UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Development of a new criterion measure for creative problem solving ability Ellis, Julia Litwintschik 1975

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DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW CRITERION MEASURE FOR CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING ABILITY  by  JULIA LITWINTSCHIK ELLIS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , 1972  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION in THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d ^standard  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia O c t o b e r , 1975 © J u l i a L i t w i n t s c h i k E l l i s , 1975  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  make i t  freely available  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  for  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  this  representatives. thesis  It  is understood that  for f i n a n c i a l gain shall  thesis  AA  WA  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  ^te  ((/pTcyfju JX  T/Q/JAl Columbia  Ps  or  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  not be allowed without my  w r i t ten pe rm i ss i on .  Department of  that  study.  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  by h i s of  in p a r t i a l  ¥Cf/t> < 0 £ Y  ii  ABSTRACT The  f i r s t purposes of t h i s p r o j e c t were t o d e v e l o p a  complex measure of c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g (SYOPT) and scoring c r i t e r i a  f o r the items i n the new  test.  In  new  variables derived  from the new  of i n t e r - i t e m and  i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y were o b t a i n e d f o r each of  the f o u r v a r i a b l e s .  None o f the f o u r new  examined.  to develop  addition,  e v i d e n c e c o n c e r n i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of f o u r measure was  new  variables  Adequate l e v e l s  correlated  s i g n i f i c a n t l y or even m o d e r a t e l y w i t h a v a r i e t y of e x t e r n a l commonly a s s o c i a t e d s h i p s was  w i t h c r e a t i v i t y . The  criteria  absence of such r e l a t i o n -  a t t r i b u t e d t o b o t h the r e s t r i c t e d range of the  population  ( o n l y t h o s e grade t h r e e c h i l d r e n t h a t were r e a d i n g a t grade l e v e l or a b o v e ) , and  the f a c t t h a t the measure was  constructed  so as  to  y i e l d a g l o b a l measure of c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o u r r a t h e r than of u n i q u e , specific abilities. identified.  Implications  f o r subsequent r e s e a r c h were a l s o  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. II.  PAGE  INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF PROBLEM REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY . . , Facilitation:  3 Techniques and Programs  L i m i t a t i o n s o f E x i s t i n g Measures  III.  IV.  V.  1  3 5  Development o f New Measures: C u r r e n t R e s e a r c h . . . .  10  Summary  11  S p e c i f i c O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Study  13  METHOD  14  P o p u l a t i o n o f I n t e r e s t and Sample Used. . .  14  Development o f t h e New Measure  15  Development o f S c o r i n g C r i t e r i a f o r t h e New Measure P r o c e d u r e s : I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f V a l i d i t y and  16  Reliability  21  Summary  23  RESULTS  24  R e l i a b i l i t y Tests  24  Correlations with External Criteria  25  DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS  27  O b j e c t i v e One  27  O b j e c t i v e Two  27  O b j e c t i v e Three  28  D i r e c t i o n s f o r Future Research Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s  30 31  iv  Table of Contents cont'd CHAPTER  PAGE  REFERENCES  34  APPENDICES A.  MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR ALL EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLES  37  B.  "WHAT'S YOUR PROBLEM" QUESTIONNAIRE  38  C.  SOLVE YOUR OWN PROBLEMS TEST  44  D.  INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE SYOPT  48  E.  PROTOCOLS FOR SCORING THE FORT PROBLEM  50  F.  PROTOCOLS FOR SCORING THE GUITAR PROBLEM  52  V  LIST OF TABLES PAGE Table 1  INTERCORRELATIONS AMONG NEW VARIABLES  25  Table 2  CORRELATIONS OF FOUR NEWLY-DEVELOPED VARIABLES WITH 9 SELECTED EXTERNAL CREATIVITY CRITERIA  26  MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR ALL EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLES. . . .  37  Table 3  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND Research  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM  i n t h e a r e a of c r e a t i v i t y has r e s u l t e d i n t h e  development o f methods, t e c h n i q u e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs and c u r r i c u l a which purport to f a c i l i t a t e c r e a t i v i t y .  The  r e s u l t s of  many s t u d i e s u t i l i z i n g t h e s e programs and methods, suggest  that  i t i s p o s s i b l e t o f a c i l i t a t e many d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s through d e l i b e r a t e t r a i n i n g o r i n s t r u c t i o n ( T o r r a n c e , 1972). W h i l e such t r a i n i n g programs may  increase divergent  t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o ask whether these programs a l s o i n c r e a s e a person's  i n c l i n a t i o n o r a b i l i t y t o use  these  d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s t o more q u i c k l y o r e f f e c t i v e l y s o l v e t h e more complex problems w h i c h l i f e c o n s t a n t l y p r e s e n t s .  Divergent  t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s are important c r i t e r i a i n c r e a t i v i t y - t r a i n i n g , but t h e y s h o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t c r i t e r i a R e n z u l l i , and F e l d h u s e r , 1971)  (Treffinger,  f o r such t r a i n i n g programs.  A c r i t i c a l problem f o r r e s e a r c h e r s and d e v e l o p e r s i n the a r e a c r e a t i v i t y i s t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c r i t e r i a w h i c h r e p r e s e n t the complex problem s i t u a t i o n s w i t h w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t must d e a l i n his  ordinary l i f e experiences.  I t must then be demonstrated t h a t  any t r a i n i n g b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d has had a f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t on  such  c r i t e r i a , as w e l l as on s p e c i f i c d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g t a s k s . R e l a t e d t o t h i s measurement problem i s t h e m a t t e r s e l e c t i n g c h i l d r e n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n programs d e s i g n e d t o creative thinking.  of facilitate  I f a program i s i n t e n d e d t o i n c r e a s e c h i l d r e n ' s  2  w i l l i n g n e s s and  a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h r e a l l i f e problems c r e a t i v e l y ,  then c e r t a i n l y those c h i l d r e n t h a t a l r e a d y  demonstrate t h i s tendency  might more r e a d i l y enjoy such a program and may most i n terms of l e a r n i n g .  stand to  benefit  V e r y l i t t l e has been done e m p i r i c a l l y  t o j u s t i f y the means of p r e s e n t l y  s e l e c t i n g c h i l d r e n i n terms of  the l i k e l i h o o d of s u c c e s s on the p a r t o f s e l e c t e d c h i l d r e n ( B l a n k , 1975). Because of the c o m p l e x i t y of c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o u r i n r e a l s i t u a t i o n s , any  c r i t e r i o n measure used to a s s e s s t h i s b e h a v i o u r  s h o u l d be a g l o b a l one which: i n c o r p o r a t e s motivational  life  components ( D e l i a s , 1971;  cognitive, personality,  Rosenblum, 1970).  and  Further, i f  performance on a problem s o l v i n g t a s k i s t o be used as a c r i t e r i o n measure, then the t a s k s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d m e a n i n g f u l by s u b j e c t s , and  s h o u l d b e a r some l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to  the  creative  b e h a v i o u r as i t o c c u r s i n the " r e a l w o r l d " ( T r e f f i n g e r , R e n z u l l i , and  F e l d h u s e n , 1971). I n the proposed p r o j e c t an attempt w i l l be made t o d e v e l o p  and v a l i d a t e a new  c r i t e r i o n measure w h i c h w i l l meet the  ments of r e s e a r c h u t i l i z a t i o n , and a s u b j e c t ' s w i l l i n g n e s s and situations representative  require-  p r o v i d e a g l o b a l assessment of  a b i l i t y to respond c r e a t i v e l y t o problem  of the s u b j e c t ' s  ordinary  life  experiences.  3  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Two i m p o r t a n t a r e a s o f c o n c e r n i n t h e proposed r e s e a r c h a r e l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o t e c h n i q u e s and programs f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o u r , and r e c e n t t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h concerned w i t h problems i n t h e assessment o f c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g and problem s o l v i n g . These two a r e a s w i l l be r e v i e w e d i n t h i s  Facilitation;  section.  Techniques and Programs  T o r r a n c e (.1972) s u r v e y s 142 s t u d i e s o f t e a c h i n g think creatively.  He o r g a n i z e s h i s d a t a from t h e s e  according to the following categories  c h i l d r e n to  studies  o f ways t o t e a c h c h i l d r e n t o  think creatively: 1.  t r a i n i n g programs e m p h a s i z i n g t h e Osborn-Parnes  Creative  Problem S o l v i n g p r o c e d u r e s (Osborn, 1963; P a r n e s , 1967 ab) o r modification or these; 2.  o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e d approaches such as t r a i n i n g i n g e n e r a l  semantics, c r e a t i v e research, 3.  and t h e l i k e ;  complex programs i n v o l v i n g packages o f m a t e r i a l s ,  such as t h e  Purdue C r e a t i v i t y Program; C o v i n g t o n , C r u t c h f i e l d and D a v i e s ' (1972) Productive  T h i n k i n g Program; and t h e Myers and T o r r a n c e (1964, 1965 ab,  1966ab) i d e a books; 4.  t h e c r e a t i v e a r t s as a v e h i c l e f o r t e a c h i n g  creative thinking;  and p r a c t i c i n g  4 5.  media and r e a d i n g programs d e s i g n e d t o t e a c h and g i v e p r a c t i c e  in creative thinking; 6.  c u r r i c u l a r and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements d e s i g n e d t o c r e a t e  favourable 7.  c o n d i t i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g and p r a c t i c i n g c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g ;  teacher-classroom  v a r i a b l e s , i n d i r e c t and d i r e c t c o n t r o l ,  c l a s s r o o m c l i m a t e , and t h e l i k e ; 8.  m o t i v a t i o n , reward, competition,  and t h e l i k e ; and  9.  t e s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s designed to f a c i l i t a t e  a higher l e v e l of  c r e a t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g o r more v a l i d and r e l i a b l e t e s t performance. Most o f t h e s t u d i e s surveyed used t e s t s o f c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g and o t h e r c r e a t i v e s c h o o l performance as c r i t e r i a .  The most  s u c c e s s f u l approaches seem t o be t h o s e t h a t p r o v i d e  for deliberate  t e a c h i n g o f c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g s k i l l s , m o t i v a t i o n t o use t h e s e  skills,  and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n v o l v e m e n t , p r a c t i c e , and i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h teachers  and o t h e r c h i l d r e n .  T o r r a n c e makes t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n and  c o n c l u d e s t h a t i t does seem p o s s i b l e t o t e a c h c h i l d r e n t o t h i n k creatively. R e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d i e s r e f e r r e d t o above suggest t h a t i t i s possible to effect significant f a c i l i t a t i o n abilities,  of divergent  thinking  C o v i n g t o n and C r u t c h f i e l d (1965) b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y have  demonstrated t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f t r a i n i n g p e r s i s t o v e r t i m e . (1969) , R i p p l e and Dacey (.1967) , and T r e f f i n g e r and R i p p l e contend t h a t they have p r o v i d e d  Olton (1969)  evidence that i n s t r u c t e d subjects  a r e s u p e r i o r t o c o n t r o l s i n performance on s e v e r a l problem s o l v i n g t a s k s , Parnes and Meadow (1959), and T r e f f i n g e r and R i p p l e  (1969)  5  b e l i e v e t h a t they have p r o v i d e d  evidence that i n s t r u c t e d  subjects  a r e s u p e r i o r t o c o n t r o l s on measures o f p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s and attitudes.  Very l i t t l e has been done however, t o demonstrate t h a t  t r a i n i n g programs o r p r o c e d u r e s have had an e f f e c t on more complex, n a t u r a l i s t i c or " r e a l l i f e " problem-solving  criteria.  R e s e a r c h e r s need t o know n o t o n l y whether a g i v e n t r a i n i n g program can be e f f e c t i v e , b u t a l s o who c a n b e n e f i t from t h i s of program. and  B l a n k (.1975) , i n r e v i e w i n g  creative c h i l d i n operation  kind  programs f o r t h e g i f t e d  i n Western Canada, p o i n t s out t h a t  t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e means o f s e l e c t i n g c h i l d r e n , o r t h e b a s i s upon w h i c h c h i l d r e n have been s e l e c t e d can be j u s t i f i e d i n terms o f e m p i r i c a l d a t a r e g a r d i n g  t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f s u c c e s s on t h e  part of the c h i l d r e n s e l e c t e d .  L i m i t a t i o n s o f E x i s t i n g Measures While researchers  have made s u b s t a n t i a l p r o g r e s s i n t h e  development o f v a l i d , r e l i a b l e , u s e a b l e measures f o r c r e a t i v i t y ( G u i l f o r d , 1967b; 1970), t h e r e a r e many problems w h i c h s t i l l  remain  u n s o l v e d ( T r e f f i n g e r , R e n z u l l i and F e l h u s e n , 1971). A comprehensive measure o f c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l i s n o t provided and  by e x i s t i n g measures o f f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y ,  elaboration  ( i e . G u i l f o r d , 1967a; T o r r a n c e , 1966).  (1967a, 1971) d i s c u s s e s  originality Guilford  t h e importance ( i n S t r u c t u r e - o f - I n t e l l e c t  t e r m i n o l o g y ) o f o t h e r a b i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g those w h i c h i n v o l v e transformations  as p r o d u c t s , and s e v e r a l w h i c h i n v o l v e  behavioural  6 c o n t e n t as a s p e c t s of c r e a t i v i t y . F u r t h e r , a number o f p e r s o n a l i t y and  i t has been argued  that  a f f e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s are very l i k e l y  be i m p o r t a n t components of c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l ( D e l i a s and  to  Gaier,  1970). C o v i n g t o n ( i n p r e s s ) has  argued t h a t because of  c o m p l e x i t y of the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , any  the  attempt to a s s e s s c r e a t i v i t y  w h i c h r e l i e d e x c l u s i v e l y on " f a c t o r i a l l y p u r e " t e s t s of s p e c i f i c a p t i t u d e s would be non-comprehensive.  G u i l f o r d (1971) too  contended t h a t no s i n g l e a p t i t u d e , nor  even a s e t o f measures of  similar aptitudes,  has  such as d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s , s h o u l d  expected to c o r r e l a t e v e r y h i g h l y w i t h o t h e r c r i t e r i a o f  be  creative  potential. L o g i c a l l y t h e n , e x i s t i n g measures o f c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g l i m i t e d i n value.  Technical  and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s of  t h e s e measures a l s o a f f e c t the use and The  are  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of them.  f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f r e v i e w of t e c h n i c a l and  methodological  problems p a r t i c u l a r t o c r e a t i v i t y measures. Content V a l i d i t y I t i s d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y f o r a c r e a t i v i t y measure w i t h o u t an a d e q u a t e l y d e f i n e d  universe of  b e h a v i o u r from w h i c h to sample ( T r e f f i n g e r and P o g g i o , 1972). T o r r a n c e (.1966) has  argued t h a t i t would be i m p o s s i b l e  to d e v e l o p  a comprehensive b a t t e r y of t e s t s of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g t h a t would sample any k i n d of u n i v e r s e of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g C o v i n g t o n ( i n p r e s s ) has  described  abilities.  m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems  7  r e l a t e d to content v a l i d i t y .  He argued t h a t i n a t t e m p t i n g t o develop  measures o f c r e a t i v i t y t h a t " f i t " w e l l i n t o e s t a b l i s h e d p s y c h o m e t r i c p r o c e d u r e s , r e s e a r c h e r s have o f t e n s a c r i f i c e d some o f t h e e s s e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e s of the creative process. contended  S p e c i f i c a l l y , Covington  t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l m e n t a l measurement p r o c e d u r e s a r e  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t i m e d , speeded performance  on a l a r g e number o f  d i s c r e e t i t e m s , items which r e p r e s e n t a r t i f i c i a l and h i g h l y c o n t r i v e d s i t u a t i o n s , and an emphasis on s t a n d a r d i z e d s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s and unique s p e c i f i c a b i l i t i e s , w i t h c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and p r e s e n t e d r e q u i r e m e n t s and d i r e c t i o n s .  By c o n t r a s t , he argued, t h e c r e a t i v e  p r o c e s s i s u s u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n one r e a l problem, o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e , w i t h an emphasis on o r d e r i n g t h e problem, c o - o r d i n a t i n g o r managing one's e f f o r t s and attaining a personal solution. C o n c u r r e n t and P r e d i c t i v e V a l i d i t y There have been many d i f f i c u l t i e s i n i d e n t i f y i n g  reliable  e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i a f o r e i t h e r concurrent or p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y . O b v i o u s l y problems  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y a r i s e when  a t r a i n i n g program i s d e s i g n e d t o t e a c h a p r o c e s s , b u t t h e c r i t e r i o n measures used g i v e s c o r e s o n l y on t h e b a s i s o f p r o d u c t (Parnes and T r e f f i n g e r , 1973). a r e measuring  L e s s o b v i o u s l y , e x i s t i n g measures o f c r e a t i v i t y  s p e c i f i c , unique a b i l i t i e s , and one cannot expect t h e s e  measures t o c o r r e l a t e w e l l w i t h o t h e r c r i t e r i a which a r e t a p p i n g more and/or d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s  (Guilford,  1971).  The complex n a t u r e o f t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s poses  special  8  problems i n e s t a b l i s h i n g p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y f o r any c r e a t i v i t y measure.  Without more knowledge about the s t a b i l i t y of the  trait,  c r e a t i v i t y , and w i t h o u t knowledge or c o n t r o l of i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s i n people's l i v e s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t for  any  to e s t a b l i s h p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y  c r e a t i v i t y measure. Reliability T r e f f i n g e r and Poggio (1972) contend t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r  s t u d i e s t o i n v e s t i g a t e new  methods of d e t e r m i n i n g the a c c u r a c y or  r e l i a b i l i t y of measures of c r e a t i v i t y . F u r t h e r ,  they a r g u e , t h e r e  i s a need t o : d e t e r m i n e the e x t e n t t o w h i c h c r e a t i v i t y s h o u l d expected t o be a s t a b l e t r a i t ; i d e n t i f y a p p r o p r i a t e assessing  s t a b i l i t y ; and  motivation, of t e s t  moods and  intervals for  a s s e s s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y the i n f l u e n c e  o t h e r s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s on  be  of  reliability  scores. W i t h r e g a r d s t o the use of a l t e r n a t e forms o r i n t e r n a l  consistency and  i n d i c e s of r e l i a b i l i t y , problems a r i s e i n the  use of s u b t e s t s  subtests various  may  from l a r g e r b a t t e r i e s s i n c e t a s k s i n c r e a t i v i t y  not be d i s c r e e t " i t e m s " ; and  t a s k s may  selection  scores derived  from  n e i t h e r be a d d i t i v e nor meet many fundamental  assumptions i n v o l v e d  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f  reliability  i n d i c e s ( T r e f f i n g e r and P o g g i o , 1972). Useability I n d i s c u s s i n g problems of u s e a b i l i t y , T r e f f i n g e r Poggio (1972) propose the need to i n v e s t i g a t e new c r i t e r i a for scoring  methods  ( e s p e c i a l l y f o r o r i g i n a l i t y and  and and  "imagination").  9 They a l s o r e f e r t o t h e problems c o n c e r n i n g v a r i a t i o n s i n t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n procedures  and c o n d i t i o n s , c o m p a r a b i l i t y o f s c o r e s  d e r i v e d from d i f f e r e n t t a s k s and d i f f e r e n t methods o f t e s t i n g , and t h e f r e q u e n t inadequacy  o f norms used f o r e x i s t i n g measures o f  creative thinking. The r e s u l t s o f r e s e a r c h i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g measurement o r t r a i n i n g do n o t l e n d themselves  t o any form o f s y n t h e s i s .  Many  s t u d i e s have used as a c r i t e r i o n measure, a t a s k e s p e c i a l l y constructed f o r the study.  Such c r i t e r i a  have seldom been used  by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s and f r e q u e n t l y l a c k e v i d e n c e validity  and r e l i a b i l i t y .  concerning  L i t t l e has been done t o a n a l y z e t h e  performance r e q u i r e d by a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t a s k i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o r c o n t e n t o f t h e t r a i n i n g program o r e x p e r i m e n t a l manipulation.  Research has i n d i c a t e d however t h a t t h e r e does n o t  appear t o be a s i n g l e u n i t a r y p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a p t i t u d e ( G u i l f o r d et a l . , 1962). Thus t h e r e s e a r c h e r o r d e v e l o p e r i n t h e a r e a o f c r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h many d i f f i c u l t i e s . of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s  E x i s t i n g measures  provide useful psychological  i n f o r m a t i o n and c o n t r i b u t e i m p o r t a n t l y t o t h e o v e r a l l e v a l u a t i o n of t h e e f f e c t s o f t r a i n i n g , b u t a r e l i m i t e d i n a v a r i e t y o f ways. E x i s t i n g p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t a s k s a r e a l s o l i m i t e d i n many i m p o r t a n t ways and t h e r e does n o t appear t o e x i s t any s i n g l e i n s t r u m e n t o r b a t t e r y o f t e s t s f o r comprehensive assessment o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g abilities.  10 Development o f New  Measures: C u r r e n t  Research  C e r t a i n l y e f f o r t s a r e b e i n g made t o develop and t e s t measures of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m s o l v i n g .  The  new  usefulness  of t h e s e t e s t s i s l i m i t e d by s c o r i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , r e l i a n c e on s p e c i f i c subject matter, or population s p e c i f i c i t y . worthy t h a t l i t t l e i s b e i n g done t o develop  I t i s note-  tests for children  younger than age e l e v e n , and i t i s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f grade f o u r t h a t many d e v e l o p e r s would l i k e t o b e g i n c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g programs. Covington  ( i n p r e s s ) and h i s a s s o c i a t e s a t the B e r k e l e y  C r e a t i v i t y P r o j e c t have attempted  t o develop t e s t s o f c r e a t i v e  problems-solving i n a programmed i n s t r u c t i o n a l format.  These t e s t s  a r e b e i n g designed f o r use w i t h f i f t h - and s i x t h - g r a d e s t u d e n t s ; they r e l y h e a v i l y on r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g a b i l i t i e s ; and  relatively  l i t t l e i s known about t h e i r v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . Purdue U n i v e r s i t y ' s "Belmont P r o j e c t " (Asher et a l . ,  1970)  has been a t t e m p t i n g t o develop new measures of complex c o g n i t i v e functioning.  T h i s p r o j e c t however f o c u s s e s i t s e f f o r t s o n l y on  the  development of measures f o r a c c u r a t e assessment o f  specific  a b i l i t i e s among d i s a d v a n t a g e d  school children.  groups of elementary  M i l e s (1968) has worked on the development o f " r e a l criteria solving.  life"  f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t r a i n i n g i n problem The measures developed  however, were h i g h l y s p e c i f i c t o  the t r a i n i n g program i n v o l v e d (e.g. c r e a t i v e d e s i g n s t u d e n t s ; o r Peace Corps V o l u n t e e r s ) , and l i t t l e v a l i d i t y o r r e l i a b i l i t y  11 i n f o r m a t i o n has been p r o v i d e d . T r e f f i n g e r (1970) has attempted t o develop c u r r e n t and r e l e v a n t problem s o l v i n g t a s k s f o r f i f t h and s i x t h grade but encountered  children  scoring d i f f i c u l t i e s .  Parnes and T r e f f i n g e r (1973) have attempted t o develop new complex c r i t e r i a f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g among c o l l e g e undergraduate  students.  The c o n t e n t o f t h e t a s k s developed were s p e c i f i c t o c o l l e g e  under-  graduate s t u d e n t s and t h e s e measures a r e i n an e a r l y s t a g e o f development.  Summary D i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g measures a r e i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a i n t h e assessment o f c r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g , b u t s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t c r i t e r i a f o r such programs because o f t h e c o n c e p t u a l and t e c h n i c a l problems i n v o l v e d i n a s s e s s i n g c r e a t i v i t y .  Some o f  the problems reviewed a r e summarized as f o l l o w s : (.1) A comprehensive  measure o f c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l i s n o t  p r o v i d e d by e x i s t i n g measures o f f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y , o r i g i n a l i t y and  elaboration. (2) I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y f o r a  c r e a t i v i t y measure w i t h o u t an a d e q u a t e l y d e f i n e d u n i v e r s e o f b e h a v i o u r from w h i c h t o sample. (.3) I n o r d e r t o develop measures o f c r e a t i v i t y t h a t " f i t " w e l l i n t o e s t a b l i s h e d p s y c h o m e t r i c p r o c e d u r e s , we have o f t e n s a c r i f i c e d  12 some o f t h e e s s e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . (4) I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y creativity  f o r any  measure w i t h o u t more knowledge about t h e s t a b i l i t y o f  the t r a i t , c r e a t i v i t y ,  and w i t h o u t knowledge o r c o n t r o l o f i m p o r t a n t  v a r i a b l e s i n people's  lives.  (5) There i s a need t o i n v e s t i g a t e new methods and c r i t e r i a f o r scoring. (6) C u r r e n t measures b e i n g developed a r e o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by  s c o r i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , r e l i a n c e on s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t m a t t e r o r population  specificity.  Because e x i s t i n g measures o f c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g do n o t p r o v i d e a comprehensive assessment o f c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l o r c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s , i t would appear t h a t a d d i t i o n a l  criteria  are needed. These c r i t e r i a s h o u l d be m e a n i n g f u l , c o n s i s t e n t and  should incorporate  components.  Further,  the s u b j e c t s ' o r d i n a r y  and u s e a b l e  c o g n i t i v e , p e r s o n a l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n a l such c r i t e r i a s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f l i f e experiences that require  creative  responses i n o r d e r t o p r e d i c t t o b e h a v i o u r i n such s i t u a t i o n s . Of immediate c o n c e r n , i t i s apparent t h a t no new measures a r e b e i n g developed f o r use w i t h e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l  c h i l d r e n and  many program d e v e l o p e r s would l i k e b o t h t o e v a l u a t e c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g programs commencing a t t h i s and  t o have more i n f o r m a t i o n  f o r such programs.  regarding  level  (eg. grade f o u r ) ;  optimum s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s  13  S p e c i f i c O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Study As p a r t o f t h e g e n e r a l g o a l o f d e v e l o p i n g a new complex c r i t e r i o n measure o f c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s , t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s were f o r m u l a t e d : (!) To develop a new measure i n which s u b j e c t s a r e r e q u i r e d to p r o v i d e m u l t i p l e s o l u t i o n s t o " r e a l l i f e " problems w h i c h a r e m e a n i n g f u l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i r own (.2) To develop u s e a b l e s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a  experiences.  f o r t h e new measure.  (.3) To i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y  o f t h e new  measure as i n d i c a t e d by i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r c u r r e n t l y accepted  criteria.  14 CHAPTER I I METHOD The purposes o f t h i s c h a p t e r  are:  Cl) t o d e s c r i b e the p o p u l a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t and sample used i n the  study; (.2) t o d e s c r i b e the p r o c e d u r e s employed i n the development o f  the new  measure:  (.3) t o d e s c r i b e the p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the new  measure;  (4) t o d e s c r i b e the p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d i n the development o f the s c o r i n g ; and (5) t o d e s c r i b e the p r o c e d u r e s employed i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g validity  and r e l i a b i l i t y of the new  the  measure.  P o p u l a t i o n o f I n t e r e s t and Sample Used The p o p u l a t i o n of i n t e r e s t were those grade t h r e e c h i l d r e n i n the C h i l l i w a c k S c h o o l D i s t r i c t ability  or b e t t e r .  h a v i n g grade t h r e e r e a d i n g  These c h i l d r e n numbered a p p r o x i m a t e l y  Out o f p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of time and expense, o n l y grade t h r e e c h i l d r e n have the r e q u i r e d r e a d i n g a b i l i t y be found i n t h r e e o f the l a r g e r s c h o o l s i n the d i s t r i c t i n c l u d e d i n the sample.  The  those  that could were  t h r e e s c h o o l s used were s e l e c t e d i n  c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h s c h o o l board a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l g e o g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t the  400.  district.  to  15  Development of the New  Measure  In order to develop a problem-solving m e a n i n g f u l t o the s u b j e c t s , i t was  decided  p r o v i d e examples of what they c o n s i d e r e d  t e s t t h a t would  t h a t the s u b j e c t s  t h e i r problems t o  be should  be.  For t h i s p u r p o s e , a p i c t u r e - s t o r y q u e s t i o n n a i r e , What's Your Problem?, was  devised.  (The q u e s t i o n n a i r e , What's Your Problem?,  i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix B.)  To complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  the  s u b j e c t s drew and/or w r o t e about t h i n g s t h a t they wanted t o do and why  they c o u l d not do t h e s e t h i n g s . From a l l of the problems t h u s o b t a i n e d , those problems  which t h e m a t i c a l l y were the most f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d were identified.  From t h e s e problems, two  t h a t most o b v i o u s l y l e n t  themselves t o m u l t i p l e s o l u t i o n s were s e l e c t e d f o r use as t e s t items f o r the new  measure, S o l v e Your Own  (The S o l v e Your Own two  Problems T e s t i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix C.)  items were the F o r t Problem: " I want t o b u i l d a f o r t but  don't have any wood," and g u i t a r but I'm One  Problems T e s t , SYOPT.  t h e G u i t a r Problem: " I want t o get  T h i s was  s e l e c t e d as a warm-up  The  i n v e s t i g a t o r had used the Boat  Problem as a warm-up i t e m i n a p i l o t t e s t and was i t f u n c t i o n e d when put t o t h a t  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the New Using  a  the Boat Probem: " I want t o go f o r a boat r i d e but  my Boat has a h o l e i n i t . "  the way  I  s a v i n g my money t o spend on our f a m i l y v a c a t i o n . "  problem, p r o v i d e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r was  item.  The  familiar with  use.  Measure  f o u r examiners, the new  measure, SYOPT, was  16 administered  i n d i v i d u a l l y to a l l subjects i n a structured interview  s i t u a t i o n , approximately  one month a f t e r t h e problems were i n i t i a l l y  o b t a i n e d from t h e s u b j e c t s . two were female.  Two o f t h e examiners were male..and  T h i s team o f examiners i n c l u d e d b o t h l a y p e o p l e  and graduate s t u d e n t s i n e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y .  A l l t e s t i n g was  conducted d u r i n g t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e mornings. The  examiners were p r o v i d e d w i t h a s t a n d a r d  instructions.  set of  These i n s t r u c t i o n s i n c l u d e d a s t a n d a r d  s e t of  responses t o use f o r s u b j e c t s ' q u e s t i o n s o r h e s i t a n c y .  The  examiners p r a c t i c e d f o l l o w i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h h y p o t h e t i c a l responses p r o v i d e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . I n t h e c o u r s e o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e t e s t , t h e examiner i n v i t e d each s u b j e c t t o p r e t e n d  t o be t h e p e r s o n i n t h e problem  s i t u a t i o n s t o be d e s c r i b e d and then t o t e l l t h e examiner a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t ways he/she c o u l d t h i n k o f t o r e s o l v e t h e problem situations.  The examiner's i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r SYOPT a r e i n c l u d e d  i n Appendix D.  The examiner acknowledged a l l responses  encouragingly,  and w r o t e down a l l responses u n t i l t h e c h i l d s a i d t h a t he/she c o u l d not t h i n k o f any.more.  Development o f S c o r i n g C r i t e r i a f o r t h e New Measure F o r t Problem I n i t i a l l y every d i f f e r e n t response r e c e i v e d was in a single l i s t .  recorded  As t h e r e was no precedent f o r s c o r i n g such  open-ended, complex t e s t items w i t h such y o u t h f u l s u b j e c t s t h a t  17 bad y i e l d e d a u s e a b l e s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e , i t was  decided that  r e s p o n s e s would be examined to see what s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a  the  they  b e s t l e n t themselves t o . Upon an examination o f the t o t a l l i s t became apparent t h a t f i r s t ,  of responses i t  the responses v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the  approach taken towards the problem, and s e c o n d l y , each o f the r e l e v a n t responses f e l l  i n t o one o f f o u r g e n e r a l approaches.  These o b s e r v a t i o n s were a r r i v e d a t by the i n v e s t i g a t o r and of  the  examiners. It  to  one  was  s t r i k i n g l y obvious t h a t the f o u r g e n e r a l approaches from each o t h e r .  These  q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s seemed a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the d i f f e r e n t  levels  of  the problem were q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t  a b s t r a c t i o n r e q u i r e d to produce responses c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the  d i f f e r e n t approaches.  These approaches, r e p r e s e n t i n g  different  a b s t r a c t i o n l e v e l s , seemed t o form a l o g i c a l h i e r a r c h y . d i r e c t i o n o f the h i e r a r c h y was examiner, decision,  number two, who From l e a s t  The  determined by the i n v e s t i g a t o r  i n d e p e n d e n t l y a r r i v e d a t the same  to most a b s t r a c t , the f o u r g e n e r a l approaches  were; Cl) Get wood by r e l y i n g on o t h e r p e o p l e ' s g e n e r o s i t y . C2)  Get wood by u s i n g own  initiative.  C3) Use m a t e r i a l s o t h e r than wood. (4)  Use o t h e r , ready-made a v a i l a b l e q u a r t e r s as a f o r t . In  and  o r d e r to f i n d f u r t h e r support f o r the h y p o t h e s i z e d  h i e r a r c h y , an elementary t e a c h e r , and a p s y c h o l o g i s t w i t h much  18 d i a g n o s t i c e x p e r i e n c e were c o n s u l t e d . of  Sample r e s p o n s e s from each  t h e f o u r approaches were g i v e n t o t h e s e two p e o p l e who were then  asked t o rank o r d e r t h e responses a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t y r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e r e s p o n s e s .  Both o f t h e i r  rank o r d e r i n g s c o n f i r m e d t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d h i e r a r c h y .  Further  support f o r t h e rank o r d e r i n g was suggested by t h e lower of  responses i n approaches t h r e e and f o u r .  frequency  ( i . e . The i d e a o f u s i n g  o t h e r , ready-made a v a i l a b l e q u a r t e r s as a f o r t was t h e l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y mentioned by t h e c h i l d r e n , and was c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most a b s t r a c t approach  used.  The i d e a o f u s i n g m a t e r i a l s o t h e r  t h a n wood was t h e n e x t l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y expressed i d e a and was c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e second most a b s t r a c t approach  t o t h e problem.)  Through an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t ' s r e s p o n s e s , i t became-clear  t h a t they v a r i e d f i r s t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t o t a l  number o f responses g i v e n ; and s e c o n d l y , n o t so much i n t h e number of  approaches used, b u t i n t h e l e v e l s o f approaches used. I t was d e c i d e d then t h a t two s c o r e s c o u l d be d e r i v e d from  the responses.  A F l u e n c y s c o r e was o b t a i n e d by making a s i m p l e  count o f a l l t h e r e l e v a n t r e s p o n s e s ; a F l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e , ( f o r want o f a more d e s c r i p t i v e l a b e l ) by t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e : f o r p r o v i d i n g a t l e a s t one response w i t h i n one o f t h e g e n e r a l approaches,  t h e s u b j e c t was g i v e n a s c o r e f o r u s i n g t h e approach. :  H i g h e r s c o r e s were a v a i l a b l e f o r u s i n g t h e more a b s t r a c t A s c o r e o f one was g i v e n f o r u s i n g t h e f i r s t approach,  approaches.  ( i . e . Get  wood by r e l y i n g on o t h e r p e o p l e ' s g e n e r o s i t y ) , a s c o r e o f two f o r  u s i n g t h e second a p p r o a c h , t h r e e f o r t h e t h i r d , and f o u r f o r t h e fourth.  ( P r o t o c o l s f o r s c o r i n g the Fort Problem a r e i n c l u d e d i n  Appendix E.)  S i n c e t h e f o u r approaches r e p r e s e n t e d  i n t e r v a l s on  a h i e r a r c h y , t h e s c o r e s t h u s a r r i v e d a t were t h e n added t o y i e l d a s i n g l e F l e x i b i l i t y score,  A s c o r e was o n l y g i v e n once f o r u s i n g  any p a r t i c u l a r a p p r o a c h , so t h e h i g h e s t F l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e p o s s i b l e was t e n .  A t o t a l p o s s i b l e score of t e n r a t h e r than four enabled  the s u b j e c t s t o o b t a i n s c o r e s f o r t h e l e v e l s o f approaches used as w e l l as t h e number o f approaches used. This F l e x i b i l i t y score i s a c t u a l l y a q u a l i t a t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y score s i n c e the subject gains p o i n t s not only f o r u s i n g d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s , b u t a l s o f o r u s i n g t h e more a b s t r a c t approaches.  O r i g i n a l i t y i s also represented  s c o r e , ( i f uniqueness and a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s assessing o r i g i n a l i t y ) ,  i n the F l e x i b i l i t y  c r i t e r i a a r e used f o r  s i n c e t h e f o u r t h and t h i r d a p p r o a c h e s , i n  t h a t o r d e r , were t h e l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y used by t h e s u b j e c t s . I m p l i c i t i n the d e r i v a t i o n of the F l e x i b i l i t y score, i s the assumption t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e s and c a t e g o r i e s o f r e s p o n s e s a r e p o i n t s on a continuum.  T h i s assumption i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e  o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t s u b j e c t s u s i n g more t h a n one approach l e s s t h a n f o u r , tended t o use approaches a d j a c e n t hypothesized  t o each o t h e r on t h e  hierarchy.  G u i t a r Problem The p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d i n d e v e l o p i n g  s c o r i n g procedures  f o r t h e F o r t Problem were a l s o used f o r t h e G u i t a r Problem.  For  the G u i t a r Problem, f i v e d i s t i n c t approaches were i d e n t i f i e d among the t o t a l l i s t o f r e s p o n s e s .  A g a i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , t e a c h e r , and  p s y c h o l o g i s t agreed on t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r o f t h e r e s p o n s e s and approaches.  The approaches, from l e a s t t o most a b s t r a c t were  as f o l l o w s : (1)  I n c r e a s e a s s e t s by r e l y i n g on o t h e r p e o p l e ' s  generosity.  (2) I n c r e a s e a s s e t s , o r d e c r e a s e u s u a l expenses, by u s i n g own  initiative. (.3) F i n d ways t o d e c r e a s e t h e c o s t o f t h e g u i t a r . (.4) F i n d ways t o d e c r e a s e t h e c o s t o f t h e t r i p . (5)  F i n d ways t o get b o t h t h e g u i t a r and t h e t r i p , u s i n g o n l y  p r e s e n t o r expected  resources.  A g a i n t h e more a b s t r a c t approaches were t h e l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y used by t h e s u b j e c t s . The F l u e n c y s c o r e was a r r i v e d a t by a s i m p l e count o f t h e t o t a l r e l e v a n t responses.  The F l e x i b i l i t y  s c o r e was a r r i v e d a t  by adding t h e s c o r e s g a i n e d by u s i n g any o f t h e approaches.  A  s c o r e o f one was g i v e n f o r u s i n g t h e f i r s t approach, ( i e . I n c r e a s e a s s e t s by r e l y i n g on o t h e r p e o p l e ' s  g e n e r o s i t y ) , a s c o r e o f two  was g i v e n f o r u s i n g t h e second approach, t h r e e f o r t h e t h i r d , f o u r f o r t h e f o u r t h , and f i v e f o r t h e f i f t h .  (Protocols f o r  s c o r i n g t h e G u i t a r Problem a r e i n c l u d e d i n Appendix F.)  As i n  the F o r t Problem, a s c o r e would o n l y be g i v e n once f o r u s i n g any p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r y , and c o n s e q u e n t l y s c o r e p o s s i b l e was f i f t e e n .  the highest  Flexibility  21 P r o c e d u r e s ; I n v e s t i g a t i o n of V a l i d i t y and  Reliability  For each of the two v a r i a b l e s d e r i v e d and  the two v a r i a b l e s d e r i v e d  from the F o r t  from the G u i t a r Problem, the  means of examining r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y were (.1) I n t e r s c o r e  Problem, following  explored:  correlations  (1) I n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y  (ie. inter-scorer  reliability)  (3) C o r r e l a t i o n w i t h an e x i s t i n g measure of c r e a t i v e  thinking  (4) C o r r e l a t i o n w i t h an i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t (5) C o r r e l a t i o n w i t h a r e a d i n g achievement t e s t The  purpose of t h e s e t e s t s was  to p r o v i d e p r e l i m i n a r y  evidence  c o n c e r n i n g the u s e a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the n e w l y - d e r i v e d variable. Instruments Two  i n s t r u m e n t s r e l a t e d to the c o g n i t i v e components of  c r e a t i v e t a l e n t , and a l l subjects. (I) The and  The  one  achievement t e s t were a d m i n i s t e r e d to  i n s t r u m e n t s t h u s employed were:  T o r r a n c e T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g - V e r b a l Form A  F i g u r a l Form A.  These i n s t r u m e n t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d by T o r r a n c e  (1972) to a s s e s s c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s w h i c h are p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to c r e a t i v e t a l e n t . v a l i d i t y and  the  r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s e t e s t s as summarized and  i n Torrance Tests: Technical (_2) The  There i s some e v i d e n c e f o r  Manual (1966).  Lorge T h o r n d i k e V e r b a l and  v e r b a l T e s t s of I n t e l l i g e n c e .  reviewed  An  the Lorge T h o r n d i k e Non-  i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t was  included  s i n c e t h o s e h i g h on d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n t e s t s have a h i g h  22  p r o b a b i l i t y of b e i n g above average on IQ (.3) The  G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e T e s t of Reading S k i l l s .  of r e a d i n g achievement was achievement w h i c h has talent  selected  frequently  a).  This test  to p r o v i d e an i n d e x of academic  been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  creative  ( B l a n k 1975). Statistical  Procedures  A f t e r the f o u r s c o r i n g the F o r t Problem and u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g .05  ( G u i l f o r d , 1967  dimensions had  been developed f o r  the G u i t a r Problem, the d a t a were examined statistics.  l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was  (For a l l s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s ,  a c c e p t e d as s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r  the  the  r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . ) Cl)  Inter-rater R e l i a b i l i t i e s .  The  f i r s t t e s t was  to  establish satisfactory inter^rater r e l i a b i l i t i e s for a l l variables. R a t e r s were t r a i n e d by of h y p o t h e t i c a l scoring and  the i n v e s t i g a t o r , and were g i v e n samples  responses u n t i l they were f a m i l i a r w i t h  criteria.  A sample of f i v e t e s t s was  then s c o r e d by each of the t h r e e r a t e r s .  were the i n v e s t i g a t o r , and  two  of the  randomly The  three  the selected raters  examiners.  Each o f the t h r e e r a t e r s a r r i v e d a t i d e n t i c a l s c o r e s f o r each of the f i v e t e s t s . i n the same way  The  i d e n t i c a l s c o r e s were a r r i v e d  by each r a t e r .  I n o t h e r words, each of  t h r e e r a t e r s agreed upon the a p p r o a c h - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n the r e s p o n s e s . one,  Because the method of s c o r i n g was  ( s i m p l e c o u n t i n g and  an  at  the  of each of objective  assignment of the responses t o c l e a r l y  d e f i n e d , independent c a t e g o r i e s ) ,  inter-rater r e l i a b i l i t y  23  c o e f f i c i e n t s were n o t c a l c u l a t e d because i t i s s i m p l e r and more m e a n i n g f u l t o r e p o r t t h e number and s i z e s o f t h e e r r o r s t h a n t o r e p o r t a s c o r i n g r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t ( E b e l , 1972).  I t was  observed t h a t no s c o r i n g e r r o r s were made. C2) I n t e r - V a r i a b l e C o r r e l a t i o n s .  The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among  the two v a r i a b l e s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e F o r t P r o b l e m and t h e two variables derived  from t h e G u i t a r Problem were a l s o computed.  (3) C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h E x t e r n a l C r i t e r i a .  Next, c o r r e l a t i o n s  were computed between each o f t h e f o u r newly-developed v a r i a b l e s and each o f t h e e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y c r i t e r i a  (the c r e a t i v e thinking  t e s t s , t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , and t h e r e a d i n g achievement  test).  Summary I n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e development o f t h e two-item t e s t SYOPT, (the two i t e m s b e i n g t h e F o r t P r o b l e m and t h e G u i t a r Problem) were d e s c r i b e d ,  P r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d i n t h e development  of s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a f o r t h e two i t e m s were a l s o d e s c r i b e d , as w e l l as p r o c e d u r e s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e f o u r new v a r i a b l e s .  24  CHAPTER IV RESULTS In t h i s chapter, the r e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l described  i n Chapter I I w i l l be p r e s e n t e d .  Reliability The  Tests reliability  o f t h e f o u r new v a r i a b l e s was c o n s i d e r e d  i n two ways: i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y , The  analysis  and i n t e r - p r o b l e m  reliability.  t e s t i n g s c h e d u l e d i d n o t make p o s s i b l e c o l l e c t i o n . o f d a t a f o r  d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t e s t - r e t e s t o r a l t e r n a t e form Inter-Rater  reliabilities.  Reliability  Three r a t e r s , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r and two e x a m i n e r s , i n d e p e n d e n t l y a r r i v e d a t i d e n t i c a l s c o r e s f o r each o f f i v e randomly s e l e c t e d  tests.  Inter-Problem The  Reliability  c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e two v a r i a b l e s d e r i v e d  the F o r t P r o b l e m , and between t h e two s c o r e s d e r i v e d  from  from t h e  G u i t a r Problem a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1, as w e l l as t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between b o t h s e t s o f v a r i a b l e s .  "Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix A.  f o r a l l experimental  variables  25  TABLE 1 INTERCORRELATIONS AMONG NEW VARIABLES  F o r t Problem  CD Flexibility (1)  G u i t a r Problem (.2)  (3)  Fluency  (4)  Flexibility  61**  (2)  Fluency  47**  41**  48**  75**  (3)  59**  C4)  1.  A l l decimal p o i n t s omitted.  ** = p < .01  The F l u e n c y and F l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e s f o r t h e F o r t  Problem  and t h e F l u e n c y and F l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e s f o r t h e G u i t a r Problem were a l l p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y  intercorrelated.  Correlations with External C r i t e r i a Summarized i n T a b l e 2 a r e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f each o f t h e f o u r new v a r i a b l e s w i t h each o f 9 e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i a  (including  those  measures y i e l d e d by t h e T o r r a n c e T e s t s o f C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g , V e r b a l Form A and F i g u r a l Form A, t h e Lorge T h o r n d i k e V e r b a l and NonVerbal t e s t s o f IQ and t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e r e a d i n g achievement t e s t ) .  26 TABLE 2 CORRELATIONS OF FOUR NEWLY-DEVELOPED VARIABLES WITH 9 SELECTED EXTERNAL CREATIVITY CRITERIA  NEW Fort CRITERION  Problem  FLEXIBILITY  VARIABLE Guitar  Problem  FLUENCY  FLEXIBILITY  FLUENCY  -0.01 0.02 0.09  0.03 -0.003 0.09  -0.06 -0.07 0.04  0.005 -0.01 0.06  -0.12 -0.09 -0.13 -0.08  -0.07 -0.08 -0.04 0.14  -0.13 -0.13 -0.13 0.04  -0.10 -0.12 -0.04 0.10  0.05 -0.03  0.05 -0.07  0.12  0.03  Torrance Verbal-Form A Fluency Flexibility Originality Torrance Figural-Form A Fluency Flexibility Originality Elaboration  Lorge T h o r n d i k e Verbal Nonverbal  0.07 0.001  0.09 0.001  Gates-MacGinitie Total  0.18  0.14  None o f t h e f o u r new v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h any o f t h e e x t e r n a l c r e a t i v i t y c r i t e r i a and a l l o f t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s were o f low magnitude.  27  CHAPTER V DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS The s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h were f o r m u l a t e d f o r t h i s p r o j e c t were: (1) t o develop a new measure i n w h i c h s u b j e c t s a r e asked t o p r o v i d e m u l t i p l e s o l u t i o n s t o r e a l - l i f e problems w h i c h a r e meaningfully  r e l a t e d t o t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s ;  (2) t o d e v e l o p s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a  f o r t h e new measure; and  C_3) t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e new measure as i n d i c a t e d by i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r c u r r e n t l y a c c e p t e d measures o f c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g  aptitude.  In t h i s Chapter, the f i n d i n g s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o those s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be summarized.  Objective  One  Objective  one i n v o l v e s t h e development o f a new, r e a l i s t i c  measure o f complex c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s .  The S o l v e  Your Own Problems Test was developed t o meet t h i s o b j e c t i v e .  The  t e s t c o n s i s t e d o f two i t e m s , t h e F o r t Problem and t h e G u i t a r Problem.  I n t h i s measure, s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d  to personalize  the problems, and then t o p r o v i d e m u l t i p l e s o l u t i o n s f o r them.  Objective  Two  O b j e c t i v e Two c a l l e d f o r t h e development o f s c o r i n g f o r t h e newly-developed measure.  criteria  An attempt has been made i n t h i s  28  s t u d y t o d e v e l o p such c r i t e r i a ,  and a t t h i s s t a g e o f development  appear p r o m i s i n g . Two s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a  they  were d e v e l o p e d f o r each o f  the two i t e m s , t h e F o r t Problem and t h e G u i t a r The two v a r i a b l e s a s s e s s e d f l u e n c y  Problem.  ( t h e number o f r e l e v a n t  s o l u t i o n s o f f e r e d i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e p r o b l e m ) , and f l e x i b i l i t y ( t h e number o f approaches t a k e n towards t h e p r o b l e m , and t h e use o f t h e more a b s t r a c t  Objective  approaches.)  Three  Objective  t h r e e concerned t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f f i r s t , t h e  r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e new measure as i n d i c a t e d by i n t e r - s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s and i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y ; and s e c o n d l y , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e new measure t o s e l e c t e d e x t e r n a l measures o f c r e a t i v i t y . In general,  t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was some s u p p o r t f o r  the r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e new measure.  The v a l i d i t y  investigations  suggested t h a t whatever t h e SYOPT measures, i t c e r t a i n l y i s n o t what t h e o t h e r t e s t s measure.  I t can be s a i d t h a t t h e new i n s t r u m e n t  p r o v i d e s a measure w h i c h i s independent o f IQ and r e a d i n g  ability,  But f u r t h e r v a l i d i t y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i l l have t o determine whether c r e a t i v e Behaviour i s the construct  a c t u a l l y b e i n g tapped by t h e  SYOPT. The i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s provide support f o r the s t a b i l i t y procedures.  and i n t e r - s c o r e  correlations  and o b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e s c o r i n g  A f t e r a b r i e f t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n , independent r a t e r s  p r o v i d e d i d e n t i c a l s c o r e s f o r t h e same problems.  The two v a r i a b l e s  29  from t h e F o r t P r o b l e m and t h e two v a r i a b l e s from t h e G u i t a r Problem were p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  themselves  and w i t h each o t h e r w i t h a t l e a s t moderate magnitudes. V a r i a b l e s from t h e T o r r a n c e T e s t s o f C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g d i d not c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y o r even m o d e r a t e l y w i t h t h e v a r i a b l e s from t h e S o l v e Your Own Problems T e s t .  The absence o f any r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between t h e new measure and t h e Torrance T e s t s o f C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g i s d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t because o f t h e q u e s t i o n a b l e adequacy o f t h e norms and p o s s i b l e datedness o f t h e p r o t o c o l s f o r s c o r i n g the Torrance T e s t s .  Other e x t e r n a l c r e a t i v i t y c r i t e r i a w i l l  have t o be i d e n t i f i e d f o r f u r t h e r v a l i d a t i o n  investigations.  C o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e L o r g e T h o r n d i k e IQ t e s t and SYOPT r e v e a l e d an absence o f any r e l a t i o n s h i p .  T h i s suggests t h a t s c o r e s  from SYOPT a r e independent o f IQ when t h e group's mean IQ i s above average.  T h i s independence i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e SYOPT i s d e s i g n e d  to p r o v i d e a g l o b a l assessment o f c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g  ability  i n complex, r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s , and a complex measure o f c r e a t i v i t y cannot be expected  to correlate with tests of s p e c i f i c a b i l i t i e s .  C o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e new measure and t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e s c o r e s were p o s i t i v e , low and n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .  S i n c e t h e new measure  made no demands on r e a d i n g o r w r i t i n g a b i l i t y , and s i n c e o n l y c h i l d r e n r e a d i n g a t grade l e v e l o r above were i n c l u d e d i n t h e sample, t h i s low c o r r e l a t i o n i s not incongruent. The independent o f SYOPT s c o r e s from s c o r e s o f o t h e r t e s t s of a b i l i t y s u p p o r t s t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e new  measure may w e l l p r o v i d e a g l o b a l assessment o f c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g i n complex, r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s , and t h a t such a measure s h o u l d i n c o r p o r a t e c o g n i t i v e , p e r s o n a l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n a l components. Such a complex measure cannot be expected  to correlate highly with  measures o f s p e c i f i c a b i l i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y when s u b j e c t s a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o those r e a d i n g a t grade l e v e l o r above.  D i r e c t i o n s f o r Future  Research  An attempt has been made i n t h i s study t o develop  complex  measures o f c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a b i l i t y t h a t a r e m e a n i n g f u l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t s ' o r d i n a r y l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s , and i t appears t h a t t h i s g o a l might be a r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y .  An attempt has a l s o  been made t o develop u s e a b l e s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a f o r t h i s k i n d o f new measure and e f f o r t s toward  t h a t end appear p r o m i s i n g .  At t h i s  s t a g e o f t h e development o f t h e new measure t h e r e a r e some v e r y c l e a r d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f such measures. U s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be o b t a i n e d by d e v e l o p i n g more i t e m s , d e v e l o p i n g s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a f o r t h e s e i t e m s , and a d m i n i s t e r i n g them i n g r o u p - t e s t s i t u a t i o n s w i t h t e s t - r e t e s t and/or a l t e r n a t e form schedules, F u r t h e r , i t would prove e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e t o conduct v a l i d i t y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s f o r t h e new measure i n c l a s s r o o m s  partici-  p a t i n g i n c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g programs w i t h t e a c h e r  especially  t r a i n e d to i d e n t i f y the behaviour  t h a t t h e SYOPT i s expected  to predict  31 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s The purposes o f t h i s s t u d y were t o develop new v a r i a b l e s f o r assessing  and p r e d i c t i n g c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s i n  complex, r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s a t l a t e p r i m a r y o r e a r l y level,  and t o i n v e s t i g a t e ' i t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y  intermediate o f such  measures. Results 0-1 criteria  o f t h e p r e s e n t study suggest  that:  F o r complex, m e a n i n g f u l problem s i t u a t i o n s , u s e a b l e  scoring  can be developed t o p r o v i d e g l o b a l measures o f f l u e n c y  and f l e x i b i l i t y which i n c o r p o r a t e motivational  t h e c o g n i t i v e , p e r s o n a l i t y and  components o f c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o u r .  These s c o r i n g  c r i t e r i a may f a c i l i t a t e q u i c k and o b j e c t i v e s c o r i n g o f s u b j e c t s ' responses. The c r i t e r i a  s e l e c t e d f o r use i n t h i s s t u d y were commonly  accepted measures o f c r e a t i v i t y a p t i t u d e . pure measures were c o n s t r u c t e d respective  A l l of these  so as t o d e f i n e and measure t h e i r  f a c t o r s as n a r r o w l y as p o s s i b l e .  and G u i l f o r d (.1971) have contended  Covington ( i n press)  t h a t no s e t o f such i n s t r u m e n t s  c o u l d be expected t o p r o v i d e a comprehensive ability.  factorially  assessment o f c r e a t i v e  C o n s e q u e n t l y , no s i n g l e i n s t r u m e n t o r s e t o f i n s t r u m e n t s  designed t o measure s p e c i f i c a b i l i t i e s can be expected t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h any g l o b a l measure o f c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y .  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g  t h e n t h a t the new g l o b a l measure developed i n t h i s s t u d y d i d not c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y or s u b s t a n t i a l l y w i t h the c r i t e r i a f o r use i n t h i s s t u d y .  selected  32 I t would appear t h a t new  c r i t e r i a w i l l have to be i d e n t i f i e d  f o r the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g the v a l i d i t y and g l o b a l measure of c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y . involving  Field validation  Given that measures may  the v a l i d i t y and  be y e t  programs l e a d s the  established,  studies  investigator  Put  to t h i s use,  be  time.  r e l i a b i l i t y of such  global  experience i n c r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g to expect  Such g l o b a l measures may  behaviour.  any  classrooms u s i n g c r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g programs appear to  the most p r o m i s i n g p r o s p e c t at the p r e s e n t  (.2)  r e l i a b i l i t y of  be  that:  useful  i n assessing  such measures c o u l d  creative  h e l p to more  e f f e c t i v e l y e v a l u a t e c r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g programs. (3)  Such g l o b a l measures may  following  be  useful  in identifying  the  individuals:  t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t a r e ready f o r a c r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g program ( i e . those i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t demonstrate a minimal amount of fluency  and/or f l e x i b i l i t y i n t r y i n g to s o l v e problems  of t h e i r o r d i n a r y  representative  l i f e problem s i t u a t i o n s ) ;  those i n d i v i d u a l s who  are  i n need of e d u c a t i o n a l programs  u t i l i z i n g c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g approaches (the assumption b e i n g the  i n d i v i d u a l s who  enjoy s o l v i n g t h e i r own  l e a r n more e f f i c i e n t l y when the  subject  p r e s e n t e d i n a problem s o l v i n g c o n t e x t ) ; t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who  may  problems c r e a t i v e l y  matter to be  learned  may  is  and  s t a n d t o b e n e f i t most from  c r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g programs ( i e . c h i l d r e n who  a l r e a d y demonstrate  the  problems c r e a t i v e l y  a b i l i t y and  i n c l i n a t i o n to s o l v e  t h e i r own  may stand t o l e a r n more than t h e i r l e s s c r e a t i v e peers i n terms of c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g s k i l l s and i n terms o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r s b e i n g d e a l t w i t h when a c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g approach i s used i n an e d u c a t i o n a l  program.  34  REFERENCES A s h e r , J.W., F e l d h u s e n , J . 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Myers, R.E. and T o r r a n c e , E.P. I n v i t a t i o n s t o T h i n k i n g and D o i n g . L e x i n g t o n , MA: G i n n , 1965. (a) Myers, R.E. and T o r r a n c e , 1965. (a)  E.P.  Can You  Imagine? L e x i n g t o n , MA:  Ginn  Myers, R.E. and T o r r a n c e , E.P. I n v i t a t i o n s t o T h i n k i n g and W r i t i n g C r e a t i v e l y . L e x i n g t o n , MA: G i n n , 1965. (b) Myers, R.E. and T o r r a n c e , G i n n , 1966. (b)  E.P.  Myers, R.E. and T o r r a n c e , E.P. MA: Ginn,-1966. (b)  For Those Who  Wonder.  Lexington,  P l o t s , P u z z l e s and P l o y s .  MA:  Lexington,  O l t o n , R.M. A s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a l program f o r d e v e l o p i n g p r o d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g s k i l l s i n f i f t h - and s i x t h - g r a d e c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f C r e a t i v e B e h a v i o u r , 1969, 3, 16-25. Osborn, A.F.  Applied Imagination.  ( 3 r d Ed.)  NYC:  Scribner,  1963.  P a r n e s , S.J. Methods and E d u c a t i o n a l programs f o r s t i m u l a t i n g c r e a t i v i t y : A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l i s t . Journal of Creative 1967, 2, 71-75. (a) P a r n e s , S.J.  C r e a t i v e B e h a v i o u r Guidebook.  NYC:  Behaviour,  S c r i b n e r , 1967.  (b)  P a r n e s , S.J. and Meadow, A. E f f e c t s of " b r a i n s t o r m i n g " i n s t r u c t i o n s on c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g i n t r a i n e d and u n t r a i n e d s u b j e c t s . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1959, 50, 171-176. P a r n e s , S.J. and T r e f f i n g e r , D.J. Development o f new c r i t e r i a f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of c r e a t i v e s t u d i e s programs. B u f f a l o , New York: State U n i v e r s i t y College at B u f f a l o , Research Report BR-2-B-019 Grant CEG-2-2-2B019, 1973. Rosenblum, N.D. and o t h e r s . The e f f e c t s of need f o r a p p r o v a l and g e n e r a l a n x i e t y on d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g s c o r e s . Am. Ed. R e s e a r c h Assoc.Wash., D.C. Purdue U n i v . , L a f a y e t t e , I n d . 2 Mar 70, 14p T o r r a n c e , E.P. Can we t e a c h c h i l d r e n t o t h i n k c r e a t i v e l y ? C r e a t i v e B e h a v i o u r , 1972, 6 ( 2 ) , 114-143.  J o u r n a l of  36  T o r r a n c e , E,P. Torrance Tests of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g . P e r s o n n e l P r e s s , 1966. T o r r a n c e , E.P. T o r r a n c e T e s t s : T e c h n i c a l Manual. P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y , 1966.  Princeton:  Personnel Press,  Inc.,  T r e f f i n g e r , D.J. and P o g g i o , J.P. Needed r e s e a r c h on the measurement o f c r e a t i v i t y . J o u r n a l of C r e a t i v e B e h a v i o u r , 1972, 6, 253-267. T r e f f i n g e r , D.J., R e n z u l l i , J.S. and F e l d h u s e n , J.P. Problems i n the assessment o f c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . J o u r n a l of C r e a t i v e B e h a v i o u r , 1971, 5, 104-112. T r e f f i n g e r , D.J. S o l v i n g Problems #1 and #2 mimeographed t e s t used w i t h 5 t h and 6th g r a d e r s . Purdue U n i v e r s i t y , 1970.  APPENDIX A TABLE 3 MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR ALL EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLES  VARIABLE  X  Torrance Tests of C r e a t i v e Thinking V e r b a l Form A ( 8 8 ) Fluency Flexibility Originality  1  F i g u r a l Form A (.89) Fluency Flexibility Originality Elaboration  43.28 25.04 11.54 21.90 17.03 28.22 84.01  Lorge T h o r n d i k e (97) Verbal Nonverbal  109.91 107.61  G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e (.88) Total  81.65  S o l v e Your Own Problem T e s t (98) F o r t Problem Flexibility Fluency  3.46 4.85  G u i t a r Problem Flexibility Fluency  2.54 2.41  N = number i n b r a c k e t s  38  APPENDIX B "WHAT'S YOUR PROBLEM" QUESTIONNAIRE  Somefkina J  want  jo do  39  po rents Piny n o i s o ,  dn^i ;  llkp.  o  44  0  APPENDIX G SOLVE YOUR OWN PROBLEMS TEST  47  48  APPENDIX D INSTRUCTIONS FOR  ADMINISTERING THE  SYOPT  Greet s u b j e c t by name. Introduce s e l f . S t a t e purpose of meeting as f o l l o w s : "I'm age  g o i n g t o g i v e you  some problems t h a t I t h i n k p e o p l e your  sometimes have t o s o l v e .  I'm  i n t e r e s t e d i n how  many d i f f e r e n t  ways you can t h i n k of t o s o l v e t h e s e p r o b l e m s , and I ' l l be w r i t i n g down the i d e a s you g i v e F i r s t w e ' l l do a p r a c t i c e one one  down.  me. and  I won't b o t h e r w r i t i n g t h i s  T h i s i s j u s t t o make s u r e t h a t you u n d e r s t a n d how  to  do t h e s e problems." Show sample t o "I'd picture.  subject.  l i k e you t o p r e t e n d t h a t you a r e the p e r s o n i n the T h i s p e r s o n wants t o go f o r a boat r i d e but t h e r e ' s  h o l e i n the b o a t .  T e l l me  a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t h a t you  t h i n k of t o do about t h a t problem."  ( I f subject i n s i s t s  he/she has no i d e a s , prompt as f o l l o w s : " W e l l , do you c o u l d f i n d a way answer i s 'no' you  "Do  can  that  think  t o f i x i t ? " I f answer i s 'yes', ask how,  ask:  a  you if  you t h i n k you c o u l d f i n d anyone t o h e l p  fix it?") I f s u b j e c t s t o p s a f t e r g i v i n g one "That's a good i d e a .  Now  idea,  say:  p r e t e n d t h a t t h a t doesn't work  t e l l me what o t h e r t h i n g s you c o u l d do Acknowledge each response e n c o u r a g i n g l y t h a t he/she has no f u r t h e r i d e a s .  and  instead." u n t i l subject  Then say:  indicates  49  "Those were r e a l l y good i d e a s .  Thank y o u . "  "Now l e t ' s t r y a n o t h e r one and t h i s t i m e I ' l l w r i t e down your i d e a s . " 6.  Show p i c t u r e Cf) o r p i c t u r e ( g ) . " T h i s t i m e p r e t e n d t h a t you want t o ( f ) b u i l d a f o r t o r (g) get a g u i t a r but y o u can't because ( f ) y o u don't have any good o  r  (g) you want t o save your money t o spend  on your summer v a c a t i o n w i t h your f a m i l y .  T e l l me a l l t h e  d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s you can t h i n k o f t o do about t h a t problem." Acknowledge r e s p o n s e s e n c o u r a g i n g l y w h i l e w r i t i n g them down u n t i l he/she i n d i c a t e s t h a t he/she has no f u r t h e r i d e a s .  Then  say: "Those were r e a l l y good i d e a s .  Thank you.  Now l e t ' s do  j u s t one more." Go back t o 6. and do t h e second problem. when f i n i s h e d .  Thank s u b j e c t  50  APPENDIX E PROTOCOLS FOR SCORING THE FORT PROBLEM Approach 1:  Get wood by r e l y i n g on o t h e r p e o p l e ' s g e n e r o s i t y .  Ask p e o p l e ( p a r e n t s , n e i g h b o u r s , s c o r e = 3)  e t c . ) f o r wood.  (maximum f l u e n c y  Ask p e o p l e ( p a r e n t s , s i b l i n g s o r o t h e r s ) t o buy wood o r f o r money t o buy wood. (maximum f l u e n c y s c o r e = 2) Borrow wood. Approach 2:  Get wood by u s i n g own i n i t i a t i v e .  Ask p e o p l e ( p a r e n t s , n e i g h b o u r s o r o t h e r s ) i f they have any o l d f u r n i t u r e , d o o r s , s t e p s and t h e l i k e t h a t you can have t o t a k e a p a r t and use f o r t h e f o r t . (maximum f l u e n c y s c o r e = 5) Rent wood. Buy wood. Look f o r wood a t p l a c e s such a s :  s a w m i l l , c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e s , around the house and n e i g h b o u r h o o d , f i e l d s , mountains, f o r e s t , l a k e , r i v e r .  Chop down t r e e s . Cut branches o r s t r i p b a r k o f f t r e e s , o r o l d l o g s . F i n d o l d b r o k e n f u r n i t u r e , f e n c e s , g o c a r t s , b o x e s , c a g e s , f o r t s and t a k e them a p a r t . Use h a n d l e s from hockey s t i c k s , wooden d i s h e s , o r wooden t o y s . Use  s t i c k s covered w i t h p i n e o r l e a v e s .  Trade i n s t u f f t o buy wood. S e l l b i k e t o buy wood. A v o i d o t h e r expenses ( c a n d i e s , movies, e t c . ) t o save money f o r wood. Borrow wood i n exchange f o r v i s i t i n g r i g h t s t o f o r t . Don't use wood f o r o t h e r p r o j e c t s .  51  Approach 3:  Use m a t e r i a l s o t h e r than wood.  Use o t h e r m a t e r i a l s such as the f o l l o w i n g : bricks cement b l o c k s b l a n k e t o r m a t e r i a l w i t h t a b l e or rope p l a s t i c and p o l e s glass rocks grass dirt corn ( i n a corn f i e l d ) sheet m e t a l fibreglass polystyrine t i l e s snow t h i c k w i r e and cement cardboard p a i n t e d w i t h enamel p a i n t d r i e d out  deerskin  paper mache p i p e s , mud and p l a s t e r o l d s t u f f from a dump  Approach 4:  Use o t h e r ready-made a v a i l a b l e q u a r t e r s as a f o r t .  Use o t h e r s u i t a b l e p l a c e s such as t h e f o l l o w i n g : bedroom or c e l l a r someone e l s e ' s n e g l e c t e d f o r t the a r e a under the p o r c h tent o l d c h i c k e n pen hollow tree a b i g wagon t u r n e d u p s i d e down o l d shack cave o l d w h e e l l e s s van from j u n k y a r d Irrelevant  responses  No s c o r e i s g i v e n f o r responses t h a t i n d i c a t e an u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o t r y t o cope w i t h the problem i n a p o s i t i v e manner. T y p i c a l i r r e l e v a n t responses a r e : G i v e up. Don't need t o b u i l d a f o r t . Do something e l s e .  52  APPENDIX F PROTOCOLS FOR SCORING THE GUITAR PROBLEM Approach 1:  I n c r e a s e a s s e t s by r e l y i n g on o t h e r p e o p l e ' s g e n e r o s i t y .  Borrow money from p a r e n t s , f r i e n d s o r o t h e r s . s c o r e = 3)  (maximum f l u e n c y  Ask f o r money from p a r e n t s , o t h e r r e l a t i v e s o r f r i e n d s , (maximum f l u e n c y = 2) Use money found by Mom i n t h e washing machine. Ask a f r i e n d t o buy t h e g u i t a r Approach 2: initiative.  I n c r e a s e a s s e t s o r reduce u s u a l expenses by u s i n g own  Get a j o b such as b a b y s i t t i n g , d e l i v e r i n g g r o c e r i e s and t h e l i k e . S e l l t h i n g s such as y o u r b i c y c l e , books and t h e l i k e . Try and f i n d money a t p l a c e s such as t h e f a i r , and hockey a r e n a . Try t o w i n money i n c o n t e s t s o r poker games. Cut down on u s u a l expenses such as movies and candy. Approach 3;  Decrease t h e c o s t o f t h e g u i t a r .  Make a g u i t a r . F i x a broken g u i t a r . Get a d i f f e r e n t , l e s s e x p e n s i v e i n s t r u m e n t . Trade something f o r a g u i t a r . Get i t cheaper by: b u y i n g i t on s a l e ; asking for a discount; renting a guitar Get a g u i t a r f r e e by: a s k i n g p a r e n t s t o buy one f o r t h e whole using a friend's or r e l a t i v e ' s guitar; j o i n i n g a band and u s i n g t h e i r s  family;  53  Approach 4:  Decrease the c o s t of the  trip.  Take a s h o r t e r cheaper t r i p . Use  a car, t r a i n ,  o r boat i n s t e a d of a  plane.  Approach 5: Get b o t h the g u i t a r and the t r i p u s i n g o n l y p r e s e n t expected r e s o u r c e s . S e l l what you buy guitar.  on the t r i p when you get back and  D u r i n g the v a c a t i o n buy cheaper.,  then buy  or  the  a g u i t a r somewhere e l s e where t h e y a r e  I r r e l e v a n t responses No s c o r e s a r e g i v e n f o r responses t h a t i n d i c a t e : u n w i l l i n g n e s s or i n a b i l i t y t o comprehend or aim f o r a p p a r e n t l y c o n f l i c t i n g g o a l s ( i e . b o t h the g u i t a r and the t r i p ) ; r e s o r t i n g t o immoral or i l l e g a l means of a c h i e v i n g the g o a l s ; or sheer f a n t a s y . T y p i c a l i r r e l e v a n t responses a r e : F o r g e t about the g u i t a r . D e c i d e what you r e a l l y want most. P r e t e n d you've h u r t y o u r s e l f so t h a t you don't have t o go on the Rob someone. Magic a g u i t a r . F i n d some t r e a s u r e .  trip.  

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