCATION PARTICIPATION SCALE IN THREE MOTIVATIONAL ORIENTATION STUDIES* E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n R i d d e l 1 B o s h i e r Haag M o r s t a i n S c a l e I tem 1976 1976 1976 & Smart 1974 + 4 To g e t r e l i e f f r om boredom . 7 0 * . 6 0 * . 7 0 * . 7 2 * 7 To overcome t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f day t o day l i v i n g . 6 9 * . 7 4 * . 6 8 * . 58 * 24 To g e t a b reak i n t h e r o u t i n e o f home o r work . 6 9 * . 8 0 * . 7 5 * . 6 8 * 13 To keep up w i t h c o m p e t i t i o n . 6 1 * .11 .04 # 20 To have a few hours away f r om r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 6 0 * . 6 8 * . 5 2 * . 5 8 * 26 To keep up w i t h o t h e r s . 5 5 * .21 .03 # 5 To c a r r y o u t t h e recommendat ion o f some a u t h o r i t y . 5 5 * .06 .11 # 10 To s t o p m y s e l f f r o m becoming a " v e g e t a b l e " . 5 4 * . 5 8 * . 6 1 * . 5 3 * 15 To g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o my p e r s o n a l p rob lems . 5 4 * .32 .14 # 8 To be a c c e p t e d by o t h e r s . 5 2 * .33 .05 # 35 To comply w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s f r om someone e l s e . 5 0 * .01 .11 # 31 To comply w i t h t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f someone e l s e . 4 8 * .01 .01 # 17 To e scape t e l e v i s i o n . 4 8 * . 4 9 * . 5 6 * . 4 1 * 29 To e s cape an unhappy r e l a t i o n s h i p . 4 7 * . 4 2 * . 4 1 * . 4 4 * 9 To s upp lement a na r r ow p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n . 4 6 * .09 .14 # 30 To p r o v i d e a c o n t r a s t t o my p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n . 4 5 * .36 .07 # 28 To m a i n t a i n o r improve my s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . 4 5 * .15 .02 # 23 To p r o v i d e a c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e s t o f my l i f e . 4 2 * . 5 5 * . 6 5 * . 6 0 * * F a c t o r l o a d i n g s g r e a t e r than .40 a f t e r o r t h o g o n a l r o t a t i o n +"To e s cape t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l na r rownes s o f my o c c u p a t i o n " l o a d e d on t h e E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r bu t was d e l e t e d f r om t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y because i t was deemed t o be j o b - r e l a t e d and t hu s i r r e l e v a n t t o r e t i r e d p e o p l e . #These i t ems may have l o a d e d between .30 and . 39 . However , M o r s t a i n & Smart (1974) d i d no t i n c l u d e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e i r r e p o r t . APPENDIX Bp" P L E A S E D O N O T W R I T E Y O U R N A M E O N T H I S D O C U M E N T 1. W H A T I S Y O U R S E X ? 2. W H A T I S Y O U R M A R I T A L S T A T U S ? I 3. W H A T W A S Y O U R D A T E O F B I R T H ? 4. W H A T I S T H E N A M E O F T H E T O W N O R C I T Y I N W H I C H Y O U W E R E B O R N ? 5. W H A T W A S Y O U R O C C U P A T I O N B E F O R E R E T I R E M E N T ? (please be very specific about your former work - e:g. teacher in 7-teacher school, manager of a small trucking firm) If your were a housewife for most of your adult l i f e , please write in the word "housewife", and in brackets, give the specific t i t l e of the work you did before becoming a housewife. 6. H O W L O N G H A V E Y O U B E E N F U L L Y R E T I R E D ? Y E A R S M O N T H S 7. W H A T I S Y O U R H I G H E S T E D U C A T I O N A L Q U A L I F I C A T I O N ? (check only one box) | | no formal qualification | | completed elementary school | | grade 12 graduation or overseas equivalent | | post-secondary or trade qualification (e.g. vocational training, business diploma, etc.) | [university degree(s) 8. A R E Y O U C U R R E N T L Y L I V I N G I N : your own home | [ the home of a relative [—[ an apartment j | a retired people's residence r~"| a boarding home | [ other (please specify) 80 C O N F I D E N T I A L Education Participation Scale Please indicate below the extent to which each of the reasons l i s t e d below influenced you to participate In this course or program. C i r c l e one category for each question. Sometimes the "much influence" category i s on the right-hand side of the page, sometimes i t i s on the l e f t . No reason for enrolling i s any more or less desirable than any other reason. Please be frank. There 4are no right or wrong answers. 1. To seek knowledge for i t s own sake Much influence Moderate influence L i t t l e influence No Influence 2. To share a common interest with my 6pouse or friend No influence L i t t l e influence Moderate influence Much influence 3. To become more effect i v e as a c i t i z e n Much influence Moderate influence L i t t l e influence No Influence 4. To get r e l i e f from boredom No influence L i t t l e influence Moderate influence Much influence 5. To carry out the recommendation of some authority Much influence Moderate influence L i t t l e influence No influence 6. To s a t i s f y an enquiring mind No influence L i t t l e influence Moderate influence Much Influence 7. To overcome the frustration of day to day l i v i n g Much Influence Moderate influence L i t t l e influence No influence 8. To be accepted by others No influence L i t t l e • influence Moderate influence Much • influence To supplement a narrow previous education Much influence Moderate influence L i t t l e influence No influence 10. To stop myself from becoming a "vegetable" No L i t t l e Moderate Much influence influence influence influence 81 -2-TO W H A T E X T E N T D I D T H E S E R E A S O N S I N F L U E N C E Y O U T O E N R O L I N Y O U R A D U L T E D U C A T I O N C L A S S ? 11. To a c q u i r e know-ledge t o h e l p w i t h o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l courses Much Moderate L i t t l e No i n f l u e n c e i n f l u e n c e i n f l u e n c e i n f l u e n c e 12. To f u l f i l a need f o r p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and f r i e n d s h i p s No i n f l u e n c e L i t t l e i n f l u e n c e Moderate i n f l u e n c e Much i n f l u e n c e 13. To keep up w i t h c o m p e t i t i o n Much i n f l u e n c e Moderate i n f l u e n c e L i t t l e i n f l u e n c e No i n f l u e n c e 14. To p a r t i c i p a t e i n group a c t i v i t y No i n f l u e n c e L i t t l e i n f l u e n c e Moderate i n f l u e n c e Much i n f l u e n c e 15. To g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o my p e r s o n a l problems Much i n f l u e n c e Moderate i n f l u e n c e L i t t l e i n f l u e n c e No i n f l u e n c e 16. To h e l p me earn a degree, diploma o r c e r t i f i c a t e No i n f l u e n c e L i t t l e i n f l u e n c e Moderate i n f l u e n c e Much i n f l u e n c e 17. To escape t e l e v i s i o n 18. To prepare f o r community s e r v i c e Much i n f l u e n c e No i n f l u e n c e Moderate i n f l u e n c e L i t t l e i n f l u e n c e L i t t l e i n f l u e n c e Moderate i n f l u e n c e No i n f l u e n c e Much i n f l u e n c e 19. To g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o human r e l a t i o n s Much i n f l u e n c e Moderate i n f l u e n c e L i t t l e i n f l u e n c e No i n f l u e n c e 20. To have a few hours away from r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s No i n f l u e n c e L i t t l e i n f l u e n c e Moderate i n f l u e n c e Much i n f l u e n c e 21. To l e a r n j u s t f o r the j o y of l e a r n i n g Much i n f l u e n c e Moderate i n f l u e n c e L i t t l e i n f l u e n c e No i n f l u e n c e 22. To become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h c o n g e n i a l people No i n f l u e n c e L i t t l e i n f l u e n c e Moderate i n f l u e n c e Much i n f l u e n c e 23. To p r o v i d e a c o n t r a s t t o the r e s t o f my l i f e Much i n f l u e n c e Moderate i n f l u e n c e L i t t l e i n f l u e n c e No i n f l u e n c e 24. To get a break i n the No L i t t l e Moderate r o u t i n e of home o r work i n f l u e n c e i n f l u e n c e . i n f l u e n c e Much i n f l u e n c e 82 T O W H A T E X T E N T D I D T H E S E R E A S O N S I N F L U E N C E Y O U T O E N R O L I N Y O U R A D U L T E D U C A T I O N C L A S S ? 25. To improve my' a b i l i t y to serve mankind Much influence Moderate influence L i t t l e influence No influence 26. To keep up with others No influence L i t t l e influence Moderate influence Much influence 27. To improve my s o c i a l relationships Much influence Moderate influence L i t t l e influence No influence 28. To maintain or improve my s o c i a l position No influence L i t t l e influence Moderate influence Much influence 29. To escape an unhappy relationship Much influence Moderate influence L i t t l e influence No influence 30.. To provide a constrast to my previous edu-cation No influence L i t t l e influence Moderate influence Much influence 31. To comply with the suggestions of someone else Much influence Moderate influence L i t t l e influence No influence 32. To learn just for the sake of learning No influence L i t t l e influence Moderate influence Much influence 33. To make hew friends Much influence Moderate influence L i t t l e influence No influence 34. To improve my a b i l i t y to •participate i n community work No influence L i t t l e influence Moderate influence Much influence 35. To comply with Much Moderate L i t t l e No instructions from influence influence influence influence someone else 83 P L E A S E C I R C L E T H E A P P R O P R I A T E N U M B E R T O I N D I C A T E , O N T H E A V E R A G E , H O W M U C H Y O U P A R T I C I P A T E D I N T H E F O L L O W I N G A C T I V I T I E S D U R I N G 1 9 7 5 . J U S T T H I N K O F Y O U R A C T I V I T I E S F O R 1 9 7 5 . C i r c l e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n u m b e r 1. I a t t e n d e d m o v i e s , p l a y s o r 1. O n c e a w e e k c o n c e r t s 2. O n c e a m o n t h 3. O n c e e v e r y 6 m o n t h s 4. O n c e a y e a r 5. N o t a t a l l 2. I r e a d a n e w s p a p e r 1. E v e r y d a y 2. T w i c e a w e e k 3. O n c e a w e e k 4. O n c e a m o n t h 5. O n c e a y e a r 3. I h e l p e d c a r e f o r a n o t h e r 1. E v e r y d a y p e r s o n ( o t h e r t h a n s p o u s e ) 2. O n c e a w e e k . 3. O n c e a m o n t h 4. O n c e a y e a r 5. N o t a t a l l 4. I t o o k a n o v e r n i g h t ( o r l o n g e r ) 1. M o r e t h a n 3 t i m e s p l e a s u r e t r i p 2. T h r e e t i m e s 3. T w i c e 4. O n c e 5. N o t a t a l l 5. I p a r t i c i p a t e d i n v o l u n t e e r 1. E v e r y d a y c o m m u n i t y w o r k 2. O n c e a w e e k 3. O n c e a m o n t h 4. O n c e a y e a r 5. N o t a t a l l 6. I a t t e n d e d m e e t i n g s o f a n • l m 0 n c e a w e e k o r g a n i z a t i o n , a s s o c i a t i o n o r c l u b 2. T w i c e a m o n t h 3. O n c e a m o n t h 4. O n c e a y e a r 5. N o t a t a l l 7. I r e a d b o o k s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f 1. E v e r y d a y l e a r n i n g a b o u t s o m e t h i n g 2. O n c e a w e e k ( e . g . g a r d e n i n g , p o l i t i c s , 3. O n c e a m o n t h a r t , p s y c h o l o g y ) 4. 0 n c e a y e a r 5. N o t a t a l l '. ' 84 P A G E T W O P L E A S E C I R C L E T H E A P P R O P R I A T E N U M B E R . J U S T T H I N K O F Y O U R A C T I V I T I E S F O R 1975 8. I a t t e n d e d a h o b b y o r c r a f t 1. E v e r y d a y g r o u p 2. O n c e a w e e k 3. O n c e a m o n t h 4. O n c e a y e a r 5. N o t ' a t a l l 9. I v i s i t e d w i t h n e i g h b o r s o r 1. E v e r y d a y f r i e n d s ( d o n o t i n c l u d e r e l a t i v e s ) 2. T w i c e a w e e k 3. O n c e a w e e k 4. O n c e a m o n t h 5. O n c e a y e a r 10. I a t t e n d e d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n 1. 4 o r m o r e c o u r s e s c o u r s e s a t n i g h t s c h o o l , u n i v e r s i t y 2. 3 c o u r s e s e x t e n s i o n , c o m m u n i t y c e n t e r s o r 3. 2 c o u r s e s o t h e r a g e n c i e s 4. 1 c o u r s e 5. N o n e a t a l l 11. I c a r r i e d o n a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a 1. E v e r y d a y s t r a n g e r o n a b u s , a t a p a r k , o r i n 2. O n c e a w e e k s o m e o t h e r p u b l i c p l a c e 3. O n c e a m o n t h 4. O n c e a y e a r 5. N o t a t a l l 12. I v i s i t e d w i t h r e l a t i v e s i n t h e i r 1. E v e r y d a y h o m e o r a p a r t m e n t 2. O n c e a w e e k 3. O n c e a m o n t h 4. O n c e a y e a r 5. N o t a t a l l 13. I t a l k e d s o c i a l l y o v e r t h e 1. E v e r y d a y p h o n e 2. T w i c e a w e e k 3. O n c e a w e e k 4. O n c e a m o n t h 5. O n c e a y e a r 14. I v o t e d i n t h e l a s t F e d e r a l 1. Y e s e l e c t i o n 2. N o " • 15. 1 v o t e d i n t h e l a s t P r o v i n c i a l 1 Y e s e l e c t i o n 2. Ho 16. I v o t e d i n t h e l a s t M u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n -1. Y e s 2. N o 85 C O N F I D E N T I A L P L E A S E A 1 I S W E R T H E F O L L O W I N G Q U E S T I O N S A C C O R D I N G T O W H E T H E R F O R Y O U T H E A N S W E R I S M A I N L Y " Y E S " , O R M A I N L Y " H O " ' Y E S N O • 1 . R e d u c e d s t r e n g t h k e e p s m e f r o m d o i n g t h e t h i n g s I n e e d t o d o 2 . O n e c a n l e a r n t o l i v e a g o o d l i f e e v e n i n r e d u c e d h e a l t h 3 . I m a n a g e t o l i v e a g o o d l i f e e v e n w i t h l i m i t e d i n c o m e A . R e t i r e m e n t i s a s w o r t h w h i l e a s w o r k 5 . I f i n d i t ( o r w o u l d f i n d i t ) d i f f i c u l t t o l i v e a l o n e 6 . A s u r v i v i n g h u s b a n d o r w i f e c a n l e a r n t o g e t a l o n g 7 . I a v o i d b e i n g w i t h o l d p e o p l e 8 . M a k i n g n e w f r i e n d s i s h a r d f o r m e 9 . I s t i l l d o m a n y w o r t h w h i l e t h i n g s 1 0 . Y o u n g e r p e o p l e c a n d o m o s t t h i n g s b e t t e r -t h a n o l d e r p e o p l e 1 1 . M y l i v i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s s u i t m e f i n e 1 2 . I w o u l d b e s a t i s f i e d o n l y l i v i n g i n m y o w n h o u s e h o l d 1 3 . F a m i l y a n d f r i e n d s h e l p w h e n I h a v e t r o u b l e s 1 4 . I c o u l d a c c e p t b e i n g d e p e n d e n t o n m y c h i l d r e n o r o n o t h e r s 86 C O N F I D E N T I A L P L E A S E A N S W E R E V E R Y Q U E S T I O N , C H E C K I N G W H E T H E R Y O U M A I N L Y A G R E E O R M A I N L Y D I S A G R E E A G R E E D I S A G R E E 1 . A s I g r o w o l d e r , t h i n g s s e e m b e t t e r t h a n I t h o u g h t t h e y w o u l d b e 2 . I h a v e g o t t e n m o r e o f t h e b r e a k s i n l i f e t h a n m o s t p e o p l e I k n o w « 3 . T h i s i s t h e d r e a r i e s t t i m e o f m y l i f e A . I a m j u s t a s h a p p y a s w h e n I w a s y o u n g e r 5. M y l i f e c o u l d b e h a p p i e r t h a n i t . i s n o w 6 . I h e s e a r e t h e b e s t y e a r s o f m y l i f e 7 . M o s t o f t h e t h i n g s I d o a r e b o r i n g o r m o n o t o n o u s 8 . I e x p e c t s o m e i n t e r e s t i n g a n d p l e a s a n t t h i n g s t o h a p p e n t o m e i n t h e f u t u r e 9 . T h e t h i n g s I d o a r e a s i n t e r e s t i n g t o m e a s t h e y e v e r w e r e 1 0 . I f e e l o l d a n d s o m e w h a t t i r e d 1 1 . A s I l o o k b a c k o n m y l i f e , I a m f a i r l y w e l l s a t i s f i e d ; 1 2 . I w o u l d n o t c h a n g e m y p a s t l i f e e v e n i f I c o u l d 1 3 . C o m p a r e d t o o t h e r p e o p l e m y a g e , I m a k e a g o o d a p p e a r a n c e 1 A . I h a v e m a d e p l a n s f o r t h i n g s I ' l l b e d o i n g a m o n t h o r a y e a r f r o m n o w 1 5 . W h e n I t h i n k b a c k o v e r m y l i f e , I d i d n ' t g e t m o s t o f t h e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s I w a n t e d 1 6 . . C o m p a r e d t o o t h e r p e o p l e , I g e t d o w n i n t h e d u m p s t o o o f t e n 1 7 . I v e g o t t e n p r e t t y m u c h w h a t I e x p e c t e d o u t o f l i f e 1 8 . I n s p i t e o f w h a t s o m e p e o p l e s a y , t h e l o t o f t h e a v e r a g e m a n i s g e t t i n g w o r s e , n o t b e t t e r 87 REFERENCES A twood, H.M. & E l l i s , J . The c o n c e p t o f need : an a n a l y s i s f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . A d u l t L e a d e r s h i p , 1971 , 19 , 6, 210 -244 . Adams, D.L. A n a l y s i s o f a L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n I ndex . J o u r n a l o f G e r o n t o l o g y , 1969, 24 , 4 , 465 -469 . Back , K.W. & Ge r gen , J . K . P e r s o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n and m o r a l e o f t he aged . In S impson , I.H. & McK i nney , J . C . ( e d ) , S o c i a l A s p e c t s o f A g i n g , Durham, N.C.: Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966, 19 , 304 -319 . Bagge r , H.S. A S t udy Program f o r t h e E l d e r l y . New Y o r k : John Hay Wh i tney F o u n d a t i o n , 1975. B a l t e s , P.B. & S c h a i e , K.W. The myth o f t h e t w i l i g h t y e a r s . P s y c h o l o g y  Today , M a r c h , 1974, 35 - 39 . B i r r e n , J . E . & W o o d r u f f , D. Human deve l opment o v e r t he l i f e span t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n . In B a l t e s , P. & S c h a i e , K. (ed) L i f e - S p a n Deve l opmen ta l  P s y c h o l o g y . New Y o r k : Academic P r e s s , 1973, 306 -337 . B l a u , Z.S. O l d Age i n a Chang ing S o c i e t y . New Y o r k : New V i e w p o i n t s , F r a n k l i n Watt s I n c . , 1973. B l i s h e n , B.R. A s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n d e x f o r o c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada. The  Canad i an Rev iew o f S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y , 1967, 4 , 4 1 - 5 3 . B o s h i e r , R.W. M o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s : a f a c t o r a n a l y t i c e x p l o r a t i o n o f H o u l e ' s t y p o l o g y . A d u l t  E d u c a t i o n , 1971 , 2 1 , 2 , 3 -26. E d u c a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d r o p o u t : a t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1973, 2 3 , 4 , 2553282. F a c t o r a n a l y s t s a t l a r g e : a c r i t i c a l r e v i e w o f t h e m o t i v a -t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e . Pape r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h C o n f e r e n c e , T o r o n t o , Canada , A p r i l , 1976. M o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s r e - v i s i t e d : l i f e - s p a c e m o t i v a t i o n and t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ( i n p r e s s ) 1976a. B o s h i e r , R.W. & P e t e r s , J . M . D e v e l o p i n g programs c o n g r u e n t w i t h a d u l t s m o t i v e s , needs and i n t e r e s t s . In K l e v e n s , C. ( e d ) . M a t e r i a l s  and Methods i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . C a l i f o r n i a : K l e v e n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1976. 88 B r u n n e r , E. de S. , W i l d e r , D.S., K i r c h n e r , C. & Newbe r r y , J . S . , J r . An Ove r -V iew o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t he U.S.A. W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., 1959. B u l l , C .N. & A u c o i n , J . B . V o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n : a r e p l i c a t i o n n o t e . J o u r n a l o f G e r o n t o l o g y , 1975 , 30 , 1, 73 -76 . B u l t e n a , G.L . & O y l e r , R. E f f e c t s o f h e a l t h on d i s engagement and m o r a l e . In A g i n g and Human Deve lopment , 1971 , 2 , 142 -148 . B u r g e s s , P. Reasons f o r a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n g roup e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1971 , 22 , 1, 3 -20 . C a i n , L. Age s t a t u s and g e n e r a t i o n a l phenomena: t h e new o l d p e o p l e i n c o n t e m p o r a r y A m e r i c a . The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 1967, 7, 1, 8 3 - 9 2 . C a t t e l l , R.B. The s c r e e t e s t f o r t h e number o f f a c t o r s . M u l t i v a r i a t e  B e h a v i o u r a l R e s e a r c h , 1966, 1, 2 , 245 -276 . Cavan , R., B u r g e s s , E.W. H a v i g h u r s t , R . J . & Go ldhamer , H. P e r s o n a l A d j u s t m e n t i n O ld Age. C h i c a g o : S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t e s , I n c . , 1949. C o w g i l l , D.O. A t h e o r y o f a g i n g i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e . In C o w g i l l , D.O. & Ho lmes , L.D. (ed) A g i n g and M o d e r n i z a t i o n , New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C r o f t s , 1972, 1-13. Cumming? E. & Hen r y , W.E. G row ing O l d : t h e P r o c e s s o f D i sengagement . New Y o r k : B a s i c Book s , I n c . , 1961. Dave, R.H. & S t r e m e r l y , N. L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n and t h e S c h o o l . Hamburg Unesco I n s t i t u t e f o r E d u c a t i o n , Monograph 2 , 1973. D i c k i n s o n , G. E d u c a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n : an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1971 , 2 2 , 1, 36 - 47 . D i c k i n s o n , G.D. & C l a r k , K.M. L e a r n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s e l f - e d u c a t i o n and c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1975, 22 , 1, 3 -15 . Donahue, E. (ed) E d u c a t i o n f o r L a t e r M a t u r i t y . New Y o r k : W h i t e s i d e , I n c . , Wm. Morrow and Co. I n c . , 1955. D o u g l a h , M. Some p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e phenomenon o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A d u l t  E d u c a t i o n , 1970 ,20 , 2 , 8 8 - 96 . D r e s s i e r , D.M. L i f e a d j u s t m e n t o f r e t i r e d c o u p l e s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l  o f A g i n g and Human Deve l opment , 1973, 4 , 335 -348 . 89 E i s e n s t a d t , S.M. From G e n e r a t i o n t o G e n e r a t i o n . New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s , 1956. E k l u n d , L. A g i n g and t h e p r o f e s s i o n s . In R i l e y , M.W. (ed) A g i n g and  S o c i e t y : Volume I I . New Y o r k : R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1969, 324 -348 . E r i k s o n , E.H. E i g h t ages o f man. In C h i l d h o o d and S o c i e t y . New Y o r k : W.W. No r t on & C o . , I n c . , 1963, 247 -270 . L i f e c y c l e . In S i l l s , D.L. (ed) I n t e r n a t i o n a l E n c y c l o p a e d i a ' o f t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , V o l . 9. New Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n Company and t h e F r ee P r e s s , 1968, 286 -292 . Haag, U . F . E . P s y c h o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f m o t i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1976. H a v i g h u r s t , R . J . Deve l opmenta l Task s and E d u c a t i o n , New Y o r k : Da v i d McKay C o . , I n c . , 1948. Chang ing s t a t u s and r o l e s d u r i n g t h e a d u l t l i f e c y c l e : s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . In B u r n s , H.W. (ed) S o c i o l o g i c a l  Backg rounds o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . C h i c a g o : C e n t e r f o r t h e S tudy o f L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s . Number 4 1 , 1964, 17 -38 . H a v i g h u r s t , R . J . E d u c a t i o n t h r ough t h e a d u l t l i f e span. 1 E d u c a t i o n a l  G e r o n t o l o g y , 1, 1, 1976, 4 1 - 5 0 . H a v i g h u r s t , R . J . , N e u g a r t e n , B.L . & T o b i n , S.S. D i sengagement and p a t t e r n s o f a g i n g . In N e u g a r t e n , B.L . (ed) M i d d l e Age and A g i n g . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1968, 161 -170 . H i e m s t r a , R. C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e aged : a s u r v e y o f needs and i n t e r e s t s o f o l d e r p e o p l e . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1972, 22 , 2 , 100 -109 . H o u l e , C O . The I n q u i r i n g M i n d . M a d i s o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1961. J o h n s t o n e , J .W.C. & R i v e r a , R . J . V o l u n t e e r s f o r L e a r n i n g . C h i c a g o : A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1965. Kas tenbaum, R. Is o l d age t h e end o f deve l opment ? In Kastenbaum R. ( e d ) , New Thoughts on O l d Age. New Y o r k : S p r i n g e r P u b l i s h i n g C o . , I n c . 1964, 4 , 6 1 - 7 0 . Kau f fmann , P. C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n f o r O l d e r A d u l t s - a F i n a l R e p o r t . L e x i n g t o n : Ken tucky U n i v e r s i t y , Depar tment o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , 1967. E d u c a t i o n Re sou r ce s I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t e r m i c r o f i c h e number ED 019 627. 90 Keahey , S . P . , Seaman, G. S e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n and a d j u s t m e n t i n r e t i r e m e n t -i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r program d e v e l o p m e n t . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1974, 24 , 3 , 220 -226 . Knox, A . B . I n t e r e s t s and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i - t i e s , 1968, 1, 4 , 6 - 15 . Knox, A .B . & S j o g r en . , , D. M o t i v a t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e and l e a r n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1962, 12 , 4 , 238 -242 . Knox, A . B . & V i d e b e c k , R. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and t h e a d u l t l i f e c y c l e . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . , 1963, 13 , 2 , 1 02 - 121 . K u h l e n , R.G. M o t i v a t i o n a l changes d u r i n g t h e a d u l t y e a r s . In K u h l e n , R. ( e d ) , P s y c h o l o g i c a l Backg rounds o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . C h i c a g o ; C e n t e r f o r t h e S tudy o f L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , 1963 , Volume 4 0 , 77 -113 . K u r t z , J . G . & Wo lk , S. C o n t i n u e d g rowth and l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n . The  G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 1975, 4 , 8 0 - 8 3 . K u y p e r s , J . A . C h a n g e a b i l i t y o f l i f e - s t y l e and p e r s o n a l i t y i n o l d age . The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , W i n t e r , 1972 336 - 341 . Leagan s , J . P . A c o n c e o t o f need s . J o u r n a l o f C o - o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n , 1964, 2, 89 -96 . L i t c h f i e l d , A. The measurement and p a t t e r n o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t  e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . U n p u b l i s h e d PhD d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1965. Maddox, George L. J r . D i sengagement t h e o r y : a c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n . The G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 1964, 4 , 8 0 - 8 3 . M a r c u s , E.E. P r ob l em s o l v i n g and complex l e a r n i n g b e h a v i o u r i n o l d age. C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1972. E d u c a t i o n Re sou r ce s I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t e r m i c r o f i c h e number ED 070 957. Mas low, A .H . M o t i v a t i o n and P e r s o n a l i t y . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, 1954. Towards a P s y c h o l o g y o f B e i n g . New Y o r k : D. Van N o s t r a n d C o . , 1962. McCOusky, H.Y. E d u c a t i o n Backg round - Wh i t e House C o n f e r e n c e on A g i n g . Wa sh i n g t on : Depar tment o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , ( 1 9 7 1 ) , ERIC m i c r o f i c h e number ED 057 335. 91 McMahon, E.E. Needs o f p e o p l e and t h e i r c ommun i t i e s - and t h e a d u l t  e d u c a t o r . C h i c a g o : A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U . S .A . , E d u c a t i o n Re sou rce s I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t e r , 1970. M i l l e r , H.L. P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a d u l t s i n e d u c a t i o n - a f o r c e f i e l d  a n a l y s i s . M a s s a c h u s e t t s : C e n t e r f o r t he S t udy o f L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , O c c a s i o n a l p a p e r s , Number 14, 1967. M o r s t a i n , B. & Sma r t , J . C . Reasons f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s ; a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f a g roup d i f f e r e n c e s . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1974, 24 , 2 , 8 3 - 9 8 . N e u g a r t e n , B . L . , H a v i g h u r s t , R . J . & T o b i n , S.S. The measurement o f l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n . J o u r n a l o f G e r o n t o l o g y , 1961 , 16 , 134 -143 . P a l m o r e , C.B. The e f f e c t s o f a g i n g on a c t i v i t i e s and a t t i t u d e s . The  G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 1968, 8 , 4 , 259 -263 . P r e s s e y , S .L . & K u h l e n , R.G. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Deve lopment Th roughou t t he  L i f e Span. New Y o r k : Ha rpe r & Row, 1957. R o b i n s o n , P.B. J r . , S o c i o - c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . A d u l t L e a d e r s h i p , 1972, 2 0 , 7, 284 -288 . Rose , A.M. The s u b c u l t u r e o f t h e a g i n g : a f ramework f o r r e s e a r c h i n s o c i a l g e r o n t o l o g y . In Rose , A . M . , & P e t e r s o n , W.A. (ed) O l d e r P e o p l e and t h e i r S o c i a l W o r l d . P h i l a d e l p h i a : F.A. Dav i s C o . , 1965, 3 -16. A c u r r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e i n s o c i a l g e r o n t o l o g y . In N e u g a r t e n , B.L . (ed) M i d d l e age and A g i n g . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1968. S a r v i s , R. E d u c a t i o n a l needs o f t he e l d e r l y . W a s h i n g t o n : Edmonds Community C o l l e g e , U.S. Depar tment o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , M a r c h , 1973. E d u c a t i o n Re sou r ce s I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t e r m i c r o f i c h e number ED 075 717. S c h a a l e r , B. & E s t e s , C . L . D i f f e r e n c e s between c u r r e n t g e r o n t o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s : i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y . In K e n t , D.P. , Kastenbaum, & Sherwood, S. (ed) R e s e a r c h , P l a n n i n g &  A c t i o n f o r t h e E l d e r l y . NewwYork: B e h a v i o u r a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1972. S h e f f i e l d , S.B. The o r i e n t a t i o n s a d u l t c o n t i n u i n g l e a r n e r s . In So lomon, D. (ed) The C o n t i n u i n g L e a r n e r . C h i c a g o : C e n t e r f o r t h e S tudy o f L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , 1964, 1-22. 92 V e r n e r , C. & B o o t h , A. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : C e n t e r f o r A p p l i e d Re sea r ch i n E d u c a t i o n , I n c . , 1964. V i c k e r y , F.E. C r e a t i v e Programming f o r O l d e r A d u l t s . New Y o r k , A s s o c i a t e d P r e s s , 1972, 3 -15 . V i d e b e c k , R & Knox, A .B . A l t e r n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s p o n s e s t o a g i n g . In Rose , A.M. & P e t e r s o n W.A. (ed) O l d e r P e o p l e and t h e i r S o c i a l  W o r l d . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1965, 37 - 48 . W i l e n s k y , H.L. L i f e c y c l e , work s i t u a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . In T i b b i t s , C. & Donahue, W. ( e d ) , S o c i a l and  P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s o f A g i n g . New Y o r k : Co l umb i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962, 919 -930 . Wood, V . , W y l i e , M.L. & S h e a f o r , B. An a n a l y s i s o f a s h o r t s e l f - r e p o r t measure o f l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n : c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h r a t e r j u d g m e n t s . J o u r n a l o f G e r o n t o l o g y , 1969, 24 , 4 , 465 -469 . Youmans, E. Some p e r s p e c t i v e s on t he d i sengagement t h e o r y . The  G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 1969, 9 , 104, 254 -259 . Z i m b a r d o , P.G. & Ruch, F .L . P s y c h o l o g y and L i f e , N i n t h E d i t i o n . I l l i n o i s : S c o t t , Foreman & C o . , 1975. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0055688/manifest

Comment

Related Items