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A comparative study of the responses made by grade 11 Vancouver students to Canadian and New Zealand… Ross, Harry Campbell 1975

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE RESPONSES MADE BY GRADE 11 VANCOUVER STUDENTS TO CANADIAN AND NEW ZEALAND POEMS byHarry Campbell  Ross  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Canterbury (N.Z.), 1967 B.A.(Hons.), V i c t o r i a U n i v e r s i t y (N.Z.), 1968 M.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I972  A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE  Doctor o f E d u c a t i o n i n the F a c u l t y of Education and Department o f E n g l i s h , F a c u l t y  of A r t s  We accept t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July  1975  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e the I  Library  further  for  agree  in  at  University  the  make  that  it  his  of  this  permission  written  representatives. thesis  for  partial  freely  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  by  for  financial  University  of  British  of  Columbia,  British  by  gain  Columbia  for  the  is understood  of  2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  of  extensive  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment  available  permission.  Department  The  shall  thesis  shall  requirements  reference copying of  Head o f  that  not  the  I  agree  and  be a l l o w e d  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying or  for  or  publication  without  my  ii  Abstract T h i s s t u d y was a r e s p o n s e t o i n t r o d u c e more C a n a d i a n c o n t e n t culum o f Canadian s c h o o l s .  t o t h e c u r r e n t movement into the l i t e r a t u r e  I t examined t h e assumptions  t h e movement b y a s k i n g t h r e e m a i n q u e s t i o n s :  (1)  extent are Vancouver students able t o recognize (2)  curri-  Do V a n c o u v e r s t u d e n t s r e s p o n d  behind  To what  C a n a d i a n poems?  t o C a n a d i a n poems i n a way  t h a t i s measurably d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r response  t o other  poems?  depend upon  (3)  Do a n y s u c h  d i f f e r e n c e s i n response  i n f o r m a t i o n e x t r i n s i c t o t h e p o e m s — s u c h as t h a t p r o v i d e d i n t h e l a b e l "A C a n a d i a n P o e m " — a n d t h u s  d e r i v e from  attitudes  e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r t o t h e r e a d i n g o f a p a r t i c u l a r poem r a t h e r than,  o r as w e l l a s , from an encounter  w i t h t h e poem  T h e s e q u e s t i o n s w e r e shown t o r e l a t e t o i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s about student response  to literature,  itself?  general  especially  those b e a r i n g upon t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l i t e r a r y and  work  t h e w o r l d known t o t h e r e a d e r . The d e s i g n ( a f u l l y  crossed 2 x 2  "factorial"  with  12 r e p l i c a t i o n s ) p r o v i d e d t h a t t w e n t y - f o u r V a n c o u v e r g r a d e eleven classes l i s t e n t o taped iliar  r e c o r d i n g s o f a p a i r o f unfam-  poems a n d , c o n c u r r e n t l y , r e a d them p r i v a t e l y .  s t u d e n t s were t h e n a s k e d  t o respond  The  t o t h e poems f r e e l y , i n  writing-. T h e r e were t w e l v e poem p a i r s , o f one C a n a d i a n poem a n d one New Z e a l a n d  each p a i r poem.  consisting  A l l poems  iii represented landscapes. classes  E a c h p a i r was p r e s e n t e d  t o two d i f f e r e n t  ( i n reversed order t o counter order e f f e c t s ) .  C a n a d i a n poem s e t was r e f i n e d b y s a m p l i n g h a l f f r o m Columbia and h a l f from sis  other Canadian r e g i o n s .  was made o f r e s p o n s e s  The  British  Separate  t o e a c h poem s u b - g r o u p .  E a c h c l a s s was d i v i d e d , r a n d o m l y , i n t w o .  The  C a n a d i a n poem i n t h e p a i r t h a t was g i v e n t o one c l a s s was l a b e l l e d a s C a n a d i a n .  analy-  sub-group  The New Z e a l a n d poem i n t h e same p a i r  was l a b e l l e d a s N o n - C a n a d i a n .  The same C a n a d i a n a n d New  Zealand  poems g i v e n t o t h e o t h e r c l a s s s u b - g r o u p were n o t s o l a b e l l e d .  ^ ~y  The  responses  scheme d e s i g n e d o v e r l a p was  w e r e s u b j e c t e d t o c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s by a  f o rthe study.  9 1 . 5 $ .  I t s r e l i a b i l i t y by  percentage  A n a l y s i s was d e s c r i p t i v e , w i t h t h e C h i -  Square s t a t i s t i c a s s i s t i n g d e s c r i p t i o n .  A number o f s u p p o r t i n g  i n s t r u m e n t s w e r e e m p l o y e d t o make p o s s i b l e v a r i o u s f i n e r p a r i s o n s and t o y i e l d  com-  data f o r future research.  Of t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d answered n e g a t i v e l y : response  little  d i s c r i m i n a t o r y r e c o g n i t i o n and l i t t l e  d i f f e r e n c e were d e t e c t e d .  positively:  The t h i r d q u e s t i o n was a n s w e r e d  t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e  t h a t s t u d e n t s , when  t h e y knew t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e C a n a d i a n poems, f a v o u r e d poems i n a v a r i e t y o f r e s p o n s e Comprehension, V i s u a l i s a t i o n ,  were  dimensions  (such as E v a l u a t i o n ,  and Involvement).  differences d i d exist, the B r i t i s h  those  Regional  C o l u m b i a poems b e i n g  f a v o u r e d t h a n t h e o t h e r C a n a d i a n poems.  less  iv The exploration  attempt t o e s t a b l i s h a w o r k i n g base f o r ongoing  was s u c c e s s f u l .  important findings  Statistically  emerged i n s e v e r a l  s i g n i f i c a n t and/or  areas.  Some w e r e :  the  a d j e c t i v a l p a i r s students used i n c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e i r responses t o t h e poems; s t a t e d  p r e f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n poems; t h e e f f e c t s on  r e s p o n s e when t h e r e i s s t r o n g  " t r a n s f e r " b e t w e e n t h e poem a n d  what i s f a m i l i a r t o t h e s t u d e n t ; a n d t h e s t u d e n t s ' d e s i r e f o r more C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e i r The for  curriculum  gestions  study concluded with  schools. a statement of i m p l i c a t i o n s  p l a n n i n g and t e a c h i n g  f o r future  research.  strategy,  a n d some  sug-  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND THE CHOSEN APPROACH The  Problem  Canadian Content  f o r t h e Canadian L i t e r a t u r e  Curriculum  The C l a i m s  1  Statement o f t h e Problem  4  The Q u e s t i o n s Research  i n Wider Focus  into Literary  Response  Some C u r r e n t P r e o c c u p a t i o n s a n d P r o g r e s s .  . .  6  P r e o c c u p a t i o n s a n d F i n d i n g s B e a r i n g More C l o s e l y Upon t h e Q u e s t i o n s A l r e a d y R a i s e d Acculturation  1 0  Transfer  1 1  Prior Attitudes  1 5  C u l t u r a l Questions  and L i t e r a r y Response.  . . .  The Need f o r B e t t e r M e t h o d o l o g i e s  1 7 18  The C h o s e n A p p r o a c h The Q u e s t i o n s  2 2  Narrowed  2 3  The D e s i g n CHAPTER I I FREE RESPONSE AND CONTENT A N A L Y S I S W r i t t e n , F r e e , Immediate Response A n a l y z i n g Response: Content  . . . .  2 7  Content A n a l y s i s  A n a l y s i s i n General  Content  Analysis Defined  3 9  vi The Reasons f o r Choosing Content A n a l y s i s . . .  4-0  Problems with Content A n a l y s i s  4-1  C r i t e r i a f o r Developing a Content A n a l y s i s Scheme  4-2  The Scheme Used i n T h i s Study The Need  4-3  The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n U n i t :  Its Physical  Parameters  4-3  The Number o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n U n i t s  44  The Meaning o f Each Category.  4-5  What the Categories Represent  5^  Coding D e t a i l s  54-  Finer Scoring Details  56  The V a l i d i t y o f the Scheme  57  The R e l i a b i l i t y of the Scheme  6l  CHAPTER I I I EXPERIMENTAL PRACTICES AND DECISIONS Definition  o f Key Terms  63  The Independent V a r i a b l e s Poem O r i g i n s The English-Canada/New Zealand Comparison . . .  66  The R e s t - o f - C a n a d a / B r i t i s h Columbia Comparison.  67  Knowledge o f O r i g i n s . The L i t e r a r y  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  67  Material  Literature  68  Poetry Poem type R u r a l Landscape Poetry  69  vii D e s c r i p t i v e Landscape Simple  .  Content  71 71  Simple Form  .,  P e r i o d From Which Drawn The Number of Poems  7  2  73 74-  The Need t o P a i r Poems  74  Matching the Poems  75  Sampling Procedures (poetry)  76  The Student Sample The Schools  78  The Grade L e v e l  78  Sample S i z e  80  I n t a c t Groups  81  I n d i v i d u a l Students  81  Taking the Experiment  i n t o the Schools  Arrangements with Class Teachers Classroom  81  Procedures  O v e r a l l Time Scheme  82  Instrument Format  82  Introduction  t o Students.  83  Presentation  of Poems  84  E l i m i n a t i o n o f Teacher V a r i a b l e s  86  The Readings  86  Free Response  86  Student F a m i l i a r i t y With, and Knowledge of Poems  87  Student O r i g i n s  88  viii Supporting Instruments  and Procedures  "What Do You Know of These Poems?"  89  "Places You Have L i v e d "  89  "Hunches"  90  "Your Opinions"  90  "Sub  91  Groups".  " W i t h i n and A c r o s s "  91  Assumptions and L i m i t a t i o n s  92  CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS S t a t i s t i c a l Note  101  B a s i c Data  102  S p e c i f i c Findings (1): (2): (3A): (3B): (2),  Recognition (Research Question l ) . .  108  Free Response (Research Question 2 ) . .  120  Free Response (Research Question 3)• •  125  Free Response (Research Question 3)- •  134  (3A), (3B): Free Response General D i s c u s s i o n 140  O v e r a l l Conclusions The Research Questions (4) (5)  Free Responses Significant Adjectivals. Free Response:  14-3 .  143  Transfer . .  148  CHAPTER V SOME IMPLICATIONS AND SOME FUTURE RESEARCH  154.  ix 174  NOTES SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES I  The  207  . \  Poetry  Sample  A  Some Poem P a i r s  229  B  The  242  II  The  IEA Matching Problem  Testing Battery:  Samples of a l l Forms f o r School  Use  A  I n t r o d u c t i o n to Teachers  244  B  I n t r o d u c t i o n to Students  250  (Booklet  I) 252  C  I n s t r u c t i o n Sheet  D  Poem P a i r s  E  Free Response Blanks  (Booklet  ,  253 254  II) 255  F  I n s t r u c t i o n Sheet  G  "How  H  "What Do You  I  "Places You  J  "Hunches"  258  K  "Your Opinions"  259  III  The  IV  Much Do You  L i k e the Poems?"  Know of These Poems?" Have L i v e d "  E x p e r i m e n t a l Chronology  256 257 258  26l  Some Responses A  Some Coded Free-Response P r o t o c o l s  B  Significant Adjectivals  265 271  X  LIST OF TABLES I  The Content A n a l y s i s Schemes  II  Frequency Datas  Category Headings  . . .  Denied Knowledge . .  107  I I I R e c o g n i t i o n of Origins  Denied and G i v e n Knowledge. .  IV  Canadian and New Zealand  R e c o g n i t i o n of O r i g i n :  45  109  Poems Under the RC/NZ and BC/NZ Conditions  115  V  Free Response,  Comparative Datas  Denied Knowledge. .  121  VI  Free Response,  Comparative Datas  Denied Knowledges  The RC/NZ, BC/NZ Conditions  123  VII Free Response, Quantity of Writings VLTI Free Response,  Comparative Datas  Denied Knowledge  Denied and  Given Knowledge IX  Free Response, Knowledges  X  127 Comparative Datas  Denied and G i v e n  The RC/NZ, BC/NZ Conditions  Free Response, Quantity o f Writings  129  Denied and  Given Knowledge XI  Free Response,  125  132 Comparative Datas  Correctly  Possessed Knowledge and I n c o r r e c t l y Possessed Knowledge  .  XII Free Response, Q u a n t i t y of Writings  136  Correctly  Possessed Knowledge and I n c o r r e c t l y Possessed Knowledge  138  XILT S i g n i f i c a n t A d j e c t i v a l s  '  XIV Scores (Negatives) p e r Post Hoc Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l  146 14-7  LIST OF FIGURES I  The Designs  Main C o n f i g u r a t i o n  24  Acknowledgments For h e r guidance and support  I wish t o extend deep-  f e l t a p p r e c i a t i o n t o the chairman o f my committee Dr. Ruth McConnell.  She made i t a l l p o s s i b l e .  h e l p , the committee members:  I thank too, f o r t h e i r  P r o f . P. Penner, Dr. R. Bentley,  Dr. W. New, Dr. D. Stephens and Dr. R. D a n i e l l s .  I am g r a t e -  f u l t o D r s . D. McKie,. R. Conry, S. F o s t e r and M. A r l i n f o r t h e i r s p e c i a l s t a t i s t i c a l and d e s i g n e x p e r t i s e and the time they took t o communicate i t . There were many others who encouraged or a s s i s t e d . teachers  Some were the s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ,  and students, Dr. M u r i e l Niemi, P r o f . F. Bertram,  Dr. S. B u t l e r , Malcolm F i s h e r , Marie A u b e r t i n , L i n d a and Sharon H e f l i n .  Weisbeck  I thank you a l l .  To my wife, Susan, f o r h e r p a t i e n c e under the double burdens of t y p i n g and home-making I g i v e l o v i n g thanks.  CHAPTER I THE  PROBLEM AND  THE  CHOSEN APPROACH  THE PROBLEM Canadian L i t e r a t u r e f o r the Canadian L i t e r a t u r e The  Curriculum  Claims Over the l a s t few years there has been a growing  p r e s s u r e t o i n c r e a s e the Canadian content of l i t e r a t u r e i n Canadian secondary  schools.  T h i s pressure has been m a n i f e s t e d  i n a t l e a s t f i f t y a r t i c l e s i n the e d u c a t i o n a l and j o u r n a l s and  i n s e v e r a l theses and r e s e a r c h papers. ^~  been evident i n a r e c e n t dramatic Canadian l i t e r a t u r e taught  surveys—Crawford  I t has  i n c r e a s e i n the amount of  i n s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .  has been documented, with r e s p e c t to the secondary two  literary  (1973)» Stewart  And i t  s c h o o l s , by  (1974) — w h i c h r e p o r t a  s t r o n g demand from both student and t e a c h e r f o r even more Canadian content.  The arguments put forward  i n support of  an i n c r e a s e are v a r i e d and o f t e n vague, but some r a i s e  such  important  issues. The major ground upon which an i n c r e a s e i n Canadian content  i s argued might be l a b e l l e d " a c c u l t u r a t i o n , " .  s h e l t e r s a v a r i e t y of arguments.  The  This l a b e l  l o u d e s t and probably  the  weakest of these s t r e s s the more p o l i t i c a l aspects of n a t i o n a l i s m : Canadian l i t e r a t u r e should be taught to preserve n a t i o n a l i n t e g r i t y , e s p e c i a l l y where t h a t i s threatened by the it  USA:^  should be taught to promote n a t i o n a l confidence, p r i d e , and  a  p a t r i o t i c f a i t h i n Canada's d e s t i n y ;  4-  i t should be taught t o  create a broader " s o c i a l " understanding and thus t o s t r e n g t h e n national unity;^  and i t should be t a u g h t — a somewhat  circular 6  proposition—so  t h a t Canadian w r i t e r s w i l l have an audience.  These arguments p l a c e upon the l i t e r a t u r e a v a l u e t h a t i s n o t c e n t r a l t o l i t e r a r y purposes.  More n e a r l y  dealing  with Canadian l i t e r a t u r e as a n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e a r e the arguments which t r e a t  " a c c u l t u r a t i o n " as an acquaintance w i t h a  Canadian "view o f t h i n g s , " a s e t o f Canadian " r e a l i t i e s . " ^ Those who put t h i s  case propose the g o a l of n a t i o n a l s e l f -  understanding through l i t e r a t u r e r a t h e r than the l a t t e r ' s enlistment  i n a quasi-political  They u s u a l l y assume u n i t y .  campaign f o r n a t i o n a l u n i t y .  Sometimes there  i s , indeed,  Q  refer-  9 ence t o a g e o g r a p h i c a l  and h i s t o r i c a l d i v e r s i t y .  common a r e g e n e r a l i z e d r e f e r e n c e s  But more  t o a s i n g l e " d i s t i n c t people,  with a common h i s t o r y , i n h a b i t i n g a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d the l i t e r a t u r e embodies a " c u l t u r a l  identity  territory"  . . . . worthy o f  expression,""^ a view of the l i f e o f the country t r e a t e d with 12 13 intensity, "one of the c l e a r e s t v o i c e s " of the n a t i o n , a J  ±L  r e c o r d o f "what the Canadian i m a g i n a t i o n and  has r e a c t e d  to,"  ( i n poetry) "the f u l l e s t and most adequate e x p r e s s i o n of  Canadian t h i n k i n g and l i v i n g . "  J  One w r i t e r mediates between  u n i t y and d i v e r s i t y :  "A people t h a t knows i t s own l i t e r a t u r e 16 knows i t s own f a m i l y , however v a r i o u s . " Proponents of a c c u l t u r a t i o n as an acquaintance with  3 Canadian " r e a l i t i e s "  sometimes c a l l f o r the t e a c h i n g of Canadian 17  l i t e r a t u r e as an a n t i d o t e f o r ignorance, ' deprivation,"  apathy and " c u l t u r a l  sometimes t o i n s t i l i n students an "awareness" 19  of  s e l f or " s e l f image."  They a l s o p o i n t t o the p o s s i b i l i t y  t h a t Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , f a r from d i s p e n s i n g mere of  "knowledge"  t h i n g s Canadian, might engender a s p e c i a l k i n d o f response i n  Canadian s t u d e n t s , o f f e r i n g a p e c u l i a r i n t e n s i t y o f l i t e r a r y experience, a "sense o f excitement which no o t h e r l i t e r a t u r e 20 can have," The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f young r e a d e r s , they c l a i m , need h e l p from concrete r e f e r e n c e s and from r e f l e c t i o n s o f t h e i r 21 own experiences and n o s t a l g i a s . Students need t o f e e l " I have 22 seen t h i s , I know i t , I have heard o f i t i n Canada."  By  p r o v i d i n g such an experience Canadian l i t e r a t u r e might r e a d i n g comprehension and involvement, even f o s t e r i n g p u r s u i t s beyond  i t s own  increase literary  domains.  The c a l l f o r an i n c r e a s e i n Canadian content i n v i t e s more q u e s t i o n s than i t p r e s e n t s c e r t a i n t i e s .  Many w r i t e r s , i t  i s t r u e , p o i n t t o t h e i r a c t u a l experience w i t h students t o support t h e i r claims. "enjoyment,"  They r e p o r t g r e a t e r " i n t e r e s t , "  "liking,"  "excitement," "involvement," " r e s p o n s i v e -  ness," " s p o n t a n e i t y , " and " l i f e i " read more.  "enthusiasm,"  Some a l s o c l a i m t h a t students  But such r e p o r t i n g i s never h i g h l y r e l i a b l e and i t  does not u s u a l l y q u e s t i o n i t s assumptions. Nor do the surveys ask fundamental q u e s t i o n s .  Further,  4 t h e i r f i n d i n g s are probably b i a s e d , through sampling  flaws, to-  wards those t e a c h e r s a l r e a d y wanting more Canadian content i n the s c h o o l s .  Even Crawford,  ledges t h i s p o i n t : students  i f "158  an admitted  "promoter," acknow-  t e a c h e r s a c r o s s Canada r e p o r t t h e i r  ' i n d i f f e r e n t * [ t o Canadian l i t e r a t u r e ] , a s t a g g e r i n g  number of students must f e e l so."  J  The  Crawford  and  Stewart  24 surveys are s e r i o u s l y flawed i n other ways too. The present study focused, however, on the shortcoming tions.^  i n a l l work t o d a t e — t h e  chief  f a i l u r e t o examine assump-  Three fundamental i s s u e s were examined.  Statement of the Problem Question 1.  Are Canadian students a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e Canadian l i t e r a t u r e as being such?  The promotional w r i t i n g u s u a l l y assumes t h a t such a b i l i t y e x i s t s and i t a c c e p t s , o f t e n i m p l i c i t l y , the t h a t a d i s t i n c t i v e l y Canadian l i t e r a t u r e a l s o e x i s t s .  premise Yet  g e o g r a p h i c a l (and even c u l t u r a l ) d e f i n i t i o n s seem to l e a d t o  26 regional conclusions. the treatment account  Any  c a l l f o r Canadian l i t e r a t u r e  of an experience w i t h the l a n d must  as  finally  f o r r e g i o n a l works. The q u e s t i o n of r e c o g n i t i o n , then, was (a)  twofold:  Are Canadian students a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i r nation's l i t e r a t u r e ?  (b)  Are Canadian students a b l e to r e c o g n i z e t h e i r region's  literature?  an  5 Q u e s t i o n 2.  Are Canadian students s e n s i t i v e t o Canadian l i t e r a t u r e i n a way t h a t y i e l d s a response t h a t i s measurably  d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r  response t o other l i t e r a t u r e ? Those promoting Canadian l i t e r a t u r e o f t e n c l a i m a g r e a t e r q u a l i t y and i n t e n s i t y o f "response" t o Canadian t u r e but o f f e r no f o r m a l measures.  litera-  Informal e s t i m a t i o n s gauging  "enjoyment," or r e l a t i v e l y l o o s e assessments  o f "involvement,"  "responsiveness," and s u c h - l i k e a r e t h e i r data.  Yet i t i s  p o s s i b l e t o probe student response more f u l l y and t o d i r e c t a n a l y s i s towards any response p a t t e r n s t h a t might r e v e a l , between reader and work, some d i s t i n c t i v e n a t i o n a l or r e g i o n a l " a t t i t u d e " or . ^ i d e n t i t y . " Q u e s t i o n 3«  Are the responses o f Canadian students i n f l u enced by i n f o r m a t i o n e x t r i n s i c t o the l i t e r a r y work —  such as t h a t p r o v i d e d i n the l a b e l  "A Canadian Poem" — a n d  thus d e r i v e d from  a t t i t u d e s e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r t o the r e a d i n g o f a p a r t i c u l a r work r a t h e r than, or a s w e l l a s , from an encounter with the work i t s e l f ? E x t r i n s i c m a t e r i a l has always appeared i n s c h o o l l e s s o n s and a n t h o l o g i e s :  material i d e n t i f y i n g a place described  i n a landscape poem or n o t i n g a poet's n a t i o n a l i t y are examples. The p r a c t i c e i s g i v e n prominence  by the arguments of the  p o l i t i c o - a c c u l t u r i s t s and by the "Canadian S t u d i e s " i d e a (which  6 f r e q u e n t l y uses l i t e r a t u r e t o open and develop s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l enquiries).  One t e a c h e r , r e p o r t e d by Crawford,  suggests t h a t l a b e l l i n g can a f f e c t student  attitudes:  i f a module i s a d v e r t i s e d as "Canadian content" the students expect ready i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the m a t e r i a l and are not wholly s a t i s f i e d with Canadian authors whose work does not meet t h i s specific expectation. P 9  These t h r e e questions a r e a l l , s u s c e p t i b l e t o e m p i r i c a l enquiry. purposes  i n v a r y i n g degrees,  Before they a r e narrowed f o r  of experimental d e s i g n they w i l l be examined i n a  t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l context wider than t h a t p r o v i d e d by the a r t i c l e s d e a l i n g only with the Canadian s c h o o l i s s u e . The Questions Research  i n Wider Focus  i n t o L i t e r a r y Response  Some Current Preoccupations and Progress Perhaps the supreme e d u c a t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r p u r s u i n g the t h r e e q u e s t i o n s  j u s t s t a t e d i s t h a t they f i t w i t h i n  the now i n t e n s i f y i n g quest t o f i n d , i n a thorough-going and o b j e c t i v e f a s h i o n , what a c t u a l l y occurs when students with l i t e r a t u r e .  interact  F o r many y e a r s , r e s e a r c h d i d not move f a r  beyond documenting s t u d e n t s ' l i t e r a r y p r e f e r e n c e s or a n a l y z i n g the content o f the works used  i n schools.  F o r r o u g h l y the l a s t  decade broader and deeper f a c e t s o f s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r a c t i o n s with l i t e r a r y works have been i n v e s t i g a t e d .  Students*  initial  7" responses,  later reflections,  critical  comments, f r e e d i s c u s -  s i o n s , and the l i k e have been g i v e n c l o s e a t t e n t i o n . Churley and Thompson p r o v i d e one  example of the  Barnes,  techniques  29 used.  y  They analyzed t a p e - r e c o r d i n g s of h i g h s c h o o l  students  f r e e l y d i s c u s s i n g , i n s m a l l groups, a n o v e l the students just f i n i s h e d reading. recorded,  S q u i r e p r o v i d e s another  example.  i n n o n - d i r e c t i v e i n t e r v i e w s , the responses  a d o l e s c e n t readers a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n t h e i r through a s h o r t s t o r y .  had He  of  progress  He then a n a l y z e d the i n t e r v i e w m a t e r i a l  by a content a n a l y s i s scheme-^  0  (which Purves l a t e r r e f i n e d  and  others then put to wide use^"*"). Approaches l i k e these have made i t p o s s i b l e to more c l e a r l y the o u t l i n e s of student response. been f r e q u e n t l y and w e l l reviewed.  Such work has  However, two  l i n e s of  enquiry have s p e c i a l r e l e v a n c e to the present study and m e r i t d i s c u s s i o n here.  map  thus  The Barnes team, and o t h e r s , have demon-  s t r a t e d t h a t students seem to b e n e f i t g r e a t l y from an immediate p o s t - r e a d i n g , f r e e - d i s c u s s i o n of l i t e r a r y works.  The  students  r a i s e p o i n t s t h a t teachers are u n l i k e l y to a n t i c i p a t e and to.  I f f i r s t allowed to d i s c u s s f r e e l y , the students  equip themselves to move from the l i m i t e d , " i l l o g i c a l , " c i r c u l a r and  i n c o n c l u s i v e , i n i t i a l d i s c u s s i o n to more  sophisticated enquiries. procedures  and standards  be re-examined.  J  "teach"  thereby often critically  These f i n d i n g s demand t h a t t e a c h i n g of c r i t i c a l r e s p e c t a b i l i t y i n schools  They suggest,  f o r instance, that  .8 c h i l d r e n are u s u a l l y asked to [ f o r m a l l y ] v e r b a l i z e and c o n c e p t u a l i z e b e f o r e they have had enough working experience to g i v e them an " i n t e r n a l i z e d " understanding, - J .  the teacher . . . may s e t up t o p i c s and l e v e l s of d i s c u s s i o n which f a i l to mesh i n with whatever responses p u p i l s make f o r themselves, and then he i s l i k e l y to be p u z z l e d why so few of them are w i l l i n g to t a l k about a book they seem to have enjoyed.  S q u i r e , Purves and t h e i r many f o l l o w e r s have begun to show what are the v a r i o u s postures students  commonly adopt  towards d i f f e r e n t l i t e r a r y works i n d i f f e r e n t f i n d i n g s are now  Their  b e i n g brought t o g e t h e r to assemble, w i t h par-  t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to the USA,  a p r o f i l e of student response  a wide v a r i e t y of circumstances. ing  conditions.  Curriculum p l a n n i n g and  in  teach-  methodology should e v e n t u a l l y b e n e f i t from t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n .  In the same s p i r i t as Barnes, Purves has p o i n t e d out t h a t : A t the stage of the expanded response, the e v a l u a t o r needs to look at the students' preparedness to t a l k or w r i t e about the category or c a t e g o r i e s of c r i t i c i s m intended i n the c u r r i c u l u m . I f , f o r example, the c u r r i c u lum intends t h a t the students s h a l l apply c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n , the e v a l u a t o r must determine whether the students possess the i n f o r m a t i o n and the procedures f o r a p p l y i n g i t to t e x t s . I f the c u r r i c u l u m i s much l e s s p r e s c r i p t i v e about c a t e g o r i e s , the e v a l u a t o r must f i r s t determine what q u e s t i o n s the students are seeking to answer as they read and expand t h e i r response to the t e x t s and how w e l l they answer the q u e s t i o n s they have chosen to ask.„/-  P l a i n l y , s t u d i e s i n areas such as the two  j u s t men-  t i o n e d can t e l l us a g r e a t d e a l about the i n t e r e s t s and needs  of students and suggest  to us what responses  we might  expect  37 from students.  They can h e l p us decide how  to handle  work u n t i l engagement has been f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d .  a given  They can  show us what s o r t s of v e r b a l i z a t i o n to expect and what d i s turbances  and  confusions prevent  f u l l e s t appreciation.  They  can demonstrate the e f f e c t s of c e r t a i n types of q u e s t i o n s , asked a t c e r t a i n times, and of t e a c h i n g c e r t a i n c r i t i c a l terms and  c r i t i c a l patterns.  In these ways r e s e a r c h i n t o  response  can i n d i c a t e , to some extent, the p a t t e r n s of response  be-  h a v i o u r and development upon which t e a c h i n g strategems, and sequences might be b u i l t .  I t can h e l p t e a c h e r s b u i l d ,  r e b u i l d , the d i s t i n c t i o n s between s u g g e s t i o n and nation,^^  between guidance  levels, or  indoctri-  and the d e s t r u c t i o n of  interest.^  Research f i n d i n g s a l s o promise a b e t t e r t y p o l o g y of l i t e r a r y w o r k s — o n e developed  a c c o r d i n g t o the response  patterns  40 d i f f e r e n t works might e l i c i t .  There i s a g r e a t need f o r a  b e t t e r knowledge of the books t h a t w i l l match the p a t t e r n s of d i f f e r e n t students.  developmental  As Margaret E a r l y wonders,  can "any book s e l e c t i o n committee . . . operate without 41 t r y i n g out the p o s s i b l e choices on a d o l e s c e n t s ? " Some a u t h o r i t i e s r a i s e c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n t h i s tion", e x p r e s s i n g the need t o f i n d " i n any p e r i o d or from  how  first  connecany  country the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t best conveys human and s o c i a l v a l u e s  42 to a p a r t i c u l a r r e a d e r or c l a s s of r e a d e r s . " evidence  There i s ample  t h a t teachers o f t e n f a i l to a n t i c i p a t e such t h i n g s as  children's reading i n t e r e s t s .  The most r e c e n t f i n d i n g i n t h i s  10 connection i s t h a t of the p r e s t i g i o u s IEA study, which e x p l o r e d l i t e r a t u r e education i n t e n countries:  one of the " s c h o o l  v a r i a b l e s " l e a s t r e l a t e d t o l e v e l s o f student  i n t e r e s t and  c a p a c i t y i n l i t e r a t u r e i s the teacher's assessment o f those levels.^  Systematic  Preoccupations  enquiry i s needed to a s s i s t the t e a c h e r .  and F i n d i n g s B e a r i n g More C l o s e l y Upon  the Questions The  Raised f o r Present  Study  c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h movements bear  a l l y , upon the present study.  Modern r e s e a r c h a l s o r e l a t e s  c l o s e l y to the s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s posed here. the importance,  c l o s e l y , i f gener-  I t emphasizes  and makes p o s s i b l e a more s e n s i t i v e measurement,  of s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s contained i n the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . (1)  Acculturation A c c u l t u r a t i o n i s no l o n g e r simply a demand made by  those l o o k i n g t o the establishment  or h e a l t h o f a c u l t u r a l  h e r i t a g e or t o the h e a l t h of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n a c u l t u r e — 44 though t h a t demand i s a l s o s t r o n g l y made o u t s i d e Canada. Nor  i s i t merely an a s s e r t i o n t h a t a unique l i t e r a r y  can e x i s t — t h o u g h t h a t too i s s t r o n g l y maintained country.  Rather,  outside t h i s  c u l t u r a l b i a s e s are being seen f o r t h e i r  e f f e c t s on l i t e r a r y response The  identity  itself.  e f f e c t s are being i n c r e a s i n g l y well-documented.  We are f i n d i n g out more about e t h n i c a l l y - i n f l u e n c e d p r e f e r e n c e s . We know t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o i n f l u e n c e student v a l u e s and  11 l i t e r a r y t a s t e s by c o n t r o l l i n g , t u r e students read. response  We  on c u l t u r a l l i n e s , the  know that t h e i r p a t t e r n s of  litera"critical"  are i n f l u e n c e d by t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s and t h a t such  p a t t e r n s are d i s t i n c t i v e to d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n s . '  We  know t h a t  students b e l o n g i n g t o c u l t u r e s f o r e i g n t o t h a t of the work being read can encounter  immense d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n comprehending  and a p p r e c i a t i n g the w o r k — d i f f i c u l t i e s which are manifested i n a t t i t u d i n a l r e s i s t a n c e as w e l l as i n d i f f i c u l t i e s c u l t u r a l "comprehension."  The present study was  of i n t e r -  designed  with t h i s knowledge i n mind. (2)  Transfer Modern r e s e a r c h has a l s o e l e v a t e d as an i s s u e and  made more s u s c e p t i b l e to t e s t i n g the e f f e c t s t h a t r e s u l t when " t r a n s f e r " can take p l a c e :  when, t h a t i s , a c l o s e l i n k  exists  between what i s f a m i l i a r to the student and the content of a p a r t i c u l a r l i t e r a r y work. The need f o r t r a n s f e r has l o n g been p u b l i c i z e d  by  L o u i s e Rosenblatt: l i k e the beginner, the a d o l e s c e n t reader needs to encounter l i t e r a t u r e f o r which he possesses emotional and e x p e r i e n t i a l "readiness. ! He, too must possess the raw m a t e r i a l s out of which to evoke i n a meaningful way the world symboli z e d on the p r i n t e d page. To a v o i d the mere t r a n s l a t i o n from one s e t of words to another, t h a t world must be f i t t e d i n t o the context of h i s own understanding and i n t e r e s t s . I f the language, the s e t t i n g , the theme, the c e n t r a l s i t u a t i o n , a l l are too a l i e n , even a "great work" will fail. A l l doors are shut. The p r i n t e d words w i l l a t best conjure up only a ghost of a l i t e r a r y experience. The l i t e r a r y work must h o l d out some 1  12 l i n k with the young reader's own past and present p r e o c c u p a t i o n s , emotions, a n x i e t i e s , ambitions . J L  Q  Rosenblatt has never been alone i n h e r cause and i t has r e c e i v e d r e c e n t support from such f i g u r e s as Barnes, the IEA r e s e a r c h e r s , Loban, Purves, S q u i r e and R u s s e l l . ^  Dixon, 0  T r a n s f e r may, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e theory, take a v a r i e t y of  forms.  A l i n k with the f a m i l i a r can be e s t a b l i s h e d  through  the work's treatment o f a geographic r e g i o n f a m i l i a r t o t h e reader, through the s t o r y ' s "evoking a s i t u a t i o n or a t t i t u d e t h a t the c h i l d h i m s e l f has experienced,"^  through the r e a d e r ' s  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with a c h a r a c t e r resembling him, o r , more generally,  through h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the author's  and f e e l i n g . "  y  "thinking  The l a t t e r might emerge i n m a t e r i a l which i s  e t h n i c a l l y c o n g e n i a l t o the r e a d e r or which expresses  sentiments  i n accordance with h i s own chauvinisms. S e v e r a l of the p o s s i b l e forms o f t r a n s f e r a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o t h i s study.  T r a n s f e r t o r e g i o n or l o c a l i t y  may f o s t e r a v e r y s p e c i a l response.  As George Bowering has  written I agree with A.E. Housman, W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s and John Dewey t h a t one would best b e g i n by s t u d y i n g the l o c a l , and. move then outward, i n terms o f space and time. T h i s would mean n o t j u s t Canadian books, but B.C. ( o r Vancouver) books f i r s t , then Canadian books, then maybe 19th century Canadian books, then other books i n the E n g l i s h language, then L a t i n American and European books. I t h i n k t h a t i n t e r e s t would be aroused ( I remember the shock and d e l i g h t I exp e r i e n c e d when I f i r s t read f i c t i o n — a n d even p o e t r y — t h a t was s e t i n a p l a c e where I had l i v e d ) when the student was a b l e t o experience  1 3  the r e s u l t s and process of a w r i t e r ' s (human's) coming to g r i p s w i t h language, by way o f language, with h i s p l a c e , h i s l o c u s . ^  Crawford a l s o t i e s t h i s theme t o l e a r n i n g t h e o r y : Might not a study b e g i n w i t h a p r o v i n c e (where f e a s i b l e ) , spread outward t o a r e g i o n , w i t h the u l t i m a t e g o a l Canada and the world? The outward spread from known t o unknown i s a sound teaching a p p r o a c h . ^  T r a n s f e r may  be based upon p a t r i o t i c f e e l i n g s and be  brought f o r t h by the d i s c l o s u r e of a poem's n a t i o n a l  origins.  A l s o , i f the i n c r e a s i n g number of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o  groups  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on e t h n i c background has wider r e f e r e n c e , 55  t r a n s f e r based upon l o c a l group i d e n t i t y should e x i s t . ^ T r a n s f e r may  a r i s e from broader c u l t u r a l a f f i n i t i e s too.  That  f a m i l i a r theme of the Canadian promotion i s echoed by w r i t e r s with other n a t i o n s i n mind.  Harding, f o r example, r e p o r t s an  o p i n i o n of the Dartmouth Seminar:  " i n e n t e r i n g i n t o the  • v i r t u a l e x p e r i e n c e ' of i n f l u e n t i a l works of l i t e r a t u r e a c h i l d i s o f f e r e d a f l o w and r e c o i l of sympathies t h a t accords w i t h the  c u l t u r e p a t t e r n i n which he i s growing up."-  5  S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have manipulated v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o 57  t r a n s f e r and shown t h a t i t i s an a c t i v e factor;-^' i t s a c t u a l r o l e i n response?  but what i s  A few s t r e s s i t s importance as a  fundamental human need to be f u l f i l l e d f o r i t s own sake;-^  most  p o i n t to the secondary response elements t h a t can be reached more e a s i l y , or only, i f t r a n s f e r i s f i r s t made.  59 7  (A p a r a l l e l  may  e x i s t "between the l a t t e r p r o p o s i t i o n s  and  l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s , a l l u d e d to by Bowering and h o l d t h a t students should meet the tangible  the  set  of  Crawford, which  immediately understandable,  or l i t e r a l before attempting g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  b e f o r e new  material  i s introduced.)  The  and  secondary response  elements h e l d to be more or l e s s dependent upon t r a n s f e r i n clude i n t e r e s t , engagement and class discussion. of considered The  Transfer  enthusiasm f o r  i s a l s o l i n k e d with the  development  appreciation. connection w i t h i n t e r e s t i s most s t r o n g l y  b l i s h e d by s t u d i e s  showing t h a t  f a m i l i a r i t y vary together. examining the  involvement, and  i n t e r e s t (and  Of these s t u d i e s ,  esta-  enjoyment)  and  Rankin's  Newbery p r i z e - w i n n i n g n o v e l s i s h i g h l y  pertinent  to the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n : Only one of the h i g h l y p o p u l a r books of f i c t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n has i t s s e t t i n g i n a f o r e i g n country: a l l but one of the l e s s popular Newbery books of f i c t i o n have t h e i r s e t t i n g s i n a f o r e i g n country. That e x c e p t i o n , the scene i n Waterless Mountain, i s l a i d among the Navaho Indians, a s e t t i n g f o r e i g n to most American c h i l d r e n . In none of the s t o r y s e t t i n g s would i t be d i f f i c u l t f o r the average young person to imagine himself. Even when . . . the s e t t i n g i s i n a f o r e i g n country, t h a t l o c a l e i s not d e s c r i b e d so t h a t i t would l e a d the reader to t h i n k i t "queer" or "different;"..-/^  Interest  i s r e l a t e d to involvement.  r e l a t e to t r a n s f e r through " a c c e s s i b i l i t y " and  Both appear to through  the  " v i c a r i o u s experience" which depends p a r t l y upon t r a n s f e r .  15' As the IEA l i t e r a t u r e and  committee s p e c u l a t e d , p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s  i n t e r e s t might r e l a t e to "one's degree of t r a n s f e r between  l i t e r a r y and non l i t e r a r y The  events."^  connection between t r a n s f e r and more c o n s i d e r e d  a p p r e c i a t i o n i s t r a c e d by such f i g u r e s as Barnes, Gerber, and Beach, and V i n e . s t a t e d by Barnes.  I t s pedagogical  A c c o r d i n g to him,  Purves  i m p l i c a t i o n s are best  students l e f t to f r e e  discussion t r e a t the c h a r a c t e r as i f he were a r e a l person, and a s c r i b e h y p o t h e t i c a l f e e l i n g s and motives to him. T h i s seems a stage of i m a g i n a t i v e i n s i g h t which may w e l l be a necessary p r e l i m i n a r y to more mature ways of l o o k i n g a t f i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s . . . T h i s i s not to argue t h a t we should not a t times encourage o l d e r p u p i l s towards a more 'distanced* way of t a l k i n g about l i t e r a t u r e . On the c o n t r a r y , we should h e l p them towards t h i s by s e e i n g to i t t h a t they explore the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the s i m p l e r forms o f , e m p a t h y , ( ' i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ' , perhaps) bef o r e e x p e c t i n g them to step back from the e x p e r i e n c e ,  65  I t i s not my  [ i t a l i c s mine] purpose to argue the extent to which  " t r a n s f e r " should be f o s t e r e d i n l i t e r a t u r e t e a c h i n g . it  i s j u s t one  f a c e t of l i t e r a r y response.  But the  with the f a m i l i a r seems s u f f i c i e n t l y important  Clearly  connection  to warrant r e -  search a t t e n t i o n . (3)  Prior Attitudes A t t i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s o f f e r other f i n d i n g s c l o s e l y  r e l a t e d t o the present study.  Ethnically-derived  f o r example, are i n c r e a s i n g l y seen as determinants  attitudes, of  response.  66  16 E s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g i s the phenomenon, termed "low image," found i n many m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e and  groups.^  self-  Comment on  Canadian  p i l o t work f o r t h i s study both suggested t h a t  Canadian students might a c t q u i t e l i k e  c h i l d r e n from  groups when asked to respond to t h e i r own  minority  literature.  Pilot  students demonstrated a low r e g a r d f o r Canadian l i t e r a t u r e i n g e n e r a l and received. ties  exhibited  c o n s t r i c t e d responses to the poems they  A t t i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s a l s o demonstrate the  (noted under " a c c u l t u r a t i o n " )  c r o s s - c u l t u r a l reading s i t u a t i o n s . least partly a t t i t u d i n a l .  The  difficul-  experienced by students i n T h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s ' are  "background" m a t e r i a l  often  g i v e n students t o h e l p them " e n r i c h " t h e i r r e a d i n g a l s o a t t i t u d i n a l issues: focus,  attitudes  or a l t e r e d by p r o v i d i n g  can be s e t up,  at  raises  brought i n t o  a u t h o r i a l biographies,  attributing  n a t i o n a l o r i g i n s to a work, or merely g i v i n g the author's name. The  few  studies  t h a t have been made on such e f f e c t s i n the more  a f f e c t i v e areas of response have shown them to be s i g n i f i c a n t . A t t i t u d e s , then, must be  68  counted important response  69 variables.  By  "knowing the a t t i t u d e s of people i t i s p o s s i b l e  to do something about the p r e d i c t i o n and g o g i c a l sense] of t h e i r b e h a v i o u r . " ^  0  c o n t r o l [ i n a peda-  For the present  study,  the assumption seemed reasonable t h a t a t t i t u d e s , where they e x i s t e d , would i n f l u e n c e measured response. was  the assumption t h a t e x t r i n s i c m a t e r i a l ,  would s t r e n g t h e n the direction). conclusions.  The  S i m i l a r l y reasonable like national labels,  e f f e c t of such a t t i t u d e s  ( i n whatever  r e s u l t s of the p i l o t s t u d i e s r e i n f o r c e d  these  Cultural  Questions and L i t e r a r y  Response  Study i n t o l i t e r a r y response o f t e n doubles as a of c u l t u r a l q u e s t i o n s .  For example, the IEA and  have r e v e a l e d t h a t most c o u n t r i e s now l i t e r a t u r e and  other  study  studies  promote t h e i r n a t i v e  i n f l u e n c e t h e i r students' responses along  cultur-  71 ally distinctive lines.' questions  Implicitly,  such s t u d i e s  as to the extent to which work and  i n f l u e n c e responses.  As Wainer and Berg  raise  student r e s p e c t i v e l y  ask  Could i t be t h a t [ o u r ] c r i t e r i a emerged because of p r e v a i l i n g American c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s i n g r a i n e d i n the students themselves or are they i n h e r e n t only i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e t of s t o r i e s , a p e c u l i a r i t y of Maupassant's v i s i o n of the u n i - ' verse? . . . one could use the same s t o r i e s with a s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n with d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds.^  Other w r i t e r s pursue t h i s i d e a with the USA  and B r i t a i n i n minds  many s t u d i e s r e l a t e d to e t h n i c l i t e r a t u r e and the response p a t t e r n s and achievements t h a t emerge from the t e a c h i n g of these l i t e r a t u r e s might w e l l be undertaken. Not only should these s t u d i e s d e a l with a group r e a d i n g i t s own l i t e r a t u r e but with a group r e a d i n g l i t e r a t u r e of other g r o u p s . ^  The  need i s j u s t as great i n Canada.  designed  The  present  study  was  74 to meet t h i s need.' Some r e s e a r c h e r s  to c u l t u r a l q u e s t i o n s ,  suggest t h a t i n d i r e c t approaches  such as through l i t e r a r y response, might  y i e l d r i c h e r and more v a l i d i n f o r m a t i o n than do d i r e c t  instru-  75 ments l i k e o b j e c t i v e - t y p e c u l t u r a l q u e s t i o n - s e t s . ^ of l i t e r a r y c u l t u r e i t s e l f  (including  both works and  In r e s p e c t criticism)  18  such a mixed approach might i n d i c a t e what the younger g e n e r a t i o n 76  i s l i k e l y t o take from and add t o the c u l t u r e . '  University  t e a c h e r s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , might v a l u e such i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r student p o p u l a t i o n s .  The  student h i m s e l f should b e n e f i t - 77  by b e i n g helped to understand  his cultural milieu.''  grant e s p e c i a l l y , with h i s i n t r i c a t e and d i f f i c u l t  The  immi-  adjustment  problems, should b e n e f i t i f c u l t u r a l norms are b e t t e r known as they r e l a t e t o the m a t e r i a l he r e c e i v e s i n c l a s s . The Need f o r B e t t e r Methodologies The  Canadian s t u d i e s reviewed  a t the b e g i n n i n g of t h i s  chapter have been l i m i t e d by the r e l a t i v e l y s u p e r f i c i a l q u e s t i o n s they have asked.  W i t h i n these l i m i t a t i o n s they have a l s o been  flawed by m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  shortcomings.  In the l a t t e r r e s p e c t the s t u d i e s r e - a f f i r m a more g e n e r a l need f o r experimental approaches, a f f e c t i v e domain.  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the  Experimental techniques o f f e r the best  means by which t o a v o i d r e s e a r c h e r b i a s .  They a l s o make i t  p o s s i b l e (by m a n i p u l a t i n g v a r i a b l e s ) t o probe response more deeply than i s p o s s i b l e with d e s c r i p t i o n or survey. There i s , however, a l s o a continued need—Hansson 79  calls i t "urgent"—for descriptive studies. passes response  or p r e f e r e n c e surveys.  The term encom-  The l a t t e r can demon-  s t r a t e " t o the t e a c h e r s , and to those who  teach the t e a c h e r s ,  what happens when groups of young people respond t o l i t e r a t u r e " Rf)  i n something l i k e "normal" c o n d i t i o n s .  They can h e l p  fill  our need t o know where our students a r e .  The term a l s o i n -  cludes much a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  The q u e s t i o n s s t a t e d  f o r the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n v o l v e d p r o b i n g i n f l u e n c e d responses on r e l a t e d i s s u e s .  culturally-  and c o l l e c t i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n f o r m a t i o n Both approaches seek t o d i s c o v e r , as the  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t does, what: c a t e g o r i e s . . . informants use. What a r e t h e i r c a t e g o r i e s and what do they mean? How i s t h e i r knowledge organized and c l a s s i f i e d ? Answering these q u e s t i o n s i s what d i s c o v e r i n g c u l t u r e i s a l l about. A h e l p f u l s t r a t e g y f o r beginning r e s e a r c h i s a s k i n g a grand t o u r q u e s t i o n ; i . e . , have an informant t e l l about the a c t i v i t i e s and people one i s i n t e r e s t e d i n . T h i s w i l l h e l p one f i n d out the meaning o f the d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g you a r e s t u d y i n g .  U s i n g d e s c r i p t i v e techniques i n these f i e l d s h e l p s f i l l the need expressed by some r e s e a r c h l e a d e r s f o r "other modes o f r e s e a r c h than the experimental or the large-group survey.  The  a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o - a n a l y t i c s t u d i e s p r o v i d e p o s s i b l e guides. Experimental and d e s c r i p t i v e techniques gether w i t h p r o f i t .  can work t o -  D e s c r i p t i o n i s l i k e l y t o be p r e c i s e only  when i t i s c l e a r who and what i s b e i n g m e a s u r e d — a t l e a s t i n the sense t h a t the study can be r e p l i c a t e d . Canadian r e s e a r c h a l r e a d y reviewed, t h a t any attempt controls.  I n the l i g h t o f the  i t i s especially  important  a t d e s c r i p t i o n be accompanied by a p p r o p r i a t e  Combining techniques has r e c e n t l y gained impetus under Qh. the p r i n c i p l e of " m u l t i p l e " or " t r i a n g u l a t e d " o p e r a t i o n a l i s m .  20.  Because human behaviour  i s so complex, i t cannot be adequately  measured by a s i n g l e term or a s i n g l e dimension. the "most f e r t i l e  search f o r v a l i d i t y "  Accordingly,  comes, as Webb puts i t :  from a combined s e r i e s o f d i f f e r e n t measures, each with i t s own i d i o s y n c r a t i c weaknesses, each p o i n t e d t o a s i n g l e h y p o t h e s i s . When a hypothesis can s u r v i v e the c o n f r o n t a t i o n of a s e r i e s o f complementary methods o f t e s t i n g , i t contains a degree of v a l i d i t y u n a t t a i n a b l e by one t e s t e d w i t h i n the more c o n s t r i c t e d framework of a s i n g l e method.  The present study combined d e s c r i p t i v e and experimental approaches.  I t s e t up s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t , but complementary,  methods o f t e s t i n g . Another s e t of m e t h o d o l o g i c a l ,  or q u a s i - m e t h o d o l o g i c a l ,  needs i s t o frame q u e s t i o n s l i k e l y t o produce r e s u l t s ( a n d m a t e r i a l ) which w i l l speak f a i r l y d i r e c t l y t o t e a c h e r s . means, among other t h i n g s :  This  u s i n g classroom s e t t i n g s where  p o s s i b l e ; a s k i n g questions t h a t have u s e f u l outcomes f o r t e a c h i n g ; showing teachers t h a t the students' responses  have not been  v i o l a t e d by t h e methods used t o measure them; u s i n g more than numbers t o gauge and r e p o r t f i n d i n g s ; and p r e s e r v i n g room f o r 86  questions of value i n applying r e s u l t s .  Too few i n v e s t i g a t o r s  have r e c o g n i z e d t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o h e l p the t e a c h e r see O n  the " d i f f e r e n c e i n e f f e c t between [ t e a c h i n g ] approaches." ' B e t t e r communication might promote a d i s p o s i t i o n i n the s c h o o l s to r e f l e c t upon, experiment with, and evaluate new (and old) approaches t o l i t e r a t u r e . enced the shape of t h i s  Such m e t h o d o l o g i c a l needs have  study.  influ-  21 Summary The three questions posed f o r study f i t w i t h i n an i n t e n s i f y i n g quest on the p a r t o f e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s t o f i n d what a c t u a l l y occurs when students By d e t a i l i n g p a t t e r n s of response  i n t e r a c t with  literature.  "behaviour and development,  t h e i r enquiry i s e s t a b l i s h i n g a f i r m e r ground upon which t o b u i l d t e a c h i n g stratagems  and sequences.  T h i s new r e s e a r c h  a l s o r e l a t e s more s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the three q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n the present study:  c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g response,  prior  a t t i t u d e s towards a t o p i c , and t r a n s f e r , are a l l being more f u l l y e x p l a i n e d , c o n c e p t u a l l y r e f i n e d and made s u s c e p t i b l e t o measurement.  A review of m e t h o d o l o g i c a l needs shows the  d e s i r a b i l i t y of combining v a r i o u s measurement techniques and of e s t a b l i s h i n g or m a i n t a i n i n g communication with t e a c h e r s . design c a l c u l a t e d t o meet these d e s i d e r a t a f o l l o w s .  A  22 THE The Questions  CHOSEN APPROACH  Narrowed  Question 1.  To what extent can Vancouver grade e l e v e n students who do not know of the o r i g i n s o f Canadian poems n e v e r t h e l e s s r e c o g n i z e them as b e i n g (a) n a t i o n a l or (b) r e g i o n a l  (British  Columbian)? The  c o n d i t i o n s "Canadian," " r e g i o n a l , " and " f o r e i g n "  poems were b u i l t  i n t o the d e s i g n ( f o l l o w i n g ) .  Question 1 was  approached through q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Question 2.  To what extent do Vancouver grade e l e v e n students respond  d i f f e r e n t l y to t h e i r nation's  p o e t r y or t o t h e i r r e g i o n ' s poetry, than t o p o e t r y from other c o u n t r i e s ? T h i s q u e s t i o n was approached through and  content  free  response  analysis.  Question 3-  To what extent do d i f f e r e n c e s i n response as sought above (and i f they e x i s t ) depend upon the students' being t o l d o f the o r i g i n s o f the  The  c o n d i t i o n s knowledge and non-knowledge were b u i l t  i n t o the d e s i g n . and  content  poetry?  Question 3 was approached through  analysis.  free-response  23 The  Design The d e s i g n (see F i g u r e I f o r a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ) was a  f u l l y crossed 2 x 2  " f a c t o r i a l " with 12 r e p l i c a t i o n s .  I t pro-  v i d e d t h a t 2k Vancouver grade 11 c l a s s e s l i s t e n e d t o taped r e c o r d i n g s o f a p a i r o f u n f a m i l i a r poems and, c o n c u r r e n t l y , read them p r i v a t e l y .  The students were then asked t o respond  t o the poems f r e e l y , i n w r i t i n g .  The f r e e , w r i t t e n , responses  were s u b j e c t e d t o content a n a l y s i s . headings.)  (See Table I f o r category  I n f o r m a t i o n so gained was used t o answer the  research questions. There were 12 poem p a i r s , each p a i r being p r e s e n t e d twice ( i n r e v e r s e d order t o counter o r d e r - e f f e c t s ) .  Each p a i r  c o n s i s t e d o f one Canadian poem and one New Zealand poem, thus embodying the independent  v a r i a b l e "Poem O r i g i n s . "  Poem content  was l i m i t e d by sampling from d e s c r i p t i v e landscape poems w r i t t e n s i n c e the b e g i n n i n g o f the  1930s.  "Poem O r i g i n s " was r e f i n e d by d i v i d i n g the Canadian poems i n t o h a l f from B r i t i s h Canadian r e g i o n s .  Columbia and h a l f from  other  Separate a n a l y s i s was made o f responses t o  each poem group. Each c l a s s was d i v i d e d , randomly, i n two.  The  Canadian poem i n the p a i r t h a t was g i v e n t o one c l a s s sub-group was l a b e l l e d as Canadian.  The New Zealand poem i n the same  p a i r was l a b e l l e d as Non-Canadian.  The same Canadian and New  Zealand poems g i v e n t o the other c l a s s sub-group were not so  I.  INDEPENDENT VARIABLES  STUDENTS Denied Knowledge Given Knowledge  (Students] KNOWLEDGE G i v e n Knowledge D e n i e d Knowledge  \  Rest-off Canada British (Columbia** (Poems) ORIGINS —  \  BC Origins NZ Origins  ^  H  CONTENT ANALYSIS SCHEME RESEARCH  FREE  W H  QUESTIONS  RESPONSE  New u /Zealand!  POEMS RC Origins  ANALYSIS  RESPONSE  H Si O O  J  H  SUPPLEMENTARY I >  i I  SUPPORTING  i I  INSTRUMENTS AND PROCEDURES  I ...N/_  O  • ^ i CONTENT  > M  ANALYSIS  O !2j  i I  , FUTURE RESEARCH  labelled.  Thus the two  c l a s s sub-groups embodied,  l a b e l l i n g and n o n - l a b e l l i n g , the independent  through  variable  "Knowledge VV Had  any students possessed  "Knowledge" i n advance of  the experimental s e s s i o n ("Pre-Knowledge"), the "Knowledge" c o n d i t i o n was  t o be p r e s e r v e d by the separate a n a l y s i s of data  from those s t u d e n t s .  Similarly,  t h e r e was  a n a l y s i s of the data from any students who  t o be a separate were n e i t h e r e x p e r i -  m e n t a l l y t o l d nor knew i n advance the " O r i g i n s " of the p o e t r y but who  n e v e r t h e l e s s s i g n i f i e d a t the end of the  p e r i o d t h a t they had "guessed"  experimental  such " O r i g i n s " ("Deduced  Knowledge"). The was  integrity  of the student base, Vancouver s t u d e n t s ,  p r e s e r v e d by the separate treatment  students who  of data from  had not l i v e d (a) i n Canada or (b) i n B r i t i s h  Columbia d u r i n g a l l of the f i v e years immediately the  those  preceding  study. S e v e r a l s u p p o r t i n g instruments and procedures- served  to p r o v i d e c o n t r o l s and f u r n i s h data f o r supplementary  analysis:  a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s c e r t a i n i n g s t u d e n t s ' p a s t p l a c e s of r e s i d e n c e ; a q u e s t i o n n a i r e gauging  s t u d e n t s ' "Pre-Knowledge" and  "Deduced  Knowledge"; a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s s e s s i n g s t u d e n t s ' p e r s o n a l and s c h o o l experience with Canadian l i t e r a t u r e ;  a questionnaire  checking s t u d e n t s ' awareness of the study's purpose;  a supple-  mentary content a n a l y t i c probe w i t h i n and a c r o s s the main  26 a n a l y t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s ; and a separate a n a l y s i s of the  responses  of the groups who  were excluded from the main s t u d y — w h e r e  numbers warranted  it.  Grounds f o r separate a n a l y s i s , i n  a d d i t i o n t o those a l r e a d y mentioned, were: ness of the study's purpose  a student's aware-  b e f o r e , or e a r l y i n , the e x p e r i -  mental s e s s i o n ; and "high" f a m i l i a r i t y with Canadian ("Extensive Canadian  The  their  literature  Reading").  o v e r a l l d e s i g n c r e a t e d optimum c o n d i t i o n s f o r  g a t h e r i n g data on c e r t a i n f a c e t s of student response though not r e l a t e d to the c e n t r a l hypotheses, r a n t l a t e r study.  The  which,  d i d seem to war-  instruments designed t o such ends appear  i n the t e s t i n g b a t t e r y (Appendix  II).  The corpus of f r e e -  response m a t e r i a l c r e a t e d by the c e n t r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o v i d e d similar opportunities f o r future research.  Some s p e c i f i c  approaches  are suggested and some t e n t a t i v e f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d  i n Chapter  V.  CHAPTER I I FREE RESPONSE AND CONTENT ANALYSIS WRITTEN, FREE, IMMEDIATE RESPONSE L i t e r a r y Response Response i s a d e s i g n a t i o n f o r " t h a t Gordian t i o n of a f f e c t i v e ,  combina-  c o g n i t i v e , p e r c e p t u a l , and psycho-motor  a c t i v i t i e s t h a t take p l a c e when a person reads a book."^" It  i s a l a b e l f o r a l l t h a t the reader f e e l s , t h i n k s o r does as  a r e s u l t of h i s r e a d i n g , h e a r i n g o r watching performed a a r y work.  Response may manifest  or e x p r e s s i o n ;  initial  i t s e l f o v e r t l y i n some a c t i o n  i t may never be outwardly expressed.  occur as immediate r e f l e c t i o n ; reading.  liter-  I t may  i t may s u r f a c e only years  after  I t s p u b l i c e x p r e s s i o n and i n n e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n  probably never c o i n c i d e f u l l y . 2  D e f i n i t i o n s of response a r e seldom s a t i s f a c t o r y . L i k e those o f the IEA and Purves below, they a r e u s u a l l y a t once too s p e c i f i c and too vague: Response i s best d e f i n e d as the ongoing i n t e r a c t i o n between the i n d i v i d u a l and the work, an i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t may continue l o n g a f t e r the i n d i v i d u a l has f i n i s h e d r e a d i n g . T h i s response i s never made f u l l y e x p l i c i t , f o r one could not t e l l of a l l the a s s o c i a t i o n s , i d e a s , f e e l i n g s , and r e f l e c t i o n s t h a t take p l a c e as one reads a n o v e l , say, or a f t e r one has f i n i s h e d i t . 0  Response begins the moment one f i r s t c o n f r o n t s the work and e n d s — w e l l , i n some cases, i t ends only  28 when the i n d i v i d u a l d i e s . I t includes reading, t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g , and a c t i n g i n some r e l a t i o n to the s t i m u l u s of the l i t e r a r y work. I t manif e s t s i t s e l f i n a v a r i e t y of ways.j^  An a l t e r n a t i v e t o making c o n v e n t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n a l statements i s t o d e t a i l the v a r i a b l e - s e t s which, make response p o s s i b l e . someone who to.  responds.  i n concert,  Thus response might be s a i d t o i n v o l v e I t i n v o l v e s something which i s responded  I t i n v o l v e s the circumstances i n which the i n t e r a c t i o n  between r e a d e r and work takes p l a c e . ^  And  i t i n v o l v e s the mode  o f response. There are those who  s t r e s s the f i r s t  variable-set.  As a group t h e i r comments range w i d e l y from s t r e s s i n g the "primacy o f s u b j e c t i v i t y "  6  7 and the " i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r " ' o f  response t o the q u i e t e r a s s e r t i o n t h a t What the reader b r i n g s t o the t e x t i s as important as the t e x t i t s e l f i n determining the k i n d o f response the r e a d e r w i l l have.g  Others w i l l not a l l o w the reader's r o l e i n response, and the complexity t h a t d e r i v e s from h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n , t o d i m i n i s h the c o n t r i b u t i o n made by the work i t s e l f .  The  latter  t r i g g e r s response and i s much more than a t r i g g e r .  I t possesses  Q i t s own  i n h e r e n t power.  I t i s i t s e l f a source of response  complexity; L i t e r a t u r e i s by nature so much concerned w i t h m u l t i p l e l e v e l s of meaning, the t e n s i o n s of meaning i n h e r e n t i n ambiguity and metaphor, and  29 the s u b t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f statements and events t h a t o b j e c t i v e c e r t a i n t y w i l l o f t e n be i m p o s s i b l e . There i s l i t t l e response.  argument t h a t circumstances of r e a d i n g i n f l u e n c e  Response modes a r e acknowledged as b e i n g important  too; they w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r (see below, p. 33 e t s e q . ) . Most r e c e n t r e s e a r c h i n t o l i t e r a r y response has assumed a dynamic, complex, r e l a t i o n s h i p o p e r a t i n g between a l l f o u r v a r i able-sets.  I t has l a r g e l y accepted, and c o n s o l i d a t e d , the  " t r a n s a c t i o n i s t " view o f l i t e r a t u r e as a "mode o f experience t o be r e f l e c t e d on" r a t h e r than as a d i s c r e t e s u b j e c t matter f o r . 11 analysis. The present i n v e s t i g a t i o n was s i m i l a r l y based upon the assumption  o f a four-way r e l a t i o n s h i p .  The reader's r o l e was  acknowledged—he was h e l d t o embody a t t i t u d e s towards n a t i o n s and l i t e r a t u r e , and h i s i d i o s y n c r a c i e s were c o n t r o l l e d by measurement a c r o s s c l a s s groups.  The l i t e r a r y work's r o l e was acknowl-  edged—poems embodied " N a t i o n a l " or " R e g i o n a l " " O r i g i n s " and literary characteristics. acknowledged—it  The circumstances o f r e a d i n g were  b e i n g assumed necessary to c a n c e l out t h e i r i n -  f l u e n c e by s t a n d a r d i z i n g procedures a c r o s s groups. response was acknowledged—care  The mode o f  b e i n g taken i n choosing which mode  to ask students t o respond i n . One v i r t u e o f the term "response" i s t h a t i t d i s t i n guishes between, on one hand, a reader's primary r e a c t i o n t o a work and,  on the other, c r i t i c i s m and a p p r e c i a t i o n (which the  primary r e a c t i o n may or may not a l s o b e ) . upon response but go f u r t h e r .  The l a t t e r depend  Whereas response e n t a i l s no  3© n e c e s s a r y e v a l u a t i v e a c t , a p p r e c i a t i o n does.  When we " t r a i n "  students t o express response i n p a r t i c u l a r ways (under names l i k e " c r i t i c a l r e a d i n g , " " e x p l i c a t i o n de t e x t e , " 1p " t a s t e , " or some other term),  "criticism,".  when we encourage them t o  p r e f e r c e r t a i n works and c e r t a i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , when we ask them t o c o n s c i o u s l y analyze and g i v e reasons f o r t h e i r responses, when we have them attempting t o " e x t r a c t " the " f u l l meaning" from a p i e c e , when we attempt  t o have them counter e f f e c t s o f  p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e i n order t o judge " f a i r l y , "  then we a r e  a s k i n g them t o move from response t o c r i t i c i s m and a p p r e c i a t i o n . The d i s t i n c t i o n i s important because the present study was an attempt  t o s t a r t a t the beginning:  t o f i n d what and where  Canadian s t u d e n t s ' responses a r e w i t h r e s p e c t t o Canadian l i t e r a t u r e b e f o r e a s k i n g t h a t they be moulded or t r a i n e d . d e a l t w i t h c r i t i c i s m only i n N o r v e l l ' s sense:  It  " C h i l d r e n are  the t r u e s t o f a l l c r i t i c s when they a r e f r e e t o speak t h e i r minds i n simple terms."  13 J  "Response" i n ( E m p i r i c a l ) E d u c a t i o n a l Research "Response," as a concept, i s e l u s i v e and amorphous. How, then, t o measure i t ? Should the candidate r e p o r t on h i s enjoyment of what he i s reading? Should h i s t a s t e be measured a g a i n s t some norm? Should we take an e l e c t r o e n c e p h a l o g r a p h ? - ^  Whatever c h o i c e he makes a r e s e a r c h e r w i l l measure o n l y one f a c e t , or a v e r y few, of response.  Researchers have g e n e r a l l y  31 accepted t h i s f a c t and r e j e c t e d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a s s e s s i n g , i n any s i n g l e "observable behaviour," the g l o b a l concept "respond t o a work of literature.""'"^  I n s t e a d they have s e t 16  about "fathoming and c a t a l o g u i n g the i n g r e d i e n t s "  ; refining  from the s c i e n t i f i c a l l y vague phraseology o f l i t e r a r y a t i o n and response some s p e c i f i c components.  appreci-  To the l a t t e r  they have a t t a c h e d , i n the context o f psychology and psychome t r y , behaviours t h a t seem t o o f f e r a d i r e c t approach t o 17 e m p i r i c a l measurement. '  I n s h o r t , r e s e a r c h has been p r e d i c a t e d  upon the " o p e r a t i o n a l " d e f i n i t i o n o f response elements.  If a  g l o b a l concept "response" i s ever suggested i t i s u s u a l l y as an a g g r e g a t i o n o f such  elements.  The r e s e a r c h has never been easy; behaviours a r e hard to f i n d .  The search f o r them i s caught i n a t e n s i o n between the  m u l t i f a c e t e d "humanistic encounter with l i t e r a t u r e and the 18 mechanical a p p r a i s a l of e d u c a t i o n . "  The f i r s t  sets consider-  a b l e s t o r e by the complex and a l l u s i v e ; the second p l a c e s weight 19 on the c o n c e p t u a l l y simple and o b j e c t i v e . Moreover, the problems do not end with refinement or 7  definition.  The v e r y means used t o "measure" response may 20  change or d e s t r o y i t .  And when attempts a r e made t p p r e s e r v e  "normal" r e a d i n g c o n d i t i o n s , as when a t e a c h e r observes and records d u r i n g "normal" l e s s o n s , the data c o l l e c t e d i s not 21 u s u a l l y of the s o r t t h a t would " s a t i s f y a cost accountant." An added d i f f i c u l t y i s t h a t response i s p r o b a b l y no " s e r i e s o f s t a t i c d e c i s i o n s [ b u t ] a c o n t i n u o u s l y moving, changing, thought  32 process."  22  I t i s q u i c k s i l v e r t o the b e h a v i o u r i s t s ' meshes.  Given such problems,  i t i s important t h a t b e h a v i o u r a l  r e s e a r c h i n t o response to l i t e r a t u r e be seen f o r what i t i s — a p a r t i c u l a r type of e x p l o r a t i o n i n t o p a r t i c u l a r p a r t s o f the l i t e r a r y or a e s t h e t i c experience. it  defies absolute v a l i d a t i o n .  Like a l l l i t e r a r y  endeavour  23 J  To i n t r o d u c e the s p e c i f i c response-measures f o l l o w , an analogy i s u s e f u l .  I f s p e c i f i c response  that behaviours  can be compared to r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s on a r a d a r screen, deeper response might be acknowledged as the o b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t e d , merely, by the b l i p s .  The b l i p s o f f e r no f i n e d e f i n i t i o n ;  do i n d i c a t e a presence.  they  Response proper might be seen vaguely,  i n glimpses and n o t - q u i t e - s u r e l y , but i t i s r e p r e s e n t e d . Again, because  the b l i p s on one scanning do not assure  t h e i r s u b j e c t ' s f i x i t y i n space, response m a n i f e s t a t i o n s "identified" stable.  i n the present experiment might not be assumed  Yet on d i f f e r e n t scanners and over r e p e a t e d scannings  s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s would suggest a s t a b l e presence. where d i f f e r e n t  Accordingly,  s c h o o l c l a s s e s show s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s i n ex-  pressed responses the l a t t e r might be h e l d t o i n d i c a t e at the time  oh, —response  stable—  factors.  S i m i l a r l y , as the t r a c k i n g of o b j e c t s over time  will  r e g i s t e r d i r e c t i o n a l movements, so f u t u r e r e p l i c a t i o n s of the present experiment  a t d i f f e r e n t student age l e v e l s might  yield  i n f o r m a t i o n more f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h i n g the nature, through show-  3d Ing t h e i r development,  of the response f a c t o r s t h a t were  measured here. F i n a l l y , the r a d a r analogy o f f e r s a c a u t i o n .  The  scanner most c l e a r l y p i c k s up g e n e r a l groupings o r movements. Massed "blips and gross movements tend t o obscure l e s s e r p a t t e r n s . T h i s study, t o o , as a f i r s t enquiry, d e a l t mainly w i t h gross movements and g e n e r a l i t i e s .  I f i t d i d not r e g i s t e r s m a l l e r  p a t t e r n s and movements t h a t might o n l y be because  i t was not  equipped to f i n d them. Some Aspects of Response:  The Present Study  Expressed ( W r i t t e n ) Response The t a n g i b l e f a c e t of response chosen f o r the p r e s e n t study was i t s v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n .  I t i s t r u e t h a t the elements  of w r i t i n g about l i t e r a t u r e "are not n e c e s s a r i l y i d e n t i c a l w i t h the  elements o f response" i t s e l f . ^  A l l t h a t i s thought,  felt,  26 or  even spoken w i l l  not be w r i t t e n down.  When i t i s , w r i t i n g  tends t o impose i t s own l o g i c upon response.  And w r i t t e n  response i s i n f l u e n c e d by e d u c a t i o n a l background:  nations or  c u l t u r e s , i t i s known, and p o s s i b l y i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s or s c h o o l areas t o o , f o s t e r d i s t i n c t i v e modes of approach t o and ex27 p r e s s i o n about l i t e r a t u r e . ' On the other hand t h e r e were advantages w r i t t e n response: and "measurement";  i n using  i t i s the f a c e t most s u s c e p t i b l e t o a n a l y s i s i t i s the one most w i d e l y probed i n r e s e a r c h ;  a student used to w r i t i n g i n response  t o p o e t r y , but not t o  b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d p e r s o n a l l y or t a l k i n g i n i s o l a t i o n ,  may  express i n w r i t i n g something much c l o s e r t o the " p s y c h o l o g i c a l event"  of responding than he would i n an i n t e r v i e w ; because the  person who  evaluated h i s w r i t i n g i s more d i s t a n t than an  inter-  viewer, the student might have l e s s f e a r of o f f e n d i n g him l e s s d e s i r e t o o f f e n d him); and w r i t t e n response  (or  i s a form  28 v a l u e d by t e a c h e r s . Since students were randomly a s s i g n e d t o  experimental  groups w i t h i n i n t a c t c l a s s e s , and s i n c e both student groups worked i n the same ( w r i t t e n ) response mode, d i f f e r i n g  facility  i n e x p r e s s i o n between students should not have caused any  con-  29 founding of v a r i a b l e s .  7  Free Response In s p i t e of the l a b o u r i t demands, the f r e e  response  technique seems t o many t e a c h e r s and r e s e a r c h e r s , and f o r many purposes,  the most a c c e p t a b l e method by which t o probe l i t e r a r y 30  response. I n s o f a r as i t d e a l s with the student's own, ideas and words, f r e e response  offers a relatively  unprompted,  direct  approach t o deeper r e s p o n s e - - i n c l u d i n g u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e s . For the same reasons, i t p r e s e r v e s the p e r s o n a l q u a l i t y of response  i n a l l i t s complexity,  i n t e g r i t y and t e x t u r e .  ' F u r t h e r , i t ensures t h a t the d i r e c t i o n of an  enquiry  and i t s modes of a n a l y s i s do not predetermine  response p a t t e r n s  t o the same.extent as do many other approaches.  Techniques  l i k e p e r s o n a l q u e s t i o n i n g , or instruments l i k e m u l t i p l e choice q u e s t i o n s e t s and semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s o f t e n mould the r e sponses  they pretend t o d i s c o v e r .  f r e e response may  By c o n t r a s t , an a n a l y s i s of  follow a subject's expression i n several  d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s and to s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s .  It is  exceedingly important i n p i o n e e r work t o a v o i d the i m p o s i t i o n of a p r i o r i p a t t e r n s upon response. allowed to announce themselves.  Response p a t t e r n s must be .  They should be  only g e n e r a l l y and as p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  anticipated  F o r these reasons, a t  l e a s t , f r e e - r e s p o n s e possessed a p a r t i c u l a r v a l i d i t y f o r t h i s study. I t i s t r u e t h a t f r e e response does not e l i m i n a t e p r e v i o u s l y - l e a r n e d response p a t t e r n s or the i n f l u e n c e of part i c u l a r experimental formats, procedures, and Still,  instructions.  response w i l l always compromise between " i n d i v i d u a l i t y "  and o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s .  -And  s i n c e , i n the present study,  twenty-four c l a s s e s were i n v o l v e d , response p a t t e r n s should not have been simply a r t i f a c t s of, or confoundings i n l e a r n e d response p a t t e r n s . fact,  with, d i f f e r e n c e s  (No such d i f f e r e n c e s were, i n  detected.) There  i s s t i l l the danger t h a t an a n a l y t i c a l scheme  can f o r c e responses  i n t o i t s own  p r o c r u s t e a n bed, d i s t o r t i n g or  31 obscuring t h e i r n a t u r e .  But because a n a l y t i c a l p a t t e r n s can  be e s t a b l i s h e d post p r i o r i , because they can be a l t e r e d ,  and  36" because s e v e r a l can be used a t o n c e — a s the sponses suggest or allow--the  intact free re-  danger can be minimized.  This  p o i n t i s r e i n f o r c e d somewhat by the number of d i f f e r e n t analyt i c a l schemes t h a t have been c r e a t e d  f o r d i f f e r e n t response  32 materials.  I t i s s i m i l a r l y r e i n f o r c e d by an o f t e n expressed  s a t i s f a c t i o n — . u l t i m a t e l y s u b j e c t i v e , yes, but f i g u r e s — t h a t the i d e n t i f i e d p a t t e r n s The  from  do inhere  IEA team, Sussams, Smith T y l e r et a l . , and  have r e p o r t e d  their  respected  i n the  material.  Loban r e s p e c t i v e l y  experiences:  T h i s expressed response e x i s t s i n a p a t t e r n which can be d e s c r i b e d . . . ~ ~ [ i t a l i c s mine] no-one can read through t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s — t h e r e are w e l l over 600 of them--without f i n d i n g c e r t a i n impressions t a k i n g shape i n h i s m i n d . ^ [ i t a l i c s mine] These comments were s o r t e d u n t i l the f o l l o w i n g w i d e l y p r e v a l e n t modes of response were d i s c o v e r e d . ^ [ i t a l i c s mine] By r e a d i n g a l l of the responses to "Miss B r i l l " s e v e r a l times, the experimenter became aware t h a t they ordered themselves i n t o d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s and t h a t a design f o r content a n a l y s i s could be,, developed on the b a s i s of the systematic character of responses to a s i n g l e s t o r y . [first I have had extant  the same experience.  i t a l i c s mine]  I a l s o have had  to r e j e c t  a n a l y t i c a l schemes because they f a i l e d to d e a l adequately  with the p a t t e r n s  e s t a b l i s h e d by the p i l o t study responses  and,  l a t e r , by the f u l l study responses. The  f r e e response technique, then, helps  avoid  the  37 i m p o s i t i o n of c a t e g o r i e s upon responses. "right-answer"  syndrome.  Research  I t a l s o counters  with a t t i t u d e s c a l e s and  p e r i e n c e with m u l t i p l e choice t e s t s i n d i c a t e t h a t students tend t o answer i n the way  the exwill  they t h i n k the t e a c h e r or r e s e a r c h e r 37  would answer or p r e f e r them t o answer. '  Such a c o n d i t i o n i s  d i s t u r b i n g even i n "comprehension" t e s t i n g ;  i n s t u d i e s designed  p r i m a r i l y t o gauge p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s , and  depending  upon t h e i r f r a n k e x p r e s s i o n , i t cannot be e n t e r t a i n e d . - ^  Rather  than ask the reader to concur with, and second-guess, a p r e determined  " r i g h t " answer (as a q u e s t i o n s e t might) i t seemed  more a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h i s study to a l l o w him to c o n s t r u c t h i s own meanings and s i g n i f i c a n c e s .  7  P r e c i s e l y because f r e e response  does not  direct  students towards any s p e c i f i c areas or "answers," some r e s e a r c h ers have f e a r e d t h a t the technique w i l l not produce data s u f f i c i e n t l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r r e s e a r c h - i n t e r e s t or s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on key v a r i a b l e s to make i t worth-while  using.  de-  But most implemented r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s u s i n g f r e e - r e s p o n s e have 41 demonstrated t h a t the f e a r i s m i s p l a c e d . study a l s o a l l a y e d the f e a r :  the response  P i l o t work f o r t h i s data bore  closely  on  the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s and e x h i b i t e d s u f f i c i e n t v a r i a n c e to encourage f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n . without d i r e c t prompting  B e s i d e s , d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t emerge  are more l i k e l y to be of e d u c a t i o n a l  and c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e than those t h a t must be t e a z e d out. For a l l these reasons  f r e e response  seemed a sound  technique w i t h which to open the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o Canadian  33 student l i t e r a r y response. configurations f i r s t ; shape.  I t i s d i s p o s e d t o map broad response  i t does not, i n h e r e n t l y , p r e d i c t  their  I t s product should be a n e u t r a l d e s c r i p t i o n upon which  subsequent  q u e s t i o n s o f r e s p o n s e - q u a l i t y , t e a c h i n g approach, 4-2  and the l i k e ing the  can be framed.  Other p i o n e e r i n g s t u d i e s ,  includ-  the IEA p r o j e c t , have s t a r t e d a t the same p o i n t and assumed 4-3 same p r e d i c a t i o n . J  Immediate Response The term "response" must be narrowed t h a t i t may be observed. s e v e r a l reasons.  still  f u r t h e r so  "Immediate" response was chosen f o r  I t has i t s own, i n h e r e n t , i n t e r e s t and  importance f o r t e a c h i n g .  Gauging response a t a f i r s t  sitting  reduces the number o f extraneous v a r i a b l e s a c t i n g upon response. Lb, And immediate response may maximize a t t i t u d i n a l v a r i a b l e s . To measure immediate  response i s not t o deny t h a t  response may change—though g r e a t change s h o u l d not be too f r e e l y assumed.^  Nor does a response w r i t t e n a t a f i r s t r e a d i n g  deny the r e a d e r a p e r i o d of i n i t i a l r e f l e c t i o n . p e r i o d between r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g was encouraged study.  (See below, pp.  86-7.)  A reflection i n the present  39 ANALYZING RESPONSE:  CONTENT ANALYSIS  Content A n a l y s i s i n General Content A n a l y s i s  Defined  Content a n a l y s i s attempts, i n i t s v a r i o u s forms, t o c o n t r o l the amorphous and e l u s i v e q u a l i t i e s o f v e r b a l s i o n by s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d e s c r i b i n g and counting  expres-  recurring  46 categories  o f m a n i f e s t content.  The c a t e g o r i e s  i n a content  a n a l y s i s scheme a r e u s u a l l y shaped, not only t o r e f l e c t a c c u r a t e l y the content, but a l s o t o y i e l d data r e l e v a n t t o s p e c i f i c hypotheses.  Results  can be expressed n u m e r i c a l l y and  thus made s u s c e p t i b l e t o s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . The  p r i n c i p l e behind content a n a l y s i s i s not new:  Anybody who has ever looked a t w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s or l i s t e n e d to t a l k or speeches and thought of ways t o c a t e g o r i z e and order the elements t h e r e i n has been u s i n g content a n a l y s i s . . . . i t has been i n use i n f o r m a l l y f o r a long t i m e . ^  Even s o - c a l l e d q u a l i t a t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e modes o f a n a l y s i s f r e q u e n t l y employ q u a n t i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s and terms, l i k e 48 "repeatedly,"  " r a r e l y , " " u s u a l l y , " and " o f t e n . "  Behavioural  s c i e n c e has merely a p p l i e d e x p l i c i t n e s s , r i g o u r , and f o r m a l i t y to the i d e a , requiring., t h a t an i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f s p e c u l a t i o n and  enquiry  w i t h such d e s c r i p t i o n s be f o l l o w e d by, f i r s t , the  formulation,  d e f i n i t i o n , and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f c a t e g o r i e s , and-; 49 then by a more or l e s s r i g o r o u s a n a l y s i s i n t h e i r terms. y  40 Content a n a l y s i s has r e c e i v e d i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n i n recent years.  I t s widespread use i n communications  research  l e d t o f o r m a l reviews i n B e r e l s o n (195 ) and Muehl (I96I). 2  I t s use i n important l i t e r a r y response s t u d i e s by such f i g u r e s as R i c h a r d s , Taba, Meckel, Loban, S q u i r e , and the IEA g r e a t l y e l e v a t e d i t s s t a t u s i n t h a t f i e l d , where i t i s now w i d e l y and 51 v a r i o u s l y employed. The Reasons f o r Choosing Content A n a l y s i s The d e c i s i o n s t o use f r e e response and content a n a l y s i s were, i n f a c t , one.  F r e e responses cannot e a s i l y be  analyzed and a p p l i e d t o hypotheses  or r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s except  by some form o f content a n a l y s i s .  The technique p r o v i d e d a  means by which t o c o n t r o l t h i s enquiry once p a t t e r n s had been found.  I t was w e l l - s u i t e d t o cope with the more than 500  response p r o t o c o l s t h a t were generated. Content a n a l y s i s has other advantages.  Because i t  does not preshape the content under a n a l y s i s , the technique permits a l t e r n a t i v e p a t t e r n s or a n a l y t i c a l modes t o be a p p l i e d . Statements w i t h i n c a t e g o r i e s remain a l i v e to examination. thus meets, t o some degree, the s e v e r a l o b j e c t i o n s t h a t be r a i s e d t o the e m p i r i c a l assessment  of response:  It  might  that  cate-  g o r i z a t i o n v i o l a t e s the " e s s e n t i a l dynamics o f the t r a n s a c t i o n " ; that i t i s b l i n d t o the p e c u l i a r complexity o f l i t e r a r y r e sponse;-^  and t h a t , as i n gross or p o o r l y adapted  applications, 54  i t hides sub-behaviours w i t h i n or between i t s c a t e g o r i e s .  41 Problems with Content A n a l y s i s Of course content a n a l y s i s i s not without First,  problems.  i t i s extremely time-consuming by comparison with most  measurement t e c h n i q u e s .  Second, the gap between humanistic  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p or complexity and e m p i r i c a l q u a n t i t a t i v e behaviours  cannot be f u l l y b r i d g e d even by supplementary  niques.-^  Intended  a m b i g u i t i e s , v a r i e d l e v e l s o f meaning, nuance,  and so on, may defy t h e content a n a l y s t .  The o b j e c t i v i t y and  s i m p l i c i t y o f the technique must not be mistaken ness.  for. complete-  T h i r d , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the f a c t t h a t content a n a l y s i s i s  always a p p l i e d t o responses  p r e v i o u s l y made and u s u a l l y o n l y  a f t e r c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o p a t t e r n s i n those responses, still  tech-  impose p a t t e r n s upon them.  i t may  F o u r t h , even the d i s t i n c t i o n  between m a n i f e s t and l a t e n t content, o f which t h e former i s normally the s u b j e c t of a n a l y s i s , cannot always be s u s t a i n e d . The  " w h a t - i s - s a i d " i s sometimes so i n e x t r i c a b l y bound up with  the "why" and "how" t h a t i t cannot be f u l l y understood r e f e r e n c e t o them.-^  F i f t h , f o r most of the reasons  without  listed,  the v a l i d i t y of any g i v e n a n a l y s i s scheme cannot be unequivocally established.  Though cases can be made t o support a  p a r t i c u l a r scheme, i t s v a l i d i t y i s u l t i m a t e l y a " f a c e " v a l i d i t y : it  i s v a l i d t o each reader i n p r o p o r t i o n as he accepts i t s  terms. These r e s e r v a t i o n s having been noted, was  still  the best a n a l y t i c a l procedure  content a n a l y s i s  f o r the present  purpose.  42 Care was  taken, both i n d e v e l o p i n g the system i t s e l f and i n  employing  supplementary  a n a l y s i s , t o reduce  i t s shortcomings.  C r i t e r i a f o r Developing a Content A n a l y s i s Scheme There are three c r i t e r i a , apart from t h a t demanding s i m p l i c i t y and  clarity,usually  content a n a l y s i s scheme. discussed:  considered i n developing a  The most important has a l r e a d y been  the scheme should c l o s e l y f o l l o w , or be d e r i v e d  from, the m a t e r i a l being analyzed; a n a l y t i c a l u n i t s should be developed  only a f t e r sample m a t e r i a l has been c l o s e l y  scruti-  nized.'^  Second, the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s should determine  which  of the v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s t h a t can be t r a c e d ( o r items t h a t can be 60 found) i n any g i v e n content w i l l be submitted t o a n a l y s i s . T h i r d , a c r i t e r i o n subordinate to the f i r s t two,  i s t h a t which  6l seeks g e n e r a l i z a t i o n .  There i s added v a l u e i n a scheme t h a t  r e f e r s beyond i t s s p e c i f i c concerns  to some other scheme,  a n a l y t i c a l system, or t h e o r y . One  d i f f i c u l t y i n a p p l y i n g the t h i r d c r i t e r i o n i s  t h a t i t can d i s t o r t the primary study; t r u e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y is d i f f i c u l t  to establish.  A conspicuous  example of t h i s  d i f f i c u l t y i s f u r n i s h e d by the Purves-Rippere of W r i t i n g About a L i t e r a r y Work."  I t was  scheme "Elements  designed i n connec-  t i o n with the IEA i n t e r n a t i o n a l study but the breadth of t h a t study and r e s e a r c h enthusiasm currency.  Now  have l e n t the scheme wider  an i n c r e a s i n g number of r e s e a r c h e r s , a l l with  t h e i r d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l s , purposes  and assumptions are  finding  t h a t i t does not meet t h e i r needs.  In f a c t the N a t i o n a l A s s e s s -  ment of E d u c a t i o n a l Progress has added t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s to Purves's o r i g i n a l f o u r . ^  Schemes o t h e r t h a n Purves's prove  64 the same p o i n t .  What B e r e l s o n wrote i n 1 9 5 2  of communica-  t i o n s a n a l y s i s i s s t i l l t r u e today of l i t e r a r y - r e s p o n s e a n a l y s i s i t i s premature to attempt t o formulate content analysis categories f o r a p p l i c a t i o n to a l l problems and a l l m a t e r i a l s . ^  The Scheme Used i n T h i s  Study  The Need The Scheme ( h e r e a f t e r c a p i t a l i z e d ) used i n t h i s study was  developed to analyze p i l o t r e s p o n s e - m a t e r i a l a f t e r  schemes proved inadequate.  I n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to the study  and c l e a r l y present i n the response m a t e r i a l was drawn i n t o c a t e g o r i e s i n any u s e f u l The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n U n i t :  not being  way.  Its Physical  Parameters  C a t e g o r i z a t i o n was made on semantic grounds study was was  existing  concerned with meanings.  s i n c e the  The c a t e g o r i z a t i o n u n i t  the s i n g l e "statement" ( o t h e r s have v a r i o u s l y c a l l e d i t an  "assertion,".an "idea," a "proposition," a "thought-unit," a "communication"  and so on).  I t s l e n g t h was  determined by  con-  s i s t e n c y of statement or continued correspondence t o a coding category or s e t of c a t e g o r i e s .  The statement was  have ended when the coder found he needed a new  judged to  category or  44 s e t of c a t e g o r i e s to r e f l e c t the content. Grammatical u n i t s were r e j e c t e d "because semantic elements  several  of response can be merged i n one c l a u s e or  sentence and because  one semantic element  l a p s e v e r a l grammatical u n i t s .  of response can over-  Indeed, the w r i t t e n s t y l e  that  f r e e response a l l o w s the responder to use o f t e n obscures the parameters  of the grammatical u n i t i t s e l f .  With these  problems,  to code the l a t t e r would have been to s c r e e n u n n e c e s s a r i l y the 66 mam  enquiry. D e c i s i o n s on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n were p e r m i t t e d to take  context beyond the u n i t i n t o account. was  I n t h i s way  the Scheme  b e t t e r equipped to cope with o b s c u r i t i e s w i t h i n the  classi-  f i c a t i o n u n i t and with response u n i t y and complexity. Response complexity was  a l s o met by the m u l t i p l e  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of statement u n i t s where t h e i r content i n d i c a t e d m u l t i p l e meaning.  Many statements r e c e i v e d more than one  placement. The Number of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n U n i t s The  chosen number of c a t e g o r i e s was  governed  jointly  by the nature of the f i n a l response m a t e r i a l and the r e s e a r c h questions.  Optimum a n a l y t i c a l coherence and r e l i a b i l i t y seemed  to e x i s t at the present number ( i . e . 11, see below, Table I ) . A supplementary a n a l y s i s " W i t h i n and A c r o s s " (see below p . 9 1 ) was  designed to cut a c r o s s the main a n a l y t i c a l scheme and  offer  alternative The Meaning  viewings. o f Each Category (Table I i s a summary o f the  categories.)  TABLE I THE CONTENT ANALYSIS SCHEME:  CATEGORY HEADINGS  1.  Evaluation  2,  Comprehension  3.  Description - Recapitulation  4.  Transfer - Place  5.  Transfer - Special  6.  Visualisation  7.  Involvement  8.  Depth  9.  Interpretation  10.  Form  11.  Dictums and P r e d i s p o s i t i o n s  The meaning, and v a l i d i t y ,  o f each category  upon the degree o f "sameness" betweenrstatements  depends  placed  46 together.  To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s "sameness" and. t o a l l o w the  present reader to a s c e r t a i n the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the l a b e l s and d e s c r i p t i o n s g i v e n each category, examples o f statements  are d i s p l a y e d below.  (Some examples of complete  response p r o t o c o l s are d i s p l a y e d i n Appendix IV, Sometimes i n response phrases  response  A.)  p r o t o c o l s , a p p a r e n t l y simple  can s t r i k e d i f f e r e n t readers or the same reader i n  d i f f e r e n t ways. the responder  F o r example, " t h i s i n t e r e s t s me"  can mean t h a t  i s beginning t o be a t t r a c t e d t o a work, t h a t he i s  beginning to t h i n k through an i d e a t h a t the poem has to him,  suggested  or t h a t he f i n d s the poem to be of a type which has  always i n t e r e s t e d him and which, a c c o r d i n g l y , he " l i k e s . " words under each category show what p o l i c y was c o n s i s t e n t coding i n such cases. upon these d e c i s i o n s . several categories.  Any  Key  decided upon f o r  Notes sometimes e l a b o r a t e  statement  c o u l d be p l a c e d i n  I t s appearance (below) i n one,  on what  be r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t grounds, does not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e o v e r s i g h t of the more obvious  Categories  "value" (see below, p.  54,  content,  What the  Represent). The  f o l l o w i n g statements  are p r i n t e d as the  students  wrote them. (l)  an  placement.  Placement i n a category depended upon m a n i f e s t not upon the statement's  may  Evaluation Statements i n which the student expresses, of the  t o t a l poems  "enjoyment," " p l e a s u r e , " " l i k i n g , " . e t c .  (positive);  or t h e i r opposites ( n e g a t i v e ) .  T h i s category b r i n g s t o g e t h e r  statements  i n d i c a t e s h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n or  i n which the student  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the whole poem. e.g.  positives I l i k e d the poem more than the other one. O v e r a l l I found #2 the most enjoyable. negatives But I d i d n ' t l i k e i t v e r y w e l l . They're not e i t h e r what I would c a l l good poems.  Notess (i)  T h i s category excludes  evaluative  statements  t h a t apply o n l y t o p a r t s or f e a t u r e s of t h e poem, t o the scene i t p o r t r a y s , or t o the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of the recorded  presenta-  tions. (ii) dimension  The category d u p l i c a t e s , t o some extent, t h a t  o f e v a l u a t i v e response  measured by the L i k e r t  p r e f e r e n c e s c a l e (see below, p. 159).  type  Since a l l students  responded t o the s c a l e , and s i n c e the s c a l e measured  intensity  of p r e f e r e n c e t o some degree, the o v e r a l l p r o f i l e o f student p r e f e r e n c e between poems was taken from t h a t s c a l e .  Category  1  served t o show the p r e f e r e n c e s only of those students who cared to express  them f r e e l y .  There was a h i g h degree o f a s s o c i a t i o n  48 between the L i k e r t s c a l e and. Category 1 (see below, p. 61). (2)  Comprehension Statements  i n which the student r e f e r s t o r e a d i n g and  "understanding" d i f f i c u l t i e s less direct  or t h e i r o p p o s i t e s , i n more or  terms.  P o s i t i v e r e l a t e s t o p o s i t i v e "understanding," grasped "meaning" (but not " m e a n i n g f u l n e s s " — s e e ment), " c l a r i t y , "  etc. (positive);  Category 7» I n v o l v e -  or t h e i r o p p o s i t e s (nega-  t ive). e.g.  positive: #1 poem seemed e a s i e r t o understand  overall.  Poem #2 i s a l s o e a s i e r t o read. negative: I t h i n k poem #1 i s not c l e a r , i t doesn't get the message a c r o s s . A l l this (3)  j u s t makes i t hard t o understand.  Description-Recapitulation Statements  i n which the student simply d e s c r i b e s t h e  landscape p o r t r a y e d i n the poem, o f f e r i n g no i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . e.g. T h i s stream s t a r t i n g on a mountain t o p and running down through i t s l i f e u n t i l i t reaches the sea. Through the f o r e s t s and eroded d e b r i s .  The clouds are d r i f t i n g s l o w l y a c r o s s the sky, and the water i s q u i t e s t i l l . (4-)  Transfer-Place.• Statements s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f y i n g the scene or  s e t t i n g p o r t r a y e d i n the poem. e.g.  positive: I t reminds me o f our mountains the morning a f t e r a super hot day. I t reminded me o f a mountain I saw one time while going through the Rockies. negative: I t t e l l s you how the s i t u a t i o n i s without people and you compare i t w i t h your own p l a c e s or known p l a c e s with people. "The Scene" i s j u s t l i k e a Shagra-La s e t up. An imaginary make-believe world.  (5)  Transfer-Special T r a n s f e r statements  the student.  r e l a t i n g to the world known t o  The student says, e x p l i c i t l y or i m p l i c i t l y , " t h  i s the way my world i s " or " i s not." I n d i c a t o r s i n c l u d e : ""believable," " t r u e , " " r e a l , " " r e l e v a n t , " e t c . ( p o s i t i v e ) ; or t h e i r o p p o s i t e s ( n e g a t i v e ) . e.g.  positive: The f i r s t one was e a s i e r t o understand i t dealt with a very r e a l s i t u a t i o n .  because  T h i s poem moved me i n a s p e c i a l way because I have had s i m i l a r happenings on the waters. I t g i v e s me a more r e l a x e d f e e l i n g than the second one because e v e r y t h i n g seems t o be more normal. There i s s t i l l the l i f e l e s s n e s s but i t i s a l l r i g h t i n the f i r s t poem. The e n v i r o n ment agrees with the l i f e l e s s n e s s . negative: I have always thought o f water as moving t h i n g t h a t i s v e r y a l i v e . l i n e of the poem though the water as e v e r y t h i n g e l s e . I t i s asleep to e x i s t e n c e .  a continuously In the above i s as l i f e l e s s and i n d i f f e r e n t  I have never seen l i k e i t [ F a l l ] d e s c r i b e d i n the poem. The s e t t i n g i s d e f i n i t e l y somewhere e l s e . (6)  Visualisation Statements i n which the student  indicates,  i n rela-  t i v e l y d i r e c t terms, t h a t he i s a b l e t o "see" c l e a r l y or v i v i d l y the scene p o r t r a y e d i n the poem. e.g.  positive: You can r e a l l y see the mud and o l d r o t t e d I could p i c t u r e  posts.  the scene r i g h t away.  negative: In the second one you can't r e a l l y see the scene. For the second poem I cannot t h i n k o f anything t h a t suggests a s e t t i n g of some k i n d . . . i t i s too c o n f u s i n g and I myself can't s o r t i t out.  (7)  Involvement Statements i n which the student i n d i c a t e s t h a t he  became "caught up" i n the poem, through words or statements like:  " d e p r e s s i n g , " " s u s p e n s e f u l , " "moving," " g r i p p i n g , "  " i n t e r e s t i n g , " "reminding," and VI f e l t (positive);  or t h e i r opposites  I was t h e r e , " e t c .  (negative).  e.g. p o s i t i v e : I found the poem t o be slow, sad, and d e p r e s s i n g . T h i s poem i s so f u l l  o f mystery and energy.  negative: N e i t h e r poem made me f e e l r e l a x e d , tense, o r anything else. [The poem] only t o l d you about i t not r e a l l y l e t you see, f e e l , or hear the i n s i d e s of i t . Note: T h i s category i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from Category 1 ( E v a l u a t i o n ) i n t h a t i t c o n t a i n s statements l e s s d i s t a n c e d and judgmental than those i n 1.  The f o l l o w i n g statement i s scored  under Category 1 f o r "good" and Category 7 f o r " i n t e r e s t i n g " : The second poem wasn't as good or i n t e r e s t i n g as the f i r s t . (8)  Depth Statements i n which the student a t t r i b u t e s depth o f  meaning t o the poem, e.g. p o s i t i v e : To me i t has a l o t more meaning to i t . The f i r s t one was v e r y deep and hard t o understand, a t l e a s t f o r me. negative: I t h i n k maybe t h i s poem i s too c l e a r or t e l l s you too much. This i n h i b i t s me t o l e t my i m a g i n a t i o n go. The f i r s t poem does not have much meaning to i t . (9)  Interpretation Statements i n which the student a s s i g n s a meaning  or meanings t o the poem. e.g. I guess the p o i n t these poems a r e t r y i n g to make i s t h a t the sea or ocean i s p e a c e f u l , secluded world on i t s own. And i t t e l l s you how some sounds never r e s t l i k e the sound o f the wind. Note: I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s a l s o approached through the a n a l ysis "Significant Adjectivals" t h a t the l a t t e r do r e v e a l (10)  (below, p. 14-3) t o the extent  interpretations.  Form Statements i n which the student r e f e r s t o s t r u c t u r a l  elements i n the poem, t o the c r a f t o f w r i t i n g g e n e r a l l y , or t o the  common s t y l i s t i c modes "by which l i t e r a r y works a r e c l a s s i -  fied. e.g. because i t was t o f u l l of vague imagery and t h i n g s that might be symbols or might n o t . I t was the word or phrase sound t h a t was important, not d i s t i n c t l y the word or phrase meaning. more p o e t i c and f l o w i n g a l s o . Note: T h i s category o f t e n c o n t a i n s , i n p r a c t i c e , many statements i n which students s u p e r f i c i a l l y , times a p p a r e n t l y d u t i f u l l y ,  l o o s e l y , and some-  use ( o r mis-use) formal terms  like  "image" and "symbol." e.g. However c o n t r a d i c t i n g symbolism a l o n g w i t h the g e n e r a l p l o t made the poem somewhat confusing. (11)  Dictums and P r e d i s p o s i t i o n s Statements i n which the student suggests by f a i r l y  direct  comment, l i t e r a r y  d e s i d e r a t a or the a t t i t u d e s w i t h which  he would approach any poem. e.g. I l i k e t o read Canadian works, e s p e c i a l l y from my own p r o v i n c e . I t h i n k i t means more t o me. I t h i n k , t o be a b l e t o make the poem express f e e l ing, t h e r e must be a great d e a l more a c t i o n . Nature i s good i n poems i f they can d e s c r i b e i t like i t i s .  What the C a t e g o r i e s  Represent  I t i s "both u s e f u l and s t a t i s t i c a l l y necessary to view each category as embodying a separate probe.  The c a t e g o r i e s ,  although they are i n t e r - r e l a t e d , are not taxonomic; not a s s i g n e d r e l a t i v e v a l u e s f o r s c o r i n g  they were  purposes.  I t i s always d i f f i c u l t , and i t seemed counter to the s p i r i t of t h i s study to a s s e r t the primacy or to p o s i t any category h i e r a r c h y .  of any one  category  Schemes f o r a n a l y z i n g 67  l i t e r a r y response are r a r e l y taxonomic,  never c o n v i n c i n g l y so.  F u r t h e r , the present study aimed to f i n d out i f p a t t e r n s e x i s t e d , not to argue  category v a l u e or, d i r e c t l y , t e a c h i n g  approaches.  S t u d i e s which attempt t o combine these g o a l s always 68 r i s k t h e i r own d i s t o r t i o n . Nor d i d t h i s study judge the 69 " q u a l i t y " or "accuracy" of responses. mainly, l e f t to l a t e r study.  Such judgment  7  S i m i l a r l y , the  was,  inter-relationship  between c a t e g o r i e s , suggested above, i s t o be examined  closely  i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h (see below, p. 166 ). Coding D e t a i l s Coding was  c a r r i e d out only a f t e r c l a s s p r o t o c o l s were  s h u f f l e d and student numbers masked (the numbers  identified  Knowledge c o n d i t i o n s ) . Each statement was number/s and by v a l e n c e .  The  s c o r e d by the a p p r o p r i a t e category c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r each whole  response p r o t o c o l (and poem p a i r ) was  obtained by c o l l a p s i n g to  55 a s i n g l e score a l l scores r e g i s t e r e d under each category f o r each poem.  These c o l l a p s e d scores were c a l l e d  "Frequency"  scores. Often the c o l l a p s e d scores d i f f e r e n t i a t e d "between poems e i t h e r "because only one poem was  scored i n t h a t  or "because v a l e n c e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the s c o r e s . automatic  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n occurred, responses  see whether some statement,  category  Where no  such  were examined to  tendency, or nuance of e x p r e s s i o n  would a l l o w d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n (as would, u s u a l l y , " e s p e c i a l l y , " l e s s so," or "not as much").  Where d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was p o s s i b l e ,  a p o s i t i v e or negative score was  a s s i g n e d to one  of the poems.  Thus, from Frequency s c o r e s , "Comparative" scores were reached by d e c i d i n g which poem, Canadian or New  Zealand,  more p o s i t i v e l y t r e a t e d i n each category.  I f no  could be made, the poems were scored e q u a l l y . were r e g i s t e r e d , a blank was  was  the  one  differentiation  I f no  scores  left.  The use of one Comparative score per occurrence,  per  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u n i t , per poem, s u s t a i n e d the r a d a r analogy  and  principle.  The  scanner r e v e a l s l o c a t i o n s and d i r e c t i o n s , mass  intensities far less precisely.  To s t a t e numbers or p r o p o r t i o n s  of words, or degrees of emphasis, i n each p r o t o c o l would have been to make demands of the f r e e response not designed to handle.  that i t i s  (A gross q u a n t i t a t i v e measure  made independent of the Scheme. The technique  technique  See below, pp. 108,  14-1  was .)  does not, f o r example, assume t h a t the l e n g t h of  5'6 each statement  corresponds t o i t s importance  i n the response.  Besides, B e r e l s o n suggests t h a t " l a r g e u n i t s o f a n a l y s i s prov i d e as a c c u r a t e a p i c t u r e of s u b j e c t matter and p a r t i s a n s h i p 70 as s m a l l u n i t s of a n a l y s i s . " ' Comparative c l a s s i f y statements.  s c o r i n g coped n e a t l y with d i f f i c u l t - t o A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n could be a r r i v e d a t  through a statement p r e v i o u s t o or subsequent troublesome.  t o t h a t which was  The dubious statement d i d not have t o be, d i r e c t l y ,  a s s e r t e d t o mean such-and-such,  as i t must i n word-counting.  Comparative-score a n a l y s i s coped i n a s i m i l a r way with r e p e t i t i o n s i n response p r o t o c o l s .  R e p e t i t i o n s d i d not,  finally,  score t w i c e . The Comparative-score a n a l y s i s used i n t h i s  study  thus p r e s e r v e d responses from undue experimental or b e h a v i o u r a l distortion. Finer Scoring Details Answers t o the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were sought by observing, i n each category, the r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s of the Comparative  s c o r e s under the d i f f e r e n t experimental c o n d i t i o n s .  To a s s i s t i n d e s c r i b i n g these f r e q u e n c i e s the Chi-Square s t a t i s t i c was employed (see below, p. 101). The s o r t i n g o f the numerical  data and some s t a t i s -  t i c a l t e s t i n g was c a r r i e d out a t the UBC Computing Centre u s i n g the program S t a t i s t i c a l Package F o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (SPSS).  57 The V a l i d i t y of the Scheme General V a l i d i t y i n content a n a l y s i s i s , however one l a b e l s i t , 71 a matter of judgment and agreement.' validity.  There i s no a b s o l u t e  W i t h i n a g i v e n scheme, i n d i v i d u a l s might d i s a g r e e  over a n y t h i n g from a p a r t i c u l a r item placement 72 p r i n c i p l e s of a n a l y s i s .  t o the b a s i c  For the present scheme, I suggest f o u r areas of judgment and p o s s i b l e agreement: ity");  t h a t "purchased"  my  own  judgment ("Claimed  Valid-  from s t u d i e s or d i s c u s s i o n s whose  a n a l y t i c a l schemes r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the p r e s e n t work ("Purchased V a l i d i t y " ) ; t h a t of others who,  on r e a d i n g t h i s  d i s s e r t a t i o n , accept the Scheme ("Attested V a l i d i t y " ) ; accumulating as other approaches the Scheme ("Accumulating Claimed  and data echo my  and  that  f i n d i n g s under  Validity").  Validity  I have a l r e a d y a s s e r t e d the v a l i d i t y of many f e a t u r e s of the Scheme.  I t r e f l e c t s w e l l the a c t u a l responses t o the  landscape poems; i t p r o v i d e s c a t e g o r i e s both capable of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g responses r e l e v a n t to the study's purposes  and  s u f f i c i e n t l y l i m i t e d to render response m a t e r i a l manageable; and i t has the c a p a c i t y t o handle m u l t i p l e meanings i n response statements.  58 Procedures t h a t I f o l l o w e d i n order to a t t a i n v a l i d i t y include:  a thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n of e x i s t i n g  post p r i o r i c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e v i s i o n ;  extensive d i r e c t  this systems; compari-  son of statements w i t h i n c a t e g o r i e s ("by s c i s s o r s - a n d - p a s t e procedures); and r e l i a b i l i t y  checks and d i s c u s s i o n s .  The  Scheme was under constant review. Purchased  Validity  E x i s t i n g schemes were the s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n the development of the Scheme.  Although the l a t t e r was  developed  because the former proved inadequate t o the present responsem a t e r i a l , r e l a t i o n s h i p s remain between the two.  Category 1,  E v a l u a t i o n , p r o v i d e s an example of such "purchased" The example, i n c i d e n t a l l y , a l s o demonstrates  validity.  the need f o r the  present Scheme. E v a l u a t i o n corresponds, i n p a r t , to the "EngagementInvolvement"  and " E v a l u a t i o n " c a t e g o r i e s of Purves's  of W r i t i n g About a L i t e r a r y Work."  Purves*s two  c o n t a i n , r e s p e c t i v e l y , statements such as: l i k e C o l e r i d g e , but 'Kubla Khan' was good p o e m s — c l e a r ,  "Elements  categories  " I do not u s u a l l y  d i f f e r e n t " ; and "These are  i n t i m a t e and l i v i n g .  ^  My  Category 1 breaks  down, f o r i t s own purposes, the d i s t i n c t i o n between the s t a t e ments t h a t Purves suggests i n h i s category t i t l e s . statements' the student p o s i t i v e l y e v a l u a t e s .  In both  To be sure, the  student i s s a y i n g other t h i n g s as w e l l but t h a t i s a response complexity t h a t my date .  Scheme, not Purves*s, i s designed t o accommo-  So i t i s with many schemes: agreement and p o i n t s o f d i f f e r e n c e . the sub-category  "General  Category  1 corresponds t o  Judgments" of Squire's scheme but  denies h i s common grouping, "I l i k e  there a r e p o i n t s of  i n t h a t category,  of statements  like  i t " ; " i t seems r e a l " ; and " i t goes i n one e a r and out 74-  the other."'  ma: However Squire a l s o maintains  between e v a l u a t i o n and  my d i s t i n c t i o n  involvement. 75  Smith, T y l e r e t a l . , f o r t h e i r l a r g e - s c a l e probe,the "Eight-Year Study," c r e a t e d a category " S a t i s f a c t i o n i n the Thing A p p r e c i a t e d " which they c h a r a c t e r i z e as f o l l o w s : A p p r e c i a t i o n manifests i t s e l f i n a f e e l i n g , on the p a r t o f the i n d i v i d u a l , o f deep s a t i s f a c t i o n i n and enthusiasm f o r the t h i n g a p p r e c i a t e d . The person who a p p r e c i a t e s a g i v e n p i e c e o f l i t e r a t u r e f i n d s i n i t an immediate, p e r s i s t e n t , and e a s i l y - r e n e w a b l e enjoyment of e x t r a o r d i n a r y intensity.^  one wants t o l e a r n whether or not a person a c t u a l l y p r e f e r s the works o f a r t with which he i s a b l e t o communicate.^  Category  1 a l s o r e l a t e s t o three c a t e g o r i e s - -  " R e c e i v i n g ( A t t e n d i n g ) , " "Responding," and " V a l u i n g " — o f Krathwohl, Bloom and Masia's Taxonomy of E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s ( A f f e c t i v e Domain). The  list  o f schemes goes on.  z a t i o n f u l l y c o i n c i d e with mine.  I n none does c a t e g o r i -  But a l l demonstrate a b e l i e f  that a response element " e v a l u a t i o n " does e x i s t .  They f u r t h e r  6o demonstrate  a wider b e l i e f i n the primary importance  ment" i n l i t e r a t u r e .  of "enjoy-  Rosenblatt confidently maintains:  teachers of E n g l i s h would deny t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  "Few  ability  to read and enjoy l i t e r a t u r e i s the primary aim of l i t e r a r y study.""^  M u l l e r speaks  i n the same v e i n :  "They [ t h e Dartmouth  Conference] agreed t h a t the t e a c h e r should choose r e a d i n g t h a t 80 i s meaningful, i n t e r e s t i n g , and enjoyable t o c h i l d r e n . " Hansson, i n defending the s u b j e c t i v i t y of e v a l u a t i o n ,  And  reminds  us t h a t t e a c h e r s and students w i l l continue " t o e v a l u a t e and to argue, a t l e a s t s i l e n t l y ,  f o r t h e i r p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e Q-l  opinions of t h e i r r e a d i n g . " A s i m i l a r v a l i d a t i o n can be purchased f o r a l l of the present Scheme's c a t e g o r i e s . Attested V a l i d i t y A t t e s t e d v a l i d i t y takes two forms f o r the p r e s e n t Scheme. bility  First  i s the i n t e n s i v e examination g i v e n i t i n r e l i a -  checking.  High r e l i a b i l i t y i n a n a l y z i n g semantic  depends upon more than " f a c e v a l i d i t y "  content  f o r the c o - s c o r e r ; i t  r e q u i r e s t h a t both s c o r e r s understand the p a r t i c u l a r scheme. 82 High r e l i a b i l i t y i n d i c a t e s a deeper v a l i d i t y .  Second, any-  one r e a d i n g t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l be, and must be, h i s judge of v a l i d i t y . announced to t h i s Accumulating  own  The Scheme's terms and procedures are  fully  end. Validity  In g e n e r a l not immediately a v a i l a b l e , t h i s form of  61 v a l i d i t y w i l l be most d i r e c t l y gained from the s p e c i f i c  future  r e s e a r c h o u t l i n e d below (see below, p. 158) i f i t produces r e s u l t s i n agreement  with those produced by the Scheme.  f i n d i n g t h a t the present study's r e s u l t s have, i n f a c t , c o n t r i b u t e d to t h i s form of v a l i d i t y , (A?  -  i s the h i g h  One already  correlation  .67***) between Category 1 ( E v a l u a t i o n ) and p r e f e r e n c e s  r e g i s t e r e d on the L i k e r t  scale.^  The R e l i a b i l i t y of the Scheme The most commonly employed  r e l i a b i l i t y formula i n  l i t e r a r y response a n a l y s i s i s Lewin's. 2 x the sum sum  I t reads  of agreements  of items checked by both examiners  Instruments a n a l y z i n g response by Lewin's formula have produced Oh  coefficients like  .85  (Lewin), .89  (Loban), and .83  (Squire). " 4  Purves c o n s i d e r s a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .75 to be h i g h i n a literature  test.^  Because of the m u l t i p l e placement p r i n c i p l e , which I considered v i t a l i n order t o r e f l e c t the o f t e n m u l t i l a y e r e d t e x t u r e of response u t t e r a n c e , the p r e s e n t Scheme could not be checked u s i n g the Lewin formula. was used i n s t e a d .  A form o f percentage o v e r l a p  An independent a n a l y s t  coded two  randomly  chosen p r o t o c o l s from each c l a s s — a t o t a l of 48 p r o t o c o l s or 10$ of the student sample.  I had a r r i v e d a t 188  Comparative  62 scores i n t h a t sample. of  The  check-coder d i f f e r e d to the  16 scores (2 more and 14 fewer).  amounted to 8.5$  and the r e l i a b i l i t y  h i g h , even by the percentage method.  Non-agreement thus e s t i m a t i o n to 9 1 . 5 $ Moreover, a good  t i o n of non-agreements were s c o r i n g omissions, between the coders  extent  on scores a c t u a l l y g i v e n .  -TV  ery  propor-  not d i f f e r e n c e s  CHAPTER I I I EXPERIMENTAL PRACTICES AND DECISIONS INTRODUCTION This discusses  chapter d e t a i l s f e a t u r e s  o f the d e s i g n and  ( a g a i n s t the background o f the e a r l i e r , more g e n e r a l ,  discussion)  the reasons f o r d e c i d i n g upon each f e a t u r e .  It is  important t o remember t h a t the d e s i g n was shaped t o r e v e a l not the  i n t r i c a c i e s o f p o s s i b l e response t o any g i v e n poem but  g e n e r a l i z e d response s e t s with r e s p e c t  t o the chosen poems as  groups. 1  DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS  Note: The d e f i n i t i o n s immediately f o l l o w i n g r e l a t e t o the broad design. (Some other terms, such as those used t o d e s c r i b e content a n a l y s i s c a t e g o r i e s and s t a t i s t i c a l u n i t s , are d e f i n e d elsewhere.) C a p i t a l i z a t i o n o f the key terms w i l l now r e p l a c e quotations marks. Poem O r i g i n s Poem O r i g i n s :  the g e o g r a p h i c a l  landscape i s p o r t r a y e d ,  area  ( r e g i o n or n a t i o n ) whose  or i s o s t e n s i b l y p o r t r a y e d ,  by a par-  t i c u l a r poem—as i n Canadian, Rest-of-Canada, B r i t i s h or New Zealand  Columbia,  poetry.  Canadian (Can) Poetry:  E n g l i s h poetry  (not a t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o  E n g l i s h ) p o r t r a y i n g a scene t h a t i s , or could e a s i l y be,Canadian.  64B r i t i s h Columbia (BC) Poetry ( R e g i o n a l ) :  E n g l i s h p o e t r y (not a  t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o E n g l i s h ) p o r t r a y i n g a scene t h a t i s , or could e a s i l y be, i n B r i t i s h Rest-of-Canada  Columbia.  (RC) Poetry:  Canadian p o e t r y other than t h a t  d e f i n e d as B r i t i s h Columbia p o e t r y . New Zealand  (NZ) Poetry:  E n g l i s h p o e t r y (not a t r a n s l a t i o n  into  E n g l i s h ) p o r t r a y i n g a scene t h a t i s , or could e a s i l y be, i n New Zealand. CAN/NZ:  poem p a i r s made up o f CAN and NZ works.  RC/NZ:  poem p a i r s made up o f RC and NZ works.  BC/NZ:  poem p a i r s made up o f BC and NZ works.  Student O r i g i n s Student O r i g i n s :  the r e g i o n or n a t i o n i n which students r e s i d e d  d u r i n g a l l o f the f i v e years immediately  p r e c e d i n g the study  (from and i n c l u d i n g 1970). Canadian Students:  students whose O r i g i n s a r e i n Canada.  B r i t i s h Columbia Students: British  students whose O r i g i n s are i n  Columbia.  Rest-of-Canada  Students:  students whose O r i g i n s are i n Canada  but not i n B r i t i s h  Columbia.  F o r e i g n Students:  students whose O r i g i n s are not i n Canada.  Student Knowledge, Awareness, and R e c o g n i t i o n Knowledge:  a student's awareness t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r poem was  w r i t t e n i n , or p o r t r a y s , the landscape o f a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n or n a t i o n . Pre-Knowledge:  a student's Knowledge i n advance o f the e x p e r i -  mental s e s s i o n . Deduced Knowledge:  a student's Knowledge by reason o f the  student's n o t i c i n g or f e e l i n g i n one poem (and i n the absence of Given Knowledge) evidence by which he c o r r e c t l y a s s i g n s t o it  i t s Origin.  Given Knowledge (GK): a student's Knowledge by reason o f h i s being g i v e n , i n an experimental s e s s i o n , a poem p a i r o f which one poem i s l a b e l l e d "A Canadian Poem" or "A B.C. Poem" and the other poem i s l a b e l l e d " Non-Canadian; VDenied Knowledge (DK): a student's l a c k o f Knowledge o f both poems presented t o him.  I t i s the counterpart and o p p o s i t e o f  the experimental treatment Given Knowledge. Awareness, b e i n g Aware: procedures  or purposes  a student who i s aware o f the study's b e f o r e he has completed  h i s free  response  i s deemed t o be Aware. Recognize,  Recognition:  a behaviour by which the student  signi-  f i e s t h a t he possesses Knowledge t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r poem p o r t r a y s the landscape of a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n or n a t i o n .  66 E x t e n s i v e Canadian Reading!  a student's c o n t a c t with  Canadian  l i t e r a t u r e when t h a t contact i s r e g i s t e r e d as 4 or 5 on the s c a l e "What Do You Know o f These Poems?" THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Poem O r i g i n s General To c o n t r o l O r i g i n s was the obvious method by which t o o b t a i n a r e l a t i v e measure o f the e f f e c t s o f Canadian poems on Canadian student responses.  P i l o t s t u d i e s u s i n g a Rest-of-  Canada / New Zealand comparison produced v a r i a n c e s t r e n g t h e n i n g this  assumption.  The English-Canada / New Zealand (CAN/NZ)  Comparison  An experimental comparison i s best made between items d i f f e r i n g on key p o i n t s but a l i k e i n other r e s p e c t s so t h a t extraneous v a r i a b l e s a r e reduced t o a minimum.  The l i t e r a t u r e s  of English-Canada and New Zealand p r o v i d e d such a E n g l i s h l i t e r a r y development both are B r i t i s h "Older Dominions"—has  comparison.  i n the two c o u n t r i e s — involved a p a r a l l e l pre-  occupation with landscape and a remarkable s i m u l t a n e i t y i n breaking, from about the 1 9 3 0 s , w i t h o l d e r , "imported," p o e t i c traditions.  The p a i r i n g o f poems from these c o u n t r i e s thus  seemed more j u s t i f i e d than would, say the p a i r i n g o f Canadian and B r i t i s h landscape poems.  The Rest-of-Canada / B r i t i s h Columbia The Canada / New  Comparison  Zealand comparison  (RC/NZ cf. BC/NZ)  could he e n r i c h e d ,  without b e i n g d i s t o r t e d , by a r e g i o n a l sub-comparison. comparison was the  sub-  designed to show ( p r i m a r i l y ) whether p o e t r y of  students* own r e g i o n produced a response d i f f e r e n t to t h a t  produced by the Rest-of-Canada p o e t r y . was  The  A concern with r e g i o n  reviewed i n Chapter I, I assumed t h a t the whole range of BC landscape would  be f a m i l i a r t o Vancouver to mountain a dry-belt.  s t u d e n t s , through t h e i r d a i l y p r o x i m i t y  and sea and through an awareness of the Okanagan as The l a t t e r p o i n t was  p o e t r y d e a l s mostly with mountain sample r e f l e c t e d t h a t .  not c r i t i c a l :  BC landscape  and seascape and the p o e t r y  Students who  had not l i v e d i n BC f o r the  f i v e years immediately p r e c e d i n g the study were e l i m i n a t e d from the  main a n a l y s i s (see below,  p.88)  Knowledge of O r i g i n s To c o n t r o l Knowledge seemed the best way  to f i n d  whether d i f f e r e n c e s i n response, to n a t i o n a l and f o r e i g n p o e t r y , i f they o c c u r r e d , depended upon students b e i n g d i r e c t e d  towards  poem d i f f e r e n c e s or whether response d i f f e r e n c e could be t r i g g e r e d by f a c t o r s i n h e r e n t i n the poems. to  As an example, the former  was  be assumed t r u e i f d i f f e r e n c e s i n response o c c u r r e d only with  l a b e l l e d poems ( G i v e n Knowledge). based upon Given Knowledge was  The absence  of d i f f e r e n c e s  not to be, i n i t s e l f ,  grounds  to  68 deny the e x i s t e n c e I f O r i g i n s was  of a p r i o r a t t i t u d e towards t h i n g s  Canadian.  a v e r y powerful determinant of response i t might  have overwhelmed any  e f f e c t s r e l a t e d to the labels."''  Pilot  s t u d i e s , however, because they showed v a r i a n c e based on Given Knowledge, i n d i c a t e d both t h a t O r i g i n s would not Knowledge and  overwhelm  t h a t the l a b e l would be a s u f f i c i e n t t r i g g e r . THE  LITERARY MATERIAL  Literature The i n t e r e s t s and responses. questions,  choice of l i t e r a r y m a t e r i a l r e f l e c t e d my the g e n e r a l need f o r more knowledge of  I n s o f a r as the study the  choice r e c o g n i z e d  t r e a t e d Canadian  personal  literary  cultural  a p r o p o s i t i o n put by George  Woodcock: To expound the Canadian i d e n t i t y i n merely p o l i t i c a l or s o c i o l o g i c a l terms i s , i n the l a s t r e s o r t , to t a l k i n a b s t r a c t i o n s ; i f we wish to f e e l c o n c r e t e l y and i m a g i n a t i v e l y what i t means, we have to t u r n to our w r i t e r s . . . who have g i v e n form to our experience of the l a n d , who have put Canada i n t o our minds and man w i t h i n i t as l i v i n g i m a g i n a t i v e e n t i t i e s . g [italics L i t e r a r y m a t e r i a l , then, served a dual purpose:  mine] p r o v i d i n g works  i n themselves worthy of study as response o b j e c t s ; and thresholds  providing  to broader, c u l t u r a l l y determined, a t t i t u d e s . The  f a c t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l students  respond  differently  to g i v e n works d i d not pose an o b s t a c l e to t h i s study.^  A  69 p a t t e r n o f response reasons: do  a c r o s s s t u d e n t s was a n t i c i p a t e d f o r two  o t h e r r e s e a r c h shows t h a t common p a t t e r n s o f r e s p o n s e  emerge o v e r a n d a b o v e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s ;  c i e n t numbers o f s t u d e n t s w e r e t o r e s p o n d  and s u f f i -  t o e a c h poem t o  e n s u r e t h e emergence o f a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p a t t e r n . Poetry General The  reasons  objects included:  my own i n t e r e s t s ;  in English literature; literature  f o r u s i n g poems a s l i t e r a r y  response  the c e n t r a l i t y of poetry  i t s h i g h and l o n g - h e l d p l a c e i n t h e  o f each source  country; the f a c t that poetry i s the  genre r e c e i v i n g g r e a t e s t a t t e n t i o n as Canadian l i t e r a t u r e i n Canadian s c h o o l s ; ^  t h e p a r t i c u l a r n e e d f o r d e v e l o p i n g more  successful instructional strategies  i n poetry;  quent ( a s seen i n d e s c r i p t i v e landscape  poetry's  fre-  poetry) lack of overt  m e s s a g e , a q u a l i t y w h i c h met t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l n e e d t o o p e n response and  t o t h e i n f l u e n c e s o f p r i o r a t t i t u d e a s much a s p o s s i b l e ;  i t s f r e q u e n t b r e v i t y , w h i c h o f t e n made p o s s i b l e t h e p r e s e n -  t a t i o n o f complete works o r u n i f i e d s e c t i o n s o f works,  enhancing  7 content v a l i d i t y and s t a b i l i z i n g response  patterns.'  Poem Type R u r a l Landscape  Poetry  Rural landscape t r a d i t i o n i n each source  poetry r e f l e c t s an important  poetic  c o u n t r y ; b o t h have been d e e p l y p r e -  7© occupied with  landscape.  Rural landscape transfer;  p r o v i d e d , t o o , a d i r e c t approach  students a r e l i k e l y t o share a view  to  of landscape  w i t h a p o e t "before t h e y s h a r e , s a y , h i s s a t i r i c a l v i e w o f s o c i a l mores. Further, i ti s axiomatic of experimental study that variables be  o f i n t e r e s t be i s o l a t e d a n d t h a t e x t r a n e o u s  eliminated.  variables  R e s t r i c t i n g t h e sample t o d e s c r i p t i v e l a n d -  s c a p e poems b e s t s e r v e d t h i s d u a l p u r p o s e .  After a l l ,  s c a p e i s p e r h a p s t h e most c l e a r - c u t o f t h e c o n t e n t  factors  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g poems a n d t h e one most o f t e n e x i s t i n g ( r e l a t i v e l y speaking)  i n poems.  land-  alone  Moreover, i t s p i c t o r i a l  quality  makes p a i r i n g much e a s i e r t h a n w i t h , f o r i n s t a n c e , poems d e p i c t i n g human c h a r a c t e r s .  A c c o r d i n g l y , landscape  was t h e b e s t  and p o s s i b l y t h e o n l y c r i t e r i o n f o r c o n t e n t s e l e c t i o n w o u l d a d m i t poems s u f f i c i e n t  i n number a n d a l i k e  p r o v i d e s a t i s f a c t o r y poem s e t s f o r t h e s t u d y . recognizable landscape  as a p r i m a r y  which  i n type t o  As w e l l ,  identifying  using  criterion for  O r i g i n s avoided t h e problems t h a t b i r t h - p l a c e , u p b r i n g i n g ,  etc*,  pose t o i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f o r i g i n s by a u t h o r . A f i n a l and p r o b a b l y overwhelming argument f o r u s i n g landscape  poems was t h a t t h e y p r o d u c e d ,  responses  more c l e a r - c u t t h a n d i d poems w i t h o t h e r , o r m i x e d ,  subjects.  i npilot  studies,  Descriptive The  Landscape  r e s t r i c t i o n t o m a i n l y d e s c r i p t i v e poems was  n e c e s s a r y so t h a t  c e r t a i n content v a r i a b l e s which o f t e n occur  i n p o e t i c l a n d s c a p e s and which a r e i n themselves p o w e r f u l ences  on r e s p o n s e  c o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d .  Other  influ-  investigations  h a v e shown, a n d p i l o t s t u d i e s f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h showed, t h e n e e d t o e l i m i n a t e poems w h i c h  c o n t a i n , t o any major  strong narrative or dramatic action; or  a  a f o c u s o n human c h a r a c t e r  o n a n i m a l s ; humour; a n o v e r t p a t r i o t i c m e s s a g e ; o r o v e r t Q  didacticism. use  extent:  Poems c o n t a i n i n g s u c h e l e m e n t s w e r e a c c e p t e d f o r  o n l y where t h e t r o u b l e s o m e  elements  seemed t o l i e i n b a l a n c e  between p a i r s o r where d e s c r i p t i v e elements a p p e a r e d whelm them. (see  S u c h a poem p a i r was " P r a i r i e  Appendix The  t o over-  Bred'^'^Canterbury"  I, A). descriptive  c r i t e r i o n a l s o met t h e n e e d f o r  r e l a t i v e l y u n s t r u c t u r e d response objects.  The l e s s  structured 9  r e s p o n s e o b j e c t s a r e , t h e more r e s p o n s e w i l l r e v e a l  attitudes.  D e s c r i p t i v e l a n d s c a p e poems u s u a l l y a l l o w , w i t h i n a n d b e y o n d t h e i r m a n i f e s t c o n t e n t and form, c o n s i d e r a b l e scope f o r p e r sonal  reflection. Simple  Content  R e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e p o e t r y was c h o s e n i n o r d e r t h a t "reading"  o r "comprehension"  d i f f i c u l t i e s would not r e s t r i c t  " a c c e s s " t o t h e poems o r a c t o t h e r w i s e ( a s t h e y d i d i n one p i l o t  72 study)  as i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s .  Although  of "comprehension" i s p o o r l y understood t h a t ease o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g fullness  of response  will  and r o l e  i t does a p p e a r  likely  promote a t t i t u d i n a l e f f e c t s and  f o r most s t u d e n t s .  d e s i r a b l e w i t h immediate-response Choosing  the nature  Both a r e e s p e c i a l l y  1 0  techniques.  s i m p l e poems ( a n d s u p p l y i n g g l o s s a r i e s a n d  other r e a d i n g a s s i s t a n c e ) a l s o e l i m i n a t e d any need t o attempt s o - c a l l e d "comprehension t e s t i n g " the v a l i d i t y and u t i l i t y  f o r e a c h poem.  Not o n l y i s  o f such t e s t i n g h i g h l y dubious  with  r e s p e c t t o p o e t r y b u t t o t e s t f o r c o m p r e h e n s i o n w o u l d be t o i n troduce  an atmosphere o f "examination"  Freedom from t h e " r i g h t - a n s w e r "  response.  1 1  d e c i s i o n f o r s i m p l i c i t y w o u l d n o t , i t was a s s u m e d ,  mean a n y l o s s i n t e r m s o f poem " a t t r a c t i v e n e s s " ness"  to avoid.  syndrome o r o t h e r p r e s s u r e s i s  probably a precondition of free, frank The  t h a t I wished  f o r students.  t h a t a poem " l i k e d "  or "appropriate-  F o r one t h i n g t h e r e i s r e s e a r c h a t one g r a d e l e v e l w i l l  evidence  be l i k e d two o r  12 t h r e e l e v e l s above o r below t h a t l e v e l .  F o r another,  q u a l i t y i s n o t gauged by a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s to. grade l e v e l ;  poem good o r  g r e a t poems c a n be s i m p l e poems. Simple By  Form c a r r y i n g s i m p l i c i t y t o form,  as a n e x t r a n e o u s  variable  the latter*s  c o u l d a l s o be r e d u c e d .  p l e x i t y m i g h t w e l l have o b s c u r e d  the landscape  effects  F o r m a l comcontent.  S i m p l i c i t y i n f o r m was several studies  judged i n the  showing t h a t the  to students include  "simple  formal  style,"  and  characterization," "clarity,"  The  p r e s e n t s t u d y was  however.  Since  not  may  be  "concrete  and  most  o b v i o u s n e s s , " and  11  the appealing  c l e a r language  c o n t e n t i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d as b e i n g  e l i m i n a t e f o r m as  formally  features  of  "order.  a b s o l u t e l y r e s t r i c t e d t o s u c h poems,  p o w e r f u l v a r i a b l e t h a n f o r m and a l i k e should  light  a more  s i n c e p a i r i n g o f poems  formally  a v a r i a b l e (even though the  poems  complex), a p a r t i c u l a r l y well-matched p a i r  of  14  poems was (e.g.  not  r e j e c t e d on g r o u n d s o f f o r m a l  "Moondance"/"Hill  complexity  Country").  P e r i o d From W h i c h Drawn:  "The  Poetry  '30s,  of the  and  After" The  poem s a m p l e was  works, f o r s e v e r a l reasons.  r e s t r i c t e d to r e l a t i v e l y First,  the r e s u l t s of a study  Andrews s u g g e s t t h a t a s i n g l e p e r i o d to avoid  c o n f o u n d i n g v a r i a b l e s by  should  period,  be  chosen i n  New  New  r e s t r i c t e d t o "modern" p o e t r y ; gies  o n l y s l i g h t l y l e s s so.  accordingly,  To  1 9 3 0 s as  Third, reflecting this  Zealand school  anthologies  t h e more r e c e n t  are  Canadian  sample from t h i s p e r i o d  to r e l a t e to the a n t h o l o g i e s  and  a  i n development  ( a l r e a d y t o u c h e d upon) s t r o n g l y recommending t h e  ary development, the  order  Zealand offered  the happy c o i n c i d e n c e  point at which to begin sampling.  by  c r o s s - p e r i o d pairing.''"^  S e c o n d , l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y i n C a n a d a and neatly defined  modern  so  the liter-  largely antholowas,  obtain both  a  74 s p e c i a l r e l e v a n c e t o t e a c h e r needs and, level  check. The  an e f f e c t and  roughly, a reading-  p e r i o d f r o m w h i c h any poems a r e d r a w n w i l l  on p r e f e r e n c e s  and  response  patterns.  Many  have  teachers  some s t u d i e s h a v e , f o r e x a m p l e , a f f i r m e d t h e g r e a t e r p o p u -  larity  o f modern p o e t r y . ^  present  1  s t u d y must be  The  c o n c l u s i o n s one  draws f r o m  q u a l i f i e d by r e f e r e n c e t o t h e  the  sampling  period. The  Number o f Poems T h r e e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s g o v e r n e d t h e number o f poems  chosen.  First,  reasonable c e d e d and own  t h e r e s h o u l d be  s u f f i c i e n t to c o n s t i t u t e a  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from each c o u n t r y — t h o u g h suggested  t h a t the f i n a l  i t is  sample i s open t o t h e  s e n s e o f what i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f  country.  S e c o n d , t h e r e s h o u l d be "enough poems t o t o emerge o v e r a n d  t o d i f f e r e n t poems.  T h i r d , t h e number s h o u l d n o t be  a r e s e a r c h team).  The  seemed t o b a l a n c e  these  reader's each  permit  p a t t e r n s of response  as t o make t h e e x p e r i m e n t  con-  above e f f e c t s  peculiar so  great  unmanageable ( w i t h o u t the s u p p o r t  c h o s e n n u m b e r — 2 4 poems o r 12 considerations.  t h e C a n a d i a n s a m p l e t o be  split  The  of  pairs-  e v e n number a l l o w e d  e q u a l l y i n t o t h e RC a n d  BC  groupings. The  Need t o P a i r Poems I n f o r m a t i o n t h a t had  t o be g i v e n i n t h e  experimental  s e s s i o n s r u l e d o u t f u r t h e r s e s s i o n s w i t h t h e same s t u d e n t s . With  j u s t one s i t t i n g ,  t h e o n l y p r a c t i c a l way  t o have s t u d e n t s  r e s p o n d t o t h e poems a s f u l l y a s p o s s i b l e was  to present a  minimum number o f poems.  on t h e k e y  a b l e s , was  t h e minimum.  Two,  differentiated  T h e r e a r e many p r e c e d e n t s a n d  vari-  recom-  17  mendations  f o r t h i s procedure.  Certain analytical  advantages  a l s o ensued from i t . M a t c h i n g t h e Poems The  Need t o M a t c h The  the  (by Content)  d e c i s i o n t o m a t c h poems was made m a i n l y t o r e d u c e  e f f e c t s o f t h e most p o w e r f u l v a r i a b l e ,  ences r e s p o n s e t o a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c .  c o n t e n t , as i t i n f l u -  Reducing t h i s  influence  s h o u l d have i n c r e a s e d t h e chances t h a t any d i f f e r e n c e s to ing  g e n e r a l t r a n s f e r a n d p r i o r - a t t i t u d e w o u l d emerge.  relating I f match-  h a d n o t b e e n c a r r i e d o u t t h e number o f poems t e s t e d  would  h a v e h a d t o be f a r g r e a t e r i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e g e n e r a l i z a b l e results. M a t c h i n g c a n n o t be a b s o l u t e .  T h a t f a c t was,  a c o n d i t i o n upon which t h i s s t u d y r e l i e d . the  r e c e n t w e l l - a n n o u n c e d IEA d i f f i c u l t y  see A p p e n d i x  I,  indeed,  (For a d i s c u s s i o n of i n " m a t c h i n g " poems,  B.)  M a t c h i n g on O t h e r  Variables  W h i l e c o n t e n t f a c t o r s made up t h e p r i m a r y c r i t e r i a f o r m a t c h i n g , a n e f f o r t was made t o e n s u r e l i k e n e s s i n s u c h o t h e r  elements as l e v e l o f d i f f i c u l t y , Independent Opinion  and l e n g t h .  on t h e P a i r s  T h e r e a r e no a b s o l u t e  c r i t e r i a b y w h i c h t o m a t c h poems.  My i n i t i a l p a i r i n g s w e r e s u b m i t t e d for t h e i r opinions.  Offered  t o my a d v i s o r y  committee  Where s u b s t a n t i a l o b j e c t i o n s w e r e r a i s e d  t o t h e u s e o f a n y p a r t i c u l a r poem s e t , t h a t s e t was w i t h d r a w n . Sampling Procedures Initial grade twelve  (Poetry)  s e a r c h e s f o r s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l w e r e made i n  C a n a d i a n a n d New Z e a l a n d s c h o o l a n t h o l o g i e s .  reduce or e l i m i n a t e student  To  f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h poems, t o p r o v i d e  BC r e g i o n a l m a t e r i a l , a n d t o p r o d u c e enough poems t o make 1 2 "good" p a i r s p o s s i b l e , t h e s e a r c h anthologies  was t a k e n b e y o n d t h e s c h o o l  ( s e e B i b l i o g r a p h y , S o u r c e s o f Poems).  Though o n l y 5 o f t h e f i n a l 1 2 C a n a d i a n poems came from t h e s c h o o l t e x t s , they served acceptable  "reading-difficulty"  They a l s o r e i n f o r c e d c o n t e n t needs by m a i n t a i n i n g  a s a g u i d e t o t h e maximum  l e v e l s i n a l l poem s a m p l e s .  v a l i d i t y and r e l e v a n c e  a l i n k with school material.  t o teacher Special  care  was t a k e n t o s e e t h a t no poems f r o m C a n a d i a n s c h o o l t e x t s w e r e used w i t h  c l a s s e s w h i c h were a c q u a i n t e d  with the text.  (See  b e l o w , p. 8 7 , S t u d e n t F a m i l i a r i t y W i t h , a n d K n o w l e d g e o f , Poems.) O v e r 3 5 0 poems ( o r s e l f - c o n t a i n e d s e c t i o n s o f l o n g poems) t h a t met t h e d e s c r i p t i v e l a n d s c a p e c r i t e r i o n a n d w h i c h  77 w e r e n o t l o n g e r t h a n a b o u t 4-0 l i n e s c o p i e d and checked the second  o r s h o r t e r t h a n 5 were  again f o r s u i t a b i l i t y .  About 2 5 0 s u r v i v e d  scrutiny. Reference  t o p l a c e names d i s q u a l i f i e d some poems--as  v i o l a t i n g t h e c o n t r o l on Knowledge.  Some o t h e r poems t h a t  p r e s e n t e d t h e same d i f f i c u l t y w e r e r e t a i n e d b y my r e p l a c i n g , w h i l e r e t a i n i n g t h e i r sense, was  asked  one o r two w o r d s .  t o judge t h e r e p l a c e m e n t  short-list.  My c o m m i t t e e  word's adequacy i n t h e ( l a t e r )  (Some e x a m p l e s o f t h e c h a n g e s a r e shown i n  A p p e n d i x I, A.)  Some m a t e r i a l was r e t a i n e d w h i c h m i g h t g i v e  away O r i g i n s t o a w e l l - r e a d i n d i v i d u a l s e e k i n g t o f i n d t h e same. To  e l i m i n a t e a l l such r e f e r e n c e s would have been t o deny  dis-  tinctiveness  i n landscape  and t o deny, t h e r e f o r e , t h e terms o f  t h i s study.  Besides, the important reference t o a "rabbiter"  i n a New Z e a l a n d poem d i d n o t , i n i t s e l f , Canadian p i l o t thought  seem t o p e r s u a d e  s t u d e n t s t h a t t h e poem was f o r e i g n .  t h e poem t o be C a n a d i a n a n d t h e t e r m  I f they  seemed s t r a n g e t o  them i t was r a t i o n a l i z e d a s a r c h a i c o r " E a s t e r n " . The  2 5 0 s u r v i v i n g poems w e r e t h e n p l a c e d u n d e r t h e  categories t h e i r  content suggested.  Categories l i k e :  S e a - C o a s t , The S e a s o n s , a n d The D r y - B e l t emerged. these  Mountains,  From  within  c a t e g o r i e s t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e poem p a i r s w e r e a s s e m b l e d ,  r e g a r d l e s s o f how w e l l e a c h c a t e g o r y was r e p r e s e n t e d ( t h o u g h i n f a c t t h e f i n a l sample covered scenes  of winter cold,  mountain  and v a l l e y , p l a i n s , l a k e and s t r e a m ,  sea-coast, e s t u a r y , and  harbour;  a n d two n a t i o n a l " p a n o r a m a s " ) .  Of 20 p a i r s f i n a l l y -  c h o s e n f o r t h e i r m e r i t ( a s p a i r s ) 12 were r a n d o m l y  selected.  ( R e s p o n s e d a t a a t t e s t e d t o t h e i r m e r i t , s e e b e l o w , p. 105, The N e u t r a l i t y o f t h e Poem B a s e . ) THE STUDENT The  SAMPLE  Schools The  convenience.  V a n c o u v e r a r e a was c h o s e n m a i n l y f o r l o g i s t i c T h e r e was a n o t h e r a d v a n t a g e :  B r i t i s h Columbia Stewart  might,  a r e a , r e p r e s e n t s a p a r t o f Canada w h i c h t h e  survey indicates 18  Canadian  Vancouver, as a  literature.  i s one o f t h e l e a s t a c t i v e i n t e a c h i n g P r o b l e m s o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h poems  t h e r e f o r e , have been Particular  reduced.  s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s were l a r g e l y d i c t a t e d by  s c h o o l board p o l i c i e s .  However, a good b a l a n c e o f t h e p o s s i b l e  geographic and socioeconomic  a r e a s was a c h i e v e d , a n e q u a l  number o f c l a s s e s b e i n g t a k e n f r o m t h e West V a n c o u v e r , P o r t Coquitlam, Burnaby, and D e l t a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . The  Grade L e v e l S c h o o l p r e f e r e n c e s d i c t a t e d t h e grade  w e r e many r e a s o n s First, which  11 l e v e l .  There  f o r choosing a s e n i o r l e v e l . t h e s e n i o r secondary  indigenous l i t e r a t u r e 19  n a t i o n a l l y and i n Canada.  y  y e a r s a r e t h e ones i n  receives greatest stress both  inter-  Second, p i l o t  studies  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the  r e s p o n s e t e c h n i q u e w o u l d y i e l d more f r o m s e n i o r g r a d e 12  free-  classes.  classes e x h i b i t e d a r i c h e r response r e p e r t o r y  displayed greater  e a s e and  seriousness  s i t u a t i o n t h a n p i l o t g r a d e 10 g r a d e 12  d i s p o s i t i o n may  research  into preferences,  i n the  students.  One  h a v e b e e n t h a t , as i n c r e a s i n g age  receptive to nature poetry  and  to the  Pilot  and  non-teaching reason f o r  shown by  the  widespread  r e n d e r s s t u d e n t s more  content of  reflective  20 lyric  poetry  generally.  A n o t h e r r e a s o n m i g h t have been a  greater  s y m p a t h y amongst s e n i o r s t u d e n t s f o r u n i v e r s i t y r e -  search;  yet another t h e i r greater Third, other  researchers  "preoccupations of the reader are l i t e r a r y response, preference, levels,  the  o l d e r the  facility  in writing.  suggest t h a t , while  the  important ingredients  in  and  u n d e r s t a n d i n g " a t a l l age  s t u d e n t t h e more d e f i n i t e and  stable  his  21 r e s p o n s e t e n d s t o be.  He  consistent, response  patterns.  Fourth, maximized w i t h an  two  will yield  increasingly clear-cut,  i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s were l i k e l y  o l d e r group.  One  was  The  s e c o n d was  " t r a n s f e r " as  w i t h e x p e r i e n c e i n r e g i o n a l and and  through  be  Deduced Knowledge  t h a t m i g h t p a r t l y depend upon h e i g h t e n e d l i t e r a r y cation.  to  as  sophisti-  that probably  Canadian landscape  increases (directly  literature).  Fifth,  s i n c e i n t e r e s t s and  s t a b i l i z e a f t e r a b o u t age  16,  the  critical  response  older students are  on  patterns the  80 t h r e s h o l d of a d u l t response a g l i m p s e o f two w o r l d s : y e a r s and  22  patterns.  f o r w a r d t o u n i v e r s i t y and a d u l t h o o d .  t e s t e d i n t h e IEA  was  one  c h o o s i n g f r o m one  levels  Partly for this  o f t h e two  levels  secondary-  l e f t a m p l e room f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h a t i n this  a  study.  (Student)  S a m p l e s i z e was First,  grade-school  e x t r e m i t y of the  c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h a t used  Sample S i z e  offered  study.  Finally, s c h o o l grade  thus  p o i n t i n g back through the  r e a s o n t h e most s e n i o r s c h o o l grade  level  G r a d e 11  s e t t o meet two  related  r e l a t i v e t o t h e number o f i n d e p e n d e n t  manipulated,  variables  s u f f i c i e n t s t u d e n t s must r e s p o n d  to a l l o w s i g n i f i c a n t response  requirements.  t o e a c h poem p a i r  p a t t e r n s t o emerge.  Second,  s t u d e n t numbers must be s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o d u c e r e s p o n s e t h a t w i l l be b o t h r e l i a b l e a n d  being  patterns  considered r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  the  given student population. Since l i t e r a r y response  has b e e n shown as a  highly  2 3  p e r s o n a l phenomenon, s t u d e n t s a m p l e s i z e was figure,  500-600,  statistics  and  was  J  The  d e c i d e d upon i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the  design specialists  i n the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n  at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. w i t h t h a t used  large.  i n similar  studies.  The  figure  compares  well  Intact  Groups School  intact study  and. s c h o o l h o a r d p r a c t i c e s d i c t a t e d t h a t  c l a s s e s he u s e d .  T h i s was n o t a p r o b l e m i n t h a t  g r o u p was c o n t r o l l e d w i t h i n i t s e l f .  each  Intact class experi-  m e n t a t i o n may e v e n p r o v e t o be a p o s i t i v e a d v a n t a g e i n communicating  research results to teachers.  Individual  Students Within classes c e r t a i n students  as a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d .  w e r e t o be e l i m i n a t e d ,  (For s p e c i f i c instruments  and  procedures,  s e e b e l o w , p. 87 S t u d e n t F a m i l i a r i t y W i t h , a n d K n o w l e d g e o f , Poems.)  Eliminated students  mental procedures:  d i d , i n f a c t , undergo t h e e x p e r i -  t h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n depended upon  t h e y gave d u r i n g such p r o c e d u r e s .  information  T h e r e was no v i s i b l e  segre-  gation. TAKING THE EXPERIMENT INTO THE SCHOOLS Arrangements w i t h Class  Teachers  Following discussions with the appropriate boards and p r i n c i p a l s ,  i n d i v i d u a l class teachers  thanked f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , experiment and asked t o p r o v i d e : t i o n on s t u d e n t ity,  informed  were  of the nature  a class l i s t ,  gross  O r i g i n s , a s s e s s m e n t s o f p o s s i b l e poem  and a few o t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l s .  A, I n t r o d u c t i o n t o T e a c h e r s . )  school contacted, of the informafamiliar-  (See Appendix I I ,  82 The was  stressed.  need f o r t e a c h e r r e t i c e n c e v i s - a - v i s the T h i s n e e d emerged i n a p i l o t  s t u d y where  teacher, i n i n t r o d u c i n g the r e s e a r c h e r , i n a d v e r t e n t l y i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t v i o l a t e d the Denied  class  Knowledge and  one  gave  non-Awareness  conditions. Classroom  Procedures  O v e r a l l Time Scheme Poem s e t s w e r e p r e s e n t e d t o c l a s s e s m a i n l y d u r i n g t h e m o r n i n g p e r i o d s — t o maximize and and r e c e p t i v i t y .  standardize student freshness  E a c h poem p a i r was  presented twice to  p o s s i b l e o r d e r e f f e c t s a n d t o i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t numbers poem-pair. of A p r i l Instrument  counter per  Work w i t h c l a s s e s i n t h e s c h o o l s c o v e r e d t h e m o n t h 1975. Format Instrument  f o r m a t was  s t a n d a r d i z e d and  informal:  the  oh.  first  because format  a v o i d an e x a m i n a t i o n  does a f f e c t r e s p o n s e ;  the second  to  atmosphere.^  F o r a c h r o n o l o g i c a l summary o f p r o c e d u r e s  discussed  f r o m t h i s p o i n t on, s e e A p p e n d i x I I I .  To a v o i d d i s t r a c t i n g t h e c l a s s by h a n d i n g  out  each  83 i n s t r u m e n t as i t was r e q u i r e d , f o r m s w e r e b o u n d i n b o o k l e t s . It  was n e c e s s a r y t o c r e a t e two b o o k l e t s s o t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e  i n poem l a b e l l i n g w o u l d n o t be o b s e r v e d  d u r i n g any c l a s s  inter-  a c t i o n i n t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y s t a g e s , and so t h a t t h e f r e e stage  c o u l d be c o m p l e t e d  without the l a t e r  instruments  s e e n ( t h e y m i g h t have i n f l u e n c e d t h e e a r l i e r f r e e I n t e g r i t y of response  to the l a t e r  response being  response).  instruments, which  was n o t  so i m p o r t a n t , was e n c o u r a g e d b y a s k i n g t h a t s t u d e n t s n o t move on to  a new page b e f o r e  c o m p l e t i n g t h e one t h e y w e r e o n ( s e e  A p p e n d i x I I , F, I n s t r u c t i o n S h e e t ,  Booklet I I ) .  Form p a c k a g e s w e r e numbered i n a d v a n c e .  Numbers  w e r e k e y e d , r a n d o m l y , t o s t u d e n t names f r o m t h e c l a s s T h e r e were s e v e r a l r e a s o n s t a t e d random g r o u p i n g  f o r this  procedure.  (and b l o c k i n g on s e x — s e e  lists.  First i t facilib e l o w , p. 166).  S e c o n d , i t was i n t e n d e d t o a s s u r e a n o n y m i t y a n d s o , p r e s u m a b l y , encourage f r a n k n e s s .  The s t u d e n t s w e r e t o l d t h a t o n l y I w o u l d  e v e r know what name c o r r e s p o n d e d  t o what number a n d t h a t I  n e e d e d t o know o n l y b e c a u s e I m i g h t w i s h t o a s k a s t u d e n t a particularly II,  B.)  i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t he h a d made.  Once t h a t t a s k i s c o m p l e t e  destroyed.  (See Appendix  the class l i s t s  will  T h i r d , numbering a s s i s t e d data p r o c e s s i n g :  numbers w e r e u s e d f o r s t u d e n t s i n t h e G i v e n K n o w l e d g e odd numbers f o r s t u d e n t s who w e r e D e n i e d Introduction to  about  be even  condition,  Knowledge.  Students  The s t u d e n t i n t r o d u c t o r y f o r m  (Appendix  I I , B)  was  84 designed  t o e s t a b l i s h t h e study as important  f o rthe students,  t o o r i e n t a t e them t o t h e i r t a s k , t o e n c o u r a g e f r a n k n e s s i n response (both by s t r e s s i n g i t s importance and by a l l a y i n g examination first the  f e a r s and a s s u r i n g anonymity) and t o p r o v i d e t h e  set of instructions.  The l a t t e r p e r t a i n e d t o s e a t i n g a n d  d i s t r i b u t i o n of Booklet I .  P r e s e n t a t i o n o f Poems Poems were p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e p o e t ' s name.  Titles  usually with t i t l e  but never  d i d n o t a p p e a r o r were a l t e r e d  when, a s w i t h t h e p l a c e name V a n c o u v e r , i t g r o s s l y v i o l a t e d t h e D e n i e d Knowledge c o n d i t i o n ( s e e A p p e n d i x I , A ) . i n d i c a t e d some poems w e r e p r e s e n t e d  As a l r e a d y  w i t h one o r two w o r d s  r e p l a c e d , f o r t h e same r e a s o n ( s e e a b o v e , p.  77).  A p o e t ' s name ( a n d e v e n n a t i o n a l i t y ) i s p r o b a b l y b e t t e r known t h a n h i s i n d i v i d u a l w o r k s .  Two s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e  t h a t a w a r e n e s s o f t h e p o e t ' s name, when m a n i p u l a t e d  as a v a r i -  26 a b l e , does a f f e c t r e s p o n s e . Richards,  have a l s o o m i t t e d  Other researchers, i n c l u d i n g t h e p o e t ' s name i n p r e s e n t i n g h i s  27 works. ' Where w o r d s o r p h r a s e s p o s e d p o t e n t i a l b a r r i e r s t o understanding  i n a n y g i v e n poem, a g l o s s a r y was p r i n t e d a t t h e  poem's f o o t t o g i v e s u g g e s t e d m e a n i n g s . pilot  students  The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f  r e p o r t e d t h a t s u c h g l o s s a r i e s were a h e l p .  t h e f e w who r e p o r t e d  t h a t t h e g l o s s a r i e s were n o t  o n l y two showed s i g n s o f b e i n g u p s e t b y them.  Of  necessary,  My c o m m i t t e e was  85 asked  t o pass  judgment o n t h e n e e d t o g i v e m e a n i n g s i n a n y  g i v e n case a n d on t h e m e a n i n g s / i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s I a c t u a l l y offered. The  RC poem p r e s e n t e d t o s t u d e n t s i n t h e G i v e n  K n o w l e d g e c o n d i t i o n c a r r i e d t h e l a b e l "A C a n a d i a n Poem" i n b r a c k e t s under and t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e t i t l e . carried,  similarly,  presented  t h e l a b e l "A B.C. Poem."  The BC poem The NZ poem  i n t h e G i v e n Knowledge c o n d i t i o n c a r r i e d t h e l a b e l  "Non-Canadian. . 11  Following accepted sented i n a d i f f e r e n t work f o r t h i s  t h e o r y , e a c h poem p a i r was p r e -  o r d e r a t i t s two p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  Pilot  s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s w o u l d w r i t e more o n  t h e f i r s t poem r e a d , e s p e c i a l l y when i t was a l s o t h e m o s t p o p u l a r poem. order.  Other,  f i n e r e f f e c t s m i g h t a l s o have r e s u l t e d  ( T h e y w i l l be p u r s u e d  i n future research—see  p. 167 .) The  r e a d i n g o r d e r s were as f o l l o w s :  O r d e r 1 ( T h e C a n a d i a n Poem  First):  R e a d e r 1 (Poem 1, Poem 2 ) , R e a d e r 2 (Poem 1, Poem 2 ) . O r d e r 2 ( T h e New Z e a l a n d  Poem  R e a d e r 1 (Poem 2, Poem 1 ) , R e a d e r 2 (Poem 2, Poem 1 ) .  First):  from  below,  E l i m i n a t i o n of Teaching  Variables  Because t e a c h i n g - e f f e c t s  constitute very powerful 28  v a r i a b l e s which would  g r a v e l y t h r e a t e n the experiment,  the  poems w e r e n o t " t a u g h t " o t h e r t h a n i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h t h e r e a d i n g s and g l o s s a r i e s .  S t u d e n t s were aware t h a t a " f r e e "  r e s p o n s e was t h e p r i n c i p a l r e q u i r e m e n t The  (see Appendix  I I , B).  Readings The  visually.  s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d t h e poems a u r a l l y a s w e l l a s  E a c h poem was r e a d t w i c e :  o n c e b y me (New Z e a l a n d  d i a l e c t ) a n d once b y P r o f e s s o r F r a n k B e r t r a m  (Canadian  D e p a r t m e n t o f E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n , UBC.  were  reasons  f o r double p r e s e n t a t i o n :  There  dialect),  several  o r a l d e l i v e r i e s , by adding  both c o l o u r and i n t e r p r e t i v e s u g g e s t i o n , h e l p minimize  compre-  29 hension d i f f i c u l t i e s  related to silent reading;  p r e s e n t a t i o n may, i n i t s e l f ,  7  oral  promote s t u d e n t v e r b a l i z a t i o n i n  30 response;-'  r e t e n t i o n o f t h e w r i t t e n poems p e r m i t s s u p p l e -  mentary and c o n t i n u e d s i l e n t r e a d i n g and c a t e r s f o r p r o b a b l e differences  i n r e c e p t i v e s t y l e between s t u d e n t s ; o r a l  presen-  t a t i o n o f f e r e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t e a c h poem o n c e i n , r o u g h l y s p e a k i n g , t h e d i a l e c t a p p r o p r i a t e t o poem O r i g i n s ; a n d o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n gave f u l l e r Free  c o n t r o l over reading order.  Response I n s t r u c t i o n s t o s t u d e n t s were d e s i g n e d t o  freedom  encourage  i n response without suggesting that they ignore the  87  poems.  A n e f f o r t was made t o h a v e s t u d e n t s r e f l e c t u p o n a n d  31 "digest"  t h e poems b e f o r e o f f e r i n g a n y o v e r t r e s p o n s e .  Comments f r o m some p i l o t  s t u d e n t s c o n f i r m e d t h i s need.  Two  f o r m a l r e a d i n g s o f e a c h poem w e r e g i v e n a n d t i m e e l a p s e d b e tween r e a d i n g s .  S t u d e n t s w e r e t o l d t h a t t h e y w e r e u n d e r no  great time pressure (see Appendix  I I , C).  Response d i d n o t depend upon r e c a l l . encouraged  t o r e - r e a d t h e poems a s much a s t h e y In  II,  the i n i t i a l  S t u d e n t s were wished.  F r e e Response i n s t r u c t i o n s  (Appendix  E) s t u d e n t s w e r e a s k e d t o e n s u r e t h a t i t was a l w a y s  w h i c h poem t h e y w e r e r e f e r r i n g t o i n f r e e r e s p o n s e .  clear  Pilot  s t u d i e s showed t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r t h i s . S t u d e n t F a m i l i a r i t y W i t h , a n d K n o w l e d g e of", Poems S e v e r a l s t e p s were t a k e n t o check upon, a n d c o n t r o l , f a m i l i a r i t y and Knowledge. c a l c u l a t e d t o produce  First,  u n f a m i l i a r poems a n d t e a c h e r s  t h e poem a n d a n t h o l o g y l i s t to  Teachers).  sampling procedures  (see Appendix  I I , A,  were  previewed  Introduction  S e c o n d , c l a s s e s were a s k e d , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f  each e x p e r i m e n t a l s e s s i o n , whether t h e y had h e a r d about t h e s t u d y from anyone.  A n y i n d i v i d u a l s who w e r e s o A w a r e w e r e t o  be t r a n s f e r r e d i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e G i v e n K n o w l e d g e c o n d i t i o n i f t h e y were n o t a l r e a d y t h e r e . to  The e x t e n t o f t h e i r k n o w l e d g e was  be g a u g e d b y i n t e r v i e w a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  p e r i o d a n d a d e c i s i o n made a b o u t r e t a i n i n g t h e i r r e s p o n s e  data.  •88 T h i r d , s t u d e n t A w a r e n e s s was c h e c k e d instrument  "Hunches" ( A p p e n d i x  i n the f u l l  s t u d y "by t h e  I I , J) and, through  o v e r l a p , "by  t h e i n s t r u m e n t "What Do Y o u Know o f T h e s e Poems?" ( s e e b e l o w , p.  89 a n d A p p e n d i x I I , H ) .  Fourth, the supporting questionnaire  "What Do Y o u Know o f T h e s e Poems?", i n s o f a r a s i t p r o b e d arity,  served a t w o - f o l d purpose.  P a r t l y i t checked  famili-  that the  poems w e r e i n d e e d u n f a m i l i a r ( a s p o e m s — K n o w l e d g e i s o f O r i g i n s ) . Any  s t u d e n t f o r whom poems w e r e f a m i l i a r was t o be e l i m i n a t e d  from t h e study. And  ( I n the event,  t h e r e was o n l y one s u c h  p a r t l y "What Do Y o u Know o f T h e s e Poems?" c h e c k e d  student.)  that  s t u d e n t s i n t h e G i v e n Knowledge c o n d i t i o n d i d n o t i c e t h e l a b e l s ( t h o s e who d i d w e r e a n a l y z e d a s p a r t o f a s p e c i a l g r o u p u n d e r Possessed  Knowledge) and checked  t h a t students i n t h e Denied  Knowledge c o n d i t i o n d i d n o t o t h e r w i s e have Pre-Knowledge.  Any  who d i d w e r e t o be e l i m i n a t e d . ! f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s . Student  Origins A student's place of residence i n the f i v e year period  p r e c e d i n g t h e s t u d y was a s s u m e d t o be a n i m p o r t a n t the determinant and  o f f e e l i n g f o r and a t t i t u d e towards  t h i n g s Canadian.  I t was t h e r e f o r e c h e c k e d  A p p e n d i x I I , A, I n t r o d u c t i o n t o T e a c h e r s ) question to students Lived").  variable: landscape  by t e a c h e r s ( s e e  and through  direct  ( s e e A p p e n d i x I I , I , " P l a c e s Y o u Have  The f i v e y e a r p e r i o d was c h o s e n  arbitrarily.  89, SUPPORTING INSTRUMENTS AND  PROCEDURES  Introduction The  i n s t r u m e n t s and procedures  outlined i n this  c h a p t e r h a v e a l r e a d y "been d i s c u s s e d i n v a r i o u s Here t h e y a r e t r e a t e d as d i s t i n c t  connections.  units.  I n most c a s e s t h e s u p p o r t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s were d e s i g n e d t o promote e x p e r i m e n t a l r i g o u r . the p r i n c i p l e  Some a l s o s e r v e d  of multiple operationalism, validating  v a l i d a t i n g ) and e n r i c h i n g t h e c e n t r a l approach. principle  (or i n -  The same  i n f o r m e d t h e c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s Scheme's m u l t i p l e p r o b e .  The  p r i n c i p l e w i l l be e x t e n d e d  The  Instruments  and  further i n future research.  Procedures  "What Do Y o u Know o f T h e s e Poems?" ( A p p e n d i x  I I , H)  This instrument a s c e r t a i n e d student f a m i l i a r i t y t h e poems a n d K n o w l e d g e o f t h e i r O r i g i n s .  I t served a three-  Two ( a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d , s e e a b o v e , p. 88)  f o l d purpose.  with  were:  t o c o n t r o l s t u d e n t f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e poems a n d t o c o n t r o l Pre-Knowledge.  The t h i r d was t o f i n d  able t o Recognize reasons  they  poems ( R e s e a r c h  o u t whether s t u d e n t s were  Q u e s t i o n 1) a n d t o f i n d  what  gave.  " P l a c e s Y o u Have L i v e d " ( A p p e n d i x This instrument  I I , I)  ( a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d , s e e a b o v e , p. 88 )  90 ascertained student O r i g i n s .  I t was d e s i g n e d  F o r e i g n s t u d e n t v a r i a b l e s and t o s e t up t h o s e  t o c o n t r o l RC a n d sub-groups f o r  separate a n a l y s i s "Hunches" ( A p p e n d i x  I I , J)  This instrument study's  purpose.  Although  mental procedures  a s c e r t a i n e d student Awareness o f t h e p i l o t work i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e e x p e r i -  and instruments  d i d not r e v e a l the study's  p u r p o s e , i t a l s o showed t h a t t e a c h e r s m i g h t do s o i n i n t r o d u c i n g the study o r myself  to the class  (see cautions d i r e c t e d t o the  teacher i n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Teachers,  Appendix I I , A ) .  I t thus  seemed a d v i s a b l e t o c h e c k A w a r e n e s s d i r e c t l y b y q u e s t i o n n a i r e as w e l l a s b y t h e q u e s t i o n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g s e s s i o n ( s e e a b o v e , p. 87 ) .  Overlap with the questionnaire  "What Do Y o u Know o f T h e s e Poems?" a third  of the experimental  (Appendix  I I , H) p r o v i d e d  check.  "Your O p i n i o n s "  (Appendix  This instrument school experience in total,  I I , K) a s c e r t a i n e d s t u d e n t s ' p e r s o n a l and  w i t h Canadian l i t e r a t u r e .  designed  t u d i n a l dimensions  The i n s t r u m e n t was,  to carry future research into other o f the Canadian l i t e r a t u r e  question.  s c a l e s 1 and 2 a l s o p r o v i d e d a check upon student with Canadian poetry.  I f an i n d i v i d u a l  attiBut  familiarity  i n d i c a t e d t h a t he h a d  a l r e a d y had a g r e a t d e a l o f contact ( E x t e n s i v e Reading) w i t h Canadian l i t e r a t u r e  ( r a t i n g s 4 a n d 5 o n s c a l e s 1 a n d 2) h i s  91 r e s p o n s e s were examined  s e p a r a t e l y ( s e e b e l o w , p.  117).  "Sub-Groups" This procedure analyzed the responses of students i n s p e c i a l groups.  The  p o t e n t i a l sub-groups  Canadian Reading, Pre-Knowledge,  comprised:  Aware, Rest-of-Canada,  Foreign, students.  The  t h e m a i n s a m p l e was  t o be t u r n e d t o c o m p a r a t i v e  advantage  Extensive and  necessity for their elimination  i f t h e y p r o v e d t o be s u f f i c i e n t  from  analytical  i n number.  " W i t h i n and A c r o s s " This procedure c o n s t i t u t e d a supplementary analysis.  content  The m a i n a n a l y t i c a l b u r d e n r e s t e d , b e c a u s e  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and r e l a t i v e  To s h o r e u p ,  e x p a n d u p o n t h e Scheme's c a t e g o r i e s a n d t o o f f e r probes w i t h o u t d i s r u p t i n g i t s a p p l i c a t i o n and  categories.  C l e a r l y , any g r e a t many w a y s .  The  it.  enrich,  and  alternative  cogency,  proto-  w i t h i n a n d a c r o s s t h e Scheme's  Many r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e e m p l o y e d  a n a l y s i s or suggested  their  o b j e c t i v i t y , upon the content  a n a l y s i s measures a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d .  c o l s were f u r t h e r examined  of  such  supplementary  32  corpus of m a t e r i a l  c a n be a n a l y z e d i n a  approach W i t h i n and A c r o s s f o l l o w e d  lines  of e n q u i r y s u g g e s t e d by o t h e r s ' i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and t h e o r i e s , p i l o t work, and by s p e c u l a t i o n .  I t searched only f o r response  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s t h a t appeared t o have been a f f e c t e d b y t h e two  by  sets of independent v a r i a b l e s .  O n l y one  differently such  m a n i f e s t a t i o n f i n a l l y emerged, Q u a n t i t y o f W r i t i n g ( s e e below, p. 1 0 8 ) . Response m a n i f e s t a t i o n s n o t so a f f e c t e d , o r r e q u i r i n g v e r y e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s i n t h e m s e l v e s , were s i m p l y i d e n t i f i e d for future research.  Examples a r e " S i g n i f i c a n t A d j e c t i v a l s "  (see below, p. 14-3) and " T r a n s f e r " ( s e e below, p. 14-8). ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS Assumptions Many o f t h e assumptions upon which t h i s s t u d y was b u i l t have a l r e a d y been defended. not be c l o s e l y t r e a t e d a g a i n . groupings:  Where t h a t i s so t h e y w i l l  The assumptions  f a l l into three  t h o s e r e l a t i n g t o t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s and r e s p o n s e  p e r s e ; t h o s e r e l a t i n g t o c u l t u r a l b i a s i n s t u d e n t s and i n o  poems; and t h o s e r e l a t i n g t o c l o s e l y e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s . The f i r s t group h e l d t h a t b o t h t h e poem and r e a d e r c o n t r i b u t e t o r e s p o n s e , and t h a t a b i a s i n b o t h might be r e q u i r e d t o produce a d i s t i n c t i v e r e s p o n s e - t y p e .  I f a distinctive  r e s p o n s e - t y p e d i d appear i n Vancouver s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s t o Canadian works t h e n t h a t was t o be a t t r i b u t e d t o something c a l l e d a Canadian n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g between r e a d e r and w o r k — o r even " i d e n t i t y " i f i t o c c u r r e d when t h e poems were n o t l a b e l l e d as  Canadian. I d e n t i t y was assumed t o be a n a f f i n i t y between a  s t u d e n t ' s "way o f s e e i n g t h i n g s " and a d i s t i n c t i v e s e t t i n g o r v i s i o n expressed i n h i s nation's poetry.  The t o t a l  experiment  93 d i d n o t depend u p o n a n y c e r t a i n t y t h a t a n a f f i n i t y e x i s t s . existence of a national feeling dependent  or identity  The  s h o u l d be s e e n a s a  v a r i a b l e w h i c h was i n d i r e c t l y e x a m i n e d  through the  s t u d e n t s r a t h e r t h a n as a n a s s u m p t i o n which would, i f i t had proved f a l s e , undermine  the experiment.  Not t h a t i t was u n r e a s o n a b l e t o assume a n a t i o n a l feeling  or identity.  With respect t o students, p i l o t  suggested that s i g n i f i c a n t  v a r i a n c e would occur.  work  Other student-  r e s p o n s e s t u d i e s show c u l t u r a l  f o r c e s t o be a t p l a y i n o t h e r  nations,  there i s a general  J  W i t h l i t e r a r y works  confidence that a n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e w i l l identity:  Canadian  express a n a t i o n a l  c l a i m s s p e c i f i c t o t h e Canadian s c h o o l p r o m o t i o n have  a l r e a d y been n o t e d ( s e e above, p. commented more g e n e r a l l y .  2 ) ; and Canadian w r i t e r s  W a t t e r s , f o r example,  t o Emerson's s t a t e m e n t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l  . . . .  keys an a r t i c l e  nations might possess a  unique, " o r i g i n a l r e l a t i o n t o the universe.•• ^ that "Canadian l i t e r a t u r e  have  Frye elaims  r e c o r d s what t h e C a n a d i a n  i m a g i n a t i o n has r e a c t e d t o , and i t t e l l s  us t h i n g s about  this  35  environment t h a t n o t h i n g e l s e w i l l the  c r e a t i o n i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e  o f man's l o t o n t h e e a r t h . " bility  tell  us." •  of "a d i s t i n c t i v e conception  And Jones h o l d s o u t t h e p o s s i -  of tracing i n the nation's l i t e r a t u r e  a "view o f l i f e ,  Pacey speaks o f  c e r t a i n elements o f  a v i e w o f man a n d h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e  u n i v e r s e o f a f u n d a m e n t a l k i n d , w h i c h i s s u r e l y what we m u s t mean b y a C a n a d i a n i d e n t i t y .  . . . "^7  True, the  exact  nature  of the  Canadian s e n s i b i l i t y  view of things  i s never a l t o g e t h e r  defineable.  Approaches to the q u e s t i o n  r a t h e r t h a n answer i t ,  as  clear.  Perhaps i t i s often  does t h i s o f J.P.  or  not  re-phrase  Matthews:  When I came t o Canada f r o m A u s t r a l i a e i g h t e e n y e a r s ago t o u n d e r t a k e a c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f C a n a d i a n and A u s t r a l i a n p o e t r y , I was i m m e d i a t e l y s t r u c k b y t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y d i s t i n c t i v e tang of the Canadian statement i n literature. No m a t t e r f r o m what r e g i o n a l b a s e i t e m e r g e d , t h e r e seemed t o be a v e r y m a r k e d a t t i t u d i n a l cohesiveness ... I n b o t h n i n e t e e n t h and t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y w r i t e r s , i n a l l g e n r e s f r o m B.C. t o t h e M a r i t i m e s I s u g g e s t , one i s a b l e t o see a s e r i e s of i n t e r l o c k e d r e a c t i o n s to l i f e i n t h i s country. T h e y a r e n o t t h e same, I w o u l d e m p h a s i z e t h a t t o o o f c o u r s e , t h e way i n may be d i f f e r e n t , b u t t h e c o n c l u s i o n s a r e v e r y o f t e n a s t o n i s h i n g l y similar.„ Q  Or t h e y c a l l down c o n t i n u e d agreement.  Still,  debate r a t h e r t h a n widespread  as Matthews s u g g e s t s ,  p a s s themes n o t  too  and  t h e n o t i o n o f t h e g a r r i s o n and  settlement,  the rock  and  diverse:  t h e d e b a t e s do  the b u t t e r f l y ,  dealing with hardships  s u r v i v a l and  the  encom-  of  climate  wilderness,  v i c t i m s , and  so  on.  I f t h e s e themes a r e l o c a l o r r e g i o n a l r a t h e r t h a n C a n a d i a n present  study Of  was the  d e s i g n e d t o meet t h a t  was  assumed:  each n a t i o n  circumstance.  t h i r d group of assumptions, the  m e n t a l f a c t o r s , o n l y a few  r e g i o n i n the p e r i o d  would respond "honestly"  closely experi  need f u r t h e r e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t .  t h a t t h e poems w e r e r e a s o n a b l y and  and  the  representative  chosen; t h a t  It of  students  " f r a n k l y " ; that students'  immediat  95 f r e e , w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s w o u l d b e a r some c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o deeper responses or t h a t they would be, a t l e a s t , i n t e r e s t i n g and  important to teachers;  and t h a t s u f f i c i e n t v a r i a n c e  t o make  the  s t u d y w o r t h w h i l e w o u l d be e x h i b i t e d o n a t l e a s t one o f t h e  critical variables. Limitations Introduction As w i t h a s s u m p t i o n s , most l i m i t a t i o n s have been t r e a t e d elsewhere.  Limitations f a l l  which c l o s e l y experimental  exigencies  t h e r e f o r e , upon t h e c o n c l u s i o n s  i n t o two c l a s s e s :  imposed upon t h e study and,  one c a n draw f r o m t h e s t u d y ; a n d  t h o s e w h i c h amount t o d i s c l a i m e r s o n my Experimental  those  part.  Delimitations  The e x p e r i m e n t c o u l d n o t i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r a n y a b s e n c e of d i s t i n c t i v e response patterns inability  t o sense and r e p o r t  was s i m p l y  a measure o f s t u d e n t  differences inherent  i n t h e poem  groups. R e s u l t s must be a t t r i b u t e d o n l y t o l i k e s p o n d i n g t o l i k e poems i n l i k e any  one who w o u l d a p p l y  conditions.  The onus i s u p o n  t h e r e s u l t s more b r o a d l y  g r o u n d s u p o n w h i c h he d o e s s o . geographic l o c a t i o n (note  Differences  students r e -  t o show t h e  i n s t u d e n t age a n d  p a r t i c u l a r l y the exclusion of French  Canada) m i g h t a l t e r r e s p o n s e s g r e a t l y ; a s m i g h t t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n  96 of  teacher variables.  So t o o m i g h t r e s p o n s e s  he a l t e r e d b y t h e  absence o f an e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n o r even t h e absence o f precisely this  study's experimental s i t u a t i o n .  s t e p s t a k e n t o p l a y down " t e s t " ably experienced have o p e r a t e d the treatments less,  Despite the  conditions, a l l students  "Hawthorne" i n f l u e n c e s .  (These s h o u l d n o t  d i f f e r e n t l y between groups and c l a s s e s t o v i o l a t e and c o n t r o l s . )  t h a t response  I t i s quite possible,  c o n d i t i o n s were n o t f u l l y  s t u d y f o c u s e d on broad response  t h o u g h he m i g h t be l i k e  those  i n t h e s t u d y a n d be  exactly the lines discovered i n this  responses  p a t t e r n s , n o t on  Any i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t ,  c o n d i t i o n s , s h o u l d n o t be e x p e c t e d  The  particular  replicated.  i n d i v i d u a l student responses.  in like  neverthe-  tendencies would h o l d , although a t d i f f e r e n t  l e v e l s or i n d i f f e r e n t p r o p o r t i o n s , i f the study's  The  prob-  even  responding  t o respond  along  study.  s t u d y d i d n o t examine l o n g - t e r m  effects, or  o t h e r t h a n those w r i t t e n and ( m a i n l y )  "freeV"  Disclaimers Though t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y a p p e a r t o h a v e t e a c h i n g , c u r r i c u l u m , a n d o t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n s , a n d a l t h o u g h I do make some suggestions  i n their light,  desiderata i n those areas. to  the study d i d not d i r e c t l y  consider  I t dealt i n behavioural expectations  t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s (such as v a l u e  j u d g m e n t s ) t h a t must b e a r u p o n  decision-making.  I do n o t s u g g e s t , b y my f o c u s on C a n a d i a n t h a t o n l y , or m a i n l y , Canadian  literature  Canadian  schools.  cultural  reasons and f o r reasons r e l a t i n g  it  T h a t i s n o t my v i e w .  literature,  s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n F o r l i t e r a r y and t o i m a g i n a t i v e growth,  seems t o me t h a t d e v e l o p i n g b r e a d t h a n d q u a l i t y o f r e a d i n g  are the primary  justifications f o r teaching English  E q u a l l y , t h e use o f a comparative m e t h o d o l o g y does n o t s u g g e s t c o m p a r a t i v e m e t h o d s be u s e d g i v e them h i g h p l a c e .  literature.  experimental  that I believe only or mainly i n schools—though  I do, i n f a c t ,  CHAPTER I V RESULTS AND  CONCLUSIONS  CONTENTS S t a t i s t i c a l Note.  . . -  101  B a s i c Data  102 The  S t u d e n t Sample  The  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n s e s O v e r Poem P a i r s  The  N e u t r a l i t y o f t h e Poem B a s e  The  Frequency of Scores  Specific Findings (a)  (1):  Under Each  Recognition  (Research  The C a n a d i a n a n d New Z e a l a n d a s Wholes (i)  Category Question  1)  Poem G r o u p s  Denied Knowledge  ( i i ) Given  Knowledge  (b)  R e c o g n i t i o n of O r i g i n s Considered as a J o i n t Event (Students F u l l y D i s c r i m i n a t i n g B e t w e e n t h e P a i r e d Poems)  (c)  R e c o g n i t i o n a s I n f l u e n c e d by t h e RC/NZ a n d BC/NZ C o n d i t i o n s  (d)  (e)  108  (i)  Recognition  (ii)  R e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e New Z e a l a n d  Special  o f t h e C a n a d i a n Poems Poems  Notes  (i)  R e c o g n i t i o n by T h o s e Designated as Having Canadian Reading  (ii)  R e c o g n i t i o n by t h e S t u d e n t Sub-Group Rest-of-Canada  Recognition: Discussion  General  Students Extensive  C o n c l u s i o n and  119  99  S p e c i f i c Findings (2): F r e e Response: D i f f e r e n c e s I n h e r e n t i n t h e Poems ( D e n i e d K n o w l e d g e ) ( R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n (2) ) . , (a)  (b)  (c)  Comparative  Scores  (i)  The C a n a d i a n a n d New Z e a l a n d Poem Groups as Wholes  (ii)  The RC/NZ a n d BC/NZ C o n d i t i o n s  Quantity of Writing (i)  The C a n a d i a n a n d New Z e a l a n d Poem Groups as Wholes  (ii)  The RC/NZ a n d BC/NZ C o n d i t i o n s  F r e e Response: Inherent Differences; General C o n c l u s i o n and D i s c u s s i o n  S p e c i f i c F i n d i n g s (3» A ) : Free Response: A s s o c i a t e d w i t h G i v e n Knowledge Question ( j ) ) (a)  (b)  (c)  Comparative  Differences (Research  124  125  Scores  (i)  The C a n a d i a n a n d New Z e a l a n d Poem Groups as Wholes  (ii)  The RC/NZ a n d BC/NZ C o n d i t i o n s  Quantity of Writing (i)  The C a n a d i a n a n d New Z e a l a n d Poem Groups as Wholes  (ii)  The RC/NZ a n d BC/NZ C o n d i t i o n s  F r e e Response: G i v e n Knowledge; C o n c l u s i o n and D i s c u s s i o n  General  S p e c i f i c F i n d i n g s (3» B ) : F r e e Response: D i f f e r e n c e s A s s o c i a t e d w i t h P o s s e s s e d Knowledge ( R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n (_3) ) . . . . . (a)  120  Comparative (i)  Scores  The C a n a d i a n a n d New Z e a l a n d Poem Groups as Wholes  ( i i ) The RC/NZ a n d BC/NZ C o n d i t i o n s  133  134  100 (t>)  Quantity of Writing (i)  The Canadian and New Z e a l a n d Poem Groups as Wholes  ( i i ) The RC/NZ and BC/NZ C o n d i t i o n s (c)  Free Response: P o s s e s s e d Knowledge; C o n c l u s i o n and D i s c u s s i o n .  General  S p e c i f i c F i n d i n g s (2), (3, A ) , (3, B ) : Free Response: G e n e r a l D i s c u s s i o n Over A l l Knowledge Conditions. . (a)  Some C a t e g o r i e s Examined S e p a r a t e l y  (t>)  Quantity of W r i t i n g  (c)  The RC/NZ and BC/NZ C o n d i t i o n s  O v e r a l l Conclusions  (The Research Q u e s t i o n s )  S p e c i f i c F i n d i n g s (4-): Free. Response:  14-0  14-3  Significant  Adjectivals S p e c i f i c F i n d i n g s (5):  138  14-3 Free Response:  (a)  D i r e c t Statements  (h)  The S t r e n g t h o f T r a n s f e r  (c)  Some " F o r e i g n " Students  Transfer  and T r a n s f e r  14-8  101 S T A T I S T I C A L NOTE C h i - S q u a r e was u s e d a s a d e s c r i p t i v e a i d , a s a s h o r t hand t o e x p r e s s degrees o f d i f f e r e n c e , r a t h e r t h a n as a n i n f e r e n t i a l device.  I t indicates levels  under each c a t e g o r y .  of frequency difference  I t was a p p l i e d o n l y t o a c t u a l  responses  i n e a c h c a t e g o r y ; i t d i d n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e number o f s t u d e n t s who m i g h t h a v e r e s p o n d e d i n t h e c a t e g o r y . a n a l o g y , C h i - S q u a r e was e m p l o y e d  To u s e a n  to help identify the distinct  r i d g e s and peaks, t h e responses t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t e d  between  poems; i t s a y s n o t h i n g d i r e c t l y o f t h e t e r r a i n f r o m w h i c h peaks t o o k t h e i r r i s e .  those  A n y i n f e r e n c e a b o u t t h e t e r r a i n i s made  on c o n c e p t u a l , n o t s t a t i s t i c a l g r o u n d s .  I acknowledge  f o r c a u t i o n i n g e n e r a l i z i n g from such a s p e c i a l i z e d C h i - S q u a r e was n o t e m p l o y e d  t h e need  sample.  where e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s  o  f e l l below 5 p e r c e l l .  The d e v i c e X  = n/a ( n o t a p p l i c a b l e )  i n d i c a t e s when e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s w e r e t o o l o w t o t e s t t h a t otherwise appeared worth  data  testing.  L e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e a r e i n d i c a t e d as f o l l o w s : b e t t e r than ( s m a l l e r than) two a s t e r i s k s ;  .10,  one a s t e r i s k ;  better than  and b e t t e r than .01,three a s t e r i s k s .  smaller the significance value, the less l i k e l y e f f e c t i s t h e r e s u l t o f chance v a r i a t i o n s . fore,  2  i s "better.")  (X ) o f 2.71 3.84-  o r more i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .10  o r more i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05  (The  i t i s that the  The e f f e c t ,  With 1 degree o f freedom,  .05,  there-  a Chi-Square level,  l e v e l , and a X  2  a X  of  o f 6.63  102 or  more i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l .  where d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m e x c e e d e d 1. to  provide optional levels  No c a s e s o c c u r r e d  I intend such p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f s t r i n g e n c y and t o encourage t h e  r e a d e r t o make h i s own s t a t i s t i c a l  i n f e r e n c e s — b o t h ends  e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n e x p l o r a t o r y work.  being  The e x p l o r a t o r y  n a t u r e o f t h e w o r k a n d t h e c o n c o m i t a n t d e s i r e t o a v o i d Type I I error (ther e j e c t i o n of a true hypothesis) also explains the use,  i n my d i s c u s s i o n ,  level.  I acknowledge  o f .10 a s t h e o p e r a t i v e  t h a t t h e use o f extreme groups  "inflates"  U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d , C h i - S q u a r e was  calculated  significance  levels.  on t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f c h a n c e d i s t r i b u t i o n s . Knowledge,  t h e p a r a l l e l D e n i e d Knowledge  Often, under Given  f i n d i n g s m i g h t be c o n -  s i d e r e d t o p r o v i d e a sounder base and sometimes test.  significance  B u t D e n i e d Knowledge  l e d g e (Deduced  a more s t r i n g e n t  r e s p o n d e e s i n c l u d e d some w i t h Know-  o r " P o s s e s s e d " Knowledge  [ s e e b e l o w (1, b ) ] ) a n d  o t h e r s who m i g h t h a v e " s e n s e d " a poem's C a n a d i a n n e s s . not  a f u l l y n e u t r a l base.  Still,  I t was  C h i - S q u a r e was b a s e d u p o n  e x p e c t a t i o n s o t h e r t h a n c h a n c e when t h e e f f e c t o f t h o s e e x p e c t a t i o n s was i m p o r t a n t — a s when I t e s t e d f o r l a c k o f i n d e p e n d e n c e (or  by, as I w i l l r e f e r t o i t , a 2 x 2 C h i - S q u a r e ) . B A S I C DATA  The S t u d e n t S a m p l e A t o t a l o f 551 cedures.  s t u d e n t s underwent  the testing  The s a m p l e d e s i g n a t e d f o r c l o s e s t u d y , G r e a t e r  proVancouver  s t u d e n t s , a m o u n t e d t o 4-77.  I t w i l l be t h e " m a i n s a m p l e "  r e f e r r e d t o from t h i s p o i n t on.  The BC ( o u t s i d e V a n c o u v e r a r e a )  s u b - g r o u p was t o o s m a l l ( n = 33)  t o t e l l w h e t h e r i t s members  responded d i f f e r e n t l y , students.  Therefore  as a group, from t h e Vancouver  "Vancouver area"  ( n = 4-77)  area  included the  BC s u b - g r o u p . The  students  excluded  4-5 ( R e s t - o f - C a n a d a ) s t u d e n t s  w e r e made u p o f two g r o u p s :  who h a d l i v e d e l s e w h e r e i n C a n a d a  f o r a l l o r p a r t o f t h e p e r i o d f r o m a n d i n c l u d i n g 1970; (Foreign)  students  who h a d l i v e d o u t s i d e C a n a d a d u r i n g a l l o r  p a r t o f t h e same p e r i o d . (1)  Recognition  students  Apart  c o n s i d e r a t i o n under  T r a n s f e r ( b e l o w ) , a n a l y s i s o f t h e l a t t e r two  g r o u p s was n o t f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h g r o u p s were t o o s m a l l .  i n a direct  Under t h e p r e s e n t  s a m p l e o f 4-5 o r 29,  c a t e g o r y were t i n y . student  from t h e i r  (below), and t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f F o r e i g n  u n d e r (5)  with a student  a n d 29  fashion.  The  f r e e r e s p o n s e method,  response frequencies  A l s o , i n t h e case o f F o r e i g n  i n each  students,  O r i g i n s were t o o d i v e r s e t o j u s t i f y s i n g l e - g r o u p  treat-  ment. Three o t h e r groups were, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e s i g n , designated  f o r p o s s i b l e e x c l u s i o n from t h e main a n a l y s i s .  the "Extensive  One,  C a n a d i a n R e a d i n g " g r o u p , was e x a m i n e d s e p a r a t e l y  under R e c o g n i t i o n .  T h e r e a f t e r i t was i n c l u d e d i n t h e m a i n  s a m p l e b e c a u s e o f i t s s m a l l s i z e a n d b e c a u s e i t s members showed t h e m s e l v e s no b e t t e r t h a n  other students  at Recognizing the  104 Canadian poems.  The second and t h i r d groups, which were t o be  made up o f those s t u d e n t s Aware o f t h e s t u d y ' s purposes and t h o s e s t u d e n t s w i t h Pre-Knowledge, d i d n o t m a t e r i a l i z e . Other s t u d e n t sample d e t a i l s i n c l u d e ( n = 4-77): Under Knowledge  Students  Denied  236  Given  241  Under O r i g i n s RC/NZ  236  BC/NZ  241  Under Order Canadian poem f irst„ ......... /t  New Zealand poem f i r s t  ....  233 244  By Sex Male ......... , .. ................... 229 There thus e x i s t e d aFemale good b a l a n c e o f s t u d e n t numbers 248under each of these v a r i a b l e s . W h i l e t h e r e was some v a r i a t i o n between t h e s t u d e n t numbers r e c e i v i n g each poem p a i r (28 s t u d e n t s was t h e l o w e s t and 58 t h e h i g h e s t number r e c e i v i n g a p a r t i c u l a r p a i r ) , o n l y 3 poem p a i r s were r e c e i v e d by fewer t h a n 40 s t u d e n t s . The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Responses Over Poem P a i r s Responses i n each c a t e g o r y were d e r i v e d q u i t e e v e n l y from t h e 12 poem p a i r s .  E x c e p t i o n s were Comprehension and  Q u a n t i t y o f W r i t i n g ( s e e below, p. 1 0 8 ) .  Under Comprehension,  4 poem p a i r s gave r i s e t o r e l a t i v e l y d i s c r e p a n t s c o r e s between ' the poems.  However, t h e a p p a r e n t l y d i f f i c u l t poems were d i s -  t r i b u t e d e v e n l y between Canada and New Zealand between t h e RC/NZ and BC/NZ c o n d i t i o n s ( l / l ,  (2/2) and a l s o  1/1),  Therefore  the i n c l u s i o n o f f o u r d i f f i c u l t poems ( i n r e l a t i v e terms) s h o u l d n o t have a f f e c t e d t h e o v e r a l l f i n d i n g s .  Under Q u a n t i t y  of W r i t i n g t h e g r e a t e r response l e n g t h devoted t o Canadian poems was accounted Country,"  f o r by 3 poems:  15/5,  X  2  = 5**); "Lagoons, Hanlan's P o i n t " ( c f . "The  Anchorage," 2 4 / 9 , X (cf.  2  = 6 . 8 * * * ) ; and "The S l e e p i n g Beauty"  "A View o f R a n g i t o t o , " 2 6 / 9 , X  p a i r s was s i g n i f i c a n c e The  " V a l l e y o f Wenkchemna" ( c f . , " H i l l  2  = 8.3***).  W i t h no- o t h e r  reached.  N e u t r a l i t y o f t h e Poem Base As r e v e a l e d by content a n a l y s i s and by t h e L i k e r t  s c a l e , t h e poems ( o v e r a l l p a i r s ) were o f p r a c t i c a l l y popularity.  equal  Under Denied Knowledge, t h e Means f o r t h e two poem  groups on t h e L i k e r t 'scale were e x c e e d i n g l y c l o s e — 4 . 3 8 9 and 4.385 ( b o t h between t h e s c a l e p o i n t s " f a i r l y good" and "good"). A c o r r e l a t e d t t e s t f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e between 2 c o r r e l a t e d means produced a v a l u e o f o n l y .04. Under R e c o g n i t i o n i n t h e Denied Knowledge c o n d i t i o n (as w i l l be r e p o r t e d below, S p e c i f i c F i n d i n g s (1)  ) t h e Cana-  d i a n poems d i d n o t b e t r a y t h e i r O r i g i n s t o a n e x t e n t t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d them from t h e New Z e a l a n d poems.  106 I n t e r m s o f f r e e r e s p o n s e a n d u n d e r t h e D e n i e d Knowl e d g e c o n d i t i o n ( a s w i l l he r e p o r t e d b e l o w , S p e c i f i c  Findings  (2) ) t h e C a n a d i a n a n d New Z e a l a n d poems d i d n o t s t i m u l a t e d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e p a t t e r n s e x c e p t i n one c a t e g o r y . Thus,  t h e b a l a n c e i n p r e f e r e n c e , R e c o g n i t i o n , and  f r e e r e s p o n s e s c o r e s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e poem s a m p l e was s u i t e d t o s e r v e as a base f o r comparisons between and G i v e n Knowledge The  well  the Denied  conditions.  Numerical Importance o f Each  Category:  The F r e q u e n c i e s  of Scores The  number o f r e s p o n s e s u n d e r e a c h c a t e g o r y ( u s i n g  Frequency d a t a under D e n i e d Knowledge) v a r i e d w i d e l y ( s e e Table I I ) .  The c a t e g o r i e s m o s t f r e q u e n t l y r e c e i v i n g t h e  s t u d e n t s * r e s p o n s e s were,  i n t h i s order, Involvement,  p r e t a t i o n , and E v a l u a t i o n . came C o m p r e h e n s i o n ,  Inter-  Then, w i t h r o u g h l y e q u a l w e i g h t ,  V i s u a l i s a t i o n , Form, and D i c t u m s .  G i v e n K n o w l e d g e made l i t t l e  difference to this pattern.  Only  T r a n s f e r - P l a c e ( m o v i n g f r o m 12% t o 17% f o r t h e C a n a d i a n poems) a n d T r a n s f e r - S p e c i a l ( m o v i n g f r o m 1% t o k% f o r t h e C a n a d i a n poems) m a r k e d l y c h a n g e d w i t h G i v e n  Knowledge.  M o s t s t u d e n t s (75?°) d i d d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n  poems  i n a t l e a s t one c a t e g o r y o f t h e c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s Scheme.  However,  f e w p r o d u c e d C o m p a r a t i v e s c o r e s i n more t h a n 3 o r 4- c a t e g o r i e s .  107  TABLE I I  '. FREQUENCY DATA DENIED KNOWLEDGE I * of 236)  I l l u s t r a t i n g the numerical - Importance of Each, Category,  3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 EVALUATION DESCRIP.RECAPIT. TRANS.SPECIAL INVOLVEMENT INTERPRETATION COMPREHENSION TRANS.PLACE VISUALISATION DEPTH FORM CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN HZ CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ 1  11 DICTTWS  2  CAN NZ  POSITIVE  26* 26*  5* 8*  8* 9*  12*  9%  1* 3*  25* 23* 50* 50*  5* 5*  44* 44*  19* 21*  24* 22*  1  1  L_  17* 14* 17* 15*  .4*  3* 3*  3* 1*  18* 17*  3* 3*  .4* .4*  .4* .4*  NEGATIVE  The m o s t c o n s p i c u o u s c a t e g o r i e s d a t a w e r e n o t t h e same a s u n d e r T a b l e V.)  In thelatter  under  Comparative  Frequency-  data.  (See  case, Involvement, E v a l u a t i o n ,  s a t i o n , a n d Comprehension were t h e most c o n s p i c u o u s . difference i sbest explained p r e t a t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n . when C o m p a r a t i v e  The  by examining t h e cases o f I n t e r -  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n d e c l i n e d i n importance  s c o r e s were u s e d because  sponse-postures t h a t f e l l under non-discriminately,  Visuali-  t h e many s t o c k r e -  i t s l a b e l were u s u a l l y  t o b o t h poems.  applied,  I n Evaluation, by contrast,  many r e s p o n s e s d i d s i n g l e o u t one poem o f a p a i r a n d s o were s c o r e d s i m i l a r l y  under both F r e q u e n c i e s and Comparatives.  10;8 As a r e s u l t a b o v e , p. 92) between  i t was  of supplementary content a n a l y s i s  (see  found t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  emerged  poem g r o u p s on t h e amount o f w r i t i n g s t u d e n t s d e v o t e d  t o each group m e t h o d was poem was  ( c f . a b o v e , p. 5 5 ) .  used:  The  following  analytical  t h e number o f w o r d s s t u d e n t s a p p l i e d t o e a c h  c o u n t e d ; where a d i f f e r e n c e o f 10$ emerged ( 1 w o r d i n  e v e r y 10) t h e poem w i t h m o s t w o r d s was "Quantity of Writing."  The  scored positive  under  f i n d i n g s are reported i n the next  sections. S P E C I F I C FINDINGS ( 1 ) :  RECOGNITION  This s e c t i o n ( l ) deals w i t h Research Question ( 1 ) : t o what e x t e n t c a n V a n c o u v e r g r a d e 11 s t u d e n t s who do n o t know o f t h e o r i g i n s o f C a n a d i a n oems n e v e r t h e l e s s r e c o g n i z e them as b e i n g a) n a t i o n a l o r ( b ) r e g i o n a l ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n ) ? It finds  that: t h e s t u d e n t s were u n a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h a C a n a d i a n o r BC l a n d s c a p e poem f r o m a New Z e a l a n d l a n d s c a p e poem r e a d b e s i d e i t .  A fuller  c o n c l u s i o n c a n be f o u n d b e l o w , p.  (a)  The  C a n a d i a n a n d New  (i)  D e n i e d Knowledge Question:  119.  Z e a l a n d Poem G r o u p s  ( R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 1,  as Wholes  a)  To what e x t e n t c a n V a n c o u v e r g r a d e 11 s t u d e n t s who do n o t Know t h e O r i g i n s o f C a n a d i a n poems, n e v e r t h e l e s s R e c o g n i z e them a s b e i n g C a n a d i a n ?  109 The e x t e n t o f R e c o g n i t i o n c o u l d be g a u g e d u n d e r D e n i e d Knowledge.  I n o r d e r t o know w h e t h e r t h e s t u d e n t s were  n a t i n g b e t w e e n poem O r i g i n s t h e e x t e n t o f R e c o g n i t i o n compared w i t h t h a t r e l a t i n g t o t h e New R e c o g n i z i n g them a s b e i n g  poems ( i e .  RECOGNITION OF ORIGIN DENIED AND GIVEN KNOWLEDGE (% of: K- 236; K+ 241)  The Canadian and New Compared  Zealand  CAN CORRECT  76^  Poem Groups ^5_7  The  NZ CORRECT K-  Kt  35#  64#  30.9*  X  2  Canadian and New Zealand Poems Both Correct (As a Joint Event — P u l l Discrimination) CAN  NZ  CAN  K8*  55$  X  • 20.8***  NZ  K+  Data:  2  = 82. 53 ***  ( T a b l e I I I , A) Of s t u d e n t s  Recognized  was  foreign).  TABLE I I I  £kj  Zealand  discrimi-  i n t h e D e n i e d Knowledge  t h e C a n a d i a n poems ( o r  p o r t i o n o f t h o s e who,  validly,  c o n d i t i o n , 3&f°  i f c a l c u l a t e d as a pro-  completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) .  The f i g u r e s were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e  1  f o r the Recognition of the  110 New Z e a l a n d poems a s b e i n g f o r e i g n (35$ c a s e s t h e C a n a d i a n f i g u r e was m a r g i n a l l y H o w e v e r , 4-1$ Z e a l a n d poems C a n a d i a n . C a n a d i a n poems  ( o r 54$)  o r 4-6$)  though i n both  greater.  o f t h e s t u d e n t s c a l l e d t h e New  A n a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l number c a l l e d t h e  foreign.  Discussion: Although roughly h a l f the students Recognized the C a n a d i a n poems, t h e i r p l a c e m e n t  o f t h e New Z e a l a n d poems  s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s were c a l l i n g h a l f o f a l l Canadian r e g a r d l e s s of true O r i g i n .  poems  I n f a c t more ( t h o u g h n o t  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more) s t u d e n t s c a l l e d t h e New Z e a l a n d poems C a n a d i a n t h a n t h e y d i d t h e C a n a d i a n poems. Conclusion: Because  the students could not discriminate  between  t h e O r i g i n s o f t h e C a n a d i a n a n d New Z e a l a n d poems, t h e y c a n n o t be s a i d t o h a v e c l e a r l y R e c o g n i z e d t h e C a n a d i a n poems u n d e r t h e t e r m s o f R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n (1,  a)  Notes: The between  fact that there existed l i t t l e  discrimination  O r i g i n s under Denied Knowledge l e n t a g r e a t e r  to t h e Denied Knowledge/Given response data.  validity  Knowledge comparison u s i n g  free  D e n i e d K n o w l e d g e d i d a p p l y t o C a n a d i a n a n d New  Z e a l a n d poems e q u a l l y .  ( G i v e n K n o w l e d g e w i l l be  examined  Ill immediately  following.)  The q u e s t i o n a r o s e a s t o t h e number o f s t u d e n t s who c o r r e c t l y and f u l l y  d i s c r i m i n a t e d b e t w e e n t h e poems  t h e C a n a d i a n poem C a n a d i a n a n d t h e New Z e a l a n d poem  (calling foreign).  The q u e s t i o n i s p u r s u e d b e l o w (1, b ) . (ii)  G i v e n Knowledge Question: t o c h e c k , t h a t s t u d e n t s under G i v e n Knowledge d i d  n o t i c e a n d a c c e p t t h e l a b e l s , a n d s o e s t a b l i s h t h e two Knowledge c o n d i t i o n s under which f r e e responses  c o u l d be c o m p a r e d .  S t u d e n t s u n d e r G i v e n Knowledge s h o u l d have R e c o g n i z e d much more o f t e n t h a n s t u d e n t s u n d e r D e n i e d  Knowledge.  Data:  (Table I I I , U n d e r G i v e n K n o w l e d g e 76$  and  of the students  A)  validly  c o r r e c t l y answered t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s c e r t a i n i n g t h e  remembered O r i g i n o f t h e C a n a d i a n poems.  The c o r r e s p o n d i n g  f i g u r e f o r t h e New Z e a l a n d poems was 64$. not  Origins  The d i f f e r e n c e was  significant. The d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n c o r r e c t a n s w e r s u n d e r G i v e n  Knowledge and c o r r e c t answers under D e n i e d Knowledge significant 20.8***).  (X  2  Canada C o r r e c t = 30.9***5  X  2  were  N.Z. C o r r e c t =  112 Conclusion: The  s t u d e n t s under G i v e n Knowledge e x h i b i t e d a  Recognition of Origins  sufficiently  d i f f e r e n t f r o m those u n d e r  Denied Knowledge t o j u s t i f y t h e a n a l y s i s o f f r e e - r e s p o n s e under each Knowledge  condition.  Note: The not answering  percentage  o f t h o s e G i v e n Knowledge s t u d e n t s  c o r r e c t l y ( 2 4 $ a n d 36$)  i s puzzling.  have m i s a p p l i e d t h e l a b e l s , n o t r e a d them, r e j e c t e d forgotten  them, become f a t i g u e d , a n d s o o n .  them,  The p e r c e n t a g e  again suggested a separate examination o f the free o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s who d i d c o r r e c t l y a n d f u l l y  T h e y may  responses  discriminate  b e t w e e n t h e poems ( i . e . o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s who a c t u a l l y Possessed (b)  Knowledge).  Recognition of Origins  Considered as a J o i n t Event  F u l l y D i s c r i m i n a t i n g Between t h e P a i r e d  (Students  Poems)  Question: How many s t u d e n t s c o r r e c t l y a n d f u l l y  discriminated  b e t w e e n t h e poems ( c a l l i n g t h e C a n a d i a n poem C a n a d i a n a n d t h e New Z e a l a n d poem  foreign)?  Data:  ( T a b l e I I I , B) A t o t a l o f 152  criminated  (31$  o f 4-77)  students c o r r e c t l y dis-  b e t w e e n t h e C a n a d i a n a n d New Z e a l a n d poems.  Of  113 t h e s e , 132  w e r e G i v e n K n o w l e d g e s t u d e n t s (54$  w e r e D e n i e d K n o w l e d g e s t u d e n t s (8$  of  o f 2 4 1 ) a n d 20  236).  D i s c u s s i o n and C o n c l u s i o n : In  t h e c a s e o f D e n i e d K n o w l e d g e t h e f i g u r e was l o w  hut consonant w i t h t h e l o w R e c o g n i t i o n under Denied Knowledge a l r e a d y d i s c o v e r e d ( s e e above,  1,  a, i ) .  The p r e s e n t f i n d i n g  emphasized t h a t s t u d e n t s w i t h o u t G i v e n Knowledge were n o t a b l e to  d i s c r i m i n a t e between In  poem O r i g i n s .  t h e case o f G i v e n Knowledge,  p r i s i n g l y low.  H o w e v e r , 57  (23$  t h e f i g u r e was s u r -  of 24l) students returned  responses i n v a l i d f o r the purposes of a s s e s s i n g  53 (22-$)  and call 29  o r c a l l a t a l l , t h e New Z e a l a n d poem.  c a l l e d t h e C a n a d i a n poem " f o r e i g n "  l a b e l , whereas the  99  (42$  C a n a d i a n poem W h i l e 132  o f 236)  called  foreign. (54$)  i s , then, a conservative estimate of  Explanations f o r such a " d e n i a l "  clude the p o s s i b i l i t i e s by t h e l a b e l ' s  Only  i n denial of the  under D e n i e d Knowledge  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n under G i v e n Knowledge, low.  discrimination;  c a l l e d t h e C a n a d i a n poem c o r r e c t l y b u t f a i l e d t o  correctly,  (12$)  7  i t remains  surprisingly  o f t h e l a b e l s must i n -  t h a t some s t u d e n t s w e r e n o t i m p r e s s e d  importance or p r e f e r r e d t o t h i n k that the Canadian  poem was inot C a n a d i a n o r t h e New Z e a l a n d poem was n o t New Z e a l a n d .  Note: T h e s e f i n d i n g s f u r t h e r recommended t h e s e p a r a t e content  a n a l y s i s of f r e e responses f o r those  discriminate  c o r r e c t l y and f u l l y .  C o r r e c t l y Possessed pared  Such s t u d e n t s  K n o w l e d g e (PK+) s t u d e n t s .  w i t h I n c o r r e c t l y Possessed  were  who d i d called  T h e y w e r e com-  Knowledge (PK-) s t u d e n t s .  l a t t e r g r o u p was*-, made u p o f t h o s e ( c a l l i n g t h e New Z e a l a n d  students  The  who were a b s o l u t e l y w r o n g  poem C a n a d i a n a n d v i c e v e r s a ) , o r  w r o n g a b o u t one poem w h i l e f a i l i n g  t o answer t h e o t h e r .  (The  a b s o l u t e l y w r o n g g r o u p was t o o s m a l l f o r u s e f u l c o m p a r i s o n . The and,  s e c o n d g r o u p was "wrong" i n t h a t i t e x h i b i t e d b o t h presumably, doubt.)  Specific Findings (c)  This  comparison i s found below under  (3» B ) .  R e c o g n i t i o n a s I n f l u e n c e d b y t h e RC/NZ a n d BC/NZ Question:  error  (Research  Question  Conditions  1, b)  To what e x t e n t c a n V a n c o u v e r a r e a G r a d e 11 s t u d e n t s who do n o t Know t h e O r i g i n s o f t h e C a n a d i a n poems n e v e r t h e l e s s R e c o g n i z e t h e poems when t h e y a r e r e g i o n a l (B.C.)? The Knowledge.  e x t e n t o f R e c o g n i t i o n c o u l d be g a u g e d u n d e r D e n i e d  I n o r d e r t o know w h e t h e r t h e s t u d e n t s  were d i s c r i m -  i n a t i n g b e t w e e n poem O r i g i n s , t h e f i g u r e was c o m p a r e d w i t h for  R e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e R e s t - o f - C a n a d a poems a n d t h e New  poems.  that  Zealand  115 (i)  R e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n Poems Data:  ( T a b l e I V , A) U n d e r D e n i e d K n o w l e d g e , 48 s t u d e n t s (41$ o f t h o s e  u n d e r D e n i e d K n o w l e d g e i n t h e RC/NZ s u b - c o n d i t i o n ) R e c o g n i z e d the  RC poems a n d 42 (36$)  R e c o g n i z e d t h e BC poems ( a s C a n a d i a n ) .  U n d e r G i v e n K n o w l e d g e t h e f i g u r e s were  90 (76$)  and  95 (77$).  The d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . D i s c u s s i o n and Conclusion: There  TABLE IV  existed neither significant  differences nora  RECOGNITION OP ORIGIN CANADIAN AND NEW ZEALAND POEMS TJNDER THE RC/NZ AND BC/NZ CONDITIONS {% of: K-, RC/NZ 118, BC/NZ 118; Kt, RC/NZ 118, BC/NZ 123)  (A) The Canadian Poems KK+ RC BC RC BC  41% Z6% 76% 77%  (B) The New Zealand Poems KK+ RC BC RC BC 32£ 38#  62$ 68^  116 trend across  Knowledge c o n d i t i o n s .  b e e n no more a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e  The s t u d e n t s  the poetry  a p p e a r t o have  o f t h e i r own r e g i o n  than t h a t o f t h e i r n a t i o n as a whole. (ii)  Recognition  o f t h e New Z e a l a n d Poems  Data:  (Table U n d e r D e n i e d K n o w l e d g e 38 (32$)  placed  students  I V , B)  correctly  t h e New Z e a l a n d poem ( a s f o r e i g n ) when i t was p a i r e d  w i t h a R e s t - o f - C a n a d a poem, w h e r e a s 45  (38$)  i t when i t was p a i r e d w i t h a BC poem.  Under G i v e n Knowledge  the  f i g u r e s were  not  statistically  73 (62$)  and  83 (67$).  correctly  placed  The d i f f e r e n c e s were  significant.  Discussion: A l t h o u g h , u n d e r b o t h K n o w l e d g e c o n d i t i o n s , t h e New Z e a l a n d poem was more a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f i e d it  (as foreign)  when  was p a i r e d w i t h a BC poem, t h e t r e n d was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . Conclusion: These f i n d i n g s p a r a l l e l e d t h o s e under ( i ) i m m e d i a t e l y  above. students  T o g e t h e r t h e y a n s w e r e d R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 1, d i d not, i n Recognizing  b:  Origins, distinguish  t h e i r region's  poetry  and f o r e i g n p o e t r y  their nation's  poetry  and f o r e i g n  poetry.  the between  any b e t t e r t h a n between  117 (d)  Special  Notes  (i)  R e c o g n i t i o n by Those S t u d e n t s s i v e Canadian Reading.  Designated  as H a v i n g  ( R e c o g n i t i o n by t h o s e s t u d e n t s  as t h e d e s i g n s p e c u l a t e d , m i g h t h a v e r e s p o n d e d t o literature comprised  differently 80  from the g e n e r a l group.  s t u d e n t s who  O p i n i o n 1 and  Extenwho,  Canadian  The  group  s c o r e d 4 and 5 on t h e s c a l e s  2.)  Opinion  Question: To a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r t h o s e s t u d e n t s who  claimed to  h a v e had t h e m o s t c o n t a c t w i t h C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e , and  i n class,  readily former  Recognized  privately  t h e C a n a d i a n poems* O r i g i n s more  t h a n o t h e r s t u d e n t s d i d and whether, t h e r e f o r e , t h e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d have been t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y under  free  response. D a t a and D i s c u s s i o n : Under Denied students Recognized  K n o w l e d g e 15  Extensive Canadian  t h e C a n a d i a n poem, 17  called  Reading  i t foreign.  This p r o p o r t i o n of c o r r e c t students  (4-7$)  t h a t of the main sample.  of c o r r e c t Recognitions  under Denied  The  K n o w l e d g e (15)  was,  again, almost  (.4-7  c f . .4-9).  identical  ratio  was  very similar  t o t h o s e under G i v e n Knowledge to the r a t i o  i n t h e main sample  Conclusion: Students  to  w i t h E x t e n s i v e Canadian Reading  d i d not  (3 ) 2  118 R e c o g n i z e C a n a d i a n O r i g i n s more r e a d i l y t h a n o t h e r s t u d e n t s . For  t h i s r e a s o n , a n d "because o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y 2  s i z e of the group, free responses  small  t h e r e seemed no p o i n t i n a n a l y z i n g i t s  separately.  Note: In  f a c t an a s s o c i a t i o n between,  on one h a n d ,  rela-  t i v e l y h i g h (not n e c e s s a r i l y E x t e n s i v e ) Canadian Reading on t h e o t h e r , C o r r e c t l y P o s s e s s e d K n o w l e d g e , future report of  ( s e e b e l o w , p. 1 6 3 ) .  and,  w i l l be shown i n a  I n proportion t o the  strength  that a s s o c i a t i o n , the s p e c i a l a n a l y s i s of f r e e response  under  P o s s e s s e d K n o w l e d g e ( b e l o w , 3, B) d i d c a r r y t h r o u g h a s e p a r a t e a n a l y s i s of those students w i t h r e l a t i v e l y h i g h Canadian Reading. (ii)  R e c o g n i t i o n by t h e S t u d e n t S u b - G r o u p R e s t - o f - C a n a d a ( R e c o g n i t i o n b y t h o s e s t u d e n t s who, posed, were l e f t the  integrity  as t h e d e s i g n p r o -  out o f t h e main a n a l y s i s as  violating  of the student base, Vancouver a r e a s t u d e n t s . )  Question: To a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r t h i s g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s R e c o g n i z e d C a n a d i a n O r i g i n s more o r l e s s r e a d i l y t h a n o t h e r g r o u p s . D a t a and  Discussion:  U n d e r D e n i e d K n o w l e d g e 10 R e s t - o f - C a n a d a s t u d e n t s R e c o g n i z e d t h e C a n a d i a n poem, 8 c a l l e d  i t foreign.  119 T h i s was a h i g h e r r a t e o f R e c o g n i t i o n t h a n f o r t h e V a n c o u v e r students (and, c u r i o u s l y , —9  c f . 5)  b u t t h e s a m p l e was t o o s m a l l t o he r e l i a b l e . The  l e d g e (10) identical  i t was e v e n h i g h e r w i t h t h e BC poems  ratio  o f c o r r e c t R e c o g n i t i o n s u n d e r D e n i e d Know-  t o those under to the ratio  G i v e n K n o w l e d g e (21)  i n t h e o t h e r samples  was a l m o s t  (.48  cf.  .4-7 a n d .4-9).  Conclusion: E x c e p t where i t was u n r e l i a b l e , t h e r e was no d a t a suggesting t h a t the Rest-of-Canada  students Recognized  differ-  e n t l y than the other groups. (e)  Recognition: The  G e n e r a l C o n c l u s i o n and D i s c u s s i o n  students d i d n o t appear a b l e t o Recognize  o r BC l a n d s c a p e p o e t r y t o a n y i m p o r t a n t e x t e n t .  While  Canadian about  50$  o f t h e s t u d e n t s R e c o g n i z e d t h e C a n a d i a n poems, t h e f i n d i n g s  for  t h e New Z e a l a n d poems a n d f o r f u l l  t h a t s t u d e n t s w e r e c a l l i n g 50$  discrimination  suggested  o f t h e poems C a n a d i a n f o r r e a s o n s  n o t p e c u l i a r t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r poem p a i r s b e f o r e them.  I f this  i s t r u e i t m i g h t be a c c o u n t e d f o r b y t h e n a t u r e o f t h e poem sample,  o r p o s s i b l y b y some h e i g h t e n e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f C a n a d i a n  literature  as a r e s u l t o f t h e p r e s s u r e s reviewed i n Chapter I . U n d e r G i v e n K n o w l e d g e t h e r e was s u f f i c i e n t  n i t i o n t o warrant t h e a n a l y s i s o f f r e e response under Knowledge c o n d i t i o n as proposed.  Recogeach  However t h e r e was a l s o  c i e n t n o n - R e c o g n i t i o n t o recommend t h e s u p p l e m e n t a r y  suffi-*  analysis  12© of  f r e e response  non-Recognition  under "Possessed  Knowledge."  The e x t e n t o f  suggests, but only suggests, that not a l l  s t u d e n t s f o u n d t h e l a b e l s "A C a n a d i a n Poem" a n d "A B.C. Poem" particularly  noteworthy.  S P E C I F I C FINDINGS ( 2 ) : FREE RESPONSE: DIFFERENCES INHERENT I N THE POEMS (DENIED KNOWLEDGE) T h i s s e c t i o n (2) d e a l s w i t h R e s e a r c h  Question (2):  t o what e x t e n t do V a n c o u v e r G r a d e 11 s t u d e n t s respond d i f f e r e n t l y t o (a) t h e i r n a t i o n ' s poetry o r t o (b) t h e i r region's poetry, than to p o e t r y from o t h e r c o u n t r i e s ? It finds  that:  t h e r e were no:;general t r e n d s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the students responded d i f f e r e n t l y t o t h e C a n a d i a n a n d New Z e a l a n d poem s a m p l e s when t h e y were n o t t o l d o f t h e O r i g i n s o f t h e samples. A fuller  c o n c l u s i o n c a n be f o u n d b e l o w , p. 124 .  (a)  Conrparative  Scores  (i)  The N a t i o n a l ( C a n a d i a n a n d New Z e a l a n d )  Poem G r o u p s a s  Wholes Question: Did  t h e f r e q u e n c i e s o f Comparative  scores i n any  c a t e g o r y d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( b e t w e e n t h e n a t i o n a l poem g r o u p s ) , thereby denoting a d i f f e r e n c e i n response o p p o s e d t o t h e New Z e a l a n d , poems?  t o t h e Canadian,  as  123: Data:  ( T a b l e V) The  were a l m o s t  s c o r e s f o r t h e C a n a d i a n a n d New Z e a l a n d  i d e n t i c a l i n each category except  poems  for a signifi-  c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , f a v o u r i n g t h e C a n a d i a n poems, u n d e r T r a n s f e r P l a c e a n d f o r t h e t r e n d s t o w a r d s t h e C a n a d i a n poems u n d e r Visualisation  a n d t o w a r d s t h e New Z e a l a n d  hension.  Across  apparent  trends.  TABLE V  1  -  t h eremaining  c a t e g o r i e s t h e r e w e r e no  FREE RESPONSE, COMPARATIVE DATA DENIED KNOWLEDGE ( i o f : 236)  2  3  4  5  poems u n d e r Compre-  I l l u s t r a t i n g the Patterns Response Associated With ^he Canadian and New Zealand Poem Groups  6  7  8  9  10  EVALUATION DESCRIP.RECAPIT. TRANS.SPECIAL INVOLVEMENT INTERPRETATION COMPREHENSION TRANS.PLACE VISUALISATION DEPTH FORM CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ  19*  18*  12*  14*  5* 5*  6*  3*  3* 3*  16*  13*  18*  18*  5* 5*  10*  10*  6* 7*  11  DICTUMS CAN NZ  6*  4*  122 Conclusion: The  difference registered i n Transfer-Place  t h a t some s t u d e n t s t o them.  d i drecognize  s e t t i n g s a n d make  reference  F o r t h e r e s t , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n no  r e s p o n s e t o t h e C a n a d i a n poems where t h o s e i d e n t i f i e d as (ii)  suggests  special  poems w e r e n o t  such.  The RC/NZ a n d BC/NZ  Conditions  Question: D i d t h e p a t t e r n s o f s c o r e s u n d e r t h e RC/NZ a n d BC/NZ c o n d i t i o n s d i f f e r t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e two c o n d i t i o n s be r e g a r d e d  could  as i n f l u e n c i n g response?  Data and D i s c u s s i o n :  (Table VI)  T h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e i n p a t t e r n o f r e s p o n s e , opposed t o volume o f response, tions.  b e t w e e n t h e RC/NZ BC/NZ  The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n T r a n s f e r - P l a c e  as  condi-  noted  u n d e r (1, a ) a b o v e a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n c o n t r i b u t e d t o b y b o t h t h e RC a n d BC poems. Conclusion: The  f i n d i n g , u n d e r (1, a ) , t h a t t h e r e was no  special  r e s p o n s e t o t h e C a n a d i a n poems ( w h e r e t h o s e poems were n o t i d e n t i f i e d a s s u c h ) , a p p l i e s e q u a l l y t o t h e RC a n d BC poems.  123  TABLE VI  FREE RESP0H3E, COMPARATIVE DATA DENTED KNOWLEDGE THE 'RC/NZ, BC/NZ CONDITIONS (* c f : KC/NZ 118;BC/NZ 118(totnl K- 336) )  Illustrating t ' 3 patterns of.response associated with the (regional) poetry sub-conditions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 EVALUATION DESCRIP.RECAPIT. TRANS.SPECIAL INVOLVEMENT INTERPRETATION COMPREHENSION TRANS.PLACE VISUALISATION DEPTH FORM CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN HZ CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ 22* 22* 11* 16*  7* 5*  8* 4*  5* 4*  18* 14*  21* 27*  7* 8*  14* 12*  14* 9*-  2* 2$  12* 11*  6* 8*  11 DICTUMS CAN NZ 3* 5*  REST-OF-CANADA / NEW ZEALAND  15* 14* 14* 13*  2* 5*  4* 2*  2* 2*  7*  8* 3*  BRITISH COLUMBIA / NEW ZEALAND  n  l~r r—r  X X  (b)  Quantity of Writing  (i)  The C a n a d i a n a n d New Z e a l a n d  2  =2.17  = 2.57  2  X  2  = n/a  Poem G r o u p s a s W h o l e s  Question: Did the frequencies o f Quantity scores i n any category d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y thereby  ( b e t w e e n t h e n a t i o n a l poem g r o u p s )  denoting a d i f f e r e n c e i n response t o t h e Canadian, as  o p p o s e d t o t h e New Z e a l a n d ,  poems?  124 Data:  ( T a b l e V I I , A) No s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e occurred.  The t r e n d  f a v o u r e d t h e C a n a d i a n poems. Conclusion: The  d a t a u n d e r Q u a n t i t y was i n c o n c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e  general findings to this point: was no s p e c i a l r e s p o n s e (ii)  under D e n i e d Knowledge  there  t o t h e C a n a d i a n poems a s a b o d y .  The RC/NZ a n d BC/NZ  Conditions  Question: D i d t h e s c o r e s u n d e r t h e RC/NZ a n d BC/NZ c o n d i t i o n s d i f f e r t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e two c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d be as i n f l u e n c i n g  response?  Data and C o n c l u s i o n : A significant f a v o u r i n g t h e BC poems. RC/NZ.  ( T a b l e V I I , B)  d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d u n d e r BC/NZ, No s u c h  difference occurred  Free and  under  Thus t h e t r e n d f a v o u r i n g t h e C a n a d i a n poems n o t e d  ( i ) a b o v e was due t o t h e BC/NZ s t i m u l u s a n d (c)  regarded  Response:  under  response.  Inherent D i f f e r e n c e s : General  Conclusion  Discussion T h e r e w e r e no g e n e r a l t r e n d s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e  students responded d i f f e r e n t l y  t o t h e C a n a d i a n a n d New  Zealand  poem s a m p l e s o r t o t h e R e s t - o f - C a n a d a a n d BC poems. Two i s o l a t e d  d i f f e r e n c e s i n response  occurred.  That  f a v o u r i n g t h e C a n a d i a n poems u n d e r Q u a n t i t y o f W r i t i n g was significant  o n l y i n t h e BC/NZ  condition.  ( I n no o t h e r  respects  125 w e r e t h e RC/NZ a n d BC/NZ c o n d i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h differences.)  response  The o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e , t h a t w h i c h f a v o u r e d t h e  C a n a d i a n poems u n d e r T r a n s f e r - P l a c e r a i s e s a new q u e s t i o n o f the T r a n s f e r p r i n c i p l e : t h i n g more t h a n s i m p l e  does f u l l Recognition?  e f f e c t s e e n h e r e was i s o l a t e d ; not  T r a n s f e r d e p e n d u p o n someAfter all,  the p a r t i c u l a r  other response categories d i d  exhibit differences.  TABLE VII  FREE RESPONSE, QUANTITY OF WRITING DENIED KNOWLEDGE (A) THE CAN/NZ COMPARISON (B) THE RC/NZ, BC/NZ CONDITIONS (% o f : 236) (% of RC/NZ 118; BC/NZ 118 ( t o t a l K-236) ) RC/NZ -3C/NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ CAN NZ 4155 35^ 36# 39 # 46# 30#  3.6* 2.74  S P E C I F I C FINDINGS (3, A ) FREE RESPONSE: WITH G I V E N KNOWLEDGE  DIFFERENCES  ASSOCIATED  T h i s s e c t i o n (3) d e a l s w i t h R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n ( J ) : t o what e x t e n t do d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s p o n s e depend upon t h e s t u d e n t s b e i n g t o l d o f t h e Origins of the poetry? It finds that: t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e t h a t s t u d e n t s r e s p o n d e d d i f f e r e n t l y t o t h e C a n a d i a n a n d New Z e a l a n d poem s a m p l e s when t h e y w e r e t o l d o f  126 the O r i g i n s of the samples. They f a v o u r e d t h e C a n a d i a n poems, o f t e n s t r o n g l y , i n a l m o s t every response category. A fuller  conclusion  (a)  Comparative  (i)  The  c a n be  f o u n d b e l o w , p. 133 •  Scores  C a n a d i a n and  New  Z e a l a n d Poem G r o u p s as  Wholes.  Question: Did the p a t t e r n s and  of scores  under D e n i e d Knowledge  G i v e n Knowledge d i f f e r s u f f i c i e n t l y t o suggest t h a t  c o n d i t i o n G i v e n Knowledge a f f e c t e d the the  C a n a d i a n o r New D a t a and  students'  Discussion:  C a n a d i a n poems.  Transfer-Place, I t may  (Table  The  t r e n d was  Where t h e r e  significant  a p p e a r e d t o be  C a n a d i a n poems.  f e r - P l a c e ) was  tended to i n four  VIII) favour cases:  i n Evaluation.  Knowledge (as i n T r a n s f e r - P l a c e the  to  T r a n s f e r - S p e c i a l , D e p t h , and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  a l s o have been p r e s e n t  favoured  responses  Z e a l a n d poems?  Under G i v e n Knowledge, f r e q u e n c i e s the  the  i t significant  s m a l l e r than the  and  a t r e n d under Denied Visualisation) i t also  H o w e v e r o n l y i n one and  the  case  difference there  (Transwas  d i f f e r e n c e under G i v e n Knowledge.  Conclusion: The  p a t t e r n of r e s p o n s e s under G i v e n Knowledge  was  127 s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t under D e n i e d Knowledge t o suggest a d i f f e r e n c e i n the  e f f e c t of the  two c o n d i t i o n s .  c o n d i t i o n G i v e n K n o w l e d g e was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e s p o n s e s favoured the  C a n a d i a n poems.  f l u e n c e d p o s i t i v e l y by the B.C.  The  that  The s t u d e n t s were a p p a r e n t l y i n -  l a b e l s "A C a n a d i a n Poem" a n d "A  Poem" o r n e g a t i v e l y b y t h e l a b e l " N o n - C a n a d i a n , " a s t h o s e  l a b e l s w e r e a p p l i e d t o t h e poems g i v e n t h e  TABLE VIII EVALUATIO N + C1A9N*K-1NZ8* 1CA7NK * N1Z4*  students.  F E RESPONSEV , CO MP ARA TIV E DATAoInlltuhsetrp aa tt intgerntshe oefffects, DR EE N (*IEoDf;ANDK-GoI fE2N 36;KN K+OWL ofEDG 2E 41) r e s p o n s e tossotcheiattewd o poem g rv oe un ps,Knoaw Gi ledge with COMPREHENSI +ON DESCRIPTION, RECAP, C1A2N*K-1NZ4*. 1CA1NK * N1Z0*  TRANSFE RK PLACE 4 C6 A* NK-N3% Z 14% CAN+3%, NZ  TRANSFER Kt) SPECIAL C3% ANK-3% NZ 8% CAN NZ 3%  INVOL7 VEMEN T C1A8N* 1NZ8* 2CA2K N*tN2Z1* K-  S K- DEPTC AN^NZ H* 3* 5CA*N N 5% 7 Z  INTERPRETATI ON C1A1N*K-1N0Z*. 1CA1K N*t7N *Z  128 (ii)  The  RC/NZ and BC/NZ  Conditions  Question: Did the patterns  of scores  under Denied  Knowledge  and G i v e n Knowledge d i f f e r s u f f i c i e n t l y t o s u g g e s t t h a t c o n d i t i o n G i v e n Knowledge a f f e c t e d the s t u d e n t s ' the Rest-of-Canada t h e BC  responses  poems d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s  to to  poems?  The  RC/NZ  Condition  Data:  (Table T h e r e was  students  to favour  t r e n d was  present  g o r i e s except  t h e C a n a d i a n poems.  Significance  was  to a greater  or l e s s e r degree  and  the  i n a l l cate-  Comprehension.  U n d e r D e n i e d K n o w l e d g e t h e same t r e n d e x i s t e d i n 5 categories: Visualisation,  IX)  a tendency under G i v e n Knowledge f o r  r e a c h e d i n 2 c a t e g o r i e s , E v a l u a t i o n and T r a n s f e r - P l a c e ,  I n two,  the  Description, Transfer-Place,  and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  I n none was  Comprehension and I n v o l v e m e n t ,  D i s c u s s i o n and  Transfer-Special, i t significant. reversed.  Conclusion:  There appeared response patterns  i t was  only  to exist  s u f f i c i e n t d i f f e r e n c e between  under G i v e n and D e n i e d Knowledge and  cient l i k e n e s s of pattern across  categories to conclude  suffithat  129  In llustthreatip na gtte tr he eo fffectre ss ,ponse FRE E R E , CN OO lW fL fE AR A T IVE DATAo n s D E D/NZ A, NDSPO GN IS VE EN NZK D G E t o t h e t w o ( r e g i o n a l ) p o e m THE ENoIR C B C / C O N D I T I O N S s u b g r o u p s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f: -KB -C/NR C / N Z 1 1 8 : K + R C / N Z 1 1 8 Z 118; BC/NZ 123,Given Knowledge DA EP SI CT RU IL PA TT II OO NN R EC COMPREHENSION EVALUATIONK+ K K CA7%N N6%Z CA5%NK+Ni% Z CAN NZ22% 20% CAN NZ11% CANK-NZ. . CAN HK+Z 22% TABLE IX  ujf  16%  e%  9%  REST-OF-CANADA / NEW ZEALAND  X » 3.27*  4FER TRA N S P L ACE CANK-NZ CANK+NZ 8% 18;« 5%  14%  13$  l-J%  '  14%  13JS  14%  ll'i  VISUALISATION K K+ 1C8AJNS N14%Z '13%CAN 10%NZ  INVOLVEMENT C21%ANK-N2Z7# 2CA3N?K+NZ18%  8  CAN  NZ  1%.  8%  2%  4%  2%  ' ' 11%  2%  Z%  2%  1\%-  3J8  1*%  12%  12%  15%  14%  9%  21%  24%  2%  2%  BRITISH COLUMBIA /NEW ZEALAND  X « 6.25** 2  the d i f f e r e n c e i n Knowledge e f f e c t s a l r e a d y o b s e r v e d w i t h b r o a d e r C a n a d i a n New  Z e a l a n d c o m p a r i s o n was  the  a l s o found under  the  RC/NZ c o n d i t i o n . On not  the  identical:  o t h e r h a n d t h e CAN/NZ a n d  u n d e r CAN/NZ.  RC/NZ p a t t e r n s were  t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s u n d e r RC/NZ  c a t e g o r i e s ) d i d not  fully  9  DEPTH  K-  CAN  8%  NZ  3%  INTERPRETATION KK+ NZ CAN  12,? 11 % CAN  10#  NZ  9%  y? • 8.3**+  2  1&%  T SR PA EN CS IF AE LR K+ K CA5%N ifNZ CA6%N NZ2%  c o i n c i d e w i t h t h o s e (4  (2  categories)  X = 4.76** 2  I  T~l  8%  9%  9%  9%  12% 4%  130 I t r e m a i n s , h o w e v e r , t h a t i n b o t h t h e CAN/NZ and. RC/NZ c o n d i t i o n s , G i v e n K n o w l e d g e was a s s o c i a t e d favouring The  with  responses  t h e C a n a d i a n poem.  BC/NZ  Condition  Data:  (Table IX) There were 2 t e n d e n c i e s under G i v e n Knowledge.  One  was t o g i v e more a t t e n t i o n t o t h e BC poems t h a n t o t h e New Z e a l a n d poems.  S i g n i f i c a n c e was r e a c h e d i n 3  (Transfer-Place,  Transfer-Special,  categories  and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) and t h e  t r e n d was p r e s e n t i n C o m p r e h e n s i o n . Against  t h a t t r e n d was one g i v i n g l e s s a t t e n t i o n t o  t h e BC poems i n 4 c a t e g o r i e s : s a t i o n , and Involvement. category.  Evaluation, Description,  Visuali-  I t d i d n o t r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e i n any  Two s i g n i f i c a n t 2 x 2  C h i - S q u a r e s c o u l d be c a l c u -  l a t e d b e t w e e n RC/NZ a n d BC/NZ ( i n E v a l u a t i o n a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) . Discussion  and  Conclusion:  T h e r e e x i s t e d some s i m i l a r i t y i n p a t t e r n t o t h a t u n d e r t h e RC/NZ c o n d i t i o n .  U n d e r G i v e n K n o w l e d g e t h e BC poems  were a l s o f a v o u r e d i n T r a n s f e r - P l a c e In other  respects,  and T r a n s f e r - S p e c i a l .  however, t h e response  u n d e r BC/NZ d i f f e r e d f r o m t h o s e u n d e r RC/NZ. occurred two  i n , largely, different categories.  significant 2 x 2  found  Chi-Squares.  patterns  Significance And t h e r e  were t h e  131  Therefore  t h e r e was a p p a r e n t l y a d i f f e r e n c e between  the e f f e c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e RC/NZ and BC/NZ c o n d i t i o n s — o r w i t h t h e l a b e l s "A Canadian Poem" and "A B.C. Poem" i n c o n c e r t w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e poem s e t s . (b)  Quantity  of W r i t i n g  (i)  The Canadian and New Z e a l a n d Poem Groups as Wholes Question: D i d t h e p a t t e r n s o f s c o r e s under Denied Knowledge and  G i v e n Knowledge d i f f e r s u f f i c i e n t l y t o suggest t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n G i v e n Knowledge a f f e c t e d t h e s t u d e n t s *  responses t o t h e Canadian  or New Z e a l a n d poems? Data:  ( T a b l e X, A) Under G i v e n Knowledge t h e Canadian poems were s i g n i -  f i c a n t l y favoured.  The 2 x 2  Chi-Square was not s i g n i f i c a n t .  Conclusion: I f , b u t o n l y i f , chance d i s t r i b u t i o n s were assumed, the l a b e l "A Canadian Poem" o r "A B.C. Poem," i n c o n c e r t  with  i t s r e s p e c t i v e poem s e t s , was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h more w r i t i n g about the Canadian poems under G i v e n Knowledge.  132  (ii)  The RC/NZ and BC/NZ C o n d i t i o n s Question: Did  t h e p a t t e r n s o f s c o r e s under Denied Knowledge and  G i v e n Knowledge d i f f e r s u f f i c i e n t l y t o suggest t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n G i v e n Knowledge a f f e c t e d t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s t o t h e Rest-of-Canada poems d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n t h e i r responses t o t h e BC poems?  (A) THE CAN/NZ COMPARISON (* o f : K- 236; K+ 241 ( t o t a l 477) ) CAN  I l l u s t r a t i n g the e f f e c t s , on tho patterns of response to tho d i f f e r e n t poem groups, a s s o c i a t e d with Given Knowledge.  FREE RESPONSE, QUANTITY OF WRITING DENIED AND GIVEN KNOWLEDGE  TABLE X  KNZ  CAN  40* ' 35*  Kt  NZ  (B) THE RC/NZ BC/NZ CONDITIONS (* o f : K- RC/NZ 118; K+ RC/NZ 118 BC/NZ 118; BC/NZ 123) RC/NZ  44* 32*  CAN 36*  KNZ 39 *  Kf CAN NZ 47* 26*  X X BC/NZ  X  2  2  = 5.70 **  2  • 7.18 *•*  = 4.91 «*  46* 30*  X  2  = 3.6 *  40* 37*  133 Data:  ( T a b l e X, B) I n t h e RC/NZ c o n d i t i o n , u n d e r G i v e n K n o w l e d g e , a n d  compared w i t h D e n i e d K n o w l e d g e , t h e r e was a greater Quantity  significantly  of Writing.  I n t h e BC/NZ c o n d i t i o n t h e r e was a d e c r e a s e , G i v e n Knowledge, i n Q u a n t i t y  o f W r i t i n g o n BC poems  under  (under  D e n i e d K n o w l e d g e t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f a v o u r i n g t h e BC poems, u n d e r G i v e n K n o w l e d g e t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e ) . Conclusion: The  l a b e l "A C a n a d i a n Poem," i n c o n c e r t  with i t s  poem s e t a n d u n d e r G i v e n K n o w l e d g e , was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Quantity  of Writing.  greater  There e x i s t e d a t r e n d i n t h e o p p o s i t e  d i r e c t i o n w i t h t h e l a b e l "A B.C. Poem." (c)  Free Response:  G i v e n Knowledge:  General  C o n c l u s i o n and  Discussion The  G i v e n K n o w l e d g e c o n d i t i o n was a s s o c i a t e d  d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e s b e t w e e n t h e C a n a d i a n a n d New Z e a l a n d  with poems,  b o t h i n t e r m s o f r e s p o n s e p a t t e r n s a n d t h e amount o f w r i t i n g u p o n e a c h poem.  The p a t t e r n s  suggested a r i c h e r response t o  t h e C a n a d i a n poems. The  G i v e n K n o w l e d g e c o n d i t i o n was a l s o a s s o c i a t e d  d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e s b e t w e e n t h e two p o e t r y (RC/NZ a n d BC/NZ).  Again,  sub-conditions  the differences occurred  i n both  with  134 response p a t t e r n s and t h e amount o f w r i t i n g upon each poem. The n a t u r e o f t h e p a t t e r n s suggested t h a t t h e response t o t h e RC poems was a r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e , p o s i t i v e , response t o t h e l a b e l s . Response t o t h e BC poems combined n e g a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n a l e f f e c t s w i t h p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s i n o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s , thus a p p e a r i n g more complex. SPECIFIC FINDINGS (3, B) FREE RESPONSE: DIFFERENCES ASSOCIATED WITH POSSESSED KNOWLEDGE Question: T h i s s u b - s e c t i o n a p p l i e s Research Q u e s t i o n 3 t o t h e two extreme groups under P o s s e s s e d Knowledge, as foreshadowed i n s e c t i o n (1) R e c o g n i t i o n . I t finds that: the Response d i f f e r e n c e s d e t e c t e d under (3»A) were even g r e a t e r when a comparison was made between those two groups o f s t u d e n t s who, beyond b e i n g t o l d o f poem O r i g i n s , a c t u a l l y p o s s e s s e d and d i d n o t possess a Knowledge o f what t h o s e O r i g i n s were. A f u l l e r c o n c l u s i o n can be found below, p. I38. (a)  Comparative  Scores  (i)  The Canadian and New Z e a l a n d Poem Groups as Wholes Question: D i d t h e p a t t e r n s o f s c o r e s under C o r r e c t l y P o s s e s s e d  Knowledge (PK+) and I n c o r r e c t l y P o s s e s s e d Knowledge (PK-)  135 d i f f e r s u f f i c i e n t l y t o suggest t h a t the two the s t u d e n t s '  conditions affected  responses t o the Canadian or New  Z e a l a n d poems?  Data:  (Table Under PK+  the Canadian poems were f a v o u r e d ,  f i c a n t l y , i n 6 categories:  Evaluation,  XI)  signi-  Transfer-Place,  T r a n s f e r - S p e c i a l , V i s u a l i s a t i o n , Depth, and  Involvement.  The  t r e n d e x i s t e d i n a l l o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s except D e s c r i p t i o n . Under I n c o r r e c t l y P o s s e s s e d Knowledge the New  Zealand  poems ( t h o u g h t t o be Canadian) were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  favoured i n  2 categories:  trend  E v a l u a t i o n and  present i n 3 others:  Comprehension.  The  D e s c r i p t i o n , V i s u a l i s a t i o n , and  was  Inter-  pretation. Significant 2 x 2 3 categories:  E v a l u a t i o n , Comprehension, and V i s u a l i s a t i o n .  Conclusion The  Chi-Squares c o u l d be c a l c u l a t e d i n  and  Discussion:  patterns  of response under C o r r e c t l y and I n c o r r e c t l y  P o s s e s s e d Knowledge were s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r a d i f f e r e n c e i n the e f f e c t of the two c o n d i t i o n PK+  was  c o n d i t i o n s t o be concluded.  s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h responses t h a t  f a v o u r e d the Canadian poems.  The  c o n d i t i o n PK-  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h responses t h a t f a v o u r e d the New t o be Canadian) poems. and  The  was  strongly  Z e a l a n d (thought  This f i n d i n g confirmed, strengthened,  extended the f i n d i n g under G i v e n Knowledge.  I t suggested  t h a t where the s t u d e n t s b e l i e v e d a poem t o be Canadian t h e y  136  TABLS XI  FREE RESPONSE, COMPARATIVE DATA CORRECTLY POSSESSED KNOWLEDGE AND . INCORRECTLY POSSESSED KNOWLEDGE <* of: PK- 68; PJC+ 152 (PK t o t a l 220))  1 EVALUATION PKCAN NZ (HZ)(CAN) 9* 28*  6.76 *** X  2  2 COMPREHENSION.  ?K+ CAN NZ . . 21* 12*  X  2  = 3.31*  PKCAN NZ (NZ)(CAN) 4* 18*  X  2  PK* CAN NZ 16* 1 0 * .  = 5.4  = 10.08***  I l l u s t r a t i n g the e f f e c t s , on the patterns of response to the two poem groups, associated with the two Possessed Knowledge conditions  3 DESCRIPTION RECAPITULATION PKPK+ CAN NZ CAN NZ (NZ)(CAN) 4* 12* 3*. 5*  -. '.  4 TRANSFER PLACE PEPK* CAN. NZ CAN NZ (NZ)(CAN) 7* 4* .15* -4*  1  X 6.97  1  2  n  X ="n/a 2  The s t r e n g t h o f t h i s t r e n d was i n d i c a t e d by t h e C h i Under the G i v e n Knowledge/Denied  Knowledge comparison,  where many s t u d e n t s a p p a r e n t l y d i d not f u l l y Possess Knowledge, s i g n i f i c a n c e was reached o n l y i n 4- cases--compared the PK+/PK- comparison.  w i t h 8 under  As w e l l , 5 o f t h e l a t t e r were s i g n i -  f i c a n t a t . 0 5 compared w i t h the s i n g l e case under Knowledge,, S i m i l a r l y , t h e s i n g l e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n under Knowledge,,  VISUALISATION, PKPK* CAN NZ CAN NZ (NZHCAN) 13* 18* 17* 9*  X  5.4**  = 9.96***  f a v o u r e d i t i n many d i f f e r e n t response d i m e n s i o n s .  Squares.  TRANSFER SPECIAL PKPK+ CAN NZ CAN NZ (NZHCAN) 4* 6* 8* 2*  *2:  n/a  2  X  d  INVOLVEMENT PK-  PK+  CAN NZ CAN NZ (NZ)(CAN) 19* 21* 28* 17*  = 3.6*  - 2.76*  PEPK+ CAN NZ CAN NZ (NZHCAN) 7* 4* 8* 3*  X  X ='l.6 2  9 INTERPRETATION  8 DEPTH  2  = 2.9'  PKPKt CAN NZ CAN NZ (NZ)(CAN) 7* 12* 12* 8*  was met by 3 under P o s s e s s e d Knowledge. C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e e f f e c t s under P o s s e s s e d Knowledge and remembering t h a t most s t u d e n t s under PK+ were a l s o G i v e n Knowledge s t u d e n t s , t h e former group must have l a r g e l y accounted f o r t h e v a r i a n c e e x h i b i t e d under G i v e n Knowledge. (ii)  The RC/NZ and BC/NZ C o n d i t i o n s  ( n o t Tabled)  The s m a l l s i z e o f t h e PK sample, e x p e c i a l l y under PK-, r e n d e r e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o o hazardous when t h e samples were h a l v e d under t h e RC/NZ and BC/NZ g r o u p i n g s . (b)  Quantity of W r i t i n g  (i)  The Canadian and New Z e a l a n d Poem Groups as Wholes Data:  (Table X I I ) Under PK-, s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s t u d e n t s produced most  w r i t i n g w i t h t h e Canadian poem (which t h e y thought t o be New Zealand) t h a n w i t h t h e New Z e a l a n d poem.  Under PK+ t h e r e was a  n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d a l s o f a v o u r i n g t h e Canadian poem. 2x2  The  Chi-Square was n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . Conclusion: W h i l e t h e Canadian poem ( t h o u g h t t o be New Zealand)  was f a v o u r e d under PK-, t h e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  interaction  suggested t h a t t h i s r e s u l t be viewed v e r y c a u t i o u s l y .  138  TABLE XII  FREE RESPONSE, QUANTITY OF WRITING CORRECTLY POSSESSED "KNOWLEDGE AND INCORRECTLY POSSESSED KNOWLEDQE (* of s PK- 68; PK* 152 (PK t o t a l 220) )  PK-  CAN NZ (NZ)(CAN) 46* 28*  X  (ii)  2  I l l u s t r a t i n g the e f f e c t s , on the patterns of response to the two poem groups, a s s o c i a t e d with the two Possessed Knowledge conditions  PK*  CAN  NZ  41*  34?  = 2.88*  The RC/NZ and BC/NZ C o n d i t i o n s  (not Tabled)  The numbers were t o o s m a l l f o r r e l i a b l e t e s t i n g . The p a t t e r n s t h a t d i d e x i s t r e v e a l e d no d i f f e r e n c e s between the two c o n d i t i o n s . (c)  F r e e Response;  P o s s e s s e d Knowledge: G e n e r a l  Conclusion  a,nd D i s c u s s i o n The P o s s e s s e d Knowledge c o n d i t i o n was a s s o c i a t e d  with  d i f f e r e n c e s between the C a n a d i a n and New Z e a l a n d poems i n terms  139 o f response  patterns.  The P o s s e s s e d Knowledge a n a l y s i s c l a r i f i e d t h e " e f f e c t s " o f Knowledge.  Because PK- s t u d e n t s , w h i l e m i s t a k e n l y t h i n k i n g  t h a t t h e y were d e a l i n g w i t h Canadian poems, f a v o u r e d t h e New Z e a l a n d poems i n t h e way G i v e n Knowledge and PK+ s t u d e n t s d i d , and because t h e Canadian poems weren't  f a v o u r e d under Denied  Knowledge, t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n response p a t t e r n must be a t t r i buted t o t h e l a b e l l i n g o f t h e poems o r t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' conceptions of t h e i r O r i g i n s , not t o the f a c t of t h e i r O r i g i n s . The P o s s e s s e d Knowledge a n a l y s i s a l s o s u g g e s t e d Knowledge e f f e c t s can be more p o w e r f u l t h a n was under G i v e n Knowledge.  that  demonstrated  Under C o r r e c t l y P o s s e s s e d Knowledge t h e  Canadian poems were more o r l e s s f a v o u r e d i n a l l c a t e g o r i e s except D e s c r i p t i o n - R e c a p i t u l a t i o n ( t h i s c a t e g o r y c o n t a i n s t h e "mere p a r a phrase":  t h e r e s p o n s e - t y p e o f t h e most dubious v a l u e from t h e  viewpoint of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m ) .  So t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s ,  when they knew t h e y were d e a l i n g w i t h Canadian poems, were more numerous i n a l l t h e a r e a s t h a t t e a c h e r s might v a l u e .  In particu-  l a r , C o r r e c t l y P o s s e s s e d Knowledge s t u d e n t s appear t o have v a l u e d more h i g h l y , comprehended b e t t e r , and been more i n v o l v e d i n , the Canadian poems.  SPECIFIC FINDINGS (2), (3r A), (3, B): FREE RESPONSE: DISCUSSION OVER ALL KNOWLEDGE CONDITIONS (a)  Some C a t e g o r i e s Examined The  some i m p o r t a n t  GENERAL  Separately  f r e e response r e s u l t s can "be seen more c l e a r l y i f c a t e g o r i e s are t r a c e d t h r o u g h the  different  conditions. Transfer  Place  Discussion: T h i s was cant d i f f e r e n c e s . l e d g e (except  the c a t e g o r y most o f t e n e x h i b i t i n g  Under D e n i e d , G i v e n , and P o s s e s s e d Know-  i n PK-  where r e s p o n s e s were too few t o t e s t )  the Canadian poems were f a v o u r e d . the l a t t e r two  signifi-  conditions.  D i f f e r e n c e s were g r e a t e r i n  I n the poem sub-group a n a l y s e s ,  b o t h the RC and BC poems were f a v o u r e d  over the NZ poems.  Conclusion: T r a n s f e r , as the s i m p l e r e c o g n i t i o n of p l a c e , d i d o c c u r w i t h the Canadian poems.  I t was  i n c r e a s e d under G i v e n  or P o s s e s s e d Knowledge. Evaluation Discussion: Under t h i s c a t e g o r y ,  Canadian poems were  favoured  s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n l y under G i v e n and P o s s e s s e d Knowledge.  The  141  G i v e n Knowledge r e s u l t s suggested t h a t t h e RC poems were t h e source o f these d i f f e r e n c e s . Conclusion: P o s i t i v e E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e Canadian ( t h e RC) poems was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h G i v e n and P o s s e s s e d Knowledge. Comprehension, V i s u a l i s a t i o n ,  Involvement  D i s c u s s i o n and C o n c l u s i o n : Under t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s , Canadian poems were f a v o u r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n l y under P o s s e s s e d Knowledge. Transfer Special  :  D i s c u s s i o n and C o n c l u s i o n : I n t h i s c a t e g o r y , Canadian poems were f a v o u r e d o n l y under G i v e n and P o s s e s s e d Knowledge.  The G i v e n Knowledge  r e s u l t s suggest t h a t t h e BC poems were t h e major s o u r c e o f difference.  Response p a t t e r n s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y d i d n o t f u l l y  c o i n c i d e w i t h t h o s e i n T r a n s f e r - P l a c e ; they seem more c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o Knowledge. (t>)  Quantity of W r i t i n g Discussion: Under Denied Knowledge, s t u d e n t s wrote more on t h e  BC poems t h a n on t h e RC poems b u t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e d i s a p p e a r e d  142 under G i v e n and P o s s e s s e d Knowledge.  Under G i v e n o r C o r r e c t l y  P o s s e s s e d Knowledge the s t u d e n t s tended t o w r i t e more on the Canadian poems.  The G i v e n Knowledge a n a l y s i s suggests t h a t t h e  RC poems were the source of the d i f f e r e n c e .  A l t h o u g h the PK-  s t u d e n t s wrote more on the Canadian poems, t h e y thought them t o be f o r e i g n .  They wrote l e s s on what t h e y thought were Canadian  poems. Conclusion: G i v e n Knowledge was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h more w r i t i n g on RC poems and l e s s on BC poems.  The p a t t e r n was s i m i l a r t o t h a t  found i n such c a t e g o r i e s as E v a l u a t i o n , V i s u a l i s a t i o n and ment.  Involve-  However, the f i n d i n g s i n o t h e r a r e a s were not c l e a r - c u t :  the PK- s t u d e n t s wrote more on what t h e y thought t o be  foreign  poems, thus r e v e r s i n g the t r e n d under G i v e n Knowledge; two important 2 x 2  Chi-Squares (see above, pp. 1 3 1 »  137)  s i g n i f i c a n t ; and 3 poem p a i r s (see above, p. 105)  were not  produced a  d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount of v a r i a n c e under Q u a n t i t y o f W r i t i n g . (c)  The RC/NZ and BC/NZ C o n d i t i o n s The l a b e l s "A Canadian Poem" and "A B.C.  associated with different effects.  Poem" were  D i f f e r e n c e s between the RC  and BC poem g r o u p i n g s o c c u r r e d under G i v e n Knowledge but not under Denied Knowledge ( t h e y c o u l d not be measured under P o s s e s s e d Knowledge).  The d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e r e f o r e , appear t o have depended  upon the l a b e l s g i v e n , i n c o n c e r t w i t h the poem p a i r s , t h a n upon any i n h e r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the poems.  rather  OVERALL CONCLUSIONS:  THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS  Research Q u e s t i o n ( l ) The s t u d e n t s were unable t o d i s t i n g u i s h a Canadian o r BC l a n d s c a p e poem from a New Z e a l a n d l a n d s c a p e poem r e a d beside  it.  Research Q u e s t i o n (2) There were no g e n e r a l t r e n d s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s responded d i f f e r e n t l y t o t h e Canadian and New Z e a l a n d poem samples when t h e y were n o t t o l d o f t h e O r i g i n s o f t h e samples. Research Q u e s t i o n ( j ) There was c o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e t h a t s t u d e n t s r e s p o n ded d i f f e r e n t l y t o t h e Canadian and New Z e a l a n d poem samples when t h e y were t o l d o f t h e O r i g i n s o f t h e samples.  They  f a v o u r e d t h e Canadian poems, o f t e n s t r o n g l y , i n a l m o s t e v e r y response c a t e g o r y .  Response d i f f e r e n c e s were even g r e a t e r w i t h  those s t u d e n t s who, beyond b e i n g t o l d o f poem O r i g i n s , a c t u a l l y r e t a i n e d a Knowledge o f what those O r i g i n s were. SPECIFIC FINDINGS ( 4 ) : FREE RESPONSE:  SIGNIFICANT ADJECTIVALS  In t h i s a n a l y s i s ( l i k e Quantity of W r i t i n g , a product o f supplementary Content A n a l y s i s ) I made an e f f o r t t o c a p t u r e the i n t e r p r e t a t i v e / a f f e c t i v e c o l o u r o f r e s p o n s e s .  (Iuse the  term " a d j e c t i v a l s " n o t g r a m m a t i c a l l y b u t t o cover words and  144  phrases t h a t s t u d e n t s used t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r e m o t i o n a l responses t o t h e whole poem.) what c o l o u r l e s s  The a d j e c t i v a l s  c a r r y one beyond t h e some-  o b j e c t i v i t y of content a n a l y s i s  categories.  My method was t o t a k e , out o f t h e f r e e response p r o t o c o l s , any a d j e c t i v a l s  t h a t appeared t o e n c a p s u l a t e t h e t o t a l  e f f e c t , upon t h e s t u d e n t , o f t h e landscape-in-the-poem. adjectivals  Such  were t h e n p l a c e d i n t h e i r p a i r s — o n e s e t p e r s t u d e n t  — u n d e r t h e r e s p e c t i v e poem heads and Knowledge c o n d i t i o n s ( s e e T a b l e X I I I and Appendix IV, B ) . My aim was t o e s t a b l i s h whether patterns of a f f e c t i v e and  interpretation  between Knowledge c o n d i t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g  1.  were p r e s e n t between poems  p a t t e r n s emerged:  Most s t u d e n t s , o f those who d i d use a d j e c t i v a l s  i n the  manner d e s c r i b e d , d i d d i f f e r e n t i a t e between poems by them. 2.  D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n d i d f o l l o w p a t t e r n s , among s t u d e n t s , f o r each poem p a i r . poems was c l e a r .  The l i k e n e s s  of interpretation  between  As d o u b l e - c l a s s g r o u p s , s t u d e n t s tended  t o see each poem i n a s i m i l a r l i g h t and t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e poems i n s i m i l a r ways.  F o r example, 5 d i f f e r e n t  a p p l i e d t h e word sad t o "To An E x p a t r i a t e . "  students  The words  d e p r e s s i n g , d e p r e s s i o n , b a r r e n , m o r b i d , and l i f e l e s s were used by 5 d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t s t o c h a r a c t e r i z e " H i l l Country." 3.  The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n can be h i g h l i g h t e d  by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n  of t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l p r i n c i p l e . tive" polarity-cluster  o f f e r e d by Osgood.  I used t h e " E v a l u a I t c o n t a i n s such  14-5 adjective pairs as: 's dirty.  g o o d - b a d , b e a u t i f u l - u g l y , a n d Clean-  I c a l l e d each p o l e " p o s i t i v e "  J  and " n e g a t i v e . "  I  s c o r e d o n l y n e g a t i v e s , s i n c e t h e y w e r e more c l e a r - c u t , a n d I  s c o r e d o n l y where t h e s t u d e n t p r o v i d e d a c o m p l e t e a d j e c -  tival  p a i r by w h i c h t o j u d g e .  The e x a m p l e o f s u c h  ( T a b l e X I I I ) comes f r o m c o n d e n s i n g  the adjectival  scoring polari-  t i e s f o r poem p a i r 1 ( " I n t h e V a l l e y o f W e n k c h e m n a " / " H i l l Country"). T h o s e poem p a i r s  i n w h i c h t h e s c o r e s f o r e a c h poem  were s e p a r a t e d b y a t l e a s t 3 p o i n t s g e n e r a t e d negatives  the pattern of  shown i n T a b l e X I V . Six  Canadian.  New Z e a l a n d  The p a t t e r n may s u g g e s t  have a d i f f e r e n t , I f pursued substantial  poems s c o r e d n e g a t i v e b u t o n l y 1  "brighter,"  t h a t C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s do  f e e l i n g f o r t h e i r own l i t e r a t u r e .  i n f u t u r e research t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y might o f f e r a commentary u p o n t h e s u p p o s e d l y  referred to earlier,  e s p e c i a l l y those  g a r r i s o n s , s u r v i v a l , and t h e l i k e . seem w a r r a n t e d ,  C a n a d i a n themes  dealing with  F u r t h e r e n q u i r y , w h i c h does  m i g h t employ c o n v e n t i o n a l s e m a n t i c  techniques, using the a d j e c t i v a l s  hardship,  o f f e r e d by t h e s e  differential students.  146 TABLE X I I I SIGNIFICANT A D J E C T I V A L S  " I N THE VALLEY OF WENKCHEMNA"/"HILL COUNTRY" D e n i e d Knowledge New Z e a l a n d  Canadian disturbing  disturbing, ing  freedom  d i e d , n e v e r t o be f r e e again  feel really  bleak, depres-  nothing beautiful wiped out  good  things  cold, lonely, older, not n e a r l y so b e a u t i f u l  beautiful  G i v e n Knowledge New Z e a l a n d  Canadian l i f e , freedom, l o v e , happiness  death, sad depression  summer, a l o n e [ +  barren,  ]  empty  summer, l i g h t e r  morbid  easy, a l i v e ,  suspense, l i f e l e s s , robbed  free  dead,  happy, r e s p o n s i v e , f l u s h fresh  c o l d and undecided, d r y , hot, s t u f f y  warm, h a p p y , g l a d c o n t e n t , peaceful  unsettles/horrible trivial [ - ]  alive  sad  TABLE X I V SCORES (NEGATIVES) PER  POST HOC  SEMANTIC D I F F E R E N T I A L  Poems  Canada Origins  N  e  Predominant Origin  The  3,4  9,10  11,12  15,16  23,24  0  1  1  3  9  1  11  16  4  8  3  7 .  12  NZ  NZ  NZ  NZ  CAN  NZ  NZ  17,18  '•  1  w  Zealand  4.  1,2  two K n o w l e d g e c o n d i t i o n s m i g h t h a v e i n f l u e n c e d  a d j e c t i v a l s were c h o s e n .  which  O v e r a l l poem p a i r s t h e r e  was,  u n d e r G i v e n K n o w l e d g e , a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f nega•  t i v e s f r o m 35  t o 42 w i t h t h e New  C a n a d i a n f i g u r e s were  Z e a l a n d poems.  The  stable.  Knowledge Denied  Given  Canadian  16  15  New  35  42  Poem Zealand  S u c h a movement, a l b e i t s l i g h t , m i g h t  indicate that  Knowledge s t r e n g t h e n e d any sensed " b r i g h t n e s s " p o e m s — o r i t s c o n v e r s e i n t h e New student * s  remark:  Given  i n the  Z e a l a n d poems.  Canadian  Notice this  148 R e a d i n g poem o n e , a n d n o t k n o w i n g t h e poem i s r e f e r r i n g t o a Non-Canadian o p i n i o n , you c a n t e l l t h e way he o n l y b r i n g s o u t t h e u g l y part of the p r a i r i e s . [ G i v e n Knowledge] And  this: The way i t d e s c r i b e s t h e b e a u t i f u l w o n d e r s of our country . . . . l i k e our country many poems a r e c r e a t e d w i t h f e e l i n g a n d beauty t h a t i s a w e - i n s p i r i n g . [Given  The  possibility  o f a Knowledge e f f e c t s u g g e s t s ,  more r i g o r o u s e x p e r i m e n t a l  Knowledge]  at least,  a  enquiry.  Conclusion: The  number o f n e g a t i v e l y s e e n New Z e a l a n d  e x c e e d e d t h e C a n a d i a n b y 6 poems t o 1. New Z e a l a n d  departure  under t h e Given  B o t h f i n d i n g s s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d  as  p o i n t s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h r a t h e r than as " r e s u l t s . "  S P E C I F I C FINDINGS (5): (a)  The t r e n d a g a i n s t t h e  poems may h a v e b e e n s t r e n g t h e n e d  Knowledge c o n d i t i o n .  poems  FREE RESPONSE:  TRANSFER  D i r e c t Statements Some s t u d e n t s  o f f e r e d , i n t h e i r free responses,  what  m i g h t be c a l l e d s e t - p i e c e s o n t h e t r a n s f e r i s s u e : P e r h a p s t h e r e a s o n i t d o e s n ' t g i v e me much f e e l i n g i s b e c a u s e I'm n o t f a m i l i a r t o t h e p l a c e t h e poet i s t a l k i n g about. [Denied Knowledge] I f o u n d b o t h poems e n j o y a b l e b u t I f o u n d t h a t I c o u l d r e l a t e t o t h e C a n a d i a n poem e a s i e r as perhaps I have e x p e r i e n c e d t h e  149 same f e e l i n g s a s t h e o t h e r s . I f i n d i t h a r d t o i n t e r p r e t o r r e l a t e t o poems t h a t are from o t h e r c o u n t r i e s o r t a l k about something t h a t I have n o t e x p e r i e n c e d . [ G i v e n Knowledge] I f e e l i t was a g o o d poem t o some p e o p l e b u t t o me i t was a b o r e b e c a u s e t h i s t y p e o f t h i n g d o e s n o t a p p e a l t o me due t o I have n e v e r e x p e r i e n c e d a n y t h i n g l i k e i t . [Denied  Knowledge]  I c a n r e l a t e t o t h i s poem b e c a u s e o f t e n I have been i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n camping d u r i n g t h e summer. Maybe t h a t i s why i t seems t o be v e r y p e r s o n a l t o me. I r e a l l y l i k e t h i s poem; m o s t l y I c a n f e e l the atmosphere i t puts around t h e person.... [ G i v e n Knowledge] He seems t o e x p r e s s t h e way I f e e l somet i m e s when I'm a l o n e b y m y s e l f v e r y w e l l . I e n j o y e d t h i s poem I g u e s s b e c a u s e I c o u l d r e l a t e i t t o o me own l i f e . [Denied  Knowledge]  C l e a r l y these students p l a c e c o n s i d e r a b l e s t o r e by t r a n s f e r t o the f a m i l i a r .  B u t t h e s t a t e m e n t s were i s o l a t e d  T r a n s f e r - S p e c i a l r e c e i v e d few s c o r e s .  O n l y 15 s t u d e n t s made  comments a s c l e a r - c u t a s t h e ones j u s t quoted;Knowledge and 5 under Denied. sufficiently  cases.  10 u n d e r G i v e n  They a r e i n t e r e s t i n g ;  but not  common f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t o be s a f e l y made  from  them. (b)  The S t r e n g t h o f T r a n s f e r Many s t u d e n t s s h a p e d  the  landscape-in-the-poem  according to t h e i r personal experiences. a m p l e s were w r i t t e n i n r e s p o n s e  The f o l l o w i n g e x -  t o "A V i e w o f R a n g i t o t o "  ( p r e s e n t e d a s t h e e x c e r p t "A V i e w o f t h e M o u n t a i n " ) .  from:  A VIEW OF THE MOUNTAIN  Harshness o f gorse darkens the y e l l o w c l i f f - e d g e , And s c a r l e t - f l o w e r e d t r e e s l e a n o u t t o d r o p T h e i r shadows o n t h e h a y b e l o w , s e a r c h i n g The w a t e r f o r a n image a l w a y s b r o k e n Between t h e inward and r e t u r n i n g s w e l l s . F a r t h e r , beyond t h e r o c k s , c u f f e d by p e r t  waves  Launches t u g a t t h e i r moorings; and i n t h e channel Y a c h t s t h a t s p r i n t e l e g a n t l y down t h e b r e e z e And e a r n e s t l i n e r s d r i v i n g f o r t h e n o r t h . Some r e s p o n s e s : T h i s poem seems t o s u g g e s t t h a t m o u n t a i n s are r a t h e r f r i g h t e n i n g l y powerful. The m o u n t a i n s a n d t h e s e a t o g e t h e r become a l m o s t as one f i l l e d w i t h s t r e n g t h a n d d i g n i t y . The s e c o n d poem c r e a t e s v i s i o n s o f a v e r y w i n d y h i l l t o p where f e w t h i n g s g r o w o n t h e r o c k y g r o u n d . A n d t h e t r e e s t h a t do manage t o s u r v i v e are very t w i s t e d . One c a n s e e q u i t e f a r f r o m t h i s h i l l , other mountains i n the d i s t a n c e and b o a t s on t h e w a t e r . R a t h e r l i k e p l a c e s i n Howe Sound. I t r e m i n d s me o f a h a r b o u r u p t h e c o a s t o f B.C. when t h e y t a l k a b o u t t h e h i g h c l i f f and t a l l t r e e s w i t h t h e bay below. To my (New Z e a l a n d ) e y e s , none o f t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s was a c c u r a t e .  The s c e n e i n t h e poem i s n o t a s t h e s t u d e n t s  described  That, o f course,  it.  acceptable; different  may be u n d e r s t a n d a b l e a n d e v e n  a poem c a n , l e g i t i m a t e l y , be d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s i n  eyes.  But t h e students'  d e s c r i p t i o n s c a n n o t be  s u p p o r t e d b y t h e poem i t s e l f ,  by t h e a r t i f a c t .  and  i n t h e poem, become " f i l l e d  the sea together"  do n o t ,  The " m o u n t a i n s with  1 5 1  strength has  and d i g n i t y " as t h e f i r s t  i t ; t h e "mountains i n t h e d i s t a n c e "  t i o n ( a n d as t h e r e  poem; a n d t h e t a l l  the  leaning trees portrayed  trees  trees  i n t h e poem ( t h e " v e r y  m i g h t be t h e e f f e c t s o f t r a n s f e r ?  (c)  Some " F o r e i g n " If  twisted"  J u s t how s t r o n g , I will  then,  take the question  up  ( s e e b e l o w , p. 1 7 0 ) . Students and T r a n s f e r  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n f r o m a t i n y s a m p l e (29)  several points  descrip-  of the t h i r d description are not  o f t h e second d e s c r i p t i o n ) .  future research  o f t h e second  w o u l d be " i n Howe Sound") a r e n o t f o u n d i n  the  in  BC s t u d e n t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  a r e worth making about t h e f o r e i g n  i s avoided, students'  responses. The culties.  ( s i x ) Hong K o n g C h i n e s e e x h i b i t e d l a n g u a g e  A l l e x c e p t two r e s p o n d e d w e a k l y .  r e s p o n s e s were m a r k e d l y " d i s t a n c e d . " G i v e n Knowledge  diffi-  The two b e t t e r  One r e s p o n d e d a g a i n s t t h e  label:  A l t h o u g h he i s n o t a C a n a d i a n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e P r a i r i e i s f a r more w o r t h t h a n t h e f i r s t poem. [ G i v e n Knowledge] The  o t h e r i n t e r p r e t e d t h e s i m p l e d e s c r i p t i v e poem "The S t r e a m "  in  c l e a r - c u t mythic terms: He i s g r o w n - u p s now. He s t e p i n t o t h e s o c i e t y l i k e everyone d i d . On h i s j o u r n e y , He met a lot of troubles temptation etc. He maybe l o s t and f a l l i n t o a e v i l t r a c k . . . . [ G i v e n Knowledge]  This  s t u d e n t ' s c e r t a i n t y i n r e s p o n s e s u g g e s t s a deep  cultural  15.2 t r a n s f e r d i f f e r e n t : f r o m t h a t made b y C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s t o t h e i r landscape. Three s t u d e n t s from B r i t a i n responded s t r o n g l y t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f homesickness  i n "To A n E x p a t r i a t e . "  The s t r e n g t h  of t h e i r responses suggests another form o f t r a n s f e r , but t h e r e s p o n s e s were a l s o n i c e l y  distanced:  I t h i n k t h a t i f I was p r e s e n t e d s u c h a poem a b o u t my h o m e l a n d , i t w o u l d g i v e me t h i s f e e l i n g too. [Denied Knowledge] P e r h a p s t h e r e a s o n i t d o e s n t g i v e me much f e e l i n g i s b e c a u s e I'm n o t f a m i l i a r t o t h e p l a c e the. poet i s t a l k i n g about . . . . t h o u g h . . . . y o u c a n f e e l t h e way t h e g u y l o n g s f o r home, r e m e m b e r i n g e v e r y s c e n e o f h i s homeland. [Denied Knowledge] I e n j o y t h i s poem b e c a u s e i t r e m i n d s me t h a t I t o o , am l i v i n g away f r o m my n a t i v e l a n d , a n d t h u s t h e poem h a s m e a n i n g f o r me. I t r e m i n d s me o f . . . . [ G i v e n Knowledge] A s t u d e n t f r o m R h o d e s i a saw t h e poem e x c e r p t " E l e m e n t s " a s p o r t r a y i n g a " c o u n t r y somewhere w i t h m i l e s o f o p e n l a n d covered with grass."  The poem i n f a c t p r e s e n t s a l a n d s c a p e  t h a t i s e n c l o s i n g r a t h e r t h a n open; on i t s " c l a y , "  grass i s never  "dust," and "blue v e i n s "  of ranges.  mentioned The s t u d e n t  a p p e a r s t o h a v e t r e a t e d t h e poem i n t h e way t h e C a n a d i a n s , r e p o r t e d above,  t r e a t e d "A V i e w o f R a n g i t o t o . "  F i n a l l y , what s t r u c k me a s a p e c u l i a r l y s t r o n g t o " C a n t e r b u r y " ( a NZ poem) when I was c o d i n g r e s p o n s e  response  protocols  t u r n e d o u t t o "be w r i t t e n b y t h e one s t u d e n t who h a d l i v e d i n New Z e a l a n d . I f these responses i n a broader  w e r e f o u n d t o be o f a common t y p e  s t u d y , a n d i f t e a c h e r s w e r e made f u l l y a w a r e o f  them, t h e n t h e t e a c h e r s m i g h t be more a b l e t o s e e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d meet t h e n e e d s o f t h e i m m i g r a n t  student.  CHAPTER V SOME IMPLICATIONS AND SOME FUTURE RESEARCH SOME IMPLICATIONS F i n d i n g s from  t h i s study,  i n s o f a r as they a p p l y t o  p e d a g o g i c a l i s s u e s , must he w e i g h e d a g a i n s t t h e many o t h e r s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t bear upon e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . more i m p o r t a n t , t h e p r e s e n t l i n e  con-  Even  o f s t u d y must be e x t e n d e d a n d  deepened b e f o r e r e s u l t s a r e a c t e d upon by e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n e r s . In  particular,  a n e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o o b t a i n f i n d i n g s  from  b e y o n d t h a t g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s who d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b e t w e e n poems under a p a r t i c u l a r  category and so produced  scores) from which  I c o u l d draw c o n c l u s i o n s f o r t h a t  Such a r e s e a r c h e f f o r t w i l l cation—the  data  (Comparative category.  n o t be w i t h o u t d a n g e r s o f f a l s i f i -  t r u t h a b o u t a n y p o e t r y r e a d i n g may be t h a t o n l y a  p r o p o r t i o n o f r e a d e r s w i l l have t h e c a p a c i t y o r d e s i r e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n poems i n a l l f a c e t s o f t h e i r  expressed  responses. For the present, every  c a u t i o n and d e l i m i t a t i o n  kept  i n m i n d , t h e p r e s e n t r e s u l t s do demand t h a t E n g l i s h e d u c a t o r s , especially pursue in  i n Canada, q u e s t i o n some o f t h e i r a s s u m p t i o n s a n d  some new q u e s t i o n s .  Chapter  The p r o m o t i o n a l r h e t o r i c  1 m u s t be r e f i n e d .  students might respond  My r e s u l t s s u g g e s t  to labels,  or to a national  reviewed  that  feeling  c a l l e d f o r t h by l a b e l s , r a t h e r than from any i d e n t i t y i n t h e s t u d e n t s * r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h C a n a d i a n poems.  Canadian  inherent  It is  155 p o s s i b l e , t h e n , t h a t a deeper covered by secondary no d i s t i n c t i v e l y t e a c h e r s who  i d e n t i t y has  t o be  dis-  s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ; t h a t , f o r them, l i t t l e  Canadian  literature  r e p o r t immediate  exists;  enthusiasm  t u r e are r e p o r t i n g the enthusiasm o f t h e i r l a n d and  still  and t h a t  f o r Canadian  of student p a t r i o t s  those literalearning  i t s c u l t u r e r a t h e r than of Canadians  r e c o g n i z i n g a n d r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e i r own  experiences  or  readily  and  nostalgias. T r a n s f e r , t o move i n t o t h e t h e o r y , i s n o t purchased.  When i t was  obtained i n this  study, i f responses  u n d e r T r a n s f e r - P l a c e s i g n i f i e d t h a t i t was, ily  lead to r i c h e r response.  was  s e t up o n l y b y t h e l a b e l l i n g  based upon p a t r i o t i c  o f t h e poems ( a n d was  f e e l i n g s or perhaps  enthusiasm)  then  associ-  very w e l l lead to those  engagement, i n v o l v e m e n t ,  and  reviewed i n Chapter I .  The  a r g u m e n t f o r r e g i o n a l l o c a l i t y as a  s t a r t i n g p o i n t was was  (interest,  thus  on a n i n c r e a s e d c o n -  s i n c e i t was  a t e d w i t h r i c h e r r e s p o n s e p r o f i l e s , may effects  i t d i d not necessar-  I f , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t r a n s f e r  sciousness of place) then t r a n s f e r ,  secondary  readily  not s u p p o r t e d i n any  literary  c l e a r - c u t manner.  p a r t i a l support i n the s p e c i a l response  t o BC poems:  There but  t h e c r o s s - c u r r e n t a p p a r e n t l y s e t up b y t h e g r e a t e r p r e s t i g e t h e l a b e l "A  C a n a d i a n Poem" ( o r , c o n v e r s e l y , by t h e BC  c a l l i n g out a "low s e l f - i m a g e " ) suggests t h a t Bowering, and  o t h e r s ( a b o v e , p. 12)  of  label's Crawford  s h o u l d r e - c a s t t h e i r arguments.  The  S  156 best Canadian V l o c a l i t y " w i t h which s t u d e n t s may  w e l l be  Not, experience.  Canada  While  itself.  t o o s m a l l f o r a n y g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t o be made,  variance w i t h those  u n d e r " t r a n s f e r " were s u f f i c i e n t l y  even employing  the f r e e response  The  be  immigrant  immigrant  technique-  s t u d e n t may  students,  engagement, t h e n o f c r i t i c a l  The  poems ( a n d t h e m y t h o l o g i e s  results  student  need s p e c i a l m a t e r i a l and  tempering.  compounded i n p o e t r y o f s o c i a l and  possibly  t o examine  t o meet t h e p r o b l e m s o f , f i r s t , a d j u s t m e n t  simple landscape  at  o f t h e m a i n s t u d e n t s a m p l e t o demand t h a t  t e a c h e r s l o o k c l o s e l y a t t h e i r own  ary  or  the sample o f f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s examined i n  the students' responses  guidance  BC  however, i f the s t u d e n t i s of f o r e i g n b i r t h  t h i s s t u d y was  responses.  t o i n i t i a l l y engage  and  liter-  Problems w i t h they carry)  spiritual  may  experience.  o f t h i s s t u d y a r e a l s o s a l u t a r y as  they  apply t o the frequent complaints t h a t Canadian students  have  little  often  k n o w l e d g e o f C a n a d i a n authors."*"  carry overtones  Such c o m p l a i n t s  suggesting that l i t e r a r y  standards  themselves,  not  j u s t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f n a t i o n a l i s m , s u f f e r by t h i s  If,  however, Canadian l i t e r a t u r e  in  the s t u d e n t s ' eyes,  Canadian, is  i f they  i s not i n h e r e n t l y  cannot  ignorance.  distinctive  e v e n r e c o g n i z e i t as  t h e n t h e i r f a i l u r e ' t o know much a b o u t C a n a d i a n  l e s s the l i t e r a r y  c r i m e t h a t i n n u e n d o has  i t t o be,  students w i l l  h a v e t o be shown how  before they are expected  t o be  to look at Canadian  authors  and  the c u l t u r a l misdemeanour t h a t i t m i g h t p r o p e r l y remain.  being  more Perhaps  literature  f a m i l i a r w i t h w r i t e r s and  titles.  157 The of  Canadian L i t e r a t u r e promotion  aside, the results  t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y s h o u l d c h a l l e n g e t e a c h e r s , as has Barnes  i n more g e n e r a l t e r m s , response  t o a s k how t h e y w o u l d e x p l o i t  p a t t e r n s l i k e those e x h i b i t e d here  initial-  o r how t h e y  r e c o n c i l e such p a t t e r n s w i t h t h e i r present approaches.  would They  s h o u l d c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r t h e j u d i c i o u s l a b e l l i n g o f poems m i g h t enable  some s t u d e n t s t o r e a c h q u i c k l y a n d b y t h e m s e l v e s  the response  some o f  goals they d i r e c t t h e i r students t o . Further,  Richards found h i s students t o l o s e t h e i r without a poet's  critical  bearings  name t o d i r e c t them; I b e g i n t o a s k how w e l l  C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s w o u l d r e c o g n i z e a n d how a p p r o p r i a t e l y t h e y would respond of  t o , s a y , W o r d s w o r t h i f t h e y were d e n i e d  h i s authorship.  Would t r a n s f e r metamorphose t h e Lake  i n t o a p i n e - c l a d BC m o u n t a i n l o c a l e ? if  knowledge District  How much w o u l d i t m a t t e r  i t did? More s u r e l y , t h e l a b e l l i n g o f poems i n c l a s s w o u l d seem  to  c a l l forth higher i n i t i a l  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b e t w e e n poems, i f  t h a t i s sought f o r any reason.  (Of c o u r s e t o l a b e l o r g r o u p  poems i n t e x t s i s t o e l i m i n a t e t e a c h e r c h o i c e a n d , p o s s i b l y , response  freedom.) The l a c k o f l a b e l l i n g ,  on t h e o t h e r hand,  m i g h t r e q u i r e more s t u d e n t d i s c u s s i o n o r more t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d a t t e n t i o n t o t h e poem i n o r d e r t h a t s t u d e n t s r e a c h a critical  position.  e x t e r n a l evidence  conscious  H o w e v e r , t h o s e who a r g u e t h a t " I n t r o d u c i n g such as a u t h o r b i o g r a p h y  . . . .  does n o t l e a d  2  to  a critical  r e a d i n g o f a poem"  may be m i s s i n g t h e p o i n t i f  they apply t h e i r dictum too r i g o r o u s l y t o high school students.  15'8 The  r i c h e s t responses  i n t h i s study support and extend  Squire's  findings: A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e elements i n a s t o r y w i t h the p e r s o n a l experiences o f t h e reader i s d a n g e r o u s t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o n l y when u n controlled. I n m o s t c a s e s r e a d e r s seem t o p e r c e i v e f a r t o o few o f these r e l a t i o n s h i p s . ^  The  r e s u l t s p o s e new, f i n e r , q u e s t i o n s ( s e e b e l o w ,  Some F u t u r e R e s e a r c h )  r a t h e r t h a n p r o v i d e answers.  not t h r e a t e n the place of Canadian they strengthen i t .  literature  B u t t h e y do  i n the s c h o o l s —  When t h e p r e s e n t s t u d e n t s knew o r t h o u g h t  t h e y knew t h a t c e r t a i n poems w e r e C a n a d i a n ,  t h o s e s t u d e n t s who  made a n y d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n "between poems f a v o u r e d t h e C a n a d i a n poems, o f t e n s t r o n g l y , i n a l m o s t Such i n i t i a l  response  p r e s e n t e d as Canadian, education i n this  every f a c e t o f measured  response.  p a t t e r n s m u s t s u g g e s t t h a t C a n a d i a n poems, would s e r v e w e l l as a base f o r c u l t u r a l  c o u n t r y and would o f f e r ,  f o r some s t u d e n t s ,  an a t t r a c t i v e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r wider l i t e r a r y e x p l o r a t i o n and growth. SOME FUTURE RESEARCH Introduction  L A s k i n g , as i t d i d , T a l b e r t ' s "grand t o u r q u e s t i o n s , " this  study found  i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n a s much i n t h e l i n e s o f  enquiry i t promised seemed l i k e l y two  sections:  t o open, as  t o produce. the f i r s t  i n ' , any c e r t a i n f i n d i n g s i t  F u t u r e r e s e a r c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n deals with the s p e c i f i c post  doctoral  159 analyses and e n q u i r i e s the  second deals  with  w h i c h were b u i l t  into the present  design;  d i r e c t i o n s a n d methods n o t y e t ' so c l o s e l y  mapped. Future Research Already i n Train:  " A d d i t i o n a l Instruments and Procedures"  The r e s p o n s e m a t e r i a l g e n e r a t e d i n t h i s t o much more a n a l y s i s t h a n was p o s s i b l e primary pursuit  of the research  response technique.  s t u d y i s open  or desirable  i n the  questions through the f r e e -  In the following l i s t  the earliest  analyses  m e n t i o n e d a r e t h o s e most l i k e l y t o b e a r upon t h e e s t a b l i s h e d research  questions.  "How Much Do Y o u L i k e T h e s e Poems?" This  (Appendix IV, I)  L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e was u s e d t o gauge  p r e f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n poems.  students'  Some f i n d i n g s a r e a l r e a d y  available.  Some o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t f o l l o w . The two e s t i m a t i o n s Category 1 (Evaluation) positively  of preference—content  analysis  and t h e L i k e r t S c a l e — w e r e h i g h l y and  c o r r e l a t e d ( s e e above, p. T h e r e was no r e a l d i f f e r e n c e  6l). i nthe popularity of the  C a n a d i a n a n d New Z e a l a n d poem g r o u p s u n d e r D e n i e d K n o w l e d g e (see  above, p.  105).  T h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t , b u t s l i g h t , ^ w h e r e b y t h e poems R e c o g n i z e d were t h e poems m o s t  relationship liked.  160 ( C a n a d i a n poems, /£• = T h e r e was w h e r e b y t h e PK( t h o u g h t t o be Canadian  New  Zealand  poems,.16***.)  a s i g n i f i c a n t , hut s l i g h t , r e l a t i o n s h i p  students preferred  t h e New  C a n a d i a n ) a n d t h e PK+  Z e a l a n d poems  students preferred  the  >v25***).  poems T h e r e was  whereby the f i r s t they preferred  .16***;  a s i g n i f i c a n t , but s l i g h t , order  poem p r e s e n t e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s was  effect the  one  .17***).  (^=  T h e r e was  a s i g n i f i c a n t , but s l i g h t , r e l a t i o n s h i p  w h e r e b y t h e poem f i r s t  treated  i n f r e e response  was  the  one  .27***).  preferred  T h e r e was  a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w h e r e b y t h e poem  a b o u t w h i c h m o s t was  w r i t t e n was  t h e poem m o s t l i k e d  = .35***). T h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s s t r o n g t o moderate c o r r e l a t i o n s ) content a n a l y s i s  ( r a n g i n g from  b e t w e e n p r e f e r e n c e a n d many  c a i : e g o r i e s - - w h e r e b y t h e poems r e s p o n d e d  e a c h c a t e g o r y were t h e poems m o s t l i k e d ( E v a l u a t i o n , / ^ = Comprehension,/C- =  .51***;  Transfer-Special,.51***5  Visualisation,/l^ =  .45***;  Involvement,/V=  /C-  .58***).  The  categories  i n w h i c h t h e r e was  r e l a t i o n s h i p were I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , T h e r e was  .60***;  Form, and  to i n  .67***;  Depth,  no s i g n i f i c a n t  Dictums.  a s i g n i f i c a n t , and moderate,  relationship  161 w h e r e b y t h e poem s t u d e n t s  s e l e c t e d t o d i s c u s s w i t h f r i e n d s was  t h e poem m o s t l i k e d by them (•<- =  .5***)-  T h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t , b u t s l i g h t , r e l a t i o n s h i p  ;0  w h e r e b y t h e g i r l s r a t e d t h e C a n a d i a n poems h i g h e r New Z e a l a n d poems w h i l e  t h e b o y s r a t e d t h e New Z e a l a n d poems  .11***).  higher  " W h i c h Poem W o u l d Y o u P r e f e r t o D i s c u s s ? " This questionnaire discuss  than the  assessed  (Appendix IV, J)  the students'  desire to  e i t h e r poem w i t h f r i e n d s , a n d t h e i r s t a t e d Tentative  findings include a significant  b e t w e e n PK+ a n d PK-  (2  2  x  X  2  =  6.62**)  whereby  reasons. difference  students  p r e f e r r e d t o d i s c u s s t h e C a n a d i a n poem o r t h e poem t h o u g h t t o be C a n a d i a n .  T h i s f i n d i n g c r o s s - v a l i d a t e s and extends  the f i n d i n g s under t h e content  analysis categories.  To r e s p o n d  p o s i t i v e l y u n d e r t h e c a t e g o r i e s may a l s o h a v e b e e n t o f e e l p o s i t i v e l y a b o u t t h e poem a s a p i e c e "Your Opinions" This  f o r classroom  discussion.  ( A p p e n d i x I V , M) instrument  partly ascertained  students*  towards Canadian L i t e r a t u r e as a whole and s t u d e n t s '  attitudes assess-  ments o f a d u l t a t t i t u d e s . Indications are that the students and  teachers  than other  to hold a higher  adults  (X  =  believed  o p i n i o n o f Canadian  26.71***)  and t h a t they,  professors  literature the students,  h e l d the h i g h e r o p i n i o n a l s o (X* = The  Nature  of Possessed The  Possessed  tant question:  why  11.79***).  Knowledge K n o w l e d g e phenomenon r a i s e s a n  d i d a l l G i v e n Knowledge s t u d e n t s  not  c o r r e c t l y Possess  Knowledge?  from  content of the l a b e l s e x p l a i n t h i s — I  the semantic  suggested  I t i s probable  impor-  t h a t reasons  q u e s t i o n f l a w s , poor "reading," f a t i g u e ,  apart  have  distrust,  7 and  so on.'  Still,  i t seems i m p o r t a n t t o f i n d o u t w h e t h e r  PK-  g r o u p o r some s t u d e n t s e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e PK a n a l y s i s d i d i n  -  f a c t r e . i e c t t h e l a b e l s b e c a u s e t h e y d i s a g r e e d w i t h them o r c a u s e t h e y d i d n o t t h i n k them i m p o r t a n t . c a s e where s t u d e n t s d i d n o t p o s s e s s f e e l s t r o n g l y "pro-Canadian."  S u c h m i g h t be  the  be—\  the  a s t r o n g sense of p l a c e  Compare t h e l a t t e r  or  possibilities,  f o r example, w i t h the response of t h i s s t u d e n t : The f i r s t poem r e p r e s e n t e d t h e p e o p l e o f B.C. No, n o t b e c a u s e i t s a i d B.C. poem, a l t h o u g h t h a t t r i g g e r e d me t a k i n g a l o o k . B u t b e c a u s e of our mountains. . . . [italics An  i n d i r e c t approach  late  t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , but  one  mine]  which might r e -  c l o s e l y t o c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e s , w o u l d be t o r e p l i c a t e  p r e s e n t s t u d y u s i n g d i f f e r e n t means o f a l e r t i n g s t u d e n t s Origins.  the  to  A t e a c h e r ' s p o i n t i n g out o f O r i g i n s , i f t h a t c o u l d  be done w i t h o u t v i o l a t i n g  c o n t r o l s , m i g h t c r e a t e a much h i g h e r  degree of C o r r e c t l y Possessed Instruments  Knowledge t h a n i n t h i s  c o u l d be d e s i g n e d t o m o n i t o r  o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on  Origins.  any  student  study. rejection  163 Another  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the students' r e v e r s a l  of  t h e l a b e l s i s t h a t some s t u d e n t s m i g h t h a v e p r e f e r r e d t o t h i n k t h a t t h e poem t h e y f a v o u r e d was i n which  Canadian.  to test t h i s fascinating As a p a r t o f o n g o i n g  Ways m i g h t be  possibility.  r e s e a r c h , I am  more i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e P o s s e s s e d  devised  at present  Knowledge groups.  I  duce some t e n t a t i v e f i n d i n g s i n v i e w o f t h e g r o u p s *  seeking  intro-  special  interest. T h e r e was between the  a fairly  equal balance, i n both  groups,  sexes; PK-  PK+  Male  31  79  Female  37  73  X (X , t e s t i n g f o r a n y d i f f e r e n c e s . = To t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e r e was  2  0.76.  =  O.76—non-significant).  a s l i g h t edge b e t w e e n t h e  t h e m a l e s were more o f t e n c o r r e c t . i n t h a t m o s t s t u d i e s show f e m a l e s  The t o be  balance i s  sexes,  noteworthy  superior "performers"  i n m o s t f a c e t s o f l i t e r a r y s t u d y and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a t s c h o o l levels. T h e r e was  a significant difference  (X  b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s i n t h e amount o f C a n a d i a n  = %  70**)  r e a d i n g each  164 c l a i m e d t o have d o n e — i n  i t s response  "How Much C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e (Appendix  to the Questionnaire:  . . . Have Y o u Read o n Y o u r Own?"  I I ,K). PK-  PK+  More R e a d i n g  25  82  Less  38  60  Amount o f R e a d i n g Reading ifOf t h e PK- s t u d e n t s , 60$  c l a i m e d t o h a v e done " L e s s " r e a d i n g ;  o f t h e PK+ s t u d e n t s t o h a v e done "More;" w i t h more C a n a d i a n r e a d i n g s u g g e s t s , past reading experience  = 5.70  The a s s o c i a t i o n o f PK+  among r i v a l h y p o t h e s e s ,  i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e rendered  more a l e r t t o t h e C a n a d i a n  (X  =  10.32***)  b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s i n t e r m s o f t h e poem p r e f e r e n c e s scale: PK-  PK+  t h e N.„.Z.;, poem  34  46  t h e C a n a d i a n poem  15  64  Prefer  yr = io. 32**^  that  students  labels.  T h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  i n d i c a t e d on t h e L i k e r t  58$  they  165 The  PK- s t u d e n t s g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r r e d t h e New Z e a l a n d  they thought  t o he C a n a d i a n ) ,  poem  (which  t h e PK+ s t u d e n t s g e n e r a l l y p r e -  f e r r e d the Canadian. T h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  (X  = 6.62**)  b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s i n t e r m s o f t h e poems t h e y s a i d would p r e f e r t o d i s c u s s w i t h f r i e n d s naire:  they  ( a s s e s s e d by t h e Q u e s t i o n -  " W h i c h Poem W o u l d Y o u P r e f e r t o D i s c u s s ? " ) :  Discuss  PK-  PK+  26  85  * 39  59  The Canadian poem f i r s t The N.Z. poem f i r s t  X  2  = 6.62**  60$ o f t h e PK- s t u d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d p r e f e r t o d i s c u s s t h e NZ poem ( w h i c h t h e y t h o u g h t  t o be C a n a d i a n ) a n d 59$  PK+ s t u d e n t s s t a t e d t h e y w o u l d p r e f e r t o d i s c u s s t h e  of the  Canadian  poem. The  Poems A n a l y z e d In  of  t h e f u t u r e , t h e poem p a i r s m i g h t be e x a m i n e d i n l i g h t  the responses  g i v e n by t h e p r e s e n t s t u d e n t s .  might i n c l u d e , e s p e c i a l l y , an a n a l y s i s  This  examination  o f t h e poem p a i r s  which  s t u d e n t s d i s c r i m i n a t e d l e a s t a n d most u n d e r R e c o g n i t i o n .  Poem  pairs of the l a t t e r "queerness"  type might extend Rankin's  or "difference"  ( s e e a b o v e , p. 14).  findings re  166 Sex  as a V a r i a b l e The  d e s i g n p r o v i d e d t h a t c l a s s g r o u p s be  randomly-  b l o c k e d by s e x i n o r d e r t h a t a n y  d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s of sex  response  assessed.  p a t t e r n s m i g h t be l a t e r  on  R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between the Content A n a l y s i s C a t e g o r i e s A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s m i g h t be made, e x a m i n i n g t i o n s h i p between responses "Your O p i n i o n s "  (Appendix  This instrument past experience more.  (The  Reading.) dents  rela-  i n the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s . IV,  M)  a s c e r t a i n e d something of the  w i t h Canadian l i t e r a t u r e  instrument  the  and  their  students*  desire for  s e r v e d a l s o t o check E x t e n s i v e  Canadian  I n d i c a t i o n s a r e , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t t h e s e  w o u l d l i k e more C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e  i n class  (X?=  stu-  59-15***)'  Amount  Can  L i t i n Class  Had i n the past Desired i n the f u t u r e  x  More  Less  64  398  159  284  = 59.15*  Comparison w i t h Teachers T e a c h e r s o r o t h e r s m i g h t a c t as s u b j e c t s i n a  "repli-  167  cation"  o f t h e present study; and t e a c h e r s might attempt t o  anticipate  (ex post facto) the students' responses,  preference  r a t i n g s , a n d a d j e c t i v a l p o l a r i t i e s as t h o s e were d i s c o v e r e d i n the present  study.  Poem O r i g i n s O u t s i d e The  Canada  a t t r i b u t i o n , b y s t u d e n t s , o f O r i g i n s t o t h e poems  where t h e l a t t e r w e r e n o t t h o u g h t describing.  t o be C a n a d i a n  i s worth  Such d e s c r i p t i o n might examine, e s p e c i a l l y , t h e  image o f E n g l a n d a n d S c o t l a n d t h a t many s t u d e n t s through t h e i r placements.  presented  The r e l a t i v e l y f e w g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s  i n w h i c h O r i g i n s were s u g g e s t e d m i g h t a l s o be e x a m i n e d . Order  Effects A d e t a i l e d examination of order effects  Critical  c o u l d be made.  Qualities The  q u a l i t y o f f r e e - r e s p o n s e w r i t i n g m i g h t be e x a m i n e d .  A study might i n c l u d e a n a l y s i s  of:  t y p i c a l response p a t t e r n s ,  the misuse o f f o r m a l terms, and s t y l e . S t o c k Responses:  "Ecology"  A f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n a n d a n a l y s i s m i g h t be made o f t h e many r e s p o n s e s were h e a v i l y damage.  i n which t h e present students*  c o l o u r e d by t h e c u r r e n t concern w i t h  Examples o f such responses  include:  interpretations environmental  168 of " H i l l  Country"  "Gouged o u t , g a p i n g c l a y . " Clay symbolizes what man has done. The o n c e " w h i t e s k y " a n d " y e l l o w broom" s h a l l be no more. Man h a s u s e d up a l l o f t h e b e a u t y and t o r e p l a c e i t he has o n l y l e f t b a r r e n n e s s , d e s t r u c t i o n . o f "A V i e w o f R a n g i t o t o " The y a c h t j u s t seems t o s p o i l t h e p i c t u r e . I t j u s t seems t o me a p l a c e l i k e t h a t w i l l n o t l a s t t o o much l o n g e r i f y a c h t s a r e a l r e a d y g o i n g by i t . P r e t t y soon t h e y ' l l be m a k i n g s t o p s t h e r e a n d t h e p l a c e w i l l n e v e r be t h e same. The  e f f e c t s of such preoccupations  c r i t i c i s m s h o u l d be  on l i t e r a r y r e s p o n s e  and  reviewed.  Other D i r e c t i o n s These s u g g e s t i o n s  involve separate studies.  They  can  be s e e n p a r t l y a s f u r t h e r a r e a s f o r e n q u i r y , p a r t l y a s m e t h o d o logical Areas  alternatives.  f o r Enquiry Replications T h e r e i s much s c o p e f o r t h e n e a r - r e p l i c a t i o n o f  present study.  To  i n v o l v e more s t u d e n t s i n t h e f i n a l  these might use  d i f f e r e n t methods o f p r o v i d i n g t h e  analyses  students  w i t h G i v e n K n o w l e d g e and m i g h t d i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o p o i n t up d i f f e r e n c e s they f e e l i n t h e i r responses  the  t o t h e poems.  T h e r e a r e many p o s s i b i l i t i e s w o r t h c o n s i d e r i n g :  the  using a s i m i l a r student present  s a m p l e w i t h t h e same poems ( t o v e r i f y  r e s u l t s ) , w i t h d i f f e r e n t poems ( l a n d s c a p e  landscape),  and non-  with prose e x t r a c t s , with l a b e l s supplied a t d i f -  f e r e n t stages  i n a r e a d i n g , a n d w i t h e v e n more i n f o r m a t i o n o n g  t h e poem p r o v i d e d , age  etc.; using students  l e v e l s ; using students  or sub-regions;  the design.  sampled from other  a n d u s i n g New Z e a l a n d  same poems a s i n t h e p r e s e n t The  different  sampled from an e x c l u s i v e l y r u r a l ,  o r some o t h e r , a r e a ; u s i n g s t u d e n t s regions  sampled from  students  Canadian with the  study.  l a t t e r r e p l i c a t i o n w o u l d be v a l u a b l e i n b a l a n c i n g I t might give an i n d i c a t i o n o f the r e l a t i v e  p l a y e d by t h e students  parts  ( i n c l u d i n g t h e i r s c h o o l backgrounds) and  poems i n r e s p o n s e p a t t e r n s .  I t would f i l l  out the study  along  o  the l i n e s valued and  by E a r l y ,  by Warner and B e r g , and by P u r v e s  B e a c h ( s e e a b o v e , p. 1 7 ) . A n o t h e r n e a r - r e p l i c a t i o n m i g h t e x p l o r e t h e Canadian-  Studies one  i d e a by r e p l a c i n g t h e Denied Knowledge c o n d i t i o n w i t h  i n which students  g i v e n when l i t e r a t u r e history students son  course.  are provided with information l i k e i s taught  Many o t h e r  that  as p a r t o f a s o c i a l s t u d i e s o r  "replications," substituting  a n d / o r poems, a r e p o s s i b l e .  A USA/Canadian compari-  i s j u s t one e x a m p l e . Longitudinal Studies  Studies c o u l d be made o f C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t  to Canadian l i t e r a t u r e  over time.  responses  These m i g h t i n c l u d e , e s p e c i -  170 ally,  s t u d i e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' own h o o k  selections.  Case S t u d i e s There  c o u l d he s t u d i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l r e a d i n g e x p e r i -  ences w i t h Canadian l i t e r a t u r e .  Those s t u d i e s m i g h t  employ  l e s s s e l e c t i v e methodologies than extant studies. The  Strength of Transfer To i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i s s u e r a i s e d u n d e r R e s u l t s ( s e e  a b o v e , p. 14-9)» s t u d e n t s m i g h t be c a l l e d u p o n t o d e s c r i b e a s e t t i n g remembered f r o m a poem.  Q u a l i f i e d people from  Canada  a n d New Z e a l a n d m i g h t t h e n be a s k e d t o comment u p o n t h e appropriateness of the d e s c r i p t i o n .  ( F o r a n o t h e r method by  w h i c h t o p r o b e t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e C a n a d i a n l a b e l s r e s p o n s e s e e b e l o w , p.  affect  173.)  A T y p o l o g y o f L i t e r a r y Works T e a c h e r s m i g h t u s e t h e s t u d y poems i n c l a s s a n d compare t h e i r experiences w i t h the study f i n d i n g s .  A  small  a n t h o l o g y o f t h e p a i r e d poems w i t h a summary o f t h e f i n d i n g s might b e s t s e r v e t h i s end. Methodological  alternatives  There a r e o t h e r methods by w h i c h t o a p p r o a c h q u e s t i o n s like  those asked i n the present study.  a l r e a d y been suggested i n t h i s mention.  Some a l t e r n a t i v e s  c h a p t e r ; t h r e e more d e s e r v e  have  171 Tape  Recordings The  to and  tape r e c o r d i n g of student d i s c u s s i o n s i n  p o e t r y s h o u l d he u n d e r t a k e n ,  f u r t h e r i n g the work o f Barnes  t h e e x t r e m e l y p r o m i s i n g p i l o t work f o r t h i s  p r e s e n t one  example from the l a t t e r .  are f r e e l y d i s c u s s i n g " H i l l  response  The  study.  ( g r a d e 12)  I  students  Country":  A  I can't stand t h a t type of p o e t r y .  B  I really  C  S o r t o f j a g g e d and  B  T h a t ' s what i t was s u p p o s e d t o be I t h i n k . It was s u p p o s e d t o be a j a g g e d poem. T h a t ' s w h a t t h e image o f t h e h i l l c o u n t r y i s ; s o m e t h i n g t h a t ' s j a g g e d and . . .  A  W e l l t o me t h a t ' s n o t what h i l l D i d you see h i l l c o u n t r y ?  D  I saw . . . uh . . . I c o u l d n ' t see h i l l s . c a n ' t s e e s u n b a k e d c l a y on t o p o f a h i l l .  E  W e l l I can see h i l l s o f sunbaked c l a y but I c . . . . T h i s i s n ' t what h i l l c o u n t r y i s .  D  Not h i l l s o f . . . h i l l s o f s u n b a k e d c l a y t h a t h a v e y e l l o w broom b l o o m i n g . I f you've got h i l l s o f s u n b a k e d c l a y t h e r e ' s n o t much on them. T h e y ' r e d r y , t h e y ' r e . . . w i n d s w e p t .  ?  Do  D  Y e a h , I know what broom i s .  ?  And  D  Oh y e a h , I t h i n k i t d o e s b u t I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e w h o l e t h i n g p u t s t o g e t h e r . . .1 t h i n k p a r t o f i t i s where t h e r e i s more . . .  B  There's k i n d of a p r o g r e s s i o n though, f r o m where t h e , y o u g o t . . .  you  you  liked  . . . . . . uh  . . .  country i s . I  know what y e l l o w broom i s ?  don't t h i n k i t goes w i t h . . . c l a y ?  i t goes  172 [ T r a n s c r i p t break: B moves t h r o u g h t e x t s h o w i n g progression. E i n t e r p o l a t e s , a t one p o i n t : I couldn't I c o u l d n ' t see bees and f l o w e r s and s u n b a k e d e a r t h . I j u s t c o u l d n ' t s e e it . . . D  Then i t s o r t o f b o t h e r e d m e — " w i n d strums o v e r p l a i n , same d r y h i g h p l a i n " — I t h o u g h t , y o u know, plain? I want a m o u n t a i n . Ha.  E  What h a p p e n e d t o t h e h i l l  D  Y e a h t h a t ' s p r e c i s e l y i t . What h a p p e n e d t o the h i l l country? Because you don't g e t p l a i n s being i n the middle of the h i l l country.  B  You've g o t p l a t e a u s , you've g o t h i l l s teaus .  D  T h a t ' s more o f m o u n t a i n t h o u g h . But h i l l country's j u s t s o r t o f . . . h i l l s . . . y o u know . . . not mountains and n o t f l a t .  ?  Yeah  ?  T h e n t h a t b o t h e r e d me t o o — " s a l l o w f l a t , f l a t , willow flat.'!  A  Boy, you've g o t a r e a l s t e r e o t y p e d h i l l  B  and p l a -  yellow country.  "yeah, yeah"]  Y e a h I g u e s s i f y o u do y o u j u s t g e t a n image o f a h i l l c o u n t r y a n d what y o u . . . what h i l l country i s and then i t s hard t o imagine t h a t d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s a r e happening.  commentary u p o n t r a n s f e r i s o b v i o u s a n d i m p o r t a n t .  pilot  students.  oral  m i g h t be t h e one b e s t s u i t e d t o r e s e a r c h w i t h y o u n g e r I t a l s o o f f e r s a means b y w h i c h  t r a n s f e r on r e s p o n s e .  son between f r e e response group  The  t r a n s c r i p t s r e l a t e t o many/other i s s u e s t o o . T h i s  approach  of  country?  right.  [ L a u g h t e r and agreement  The  ]  . 10 discussion.  t o probe t h e e f f e c t s  A n d t h e r e w o u l d be v a l u e i n a of the type e l i c i t e d  i n this  comparis t u d y and  173 Semantic The its findings attitudinal  Differentials semantic  d i f f e r e n t i a l has g e n e r a l promise  (where  c a n be s a f e l y i n t e r p r e t e d ) a s a p r o b e i n t o t h e c r e v i c e s opened up by l i t e r a r y r e s p o n s e .  It  appears h i g h l y s u i t e d t o p u r s u i n g t h e questions d i s c o v e r e d under " S i g n i f i c a n t Projective  Adjectivals."  Techniques  P r o j e c t i v e techniques possess mesh w e l l w i t h t h e c r e a t i v e a s p e c t s studies.  s p e c u l a t i v e freedom and  of English Literature  T h i s may c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e i r a n a l y t i c a l  Concluding  looseness.  Statement Almost i n e v i t a b l y w i t h a p i o n e e r i n g study, f u t u r e  r e s e a r c h p o s s i b i l i t i e s b e g i n t o overwhelm t h a t which discovered.  So i t s h o u l d be i n t h e p r e s e n t  case.  is initially  The  findings  a r e t e n t a t i v e , t h e y a r e b e g i n n i n g s , t h e y depend upon e x t e n s i v e f u t u r e r e s e a r c h f o r t h e i r v e r i f i c a t i o n and development. do now know e n o u g h t o r e p l a c e l o o s e l y h e l d a s s u m p t i o n s considered questions. little  B u t we with  We know, t o t a k e u p H a n s s o n ' s p o i n t , a  b e t t e r where some o f o u r C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s a r e .  NOTES CHAPTER I ^ The p e r i o d i c a l s g i v i n g m o s t a t t e n t i o n t o t h e q u e s t i o n h a v e b e e n The E n g l i s h Q u a r t e r l y ( [ C a n a d a ] : Monday M o r n i n g ( T o r o n t o :  Saturday  George Crawford,  Crawford  35-  it  CANLIT,  o p p o s i t i o n t o i n c r e a s e d Canadian A t h i r d m a j o r s u r v e y was c o n -  d u c t e d b y A. B. H o d g e t t s - - W h a t C u l t u r e ?  What H e r i t a g e ?  1968)—but, as a study o f " C i v i c E d u c a t i o n , "  0ISE,  (Toronto:  CCTE  C o u r s e Countdown ( T o r o n t o :  a l s o notes  c o n t e n t , e . g . p p . 4-, 10,  Publications).  Barometer R i s i n g ([Canada]:  1973) ; a n d S a n d r a S t e w a r t , 1974) .  Night  CCTE), a n d  d i d n o t y i e l d much d a t a o n l i t e r a t u r e t e a c h i n g o r c u r r i c u l a . 3 E.g. Crawford,  p p . 8-9,  53;  John F a r r e l l ,  "How To Be a  C a n a d i a n a n d T e a c h E n g l i s h , " The E n g l i s h Q u a r t e r l y , 3» No. 3  (1970),  p. 41; R o b i n Mathews, c i t e d b y L. W i l s o n , "Home i s Where  You H a n g Y o u r C h i l d h o o d ; A Case f o r C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , "  7,  No.  1 (1970),.  the Schools,"  p.  20;  Arbos,  a n d K.M. Snow, " C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e i n  B C E n g l i s h T e a c h e r , 10,  No. 1 (1969)1  p. 39.  k E.g. Manitoba  M. L o c k h a r t , " L e t ' s E x p l o r e C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , "  Teacher,  4-9,  No.  6 (1971),  p.  4-;  Jack M c C l e l l a n d ,  by L. W i l s o n , p. 22; Desmond P a c e y , "Comments o n C l e m e n t  cited  Moisan,"  F o c u s o n C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s , e d . E d w a r d H. H u m p h r e y s ( T o r o n t o : 0ISE,  1969),  p.  82;  C h a r l e s Rea, "Canadian L i t e r a t u r e :  A  C e n t e n n i a l P r o j e c t , " The B u l l e t i n ( O n t a r i o S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s ) , 46, No.  1 (1966),  pp. 542-4.  p.  93;  and S o c i a l Education,  35,  No.  6 (1971)1  E . g . C l e m e n t M o i s a n , "L'enseignement de l a l i t t e r a t u r e  J  C a n a d i e n n e , " Humphreys, pp;. 69-8O; a n d R e a , p . 94. L o u i s Dudek a n d I r v i n g L a y t o n , C a n a d i a n Poems: Contact Press,  "Introductory  1850-1952, e d . Dudek a n d L a y t o n  Note,"  (Toronto:  1952), p . 13; J . F a r r e l l , p . 4-3; a n d J . M. G r a y ,  " W r i t e r s We Need i n C a n a d a , " The E n g l i s h Q u a r t e r l y . 2,  No. 2  (1969), p p . 45-6; L o c k h a r t , p . 4. 7  ' F o r t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s sentence, see "Canadian Literature:  The N e c e s s a r y R e v o l u t i o n , "  L a u r i e r High School i s ours, 8  (1972):  i t i s there,  "We t e a c h  TS, London, Ont.: i t because i t i s u s , i t  i t i s excellent."  C f . H o d g e t t s , p . 119;  andB r i t a Mickleburgh,  "This  Class  Probed Our L i t e r a t u r e A l l Through t h e Year,".Monday M o r n i n g .  6, No. 2 (1971), P. 17. ^ E . g . G e o r g e B o w e r i n g , "What E l e m e n t a r y a n d S e c o n d a r y School p.2;  E n g l i s h S h o u l d Be A b o u t , " U p d a t e .  C r a w f o r d , p p . 39, 54; A l i c e H a l e ,  Literature—The  Short  Story," Education  15, No. 1 (197^),  "Teaching Canadian Nova S c o t i a . 4, No. 6  (1973), P P . 1-2; M a u r i c e L e b e l , " A p p r o a c h e s t o C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , " The E n g l i s h Q u a r t e r l y . and  4, No. 4 (1971), PP- 6&-7O;  George Tomkins, " N a t i o n a l C o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h e C u r r i c u l u m a n d  C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s , " The J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l  T h o u g h t . 7,  No. 1  (1973) P. 19. a9; G e o r g e Woodcock, c i t e d b y T o m k i n s , p . 6; s e e a l s o S h e i l a E g o f f , The R e p u b l i c Press,  o f Childhood  (Toronto:  Oxford U n i v e r s i t y  1967), p . 261; a n d T o m k i n s , p p . 6-7.  176 94.  1 1  R e a , p.  1 2  G r a y , p . 46. Hugh L o u g h r a n , c i t e d b y C r a w f o r d , p. 60. Ramsay Cook, "The U s e s o f L i t e r a t u r e  H i s t o r y , " The E n g l i s h Q u a r t e r l y . 4-, No. Dudek a n d L a y t o n , p.  i n Cultural  3 (1971)» P- 11.  17.  16 Mathews, " C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e : t i o n , " p. 7;  The N e c e s s a r y R e v o l u -  a n d s e e R e a , p. 94.  S e e H o d g e t t s , p. 74.  1 7  1 Pi  12,  Secondary S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m M a t e r i a l , Grade P r o v i n c e o f New B r u n s w i c k ; a n d R e a , p . 93• 19 7  Steve B a i l e y , "Canadian L i t e r a t u r e i n an I n t e r d i s c i -  plinary Setting:  C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s a t M c P h e r s o n P a r k , " The  W i n t e r J o u r n a l (BCETA(),  15, No. 1 (1975), p . 13; P a c e y , "Comments  on C l e m e n t M o i s a n , " , p . 8 1 ; M i c k l e b u r g h , "We T e a c h E n g l i s h L i k e F o r e i g n Language." c f . Rea, PP. 20  Monday M o r n i n g , 2,  No. 1 (1967)1 p . 23; a n d  93-4.  H a l e , " T e a c h i n g C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e — I t C a n Be F u n , " Lighthouse Learning Project  (Halifax,  I n s t i t u t e o f E d u c a t i o n ) , p. 1;  Nova S c o t i a :  Atlantic  a n d s e e G r a y , p. 51-  21 C f . Dudek a n d L a y t o n , p. 12; Teaching Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , " No.  D o r o t h y L i v e s a y , "On  The W i n t e r J o u r n a l ( B C E T A ) ,  1 (1975)> p . 7; a n d L i v e s a y "On T e a c h i n g O u r Own:  z o n t a l V i e w , " The E n g l i s h Q u a r t e r l y . and J . F a r r e l l ,  p . 43.  3  S e e a l s o p . 13  C r a w f o r d , p . 43.  A Hori-  4, No. 4 (1971)» p. 76; below.  C f . L i v e s a y , "On T e a c h i n g O u r O w n , " p . 2  15,  76.  a  177 *'" C r a w f o r d a c k n o w l e d g e s r  p. 1 4 .  weaknesses  i n h i s s u r v e y , e.g.  S t e w a r t draws h e a v i l y o n C r a w f o r d . J  Though s o m e t i m e s w r i t e r s do a c k n o w l e d g e  t o be known, e . g . C r a w f o r d , p . 53; Our Own," p. 77.  t h a t more n e e d s  a n d L i v e s a y , " On T e a c h i n g  Perhaps t h e s t u d y coming  c l o s e s t t o examining  assumptions  i s t h a t u n d e r t a k e n by D a r l e n e H a r r i s ,  TS, B r i t i s h  Columbia  "Canadapoems,"  (1974):  B e c a u s e I b e l i e v e a d u l t s make t o o many d e c i s i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n , a n d b e c a u s e I make no p r e t e n s e t o t h i n k o r s p e a k a s a c h i l d ; o v e r 200 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , f r o m g r a d e s 4 t o 7» i n 4 l o c a t i o n s i n N o r t h Vancouver, were a s k e d t o v o l u n t a r i l y a s s i s t i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s e poems. [Introduction] However, t h e s t u d y l a c k s o b j e c t i v i t y . mental c o n t r o l s and H a r r i s i s committed  There a r e few e x p e r i to a particular  cause:  This Booklet, then, offers a small sampling o f t h e q u a l i t y a n d v a r i e t y o f C a n a d i a n poems t h a t teachers can b r i n g t o t h e i r students t o encourage a f e e l i n g o f p r i d e i n and a sense of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h p o e t r y w r i t t e n by and f o r Canadians. [Preface]  26 The A l b e r t a P r o v i n c i a l C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e X o r X I , 7,  (Modules, Grade  C a n a d i a n P o e t r y ) does make t h e p o i n t r e c u l t u r e s : I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e t h e Canadian c u l t u r e as something t h a t i s d i s t i n c t i v e because c u l t u r a l backgrounds d i f f e r from r e g i o n t o r e g i o n .  N o t i c e a l s o Tomkins,  p. 7  s  Unity i s national i n reference, international or comparative i n • p e r s p e c t i v e and r o o t e d i n a p o l i t i c a l feeling. I d e n t i t y i s a c u l t u r a l and i m a g i n a t i v e concept, l o c a l and r e g i o n a l i n n a t u r e . I n F r y e ' s w o r d s , "The t e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h i s p o l i t i c a l s e n s e o f u n i t y and t h e i m a g i n a t i v e sense o f l o c a l i t y i s t h e e s s e n c e o f w h a t e v e r t h e w o r d ' C a n a d i a n ' means."  178 ^ and  p. 2 6 .  Crawford,  See a l s o A n d r e w s , " A u t h o r  P o e t r y S t u d y , " Res T e a c h E n g l . 4 , No. 1 ( 1 9 7 0 ) ,  Biography pp. 37-8.  2 Pi C f . G u n n a r H a n s s o n , "Some Types o f R e s e a r c h o n R e s p o n s e to Literature." Lee  Res T e a c h E n g l . 7.  Lemen, "A C o m p a r i s o n o f V a r i o u s P r e s e n t a t i o n s i n S e c u r i n g  A p p r o p r i a t e Student Diss. California "The  Responses t o B i o g r a p h i c a l L i t e r a t u r e , "  (Berk.)  1952, p p . 2 - 3 ; a n d James R. S q u i r e ,  Responses o f A d o l e s c e n t s  Experiences  1956,  t o Literature Involving Selected  o f P e r s o n a l Development," D i s s . C a l i f o r n i a  (Berk.)  p . 2. The  The  No. 2 (1973)» p . 263; A l b e r t  i m p e t u s i n t h i s w o r k i s c o m i n g l a r g e l y f r o m t h e USA.  w o r k c a n be compared w i t h , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  into reading preferences W. J o l l , Taste  e a r l i e r i nthis  century.  " D e v e l o p m e n t o f Taste.in. L i t e r a t u r e , I I I :  i n Literature  i nthe J u n i o r High  School."  See L e o n a r d Developing Elementary  E n g l i s h . 4 0 , No. 2 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , p. I 8 3 ; a n d S q u i r e , " E n g l i s h L i t e r a ture," Encyclopaedia 4th  ed. (London:  o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research,  Macmillan,  e d . R o b e r t L. E b e l ,  1969), p. 467.  29 Douglas Barnes,  y  Peter  C h u r l e y a n d C h r i s t o p h e r Thompson,  " G r o u p T a l k a n d L i t e r a r y R e s p o n s e , " E n g l i s h i n E d u c a t i o n . 5, No. 3  ( 1 9 7 1 ) , P P . 63-76. 30  " r p ^ Responses o f A d o l e s c e n t s  3  A l a n C. P u r v e s w i t h V i c t o r i a R i p p e r e ,  1  to Literature." Elements o f  W r i t i n g A b o u t a L i t e r a r y Work ( C h a m p a i g n , I I I . : NCTE, 1 9 6 8 ) ; and  S q u i r e , "The R e s p o n s e s o f A d o l e s c e n t s  to Literature.".  F o l l o w i n g t h e i r l e a d a r e , e . g . H a n s s o n , p p . 260-84; P u r v e s , W. F o s h a y a n d H a n s s o n , L i t e r a t u r e E d u c a t i o n  i n Ten C o u n t r i e s  Arthur  179 (New  York:  J o h n W i l e y and. S o n s ,  1973); N a t i o n a l Assessment o f  Educational Progress, Highlights of the F i r s t of L i t e r a t u r e  '([USA]:  N a t i o n a l Assessment  E d u c a t i o n Commission  of the States,  (Denver, C o l . :  o f E d u c a t i o n a l P r o g r e s s , 1973);  Assessment  Assessment  a  n  National  d many d o c t o r a l  candidates employing the Purves-Rippere content a n a l y s i s in their ^  2  1972);  o f E d u c a t i o n a l P r o g r e s s , Responding t o  Theme 2 , L i t e r a t u r e  Literature:  National  scheme  dissertations. E . g . N a t h a n S. B l o u n t , " R e s e a r c h o n T e a c h i n g  Literature,  L a n g u a g e a n d C o m p o s i t i o n , " S e c o n d Handbook o f R e s e a r c h o n T e a c h i n g , e d . R o b e r t M.W. T r a v e r s ( C h i c a g o : pp. 1072-97; C h a r l e s R. C o o p e r , Literature: (1971),  A Review  p p . 5-23;  Rand M c N a l l y , 1973) ,  "Measuring A p p r e c i a t i o n o f  o f A t t e m p t s , " Res T e a c h E n g l . 5,  Henry  No. 1  C. M e c k e l , " R e s e a r c h o n T e a c h i n g Compo-  s i t i o n a n d L i t e r a t u r e , " Handbook o f R e s e a r c h o n T e a c h i n g , e d . N.L.  Gage ( C h i c a g o :  Rand M c N a l l y , I 9 6 3 ) , p p . 966-1066; a n d  Purves and R i c h a r d Beach, L i t e r a t u r e and t h e Reader  (Urbana,  111.:  NCTE, 1 9 7 2 ) . 33 B a r n e s  e t a l . , pp. 70, 74-6; Beach,  "The L i t e r a r y  R e s p o n s e P r o c e s s o f C o l l e g e S t u d e n t s , " , E n g l i s h R e c o r d . 22 (Summer 1 9 7 3 ) . P P . 98-116; H . J . M u l l e r , The U s e s o f E n g l i s h (New  York:  H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, I967),  p p . 4 9 , 86;  P u r v e s , "An E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e V a r i e t i e s o f C r i t i c i s m . " . C o l l e g e C o m p o s i t i o n and Communication,  27 (May 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 99; P u r v e s ,  " L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m a n d E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement," A Guide t o E v a l u a t i o n f o r Responding, ( L e x i n g t o n , Mass.:  e d . C h a r l e s R. C o o p e r  and Purves  G i n n , 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 78; P u r v e s a n d B e a c h , p p . 150-1;  180 School and C o l l e g e Conference  194-2, " R e p o r t  on E n g l i s h , A p r i l  of t h e L i t e r a t u r e Committee," i n I s s u e s Problems i n the Teaching of.English, Rinehart and Winston,  e d . G.W.  S t o n e J r . (New Y o r k :  Holt  1963)» p p . 58-61; a n d James R. W i l s o n ,  Responses o f C o l l e g e Freshmen 1 t o Three NCTE,  and Approaches  Novels  (Champaign,  111.:  1966), p. 40.. M u l l e r , p. 49.  ^  3-5 B a r n e s ^  p . 76,  et passim.  Purves, " L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m and E d u c a t i o n a l Measure-  ment," p . ^  et a l . ,  75. N o t i c e H a n s s o n , p.  276:  I f we do n o t t h i n k o f " b e t t e r " a s r i g h t o r w r o n g , but as expected i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and r e s p o n s e s , we c a n a l w a y s d e f i n e what t h e e x p e c t e d r e s p o n s e i s , a n d why we e x p e c t i t . Our e x p e c t a t i o n s w i l l v a r y w i t h d i f f e r e n t t e a c h i n g g o a l s and d i f f e r e n t t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s , b u t i f we know what we a r e a i m i n g a t , we c a n a l w a y s d e f i n e a n d d e f e n d them." See  also:  M e c k e l , "Research on T e a c h i n g C o m p o s i t i o n and  Literature,"  p . 999;  Purves and Beach,  p. 37;  a n d J.W.  Ring,  "A S t u d y o f t h e I n t e r p r e t a t i v e P r o c e s s e s E m p l o y e d b y S e l e c t e d A d o l e s c e n t Readers See  o f Three  Purves e t a l . ,  in Literature,"  E J,  S h o r t S t o r i e s , " D i s s . O h i o I968, p. 6. p . 315;  and Purves,  "Indoctrination  63, No. 5 (1974), p . 70.  39 S e e , r e s t u d e n t m o t i v a t i o n t o c o n t i n u e r e a d i n g a f t e r t h e s c h o o l y e a r s , Norma B. K a h n , "A P r o p o s a l f o r M o t i v a t i n g M o r e Students t o L i f e t i m e Reading o f L i t e r a t u r e , "  E J , 63,  No. 2  (1974), p. 34; a n d D. H. R u s s e l l , "Some R e s e a r c h o n t h e I m p a c t of Reading,"  E J,  47, No. 7 (1955), p. 406.  181  40  See D w i g h t L. B u r t o n , "The  IEA S t u d y :  (The F i r s t R e v i e w ) , " Res T e a c h E n g l . and P u r v e s e t a l . ,  p.  Two  Reviews  8, No. 1 (1974), p. 18;  31^'  41 M a r g a r e t E a r l y , " L i t e r a t u r e and t h e Development o f Reading S k i l l s , "  ED  019 209 (1968), p. 8.  42 B e r n i c e E. L e a r y , " R e a d i n g P r o b l e m s R e a d i n g i n t h e H i g h S c h o o l and  C o l l e g e , e d . N. B. H e n r y  N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the Study of E d u c a t i o n , ^ TS  P u r v e s , "IEA L i t e r a t u r e :  (June  doubt  i n Literature," (Chicago:  1948), p.  F i n a l Report  139.  (Revised),"  1971), Chap. 7, p. 22; t h o u g h E. B. B r i d g e c a s t s  on t h i s  conclusion:  " U s i n g C h i l d r e n ' s C h o i c e s o f and  R e a c t i o n s t o P o e t r y as D e t e r m i n a n t s i n E n r i c h i n g Experience i n the M i d d l e Grades," See a l s o G e o r g e W.  N o r v e l l , The  Literary  D i s s . Temple 1966,  pp.  62,  73.  Reading I n t e r e s t s o f Young  People (Michigan State U n i v e r s i t y Press,  1973), P. 67,  citing  Terman, Dunn, J o r d a n and o t h e r s ; R i c h a r d J . S m i t h a n d Thomas B u r n s , "The  Effects  Student Enjoyment Reading. pp.  50, ^  York:  13,  No.  of D i f f e r e n t I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r a c t i c e s  and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a B a l l a d , "  on  Journal of  5 (1970), p. 354; a n d P u r v e s a n d B e a c h ,  161. E.g.  Hans P. G u t h , E n g l i s h f o r a New  McGraw H i l l ,  M u l l e r , pp.  89,  93;  M e a s u r e m e n t , " p. 71;  Generation  1973), P. 22; P u r v e s e t a l . , pp. 44, Purves, " L i t e r a r y  C r i t i c i s m and  P u r v e s a n d B e a c h p. 101;  C o l l e g e C o n f e r e n c e on E n g l i s h , p. 51-  (New 46;  Educational  and S c h o o l and  Of. P a c e y ,  "Comments on  C l e m e n t M o i s a n , " p. 81; a n d P a c e y , "A P l e a f o r t h e S t u d y o f Own  Literature,"  Curriculum B u l l e t i n (Manitoba),  Our  3 (May 1969), p.3.  182 See P u r v e s a n d B e a c h , p p . 1 0 5 - 6 .  J  46 See P u r v e s e t a l . ,  pp.  25, 314-5,  " I n d o c t r i n a t i o n i n L i t e r a t u r e , " E J , 63,  e t passim; Purves,  No. 5 ( 1 9 7 4 ) ,  e t p a s s i m ; a n d P u r v e s a n d B e a c h , p p . 2 4 - 5 , 27,  p. 7 0 ,  I77-8.  Such a n  i n f l u e n c e i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s t r o n g o r easy t o measure. S q u i r e , "What Does R e s e a r c h i n R e a d i n g R e v e a l A b o u t  See  Attitudes  Towards R e a d i n g ? " E J , 5 8 , No. 4 ( I 9 6 9 ) , p. 525. 47 ' P u r v e s e t a l . , p p . 314-5, e t p a s s i m ; a n d P u r v e s , " I n d o c t r i n a t i o n i n L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 7 0 , e t p a s s i m . 4R  P h y l l i s T e z e r , "The C u l t u r e Gap," ED 037 453 p a s s i m ; a n d F.S. Y o u s e f , " C r o s s - c u l t u r a l T e s t i n g :  (1969),  An Aspect o f  t h e R e s i s t a n c e R e a c t i o n , " L a n g u a g e L e a r n i n g . 18 ( D e c . I 9 6 8 ) , p. 2 2 7 ,  e t passim.  ^  L.M. R o s e n b l a t t , "The A c i d T e s t f o r L i t e r a t u r e T e a c h i n g , "  E J , 4 5 , No. 1 (1956), p. 6 9 . •5° B a r n e s (Reading:  et a l . ,  NATE, 1 9 6 7 ) ,  p. 66;  John D i x o n , Growth  p . 59; W a l t e r L o b a n ,  V a r y i n g S e n s i t i v i t y and T h e i r Responses  Through  English  "Adolescents of  to Literature  Intended  t o E v o k e Sympathy," D i s s . M i n n e s o t a 1949, p. 250; P u r v e s , " I E A Literature,"  p. 5;  Russell,  C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n . 25, Responses  " I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Through  No. 9 ( 1 9 4 9 ) ,  Literature,"  p. 4 0 0 ; a n d S q u i r e , "The  of Adolescents to Literature,"  p. 4 5 .  See a l s o  Purves  a n d B e a c h , p p . 2 , I63. Russell,  " I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Through  Literature,"  p. 4 0 0 .  52 F e h l L. S h i r l e y ,  " I n f l u e n c e o f Reading on Concepts,  A t t i t u d e s a n d B e h a v i o u r , " J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g , 12,  (,1969), p p . 369-72.  See a l s o L e o A u e r b a c h ,  No. 5  "The I n t e r a c t i o n  183 Between S o c i a l A t t i t u d e  and Response t o Three S h o r t  Dissertation Abstracts,  35,  No.  2 (1974),  Marlene Ann Birkman, " C h i l d r e n ' s Inquiry,"  35,  ( P u r d u e ) ; C o o p e r , " R e s e a r c h Roundup:  and  62,  No.  7 (1973),  B e a c h , p p . 18-19, 96;  pp.  No.  1 (1973)i  Literature,  1057-8,  An  p . 163A  Humanities,  c i t i n g Davis;  Purves  D o u g l a s A l e x a n d e r S t o u t , "The R e s p o n s e s  of C o l l e g e Freshmen t o C h a r a c t e r s i n Four Short Dissertation Abstracts.  (New Y o r k ) ;  Responses t o Free Verse:  Dissertation Abstracts.  Media," E J ,  p. 711A  Stories,"  25,  No.  3 (1964),  Stories,"  1794  p.  (California  [Berk.]). B o w e r i n g , p . 2. v  p. 52.  See a l s o  p . 3 a b o v e ; L i v e s a y , "On T e a c h i n g  C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 7; English  and B i l l  B i s s e t t , "On What S e c o n d a r y  S h o u l d be A b o u t , " U p d a t e ( B C E T A ) ,  15,  No.  5 (1974),  p.  2:  f i r s t what i wud s a y c u d b d u n i s f o r t h e t e e c h r s t o o r d r buks a c t u a l l y p r i n t i d i n b . c . by l i v i n g b . c . a u t h o r s f o r t h e r c l a s s e s t h s wud make i t p o s s i b u l f o r p e o p u l i n c l a s s e s ( t h w o r d ' s t u d e n t ' i s k n i d u v dumb) t o r e e d nd d i s c u s s p o e t r y as i t s b e i n g w r i t t e n t o d a y nd w i t h i n a n environment t h e y a r a l r e d y f a m i l i a r w i t h o r concern nd u n d r s t a n d i n g cud b a c h i e v d mor r e d i l y But  c f . E g o f f , p.  12:  Some, h o w e v e r , f e e l a n o b l i g a t i o n t o p u r c h a s e every Canadian n o v e l , e s p e c i a l l y i f i t has an i d e n t i f i a b l e locale, the theory being that, even i f a s t o r y i s n o t w e l l w r i t t e n , a c h i l d might l e a r n , f o r instance, that Vancouver i s on t h e w e s t c o a s t o f Canada. Cf. "The  P u r v e s a n d B e a c h , p . 163;  A f f e c t i v e Responses o f E t h n i c  genous G h e t t o L i t e r a t u r e :  Laurence Lester  Minority  A Measurement,"  Sherrill,  Readers t o I n d i Dissertation  184 Abstracts,  3 4 , No. 1 (1973), pp. 348A-9A, ( W i s c o n s i n ) ;  N i c h o l a s - M e n c h i s e , " R a c i a l B i a s as a Determinant  Donald  of Literary-  P r e f e r e n c e and t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p o f S e l e c t e d V a r i a b l e s t o P a t t e r n s o f P r e f e r e n c e a n d R e j e c t i o n o f L i t e r a r y Works Whose A u t h o r ' s Race i s Known," D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , (1972),  p . 2619A ( C o n n e c t i c u t ) ; M a r y A n n Woodyard, "The E f f e c t s  of Teaching B l a c k L i t e r a t u r e t o a Ninth-Grade High School i n Picayune, M i s s i s s i p p i , " 32,  No. 1 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , P. 317A  C l a s s i n a Negro  Dissertation  the Study Group," NCTE, 1 9 6 5 ) ,  The R e p o r t o f 111.:  A Common P u r p o s e , e d . S q u i r e ( C h a m p a i g n ,  p. 1 2 .  57 E l s a G e l p i , 515  Abstracts,  (Tennessee).  D. W. H a r d i n g , " R e s p o n s e t o L i t e r a t u r e :  032  3 3 , No. 6  "The E n j o y m e n t  (1969); Purves e t a l . ,  o f L i t e r a t u r e / ' ERIC A b s t r a c t s  p . 24; P u r v e s a n d B e a c h , p . 188,  r e p o r t i n g A l p e r t ; H a r o l d J . V i n e , " A f f e c t i v e U n d e r s t a n d i n g and the Reading o f P o e t r y , " D i s s . S y r a c u s e 1970, pp. 3 4 - 5 c i t i n g W h i t e , p. 2 0 1 ; a n d P u r v e s a n d B e a c h ,  E. g. L o b a n , p.  73. 59 E . g . D i x o n , p . 5 9 ; R o s e n b l a t t , "The A c i d T e s t f o r  L i t e r a t u r e Teaching," p . 7 1 ; l  and C a r o l S e e f e l d t ,  "Toward  A p p r e c i a t i o n , " E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h . 4 9 , No. 5 ( 1 9 7 2 ) ,  p. 7 9 0 .  See a l s o Dudek a n d L a y t o n , p. 3 , n. 2 1 a b o v e ; G a l l o , " J o u r n a l Reading and S e l e c t e d Measures Effectiveness,"  Res Teach E n g l , 4 ,  a n d D.R.  of Teaching  No. 1 ( 1 9 7 0 ) ,  pp. 4 5 - 5 0 .  M a r i e R a n k i n , C h i l d r e n ' s I n t e r e s t s i n L i b r a r y Books o f F i c t i o n (New Y o r k : pp. 1 3 2 - 3 ,  135.  Teachers  College,  Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ,  1944),  See a l s o J . L . E v a n s "Two A s p e c t s o f L i t e r a r y  185 A p p r e c i a t i o n Among H i g h S c h o o l  Students,  Judgement o f P r o s e  Q u a l i t y and E m o t i o n a l Response t o L i t e r a t u r e , and S e l e c t e d Aspects o f T h e i r Reading I n t e r e s t s , " p. pp.  32, c i t i n g Heilman (1956);  Diss. Minnesota, 1968,  P u r v e s a n d Beach, p. 18; a n d B r i d g e ,  42, 63. 62 Loban, pp. 2 5 0 , 2 5 1 ; Purves a n d Beach, pp. 1 8 , 28;  Ring,  p . 2 3 ; a n d S q u i r e , The R e s p o n s e s o f A d o l e s c e n t s  Reading Four Short ^ 64  While  S t o r i e s . p. 5 6 .  Purves, "IEA L i t e r a t u r e , "  Chap. 1 ,  p. 9 ;  Ch. 3 , p . 5 .  b, e r ,1 1 1".E: x p l oNCTE, s i o n 1i9n6E7n) g, l p i s.h ,1 1"; The Shape o f EP.n g l75s i s h .J o h( nC h aC. m p Ga ei rg n Purves and  Beach, p. 1 6 3 ; a n d V i n e ,  pp. 3 4 - 5 -  6^ D  66  Barnes e t a l . , pp. 6 6 - 7 . Sherrill.  105-6; No.  See a l s o M e n c h i s e ; P u r v e s a n d Beach, pp.  a n d Woodyard. ^ N.S. B o z e , " E t h n i c L i t e r a t u r e . " C l e a r i n g H o u s e . 4 4 ,  9 (1970), 68  p. 5 2 7 .  Cf. H a n s s o n , p p . 2 7 3 - 4 . Biography and Poetry  Study:  E.g. L a r r y Andrews, " A u t h o r  I I , " Res T e a c h E n g l .  6 , No. 2  (1972),  p. 4 2 .  trinsic  i n f o r m a t i o n , Purves e t a l . , pp. 5 2 - 3 ! In a d d i t i o n t o a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f knowledge o f o t h e r t e x t s , o f l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y and other c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n , and o f c u l t u r a l information t o s p e c i f i c texts plays a part in a l l the curricula. The i n f o r m a t i o n surrounding t e x t s seems n o t t o b e meant t o be l e a r n e d m e r e l y f o r i t s own s a k e b u t f o r i t s u s e f u l n e s s i n t h e r e a d i n g a n d d i s c u s s i o n o f o t h e r t e x t s . The r e p o r t s f r o m C h i l e , E n g l a n d , F i n l a n d , I t a l y , I r a n , New Z e a l a n d , and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a l l e x p r e s s c o n c e r n a b o u t t h e  Notice a l s o t h e IEA f i n d i n g i n r e s p e c t  o f ex-  186 tendency f o r such i n f o r m a t i o n t o usurp t h e p l a c e of r e a d i n g o f t e x t s . and  Menchise. 69 7  See L.A. F a g g i a n i , "The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f A t t i t u d e t o  R e s p o n s e i n t h e R e a d i n g o f a Poem b y N i n t h G r a d e S t u d e n t s , " Diss.  New Y o r k 1971,  Comparison  p a s s i m ; M a r g a r e t F r a n c e s L o r i m e r , "A  o f Responses  Made t o S e l e c t e d P i e c e s o f L i t e r a t u r e  b y H i g h S c o r e r s ^ n d Low S c o r e r s o n t h e I n v e n t o r y o f B e l i e f s , " D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s . 2 0 , No. 4  (1959),  p . 1268  (Michigan);  A n n e S e l l e y M c K i l l o p , "The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n t h e R e a d e r ' s A t t i t u d e and C e r t a i n Types o f R e a d i n g Response," A b s t r a c t s . 11,  Dissertation  No. 3 ( 1 9 5 1 ) , p p . 5 9 0 - 1 ( C o l u m b i a ) ; M e c k e l ,  " R e s e a r c h on T e a c h i n g C o m p o s i t i o n and L i t e r a t u r e , " Purves and Beach, on t h e Impact  pp. 17-20,  e t passim; R u s s e l l ,  o f R e a d i n g , " p . 4-04;  p.  997;  "Some R e s e a r c h  and Charles Turner  "A S t u d y o f t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p s B e t w e e n A t t i t u d e Toward  Wethington, English  a n d S e v e r a l S e l e c t e d V a r i a b l e s , " D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s . \ i< l  31,  No. 4  (1970)  p . 1637A-8A ( 1 9 6 5 ) , p p .  :}  1637A-8A(Kentucky).  70 '  D a v i d K r e c h , R i c h a r d S. C r u t c h f i e l d a n d E g e r t o n L.  B a l l a c h e y , I n d i v i d u a l i n S o c i e t y (New Y o r k : P.  M c G r a w - H i l l , 1962),  139. 71 '  See a b o v e , p p . 1 0 - 1 1 ; a n d P u r v e s , "An E x a m i n a t i o n o f  the V a r i e t i e s  of Criticism,"  p . 94.  72 '  H. W a i n e r  a n d W. B e r g , "The D i m e n s i o n s  o f De  Maupassant,'  A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h J o u r n a l , 9 , No. 4 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 4 9 0 . 73 P u r v e s a n d B e a c h , p . I 6 3 .  187  74 A c c o r d i n g l y , i t p a r t l y answered the q u e s t i o n Purves and Beach (p. 14-7) t a g t o a n o t h e r statement on e t h n i c l i t e r a ture:  "One  wonders what form the r e s e a r c h might t a k e . "  See F a g g i a n i , pp. 10-11, and Cooper and P u r v e s , p. Of course such an approach t o c u l t u r a l q u e s t i o n s limitations.  has  22.  i t s own  N o t i c e t h e IEA's q u a l i f i e d p o s i t i o n : The a t t i t u d e s and approaches are o f t e n t h o s e which shape the c u l t u r a l l i f e of a n a t i o n o r group, and an attempt t o measure those approaches g i v e s one some i d e a of t h a t c u l t u r a l l i f e . The p a t t e r n s of response d i s p l a y a tendency o f how p e o p l e t h i n k of what t h e y r e a d ; t h e y do not i n f o r m one of the l a r g e r "Weltanschauungen".  Purves et a l . , pp. 15,  314.  Cf. a l s o S h e i l a E g o f f , pp.  3-4:  A study of Canadian c h i l d r e n ' s books, t h e r e f o r e , can throw some l i g h t on the n a t i o n i t s e l f . I have i n no way made an e x p l i c i t s t u d y i n t h i s a r e a , but the books whose l i t e r a r y q u a l i t i e s are here d i s c u s s e d r e v e a l more t h a n content and s t y l e . They show what Canada and Canadians a r e l i k e , what v a l u e s we r e s p e c t , how we l o o k a t o u r s e l v e s t o d a y and a t our p a s t . J u s t as A l i c e i n Wonderland t e l l s us much about V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d , so c h i l d r e n ' s books i n Canada r e f l e c t many of the f o r c e s i n our own s o c i e t y ; i t i s a r e f l e c t i o n i n m i n i a t u r e , of course, but a c c u r a t e and i n d i c a t i v e .  76 N o t i c e M u l l e r , p. 80,  re l i t e r a r y h e r i t a g e :  t h i s h e r i t a g e " i s not a p a c k e t t o be t r a n s m i t t e d i n e r t , " but i s a l i v e and f l u i d . "Each generat i o n t a k e s from i t what i t needs and adds t o i t i n i t s turn."  77 N o t i c e P u r v e s , " E v a l u a t i o n of L e a r n i n g i n L i t e r a t u r e , " Handbook on F o r m a t i v e and Summative E v a l u a t i o n of Student ed. Benjamin S. Bloom, J , Thomas H a s t i n g s  (New York: M c G r a w - H i l l , 1971), p.  706:  Learning,  and George F. Madaus  188 " I n a s i g n i f i c a n t sense, works o f a r t e x i s t as p e r c e i v e d , o r as a c o n s t a n t l y growing and d e v e l o p i n g body o f p e r c e p t i o n s ( S q u i r e , 1968, p. 23)." I t i s awareness o f t h i s f a c t toward which many t e a c h e r s would l e a d t h e i r s t u d e n t s , and t h e y would do so by a s k i n g t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o c o n s i d e r t h e i r own responses and t o seek the causes o f those responses i n the work and i n themselves. See a l s o Mary H. Beaven, "Responses of A d o l e s c e n t s t o Feminine C h a r a c t e r i n L i t e r a t u r e , " Res Teach E n g l . 6, No. 1 (1972), p. 63. 78 '  B u r t o n , "Research  i n the Teaching  of E n g l i s h : The  T r o u b l e d Dream," Res Teach E n g l , 7, No. 2 (1973), pp.  179,  164-5: The r e l a t i v e absence o f e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s i n r e c o g n i z e d r e s e a r c h , d e s p i t e the prominence o f the genre g e n e r a l l y , u n d e r s c o r e s the f a c t t h a t good e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s a r e s i m p l y h a r d e r t o b u i l d t h a n o t h e r t y p e s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y u s u a l l y i n v o l v i n g the e f f e c t s o f t e a c h i n g methods, c u r r i c u l a r arrangements, o r m a t e r i a l s — h a v e been dogged w i t h e s p e c i a l problems which may o r may not be i n s u r m o u n t a b l e i n r e s e a r c h i n the t e a c h i n g of E n g l i s h . See a l s o P h i l l i p E. Jacob, Changing V a l u e s i n C o l l e g e (New Harper and Row, and B.B.  1957), pp. 130-7;- D. R. K r a t h w o h l , B.S.  M a s i a , Taxonomy of E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s (New  York:  Bloom, York:  D a v i d McKay, 1964), p. 16; G e o f f r e y P. Mason, "Some Problems i n E v a l u a t i n g E n g l i s h . " E v a l u a t i o n o f E n g l i s h 10, ed. Mason (Vancouver:  E d u c a t i o n a l Research  I n s t i t u t e o f BC, 1968), p. 103;  and Purves and Beach, p. 762. 79 Hansson, p. 263.  80 Hansson, p. 263. 0-1  See J o l l , 184; and n o t i c e P u r v e s , i n Cooper and P. 37:  Purves,  189 " S t a r t where t h e y a r e ! " ' You have r e a d a n d h e a r d t h a t i n j u n c t i o n many t i m e s . B u t . .. . where a r e t h e y ? 82  Carol Talbert,  " A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h Modes," Res  7, No. 2 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 1 9 7 - 8 .  Teach E n g l .  See a l s o R i c h a r d M.  Brandt, Studying Behavior i n Natural Settings Holt, "The  R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1972),  p. v ; a n d P e t e r S. Rpsenbaum,  New R e s e a r c h , " Res T e a c h E n g l . 7, Purves and Beach,  (New Y o r k :  No. 2 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 1 5 3 .  p. 163.  84 Cooper, (Newark, D e l . :  Measuring Growth i n A p p r e c i a t i o n o f L i t e r a t u r e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n ,  pp. 2 0 - 1 ; P u r v e s a n d B e a c h ,  1972),  p. 163; a n d E u g e n e J . Webb, D.T.  C a m p b e l l , R.D. S c h w a r t z , a n d L. S e c h r e s t , U n o b t r u s i v e M e a s u r e s Rand M c N a l l y a n d Co., 1 9 6 6 ) , p a s s i m .  (Chicago:  ®5 p. 174, d r a w i n g u p o n C a m p b e l l a n d F i s k e  (1959).  86 See  Cooper,  " R e s e a r c h Roundup:  Literature,  Humanities,  M e d i a , " . E J , 6 2 , No. 7 (1973), p . 9 4 ; C r a w f o r d , p p . 14, 2 7 - 8 ; Maurice Gibbons,  " E v a l u a t i o n o f Achievement  i n Literature,"  E v a l u a t i o n o f E n g l i s h 10". e d . M a s o n , p . 31; M i c h a e l F. G r a v e s a n d S t e p h e n M. K o z i o l J r . , "The 1973 C o n f e r e n c e E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n and Reading: F u t u r e R e s e a r c h e r s , " Res T e a c h D o r i s V. G u n d e r s o n , 1,  No. 1 ( 1 9 6 7 ) ,  Strategies  "Flaws  Notes on t h e T r a i n i n g o f E n g l . 8 , No. 2 (197^), P P . 272-3;  i n R e s e a r c h D e s i g n . " Res T e a c h  p. 8; M.G. H a c k e t t e t a l . ,  i n the Teaching of L i t e r a t u r e  S c h o o l Review.  76, No. 1 ( I 9 6 8 ) ,  "A P r e l i m i n a r y S t a t e m e n t  on R e s e a r c h i n  Engl.  " S t u d y o f Two  i n t h e Secondary S c h o o l , "  p. 82; D. K a t z a n d E. S t o t l a n d ,  o f a Theory  o f A t t i t u d e S t r u c t u r e and  Change," P s y c h o l o g y : A Study o f A S c i e n c e , V o l . 3 (New M c G r a w - H i l l , 1959), p. 173;  Rosenbaum, p. 157;  York:  and S m i t h and  Burns, "The E f f e c t s o f D i f f e r e n t I n s t r u c t i o n a l . P r a c t i c e s , " P.  345. 87  ' E r w i n R. S t e i n b e r g and G a r l i c A. Forehand,  "Problems  of T e s t i n g and Research D e s i g n i n C u r r i c u l u m Study i n E n g l i s h , " . Research D e s i g n and t h e Teaching o f E n g l i s h , ed. R u s s e l l e t a l . (Champaign, 111.:  NCTE., 1964), p. 4-. CHAPTER I I  P u r v e s , "The pp. 65-70, p. 68.  Nature of Achievement  i n Literature,"  See a l s o Purves and Beach, p.  178.  2 Cf.  P u r v e s , "What i s Achievement  i n Literature."  ED  013 064 (1967), p. 1. 3 Purves et a l . , p.  36.  ^ " E v a l u a t i o n o f L e a r n i n g i n L i t e r a t u r e , " p.  708.  5 Purves and Beach, pp. 180-1. ^ Norman Holland,"Poems  i n Persons:  R e p l y (The R e p l y ) . " . Res Teach E n g l . 8,  A Review and a  No. 1 (1974), p.  13,  c i t i n g David B l e i c h . 7 Meckel," "Research Designs Needed i n S t u d y i n g t h e T e a c h i n g of Language and L i t e r a t u r e i n t h e Secondary S c h o o l , " Research D e s i g n and t h e T e a c h i n g of E n g l i s h , ed. R u s s e l l , p.  8 9 y  Cooper, "Research Roundup,"- p.  1056.  See M a r i o n S c r i b n e r , "The Responses o f S t u d e n t s ,  Teachers and C r i t i c s t o S e l e c t e d P o e t r y , " D i s s .  (Berk.) i960, pp.  21-2.  California  89.  191 1  0  G i b b o n s , " E v a l u a t i o n o f Achievement i n L i t e r a t u r e , " , p.  1  1  The q u o t a t i o n i s f r o m Edmund J . F a r r e l l , ' D e c i d i n g t h e  (Urbana', Iir;.»  Future  p ; 67;  et a l , ,  and  a Reply  Century  pp.  35-6;  No. (New  2  706,  "Poems i n P e r s o n s t  T e a c h E n g l . 8, No.  72;  English L y r i c Poetry,"  Rosenblatt, (1964), pp.  J. Wilson,  School Diss. A Review  r e p o r t i n g t h e Dartmouth Seminar;  A Review and a Reply  1 (1974),  (The R e v i e w ) , "  10-11; P u r v e s a n d B e a c h ,  pp.  R o s e n b l a t t " , "The A c i d T e s t  York:  See a l s o B a r n e s  ( T h e R e p l y ) " , " p . 14-; Purves,' " E v a l u a t i o n o f L e a r n i n g  Res  p.  156.  PP'» 10-12; H o l l a n d , "Poems i n P e r s o n s ;  i n L i t e r a t u r e , " , p p . 703, Purves,  p.  H. L. H o f f m a n , "The R e s p o n s e s o f H i g h  Seniors t o Nineteenth N e b r a s k a 1971»  1971).  NCTE,  f o rLiterature  Teaching,"  "The Poem a s E v e n t , " C o l l e g e E n g l i s h ,  26,  123-8; R o s e n b l a t t , L i t e r a t u r e A s E x p l o r a t i o n  Appleton-Century-Crofts,  1938), p a s s i m ; a n d Raymond  " T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s and L i t e r a t u r e , " D i s s e r t a t i o n  A b s t r a c t s . 34,  No. 12 ( 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 7703A  (Nebraska).  12  P u r v e s e t a l . , p. 36.  See a l s o P u r v e s ,  C r i t i c i s m a n d E d u c a t i o n a l M e a s u r e m e n t , " p.  "Literary  76.  N o r v e l l , What B o y s a n d G i r l s L i k e t o Read ( M o r r i s t o n , NJ:  S i l v e r B u r d e t t , 1958), p. 3.  14 Purves, ment T e s t , "  "Designing  t h e B o a r d ' s New L i t e r a t u r e  ED 022748; ( I 9 6 8 ) ,  Achieve-  p. 2.  1^ Eleanor  L, N o r r i s a n d J o h n E. Bowes, e d s . , N a t i o n a l  Assessment o f E d u c a t i o n a l Progress Assessment o f E d u c a t i o n a l Progress, b e l o w , n.  7.'  65.  (Ann Arbor:  National  1970), p p . 2,  11.  See a l s o  192 -i  /r B u r t o n , "The  IEA S t u d y :  Reviews  (The  First  16.  R e v i e w ) , " p.  ~^~7 P u r v e s , "The Notes  Two  Nature of Achievement  i n Literature:  Some  on E v a l u a t i o n a n d A c c o u n t a b i l i t y , " A G u i d e t o E v a l u a t i o n ,  e d . C o o p e r a n d P u r v e s , p.  66;  Purves et a l . ,  pp.  4-0-4;  and  792.  S e e f e l d t , p.  18 Forehand, ture,"  "Problems  C l e a r i n g H o u s e , 40, See F o r e h a n d , p.  1 9  o f M e a s u r i n g Response t o L i t e r a -  No.  6 (1966),  p.  370.  369.  20 F o r e h a n d , p. 3 6 9 S e e a l s o S q u i r e , "What Does R e s e a r c h i n R e a d i n g R e v e a l A b o u t A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d s R e a d i n g ? " p.  528.  21 22  Cooper,  "Measuring A p p r e c i a t i o n of L i t e r a t u r e , "  F o r e h a n d , p. 369. Literature:  p.  18.  See a l s o A n d r e w s , " R e s p o n s e t o  I n Tennis the Service i s C r u c i a l , "  E J , 63,  No.  2  (1974), p. 46. 2 "3 N o t i c e Cooper, M e a s u r i n g Growth i n A p p r e c i a t i o n o f L i t e r a t u r e . pp. 6-7 a n d p. 17: A measure t h a t would s a t i s f y a l l t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f v a l i d i t y c a n p r o b a b l y n e v e r be c o n s t r u c t e d . The t a s k o f t h e t e s t - m a k e r i s t o p u t t o g e t h e r t h e m o s t c o n v i n c i n g l y v a l i d t e s t he c a n manage. We c a n do much b e t t e r t h a n we h a v e . a n d P u r v e s , "The N a t u r e o f A c h i e v e m e n t i n L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 69: J  The i m p o r t a n t g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n i n l i t e r a t u r e a r e t h o s e a b o u t w h i c h t h e r e i s no c e r t a i n t y : t h e engagement o f a s t u d e n t , h i s t a s t e , h i s judgment, h i s p r i v a t e r e s p o n s e , h i s c a p a c i t y f o r r e s p o n s e , and h i s a t t i t u d e s towards l i t e r a t u r e and t h e l i t e r a r y e x p e r i e n c e . 24 Stability  of i n i t i a l  response over time cannot  m e a s u r e d u s i n g t h e same s t u d e n t s .  be  A l s o the f i r s t experimental  193 s e s s i o n i n the present  study would have destroyed  the  conditions  necessary f o r r e p l i c a t i o n .  2^ ^ Squire,  "Preface,"  Purves with Rippere, p. v.  See  also  Andrews, "Response to L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 46;  Beach, "The L i t e r a r y  Response Process,"  264-8; Purves,  pp.  78-9;  Hansson, pp.  " L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m , T e s t i n g and the E n g l i s h Teacher," E n g l i s h . 28, Learning  No.  4 ( I 9 6 7 ) , p. 313;  i n L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 703;  Purves, " E v a l u a t i o n and Purves and  College of 66.  Beach, p.  26 On spoken c f . w r i t t e n responses see Joseph J . F o l e y , "A  Comparison of O r a l and W r i t t e n Responses i n a L i t e r a t u r e  Examination," D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s . 1977A-8A 2  7  32,  2 (1971),  No.  (Boston C o l l e g e ) . See  10-11, 15-16.  above, pp.  For the e f f e c t s of  t e a c h i n g , g e n e r a l l y , see Purves arid Beach, pp.  194-5;  pp.  J.R.  Wilson, p.  4l;  S c o t t Lee  148,  Shablak, "The  150-2, 162, E f f e c t s of  D i f f e r e n t Types of Guide M a t e r i a l s and Manner of P r e s e n t a t i o n Ninth Graders* C u r i o s i t y Toward and Stories," Dissertation Abstracts. (Syracuse);  and  Squire, "English  Response to S e l e c t e d  34,  on  Short  10 (1974), p. 6524A L i t e r a t u r e , " pp. 466-7. No.  28 On the l a s t p o i n t see Hansson, pp. " E v a l u a t i o n of L e a r n i n g  263-4;  i n L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 709;  C r i t i c i s m and E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement," p. 75; Nature of Achievement i n L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 68; of E d u c a t i o n a l Progress, L i t e r a t u r e , p. 2  9  Purves,  Purves, " L i t e r a r y Purves,  "The  N a t i o n a l Assessment  Responding to L i t e r a t u r e ;  Theme 2,  xiii.  Cf. Purves and Beach, pp.  16-17;  and  Eugene R.  Smith  194 Ralph T y l e r , and E v a l u a t i o n S t a f f , A p p r a i s i n g and Recording Student Progress (New  York:  Harper,  1942),  pp.  278-9.  30 See* Cooper,  J  pp. 17,  19;  "Measuring A p p r e c i a t i o n of L i t e r a t u r e , "  Don G u t t e r i d g e , " A f f e c t i v e F a l l a c y and the Student's  Response to Poetry," E J , K. White,  61,  "Value A n a l y s i s :  No.  2 (1972),  p.  215;  and  Ralph  A Q u a n t i t a t i v e Method f o r D e s c r i -  b i n g Q u a l i t a t i v e Data," J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Psychology. 19  (Feb.  1944), p. 351: There can be l i t t l e q u e s t i o n as t o the emotional and p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of f r e e v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n . The f r e e r i t i s — i . e . , the l e s s i t i s determined by what the speaker t h i n k s the l i s t e n e r wants t o h e a r — t h e more v a l i d i t i s l i k e l y to be as an index of the speaker's own genuine emotional needs. See Hansson, pp.  264-5;  and H o l l a n d , "Poems i n Persons:  A Review and a Reply (The R e p l y ) , " p.  14.  32 The b e t t e r known schemes of R i c h a r d s , Smith,  J  et a l . , Taba, S q u i r e , and Purves (see n. 51  Tyler  below) p r o v i d e o n l y  a t i n y sampling of the a v a i l a b l e schemes. 33 Purves, "IEA L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 3^ T. W.  8.  Sussams, P o e t r y and the Teacher (London:  Nelson and Sons,  1949),  pp.  Thomas  46-7.  35 Smith, T y l e r et a l . , pp. 308-9. 3  6  Loban, p.  254.  37 See B. C. L u c h s i n g e r , "Responses of Tenth-Grade  Readers  to P a i r e d Complex and Less Complex Short S t o r i e s , " D i s s . Iowa 1969, p.  12.  p. 22,  c i t i n g I r i o n and Thorndike; and Purves and Beach,  195 3  See E a r l y , "The IEA L i t e r a t u r e Study:  8  Second Review)," Res Teach E n g l . F a g g i a n i , pp. PP.  10-11;  8,  No.  1 (1974),  Smith, T y l e r et a l , , p.  3695  p.  25;  and V i n e ,  3^-5. J 7  See Purves, "Poems i n Persons:  ^° E.g. Ring, p. 160; of C h i l d r e n ' s  A Review and a Reply  11.  (The Review)," p.  Responses  and Glenn Harvey S k e l t o n ,  3642 ^  "A Study  t o S e l e c t e d Poems i n the F o u r t h , F i f t h ,  and S i x t h Grades," D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s . p.  Two Reviews (The  24, No.  9 (1964),  (California [Berk.]). E.g., Hansson,  p.  283;  Lemen, pp.  166-7;  and S q u i r e ,  "What Does Research i n Reading Reveal About A t t i t u d e s Towards Reading?" p. 528,  c i t i n g Forman.  response s t u d i e s u s i n g  Notice  a l s o the many f r e e  content a n a l y s i s schemes l i k e t h a t by  Purves ( n , 62 below). 42 See Purves, "An Examination o f the V a r i e t i e s o f C r i t i c i s m , " pp. 94-5;  and " L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m and E d u c a t i o n a l  Measurement," p. 75^3 E.g., Desmond Lawrence Cook, "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Three Aspects o f Free Response  and Choice Type Tests a t the  College Level," D i s s e r t a t i o n Abstracts,  1351  (Iowa); Hansson,  N a t i o n a l Assessment  pp.  263-4, 271;  of Educational  15,  No. 8 (1955)t P»  Lemen, p.  8,  citing  Taba;  P r o g r e s s , pp. x i i i - x i v ;  Purves, " I n d o c t r i n a t i o n i n L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 66; Purves et a l . , pp. 9-10,  40; S i s t e r Mary J u s t i n e Sabourin, "An A n a l y s i s o f the  Semantic Dimensions  of the A e s t h e t i c Response  of C o l l e g e Students  196 to  School A r c h i t e c t u r e , " D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 25,  (1965),  p.  7088  Rogers,  "How  12  No.  (Michigan); and Ruth Strang and C h a r l o t t e  Do Students Read a Short S t o r y ? " E J, 54,  No.  9  (1965), p. 821. Rodney J . Barth, "Teaching A d o l e s c e n t L i t e r a t u r e , " E J ,  63,  No.  2 (1974),  p. 1 0 3 , . c i t i n g John H u r l e y and J e r r y  ^5 N o t i c e Sussams, p.  Sullivan.  24:  such i s the c o n s t i t u t i o n of c h i l d r e n t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o persuade them t o remain i n a s t a t e of suspended judgment; t h e i r f i n a l verdict i s often indistinguishable from t h e i r f i r s t r e a c t i o n . 46 See Bernard B e r e l s o n , Content A n a l y s i s i n Communication Research  (Glencoe,  111.:  The Free P r e s s ,  1952),  pp.  13,  14-18;  Lemen, pp. 70-1; Loban, pp. 200-1; and Ralph White, pp. 351-347 ' Cooper, "Measuring A p p r e c i a t i o n of L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 19. Notice a l s o B e r e l s o n , p. 114: As a matter of f a c t , a broad d e f i n i t i o n of "content a n a l y s i s " would of course i n clude a l a r g e p a r t of the work i n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m and i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y g e n e r a l l y , as w e l l as a s i z a b l e amount of w r i t i n g s i n p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y , r h e t o r i c , and indeed any f i e l d i n which the close r e a d i n g of t e x t s i s f o l l o w e d by summary and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of what appears t h e r e i n . Such a d e f i n i t i o n , however, i s f a r too broad f o r our purposes. 48  B e r e l s o n , p.  • 116.  ^9 See B e r e l s o n , p.  125.  -5° D o r i s Muehl, ed., A Manual f o r Coders U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, I.A.  (Ann Arbor:  1961).  R i c h a r d s , P r a c t i c a l C r i t i c i s m (New  York:  Harcourt  197 Brace, 1939); Smith, Tyler,' et a l . j H i l d a Taba, With P e r s p e c t i v e on Human R e l a t i o n s (Washington, D. C.: American C o u n c i l on Education,  1955);  Adolescent  P u p i l s t o S i t u a t i o n s i n a Novel,"  1946;  Meckel, "An E x p l o r a t o r y Study of Responses o f D i s s . Chicago  Loban; S q u i r e , "The Responses o f Adolescents  t u r e " ; Purves with ^  Holland,  to L i t e r a -  Rippere. "Poems i n Persons;  A Review and a Reply (The  Reply)," p. 14. Taba, p. v i i . Purves and Beach, pp.  J  32-3.  Notice Berelson, p. 115>re: the s e l e c t i o n o f quotations and i l l u s t r a t i o n s from the content t o be used i n e n l i v e n i n g and humanizing the r e p o r t of f r e q u e n c i e s by v a r i ous c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s i s sometimes c a l l e d "adding the q u a l i t a t i v e dimension• t o a q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s . " A l l i t adds, o f course, are e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n s o f the c a t e g o r i e s . See  B e r e l s o n , pp. 16, 18, 149; Howard L i v i n g s t o n , "The  E f f e c t s o f General  Semantics on Responses t o a Poem," Res  Teach E n g l . 3, No. 1 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , E d u c a t i o n a l Progress,  p. 28; and N a t i o n a l Assessment o f  p. x v i .  -5? Cf. Lemen, p. 7 5 . ^  8  B e r e l s o n , pp. 1 3 0 ; 147.  59 See, e.g., B e r e l s o n , p. 1 1 5 ;  Luchsinger,  p. 57; Purves,  " E v a l u a t i o n o f L e a r n i n g i n L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 714; S c r i b n e r , p. 147; and above, pp. 34-6. 60 See,  e.g., B e r e l s o n , p. 148; and S c r i b n e r , p. 148,  c i t i n g Good, B a r r and Scates.  1 9 8  6 1  PP.  See,  e.g.,  B e r e l s o n , p. 148;  and Purves with  Rippere,  1 - 5 .  6 2  For an example of r e s e a r c h e r enthusiasm, see Cooper,  Measuring Growth i n A p p r e c i a t i o n of L i t e r a t u r e , p. 2 0 . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s to May  1975  t i o n s employing the Purves-Rippere  l i s t s a t l e a s t 14- d i s s e r t a scheme.  ^3 N a t i o n a l Assessment of E d u c a t i o n a l Progress, to L i t e r a t u r e :  Theme 2 ,  L i t e r a t u r e , pp.  r e p o r t e d problems with the Purves-Rippere pp.  xv-xvi.  Responding  For  other  scheme see F a g g i a n i ,  E l i z a b e t h Cole M o r r i s , " C r i t i q u e of a Short  298-9;  Story:  An A p p l i c a t i o n of Purves's Elements of W r i t i n g About a L i t e r a r y Work," D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s . 3 4 , (Columbia);  James David Weiss, "The  School Students  No.  11  (1974),  7090A-1A  pp.  R e l a t i v e E f f e c t s Upon High  of I n d u c t i v e and Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n i n the  Close Reading of Poetry," D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 3 0 , No. (I969),  p. 2 3 0 A (New  Purves and Bea'ch, pp.  York). 12,  See a l s o below, pp. 58-9i  1  and  14-15.  64 As  one  example, Purves h i m s e l f found S q u i r e ' s scheme  wanting, Purves w i t h Rippere, p. 3 « ^ D.  p. 148.  Ibe Nwoga, "The  Dalhousie et a l . , p.  In f a c t i t may  always be "premature. *1  L i m i t a t i o n s of U n i v e r s a l C r i t i c a l  Review. 5 3 ,  No.  4 (1973-4),  pp.  608-630,  See  Criteria,"  and  Purves  3 6 .  6 6  Notice Purves, " A s s i g n i n g and E v a l u a t i n g Essays," Guide t o E v a l u a t i o n , ed. Cooper and Purves, p. 5 8 :  A  A s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n i s the extent t o which the judgment of the responses i s a c t u a l l y a judgment  199 of w r i t i n g . To a c e r t a i n extent i t i s , and must n e c e s s a r i l y be so i n t h i s h i g h l y v e r b a l s o c i e t y we have. However, you must a l s o c o n s i d e r the responses a p a r t from t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n , t o be concerned with whether a connection has been ^formulated and whether a connection has been made between the work and the response. T h i s i s the i n t e l l e c t u a l aspect of the task. I t may w e l l be t h a t s u p e r i o r responses w i l l appear i n unorthodox f o r m s - - f o r example, as i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a poem through a h i g h l y developed p i c t u r e or an epigram.  67 Cf. Gibbons, pp. 2 8 - 9 ; Hoffman, p. 309; Krathwohl et a l . , passim; N a t i o n a l Assessment o f E d u c a t i o n a l Responding t o L i t e r a t u r e ;  Progress,  Theme 2, L i t e r a t u r e , p. x i v ; Purves,  "An Examination o f the V a r i e t i e s o f C r i t i c i s m , " pp. 9 8 - 9 ; Purves and Beach, p. v i i i ;  Purves et a l . , L i t e r a t u r e E d u c a t i o n  i n Ten C o u n t r i e s , p. 36; and Tomkins, " T e s t i n g i n E n g l i s h Literature:  Toward a B e t t e r R a t i o n a l e , " pp. 44-5, et passim.  68 Cf. Cooper and Purves, p. 12. ^9 F o r an example of a scheme which does, see N a t i o n a l Assessment o f E d u c a t i o n a l Progress, pp.  x v - x v i , 1 - 3 , 7.  Responding t o L i t e r a t u r e ,  A l s o , see above, p. 41; and Hansson,  quoted i n Chap. 1, n. 37• 7 0  p. 146.  ^  V a l i d a t i o n by d e f i n i t i o n I take t o be subsumed  by "agreement."  200  7  See Purves, "An Examination o f the V a r i e t i e s o f  2  C r i t i c i s m , " pp. 9 5 , 9 7 . 7  pp. 2, 41.  3  ^  "The Responses  7 5  P. 3 5 7 .  7  p. 248.  6  o f A d o l e s c e n t s t o L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 3 5 4 .  77 p. 2 8 2 . 7  pp. 113,  8  130-8,  145-7.  79 "The A c i d Test f o r L i t e r a t u r e 8 0 P 8  . w.  p . 27V.  1  82 8  Teaching," p. 6 7 .  B e r e l s o n , p. 1 6 9 . F o r an e x p l a n a t i o n o f the s t a t i s t i c a l  3  n o t a t i o n , see  below, pp. 10-1'-2. 84 Lemen, p. 75; Loban, p. 2 0 5 ; and S q u i r e , "The Responses of A d o l e s c e n t s t o L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 1 0 1 . Bruce H. Choppin and Purves, "A Comparison o f OpenEnded and M u l t i p l e - C h o i c e Items D e a l i n g With L i t e r a r y  Under-  s t a n d i n g , " Res Teach E n g l . 3 , No. 1 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 2 3 . CHAPTER I I I Cf. 111.:  James Hoetker, Students as Audiences  (Champaign,  NCTE, 1 9 7 1 ) , P. 9 0 . p  C i t e d by John Martyn, " C o n t i n u i n g Concerns," N e w s l e t t e r (CCTE), 3  7, No. 4 ( 1 9 7 4 ) . •.-;..;-:/ Cf. Lemen, p. 1 6 6 ; S q u i r e , " E n g l i s h  L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 4 6 7 ;  201 523*  and S q u i r e , "What Does Research i n Reading Reveal?" p. * Purves, " I n d o c t r i n a t i o n i n L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 6  313-4;  et a l . , pp. Reveal?" pp.  Purves  and S q u i r e , "What Does Research i n Reading  523-5.  5 See Crawford, pp. 38-9. Crawford's  7i  ^Stewart, p. 12,  accepts  figures.  6 Reports of student d i s l i k e of c l a s s - t a u g h t p o e t r y are legion.  See, e.g., N o r v e l l , The Reading I n t e r e s t s of Young  People, pp. 52-3, 7  66; and Purves and Beach, pp. 78-9,  82,  88.  Cooper, Measuring Growth i n A p p r e c i a t i o n of L i t e r a t u r e .  p. 20; E a r l y , " L i t e r a t u r e and the Development of Reading S k i l l s , " p. 8; and Purves and Beach, p. 15, r e p o r t i n g S q u i r e , p R i c h a r d Braddock, S e l e c t i n g Novels f o r Group Reading (New York:  Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ,  4-5,  55;  47,  52,  Loban, p. 250;  of Young People, pp. 202;  1  0  4-3,  Purves and Beach, pp. 195-6,  Sussams,' p. 46; and J.R. Wilson, p. n.  PP«  N o r v e l l , The Reading I n t e r e s t s  52, 64-6, 85;  9 See above, p. 17,  1955),  20.  75.  Notice R i c h a r d J . Smith, Kenneth M. Jensen, and Mary  Sue D i l l i n g o f s k i ,  "The E f f e c t s of I n t e g r a t i n g Reading arid  W r i t i n g on Four V a r i a b l e s , " Res Teach E n g l .  5,  No.  2 (1971),  189: In g e n e r a l , h i g h scores f o r a t t i t u d e s and comprehension t h a t were a c h i e v e d by the students a t a l l three a b i l i t y l e v e l s i s p r o b a b l y the r e s u l t of g i v i n g r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l a t or below the s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y l e v e l s . Unfortunately, students are o f t e n a s s i g n e d m a t e r i a l t h a t i s too d i f f i c u l t f o r the l e v e l of t h e i r s k i l l s development, and t h e i r p o s t - r e a d i n g responses are d i s a p p o i n t i n g .  p.  202 See a l s o :  38;  Purves, "IEA L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 21; Purves et a l . , p.  5> 202-3;  Purves and Beach, pp.  and V i n e , p.  162.  There are no  r e a d a b i l i t y formulas t h a t cope adequately w i t h poetry.. See F a g g i a n i , p. 300,  also,  and Purves and Beach, p. 88.  1  1  See Smith, T y l e r et a l . , pp.  1  2  B r i d g e , p.  268-9;  and J.R. Wilson,  p. 40. 73.  John Edward E r i c k s o n , " M o d i f y i n g Students' T a s t e s i n Poetry," D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s .  31,  No. 4  (1970),  (Wayne); Minnie F l o r e n c e M e c k l i n , "Responses  p. 1684A  by 1 2 t h Grade  Students t o S e l e c t e d Poems," D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s . 33,  (1973),  No.  10  pp. 5617A-8A ( S y r a c u s e ) ; Benny Frank Nelms, " C h a r a c t e r -  istics  of P o e t r y A s s o c i a t e d w i t h P r e f e r e n c e s of a P a n e l of  Tenth Grade Students," D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s . 28, No. 8 ( 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 3153A (Iowa); and Purves and Beach, p. 81. 14 For the power of content r e l a t i v e to form see "Research Roundup," p. 1056; Young People, pp.  52-3»  202; and Sussams, p.  Cooper,  N o r v e l l , The Reading I n t e r e s t s of  64; Purves and Beach, pp. 68,  79»  47.  Andrews, "Author Biography and P o e t r y Study,",p. 1  108,  42.  6 See e.g. Purves and Beach, pp. 82, 202; and S c h o o l and  C o l l e g e Conference on E n g l i s h , p. 1  7  E.g. H.A.  53-  C a r r o l l , "A S t a n d a r d i z e d Test o f Prose  A p p r e c i a t i o n f o r S e n i o r High School P u p i l s , " . J o u r n a l of Educat i o n a l PsychologyV  23,  No.  6 (1932);  E x p l o r a t o r y Study of Responses  Evans, p.  15;  Meckel,  of A d o l e s c e n t P u p i l s , " p.  "An 36;  203 Rankin, pp. 2 0 ,  129;  Robert K. Speer, Measurement of A p p r e c i -  a t i o n i n P o e t r y . Prose and A r t , and S t u d i e s i n A p p r e c i a t i o n (New York: E.D.  Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 2 9 ) ;  W i l l i a m s , L. Winter and I.M.  and  Woods, "Tests of L i t e r a r y  A p p r e c i a t i o n , " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. 8,  Pt. 3 ( 1 9 3 8 ) , 1  8  pp.  pp. 2 6 6 - 7 ,  283.  8-12.  Purves, et a l . , p. 5 1 ;  and Stewart, pp.  8-11.  O A  N o r v e l l , The Reading I n t e r e s t s of Young People, p. 4-5; Purves and Beach, p. 1 9 8 ; p  and Sussams, p. 40.  -i  Purves', " I n d o c t r i n a t i o n i n L i t e r a t u r e , " pp. 6 7 ,  70;  and  Purves, " I n d o c t r i n a t i o n i n L i t e r a t u r e , " pp. 6 9 r 7 0 ;  and  Purves et a l . , pp. 2 6 ,  53.  Purves and Beach, pp. 1 0 , J  Cf. n. 4 above.  93. Purves and Beach, p.  177.  24 Rankin, p. 1 3 4 .  Cf. Cooper, Measuring Growth i n  A p p r e c i a t i o n of L i t e r a t u r e , pp. See above, p. 72;  15-16.  and Smith, T y l e r et a l . , pp.  271,  290. P /•  "Author and P o e t r y Study," p. and PurvesAndrews, and Beach, p. 2Biography 0. 27 ' E.g. Hoffman, p. 1 9 ; R i c h a r d s , p. 3 ; 28 Purves and Beach, pp. 147-8, 180. 27  and Ring, p.  44; 93.  29 7  Cooper, Measuring Growth i n A p p r e c i a t i o n of L i t e r a t u r e ,  p. 20; E a r l y , "The  IEA L i t e r a t u r e Study," p. 24; Lemen, pp. 157-8;  and Purves and Beach, pp. 149,  197.  204 3® Josephine A. P i e k a r z , " I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n I n t e r p r e t i v e Responses i n Reading," D i s s . Chicago 1 9 5 4 , p. 6 2 . 31 Upon w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d precedent, e.g.: H.J. Eysenck,  y  "Some F a c t o r s  i n the A p p r e c i a t i o n of Poetry  to Temperamental Q u a l i t i e s , " Character  and T h e i r R e l a t i o n  and P e r s o n a l i t y [now  J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y ] . 9 (Sept. 1940-June 1 9 4 1 ) ,  p. 1 6 5 ;  Lemen, p. 3 ; E.H. P e e l , "The A n a l y s i s of P r e f e r e n c e s , "  Research  Design a.nd the Teaching o f E n g l i s h , ed. R u s s e l l , p. 1 1 2 ; T y l e r e t a l . , p. 280; Squire,  " E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 4 6 9 ; and  "What Does Research i n Reading Reveal?" p. 5 2 8 .  Squire, 3 2  "The  Smith,  E.g.  Berelson,  p. 1 6 8 ; F a g g i a n i , pp. 2 9 8 - 9 ;  Responses'of Adolescents  and S q u i r e ,  t o L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 2 0 0 .  33 See above, p. 1 7 . 3^ R.E. Watters, " O r i g i n a l R e l a t i o n s :  A Genographic  Approach t o the L i t e r a t u r e s o f Canada and A u s t r a l i a , " Canadian L i t e r a t u r e . No. 7 (Winter 1 9 6 1 ) \ pp. 6 - 1 7 . 35 Northrop Frye, The Bush Garden (Toronto: 1971).  Anansi,  P. 2 1 5 . 3^ Pacey, C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g i n Canada. 3 r d , ed, (Toronto:  Ryerson, 1 9 6 4 ) ,  p. 2 .  37 Douglas Jones, B u t t e r f l y on Rock (Toronto: of Toronto Press,  1970),  University  p. 3 1 .  3^ See W.H. New, " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " A r t i c u l a t i n g West (Toronto:  New Press, 1 9 7 2 ) ,  p. xxv.  39 -Talk by P r o f e s s o r J.P. Foundation ( c . 1971)»  pp. 1 » 5 .  Matthews,",TS, Canadian S t u d i e s  205 CHAPTER IV 1  Most i n v a l i d answers were those g i v i n g g e o g r a p h i c a l  types (e.g. marshland,  sea-coast) i n s t e a d of s p e c i f i c  loca-  t i o n s , or those s t a t i n g " n a t i o n " or " r e g i o n " i n d i r e c t to the q u e s t i o n cue. Appendix I I , H.)  response  (See "What Do You Know of These Poems?"  F o r s p e c u l a t i o n on the i n c o r r e c t hut  valid  answers o f f e r e d under Given Knowledge see below, pp. 112, 2 See a l s o above, p.  162.  103.  ^ C. Osgood, G. S u c i and P. Tannenbaum, The Measurement of Meaning (Urbana,  111.:  U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s ,  1957), P. 37. ^ As they seem a l s o t o have been i n many s t u d i e s . Barnes et a l . , p. 67; to L i t e r a t u r e , " p.  and S q u i r e , "The  See  Responses of A d o l e s c e n t s  45. CHAPTER V  1  pp.  See,  e.g.  Crawford,  p. 4-7;  Moisan p. 71;  and  Stewart,  26-7. 2 Andrews, "Author Biography and Poetry Study,"  r e v i e w i n g the work of Spingarn, R i c h a r d s , Wimsatt, and  pp.  Ciardi.  Notice a l s o p. 38: An overemphasis on author biography misleads the student because . . . he w i l l read i n t o poetry the raw f a c t s of a poet's l i f e , not r e a l i z i n g t h a t b i o g r a p h i c a l elements are o f t e n so transformed t h a t t h e i r p e r s o n a l meaning i s no l o n g e r p e r s o n a l , merely human. J  "The  Responses of A d o l e s c e n t s , " p.  45.  37~8,  206 4  See above, p.  19.  5 S i g n i f i c a n c e i s best understood  as an e s t i m a t i o n of  freedom from chance e f f e c t s , c o r r e l a t i o n as a power of prediction.  A r e l a t i o n s h i p which i s s i g n i f i c a n t  not produced  ( i . e . i s probably  by chance) does not n e c e s s a r i l y g i v e a h i g h power  of p r e d i c t i o n . Cf. Purves,  " I n d o c t r i n a t i o n i n L i t e r a t u r e , " p.  69s  We found t h a t i n g e n e r a l , the p r e f e r e n c e s of the students and t e a c h e r s are more s i m i l a r than d i f f e r e n t . ry  .  ' See above, p. 112; Q There may  and  .  Chap. 4, n.  .  1.  be a p a r a l l e l between the e f f e c t s of l a b e l l i n g  i n t h i s study and Andrews' f i n d i n g t h a t b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about a poet i n c r e a s e d student a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h a t poet's works.  See Andrews, "Author Biography and P o e t r y Study," p. 9  "The  IEA L i t e r a t u r e Study," p.  See Beach, "The  24.  L i t e r a r y Response Process."  44.  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY I  BIBLIOGRAPHIC SURVEYS  Blount, Nathan S. 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" The B u l l e t i n ( O n t a r i o Secondary S c h o o l s ) , 46, No. 1  T T 9 6 6 ) , pp. 93-4.  224 Shack,  Sybil.  "We're A l l . Canadians Here."  No. 3 ( 1 9 6 7 ) ,  p. 8 .  Monday Morning.  Snow, K.M. "Canadian L i t e r a t u r e in. the. S c h o o l s . " Teacher, 1 0 , No. 1 ( I 9 6 9 ) , p. 3 9 . Stephen, A.M. "Canadian L i t e r a t u r e i n S c h o o l s . " Query (Jan.-Feb. 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 21-24.  1,  BC E n g l i s h 1926; r p t .  Stubbs, E l i z a b e t h C. "A Proposed Course i n Canadian L i t e r a t u r e f o r Community C o l l e g e Students." TS, UBC, 1 9 6 7 . "Teaching About  Canadian L i f e and C u l t u r e ; Symposium."  Education.  3 5 , No. 6 ( 1 9 7 1 ) ,  Social  pp. 5 5 8 - 6 2 9 .  Tomkins, George. " N a t i o n a l Consciousness, the C u r r i c u l u m and Canadian S t u d i e s . " The J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Thought. 7, No. 1 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 5-2-T. Wilson, L. ' "Home i s Where You Hang Your Childhood; a Case f o r Canadian L i t e r a t u r e . " Arbos. 7, No. 1 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , pp. 2 0 - 2 . V. SOURCES OF POEMS (Selected:  Volumes from which poems were a c t u a l l y taken f o r the s e l e c t i o n o f p a i r s . * i n d i c a t e s t h e number o f poems taken f o r the f i n a l pairs.)  Canada General Dover, K. P h y l l i s , ed. Poetry: An Anthology f o r High Schools. Toronto: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1 9 6 4 . * Dudek, L o u i s , ed.. P o e t r y . o f Our Time: An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o T w e n t i e t h Century Poetry I n c l u d i n g Modern Canadian Poetry. Toronto: Macmillan, 1 9 6 6 . * Forman, Joan, ed. Looking Through a Diamond. H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, 1971  Toronto:  G i l l a n d e r s - , — C a r o l , ed. . Theme and Image: An Anthology o f Poetry . Toronto: Copp Clark, 1967'.*  225  Gustafson, Ralph, ed. The Penguin Book of Canadian Verse. 2nd. ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin, I 9 6 7 . * Hodgins, Jack, and W i l l i a m H. New, eds. V o i c e and V i s i o n . Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1972. Hogan, Homer, ed. L i s t e n ! : Songs and Poems o f Canada. Toronto: Methuen, 1972. Poetry of Relevance.  2 vols.  Toronto:  Methuen,  1970.  Mandel, E l i , ed. E i g h t More Canadian Poets. H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, 1972.* ed. F i v e Modern Canadian Poets. R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1970.  Toronto:  Toronto:  Holt  M e t c a l f e , John, ed. The Speaking E a r t h : Canadian Poetry S e l e c t e d . Toronto: Van Nostrand and R i n e h o l t , 1973. P r o c u n i e r , Edwin R., ed. The P a t r i o t and H i s Land. A g i n c o u r t , Can.: Book S o c i e t y o f Canada, 1971. Purdy, A. W., ed. F i f t e e n Winds. H i l l Ryerson, 1970. British  Scarborough:  McGraw-  Columbia Bowering, George. George, Vancouver, Flower P r e s s , 1970. In the F l e s h .  Toronto:  Toronto:  Weed  M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart,  1974.  Touch: S e l e c t e d Poems I960-I97O. M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1971. Davey, Frank.  Bridge F o r c e .  D-Day and A f t e r .  Toronto:  Vancouver:  Four Myths f o r Sam P e r r y .  1970.  Weeds.  Toronto:  Toronto: Contact, 1965.  Tishbooks, 1962.  Vancouver:  Coach House P r e s s ,  Tishbooks, 1970.  Sward, Robert, et a l . , eds. Vancouver I s l a n d Poems: Anthology o f Contemporary P o e t r y . V i c t o r i a , BC: S o f t Press, I963.  Wah, F r e d . 1972.  Tree.  226  i  •  Vancouver:  Vancouver Community Press,  et a l . f Cotinneh P l a c e . "1 Books, 1 9 7 3 .  .  Castlegar:  Cotinneh  Watters, R.E., ed. B r i t i s h Columbia: A Centennial Anthology. Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1958.*** West Coast Review.  Vancouver,  BC*  Yates, J . M i c h a e l , ed. Contemporary Poetry o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: UBC, 1 9 7 0 . * * * New  Zealand Brown, J.G., ed. Verse f o r You: Book T h r e e — A t i o n o f Verse f o r S e n i o r Forms. London: 1956.***  CollecLongman,  Curnow, A l l e n , ed. The Penguin Book o f New Zealand Verse. 2 n d . ed. Auckland: Blackwood and Janet Paul, 1 9 6 6 . * * * * Hogan, Helen M., ed. Nowhere F a r From the Sea. Christchurch: Whitcombe and Tombs, 1 9 7 1 . * * * McKay, Frank, ed. New Zealand Poetry: An I n t r o d u c t i o n Through the D i s c u s s i o n o f S e l e c t e d Poems. Wellington: New Zealand U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 7 0 . * 0 ' S u l l i v a n , V i n c e n t , ed. New Zealand Poetry i n the Sixties: A B u l l e t i n f o r Schools. W e l l i n g t o n : Department o f E d u c a t i o n , 1973• Smart, P e t e r R., ed. E x p l o r i n g New Zealand W r i t i n g : Anthology f o r S e n i o r Students. W e l l i n g t o n : A.H. and A.W. Reed, 1 9 6 4 . *  An  APPENDICES  APPENDIX I  THE POETRY SAMPLE  229  A SOME POEM PAIRS S i x poem p a i r s are d i s p l a y e d as examples; each from the RC/NZ and BC/NZ poem sub-groups. list  A  three full  of the sample poems appears under I n t r o d u c t i o n t o  Teachers (Appendix I I , A ) . Samples are shown as they were p r e s e n t e d i n the Given Knowledge c o n d i t i o n and i n Order 1 (except t h a t they have been reduced from 14" s h e e t s . at the bottom of the 14" s h e e t s ) .  The g l o s s a r i e s appeared Changes t h a t were made f o r  the Denied Knowledge c o n d i t i o n are shown i n square b r a c k e t s .  230 [Pair  from:  3/4]  TO HOLD I N A POEM \A C a n a d i a n Poem)  I w o u l d t a k e words As c r i s p and as w h i t e As o u r snow; as o u r b i r d s . S w i f t and s u r e i n t h e i r f l i g h t ; As As As As  /DK:"our"="the^7  c l e a r a n d as c o l d o u r i c e ; as s t r o n g as a j a c k p i n e ; young a s a t r i l l i u m , a n d o l d Laurentia's long undulant l i n e ; £pK:"As t h e mountains^  Sweet-smelling and b r i g h t As new r a i n ; as h a r d And as smooth a n d as w h i t e As a b r o o k p e b b l e c o l d a n d u n m a r r e d : To h o l d i n a poem o f words Like water i n c o l o u r l e s s g l a s s The s p i r i t o f m o u n t a i n s l i k e b i r d s , Of f o r e s t s a s p o i n t e d as g r a s s . . .  Possibly Difficult  Words:  (Of c o u r s e the p o e t may i n t e n d t h e words :to c o n v e y much more t h a n t h e i r s i m p l e meanings o r even i n t e n d s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t f r o m them.;  austere-»-stern; s e v e r e l y undulant—wavy  simple,  231 [Pair  3A]  I from:  TO AN EXPATRIATE (Non-Canadian)  P i n e f o r the n e e d l e s brown and warn, t h i n k o f y o u r nameless n a t i v e h i l l s , the s e a g u l l s l a n d w a r d blown b y s t o r m , the r a b b i t t h a t the b l a c k dog k i l l s . Swing w i t h the k e l p the ocean s u c k s , c a l l t o the winds and h e a r them r o a r , t h e w e s t e r l y t h a t r i p s the f l a x , t h e madman a t the n o r t h e a s t d o o r . Dream o f the m o u n t a i n c r e e k t h a t s p i l l s among the s t o n e s and c o o l s y o u r f e e t , the b r e e z e t h a t sags on smoky h i l l s , the b u b b l e o f the noonday h e a t . . .  Possibly D i f f i c u l t  Word:  (Of c o u r s e the p o e t may i n t e n d t h e word t o convey much more t h a n i t s s i m p l e meaning o r even i n t e n d something d i f f e r e n t from i t . ) expatriate — kelp —  one l i v i n g away f r o m h i s n a t i v e  a seaweed  land  232 [Pair  9/10]  / Lagoons, H a n l a n ' s  Point (A C a n a d i a n  Poem)  Mornings b e f o r e t h e pun's l i o u i d spilled gradually, flooding the island's cool c e l l a r , t h e r e v a s t h e boat and t h e s t i l l l a g o o n s , w i t h t h e sound o f my oars the only i n t r u s i o n over c r i e s of b i r d s i n t h e marshy s h a l l o w s or t h e l o u d t h r a s h i n g of t h e s t a r t l e d crane r u s h i n g the a i r . And i n one s t r a n g e dark, tree-hung entrance, I f o l l o w e d t h e sound of my h e a r t a l l t h e way to the reed-blocked ending, w i t h t h e pads o f t h e l i l y t h i c k as g r e e n - s h i n i n g f i l m covering the water. And i n a n o t h e r where t h e s u n came t o probe t h e d e p t h s through a shaft of branches, I saw t h e s k e l e t o n s of hro-m s h i p s r o t t i n g f a r below i n t h e i r b u r i a l - g r o u n d , and wondered what s t r a n p e f i r h w i t h v-hat s t r a n g e c n l o u r s swam t h r o u g h t h e s e p a l a c e s under t h e w a t e r . . . A s n a i l boy w i t h a f l a t - b o t t o m e d punt and an o l d p a i r o f oars moving w i t h wonder t h r o u g h t h e antechamber of a waking w o r l d .  Possible D i f f i c u l t  'Vords:  (Of c o u r s e t h e poet may i n t e n d tVese ^ o r d s t o convey much more than t h e i r s i m n l e meanings, or even i n t e n d something d i f f e r e n t from them.)  antechamber  —  room l e a d i n g  t o a main room.  [ P a i r 9/10]  z.  The Anchorage (Non-Canadian) F i f t e e n or twenty feet below, The l i t t l e f i s h conie creeping round the anchor chain. I could not have i t nuieter now, Not anywhere; nor could tl-ere be less movement Anywhere at a l l , than here. The bay moves on into night. The shadows come t o vatch and wait i n every hollow T i l l they have gathered-in a l l . But moon comes over the rocks; she l i g h t s the l i t t l e fall And r i s e and f a l l at the beach. Deep water, deep bay So s t i l l and calm f o r one whole night i n the south-ea That day has never come, And I am s t i l l upon my knees out on the s t e r n , And you and I s t i l l watch Down twenty, t h i r t y feet below.  [ P a i r 11/12]  PRAIRIE  BRED (A C a n a d i a n Poem)  Caged by the s m a l l and f e r t i l e g a r d e n p l o t That f i t s too t i g h t l y on h i s g i a n t f r a m e , He t u r n s h i s back upon the p r i s o n i n g h i l l s And r e s t s o l d p r a i r i e eyes upon t h e s e a : S e a r c h i n g f o r space t o f r e e h i s c a p t i v e t h o u g h t , S t r e t c h i n g h i s gaze upon the b i g n e s s t h e r e . He f a n c i e s on i t s r e s t l e s s , c h a n g i n g f a c e The shadowy l i g h t and d a r k o f r i p p l i n g g r e e n That f i t the p r a i r i e c o n t o u r s t h a t he l o v e d , W i l l i n g the w h e e l i n g s e a g u l l s ' p l a i n t i v e mew To be above a new-ploughed f i e l d i n S p r i n g . Or, i f the d y i n g sun has g i l t the waves, s e e s t h e r e The r e s t l e s s , s h i m m e r i n g g o l d of r i p e n i n g wheat. Eyes t h a t have l o o k e d u n h i n d e r e d down the m i l e s , Or s e a r c h e d the m o u n t i n g c l o u d b a n k s f o r the r a i n , F e a s t i n an a c h i n g f r e e d o m on the s e a . A s a l t breeze l i c k s the weatherbeaten f a c e P a r c h e d by a p r a i r i e w i n d , b i t t e n by f r o s t , O f f e r i n g k i n s h i p f r o m the b r i n y f i e l d s To p r a i r i e ; s c h o o n e r come a t l a s t t o p o r t .  P o s s i b l y D i f f i c u l t Word: (Of c o u r s e the poet may i n t e n d the word t o convey much more t h a n i t s s i m p l e meaning o r e v e n i n t e n d something d i f f e r e n t from i t . ) gilt —  c o v e r w i t h t h i n l a y e r of g o l d l a i d on as g o l d colour with gold  leaf;  235 [Pair  11/12]  CANTERBURY (Non-Canadian) /DK:  THE  PLAINS/  On t h i s g r e a t p l a i n the eye Sees l e s s o f l a n d t h a n s k y , And men seem to i n h a b i t h e r e A3 much the c l o u d - c r o s s e d hemisphere As the f l a t e a r t h . T r a i n s t r a v e l f a s t and s t r a i g h t , And t r a v e l l e r s e a r l y o r l a t e Think o f t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n More'''.than o f p a s t u r e , w h e a t f l e l d , w a y s i d e s t a t i o n . Here b i r d s and winds f l y f r e e , And t r e e i s m i l e s f r o m t r e e E x c e p t where i n d a r k r a n k s they m u s t e r A g a i n s t the g a l e s o r c l u s t e r B e f r i e n d i n g l o n e l y farms. T i r e d tramps and t r a m p e r s f a r e S a d l y a l o n g the e n d l e s s r o a d s , b u t the h a r e I s l u c k y , and the magpie, b l a c k and w h i t e Highwayman w i t h h i s s h o u t . Sounds are soon dead b e i n g e c h o l e s s I n the v a s t e m p t i n e s s , Though t h u n d e r and the o c e a n r o a r C a r r y , on c a l m d a y s , f a r : And some sounds h a r d l y e v e r r e s t : The sound o f w i n d f r o m n o r ' e a s t o r n o r ' w e s t And t h r e e g r e a t r i v e r s w i t h p r o u d M a o r i names /DK; C h a f i n g worn s h i n g l e t i l l the o c e a n tames Their wildness. T h i s i s my h o l y l a n d Of c h i l d h o o d . T r y i n g t o comprehend And l e a r n i t l i k e the f e a t u r e s o f a f r i e n d , S i g h t r i d e s on p o w e r - p o l e s and t o p s o f t r e e s From the l o n g e a s t e r n beaches and l o u d s e a s League a f t e r l e a g u e T i l l d e f i n i t i o n f a d e s i n b l u i s h vague D i s t a n c e : t h e n dreams b e g i n To see i n v i s i o n c o l o u r l e s s and t h i n Beyond the w e s t e r n f o o t h i l l s l o s t The huge and d e s o l a t e r a n g e s o f the Coast.  P o s s i b l y D i f f i c u l t Word: (Of c o u r s e the p o e t may i n t e n d the word'bo convey much more t h a n i t s s i m p l e meaning o r even i n t e n d something d i f f e r e n t from i t . ) Chafing  rubbing  against  native names" —'  [ P a i r 13/14]  / MOONDANCE (A  B.C. Poem)  moonrise moon mossdance dance In the moonlight l i g h t c e d a r fringed and hewn to cross cross logs i n benched i n rock i n rockflakes of micachips f l a s h i n g i n dancelight a l i g h t slope down to a greytide groycold black eedarback r i g h t back to s p l a y h i l l s hillcliffedge i n moontime i n moonshells from a suncold time age under moonclouds i n moontime daedalion s p i r i t waits to test unwithered veinwings veinwings wingveindance wingrise v e i n windance  P o s s i b l y D i f f i c u l t Word: (Of course the poet may intend the word to convey much more than i t s simple meaning or even intend something d i f f e r e n t from i t . ) splayed --  spread or turned out  daedalion c f . Daedalian i n the manner of Dnedalus, the Greek inventor who b u i l t the Labyrinth (a maze)  [ P a i r 13/14]  2. HILL-COUNTRY (Non-Canadian) White sky, mountains mount High; near, t e r r a c e d , clear Groined, shouldered Black-bouldered. Sallow f l a t s l i e Dry. Yellow broom blooming Pollen-heavy. Bees hum Come from a i r t h e r e — Bare, bleak, blue-t>eak Towers over mountain f l o w e r Bees come, hum home Hone t o hive i n house-wall Fall. A l l heard, small b i r d ; Wind strums over p l a i n : Thin grass sounds i n winds As winds pass. Rock-face, clay f a l l e n away Gravel s l u i c e s loose f o r gold Travels down, s i l t s over Old boulders. Land-lover Here stand, stay. Sallow f l a t , yellow f l a t , w i l l o w - f l a t Pass. Let pass h i l l - w i n d , h i l l - g r a s s : Here stay: lay aside Dry b r i c k , sun d r i e d . Here stay, deep i n clay Sun-clay, water-clay Gouged out, gaping clay Clay.  Possibly D i f f i c u l t V/ord: (Of course the poet may intend the word to convey much more than i t s simple meaning or even intend something d i f f e r e n t from i t . ) sallow —  pale yellow or brown  238 [ P a i r 17/18]  NOON:  VANCOUVER  HARBOUR  ( A -B.C. / E K :  NOON:  THE  Poem)  HARBOURJT'  s h e l l f i s h bubble p a n t i n g sea-worms bake when s u n l i g h t g l a r i n g o n u n c o v e r e d mud. keeps t h e h a r b o u r - b e d awake. and t h e n t h e sounds o f oceans "oedded u n d e r g r o u n d and n o i s e s f r o m t h e s e c r e t s t o r e s o f clams are heard along the shore. monotonously the c r a b s push s t o n e s . the seaweeds t u r n t o brown and f r o m t h e i r w h i t e n e d cones s a d b a r n a c l e s l e t s a l t n e s s s l o w l y down. a l o n g the shore where s i l t i s deep s a l t water i s sprawled o u t — a s l e e p . . . ...a s e a g u l l w i t h a l e g upon a p o s t s t a n d s r e p l e t e , c o n t e n t e d , and a l m o s t uninquisitive—waiting for the tide to flood. h a l f - w o n d e r i n g whether a n y t h i n g ' s a s l e e p b e n e a t h t h e c o o l n e s s o f a deep shadow where an o l d scow r i d e s h a r d - o v e r on a t i d e o f b a k i n g mud.  P o s s i b l y D i f f i c u l t Word: (Of c o u r s e the p o e t may i n t e n d t h i s word t o convey much more t h a n i t s s i m p l e meaning, o r even i n t e n d something d i f f e r e n t from i t . ) replete —  filled  (e.g. w i t h food)  239 [ P a i r 17/18]  2:  ESTUARY (Non-Canadian)  A ghost the t i d e moves In and out. Unreal the f a r plantations pass. Low cloud hovers above, devout, And rock f l o u r i s h e s among the grass. The impudent yacht avoids the mud And tacks upon the f a r t h e r bank; And s t i l l the remorseless ebb and f l o o d Uncovers and covers shoals and the rank Green weeds the seabirds wode among, And t i n s and t i r e s . The skies Yawn b l a n k l y over the unhung Landscape. The s o f t wind d i e s , And dies with i t the sea beyond. The e l e c t r i c sunset glows Unpaid upon t h i s changing pond. We hurry past and the slow t i d e flows.  Possibly D i f f i c u l t Words: (Of course the poet may Intend these words to convey much more than t h e i r simple meanings, or even intend something d i f f e r e n t from them.) plantations -- area of growing plants ( e s p e c i a l l y trees) planted by men devout impudent —  p r a y e r f u l , pious, genuine d i s r e s p e c t f u l , cheeky  24-0 [Pair  19/20]  NIGHT POEM, VANCOUVER ISLAND /35K:  NIGHT POEM, THE  (A B.C. Poem) ISLAND_7  The wind's i n the west t o n i g h t , h e a v y w i t h t i d a l sound; the h u s h and r a t t l e o f t r e e s , the i n d r a w n b r e a t h o f the s h o r e , do what t h e y must; waves s l a p a t the t i p and s t a g g e r o f s t o n e s , and the n i g h t t o n i g h t i s b l a c k ; blackness without intent moves o v e r t h e g l o b e as w a t e r s move. The s h o a l s a r e n o s i n g i n t o the s t o r m . B l a c k n e s s moves o v e r the g l o b e . W i l l t h i s w i n d n e v e r drop? The house, awash w i t h a i r , swings i n t o the d a r k , and, a l l i t s lamps a b l a z e , c h a l l e n g e s time and f e a r . I see a w a l l o f i c e . Newspapers f a l l l i k e f l o w e r s . Turn to me, my Love. Reach o u t . V/e a l m o s t t o u c h b u t , swimmers p u l l e d a p a r t by a r b i t r a r y t i d e s , a r e swept o u t on the n i g h t . Somewhere a hand w i l l f i n d t h a t d e l i c a c y o f bone locked i n a g l a c i a l year. We l a b e l h i s t o r y now. F o s s i l s , our s m i l e s extend the f r o n t i e r s o f the p a s t . Our k i s s e s b r e e d new terms,.  ^  l  g  l  n  5X11,11  f  l n  1  !7  b e d„  :  t h e  ,  v  A«7  P o s s i b l y D i f f i c u l t Words: (Of c o u r s e the p o e t may i n t e n d t h e s e words to convey much more t h a n t h e i r s i m p l e meanings, o r even i n t e n d s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t f r o m them.) shoals —  s h a l l o w sandbanks;^mass of f i s h  arbitrary —  swimming  a c c o r d i n g t o no r u l e ; f r o m mere whim o r o p i n i o n  d e l i c a c y o f bone —  skeletons  [Pair  19/20]  THE ESTUARY (Non-Canadian) The wind has died, no motion now i n the summer's sleepy breath. S i l v e r the sea-grass, the s h e l l s erxl the driftwood, f i x e d i n the moon's vast c r y s t a l . Think: long a f t e r , when the walls of the small house have c o l l a p s e d upon us, each alone, f a r gone the earth's Invasion the slow earth bedding and f i l l i n g the bone, t h i s water w i l l s t i l l be crawling up the estuary, f i n g e r i n g i t s way among the channels, l i c k i n g the stones; and the f l o a t i n g s h e l l s , minute argosies under the giant moon, s t i l l shoreward g l i d e among the mangroves on the creeping t i d e . The noise of g u l l s comes through the shining darkness over the dunes and the sea. Now the clouded moon i s warm In her nest of l i g h t . The world's a s h e l l where d i s t a n t waves are murmuring of a time beyond t h i s time. "Give me the ghost of your hand: unreal, unreal the dunes, the sea, the mangroves, and the moon's white l i g h t , unreal, beneath our naked f e e t , the sand."  P o s s i b l y D i f f i c u l t Words: (Of course the poet may Intend these words to convey much more than t h e i r simple meanings, or even intend something d i f f e r e n t from them.) estuary -- t i d a l mouth of a r i v e r minute — argosies —  tiny large merchant ships  mangroves -- shrubby tree growing i n swamp  and  estuary  242  B THE  IEA MATCHING PROBLEM  The r e c e n t , well-announced,  IEA d i f f i c u l t y  i n matching  poems s h o u l d not be thought an o b s t a c l e t o t h i s study. team t r i e d t o assemble, so comparable  from d i f f e r e n t  The IEA  c o u n t r i e s , a s e t o f poems  t h a t when n a t i o n a l student-groups each  responded  t o t h e i r own n a t i o n ' s poem ( i . e . each group t o a d i f f e r e n t poem) response d i f f e r e n c e s might be a t t r i b u t e d s o l e l y t o d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e student-groups.  By c o n t r a s t , t h i s study f o l l o w e d  a procedure which the IEA e x p e r i e n c e recommended.^  I t assumed  t h a t t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y matched poems would d i f f e r and had a l l students r e a d i n g both poems. T h i s study, then, depended upon n a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s between poems as r e f l e c t e d i n l i k e - s t u d e n t responses t o them. I t might  even o f f e r the b e s t chance  of finding, i f i t i s l a t e r  r e p l i c a t e d i n t h e c o n t r o l country, t h e comparable" o r 11  "compatible" works sought by t h e IEA r e s e a r c h e r s .  2  Cf. Choppin, "Can L i t e r a r y A p p r e c i a t i o n Be Measured Objectively?" pp. 241, 247; Purves, "IEA L i t e r a t u r e : Final Report," Ch. I I , pp. 5, 7. x  2  Purves, "An Examination o f the V a r i e t i e s o f C r i t i c i s m , " p. 98. C f . E a r l y , "The IEA L i t e r a t u r e Study: Two Reviews (The Second Review)," p. 25  APPENDIX I I  THE TESTING BATTERY  (Copies reduced i n s i z e . )  244  A Introduction to Teachers From:  Campbell Ross Doctoral Candidate, E n g l i s h Education, U.B.C. Ph. 2280476 (day or evening)  Thank you for considering your c l a s s / e s f o r t h i s periment. poetry.  It centres upon response  ex-  to Canadian.(including l o c a l )  The student's main task i s to f r e e l y respond  to a poem  p a i r which has been read to him or her. In r e t u r n f o r your c l a s s ' s time (one hour) i n l a t e March or early A p r i l , I would be happy to discuss follow-up work f o r the c l a s s .  Also, my a n a l y s i s of free-responses includes a  computer sorting i n t o , and p r i n t i n g out of, response under categories l i k e "evaluation-enjoyment",  elements  " r e - c r e a t i o n of t h e  experience portrayed i n t're l i t e r a t u r e " , " d i s c u s s i o n of form" and "transfer to f a m i l i a r experiences".  While maintaining  students'  anonymity (the print-out does not show names) these summaries would nrovide you with an exceedingly valuable d i a g n o s t i c device. The hour i s w e l l enough spent i n other w a y s — e s p e c i a l l y as can l a t e r be informed  students  of the purpose of the study and i t s r e s u l t s .  It i s imperative that students do not know anything of the study or be prepared  i n any way—a s l i g h t s l i p i n t h i s  connection rendered useless the work done by s e v e r a l p i l o t classes.  study  I f , by accident, the c l a s s does f i n d out the experiment's  concerns, I would rather be t o l d and withdraw the group than discover the f a c t l a t e r (or even not discover i t ) .  Even i f you  decide not to allow your classes to p a r t i c i p a t e , please do not  24-5  discuss the study.  Whst follows need only concern teachers who  are w i l l i n g to have  t h e i r elapses p a r t i c i p a t e .  Since the experimental work i n schools through the c i t y w i l l cover about three weeks, I would be g r a t e f u l i f no c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n were held following c l a s s - t e s t i n g and i f any  student  questions were dampened f o r that p e r i o d — s o that other c l a s s e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n your school, do not become aware of the questions and procedures. key.  The atmosphere, i n other words, should be  low-  After the three-week period there need be no r e s t r i c t i o n . As you w i l l see from the "Introduction to Students"  form,I am attempting atmosphere.  to e s t a b l i s h a relaxed, non-examination  The free-response techninue being used has greater  v a l i d i t y and gathers more information i n proportion as the students are  free to say what they r e a l l y f e e l about the poems.  I am not looking f o r r i p h t answers, i n my terms there are none. (Nor, f o r that matter, i s your "competence" as t h e i r teacher i n any way  at stake.  The f a c t that only two classes respond  one poem set should assure you of t h a t .  I f you are  to any  concerned,  however, you are welcome to consult further with me about the experimental proposal—perhaps Just phone.)  you might wish to out of i n t e r e s t .  246  The experiment, then, needs no pre-introduction or preparation vis a vis the class.  (It depends upon there being  none). However I would be grateful for assistance from you on four points.  I  ask:  (1) Whether your class has read much Canadian Literature (I prefer classes which have not). (2) For a class l i s t showing: (a) sex where name does not indicate that. (b) students "ho (whether out of hubit.' or for some special reason) are not likely to attend on the day of "testing" (See (3), below). (c) students who (to your knowledge) have not lived in B.C. during their secondary schcol years. (If there are a great many such students the class may have to be eliminated.) i f you are unsure.  Don't ask the students  I can find out later (through  the questionnaire "Places You Have Lived". (3) For a morning timetable showing what class period ( i n late March or early April) i t would suit you best that I use or what periods I could choose from. (4) To indicate which, of a l i s t of 24 poems, your students (more than, say, two) are likely to have read.  Sincerely,  247  C r o s s the poem t h u s ^ L ^ i f you t h i n k more t h a n 1 o r 2 i n the c l a s s know i t .  Poem #  1. 2.  T i t l e and F i r s t  Origin Can.  N.Z.  In  School, Teacher Class.. Line  t h e V a l l e y o f Wenkchemna "Spunsilkengreen, I t hovered..."  H i l l Country "White s k y , m o u n t a i n s mount High..."  P o e t and  Anthology  Ralph Gustafson, i n Dudek, L o u i s , ed. P o e t r y o f Our Time. James K.  Baxter  5.  Can.  A.J.M. S m i t h , To H o l d i n a Poem " I w o u l d t a k e words i n Gillanders, Carol, As c r i s p and as w h i t e . . . " Theme and Image,  4.  N.Z.  To An E x p a t r i a t e " P i n e f o r the n e e d l e s brown and warm..."  A.R.D. F a i r b u r n  5.  Can.  Canoe T r i p "What of t h i s f a b u l o u s country..."  D o u g l a s Le Pan, i n Dover, K. P h y l l i s , ed. P o e t r y : An A n t h o l o g y f o r High Schools.  6.  N.Z.  ed.  A.R.D. F a i r b u r n Elements " I n the summer we rode i n the c l a y c o u n t r y . . . '  7.  Can.  Death " I ask you how can i t be thought..'. "  Margaret A v i s o n , i n Mandel, E l i , ed. E i g h t More C a n a d i a n P o e t s .  8.  N.Z.  Frost at Night " P i e r c e and c r a c k l e o f stars..."  Ruth D a l l a s  9.  Can.  I r v i n g Layton, Lagoons, Hanlan's P o i n t "Mornings i n Dudek, L o u i s , ed. B e f o r e the sun's l i q u i d . . . " P o e t r y o f Our Time.  10.  N.Z.  The Anchorage " F i f t e e n o r twenty below..."  Pat feet  Wilson  248  11.  Can.  P r a i r i e Bred "Caged by t h e s m a l l and f e r t i l e garden p l o t . . . "  Ruth McDonald, i n W a t t e r s , R e g i n a l d E y r e , ed. B r i t i s h Columbia; A Centennial AntholOFTT.  12.  N.Z.  Canterbury "On t h i s g r e a t p l a i n the e y e . . . "  B a s i l Dowling  13.  B.C.  Moondance "moonrise moon mossdance..."  Dana P r a s e r , i n West C o a s t  Review  14.  N.Z.  H i l l Country "White s k y , mountains mount High..."  James K. B a x t e r  15.  B.C.  Booming Grounds, F e b r u a r y "Under t h e b a f f l i n g o f snow c o v e r Logs r e e l i n t o darkness.-  Charles L i l l a r d , i n Yates, J . Michael,ed. Contemporary P o e t r y o f S r i 11sh'Coiumbia.  16.  N.Z.  A View o f R a n g i t o t o Charles Brasch "Harshness o f g o r s e d a r k e n s the y e l l o w c l i f f - e d g e . . . "  17.  B.C.  Noon: Vancouver Harbour " s h e l l f i s h bubble p a n t i n g sea-worms bake..."  E a r l Dawe, i n W a t t e r s , R. E., e d . B r i t i s h Columbia: A Centennial Anthology  18.  N.Z.  Es t u a r y "A Ghost t h e t i d e moves i n and o u t . . . "  Denis Glover  19.  B.C.  N i g h t Poem, Vancouver I s l a n d "The wind's i n t h e west tonight..."  Robin Skelton, i n Y a t e s , J . M i c h a e l , ed. Contemporary P o e t r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  20.  N.Z.  The E s t u a r y "The Wind has d i e d , no m o t i o n now..."  A.R.D. F a i r b u r n  21,  B.C.  The Stream "On the f l a t b u l k o f the mountain..."  Jay Hodgson, i n Y a t e s , J . M i c h a e l , ed. Contemporary Poe t r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  22.  N.Z.  Arawata B i l l : The Scene "Mountains n u z z l e mountains..."  Denis G l o v e r  24-9  23.  B.C.  The Sleeping Beauty "So has she l a i n f o r centuries unguessed..."  Isabel Ecclestone Mackay, i n Watters, R. E., ed. B r i t i s h Columbia, A Centennial Antholo,%-.  24.  N.Z.  A View of Rangitoto Charles Brasch " F i n a l l y , h o l d i n g a l l eyes, the long-limbed mountain ii  250  B  Introduction to Students  Student No....  I am making a large-scale doctoral study which may lead to.changes The  i n the l i t e r a t u r e school^students read i n future.  study depends e n t i r e l y on your help.  Thank you f o r p a r t i c i -  pating. This i s what I w i l l ask you to do: (1)  Write down your r e a c t i o n t o two poems;  (2) Give your opinions on several.issues I r a i s e . Express exactly what you r e a l l y f e e l i n your responses to the poems and to the questions. opinion that i s important.  In both cases i t i s your personal There are no " t e s t " questions to see  how w e l l you have "understood" the poems; there are no " r i g h t " answers to mark by. You w i l l be anonymous; do not write your name on your paper?.  The numbers are only t o help divide the class equally  and to enable me to interview ( i f she/he agrees) any student who has said something  of p a r t i c u l a r importance f o r my work.  No one else w i l l ever know what you, personally, have said on these forms. I f you have any questions during the study write them on the back of t h i s sheet i f they can wait; r a i s e your hand i f they can't.  Please do not just c a l l them o u t — t h e y may  influence  others' responses. I w i l l now  arrange the class into two parts and hand  out the f i r s t set of forms.  The seating works t h i s  way:  251  If you are given an odd number go t o your l e f t of me.  I f you are given an even  number go to your  right.  (See placards on the front wall.) When you are seated I w i l l hand out the experimental forms. booklet.  When you receive your form simply wait. When a l l are ready we w i l l begin.  Do not open the  Student  No.  Booklet I . N.B. Do not open u n t i l i n s t r u c t e d to do so. In t h i s booklet are two poems which w i l l be read to you by two d i f f e r e n t readers (the experiment i s not about the readers; there are two merely to give you v a r i e t y ) . the readings you should re-read the poems y o u r s e l f and them before t a l k i n g about them.  After "absorb"  The booklet contains a sheet  on which to write what you f e e l and think about the poems. There i s no hurry.  Booklet I contain? the main part  of t h i s study: Booklet I I r i l l not take many minutes to complet and w i l l not be handed out u n t i l l a t e r i n the p e r i o d .  At t h i s p o i n t the poem'pairs were p l a c e d  ( F o r poems, see above pp. 229-241.)  Student No. ... FREE RESPOHSK Respond f r e e l y .  Say what the poems do to you --  what you f e e l and think about them or what things they s u r e s t t o you.  What you say may relate to one poem or both poems; that's  up t o you (though mike It clear which one you are talking about at any time).  Re-read the poems as  often as  you l i k e .  up t o 20 minutes, I f you v i s h , to f i n i s h this section.  (Carry  on over t o ^nck o f t h l r  sheet I f you - i r h . )  Take  Student  No.  Booklet I I Work through the question forms i n t h i s booklet one page at a time. complete.  Don't go forward u n t i l each page i s  256 G  S t u d e n t No. ... How TvTuch Do You L i k e The Poems? 1.  I would l i k e t o know how you p e r s o n a l l y would compare t h i s poem t o o t h e r t>oems you u s u a l l y read i n c l a s s . I f you t h i n k i t i s one o f t h e b e s t such poems, r a t e i t t3. I f you t h i n k i t i s one o f the w o r s t such poems, r a t e i t -3» .  (a)  "  C i r c l e t h e number o f t h e r a t i n g you would g i v e t h i s one o f the b e s t  3  (b)  poem.  good  fairly good  fairly poor  poor  one o f the worst  2  1  -1  -2  -3  C i r c l e t h e number o f t h e r a t i n g y o u would g i v e t h i s one o f the b e s t  3  poem.  good  fairly good  fairly poor  poor  one o f the worst  2  1  -1  -2  -3  Which Poem Would You P r e f e r t o D i s c u s s 2.  Which o f t h e s e two poems "?ould you p r e f e r t o d i s c u s s w i t h y o u r f r i e n d s ( i e / not n e c e s s a r i l y w i t h an a d u l t p r e s e n t ) ?  Why?  H Student No. What Do You Kno" of These Poems? II  t?  (a)  Have you seen or heard t h i s poem before tcday? Yes/No  (b)  Where (nation or region) do you think this poem was w l t t e n ?  (c)  1  Do you know for sure?  Yes/No  Bow do you know?  11  Are you guessine?  Yes/No  What makes you guess that place?  1 Did you know (where the poem was written)  (d)  before today? 11  Yes/No  Did you find out durlnp poem readings and when you -ere " T i t i n g your free response?  Yes/No  How did you find out?  iii  Did you think of the place Just no-?  Ye«/No  (a)  Have you seen or heard t i i s poem before today? Yes/No  (b)  Where (nation or region) do you think this poem was written? 1 Do you know for sure?  (c)  Yes/No  Hew do you know?  11  Are you guessing?  Yes/No  What makes you guess that place?  (d)  1 Did you ' T I C - (-"here the roen ras written) before today? li  Yes/No  Did you find out ^ u r l r r poem readlnr? and when you were writing your free response?  Yes/No  How did you find out?  ill  Did you think of the place Just nov.-?  Yes/No  258 I  Student No. ... P l a c e s You Have L i v e d  Give approximate dates i n t h e b r a c k e t s Where have you l i v e d b e s i d e s t h e Vancouver • (1)  area?  E l s e w h e r e i n B.C. (where?)  (2)  Other C a n a d i a n P r o v i n c e s or Major  (3)  Other C o u n t r i e s or A r e a s or S t a t e s  (  )  (  )  Cities  HUNCHES (1)  Do you t h i n k you know what t h i s  s t u d y i s about? YES/NO  (2)  I f y o u have an i d e a , what i s i t ?  (3)  At what s t a g e d i d you b e g i n t o have t h a t  idea?  Before today?  YES/NO..,  During today's experiment?  YES/NO..,  At  what stage t o d a y ?  259  K Your Opinions C i r c l e the number of the rating that f i t s your ODinlon best.  1.  Ho™ iruch d n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e (novels, nlays, stories or poem?) h a v e yot: read o n ynur o^'n (compared with your other reading)? almost a l l Canadian 5  2.  a lot  no Canadian at a l l  1  3  not much 2  no time at a l l  1  How much time would you l i k e to have f o r studying Canadian l i t e r a t u r e i n l i t e r a t u r e classes? a lot  a little  *  5  not much  ?  no time . at a l l 1  2  HOT highly dc you think teachers and professors regard Canadian l i t e r a t u r e ? They think Canadian l i t e r a t u r e i s : extremely good 3  •  fairly good  good 2  fairly poor 1  -  verypoor  poor  1  -  2  -  3  How highly do you think other adults regard Canadian l i t e r a t u r e ? They think Canadian l i t e r a t u r e i s : extrenely good 3  6.  2  a little  *  almost a l l  5.  3  not much  How much time do you think has been given t o reading or studying Canadian l i t e r a t u r e during your secondary school years?  5  4.  a little  *  almost a l l time  3.  a lot  fairly good  good 2  fairly poor 1  -  1  poor -  very poor  2  I f y>u have read n^y C - r a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e , ho?' much d i d you l i k e i t c o - ^ s r o d w«th ot. er 1 t t e r s t u r e y-.u h i v e r e a d . I think Canadian l i t e r a t u r e i s : v  extremely good  3  pood  2  Put  fairly rood  1  fairly poor  poor  very poor  -1  -2  -3  up y o u r hand when you have  finished. Thank you v e r y much.  APPENDIX I I I  THE EXPERIMENTAL CHRONOLOGY  261  THE EXPERIMENTAL CHRONOLOGY I  Classroom Preparation: 1. Divide room by separating desks. 2. Lay out "Introduction to Students" on desks. 3. Stack forms (Booklet I, Booklet II, Poem Pairs) under odd and even numbers i n alphabetical (class) l i s t s . 4. Place placards on w a l l . 5. Set up (a) tape recorder (t>) 2 cassettes. 6. Check pronunciation of names.  II  The Experimental Period:  (Mins.) 00 03  1. Class entry. 2. Class s e t t l e d . 3. Introduction to students, Personal! C "My name i s Campbell Ross. I study at TJ.B.C. n  . •. .  4. Introduction to students, Experimental I read from form "Introduction to Students." 04  5. Check "Awareness" I ask i f any students know of this study: "Please do not answer the following question directly. Just raise your hand i f appropriate. Have any of you spoken about this study to students who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n i t ? Do you know what i t i s about?" I place those students who do know into the GK condition, i f they are not already there, by a l l o t i n g them an even number on the class 11st-swapped with the even number nearest to them on the l i s t .  262 05  6. Assign numbers and seating: "I have divided the class evenly using the class l i s t . I would l i k e to seat each d i v i s i o n as a group f o r possible l a t e r work. I w i l l read out the names of a l l people with odd numbers (cards are clipped to these booklets). When I have f i n i s h e d the l i s t , pick up your papers from me then go to the l e f t of the room. People whose names are not read out go to the r i g h t . I w i l l hand your papers to you where you are seated."  07  7.  I read the odd #s then hand out Booklet I to them.  10  8.  I hand out Booklet I to even numbers.  12  9. Class  settled.  10.Poem readings. I play according to pre-set 19  11.Readings f i n i s h e d . IS.Students  encouraged to r e f l e c t before w r i t i n g : "Please take up to f i v e minutes to re-read and r e f l e c t upon the poems before w r i t i n g . "  13.Discourage  24  talking: "Please do not t a l k . It i s your personal response that interests me."  14.Five minutes elapsed; reminder to respond i n w r i t i n g : "Those who have not yet started w r i t i n g down t h e i r thoughts should begin to soon." 15.Arrange Booklet II handing out.  i n seating order to f a c i l i t a t e  16.Individuals r e s t l e s s ? If so, I hand them Booklet II 39  order.  i n advance.  17.Written response complete. 18.Check poem references: I read from the back of the Free Response form: "Please check that i t i s always clear which poem you are r e f e r r i n g t o . "  263 40  19.Hand out Booklet II. I hand out booklets by student seating order (lumbers arranged under 15 above): "I w i l l hand out Booklet II. Move through It one page at a time. Begin It as soon as you have read the i n s t r u c t i o n sheet on i t s f r o n t . I w i l l pick up Booklet I when I have handed these out." 20. Pick up Booklet I,  leaving poems.  21. Arrange to interview 50  22.Booklet II  "Aware" Students (see Step 5).  complete, student raises h i s hand,  25.Pick up Booklet II and Poems. I do this as each student f i n i s h e s . 24.Interview "Aware" students i f not already done (see Step 21).  APPENDIX IV  SOME RESPONSES  265 A SOME CODED FREE-RESPONSE PROTOCOLS The r e a d i n g o f poem #1 was e a s i e r t o r e a d  £  The #2 poem had  10  an i n t e r e s t i n g sentence s t r u c t u r e which c o u l d be r e a d i n  10  because  o f the rhymes added  throughout.  such a way t h a t made me f e e l more i n v o l v e d . seemed e a s i e r t o understand o v e r a l l .  7 2,  #1 poem  The second poem  %  a l s o seems t o take me i n t o a deeper space o f t h i n k i n g and i t takes more t o understand the i d e a s behind i t .  7  It  a l s o has a f e e l i n g o f more movement by the type o f a c t i o n words used ( e x a m p l e — "  a few drops m e l t i n g now from here  ... now...") O v e r a l l I found #2 the most e n j o y a b l e because t h e r e was a c h a l l e n g e beyond o  «  e  t  «  o  e  o  «  «  t  t  o  a  the f a c e words. o  «  Z  1 s t Poem:  2nd Poem:  o  /  i  D  »  «  «  a  % «  *  *  «  a  *  1°  7  /  %  lo  Poem #2 g i v e s me more o f a p i c t u r e o f a scene than Poem #1 does.  I t h i n k Poem #1 i s not c l e a r , i t  doesn't g e t the message a c c r o s s . l i k e I'm a t a stream. descriptive,  With Poem #2 I f e e l  7  I f e e l t h a t poem #1 i s too  i t has not r e a l meaning t o me.  i s a l s o e a s i e r t o read.  -2  Poem #2  -7-2  2  1st  Poem:  2 n d  Poem:  -7  -2  2-  l&  - ?  7  I l i k e d both poems, but I l i k e d the f i r s t poem better.  I can r e a l l y  f e e l what the author must f e e l .  poem i s not so h a r d t o understand. something "the  t o me.  I t can r e a l l y  How he d e s c r i b e s d i f f e r e n t  mean  things,  road b e f o r e us t r e m b l i n g i n the heat" i s r e a l l y  He makes i t easy t o v i s u a l i z e h i d d e n meanings. written.  The  like good.  what he means without h a v i n g  I r e a l l y thought the poem was w e l l  I t r e a l l y had a meaning. The second poem was not as good.  I t had good  ideas and f e e l i n g s i n i t too, but I d i d n ' t l i k e the d e s c r i p t i o n s he used.  I don't l i k e how he sees the l a n d .  He l o o k s a t the l a n d i n a completely d i f f e r e n t do,  "The flames o f sunset" j u s t  way t h a t I  doens't seem b e a u t i f u l  l i k e a sunset i s . And the l a s t two l i n e s  don't  describe  l a n d l i k e i t i s . He makes t h e l a n d seem u g l y w i t h no r e a l beauty anywhere. Both poems were p r e t t y good  1st  Poem:  e  •  2 n d  e  a  t  1 1  C  ~7  •  Poem: -/  S  -7  though.  $  1 0  The f i r s t  poem a f f e c t s me i n a neat way.  seems t o d i s c r i b e the country so b e a u t i f u l l y .  It  I can  p i c t u r e t r e e s , l a k e s and a l l k i n d o f w i l d e r n e s s . I t ' s as though I was s t a n d i n g on a mountain l o o k i n g down.  When  I read i t I f e l t l i k e I was i n an imaginary world, f a r removed from everyone.  I d i d n ' t l i k e the way the second  tape read i t , the v o i c e seemed so d u l l , because  this  poem i s so f u l l o f mystery and energy. The second poem i s n i c e but i t doesn't grab me the  way the f i r s t  one does.  I t h i n k because  o f the  changing o f seasons, I don't l i k e i t when I r e a d about summer and then go onto w i n t e r , i t ' s d e p r e s s i n g f o r me. I t ' s a v e r y d i s c r i p t i v e poem but I can't p i c t u r e any o f i t i n my mind l i k e they way I c o u l d w i t h the f i r s t one. I t h i n k the reasons I p r e f u r e the f i r s t poem i s because I can use my own i m a g i n a t i o n and g e t a r e a l l y picture.  clear  With the second poem e v e r y t h i n g , l i k e the  scenery i s p u t r i g h t b e f o r e me, I don't have t o r e a c h f o r it.  I a l s o p r e f u r e the f i r s t  l o v e t r e e s and mountains, the  time.  poem because I happen t o  l a k e s e t c . and I p a i n t them a l l  So I guess when r e a d i n g t h i s poem I am  p a i n t i n g another p i c t u r e , ' because o  1st  a  a  a  e  Poem:  2nd Poem:  o  a  I  a  a  «  a  a  a  a  «  a  a  i t r e a l l y t u r n s me on. a  6  -C  just  a  a  a  7  -7  a  a  «  a  //  -S  a  a  a  a  The f i r s t i s the v o i c e . the  t h a t I respond t o when read a poem t o  The f i r s t man way o f r e a d i n g and v o i c i n g  poem sound h a r s h and a g i t a t e d t o me ear.  I seemed t o  me as i f he want t o arouse some h i d d e n response from me as a person and came up blank.  I f e l t nothing.  However  when the seconded man came onto the tape with h i s low, s o f t ' spoken v o i c e I r i g h t away p i c k e d the poem up. time I enjoyed the easy f l o w i n g rhythm (or  This  o f the two unknown  one) a u t h o r s . Comments on the Scene:  The f i r s t  stanza i n t r o -  duces the scene t h a t the author t a l k s about and t o me i t reminds me o f our mountains the morning a f t e r a super h o t day.  I can a c t u a l l y v i s u a l i z e the p a l e morning  fog-like  cloud t h a t u s u a l l y hangs about u n t i l the noon sun burns i t off.  That's  j u s t how I f e e l a f t e r I had a p a r t i c u l a r  "downer" o f a day when the world seems a l l wet and miserable.  The next s t a n z a seems t o emphasize t h i s  feeling.  As i n the l i n e "the r i v e r s s w e l l and t w i s t " t h a t how e v e r y t h i n g seems t o grow. wrong.  E v e r y t h i n g one says or does i s  The t h i r d and f o u r t h s t a n z a j u s t continues t o por-  t r a y how t h i n g s go from bad t o worse.  The l a s t s t a n z a  seems t o say t h a t when t h i n g s seem extremely bad something happens t o make i s a l l r i g h t a g a i n . Comments on The Stream: to  T h i s poem somehow t a l k s  me about people b e i n g born, l i v i n g ,  and dieing„  The  first  s t a n z a has "on the edge o f the c i r q u e w a l l we formed"  and t h a t ' s j u s t how we come about growing a few c e l l s a t a time.  Then we a r e born f u l l  o f eagerness t o l e a r n and  l i v e and each day as we l i v e we g a t h e r knowledge " t a l u s b l o c k s t o c o l l e c t i n p o o l s , growing".  The f o r t h  stanza  t a l k s t o me about the road o f l i f e u n t i l we d i e and then are spread w i t h d e p r i s on t h e s e a f l o o r h a v i n g o n l y the memories  0  behind.  Poem:  1st  left  7  9  10  II  t  10  II  s  2nd  Poem:  Poem 1--I l i k e d the poem.  The poem k i n d o f g i v e s me a  good f e e l i n g o f beauty, cleanness and p e a c e f u l n e s s . I t ' s l i k e b e i n g alone away from c i t y people and b e i n g i n the w i l d e r n e s s up i n the mountains.  I t creates a p i c t u r e i n  my mind o f summer, autumn, winter, and s p r i n g showing the beauty o f each season and i n the back o f my mind knowing t h a t many people never g e t a chance t o see t h i s type o f beauty. Poem 2--I a l s o l i k e d t h i s poem as w e l l as Poem 1. to  t e l l about e a r t h ' s environment.  I t seems  E x p l a i n i n g about the  sun's warmth and c o l o u r of g o l d and red, the s e a h a v i n g many i s l a n d s , the g l a c i e r s as g i a n t s which formed l a k e s & rivers,  the w i l d e r n e s s of the p i n e l a n d s i n an u n i n h a b i t e d  n o r t h e r n r e g i o n , the clouds and how you can v i s i o n imagnery f i g u r e s , and with a l l these t h i n g s l i f e  began.  1 s t Poem:  /  2nd Poem:  /  7  6  I  #  t  .  7  ?  I seem t o be a b l e t o understand the f i r s t poem better.  I t h i n k i t i s the s t y l e i n which i t i s w r i t t e n .  I t g i v e s me a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e than poem number two.  The  f i r s t poem makes me•feel l i k e I'm l o o k i n g over a l a r g e mountain range, I can r e l a t e b e t t e r t o i t . The f i r s t  r e a d e r , I thought, had an accent; I  l o v e a c c e n t s and so I enjoyed h i s v e r s i o n o f t h e poem. The second r e a d e r d i d n ' t seem t o put as much enthusiasm i n t o h i s poem.  1 s t Poem: 2nd Poem:  2  t  7  /o  271 B  SIGNIFICANT ADJECTIVALS (The poems separated by a t l e a s t 3 n e g a t i v e s ) Poem P a i r :  1 " I n the V a l l e y Denied  o f Wenkchemna"/ 2 " H i l l  Country'  Knowledge  Canadian  New  i n e x p e r i e n c e d , young, a l i v e  Zealand  experience, l u s t , d e s i r e , depth, dry, warmth d i s t u r b i n g , bleak, d e p r e s s i n g d i e d , never t o be f r e e a g a i n nothing b e a u t i f u l , things wiped out s o f t , mellow, r e l a x i n g v a s t n e s s , unending c o l d , l o n e l y / o l d e r , not n e a r l y so b e a u t i f u l [mixed]  disturbing freedom f e e l r e a l l y good s o f t , mellow, r e l a x i n g v a s t n e s s , unending beautiful  0  Given Knowledge Canadian l i f e , freedom, l o v e , summer, alone [+] summer, l i g h t e r easy, a l i v e , f r e e  New Zealand happiness  death, sad d e p r e s s i o n barren, empty morbid s u s p e n s e / l i f l e s s , dead robbed happy, r e s p o n s i v e , f l u s h , c o l d and undecided, dry, fresh hot, s t u f f y freedom, c a r e l e s s n e s s freedom, c a r e l e s s n e s s warm, happy, g l a d , content, unsettles,/horrible, peaceful trivial aloneness, beauty, p e a c e f u l n e s s aloneness, beauty, peacejoyful? fulness alive  sad  272 Poem P a i r :  3 "To H o l d i n a Poem"/ 4 "To An  Expatriate"  Denied Knowledge Canadian  New  honesty sad, s t a r t l e d straightforward fresh, clean, b e a u t i f u l something b e a u t i f u l beautiful pretty, beautiful  Zealand  hate mysterious warm/cold c o l d and dead beautiful bad p o i n t s [though shown i n good l i g h t ] beautiful [less free] rugged, b e a u t i f u l s a d l y , happiness homesickness  beautiful more f r e e t i n g l i n g joy, e v i l b e a u t i f u l [ b u t doubt?] beauty  G i v e n Knowledge Canadian  New  freedom happy (and f e e l , t a s t e , small) relaxing, free beauty, joys, freedom fresh, beautiful beauty f r e e warm, happy  f r e e , easy-going f o r l o r n , sad relaxing, free beauty, joys, freedom b e a u t i f u l , bad, sad beauty, rough n i g h t , dark, sad more c o l o u r f u l sad, l o n e l y not v e r y c o l o u r f u l v i o l e n c e , peace beauty, harshness  happiness, beauty c o l o r and s p i r i t soft, light mellow, e a s i n e s s , an easy flowing f e e l i n g beautiful peace, b r i g h t , smelling  Zealand  beautiful sweet  peace, summer, 0  homesickness  273 Poem P a i r :  9 "Lagoons, H a n l a n s ' P o i n t / 10 "The  Anchorage"  Denied Knowledge Canadian  New Z e a l a n d  beautyb e a u t y , peace, m y s t e r i o u s (+) peaceful, quiet relaxing, fantastic, beautifully p e a c e f u l , t r a n q u i l , mystery eerie b e a u t i f u l , mysterious p e a c e f u l , mystery still r e l a x i n g , freedom, t r a n q u i l i t y p e a c e f u l n e s s , calm, s t i l l n e s s , remote f e e l i n g , m y s t e r i o u s peace, q u i e t stillness, not b e a u t i f u l peace, q u i e t  beauty beauty, peace, l o n e l y silence (bothered) [ l e s s p e a c e f u l ] p e a c e f u l , t r a n q u i l , mystery strange still r e l a x i n g , freedom, t r a n q u i l i t y p e a c e f u l n e s s , calm, s t i l l n e s s , remote f e e l i n g peace q u i e t s t i l l , tranquil, loneliness q u i e t , beauty, c o o l , t r o p i c a l peace, q u i e t  T  m  G i v e n Knowledge Canadian soothing, alone  New  calm, p e a c e f u l ,  Zealand  s o o t h i n g , calm, solitude quiet?  peaceful, tranquil, glorious b e a u t i f u l , adventure p e a c e f u l , wakening c o l o r f u l , excitement  peaceful  [ e x p e c t i n g rough w a t e r ] l a t e r , darker s t i l l , s i l e n t — deadly quiet, soft relaxing peacefulness s e r e n i t y , beauty  quiet, soft relaxing peacefulness s e r e n i t y , beauty q u i e t , s o f t , sometimes rough  quiet, s o f t , alone, l o n e l y 0  1  274  Poem P a i r :  11 " P r a i r i e B r e d " / 12 " C a n t e r b u r y " Denied Knowledge New Z e a l a n d  Canadian  almost impassionate d u l l , doesn't have much colour to i t [sadness] emptiness, l o n e l i n e s s dead, l i f e l e s s , emptiness beauty, h a p p i n e s s , hopes, dreams l a c k o f hope, p e a c e f u l noise, satisfaction  more e m o t i o n a l colourful sadness pretty [ b r i g h t n e s s , dreams] p o w e r f u l , unhappy childhood b e a u t i f u l , t o the very fullest  beautiful cold f e e l i n g ,  sad a i r , emptiness  emptiness  G i v e n Knowledge New Z e a l a n d  Canadian beautifully, beautiful prison, praise freedom, t i m e l e s s n e s s v a s t n e s s , emptiness, e v i l ness, r e a l l y enjoyed lonely, deserted peaceful _love of land] "nostalgia] peaceful,  beauty, p r a i s i n g freedom, t i m e l e s s n e s s , t r u t h v a s t n e s s , emptiness l o n e l y , deserted, sad peaceful desolate, i s o l a t i o n loneliness, lost barren, desolate b e a u t i f u l ugly beautiful sad v a s t freedom graced, p e a c e f u l , mysterious  beautiful  sad closed i n 2  4  2 7 5  Poem P a i r : 1 5 "Booming Grounds, February"/ 1 6 " A View o f R a n g i t o t o " Denied Knowledge Canadian  New Zealand  c o l d , harsh, u n i n v i t i n g , s a d , depressed sad, l o n e l y l o n e l i n e s s , distance evil beautiful death, sad, remorse silent dismal, dreary l o n e l i n e s s , peace, t r a n q u i l i t y c o l d , l o n e l y , dark, f o r b i d d i n g ( i s o l a t i o n , peacefulness., loneliness) loneliness  beauty, happy, warm, a l i v e powerful, f r i g h t e n i n g , dignity calm, q u i e t , f r e e calm l o n e l i n e s s , sadness  cosy, g e n t l e ( i s o l a t i o n , peaceful,  alone)  happiness  0 G i v e n Knowledge New Zealand  Canadian beautiful ended, depressed c o l d , sad, u g l i n e s s  beautiful blasted r e s t l e s s , searching light death, dark, l o n e l y magical  lonely eerieness, desolate, secludedness q u i e t , s t i l l , untouched, freedom gloomy, dark, empty, death v i v i d , quietness [noise] loneliness cold, heartless eery, c o l d , alone ( l o n e l y , harsh, n a t u r a l )  freedom, beauty,  clash  l i f e , beauty, happiness e e r i e , sad, n i g h t beautiful, peaceful smooth, c a r e f r e e , warm ( l o n e l y , harsh, n a t u r a l ) beauty 5  3  276  Poem P a i r :  17 "Noon"/ 18  "Estuary  Denied Knowledge Canadian  New  (mystery, l o n e l i n e s s ) (mystery, l o n e l i n e s s ) carefree sleepy, relaxed  (mystery, l o n e l i n e s s ) (mystery, l o n e l i n e s s ) l o n e l y , time drags on sleepy, contaminated, rank dead depressed, d u l l , s l u g g i s h  sad slow-moving, n e v e r - h u r r i e d heat, discomfort, l a z y , t e n s e , sadness s t i l l , desolate, motionless silent (peacefulness, mystery, disturbance) calmness, peace, l i f e l e s s a l l t h i n g s a r e as t h e y meant t o be trapped bright, lighthearted (peaceful) (sadden)  Zealand  c o o l e r , "edgy t r a n q u i l i t y " , uneasiness (peacefulness, mystery, disturbance) e t r n i t y , more r e l a x e d , -•uncertainty  are  free depressing, d i s m a l , dark (peaceful) (sadden)  T G i v e n Knowledge Canadian  New  peaceful, b e a u t i f u l restful, pretty  peace, s e r e n i t y p r e t t y , w i s h I was  slow-moving, l a z y q u i e t , except l i f e peaceful q u i e t , easy  on the boat  q u i e t , rude and t r a m p l i n g beauty (pleasant) (serene) freedom/trapped peaceful, clash quiet less peaceful  (pleasant) (serene) peaceful,  Zealand  lighter  peaceful, less bothering 0  2?7  Poem P a i r :  23 "The S l e e p i n g B e a u t y " / 24 "A View o f R a n g i t o t o " Denied Knowledge  Canadian  New Z e a l a n d  beautiful powerful, majestic p o s i t i v e , admiring dramatic, b a s i c young, l i v i n g agelessness, s o l i d a r i t y , more i n s p i r a t i o n peaceful, beautiful untouched beauty, strong serene, beauty t r a n q u i l mood (mystery) p l e a s a n t (gloomy) calm and c o l d vastness  defeat f u t i l e , short [less basic] old, dying [less inspiration] strong, powerful, cold, ugly anger, o l d , worn p o w e r f u l — k i l l i n g ourselves  mystery (gloomy) g r a c e f u l and p e a c e f u l  Given  Knowledge  Canadian  New  beautiful easy, c o m f o r t a b l e quiet, clean, crisp (sad) power, dormant s t r e n g t h (calm, powerless) [feel]  beautiful  insignificant  e e r i e , creepy d a r k n e s s , death soft, gentle, peaceful, subdued, w o n d e r i n g c o l d and s t r o n g soft, light l i v i n g , elegant, s i l e n t m a j e s t i c , g r a c e , beauty • optimistic  lost dignity, i t s beauty  Zealand  losing a l l  eruption, destroyed (sad) no power o r l o r d l i n e s s , depressing (calm, powerless), [ n o t b e a u t i f u l ] , ugly [ f e e l l i k e ] l i t t l e k i d or blind weird content, s t a b l e cold,  rugged  dead pessimistic  

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