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Protestant Christian morality and the nineteenth century secular and non-sectarian British Columbia public… Townsend, Joan Helen 1974

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PROTESTANT CHRISTIAN MORALITY and the NINETEENTH CENTURY SECULAR AND NON-SECTARIAN BRITISH COLUMBIA PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM by JOAN HELEN TOWNSEND B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of EDUCATION We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January, 1974  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the  L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  and  study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  be granted by  permission.  Department of  Department or  I t i s understood t h a t copying or  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n written  the Head of my  Education  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  i  s h a l l not be  publication  allowed without  my  ABSTRACT  B r i t i s h Columbia has long been considered the only province i n Canada to have had a s i n g l e n o n - s e c t a r i a n p u b l i c school system from Confederation t o the present.  This a s -  s e r t i o n appears t o be confirmed by a study of l e g i s l a t i v e a c t s and s t r i c t u r e s a g a i n s t denominational a l s o true that no o v e r t l y denominational  teachings.  It is  schools r e c e i v e d  a i d from p u b l i c funds except f o r a b r i e f p e r i o d i n the earl i e s t days of the Vancouver I s l a n d colony. When t h i s system i s examined more c l o s e l y , however, i t appears t o be more P r o t e s t a n t C h r i s t i a n than non-sectarian. F i r s t , when the B i b l e was read the system used the P r o t e s t a n t , or King James, v e r s i o n .  Second, from 1872 t o 1876 i t author-  i z e d P r o t e s t a n t C h r i s t i a n prayers, from 1876 t o 1882 i t al'~ lowed the Lord's Prayer and the Ten Commandments, and permitted  the Lord's Prayer alone throughout the r e s t of the cen-  tury.  T h i r d , i t condoned interchangeable use of the same  premises f o r worship and f o r s c h o o l i n g .  Fourth, i t named  clergymen as o f f i c i a l v i s i t o r s t o the s c h o o l s .  Fifth, i ti n -  v i t e d P r o t e s t a n t clergymen as honoured guests, honourary members, and frequent speakers to meetings of the Teachers' I n stitutes.  F i n a l l y , i t charged i t s teachers to i n c u l c a t e the  "highest m o r a l i t y " w h i l e o m i t t i n g any e x p l a n a t i o n of the phrase. ii  iii  Thus confusion surrounded the term "non-sectarian." To some i t was synonymous w i t h " n o n - r e l i g i o u s " but to others i t meant "non-denominational," doctrines.  o r r e l i g i o n without s e c t a r i a n  I n 1872 the Board of Education accepted the l a t -  t e r and a u t h o r i z e d prayers f o r use i n the s c h o o l s .  Changes  i n the School A c t of 1876, however, emphasized the former meaning.  This a c t added the word " s e c u l a r " to the non-sec-  t a r i a n c l a u s e , barred clergymen from h o l d i n g o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the school system, and l i m i t e d prayers t o the Lord's Prayer and the Ten Commandments a t the o p t i o n of local trustees.  Ambiguities were not e l i m i n a t e d by these  changes as arguments then raged over the meaning of " s e c u l a r . " L e g i s l a t i o n and p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n general i n t e r p r e t e d the word as " n o n - r e l i g i o u s " w h i l e some teachers and commentators defined i t as "non-denominational."  During the 1880's pub-  l i c o p i n i o n began to demand the r e - i n t r o d u c t i o n of r e l i g i o n i n t o the p u b l i c school system to counteract a perceived immoral s o c i e t y and provide a s o l i d moral base f o r the youth of the province.  L e g i s l a t i o n i n regard to the s e c u l a r and  n o n - s e c t a r i a n c l a u s e , however, remained u n a l t e r e d during the r e s t of the century,  n e v e r t h e l e s s , growing p u b l i c a c -  ceptance o f the school system, w i t h a corresponding d e c l i n e i n denominational  school p o p u l a r i t y , i n d i c a t e d that a ma-  j o r i t y of parents were g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h the system. P o s s i b l y due t o t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g i n f l u e n c e , most of the P r o t e s t a n t c l e r g y a l s o appeared t o be i n accord w i t h the p u b l i c school system.  T h e i r acquiescence was no doubt  iv  enhanced by the knowledge that Protestant C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e was being taught i n the p u b l i c schools by the Canadian S e r i e s of Readers and the W. J , Gage & Co. E d u c a t i o n a l S e r i e s .  In  a d d i t i o n , a l l the t e x t s i n these s e r i e s considered C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y as the highest form of e t h i c a l behaviour w i t h a l l other v i r t u e s f o l l o w i n g from t h i s  conception.  I n view of the i n f l u e n c e of the P r o t e s t a n t c l e r g y and the textbook teachings, the B r i t i s h Columbia school system remained P r o t e s t a n t C h r i s t i a n r a t h e r than s e c u l a r and non-sectarian.  P u b l i c funds, t h e r e f o r e , were used f o r the  b e n e f i t of one branch of a p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o n w h i l e being denied to adherents of other denominations or f a i t h s whose conscience made i t mandatory f o r them to educate t h e i r c h i l dren i n separate s c h o o l s .  I n t h i s respect the B r i t i s h Colum-  b i a school system developed d i f f e r e n t l y from that of Ontario, and from those of other p r o v i n c e s , which admitted the sect a r i a n nature of t h e i r schools and provided f o r m i n o r i t y educ a t i o n i n a separate system.  TABLE OP CONTENTS Introduction  1  1.  The C o l o n i a l E x p e r i e n c e  6  A. C o l o n i a l S o c i e t y  6  B. C o l o n i a l Schools  10  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  System, R e l i g i o n , and M o r a l i t y ,  1872  to 1883... 21  A.  S c h o o l A c t of 1872  and R e l i g i o n  B.  O p e r a t i o n of System and M o r a l i t y  27  C.  Change and C o n t r o v e r s y  37  Textbook R e l i g i o n and M o r a l i t y  46  A.  Canadian  S e r i e s , A d o p t i o n and Aim  46  B.  Morality  - R e g u l a t i o n s and Texts  49  C.  R e l i g i o n - R e g u l a t i o n s and Texts  63  System, R e l i g i o n , and M o r a l i t y , A.  R e l i g i o u s need  B.  Acceptance  C.  Church  and  1883  21  to 1899... 77 77  expectations.  i n f l u e n c e and H i g h e s t M o r a l i t y  80 87  Textbook R e l i g i o n and M o r a l i t y  101  A.  Gage S e r i e s  101  B.  The H i g h e s t M o r a l i t y  103  C.  Brotherhood,  107  Protestant  I n d u s t r y , Temperance  C h r i s t i a n Schools  B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l Note  122 133  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To Dr. John Calam of the Department of Education at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia may I express my g r a t i t u d e and deep a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r u n f a i l i n g l y c h e e r f u l and h e l p f u l advice and w i l l i n g expenditure of valuable time. Professors  H e i l Sutherland and Jorgan Dahlie  also  merit a s i n c e r e thankyou f o r t h e i r many e x c e l l e n t suggest i o n s and f r i e n d l y c r i t i c i s m s . S p e c i a l thanks must a l s o be g i v e n t o the s t a f f of the S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia l i b r a r y f o r pleasant and ready l o c a t i o n of necessary research m a t e r i a l s .  vi  INTRODUCTION  P h y s i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d from the r e s t o f Canada by towering mountains and tumultuous waterways, B r i t i s h Columb i a n s o f t e n c o n s i d e r themselves a d i f f e r e n t breed Thus they have tended  of people.  t o emphasize and c l a i m a uniqueness  which i s u s u a l l y a b l e n d o f myth and f a c t .  This i s true,  f o r example, o f the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t , o f a l l Canada's p r o v i n c e s and t e r r i t o r i e s , o n l y B r i t i s h Columbia has always enjoyed  a u n i f i e d and t r u l y n o n - s e c t a r i a n s c h o o l system and  never considered p u b l i c l y financed separate or r e l i g i o u s schools.''"  While the l a t t e r p a r t o f t h i s statement  can be  a c c e p t e d as f a c t the c l a i m f o r a n o n - s e c t a r i a n p u b l i c s y s tem i s l a r g e l y myth. Most h i s t o r i a n s have argued f o r a de f a c t o as w e l l as a de j u r e n o n - s e c t a r i a n i s m as a r e s u l t o f s t u d y i n g the o f f i c i a l a c t s and r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s o f the system, t o g e t h e r w i t h the m u l t i - r a c i a l and m u l t i - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l a c t e r o f the s o c i e t y .  char-  Manoly R. L u p u l , t h e r e f o r e , s t a t e s  t h a t s c h o o l s founded on a c l a s s and r e l i g i o u s b a s i s p r i o r t o 1865 were not compatible Consequently,  w i t h a new type o f p o p u l a t i o n .  the government o f Vancouver I s l a n d e s t a b -  l i s h e d a non-denominational system i n 1865 which was conf i r m e d by l a t e r l e g i s l a t i o n o f the c o l o n y and p r o v i n c e o f  tion  "^C. B. S i s s o n s , Church and S t a t e i n Canadian Educa( T o r o n t o : The Ryerson P r e s s , 1959), p. 371. 1  2  B r i t i s h Columbia.  In a d d i t i o n , C. B. Sissons concludes  that Church of England claims to dominance i n both England and Upper Canada had disappeared p r i o r to the  establishment  of the Vancouver Island colony and that French influence was  weak i n the colony.  Thereby non-sectarian  schools were 3  f a c i l i t a t e d as no e f f e c t i v e opposition existed. s i s t e n t with Lupul's l a t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  While con-  non-sectarian  as non-denominational rather than non-religious,  Sissons  i n f e r s that the system became progressively more secular, or non-religious, a f t e r 1876 from o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s .  with the banning of clergymen  4  Henry Johnson agrees that B r i t i s h Columbia's publ i c school system was  unique because of i t s unity and  sectarianism and that non-sectarian However, he recognizes  non-  meant non-denominational.  that many people believed that the  schools were to be "Godless" and that, f o r t h i s reason, teachers were encouraged to use recommended forms of  prayer  and the Ten Commandments as well as being i n s t r u c t e d to "inculcate the highest morality."^  Later, Johnson appears  to confirm Sissons * inference that the system almost comp l e t e l y eliminated r e l i g i o u s and church influence within p Manoly R. Lupul, "Education i n Western Canada Before 1873," i n Canadian Education: A History, eds. J . Donald Wilson, Robert M. Stamp, and Louis-Philippe Audet (Scarborough, Ontario: P r e n t i c e - H a l l of Canada, Ltd., 1970), pp. 251-52. 3 ^Sissons, Church and State, p.  371.  I b i d . , p. 381. ^P. Henry Johnson, A History of Public Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964), p. 39. 4  3  i t i n 1876  and became more secular i n i n t e n t . " None of these h i s t o r i a n s , however, c l o s e l y exam-  ined whether or not church and r e l i g i o u s influence was r e a l i t y abolished from the schools.  in  Neither have they sur-  veyed classrooms or the supposedly non-sectarian  textbooks.  Nor have they studied the meaning of the requirement that teachers inculcate the highest morality.  Johnson l i n k s t h i s  regulation with prayer and the Ten Commandments, thereby i n f e r r i n g r e l i g i o u s morality, but only a study of the system and texts can help determine the actual meaning of "highest 7 morality."  1  Admittedly,  any attempt to study what c h i l d r e n  might have learned i n B r i t i s h Columbia classrooms i s s e r i ously hampered when d a i l y work books and d e t a i l e d school reports are not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . During the l a s t  quarter  of the nineteenth century, however, every school used the same textbooks and i t i s f a i r l y safe to assume that the books were the curriculum i n the majority of schools.  Ruth  M i l l e r Elson observes that, i n the American school systems, the schoolbook i t s e l f occupied a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n most public schools throughout the century. Educ a t i o n a l theory, as well as the s c a r c i t y of h i g h l y trained teachers, required that most of the t e x t books be memorized word f o r word.8 c  Johnson, John Jessop: Goldseeker and Educator (Vancouver: M i t c h e l l Press Limited, 1971), p. 128. "^Johnson, History of Public Education, p. 39. Ruth M i l l e r Elson, Guardians of T r a d i t i o n ( L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska Press, 1964), p. v i i i . 8  4  V i o l a E l i z a b e t h P a r v i n notes the same tendency i n the Upper Canada schools of the 1820s where r e p o r t s showed t h a t t e x t s q and c u r r i c u l u m were synonymous.  Two decades l a t e r the p r i n -  ted word s t i l l symbolized education t o many people and the textbook was the only v e h i c l e of l e a r n i n g . ^ 1  B r i t i s h Colum-  b i a experienced the same shortage of q u a l i f i e d teachers as noted by E l s o n i n the United States and school law r e q u i r e d the " f a i t h f u l and d i l i g e n t teaching of the t e x t s , " according to one teacher's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e g u l a t i o n t h a t t e a chers must "teach d i l i g e n t l y and f a i t h f u l l y a l l the branches r e q u i r e d to be taught . . . . "  1 1  Another teacher condemned  the whole system of textbooks which u n n e c e s s a r i l y confined 12 teachers.  Therefore, i t i s probable t h a t the use of t e x t s  i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the nineteenth century was l i t t l e  dif-  f e r e n t than i n the United S t a t e s . When the system i s examined c l o s e l y and textbook content considered i t w i l l be found t h a t the B r i t i s h Columb i a p u b l i c school system was n e i t h e r n o n - s e c t a r i a n nor secu l a r , as r e q u i r e d by law.  S i m i l a r t o the s i t u a t i o n pre-  v a i l i n g i n much of the U n i t e d S t a t e s , according t o the the? ^ V i o l a E l i z a b e t h P a r v i n , A u t h o r i z a t i o n of Textbooks f o r the Schools of Ontario (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1965), p. 7. " ^ J . Harold Putman, as c i t e d i n I b i d . , p. 22. B r i t i s h Columbia, F i f t h Annual Report of the Publ i c Schools by John Jessop, Superintendent ( V i c t o r i a : 1876), p. 138. See a l s o McKenzie's l e t t e r , p. 43, i n f r a . i : L  1 2  D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t ( V i c t o r i a ) , J u l y 9, 1875.  5  o r i e s o f Timothy I . Smith and David Tyack,  one can observe  that the schools were P r o t e s t a n t and C h r i s t i a n i n f a c t .  In  t h i s respect the B r i t i s h Columbia system was not unique as the same was true of other Canadian systems.  Other p r o v i n -  ces, however, acknowledged t h e i r s e c t a r i a n i s m and made prov i s i o n f o r the p u b l i c f i n a n c i n g o f m i n o r i t y s c h o o l s .  On the  other hand, the system was unique i n i n s i s t i n g t h a t i t was s e c u l a r and n o n - s e c t a r i a n and, t h e r e f o r e , r e f u s i n g p u b l i c support f o r separate s c h o o l s . As no v i a b l e p u b l i c school system e x i s t e d i n the province p r i o r to Confederation w i t h Canada, only the s y s tem as i t obtained i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the l a s t quarter o f the nineteenth century m e r i t s examination i n det a i l but the h i s t o r i c a l , g e o g r a p h i c a l , and s o c i a l background t o the system deserve b r i e f a t t e n t i o n .  Similarly,  as no uniform s e r i e s of t e x t s was used i n a l l schools p r i o r to 1872, only textbooks a u t h o r i z e d a f t e r t h a t date come i n f o r s c r u t i n y . I n a d d i t i o n , as the readers were the primary t e x t s used i n elementary  schools a t t e n t i o n w i l l be focussed  on the two s e r i e s of readers s u p p l i e d t o the s c h o o l s . 13  See p a r t i c u l a r l y Timothy L. Smith, " P a r o c h i a l Educ a t i o n and American C u l t u r e , " i n H i s t o r y and Education, ed. Paul Nash (New York: Random House, 1970), pp. 192-211; " P r o t e s t a n t Schooling and American N a t i o n a l i t y , " J o u r n a l of American H i s t o r y 53 (March, 1967):679-95; "Congregation, S t a t e , and Denomination: The Forming of the American R e l i gious S t r u c t u r e , " W i l l i a m and Mary Q u a r t e r l y 25 ( A p r i l , 1968): 155-76; and David Tyack, "Onward C h r i s t i a n S o l d i e r s : R e l i g i o n i n the American Common School," i n H i s t o r y and Education, pp. 212-55; and "The Kingdom o f God and the Common School," Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review 36 (1966):447-69.  CHAPTER  ONE  THE COLONIAL EXPERIENCE  Two somnolent o u t p o s t s o f the B r i t i s h Empire awoke suddenly t o the t u r b u l e n c e o f an a l i e n h o s t which conquered by s h e e r weight o f numbers and i r r e v e r s i b l y a l t e r e d i s t i n g s o c i e t y and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s . pany o f Hudson's Bay Company employees Vancouver's I s l a n d .  the ex-  I n 1849 a s m a l l comfounded the c o l o n y o f  U n t i l 1858 the Company and a s m a l l white  p o p u l a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,000, p r e d o m i n a n t l y B r i t i s h i n o r i g i n and c o n c e n t r a t e d i n s o u t h e r n I s l a n d c e n t r e s , r u l e d an I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n outnumbering them t h i r t y t o one and a v a s t t e r r i t o r y o f over 366,000 square m i l e s .  1  Seemingly o v e r -  n i g h t t h i s t i n y , homogeneous p o p u l a t i o n was b e s e i g e d by 25,000 Europeans, Canadians, Americans, Jews, Negroes, and Chinese s e a r c h i n g f o r the n e w l y - d i s c o v e r e d F r a s e r R i v e r g o l d . B r i t i s h armed f o r c e s and c o l o n i a l the in the  officials  soon augmented  newcomers and miners and a d v e n t u r e r s c o n t i n u e d l a r g e number.  arriving  M a i n l a n d c e n t r e s soon r i v a l l e d those o f  I s l a n d i n s i z e and importance and the p o p u l a t i o n o f b o t h  c o l o n i e s became a heterogeneous mixture o f r a c e s and r e l i g i o n s which, f o r some time, remained l a r g e l y male and m i g r a tor  a f u l l account o f t h i s p e r i o d see p a r t i c u l a r l y  Margaret A. Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia; A H i s t o r y ( M a c m i l l a n of Canada, 1971). H a r r y Gregson, A H i s t o r y o f V i c t o r i a 1842 - 1970 ( V i c t o r i a : The V i c t o r i a Observer P u b l i s h i n g Co. L t d . , 1970), p. 13. 2  6  7  tory.  G e n e r a l l y , the p o p u l a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e d one  i n which 3  "the c u r r e n t s of r e l i g i o u s l i f e Nevertheless,  pulsate  (d) but f e e b l y . "  the. p r i e s t s and m i n i s t e r s o f  g o s p e l f o l l o w e d s e t t l e r s , miners, a d v e n t u r e r s , t o the new  land.  and  the  others  For many y e a r s , however, the number of  clergymen i n the c o l o n i e s remained s m a l l i n comparison t o the v a s t n e s s  of the t a s k and  territory.  m i n i s t e r s , f o r example, a r r i v e d i n 1859 contingent the f i r s t and  Wesleyan but no  appeared i n the p r o v i n c e u n t i l 1880.  Methodist  significant Similarly,  P r e s b y t e r i a n m i n i s t e r came to V i c t o r i a i n  f o r many y e a r s  t h i s f a i t h had  r e s i d e n t i n the community a t any  o n l y a few one  time.  1861  representatives Roman C a t h o l i c  p r i e s t s r e s i d e d i n the I s l a n d c o l o n y from i t s i n c e p t i o n but, a g a i n , they were o n l y a few.  French-Canadian r e s i d e n t s  t i c u l a r l y welcomed the p r i e s t s but F a t h e r Demers was  par-  forced  t o t r a v e l to Europe, s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s appointment as Bishop o f Vancouver I s l a n d , to s o l i c i t  funds and  diocese.  No  f i n a n c i a l h e l p c o u l d be  son's Bay  Company and h i s o n l y diocesans  personnel  expected from the Hudwere "badly  l i z e d savages, w i t h a few w h i t e s of v a r i o u s too o f t e n the scum of t h e i r own g l e attempt a t  for his  demora-  nationalities,  c o u n t r i e s , grouped i n a  sin-  settlement."^"  C l e r g y of the Church of England f i r s t a r r i v e d i n 3  ^George H i r i d l e , The E d u c a t i o n a l System of B r i t i s h Columbia ( T r a i l : T r a i l P u b l i s h i n g and P r i n t i n g " C o . L t d . , 1918), p. 17. ^Rev. A. G. M o r i c e , H i s t o r y o f the C a t h o l i c Church i n Western Canada 1659 - 1895, V o l . 2 of 2 v o l s . ( T o r o n t o : The Musson Book Company L i m i t e d , 1910), p. 297.  8  the c o l o n y as employees of the Company.  Both the  Reverend  Robert S t a i n e s and h i s s u c c e s s o r , Edward C r i d g e , s e r v e d as s c h o o l m a s t e r and c h a p l a i n t o F o r t V i c t o r i a . and 1868  Between  1857  the Church of England and i t s m i s s i o n a r y s o c i e t i e s  sent t w e n t y - e i g h t m i n i s t e r s and m i s s i o n a r i e s t o the c o l o n y p l u s Bishop H i l l s who  r e c r u i t e d another eight  Only a few o f t h e s e , however, remained  workers.  f o r any l e n g t h of  time. Workers of a l l f o u r churches r e p o r t e d and comment e d on the g e n e r a l apathy o r h o s t i l i t y c o l o n i e s and which was  to r e l i g i o n i n the  most n o t i c e a b l e i n the mining  com-  m u n i t i e s which employed a l a r g e number of s i n g l e men. however, a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t the church was importance  t o the s e t t l e r s who  a l i v i n g o r to those who 7 vilization.'  Hills,  r a r e l y of prime  were p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h making  came to escape the c o n f i n e s o f c i -  Church h i s t o r y s o u r c e s c i t e many i n s t a n c e s o f P r o t e s t a n t i n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n but some evidence suggests t h a t the Church  o f England tended to c l a i m supremacy.  H i l l s a t one time r e p o r t e d to London t h a t h i s church was i n the f i e l d but was  t a r t l y rebuked by a correspondent  alone who  r e c a l l e d the p r i o r and c o n t i n u i n g presence of the Roman  (n.p.,  "*A L i s t n.d.)  of the P i o n e e r s Who  Served Under Bishop  Hills  6 F o r comments see M o r i c e , H i s t o r y of the C a t h o l i c Church, p. 316; Frank Peake, The A n g l i c a n Church i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: M i t c h e l l PressV 1959), p. 41; and Mervyn Ewart Kennedy, "The H i s t o r y of P r e s b y t e r i a n i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1861-1935" (Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1938), p. 32 and p. 102. 7 'Peake, The A n g l i c a n Church, p. 2 9 .  9  C a t h o l i c Church and the a c t i v i t i e s of the Methodists and Pres8  byterians.  A n g l i c a n Reverend J . B. Good challenged Metho-  d i s t r i g h t s to operate I n d i a n schools and the e n t i r e Indian m i s s i o n f i e l d was sometimes claimed as e x c l u s i v e l y A n g l i c a n . ^ Any such claims or attempts  to e s t a b l i s h a "State  Church" proved an anathema to the e d i t o r s of the two l e a d i n g c o l o n i a l newspapers.  Reared i n Nova S c o t i a and Upper Can-  ada, r e s p e c t i v e l y , both Amor De Cosmos of the D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , and John Robson, of the B r i t i s h Columbian, fought a g a i n s t B r i t i s h Columbia being made the ground where a l l our o l d b a t t l e s and sect a r i a n feuds must be re-enacted. . . . (and where) p u b l i c sentiment w i l l be s t r o n g l y opposed to grants from the p u b l i c revenue f o r s e c t a r i a n purposes.  1 0  De Cosmos deplored favoured treatment g i v e n to the Church of England and reminded the government t h a t such f a v o u r i t i s m was i n d i r e c t c o n t r a v e n t i o n of C o l o n i a l O f f i c e p o l i c y and Bishop H i l l s ' p u b l i c statement i n support of v o l u n t a r y i s m as w e l l as being a g a i n s t the wishes of 90 percent of the population."''^  Robson j o i n e d De Cosmos i n condemning Governor  Douglas' o f f e r of government grants to the A n g l i c a n churches at Douglas and L i l l o o e t — fused —  which an embarrassed H i l l s r e -  by reminding the Governor and the p u b l i c that t h i s  was money which by the most oppressive t a x a t i o n he has screwed out of P r e s b y t e r i a n s , Methodists, B a p t i s t s , Roman C a t h o l i c s , Jews, Chinese, Otherarians, and Nothing8  B r i t i s h Columbian  'British Colonist, 10 ' B r i t i s h Columbian 11  L  B r i t i s h Colonist,  10  arians, as well as Episcopalians.  12  S i m i l a r l y , both papers strongly opposed any form of s e c t a r i a n education  supported by public funds.  appear i n the newspapers regarding  Pew clues  the extent of general en-  thusiasm f o r or antipathy to denominational schools but i t i s evident that these i n s t i t u t i o n s were established, that some received government f i n a n c i n g , and that a s u b s t a n t i a l part of the community sent t h e i r c h i l d r e n to them.  Formal educational f a c i l i t i e s appeared i n the c o l onies c o i n c i d e n t a l l y with the a r r i v a l of church tives.  On or about September 14, 1849 an Oblate  representamissionary  opened the f i r s t school on the Island, f o r the wives and 13  c h i l d r e n of the Hudson's Bay Company's Canadian servants, but Roman Catholic educational e f f o r t s were sporadic 1858.  until  In that year the S i s t e r s of St. Ann opened a g i r l s '  school i n V i c t o r i a , accommodating students of a l l r e l i g i o n s and races, and extended t h e i r e f f o r t s to other Island and Mainland centres as warranted by population growth.  14  Gov-  ernor Douglas furnished personal, but no government, support and f i n a n c i a l a i d to the S i s t e r s and the Colonist believed that the good moral and general education provided f o r g i r l s B r i t i s h Columbian, July 11, 1861. 1 2  Father l e m p f r i t wrote to Oregon on that date adv i s i n g that he had begun h i s school. See "learning Began i n a Log Classroom," Province (Vancouver), July 19, 1971, Centennial E d i t i o n , p. 43. F o r a complete account of the schools see Edith Emily Down "The S i s t e r s of St. Ann, Their Contribution to Education i n the P a c i f i c Northwest 1858 - 1958" (Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962). 1 4  11  and orphans deserved government f i n a n c i n g . °  Oblate f a t h e r s  x  opened s c h o o l s f o r boys i n V i c t o r i a and New ing  the c o l o n i a l  cessful  p e r i o d and  these i n s t i t u t i o n s  as were those o f the S i s t e r s .  no f i n a n c i a l support was Church  Westminster durproved as  Similarly,  however,  p r o v i d e d by the government.  o f England c h a p l a i n s to F o r t V i c t o r i a  to the R o y a l E n g i n e e r s a l s o a c t e d as s c h o o l m a s t e r s . Robert  suc-  and  Thus,  S t a i n e s and h i s w i f e and the C r i d g e s o p e r a t e d s c h o o l s  f o r the c h i l d r e n of the Company's "gentlemen" employees w h i l e the Reverend Mr. Sapperton,  a school at  the E n g i n e e r s ' base on the mainland.  gious i n s t r u c t i o n Church  Sheepshanks conducted  As  "reli-  i n accordance w i t h the d o c t r i n e s o f the  of England"formed  p a r t o f the F o r t V i c t o r i a s c h o o l  c u r r i c u l u m the S t a i n e s and C r i d g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s were denom16 inational.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , government funds f i n a n c e d p a r t o f  t h e i r o p e r a t i o n as evidence suggests t h a t the Company guaranteed  S t a i n e s ' annual s a l a r y , i f p r i v a t e funds f a i l e d  to  p r o v i d e the f u l l amount, and t h a t an annual g r a n t of 17  £100  was  Hills'  d e f i n i t e l y promised  to h i s successor.  Bishop  s c h o o l s i n V i c t o r i a and Nanaimo and the mainland A n g l i c a n c o l l e g e s stemmed from t h i s t r a d i t i o n b u t , u n l i k e t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s , r e c e i v e d no p u b l i c f i n a n c i n g . B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , January 1, 1859. ^G. H. S l a t e r , "Rev. Robert John S t a i n e s : P i o n e e r P r i e s t , Pedagogue, and P o l i t i c a l A g i t a t o r , " B r i t i s h Columb i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 14(4) (1950), p. 191. 1 5  1  17 • D . L. MacLaurin, " E d u c a t i o n B e f o r e the G o l d Rush" B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 11 (4) (1938), p. 256.  12  Aware of the educational needs of c h i l d r e n belonging to the Company labourers and the few independent s e t t l e r s , Douglas recommended e s t a b l i s h i n g elementary schools 18  to provide a good moral and r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g .  Three of  these C o l o n i a l Schools opened on the Island i n 1852 1853,  and  government funds supplemented teacher s a l a r i e s ,  the Reverend Edward Cridge was  appointed  and  supervisor i n  1856.  His reports i n d i c a t e that s c r i p t u r e lessons received p r i mary a t t e n t i o n as more c h i l d r e n were e n r o l l e d i n t h i s than  19 i n any other subject.  J  As s c r i p t u r e was  Church of England  theology and the schools were modelled on the National, or Anglican, schools of England public funds again financed denominational  education.  Ostensibly government funds only financed denominational  schools on the mainland and the Sapperton  school only received a i d a f t e r the departure eers and the re-opening denominational.  non-  of the Engin-  of the school as one which was  non-  However, the Anglican Church remained i n -  volved with t h i s school through monetary help u n t i l  1868  when the Archdeacon of Columbia withdrew h i s sponsorship, which time the school was a Presbyterian, opened New  forced to c l o s e .  at  Rev. R. Jamieson,  Westminster's f i r s t school i n  1862  and turned i t over to a c o u n c i l of three, representing the 20 Methodist, 1  Anglican, and Presbyterian churches, i n  fi MacLaurin, "Before the Gold Rush," p.  19  1863.  249.  -'Johnson, History of Public Education, p. 28. 20 i(Master's n Margaret AThesis, Lf iu l l oe or eU tn account i McDonald, v e r s i tof y of both "New B r i tthese Westminster i s h Columbia, schools 1859 i 1947). s provided - 1871,"  13  In r e a l i t y , therefore, p u b l i c funds supported Protestant C h r i s t i a n schools on the mainland, as they did on the Island, provided they were nominally  non-denominational.  Suspected of considering C o l o n i a l schools as the exclusive property of h i s church, Cridge incurred De Cosmos' righteous i n d i g n a t i o n . Questioning whether schools  belonged  to colony or Colonial Church and School Society, De Cosmos demanded information regarding the schools * r e l a t i o n s h i p to the colony, the auspices under which conducted,  and the sup21  erintendent or board to whom teachers were responsible.  Lack  of knowledge regarding the schools made them i r r e l e v a n t to the public who continued to support s e c t a r i a n schools f o r t h i s reason, according t o De Cosmos. Therefore, the government should "further the establishment of a good common school sys22 tern i n opposition to mere s e c t a r i a n hotbeds" a moral bias by v i r t u e of sound elementary  and i n c u l c a t e  education.  Likewise, John Robson fought f o r the p r i n c i p l e that "government funds must only be devoted to the support of non23 s e c t a r i a n schools."  No-one, i n Robson's view, had the  r i g h t to object to p r i v a t e l y funded denominational  schools  although they were " p r e j u d i c i a l to the common i n t e r e s t " while so few students resided i n the c o l o n y .  24  One well-devised,  l i b e r a l , and non-sectarian system would provide e f f i c i e n t schools and attack r e l i g i o u s b i g o t r y by the " s o c i a l , B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , February 14, I860. I b i d . , June 26, I860. 2 1  2 2  2  ^ B r i t i s h Columbian, February 13, 1864.  2 4  Ibid.  politi-  14  c a l , and r e l i g i o u s cementing of a heterogeneous  population." ^ 2  Reports o f p u b l i c meetings i n V i c t o r i a , Y a l e , and New Westminster r e v e a l t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f those i n a t t e n dance favoured non-sectarian schools.  Support f o r the con-  t e n t i o n that a m a j o r i t y of the whole p o p u l a t i o n agreed w i t h such a system can be found i n De Cosmos' o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t a l l candidates  f o r e l e c t i o n t o the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly pro-  fessed themselves i n accord w i t h a common, non-sectarian, 26 school system.  C l e a r l y , however, the newspapers and part  of the p u b l i c i n t e r p r e t e d non-sectarian as meaning non-religious.  C o l o n i s t r e p o r t s of the V i c t o r i a school meeting noted  that considerable o p p o s i t i o n was expressed to B i b l e readings i n classrooms,  t o which view the e d i t o r agreed as "no B i b l e 27  could s u i t a l l denominations and the Jews."  At one p o i n t  Robson denied that he opposed the B i b l e , r e l i g i o u s e x e r c i s e s , and the employment of q u a l i f i e d persons who a l s o had s p e c i f i c 28 church a f f i l i a t i o n s .  Nevertheless, approval of a motion  that B i b l e readings be i n c l u d e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m o f New Westminster schools invoked h i s denunciation of such readings as being the " f i r s t wedge i n s p l i t t i n g the N a t i o n a l school s y s tem."  He argued f u r t h e r that p r o v i s i o n s f o r the e x c l u s i o n of  o b j e c t o r s would only introduce " i n v i d i o u s comparisons and b i t t e r sectarian differences." B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , November 28, 1862. I b i d . , A p r i l 13, I864. I b i d . , A p r i l 11, I864. 26, 2 5  2 7  ^ B r i t i s h Columbian, A p r i l 13, I864. 2 9  I b i d . , J u l y 16, I864.  15  Both the Roman C a t h o l i c Church and A n g l i c a n c l e r g y men  denounced n o n - r e l i g i o u s education.  The former could never  accept a s e p a r a t i o n of education and r e l i g i o n , the A n g l i c a n Archdeacon of Columbia took strong exception to ommission of r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n from p u b l i c s c h o o l s ,  3 0  and the Reverend  W i l l i a m S. Reece, V i c e - P r e s i d e n t of the A n g l i c a n C o l l e g i a t e School i n V i c t o r i a , preached on the s u b j e c t .  Naming s e c u l a r  education as one of the primary sources of e v i l , Reece s t r e s s e d the n e c e s s i t y of B i b l e readings i n the s c h o o l s .  Bib-  l i c a l education, he argued, could be imparted without denomi n a t i o n a l b i a s but neglect of r e l i g i o u s education could l e a d only to i n d i f f e r e n c e to the c u l t i v a t i o n of v i r t u e s and weakening of other moral i n f l u e n c e s .  Secular education, s a i d  Reece, meant the beginning of moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n and was lation."  " c o n t r a r y to Reason, Experience, and Reve-  3 1  In s p i t e of the long campaign of the newspapers and t h e i r perceived p u b l i c demand i t was not u n t i l l a t e 1863 Vancouver I s l a n d and 1865  in  i n B r i t i s h Columbia that committees  were appointed to assess e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s make recommendations f o r p u b l i c school systems.  and  Under the  p r o v i s i o n s of Vancouver I s l a n d ' s School Act of 1865,  drafted  from the committee r e p o r t , schools were to be "conducted 30  Westminster," p.  359.  R e v . W i l l i a m S. Reece, Education ( V i c t o r i a : EvenExpress O f f i c e , 1864). 3 1  ing  McDonald, "New  16  s t r i c t l y upon n o n - s e c t a r i a n p r i n c i p l e s " w i t h textbooks s e l e c ted  f o r the purpose o f " i n c u l c a t i n g the h i g h e s t m o r a l i t y  w h i l e e x c l u d i n g r e l i g i o u s teachings and denominational dog32 mas."^  Opposition t o the t o t a l e x c l u s i o n o f r e l i g i o n from  the s c h o o l s , however, f o r c e d the i n c l u s i o n o f a clause a l lowing the c l e r g y , a t i n t e r v a l s f i x e d hy the Board of Educat i o n , t o v i s i t the schools and impart, i n a separate room, r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n t o c h i l d r e n of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e per33 suasions.Regardless  of Robson's o b j e c t i o n s , s c r i p t u r e  r e a d i n g , without comment, became part of the mainland  school  c u r r i c u l u m but p r o v i s i o n was made f o r p u p i l s t o be excused at t h e i r parents' request.  United i n 1866, the two c o l o n i e s  had no common school a c t u n t i l the Ordinance o f 1869 which, together w i t h the A c t o f 1870, confirmed both non-sectarianism and c l e r g y p r i v i l e g e s . I s l a n d C o l o n i a l schools emerged as the f i r s t publ i c schools under the 1865 A c t .  Dedicated t o the p r i n c i p l e  of non-sectarianism, teachers such as John Jessop opened new schools but c o l o n i a l f i n a n c i a l chaos soon reduced o r e l i m i n ated government a i d .  I n 1867 and 1868 s i x schools c l o s e d due  to l a c k of funds, 175 c h i l d r e n , t h e r e f o r e , r e c e i v e d no f o r mal education, and the Board of Education resigned en masse i n p r o t e s t a g a i n s t government d i s i n t e r e s t .  3 4  Two years l a t e r  32 B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , December 1, 1864. 33 - ^ I b i d . Dr. Tolmie, an A n g l i c a n , noted the widespread f e e l i n g a g a i n s t the t o t a l e x c l u s i o n of r e l i g i o n from the schools and moved an amendment t o i n c l u d e t h i s clause i n A p r i l , I864. J o h n s o n , H i s t o r y o f P u b l i c Education, p. 37. 34  17  only s i x p u b l i c schools remained open on the I s l a n d , f o u r of them the o l d C o l o n i a l s c h o o l s , w i t h an average of 148  chil-  dren a t t e n d i n g i n f i v e l o c a t i o n s plus an undetermined number at Lake.  At the same time only f i v e p u b l i c schools e x i s t e d  on the mainland, w i t h an average attendance of s e v e n t y - s i x plus an unreported number a t Y a l e .  Only two I s l a n d l o c a l i -  t i e s and one mainland community c o n t r i b u t e d l o c a l funds to 35 school o p e r a t i o n s . School r e p o r t s i n c l u d e d i n the S e s s i o n a l Papers made no mention of s u b j e c t s taught or textbooks used.  It i s ,  t h e r e f o r e , d i f f i c u l t to determine whether or not r e l i g i o u s and moral education took place i n the classrooms during the p e r i o d from 1865  to 1872.  Undoubtedly, no formal r e l i g i o u s  courses were taught i n view of the A c t s ' ban on s e c t a r i a n teaching and c l e r g y p r i v i l e g e s allowed a f t e r r e g u l a r school hours.  On the other hand, r e l i g i o u s education was  i n the mainland s c h o o l s , at l e a s t u n t i l 1869,  present  through B i b l e  readings and most nineteenth century textbooks i n c l u d e d r e l i g i o u s r e f e r e n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the I r i s h N a t i o n a l Texts recommended f o r the C o l o n i a l schools by Gridge, used i n Jessop's s c h o o l , and g e n e r a l l y employed i n a l l B r i t i s h C o l 36 umbia p u b l i c schools by 1870.  Prepared by  experienced  teachers, under the d i r e c t i o n of the N a t i o n a l Board of Educ a t i o n i n I r e l a n d , these t e x t s were used i n I r e l a n d , Eng35 • ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , S e s s i o n a l Papers, 33 V i c t . , 1870, No. 11. 36 Lupul, "Education i n Western Canada," p. 257.  18  l a n d , and many B r i t i s h C o l o n i e s .  Egerton Ryerson considered  the s e r i e s imbued w i t h the purest p r i n c i p l e s ^ ^ a n d the t i o n a l Board esteemed i t eminently  suitable for a  of a mixed c h a r a c t e r as to t h e i r r e l i g i o u s  Na-  "population  persuasions."-^  Perusing the "Contents of the N a t i o n a l Readers"-^ r e v e a l s separate s e c t i o n s i n the second, t h i r d , and f o u r t h books which are devoted to " R e l i g i o u s and Moral Lessons" and d e f i n i t e l y l i n k r e l i g i o n and m o r a l i t y .  I n a d d i t i o n , these  two concepts are present i n lessons teaching E n g l i s h grammar and l i t e r a t u r e , h i s t o r y , geography, and p o l i t i c a l economy. I n view of c l e r g y p r i v i l e g e s and textbook  content  the schools thus proved C h r i s t i a n r a t h e r than n o n - r e l i g i o u s . F u r t h e r , i f the King James v e r s i o n was used f o r B i b l e r e a dings the schools were P r o t e s t a n t and not, t h e r e f o r e , sectarian.  non-  Protestant clergymen, r e p r e s e n t i n g the A n g l i c a n ,  Methodist, and P r e s b y t e r i a n churches, administered the f i r s t p u b l i c examination at V i c t o r i a ' s C e n t r a l school which i n d i cates a c o n t i n u i n g P r o t e s t a n t i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the s y s t e m . ^ 4  F o l l o w i n g establishment  of the system i n 1865  no r e c o r d of  any P r o t e s t a n t c l e r g y p r o t e s t can be found, suggesting o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e l i g i o u s and moral t r a i n i n g i n the was  that schools  considered s a t i s f a c t o r y by that f a c t i o n . 37  Rev. Egerton Ryerson, D.D., Report on a System of P u b l i c Elementary I n s t r u c t i o n f o r Upper Canada (Montreal; L o v e l l and Gibson, 1847), p. 173. 38 Report of the N a t i o n a l Schools i n I r e l a n d as quoted i n J o u r n a l of Education f o r Upper Canada 1 (9) (September, 1848), p. 281. 39 J o u r n a l of Education 1 (11) (November, 1848), p.321. JZ>  19  With i t s present education system i n chaos B r i t i s h Columbia prepared to enter Confederation with Canada. though considering new  Al-  school l e g i s l a t i o n early i n 1871 some  L e g i s l a t i v e members placed education on a low p r i o r i t y as they r e c a l l e d public apathy, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n V i c t o r i a which had preferred to see i t s sctiool closed rather than pay Whether the community was  taxes.  interested i n i t or not, however,  education occupied a place of prime importance to the Coloni s t and V i c t o r i a ' s neglect only proved the desperate need f o r government a c t i o n to remove poor c h i l d r e n from the 4.2 streets and prevent the idleness leading to public mischief. By August no progress had been reported on a new  School Act  and the Mainland Guardian prodded the government f o r the swift establishment of a f r e e , non-sectarian school system. R e i t e r a t i n g the old argument that denominational  schools  could not be supported i n a small population area such as B r i t i s h Columbia, the newspaper noted that r e l i g i o n should be confined to Sunday School.  At the same time, the I r i s h  National s e r i e s , or texts as nearly l i k e them as p o s s i b l e , was recommended f o r the new  system.  43  Apparently the e d i t o r  was unaware that these texts would make the new r e l i g i o u s as t h e i r predecessors.  schools as  This oversight i s not sur-  p r i s i n g , however, as no-one appears to have p u b l i c l y considered textbook content at any time during t h i s period. 4  °Johnson, John Jessop, p. 5 2 .  41,B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , January 14, 4 2  1871.  I b i d . , February 8,  43, Mainland Guardian  1871.  1871. (New  Westminster),  August 16,  4 1  20  F i n a l l y f u l f i l l i n g i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , the new p r o v i n c i a l government a c t e d i n 1872 to e s t a b l i s h a v i a b l e school system.  B r i t i s h North America Act p r o v i s i o n s i n  regard to e d u c a t i o n a l r i g h t s f o r m i n o r i t i e s could not be i n voked as no avowedly denominational schools had ever r e ceived f i n a n c i a l support from p u b l i c funds i n e i t h e r of the two c o l o n i e s which now comprised the province of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Almost c e r t a i n l y then the new system would con-  t i n u e the e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n of a s i n g l e and non-sectarian public entity.  I n the f u t u r e l a y many changes but the  e a r l y c o l o n i a l years set the broad p a t t e r n of development f o r both the province and i t s e d u c a t i o n a l system as w i l l be observed i n the f o l l o w i n g chapters.  <0f  :  '•• y -yJ:'-:'  CHAPTER  TWO  SYSTEM, RELIGION, AND 1872  to  MORALITY  1883  C o n t r o v e r s i e s o v e r the meaning  o f terms, m o r a l i t y ,  and the r o l e o f the c h u r c h and r e l i g i o n c o n t i n u e d to plague a new  p u b l i c s c h o o l system which was,  i n law, as unequivo-  c a l l y n o n - s e c t a r i a n as i t s p r e c u r s o r s .  John J e s s o p , educa-  t e d i n Upper Canada, a devout M e t h o d i s t , and a r d e n t admirer of the R y e r s o n i a n s c h o o l system, d e s i g n e d the major p a r t o f B r i t i s h Columbia's new  School A c t o f 1872.  As Johnson n o t e s ,  Jessop v i r t u a l l y adopted the e n t i r e O n t a r i o system, w i t h nec e s s a r y m o d i f i c a t i o n s , f o r the new p r o v i n c e .  1  Entrenched  m i n o r i t y r i g h t s , however, had f o r c e d Ryerson t o r e c o g n i z e , and p r o v i d e p u b l i c f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r , the Roman C a t h o l i c s c h o o l system i n O n t a r i o .  As no c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s  ex-  i s t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r m i n o r i t y group e d u c a t i o n i t was  p o s s i b l e to e s t a b l i s h a u n i f i e d system which a f f i r m e d  s e c t a r i a n i s m and a g a i n s t which t h e r e c o u l d be no l e g a l  non-  appeal.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , Roman C a t h o l i c Church a u t h o r i t i e s c o u l d never a c c e p t what they f i r m l y b e l i e v e d was f o r t h e c h i l d r e n of t h e i r c  a n o n - r e l i g i o u s system  faith.  C e r t a i n l y , Ryerson's system was  never i n t e n d e d t o  be n o n - r e l i g i o u s as he e x t e n s i v e l y quoted the most  competent  a u t h o r i t i e s to prove "the a b s o l u t e n e c e s s i t y o f making  Chris-  "^F. Henry Johnson, "The R y e r s o n i a n I n f l u e n c e on the P u b l i c S c h o o l System o f B r i t i s h Columbia," B. C. S t u d i e s 10 (Summer, 1971): 26-34. 21  22  t i a n i t y the b a s i s and the cement of the s t r u c t u r e of p u b l i c education,"  He f i r m l y b e l i e v e d r e l i g i o u s and moral i n s t r u c -  t i o n as much a f u n c t i o n of the p u b l i c schools as i n t e l l e c t u a l and p h y s i c a l education but t h a t s e c t a r i a n teachings must be excluded except i n homogeneous r e l i g i o u s communities. To Ryerson, the Holy S c r i p t u r e s taught a g e n e r a l system of t r u t h and morals which could be communicated e x t e n s i v e l y and thoroughly, f o r a l l purposes of C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y , without any b i a s of sect a r i a n i s m , and without any i n t e r f e r e n c e whatever w i t h the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of d i f f e r e n t Churches or Sects.3 In view of Jessop's regard f o r Ryerson i t appears probable that h i s concept of non-sectarianism would not be too d i vergent from the above.  Others i n B r i t i s h Columbia, how-  ever, as f i r m l y b e l i e v e d that n o n - s e c t a r i a n equalled nonreligious. C l e a r l y , c o n s i d e r a b l e o p p o s i t i o n e x i s t e d to any o f f i c i a l c l e r i c a l r o l e i n the new system.  O r i g i n a l l y , the  n o n - s e c t a r i a n clause i n the 1872 Act s t a t e d that " a l l Judges, Clergymen, and Members of the L e g i s l a t u r e s h a l l be school visitors."  During debate i n committee, however, one. member  proposed that clergyman be d i s q u a l i f i e d as v i s i t o r s and another member i n t e r j e c t e d "and Chinamen and Indians" to which the f i r s t l e g i s l a t o r r e p l i e d that they were simply deal i n g w i t h another c l a s s of "Chinaman," namely the c l e r g y . Continuing on to s t a t e that the term c l e r g y "don't i n c l u d e 2 Ryerson, Report on a System, p. 32. 3  ^ I b i d . , p. 41.  23  C a t h o l i c s , " which caused a great deal of merriment among the members, he claimed that i f the schools were to be s u c c e s s f u l the  c l e r g y should be banned.  A f t e r much debate, i n which  other members averred t h a t the schools needed the h e l p of any educated men a v a i l a b l e and t h a t v i s i t o r s were i n such short supply that none should be denied, the clause was amended to read that " a l l Judges, Clergymen, Members of the Legi s l a t u r e , and others i n t e r e s t e d i n e d u c a t i o n , s h a l l be school visitors."  4  According t o C. B. S i s s o n s , t h i s clause e f f e c -  t i v e l y removed r i g h t of i n s t r u c t i o n enjoyed by the c l e r g y under previous a c t s .  On the other hand, Bishop Acton W.  S i l l i t o e , f i r s t A n g l i c a n Bishop of New Westminster, noted that the remedy f o r a n o n - r e l i g i o u s teaching system might l i e i n the " c l e r g y f i n d i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y to teach the Church c h i l d r e n f o r an hour a day i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . "  As the  Bishop's statement was made i n 1881 i t suggests that school p r i v i l e g e s had simply not been s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d r a t h e r than rescinded and that the c l e r g y were e i t h e r not aware of these r i g h t s o r merely not u s i n g them. No evidence can be found of a f t e r hours r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n i n the p u b l i c schools e i t h e r before o r a f t e r 1872 but a c o n t i n u i n g close connection between school and P r o t e s tant Church can be demonstrated.  The A n g l i c a n m i n i s t e r i n  B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , March 12-14, 1872. 5 S i s s o n s , Church and S t a t e , p. 380.  4  g  Rev. Herbert H. Gowen, F.R.G.S., Church Work i n B r i t i s h Columbia: Memoir of the Episcopate of"Acton Windeyer S i l l i t o e , F i r s t Bishop of New Westminster (London: Longmans, Green and Company, 1899), p. 71.  24  Vancouver, f o r example, h e l d s e r v i c e s i n the H a s t i n g s s c h o o l the day a f t e r i t opened i n 1872 and the Reverend Robson, o f t h e M e t h o d i s t on the same premises.'  Ebenezer  church, conducted worship  services  The f a i r l y g e n e r a l n i n e t e e n t h cen-  t u r y e q u a t i o n o f m o r a l i t y w i t h r e l i g i o n a l s o connected  church  and s c h o o l as m o r a l i t y was seen as "goodness" and moral beh a v i o u r as t h a t which was i n a c c o r d w i t h those laws o r r u l e s Q  which had been p r e s c r i b e d f o r men by a d i v i n e b e i n g . one parent wrote t h a t the s c h o o l s c o u l d not be c a l l e d l e s s " as the "genuine  Thus, "god-  p r i n c i p l e s of s t r i c t e s t morality are q  taught i n every s c h o o l i n t h i s c i t y . "  Another  correspon-  dent, however, p o i n t e d out t h a t m o r a l i t y was not n e c e s s a r i l y the same as r e l i g i o n as m o r a l i t y c o n s i s t e d o f r u l e s o f conduct " t e n d i n g t o g e n e r a l w e l l - b e i n g and h a p p i n e s s " w h i l e r e l i g i o n was a system  o f m o r a l i t y combined w i t h s c r a p s o f h i s -  t o r y and b i o g r a p h y which r e n d e r e d i t d i f f i c u l t f a c t from f a n t a s y .  to d i s t i n g u i s h  1 0  F u r t h e r evidence o f l e g i s l a t i v e a n t i p a t h y t o any clerical  i n f l u e n c e i n the s c h o o l system  i s found i n t h e con-  t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g the appointment o f a S u p e r i n t e n d e n t . l e g i s l a t u r e adopted  The  one member's p r o p o s a l t h a t no man be q u a l i -  f i e d f o r S u p e r i n t e n d e n t without a t l e a s t f i v e y e a r s t e a c h i n g 7 James M. Sandison, ed., Schools o f Old Vancouver (Vancouver: H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y O c c a s i o n a l Paper No. 2, 1971), p. 12. J . R. Coombs and L. B. D a n i e l s , "Teachers, M o r a l Edu c a t i o n , and the P u b l i c S c h o o l s , " i n O p t i o n s : Reforms and A l t e r n a t i v e s f o r Canadian E d u c a t i o n , eds. Terence M o r r i s o n and Anthony B u r t o n ( T o r o n t o : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston o f Canada, L i m i t e d , 1973), pp. 158-70. q 1 0  • ' B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , January I b i d . , January 12, 1877.  5, 1877.  25  experience and the possession of a f i r s t c l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e .  11  These q u a l i f i c a t i o n s e f f e c t i v e l y barred clergymen from appointment to the p o s i t i o n of Superintendent and provoked a prot e s t and p e t i t i o n from a number of V i c t o r i a ' s c i t i z e n s .  At  the same time an A n g l i c a n m i n i s t e r a p p l i e d f o r the post of Superintendent and h i s example was immediately f o l l o w e d by clergymen of two separate P r o t e s t a n t denominations.  In turn,  these a c t i o n s prompted the government to request t h a t the Lieutenant-Governor r e t u r n the b i l l f o r amendment of the r e 12 s t r i c t i v e clause.  Apparently, l e g i s l a t i v e assent to pro-  posed r e v i s i o n could not be obtained as the clause remained i n the f i n a l Act as o r i g i n a l l y moved.  One " C i t i z e n " con-  g r a t u l a t e d the government on i t s r e t u r n to s a n i t y and gave thanks t h a t the i l l i b e r a l and p r i e s t l y h o s t i l i t y shown to the Nanaimo teacher would not spread to and i r r e p a r a b l y harm the e n t i r e system as i t s u r e l y would i f a clergyman were ap13  pointed Superintendent. ^ Argument a l s o surrounded the appointment Board of Education.  of a new  Apparently the government experienced  some d i f f i c u l t y i n overcoming the p r e v a i l i n g apathy  towards  both education and p u b l i c s e r v i c e and f i n d i n g q u a l i f i e d w i l l i n g to serve on the B o a r d .  14  men  When s i x men were appointed  at l a s t a "Nonconformist" immediately a t t a c k e d an e x c l u s i v e l y A n g l i c a n cabinet f o r a p p o i n t i n g an almost t o t a l l y A n g l i c a n i : L  I b i d . , March 14,  1872.  1 2  I b i d . , A p r i l 9,  1872.  1 3  I b i d . , A p r i l 13,  1872.  1 4  I b i d . , A p r i l 23,  1872.  26  Board, f o u r of whom were a l s o enemies of a n o n - s e c t a r i a n s y s tem.  Accusing the government of a s i n i s t e r p l o t to destroy  the new system, the correspondent reminded h i s readers t h a t there were f o u r C h r i s t i a n denominations plus Hebrews i n the province and that, i n f a i r n e s s t o a l l , A n g l i c a n s , who r e p r e sented o n e - t h i r d o r l e s s of the p o p u l a t i o n , should only have 15  two members on a s i x member Board.  J  While agreeing w i t h  "ETonconformist 's" arguments the C o l o n i s t expressed i t s conf i d e n c e i n the new Board and i t s b e l i e f that no denomination 16  would be g i v e n favoured treatment i n the system. True t o t h e i r b a s i c C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f s , however, the Board members adopted the r e l i g i o u s view of m o r a l i t y and had no i n t e n t i o n of banning r e l i g i o n from a system which they cons i d e r e d non-denominational r a t h e r than n o n - r e l i g i o u s .  There-  f o r e , the Honourable Montague W. T. Drake's motion that the Board adopt r e l i g i o u s e x e r c i s e s f o r use i n the schools was 17  accepted without o p p o s i t i o n .  Opening and C l o s i n g E x e r c i s e s ,  not A n g l i c a n i n form but c l e a r l y P r o t e s t a n t C h r i s t i a n , were thereby i n c l u d e d i n the Rules and Regulations f o r the Government of P u b l i c Schools i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia 18 and c l e a r l y a f f i r m e d the r o l e of r e l i g i o n i n the system.  In  law, and i n the o p i n i o n of a segment of the p o p u l a t i o n , there now e x i s t e d a p r o v i n c i a l p u b l i c school system which favoured I b i d . , A p r i l 24, 1872. I b i d . , May 5, 1872. 1 5  l 6  17  ' B r i t i s h Columbia, Board of Education, Minute Book ( V i c t o r i a : May 7, 1872 - August 12, 1878), p. 19. B r i t i s h Columbia, F i r s t Annual Report of t h e P u b l i c Schools by John Jessop, Superintendent ( V i c t o r i a : 1872), p. 20. :  27  no r e l i g i o n o r s e c t but, i n f a c t , was  a system as  religious  and s e c t a r i a n as i t s f o r e r u n n e r s . E n t h u s i a s t i c support f o r e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s remained, as b e f o r e 1872, of 16,  conspicuous  a p o s s i b l e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n of 1,768 o n l y 524  appeared  the remainder,  350  at-  t o make e n r o l l m e n t f e a s i b l e . was  In  o n l y 50 p e r c e n t of e n r o l -  c h i l d r e n reached by the p u b l i c s y s -  attended r e g u l a r l y . *  c h i l d r e n between the ages of 5 and elementary  Of  of these l a t t e r l i v i n g too f a r  attendance  lment so t h a t of the few tern fewer s t i l l  c h i l d r e n aged 5 t o  e n r o l l e d i n p r i v a t e s c h o o l s and 900  from e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s a d d i t i o n , average  Thus,  on p u b l i c s c h o o l r e g i s t e r s i n 1872.  tended no s c h o o l , some 300  lic  by i t s absence.  also  By 1881  the number of  14 r o s e t o 8,597 but pub-  s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d a t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t of o n l y  2,579 and a s l i g h t l y i n c r e a s e d average  attendance  of  53.16  20 percent.  Jessop p l a c e d the blame f o r poor e n r o l l m e n t  attendance  s q u a r e l y on the p a r e n t s whom he c l a s s i f i e d  " h a b i t u a l l y c a r e l e s s and  d i l a t o r y " and unable  and  as  t o "look a t  t h i s t e r r i b l e drawback t o s c h o o l p r o s p e r i t y i n i t s p r o p e r 21 light."  Both Jessop and h i s s u c c e s s o r , C. C. McKenzie,  recommended t h a t l o c a l d i s t r i c t s be r e q u i r e d t o pay some p o r t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n ' s c o s t as a d i r e c t  tax would make p a r -  ents more aware of the s c h o o l s and more w i l l i n g to ensure • ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, F i r s t S c h o o l Report - Supplement, p.36.  20 ^ C a n a d a , Census o f 1931, V. 1, T a b l e 9, p. 392; B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of E d u c a t i o n , One Hundred Years ( V i c t o r i a : 1972), p. 68; and B r i t i s h Columbia, T h i r t e e n ^ Annual Report of the P u b l i c Schools by S. D. Pope, S u p e r i n tendent ( V i c t o r i a : 1884), p. 318.  28  t h e i r c h i l d r e n ^ attendance i n order t o reap the value of t a x 22 dollars. Many f a m i l i e s , however, d i d not l i v e long enough i n one d i s t r i c t to form any f e e l i n g of belonging or be enr o l l e d on m u n i c i p a l tax l i s t s .  Miners f o l l o w e d g o l d t r a i l s  from the P r a s e r to the Cariboo to the Similkameen; woodworkers f o l l o w e d l o g g i n g and sawmill t r a i l s on the I s l a n d and mainland; and merchants, lawyers, and other s e r v i c e workers f o l l o w e d migrants and e s t a b l i s h e d towns ephemerally based on f l e e t i n g p r o s p e r i t y and c o n t i n u i n g e x p l o i t a t i o n of raw r e s o u r c e s . When the n a t u r a l wealth disappeared so d i d the workers and the towns.  S e t t l e d communities, however,  a l s o s t r u g g l e d w i t h economic d i f f i c u l t i e s which could cause f i n a n c i a l p a n i c , the c l o s u r e of f a c t o r i e s and shops, s h a r p l y i n c r e a s e d unemployment, and r a p i d l y d e c l i n i n g revenues as i n 23  1873 V i c t o r i a .  Often, t h e r e f o r e , f a m i l i e s had no other  choice than to f o l l o w where employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s might lead. Other parents could not a f f o r d the " l u x u r y " of keeping c h i l d r e n , needed f o r farm chores or to c o n t r i b u t e f i n a n c i a l support, i n s c h o o l .  ITanaimo's school p r i n c i p a l , f o r  example, noted a d i s p o s i t i o n on the part of many parents to B r i t i s h Columbia, S i x t h Annual Report of the Publ i c Schools by John Jessop, Superintendent ( V i c t o r i a : 1877), p. 8. 2 1  22  B r i t i s h Columbia, Seventh Annual Report of the Publ i c Schools by C. C. McKenzie, Superintendent ( V i c t o r i a : 1878), p. 179. 2 3 Gregson, A H i s t o r y of V i c t o r i a , p. 59.  29  "send t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t o the ' P i t ' a t an e a r l y age" which e x e r c i s e d "a p r e j u d i c i a l i n f l u e n c e on the r i s i n g g e n e r a t i o n by d e p r i v i n g them of the advantages of f u r t h e r school education."  2 4  Many parents who d i d value education, such as  Dr. W i l l i a m Tolmie, a l s o e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y supported the publ i c school system but others p r e f e r r e d the denominational and p r i v a t e schools which continued t o f l o u r i s h , p a r t i c u l a r l y on Vancouver I s l a n d where p u b l i c schools s t i l l c a r r i e d the stigma of descent from the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s C o l o n i a l s c h o o l s . Some parents, however, s i n c e r e l y b e l i e v e d that p r i v a t e schools provided a b e t t e r education and h i g h e r standards f o r t h e i r children.  Thus, when Board members found themselves  accused  of non-support f o r the p u b l i c system, one member of the Board of Education defended h i m s e l f and h i s colleagues by s t a t i n g that they knew the "ignorance of the teachers who 25 come seeking c e r t i f i c a t e s ( t o teach i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s ) . " A p o s s i b l e a d d i t i o n a l reason f o r p r i v a t e school preference was the s t r i c t segregation of boys and g i r l s i n e n t i r e l y s e parate i n s t i t u t i o n s . In the nineteenth century most people b e l i e v e d t h a t s t r i c t segregation was necessary to the moral behaviour of school c h i l d r e n .  B r i t i s h Columbians were no exception and  the C o l o n i s t e d i t o r i a l i z e d t h a t h i g h moral standards could only be assured by s e p a r a t i n g the sexes as "nature w i l l a s s e r t i t s e l f unless c a r e f u l watch i s kept."26 Where i t was 2 4  B r i t i s h Columbia, F i f t h School Report, p. 94.  2 5  B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , May 10, 1876.  2 6  I b i d . , A p r i l 28, 1877.  30  n e c e s s a r y i n the p u b l i c system  t o educate  the two  g e t h e r they were s e g r e g a t e d as much as p o s s i b l e . two  sexes t o Victoria's  s t o r y C e n t r a l S c h o o l , f o r example, taught boys, who  t e r e d through the back door, on the f i r s t e n t e r i n g from the f r o n t , on the second the playground was  f l o o r and  story.  en-  girls,  Segregating  a board f e n c e whose smooth s i d e f a c e d the 27  boys' s e c t i o n o f the y a r d .  Jessop argued a g a i n s t s e g r e -  g a t i o n on the grounds o f e f f i c i e n c y w h i l e s t i l l  believing  t h a t c o n s t a n t s u r v e i l l a n c e was  necessary i n order to  p r o p e r conduct  N e v e r t h e l e s s , he  and demeanour.  ensure  realistically  reminded p a r e n t s t h a t boys and g i r l s mixed a f t e r s c h o o l hours and t h a t c o - e d u c a t i o n c o u l d have the e f f e c t o f g i r l s a m e l i o r a t i n g the b o i s t e r o u s n e s s and rough a s p e r i t i e s of b o y i s h n a t u r e s w h i l e enhancing  boys'  " i n h e r e n t t r a i t s of g a l l a n t r y , 28  affability,  and d e s i r e to p l e a s e . "  Bishop Seghers,  o f the Roman C a t h o l i c Church, v i -  g o u r o u s l y opposed mixed s c h o o l s but the M e t h o d i s t agreed w i t h J e s s o p . were based  Church  C l a i m i n g t h a t o b j e c t i o n s to c o - e d u c a t i o n  " s o l e l y on man's b a r b a r i s m , " The  C h r i s t i a n Guar-  d i a n s t a t e d t h a t no more danger e x i s t e d i n s c h o o l s than i n mixed v i s i t s  to museums o r p i c t u r e g a l l e r i e s and t h a t honour-  a b l e communion between the sexes would r e s u l t i n the h i g h e s t 29  moral w e l f a r e of s o c i e t y and f u l f i l  the D i v i n e w i l l .  J  One  C o l o n i s t correspondent echoed t h i s view but was an e x c e p t i o n CJHS 1875 - 1954 ( V i c t o r i a : C e n t r a l J u n i o r High School Year Book, 1954), p. 8. 28 B r i t i s h Columbia, F o u r t h Annual Report o f the Publ i c Schools by John J e s s o p , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ( V i c t o r i a : 1875), 29 T h e C h r i s t i a n Guardian ( T o r o n t o ) , A p r i l 25, 1877. p. 9. 2>7  J  31  to p r e v a i l i n g o p i n i o n . there was  I n one area of education, however,  complete agreement on s e p a r a t i o n by sex. The dormitory system i t s e l f , according to the Guar-  d i a n , was p e r n i c i o u s as i t removed c h i l d r e n from f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e and m u l t i p l i e d the temptations which would m u l t i p l y 30 disasters.  " I d l e hours would l e a d to m i s c h i e f " i n co-  e d u c a t i o n a l boarding s c h o o l s , reported the C o l o n i s t c o r r e s 31 pondent,  and Superior Court Judge Crease opposed plans  f o r mixing the sexes i n B r i t i s h Columbia boarding s c h o o l s . Ignoring these warnings the government and the Board proceeded w i t h the establishment of a co-educational boarding school at Cache Creek.- I n t i m a t i o n s of misconduct became widespread soon a f t e r the school opened, the teacher and  ma-  t r o n were dismissed, and i t was recommended that one or one and a h a l f acres should be enclosed by a h i g h board fence as a playground f o r g i r l s to which the boys would have no access whatever. This would . . . keep the sexes apart at a l l times except during school hours w h i l e i n class.32 Further t r o u b l e arose i n the f o l l o w i n g year w i t h r e p o r t s t h a t the g i r l s had been v i s i t i n g i n the boys' room at n i g h t over a p e r i o d of some months i n s p i t e of b o l t s on the outside of the 33 boys' door and the i n s i d e of the g i r l s ' door. ^ Deputy Superintendent  Clemitson blamed the boar-  ding school i l l s on the s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e of town and d i s Ibid. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , May 2, 1877. B r i t i s h Columbia, F i f t h School Report, p. 96. 33 -^For a f u l l account see John Calam, "An H i s t o r i c a l Survey of Boarding Schools and P u b l i c School Dormitories i n Canada" (Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962). 3 0  3 1  3 2  32  trict and  on c h i l d r e n ' s mores.  Correspondents to the C o l o n i s t  one member of the L e g i s l a t u r e , however, were more i n -  c l i n e d to c a s t i g a t e the t r u s t e e s . ^  Jessop a l s o censured  4  t r u s t e e s i n o t h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s f o r l a c k of i n t e r e s t r e l u c t a n c e to e n f o r c e attendance l e s t Neglect  they upset  and  friends i n  the community.•  JJ  o f d u t i e s c o u l d be seen i n Nanaimo  when c l a s s r o o m  c h a i r s were donated f o r a t r a v e l l i n g show p e r -  formance w i t h s c h o o l c h i l d r e n f o r c e d to e i t h e r s t a n d o r s i t  36 on the f l o o r f o r t h e i r l e s s o n s .  Nearby W e l l i n g t o n  pro-  v i d e d a n o t h e r example o f n e g l e c t which r e s i d e n t s p r o t e s t e d i n a p e t i t i o n a d v i s i n g t h a t more c h i l d r e n would a t t e n d  the  s c h o o l i f i t were c l e a n and  should  i f c l e a n l i n e s s and  decency  37  be i n c l u d e d as a branch o f moral t r a i n i n g . c o r d i n g to the p e t i t i o n , i m m o r a l i t y  was  Moreover, a c -  encouraged by  p l a c i n g of water c l o s e t s f o r boys and g i r l s w i t h i n a f e e t of each o t h e r , i n f u l l view, and  the few  p r o v i d e d w i t h no  par-  38  titions.  Confirming  p a r e n t a l complaints,  a visitor  p o r t e d a d v e r s e l y on the mean, d i r t y , and melancholy  re-  ap-  pearance of the s c h o o l house; the f e t i d atmosphere and p i d a t e d i n n e r f u r n i s h i n g s ; and 3 4  British  the unfenced,  C o l o n i s t , August 18,  1874  dila-  unsheltered and May  13,  1876.  35  lic p. p.  " ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, T h i r d Annual Report o f ^the PubSchools by John Jessop, Superintendent ( V i c t o r i a : 1874),  io;  ~  •^Vancouver Sun,  J u l y 19,  1971,  Centennial  Edition,  39c  37 ^'Teaching c l e a n l i n e s s and quirement but no f o r m a l course was 38  decency was a t e a c h e r r e provided. See I n f r a , p. 54.  • ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, S e s s i o n a l Papers, 43 V i c t . , 1880, p. 462.  33  yard l i t t e r e d w i t h an "assortment of w i l d bushes, f r u i t ,  cow-  horns, broken crockery, t i n s , boulders, and l o g s . " ^ 3  Trustee problems r e s u l t e d from d i s i n t e r e s t e d , unorganized taxpayers ignorant of t r u s t e e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  due  to s p e c i a l e l e c t i o n times and r e s t r i c t e d v o t i n g , according to a l e t t e r i n the Mainland G u a r d i a n .  40  I n f a i r n e s s , however,  other f a c t o r s than t r u s t e e neglect were i n v o l v e d i n sometimes deplorable school c o n d i t i o n s . A maintenance budget of $15.00 per year d i d not permit employment of f u l l - t i m e j a n i t o r s so t h a t students competed,: and received, payment, f o r part-time j a n i t o r i a l d u t i e s .  Brentwood, f o r example, p a i d  p u p i l s $6.00 per year, spent a f u r t h e r $8.00 f o r bi-annual c l e a n i n g , and possessed replacements.  41  only $1.00  f o r necessary r e p a i r s and  Even t h i s s m a l l sum was endangered one  year,  according to the C o l o n i s t , when "the incompetents of James Bay" f o r g o t to ask f o r a vote of supply to cover school i n c i dentals.such as f u e l and c l e a n i n g .  4 2  In a d d i t i o n to ensuring the upholding of school law and c a r i n g f o r school property, t r u s t e e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n cluded the employment of teachers possessing a good moral c h a r a c t e r and checking on conduct and management i n c l a s s rooms.  B r i t i s h Columbia, however, s u f f e r e d a s c a r c i t y of  competent teachers as, w h i l e h i g h s a l a r i e s might l u r e many - ^ B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , March 2, 4Q  Mainland  A  T  ruary 28, 4 2  Guardian  1881.  (New Westminster), A p r i l 14,  Saanich Peninsula and Gulf I s l a n d s Review, Feb1962.  B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , September 11,  1878.  1880.  34  to the p r o v i n c e , correspondingly h i g h e r s a l a r i e s i n other occupations made teacher r e t e n t i o n d i f f i c u l t .  Lake P u b l i c  School, f o r example, enjoyed the dubious d i s t i n c t i o n of employing s i x t e e n teachers i n f i v e years but other schools a l s o experienced h i g h s t a f f turnover. -^ 4  Jessop i n t i m a t e d  that only men u n f i t t e d f o r any other k i n d of work stayed on as teachers and were incompetent i n the classroom as well.  I n view of these circumstances i t i s h a r d l y s u r -  4 4  p r i s i n g t o f i n d t r u s t e e s o v e r l o o k i n g l a c k of c h a r a c t e r t e s t i m o n i a l s or c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n the event of being f o r t u n ate enough to secure a teacher and not i n q u i r i n g too deeply i n t o classroom conduct.  Nevertheless, the Act s p e c i f i c a l l y  r e q u i r e d s a t i s f a c t o r y proof of good moral c h a r a c t e r before c e r t i f i c a t i o n as most educators b e l i e v e d the moral example of a teacher, i n s p i r i n g reverence and regard as " s u p e r i o r h e a r t , head, and arm," was the best means of moral education. Many teachers d i d f u l f i l t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n but cond i t i o n s o f t e n conspired a g a i n s t them.  Thus, r e p o r t s i n d i -  cate some teachers not above f a l s i f y i n g attendance  records  i n order to i n c r e a s e s a l a r i e s p a r t l y based on p u p i l s pres e n t ^ and others c h a s t i s e d f o r u n t i d y , unclean 4  classrooms  and s c h o o l grounds as w e l l as c a r e l e s s n e s s i n personal ap4  ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, S i x t h School Report, p. 15.  4 4  B r i t i s h Columbia, Fourth School Report, p. 8.  ^ F . Henry Johnson, "Changing Conceptions of D i s c i p l i n e and Pupil-Teacher R e l a t i o n s i n Canadian Schools" (Doctor of Pedagogy D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 4  1952), p. 4  114.  ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, Fourth School Report, p. 8.  35  pearance  and h a b i t s . * 4  r a t i o n s encountered  7  P r e s s u r e s , l o n e l i n e s s , and f r u s t -  i n the s c h o o l system drove some t e a -  c h e r s t o d r i n k ; a n o t h e r found h i m s e l f suspended because of  i r r e g u l a r i t i e s s u r r o u n d i n g h i s d i v o r c e and r e m a r r i a g e ;  a second  d i s m i s s e d over a c c u s a t i o n s o f i l l t r e a t i n g  High  S c h o o l boys; a t h i r d i n v e s t i g a t e d a f t e r charges o f t a k i n g l i b e r t i e s w i t h a h a l f - b r e e d g i r l were l e v i e d a g a i n s t him; and a f o u r t h f o r c e d t o r e s i g n f o l l o w i n g complaints o f l a c k 4.8 of  d i s c i p l i n e and  intemperance.  Voted a d r a s t i c a l l y reduced for  s a l a r y and "blamed  every i r r e g u l a r i t y and f a i l u r e i n the c o u n t r y , "  felt  compelled  e n t i r e Board  t o r e s i g n i n 1878. *  Jessop  A few days l a t e r the  o f E d u c a t i o n q u i t under the same type o f p o l -  i t i c a l attack.  W i t h i n two y e a r s Jessop's s u c c e s s o r be-  came embroiled i n a b i t t e r b a t t l e w i t h h i s t e a c h e r s and predecessors.  P r o v i s i o n s o f the 1879 A c t v e s t e d powers t o  a u t h o r i z e textbooks and g r a n t t e a c h e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n ,  pre-  v i o u s l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f b o t h S u p e r i n t e n d e n t and Board,  i n S u p e r i n t e n d e n t McKenzie a l o n e .  No a p p e a l was  a l l o w e d from McKenzie's d e c i s i o n s and a s p e c i a l t e a c h e r s ' meeting first of  proved  the o n l y way t o a i r g r i e v a n c e s .  c l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s complained  about b e i n g the o b j e c t s  d i s c r i m i n a t o r y r e - e x a m i n a t i o n procedures  c h e r s w i t h i n f e r i o r o r temporary  Holders of  from which t e a -  c e r t i f i c a t e s were exempt.  One t e a c h e r s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d McKenzie's r i g h t t o a v o i d 4.7 ^ " B r i t i s h Columbia, T h i r d S c h o o l Report, p. 14. B r i t i s h Columbia, Minute Book, pp. 136, 138, 152, 158-59, and School I n s p e c t o r ' s D i a r y , " l a r c h 13, 1874. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , March 29, 1878. 4 8  4 9  36  examination of h i s own q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and t r u s t e e s objected to h i s h o l d i n g examinations and framing Rules and Regulat i o n s f o r the Board of Examiners before the appointment of 50 the e n t i r e Board.  Claiming t h a t Jessop and the previous  J  Board c e r t i f i c a t e d teachers who were o b v i o u s l y incompetent, McKenzie a l s o a s s e r t e d t h a t teachers blocked reform and r e mained r e l u c t a n t , c a r e l e s s , and i n d i f f e r e n t about r e p o r t s . Jessop wrote t o the C o l o n i s t r e f u t i n g the former charges and teachers r e t a l i a t e d by accusing McKenzie of rudeness and d i s c o u r t e s y i n t r e a t i n g them as menials and of t e r r i f y i n g 51  p u p i l s w i t h h i s brusqueness. McKenzie s experience and B. A. degree appeared a f  source of i r r i t a t i o n t o teachers and newspapers and i n o r d i n ate p r i d e t o the Superintendent.  No doubt many teachers  were u n q u a l i f i e d by McKenzie s standards but d i f f i c u l t i e s f  i n h i r i n g and r e t a i n i n g teachers, together w i t h a t o t a l l a c k of p r o v i n c i a l teacher t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s , rendered h i g h q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of much l e s s e r importance than w i l l i n g n e s s . Most teachers proved q u i t e competent t o teach elementary subj e c t s , according t o the Mainland Guardian, and experienced d i f f i c u l t i e s only when f o r c e d to teach s u b j e c t s more p r o 52 p e r l y the concern of secondary education. Conditions and d i s p u t e s such as the above, toget h e r w i t h p u p i l s being allowed to enter school a t any time 5 G  I b i d . , October 21, 1879.  5 1  I b i d . , A p r i l 8, 1880.  52  M a i n l a n d Guardian, Hay 19, 1880.  37  of the y e a r , combined t o cause problems r e g a r d i n g d i s c i p l i n e and t e a c h i n g methods. 1,509  School r e p o r t s r e v e a l a t o t a l  of  cases o f c o r p o r a l punishment i n the 1879-80 s c h o o l  y e a r and t h a t t e a c h e r s r e l i e d m a i n l y on r o t e l e a r n i n g r a t h e r than s t r i v i n g f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f content and work53 induced d i s c i p l i n e i n t h e i r  pupils.  Government and s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s r e c o g n i z e d the f l a w s i n the s c h o o l system and attempted them i n the S c h o o l A c t s o f 1876  and 1879.  t o remedy some o f F i r s t , i n ac-  cordance w i t h s u g g e s t i o n s by S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , a b i l l on May  passed  1,.1876 which imposed a y e a r l y p o l l t a x of $3.00 on  a l l males over the age  o f 18 and r e s i d e n t i n the p r o v i n c e .  T h i s t a x would h e l p s u p p o r t the p u b l i c system and a l s o a i d taxpayer r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s but i t had the u n f o r s e e n consequence of r a i s i n g Roman C a t h o l i c ire.  As the C o l o n i s t p o i n t e d out, the Church was  Church  quiescent  when s c h o o l s were supported from the g e n e r a l revenue but suddenly p e t i t i o n e d a g a i n s t a d i r e c t t a x f o r the same purpose and r e q u e s t e d C a t h o l i c exemption from a measure which was  "both u n j u s t and o p p r e s s i v e . Both C o l o n i s t and Guardian opposed such  as i t would prevent C a t h o l i c s from f u l f i l l i n g  their duties  to the S t a t e which had an o b l i g a t i o n t o ensure a  lic p.  exemption  guaranteed  53 - ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, N i n t h Annual Report of the PubSchools by C. C. McKenzie, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ( V i c t o r i a : 1880),  334.  • ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, S e s s i o n a l Papers, 39 V i c t . , 1876, p. 725.  38  education to a l l c h i l d r e n .  While d e f i c i e n t i n r e l i g i o u s  t r a i n i n g the p u b l i c system, a c c o r d i n g t o the papers, d i d t e a c h c h i l d r e n r i g h t from wrong, thereby s a v i n g money which would otherwise be spent on j a i l s , workhouses, and the p o l i c e f o r c e and b e n e f i t i n g a l l c i t i z e n s r e g a r d l e s s 55 of r e l i g i o n .  J  Bishop Seghers  denied C o l o n i s t  charges  t h a t bona f i d e r e s i d e n t s i g n a t u r e s on t h e p e t i t i o n were outnumbered two t o one by n o n - r e s i d e n t s , minors, s o j o u r 56 n e r s , and f o r e i g n e r s ^  but some t r u t h adhered  t o t h e im-  p l i c a t i o n t h a t a l l C a t h o l i c s i n the p r o v i n c e d i d n o t support p e t i t i o n statements.  George S t a n l e y , f o r example,  notes t h a t E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g C a t h o l i c s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e I r i s h , r e s e n t e d French domination i n B r i t i s h Columbia and p r o v i d e d l i t t l e h e l p t o t h e i r Church i n the f i g h t f o r v i 57 a b l e C a t h o l i c s c h o o l s and government a i d .  I n any event,  the L e g i s l a t u r e r e f u s e d t o excuse a l l C a t h o l i c s from the tax but d i d exempt c l e r g y , o f a l l denominations, formed  "a c l a s s who devote t h e i r l i v e s t o a c a l l i n g  d e p r i v e s them o f a l l b u s i n e s s advantages 58 to  as they  ' l a y up t r e a s u r e on e a r t h . ' " ^  that  or opportunities  T h i s exemption  incensed  a newspaper correspondent t o whom t h e L e g i s l a t u r e ' s  state-  ment was 'pure moonshine" as c l e r g y s a l a r i e s exceeded ^Mainland Guardian, l a y 6, 1876.  those  5 6  B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , A p r i l 30, 1876.  57 -"George F. G. S t a n l e y , "French and E n g l i s h i n West e r n Canada," i n Mason Wade, ed., Canadian Dualism ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , I960), pp. 344-45. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , May 2, 1876. 5 8  39 59  of t e a c h e r s  who  were " d e v o t i n g  t h e i r l i v e s to good."-^  Bishop Seghers r e i t e r a t e d the C a t h o l i c p o s i t i o n t h a t a s c h o o l must e i t h e r be g o d l e s s and  a t h e i s t i c , i f ex-  c l u d i n g the p r o f e s s i o n o f C h r i s t i a n i t y and God,  or Protestant,  tant B i b l e . was  not  i f i n c l u d i n g readings  Protestant  church i n f l u e n c e .  0  the system c o u l d  o f Clause 14 i n the  be  and  I t appears t h a t f u r t h e r changes i n  1876  this religious bias.  Second of the 1876  of any  Protes-  i n view of recommended p r a y e r s  attempted to e l i m i n a t e  man  from the  While the C o l o n i s t a f f i r m e d t h a t t h i s B i b l e  p r e s c r i b e d f o r the s c h o o l s , ^  considered  the b e l i e f i n  amendments was  school Act.  denomination s h a l l be  Providing  the i n s e r t i o n t h a t "no  clergy-  e l i g i b l e f o r the p o s i t i o n  of S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , Teacher, o r Trustee"  the c l a u s e appeared designed to bar any  offi-  c i a l church i n f l u e n c e i n the classrooms w h i l e s t i l l  allowing  visiting privileges. T h i r d , the n o n - s e c t a r i a n "all  c l a u s e now  stated  that  P u b l i c S c h o o l s e s t a b l i s h e d under the p r o v i s i o n s  t h i s Act  of  s h a l l be conducted upon s t r i c t l y s e c u l a r and  (my  62  emphasis) n o n - s e c t a r i a n s i o n centered  principles."  Previously  on the meaning of " n o n - s e c t a r i a n "  and  confulegis-  l a t i v e debate c o n f i r m s a c o n t i n u i n g u n c e r t a i n t y which  the  word " s e c u l a r " may have been i n t e n d e d to r e s o l v e as w e l l I b i d . , May 13, 1876. 60, ' I b i d . , A p r i l 29, 1876. 6l B r i t i s h Columbia, F i f t h S c h o o l Report, p. 48. 62" I b i d . 5 9  as  40  making c e r t a i n that the "true p r i n c i p l e s of 63 would be upheld more than i n the past. ^  non-sectarianism"  During debate on  the new A c t a Mr. Evans " f a i l e d to see that the B i l l vided f o r non-sectarian  pro-  schools" and, when d i r e c t e d t o the  r e l e v a n t c l a u s e , s t a t e d that t h i s merely s a i d "no r e l i g i o u s dogma s h a l l be taught" which i n d i c a t e s much confusion over 64 terminology.  ^  F o l l o w i n g t h i s exchange came the f i r s t men-  t i o n of the word " s e c u l a r " w i t h the concomitant passing of . Clause 41, g i v i n g credence to a correspondent's c l a i m that the word was smuggled i n t o the A c t w i t h n e i t h e r government 65 nor p u b l i c f u l l y aware of i t s i n c l u s i o n or i m p l i c a t i o n s . ^ I f the wording was changed i n order to c l a r i f y meanings, however, the attempt met w i t h no success as debate now began on the d e f i n i t i o n of " s e c u l a r . " The Reverend Mr. Nicholson, P r i n c i p a l of V i c t o r i a High School, contended that the B i b l e was read i n almost a l l secular' schools i n which he had v i s i t e d or taught i n the United States and that " i n no Province of the Dominion i s the Free School s e c u l a r i n the narrower and i l l i b e r a l 66 sense of the term."  Mr. Nicholson quoted Professor Huxley  i n support of h i s c o n t e n t i o n that the foremost advocates of s e c u l a r education i n England and elsewhere viewed s e c u l a r schools as ones p r o v i d i n g education without theology but not ^ DB ormiitniisohn - CP oa lc oi nf i cs t , Herald (New Westminster), March May 11, 1876. 16, 1881. 11 and 12, 1876. 66IBbriidt .i ,s h May Columbia, S i x t h School Report, p. 158. 6 3  6 4  41  without r e l i g i o n .  On the other hand, the C o l o n i s t declared  that the Board o f Education's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the word meant that r e l i g i o u s matters must be excluded from the publ i c schools and that t h i s was a l s o the o p i n i o n of a l a r g e m a j o r i t y of school taxpayers.  I f r e l i g i o n were allowed i n  the s c h o o l s , continued the paper, and f a i r treatment g i v e n a l l c h i l d r e n then the school day would be "wholly occupied by addresses and prayers from the s p i r i t u a l teachers of every creed" and the schools "converted i n t o churches supported by p u b l i c t a x a t i o n . " ^ *  7  Considered w i t h the next  change, the C o l o n i s t ' s assessment of government i n t e n t appears c o r r e c t . F i n a l l y , the Board d e l e t e d p r e v i o u s l y approved Opening and C l o s i n g E x e r c i s e s from the Rules and R e g u l a t i o n s , a l l o w i n g only the reading o f the Lord's Prayer and Ten Com68 mandments a t the o p t i o n of t r u s t e e s f o r each d i s t r i c t . Correspondence to the C o l o n i s t r e v e a l s p u b l i c controversy over prayers i n the schools before passage of the 1876 A c t . Claiming t h a t opening and c l o s i n g prayers were not only sect a r i a n but a l s o a s s e r t e d the creed of the C h r i s t i a n church the T r i n i t y —  —  which many people considered blasphemous,  "A Heathen" considered t h i s the t h i n edge of p r i e s t c r a f t . Once admitted t o the schools i t would mean "good-bye to nons e c t a r i a n education" as, i f the P r o t e s t a n t s were a t l i b e r t y 67 ' B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , September 15, 1876. 68 B r i t i s h Columbia, F i f t h School Report, p. 4 9 .  42  to admit the worship of Jesus and the Holy Ghost, the Catho l i c s would f e e l they should have the power to i n c l u d e pray69 ers addressed to the V i r g i n Mary and the S a i n t s .  "Three  S t a r " r e p l i e d w i t h a defence of C h r i s t i a n i t y ; another c o r respondent defended "Heathen;" and "A Parent" contended prayers should be continued as they s u i t e d the t e s t of nons e c t a r i a n i s m as f a r as he and other orthodox were  concerned.  Christians  70  P o s s i b l y due to the d i v i s i o n of p u b l i c o p i n i o n , e l i m i n a t i o n of recommended prayers occurred w i t h such haste and secrecy t h a t many, i n c l u d i n g teachers, remained unaware of the change.  Jessop, f o r example, discovered Esquimalt's  teacher s t i l l u s i n g s c r i p t u r e readings and prayer to open 71 school and requested obedience to new r e g u l a t i o n s .  Mr.  N i c h o l s o n was a l s o reprimanded f o r u s i n g prayers not i n accord w i t h the " s t r i c t l y s e c u l a r " clause i n the A c t .  In  r e s i g n i n g from a school system w i t h which he had no sympathy, Mr. N i c h o l s o n advised he was only u s i n g prayers approved i n 72 1872 and that he considered these i n f o r c e u n t i l repealed. ^  e  C o l o n i s t claimed o f f i c i a l n o t i c e had been g i v e n a few  days a f t e r approval of new r e g u l a t i o n s but these were not passed by the Board u n t i l September 12 the date of Nicholson's 73 resignation. As t h i s teacher was a l s o a m i n i s t e r of the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , January 27, 1876. I b i d . , February 10, 1876. 71 ' B r i t i s h Columbia, S i x t h School Report, p. 16. I b i d . , p. 158. 73 ' - ' B r i t i s h Columbia, Minute Book, p. 124. 6 9  7 0  7 2  43  g o s p e l he s h o u l d not have been employed, a c c o r d i n g t o Clause 14, which i n d i c a t e s a w i l l i n g n e s s t o o v e r l o o k r e g u l a t i o n s when n e c e s s a r y ,  but t o e n f o r c e them when  Furore over N i c h o l s o n touched  expedient. o f ffurther quarrels  over r e l i g i o n i n the s c h o o l s w i t h correspondents both government and C o l o n i s t . the g r e a t n e s s  opposing  Two w r i t e r s a v e r r e d t h a t  o f n a t i o n s depended on r e c o g n i t i o n o f C h r i s t i -  a n i t y and the open B i b l e which l e d t o freedom o f thought and a c t i o n and c l e a r e d away mystery and s u p e r s t i t i o n .  Only  evil  would b e f a l l t h e S t a t e which banned C h r i s t i a n i t y from i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s , prevented  a l l i t s c h i l d r e n from l e a r n i n g any  but g u t t e r m o r a l i t y , and l e f t p u p i l s i n i g n o r a n c e Supreme C r e a t o r . '  A t e a c h e r noted  74  t h a t everyone w i t h i n the  s c h o o l system appeared s a t i s f i e d w i t h recommended and,  of the  prayers  u n t i l he r e c e i v e d a copy, r e f u s e d t o b e l i e v e the new  School A c t capable  o f r e a c h i n g such a degree o f u l t r a i s m as  to ban a l l r e l i g i o u s t e a c h i n g . ^  C l e a r l y then, the 1876 A c t  f a i l e d t o -.clarify: s a t i s f a c t o r i l y the d e f i n i t i o n o f " s e c u l a r and n o n - s e c t a r i a n " o r t o s t i l l  the c o n t i n u i n g c o n t r o v e r s y .  over r e l i g i o n i n the s c h o o l s . A c u r i o u s o m i s s i o n i n a l l t h i s d i s s e n s i o n was t h e neglect of authorized textbooks' r e f e r r e d t o , except  content.  i n Mr. N i c h o l s o n ' s  T h i s was never  l e t t e r of r e s i g n a t i o n ,  u n t i l l a t e i n 1876 when M i s s i o n V a l l e y ' s t e a c h e r , A. McKenzie, wrote t o the C o l o n i s t . ^British 7 5  Ibid.,  McKenzie a d v i s e d the p u b l i c t h a t he  C o l o n i s t , September 16 and 2 9 , 1876. October 24, 1876.  44  c o n t i n u a l l y taught God as c r e a t o r and governor of the u n i verse; our duty to f e a r , l o v e , and obey Him; the Holy B i b l e as God's Book to be read w i t h reverence and obeyed; that God sent H i s Son i n t o the world to save us and those who love and serve Him w i l l be happy w i t h Him f o r e v e r ; B i b l i c a l anecdotes r e l a t i n g to the c r e a t i o n , the f l o o d , the h i s t o r y of Joseph, Moses, and King David, the B i r t h of our Saviour; and a wide v a r i e t y of C h r i s t i a n d u t i e s , morals, and maxims.  A l l these lessons could be found i n textbooks  which every teacher was i n duty bound " f a i t h f u l l y and  dil-  i g e n t l y " to teach, under the same law which p r o h i b i t e d r e l i g i o u s t e a c h i n g i n the " f r e e , u n s e c t a r i a n , u n r e l i g i o u s 76  schools."  No r e c o r d of any r e p l y to t h i s l e t t e r can be  l o c a t e d but a l e t t e r the f o l l o w i n g year answered another charge of "godless" schools by n o t i n g that God was present i n the classrooms "as the t e x t s were t e a c h i n g the h i g h e s t 77  m o r a l i t y but no r e l i g i o u s dogma."  I n the same year Bishop  Seghers a g a i n a t t a c k e d the "godless" p u b l i c school system from h i s p u l p i t and the Reverend Mr. Jamieson wrote a r e b u t t a l i n which he claimed the system was misrepresented i n newspapers.  In h i s l e t t e r he a p p a r e n t l y r e f e r r e d to t e x t -  book content i n order to r e f u t e the Bishop's charges and a l s o censured both Superintendent and Board f o r not p u b l i c l y r e f u t i n g the calumny that r e l i g i o n had no place i n the p u b l i c 7 6  I b i d . , October 24,  1876.  7 7  I b i d . , January 5, 1877.  45  system.'  Another  0  C o l o n i s t c o r r e s p o n d e n t , however,  thought  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n wise t o l e t t h e s c h o o l s speak f o r thems e l v e s as they were open t o any member o f the c l e r g y o r pub lie  t o see w i t h t h e i r own eyes and make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n  as t o whether o r not r e l i g i o n was t a u g h t .  7 9  T a k i n g t h i s good a d v i c e the next c h a p t e r w i l l a l low t h e t e x t s t o v e r i f y o r deny a r e l i g i o u s presence i n " s e c u l a r and n o n - s e c t a r i a n " classrooms  of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  °Possibly Mr. Jamieson was the New Westminster P r e s b y t e r i a n m i n i s t e r but u n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s l e t t e r cannot be found a l t h o u g h i t s c o n t e n t s can be deduced from r e p l i e s p r i n ted i n the C o l o n i s t . f  7 9  British  C o l o n i s t , May 16, 1877.  CHAPTER THREE TEXTBOOK RELIGION AND  MORALITY  I f a mind i s not f i l l e d w i t h good i t w i l l o f nec e s s i t y be open t o e v i l . to f i l l  E d u c a t i o n ' s duty, t h e r e f o r e , i s  the mind w i t h good and u s e f u l n o t i o n s which w i l l  teach a man to do as he would be done by, t o l o v e h i s neighbour as h i m s e l f , to honor h i s s u p e r i o r s , to b e l i e v e t h a t God scans a l l h i s a c t i o n s , and w i l l reward o r p u n i s h them, and t o see t h a t he who i s g u i l t y of falsehood or i n j u s t i c e hurts himself more than anyone e l s e ; are not these such n o t i o n s and p r e j u d i c e s as every wise governor o r l e g i s l a t o r covet above a l l t h i n g s t o have f i r m l y r o o t e d i n the mind of every i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s c a r e ? . • . What cannot be a c q u i r e d by every man's r e a s o n must be i n t r o d u c e d by p r e c e p t and r i v e t e d by c u s tom . . . ( i n o r d e r t o ) i n f l u e n c e t h e i r conduct and make them u s e f u l members o f the s t a t e . i Such was  the m o r a l i t y taught by the Canadian  S e r i e s of T e x t -  books a u t h o r i z e d f o r use i n the B r i t i s h Columbia  public  s c h o o l system and t h e r e b y r e l i g i o n a s s u r e d l y comprised  a  l a r g e p a r t of the c l a s s r o o m c u r r i c u l u m . B a s i c a l l y , these new  r e a d e r s c o n s t i t u t e d the o l d  I r i s h N a t i o n a l Texts r e v i s e d f o r Canadian use by an  appoin-  t e d committee of the O n t a r i o s c h o o l system.  inclu-  While  d i n g more m a t e r i a l s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d t o Canadian the new  S e r i e s r e t a i n e d many of the s e l e c t i o n s from  pupils, the  ^Canadian S e r i e s of School Books, Advanced Reader ( T o r o n t o : James Campbell and Son, 1871), p. 360. 2  P a r v i n , A u t h o r i z a t i o n of Textbooks, 46  p.  39.  47  I r i s h S e r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s t o r i e s w i t h a moral and content.  Jessop, however, based h i s recommendation of the  t e x t s on p r i c e r a t h e r than moral c o n t e n t . mined t h a t most p a r e n t s c o u l d purchase c h i l d r e n and charge  religious  Low  cost deter-  the hooks f o r t h e i r  t h a t the government c o u l d p r o v i d e them f r e e o f  i n the few  eases where f i n a n c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s  ren-  3  dered p a r e n t s unable  t o buy  the t e x t s .  One  interesting  note  i n t h i s r e g a r d i s t h a t Jessop a d v i s e d the Toronto p u b l i s h e r s , James Campbell and Son,  t h a t arrangements would be made w i t h  the Wesleyan Methodist M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y t o s e t t l e the a c count.  While  4  t h i s may  have been the most c o n v e n i e n t method  of payment, i t does suggest a r a t h e r c l o s e church and  school  relationship. By the end of J u l y , 1874  every s c h o o l i n B r i t i s h  Columbia, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of Hope, employed the Series.  new  Used c o n t i n u o u s l y i n every c l a s s r o o m f o r the next  t e n y e a r s , the Canadian r e a d e r s proved  the one  constant i n  the c o n t i n u i n g r e l i g i o u s and moral c o n t r o v e r s i e s .  As  il-  l u s t r a t e d by the quote a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r ,  the  t e x t s c o n c e i v e d m o r a l i t y as c h a r a c t e r t r a i n i n g which aimed a t the p r o d u c t i o n of i n d u s t r i o u s , t r u t h f u l , neat and c l e a n , l o y a l , o b e d i e n t , and good c i t i z e n s c o g n i z a n t o f God's omnipresence.  F u r t h e r , r u l e s of good conduct  must be l e a r n e d  3  - ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, Minute Book, p. 19. ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y , Board E d u c a t i o n Correspondence 1872-73, June 10, 1872. ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, T h i r d S c h o o l Report,  p.  27.  of  48  when the mind i s most impressionable and not l e f t u n t i l the c h i l d has learned to reason.  Therefore, the t e x t s made no  attempt to introduce moral problems which could be r e a soned through and merely presented simple and repeated moral t a l e s a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y r e i t e r a t i n g that the "good" or admirable person behaved i n a p a r t i c u l a r manner and always r e c e i v e d a reward w h i l e the "bad" i n d i v i d u a l i n disobeying the b e h a v i o u r a l code i n v a r i a b l y earned punishment. On the whole, textbook ideas of m o r a l i t y and thod fundamentally  me-  r e f l e c t e d the p r e v a i l i n g s p i r i t of the  nineteenth century.  Thus, S i r Thomas Wyse, E n g l i s h member  of Parliament and i n v e s t i g a t o r of e d u c a t i o n a l matters,  be-  l i e v e d a c h i l d f i r s t f e e l s m o r a l i t y and i s incapable of cons o l i d a t i n g i t w i t h reason u n t i l a l a t e r age when c h a r a c t e r , depending on w i l l , i s formed and strengthened by t r a i n i n g , d i r e c t i o n and good h a b i t s .  To Wyse, order and j u s t i c e could  best be l e a r n e d , under reasoned guidance, by what was  seen  and f e l t by the c h i l d i n the r e a l i t y of the school s i t u ation.  As the c h a r a c t e r of the E n g l i s h P u b l i c Schools, how-  ever, was not one from which the c h i l d could always l e a r n these h i g h standards, educators such as Matthew A r n o l d claimed t h a t m o r a l i t y must be taught c o n s c i o u s l y as w e l l as by example and t h a t to use knowledge f o r human welfare a man must i n general have f i r s t been m o r a l i z e d , and f o r mora l i z i n g him i t w i l l not be found easy, I t h i n k c  S i r Thomas Wyse, Education Reform, p. 227 as c i t e d by E. B. C a s t l e , Educating the Good Man (New York: C o l l i e r Books, 1962), pp. 223-27.  49  t o d i s p e n s e w i t h those o l d agents, l e t t e r s , religion.7  poetry,  W i l l i a m T. H a r r i s , a U n i t e d S t a t e s Commissioner f o r Educat i o n , l i k e w i s e s t r e s s e d m o r a l i t y as b e g i n n i n g i n mechanic a l compliance  and d e v e l o p i n g l a t e r i n t o i n d i v i d u a l r e -  s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r obedience,  punctuality, regularity, s i -  Q  l e n c e , and i n d u s t r y .  S i m i l a r l y , B r i t i s h Columbia's  and R e g u l a t i o n s expected  Rules  p u b l i c s c h o o l s t u d e n t s t o be  taught and t o l e a r n an unquestioned  and unreasoned s e t of  b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s which would l e a d t o the f o r m a t i o n of a "good" c h a r a c t e r and a "good" c i t i z e n . First,  t e a c h e r s must "impress  upon the minds o f  the p u p i l s the g r e a t r u l e o f r e g u l a r i t y and o r d e r — TIME AND PER  PLACE FOR  TIME AND  EVERYTHING AND  PLACE.  1,9  EVERYTHING IN ITS PRO-  Readers p r o v i d e d a p l e n t i f u l  p l y o f i l l u s t r a t i o n s to h e l p i n the t e a c h i n g and of t h i s g r e a t r u l e . dren t h a t "we and  A  learning  Primary books s i m p l y reminded  do not l a g on the way"  sup-  chil-  to a destination" " 1  0  t h a t , w h i l e i t might be l o v e l y to spend a l l day p l a y -  i n g and n u r s i n g one's d o l l , a g i r l must spend a good p a r t of h e r time i n l e a r n i n g to sew  and t o c a r e f o r h e r b r o t h e r  7 'Matthew A r n o l d , Reports on Elementary Schools 18521882, p. 178, as quoted i n I b i d . , p. 299. W i l l i a m T. H a r r i s , Report of Committee on Moral Edu c a t i o n t o the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of E d u c a t i o n (1883), as c i t e d by I b i d . , p. 319. 8  ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, F i r s t S c h o o l Report, p.  19.  "^Canadian S e r i e s o f S c h o o l Books, F i r s t Book o f Readi n g Lessons, Part One ( T o r o n t o : James Campbell and Son, 1867), p. 17.  50 as w e l l as to read and s p e l l . 11  S i m i l a r l y , a boy might en-  joy p l a y i n g i n the woods more than a t t e n d i n g school but, as the crow pointed out, he was not as wise as one crow though as b i g as twenty f o r he, u n l i k e the b i r d , could not b u i l d 12 h i s own home, provide h i s own c l o t h e s , or f i n d h i s own  food.  Therefore, i f he l a z e d away h i s time i n s t e a d of l e a r n i n g how to support h i m s e l f , the boy could end up l i k e the l a z y f l y , who  played and i d l e d a l l summer only to s t a r v e and f r e e z e to  death i n the w i n t e r , w h i l e the busy l i t t l e bee, who had worked a l l summer, remained assured of a warm home and adequate 13 w i n t e r food. These e a r l y s t o r i e s and f a b l e s c l e a r l y defined the place of g i r l s and boys — and men  —  i n the world.  and consequently  of women  Conceded some r i g h t s to play and  l e i s u r e , which could f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g , childhood's mary task was p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the f u t u r e .  pri-  G i r l s might  l e a r n to read and w r i t e but t h e i r r i g h t f u l place was i n the home.  There they would l e a r n the a r t s of home-making  and c h i l d care as w e l l as necessary moral lessons which they would, i n t u r n , teach t o another generation.  Hence,  one d i s c o v e r s L i t t l e Red R i d i n g Hood c a r i n g f o r the needs of her grandmother when she learned t h a t wasting time dawdling i n the woods had "^Canadian S e r i e s Reading Lessons, Part Two 1867), p. 18. 12 Canadian S e r i e s Reading Lessons (Toronto: p. 63. I b i d . , p. 34. 1 3  enabled the wolf to render her of School Books, F i r s t Book of (Toronto: James Campbell and Son, of School Books, Second Book of James Campbell and Son, 1869),  51  task r e d u n d a n t .  1 4  S i m i l a r l y , Bertha learned respect f o r pro-  p e r t y w h i l e a t home making a d o l l ' s apron f o r which she took the r i b b o n from h e r mother's h a t . the c a t c o u l d proceed  Having l e f t  the h a t where  t o p l a y w i t h and d e s t r o y i t , B e r t h a 15  was  taught  prehending  t o leave other's possessions alone.  A l s o com-  the same l e s s o n i n a home s i t u a t i o n , Mary l o s t  a pet canary a f t e r opening  a box which d i d n o t b e l o n g t o  16 her  and G o l d i l o c k s l e a r n e d not t o meddle a t the home o f  the t h r e e  bears. No h e r o i n e s appeared i n the r e a d e r s w i t h the pos-  s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f an I n d i a n "female Crusoe" who deeply imp r e s s e d Mr. Hearne w i t h h e r s e l f - r e l i a n c e .  Hearne c a l l e d  h e r one o f the f i n e s t women he had seen i n any p a r t o f North America and c o n t r a s t e d h e r " c h e e r f u l , a c t i v e , wond e r f u l s p i r i t " t o the desponding h e l p l e s s n e s s which we t o o o f t e n w i t ness among women, and men t o o , who w i t h every motive t o i n d u s t r y and a c t i v i t y , and every encouragement t o e x e r t both, l o s e a l l s e l f - r e l i ance under t h e f i r s t shock o f a d v e r s i t y , and pass t h e i r days i n u s e l e s s i n d o l e n c e and r e p i n i n g . 17 Even i n t h i s s t o r y the woman was d o i n g woman's work w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f p r o v i d i n g f o r h e r own f o o d and s h e l t e r , which was g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a man's duty. 1 4  Ibid.,  p. 94.  1 5  Ibid.,  p. 150.  l 6  Ibid.,  p. 136.  Hearne's  17  'Canadian S e r i e s o f S c h o o l Books, F o u r t h Book o f Reading Lessons ( T o r o n t o : James Campbell and Son, 1867) p. 23. While n o t i d e n t i f y i n g Mr. Hearne, t h i s s t o r y was p r o b a b l y taken from w r i t i n g s o f Samuel Hearne, the e x p l o r e r .  52  c r i t i c i s m of h e l p l e s s women was a r a r i t y and no other s t o r i e s i n t i m a t e d that women might p o s s i b l y occupy other r o l e s than wives and mothers. As g i r l s prepared f o r womanhood and t h e i r place i n the home so boys must l e a r n t o be men by preparing f o r l i f e ' s work and d u t i e s .  I n t h i s endeavour proper employment  of time could be a key f a c t o r .  Humphrey's "Observations on  Time" v i s u a l i z e d a man's l i f e as a c l o c k , w i t h one o'clock corresponding t o seven years of age, two o'clock t o f o u r teen, and so on, and concluded t h a t , i f a man were t o a c complish anything i n t h i s w o r l d , he must set about i t beno  f o r e time r a n out.  Used p r o p e r l y , time could enable a  man t o r i s e above h i s s t a t i o n and enjoy the success of a poor farmer who rose e a r l y , worked hard, and c a r e d f o r h i s own b u s i n e s s .  Soon he found h i m s e l f i n a p o s i t i o n t o ex-  pand h i s farm by buying l a n d from a r i c h neighbour who was r a p i d l y l o s i n g h i s wealth because he rose l a t e , spent h i s days i n seeking p l e a s u r e , and h i r e d others t o do h i s b u s i 19 ness. A wise man, t h e r e f o r e , would do what must be done without.delay o r p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n or e l s e Next day the f a t a l precedent w i l l p l e a d , Thus on, t i l l wisdom i s push'd out o f l i f e . P r o c r a s t i n a t i o n i s the t h i e f of time, Year a f t e r year i t s t e a l s , t i l l a l l are f l e d , And to the mercies of a moment leaves The v a s t concerns of an e t e r n a l scene. 2 Q  18  Canadian S e r i e s of School Books, T h i r d Book of Reading Lessons (Toronto: James Campbell and Son, 1869), p. 66. I b i d . , p. 20. 20 Canadian S e r i e s of School Books, P i f t h Book of Reading Lessons (Toronto: James Campbell and Son, 1868), p. 392. Prom Edward Young's Night Thoughts. 1 9  53  Axiomatic to the readers was  the f a c t of wisdom  gained through knowledge, knowledge e s s e n t i a l for; man  to  p r o f i t from h i s l a b o u r , and labour necessary f o r happiness. Unpossessed of the a b i l i t y to read, w r i t e , and c i p h e r  man  stood at the mercy of others who might not be as honest as they should be and, t h e r e f o r e , unable to p l a n i n t e l l i g e n t l y for his future.  L i k e w i s e , without the sciences he would be  a t the mercy of nature and unable to use h i s labour to the best advantage.  Hence, o p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t i n g f o r educa-  t i o n must be g r a t e f u l l y grasped and appreciated even i f i t s b e n e f i t s do not seem immediately  self-evident.  John  Adams, f o r example, could see no f u t u r e b e n e f i t from the hated study of L a t i n .  Nevertheless, a f t e r a short s t i n t at  d i g g i n g d i t c h e s f o r a l i v i n g , he decided t h a t L a t i n  was  bearable a f t e r a l l and resumed the s t u d i e s which, i n time, brought to him "the h i g h e s t honors which h i s country could 21 bestow." Two f a b l e s , showing how a crow obtained water by dropping pebbles i n a j u g to r a i s e the water l e v e l and how a cat acquired m i l k by d i p p i n g h i s paw i n the p i t c h e r , f u r op t h e r demonstrated the advantages a c c r u i n g from education. Encouragement to p e r s i s t u n t i l the g o a l i s a c h i e ved a l s o appeared i n f a m i l i a r t a l e s of The Hare and  the  T o r t o i s e , Bruce and the S p i d e r , and Timour and the Ant. Boys who  only t r i e d once and gave up were s c o r n f u l l y d i s 21  Canadian S e r i e s , T h i r d Book, p. 67. Presumably t h i s s t o r y r e f e r r e d to the United States President a l though t h i s i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d . 22 Canadian S e r i e s , Second Book, pp 66 and 68.  54  missed as dreamers and s i g h e r s w h i l e those who  learned that  even though f a i l i n g f o r s i x t y - n i n e times "there i s yet hope 23 of success i n the s e v e n t i e t h e f f o r t "  would go on to c e r -  t a i n success, t h e i r f o o t s t e p s guided by the motto "never say  fail."  2 4  Second, having taught the great r u l e of order, teachers must "promote, both by precept and example, CLEANLINESS, NEATNESS, AND  DECENCY."  25  This duty i n c l u d e d i n -  s p e c t i n g c h i l d r e n every morning f o r c l e a n hands, f a c e s , and c l o t h e s and f o r combed h a i r .  Teacher example was not a l -  ways good, as noted i n Chapter Two,  but textbooks gave a  few precepts which could be s t r e s s e d i n the classroom.  Thus,  boys and g i r l s always put t h e i r things away when the school 26 b e l l rang f o r playtime.  Frequent s t o r i e s dogmatically  equated c l e a n l i n e s s w i t h goodness and d i r t i n e s s w i t h badness as i n one poem which a s s e r t e d that The i d l e and bad Like t h i s l i t t l e l a d , May be d i r t y and b l a c k to be sure; But good boys are seen To be decent and c l e a n , 7 2  Although they are ever so poor. S t o r i e s r a r e l y mentioned decency, i n the sense of language and conduct which does not offend good t a s t e or custom.  A few pointed out dangers inherent i n the consum-  p t i o n of a l c o h o l and the t r a g e d i e s which could r e s u l t . 23 ^Canadian S e r i e s , F i r s t Book, Part Two, p. 26. 24 27 Canadian S e r i e s , Second Book, p. 114. 25 Canadian S e r i e s , Second Book, p. 69. 26^ Canadian B r i t i s h Columbia, S e r i e s , F iF ri sr ts t Book, SchoolPart Report, Two, p. 10. 19.  One  55  such t a l e r e l a t e d the t e r r i b l e l o s s of a s h i p and her crew a f t e r the cargo of rum was broached and r e s u l t e d i n the helmsman's i n a b i l i t y to see the l i g h t h o u s e or s t e e r the s h i p . Only one s t o r y r e f e r r e d to bad language and c o n t r a s t e d Dick Pord, the dunce who d i d n ' t f o l l o w r u l e s , w i t h Fred Hughes, the smart, c l e a n , and neat boy, who used no bad words.  29  T h i r d , the Rules and Regulations r e q u i r e d a l l teachers to pay the s t r i c t e s t a t t e n t i o n to t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' morals by o m i t t i n g "no opportunity of i n c u l c a t i n g the p r i n c i p l e s of t r u t h and honesty; the d u t i e s of respect to sup e r i o r s , and obedience to a l l persons placed i n a u t h o r i t y 30 over them."-^  Wording of t h i s duty suggests that the f i r s t  two i n s t r u c t i o n s r e f e r r e d to q u a l i t i e s which might be des i r a b l e but were not n e c e s s a r i l y moral.  Textbooks appear  to confirm t h i s s u p p o s i t i o n as they devoted at l e a s t seven times as much space to t r u t h , r e s p e c t , and obedience than to c l e a n l i n e s s , neatness, and decency.  The p o s s i b i l i t y of  space being a l l o c a t e d a c c o r d i n g to teaching or l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t y a l s o e x i s t s although there would seem to be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between t e l l i n g and r e p e a t i n g back a s t o r y i l l u s t r a t i n g honesty than one about c l e a n l i n e s s .  On the other  hand, as behaviour demonstrates the extent of a c t u a l l e a r n i n g and p r e v a i l i n g wisdom considered a c h i l d ' s moral ac28  C a n a d i a n S e r i e s , F i r s t Book - Part One, p. 36.  "^Canadian S e r i e s , F i r s t Book - Part Two, p. 49. • ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, F i r s t School Report, p. 19.  28  56  t i o n s l a r g e l y as h a b i t s formed by repeated exposure t o example, more: l i k e l y space would r e f l e c t the importance o f d e s i r e d behaviours. V i r t u e s and rewards o f t r u t h and obedience  con-  t r a s t e d f a v o u r a b l y w i t h i g n o b i l i t i e s and punishments accompanying dishonesty and disobedience i n textbook s t o r i e s . A c c o r d i n g l y , " c u r l y h a i r and pleasant eye," goodness, nob i l i t y , and bravery marched hand i n hand w i t h t r u t h f u l n e s s and honesty w h i l e d i r t i n e s s , s t u p i d i t y , and cowardice skulked along w i t h dishonesty.  L i k e w i s e , l o v e , t r u s t , and  a k i n d of i m m o r t a l i t y rewarded t r u t h but p h y s i c a l p a i n , l a c k o f t r u s t , and condemnation by both contemporaries and p o s t e r i t y punished l i e s .  S t o r i e s of great men, such as  P e t r a r c h and George Washington, best i l l u s t r a t e d t r u t h as candor and s t r i c t adherence t o the t r u t h i l l u m i n a t e d both their lives.  As " t r u t h f u l n e s s i s one o f the b r i g h t e s t o r -  naments i n a man's c h a r a c t e r , and one that may be a t t a i n e d 31  by everyone who chooses to exert h i m s e l f f o r i t , " ^ P e t r a r c h and Washington ennobled themselves and t h e i r c o u n t r i e s , 32  l e a v i n g steps "that mankind may f o l l o w  s t i l l . C o n -  v e r s e l y , men who f o l l o w e d dishonest ways and betrayed t h e i r country's t r u s t and the people's r i g h t s , as Verres had done i n a n c i e n t Rome, must be punished and " s u f f e r condemnation i n the eyes o f a l l candid men" o r "undermine the very foundations of s o c i a l s a f e t y , s t r a n g l e j u s t i c e , and c a l l down 31  C a n a d i a n S e r i e s , T h i r d Book, p. 17.  -^Canadian S e r i e s , F i f t h Book, p. 469.  57  anarchy, massacre, and r u i n on the commonwealth." 33  Equated  w i t h v i r t u e , t r u t h should be p r i z e d above a l l m a t e r i a l t h i n g s as The f i n e s t c l o t h that man can s e l l Wears out when years are past; The p i t c h e r o f t goes t o the w e l l , But i t i s broke a t l a s t : And both a l i k e t h i s moral t e l l VIRTUE ALONE STANDS PAST.34 C h i l d r e n a l s o must l e a r n obedience to s u p e r i o r s i n age o r knowledge.  As the f i r s t a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s en-  countered by the c h i l d , mothers and f a t h e r s u n f a i l i n g l y appeared as paragons of wisdom and v i r t u e , and d i s o b e d i ence of t h e i r i n j u n c t i o n s merited s w i f t punishment.  So  L i t t l e C a r r i e found when she took h e r new d o l l to school a g a i n s t h e r mother's express command and r e c e i v e d prompt r e t r i b u t i o n as the d o l l ' s l e g was broken by C a r r i e ' s p l a y mates and a r a i n s t o r m and d r a i n soaking completed the 35 doll's ruination.  J  S i m i l a r l y i g n o r i n g mothers* warnings  a mouse and a lamb narrowly escaped the c l u t c h e s of a c a t and a wolf a f t e r s t r a y i n g from home.  Therefore, "young  people should mind what o l d people say and when danger i s 36 near them keep out of the way." Furthermore, one must always l i s t e n t o and obey s u p e r i o r knowledge.  Thus, a farmer asked a lawyer f o r ad-  v i c e on how and r e c e i v e d the c a u t i o n "never put 33 I b itdo. ,succeed p. 62. 34  Canadian S e r i e s , Second Book, p. 210  35  Canadian S e r i e s , F i r s t Book - Part Two, p. 18.  36  Canadian S e r i e s , Second Book, p. 168.  58  o f f t i l l tomorrow what you can do today." " -  Following this  dictum the farmer went home, worked u n t i l a l l h i s hay crop was gathered, and thereby saved i t from a storm which came during the n i g h t .  Examples from m i l i t a r y h i s t o r y s t r e s s e d  over and over again t h i s i n s t a n t obedience t o s u p e r i o r s i n rank or knowledge and emphasized that i n s t a n t obedience t o commands brought army v i c t o r i e s and supremacy to the B r i t i s h navy.  Shipwrecks a l s o provided ample proof that d i s -  c i p l i n e d obedience r e s u l t e d i n l i v e s being saved w h i l e orders disobeyed o r questioned brought d i s a s t e r .  Instant  and unquestioning obedience was "good" and the s t o r i e s l e f t no room f o r d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s a s s e r t i o n ' s t r u t h ; f o r the value of independent thought; o r f o r any q u e s t i o n i n g of the s t a t u s quo. Fourth, teachers must " c u l t i v a t e k i n d l y and a f f e c t i o n a t e f e e l i n g s among the p u p i l s ; t o discountenance q u a r r e l i n g , c r u e l t y t o animals, and every approach t o vice."  Again, readers s u p p l i e d a t r e a s u r e chest of t a l e s  3 8  to a i d i n t h i s endeavour.  Many d i f f e r e n t types of s t o r i e s  and poems taught kindness and concern f o r others and, as always, rewarded goodness and punished badness.  Simple  s t o r i e s i n the e a r l y t e x t s encouraged respect f o r age and promoted c h a r i t a b l e endeavours.  C h a r i t y c o u l d manifest i t -  s e l f i n a g i f t of money t o an o l d beggar w i t h no f a m i l y t o 37  3 8  C a n a d i a n S e r i e s , T h i r d Book, p. 20. B r i t i s h Columbia, F i r s t School Report, p. 19.  59  help him or by a g i f t of s e l f t o h e l p an o l d man c a r r y a load of wood up a h i l l , h e l p a b l i n d man home , h e l p an o l d lady who had broken h e r s t i c k and could not walk, or cut a widow's f i r e w o o d and c l e a r h e r walk.  Bestowal of these g i f t s  always earned a reward i n the form of money, t r e a t s , possess i o n s , o r deep i n n e r enjoyment as the g i v e r found that "the best f u n i s always to be found i n doing something that i s k i n d and u s e f u l . "  3 9  A r r i v i n g a t the t h i r d reader the c h i l d began t o d i s c o v e r that kindness and concern must be extended f a r t h e r than the l i m i t s of p e r s o n a l experience. While espousing the brotherhood of man, however, the t e x t s a l s o f o s t e r e d derogatory stereotypes and n a t i o n a l i s m which could i n s t i l f e e l i n g s of s u p e r i o r i t y and p r i d e of r a c e .  No attempt a t  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of these opposites can be discerned i n the readers but perhaps i t i s true that " l i t e r a t u r e does not t r y t o provoke i n us the response of a c t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e does not need t o r e s o l v e i t s a m b i g u i t i e s . "  4 0  Nevertheless, ambivalence surrounded the concept of kindness or brotherhood.  Thus, s t o r i e s of the Destruc-  t i o n of the Red R i v e r Colony and C a r t i e r a t Hochelaga portrayed some n a t i v e Indians as w a r l i k e , painted demons who preyed on the i n d u s t r i o u s , and thereby v i r t u o u s , s e t t l e r s .  4 1  On the o t h e r hand, "Industry and I n t e l l i g e n c e " p i c t u r e d I n oq  Canadian S e r i e s , Second Book, p. 195. J . Bronowski, The I d e n t i t y o f Man (Garden C i t y , New York: The N a t u r a l H i s t o r y Press, 1965), p. 85. 4 0  41  C a n a d i a n S e r i e s , Fourth Book, pp. 26 and 93.  60  dians as backward and i n d o l e n t people who needed to be taught the value of labour i n order t h a t they might p r o f i t from the abundance surrounding them and r a i s e t h e i r standard of l i v 42  i n g to an approximation of that of t h e i r white b r e t h r e n .  At  the same time, these c h i l d r e n of nature a l r e a d y possessed v i r t u e s which others would do w e l l to i m i t a t e and deserved the same respect and a f f e c t i o n which should be shown to a l l men.  W i l l i a m Penn, f o r example, always t r e a t e d Indians as  equals, p a i d them a f a i r p r i c e f o r any l a n d purchased, and s c r u p u l o u s l y observed t r e a t y p r o v i s i o n s .  According to the  readers, Penn b e l i e v e d t h a t kindness was both cheap and mighty and f a r more powerful than the sword i n compelling Indians to abide by t h e i r bargains, and saw h i s f a i t h r e warded as the Indians responded to him i n l i k e manner.  4-3  Nevertheless, many s t o r i e s of n a t i o n a l heroes exa l t e d use of the sword.  Well c a l c u l a t e d to f a n the embers  of i n c i p i e n t n a t i o n a l i s m , e x c i t i n g s t o r i e s t o l d of p a t r i o t s f i g h t i n g f o r t h e i r c o u n t r i e s a g a i n s t a l i e n hordes who would impose themselves and t h e i r way of l i f e .  S i m i l a r l y to de-  p i c t i n g Indians as both savages and noblemen, however, the t e x t s a l s o i n t e r s p e r s e d p a t r i o t i c s t o r i e s w i t h those which s a t i r i z e d or denounced n a t i o n a l i s m and p a t r i o t i s m as concepts evoking a l l the t r e a c h e r y , c r u e l t y , and a v a r i c e of which man i s capable and d e s t r o y i n g the n a t u r a l bond of brotherhood. 4-2 Canadian S e r i e s , F i f t h Book, p. 43  Canadian  356.  S e r i e s , T h i r d Book, p. 178.  61  A c c o r d i n g l y , one s e l e c t i o n s a t i r i z e d presumed nat i o n a l t r a i t s as a " B a f f l e d T r a v e l l e r " toured Europe.  Be-  having as h i s n a t u r a l Y o r k s h i r e s e l f , he q u i c k l y encountered a w a l l of immovable t a c i t u r n i t y i n H o l l a n d and so acted as a Dutch merchant i n France only to be c a s t i g a t e d and scorned by the t r a d e - d e s p i s i n g French.  Attempts to  change c h a r a c t e r to meet expressed preferences i n each count r y continued, w i t h each n a t i o n d e s p i s i n g what another p r i zed, u n t i l the poor t r a v e l l e r d e s i s t e d from h i s f u t i l e e f f o r t s and simply begged the' Poles to " l e t me know what to say."  44  Another s t o r y denounced war as Tubal C a i n , the arma-  ments maker, suddenly r e a l i z e d the e v i l he had committed i n a i d i n g those w i t h a l u s t f o r conquering and carnage and turned h i s t a l e n t s to the making of the f i r s t  ploughshare  so that . . . men, taught wisdom from the p a s t , In f r i e n d s h i p j o i n ' d t h e i r hands; Hung the sword i n the h a l l , The spear on the w a l l , , j And ploughed the w i l l i n g l a n d s : 5  S t i l l , the e v i l s of oppression and tyranny must be countered whenever and wherever they appeared.  So the  sword and the spear must be kept i n readiness but b e t t e r y e t , c r i e d poets and w r i t e r s , remove man-made b a r r i e r s between peoples and end one n a t i o n ' s power to enslave o t h e r s . A l l o w i n g narrow waterways and mountains to form borders 44  C a n a d i a n S e r i e s , Fourth Book, p. 203.  45  ^Canadian S e r i e s , F i f t h Book, p. 51.  62  and make enemies of men who would otherwise be j o i n e d by the " n a t u r a l bond of brotherhood,"  those w i t h power preyed  upon t h e i r weaker f e l l o w s . But any man who was a man must n e c e s s a r i l y "blush and hang h i s head, to t h i n k h i m s e l f a man"  when w i t n e s s i n g others of h i s k i n d c h a i n , whip, arid  degrade brothers whose only s i n l a y i n possessing a d i f f e r e n t coloured s k i n . ^ 4  Extending t h i s brotherhood tures of God,  to animals, a l s o c r e a -  the readers portrayed animals as having a sim-  i l a r c a p a c i t y f o r p a i n and h u r t as d i d humans and s t r e s s e d the n e c e s s i t y of kindness to animals i n human terms.  As  one would not w i l l i n g l y h u r t parents or oneself so b i r d s ' nests must not be d i s t u r b e d and cause p a i n to the parent b i r d s who would l o s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n or to the baby b i r d s de47 p r i v e d of parents.  F u l l recompense always accompanied  love and c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r animals.  Thus, a v i c i o u s horse  became a t r u s t e d f r i e n d f o l l o w i n g g e n t l e and humane t r e a t ment and a beloved dog saved h i s young m i s t r e s s from death. On the other hand, punishment s w i f t l y ensued a f t e r c r u e l t y to animals as Jack discovered when thrown over a bank by a horse he had spurred w i t h a p i n stuck i n the h e e l of h i s shoe.  S i m i l a r l y , a ship's Captain was rescued from the sea  by a Newfoundland dog whose t a i l had knocked a d i s h from the t a b l e and been cut o f f by the Captain.  While t h i s rescue  46 47 Canadian S e r i e s , Fourth Book, p. 253. F i r s t Book - Part Two,  p.  56.  63  might appear as a reward f o r c r u e l t y the Captain s u f f e r e d the pangs of conscience as he repined that he would g i v e h i s r i g h t arm to be a b l e to r e p a i r the i n j u r y he had done and i t would be a source of g r i e f to him as long as he lived,  4 8  Meddling and greed were the only v i c e s s p e c i f i c a l l y discountenanced i n the readers.  S t o r i e s of B e r t h a ,  Mary, and G o l d i l o c k s i l l u s t r a t e d meddling s t o r i e s warned of greed.  J  and simple  A boy t r i e d to take too many nuts  out of a j a r and got none u n t i l he l e t h a l f go and a dog grasped at the meat h e l d by h i s r e f l e c t i o n and l o s t what he a l r e a d y had so that c h i l d r e n should l e a r n he who i s greedy, and grasps at too much, i s very apt to l o s e what he has. Be content w i t h what you have, even i f i t be l i t t l e , and never g i v e up the substance f o r the shadow.50 The c l a s s i c symbol of greed's f u t i l i t y was King Midas and the s t o r y of a miser who t r i e d to cheat the f i n d e r of h i s l o s t money out of h i s promised reward, only to l o s e the ent i r e sum when a judge awarded i t to the d i s c o v e r e r , g r a p h i 51 c a l l y i l l u m i n e d greed's p e n a l t y . According to the 1872 School A c t , "the h i g h e s t m o r a l i t y s h a l l be i n c u l c a t e d " but the Rules and Regulations made no mention of t h i s requirement.  P o s s i b l y then the  Board of Education intended the p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d v i r t u e s 4-8 Canadian S e r i e s , Fourth Book, p. 93. 49  ^ S u p r a , p. 51. •^Canadian S e r i e s , Second Book, p. 36. 51 Canadian S e r i e s , T h i r d Book, p. 31.  64  and moral a t t r i b u t e s as an e x p l i c a t i o n of the highest morality.  However, the Rules and Regulations of 1879 r e s t r i c t e d  the l i s t of teacher d u t i e s , i n regard t o moral education, to a simple r e i t e r a t i o n of the School Act clause t h a t "the h i g h est m o r a l i t y s h a l l be i n c u l c a t e d but no r e l i g i o u s dogmas o r creed s h a l l be taught."  Now i t became the p u p i l s ' duty t o  be c l e a n and t i d y ; t o a v o i d i d l e n e s s , p r o f a n i t y , f a l s e h o o d , d e c e i t , q u a r r e l i n g , and f i g h t i n g ; t o be k i n d and courteous; obedient t o h i s i n s t r u c t o r s ; d i l i g e n t i n h i s s t u d i e s ; and to conform to the r u l e s of the s c h o o l .  5 2  This change appears  to i n d i c a t e t h a t the sum t o t a l of the d u t i e s which had now become the students' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y d i d not comprise the whole of m o r a l i t y .  Nowhere i n the v a r i o u s Acts o r Rules and  Regulations could anyone f i n d a s p e c i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n of the h i g h e s t m o r a l i t y which caused as much confusion f o r n i n e teenth century teachers as f o r today's h i s t o r i a n .  Neverthe-  l e s s , the wording of clauses c o n t a i n i n g the phrase "highest m o r a l i t y " provides a c l e a r i n t i m a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s m o r a l i t y without s e c t a r i a n dogmas or creeds.  The textbooks tend to  support such an i n f e r e n c e as they taught a p l a i n C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e and m o r a l i t y i n a d d i t i o n t o the p r e v i o u s l y d i s cussed v i r t u e s . B i b l i c a l s t o r i e s of the " B i r t h of our Saviour" and the h e a l i n g a c t s and teachings of Jesus C h r i s t presented d e f i n i t e l y C h r i s t i a n i n s t r u c t i o n .  More s e c t a r i a n , or  P r o t e s t a n t , teachings a l s o occurred i n s t o r i e s such as the "Death and S a c r i f i c e of C h r i s t " from which c h i l d r e n 52 B r i t i s h Columbia, Ninth Annual Report, p. 349.  65  learned t h a t C h r i s t ' s death prevented the r u i n of mankind from the misery of g u i l t and the e v i l of s i n and t h a t the awful mystery of redemption Government.  revealed the j u s t i c e of D i v i n e  3  Theology i n the t e x t s concentrated on the next world r a t h e r than the present.  I n t h i s new world those  r e c o n c i l e d to God, through C h r i s t , would r i s e i n a new s p i r i t u a l , i n c o r r u p t i b l e , and g l o r i o u s body ready to "en54. t e r i n t o the regions of i m m o r t a l i t y . " - ^ R e i t e r a t i n g t h i s theme throughout  the readers assured t h e i r audience that  w h i l e s e p a r a t i o n and the l o s s of f r i e n d s occurred i n t h i s world  There i s a world above Where p a r t i n g i s unknown; A long e t e r n i t y of l o v e , Porm'd f o r the good alone; And f a i t h beholds the dying here r r T r a n s l a t e d t o t h a t g l o r i o u s sphere . Moreover, t h i s world's m i s e r i e s must be endured y  and not questioned as God sent them "as p a r t of a d i s c i p l i n e 56 to improve our grace and prepare us f o r H i s presence."-^ Therefore, i n c o n t r a s t to other types of s t o r i e s i n the readers which h e l d out the hope of s e l f - b e t t e r m e n t as a r e ward f o r hard work and s o l i d p r e p a r a t i o n , r e l i g i o u s s t o r i e s preached acceptance  of l i f e ' s v i c i s s i t u d e s and one's s t a -  t i o n i n l i f e as the w i l l of God.  Hence, a b l i n d boy pos-  53 Canadian S e r i e s , Fourth Book, p. 344. 5 4  I b i d . , p. 350.  5 5  I b i d . , p. 366.  5 6  I b i d . , p. 350.  66  sessed God's b l e s s i n g i n s p i t e of h i s handicap as he could s t i l l hear the song of the b i r d s , s m e l l the scent o f the r o s e s , and hear the b l e a t of the sheep.  L i k e w i s e , the  b l i n d c h i l d whose f i r s t glimpse of l i g h t would be the g l o r ious b r i l l i a n c e of heaven r e c e i v e d a double b l e s s i n g and the dumb c h i l d ' s s o u l opened wide f o r the g i f t s o f j o y and love and i t s a f f l i c t i o n taught others the value of tender57 ness. S i m i l a r l y , death came as the great l e v e l l e r  —  consuming and c o r r u p t i n g the bodies of both h i g h and low — which even kings could not escape as Thackeray g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n "The Death of George the T h i r d . "  5 8  In  view of death's i n e v i t a b i l i t y , one s e l e c t i o n i n s i s t e d that energy spent i n t r y i n g t o change one's s o c i a l s t a t u s or t o a l t e r c o n d i t i o n s was energy wasted.  Par b e t t e r t o use i t  i n developing honesty, t r u t h , goodness, the mastery of pass i o n s , knowledge, and true f r i e n d s and i n preparing the s o u l f o r death. S t r i v i n g f o r these v i r t u e s man . . . i s f r e e d from s e r v i l e bonds Of hope t o r i s e o r f e a r t o f a l l ; CQ And having n o t h i n g , yet hath a l l . Such a man would have e v e r y t h i n g as he would earn that everl a s t i n g l i f e which denied the v i c t o r y of the grave and the s t i n g of death. 57  5 8  But the wicked, l i v i n g as though t h e i r  C a n a d i a n S e r i e s , F i f t h Book, pp. 223 and 234-36. I b i d . , p. 278.  59  •^Canadian S e r i e s , Advanced Reader, p. 71.  67  mortal body were a l l and the s o u l nothing, having s t o r e d up only e a r t h l y treasure would not approach death i n f a i t h and hope.  At the hour o f t h e i r death would come the r e a l i z a -  t i o n that the s o u l was everything and the body only c o r r u p t i b l e f l e s h and, i n a f r e n z y of f e a r and d e s p a i r , the wicked would r e a l i z e that they must now face the d r e a d f u l judgement o f God alone without being able t o accept the Church's assurances of the c o n t i n u i n g p o s s i b i l i t y o f f o r giveness and s a l v a t i o n . F i n a l l y t e a r i n g i t s e l f from the body of the e v i l man, the s o u l would f i n d i t s e l f alone a t the f o o t of the awful t r i b u n a l f a c i n g the probable  punish60  ment of e t e r n a l damnation and s e p a r a t i o n from God.  Thus,  w h i l e men were given the choice of u s i n g wealth w i t h prudence o r i n a man's n a t u r a l way or of hoarding i t , the best way was t o g i v e r i c h e s away t o help those i n need.^  1  C h r i s t ' s teachings can r e a d i l y be discerned i n the above s t o r i e s which merely i n t e r p r e t such well-known d i c t a as "take therefore no thought f o r the morrow" and " l a y not up f o r yourselves treasures upon e a r t h , where moth and r u s t doth c o r r u p t , and where t h i e v e s break through and 62  steal."  The best use of possessions i l l u s t r a t e s the par-  able of the T a l e n t s .  I n a d d i t i o n , C h r i s t taught that ene-  mies should be t r e a t e d w i t h love and understanding. 60  61  Canadian S e r i e s , F i f t h Book, p. 239. Canadian S e r i e s , T h i r d Book, p. 1.  62  M a t t h e w 6:19, 34.  Thus the  68  a f f l i c t o r would be r a i s e d to a higher moral plane r a t h e r than the a f f l i c t e d reducing h i m s e l f to the l e v e l of h i s adversary.  As an example of the m i r a c l e s achieved by l o v i n g  enemies one s t o r y r e l a t e d how  Joe intended to o b t a i n r e -  venge by t r i p p i n g F r i t z , who had wrecked Joe's boat, w h i l e he was c a r r y i n g eggs to h i s home.  Meanwhile, a c o u s i n r e -  minded Joe that Jesus had s a i d to overcome e v i l w i t h good r a t h e r than being overcome by e v i l and that " i f t h i n e enemy hunger, feed him; i f he t h i r s t , give him d r i n k ; f o r i n so doing, thou s h a l t heap c o a l s of f i r e on h i s head." These " c o a l s " would burn up m a l i c e , envy, i l l - f e e l i n g ,  and  a good deal of r u b b i s h and leave c o l d hearts f e e l i n g as warm and pleasant as p o s s i b l e .  Therefore, Joe changed h i s  plans, t r e a t e d F r i t z w i t h kindness, and made a good f r i e n d as F r i t z became so ashamed of h i s conduct that he r e p a i r e d the boat.  P l a i n l y true happiness could only be found i n  t h i s manner and " i f a l l f a m i l i e s were c a r e f u l to keep a supply of Joe Benton's c o a l s on hand, and make good use  of  them, how happy they would be." ^' v  As w e l l as being taught the C h r i s t i a n i d e a l i s m of s e l f - s a c r i f i c e and concern f o r others i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o r e g o i n g c h i l d r e n c o n s t a n t l y r e c e i v e d the reminder that God created a l l t h i n g s i n heaven and i n e a r t h . 64  Simple  h o m i l i e s teaching that " i t was God that made us" * and owe a l l we have or are to God — He keeps us i n l i f e " Canadian S e r i e s , T h i r d Book, p. 10. 63  ^ C\ a n a d i a n S e r i e s , F i r s t Book - Part One, 65  ' I b i d . , p. 13.  "we J  p. 12.  69  g r a d u a l l y gave way  to more s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t o r i e s ,  psalms, and verses continued  the theme of God as  Hymns, Creator  of the sky, the grass, the f l o w e r s , the sun, the b i r d s , the cows, the horses, the water, the f i s h , and the t r e e s . Being created f o r h i s use and enjoyment, men  should be  pro-  p e r l y t h a n k f u l and not abuse the great g i f t s bestowed on him.  A c c o r d i n g l y , a man  stopped a l i t t l e boy, i n the  cess of t r y i n g to drown a s q u i r r e l , and reminded him  prothat  God made that s q u i r r e l and l i f e i s sweet to i t as i t i s to you; and why w i l l you t o r t u r e to death a l i t t l e innocent creature t h a t God has made? . . . when tempted to k i l l any poor l i t t l e innocent animal or b i r d , remember that God does not a l l o w us to k i l l h i s creatures f o r fun.66 Addison's " C r e a t i o n " and Adam's "Morning Hymn" continued the commemoration of God as the author of a l l and  Goodriel,  M i l t o n , C o l e r i d g e , Moore, and others c e l e b r a t e d the g l o r i e s of the sea, of l i g h t , and of a l l the n a t u r a l wonders made a l l the more g l o r i o u s and awesome by the r e a l i z a t i o n that the one great Creator made them a l l . Science r e c e i v e d r e c o g n i t i o n as a n e c e s s i t y f o r the understanding of nature but, at the same time, must a l s o l e a d t o a deeper a p p r e c i a t i o n of the Creator. l o c k i n g the mysteries  of the world science l e d man  Unto a  deeper understanding of the i n f i n i t e wisdom and goodness of God  as  not a step can we take i n any d i r e c t i o n without p e r c e i v i n g the most e x t r a o r d i n a r y t r a c e s of des i g n ; and . . . i f we knew the whole scheme of 66  Canadian S e r i e s , T h i r d Book, p.  81.  70  Providence, every part would appear to b e ^ i n harmony w i t h a p l a n of absolute benevolence. ' L i k e w i s e , law, order, and good government came as the r e s u l t of God's a c t i o n s and men's obedience to His will.  B e l i e v i n g that God gave the law to man  through  Moses and the i n s t i t u t i o n of the f a m i l y , one s e l e c t i o n ass e r t e d t h a t , as "law's seat i s the bosom of God,"  a l l men  admired her as the "mother of t h e i r peace and j o y " and  en-  deavoured to obey the law as one means of doing God's w i l l . Great n a t i o n s , such as B r i t a i n , achieved  t h e i r s t a t u r e only  by v i r t u e of p a r t a k i n g " i n the highest degree of the m i l d 69 and peaceable s p i r i t of C h r i s t i a n i t y .  1 1  Thus, f o r t u n e ,  honour, and happiness f o r the people f o l l o w e d as C h r i s t i a n i t y l e d to the acceptance of the p r i n c i p l e of j u s t i c e . Incumbent on the c i t i z e n s of any n a t i o n accepting these C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s were d u t i e s to labour that t h i s happy c o n d i t i o n of existence may remain, . . . guard the p i e t y . . . and watch over the s p i r i t of j u s t i c e which e x i s t s i n these times. F i r s t he must take care that the matters of God are not p o l l u t e d , that the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h i s r e t a i n e d i n p u r i t y and i n p e r f e c t i o n ; and then t u r n i n g to human a f f a i r s , l e t him s t r i v e f o r spotl e s s , i n c o r r u p t i b l e j u s t i c e ; . . . .70 No h i n t of p o s s i b l y d i f f e r i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of God and His Word appeared i n the t e x t s .  I n t h i s way  they  avoided any necessary explanations of church creeds or 67  Canadian S e r i e s , F i f t h Book, p.  68  Canadian S e r i e s , Advanced Reader, p.  69  Canadian S e r i e s , F i f t h Book, p.  70  I b i d . , p.  306.  19.  320.  138.  71  dogmas which, i f taught, would make the readers d e f i n i t e l y contrary to the r u l e of non-sectarianism.  One  s t o r y came  p e r i l o u s l y c l o s e to the C a l v i n i s t i c d o c t r i n e of p r e d e s t i n a t i o n by i n f e r r i n g God's s e l e c t i v i t y i n answering for salvation.  prayers  However, the t a l e gave no d i r e c t explana-  t i o n f o r only e i g h t passengers being saved from a stormwracked ship i n s p i t e of a l l v i c t i m s praying f o r h e l p ,  nor  f o r only f i v e of the eight being l e f t a l i v e f o r eventual 71 rescue by a passing s h i p . '  This s t o r y proved an excep-  t i o n to the p r e v a i l i n g teaching that God would i n s t r u c t c h i l d r e n , through prayer and the B i b l e , i n such a way  that  no doubt would remain as to what His w i l l c o n s i s t e d of and by what means i t could best be accomplished. S i m i l a r l y , other s e l e c t i o n s assured c h i l d r e n of God's omnipresence and the s o l e n e c e s s i t y of c a l l i n g Him i n f a i t h f o r sure and c e r t a i n a i d .  on  Thus, one man  membered h i s mother's advice to " c a l l upon the Lord  remy  dear son, when you are i n t r o u b l e " and was immediately f i l l e d w i t h such energy that he saved h i s f r i e n d from 72 drowning.  L i k e w i s e , the p i l o t of the steamer "Lake E r i e "  1  saved a l l the passengers and crew a f t e r c a l l i n g on God  to  give him the energy to remain at h i s post and s t e e r the 73 f i r e - w r a c k e d s h i p to shore. ance by way  L a t r e i l l e received d e l i v e r -  of a b e e t l e i n h i s p r i s o n c e l l as  71 72 7 3  Canadian S e r i e s , F i r s t Book - Part Two,  Canadian S e r i e s , T h i r d Book, p. I b i d . , p. 76.  35.  p.  34.  72  i f i t p l e a s e s God to from death an i n s e c t f o r the s m a l l e s t and H i s w i l l and are not  d e l i v e r anyone from p r i s o n o r may be H i s messenger . . . l e a s t of H i s c r e a t u r e s obey beneath H i s n o t i c e . 7 4  Throughout these s t o r i e s c h i l d r e n were l e a r n i n g a Christian ethic.  As  i t i s impossible  to divorce  the  e t h i c from i t s r e l i g i o u s base the f a c t s of God  as the  a t o r , f a t h e r , and  redeemer;  and  judge; of C h r i s t the son and  of the Holy S p i r i t as h e l p e r  and  i n t e r p r e t e r had  established.  I t then became p o s s i b l e to teach the  tian morality  o f l o v e f o r God  and  brotherhood of a l l c r e a t i o n .  man  and  the  wished i t so;  i t pleased  g r a t i f y one's f e l l o w man,  a l s o the  God;  and  s a t i s f a c t i o n but  reward c o n s i s t e n t learned  essential  established  good and  be-  God.  other v i r t u e s  could a l s o grant a  with a higher morality.  t h a t i f he was  so  i t a l s o would  c h i l d of  T r u t h , honesty, obedience, and gave p e r s o n a l  be  Chris-  attempted t o obey the B i b l e ' s moral i d e a l s  cause God  to  In a d d i t i o n , a C h r i s t i a n  j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r moral b e h a v i o u r c o u l d be t h a t one  cre-  So  the  better child  d i d God's w i l l he would  be  75  taken "as a lamb to H i s f o l d " go  t o Him.  S i m i l a r l y , the good c h i l d t o l d no  t r u t h f u l n e s s was sin.  against  the w i l l of God  A l o v i n g , d u t i f u l , and  brothers, i n g and  whereas the bad  and  s i s t e r s who  considerate  and  mild  and,  could  not  l i e s as  un-  therefore,  c h i l d pleased  a  parents,  would become, i n t u r n , more l o v -  God  would r e j o i c e i n the r e s u l t i n g  76  happier family l i f e . F a r b e t t e r rewards too would I b i d . , p. 127.  be  7 4  ^Canadian S e r i e s , F i r s t Book - P a r t Two, 76 Canadian S e r i e s , Second Book, p.  106.  p.  9.  73  r e c e i v e d by being k i n d and u s e f u l to others than could ever be gained by doing nothing except f o r monetary g a i n . for  John,  example, helped a man haul a c a r t l o a d of corn up a d i f -  f i c u l t h i l l and then endured the j e e r i n g of h i s peers f o r r e c e i v i n g no money f o r h i s s e r v i c e s and o b t a i n i n g a bad mark i n s c h o o l f o r h i s t a r d i n e s s .  John's reward, however,  was f a r g r e a t e r than h i s f r i e n d s r e a l i z e d as i n the f i r s t p l a c e , he had the approval of h i s cons c i e n c e , which was worth something. I n the second p l a c e , he had the pleasure of doing good, which was worth something. I n the t h i r d place he had the g r a t i t u d e and love of the man, a l s o worth something. And l a s t l y and best of a l l , he had the approbation of God, who has promised t h a t even a cup o f c o l d j~ water g i v e n t o a d i s c i p l e s h a l l not l o s e i t s reward. R e l i g i o n then had a d e f i n i t e place i n the c u r r i culum o f a supposedly s e c u l a r and n o n - s e c t a r i a n s c h o o l s y s tem i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the h i g h e s t m o r a l i t y appeared a synonym f o r r e l i g i o u s m o r a l i t y . A l l c h i l d r e n taught i n the system would be s u b j e c t t o these r e l i g i o u s teachings as i t can be s a f e l y assumed t h a t teachers used the t e x t s as the primary means of i n s t r u c t i o n as r e q u i r e d by law. I t i s a l s o safe to assume t h a t a f i v e or s i x year o l d ent e r i n g the system would s t a r t on page one of the f i r s t p a r t of the f i r s t reader and continue through t o a t l e a s t the l a s t page o f the f i f t h reader i n completing  elementary  school. A study of the textbook s t o r i e s r e v e a l s no men77  ' C a n a d i a n S e r i e s , T h i r d Book, p. 5.  74  t i o n of the Church, as a teacher, o r i t s sacraments.  In  a d d i t i o n , s a l v a t i o n came t o man by God's grace, through Jesus C h r i s t , by v i r t u e of f a i t h which rendered s a l v a t i o n a d i r e c t God-Man r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h only C h r i s t as i n t e r mediary.  Together w i t h the emphasis on the B i b l e as the  means through which man came to know God, the omission of sacramental  and l i t u r g i c a l tenets plus the espoused s a l v a -  t i o n d o c t r i n e made the r e l i g i o u s teachings not only C h r i s t i a n but P r o t e s t a n t C h r i s t i a n .  I t may be true that an  Ontario Roman C a t h o l i c Archbishop  d i r e c t e d the c o m p i l a t i o n  and approved of the Canadian S e r i e s , as claimed by Mr. Jamieson, but i t i s a l s o true that Roman C a t h o l i c s could supplement textbook teachings w i t h s p e c i f i c church dogma 78 i n the Ontario separate s c h o o l s .  B r i t i s h Columbia's p u b l i c  school system d i d not permit such s e c t a r i a n teaching and, t h e r e f o r e , r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n i n c l u d e d i n the t e x t s would be considered wholly P r o t e s t a n t by the Roman Cathol i c Church i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Comparing the system and the t e x t s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t the readers' m o r a l i t y d i d not always agree w i t h the m i l i e u i n which i t was taught.  Thus, t e x t s s t r e s s e d edu-  c a t i o n ' s value w h i l e many parents only r e l u c t a n t l y supported the school system and removed t h e i r c h i l d r e n as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e ; neatness and c l e a n l i n e s s were i n s i s t e d on i n sometimes disordered and d i r t y surroundings; 78 Supra, p. 45» n. 78.  s u p e r i o r s de-  75  manded respect while becoming involved i n acrimonious and demeaning disputes; and an avowedly secular and non-secta r i a n system taught a r e l i g i o u s and Protestant f a i t h and morality. As pointed out by the Colonist, a good moral tone might be set i n the schools but the young people of the province s t i l l suffered from a sad d e f i c i e n c y i n morals, character, and t a s t e .  Nothing i n a young society, claimed  the e d i t o r , supported  school morality i n a way which would  lead to the gradual formation of a higher standard  and,  therefore, home t r a i n i n g proved the e s s e n t i a l ingredient i n teaching c h i l d r e n to cherish true values and r i s e above the p r e v a i l i n g e v i l s of coarse l i v e s , obsene language and 79  a c t i v i t i e s , irreverance, and discourtesy. In essence, texts taught a personal morality which attempted to create thoughtful, kind, clean, and decent c i t i z e n s f i t to l i v e and work together i n an orderly and law-abiding s o c i e t y .  Showing l i t t l e concern f o r the  formation of a corporate ethic, readers pictured nations as c o l l e c t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s whose actions could destroy or exalt.  Hence, society could be destroyed by an accumula-  t i o n of small wrongs i n the same way  as a great ship sank SO  because of the worms i n one piece of wood. hand, a nation could achieve greatness  On the other  through the small  actions of i t s good c i t i z e n s just as one b r i c k at a time B r i t i s h Colonist, July 25, 1876. 80 Canadian Series, Second Book, p. 7 9  30.  76  b u i l t l a r g e e d i f i c e s ; one step a t a time t r a v e r s e d mounta i n s ; countless drops of water composed the mighty ocean; and L i t t l e deeds of kindness, L i t t l e words of l o v e , l a k e the e a r t h an Eden L i k e the heaven above.81 I f s m a l l things could change the world i t i s conc e i v a b l e that textbook teachings could improve the p u b l i c school system.  Therefore, i t might be expected that l e g -  i s l a t i o n would amend the School Act i n accordance w i t h the r e l i g i o u s and moral tenets of the t e x t s and that p a r e n t s , t r u s t e e s , teachers, and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c would a l t e r a t t i t u d e s and h a b i t s .  Whether or not such changes d i d take  place i s p r o p e r l y the concern of the f o l l o w i n g chapter which w i l l consider the school system f o l l o w i n g ten years exposure to the Canadian S e r i e s of School Books.  I b i d . , p. 158  CHAPTER FOUR SYSTEM, RELIGION, AND MORALITY 1883 - 1899 L i t e r a t u r e ' s value r e s t s mainly i n i t s a b i l i t y to d e p i c t and b r i n g to l i f e the human c o n d i t i o n .  Perceptive  p o r t r a y a l s of the many f a c e t s of humanity a l l o w the reader i n s i g h t i n t o d i v e r s e characters so that we get i n s i d e them, and thereby understand b e t t e r how to l i v e i n s i d e o u r s e l v e s ; we s t r e t c h . t h e s k i n of i s o l a t i o n i n s i d e which each of us l i v e s . But i t i s by no means evident that we know how to a c t b e t t e r i n any s p e c i f i c encounter.! Thus, i t i s impossible to prove whether or not textbook  lit-  erature exerted any i n f l u e n c e on the school system and publ i c a t t i t u d e s and h a b i t s .  I t i s c e r t a i n , however, that  w h i l e much remained the same some changes could be noted, i n system and p u b l i c o p i n i o n , during the l a s t few years of the nineteenth  century. By 1881, f o r example, the pendulum of popular con-  v i c t i o n appeared t o be swinging to the support of r e l i g i o u s teaching i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s .  The Methodist  Church passed  a r e s o l u t i o n d e c l a r i n g that P r o t e s t a n t s wanted the highest m o r a l i t y i n c u l c a t e d i n the p u b l i c schools and, t h e r e f o r e , p u p i l s should have the precepts and p r i n c i p l e s of Jesus p  C h r i s t impressed upon t h e i r minds.  Noting that p e r s e c u t i o n  1  B r o n o w s k i , The I d e n t i t y of Man, p. 69.  2  B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , A p r i l 30, 1880. 77  78  i  was as evident i n f o r b i d d i n g r e l i g i o n as i n e n f o r c i n g i t , the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church c a l l e d f o r reinstatement prayers, from which p u p i l s could be excused on Reversing i t s stand of 1876,  of  1872  request.  the C o l o n i s t declared that the  " f a l s e step which banished r e l i g i o n from the schools" must be changed and prayers r e i n s t i t u t e d as the f i r s t step t o wards moral regeneration i n the p r o v i n c e .  Similarly,  4  "Point Blank" envisioned the d e s t r u c t i o n of a l l r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g pursuant to a ban on r e l i g i o u s education i n a system combining a l l c l a s s e s and creeds i n one s c h o o l .  In  t u r n , such a l a c k of b e l i e f would demolish the i n s t i t u t i o n of the f a m i l y and i m p a i r order i n the S t a t e .  J  And "A.B.C."  r e j o i c e d i n the d e l i g h t f u l c o n t r a s t to o p i n i o n i n 1876 when the s e c u l a r r e i g n had begun and God and r e l i g i o n s i n f u l l y c  divorced from the s c h o o l s . Perhaps the times seemed p r o p i t i o u s f o r the r e sumption of the Roman C a t h o l i c Church campaign f o r government a i d to church s c h o o l s .  I n any event, s t a t i n g that the  B r i t i s h Columbia school law favoured only the i r r e l i g i o n i s t s i n the province and that the absence of r e l i g i o u s  instruc-  t i o n was a source of e v i l b r i n g i n g f o r t h immoral youths, the C a t h o l i c Bishops requested  that B r i t i s h Columbia grant  the same r i g h t s to C a t h o l i c s as those ceded to the P r o t e s 3  I b i d . , May  2,  1880.  4  I b i d . , February 25,  5  I b i d . , June 1,  1881.  1881.  Dominion-Pacific Herald, l a r c h 5,  1881.  79  tant m i n o r i t y i n Quebec.  1  John Robson, e d i t o r o f the H e r a l d ,  admitted that banning r e l i g i o n i n the p u b l i c schools was a b l o t on the system but claimed the i n t e n t had been t o f a c i l i t a t e accommodation o f a l l r e l i g i o n s r a t h e r than t o s a t i s f y irreligionists.  At the same time, Robson r e s i s t e d demands  f o r a p u b l i c l y funded system o f denominational schools, p a r t i c u l a r l y as no-one could guarantee t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f C a t h o l i c s i n the province e i t h e r wanted o r would support 8 separate schools.  Nevertheless,  one o f the C o l o n i s t *s  correspondents i n s i s t e d t h a t denominational schools enjoyed the support of a l a r g e segment of the p u b l i c and that a l l C a t h o l i c s , together w i t h a good percentage o f P r o t e s t a n t s , objected t o sending t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o schools where r e l i g i o n was excluded.  Q  Further l e t t e r s noted t h a t , as the p u b l i c school system had been condemned by both P r o t e s t a n t and Roman C a t h o l i c Bishops, the i s s u e of r e l i g i o u s education needed s e r i o u s and immediate c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  Notwithstanding  peti-  t i o n s and p r o t e s t s , however, the L e g i s l a t u r e refused any a i d t o church s c h o o l s , conducted no i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the r e l i g i o u s question, and made no changes i n wording of the s e c u l a r and non-3ectarian  clause i n ensuing School A c t s .  The s o l e r e f l e c t i o n o f the a l l e g e d demand f o r r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g i n the p u b l i c schools proved t o be the g r a d u a l l y 7 B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, S e s s i o n a l Papers 44 V i c t . , 1881, p. 517. Q  Q  Dominion-Pacific  Herald, March 9 , 1881.  B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , February 1, 1883.  80  i n c r e a s i n g number o f s c h o o l s employing an opening  or c l o s i n g e x e r c i s e .  the Lord's P r a y e r as  Thus, a t o t a l of o n l y 19  o f 51 p u b l i c s c h o o l s u s i n g the p r a y e r i n 1881 78 o f 127 s c h o o l s and d i v i s i o n s i n 1 8 8 8 .  i n c r e a s e d to  1 0  In s p i t e of r e f u s a l s t o a l l o w a d d i t i o n a l  relig-  i o u s e d u c a t i o n or e x e r c i s e s , the p u b l i c s c h o o l system j o y e d a growing  acceptance  i n the p r o v i n c e .  en-  Census r e c o r d s  show a t o t a l o f 15,244 c h i l d r e n between the ages of 5 and 14 i n B r i t i s h Columbia  i n 1891  the same time, elementary  and 26,895 i n 1 9 0 1 .  1 1  s c h o o l s e n r o l l e d 10,461 i n  At 1892  12 and 23,119 i n 1902  w i t h average  d a i l y attendance  increa-  s i n g t o 63.29 p e r c e n t , a r e c o r d u n e q u a l l e d i n any p r o v i n c e 13 except Quebec.  A t t r i b u t i n g p a r t of t h i s acceptance  the P u b l i c School A c t o f 1879  which extended  the s c h o o l  f r a n c h i s e t o the wives of v o t e r s , Superintendent noted the "awakening o f no l i t t l e and r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . "  1 4  enthusiasm  to  S. D. Pope  i n both  civic  I n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n the workings  and s u c c e s s of the s c h o o l s appeared  t o augur w e l l f o r pu-  p i l s ' study and work h a b i t s and t e a c h e r s ' d e v o t i o n to duty. 10 B r i t i s h Columbia, Tenth Annual Report of the Publ i c Schools by C. C. McKenzie, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ( V i c t o r i a : 1881), p. 270; and Seventeenth Annual Report of the P u b l i c S c h o o l s by S. D. Pope, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ( V i c t o r i a : 1888), T a b l e A. C a n a d a , Census of 1931, T a b l e 9, V. 1, p. 392. 12 B r i t i s h Columbia, One Hundred Y e a r s , p. 68. B r i t i s h Columbia, Twenty-Sixth Annual Report o f the P u b l i c Schools by S. D. Pope, Superintendent ( V i c t o r i a : 1897), p. 195. B r i t i s h Columbia, T h i r t e e n t h Annual Report of the P u b l i c Schools by S. D. Pope, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ( V i c t o r i a : 1884), p. 317. i:L  1 3  1 4  81  On the other hand, teachers s t i l l faced the problem o f p o p u l a t i o n m o b i l i t y .  I n h i s annual r e p o r t f o r 1889  Kamloops school p r i n c i p a l , E. S t u a r t Wood, commented on the adverse e f f e c t s of migratory h a b i t s .  Wood noted t h a t , of a  t o t a l of 45 students, 12 had come from o u t s i d e h i s d i s t r i c t and that by June there were 22 absentees of which 13 had l e f t the a r e a , 6 had gone r a n c h i n g , and 2 were i l l .  More-  over, c h i l d r e n accustomed t o a nomadic e x i s t e n c e and the l i f e of a mining camp suddenly found themselves expected t o conform t o s c h o o l r e g u l a t i o n s .  As a r e s u l t they became a  constant source of d i s c i p l i n a r y problems, p a r t i c u l a r l y as most parents expressed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n s c h o o l progress 16 or attendance. According t o r e p o r t s , home and s o c i a l e n v i r o n ments i n the c i t i e s a l s o l e f t much t o be d e s i r e d and worked a g a i n s t teacher i n f l u e n c e and a u t h o r i t y .  Hector Stramberg  c r i t i c i z e d the " v i c i o u s system of home t r a i n i n g " of many of h i s New Westminster p u p i l s as w e l l as the e f f e c t of the 17 c i t y environment.  V i c t o r i a Boys* School p r i n c i p a l , J . A.  H a l l i d a y , l i k e w i s e complained of the adverse i n f l u e n c e of the s t r e e t s on h i s students but noted that the problem was country-wide r a t h e r than a s t r i c t l y l o c a l i z e d concern. 15 ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, the P u b l i c Schools by S. D. 1889) , p. 223. 16 B r i t i s h Columbia, the P u b l i c Schools by S. D. 1898), p. 1250. 17 B r i t i s h Columbia, 1890) the P u,b lp. i c144. Schools by S. D.  Eighteenth Annual Report of Pope, Superintendent ( V i c t o r i a : Twenty-Seventh Annual Report of Pope, Superintendent ( V i c t o r i a : Nineteenth Annual Report o f Pope, Superintendent ( V i c t o r i a :  82  H a l l i d a y b e l i e v e d the d i f f i c u l t y l a r g e l y due t o "the l a x i t y of home d i s c i p l i n e and p a r t i c u l a r l y t o the neglect on the part of parents to s t r i c t l y supervise the way i n which boys 1 ft  and g i r l s spend t h e i r evenings."  Comments of both Stram-  berg and H a l l i d a y l a r g e l y echoed observations and laments of the C o l o n i s t i n 1 8 7 6 .  19  Combined w i t h m o b i l i t y and environmental  problems,  teachers o f t e n had to cope w i t h o l d e r c h i l d r e n e n t e r i n g the system f o r the f i r s t time and each possessing v a r y i n g s k i l l s . With many schools s t i l l ungraded teachers could be faced w i t h s i t u a t i o n s , such as that described by Inspector Burns, i n which some c h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s could read and w r i t e but know nothing of a r i t h m e t i c , immigrant c h i l d r e n from the U n i ted  Kingdom might be w e l l schooled i n a l l but Canadian sub-  j e c t s , and c h i l d r e n from the United States d e f i c i e n t i n 20 grammar as w e l l as i n Canadiana. In a d d i t i o n , much of the p o p u l a t i o n apparently s t i l l placed l i t t l e value on education except of the "pract i c a l " kind.  Stramberg accused many parents of keeping  t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n school f o r p u r e l y m a t e r i a l i s t i c , not educ a t i o n a l , reasons and regarding school as u s e f u l only i f i t prepared young people i n the k i n d of knowledge which would enable them to make a commercial p r o f i t from t h e i r B r i t i s h Columbia, Eighteenth School Report, p. 231 S u p r a , p. 75. 20 B r i t i s h Columbia, Twenty-Seventh School Report, p. 1250. 1 9  83  h i g h e r education.  21  Ebenezer Robson, i n a speech to the  Teachers' I n s t i t u t e , a l s o noted many people b e l i e v e d t h a t emphasis on a l i b e r a l education i n the schools s p o i l e d a 22 good number of p o t e n t i a l farmers and mechanics.  Simi-  l a r l y , the Mainland Guardian questioned the value of a p r o g r e s s i v e l y more pedantic p u b l i c school system which negl e c t e d the elementary s u b j e c t s whereby youth would be d i r e c t e d towards the occupations p r e v a i l i n g i n the country. To the newspaper, knowledge of the p l a i n p r i n c i p l e s of the t h r e s h i n g machine, or the common sense r o u t i n e of the merchant's o f f i c e , would be of more value to students than the dubious knowledge "of a Greek dipthong or the speeches of Mardonius and Artabanus at the C o u n c i l Board of  Susa."  23  C e r t a i n l y , education seemed a waste of time to o l d e r boys who for  could earn almost as much i n the mines,  work r e q u i r i n g l i t t l e s t r e n g t h or s k i l l , as a d u l t s  earned i n the A t l a n t i c s t a t e s .  As the p r i n c i p a l of Wel-  l i n g t o n s c h o o l pointed out, even should a boy d i s t i n g u i s h h i m s e l f i n h i s s t u d i e s the f u t u r e h e l d l i t t l e f o r him unl e s s h i s parents c o u l d a f f o r d h i g h e r education.  Graduation  from p u b l i c s c h o o l only f i t t e d a boy f o r a c l e r k s h i p or a teaching p o s i t i o n .  N e i t h e r provided the monetary rewards of  u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r i n g jobs and c l e r k s h i p s were few and not too 21  B r i t i s h Columbia, S i x t e e n t h Annual Report of the P u b l i c Schools by S. D. Pope, Superintendent ( V i c t o r i a : 1887), p. 212. 22 23 B r i t i s h C Guardian, o l o n i s t , J February u l y 13, 1889. Mainland 5, 1881.  84  easily obtained.  £tf  I n the c i t i e s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i b -  e r a l education could r e s u l t i n s i t u a t i o n s s i m i l a r t o that described i n 1887 by New Westminster High School Stramberg.  principal  Students i n that c i t y who found the " r e s t r a i n t s  and tasks inseparable from the s u c c e s s f u l working of our present system of education" not to t h e i r l i k i n g were apt to escape the taedium v i t a e by " a t t e n d i n g , i n t u r n , each of the s e c t a r i a n c o l l e g e s we have here."  J  Denominational s c h o o l s , however, had d i f f i c u l t i e s of t h e i r own i n attempting t o remain o p e r a t i o n a l . P o s s i b l y , the popular b i a s a g a i n s t l i b e r a l education played some part i n p r i v a t e school problems.  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , d e c l i n i n g sup-  port f o r s e c t a r i a n schools could be a t t r i b u t e d to parents, f o r c e d t o f i n a n c e p u b l i c schools by taxes, being pragmatic enough to b e l i e v e they should d e r i v e some b e n e f i t from the p u b l i c system by e n r o l l i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n i t .  Again,  continued apathy towards r e l i g i o u s education might bear some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p l i g h t of r e l i g i o u s schools. Bishop S i l l i t o e noted both these l a t t e r reasons i n h i s r e p o r t s of c o n t i n u i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n operating A n g l i c a n schools on the mainland.  Columbia College f o r  g i r l s and Lome College f o r boys i n New Westminster depended on church funds from England and, when these were r e duced i n 1884,  diocese and schools became p r a c t i c a l l y  insol-  24 B r i t i s h Columbia, S i x t e e n t h School Report, p. 221. 2 5  I b i d . , p. 212.  85  vent.  S i l l i t o e r e p o r t e d t h a t few  of h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s were  wealthy, t h a t a good s e c u l a r e d u c a t i o n c o u l d be  obtained  i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s , and  difficult  to c o n v i n c e  t h a t people remained  i n r e g a r d to the f a t a l d e f e c t i n a non-denomina-  t i o n a l system of t e a c h i n g — instruction ~  which church  namely the l a c k of r e l i g i o u s s c h o o l s had attempted to c o r -  r e c t a t the express wish o f the p a r i s h p e o p l e . same p a r i s h i o n e r s r e f u s e d f u l l and  support  Now  of Anglican schools  sent t h e i r c h i l d r e n to Roman or f r e e s c h o o l s  i n a t e l y , seemingly  without  these  indiscrim-  c a r i n g what type o f r e l i g i o u s 26  t r a i n i n g they r e c e i v e d or i f they r e c e i v e d any a t  all.  E v e n t u a l l y Columbia C o l l e g e c l o s e d and  concen-  t r a t e d e d u c a t i o n a l funds  the church  a t Y a l e to counter a p e r c e i v e d i r 27  r e l i g i o n and  public depravity.  I n c l u d i n g I n d i a n educa-  t i o n the Y a l e s c h o o l r e c e i v e d a government g r a n t and  |60.00  per I n d i a n s t u d e n t which, t o g e t h e r w i t h a g r a n t from the S o c i e t y f o r the Promotion of C h r i s t i a n Knowledge and  staf-  f i n g by the S i s t e r s of the Community of A l l Hallow's,  en-  sured s u f f i c i e n t funds and  the a b i l i t y to extend  to white c h i l d r e n i n Y a l e and d i s t r i c t .  education  Another A n g l i -  can s c h o o l opened i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y and moved to l o o p s i n 1885  but e x p e r i e n c e d  continuing d i f f i c u l t i e s  Kambe-  cause o f the l a r g e number of b a c h e l o r r a n c h e r s i n the a r e a who made a h a b i t of m a r r y i n g  young l a d y t e a c h e r s h i r e d by  ?6 Gowen, Church Work, p. 137. Peake, A n g l i c a n Church, pp. 73-74. 2 7  OQ  Ibid.,  p.  93.  the  86  school.  29  F a i l u r e to open a hoys' school i n Vancouver i n  1892 l e d the Bishop to conclude that i t would be hopeless to attempt competition w i t h the p u b l i c school system u n t i l h i s diocesans cared f a r more f o r r e l i g i o u s education than 30  they d i d a t present. A n g l i c a n schools on the I s l a n d continued t o s u r v i v e f o r p r i m a r i l y h i s t o r i c a l reasons and the predominantly B r i t i s h c h a r a c t e r of the s o c i e t y .  Roman C a t h o l i c schools  a l s o continued to e x i s t i n s p i t e of growing f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and l a c k of whole-hearted  support from the Catho-  l i c p o p u l a t i o n , l a r g e l y due to being operated by teaching r e l i g i o u s orders.  P r e s b y t e r i a n and Methodist schools were  non-existent except f o r the s h o r t - l i v e d Methodist  High  School opened i n New Westminster i n 1881 and c l o s e d i n 1884 when a p u b l i c h i g h school opened.  Columbia Methodist C o l -  lege a l s o provided some secondary education, i n a d d i t i o n to i t s t h e o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g , f o r boarders from outside the 31 city.  Bishop S i l l i t o e c l e a r l y considered p u b l i c schools  n o n - r e l i g i o u s but they appeared acceptable to the m a j o r i t y of parents i n the province and apparently to most of the P r o t e s t a n t c l e r g y as a g i t a t i o n f o r more r e l i g i o n i n the p u b l i c system, noted i n 1880 t o 1883, disappeared.  As pre-  v i o u s demands had produced no government a c t i o n , however, 29  Kamloops D a i l y S e n t i n e l , June 29, 1968.  Gowen, Church Work, p. 192. G e o r g e C e c i l Hacker, "The Methodist Church i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1859-1900" (B. A. Essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1933), pp. 166-68. 30  31  87  it  i s p o s s i b l e t h a t most people simply  change.  C e r t a i n l y , o n l y one  gave up any  protest against  p o l i c y can be l o c a t e d i n the n i n e t e e n t h As noted, the S c h o o l A c t official  had  i n l a t e r Acts.  u n t i l 1891,  government  century  barred  p o s i t i o n s i n the s c h o o l system and  reaffirmed looked  of 1876  hope of  after  1883.  clergymen from t h i s ban  A p p a r e n t l y the c l a u s e was  was over-  however, as o n l y i n t h a t y e a r d i d  the  M i n i s t e r i a l A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia p e t i t i o n against  "unjust  and  offensive discrimination."  p r o t e s t on the a s s e r t i o n t h a t "any  man  ment ought to have a l l the r i g h t s and zen," "the  who  Basing i t s  pays f o r g o v e r n -  p r i v i l e g e s of a  citi-  the A s s o c i a t i o n r e q u e s t e d removal o f the c l a u s e c h a r a c t e r and  protect them."  education  of the c l a s s p r o s c r i b e d  them from the stigma which t h i s c l a u s e  as should  c a s t s upon  32  On  the o t h e r hand, P r o t e s t a n t  been f u l l y aware of the c o n t i n u i n g ,  clergymen c o u l d have  i f largely unofficial,  i n f l u e n c e of t h e i r churches i n the s c h o o l school b u i l d i n g s could s t i l l  system.  Thus,  serve as church c e n t r e s  and  church premises as p u b l i c classrooms p a r t i c u l a r l y i n newer communities.  Salmon Arm  Church p e r m i s s i o n v i c e s and Mr.  Irwin,  to use  continued  t r u s t e e s g r a n t e d the  Methodist  s c h o o l premises f o r c h u r c h s e r -  to do so i n s p i t e of t e a c h e r  the t e a c h e r ,  the c l a s s r o o m d i r t y and  objections.  contended t h a t church people t h a t church s e r v i c e s upset  left  the  32 B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, Papers 54 V i c t . , 1891, p. 407.  Sessional  88  school.  Church a u t h o r i t i e s denied the f i r s t  charges and c o u n t e r - a t t a c k e d been n e c e s s a r y  strife  w i t h the c l a i m t h a t i t had  t o c l e a n t h e schoolroom b e f o r e s e r v i c e s as  w e l l as a f t e r . cal  o f Mr. I r w i n ' s  A t t r i b u t i n g most o f t h e t r o u b l e t o p o l i t i -  e x i s t i n g between Mr. I r w i n and some o f the t r u s -  t e e s , the Department o f E d u c a t i o n d i s m i s s e d the t e a c h e r f o l 33 lowing an i n v e s t i g a t i o n . ^ in  the Methodist  Rossland's f i r s t  s c h o o l opened  Church i n 1895 and the p a s t o r , D. D. B i r k s ,  was employed as t e a c h e r .  This f i r s t  s c h o o l , opened by the  s e t t l e r s i n view o f government r e f u s a l t o c o n s i d e r b u i l d i n g u n t i l assured  o f a s t a b l e community, was r e p l a c e d by a gov-  ernment s c h o o l i n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r and Mr. B i r k s r e s i g n e d in  favour of a l a y t e a c h e r .  3 4  A l s o worthy o f note i s H e c t o r  Stramberg's t e a c h i n g r e c o r d as p r i n c i p a l o f both the Method i s t High S c h o o l i n New Westminster and a l s o o f the p u b l i c h i g h s c h o o l which r e p l a c e d the church At the same time,  institute.  P r o t e s t a n t clergymen p l a y e d a  v e r y prominent p a r t i n the Teachers'  Institutes.  of  I n s t i t u t e meetings prove the almost i n v a r i a b l e  of  clergymen, t h e i r treatment  presence  as p a r t i c u l a r l y honoured  g u e s t s , and the opening o f meetings w i t h p r a y e r . at  Reports  Hence,  the January 2, 1890 d i n n e r meeting o f the Mainland  Tea-  c h e r s ' I n s t i t u t e the f o u r clergymen i n attendance s a t i n the p l a c e s o f honour, t o g e t h e r w i t h members o f the s c h o o l 33 B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, S e s s i o n a l Papers 59 V i c t . , 1896, pp. 629-36. R o s s l a n d Miner, March 1, 1962. 3 4  89  board.  At the f o l l o w i n g meeting teachers conferred honour-  35  ary membership on the Reverend Messrs. Robson, Hobson, Ped36 l e y , McLaren, and McLeod.  Donald F r a s e r , m i n i s t e r of  Second P r e s b y t e r i a n Church i n V i c t o r i a , a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i pated i n meetings and addressed the Convention i n 1885  on  " m o r a l i t y as i t should be taught i n our s c h o o l s , c o n f i n i n g h i s remarks to the demands of the School Act that no r e l i 37 gious dogmas or creed should be taught." I n 1886 he again presented a t a l k on m o r a l i t y and made " v a l i d sug38 gestions" f o r i t s teaching.  Ebenezer Robson, of the  Methodist Church, endorsed F r a s e r s views, i n a d v i s i n g t e a 1  chers that they were l a y i n g the foundations of students' l i v e s both here and beyond.  Therefore, precept and example  must be employed as w e l l as sound s c h o l a r s h i p and the h i g h e s t m o r a l i t y must be i n c u l c a t e d .  3 9  Considering the many speeches on the s u b j e c t , i t i s apparent that confusion continued to surround the meaning of "highest m o r a l i t y . " However, as teachers c a l l e d on clergymen f o r explanations i t i s a l s o c l e a r that a r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o r a l i t y and r e l i g i o n e x i s t e d i n the 35 ^Vancouver D a i l y World, January 2, 1890. I b i d . , January 4, 1890. 37 • " B r i t i s h Columbia, F i f t e e n t h Annual Report of the P u b l i c Schools by S. D. Pope, Superintendent ( V i c t o r i a : 1886), p. 184. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , J u l y 16, 1886. I b i d . , J u l y 13, 1889. 3 6  3 8  3 9  90  teachers' assumptions.  At l e a s t one member of the p u b l i c  concurred w i t h t h i s view as a l e t t e r i n the C o l o n i s t recommended that every school.should have two charts i n s c r i b e d , i n c l e a r type, w i t h the Ten Commandments, the Golden Rule, the Proverbs of Solomon, and the Great Commandment as the b a s i s of moral t r a i n i n g .  4 0  Whether o r not c l e r g y advice a l l e v i a t e d  diffi-  c u l t i e s and how many teachers a c t u a l l y taught s p e c i f i c moral lessons are l a r g e l y matters f o r c o n j e c t u r e .  Most  school r e p o r t s c o n s i s t e d of s t a t i s t i c a l records of e n r o l lment and attendance plus s h o r t r e p o r t s of general progress, d i s c i p l i n e , and c o n d i t i o n s . High s c h o o l s , however, p r o v i ded more d e t a i l e d and p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s c o u r s e s which r e v e a l that one p r i n c i p a l f i r m l y b e l i e v e d c h i l d r e n i n the publ i c schools r e c e i v e d i n s u f f i c i e n t p r e p a r a t i o n i n moral education.  Therefore, according t o Stramberg, the r e s t r a i n t s  and severe d i s c i p l i n e r e q u i r e d i n h i g h e r education could not be borne by p u p i l s which proved the n e c e s s i t y of an e t h i c a l catechism i n the high schools and h i g h e r grades of the elementary s c h o o l s .  I n a d d i t i o n , he s t i p u l a t e d t h a t  "boys and g i r l s seeking promotion be r e q u i r e d t o pass an examination i n p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l morality." *'" Re4  c e i v i n g no support f o r h i s suggestion and no catechism f o r the s c h o o l s , Stramberg s t r e s s e d the same need eight years 4 0  I b i d . , February 28, 1890.  4 1  B r i t i s h Columbia, S i x t e e n t h School Report, p. 212.  91  l a t e r i n view of t e a c h e r s ' needs f o r h e l p and guidance t o u n f o l d whatever o f l a t e n t good t h e r e i s i n the h e a r t s o f the young and so to develop the f r u i t s and form those i d e a l s t h a t a r e the groundwork not o n l y o f a moral but a l s o o f a t r u l y r e l i g ious l i f e . 4 2 V i c t o r i a ' s p r i n c i p a l a l s o sensed a need f o r more moral  edu-  c a t i o n but proposed s t r e s s i n g v o c a l music and l i n e a r drawi n g r a t h e r than a c a t e c h i s m . . Adding these two s u b j e c t s to the c u r r i c u l u m , h e b e l i e v e d , would awaken the s t u d e n t s to beauty and make them s t o u t l y z e a l o u s to show t h a t g r a n d e r beauty o f moral sentiment and a c t i o n which t e l l s o f an o r i g i n from t h a t h e a v e n l y l a n d which s i n has not d e f i l e d and sorrow has not defaced.43 O b v i o u s l y , these two p r i n c i p a l s d i d not b e l i e v e the p u b l i c schools adequately t r a i n e d students i n m o r a l i t y .  Moreover,  comments i n the r e p o r t s d e f i n i t e l y equated m o r a l i t y w i t h religion.  As I n s p e c t o r s seemingly f e l t  impelled i n report a f -  t e r r e p o r t t o remind t e a c h e r s not to o v e r l o o k moral  edu-  c a t i o n , t o s t r e s s i t s importance, and t o enumerate i t s component p a r t s , i t can be i n f e r r e d t h a t t e a c h e r s tended t o a v o i d any e x p l i c i t moral t r a i n i n g f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s .  Un-  doubtedly many t e a c h e r s remained wary o f the whole r e a l m of moral e d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o l l o w i n g the N i c h o l s o n c o n t r o v e r s y and the a m b i g u i t y o f the " h i g h e s t m o r a l i t y , " and p r e f e r r e d to i g n o r e t h i s t e a c h i n g l e s t t h e y i n a d v e r B r i t i s h Columbia, Twenty-Fourth Annual Report o f the P u b l i c S c h o o l s by S. D. Pope, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ( V i c t o r i a : 1895), p. 227. 4 2  B r i t i s h Columbia, T w e n t y - F i r s t Annual Report o f the P u b l i c S c h o o l s by S. D. Pope, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ( V i c t o r i a : 1892;, p. 188. 4 3  92  tently stray into forbidden t e r r i t o r y . enhanced by the c o n t r o v e r s y aroused speaking  Such f e a r s would be  by a t e a c h e r accused  of  s l i g h t i n g l y o f r e l i g i o n and a d v i s i n g h i s s t u d e n t s  t h a t they might go t o c h u r c h a l l t h e i r l i v e s and never l e a r n anything.  P u b l i c l y c h a s t i s i n g the t e a c h e r , the C o l o n i s t  reminded him,  and  the p u b l i c , t h a t atheism  had no more p l a c e i n the s c h o o l s than  or i n f i d e l i s m  religion.  4 4  Meanwhile, t e a c h e r s not o n l y f a c e d a m b i g u i t i e s i n r e g a r d t o moral c o n t e n t but i n t e a c h i n g method as w e l l . Reminding t e a c h e r s t h a t one  of the main o b j e c t s of s c h o o l  i n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d be to encourage " r e a s o n i n g r a t h e r than mere memorizing"  and  thereby  "evoke . . . the p u p i l ' s  e f f o r t s , to produce s e l f - r e l i a n c e , and  own  to g a i n c o n s c i o u s -  46 ness o f c a p a c i t y , "  I n s p e c t o r s d e p l o r e d r o t e l e a r n i n g as  the predominant t e a c h i n g method. changing,  unstable classroom  Paced w i t h c o n s t a n t l y  p o p u l a t i o n s , due  t o r y work f o r c e i n the p r o v i n c e and  to a  l a c k of a f i x e d  migraschool  e n t r y date, many t e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r e d r o t e l e a r n i n g the o n l y f e a s i b l e method.  To the C o l o n i s t , however, such  teaching  r e s u l t e d i n p u p i l s ' minds b e i n g t r e a t e d as sponges, s o a k i n g up l e a r n i n g but not expected c h i l d r e n had no i d e a of how 4 4  t o do a n y t h i n g . to use  Consequently,  t h e i r b r a i n s o u t s i d e the  B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , November 7,  1885.  4-5 ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, Twenty-Second Annual Report o f the P u b l i c Schools by S. D. Pope, Superintendent ( V i c t o r i a : 1893), p. 522.  4-6  B r i t i s h Columbia, Twentieth Annual Report o f the P u b l i c Schools by S. D. Pope, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ( V i c t o r i a : 1891), p. 179.  93  classroom and must e x i s t i n an a d u l t world by t r i a l and e r ror.  Therefore, as p o r i n g over books d i d not equal educa-  t i o n the s c h o o l s ' aim should not be t o t u r n out sponges but to produce men w i t h t r a i n e d bodies and minds. * 4  7  At the same time, no l e a r n i n g a t a l l could be a c h i eved without d i s c i p l i n e .  Moral education s p e c i f i c a l l y r e -  quired students to l e a r n kindness and courtesy; obedience to i n s t r u c t o r s ; d i l i g e n c e i n study; and conformity t o school rules.  As f a i l u r e to l e a r n and p r a c t i c e these moral  attri-  butes always r e s u l t e d i n punishment i n the school textbooks i t would be n a t u r a l t o expect u n d i s c i p l i n e d behaviour t o r e s u l t i n chastisement i n the classroom.  Teachers r e c e i v e d  d i s c i p l i n a r y powers from a clause i n the 1872 Rules and Regulations —  and continued i n subsequent Acts —  stating  that teachers must p r a c t i c e such d i s c i p l i n e i n School as would be exe r c i s e d by a j u d i c i o u s parent i n the f a m i l y , a v o i ding c o r p o r a l punishment except when i t s h a l l appear t o him t o be i m p e r a t i v e l y necessary.48 Hector Stramberg r e p o r t e d t h a t parents i n New  Westminster  w i l l i n g l y allowed the use of c o r p o r a l punishment i n order to prove t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n that the teacher had u n r e s t r i c ted a u t h o r i t y .  As a r e s u l t , Stramberg continued, the  t h r e a t was o f t e n enough t o ensure d i s c i p l i n e without the 4-9  rod a c t u a l l y having t o be used. ^  Nevertheless, Superin-  B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , March 31, 1889. 4.8 4 7  ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, F i r s t School Report, p. 19. ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, Nineteenth JSchool Report, p. 144.  94  tendent Pope reported an "alarming" t o t a l of 2,446 cases of c o r p o r a l punishment i n the year 1894-95 and that more than h a l f had occurred i n l e s s than twenty of the two hundred and 50 two schools i n the province.-'  S e v e r i t y of t h i s order prom-  pted Pope to remind teachers t h a t , w h i l e the " j u d i c i o u s parent" clause gave a u t h o r i t y to use the r o d , c o r p o r a l punishment should be avoided except when a b s o l u t e l y necessary. Too frequent use of the r o d u s u a l l y i n d i c a t e d incompetency and, a c c o r d i n g t o Pope, only represented one means of d i s c i p l i n e and not the only nor the best means a t the command of the teacher. . . . The teacher who uses moral suas i o n e f f e c t i v e l y i n the government of h i s school w i l l accomplish the best r e s u l t s , not only i n the moral t r a i n i n g of the p u p i l s but i n t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l advancement.51 C e r t a i n l y moral suasion r a t h e r than c o r p o r a l punishment would provide a b e t t e r example of kindness -and courtesy f o r c h i l d r e n to f o l l o w .  Teacher example s t i l l r e -  mained the best method of ensuring moral l e a r n i n g , according to school a u t h o r i t i e s .  Thus, Superintendents c o n t i n u -  a l l y reminded t r u s t e e s of School A c t p r o v i s i o n s which demons t r a t e d that the L e g i s l a t u r e considered "the moral f i t n e s s of the candidate ( f o r teacher c e r t i f i c a t i o n or appointment) 52 to be of paramount importance."  Therefore,  h i g h moral worth and c u l t u r e are c r e d e n t i a l s which 50 B r i t i s h Columbia, Twenty-Fourth School Report, p. 201. Ibid. 52 B r i t i s h Columbia, Twenty-First School Report, p. 152. 5 1  95  Trustees i n the proper discharge o f t h e i r d u t i e s , cannot l o s e s i g h t o f . The a p p l i c a n t f o r a p o s i t i o n i n any o f o u r s c h o o l s s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d , b e f o r e r e c e i v i n g an appointment, t o f u r n i s h s a t i s f a c t o r y evidence o f h i s p o s s e s s i o n o f these two v e r y important q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . 5 3 Concerned  t e a c h e r s , such as Mary R. Davidson  o f New Westmin-  s t e r G i r l s ' S c h o o l , expressed unease a t p a r e n t a l n e g l e c t o f c l a s s r o o m v i s i t a t i o n and apparent unconcern  r e g a r d i n g the  type o f p e r s o n to whom they had e n t r u s t e d the moral and i n -  54 tellectual training of their children.  S u p e r i n t e n d e n t Pope  a l s o charged t r u s t e e s w i t h n e g l e c t i n g t o check on t e a c h e r s ' conduct  i n t h e c l a s s r o o m and,  thereby, o f t e n r e t a i n i n g t h e  s e r v i c e s o f a p a t h e t i c o r i n c a p a b l e i n s t r u c t o r s unable t o d i s c i p l i n e or i n s p i r e students.  55  P o s s i b l y due t o t h e f e e l i n g t h a t t r u s t e e s and p a r e n t s were n e g l e c t i n g t h e i r s c h o o l d u t i e s , Pope seemed i m p e l l e d t o l e c t u r e t e a c h e r s on t h e i r moral d u t i e s .  Accor-  d i n g l y , t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t warned t h a t i r r e v e r e n t o r f l i p p a n t remarks by t h e t e a c h e r , i n o r o u t o f s c h o o l , a r e a s u r e index o f a s h a l l o w mind and o f i g n o r a n c e assuming s u p e r i o r i t y . The e s p e c i a l c a r e o f the t e a c h e r s h o u l d be t o i n c u l cate courtesy, f i d e l i t y , t r u t h f u l n e s s , i n t e g r i t y , and thoroughness o f work, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e duty of showing r e v e r e n c e t o a l l t o whom i t i s due.5° S i m i l a r l y , two y e a r s l a t e r he u n d e r l i n e d t h e importance o f i m p l a n t i n g moral p r i n c i p l e s i n s t u d e n t s ' h e a r t s s t a t i n g i t 5 3  British  Columbia,  Twentieth S c h o o l Report, p. 177.  54.  " ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, F o u r t e e n t h Annual Report o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s by S. D. Pope, Superintendent ( V i c t o r i a : 1885), p. 317. 5 5  B r i t i s h Columbia,  - ^ B r i t i s h Columbia,  F i f t e e n t h S c h o o l Report, p. 138. F o u r t e e n t h S c h o o l Report, p. 311.  96  was  a poor t e a c h e r who  would not s t r i v e to i n f u s e "some  germs of goodness, and a l o v e f o r t r u t h , honesty,  and  the  57 other v i r t u e s . " - "  Moreover, Pope noted  that while a tea-  cher might rank h i g h i n q u a l i f y i n g examinations  he would  not be equipped  f o r h i s work u n l e s s he a l s o possessed  ture.  p a r t i c u l a r l y important  T h i s was  as t e a c h e r s ' manners  and a c t i o n s c o u l d have a r e f i n i n g i n f l u e n c e on the t e r o f h i g h l y i m i t a t i v e c h i l d r e n and tue and m o r a l i t y .  cul-  charac-  implant a l o v e of v i r -  T h e r e f o r e , "there s h o u l d be no room i n  the p r o f e s s i o n f o r him who  does not combine the gentleman  58  w i t h the s c h o l a r . " ^  In s p i t e o f Pope's dictum, however, some t e a c h e r s still  openly d i s p l a y e d ungentlemanly or u n v i r t u o u s  Superintendent  M c K e n z i e s d i s m i s s a l i n 1884 f  behaviour.  ended the pub-  lic  d i s p l a y of s u p e r i n t e n d e n t - t e a c h e r  a n i m o s i t y which t e n -  ded  to weaken the s c h o o l s ' moral d i s c i p l i n a r y f o r c e .  t i c a l i s s u e s c o n t i n u e d to emerge, however, and  Poli-  often pitted  t e a c h e r a g a i n s t t e a c h e r o r t e a c h e r s a g a i n s t the Department of E d u c a t i o n and  the government.  One  such i s s u e was  the mat-  t e r o f t e a c h e r s a l a r i e s and  the demand, a c c o r d i n g to James  Wesbitt,  l e s s work.  f o r more money and  During a  legislative  debate on the s u b j e c t John Robson c l a i m e d t h a t t e a c h e r  de-  mands amounted to i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n which must be put down and Robert  Dunsmuir c a l l e d many t e a c h e r s "a d i s g r a c e to t h e i r  so-  57  ^British  Columbia, F o u r t e e n t h S c h o o l Report,  • ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, S i x t e e n t h School Report,  p. p.  311. 196.  97  59 c a l l e d p r o f e s s i o n " and " l e d by c r a n k s . " ^  Apparently s a l a -  r i e s , a t one time h i g h e r than i n other p r o v i n c e s , had dropped below those p a i d i n Ontario and S e a t t l e i n 1895 w h i l e the cost of l i v i n g rose above t h a t of comparable c i t i e s to Victoria.  V i c t o r i a ' s school board, however, advised a pe-  t i t i o n e r that i f teachers were not s a t i s f i e d they could leave 60 and took no a c t i o n to r a i s e s a l a r i e s . F u r t h e r c o n t e n t i o n arose over the system of d a i l y marking i n the schools and soon embroiled t e a c h e r s , newspapers, and p o l i t i c i a n s .  F o l l o w i n g a V i c t o r i a High School  teacher's complaint over d i s m i s s a l f o r not keeping proper r e c o r d s , the government o p p o s i t i o n charged the M i n i s t e r of Education w i t h f i r i n g teachers and c a n c e l l i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s 61 of those not i n favour of the government.  Acrimonious  controversy continued as the Mainland Teachers' I n s t i t u t e passed a r e s o l u t i o n expressing confidence i n both Superintendent and Department and p r a i s i n g the harmonious r e l a t i o n s Co  e x i s t i n g between them.  Far from q u i e t i n g s t r i f e , however,  the r e s o l u t i o n enhanced d i s p u t e . Alexander Robinson, a Vancouver High School teacher, accused teachers of passing the 63 r e s o l u t i o n i n f e a r of I n s p e c t o r Wilson; a Moodeyvill tea64  cher supported Robinson's charge;  another teacher then  59 ^Vancouver Sun, August 22, 1970, p. 9. °Colonist ( V i c t o r i a ) , March 7, 1965, p. 11. 61 B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , A p r i l 29, 1890. J  6  62  Vancouver D a i l y World, January 12, 1891. 64. IDbaiidl .y News-Advertiser (Vancouver), January 11, 1891.  6 3  98  accused Robinson of being from the East — f i t to comment on p r o v i n c i a l matters —  thereby being un-  riding  "roughshod"  over other capable t e a c h e r s , o b t a i n i n g h i s B. A. "by a c c i d e n t , " of  being j e a l o u s of the h i g h school p r i n c i p a l whom he thought  had i n s t i g a t e d the r e s o l u t i o n , and of being u n f i t t o teach ge  because of v u l g a r i t y and "execrable language;"  J  and Robin-  66  son defended h i m s e l f by a t t a c k i n g the D a i l y World's grammar. C l e a r l y someone was l y i n g o r s t r e t c h i n g the t r u t h i n the w e l ter  of charge and counter-charge y e t these teachers had a  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o " i n s t i l l the l o v e of t r u t h and h i g h p r i n c i 67 p i e s i n c h i l d r e n " under t h e i r care. I f teacher example could not be f u l l y r e l i e d on i n the  teaching of moral behaviour then i t might be a d v i s a b l e t o  try  a l i t t l e judicious bribery.  Convinced that i n t r i n s i c r e -  wards f o r moral and academic e x c e l l e n c e would not prove s u f f i c i e n t to i n s p i r e s t u d e n t s , Jessop attempted t o introduce a system of e x t r i n s i c rewards, i n the form of school p r i z e s and merit cards. Such a system, he b e l i e v e d , would be "a great inducement f o r teachers, t r u s t e e s , and parents to engo courage t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o e x c e l . "  In  j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t a n g i b l e rewards Jessop quoted Ryerson's b e l i e f t h a t , as i n the D i v i n e Government, everyone should be rewarded a c c o r d i n g t o h i s works and that D a i l y World, January 12, 1891. 66 6 5  D a i l y News-Advertiser, January 11, 1891. Columbia, Fourth School Report, p. 11. DBariilt yi s hWorld, January 12, 1891. go 6 7  99  i t i s the very order of Providence and a maxim of R e v e l a t i o n , that the hand of the d i l i g e n t maketh r i c h , w h i l e i d l e n e s s tendeth to poverty; that to him t h a t hath (that i s improved what he hath) s h a l l be g i v e n and the n e g l e c t e r should be sent empty away.69 Two teachers a t the 1875 Teachers' Convention, however, condemned b r i b i n g c h i l d r e n w i t h candies, books, or any other means and t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n passed.  70  Therefore, no m e r i t  system e x i s t e d u n t i l Pope became Superintendent i n 1884  and  c i r c u l a r i z e d a l l teachers a d v i s i n g t h a t a R o l l of Honor L i s t would be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r each p u b l i c school i n the province.  On t h i s r o l l would be the names of the three  p u p i l s who achieved f i r s t rank i n Deportment; P u n c t u a l i t y and R e g u l a r i t y ; and P r o f i c i e n c y , w i t h each of these s t u 71 dents a l s o r e c e i v i n g a Card of M e r i t . A d d i t i o n a l l y , m o r a l i t y could be taught i n i n f o r mal lessons more e f f e c t i v e l y than i n formal courses which e x i s t e d i n Ontario but not i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  As I n -  spector Burns s t a t e d , and as noted i n Chapter Three of t h i s paper, the school textbooks " f u r n i s h ( e d ) ample o p p o r t u n i t i e s to anyone d e s i r i n g to use them" f o r i n f o r m a l moral educa72 tion;  However, Superintendent Pope recommended and author-  i z e d a new s e r i e s of school books i n 1884 and i t remains to be seen whether or not the new t e x t s provided the same or b e t t e r moral lessons than the Canadian S e r i e s and whether Ibid. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , J u l y 9, 1875. 71 72 B r i t i s h Columbia, T h i r t e e n t h School Report, p. 172. B r i t i s h Columbia, Twenty-Second School Report, P. 522. 6 9  7 0  100  they supported the c o n c l u s i o n that the "highest  morality"  meant a r e l i g i o u s m o r a l i t y from which a l l other v i r t u e s derived.  CHAPTER FIVE TEXTBOOK RELIGION AM) MORALITY  Containing a "number o f p r a c t i c a l and moral l e s sons g i v e n w i t h a view t o i n f l u e n c e the p u p i l s ' every-day life,"  W. J . Gage and Company's E d u c a t i o n a l S e r i e s r e -  1  placed the Canadian S e r i e s i n the p u b l i c school system of B r i t i s h Columbia.  To be used i n a l l schools  organized  a f t e r 1884, the new s e r i e s would be g r a d u a l l y introduced i n t o a l l s c h o o l s , w i t h w r i t t e n approval of t r u s t e e s , u n t i l only the Gage readers would be a u t h o r i z e d a f t e r June 30, 1885.  Superintendent  Pope gave no reason f o r the change  i n S e r i e s except to say that the Canadian S e r i e s proved unsatisfactory.  Ontario had experienced s i m i l a r d i s s a t i s f a c -  t i o n w i t h the Canadian readers and a u t h o r i z e d the Gage S e r i e s and the Royal Readers f o r p r o v i n c i a l schools.  As  book p r i c e s decrease as copy-runs increase and v i c e v e r s a , cost probably played a l a r g e p a r t i n B r i t i s h Columbia's des i o n i n favour of the Gage S e r i e s . Gage's readers were based on ones "prepared by J . M. D. M e i k l e j o h n , P r o f e s s o r of Education a t the U n i v e r s i t y of S a i n t Andrews i n Scotland, and e d i t e d by Canadian educa^ B r i t i s h Columbia, T h i r t e e n t h School Report, p. 1 5 7 . 2  I b i d . , p. 156.  3  P a r v i n , A u t h o r i z a t i o n of Textbooks, p. 5 3 . 101  102  t i o n i s t s f o r use i n the Schools of Canada."  4  Arrangement  of the e n t i r e reading course i n the order i n which i t should be taught and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of m a t e r i a l according to i t s complexity provided two good reasons f o r adoption of the new s e r i e s i n a country s t i l l s u f f e r i n g a shortage of experienced teachers.  S i m i l a r l y , a l i s t of questions f o l -  lowed n e a r l y every l e s s o n which equipped teachers w i t h ready-made seat work or o r a l t e s t s of reading comprehension. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however, questions predominantly r e q u i r e d . only simple r e c a l l which t e s t e d only the most b a s i c l e v e l of comprehension and provided no stimulus to independent thought• According to the B r i t i s h Columbia Rules and Regul a t i o n s of 1876, and a l l subsequent y e a r s , teachers' moral d u t i e s c o n s i s t e d simply of the requirement  to " i n c u l c a t e the  highest m o r a l i t y " and students assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l e a r n i n g other v i r t u e s .  At the same time,  Superintendent  and Inspectors warned that the teacher^s duty was his  "to t r a i n  p u p i l s i n a l l those elements which c o n t r i b u t e to the  f o r m a t i o n of a good c h a r a c t e r . "  He must a l s o i n c u l c a t e a l l  the " v i r t u e s that grace c h i l d h o o d " and have students " as f a m i l i a r w i t h the Golden Rule as w i t h the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n table"because W. J . Gage & Co.'s E d u c a t i o n a l S e r i e s , The P i r s t Primer (Toronto: W. J . Gage and Company, 1881), t i t l e page. 5 •'Parvin, A u t h o r i z a t i o n of Textbooks, p. 58. 6 Supra, p. 64. 4  103  the teacher has i t i n h i s power to so deeply engrave a d i f f e r e n c e between good and e v i l upon the mind of h i s p u p i l s that i t w i l l remain w i t h them throughout l i f e . ' 7  Pope a l s o reminded teachers of the recognized f a c t t h a t "moral t r u t h s can be taught even i n the absence of s e c t a r i a n forms and without r e f e r r i n g to any dogma or creed." In l i k e manner to the "highest m o r a l i t y " clause i n School Acts and Rules and R e g u l a t i o n s , Pope's wording i n regard to moral teaching i n f e r s a r e l i g i o u s m o r a l i t y .  Similarly,  I n s p e c t o r Burns separated v i r t u e s from m o r a l i t y i n s t a t i n g that the school's c h i e f advantage l a y i n the h a b i t s of study and a t t e n t i o n thereby f o r med; of c l e a n l i n e s s and order there l e a r n e d ; of obedience, p u n c t u a l i t y , and forethought there r e q u i r e d ; and of temperance and m o r a l i t y there implanted i n t o t h e i r (the students) very nature.9 Therefore, t e a c h e r s ' d u t i e s and conceptions of moral educ a t i o n i n the schools appear l i t t l e changed from those p r e v a i l i n g during the years when the Canadian S e r i e s was used i n the p u b l i c school system.  I f A c t s , Rules, and  preconceptions envisioned an u n a l t e r e d m o r a l i t y and set of v i r t u e s then d i d the Gage S e r i e s present the same unchanged view? As the Rules and Regulations merely r e q u i r e d the teaching of the "highest m o r a l i t y " so the Gage Readers appeared to have one main theme, w i t h three subordinate con^ B r i t i s h Columbia, Twenty-Sixth School Report, p.  o  q p. 522.  B r i t i s h Columbia, S i x t e e n t h School Report, p. B r i t i s h Columbia, Twenty-Second School Report,  199.  196.  104  cerns, r a t h e r than emphasizing s p e c i f i c v i r t u e s or component parts of m o r a l i t y .  Thus, b e l i e f i n God the Creator and  Su-  preme Being; f a i t h i n a f i n a l judgement and the n e c e s s i t y of atonement; and C h r i s t i a n teachings, i n v a r i o u s g u i s e s , permeated the e n t i r e s e r i e s . Under t h i s a l l encompassing tenet could be found the subordinate  themes of i n d u s t r y , b r o t h e r -  hood, and temperance which i n c l u d e d w i t h i n them v i r t u e s demanded i n the "formation of a good c h a r a c t e r . "  Conse-  quently, i n r e t r o s p e c t at l e a s t , the Gage Readers appear much more s u b t l e and s o p h i s t i c a t e d than the Canadian S e r i e s . An i n d i r e c t approach c a r r i e s w i t h i t the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l lessons f a i l i n g to make t h e i r point but the cumul a t i v e e f f e c t of the whole could produce a s i g n i f i c a n t pact on the  im-  student.  Hence, a cursory examination of the two  primers  and f i r s t f o u r books of the Gage S e r i e s could l e a d to the c o n c l u s i o n that r e l i g i o u s teachings had been v i r t u a l l y e l i m inated. over 1,500  B i b l e passages comprised approximately  ten of the  pages of the readers and only one unabashedly  t h e o l o g i c a l s e l e c t i o n appeared.  This purported to be  an  account of Archbishop Lynch s v i s i t to Niagara P a l l s but 1  a c t u a l l y propounded C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e .  So Lynch observed  that no C h r i s t i a n could gaze on the f a l l s and not f i n d h i s heart r a i s e d "to that great and omnipotent being by whose a l l powerful f i n g e r these mighty waters "were created." could he f a i l to be entranced "by the greatness  Nor  of the most  105  High" and become so f i l l e d w i t h God that he would ask hims e l f "what i s man?"  Then h i s answer would come i n the f a l l  of water which seemed a k i n d of s i g n and an account of s i n andv s t r u g g l e s f o r the grace g i v e n by the blood o f the Word Incarnate, through which he would hope t o r e s t f o r e v e r . the  In  f a l l s ' splendour Lynch a l s o perceived l o v e , j u s t i c e ,  anger, calmness of s o u l , beauty, and the b r e a k i n g o f souls 10 away from God. In a d d i t i o n , however, the primers asserted that "the  Lord i s n i g h " and "the Lord i s n e a r , "  1 1  and that the  happy f a m i l y i n c l u d e d B i b l e r e a d i n g i n i t s d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s .  12  The sun had "God's time to keep a l l over the w o r l d " and 1 3  a l i t t l e g i r l conquered her f e a r of the dark when assured that "God was everywhere, i n the darkness as w e l l as the l i g h t , and that He would not a l l o w any harm t o come t o h e r . " S i m i l a r l y , a l l the great authors whose works appeared i n the readers assumed the existence and presence o f God. Tennyson saw C h r i s t as the author o f a l l good — 15 manners, t r u t h , r i g h t , and good f e e l i n g ;  J  Thus,  redress,  Anderson's  Little  Match G i r l s h i v e r e d and died but went t o l i v e w i t h God, never G a g e S e r i e s , Book IV (Toronto: W. J . Gage and Company, 1883), p. 215. G a g e S e r i e s , F i r s t Primer, pp. 24-26. 12 Gage S e r i e s , The Second Primer (Toronto: W. J . Gage and Company, 1881), p. 64". 13 ^Gage S e r i e s , Book 11 (Toronto: W. J . Gage and Company, 1883), p. 64. I b i d . , p. 82. 10  11  1 4  -'Gage S e r i e s , Book 111 (Toronto: W. J . Gage and Company, n.d.), p. 141. T i t l e page m i s s i n g . 1  1 4  106  a g a i n t o f e e l c o l d , hunger, o r f e a r ; "Storm Song" c e l e b r a t e d ocean t h a t s h i p s  i D  Bayard  Taylor's  God's wisdom i n making so v a s t an  c o u l d manoeuver e a s i l y i n a storm, and  17 for  H i s c e r t a i n guidance i n t h i s l i f e and the next;  Paul Hayne r e j o i c e d i n God as the a u t h o r o f such that a Russian congregation's heart  and  miracles  c o u l d open t o a s t a r -  v i n g boy and h i s s i s t e r and r e s u l t i n a c o n t r i b u t i o n o f two  thousand r u b l e s  t o the poor.  S i m i l a r s t o r i e s and a l -  l u s i o n s c o u l d be found i n a l l the r e a d e r s c e l e b r a t i n g God as  the C r e a t o r  and a u t h o r o f a l l t r u e happiness and good-  ness i n men and n a t i o n s . In c o n t r a s t t o the o t h e r r e a d e r s the S i x t h Book of the Gage S e r i e s appeared f u l l doctrine  of s p e c i f i c C h r i s t i a n  t o l d i n s t o r y and a l l e g o r y .  Unless teachers a c -  t e d as g u i d e s i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f many s e l e c t i o n s , however, t h e i r b a s i c meaning c o u l d looked.  e a s i l y be o v e r -  Thus, P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s needs i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o  connect i t w i t h t h e B i b l e and t h e same i s t r u e o f Addison's "A  P i c t u r e o f Human L i f e . "  bridge  Addison portrayed  life  as a  a l o n g which people s t r u g g l e and f a l l , a t i n t e r v a l s ,  through t r a p doors t o the r i v e r below w h i l e above them f l y b i r d s o f envy, a v a r i c e , s u p e r s t i t i o n , d e s p a i r ,  and l o v e .  C a r r i e d a l o n g on the r i v e r many p i l g r i m s landed on one s i d e 16  I b i d . , p. 146.  17 I b i d  p. 129.  18 I b i d  p. 179.  107  and s e t t l e d i n peace and contentment on b e a u t i f u l i s l a n d s w h i l e others vanished from s i g h t i n t o the mystery of the other s i d e .  1 9  cloud-covered  Anyone f a m i l i a r w i t h the B i b l e  and Church dogma could r e a d i l y u n f o l d these a l l e g o r i c a l e n i gmas but most students would r e q u i r e an i n t e r p r e t e r along the  way. The same would be t r u e , to a l e s s e r extent, of  the a l l e g o r i c a l s t o r y of "The  Changed Cross" i n which a  man  despaired of c a r r y i n g the l o a d r e q u i r e d of him and grasped at the chance to change i t f o r another.  Choosing f i r s t a  cross set w i t h s p a r k l i n g jewels he found i t too heavy so s e l e c t e d another wreathed i n flowers only to d i s c o v e r i t too f u l l of thorns f o r comfort.  F i n a l l y he again  shouldered  h i s o l d cross and decided t h a t . . . henceforth my one d e s i r e s h a l l be, That He who knows me best choose f o r me; And so whate'er His love sees good to send, I ' l l t r u s t i t ' s best because He knows the  2  n  end.  As w i t h r e l i g i o u s teachings so a C h r i s t i a n j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r "good" behaviour appeared only once i n a d i r ect form when the F i r s t Primer t o l d c h i l d r e n t h a t . " a l l  you  21  do and a l l you say, God can see and hear."  Essays and  s t o r i e s , however, i n d i r e c t l y s t r e s s e d and j u s t i f i e d the highest C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y of l o v i n g one's neighbour as oneself.  In t h i s manner, the Reverend Mr. Punshon wrote that  19 ^Gage S e r i e s , Book VI (Toronto: W. J . Gage and Company, 1884), p. 146. r i e s134. , F i r s t Primer, p. 23. IGage b i d . ,S e p. 21 2 0  108  God taught i n the S c r i p t u r e s of a u n i v e r s a l brotherhood o f man and so no man could r e l e a s e h i m s e l f from h i s common bond w i t h a l l mankind as God meant each man t o be h i s brop  ther's keeper and t o love him even though h a t i n g h i s deeds. A c c o r d i n g l y , Abou Ben Adhem's name l e d the l i s t o f those who loved the Lord f o l l o w i n g h i s prayer that the angel merely 23  r e c o r d h i s name as one who loved h i s fellow-men.  Like-  J  wise, S i r L a u n f a l l e a r n e d that even a l e p e r i s made i n the image o f God and that i n g i v i n g of h i m s e l f t o those i n need In whatso we share t h another's he had found the Holy G r a i wl i which r e s i d e s need, In what we g i v e and what we share — For the g i f t without the g i v e r i s bare. Who g i v e s h i m s e l f w i t h h i s alms f o r these three Himself, h i s hungering neighbour, and Me. 4 2  —  Such champions of love would walk unchallenged through the gates of Heaven and s i t beside the throne o f God w h i l e the champions of v a l o r , even though men gained freedom through brave deeds, must wait and show t h e i r s c a r s and prove t h e i r worth. 25 Meanwhile, the p r i d e f u l seekers a f t e r r i c h e s and f i g h t e r s o f u n j u s t wars came alone t o death, w i t h no guide or comforter, and must answer then f o r the k i n d of l i f e l e d on e a r t h . S p r i n g i n g from the love o f mankind, C h r i s t i a n v i r tues c o n s i s t e d simply of doing o r d i n a r y t h i n g s i n an e x t r a 22  Gage S e r i e s , Book IV, p. 226.  23 I b i d  p. 132.  24 Gage S e r i e s , Book V I , p. 311. 25 Gage S e r i e s , Book 111, p. 131.  109  o r d i n a r y way.  Hence, the noble, g e n t l e , and r e g a l s p i r i t  " o v e r - r i d e s and puts aside a l l p e t t y , p a l t r y f e e l i n g s and 26 . . . elevates a l l l i t t l e t h i n g s . " i t y and greatness  So men achieved  nobil-  from modest, genuine, transparent, and  d e l i b e r a t e l y pursued independent thought; from s m a l l k i n d nesses done to others each day; from attempts to make others happy; from overcoming p r e j u d i c e s , d i f f i c u l t i e s , sin, and temptation; i n c l e a r l y p e r c e i v i n g t r u t h ; and walking a l ways i n the cause of good.  Thus, the good man came nearer  to the l i f e of C h r i s t and compelled others to f o l l o w i n h i s f o o t s t e p s by h i s good example so that the good thoughts, the good deeds, the good memori e s of those who have been the s a l t and l i g h t of the e a r t h do not p e r i s h w i t h t h e i r departure — they l i v e on s t i l l . 2 7 Brotherhood continued t o be e x t o l l e d i n s t o r i e s which, w h i l e not o v e r t l y r e l i g i o u s , were based on C h r i s t i a n teachings.  I n t h i s way, s t o r i e s of heroes o f t e n demonstra-  ted that "greater love hath no man than t h i s , that a man 28 lay  down h i s l i f e f o r h i s f r i e n d s . "  Thus, when only one  man could be sent t o s a f e t y before a dynamite e x p l o s i o n occurred i n a Cornish mine, W i l l u n h e s i t a t i n g l y chose to r e 29  main behind so that h i s partner might be saved.  Similarly,  the Lake E r i e p i l o t , i n the s t o r y a l s o i n c l u d e d i n the Canadian S e r i e s , chose to remain a t h i s post and g i v e up h i s l i f e I b i d . , p. 131. Ibid. 2 6  2 7  2 8  J o h n 15:13.  29  G a g e S e r i e s , Book IV, p. 92.  110  30 to save h i s f e l l o w crewmen and passengers; Dickens t o l d of the brave s a i l o r who d i e d saving men stranded on a rock 31 a f t e r a shipwreck;-' and S i r P h i l i p Sidney though m o r t a l l y wounded thought of others f i r s t  i n g i v i n g h i s badly needed  cup of water to another wounded s o l d i e r Without one l e a s t complaining word, Without one singe s i g h , He y i e l d s the cup; he simply says, He needs i t more than 1.32 G i v i n g one's l i f e f o r another was not confined to one race as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the s t o r y of Mungo Park who r e c e i v e d s h e l ter,  comfort, and food from a n a t i v e A f r i c a n woman when no-  one e l s e would r i s k g i v i n g a i d to one who might prove an 33  enemy. I l l u s t r a t i n g both brotherhood and the Parable of the  T a l e n t s , the s t o r y of the plum cakes demonstrated wise  use of p o s s e s s i o n s . G i v i n g h i s three sons twelve plum cakes each a farmer demanded an accounting twelve days l a t e r . W i l l reported that l i f e was short so he ate h i s cakes r i g h t away, a f t e r h i s b r o t h e r s were i n bed, but s u f f e r e d f o r i t the  next day.  Tom locked h i s cakes i n a box but found them  mouldy and u n f i t to eat when he took them out.  Jack con-  f i d e d that he had eaten one cake each day to s a t i s f y , h i s d a i l y needs but a l s o shared each w i t h h i s f r i e n d s and gained h i s f a t h e r ' s love by h i s wise use of what he r e c e i v e d . I b i d . , p. 141. 31 Gage S e r i e s , Book V (Toronto: W. J . Gage and Company, 1883), p. 265. I b i d . , p. 79. 33 -^Gage S e r i e s , Book 111, p. 55. 3 0  3 2  Ill  Under the general theme of brotherhood could be c l a s s e d many s t o r i e s i l l u s t r a t i n g v i r t u e s o b l i g a t o r y f o r c h i l d r e n to l e a r n and teachers t o teach.  Some of these r e -  quired a t t r i b u t e s , however, could not be taught s o l e l y by textbook examples as was p o s s i b l e w i t h the Canadian S e r i e s . C l e a n l i n e s s , t i d i n e s s , and decency ( o r avoidance o f profani t y ) s t o r i e s , f o r example, occupied no part of the Gage readers.  And t r u t h f u l n e s s and honesty ( o r avoidance of  falsehood and d e c e i t ) appeared i n only two s e l e c t i o n s  —  once i n an excerpt from King Richard 11 when John of Gaunt t o l d h i s son that "there i s no v i r t u e l i k e h o n e s t y , "  JJ  and  once i n a f a b l e of the f o x and the crow which warned against flattery.-  Obedience and respect f o r s u p e r i o r s r e c e i v e d  s l i g h t l y more a t t e n t i o n i n s t o r i e s s i m i l a r to those i n the Canadian readers.  Thus, the t a l e of the f o o l i s h mouse taught  c h i l d r e n t o l i s t e n t o t h e i r e l d e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o mothers w i t h a n e v e r - f a i l i n g love as demonstrated i n s t o r i e s of a mother sheep, c a t , hen, and p o l a r bear and c e l e b r a t e d by 37  W i l l i a n Cowper i n h i s poem "On My Mother's P i c t u r e . " One s e l e c t i o n a l s o p r a i s e d the d i s c i p l i n e which r e s u l t e d i n the 3ft  saving of many l i v e s i n a troop s h i p d i s a s t e r .  Three  more s t o r i e s p r a i s e d an u n t h i n k i n g f i d e l i t y to duty and the I b i d . , p. 40. 3 4  35  Book V, p. 179. Gage Series 36 o „ ~, Book 11, P. 95. n  Book VI, p. 76. 38,  Book V, p. 330.  112  c h i l d must commit t o memory a poem e x t o l l i n g f i d e l i t y  and  perseverance i n which I l i v e f o r those who love me For those who know me t r u e , For the heaven that smiles above me And awaits my s p i r i t too; For the cause that needs a s s i s t a n c e For the wrong that needs r e s i s t a n c e For the f u t u r e i n the d i s t a n c e For the good that I can do.39 Not doing good or r i g h t r e q u i r e d repentance and atonement before the c h i l d could r e g a i n communion w i t h h i s fellow-men. Thus, Susan refused a crown of f l o w e r s as reward f o r being the best g i r l i n school and the most obedient when she r e c a l l e d the l i e t o l d to her grandmother.  U n t i l c o n f e s s i o n of  her s i n her conscience refused her contentment and only r e pentance brought Susan once again i n t o a l o v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h her grandmother and f r i e n d s .  4 0  Similarly, Charlie's  f a t h e r e x p r e s s l y requested that the peach t r e e ' s f r u i t not be eaten but C h a r l i e allowed h i s f r i e n d s to do so and j o i n e d i n t a s t i n g the f o r b i d d e n f r u i t .  His remorse was  so great  that he returned a l l h i s b i r t h d a y presents and s u f f e r e d extreme pangs of g u i l t u n t i l c o n f e s s i o n had been made and h i s f a t h e r ' s respect  regained.  4 1  I n l i k e manner to the Canadian S e r i e s , kindness  and  courtesy r e c e i v e d most a t t e n t i o n i n the Gage Readers.  As  w i t h the other v i r t u e s , i l l u s t r a t i o n s of kindness and  cour-  jy  Gage  S e r i e s , Book 111, p.  43.  40  G a g e S e r i e s , Book 11, p.  110.  41  G a g e S e r i e s , Book 111, p. 97.  113  tesy employed animal s t o r i e s .  A c c o r d i n g l y , t a l e s appeared  of dogs being t e n d e r l y cared f o r , making f r i e n d s w i t h c a t s , h e l p i n g o l d e r dogs, and saving l i v e s ; boys l e a r n i n g not to k i l l or harm b i r d s ; a donkey saying thank you f o r h i s lunch; a g i r l r a i s i n g baby c h i c k s whose mother deserted them; two goats d e f e r r i n g to each other on a narrow b r i d g e ; and a l i o n , fox,  and ass teaching avoidance of the unjust and c r u e l .  In  a d d i t i o n , a f a m i l y ' s New Year's r e s o l u t i o n c o n s i s t e d of promi s i n g to be k i n d e r and more t h o u g h t f u l ; one hoped f o r a k i n d and d u t i f u l daughter; and f o u r sunbeams spread joy and k i n d ness to homes i n need of b r i g h t n e s s .  Kindness, or b r o t h e r -  hood, could a l s o be taught together w i t h new s k i l l s so that the c h i l d ' s f i r s t w r i t i n g l e s s o n c o n s i s t e d of the i n j u n c t i o n to  "do a l l the good you can, i n a l l the ways you can, j u s t 42 as long as you can, to a l l the people you can."^" Likewise, counting combined w i t h kindness i n the verse One, two, t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e , I caught a hare a l i v e ; S i x , seven, e i g h t , n i n e , ten, I l e t him go again.43 And the c h i l d l e a r n i n g to s u b t r a c t a l s o learned to share as "Peter had seven plums, gave three to h i s s i s t e r , and then was  so k i n d that he gave the r e s t to me." While kindness and brotherhood  44  might not always be  r e p a i d , proved by s t o r i e s of snakes being rescued by men then t u r n i n g on them, men must persevere 42 Gage S e r i e s , F i r s t Primer, p. 4 3 44  I b i d . , p. 27. G a g e S e r i e s , Second Primer, p.  and  i n their efforts. 24. 23.  114  I n time then, men might t u r n from a world  of s o c i a l  injus-  t i c e , r e l i g i o u s i n t o l e r a n c e , and p o l i t i c a l tyranny i n o r d e r to work f o r a U t o p i a i n which n a t u r a l human v i r t u e would r e a l i z e the needs o f s e c u r i t y , e q u a l i t y , brotherhood,  and  freedom, f o r which the v e r y i n s t i t u t i o n o f s o c i e t y was  for-  med.  con-  L e f t behind would be a s o c i e t y i n which the r i c h  s p i r e d a g a i n s t the poor by p r i v a t e f r a u d and p u b l i c laws, and  i n which l a b o u r was doomed t o a wretched e x i s t e n c e which  45 made the l i f e  o f the b e a s t s seem e n v i a b l e i n comparison.  In t h a t day perhaps Robert t r u e and  J  Burns p r o p h e t i c words would come  man to man, the w a r l d o'er, 46 S h a l l b r o t h e r s be f o r a' t h a t . Meanwhile, the l a b o u r e r s h o u l d r e c e i v e l a u d and  h i s d i g n i t y and worth r e c o g n i z e d and r e s p e c t e d .  So amidst  s t o r i e s o f the g r e a t men o f h i s t o r y c o u l d be found a l t i n g the l a b o u r e r who subdued the e a r t h i n mining hidden  t a l e s exfor its  t r e a s u r e s ; who made the woods r i n g w i t h h i s axe; who  made the c l o u d s o f c a r e f l y away; the l e p r o s y o f crime and  47 t y r a n t s decay; and want t o pass away.  John B r i g h t defended  l a b o u r e r s i n I r e l a n d by a s s a i l i n g l a n d l o r d s who fought a g a i n s t any i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h t h e i r p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and t h e i r r i g h t s t o do as they p l e a s e d w i t h i t w h i l e , a t the same  time,  i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y o f t h e i r t e n a n t s , name45 Gage S e r i e s , Book V I , p. 182. 46  Ibid  p. 2 2 5 .  47 Gage S e r i e s , Book V, p. 24.  115  l y t h e i r labour.  Such p o l i c i e s had brought a n a t i o n i n f i n -  i t e l y blessed by God to the b r i n k of r u i n and i t s people to s t a r v a t i o n so that i t s only s a l v a t i o n l a y i n changed l e g i s l a t i o n and the discovery that i n d u s t r y , hopeful and remunerated — i n d u s t r y f r e e and i n v i o l a t e , i s the only sure foundation on which can be reared the enduring e d i f i c e of union and of peace.4° C o n t i n u a l l y e x t o l l e d throughout the Gage S e r i e s , labour's moral j u s t i f i c a t i o n could be found i n nature. busy l i t t l e bee who  The  "improves each s h i n i n g hour" by hard  work provided a l e s s o n f o r c h i l d r e n who  should pray that  t h e i r f i r s t years could be passed i n such good study, work, and h e a l t h - g i v i n g p l a y that a good account could be g i v e n 49 for  each day when the time came to answer f o r t h e i r l i v e s .  Thus, love and respect f o r those who  laboured would be dem-  onstrated by youth f o l l o w i n g t h e i r good example as the snow s h o v e l l e r showed by working m e r r i l y and without ing  little  shirk-  u n t i l the walk's snow f l e w away and he t r u l y earned h i s 50  recompense. G i r l s and women played an even l e s s e r r o l e i n the Gage S e r i e s than i n the Canadian t e x t s but when they d i d appear s t i l l occupied themselves w i t h being r e a l or s u r r o gate mothers and tending to the needs of men  and  families.  Boys, however, continued to need education i n order to l e a r n s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e and the golden r u l e of "whatsoever thy hand G a g e S e r i e s , Book V I , p. 108. 4.9 48  ^ Gage S e r i e s , Book 11, p. v  5 0  I b i d . , p.  36.  141.  116  f i n d e t h to do, do i t w i t h thy m i g h t . "  51  Possession of these  a t t r i b u t e s would enable the man to do h i s duty and prosper both h i m s e l f and h i s country.  A d d i t i o n a l l y , time would be  c a l l e d i n t o l i f e and g i v e n a moral being and a s o u l as the man of i n d u s t r y , be he c o t t e r , a r t i s a n , armourer, or k i n g 52 organized the hours f o r h i s c r a f t . Labour r e s u l t e d i n p r o s p e r i t y and happiness w h i l e i d l e n e s s or unmerited wealth l e d s w i f t l y and s u r e l y to d i s aster.  Consequently, the v i n e dresser's sons found the  "treasure i n the f i e l d " which he bequeathed  to them.  Sear-  ching f o r g o l d , the sons dug, s i e v e d , and cleaned, every i n c h of the v i n e y a r d r e s u l t i n g not i n the expected t r e a s u r e but i n a t h r e e f o l d i n c r e a s e i n the next year's grape h a r v e s t . In t h i s way the sons learned that true wealth l a y i n neces53  sary labour w e l l done.  On the other hand, Count G r a f f  gained h i s wealth a t the expense of hard-working boatmen, from whom he e x t r a c t e d t o l l s f o r use of the r i v e r , and of h i s peasants, whose corn he e i t h e r e x p r o p r i a t e d or bought at low p r i c e s .  Refusing to share h i s stored corn w i t h the  people d u r i n g a famine, the Count caused many deaths but d i d not l i v e to enjoy h i s i l l - g o t t e n gains as an army of s t a r v i n g r a t s crossed the r i v e r , a t t a c k e d h i s g r a n a r i e s , and f i n a l l y k i l l e d the  Count.  54  51 J  5 2  53  5 4  Gage S e r i e s , Book V, p. 138. I b i d . , p. 119. G a g e S e r i e s , Book 111, p. 30. I b i d . , p. 45.  117  Another e v i l l e a d i n g t o s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n and soc i a l r u i n assumed a v a s t l y i n c r e a s e d importance i n the Gage Readers than i n the Canadian S e r i e s .  As a growing  concern  of people attuned to s o c i e t y ' s wrongs and needs i n the l a s t quarter of the nineteenth century, a l c o h o l ' s dangers n a t u r a l l y found a place i n the newer school books as reform groups considered the common school the best means of r e a ching c h i l d r e n .  I n s p e c t o r Netherby r e p o r t e d , i n 1898, r e g -  u l a r teaching t a k i n g place i n V i c t o r i a schools on the e v i l s of a l c o h o l i c s t i m u l a n t s and n a r c o t i c s and s a t i s f a c t o r y pro55 gress i n n e a r l y a l l the s c h o o l s .  J J  I n a d d i t i o n t o the r e a -  ders, the P a t h f i n d e r S e r i e s on Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene provided an abundance of temperance education mat e r i a l f o r classroom use.  While separated by Inspector  Burns, temperance education formed part of m o r a l i t y i n many minds and a l s o was d e f i n i t e l y l i n k e d w i t h C h r i s t i a n i t y . Thus, temperance advocates claimed a r a p i d l y growing movement a c h i e v i n g r e s u l t s which would f r e e men, women, and c h i l dren from the e v i l s of d r i n k by l o v e , t r u t h , sympathy, and good w i l l t o men. joy  Soon, t h e r e f o r e , there would be great  i n heaven "when the triumphs of a great e n t e r p r i s e usher  i n the day of the triumph of the cross of C h r i s t . "  Ac-  c o r d i n g l y , d r i n k i n g became a s i n i n that i t l e d to neglect of C h r i s t i a n d u t i e s and retarded the coming of the Kingdom of God. 55 p. 1254. 56  B r i t i s h Columbia, Twenty-Seventh School " G a g e S e r i e s , Book IV, p. 254.  Report,  118  Wisdom then d i c t a t e d admonishments to "Look Not Upon The Wine" and ignore the blandishments of those who t o l l e d i t s value.  ex-  Many p r a i s e d a l c o h o l f o r i t s pleasant  t a s t e , i t s p a i n - k i l l i n g p r o p e n s i t i e s , and merry-making a b i l i t i e s but i n d r i n k ' s pleasant-seeming depths l a y a s t i n g i n g serpent which brought only madness, g r i e f , and woe. * 5  7  Not  only d i d these e v i l s a f f e c t the d r i n k e r but a l s o harmed those around him.  As an example, one drunkard broke h i s  w i f e ' s h e a r t , f o r c e d h i s l i t t l e g i r l to dress i n r a g s , and s o l d e v e r y t h i n g the f a m i l y possessed i n order to buy d r i n k . Debased to the p o i n t of even s e l l i n g h i s daughter's L i t t l e Testament, which f r i e n d s gave to the s i c k g i r l , the f a t h e r f i n a l l y r e c e i v e d s a l v a t i o n when h i s c h i l d ' s simple f a i t h refused to c h a s t i s e him and merely asked what answer should be g i v e n a f t e r death i f Jesus should ask what had become of the Testament.  Moved to repentance, the f a t h e r dropped to  h i s knees, begged f o r g i v e n e s s , and never touched another drop of l i q u o r .  5 8  Vague warnings and s e n t i m e n t a l s t o r i e s g r a d u a l l y gave way to graphic medical essays d e p i c t i n g a l c o h o l ' s e f f e c t on the body.  Each of the readers, from book three to  f i v e , contained one of these medical s t o r i e s and a l l presented much the same evidence but i n p r o g r e s s i v e l y more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and t e c h n i c a l s t y l e s .  Thus, medical f a c t s  countered claims of a l c o h o l ' s p l e a s u r a b l e e f f e c t s by "pro•57 J  58  Gage S e r i e s , Book 11, p. 115. G a g e S e r i e s , Book 111, p. 139.  119  v i n g " that a l c o h o l i c pleasure was b r i e f and i n e v i t a b l y lowed by a depression which made l i f e an almost  fol-  intolerable  burden t o some w h i l e l e a d i n g others d i r e c t l y to death or to a l i f e of g r i e f i n an insane asylum.  L i k e w i s e , Dr. R i c h -  ardson r i d i c u l e d a l c o h o l ' s m e d i c i n a l and food value by s t a t i n g t h a t warmth occurred only because the blood was brought to the body's surface where i t q u i c k l y l o s t heat and r e s u l t e d i n c h i l l s and a muscular weakness which, i n time, would become so aggravated that the body could not move.  S i m i l a r l y , w h i l e adding f a t to the body the a l c o h o l -  induced weight placed an added s t r a i n on the heart and k i d 59  neys and impaired proper d i g e s t i o n . As w e l l as being d e t r i m e n t a l to the d r i n k e r ' s own h e a l t h , however, l i q u o r had u n d e s i r a b l e and unrecognized s o c i a l consequences.  According to the readers, nine of  every t e n crimes occurred because of l i q u o r ; work-houses overflowed w i t h people who l o s t both t h e i r money and capac i t y to work through indulgence i n i n t o x i c a t i n g  beverages; 60  and a l c o h o l undermined the very s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y . In a d d i t i o n , the l i q u o r trade created l i t t l e employment and h a r d l y any nutriment when compared t o the tremendous sums spent on the purchase of i t s commodity and the ensuing s o c i a l misery.  Deprived of good food and c l o t h i n g , the  l i f e of the d r i n k e r and the happiness of h i s f a m i l y d i s i n tegrated and s o c i a l l i f e could be as e a s i l y destroyed as I b i d . , p. 205. 60 Gage S e r i e s , Book IV, p. 154. 5 9  120  proved by estimates t h a t "two-thirds of the p r i s o n s , workhouses, and asylums now r e q u i r e d i n England could be e l i m i n 6l ated i f temperance and s o b r i e t y were embraced." Sweeping statements blaming a l l the i l l s of the country s o l e l y on a l c o h o l weakened textbook temperance education.  Neglect of other s o c i e t a l f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to  u n d e s i r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s tended t o render teachings suspect as recognized by Inspector Wilson who warned t h a t , w h i l e the s c h o o l s ' sentiment might be sound and that the e v i l s of a l c o h o l and tobacco were u n i v e r s a l l y recognized, t e a chers, should "aim a t c l e a r n e s s of statement and exactness of knowledge."  Exaggerated  notions acquired by the s t u -  dents and r e f u t e d by l a t e r knowledge could lead t o " a 62 r e - a c t i o n of sentiment." Reviewing both the Canadian and the Gage s e r i e s of readers, i t i s evident t h a t l i t t l e r e a l change i n moral content appeared although format and s t y l e d i f f e r e d .  A  d e f i n i t e l y C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y was present i n both s e r i e s as w e l l as a C h r i s t i a n theology which appeared more d e c i d e d l y P r o t e s t a n t i n the Canadian than i n the Gage s e r i e s .  Never-  t h e l e s s , the Roman C a t h o l i c Church would consider the t e x t s of both s e r i e s as P r o t e s t a n t i f not able to be supplemented by s p e c i f i c C a t h o l i c teachings.  Under t h i s r e l i g i o u s mora-  l i t y stood the other moral v i r t u e s , considered s e p a r a t e l y i n the Canadian S e r i e s but forming part of the three en62Gage S e r i e s , Book V, p. 255. B r i t i s h Columbia, Twenty-Second School Report, p. 521.  121  compassing themes of brotherhood, i n d u s t r y , and temperance i n the Gage S e r i e s . Therefore, i n view of the continued P r o t e s t a n t churches' i n f l u e n c e on the p u b l i c school system and the Prot e s t a n t C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y taught i n both the Canadian and Gage S e r i e s of readers, there can be no doubt that the supposedly s e c u l a r and n o n - s e c t a r i a n p u b l i c school system of B r i t i s h Columbia continued t o be both C h r i s t i a n and P r o t e s tant throughout  the nineteenth century.  CHAPTER SIX PROTESTANT CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS B r i t i s h Columbia f a i l e d t o e s t a b l i s h e i t h e r a nons e c t a r i a n o r a s e c u l a r p u b l i c school system during the nineteenth century i n s p i t e of such a system being demanded by law.  While unrecognized and unacknowledged, the p u b l i c  schools remained Protestant  and C h r i s t i a n throughout the  century due t o ambivalent d e f i n i t i o n s o f terms,  Protestant  church connections and i n f l u e n c e , and use of t e x t books imbued w i t h a g e n e r a l , but P r o t e s t a n t ,  Christian morality.  Being under e i t h e r Roman C a t h o l i c Church o r Church of England c o n t r o l , most Vancouver I s l a n d schools p r i o r t o 1865  were d e f i n i t e l y s e c t a r i a n and C h r i s t i a n .  In addition,  a Church o f England m i n i s t e r d i r e c t e d the nominally nondenominational C o l o n i a l schools which i n c l u d e d  scripture  c l a s s e s , u s i n g Church of England m a t e r i a l , i n the c u r r i c u lum.  Roman C a t h o l i c schools a l s o e x i s t e d i n the colony of  B r i t i s h Columbia, together w i t h non-denominational schools e s t a b l i s h e d under Protestant to Protestantism  aegis and remaining connected  through f i n a n c i a l support, governing coun-  c i l s , and use of the King James v e r s i o n of the B i b l e f o r s c r i p t u r e readings. In e a r l y C o l o n i a l days school system and s o c i e t y e x i s t e d i n f a i r l y harmonious agreement. white population  U n t i l 1858 the  of B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d 122  123  c o n s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y o f Hudson's Bay Company o r C o l o n i a l employees roughly d i v i d e d i n t o two c l a s s e s — labourers —  and predominantly B r i t i s h .  gentlemen and  A long h i s t o r y of  church i n t e r e s t i n education, customary c l e r g y c o n t r o l o f schools i n B r i t a i n , and the absence of c l e r g y from other churches l e d t o a n a t u r a l acceptance  of Roman C a t h o l i c and  A n g l i c a n c o n t r o l of c o l o n i a l education.  Similarly,class-  based schools would evoke l i t t l e o p p o s i t i o n i n a c l a s s cons c i o u s s o c i e t y and B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n supported government a i d t o common, o r working c l a s s , schools." ' 1  I r r e v o c a b l y changed by an i n f l u x o f p o p u l a t i o n duri n g the g o l d rush years beginning i n 1858, the p o p u l a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia became m u l t i - r a c i a l , t i o n a l , and more s e c u l a r i n outlook.  multi-denomina-  At the same time, o r -  ganized r e l i g i o n became the subject of open antagonism o r apathy and the Church o f England experienced h o s t i l i t y t o i t s dominance i n r e l i g i o u s and e d u c a t i o n a l concerns.  While  Church of England and Roman C a t h o l i c Church clashed i n the I n d i a n M i s s i o n F i e l d , no evidence can be found t o support the c o n c l u s i o n that n o n - s e c t a r i a n schools found favour because o f f e a r s of Roman C a t h o l i c power.  Timothy L. Smith  and David Tyack considered such f e a r s as one reason f o r P r o t e s t a n t support o f p u b l i c schools i n the U n i t e d States but C a t h o l i c power i n B r i t i s h Columbia was fragmented due ''"Charity schools e x i s t e d i n England i n the seventeenth century and s t a t e s u b s i d i e s were provided f o r school houses f o r the poorer c l a s s e s i n 1833 a t which time State r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r education was recognized. See G. Baron, S o c i e t y , Schools and Progress i n England (Oxford: Pergamon, 1966.)  124  to r a c i a l and l i n g u i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s r e s u l t i n g i n l i t t l e support from English-speaking C a t h o l i c s f o r church s c h o o l s . According t o the l e a d i n g newspapers, B r i t i s h C o l umbia's s c a t t e r e d , s m a l l , and heterogeneous school t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e d a non-sectarian school system.  populaMoreover,  newspaper e d i t o r s f e a r e d Church of England domination of any denominational  o r r e l i g i o u s system.  Generally weak denomina-  t i o n a l l o y a l t i e s , as evidenced by w i l l i n g n e s s t o send c h i l dren e i t h e r t o the best o r cheapest school a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d l e s s of type o r amount of r e l i g i o u s education,  helped  the newspaper campaign f o r a non-sectarian system.  Oppo-  s i t i o n came mostly from the Roman C a t h o l i c Church, which b e l i e v e d that non-sectarianism  could not e x i s t and that gov-  ernment funds should be used only t o s u b s i d i z e education f o r the poor.  Some Church of England c l e r i c s a l s o opposed  non-sectarian schools i f they equalled n o n - r e l i g i o u s s c h o o l s . Opposition t o the complete absence of r e l i g i o n r e s u l t e d i n a compromise whereby the School Acts o f 1865, 1869, and 1870 e s t a b l i s h e d a non-sectarian system but allowed r e l i g i o u s teaching i n the classrooms outside of r e g u l a r school hours. Presumably the p r o v i s i o n f o r r e l i g i o u s teaching i n c l u d e d Roman C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s as w e l l as m i n i s t e r s from P r o t e s t a n t churches and teachers of n o n - C h r i s t i a n f a i t h s . One member o f the l e g i s l a t u r e , however, claimed that the term "clergyman" d i d not i n c l u d e C a t h o l i c s and C a t h o l i c Church o f f i c i a l s d e f i n i t e l y considered the p u b l i c schools as  125  e i t h e r P r o t e s t a n t , i f the King James B i b l e was used, o r athei s t , i f no r e l i g i o u s teachings occurred. for  Further support  c o n s i d e r i n g the schools P r o t e s t a n t a r i s e s from the f a c t  of P r o t e s t a n t clergymen conducting the annual at one school i n V i c t o r i a .  examinations  I n other communities school and  church o f t e n occupied the same premises and i t i s reasonable to conclude, that as well-educated men, the c l e r g y would assume an a c t i v e part i n school a f f a i r s . School r e p o r t s were e r r a t i c and gave l i t t l e  infor-  mation regarding course content so that how much o r what kind of r e l i g i o u s education took place i n the classroom i s l a r g e l y a matter of c o n j e c t u r e .  However, many schools used  the I r i s h N a t i o n a l Texts which contained an abundance of r e l i g i o u s and C h r i s t i a n moral teachings.  Most c h i l d r e n i n  the system, t h e r e f o r e , would be exposed to C h r i s t i a n doct r i n e through the t e x t s . The f i r s t p r o v i n c i a l School A c t , passed i n 1872, confirmed the n o n - s e c t a r i a n nature of the p u b l i c school s y s tem.  As clergymen were apparently confined to the r o l e of  school v i s i t o r s under t h i s a c t , r e l i g i o u s teaching r i g h t s not being s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned, i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e that the 1872 A c t represented the f i r s t move t o a n o n - r e l i g i o u s system.  L e g i s l a t i v e debates r e v e a l a d e f i n i t e l y h o s t i l e  f e e l i n g by some members toward any c l e r g y r i g h t s but a predominantly A n g l i c a n Board of Education a u t h o r i z e d opening and c l o s i n g r e l i g i o u s e x e r c i s e s f o r the schools from which  126  students could be excused a t parents' request. L e g i s l a t i v e debates, newspaper correspondence and e d i t o r i a l s , and the School Act of 1876 c l e a r l y r e v e a l a cont i n u i n g confusion over d e f i n i t i o n of "non-sectarian." I t simply meant that no s p e c i f i c church dogmas or creeds could be taught but that a general r e l i g i o u s teaching was i n order, according t o some of the p o p u l a t i o n .  To others i t meant  that no r e l i g i o n a t a l l could be permitted i n a non-sectari a n system.  P o s s i b l y the l a t t e r group i n c l u d e d the school  l e g i s l a t i v e committee members who added " s e c u l a r " t o the non-sectarian clause.  "Secular," however, caused as much  confusion as the previous term i n view of having two meanings —  r e l i g i o u s but non-denominational o r n o n - r e l i g i o u s .  According to the C o l o n i s t and Board a c t i o n s , o f f i c i a l view defined s e c u l a r as n o n - r e l i g i o u s . A c c o r d i n g l y , a u t h o r i z e d prayers were rescinded and s t r i c t u r e s invoked against t e a chers u s i n g any r e l i g i o u s teaching except the Lord's and Ten Commandments.  Allowance  Prayer  of these two B i b l e s e l e c -  t i o n s meant, of course, t h a t some r e l i g i o n s t i l l e x i s t e d i n the classrooms  i f d e s i r e d by t r u s t e e s but government i n t e n t  appeared t o be the removal of as much r e l i g i o n as p o s s i b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y anything remotely s e c t a r i a n , from the s c h o o l s . C e r t a i n l y , newspapers and much of the p u b l i c i n t e r p r e t e d government a c t i o n s i n t h i s way. lone of the School Acts mentioned r e l i g i o n e i t h e r p o s i t i v e l y or n e g a t i v e l y  except f o r the oblique reference  that teachers must i n c u l c a t e the "highest m o r a l i t y " without  127  reference to any p a r t i c u l a r creed or d o c t r i n e .  This wording  i n f e r s a r e l i g i o u s m o r a l i t y but l a c k of d e f i n i t e d i r e c t i v e s l e d to considerable confusion and a p o s s i b l e omission of d i r e c t moral education by many teachers.  Nevertheless,  P r o t e s t a n t clergymen f r e q u e n t l y addressed and advised chers on how  any  tea-  to teach m o r a l i t y ; attended as honoured guests  and honourary members; and opened Teacher I n s t i t u t e meeti n g w i t h prayers.  Apparently,  Protestant C h r i s t i a n —  therefore, a r e l i g i o u s  m o r a l i t y was  assumed by church and  teachers and never c o n t r a d i c t e d by government or authorities.  —  education  Readers used i n the classrooms a l s o supported  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the "highest m o r a l i t y " as  "Protestant,  Christian morality." Rules and Regulations  f o r the Governing of the  P u b l i c Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia set out a l i s t of v i r tues and m o r a l i t y f o r teachers learn.  to i n c u l c a t e and students to  Assuming a l e a s t to g r e a t e s t order i t i s p o s s i b l e  to view the d e s i r e d m o r a l i t y as a pyramid i n which order forms the base and the "highest m o r a l i t y " the top The HigEest M o r a l i t y K i n d l y and A f f e c t i o n a t e F e e l i n g s — Brotherhood Truth and Honesty, Respect and Obedience C l e a n l i n e s s , Neatness, and Decency A Time and Place f o r Everything and Everyt h i n g i n i t s Proper Time and Place — Order  —  128  N e i t h e r the Canadian n o r the Gage S e r i e s supported a h i e r archy of v i r t u e s i n so f a r as the order o f the s t o r i e s i s concerned but d i d i n r e l a t i v e frequency. An assumption that men and women occupied d i f f e r i n g but complementary r o l e s i n l i f e — and women as homemakers —  men as p r o v i d e r s  f o r which childhood must prepare  underlay many s t o r i e s i n the Canadian S e r i e s .  Frequent  warnings a g a i n s t i d l e n e s s and too much playtime u n d e r l i n e d the n e c e s s i t y of p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i f e ' s work.  Similarly,  s t o r i e s s t r e s s e d time's importance and, t h e r e f o r e , emphasized promptness and the good use of each hour i n order that a good account o f one's l i f e might be g i v e n when r e quired. Only two s e l e c t i o n s s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned c l e a n l i n e s s , neatness, and decency but a few references appeared i n other s t o r i e s and equated these v i r t u e s w i t h goodness and t h e i r opposites w i t h badness.  T r u t h , honesty, obedi-  ence, and respect f o r a u t h o r i t y r e c e i v e d approximately seven times the emphasis o f the preceding v i r t u e s and kindness and concern f o r people and animals occupied a t l e a s t three times the space of t r u t h and obedience.  Above a l l , however, C h r i s -  t i a n teachings and m o r a l i t y enjoyed three t o f o u r times the prominence of kindness and, i n a d d i t i o n , many s t o r i e s t e a ching a s p e c i f i c v i r t u e assumed o r i n f e r r e d C h r i s t i a n belief. D i s t i n c t l y Christian selections included several  129  B i b l e s t o r i e s , from both Old and New  Testaments, and  theo-  l o g i c a l teachings i n the form of hymns and sermons which b a s i c a l l y portrayed a Protestant  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the B i b l e .  C h r i s t i a n moral teachings s t r e s s e d knowing and doing God's w i l l , g e n e r a l l y by way man  of the B i b l e , which would r e s u l t i n  enjoying a r i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s fellow-man and  nature, winning the approbation of God,  and a s s u r i n g  s a t i s f a c t i o n of a l i f e w e l l spent on earth and l i f e lasting;  i n the next world.  ship between God and man  the ever-  In proposing a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n -  and between good works and  t i o n , the readers again propounded Protestant  salva-  doctrine.  S i m i l a r l y , s t o r i e s i n the Gage readers assumed a C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f and m o r a l i t y and attached importance to the v i r t u e s i n roughly the same p r o p o r t i o n Series.  as the Canadian  P l a c i n g l e s s s t r e s s on i n d i v i d u a l v i r t u e s , however,  the Gage S e r i e s appeared based on a C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y pressed i n three subordinate themes.  Thus, brotherhood  sprang n a t u r a l l y from the concept of God things and  as c r e a t o r of a l l  encompassed many of the v i r t u e s such as kindness  and concern.  An emphasis on i n d u s t r y i l l u s t r a t e d the  estant work e t h i c of hard work, p r e p a r a t i o n , t a l e n t s and wealth provided by God recognized u n t i l Max the e a r l y twentieth  —  Prot-  and wise use  an e t h i c not  of  formally  Weber's c o n t r o v e r s i a l examination i n century.  And  temperance would be  eved through the e f f o r t s of those C h r i s t i a n s who love and  ex-  sympathy to t h e i r f e l l o w men.  achi-  poured out  In t h i s way  the  un-  130  f o r t u n a t e v i c t i m s would be rescued from the damnation of d r i n k which had caused them t o t u r n from God and so b r i n g r u i n to themselves, t h e i r f a m i l i e s , and s o c i e t y .  Inasmuch  as l i q u o r made men f o r g e t duty to God and neighbour i t was an e v i l which the good of temperance must defeat by l e a d i n g men back to God t o do H i s w i l l and thereby hasten the comi n g of the Kingdom of God on e a r t h . An i d e a l inseparable from i t s r e l i g i o u s base, Christian morality i s also highly i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c .  Accor-  ding to i t s tenets each man comes t o know the love and w i l l of God, through the r e v e l a t i o n s of C h r i s t , i n a p a r t i c u l a r way, changes inwardly, and demonstrates h i s new s e l f i n love f o r mankind.  M a n i f e s t a t i o n s of C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f thus  vary a c c o r d i n g to the man and the age i n which he l i v e s w i t h only one b a s i c guide e x i s t i n g f o r C h r i s t i a n moral behaviour — do unto others as you would wish others to do unto you. While l a y i n g down no d e f i n i t e moral code, C h r i s t provided examples of moral behaviour r e s u l t i n g from a love of God and man which v a r i o u s churches and people have i n t e r p r e t e d i n d i f f e r i n g ways.  Hence, i n B r i t i s h Columbia r e g u l a t i o n s f o r  p u b l i c s c h o o l s , supplemented by t e x t s , defined moral behav i o u r as kindness, t r u t h , honesty, obedience, r e s p e c t , i n d u s t r y , c l e a n l i n e s s , neatness, decency, order, and temperance. P r e v a i l i n g wisdom of the time, supported to some extent today, r u l e d that c h i l d r e n learned moral behaviour by a u t h o r i t a t i v e d i c t a and h a b i t .  I n accordance w i t h t h i s view,  131  textbooks f l a t l y informed t h e i r audience t h a t the good person acted i n one p a r t i c u l a r way and r e i t e r a t e d moral lessons i n v a r i e d s t o r i e s throughout  the readers.  S i m i l a r l y , tea-  chers r e l i e d mainly on r o t e l e a r n i n g and memorization and school i n s p e c t o r s seemed more concerned w i t h c o r r e c t pron u n c i a t i o n and expression than content.  L i k e w i s e , ques-  t i o n s i n the Gage S e r i e s only t e s t e d simple r e c a l l and s t i m u l a t e d an a l r e a d y present tendency towards r e l i a n c e on memory work r a t h e r than reasoning. Moral education then c o n s i s t e d on moral absol u t e s based on a u t h o r i t a t i v e pronouncements. h i e r a r c h y of importance  A presumed  e x i s t e d i n both Regulations and t e x t s  but no i n t i m a t i o n appears of occasions a r i s i n g when i t might be necessary t o break a lower order r u l e t o s a t i s f y a h i g h e r one nor t h a t such a c t i o n could be j u s t i f i e d .  Therefore, a  c h i l d learned to always t e l l the t r u t h even i f i t should b r i n g r e t r i b u t i o n upon h i m s e l f but no mention occurred of a case where absolute t r u t h might cause p a i n or sorrow t o anot h e r and break the h i g h e r r u l e of kindness. a h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c m o r a l i t y attempted  In addition, to mold the char-  a c t e r o f the i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r than reform s o c i e t y or form a corporate e t h i c .  Often, t h e r e f o r e , c h i l d r e n would be con-  f r o n t e d w i t h a s o c i a l e t h i c a t odds w i t h the schoolroom  moral  education and unprepared to cope w i t h the d i f f e r e n c e as r e a soning power had formed no part of h i s t r a i n i n g . How much i n f l u e n c e the t e x t book m o r a l i t y would have on students i s hard to determine.  Ruth M i l l e r E l s o n  132  s t a t e s t h a t i d e a s and dren are those not  b e l i e f s most r e a d i l y adopted by  c o n t r a d i c t e d by t h e i r own  chil-  experience.  2  Others s t a t e t h a t t e n d e n c i e s to be p r e j u d i c e d or t o l e r a n t , s e l f i s h or generous, c o - o p e r a t i v e or a n t a g o n i s t i c a l l r e f l e c t a t t i t u d e s l e a r n e d through p r e v i o u s e x p e r i enced Combined w i t h the f a c t o f poor, e r r a t i c s c h o o l attendance f o r a l a r g e p a r t o f the n i n e t e e n t h  century,  l e a d to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t home and  s o c i e t y l e s s o n s would  have a more l a s t i n g e f f e c t than those Regardless Canadian and  learned i n school.  of t h e i r u l t i m a t e e f f e c t , however,  Gage t e x t s preached a C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y ,  dominantly P r o t e s t a n t . ued  the above would  Moreover, P r o t e s t a n t c l e r g y c o n t i n -  an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s c h o o l system,  ture readings  scrip-  were from the P r o t e s t a n t B i b l e , and  t i n u e d as an opening or c l o s i n g e x c e r c i s e .  prayer  Therefore,  B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l system i n the n i n e t e e n t h non-sectarian  Protestant i n f a c t .  Thus, uniqueness c o u l d not be the o n l y c o n t i n u o u s l y  r i a n system i n Canada. only because one denied  i n law but  the  C h r i s t i a n and  single,  Uniqueness, i n r e a l i t y ,  sect's teachings  con-  century  remained s e c u l a r and  by v i r t u e of b e i n g  pre-  claimed non-secta-  occurred  received public financing  to avowedly r e l i g i o u s s c h o o l s .  t i o n of a s e c u l a r and n o n - s e c t a r i a n  In t h i s way,  system a l l o w e d  the one  ficbranch  o f C h r i s t i a n i t y to propogate i t s d o c t r i n e s i n the p u b l i c schools, with p u b l i c s u b s i d i e s , while to  denying the  privilege  others.  2 3  E l s o n , Guardians o f T r a d i t i o n , p.  viii.  " T l o y d L. Ruch, Psychology and L i f e , 6th ed. cago: S c o t t , Poresman and Company, T963), p. 88.  (Chi-  BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE  Pew a u t h o r s have s p e c i f i c a l l y examined the quest i o n of r e l i g i o n and m o r a l i t y i n the B r i t i s h Columbia p u b l i c s c h o o l system. C. B. S i s s o n s i n Church and S t a t e i n Canad i a n E d u c a t i o n (1959) d i d note the Church of England i n f l u ence p r i o r to C o n f e d e r a t i o n but then c o n f i n e d h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n of church and s t a t e to the Roman C a t h o l i c Church's f i g h t f o r r e c o g n i t i o n and s t a t e a i d f o r t h e i r s c h o o l s . Simi l a r l y , P. Henry Johnson's A H i s t o r y of P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia (1964) and h i s A B r i e f His'tory of Canadian E d u c a t i o n (1968) both noted A n g l i c i n i n f l u e n c e and r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n p r i o r t o 1865 on the I s l a n d and 1869 on the mainl a n d , but assumed t h a t church i n f l u e n c e and r e l i g i o n were none x i s t e n t i n the s c h o o l s a f t e r those d a t e s . Johnson's l a t e s t book John Jessop: Goldseeker and E d u c a t o r (1971) does, however, r e c o g n i z e t h a t r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n c o n t i n u e d as a c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e d u r i n g Jessop's s u p e r i n t e n d e n c y . George H i n d l e ' s s m a l l book on The E d u c a t i o n a l System of B r i t i s h Columbia (1918) a l so assumed r e l i g i o n was b a r r e d from the p u b l i c system because o f the g e n e r a l apathy towards r e l i g i o n on the p a r t o f the public. Manoly Lupul's essay " E d u c a t i o n i n Western Canada B e f o r e 1873" i n J . Donald W i l s o n , Robert M. Stamp, and L o u i s P h i l i p p e Audet's Canadian E d u c a t i o n : A H i s t o r y (1970) l i k e wise echoes the above view. None of these a u t h o r s , however, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of S i s s o n s , was i n t e r e s t e d s o l e l y i n t h i s one q u e s t i o n and wrote more g e n e r a l l y o f the system's d e v e l opment as a whole. T h i s was t r u e a l s o of D. L. MacLaurin's e x c e l l e n t d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n on "The H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n i n the Crown C o l o n i e s o f Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columb i a and i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia," (1936) and h i s l a t e r a r t i c l e " E d u c a t i o n B e f o r e the Gold Rush," i n the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 11 (4) (1938). Neverthel e s s , these sources proved of immense a s s i s t a n c e i n r e s e a r c h i n g the b e g i n n i n g s of the p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l system. Church and  School  As e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r i e s g e n e r a l l y n e g l e c t e d church i n f l u e n c e i n the s c h o o l s so church h i s t o r i e s seldom r e f e r r e d to p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . The Reverend H e r b e r t H. Gowen's Church Work i n B r i t i s h Columbia: A Memoir of the E p i s c o p a t e o f ~ A c t o n Windeyer S i l l i t o e , P i r s t A n g l i c a n Bishop or New Westminster (1899) a i d e d i n a s s e s s i n g c o n g r e g a t i o n a l support f o r denomina t i o n a l s c h o o l s . S i m i l a r l y , the Reverend A. G. M o r i c e ' s H i s t o r y of the C a t h o l i c Church i n Western Canada v.2 (1910) a s s i s t e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g a t t i t u d e s of the C a t h o l i c church t o wards n o n - s e c t a r i a n e d u c a t i o n . The Reverend E. A. D a v i s ' 133  134  Commemorative Review of the M e t h o d i s t , P r e s b y t e r i a n , and Cong r e g a t i o n a l Churches i n B r i t i s h Columbia (1925) a l s o proved h e l p f u l i n n o t i n g U n i t e d Church p o s i t i o n s on s o c i a l problems, such as a l c o h o l consumption, but had no i n f o r m a t i o n on a t t i tudes to the p u b l i c s c h o o l system. Prank Peake's The A n g l i c a n Church i n B r i t i s h Columbia (1959) p r o v i d e d u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n on Bishop H i l l ' s d e s i r e s f o r A n g l i c a n s c h o o l s but, a g a i n , r a r e l y mentioned the p u b l i c system. L i k e w i s e , theses w r i t t e n about the churches or church s c h o o l s i n the p r o v i n c e make few r e f e r e n c e s to p u b l i c s c h o o l s . S i s t e r E d i t h Emily Down's "The S i s t e r s of S t . Ann: t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to e d u c a t i o n i n the P a c i f i c Northwest 1858-1958" (1962), i s an e x c e l l e n t source f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on C a t h o l i c s c h o o l s f o r g i r l s and f o r some documentation of Oblate s c h o o l s f o r boys. George C e c i l Hacker's B. A. essay on "The M e t h o d i s t Church i n B r i t i s h Columbia 18591900" (1933), p r o v i d e s u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n on Anglican-Method i s t c o - o p e r a t i o n and r i v a l r y and the g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e encountered by r e l i g i o u s workers i n the p r o v i n c e . Similarly, Mervyn Ewart Kennedy's master's t h e s i s on "The H i s t o r y o f P r e s b y t e r i a n i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1861-1935" (1938), g i v e s u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n on problems f a c e d by m i s s i o n a r y workers but none o f these theses h i n t a t any church involvement i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s nor mention r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n i n c l a s s rooms. An e x c e l l e n t source f o r e a r l y church and s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s is' G. H. S l a t e r ' s "Reverend Robert John S t a i n e s : P i o n e e r P r i e s t , Pedagogue, and P o l i t i c a l A g i t a t o r " i n the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y XIV (4) (1950). Two a r t i c l e s on Edward C r i d g e appeared i n the D a i l y C o l o n i s t on September 12, 1948 and January 16, 1966 but both were more concerned w i t h C r i d g e ' s church a c t i v i t i e s than w i t h h i s dut i e s i n r e g a r d to e d u c a t i o n . An i n v a l u a b l e source of A n g l i can a t t i t u d e s to n o n - s e c t a r i a n s c h o o l s proved to be the Reverend W i l l i a m S. Reece's sermon on E d u c a t i o n (1864). Early  Schools  A r t i c l e s on the C o l o n i a l Schools of Vancouver I s l a n d by J . F o r s y t h , the P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n , appeared i n the V i c t o r i a Times i n March, 1922 and i n the B. C. Teacher i n December, 1926. The D a i l y C o l o n i s t of December 18, 1910, September 30, 1956, August 21, 1949, J u l y 22, 1962, March 7, 1965, September 15, 1968, and February 20, 1972 p r i n t e d a r t i c l e s on e a r l y s c h o o l s , t e a c h e r s , and p e r s o n a l i t i e s which were of some h e l p i n r e s e a r c h i n g i s s u e s and a t t i t u d e s as was t r u e of a r t i c l e s i n the Saanich P e n i n s u l a and G u l f I s l a n d s Review i n March, 1948, August, 1950, February, 1954, and February, 1962; the Sidney Review of May 9, 1973; the Kamloops D a i l y S e n t i n e l xn June and J u l y of 1968; the Rossl a n d Miner of March 1, 1962; and the Vancouver Sun and Provi n c e C e n t e n n i a l E d i t i o n s of J u l y , 1971. Margaret A. Beckw i t h wrote a pamphlet on the " C r a i g f l o w e r Schoolhouse" (1958) f o r the Board of T r u s t e e s but most of the i n f o r m a t i o n con-  135  t a i n e d i n t h i s pamphlet and the above a r t i c l e s has been i n corporated i n the more g e n e r a l h i s t o r i e s of education. On occasion, however, some i n f o r m a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t had not appeared elsewhere, as i n the case of the Rossland a r t i c l e and of the C e n t r a l J u n i o r High School Yearbook (1954) which provided i n s i g h t s i n t o moral a t t i t u d e s i n one s c h o o l . Margaret L i l l o o e t McDonald's master's t h e s i s on "New Westmins t e r 1859-1871" (1947) aided i n an assessment of church i n f l u e n c e i n and a t t i t u d e s to e a r l y schools i n that c i t y . Simi l a r l y , James M. Sandison's Schools of Old Vancouver (1971) and K. A. Waites' The F i r s t F i f t y Years, Vancouver High Schools 1890-1940 (n.d.) a s s i s t e d r e s e a r c h i n t o Vancouver a t t i t u d e s and elementary p r e p a r a t i o n f o r h i g h s c h o o l . B i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the two most v o c a l opponents of sect a r i a n schools was provided by master's theses by Margaret Ross on 'Amor de Cosmos, A B r i t i s h Columbia Reformer" (1931) and by James Gordon Reid on "John Robson and the B r i t i s h Columbian" (1950). P r o v i n c i a l Schools F. Henry Johnson's a r t i c l e "The Ryersonian I n f l u ence on the P u b l i c School System of B r i t i s h Columbia" i n B. C. S t u d i e s , 10 (Summer, 1971) documents Jessop's v i r t u a l l y complete adoption of the Ryersonian school system. Unnoted by Johnson, however, was the f a c t that the Ryersonian s p i r i t i n regard to r e l i g i o u s education i n the schools a l s o became part of the B r i t i s h Columbia system. Ryerson's views on r e l i g i o n can be found i n Egerton Ryerson, Report on a System of P u b l i c Elementary I n s t r u c t i o n f o r Upper Canada (1847) and i n the Journal of Education f o r Upper Canada, only a few copies of which are a v a i l a b l e i n the S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y . On the other hand, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s has a f u l l set of both the Canadian Series of School Books and the W. J . Gage & Co.'s E d u c a t i o n a l S e r i e s both of which were used i n both Ontario and B r i t i s h Columbia and through which r e l i g i o u s and moral education i n the p u b l i c schools can be assessed. The Canadian S e r i e s c o n s i s t e d of The F i r s t Book of Reading Lessons, Part 1 (1867), The F i r s t Book of Reading Lessons, Part 11~('1867), the Second Book of Reading Lessons (1869), the T h i r d Book of Reading Lessons (1869), the Fourth Book of Reading Lessons (1867), the F i f t h Book of Reading Lessons (1868), and the Advanced Reader (187l"T^ The Gage S e r i e s contained The F i r s t Primer (188T), The Second Primer (1881), Book 11 (1883), Book 111 (n.d.)7~Bbok IV (188"J7T Book V (1883), and Book VI (1884). A l l of these readers were complete.with the e x c e p t i o n of Book 111 i n the Gage S e r i e s which lacked s e v e r a l pages, i n c l u d i n g the t i t l e page. A l s o e s s e n t i a l to a study of d e s i r e d school morali t y were the school r e p o r t s of Superintendents Jessop, McKenz i e , and Pope. Again, both the S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s and the Main L i b r a r y have complete sets of these r e p o r t s except f o r the second and eighth r e p o r t s which are i n S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s  7  136  o n l y . The F i r s t Annual Report of the P u b l i c Schools and i t s supplement (1872), the Second Annual Report of the P u b l i c Schools (1873), and the E i g h t h Annual Report of the P u b l i c Schools (1879) appeared i n separate volumes w h i l e o t h e r r e ports have been bound i n volumes t i t l e d B r i t i s h Columbia Annual School Reports. Included i n these are the T h i r d to Seventh Annual School Reports (1874-78), the N i n t h to T h i r teenth Annual School Reports (1880-84), the Fourteenth to Seventeenth Annual School Reports (1885-88), the Eighteenth to Twentieth Annual School Reports (1889-91), the TwentyF i r s t to Twenty-Third Annual School Reports (1892-94), the Twenty-Fourth to Twenty-Sixth Annual School Reports (1895-97), and the Twenty-Seventh to T h i r t i e t h Annual School Reports (1898-1901). Jessop's r e p o r t s proved of most value as l a t e r r e p o r t s c o n s i s t e d mostly of s t a t i s t i c a l and general informat i o n . However, Inspectors provided q u i t e lengthy d i s c u s sions on moral education i n most of the r e p o r t s from 1891 on and High School P r i n c i p a l s ' r e p o r t s a l s o g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d an e v a l u a t i o n of moral a t t i t u d e s and t r a i n i n g . P u b l i s h e d i n 1971 under the t i t l e One Hundred Years, a s p e c i a l supplement to the One Hundredth Annual School Report provided v a l u a b l e s t a t i s t i c s comparing attendance, enrollment, and number of schools and teachers over ten year periods from 1871 to 1971. The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s i n V i c t o r i a has Board of Education Correspondence (1872-73), Board of Education School Inspect o r ' s D i a r y (1872-77), and the Board of Education School I n spector's D i a r y (1876-77) but these y i e l d e d l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n not a l r e a d y i n c l u d e d i n r e p o r t s . The Board of Education Minute Book proved e a s i e r to read and a l s o c l e a r e d up some p o i n t s i n regard to the LeVaux and N i c h o l s o n c o n t r o v e r s i e s . This Minute Book i s complete f o r the l i f e t i m e of the Board 1872 to 1878. B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l J o u r n a l s , L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly Journals7 and S e s s i o n a l Papers from 1864 to 1900 are a l s o a v a i l a b l e i n S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s and the Main L i b r a r y at U. B. C. and were scanned f o r i n f o r m a t i o n i n regard to school l e g i s l a t i o n and p e t i t i o n s . More data could be found i n newspapers, however, and these records are to be found i n the Government P u b l i c a t i o n s d i v i s i o n of the U. B. C. L i b r a r y on m i c r o f i l m . Complete m i c r o f i l m of the D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t ( V i c t o r i a ) f o r 1858 to 1900; of the B r i t i s h Columbian (New Westminster); the Mainland Guardian (New Westminster); the D a i l y News-Advertiser (Vancouver); and the Vancouver D a i l y World provided a wealth of informat i o n on L e g i s l a t i v e debates, Teachers' I n s t i t u t e s , and both p u b l i c and e d i t o r i a l o p i n i o n on s c h o o l and r e l i g i o u s concerns. Complete indexing of these newspapers f o r the n i n e teenth century, provided i n the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , immeasurably a s s i s t e d the l o c a t i o n of r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l . A few m i c r o f i l m i s s u e s of the C h r i s t i a n Guardian, the Methodi s t Church paper, and the Canadian Churchman, the A n g l i c a n Church paper, were scanned but provided l i t t l e data on church and school i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A l s o a v a i l a b l e i n -  137  S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , the D o m i n i o n - P a c i f i c Herald (New Westminster) provided v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n the form of Bishop d'Herbomez' l e t t e r s and r e p l i e s from p u b l i c and e d i t o r . Canada Census records f o r 1871, 1881, 1891, and 1931 a l s o proved h e l p f u l i n p r o v i d i n g r e l i g i o u s , education, and demographic s t a t i s t i c s . Moral Education M o r a l i t y i n the B r i t i s h Columbia schools has been mentioned i n few secondary sources. Charles E. P h i l l i p s ' The Development of Education i n Canada (1957) i n c l u d e s a chapter on " D i s c i p l i n e and E t h i c s " which mentions p r o v i n c i a l schools and was based on F. Henry Johnson's d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n "Changing Conceptions of D i s c i p l i n e and P u p i l Teacher R e l a t i o n s i n Canadian Schools" (1952). A chapter on the Cache Creek boarding school i n John Calam's master's t h e s i s "An h i s t o r i c a l survey of boarding schools and publ i c school d o r m i t o r i e s i n Canada" (1962) provided the only other source of i n f o r m a t i o n on p u b l i c school m o r a l i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia which c o u l d be l o c a t e d . Before embarking on a study of moral education i t was necessary to c l a r i f y the meaning of m o r a l i t y and moral education. Only one work provides an h i s t o r i c a l study of moral education — the e x c e l l e n t Educating the Good Man (1962) by E. B. C a s t l e — and proved extremely u s e f u l i n determini n g n i n e t e e n t h century and C h r i s t i a n ideas and e x p e c t a t i o n s . A good sampling of present day views on the subject was obt a i n e d from the e n l i g h t e n i n g chapter on a s s e s s i n g the morall y educated person i n John Wilson, Norman W i l l i a m s , and Barry Sugarman's I n t r o d u c t i o n to Moral Education (1967); from seve r a l s e l e c t i o n s i n A d r i a n Dupuis' Nature, Aims, and P o l i c y (1970); from Lawrence Kohlberg's chapter i n M a r t i n L. and L o i s W. Hoffman's Review of C h i l d Development Research (1964); from R. S. Peter's essay i n W. R. N i b l e t t ' s Moral Education i n a Changing S o c i e t y (1963); and from C. M. Beck, B. S. C r i t tenden, and E. V. S u l l i v a n ' s Moral Education; I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Approaches (1971). One of the most i n t e r e s t i n g and provoc a t i v e s t u d i e s of m o r a l i t y i s that of Bernard Gert i n The Moral Rules (1970) i n which i t i s argued t h a t m o r a l i t y i s a negative r a t h e r than a p o s i t i v e concept and c o n s i s t s of not doing c e r t a i n things r a t h e r than i n doing something and i n l o v i n g o r h e l p i n g others as i n the case of Utopian or C h r i s t i a n moral i d e a l i s m . J . R. Coombs and L. B. Daniel's "Teachers, Moral Education, and the P u b l i c Schools," i n Terence M o r r i s o n and Anthony Burton's Options: Reforms and A l t e r n a t i v e s f o r Canadian Education (1973) a s s i s t e d i n determining d i f f e r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s on moral education. Social History For help i n understanding the s o c i e t y i n which the n i n e t e e n t h century schools e x i s t e d Margaret Ormsby's B r i t i s h Columbia: A H i s t o r y (1971) provides the best o v e r - a l l view.  138  More s p e c i f i c s t u d i e s of p l a c e s , people, events, and i n s t i t u t i o n s are a p p e a r i n g , however, and a r e of v a l u e i n e x p l o r i n g the s o c i a l scene a l t h o u g h much more r e s e a r c h i s needed b e f o r e m a t e r i a l can be used as d e f i n i t i v e comment of s o c i a l c l i m a t e . Among some of the most :.useful secondary sources a r e G. Pern T r e l e a v e n ' s The S u r r e y S t o r y (1969); F r e d W. L u d d i t t ' s B a r k e r v i l l e Days (1969); Harry Gregson's A H i s t o r y of V i c t o r i a 1842-1970 (1970); R. E. G o s n e l l ' s A H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia (1906) f o r background on some of the p e r i o d ' s l e a d e r s ; W. N. Sage's S i r James Douglas and B r i t i s h Columbia (1930) which p r o v i d e s a more sympathetic account than many o t h e r s o u r c e s ; S. W. Jackman's P o r t r a i t s of the Premiers f o r q u i c k l o c a t i o n of f a c t s but otherwise not too r e l i a b l e ; John Shaw's A Century of Adventure (1971) g i v i n g i n t e r e s t i n g anecdotes of l e a d i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s ; B a r r y M. Gough's The Royal Navy and the Northwest Coast of North America (1971) p r o v i d i n g a much needed and e x c e l l e n t study of the n a v a l r o l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia but of l i t t l e use f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r paper; P a u l A. P h i l l i p s No Power G r e a t e r (1967) f u r n i s h i n g a comp r e h e n s i v e review o f B r i t i s h Columbia's l a b o u r movement; and M a r t i n Robin's The Rush f o r S p o i l s : The Company P r o v i n c e (1972) a p r o v o c a t i v e and c o n t r o v e r s i a l view of p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s as a Company v s . Labour c l a s s s t r u g g l e . M a r j o r i e C. Holmes' L i b r a r y S e r v i c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia (1959) p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t h i s t o r i c a l survey of an important educat i o n a l f a c i l i t y w i t h v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s i n t o the g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e towards e d u c a t i o n . French s e t t l e m e n t and problems i n B r i t i s h Columbia as d i s c u s s e d by George P.. G. S t a n l e y ' s "French and E n g l i s h i n Western Canada" i n Mason Wade's Canad i a n Dualism (I960) and i n John Ray Stewart's master's t h e s i s "French-Canadian Settlement i n B r i t i s h Columbia" (1956) a s s i s t e d i n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the ease w i t h which a nons e c t a r i a n s c h o o l system was e s t a b l i s h e d . A l s o h e l p f u l i n t h i s r e g a r d Walter Edmund Warren E l l i s ' master's t h e s i s on "Some A s p e c t s of R e l i g i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia P o l i t i c s " ( 1 9 5 9 ) examines l e g i s l a t i v e and c a b i n e t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n comparison w i t h r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e . Primary sources p r i n t e d i n book form a l s o proved extremely u s e f u l . I l l u s t r a t i n g h i s f a t h e r ' s involvement i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system, Simon F r a s e r Tolmie's appendix i n The J o u r n a l s o f W i l l i a m F r a s e r Tolmie (1963) h e l p e d to est a b l i s h Tolmie's a t t i t u d e to r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s and to e d u c a t i o n i t s e l f . D. H. G r i g g ' s Prom One to Seventy (1953) p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g account of l i f e i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia and the P r a i r i e s but s h o u l d be r e a d w i t h a c o n s t a n t awareness o f G r i g g ' s f u n d a m e n t a l i s t r e l i g i o u s p e r s u a s i o n . W i l l i a m Ward S p i n k s ' T a l e s o f the B r i t i s h Columbia F r o n t i e r g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s l i f e i n the i n t e r i o r where the author s e r v e d as c i r c u i t judge from 1884 to 1889. George H. Turner's B e f o r e the C o u n c i l (1891) gave Turner the o p p o r t u n i t y to exp r e s s h i s C h r i s t i a n S o c i a l i s t views on c a p i t a l i s m ' s rape o f B r i t i s h Columbia's r e s o u r c e s a t the expense of l a b o u r and the  139  churches* fundamental f a i l u r e to f o l l o w C h r i s t i a n i t y they o f f e n d the i n f l u e n t i a l c i t i z e n s .  lest  Bibliographies A comprehensive b i b l i o g r a p h y o f source m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s p e r i o d , w e l l indexed, i s p r o v i d e d by Barbara J . Lowther i n A B i b l i o g r a p h y o f B r i t i s h Columbia: L a y i n g the F o u n d a t i o n s , 1849-1899 (19687^ Other Works Probing church and s c h o o l c o n n e c t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Timothy L. Smith and David B. Tyack f u r n i s h an i n t e r e s t i n g and h e l p f u l model f o r Canadian s t u d i e s . Some of t h e i r f i n d i n g s are i n c l u d e d i n Paul Nash's H i s t o r y and Educat i o n (1970); Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review 36 (4) (1966):447-69; The J o u r n a l o f American H i s t o r y L l l l (June 1966-March, 1967): 679-95; and The W i l l i a m and Mary Q u a r t e r l y 25 (2) ( A p r i l , 1968):  155-76.  An e x c e l l e n t guide f o r textbook s t u d i e s i s Ruth M i l l e r E l s o n ' s Guardians o f T r a d i t i o n a review of textbook t e a c h i n g s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Only one s i m i l a r Canadian study c o u l d be l o c a t e d but V i o l a E l i z a b e t h P a r v i n ' s A u t h o r i z a t i o n of Text Books f o r Elementary Schools of O n t a r i o 1846-1950 (1961) c o n c e n t r a t e s on t e x t background r a t h e r than on c o n t e n t . N e v e r t h e l e s s much u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n was p r o v i d e d on the two textbook s e r i e s used i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  

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