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A follow-up study of 1978 Northern Lights College students Olson, Corliss Patricia 1981

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F O L L O W - U P STUDY O F 1978 NORTHERN LIGHTS C O L L E G E STUDENTS  by  CORLISS PATRICIA O L S O N B. A., The University of British C o l u m b i a , 1972  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE O F MASTER O F ARTS  in  THE F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Department of Educational Psychology)  W e accept this thesis as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A (c)  J u n e 1981  Corliss Patricia O l s o n  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis  in partial  f u l f i l m e n t of the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that it  freely available  University  the L i b r a r y  f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  s h a l l make I  further  agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f  d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood that  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s  for f i n a n c i a l gain  thesis  permission.  D e p a r t m e n t o f /T2>i/<TSfT/osd/H-  I 0  /7Q\  /*5/'c*/<m>£Ly  Columbia  my  It is  s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  thesis  written  ABSTRACT A follow-up study of students who had attended Northern Lights C o l l e g e in 1978, was conducted two years later. The proposal for the study was submitted to the C o l l e g e Board a n d r e c e i v e d partial funding. T h e population studied included all fulltime students w h o had begun a p r o g r a m m e of at least 30 days during the 1978 calendar year. The survey instrument was a o n e - p a g e , m a i l e d questionnaire. Students received the initial mailing, a r e m i n d e r postcard and a t e l e p h o n e r e m i n d e r a n d second questionnaire, if necessary. The response rate was 5 3 % , b a s e d on the number of questionnaires a s s u m e d to have reached the students. The goals of the study w e r e : to assess student satisfaction with their college e x p e r i e n c e and d e t e r m i n e reasons for early withdrawal; to assess the r e l e v a n c e (from the students' point of view) of the college educational e x p e r i e n c e to e m p l o y m e n t and to further education; a n d to assess the change both in students' socio-economic status and job satisfaction prior to enrollment at the C o l l e g e c o m p a r e d with two years after leaving the C o l l e g e . Data w e r e statistically analyzed using Chi-square, z-tests and analysis of variance. It was found that students w e r e generally satisfied with their college e x p e r i e n c e . Reasons for early withdrawal w e r e investigated, but the small s a m p l e size did not allow conclusive statements. Students' expectations for g o o d job preparation w e r e met two-thirds of the time. Two years after college, most respondents w i s h e d to be e m p l o y e d in their fields of study and the reasons s o m e w e r e not w e r e e x a m i n e d . There was evidence of problems in the implementation of the apprenticeship p r o g r a m m e ; specifically, funding during training and the availability of a d e q u a t e , appropriate work afterwards. O n e - q u a r t e r of respondents indicated they had g o n e on for further studies and most of those continued in areas related to their p r o g r a m m e s at Northern Lights C o l l e g e . A large proportion of those continuing their education stayed within the college system and many returned to Northern Lights. Most students w e r e satisfied with their preparation for further studies. The number of respondents e m p l o y e d full-time increased significantly after college. There was a significant difference in full-time e m p l o y m e n t by sex both b e f o r e a n d after college, but no significant difference b e t w e e n college-age a n d adult-age respondents. C h a n g e s in occupational group after college w e r e r e v i e w e d : groups showing the greatest increase in numbers w e r e the skilled and semi-skilled occupations. The change in job status, as m e a s u r e d by the Blishen socio-economic scale, was significant and the difference in job status b e t w e e n the sexes was signficant with males in lower ranking socio-economic groups both before and after college. J o b satisfaction increased significantly after college for both sexes a n d both a g e groups. Two-thirds of respondents reported some increase in salary after college. The study concludes with 13 recommendations, based.on student responses, to the C o l l e g e Board.  i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank some of the p e o p l e and agencies w h o have contributed extensively to this paper. From the University of British C o l u m b i a , I especially wish to thank Dr. D a v i d Whittaker, my advisor, and my other committee m e m b e r s , Dr. John D. Dennison and Dr. G a r y Dickenson. G r a c e Ho and Ray Tomusiak contributed many hours of assistance at the computer. I w o u l d like to thank Northern Lights C o l l e g e for financial assistance, both through the C o l l e g e Board and the B.C. G o v e r n m e n t Employees' Union Professional D e v e l o p m e n t Fund. I w o u l d also like to thank the instructors a n d staff for input a n d assistance. John Spinelli was of i m m e a s u r a b l e assistance with the statistical analysis and Don H o w a r d h e l p e d with textual problems a n d proof-reading. The P e a c e River Block N e w s , in D a w s o n C r e e k , receives credit for the physical production of the report, beautifully typed on their computer. A l s o for the physical production of the report, thanks a r e d u e to Sharon K a n d a for many patient hours of typing and to J o a n O l s o n , my mother, for her special skills at "cut a n d paste". Most importantly, I a m grateful to the students of Northern Lights C o l l e g e w h o took the time to respond to the questionnnaire a n d m a d e the study possible. To all these people, and my many indulgent friends, thank y o u .  ii  TABLE O F C O N T E N T S  CHAPTER  PAGE ABSTRACT  ". i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  . ii  TABLE O F C O N T E N T S LIST O F TABLES  I.  .  . .  . .  . .  vi  INTRODUCTION A . PURPOSE  1 ,  ...  .  . .2  B. R A T I O N A L E  II.  3  REVIEW O F THE LITERATURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9  A . BRITISH C O L U M B I A STUDIES. . . . . .  HI.  ... i i i  . . . 9  B. OTHER C A N A D I A N STUDIES  15  C. STUDIES C O N D U C T E D IN THE UNITED STATES.  18  D. S U M M A R Y  21  METHODOLOGY......  23  A. GENERAL A P P R O A C H  .23  B. RATES O F RETURN A N D RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS  iii  .  .27  IV.  RESULTS, DISCUSSION A N D C O N C L U S I O N S A . QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS A N D DISCUSSION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.  Question Number O n e Q u e s t i o n N u m b e r Two Question Number Three. Q u e s t i o n N u m b e r Four Q u e s t i o n N u m b e r Five Q u e s t i o n N u m b e r Six Q u e s t i o n N u m b e r Seven Q u e s t i o n N u m b e r Eight Question Number Nine Q u e s t i o n N u m b e r Ten Q u e s t i o n N u m b e r Eleven Q u e s t i o n N u m b e r Twelve Q u e s t i o n N u m b e r Thirteen Q u e s t i o n N u m b e r Fourteen Q u e s t i o n N u m b e r Fifteen. . Q u e s t i o n N u m b e r Sixteen Addition Comments  B. INTER-ITEM RESULTS, DISCUSSION A N D C O N C L U S I O N S  36 36 . 36 37 41 . . . 43 43 46 50 , . 54 55 . 55 56 59 63 67 72 73 74 . . . . . 76  1. The C o l l e g e Experience 76 a) Satisfaction with the college e x p e r i e n c e .76 b) Reasons for early withdrawal . . . 78 2. Relevance of C o l l e g e Education to Employment and Further Education 8Q a) Relevance of college education to e m p l o y m e n t . . . . . . . . . . . 80 b) Relevance of college education to further education 82 3. C h a n g e in Socio-economic Status and Job Satisfaction .83 a) Full-time e m p l o y m e n t . . . . . . . 83 b) O c c u p a t i o n a l group 86 c) Job status . 93 d) Job satisfaction 96 e) Increase in salary 98  V.  SUMMARY A N D RECOMMENDATIONS . . A. SUMMARY .  99 .99  B. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH C. R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S  ...102 104  iv  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  -108  APPENDICES  112  A P P E N D I X A : Mailings 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  113  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e •. C o v e r i n g letter Self-addressed e n v e l o p e A d d i t i o n a l insert Follow-up postcard  A P P E N D I X B: Selected V e r b a t i m C o m m e n t s 1. C o m m e n t s in response to question 8, "What did you like most about Northern Lights C o l l e g e ? " . . . 2. C o m m e n t s in response to question 9, "What did you like l e a s t ? " , 3. A d d i t i o n a l C o m m e n t s ..  ..114 115 116 117 118 119 120. 122 124  A P P E N D I X C: Budget. .  131  A P P E N D I X D: Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Item Results  133  A P P E N D I X E: C o d e M a n u a l . . . .  139  v  LIST O F TABLES TABLE  PAGE  1 Population by sex 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33  28  Population by a g e 28 Rate of return by C o l l e g e C e n t r e .• 30 Rate of return by level of schooling 31 Rate of return by place of completion of last g r a d e 32 Rate of return by completion or non-completion of p r o g r a m m e 33 Rate of response by p r o g r a m m e 34 Satisfaction with occupation b e f o r e attending college, for those in the labour force .38 Satisfaction with occupation b e f o r e attending college, by sex 39 Satisfaction with occupation b e f o r e attending college, by age 40 Location of last g r a d e of schooling, by p r o g r a m m e . 42 W o u l d choose the s a m e p r o g r a m m e if enrolling again, by a g e 44 W o u l d choose the s a m e p r o g r a m m e if enrolling again, by p r o g r a m m e 45 Satisfaction with p r o g r a m m e , by p r o g r a m m e 47 Satisfaction with sponsor, by sponsor 49 Reason for early withdrawal from college, by sex. . . . . 51 Reason for early withdrawal from college, by p r o g r a m m e 52 Reason for early w i t h d r a w a l , by satisfaction with p r o g r a m m e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Satisfaction with occupation after attending college, for those in the labour force .. 57 Satisfaction with occupation after attending college, by a g e 58 " W o u l d you t a k e the s a m e p r o g r a m m e ? " c o m p a r e d with level of job satisfaction after college . 59 Increase in salary for respondents w h o w e r e in the labour force both b e f o r e a n d after attending 60 Increase in salary by sex for those in the labour f o r c e 61 Increase in salary by p r o g r a m m e 62 A s s e s s m e n t of job preparation in job-specific p r o g r a m m e s 64 Preparation for job by p r o g r a m m e 65 Satisfaction with p r o g r a m m e by assessment of preparation for a job 66 Reason job unrelated to college p r o g r a m m e for those in the labour force 68 Reason job unrelated to college p r o g r a m m e by p r o g r a m m e 69 Reason job unrelated to college p r o g r a m m e for p r e - e m p l o y m e n t a n d pre-apprenticeship p r o g r a m m e s 70 Reason job unrelated to college p r o g r a m m e by level of formal education b e f o r e college . . . . 71 Satisfaction with occupation after college by reason job unrelated to c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e . . . . 72 Comments . 75  vi  34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46  Satisfaction with four aspects of the college e x p e r i e n c e 77 Full-time e m p l o y m e n t status b e f o r e and after attending college 84 Full-time e m p l o y m e n t status by sex before and after attending college . . . . . . 85 Full-time e m p l o y m e n t status by a g e b e f o r e a n d after attending college 85 Full-time e m p l o y m e n t status b e f o r e a n d after attending college .86 O c c u p a t i o n a l group b e f o r e and after attending college 87 O c c u p a t i o n a l group by sex, before and after attending college 89 O c c u p a t i o n a l group by age, b e f o r e and after attending c o l l e g e . 90 O c c u p a t i o n a l group by last g r a d e of schooling c o m p l e t e d 92 Job status: Blishen socioeconomic rank before a n d after attending c o l l e g e . . . .93 Blishen socioeconomic rank by sex b e f o r e a n d after college 94 M e a n Blishen scores, by sex, before and after college 95 Satisfaction with occupation b e f o r e and after attending college, for those in the labour force 96 47 Satisfaction with occupation b e f o r e and after college, by sex -97  vii  CHAPTER O N E INTRODUCTION A follow-up study of Northern Lights C o l l e g e students was d e s i g n e d and u n d e r t a k e n in an effort to d e t e r m i n e what effect college had had, two years after attendance. For financial reasons, the study was limited to students w h o attended the C o l l e g e full-time in 1978, w h o s e p r o g r a m m e s w e r e at least 30 days long. The majority of students at Northern Lights C o l l e g e take  vocationally-  oriented p r o g r a m m e s , so the emphasis of the study is related to the work w o r l d . However,  data w e r e also  gathered  from students  e n r o l l e d in non  job-specific  p r o g r a m m e s . The largest number of these students w e r e e n r o l l e d in adult basic education p r o g r a m m e s (College Foundations) a n d A c a d e m i c Studies. The study focuses on several aspects o f the students' lives, before, during a n d after attending college. A n assessment of students' satisfaction w h i l e attending college and comparisons and contrasts a r e d r a w n with r e g a r d to their e m p l o y m e n t circumstances before and after college. Some investigation was also m a d e into the fate of transferring students. This study is the first c o m p r e h e n s i v e study of Northern Lights  College  students a n d has therefore m a d e no attempt to cover all areas in great detail. Notably absent from the study is information about students w h o a t t e n d e d Northern Lights C o l l e g e solely for their own interest. However, this group is relatively small and data could be gathered at s o m e other time if it is considered desirable. It is h o p e d that the information contained in this report will be interesting  1  and, above all, useful to Northern Lights College and other agencies,  A. PURPOSE The purpose of the study is to obtain information from former students of Northern Lights College which could be used to plan and implement programme and service improvements in the College offerings. Specifically, the goals of the study are: 1. to assess student satisfaction with the college experience and determine reasons for early withdrawal; 2.  to assess the relevance of the college educational experience to employment and to further education from the students' point of view; and  3.  to assess the change both in students' socio-economic status and job satisfaction prior to enrollment at college compared with two years after leaving the college. The information required to make these assessments comes from specific  items on a mailed questionnaire. The dimension "student satisfaction with the colcollege experience" requires an assessment of satisfaction with programmes, instructors and sponsoring agencies. (Many students receive financial assistance, or sponsorship, during their programme at the College, but frequently they encounter serious problems either in collecting these monies or receiving adequate funds. The hardships caused by inadequate or late funding becomes an intrinsic part of the college experience.) As a further assessment of the level of satisfaction with the college experce, students may indicate either regret at having taken a particular programme or they may indicate that, if they had the decision to make now, they would still choose the same programme. Reasons for early withdrawal from college programmes are recorded on  2  students' records. However, the categories are often very broad and encompass v a r i e t y of r e a s o n s .  By a s k i n g  college programmes,  respondents  a  who withdrew before completing their  to g i v e explicit reasons for early w i t h d r a w a l , the C o l l e g e can  gain v a l u a b l e insight and perhaps  p r o v i d e assistance to e n a b l e m o r e students  to  complete their studies. T h e r e l e v a n c e of t h e c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e to e m p l o y m e n t , f r o m t h e s t u d e n t s ' p o i n t of v i e w , c a n b e a s s e s s e d b y e x a m i n i n g s t u d e n t s ' a s s e s s m e n t s of how well their programmes  p r e p a r e d t h e m f o r w o r k in t h e i r f i e l d s a n d e x a m i n a t i o n  of t h e r e a s o n s s o m e a r e n o t e m p l o y e d in t h e i r f i e l d s of t r a i n i n g . A n a s s e s s m e n t of t h e r e l e v a n c e of t h e c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e t o further  education  requires  an  investigation  of  students  who  continued  their  e d u c a t i o n i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e if t h e y c o n t i n u e d i n r e l a t e d a r e a s , w h i c h i n s t i t u t i o n s they attended and their satisfaction with preparation for further studies. T h e study of t h e e m p l o y m e n t b e n e f i t s of a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n t h e r e v i e w of f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t  status, occupational groups,  necessitates  socio-economic  rankings and job satisfaction before a n d after college. Salary increases after college y i e l d f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e p o s s i b l e i m p a c t of a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n o n s t u d e n t s ' employment prospects. A  study  of d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s  pertaining  to the goals  of  the study  and  a s s e s s m e n t s of c h a n g e o v e r t i m e c o m p r i s e t h e m a j o r t h r u s t of t h i s s t u d y . A n a l y s i s of responses to the questionnaire items addresses the study goals.  B. R A T I O N A L E N o r t h e r n Lights C o l l e g e s e r v e s  a geographical  area which  encompasses  t w o R e g i o n a l Districts in British C o l u m b i a , t h e P e a c e R i v e r - L i a r d a n d t h e S t i k i n e ; a n d  3  four school districts, No. 59 (Peace River South), No. 60 (Peace River North), No. 81 (Fort Nelson), a n d No. 87 (Stikine). A l t h o u g h the region includes m o r e than one-third of the g e o g r a p h i c a l  a r e a of the Province, the population of the region is ap-  proximately 47,000J The Peace River-Liard a n d Stikine Districts have high rates of functional illiteracy, d e f i n e d as less than g r a d e nine education. Twenty-six per cent of the population over fifteen years of a g e and not attending school full-time have a  2 g r a d e eight education or less. O n a Province-wide basis, only 1 9 % of the population falls into this category. The regions have a high rate of attrition in the regular school 3 system  a n d a small proportion of the population with education b e y o n d g r a d e  twelve. In B.C., 3 5 % of the population over fifteen and not attending school full-time have s o m e education b e y o n d g r a d e twelve, c o m p a r e d with 2 7 % in the N o r t h e r n Lights C o l l e g e region.^ Northern Lights C o l l e g e , serving the largest geographical C o l l e g e region in British C o l u m b i a a n d the smallest population, has special problems to o v e r c o m e . The n e e d to establish and maintain credibility as an educational institution is coupled with the n e e d to remain flexible and innovative to meet the diverse needs of the p e o p l e scattered throughout the region. There is c o n s i d e r a b l e discussion about the changing v a l u e of education. Economic pressures, rising educational qualifications and job dissatisfaction have ^Statistics C a n a d a , Population; G e o g r a p h i c Distributions, 1976 Census, V o l . 1 (Ottawa: Statistics C a n a d a , 1977), pp. 3-44, 3-45. G a r y Dickenson, U n d e r e d u c a t e d Adults in British Columbia--!976, A d u l t Basic Education Studies a n d Reports, No. 3 (Vancouver: University of British C o l u m b i a , 1979), p. 13. 3  School District Enrollment Figures.  J u d y Reid, Statistics C a n a d a , to G a r y Weir, Victoria, 5 O c t o b e r 1979, compilation of 1976 Census figures. 4  4  b e e n receiving the attention of many educators, economists and politicians. The problems of inflation and high e m p l o y m e n t are significant factors causing increasing and  m o r e critical scrutiny of expenditures of public funds  simultaneous  demands  for education. The  for fiscal restraint and -greater accountability h a v e  put  colleges in an increasing s q u e e z e : they a r e being a s k e d to provide necessary services, a n d m o r e of them, while at the s a m e time reducing costs; British C o l u m b i a is currently facing the s e e m i n g anomoly of high u n e m ployment a n d a lack of skilled labour. In a 1975 survey, two-thirds of e m p l o y e r s had difficulty  recruiting  qualified  people,  particularly  in  construction,  trades,  manufacturing a n d community services. A t the s a m e time, e m p l o y e r s c o m p l a i n e d of 5 a  lack of practical preparation of graduates.  A p p r o p r i a t e l y trained labour  is  essential for industrial and economic d e v e l o p m e n t . W h e n the economic picture worsens,  demands  on  educational  institutions  increase:  greater  efficiency  is  required to meet m o r e closely the educational and training needs of the country a n d to respond to the d e m a n d s for m o r e appropriate training and d e c r e a s e d spending. A n o t h e r p h e n o m e n o n has b e e n identified which has r e l e v a n c e to economic considerations of college education. A s m o r e p e o p l e receive m o r e education, the job market becomes m o r e competitive and basic educational requirements for jobs increase in response to the availability of a better e d u c a t e d work force. Students' e m p l o y m e n t aspirations generally increase as their level of education rises. This artificial inflation of e m p l o y m e n t requirements coupled with rising  expectations  leads to a labour force w h o s e job aspirations a r e not in line with job opportunities A 5 John Dennison et al., The Impact of Community Colleges, (Vancouver: B.C. Research, 1975), p. 107. L e w i s C. Solmon et al., W i s d o m or W a s t e ? C o l l e g e as a Training G r o u n d for Jobs, (Washington, D . C : U.S. Department of Health, Education a n d W e l f a r e National Institute of Education, 1976), p. 7. 6  Economic d e m a n d s on educational institutions a r e for m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e training in areas required for industrial and economic d e v e l o p m e n t a n d for greater efficiency in training. A follow-up study can provide information vital to m e e t i n g these d e m a n d s . Since the creation of Northern Lights C o l l e g e as a c o m p r e h e n s i v e institution in 1975, c o n s i d e r a b l e growth has taken place, both in terms of student enrollment and p r o g r a m m e offerings. To guide its development, the C o l l e g e has drafted an Educational M a s t e r Plan, articulating the C o l l e g e m a n d a t e to provide c o m p r e h e n s i v e C o l l e g e offerings, m e e t i n g regional, provincial, a n d interprovincial responsibilities. The goals of the College, as set out in the plan are: - to provide p r o g r a m m i n g "...designed to have the greatest possible long lasting impact on the A D U L T population of the N o r t h " : and - "to m a k e itsfthe College's] communities better places to live."[sic]  In addition to these regionally oriented goals, provincial responsibility is a c k n o w l e d g e d , particularly in vocational training, while co-operative ventures in the areas of community education and university transfer p r o g r a m m i n g comprise the interprovincial r o l e / A follow-up study,can provide information vital to increasing the efficiency of an educational institution in meeting the training and educational requirements of society. Recognizing this, the United States V o c a t i o n a l Education A c t requires from institutions, as a condition of funding, reports on training and placement in the field. Consequently, numerous educators in the United States have turned their attention  Barry M o o r e , ed., Educational M a s t e r Plan, Northern Lights College, 19781982, (Soanichton: Hancock House Publishers, 1978), pp. 8-10.  6  to follow-up studies. Lightfield, in an attempt to establish criteria for the assessment of training, listed several indicators of goal attainment: - the student should be e n r o l l e d in a transfer institution, e m p l o y e d , or u n e m p l o y e d voluntarily; - the student's occupation should be related to h i s / h e r studies; - the student should v i e w the course as requisite to h i s / h e r job; - the student should view the course as increasing h i s / h e r e a r n i n g potential; - the student should rank h i s / h e r present position as satisfactory; - the student should rate h i s / h e r educational e x p e r i e n c e as sound preparation for h i s / h e r job or for transfer to another institution; - the student should have e n c o u n t e r e d no difficulty in transferring to another educational institution; a n d , - the student should view financial aid during training as satisfactory.8 These criteria a r e relevant to Northern Lights C o l l e g e students a n d it is the objective of this study to investigate several of these areas. Information on some of these criteria will serve to help e v a l u a t e the College's progress towards m e e t i n g its goals. The programmes  student and  is  both  the  consumer  and  the  product  of  the  College  is therefore in the best position to provide insight into the  a d e q u a c y and efficacy of those programs. Indeed, student f e e d b a c k , w h e n coupled with that of e m p l o y e r s a n d the community may be the only definitive evaluation of  8 , o t y E. Lightfield, Student Follow-Up in Higher Education: A Systematic A p p r o a c h , vol. 2 no. 6 (Washington, D . C , M c M d n i s Associates Inc., 1976), pp. 15-16. T i m  h  7  t h e w o r k of t h e C o l l e g e a n d a s s e s s m e n t of its p r o g r e s s i n m e e t i n g its m a n d a t e . T h e s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s i n i d e n t i f y i n g n e e d s in c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m i n g  and  s e r v i c e s is c r i t i c a l . T h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l o r e m p l o y m e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r e i m p r o v e d a s a r e s u l t of a C o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n  are  i m p o r t a n t in e s t i m a t i n g t h e v a l u e of that e d u c a t i o n . T h e less t a n g i b l e s t u d e n t g o a l s of s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t o r p e r s o n a l g r o w t h a r e m o r e d i f f i c u l t t o s t u d y . A s  the only  p o s s i b l e s o u r c e f o r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n is t h e s t u d e n t , t h e v a l u e o f a f o l l o w - u p s t u d y f o r e v a l u a t i o n is e n h a n c e d . A  f o l l o w - u p s t u d y c a n b e a t o o l f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e  C o l l e g e : k n o w l e d g e of r e s u l t s c a n p r o d u c e g r e a t e r s e n s i t i v i t y t o n e e d s a n d g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y t o m e e t t h o s e n e e d s . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m a f o l l o w - u p s t u d y of f o r m e r students a n d early leavers can p r o v i d e essential d o c u m e n t a t i o n necessary to p l a n k n o w l e d g e a b l e i m p r o v e m e n t s in p r o g r a m m e s a n d s e r v i c e s . T h e d e m o g r a p h y of t h e C o l l e g e a r e a , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s of s t u d e n t s a n d the need for Increased  e f f i c i e n c y in e d u c a t i o n a l e n d e a v o r s  d e m a n d that g r e a t e r  e c o n o m y b e a c h i e v e d . A f o l l o w - u p s t u d y c a n s e r v e a s a p a r t of a s y s t e m a t i c  and  a n a l y t i c a l a s s e s s m e n t of t h e C o l l e g e a n d c a n p r o v i d e t a n g i b l e e v i d e n c e o f its w o r k . P r o g r a m m e a n d s e r v i c e m o d i f i c a t i o n s d e s i g n e d to assist t h e C o l l e g e in m e e t i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s of t h e M a s t e r P l a n c a n b e b e t t e r c o n s i d e r e d i n l i g h t of t h e s u r v e y ' s f i n dings. This study w a s d e s i g n e d a n d u n d e r t a k e n to p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e e f f i c i e n c y of N o r t h e r n  L i g h t s C o l l e g e in m e e t i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  r e q u i r e m e n t s of its s t u d e n t s a n d its c o m m u n i t i e s .  8  CHAPTER T W O REVIEW O F THE LITERATURE Information on students in C a n a d i a n community colleges is not plentiful. W h e n information has b e e n compiled, it is usually a profile of students attending an institution. Little attempt has b e e n m a d e to assess the effectiveness of the C a n a d i a n college e x p e r i e n c e for the students attending those colleges. In British C o l u m b i a , numerous  studies  have b e e n conducted assessing  various aspects of the community colleges. Despite this fact, little information is available about either Northern Lights C o l l e g e students  or vocational  students  throughout the Province. A . BRITISH C O L U M B I A STUDIES A recent study published by B.C. Research included information about s o m e Northern Lights C o l l e g e students. A Province-wide follow-up study of 1978 academic college students who did not continue their p r o g r a m m e o n e y e a r later was  con-  ducted in 1980. O f British Columbia's fourteen colleges, thirteen, including Northern Lights College, participated in the study. The methodology of the study a l l o w e d representatives of the colleges to participate in a planning w o r k s h o p , to m a k e recommendations on the study design and to review the items contained in a draft questionnaire. M a n y problems w e r e anticipated a n d allieviated as a result of the information e x c h a n g e d . Non-continuing first and second y e a r academic students w h o  attended  college in September 1978 w e r e included in the study. Each of these students was  9  sent a questionnaire and explanatory letter. Non-respondents w e r e sent a r e m i n d e r postcard six days later. If necessary, a n o t h e r copy of the questionnaire a n d a s e c o n d letter w e r e m a i l e d eight days later. C a l c u l a t e d on the basis of questionnaires a s s u m e d to h a v e b e e n received, the r e s p o n s e rate was 5 6 % . A total of 1 2 % of the mailings w e r e returned by the post office as undeliverable. The response rate for 9 Northern Lights C o l l e g e was 4 8 % with 11 % u n d e l i v e r a b l e . A s well as investigating why students did not continue their education, the study also a s k e d s e v e r a l questions about e m p l o y m e n t activity a n d the relationship of the college p r o g r a m m e to current activity. Northern Lights C o l l e g e was f o u n d to h a v e substantially f e w e r students than the Provincial a v e r a g e continuing their education ( 2 9 %  and 4 5 % , respec-  tively). A slight statistical bias in the respondent population was f o u n d : f e m a l e students a n d adult students (that is, twenty-five years of a g e a n d older) w e r e the most likely to r e s p o n d . ^ Although  the  subjects  surveyed  were  enrolled  on  the  academic  p r o g r a m m e , which generally is not considered to be job-specific, over half of the respondents indicated that the acquisition of vocationally-oriented k n o w l e d g e or skills was their objective in attending college. Less than half (41%) of Northern Lights C o l l e g e respondents listed " k n o w l e d g e for job" as their reason for attending college. Nevertheless, there is a strong indication that students a r e very c o n c e r n e d 9 G o r d o n Jones, G l e n C. Forrester, and John D. Dennison, A Follow-Up Study of Non-Transfer, A c a d e m i c Students from the British C o l u m b i a Community C o l l e g e s : Technical Report, (Vancouver: B.C. Research, 1980), pp. 16-17, 28, 29. 1 0  1 1  l b i d . , pp. 124, 126. Ibid., p. 30. 10  about e m p l o y m e n t prospects and suitable job p r e p a r a t i o n . In contrast, 3 0 %  of  Northern Lights C o l l e g e students, c o m p a r e d with 2 1 % for the Province, indicated 12 they had a t t e n d e d college to d e v e l o p a " b r o a d g e n e r a l outlook". Over 8 0 %  of Northern Lights C o l l e g e respondents indicated they w e r e  e m p l o y e d , studying, or full-time in the h o m e . This proportion is roughly c o m p a r a b l e 13 to the Provincial s a m p l e of respondents. W h e n c o m p a r e d with the Province-wide figure of 1 4 % , a large proportion of Northern Lights C o l l e g e respondents (22%) professional fields. H o w e v e r , 5 9 %  indicated they w e r e e m p l o y e d in  of Northern Lights C o l l e g e respondents  also  indicated they had their jobs before leaving college. These factors probably suggest that professionals in the community a r e taking college courses, not that Northern Lights C o l l e g e students find e m p l o y m e n t in professional areas as a result of their C o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s . This explanation is supported by the fact that one-third of Northern Lights C o l l e g e respondents indicated that college did not help them in obtaining their j o b s . ^ Employment in the clerical areas was also fairly c o m m o n , as reported by 19%  of Northern Lights C o l l e g e respondents. This is identical to the Provincial  response; however, it may reflect that a greater concentration of Northern Lights C o l l e g e w o m e n students a r e e m p l o y e d in clerical fields because 69,% of the Northern Lights C o l l e g e target population w e r e w o m e n , c o m p a r e d with 5 9 % for the Province-wide target population. O f the total respondents, almost half reported full-time e m p l o y m e n t as 1 2  l b i d . , p. 124.  1 3  l b i d . , p. 126.  1 4  l b i d . , pp. 127-128. 11  their current activity with very little difference b e t w e e n college a g e  and adult  students. The proportion of students e m p l o y e d full-time was roughly c o m p a r a b l e b e t w e e n the Provincial respondents a n d Northern Lights C o l l e g e r e s p o n d e n t s . ^ Northern Lights C o l l e g e respondents w e r e m o r e likely to be e n g a g e d in full-time h o u s e h o l d / f a m i l y duties or to be combining e m p l o y m e n t and education than w e r e respondents from the Province-wide sample. Unfortunately, the c o m bination of full-time h o u s e h o l d / f a m i l y duties a n d education is not e x p l o r e d in the study although it is of particular interest to colleges with a large enrollment of w o m e n students. ^ O v e r half of Northern Lights C o l l e g e respondents (55%) indicated that they w o u l d choose the a c a d e m i c p r o g r a m m e if enrolling a g a i n while 2 7 % stated they w o u l d choose s o m e other p r o g r a m m e . This c o m p a r e s with 4 3 % and 3 6 % , respectively, for the total respondent population. This may be partly a reflection of the characteristics of the older student population at Northern Lights C o l l e g e ( 6 9 % over twenty-four years of age) c o m p a r e d with the Provincial group (54% over twentyfour). T h e r e is also less committment to studies, in terms of time, o n the part of Northern Lights C o l l e g e respondents, 8 2 % of w h o m attended c o l l e g e part-time, c o m p a r e d with 6 0 % for the Provincial s a m p l e . ' ^ A p p r o x i m a t e l y one-third of all respondents chose to utilize the " c o m m e n t s " section of the questionnaire. The majority of these responses w e r e categorized as f a v o u r a b l e towards the colleges.  1 5  l b i d . , p. 81.  1 6  l b i d . , p . 126.  18  1 7  l b i d . , p p . 131, 121.  1 8  l b i d . , pp.94, 101, 103.  A n earlier series of studies, published prior to the establishment of Northern Lights C o l l e g e js. entitled The Impact of Community Colleges, A Study of the C o l l e g e Concept in British C o l u m b i a . This series of studies investigated  numerous  aspects of the college system and its influence in British C o l u m b i a . Those studies which w e r e c o n c e r n e d with students' objectives and follow-up a r e relevant to the study. The  "Opinion  Survey"  (1971) and  the  "Post-Secondary  Survey"  (1972)  r e v e a l e d that students' opinions about the goals of post-secondary education a r e as diverse as the college system itself. Responses indicated that " t h e r e is no consensus amongst students on basic educational objectives." Two objectives w e r e r a n k e d as important: the learning of skills that lead to a job and the d e v e l o p m e n t of a b r o a d g e n e r a l outlook on a variety of subjects. Twice as vocational  programmes  university p r o g r a m m e s  compared  with  students  many  enrolled  students  e n r o l l e d in  in other  indicated learning job-related skills was  college  or  of primary i'm-  19 portance. C a r e e r p r o g r a m m e graduates and a c a d e m i c transfer students w h o transferred to university w e r e studied after completion of their college However, b e c a u s e of difficulties in systematically  programmes.  identifying and locating non-  transfer graduates, only V a n c o u v e r Community C o l l e g e students entering the work force w e r e s u r v e y e d . The objectives of the study w e r e : "1.  to d e t e r m i n e what college graduates w e r e doing four months after graduation;  2. to d e t e r m i n e if the college had provided curricula relevant to the needs of students and to the requirements of employers;  Dennison, Impact, pp. 50-51. 13  3. to d e t e r m i n e if the college had p r o v i d e d the necessary personnel to m a k e the educational e x p e r i e n c e a d e q u a t e and effective." Seventy-five percent of respondents indicated they w e r e e m p l o y e d full-time shortly after leaving college. Eighty per cent of the e m p l o y e d respondents reported at least 20 s o m e relationship b e t w e e n their areas of e m p l o y m e n t and their C o l l e g e studies. Some a d v a n t a g e  in salary was attributed by college graduates  to their  college education. Students' satisfaction with their careers and college e x p e r i e n c e was c o n s i d e r e d , but problems w e r e e n c o u n t e r e d in attempting to m a k e definitive statements. The relationship b e t w e e n the time of training or education a n d choice of a c a r e e r seems to have as much b e a r i n g on estimates of satisfaction as does course 21 content a n d its applicability to work situations. Students transferring to the University of British C o l u m b i a from  British  C o l u m b i a C o l l e g e s w e r e studied extensively as part of the Impact project. It was found that students improve their a c h i e v e m e n t in the second and subsequent years 22 after transfer. academic  A l t h o u g h students transferring to university have m o r e diverse  backgrounds  than  direct  entry  students,  they  do  nearly  as  well  23 academically.  This factor indicates that college education for transfer students is  a p p r o p r i a t e to university work. Two other British C o l u m b i a studies have r e l e v a n c e here. The first, a 1974 follow-up study of students at V a n c o u v e r V o c a t i o n a l Institute indicated that three months after completing their courses, 7 8 % of the respondents w e r e e m p l o y e d fulli d . an , p . 8a5r e . a related to their job. Of 2,324 students time, 4 9 %l b in 2 0  2 1  l b i d . , p p . 8 6 , 87.  2 2  lbid.,p.94.  2 3  l b i d . , p . 101. 14  who  were  sent  questionnaires, 2 9 % The  responded.  second  study w a s  24 c o n d u c t e d in 1975  to f o l l o w - u p C r i m i n a l Justice  s t u d e n t s a t V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e . It f o u n d t h a t m a n y s t u d e n t s w e r e n o t e m p l o y e d i n t h e i r a r e a of t r a i n i n g f o r a v a r i e t y of r e a s o n s . S o m e s t u d e n t s f o u n d t h a t jobs w e r e not a v a i l a b l e or w e r e unsatisfactory. O t h e r students could not m e e t the m e d i c a l o r p h y s i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . S t i l l o t h e r s e x p r e s s e d a l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n t h e field. Fifty-seven per cent indicated satisfaction with their employment.  25  B. O T H E R C A N A D I A N S T U D I E S New  Brunswick  c o n d u c t e d s e v e r a l s t u d i e s of a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t r a i n i n g t o  investigate a high drop-out rate. A p r e l i m i n a r y study indicated the drop-outs  were  26 d u e c h i e f l y t o a l a c k of i n t e r e s t ,  see a p p r e n t i c e s h i p as w o r t h w h i l e , also  observed  that, despite  the  but a later study c o n c l u d e d that students did not 27 a substantially different conclusion. The studies constantly  changing  nature  of  apprenticeship  t r a i n i n g in N e w B r u n s w i c k , t h e r e a r e f e w o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a to a s s e s s m o d i f i c a t i o n s to 28 the existing programmes.  G o r d o n J o n e s , A l u m n i S t u d y , 1973: V a n c o u v e r V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e C a m p u s G r a d u a t e s , ( V a n c o u v e r : V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e , 1974), p p . 8, 10. 2 4  Gordon  Jones, Career Programme  Follow-Up: Crinimol Justice,  (Van-  c o u v e r : V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e , 1975), p. 8.  26 Ronald W. Johnson, Some Dimensions of t h e D r o p - O u t Problem, ( F r e d r i c t o n : N e w B r u n s w i c k D e p a r t m e n t of L a b o u r , 1967), p. 2 1 . 27 R o n a l d W . J o h n s o n , Is A p p r e n t i c e s h i p S e e n a s W o r t h w h i l e ? ( F r e d r i c t o n ; N e w B r u n s w i c k D e p a r t m e n t of L a b o u r , 1970), p. 20. 28 R o n a l d W . J o h n s o n , A S e c o n d Look at t h e D r o p - O u t P r o b l e m in A p p r e n t i c e s h i p T r a i n i n g , ( F r e d r i c t o n : N e w B r u n s w i c k D e p a r t m e n t of L a b o u r , 1968), p. o. 15  A s t u d y c o n d u c t e d in 1975 in O n t a r i o s e t o u t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a b i l i t y of o c c u p a t i o n a l g r a d u a t e s to secure a n d hold jobs. W h i l e t h e g r a d u a t e s studied w e r e g r a d u a t e s of a junior a n d s e n i o r h i g h school p r o g r a m m e , s o m e of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h t h e s t u d y y i e l d e d is r e l e v a n t .  ,  N e a r l y half of t h e g r a d u a t e s  stayed at their first job a n d f o u n d  some  s a t i s f a c t i o n in it. O t h e r s h a d a t e n d e n c y t o m o v e f r o m job t o job a n d still o t h e r s w e r e c h r o n i c a l l y u n e m p l o y e d . R e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e in the e m p l o y m e n t patterns. The u n e m p l o y m e n t rate of m a l e graduates w a s found to be three times the national average. Comparisons between courses w e r e m a d e a n d comparisons  b e t w e e n students'  backgrounds were  s t u d i e d . V a r i a b l e s of f a m i l y  b a c k g r o u n d w e r e e x a m i n e d a n d found to b e significant to students'  employment  records. Individual family background coupled with t h e overall economic conditions revealed  the continuing  effect of poverty  a n d of t h e lack of e d u c a t i o n a l a d -  29 vantage. This study w i l l c o n s i d e r c h a n g e s in s o c i o - e c o n o m i c status e x p e r i e n c e d by N o r t h e r n Lights C o l l e g e students after a t t e n d i n g t h e c o l l e g e . T h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s c a l e u s e d w a s d e v i s e d b y B e r n a r d B l i s h e n a n d is t h e r e f o r e r e v i e w e d h e r e . In 1958, B e r n a r d B l i s h e n p u b l i s h e d t h e B l i s h e n s c a l e o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c status. T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e s c a l e w a s b a s e d o n t h e p r i n c i p l e of class structure a n d t h e p r e m i s e that t h e g r e a t e s t r e w a r d s a r e g i v e n f o r positions of g r e a t e s t social 30 i m p o r t a n c e a n d r e q u i r e the g r e a t e s t a m o u n t of t r a i n i n g a n d talent. T o d e v e l o p t h e s c a l e , B l i s h e n a r r a n g e d t h e o c c u p a t i o n s l i s t e d i n t h e 1951 29 E.B. H a r v e y a n d V . L . M a s e m a n n , O c c u p a t i o n a l G r a d u a t e s a n d t h e L a b o u r F o r c e , . ( T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , 1975), p p . 153, 154. 30 B e r n a r d R. B l i s h e n , " T h e C o n s t r u c t i o n a n d U s e o f a n O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s S c a l e " , C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f E c o n o m i c s a n d P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e 24 (1958):5<2A 16  census according to the incomes a n d years of schooling with which they w e r e associated. These w e r e then a v e r a g e d a n d a standard score c o m p u t e d for e a c h of the two m e a s u r e s . These scores w e r e c o m b i n e d a n d occupations r a n k e d a c c o r d i n g 31 to the c o m b i n e d standard scores. In 1967, the scale was revised, incorporating the Pineo-Pdrter prestige scale which attempted to e v a l u a t e occupational titles by using a national s a m p l e  to  estimate social standing. A regression equation, using the Pineo-Porter prestige scale as the d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e a n d income level a n d educational level indices as the independent v a r i a b l e was a p p l i e d to 1961 census occupations. O n l y males w e r e included on the assumption that family status was d e t e r m i n e d by the occupational 32 status of the husband in a w o r k i n g couple. In  1958, Blishen  identified s o m e  shortcomings  of the scale a n d  raised  several questions for consideration. Chiefly, he was c o n c e r n e d about the broadness of s o m e categories a n d the lack of inclusion of an assessment of other social structures to which p e o p l e belong. He raised questions about the applicability of 1951 census data to other time periods. He e x p r e s s e d concern that the scale could be d a t e d by changes in the work force a n d by the p a c e of those changes. The factors used to c o m p u t e the scale, namely, income a n d years of schooling for a particular 33 occupation, he pointed out, are also subject to change. A further revision of the scale was u n d e r t a k e n in 1971. The 1971 update included persons in the m a l e labour force w h o w o r k e d in 1970, according to 1971 lbid.,p.*22. 3 1  32 Bernard R. Blishen, Frank E. Jones, Kaspar D. N a e g e l e , a n d J o h n Porter, " A Socio-Economic Index for Occupations in C a n a d a , " C a n a d i a n Society: Sociological Perspectives, (Toronto: Bryant Press Ltd., 1968) pp. 742-744 3 3  B l i s h e n , "Class Scale", p. 525. 17  census data. The income v a r i a b l e was based on information on e m p l o y m e n t income o b t a i n e d from e n u m e r a t i o n of the total labour force, a c h a n g e from the earlier format. The lower limit of income e a r n e d w a s raised f r o m $5000 or o v e r to $6500 or over. Further modifications, notably in definition of educational level and application of the Pineo-Porter prestige variables and regression weights, w e r e also m a d e . Some of the basic problems of the Blishen scale persist. In particular, the b r o a d categories and dating of the information on which the scale is based remain problems. H o w e v e r , the elimination of consideration of w o m e n in the labour force in construction of the scale poses another serious p r o b l e m and raises questions about the applicability of the scale to the entire labour force, particularly in v i e w of the number of w o m e n in the labour force and the discrepancies b e t w e e n jobs as held by men and w o m e n .  C. STUDIES C O N D U C T E D IN THE UNITED STATES Lewis C. Solmon, in his book, W i s d o m or W a s t e ? C o l l e g e as a Training G r o u n d for Jobs, uses two variables, salary and job satisfaction, in an attempt to m e a s u r e the v a l u e of education. Responding to popular w i s d o m , he challenges the view that the increasing education of the g e n e r a l population is e v i d e n c e of a n irreversible  oversupply  of  talented  manpower  which  will  lead  to  acute  job  dissatisfaction. His viewpoint is that since the college-educated still earn m o r e than those without a college education, college education is worthwhile. He does not refute the theory that over-supply leads to dissatisfaction  nor does he provide  evidence that money is an a d e q u a t e criterion for d e t e r m i n i n g the level of con-  Bernard R. Blishen and Hugh A . McRoberts, " A Revised Socioeconomic Index for Occupations in C a n a d a " , C a n a d i a n Review of Sociology and A n t h r o p o l o g y , 13(1) (1976): 71-73. 18  t e n t m e n t of t h e w o r k  force. Indeed,  he goes on to cite a study w h i c h  presents  e v i d e n c e t h a t a g o o d j o b o r a h i g h i n c o m e is o n l y o f m o d e r a t e i m p o r t a n c e in a l i s t of life g o a l s . ^ 3  In e x a m i n i n g t h e s e c o n d v a r i a b l e , j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , S o l m o n c o n t e n d s  that  most people are satisfied with their work. Of the graduates surveyed, he found only 6%  w e r e " n o t a t a l l " s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r j o b s . H e t h e n s t a t e s t h a t t h e g o a l s of  e d u c a t i o n a r e not d e f i n e d a n d that, consequently, e d u c a t i o n cannot b e e v a l u a t e d . H e p r o p o s e s s e v e r a l d e f i n i t i o n s a n d a t t e m p t s to r e l a t e job s a t i s f a c t i o n to u t i l i z a t i o n of a c o l l e g e m a j o r . ^ 3  The reasons.  findings  Solmon  of t h e s t u d y ,  however,  r e p o r t s that his s u r v e y  are open  to question  for  r e s u l t s a r e f r o m 8,000 s t u d e n t s  several but  he  n e i t h e r d e s c r i b e s t h e p o p u l a t i o n n o r t h e s a m p l e a n d h e g i v e s n o i n d i c a t i o n of t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e . B e c a u s e f e w p e o p l e of m i n o r i t y g r o u p s r e s p o n d e d , a s t r o n g b i a s i n t h e s a m p l e g r o u p is s u g g e s t e d . S o l m o n d r a w s t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t m o s t p e o p l e a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r jobs but d o e s not p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e to s u p p o r t this c o n c l u s i o n , 37 either for the s a m p l e or for the population.  It is a s r e a s o n a b l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t  t h o s e i n t h e s a m p l e w h o w e r e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r j o b s w e r e w i t h i n t h e g r o u p of n o n - r e s p o n d e n t s , a g r o u p of u n d i s c l o s e d s i z e .  ,  W h i l e t h e s t u d y d o e s m a k e a n a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n of c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n , a n d p o i n t s o u t t h e d i f f i c u l t y of e v a l u a t i n g w i t h o u t t h e s e c r i t e r i a , it is f r a u g h t w i t h j u d g e m e n t a l t e r m s , i n c l u d i n g a r e f e r e n c e t o v o c a t i o n a l j t a s k s a s " d i r t y w o r k " . It is t h i s s u b j e c t i v e v i e w p o i n t , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e e x c l u s i v e f o c u s o n u n i v e r s i t y 35 S o l m o n , W i s d o m o r W a s t e ? , p. 2 6 7 . 3 6  l b i d . , p. 14.  3 7  l b i d . , p. 5 5 . 19  undergraduates  a n d i n a d e q u a t e d a t a to support the conclusions that r e n d e r s  the  r e s e a r c h s u s p e c t a n d the study less r e l e v a n t to a study of N o r t h e r n Lights C o l l e g e t h a n it m i g h t o t h e r w i s e h a v e b e e n . S o l m o n ' s s t u d y b e c o m e s a d e f e n s e of t h e s t a t u s quo: he becomes  a n a p o l o g i s t f o r c o l l e g e s a n d c o n c l u d e s , "... w e s h o u l d . . .  en-  c o u r a g e students to continue c o l l e g e d e s p i t e publicity about the d e c l i n i n g l a b o u r n  38  m a r k e t , b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e o t h e r v a l u e s to a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n b e s i d e s a j o b " . Krishan Paul discusses  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of s t u d e n t f o l l o w - u p t o e c o n o m i c  p l a n n i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t i n h e r a r t i c l e , " W h a t H a p p e n s A f t e r T r a i n i n g : A R e v i e w of F o l l o w - u p of V o c a t i o n a l G r a d u a t e s " . S h e s t a t e s t h a t w h i l e t r a i n i n g p r o d u c e s s k i l l e d m a n p o w e r , it is t h e f o l l o w - u p t h a t p r o v i d e s a m e a s u r e o f s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e . F o l l o w u p is t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l f o r i n d u s t r i a l a n d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e s u c c e s s training  endeavors  is  usually  measured  partially and  intuitively rather  of  than  analytically and systematically. Paul asks the penetrating questions which educators and the public are beginning  to ask:  Is t h e r e a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h o s e 39  with  training a n d those w i t h o u t ? D o e s e d u c a t i o n justify the cost? S h e s u g g e s t s in h e r s t u d y t h a t t h e r e is n o b e n e f i t t o t r a i n i n g f o r f e m a l e s , ^ 4  b u t s h e d o e s n o t s u g g e s t a n y r e a s o n s f o r t h e s e r e s u l t s . F o r e x a m p l e , ; is it a f u n c t i o n of t h e p r o g r a m m e s o r of t h e k i n d s of j o b s a v a i l a b l e f o r w o m e n ? Paul capsulizes prevailing  economic  programmes  that the  conditions  i m p a c t of a and  the  programme  efficiency  can be i m p r o v e d by systematic p l a n n i n g  of  is a f u n c t i o n of the  and  programme.  the The  p r o p e r a l l o c a t i o n of  resources. She concludes that vocational education a n d economic cycles must l b i d . , p p . 269-270. 3 8  be  K r i s h a n K. P a u l , W h a t H a p p e n s A f t e r T r a i n i n g : A R e v i e w of F o l l o w - U p of V o c a t i o n a l G r a d u a t e s , ( N a s h v i l l e : N a s h v i l l e U r b a n O b s e r v a t o r y , 1976), p. 6. 4 0  lbid.,p.22. 20  i  examined  simultaneously  based  adequate  on  and  decisions  information  and  affecting vocational education research  if  greater  efficiency  must is  to  be be  achieved. ^ 4  Eugene Vinarski and associates, investigating graduates and early leavers of c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s ,  e x a m i n e d the differences between graduates  w i t h p a r t i a l t r a i n i n g . (It is n o t c l e a r a t w h a t p o i n t i n t h e p r o g r a m m e s  and  those  the early  leavers t e r m i n a t e d their education.) H e f o u n d that t w i c e as m a n y g r a d u a t e s as early l e a v e r s w e r e w o r k i n g i n t h e i r f i e l d of s t u d y a n d t h a t e a r l y l e a v e r s t e n d t o b e y o u n g e r than g r a d u a t e s a n d less satisfied w i t h their w o r k .  42  D. S U M M A R Y T h e r e is g r o w i n g c o n c e r n w i t h t h e c o s t a n d e f f i c i e n c y of t r a i n i n g a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t r a i n i n g a n d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . In t h e U n i t e d  States,  f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s a r e r e q u i r e d a s a c o n d i t i o n of f u n d i n g f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a s u b s t a n t i a l b o d y of i n f o r m a t i o n o n s t u d e n t s w h o a t t e n d e d s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n s is a v a i l a b l e . M o r e a t t e n t i o n is b e i n g p a i d t o e a r l y l e a v e r s a n d m i d - c a r e e r changes. Some countries, notably Japan, Sweden, and G r e a t Britain, assign special r e s o u r c e s t o r e g a i n t h e l o s t p r o d u c t i v i t y of d i s s a t i s f i e d o r r e l o c a t i n g w o r k e r s . T h e r e is a c o n s i d e r a b l e b o d y of l i t e r a t u r e o n f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s . M o d e l s  4  1  have  I b i d . , p. 2 9 .  E u g e n e T. V i n a r s k i e t a l . , " 1 9 7 5 C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e F o l l o w - U p S y s t e m : S u m m a r y of F i n d i n g s , S p r i n g 1 9 7 6 " , ( S a l e m , O r e g o n : O r e g o n S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t of E d u c a t i o n , 1976), p. 13. 21  been developed, manuals produced, and books written on the necessity for followu p . In g e n e r a l , t h e r e is a g r e e m e n t o n t h e n e e d t o e s t a b l i s h c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g educational  programmes  and  there  js r e c o g n i t i o n  research.  22  of  the  need  for  data-based  CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY A. GENERAL  APPROACH  A formal proposal for a follow-up study of students w h o a t t e n d e d Northern Lights C o l l e g e from 1975 to 1978 was submitted along with a budget to the C o l l e g e administration  in September  1979. The administrators  w e r e then given an  op-  portunity to review the draft questionnaire to e n s u r e the usefulness of the study to the C o l l e g e . In N o v e m b e r , the C o l l e g e Board e n d o r s e d the proposal. A budget of $500 was a p p r o v e d and the scope of the study was reduced in an effort to meet budget constraints. The population for the study  was  all full-time students  e n r o l l e d in a  p r o g r a m m e of at least 30 days duration w h o b e g a n their studies during the 1978 calendar year. The total population was 684 students, graduates and non-graduates. A 100 per cent sampling was used. T h e questionnaire went through several revisions a n d was a d m i n i s t e r e d to a group  of five students  from the 1977 calendar y e a r as  a  pre-trial.  modifications w e r e m a d e to questionnaire items as a result of ambiguities  Several which  w e r e identified at that time. The survey instrument was then c o p i e d , on p a p e r of differing colours, according to a colour c o d e indicating the location of the C o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s (see a p p e n d i x A ) . Data w e r e collected through a manual search of registration records. Index cards w e r e m a d e up for each subject and the following information was r e c o r d e d : 1. N a m e 23  2. A d d r e s s 3. P h o n e n u m b e r 4. P r o g r a m m e 5. D a t e s of e n r o l l m e n t 6. S e x 7. A g e 8. L a s t g r a d e c o m p l e t e d 9. W h e r e l a s t g r a d e c o m p l e t e d 10. A l t e r n a t e a d d r e s s . The  index  cards  were  sorted  alphabetically and  assigned  a  six-digit code  to  s a f e g u a r d a n o n y m i t y . The subject's s e x a n d a g e w e r e i d e n t i f i e d by t h e first t h r e e digits w h i l e the last t h r e e digits c o m p r i s e d a n a s s i g n e d n u m b e r . Each n u m b e r  was  w r i t t e n o n a n i n d e x c a r d a n d o n t h e t o p of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Two address labels w e r e m a d e for each student: one for the initial m a i l i n g and one for the reminder postcard. C o d e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e m a i l e d to e a c h subject w i t h a c o v e r i n g letter e x p l a i n i n g t h e p u r p o s e of the s u r v e y (see a p p e n d i c e s ) . A l s o e n c l o s e d w a s a r e t u r n envelope  bearing  the words,  "Return  Postage  will  be  p a i d by  Northern  Lights  C o l l e g e " a n d the business reply permit n u m b e r o b t a i n e d f r o m the post office. Each c o v e r i n g letter w a s s i g n e d by h a n d in b l u e ink to m a k e t h e l e t t e r as p e r s o n a l  as  possible. W h e n a c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e w a s r e t u r n e d , t h e w e e k i n w h i c h it w a s received w a s noted on the appropriate index card and the corresponding  address  l a b e l w a s r e m o v e d f r o m t h e s u b s e q u e n t m a i l i n g list. W h e n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e w a s r e t u r n e d by the post o f f i c e as u n d e l i v e r a b l e , a  24  i  notation  of  the  week  returned  was  made  on  the  corresponding  index  card.  W h e n e v e r possible, an a t t e m p t w a s m a d e to m a i l these r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to an  alternate  address.  Address  labels  for  undeliverable  questionnaires  were  A f t e r fifteen days, a postcard r e m i n d e r w a s sent to non-respondents.  Some  r e m o v e d f r o m t h e s u b s e q u e n t m a i l i n g list.  cards w e r e r e t u r n e d as u n d e l i v e r a b l e e v e n though the q u e s t i o n n a i r e h a d not b e e n r e t u r n e d a n d a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e w a s m a i l e d t o a n a l t e r n a t e a d d r e s s , if a v a i l a b l e . The w e e k t h e c a r d w a s r e t u r n e d by t h e post o f f i c e w a s r e c o r d e d o n t h e i n d e x c a r d . A f t e r a further ten days, telephone calls w e r e m a d e to non-respondents.  In  s o m e i n s t a n c e s , subjects h a d not r e c e i v e d t h e initial q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r h a d lost it. Others  h a d c o m p l e t e d a n d r e t u r n e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , but t h e C o l l e g e h a d  not  r e c e i v e d it. A r e p l a c e m e n t m a i l i n g w a s m a d e i n m o s t of t h e s e c a s e s . A n o t a t i o n of t h e d a t e of t h e t e l e p h o n e c a l l a n d t h e s u b j e c t ' s r e s p o n s e w a s m a d e o n t h e i n d e x card. The cut-off d a t e for the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u s e d in the study w a s t w e l v e w e e k s after the initial mailing. The information obtained for each student was coded and keypunched. well  as  information taken from  student files and  the returned  As  questionnaires,  students w e r e a l s o a s s i g n e d n u m b e r s to i n d i c a t e t h e i r s o c i o e c o n o m i c status b e f o r e and after college. Two  numbers,  one corresponding  to the student's  occupaton  b e f o r e c o l l e g e a n d a n o t h e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the student's o c c u p a t i o n after college, w e r e six-digit numbers  taken from the Blishen socio-economic scale. The  Blishen  scores w e r e then collapsed into five groups. D a t a w e r e a n a l y z e d statistically using Chi-square, z-tests a n d analysis v a r i a n c e , as a p p r o p r i a t e .  25  of  The major problem e n c o u n t e r e d in the gathering of data was the n e e d to rely entirely on a hand search of the C o l l e g e files. Some data a r e stored on microfilm and s o m e on h a r d copy. Current files are in alphabetical order, while s o m e past records a r e filed by p r o g r a m m e . A m a n u a l search, therefore, could not e n s u r e inclusion of all students who should h a v e b e e n part of the study. The problem of different filing methods was complicated by inaccuracies in C o l l e g e records. Since many students had not completely filled in the application form, s o m e information was missing. The most c o m m o n omissions w e r e : birthdate, last g r a d e c o m p l e t e d a n d location of last schooling c o m p l e t e d . A few usually C o l l e g e Foundations or p r o g r a m m e s College  offerings,  did  not  complete  classes,  which w e r e not part of the regular  applications  at  all.  Students  in  these  p r o g r a m m e s could not be included in the study b e c a u s e no addresses w e r e record e d . It is estimated that there w e r e twenty of these students. S o m e problems w e r e e n c o u n t e r e d with the questionnaire. A  surprizing  number of respondents who had taken C o l l e g e Foundations, as adult basic education was called in the C o l l e g e calendar, c h e c k e d " A c a d e m i c " as their p r o g r a m m e  of  study. A careful checking of data file cards was required to e n s u r e these students w e r e included in the correct p r o g r a m m e . The chief difficulties in analyzing the data w e r e the small samples of the population, which, in s o m e question (number 7),  instances  m a d e statistical analysis impossible.  One  which a s k e d for multiple responses from a small group of  respondents, presented special problems in analysis. Several respondents indicated impatience with the questionnaire and it is suspected that students on numerous mailing lists may have b e e n reluctant to take part in the survey. Northern Lights C o l l e g e was conducting another follow-up study  26  simultaneously and several students w e r e included in both mailings.  B. RATES O F RETURN A N D RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS By the cut-off date 328 usable replies had b e e n received, 4 8 % of the total 684 mailings. O n e hundred a n d fifty-six replies w e r e received as a result of the first mailing and another eighty-six responses w e r e received after the postcard r e m i n d e r had b e e n sent. A t e l e p h o n e call to students twenty-five days after the initial mailing had little effect, but w h e n coupled with a second mailing of the questionnaire, another sixty-two responses w e r e r e c e i v e d . Seventy questionnaires, 1 0 % of the total mail-out, w e r e returned by the Post O f f i c e as  undeliverable  questionnaire was  and  no  alternate  address  could  be found.  received after the d e a d l i n e for processing the data a n d  One one  questionnaire had the code n u m b e r b l a c k e d out and could not be identified. Calculated as a percentage of questionnaires a s s u m e d to have r e a c h e d the student (that is, those questionnaires not returned by the post office), the return rate of usable questionnaires was 5 3 % . The total population was  divided into three groups:  respondents,  non-  respondents, and those for w h o m questionnaires w e r e returned as undeliverable. A Chi-square test indicated that there was  no significant  difference b e t w e e n  groups by either a g e or sex. The figures a r e given in tables 1 and 2.  27  the  TABLE 1 Population by Sex Sex  Respondents N  %  Undelivered  Non-respondents  N  %  N  %  Total N  %  Male  155  23%  38  6%  144  21%  337  49%  Female  173  25%  32  5%  142  21%  347  51%  Total  328  48%  70  10%  286  42%  684  100%  X = 1.37, p< .50 2  TABLE 2 Population by A g e Age  Total  Respondents N  %  N  %  College-age  208  31 %  422  63%  Adult-age  118  18%  253  38%  Total  326  48%  69  10%  280  42%  675 100%  X =?2.62, psr.27 2  Response rates by C o l l e g e C e n t r e a r e shown in Table 3. A Chi-square test s h o w e d a significant difference b e t w e e n the three groups by C o l l e g e Centre; however, these results are not conclusive d u e to the small sub-samples. Eighty-three  28  per cent of respondents (273) had a t t e n d e d the D a w s o n C r e e k C e n t r e and 1 3 % (41) had a t t e n d e d college in Fort St. J o h n . A total of 8 9 % of the total population had attended the two largest C o l l e g e Centres and 9 6 % of all respondents w e r e f r o m these centres. G e n e r a l l y , the response rate d e c r e a s e d as the distance from D a w s o n C r e e k (the C e n t r e from which the questionnaire originated) increased. A  possible  e x p l a n a t i o n for this bias is that respondents w h o a t t e n d e d the D a w s o n C r e e k C e n t r e probably w e r e acquainted with the person w h o s e signature a p p e a r e d on the letter of explanation enclosed with the questionnaire. A l s o , the response rate was lowest among  students e n r o l l e d in C o l l e g e Foundations (adult basic education), and a  higher proportion of the student population in the m o r e r e m o t e centres w e r e e n r o l l e d in these p r o g r a m m e s .  29  TABLE 3 Rate of Return by C o l l e g e C e n t r e Undelivered  Respondents  Centre  %  N  %  N  Non-res pondents  %  N  273  54%  49  10%  180  36%  41  39%  17  16%  46  44%  Chetwynd  7  26%  3  11 %  17  63%  Ft. Nelson  1  14%  6  86%  Kelly Lake  1  13%  7  88%  Blueberry  2  13%  13  87%  Lower Post  2  17%  9  75%  G o o d H o p e Lake  1  11%  8  89%  Dawson Creek Ft. St. John  Total  1  328  8%  70 X * 58.76, p 2  286  .001  Response rates by level of schooling are shown in table 4. The level of education attained by students before attending Northern Lights C o l l e g e is r e c o r d e d in the C o l l e g e files. A Chi-square test r e v e a l e d a highly significant difference by level of previous education b e t w e e n respondents, non-respondents and students for w h o m questionnaires w e r e returned by the post office (p ^  .001). The rate of  response increased as the level of education increased up to completion of g r a d e 12 a n d then d e c r e a s e d for students who had s o m e post-secondary education.  30  TABLE 4 Rate of Return by Level of Schooling  %  N  Non-res pondents  Undelivered  Respondents  Grade  %  N  N  %  G r a d e s 2-8  23  29%  8  10%  49  61%  G r a d e s 9 & 10  84  44%  23  12%  82  43%  G r a d e 11  35  50%  10  14%  25  36%  G r a d e 12  152  63%  19  8%  72  30%  6  32%  1  5%  12  63%  M o r e than G r a d e 12  240  61  300  Total  X = 40.06, p s  .001  Table 5 gives response rates by location of last place of school attendance. Students w h o reported completing their last g r a d e within the C o l l e g e region w e r e more  likely to respond to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e than those w h o  elsewhere. (p  The  difference  between  the  .001).  31  three  groups  was  attended again  school  significant  TABLE 5 Rate of Return by Place of C o m p l e t i o n of Last G r a d e Undelivered  Respondents  Place  N  %  N  Non-res pondents  %  N  %  137  53%  13  5%  107  42%  O t h e r a r e a s of B.C.  97  50%  19  10%  80  41%  O t h e r provinces  53  41%  24  19%  52  40%  Northeastern B.C.  287  Total  56  239  X = 19.03, p <: . o o i 2  Table 6 shows the rate of return by completion or non-completion of college p r o g r a m m e . Students w h o c o m p l e t e d their college p r o g r a m m e w e r e m o r e likely to respond to the questionnaire than students w h o withdrew before c o m p l e t i o n . The difference b e t w e e n the three groups significant  (p ^  in relation to response  rate was  highly  .001), introducing a further bias in the respondent population.  Twenty per cent of the total population did not c o m p l e t e their p r o g r a m m e s .  One-  third of these early leavers r e s p o n d e d to the questionnaire, representing 7% of the total respondent population.  32  TABLE 6 Rate of Return by C o m p l e t i o n or Non-completion of P r o g r a m m e C o m p l e t i o n or non-completion  Undelivered  Respondents N  N  %  %  Non-respondents N  %  46  34%  16  12%  74  54%  Completers  282  52%  54  10%  212  39%  Total  328  Non-completers  70 X =13.9, p < 2  286  .005  Response rates by p r o g r a m m e a r e shown in table 7. T h e r e a p p e a r s to be a significant difference b e t w e e n the three groups by p r o g r a m m e of studies but the small numbers preclude analysis. The rate of return based on p r o g r a m m e from 2 3 % for C o l l e g e Foundations to 7 9 % for Dental Assisting.  33  varies  TABLE 7 Rate of Response by Programme Programme  Respondents N  Undelivered N  %  %  3  4%  Non-respondents N  %  22  32%  Academic  44  64%  Agriculture  12  60%  Autobody Repair  14  74%  1  5%  4  21%  Automotive Mechanics  13 45%  4  14%  12  41%  3  43%  2  29%  2  29%  Business Careers  58  70%  7  8%  18  22%  Carpentry and Joinery  24  57%  4  10%  14  33%  College Foundations  42  23%  22  12%  117  65%  Counselling  18 64%  2  7%  8  29%  Cook Training  13 35%  7  19%  Business Administration  8 40%  17 46%  3  50%  3  50%  Dental Assisting  11  79%  3  21%  Heavy Duty Mechanics  27  59%  14  30%  Mechanical Practices  13  68%  6  32%  2  67%  1 33%  11  36%  5  16%  Welding Upgrading  3  27%  3  27%  5  46%  Employment Orientation for Women  4  36%  2  18%  5  46%  Heavy Duty Trucking  9 43%  3  14%  9  43%  Homemakers  4  3  43%  Camp Cooking  Visual Arts Welding  Total  5  57%  70  328  34  11%  15 48%  286  T h e r e w e r e n o s t a t i s t i c a l b i a s e s in t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e s b y e i t h e r a g e o r s e x . However,  several  biases  were  revealed through  analysis  of t h e t h r e e  groups:  respondents, those for w h o m the questionnaire w a s returned by the post office, and non-respondents.  Students  with grade  12 w e r e  more  likely  to r e s p o n d  to  the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a n w e r e s t u d e n t s w i t h e i t h e r l e s s o r m o r e t h a n g r a d e 12. S t u d e n t s w h o c o m p l e t e d their last y e a r of public s c h o o l in N o r t h e a s t e r n British C o l u m b i a w e r e m o r e likely to r e s p o n d to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e than w e r e students w h o h a d c o m p l e t e d t h i s l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n e l s e w h e r e . T h o s e w h o h a d c o m p l e t e d t h e i r p r o g r a m m e s N o r t h e r n Lights C o l l e g e w e r e m o r e likely to r e s p o n d than those w h o before  completion. The  ensuing  discussion  of  questionnaire  r e v i e w e d w i t h t h e b i a s e s i n t h e r e s p o n d e n t p o p u l a t i o n in m i n d .  35  results  at  withdrew should  be  CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS, DISCUSSION A N D C O N C L U S I O N S The results of the questionnaire a r e p r e s e n t e d in two formats. The first section d e a l s with each questionnaire item; the second consolidates items in conformity to the specific p u r p o s e of the study as laid out o n p a g e  2 . While there  seems to be s o m e duplication, this format is d e s i g n e d to meet the needs of two different readers: those wanting to see responses by questionnaire item and those interested in the overall outcome of the study. Conclusions a r e restricted to the second half of the section and, w h e r e necessary, a summary of responses to individual items is p r e s e n t e d b e f o r e the relevant conclusion. Figures e x p r e s s e d in percentages may not total 1 0 0 % due to rounding errors.  A . QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS A N D DISCUSSION  1. Did you have a full-time job during the year before attending Northern Lights C o l l e g e ?  (N - 322) yes  180  56%  no  142  44%  Fifty-six per cent of respondents indicated they w e r e e m p l o y e d full-time prior to attending Northern Lights C o l l e g e . Twenty-four per cent w e r e not in the labour force by virtue of illness, h o u s e h o l d / f a m i l y duties, retirement or educational activities before attending college. This means that 2 0 % w e r e not e m p l o y e d and w e r e s e e k i n g work. 36  Sixty-five per cent of m a l e respondents w e r e e m p l o y e d full-time b e f o r e college c o m p a r e d with 4 8 % of f e m a l e respondents. Sixty per cent of college-age students and 4 9 % of adult-age students w e r e e m p l o y e d full-time prior to attending Northern Lights C o l l e g e .  2. How satisfied w e r e you with what you w e r e d o i n g ? (N - 316)  N  D e g r e e of Satisfaction  %  V e r y satisfied  39  12%  Satisfied  99  31 %  Partially satisfied  103  33%  Dissatisfied  52  17%  V e r y dissatisfied  23  7%  Forty-three per cent of respondents indicated they w e r e satisfied or very satisfied with what they had b e e n doing b e f o r e attending college. A l m o s t onequarter (24%) indicated they w e r e dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with what they had b e e n doing prior to enrollment at college. Table 8 shows the level of satisfaction with occupation before attending college for those respondents who had b e e n in the labour force at that time.  37  TABLE 8 Satisfaction with occupation before attending c o l l e g e , for those in the l a b o u r f o r c e N  D e g r e e of s a t i s f a c t i o n  %  Very satisfied  14  9%  Satisfied  43  28%  Partially satisfied  51  33%  Dissatisfied  34  22%  Very dissatisfied  14  9%  156  100%  Total  M o r e males than f e m a l e s w e r e dissatisfied or very dissatisfied w i t h w h a t they w e r e d o i n g b e f o r e a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e , but t h e d i f f e r e n c e w a s not statistically s i g n i f i c a n t ( t a b l e 9).  38  TABLE 9 Satisfaction with occupation b e f o r e attending college, by sex  D e g r e e of satisfaction  Male N  Female  %  %  N  V e r y satisfied  17  11%  22  13%  Satisfied  45  30%  54  32%  Partially satisfied  46  31%  57  34%  Dissatisfied  27  18%  25  15%  V e r y dissatisfied  14  9%  9  5%  149  100%  167  100%  Total  X -2.78, p = 2  .60  The relationship b e t w e e n satisfaction with occupation prior to attending college and a g e was not significant. Figures a r e given in table 10.  39  T A B L E 10 Satisfaction with occupation before attending c o l l e g e , by a g e College- age 15-24  D e g r e e of satisfaction  Adult-age o v e r 24  %  N  %  N  Very satisfied  18  9%  21  19%  Satisfied  68  34%  31  27%  Partially satisfied  65  32%  37  33%  Dissatisfied  38  19%  13  12%  Very dissatisfied  12  6%  11  10%  100%  201  Total  X = 2  10.18, p  1  40  <.  .05  113  100%  3. What p r o g r a m m e did you take at Northern Lights C o l l e g e ?  %  N  Programme A c a d e m i c Studies  44  13%  Agriculture  12  4%  A u t o b o d y Repair  14  4%  A u t o m o t i v e Mechanics  13  4%  3  1%  Business C a r e e r s  58  18%  Carpentry and Joinery  24  7%  C o l l e g e Foundations  42  13%  Counselling  18  6%  C o o k Training  13  4%  Camp Cooking  3  1%  Dental Assisting  11  3%  Heavy Duty Mechanics  27  8%  M e c h a n i c a l Practices  13  Business Administration  Visual Arts General Welding  :  4%  2  1%  11  3%  W e l d i n g Upgrading  3  1 %  Employment O r i e n t a t i o n for W o m e n  4  1%  Heavy Duty Truck Driving  9  3%  Homemaker  4  1%  325  100%  Total  (N - 328)  Table 11 gives an indication of the places of origin of respondents, by programme.  41  TABLE 11 Location of last g r a d e of schooling, by p r o g r a m m e Programme  Northeastern B.C.  Other, B.C.  Other, Canada  %  No.  %  4  10%  8  21%  9%  9  82%  1  9%  7  50%  7  50%  A u t o m o t i v e Mechanics  5  50%  4  40%  1  •10%  Business Administration  3  100%  No.  %  27  69%  Agriculture  1  A u t o b o d y Repair  Academic  No.  32  62%  11  21%  9  17%  4  19%  13  62%  4  19%  24  71%  1  3%  9  27%  Counselling  3  19%  6  38%  7  44%  C o o k Training  4  33%  8  67%  1  33%  2  67%  Business C a r e e r s Carpentry and Joinery C o l l e g e Foundations  Camp Cooking Dental Assisting  6  55%  2  18%  3  27%  Heavy Duty Mechanics  5  19%  19  70%  3  11%  Mechanical Practices  6  55%  5  46%  6  67%  2  22%  1  11%  Employment Orientation for W o m e n  2  100%  Heavy Duty Truck Driving  2  25%  3  38%  3  38%  2  50%  2  50%  Visual Arts Welding W e l d i n g Upgrading  Homemakers  Total  137 42  97  53  4. W h o sponsored your p r o g r a m m e ?  (N - 324)  Self  97  30%  Ministry of H u m a n Resources  6  2%  U n e m p l o y m e n t Insurance  92  28%  D e p a r t m e n t of Indian A f f a i r s  3  1%  C a n a d a Employment  77  24%  Workers'Compensation  3  1%  Ministry of Labour  43  13%  Other  3  1%  5. programme?  If  you  had  College  to do  239  77%  over  again,  would  you  take  the  same  (N-310) yes  no  71  23%  O v e r three-quarters of respondents indicated that, if they had college to do over again, they w o u l d enroll in the s a m e p r o g r a m m e . The difference b e t w e e n college-age  and  adult-age  students  is  highly  significant w h e n considering w h e t h e r or not they w o u l d repeat the s a m e p r o g r a m m e (p  .001); o l d e r students w e r e m o r e likely to indicate they w o u l d t a k e the s a m e  p r o g r a m m e , as shown in table 12.  43  TABLE 12 W o u l d choose the s a m e p r o g r a m m e if enrolling again, by a g e W o u l d choose the same programme  College-age 15-24  Adult-age O v e r 24  %  N  %  Yes  142  71%  97  88%  No  57  29%  13  12%  199  100%  110  100%  Total  X = 11.45, p 2  N  .001  Table 13 shows a b r e a k d o w n , by p r o g r a m m e , of those w h o w o u l d a n d those w h o w o u l d not repeat the s a m e p r o g r a m m e if they had c o l l e g e to do over again.  44  TABLE 13 Would choose the same programme if enrolling again, by programme Programme  Yes •  N  %  N  %  40  91 %  4  9%  Agriculture  8  73%  3  27%  Autobody Repair  6  43%  8  57%  10  83%  2  17%  2  100%  Business Careers  47  84%  9  16%  Carpentry and Joinery  18  78%  5  22%  College Foundations  28  68%  13  32%  Counselling  15  94%  1  6%  Cook Training  6  55%  5  46%  Camp Cooking  3  100%  Dental Assisting  6  55%  5  46%  Heavy Duty Mechanics  16  67%  8  33%  Mechanical Practices  10  77%  3  23%  2  100%  10  91%  1  9%  Welding Upgrading  1  33%  2  67%  Employment Orientation for Women  4  100%  Heavy Duty Truck Driving  5  83%  1  17%  Homemakers  2  67%  1  33%  Academic  Automotive Mechanics Business Administration  Visual Arts Welding  Total  239  45  71  6. H o w s a t i s f i e d w e r e y o u a t N o r t h e r n L i g h t s C o l l e g e w i t h : a) t h e p r o g r a m m e ?  ( N - 322) N  %  Very satisfied  130  40%  Satisfied  144  45%  38  12%  Dissatisfied  8  3%  Very dissatisfied  2  1%  D e g r e e of s a t i s f a c t i o n  Partially satisfied  There was  no significant d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n c o l l e g e - a g e a n d  adult-age  r e s p o n d e n t s i n t e r m s of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p r o g r a m m e s . T h e r e w a s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n in s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p r o g r a m m e s w h e n e a c h is c o n s i d e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y ( t a b l e 14), b u t t h e m a j o r i t y of r e s o n d e n t s indicated they  were  either satisfied or very  satisfied with their  programmes.  R e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d s o m e l e v e l of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n o n l y f i v e p r o g r a m m e s .  46  (85%)  TABLE 14 Satisfaction with programme, by programme Very satisfied  Satisfied  Partially satisfied  N  %  N  %  N  20  46%  20  46%  2  5%  2  5%  Agriculture  3  25%  5  42%  2  17%  1  8%  Autobody Repair  3  21%  8  57%  3  21%  Automotive Mechanics  7  58%  3  25%  2  17%  Business Administration  2  67%  1 33%  Business Careers  29  51%  25  44%  3  5%  Carpentry and Joinery  11  46%  10  42%  3  13%  College Foundations  12  30%  19 48%  6  15%  3  8%  Counselling  5  29%  9  53%  2  12%  Cook Training  3  23%  7  54%  3  23%  Camp Cooking  2  67%  Dental Assisting  2  18%  Heavy Duty Mechanics  9  33%  Mechanical Practices  7  54%  Visual Arts  1 50%  1 50%  Welding  4  7  64%  Welding Upgrading  3 100%  Programme  Academic  Employment  Orientation  36%  N  %  N  46%  2  18%  10 37%  8  30%  1  13%  5  6  2  8%  1  6%  18%  46%  for 1 25%  3  75%  Heavy Duty Truck Driving  4  50%  3  38%  Homemaker  2  50%  2  50%  130  144  47  38  8  %  1  1 33%  Women  Totals  %  Dissatisfied  Very dissatisfied  2  b) t h e i n s t r u c t o r s ?  ( N - 321) D e g r e e of satisfaction  N  %  Very satisfied  161  50%  Satisfied  106  33%  Partially satisfied  36  11%  Dissatisfied  13  4%  5  2%  Very dissatisfied There was  no significant d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the t w o a g e  groups  when  considering satisfaction with the instructors. c) t h e s p o n s o r ?  (N-214)  4 3  D e g r e e of satisfaction  N  Very satisfied  %  41  19%  106  50%  Partially satisfied  40  19%  Dissatisfied  14  7%  Very dissatisfied  13  6%  Satisfied  The greatest dissatisfaction with the sponsoring agencies was found the group sponsored  b y t h e M i n i s t r y of L a b o u r w i t h a l m o s t 3 0 %  l e v e l of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h i r t e e n p e r c e n t of r e s p o n d e n t s  expressing  sponsored  by the  among some Unem-  ployment Insurance Commission expressed dissatisfaction with their sponsor. Table 15 t a b u l a t e s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s p o n s o r .  This N reflects only those students w h o i n d i c a t e d they h a d b e e n spons o r e d a n d h a d r e p l i e d to this q u e s t i o n (i.e., " s e l f " w a s r e m o v e d f r o m t h e c a t e g o r y "sponsor"). 48  T A B L E 15 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s p o n s o r , by s p o n s o r  U. i.e.  Satisfaction  Ministry of L a b o u r  C.E.C.  Other  N  %  N  %  N  %  N  %  Very satisfied or satisfied  61  69%  54  77%  22  52%  9  69%  Partially satisfied  16  18%  12  17%  8  19%  4  31%  Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied  11  13%  4  6%  12  29%  Total  88  100%  70  100%  42  100%  13  100%  X  d) c o l l e g e l i f e , i n g e n e r a l ?  5  = 16.22, p 4.  .01  (N-291)  D e g r e e of s a t i s f a c t i o n  N  Very satisfied  %  62  21 %o  174  60%  Partially satisfied  41  14%  Dissatisfied  11  4%  3  1%  Satisfied  Very dissatisfied  49  7. If you withdrew b e f o r e completing your p r o g r a m m e , what w e r e your reasons for leaving? Check as many as apply.  (69 respondents g a v e 90 responses)  family responsibilities  18  health  7  work responsibilities  13  p r o g r a m m e not what e x p e c t e d  6  didn't like instructor  9  d o u b t e d I could pass  6  wasn't passing  8  other  5  p r e f e r r e d to work  8  didn't like p r o g r a m m e  2  ran out of money  7  p r o g r a m m e had nothing to offer  1  T h e r e w e r e considerable differences b e t w e e n male and f e m a l e respondents by reason for withdrawal. (Chi-square calculations w e r e not m a d e d u e to the small numbers and multiple responses r e q u e s t e d . Z-tests w e r e p e r f o r m e d a n d a r e discussed in the next section.) A s u m m a r y of responses is given in table 16. Fourteen per cent of the total m a l e respondent population and 2 7 % of the f e m a l e respondent population g a v e reasons for early w i t h d r a w a l .  50  T A B L E 16 R e a s o n s f o r e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l f r o m c o l l e g e , by s e x Male  Female  N  N  Work-related reasons  8  13  L a c k of s u c c e s s  7  7  Dissatisfaction with p r o g r a m m e or instructor  6  12  Family responsibilities  5  13  Other, personal  2  3  R a n o u t of m o n e y  1  6  Health  1  6  30  60  Reason for early w i t h d r a w a l  Total 90 r e a s o n s f o r e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l w e r e g i v e n  b y 69 r e s p o n d e n t s ,  22 m a l e a n d  female.  T h e r e a s o n s f o r e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l b y p r o g r a m m e a r e s h o w n i n t a b l e 17.  51  47  TABLE 17 Reason for early withdrawal from college, by programme  / o  o  c  5  /  .0 O  Programme  N  *  N  N  N  N  N  N  Academic  4  4  4  3  2  1  Agriculture  1  1  2  Autobody Repair  1  Automotive Mechanics Business Administration Business Careers Carpentry and Joinery College Foundations  3  Counselling Cook Training  1  5  6  2  1  2  1  Camp Cooking Dental Assisting Heavy Duty Mechanics Mechanical Practices Visual Arts Welding Welding Upgrading Employment Orientation for Women Heavy Duty Truck Driving Homemakers  Total  18  52  14  21  18  Most respondents  who  withdrew  before completion w e r e satisfied  with  t h e i r p r o g r a m m e s , a s s h o w n b y t h e f i g u r e s i n t a b l e 18.  T A B L E 18 R e a s o n for e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l , by s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h  Reason for early withdrawal  programme  Very satisfied or satisfied  Partially satisfied  Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied  N  N  N  R a n o u t of m o n e y  6  Dissatisfaction with p r o g r a m m e or instructor  7  1  6  5  L a c k of s u c c e s s  10  3  1  Work related reasons  18  2  1  Family responsibilities  16  2  Other, personal  5  Health  6  68  Total  53  14  7  8. Whot did you like most about Northern Lights C o l l e g e ? (282 respondents g a v e 436 responses). p r o g r a m m e content  67  facilities  17  atmosphere  55  students  16  teaching  46  organization  14  instructors  43  w o r k i n g on o w n  13  learning  34  e q u i p m e n t and w o r k i n g conditions  10  location  33  cost  8  meeting others  24  meals  6  size  23  existence  3  activities, socials  21  dorms  3  Students programmes.  An  most  frequently  indicated  they  liked  the  content  of  their  appreciation for the college a t m o s p h e r e , e n c o m p a s s i n g  such  things as friendliness and helpfulness, was often e x p r e s s e d . The next most c o m m o n notes w e r e about the g o o d quality of teaching and the helpfulness of the instructors. Eighty-six per cent of the returned questionnaires h a d at least o n e c o m m e n t in this section. A p p e n d i x B contains numerous verbatim student comments.  54  9. W h a t d i d y o u l i k e l e a s t ?  (201 r e s p o n d e n t s g a v e 254 r e s p o n s e s )  dorms  37  activities  15  other facilities  37  students  13  l i m i t e d v a r i e t y of programmes and courses  24  organization  12  ••v p r o g r a m m e c o n t e n t  24  sponsorship  11  24  equipment  9  instructors a n d staff  23  location  6  miscellaneous  19  meals  Sixty-one  ;  per  cent  of  respondents  commented  in  this  section  of  the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h e m o s t f r e q u e n t a n d , in m a n y c a s e s , t h e m o s t e m p h a t i c c r i t i c i s m was  of t h e d o r m i t o r i e s a n d o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s . It is e s t i m a t e d t h a t o n e - t h i r d of t h e  respondents  who  had stayed  facility.',  in t h e d o r m i t o r y i n d i c a t e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h  the  j  10. D o y o u h a v e a f u l l - t i m e j o b n o w ? yes  229  71 %  After attending college, 7 1 %  (N -321) no  92  of r e s p o n d e n t s  29% w e r e employed full-time.  S i x t e e n p e r cent w e r e not in t h e l a b o u r f o r c e d u e to illness, h o u s e h o l d / f a m i l y d u t i e s , retirement or educational activities, and 1 3 % w e r e unemployed and seeking work. T h e p r o p o r t i o n of b o t h m a l e a n d f e m a l e r e s p o n d e n t s  employed full-time  i n c r e a s e d a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e : 9 0 % of m a l e s (137) w e r e e m p l o y e d f u M - t i m e a f t e r c o l l e g e , ; a n d 5 5 % of f e m a l e r e s p o n d e n t s (92) w e r e e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e a f t e r c o l l e g e . , T h e r e w a s a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n of r e s p o n d e n t s e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e  55  after attending college for both college-age and adult-age respondents:  76%  of  c o l l e g e - a g e respondents w e r e e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e after a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e . (A fuller d i s c u s s i o n of c h a n g e s o v e r t i m e w i l l b e d e a l t w i t h in t h e n e x t section.)  11. H o w s a t i s f i e d a r e y o u w i t h w h a t y o u a r e d o i n g ? D e g r e e of s a t i s f a c t i o n  N  (N-317) %  Very satisfied  126  40%  Satisfied  116  37%  Partially satisfied  46  15%  Dissatisfied  20  6%  9  3%  Very Dissatisfied  By r e m o v i n g t h o s e n o t i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e , a m o r e a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e of t h e l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o c c u p a t i o n s c a n b e o b t a i n e d , a s r e f l e c t e d in t a b l e 19.  56  T A B L E 19 Satisfaction with occupation after attending college, for those in the l a b o u r f o r c e . N  D e g r e e of s a t i s f a c t i o n  %  Very satisfied  67  43%  Satisfied  52  33%  Partially satisfied  26  17%  Dissatisfied  10  6%  2  1%  157  100%  Very dissatisfied  Total  T h e r e w a s no significant d i f f e r e n c e in satisfaction w i t h o c c u p a t i o n b e t w e e n males and females after attending college. There was  no significant difference b e t w e e n college-age a n d  adult-age  r e s p o n d e n t s in s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e . F i g u r e s g i v e n in t a b l e 20.  57  are  T A B L E 20 Satisfaction w i t h occupation after a t t e n d i n g college, by a g e College-age (15-24)  Adult-age ( o v e r 24)  N  %  N  %  Very satisfied  73  36%  52  47%  Satisfied  80  39%  36  32%  Partially satisfied  31  15%  14  13%  Dissatisfied  13  6%  7  6%  7  3%  2  2%  204  100%  111  100%  Very dissatisfied  Total  X =4.12, p s . 3 9 2  T h e r e is a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( X = 1 2 . 2 9 , p 2  .05) b e t w e e n t h o s e w h o  w o u l d t a k e t h e s a m e c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e if t h e y h a d c o l l e g e t o d o o v e r a g a i n a n d t h o s e w h o w o u l d not w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e ( t a b l e 21); t h o s e w h o w e r e m o r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n after a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e w e r e m o r e inclined to indicate they w o u l d t a k e t h e s a m e programme.  58  TABLE 21 " W o u l d you take the s a m e p r o g r a m m e ? " c o m p a r e d with level of job satisfaction after college D e g r e e of satisfaction  Yes  No  N  %  N  %  101  43%  18  25%  Satisfied  84  36%  28  39%  Partially satisfied  28  12%  17  24%  Dissatisfied  16  7%  4  6%  5  2%  4  6%  V e r y satisfied  V e r y dissatisfied  Total  234 X =12.29, p < 2  The  relationship  between  71 .05  satisfaction  with  college  programme  and  satisfaction with occupation after college was not significant.  12. C o m p a r e d to the time before you attended Northern Lights C o l l e g e , how much has your monthly i n c o m e i n c r e a s e d ?  (N - 307)  not applicable  74  24%  $101-200  39  13%  none  56  18%  $201-300  13  4%  0-$100  10  3%  over $300  115  38%  Fifty-eight per cent of respondents indicated their salaries had increased since attending college. These figures include those moving into the labour force for  59  t h e f i r s t t i m e o r f r o m a p e r i o d of u n e m p l o y m e n t . H o w e v e r , w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g o n l y t h o s e in t h e l a b o u r f o r c e b o t h b e f o r e a n d a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e , 6 6 %  of r e s p o n -  d e n t s i n d i c a t e d a n i n c r e a s e in s a l a r y a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e , as s h o w n .  T A B L E 22 I n c r e a s e in s a l a r y f o r r e s p o n d e n t s w h o w e r e in t h e l a b o u r f o r c e both before and after attending college I n c r e a s e in s a l a r y  N  %  Not applicable  35  18%  None  32  17%  6  3%  $101 - 2 0 0 p e r m o n t h  31  16%  $201 - 3 0 0 p e r m o n t h  9  5%  o v e r $300 p e r m o n t h  80  42%  0 - $100 p e r m o n t h  Total  193  100%  S e v e r a l students a d d e d notes s a y i n g that t h e i r s a l a r i e s h a d i n c r e a s e d by w e l l o v e r $300 p e r m o n t h a n d q f e w w r o t e that their s a l a r i e s h a d actuaMy d e c r e a s e d . There was  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e by s e x  i n i n c r e a s e in s a l a r y  when  c o m p a r i n g m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e ( t a b l e 23); h o w e v e r , c o n s i d e r a b l y m o r e m a l e s t h a n f e m a l e s i n d i c a t e d t h e i r s a l a r i e s h a d i n c r e a s e d by o v e r $300 p e r month. 60  T A B L E 23 Increase in s a l a r y by s e x f o r t h o s e in t h e l a b o u r f o r c e I n c r e a s e in s a l a r y  Male  Female  N  %  N  %  19  21%  13  19%  4  4%  2  3%  -200  14  15%  17  25%  $201 - 3 0 0  2  2%  7  10%  o v e r $300  52  57%  28  42%  Total  91  100%  67  100%  None 0-$100 $101  X  2  = 8.61, p < . 0 7  T h e d i f f e r e n c e by a g e g r o u p in s a l a r y i n c r e a s e w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g t h o s e in the labour force b e f o r e a n d after a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e w a s not statistically significant. W h e n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e total r e s p o n d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , h o w e v e r , t h e d i f f e r e n c e in s a l a r y increase  by t h e t w o a g e  groups approached  s i g n i f i c a n c e ( X = 11.91, 2  p «^  .04),  w h i c h c a n b e a c c o u n t e d f o r b y t h e m o v e m e n t of c o l l e g e a g e s t u d e n t s i n t o t h e l a b o u r force for the first time. T h e d i f f e r e n c e b y p r o g r a m m e i n s a l a r y i n c r e a s e is s h o w n i n t a b l e 24.  61  TABLE 24 Increase in salary by p r o g r a m m e Increase in salary Not applicable  none  0$100  $101 200  $201 300  over $300  %  %  %  %  %  %  Academic  49%  20%  10%  2%  2%  17%  Agriculture  33%  17%  A u t o b o d y Repair  14%  14%  7%  7%  18%  9%  27%  Programme  A u t o m o t i v e Mechanics  17%  Business Administration Business C a r e e r s  22%  16%  18%  Carpentry and Joinery  13%  22%  22%  9%  35%  Counselling  35%  C o o k Training  46%  C o l l e g e Foundations  33% 7%  50% 46%  33%  67%  6%  38% 44%  12%  12%  21%  6%  12%  6%  41%  8%  15%  31%  67%  33%  Camp Cooking  12%  Dental Assisting  18%  27%  9%  9%  37%  Heavy Duty Mechanics  11 %  19%  7%  4%  59%  M e c h a n i c a l Practises  27%  18%  18%  Visual A r t s  50%  Welding  36% 50%  9%  9%  82% 67%  W e l d i n g Upgrading  33%  Employment O r i e n t a t i o n for W o m e n  75%  25%  Heavy Duty Truck Driving  38%  25%  Homemakers  25%  25% 62  38% 25%  25%  The  relationship  between  increase  in s a l a r y  cupation after college was significant ( X - 9 . 2 1 , p 2  There was  <  and  satisfaction with  oc-  .001).  n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in i n c r e a s e in s a l a r y  by last  grade  completed.  13. H o w  well  do you  feel  p r e p a r e d y o u f o r a job in that a r e a ?  the programme  at N o r t h e r n  College  ( N - 288)  A s s e s s m e n t of j o b p r e p a r a t i o n  Over  Lights  N  %  Very well  76  26%  Well  84  29%  Somewhat  64  22%  A little  32  11%  Not at all  32  11% at the C o l l e g e  had  p r e p a r e d t h e m w e l l o r v e r y w e l l f o r a j o b in t h e i r a r e a of s t u d i e s , b u t w h e n  con-  sidering  only  h a l f of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s  job-specific  felt their p r o g r a m m e  programmes  the  assessment  s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t , as s h o w n by t h e f i g u r e s in t a b l e 25.  63  of  job  preparation  is  T A B L E 25 A s s e s s m e n t of j o b p r e p a r a t i o n i n j o b - s p e c i f i c p r o g r a m m e s N  %  Very well  70  32%  Well  67  31%  Somewhat  45  21%  A little  22  10%  Not at all  15  7%  A s s e s s m e n t of j o b p r e p a r a t i o n  Table  26  shows  respondents'  assessments  programme.  64  of  job  preparation  in  each  TABLE 26 Preparation for job by programme Very well  Programme N  %  Well N  Somewhat N  %  Not at all  A little N  %  N  %  Academic  3  10%  6  8  26%  4  13%  10  32%  Agriculture  6  50%  2  1  8%  1  8%  2  17%  Autobody Repairs  3  21%  2  4  29%  3  21%  2  14%  Automotive Mechanics  7  58%  3  2  16%  Business Administration  3  Business Careers  16  31%  17  12  23%  2  4%  5  10%  Carpentry and Joinery  9  38%  8  5  21%  1  4%  1  4%  College Foundations  3  9%  10  10  29%  6  17%  6  17%  Counselling  4  27%  2  6  40%  3  20%  Cook Training  1  8%  5  3  25%  2  17%  1  8%  Camp Cooking  1  33%  1  Dental Assisting  2  20%  2  3  30%  1 - 10%  2  20%  Heavy Duty Mechanics  5  20%  9  7  28%  3  12%  l;  4%  Mechanical Practices  7  64%  2  1  9%  l  9%  1  9%  1  25%  Visual Arts  1 33%  1  Welding  3  27%  5  Welding Upgrading  1 33%  2  Women  1 25%  1  Heavy Duty Truck Driving  3  50%  1  2  33%  Homemakers  1  25%  2  1  25%  Employment  Total  Orientation  2  18%  1  25%  for  76  84  65  64  32  32  There  was  a  significant  relationship  (X  2  » 52.83,  p  .001)  between  satisfaction with college p r o g r a m m e a n d assessment of how well that p r o g r a m m e p r e p a r e d respondents for a job in the field (table 27). T h e s e results must be r e v i e w e d with caution, however, b e c a u s e of the small numbers involved.  TABLE 27 Satisfaction with p r o g r a m m e by assessment of preparation for a job  Assessment  Partially satisfied  V e r y satisfied or satisfied N  ;  %  N  %  Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied N  %  1  10%  V e r y well  76  31% /  Well  75  31%  9  25%  Somewhat  51  21%  13  36%  A little  18  7%  9  25%  5  50%  Not at all  23  10%  5  14%  4  40%  243  84%  36  13%  10  4%  Total  X ' s 52.83, p <• .001  66  14. If your job is not related to your p r o g r a m m e ot Northern Lights College, what is the O N E most important r e a s o n ?  (N - 138)  %  N N.L.C. p r o g r a m m e not job-related  40  29%  W a n t e d to e x p l o r e other possibilities  35  25%  C o u l d not find job in field  29  21%  Better pay than in field  17  12%  Better opportunity for a d v a n c e m e n t  11  8%  Did not want to work in field  4  3%  Other  2  1%  138  100%  Total  Twenty-nine per cent of respondents indicated their college w e r e not job related, closely a p p r o x i m a t i n g the 2 8 % enrolled  in  non  job-specific p r o g r a m m e s ;  namely,  programmes  of respondents w h o w e r e Academic  Studies,  College  Foundations, Visual Arts, and Employment Orientation for W o m e n . Table 28 summarizes the reasons respondents' current jobs w e r e not related to their college p r o g r a m m e s for those in the labour force.  67  TABLE 28 Reasons job unrelated to college p r o g r a m m e for those in the labour force  %  Reason job unrelated  N  W a n t e d to e x p l o r e other possibilities  21  26%  C o u l d not find job in field  18  23%  Better pay than in field  15  19%  P r o g r a m m e not job-related  13  16%  Better opportunity for a d v a n c e m e n t  9  11 %  Did not want to work in field  2  3%  other  2  Total  80  ..  3%  100%  Table 29 shows reasons current jobs w e r e not related to p r o g r a m m e in each programme area.  68  TABLE 29 Reason job unrelated to college programme by programme  /  f  /  /•  /  /  / Programme  N  %  Academic  20  74%  N  %  N  %  1  N  %  N  2  7%  1 20%  1 20%  2  40%  Autobody Repair  2  25%  3  38%  1  13%  Automotive Mechanics  1 20%  3  60%  1  20%  8  37%  4  18%  1  5%  1  17%  1  17%  1  1  4%  2  2  25%  1 20%  <? a  <r • -j-  4%  Agriculture  5*  %  N  v  j!  <?  o  %  3  11 %  2  25%  6  27%  17%  2  33%  8%  4  17%  4  67%  5  63%  3  30%  N  % 1 4  Business Administration Business Careers  2  9%  Carpentry and Joinery College Foundations  14  58%  3  13%  Counselling  1  17%  1  17%  Cook Training  1  13%  Camp Cooking  1  5%  1 17  1 100%  Dental Assisting  2  67%  Heavy Duty Mechanics  6  60%  Mechanical Practices  3  75%  1 33% 1  10%  1 25%  Visual Arts Welding  3 100%  Welding Upgrading Employment Orientation for Women  1 50%  1 50%  Heavy Duty Truck Driving  2 100%  Homemakers Total  1 50% 40  29  1 50% 17  11  69  4  35  2  Responses  from  students  who  had  been  e n r o l l e d in  pre-employment  p r o g r a m m e s c o m p a r e d with those enrolled in pre-apprenticeship p r o g r a m m e s show s o m e differences in the reasons current jobs a r e not related to college programmes, as shown in table 30.  TABLE 30 Reason job unrelated to college p r o g r a m m e for p r e - e m p l o y m e n t and pre-apprenticeship p r o g r a m m e s Pre-employment programmes  Reason job unrelated  Pre-apprenticeship programmes  %  N  %  W a n t e d to e x p l o r e other possibilities  21  38%  1  3%  Could not find job in field  16  29%  11  37%  Better pay than in field  8  14%  7  23%  P r o g r a m m e not job-related  5  9%  Better opportunity for a d v a n c e m e n t  3  5%.  4  13%  Did not want to work in field  3  5%  7  23%  56  100%  30  100%  Total  Respondents  with different educational backgrounds  N  tended to cite dif-  ferent reasons their current jobs w e r e not related to their college p r o g r a m m e s , as shown in table 31.  70  TABLE 31 Reason job unrelated to college p r o g r a m m e by level of formal education b e f o r e college Less than g r a d e 12  Reason job unrelated  G r a d e 12 or m o r e  N  %  N  %  W a n t e d to e x p l o r e other possibilities  19  28%  13  23%  C o u l d not find job in field  18  26%  9  16%  P r o g r a m m e not job related  16  23%  21  37%  Better pay than in field  9  13%  7  12%  Better opportunity for a d v a n c e m e n t  4  6%  5  9%  Did not want to work in field  2  3%  1  2%  Other  1  1%  1  2%  60  100%  57  100%  Total  The relationship between satisfaction with occupation after college and reason job was unrelated to college p r o g r a m m e could not be a s s e s s e d statistically because of the small numbers; h o w e v e r table 32 reports the results.  71  T A B L E 32 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a f t e r c o l l e g e by r e a s o n job u n r e l a t e d to c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e  Very satisfied or satisfied  Reason job u n r e l a t e d  N  •  Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied  Partially satisfied  %  N  %  N  %  P r o g r a m m e not j o b - r e l a t e d  27  30%  7  27%  6  27%  C o u l d not f i n d job in f i e l d  10  11%  7  27%  11  50%  B e t t e r p a y t h a n in f i e l d  10  11%  5  19%  2  9%  Better opportunity for advancement  7  8%  4  15%  D i d not w a n t to w o r k in f i e l d  3  3%  30  34%  3  12%  2  9%  2  2%  89  100%  26  100%  22  100%  W a n t e d to e x p l o r e other possibilities Other  Total  15. If y o u r j o b is n o t r e l a t e d t o y o u r p r o g r a m m e a t N o r t h e r n L i g h t s C o l l e g e , d o y o u s t i l l p l a n t o w o r k i n t h e a r e a of y o u r t r a i n i n g ? yes  119  78%  no  33  22%  O f t h o s e w h o i n d i c a t e d t h e y w e r e not c u r r e n t l y w o r k i n g in t h e a r e a s their college programmes, sidering  only  job-specific  of  m o r e t h a n t h r e e - q u a r t e r s p l a n n e d to d o so. W h e n c o n programmes,  the  figures  change  slightly:  82%  of  r e s p o n d e n t s (86) s t i l l p l a n t o w o r k i n t h e a r e a s of t h e i r c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s ; 1 8 % of r e s p o n d e n t s (19) d o n o t . The  relationship between  plans  72  to w o r k  in t h e a r e a  of  training  and  satisfaction with current occupation was not significant. The relationship b e t w e e n plans  to work  in the a r e a of training  and  satisfaction with college p r o g r a m m e also was not significant.  16. If you have b e e n a student since leaving Northern Lights C o l l e g e (or a r e currently in school), a) w e r e / a r e your studies related to your first p r o g r a m m e at Northern Lights College?  (N-86) yes  54  63%  no  32  37%  O n e - q u a r t e r of respondents indicated they had taken s o m e kind of further studies since attending Northern Lights C o l l e g e a n d almost two-thirds of those continuing (54, 6 3 % ) indicated their studies w e r e related to their p r o g r a m m e at Northern Lights C o l l e g e . There was no significant difference b e t w e e n those w h o continued their education and those w h o did not w h e n considering level of satisfaction with their p r o g r a m m e s at Northern Lights C o l l e g e . b) what educational institute did you attend (are you attending)?  (N - 78)  N.L.C.  23  30%  U.ofA.  4  5%  B.C. college  21  27%  O t h e r A l b e r t a institute  4  5%  7  9%  U. Victoria  B.C. Institute 4% of Technology  3  O p e n Learning Institute  3  U.B.C.  4% 6  7%  Simon Fraser U.  4%  4 5% Other 3 There was s o m e discrepancy b e t w e e n the number of respondents  who  indicated they had taken further studies (86) and the number who indicated the  73  institution attended (78). c) How satisifed w e r e you with your preparation at Northern Lights C o l l e g e for further studies?  (N - 125)  D e g r e e of satisfaction  N  %  V e r y satisfied  34  27%  Satisfied  70  56%  Partially satisfied  14  1 1 %o  Dissatisfied  4  3%  V e r y dissatisfied  3  2%  Eighty-three per cent of the 78 respondents w h o indicated they had attended another educational institute since their p r o g r a m m e  at Northern Lights  C o l l e g e w e r e satisfied with their preparation for further studies. Seven respondents (5%) w h o had continued their education e x p r e s s e d dissatisfaction.  Additional Comments O v e r half of the respondents (173, 5 2 % ) chose to m a k e additional comments in the space provided at the e n d of the questionnaire. Thirty per cent of those m a k i n g comments m a d e at least two comments and several w r o t e lengthy letters. Table 33 gives the c o d e d responses and a p p e n d i x B quotes many comments verbatim.  74  TABLE 33 Comments  N  G e n e r a l , positive comments  47  Other  40  Current situation  30  Relationship of p r o g r a m m e to current situation (positive)  25  Plan to continue education  24  Job-related problems  10  W a n t m o r e practical work in p r o g r a m m e  9  G e n e r a l recommendations  8  G e n e r a l comments on p r o g r a m m e  •  7  Want a d v a n c e d p r o g r a m m e / c o u r s e in field  6  G e n e r a l negative comments  5  R e c o m m e n d a t i o n for m o r e course work, additional courses  5  Relationship of p r o g r a m m e to current situation (negative)  4  Future plans  2  Want m o r e theory in p r o g r a m m e  2  G e n e r a l negative comments  1  Total  225  75  B. INTER-ITEM RESULTS, DISCUSSION A N D C O N C L U S I O N S A s the overall purpose of this study is to obtain, from f o r m e r students of Northern Lights C o l l e g e , information which could be u s e d to plan and implement p r o g r a m m e a n d service improvements in the C o l l e g e offerings. This section deals with questionnaire items a n d groupings of items which specifically address the goals of the study. To reiterate, the goals a r e : to assess student satisfaction with the college e x p e r i e n c e and d e t e r m i n e reasons for early withdrawal: to assess the r e l e v a n c e (from the students' point of view) of the college e x p e r i e n c e to e m ployment a n d further education; a n d to assess both the c h a n g e in students' socioeconomic status a n d their job satisfaction prior to enrollment at the C o l l e g e c o m p a r e d with two y e a r s after leaving the C o l l e g e . Reference is m a d e to the pertinent question numbers prior to the discussion of each section.  1. T h e C o l l e g e E x p e r i e n c e (questions 5, 6, 8 and 9) a) Satisfaction with the college e x p e r i e n c e O v e r three-quarters of respondents indicated they w o u l d choose the s a m e p r o g r a m m e if they had college to do over a g a i n . O l d e r students w e r e significantly m o r e likely to indicate they w o u l d choose the s a m e p r o g r a m m e than w e r e collegea g e students (table 12), suggesting greater consistency in educational or c a r e e r choices a m o n g the older group. This difference could be due to better a w a r e n e s s of the C o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s and careers or to the life e x p e r i e n c e of the older students. Eighty-one per cent of respondents indicated they w e r e very satisfied or satisfied with three aspects of their college e x p e r i e n c e . The greatest dissatisfaction was reported with sponsoring agency which, while part of the college e x p e r i e n c e , is  76  not under the control of the C o l l e g e . Table 34 summarizes student satisfaction with four aspects of the college e x p e r i e n c e .  TABLE 34 Satisfaction with four aspects of the college e x p e r i e n c e  V e r y satisfied or satisfied  Partially satisfied  Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied  N  %  N  %  N  %  Programme  274  85%  38  12%  10  4%  Instructors  267  83%  36  11%  18  6%  C o l l e g e life, in g e n e r a l  236  81%  41  14%  14  5%  Sponsoring agency  147  69%  40  19%  27  13%  The majority of comments r e c e i v e d in response to the three o p e n - e n d e d questions w e r e f a v o u r a b l e to the C o l l e g e . In response to the question, "What did you like most about N o r t h e r n Lights C o l l e g e ? " 436 comments w e r e m a d e . This c o m p a r e s with 245 comments in response to the question, " W h a t did you like least about Northern Lights C o l l e g e ? " The section at the end of the questionnaire p r o d u c e d many comments describing respondents' activities, plans a n d problems, a n d m a k i n g recommendations, but it also y i e l d e d 47 g e n e r a l comments f a v o u r a b l e to the C o l l e g e , c o m p a r e d with five negative comments. |t can b e c o n c l u d e d that, two y e a r s after enrollment, most students v i e w e d their college e x p e r i e n c e positively. H o w e v e r , while reporting overall satisfacton, 77  students d i d not g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n that their t i m e at N o r t h e r n Lights C o l l e g e f r e e of m a j o r c o n c e r n s a n d p r o b l e m s , a n d m a n y s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e m e n t  was were  made.  b) R e a s o n s f o r e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l ( q u e s t i o n 7) Respondents  r e p o r t e d a v a r i e t y of r e a s o n s f o r e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l f r o m t h e i r  c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s . M o s t f r e q u e n t l y , w o r k - r e l a t e d r e a s o n s w e r e cited, but no c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n c a n b e m a d e b e t w e e n t h o s e w h o c h o s e t o w o r k a n d t h o s e w h o f o u n d it n e c e s s a r y t o d o so, d e s p i t e t h e a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e d e f i n i t i v e i t e m s f o r r e s p o n s e  on  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . For e x a m p l e , respondents m a y h a v e c h o s e n to indicate that they " p r e f e r r e d to w o r k " r a t h e r t h a n that t h e y " r a n out of m o n e y " . Family  responsibilities w e r e also  listed as a f r e q u e n t r e a s o n  for  early  w i t h d r a w a l , e s p e c i a l l y a m o n g w o m e n students. This c a t e g o r y c o u l d i n c l u d e illness in the family, problems finding babysitters or daycare facilities, emotional  demands,  e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s o r a p r e g n a n c y . B e c a u s e of the a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g n a t u r e of this r e s p o n s e i t e m , it is n o t p o s s i b l e t o s p e c u l a t e a s t o p o s s i b l e r e m e d i e s . Dissatisfaction with the p r o g r a m m e or instructor accounted for a sizeable n u m b e r of e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l s . T w i c e a s m a n y w o m e n  as m e n indicated they  had  w i t h d r a w n f o r o n e of t h e s e r e a s o n s . T h i s m a y i n d i c a t e t h a t w o m e n h a v e i n a d e q u a t e information about  a  programme  prior to enrolling and  their expectations  are  therefore not met. Forty-seven population, compared  women,  representing  w i t h 22 m e n ,  27%  representing  population withdrew from their college programmes e q u a l n u m b e r of m a l e a n d f e m a l e r e s p o n d e n t s  of 14%  the  female  of t h e m a l e  respondent respondent  before completion. Since  an  w i t h d r e w for r e a s o n s r e l a t e d to  a c a d e m i c success, but for all other reasons there w e r e m o r e responses f r o m w o m e n  78  t h a n f r o m m e n , this s e e m s to s u g g e s t that w o m e n e n c o u n t e r b a r r i e r s to e d u c a t i o n w h i c h do not exist for m a l e students. Data on marital status a n d family income w e r e not g a t h e r e d by this study, but further investigation m a y w e l l r e v e a l a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l of w o m e n students a n d s o c i o l o g i c a l p h e n o m e n a s u c h as p r o b l e m s of s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s a n d j o b g h e t t o s f o r w o m e n . (In c o n s i d e r i n g t h e t h r u s t o f t h i s s t u d y , it w a s d e c i d e d t h a t d a t a o n m a r i t a l s t a t u s a n d f a m i l y i n c o m e w o u l d n o t b e c o l l e c t e d . T h i s d a t a w o u l d h a v e b e e n of l i m i t e d u s e f u l n e s s a n d have reduced the response  may  r a t e b e c a u s e o f its p e r s o n a l f o c u s . ) R e s u l t s f r o m t h e  study r e v e a l t h a t m o r e w o m e n t h a n m e n w i t h d r e w b e c a u s e t h e y r a n out of  money  and for health reasons, but the small numbers m a d e statistical analysis impossible. T h e r e w a s a n i n d i c a t i o n that m o r e w o m e n t h a n m e n w i t h d r e w b e c a u s e of f a m i l y responsiblities, but that d i f f e r e n c e w a s not significant o n a t w o - t a i l e d z-test (p  .09). T h e r e a s o n s f o r w i t h d r a w a l b e f o r e c o m p l e t i o n of c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s  are  v a r i e d , but substantially m o r e w o m e n than m e n do not c o m p l e t e their studies. There could b e m a n y reasons for this disparity. W o m e n a p p e a r to encounter m o r e barriers to e d u c a t i o n a n d programmes  more  difficulty o v e r c o m i n g  those  barriers than  men.  College  m a y n o t b e s u i t e d t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s of w o m e n o r m a y n o t b e  f l e x i b l e e n o u g h t o m e e t t h o s e n e e d s . It is a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t w o m e n d o n o t p e r c e i v e college education as w o r t h w h i l e a n d a r e t h e r e f o r e less likely to c o m p l e t e their p r o g r a m m e s . F u r t h e r s t u d y is r e q u i r e d t o d e t e r m i n e if t h i s is t h e c a s e a n d , if s o , t o w h a t e x t e n t it is a f u n c t i o n of t h e k i n d s o f c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s available for w o m e n .  79  and  employment  2. Relevance of C o l l e g e Education to Employment and Further Education a) Relevance of college education to e m p l o y m e n t (questions 13, 14, 15) Slightly less than two-thirds of respondents in job-specific p r o g r a m m e s felt that their p r o g r a m m e s had p r e p a r e d t h e m w e l l or very w e l l for a job in their fields of training. In s o m e specific job-related p r o g r a m m e s ,  as many as 35 per cent of  respondents indicated their p r o g r a m m e s had p r e p a r e d them " a little" or "not at a l l " for a job. Students entering job-specific p r o g r a m m e s could be e x p e c t e d to express dissatisfaction with their p r o g r a m m e s if they did not receive a d e q u a t e preparation for a job a n d , i n d e e d , there is a significant relationship b e t w e e n satisfaction with college p r o g r a m m e and assessment of preparation for a job ( X s 5 2 . 8 3 , p « ^ .001). 2  Students in job-specific p r o g r a m m e s e x p e c t training that will p r e p a r e them w e l l for a job in the field a n d satisfaction with a college p r o g r a m m e is, in part, d e p e n d e n t upon a d e q u a t e job preparation. Thirty-six per cent of the 236 respondents programmes  g a v e reasons  who  had taken  job-related  for not currently being e m p l o y e d in their fields of  training. A l m o s t half of those not e m p l o y e d in their fields indicated they could not find a job in the field or there was better pay or better opportunity for a d v a n c e m e n t in their current jobs than in their fields of training. T w o other options ("did not want to work in f i e l d " a n d " w a n t e d to e x p l o r e other possibilities") w e r e choices available for those not w o r k i n g in their fields of training by p r e f e r e n c e . It can therefore be a s s u m e d that the half w h o could not find a job or found better opportunities in other fields would have p r e f e r r e d to work in their fields of training. M a n y comments m a d e by students support this contention (see a p p e n d i x B). It can be concluded that the majority of those w h o e n t e r e d the C o l l e g e for training in specific fields still w i s h e d to b e e m p l o y e d in those fields two y e a r s after training, despite having o b t a i n e d m o r e 80  lucrative e m p l o y m e n t in o t h e r f i e l d s . Table  32  indicates  that  students  who  had  taken  pre-apprenticeship  p r o g r a m m e s e x p e r i e n c e d g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y e m p l o y m e n t in t h e i r f i e l d s of t r a i n i n g t h a n d i d students w h o h a d t a k e n p r e - e m p l o y m e n t p r o g r a m m e s ,  but  the difference between the two groups was  in-  not significant. A m o r e t h o r o u g h  v e s t i g a t i o n is r e q u i r e d t o d e t e r m i n e if t h e r e is a r e a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o t r a i n i n g m e t h o d s a n d , if s o , if t h i s is a f u n c t i o n of t h e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p a p p r o a c h t o t r a i n i n g , t h e j o b m a r k e t , o r s o m e o t h e r v a r i a b l e o r c o m b i n a t i o n of v a r i a b l e s . The  relationship  between  "reason  current  job  not  related  to  college  p r o g r a m m e " a n d t h e l a s t g r a d e c o m p l e t e d w a s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t ( t a b l e 31). T h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t m o r e s t u d e n t s w i t h l e s s t h a n g r a d e 12 e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g a j o b i n t h e f i e l d w h e n c o m p a r e d t o t h o s e w i t h g r a d e 12 o r m o r e . T h i s w o u l d s u g g e s t that high school g r a d u a t e s a r e m o r e likely to find e m p l o y m e n t than applicants w i t h s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g but l a c k i n g a high school d i p l o m a . The  greatest  amount  of  dissatisfaction  with  current  occupation  when  c o m p a r e d w i t h " r e a s o n n o t c u r r e n t l y e m p l o y e d i n f i e l d of t r a i n i n g " w a s e x p r e s s e d b y t h o s e w h o c o u l d n o t f i n d a j o b i n t h e f i e l d . T h e l e v e l s of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n e x p r e s s e d b y t h o s e w h o h a d f o u n d a job w i t h s o m e c o m p e n s a t i n g f a c t o r (for e x a m p l e , b e t t e r pay or better opportunity for advancement)  indicated they w e r e more  r e c o n c i l e d to  w o r k i n g o u t s i d e t h e a r e a of t h e i r t r a i n i n g . O v e r t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of t h o s e w h o w e r e n o t e m p l o y e d  in t h e i r a r e a s  of  t r a i n i n g i n d i c a t e d t h e y p l a n n e d t o w o r k in t h e i r f i e l d s s o m e t i m e i n t h e f u t u r e . T h e l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c u r r e n t o c c u p a t i o n h a d n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e s e plans, indicating that satisfactory e m p l o y m e n t  in a n o t h e r f i e l d is n o t a s u f f i c i e n t  d i s t r a c t i o n t o k e e p r e s p o n d e n t s p e r m a n e n t l y a w a y f r o m t h e i r f i e l d s of t r a i n i n g .  81  Dissatisfaction  with  the  college  programme  also  had  no  significant  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o r e s p o n d e n t s ' d e s i r e s t o w o r k i n t h e i r a r e a s of t r a i n i n g . T h i s  would  suggest that an unsatisfactory introduction to the field, f r o m the respondents'  point  of v i e w , d i d n o t d e t e r r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m a c o n s i s t e n t d e s i r e t o w o r k i n t h e a r e a of training originally chosen. It c a n b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s w h o e n r o l l e d in job-specific p r o g r a m m e s still w i s h e d to w o r k in their fields t w o y e a r s a f t e r t r a i n i n g .  b) R e l e v a n c e of c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n t o f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n ( q u e s t i o n 16) A p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - q u a r t e r of r e s p o n d e n t s  indicated they had  continued  w i t h f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n a f t e r l e a v i n g N o r t h e r n L i g h t s C o l l e g e . T w o - t h i r d s of  those  w h o h a d c o n t i n u e d h a d t a k e n studies r e l a t e d to their p r o g r a m m e s at N o r t h e r n Lights College. T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r o g r a m m e at N o r t h e r n L i g h t s C o l l e g e a n d c o n t i n u i n g s t u d i e s w a s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . It c a n b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t a satisfactory educational e x p e r i e n c e at N o r t h e r n  Lights C o l l e g e d i d not s e e m  to  e n c o u r a g e students to pursue f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n a n d a dissatisfactory e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e d i d not s e e m to d e t e r students f r o m continuing. O t h e r factors, such as a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , p l a y m o r e i m p o r t a n t r o l e s in  students'  decisions to c o n t i n u e their e d u c a t i o n . T h e m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s  who  w e n t on to f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s  r e t u r n e d t o N o r t h e r n L i g h t s C o l l e g e o r w e n t t o a n o t h e r B.C. c o l l e g e . T h i s is p a r t l y a r e s u l t of t h e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p p r o g r a m m e  w h i c h requires a p p r e n t i c e s to return to  college for upgrading. S e v e n t e e n r e s p o n d e n t s w e n t t o B.C. u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d f o u r c o n t i n u e d t h e i r s t u d i e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a . T h i s g r o u p is c o m p r i s e d c h i e f l y of s t u d e n t s  82  who  w e r e e n r o l l e d i n t h e A c a d e m i c S t u d i e s p r o g r a m m e , a n d it c a n t h e r e f o r e b e i n f e r r e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d of a l l a c a d e m i c s t u d e n t s t r a n s f e r t o u n i v e r s i t y . T h i s c o m p a r e s w i t h t h e B.C. R e s e a r c h S t u d y w h i c h f o u n d 2 9 % of N o r t h e r n L i g h t s C o l l e g e a c a d e m i c s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n ( n o t e d o n p.10). T h e v a s t m a j o r i t y of r e s p o n d e n t s  (83%) w e r e satisfied or very satisfied with  t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n a t N o r t h e r n L i g h t s C o l l e g e f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s . It c a n b e c o n c l u d e d from these data that students w h o continue their education a r e satisfied w i t h studies t a k e n at N o r t h e r n Lights C o l l e g e a r e a p p r o p r i a t e to f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n .  3. C h a n g e i n S o c i o - e c o n o m i c S t a t u s a n d J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n a) F u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t ( q u e s t i o n s 1 a n d 10) F i f t y - s i x p e r c e n t of r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e e m p l o y e d f u l l t i m e b e f o r e a t t e n d i n g college compared with 7 1 %  a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e . T h e n u m b e r of  respondents  u n e m p l o y e d a n d s e e k i n g w o r k d e c r e a s e d a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e . T a b l e 35 c o m pares full-time e m p l o y m e n t status before a n d after attending college.  83  college Employment status  Before College  After College  N  %  N  %  180  56%  229  71%  Not e m p l o y e d full time, not seeking w o r k  77  24%  51  16%  Not e m p l o y e d full time, s e e k i n g w o r k  64  20%  41  13%  321  100%  321  100%  Employed full-time  Total  T a b l e 36 s u m m a r i z e s f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t status by s e x . The p r o p o r t i o n of both male a n d f e m a l e respondents employed full-time increased after enrollment at the College, but the percentage increase w a s substantially m o r e for males than for f e m a l e s . A C h i - s q u a r e test r e v e a l e d that t h e d i f f e r e n c e in f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t by sex w a s statistically significant before (X =8.58, p 2  p ^  .001) a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e . It is d i f f i c u l t t o m a k e  t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s b e c a u s e of w o m e n  .005) a n d a f t e r ( X = 4 7 . 3 8 , 2  conclusive statements  about  o p t i n g o u t of t h e l a b o u r f o r c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y  b e c a u s e of f a m i l y responsibilities. A n analysis of v a r i a n c e r e v e a l e d a significant d i f f e r e n c e i n f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t s t a t u s b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s (F = 3 9 . 4 2 , p  .001)  a n d a significant d i f f e r e n c e in f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t status b e f o r e a n d a f t e r c o l l e g e (F-2579,  p  .001).  The analysis  of v a r i a n c e a l s o s h o w e d  that the difference  b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s in f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t status w a s g r e a t e r a f t e r c o l l e g e than b e f o r e ( F * 7.63, p ^  .01).  84  T A B L E 36 Full-time e m p l o y m e n t status by s e x b e f o r e a n d after a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e E m p l o y m e n t status  Male  %  N  %  98  65%  82  48%  137  90%  92  55%  N Employed full-time before college Employed full-time after college  Female  T h e r e w a s a n i n c r e a s e in t h e p r o p o r t i o n of r e s p o n d e n t s e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e f o r b o t h c o l l e g e - a g e a n d a d u l t - a g e r e s p o n d e n t s ( t a b l e 37). For both groups, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 5 %  more respondents w e r e employed full-time  a f t e r h a v i n g a t t e n d e d c o l l e g e . T h e r e w a s s o m e i n d i c a t i o n of a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the t w o a g e groups, but the d i f f e r e n c e w a s not highly significant. (X b e f o r e ; X * 4.48, p 2  2  - 3.42, p <-  .03 a f t e r ) .  T A B L E 37 Full-time e m p l o y m e n t status by a g e b e f o r e a n d after a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e Employment status  College-age 15-24  Adult-age o v e r 24  N  %  N  %  Employed full-time before college  122  60%  57  49%  Employed full-time after college  154  76%  74  64%  85  .06  Table 38 c o m p a r e s full-time e m p l o y m e n t status b e f o r e and after college. Sixty-seven per cent of the respondents reported no change in e m p l o y m e n t status after attending college: 4 7 % of those w h o w e r e e m p l o y e d full-time b e f o r e college w e r e e m p l o y e d full-time after college; 2 0 % of those w h o w e r e u n e m p l o y e d b e f o r e college w e r e u n e m p l o y e d after college. T h e r e is a significant relationship b e t w e e n full-time e m p l o y m e n t before a n d after college (X = 32.85, p *< 2  .001). T a b l e 38  c o m p a r e s full-time e m p l o y m e n t status b e f o r e and after college.  TABLE 38 Full-time e m p l o y m e n t status b e f o r e a n d after attending college Employed Employment status  full-time before col lege  Employed full-time after college Not e m p l o y e d full-time after college  Not e m p l o y e d full-time b e f o r e col lege  N  %  N  %  149  47%  78  24%  28  9%  64  20%  b) Occupational G r o u p (questions l a and 10a) The questionnaire a s k e d respondents what they w e r e doing both b e f o r e a n d after college. From the responses,  information was obtained about the oc-  cupational groups in which respondents w e r e represented. Table 39 shows the occupational groups of respondents  e m p l o y e d full-time before enrolling at the  college and after leaving the college. The groups which s h o w e d the greatest in-  86  c r e a s e in n u m b e r s a f t e r c o l l e g e a r e t h e s k i l l e d a n d s e m i - s k i l l e d occupations, w h i l e unskilled and service occupations showed the greatest decreases  in n u m b e r s .  (All  a p p r e n t i c e s a n d h e l p e r s w e r e p l a c e d in t h e c a t e g o r y " s e m i - s k i l l e d " w h i l e t h o s e f e w respondents  in t h e t r a d e s a r e a s w h o h a d b e e n a b l e to c o m p l e t e t h e i r  journeymen's  qualifications w e r e classified as "skilled".)  T A B L E 39 Occupational group before and after attending college Occupational group  Before college  After college  N  %  N  %  Clerical  43  20%  51  21%  Farmer  12  6%  15  6%  4  2%  3  1%  20  9%  11  5%  4  2%  4  2%  Sales  18  8%  6  3%  Semi-skilled  30  14%  67  28%  Service  34  16%  19  8%  Skilled  17  8%  33  14%  Technical  3  1%  7  3%  Transport  6  3%  8  3%  Unskilled  19  9%  6  3%  6  3%  7  3%  216  100%  237  100%  Managerial Mining/Logging Professional  Other/Self-employed  Total  87  T a b l e 40 s h o w s o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p by s e x b e f o r e a n d a f t e r c o l l e g e . W h i l e there  appears  respondents  to  who  be have  a  larger changed  percentage  of  male  respondents  than  female  to a n o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n after c o l l e g e , the  small  n u m b e r s p r e c l u d e s s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of t h e s e r e s u l t s . M e n a n d w o m e n d o n o t s e e m to hold  more  s i m i l a r jobs  after college than  before, indicating that a  e d u c a t i o n d o e s little t o e q u a l i z e t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of m e n a n d w o m e n work force.  88  college in t h e  TABLE 40 O c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p by sex, b e f o r e a n d a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e Occupational group  Male Before college After college N  %  N  %  Female Before college After college N  %  N  %  Clerical  10  9%  7  5%  33  33%  44  44%  Farmer  7  6%  10  7%  5  5%  5  5%  Managerial  1  1%  3  3%  3  3%  20  17%  1  1%  Professional  1  1%  Sales  7  6%  1  27  23%  Service  8  Skilled  Mining/Logging  10  7% 3  3%  4  4%  1%  11  11%  5  5%  64  47%  3  3%  3  3%  7%  3  2%  26  26%  16  16%  6  5%  23  17%  11  11 %  10  10%  Technical  2  2%  1  1%  7  7%  Transport  6  5%  8  6%  Unskilled  17  15%  6  4%  2  2%  3  3%  5  4%  3  3%  2  2%  115  100%  137  100%  101  100%  100  100%  Semi-skilled  Other/ Self-employed  Total  T a b l e 41 s h o w s t h e b r e a k d o w n b y o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p f o r c o l l e g e - a g e  and  a d u l t - a g e r e s p o n d e n t s b e f o r e a n d a f t e r c o l l e g e a t t e n d a n c e . The n u m b e r of c o l l e g e age respondents  is l a r g e r a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e , d u e c h i e f l y t o y o u n g p e o p l e e n -  tering the w o r k force for the first time. 89  TABLE 41 O c c u p a t i o n a l group by age, before a n d after attending college Occupational group  College-age (15-24) Before college A f t e r college  Adult-age (over 24) Before college A f t e r college  N  %  N  %  N  %  N  %  Clerical  30  21%  29  18%  13  18%  21  27%  Farmer  7  5%  10  6%  5  7%  5  6%  A  6%  3  4%  Managerial Mining/Logging  15  10%  Professional  10  6%  5  7%  1  1%  1  1%  4  6%  3  4%  Sales  15  10%  5  3%  3  4%  1  1%  Semi-skilled  22  15%  52  33%  8  11%  15  19%  Service  23  16%  13  8%  11  15%  6  8%  8  6%  18  11%  9  12%  15  19%  4  3%  3  4%  3  4%  3  4%  Skilled Technical Transport  2  1%  5  3%  4  6%  Unskilled  16  11%  6  4%  3  4%  5  4%  4  3%  1  1%  3  4%  143  100%  157  100%  73  100%  79  100%  Other/ Self-employed  Total  The  difference  between  respondents  with  different  educational  backgrounds s e e m e d to d e c r e a s e after college attendance (table 42). For e x a m p l e , there was an increase across all g r a d e levels in the number of respondents e m -  90  ployed in the skilled and semi-skilled areas after college. The smallness  of the  s a m p l e a n d the inclusion of those entering the work force for the first time precludes statistical  analysis  d e t e r m i n e if a  of this a p p a r e n t trend. Further investigation  is required to  college education, regardless of previous education, is a major  determinant of occupational group. It is possible that a college education gives the less e d u c a t e d a better chance to qualify for jobs formerly held only by high school graduates.  91  TABLE 42 O c c u p a t i o n a l group by last g r a d e of schooling c o m p l e t e d Occupational group  Less than g r a d e 12 Before college A f t e r college N  %  N  %  G r a d e 12 or m o r e Before college A f t e r college N  %  N  %  Clerical  16  18%  17  17%  25  23%  31  26%  Farmer  6  7%  6  6%  5  5%  8  7%  2  2%  3  3%  1  1%  6  6%  9  8%  4  3%  3  3%  4  3%  Managerial Mining/Logging  10  11%  Professional  1  1%  Sales  5  6%  2  2%  11  10%  3  2%  Semi-skilled  10  11%  24  24%  17  16%  38  31%  Service  24  27%  14  14%  10  9%  4  3%  Skilled  6  7%  16  16%  8  7%  14  12%  Technical  1  1%  3  3%  2  2%  4  3%  Transport  1  1%  4  4%  5  5%  4  3%  Unskilled  8  9%  1  1%  7  6%  3  2%  3  3%  4  4%  3  2%  Other/ Self-employed  Total  88  100%  98  92  100%  109  100%  121  100%  c) J o b s t a t u s ( q u e s t i o n s l a a n d 10a) In o r d e r t o a s s e s s j o b s t a t u s , t h e r e v i s e d B l i s h e n s o c i o e c o n o m i c s c a l e (1971) was used. People w h o reported full-time household/family duties w e r e assigned  a  r a n k e q u a l to t h e Blishen r a n k for c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e w o r k e r s a n d i n c l u d e d in the c o m p a r i s o n s . T a b l e 4 3 s h o w s t h e r a n k i n g s of t h e r e s p o n d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , i n g r o u p s , b e f o r e a n d after a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e . A C h i - s q u a r e test i n d i c a t e d that t h e r e w a s  a  s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in d i s t r i b u t i o n by s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r a n k b e f o r e a n d after  attending college  (X s= 125.55, J  p «<  .001).  This  means  that there was  a  s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e in s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r a n k a f t e r c o l l e g e w h e n c o m p a r e d w i t h s o c i o economic rank before college.  T A B L E 43 Job status: Blishen socio-economic rank b e f o r e and after attending c o l l e g e Before college  After college  N  %  N  %  13 t h r o u g h 2 9  108  42%  82  30%  30 t h r o u g h 39  57  22%  72  27%  40 t h r o u g h 49  78  30%  71  26%  50 t h r o u g h 59  10  4%  39  14%  6 0 t h r o u g h 74  5  2%  6  2%  100%  270  100%  Rank  Total  258 X si25.55, p 5  93  .001  T h e r e was a significant relationship b e t w e e n sex a n d occupational status both b e f o r e ( X = 60.51, p J  college (table 44). M a l e  .001) a n d after ( X = 113.31, p J  .001)  attending  respondents a r e in lower socio-economic groups  than  f e m a l e respondents, both b e f o r e a n d after college.  TABLE 44 Blishen socioeconomic rank by sex b e f o r e and after college Male Before college A f t e r college  Rank  N  %  i  Female Before college A f t e r c o l l e g e  N  %  N  %  N  %  13 through 29  69  60%  61  45%  39  27%  21  16%  30 through 39  33  29%  59  44%  24  17%  13  10%  40 through 49  8  7%  11  8%  70  49%  60  44%  50 through 59  2  2%  3  2%  8  6%  36  27%  60 through 74  3  3%  1  1%  2  1%  5  4%  115  100%  135  100%  143  100%  135  100%  Total  A s a check on the groupings of Blishen scores, comparisons w e r e d o n e using the actual Blishen scores. The means a r e shown in Table 45.  94  TABLE 45 M e a n Blishen scores, by sex, before a n d after college Male Before college  A f t e r college  Before college  31.804  32.868  37.049  Female A f t e r college 42.671  Results obtained using the actual Blishen scores a n d the groupings of scores w e r e v e r y similar, indicating that the g r o u p e d scores g a v e a reliable a p p r o x i m a t i o n of socio-economic rank, according to the Blishen scale. These data indicate either that f e m a l e s generally have jobs with higher socioeconomic status than males or that the Blishen scale does not give an accurate reflection of socio-economic status.  Several a n o m o l i e s  noted while coding oc-  cupations strengthen the contention that the Blishen scale is in n e e d of revision. For e x a m p l e , a roughneck on the oil rigs has a higher socio-economic rank than a w e l d e r a n d a farm labourer has a higher rank than a farmer. A l s o bringing the Blishen scale into question is the fact that m e n a n d w o m e n a r e r a n k e d equally for the s a m e job despite e v i d e n c e e q u a l pay often is not e a r n e d for e q u a l work. A r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s analysis of v a r i a n c e indicated that the difference in socio-economic p  rank  between  males  and  females  was  significant  (F=37.82,  <*£>.001) with f e m a l e s scoring higher than males and the interaction, or the  change in Blishen rank was different for males and f e m a l e s (F=> 9.23, p ^  .005).  A n analysis of v a r i a n c e of socio-economic status and last g r a d e of formal education indicated a significant (F«9.90, p  change  in socio-economic rank after college  .005), with respondents moving u p w a r d on the Blishen scale. Neither  95  the difference between  grade  levels nor the change between  grade  levels  was  significant.  d) J o b s a t i s f a c t i o n ( q u e s t i o n s 2 a n d 11) T h i r t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t of r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e i n d i c a t e d t h e y w e r e satisfied or very satisfied with what they w e r e doing compared with 7 6 % change (X  2 s s  before attending  after attending college, which represents a highly  46.71, p  .001). A l m o s t o n e - t h i r d o f r e s p o n d e n t s  college,  significant  in the l a b o u r f o r c e  indicated they w e r e dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with what they w e r e before college, compared with 8 %  doing  a f t e r c o l l e g e . It c a n b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t q c o l l e g e  e d u c a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s to f i n d i n g s a t i s f y i n g e m p l o y m e n t . F i g u r e s a r e s h o w n in t a b l e 46.  TABLE 46 Satisfaction with occupation before and after attending college, for those in the l a b o u r f o r c e D e g r e e of s a t i s f a c t i o n  Before college  After college  N  %  N  %  Very satisfied or satisfied  57  37%  119  76%  Partially satisfied  51  33%  26  1 7 %o  Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied  48  31%  12  8 %o  X  2  - 4 6 . 7 1 , p <=£  96  .001  Figures on satisfaction with occupation, by sex, a r e shown in table 47. The relationship b e t w e e n sex a n d satisfaction with occupation was not significant either b e f o r e or after college; however, respondents of both sexes reported a significant increase in job satisfaction after attending college ( X » 2 6 . 8 7 , p  .001 for males;  2  X s27.92, p  .001 for females). T h e s e d a t a suggest that college is beneficial to  2  both males and f e m a l e s in terms of job satisfaction.  TABLE 47 Satisfaction with occupation b e f o r e a n d after college, by sex D e g r e e of satisfaction  Male N  %  62  42%  46  31%  N  Female N  %  N  %  %  121  79%  76  46%  121  74%  22  14%  57  34 %  24  15%  V e r y satisfied or satisfied Partially satisfied  o  Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied Total  A  41 149  repeated  relationship ( F n l 15.35, p  between  27% 100%  measures  10 153  analysis  satisfaction  with  7% 100%  of  34 167  variance  occupation  19% 100%  indicated  before  and  19 164  a  12% 100%  significant  after  college  .001), but no significant difference by sex. The results a r e the s a m e  w h e n considering only those in the labour force; that is, the difference in job satisfaction is significantly greater after attending college a n d the difference in job  97  satisfaction b e t w e e n the sexes is not significant,  e) Increase in salary (question 12) Almost programmes  two-thirds of all respondents  which w e r e not  (including those w h o  job-related) r e p o r t e d s o m e  suggesting that a college education is financially beneficial.  98  had  increase in  taken salary,  CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY A N D RECOMMENDATIONS A. SUMMARY Student follow-up is frequently the purview of the Student Services c o m ponent of colleges a n d universities. This study, recognizing the Student Services m a x i m that the student is the most important e l e m e n t of the college, was  un-  d e r t a k e n from a Student Services perspective. W o r k on the follow-up study b e g a n in 1979 w h e n a f o r m a l proposal w a s submitted to the C o l l e g e administration. The project was e n d o r s e d and partially f u n d e d by the C o l l e g e Board. The  population  chosen  was  all  full-time  students  who  attended  a  p r o g r a m m e of at least 30 days which b e g a n in the 1978 c a l e n d a r year. The major problems e n c o u n t e r e d w e r e those e n d e m i c to m a i l e d surveys a n d small populations; specifically, the p r o b l e m s of locating students, obtaining a meaningful response rate a n d analyzing returns from small samples. Nevertheless, the overall response rate was 5 3 % b a s e d on the return of questionnaires a s s u m e d to h a v e r e a c h e d the students. There was  a nearly equal split a m o n g  men a n d w o m e n , both in the  population (49% m e n , 5 1 % women) a n d the respondent s a m p l e (47% m e n , 5 3 % w o m e n ) . A p p r o x i m a t e l y two-thirds of the respondent population w e r e of c o l l e g e a g e and one-third w e r e of adult-age. Response biases w e r e not present by either sex or age, but w e r e present by college centre, by last g r a d e c o m p l e t e d , by place of last schooling a n d by completion or non-completion of college p r o g r a m m e . 99  K e e p i n g in mind that t h e r e may b e a tendency to v i e w past e x p e r i e n c e s favourably, students  generally w e r e satisfied with the college e x p e r i e n c e a n d  e x p r e s s e d the greatest dissatisfaction with sponsoring agencies. N u m e r o u s c o m plaints a n d suggestions w e r e also received, indicating that students did not r e g a r d the college e x p e r i e n c e as f r e e of major concerns and problems. T h e r e w a s a n indication that m o r e w o m e n than m e n w i t h d r e w f r o m the college, possibly b e c a u s e of encountering m o r e barriers to education than their m a l e counterparts. The review of the literature suggests the possibility that training may be of less benefit to w o m e n than to m e n with the c o n s e q u e n c e that w o m e n withdraw m o r e frequently b e c a u s e they do not consider college worthwhile. C o n trary to expectations, most p e o p l e w h o had withdrawn b e f o r e completion w e r e satisfied with their p r o g r a m m e s . Two-thirds  of  respondents  who  had  been  enrolled  in  job-specific  p r o g r a m m e s said they had b e e n w e l l - p r e p a r e d for a job in the field. The n e e d for the C o l l e g e to attend to the d e m a n d s of the job m a r k e t was underscored by respondents' expectations of g o o d job preparation a n d the reasons given for not being e m p l o y e d in the fields of college study. N u m e r o u s students indicated that they could not find e m p l o y m e n t in their fields or that there w e r e better opportunities for a d v a n c e m e n t and better pay in other fields. There was an indication of serious problems in the apprenticeship  programmes;  specifically,  inadequate  funding  during  pre-  apprenficeship training a n d satisfactory job opportunities after training. T w o years after college, most respondents indicated they still w a n t e d to work in their fields. Respondents  who  e x p r e s s e d the greatest  dissatisfaction  with their current oc-  cupations w e r e those w h o , as yet, h a d not f o u n d e m p l o y m e n t in their fields. O n e - q u a r t e r of  1978 Northern Lights C o l l e g e students  100  continued their  e d u c a t i o n , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e m i n r e l a t e d a r e a s . T h e l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of s t u d e n t s w h o c o n t i n u e d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n r e t u r n e d to N o r t h e r n Lights C o l l e g e ( 3 1 % ) . G e n e r a l satisfaction with preparation for further studies was expressed  by those w h o  con-  tinued their eduction. Significantly more  respondents  were employed  full-time after  attending  college than before attending college. There w a s a significant difference between t h e n u m b e r s of m e n a n d w o m e n e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e b o t h b e f o r e a n d a f t e r c o l l e g e and the difference was  slightly greater after college than before. There w a s  no  signficant d i f f e r e n c e in e m p l o y m e n t by a g e b e f o r e o r after c o l l e g e . C h a n g e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p o c c u r r e d a f t e r c o l l e g e w i t h s k i l l e d a n d s e m i skilled occupations cupations  showing the greatest increases  the greatest decreases. M e n  and women  a n d unskilled a n d service ocd i d not a p p e a r to hold  more  s i m i l a r jobs a f t e r c o l l e g e than b e f o r e : m e n w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to m o v e into t h e s k i l l e d and semi-skilled occupations  after college while w o m e n  moved  into the  a r e a s . Similarly, d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s w e r e a p p a r e n t  clerical  between  the  college-age and adult-age groups both before and after college. T h e r e w a s a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e in job status a f t e r c o l l e g e . T h e d i f f e r e n c e in job status by s e x w a s a l s o s i g n f i c a n t b e f o r e a n d a f t e r c o l l e g e : m e n w e r e in l o w e r ranking socio-economic groups. T h e i n c r e a s e in job s a t i s f a c t i o n a f t e r c o l l e g e w a s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r b o t h  men  and women. T w o - t h i r d s of r e s p o n d e n t s  in t h e l a b o u r f o r c e r e p o r t e d s o m e i n c r e a s e  in  s a l a r y a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e . T h e r e w a s no significant i n c r e a s e in s a l a r y by e i t h e r a g e o r s e x , b u t it m u s t b e e m p h a s i z e d  t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s in s a l a r i e s w e r e  reviewed, only the increases.  101  not  It m u s t b e r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h i s s u m m a r y g i v e s o n l y a b r i e f o v e r v i e w o f t h e r e p o r t . T h e r e a d e r is r e f e r r e d t o p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s f o r a m o r e e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n a n d a n a l y s i s of t h e d a t a .  B. I M P L I C A T I O N S F O R F U R T H E R R E S E A R C H M a n y questions r e q u i r i n g further investigation h a v e b e e n g e n e r a t e d by this study. T h e q u e s t i o n w i t h t h e b r o a d e s t s c o p e is: w h a t a r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n those people who have a college education and those w h o do not? What personality and motivating factors differentiatethese t w o groups? What barriers prevent people from pursuing a college education and how can these barriers be eliminated?  How  effective a r e current efforts, in g e n e r a l , to e q u a l i z e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d , in p a r t i c u l a r , to e q u a l i z e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r w o m e n , f a c e d w i t h s p e c i a l barriers to higher education? To w h a t e x t e n t does a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n c h a n g e s o m e o n e ' s prospects?  employment  T h e r e is e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n i m p r o v e s  the  c h a n c e s n o t o n l y o f o b t a i n i n g e m p l o y m e n t , b u t a l s o of e a r n i n g b e t t e r p a y a n d f i n d i n g m o r e s a t i s f y i n g w o r k . H o w e v e r , in t h e c a s e of y o u n g p e o p l e , s o m e of t h e g a i n s m a y b e d u e t o a g e i n g a n d , i n t h e c a s e o f m e n a n d w o m e n i n t h e w o r k f o r c e , t h e r e is strong evidence which indicates these employment benefits are much more  sub-  s t a n t i a l f o r m e n t h a n f o r w o m e n . T h e r e is a l s o e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t a c o l l e g e education has a n e q u a l i z i n g effect for the d i s a d v a n t a g e d  in t h e l a b o u r f o r c e (for  e x a m p l e , y o u n g p e o p l e , t h e u n d e r e d u c a t e d a n d w o m e n ) . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e r e is a l s o e v i d e n c e t h a t g r a d u a t e s of a c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e w h o h a v e g r a d e 12 h a v e l e s s d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g e m p l o y m e n t t h a n g r a d u a t e s of t h e s a m e p r o g r a m m e w h o d o n o t  102  have  grade  12. E x t e n s i v e  research  is r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o a s s i m i l a t e t h i s  con-  . tradictory evidence and d r a w conclusions. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n is a l s o r e q u i r e d t o a s s e s s t h e i m p a c t o f t h e C o l l e g e w i t h i n its r e g i o n . W h a t c o n t r i b u t i o n d o t h e C o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s m a k e t o t h e e m p l o y m e n t p i c t u r e i n t h e r e g i o n ? Is t h e t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e d b y t h e C o l l e g e a p p r o p r i a t e to job opportunities w i t h i n the r e g i o n ? T h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t r a i n i n g i n B.C. is e n c o u n t e r i n g serious  difficulties,  particularly with apprentices  being  unable  to find  suitable  p o s i t i o n s . A t h o r o u g h r e v i e w of t h e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p a p p r o a c h t o t r a i n i n g , a l l o w i n g for input f r o m apprentices, employers, educational institutions a n d the public, w o u l d provide v a l u a b l e information to address the problems.  Decisions  regarding  the  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t r a i n i n g , a n d t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s , c o u l d b e m a d e o n the basis on this r e s e a r c h . T h e s t u d y of N o r t h e r n L i g h t s C o l l e g e s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e  Blishen  s c a l e is w o e f u l l y o u t o f d a t e . D e s p i t e t h e e n o r m i t y of t h e u n d e r t a k i n g , a c u r r e n t s o c i o e c o n o m i c i n d e x f o r C a n a d a is r e q u i r e d . These questions and concerns represent major areas for further research. A s w e l l , r e p l i c a t i o n o f r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f r o m 1978 N o r t h e r n L i g h t s C o l l e g e s t u d e n t s c o u l d b e a t t e m p t e d w i t h students of s u b s e q u e n t y e a r s . S i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n o t h e r B.C. c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s c o u l d b e e x p l o r e d . T h e e x t e n s i v e s t u d y o f B.C. colleges and their students can and should be undertaken to obtain sound data upon w h i c h t o d e s i g n a n d i m p l e m e n t i m p r o v e m e n t s t o t h e B.C. c o l l e g e s y s t e m .  103  C. R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S T h e study w a s d e s i g n e d as a n e x p l o r a t o r y f o l l o w - u p of N o r t h e r n  Lights  C o l l e g e s t u d e n t s t w o y e a r s a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n of t h e i r c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s . F r o m t h e questionnaire items and students' comments, recommendations to the C o l l e g e can be generated. 1. It is a p p a r e n t f r o m s t u d e n t s ' c o m m e n t s t h a t t h e o f f e r i n g s of t h e C o l l e g e i n its c o m m u n i t i e s a r e n e i t h e r e x t e n s i v e l y k n o w n  n o r u n d e r s t o o d . It is t h e r e f o r e  r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t t h e C o l l e g e a t t e m p t t o i n c r e a s e its v i s i b i l i t y i n its c o m m u n i t i e s . 2. A c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e C o l l e g e is d i f f i c u l t f o r m a n y s t u d e n t s . It is t h e r e f o r e r e c o m m e n d e d that t h e C o l l e g e a t t e m p t to r e m e d y this p r o b l e m by: a) d e v e l o p i n g s t o r e f r o n t a n d n e i g h b o u r h o o d c o u n s e l l i n g a n d c l a s s r o o m facilities; b) s t r e n g h t e n i n g t h e W o m e n ' s A c c e s s p r o g r a m m e i n D a w s o n C r e e k a n d c o n s i d e r i n g its e x p a n s i o n t o o t h e r c e n t r e s ; c) e s t a b l i s h i n g o n - c a m p u s d a y c a r e o r f a m i l y c e n t r e s ; d) e n s u r i n g f l e x i b i l i t y i n s c h e d u l i n g a n d e x p a n s i o n o f p a r t - t i m e programmes for those w h o s e w o r k or family responsibilities preclude them from traditional educational activities; e) e n s u r i n g t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e b u s s e r v i c e t o t h e C o l l e g e i n D a w s o n C r e e k ; and f) a c t i v e l y e n c o u r a g i n g c a r p o o l s i n t h e m a j o r c e n t r e s . 3. P r o b l e m s  with sponsoring  agencies  persist and  cause  hardships  s t u d e n t s . It is t h e r e f o r e r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t : a) t h e C o l l e g e c o n t i n u e a n d s t r e n g t h e n its r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e C a n a d a Employment Centre and Unemployment Insurance Commission;  104  for  b) the C o l l e g e apply increased pressure on the Ministry of Labour to provide realistic subsidies to pre-apprenticeship students. 4. Students  have  complained  about  the lack  of  information  available  regarding the C o l l e g e and its p r o g r a m m e s . It is therefore r e c o m m e n d e d that: a) the C o l l e g e increase its inter-agency involvement within its communities a n d the Province to e n s u r e that up to date information is available, through a variety of sources, to those m a k i n g enquiries; a n d b) the C o l l e g e retain a n d continuously up-date information on e m p l o y m e n t opportunities within its region and the Province a n d that this information be readily available to students a n d prospective students. 5. Respondents provided v a l u a b l e insight into the C o l l e g e a n d information on its a c h i e v e m e n t s and shortcomings. It is therefore r e c o m m e n d e d that: a) greater effort be m a d e to obtain f e e d b a c k from students while they a r e e n r o l l e d in their p r o g r a m m e s ; and b) greater effort be m a d e to include student input to campus m a n a g e m e n t a n d improve communications b e t w e e n students, staff, a n d instructors. 6. Students frequently criticized the meal hours for dormitory residents in Dawson  Creek.  modifying  It  is  therefore r e c o m m e n d e d  the hours of meal service, based  that  consideration  be  given  to  on m o r e specific, current student  response. 7. A l t h o u g h the group of respondents w h o withdrew b e f o r e completion of their college p r o g r a m m e s  was  small, v a l u a b l e  r e c o m m e n d e d that the C o l l e g e study  information was  o b t a i n e d . If  in greater depth its non-completers  is  and  establish p r o g r a m m e s d e s i g n e d to assist students to c o m p l e t e their studies. These could include r e m e d i a l services and increased counselling capacity.  105  8. Financial problems contribute to the p r o b l e m of non-completion a n d effect the progress a n d well-being of many students. It is t h e r e f o r e r e c o m m e n d e d that the scholarship and bursary fund be e x p a n d e d through active solicitation of donations a n d bequests. 9. A s a result of the amount of information g e n e r a t e d by this study a n d the numerous  expressions  of appreciation from respondents for the opportunity of  providing the information, it is r e c o m m e n d e d that the C o l l e g e devise a plan for systematically surveying students after their attendance at Northern Lights C o l l e g e . The advisability  of  incorporating s o m e  institutional  research capacity  into the  College's operation is strengthened by the fiscal restraints a n d cutbacks currently being e x p e r i e n c e d by educational institutions. In the competition for money, the College  would  b e well advised  to be a b l e to document  its services  and  ac-  complishments. 10. !t is r e c o m m e n d e d that the C o l l e g e study the job-specific p r o g r a m m e s which students did not feel p r e p a r e d them well for a job in the field to d e t e r m i n e if this is a function of the students, the job market or the p r o g r a m m e . 11. To ensure that vocationally-oriented p r o g r a m m e s a r e kept relevant a n d up-to-date, it is r e c o m m e n d e d that a d e q u a t e paid industrial liaison time be e n s u r e d a n d that industry input to the p r o g r a m m e s be w e l c o m e d , e n c o u r a g e d , a n d increased. 12. It is r e c o m m e n d e d that staffing requirements be r e v i e w e d in order to provide increased information services and e x p a n d e d services to students both to e n c o u r a g e greater enrollments and to improve prospects of p r o g r a m m e completion. 13. It is r e c o m m e n d e d that discussions with the Ministry of Labour b e held, regarding the special p r o g r a m m e designed to e n c o u r a g e w o m e n to enroll in non-  106  traditional programmes with a view to offering that programme at Northern Lights College. These recommendations are based on students' comments and analysis of responses to the questionnaire items. Progress towards implementation of these recommendations will ameliorate many of the problems and concerns raised by former Northern Lights College students and thus enhance the educational experiences of future students.  107  SELECTED B I B L I O G R A P H Y A n d e r s o n , L a u r a , e d . , F o l l o w i n g U p G r a d u a t e s : A M e a s u r e of A c a d e m i c Eff e c t i v e n e s s . A t l a n t a : S o u t h e r n R e g i o n a l E d u c a t i o n B o a r d , ERIC D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e : E D 140 6 8 4 , 1977. B l i s h e n , B e r n a r d R., " T h e C o n s t r u c t i o n a n d U s e o f a n O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l of E c o n o m i c s a n d P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e 24. 1958.  Scale."  B l i s h e n , B e r n a r d R., J o n e s , F r a n k E., N a e g e l e , K a s p a r D., a n d P o r t e r , J o h n . " A S o c i o E c o n o m i c Index f o r O c c u p a t i o n s in C a n a d a . " C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y : S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s . T o r o n t o : B r y a n t P r e s s L t d . , 1968. B l i s h e n , B e r n a r d R., a n d M c R o b e r t s , H u g h A . " A r e v i s e d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n d e x f o r o c c u p a t i o n s i n C a n a d a . " C a n a d i a n R e v i e w of S o c i o l o g y a n d A n t h r o p o l o g y . 13(1) 1976. — K  C o h e n , A r t h u r M . D a t e l i n e '79, H e r e t i c a l C o n c e p t s f o r t h e C o m m u n i t y C a l i f o r n i a : G l e n c o P r e s s , 1969.  8  1  College.  C o m p r e h e n s i v e E d u c a t i o n P l a n S c h o o l Y e a r 1977-78. W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : D i s t r i c t of C o l u m b i a P u b l i c S c h o o l s , O f f i c e o f I n s t r u c t i o n : ERIC D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e : E D 145 590, 1977. C o n d u c t a S t u d e n t F o l l o w - U p S t u d y , M o d u l e A - 1 0 of C a t e g o r y A - - P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g , ~ Development, and Evaluation. Columbus: O h i o State University, Columbus N a t i o n a l C e n t e r f o r R e s e a r c h i n V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n : ERIC D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e : ED 149 174, 1978. Cope, Robert and Hannah, William. Revolving College Doors: The causes and cons e q u e n c e s of d r o p p i n g out, s t o p p i n g out a n d t r a n s f e r r i n g . N e w Y o r k : J o h n WlTeyand S o n s , 1 9 7 5 . D e n n i s o n , J o h n D., a n d J o n e s , G . C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e T r a n s f e r S t u d e n t s a t U . B . C . -A T h r e e Y e a r S t u d y . V a n c o u v e r : V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e , 1970. D e n n i s o n , J o h n D,; T u n n e r , A . ; J o n e s , G . a n d F o r r e s t e r , G . C. T h e I m p a c t of C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e s , A S t u d y of t h e C o l l e g e C o n c e p t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V a n c o u v e r : B 7 C . R e s e a r c h . 1975. D e n n i s o n , J o h n D. a n d J o n e s , G . O n e Y e a r A f t e r C o l l e g e : A S t u d y of V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o l l e g e C a r e e r S t u d e n t s ~ O n e Y e a r A f t e r t h e S c h e d u l e d G r a d u a t i n g D a t e of A p r i l 1968. V a n c o u v e r : V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o l l e g e , 1969.  108  D i c k e n s o n , G a r y . U n d e r e d u c a t e d A d u l t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a - 1976. V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1979. Fawley, M a l c o l m J . South Dakota Vocational Education Follow-Up. Final Report. S p r i n g f i e l d : S o u t h D a k o t a U n i v e r s i t y : ERIC D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e , E D 145 2 2 4 , 1977. F e n s t e m a c h e r , W i l l i a m P. C o l l e g e D r o p o u t s , M i n n e s o t a S t a t e S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U. B. C . L i b r a r y , V a n c o u v e r , B.C.  College  System,  G e l l , R o b e r t L.: A r m s t r o n g , D. F.; J o n e s , R. F. T h e G r a d u a t e s 1975. A F o l l o w - U p Study of t h e Students W h o G r a d u a t e d f r o m M o n t g o m e r y C o l l e g e . R o c k v i l l e , M d : M o n t g o m e r y C o l l e g e , O f f i c e of I n s t i t u t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , ED 132 9 9 7 , 1976. G o a r d , D e a n ; B l a k e n e y , A . ; M c D o n a l d , B.; M c C a f f e r y , M . ; S t a i r s , C ; a n d T r i n e e r , T. W . R e p o r t of t h e C o m m i s s i o n o n V o c a t i o n a l , T e c h n i c a l , a n d T r a d e s T r a i n i n g in B T C " ~" G o l d , B e n K. a n d M o r r i s , W i l l i a m . S t u d e n t A c c o u n t a b i l i t y M o d e l ( S A M ) : O p e r a t i o n s M a n u a l . S a c r a m e n t o , C a l i f o r n i a : Los A n g e l e s C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e D i s t r i c t , O f f i c e o f t h e C h a n c e l l o r : ERIC D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e , E D 135 4 4 3 , 1977. Harvey,  E.B.; M a s e m a n n , V . L. O c c u p a t i o n a l G r a d u a t e s a n d t h e L a b o u r F o r c e . T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n : ERIC D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e , ED 146 3 3 8 , 1975.  J o h n s o n , M i l o P. a n d G r a f s k y , A l b e r t J . A c c o u n t a b i l i t y E v a l u a t i o n f o r O c c u p a t i o n a l P r o g r a m m e s . C h i c a g o : A m e r i c a n T e c h n i c a l S o c i e t y , 1973. Johnson,  Ronald W . A S e c o n d Look at the D r o p - O u t P r o b l e m . F r e d r i c t o n , B r u n s w i c k : N e w B r u n s w i c k D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r , 1968.  New  Johnson,  R o n a l d W . Is A p p r e n t i c e s h i p S e e n a s W o r t h w h i l e ? B r u n s w i c k : N e w B r u n s w i c k D e p a r t m e n t of L a b o u r , 19707  New  Fredricton,  J o h n s o n , R o n a l d W . S o m e D i m e n s i o n s of t h e D r o p - O u t P r o b l e m i n A p p r e n t i c e s h i p . F r e d r i c t o n , N e w B r u n s w i c k : N e w B r u n s w i c k D e p a r t m e n t of L a b o u r , 1967. J o n e s , G o r d o n a n d D e n n i s o n , J o h n , D. A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y of P e r s i s t e r a n d N o n Persister College Students. Vancouver: Vancouver Community College, 1972. J o n e s , G o r d o n ; F o r r e s t e r , G . C ; D e n n i s o n , J . D. A F o l l o w - U p S t u d y o f N o n - T r a n s f e r , A c a d e m i c Students from the British C o l u m b i a C o m m u n i t y Colleges: T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t . V a n c o u v e r : B.C. R e s e a r c h , 1980.  109  Lightfield, E. Timothy. Student Follow-Up in Higher Education: A Systematic A p proach. A d v a n c e d Institutional D e v e l o p m e n t Program (AIDP) T w o y e a r C o l l e g e Consortium, v o l . II, no. 6. Washington, D. C : M c M a n i s Associates, Inc.: ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 134 276, 1976. Little, J.K. a n d Whinfield, R.W. " F o l l o w - u p of 1965 G r a d u a t e s of Wisconsin Schools of V o c a t i o n a l , Technical a n d A d u l t Education." Industrial Relations. M c K i n n e y , Floyd. Program Evaluation in V o c a t i o n a l Education: A Review. Inr formation Series N o . 117. Columbus: O h i o State University: ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED 149 186, 1977. M o o r e , Barry, e d . Educational M a s t e r Plan, Northern Lights C o l l e g e . 1978-1982. F o r e w o r d by B.A. Brown. Saanichton, B. C. Hancock House Publishers, Ltd., 1978. Paul, Krishan K. What Happens A f t e r Training: A Review of Follow-Up of V o c a t i o n a l G r a d u a t e s . Nashville, T e n n e s s e e : Nashville Urban O b s e r v a t o r y , ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 141 010, 1976. Placement a n d Follow-Up A n n u a l Report. M i a m i , Florida: D a d e County Public Schools, Department o? Public Personnel Services: ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 137 680, 1976. Queen,  John E. a n d Rusting, J e a n . Survey of Non-Returning N o n - V o c a t i o n a l Students. Norwalk, California: Cerritos C o l l e g e O f f i c e of Institutional Research, ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED 140 906, 1977.  SIRF: System for Implementing Review a n d Follow-Up. Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue " University: ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED 133 508, 1975. Solmon, Lewis C ; Bisconti, A.S.; O c h o n e r , N. L. W i s d o m or W a s t e ? C o l l e g e as a Training G r o u n d for jobs. Washington! U.S. Department of Health, Education a n d W e l f a r e , National Institue of Education: ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED 135 274, 1976. Student Information System. Student Follow-Up. M a n a g e m e n t Information System. A u s t i n , Texas: Division of O c c u p a t i o n a l Research a n d D e v e l o p m e n t : ERIC Qocument Reproduction Service: ED 138 772, 1976. A Survey of Q u e e n s b o r o u g h Community C o l l e g e A l u m n i : 1962-1974. Bayside, N e w "~ York: Q u e e n s b o r o u g h Community C o l l e g e : ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED 144 649, 1977. TRACE: A System for Student Follow-Up, M a n a g e m e n t Handbook. California: Santa Barbara County Schools: ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED 133 588, 1974.  110  V i n a r s k i , E u g e n e T.; M a n s p e a k e r , J . C . ; H a r g i s , N . 1975 C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e F o l l o w U p S y s t e m : S u m m a r y of F i n d i n g s . S a l e m : O r e g o n State D e p a r t m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e : E D 136 877, 1976. W e n t l i n g , T. a n d L a w s o n , T. E v a l u a t i n g O c c u p a t i o n a l P r o g r a m s . B o s t o n : A l l y n a n d B a c o n , Inc., 1975.  Educationand  Training  W i l l i a m s , W i l l i a m G . a n d S n y d e r , F.A. " T h e Status of C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e F o l l o w - U p . " A m e r i c a n V o c a t i o n a l J o u r n a l 4 9 ( J a n u a r y 1974): 4 0 - 4 3 .  Ill  APPENDICES  112  APPENDIX A: MAILINGS  1. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  2. C o v e r i n g l e t t e r  3. S e l f - a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e  4. A d d i t i o n a l i n s e r t  5. F o l l o w - u p p o s t c a r d  113  APPENDIX D: QUESTIONNAIRE  1. Did you have a full-time job during the year before attending Northern Lights College? yes no a) if yes, OR employed part-time, what was your job? -• b) if no, what did you do? ' 2. How satisfied were you with what you were doing? very satisfied - satisfied partially satisfied  dissatisfied  very dissatisfied  3. What programme did you take at Northern Lights College? Academic Studies Cook Training Agriculture Camp Cooking Autobody Repairs Dental Assisting Auto Mechanical Repairs Heavy Duty Mechanics Business Administration Mechanical Practices Business Careers Visual & Performing Arts Carpentry & Joinery General Welding Welding Upgrading College Foundations (B.T.S.D. Prep., Replace) Other, please specify Counselling 4. Who sponsored (paid for) your programme? Self (fee payer) Canada Employment Unemployment Insurance Ministry of Labour  Indian Affairs Human Resources Aid to the Handicapped  5. If you had College to do over again, would you take the same programme? yes no 6. How satisfied were you at Northern Lights College with: a) the programme very satisfied satisifed partially satisfied  dissatisfied  very dissatisfied  b) the instructors very satisfied  satisfied  partially satisfied  dissatisfied  very dissatisfied  c) sponsoring agency, if any very satisfied satisfied  partially satisfied  dissatisfied  very dissatisfied  d) college life, in general very satisfied satisfied  partially satisfied  dissatisfied  very dissatisfied  114  7. If you withdrew before completing your programme, what were your reasons for leaving? Check as many as apply. ran out of money programme had nothing to offer wasn't passing work responsibilities didn't like programme preferred to work didn't like instructor(s) family responsibilities programme not what I expected other, please specify doubted I could pass 8. What did you like most about Northern Lights College? 9. What did you like least?  ,  10. Do you have a full-time job now? yes a) if yes, OR employed part-time, what is your job? b) If no, what are you doing? '  no  11. How satisfied are you with what you are doing? very satisfied satisfied partially satisfied  ,  •  dissatisfied  very dissatisfied  12. Compared to the time before you attended Northern Lights College, how much has your monthly income increased? not applicable none 0-$100 $101-200 $201-300 over $300 13. How well do you feel the programme at Northern Lights College prepared you for a job in that area? very well well somewhat a little not at all 14. If your job is not related to your programme at Northern Lights College, what is the ONE most important reason? N.L.C. programme not job-related; could not find job in field; better pay than in field; better opportunity for advancement; did not want to work in field; wanted to explore other possibilities other 15. If your job is not related to your programme at Northern Lights College, do you still plan to work in the area of your training? yes no  1 14 a  16. If you have been a student since leaving Northern Lights College (or are currently in school), a) were/are your studies related to your first programme at Northern Lights College? yes no b) what educational institute did you attend? (are you attending) c) how satisfied were you with your preparation at Northern Lights College for further studies? very satisfied satisfied partially satisfied dissatisfied very dissatisfied Additional comments:  ______  114 b  NORTHERN LIGHTS COLLEGE S E R V I N G  N O R T H E A S T E R N  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  Dear  We w o u l d Lights  College  College  We view  is  to  ask  for  your  undertaking  a  assistance.  follow-up  Northern  study  of  former  students.  are  your had  on  the  College  Only  interested  College  has  the  like  your for  you  answers  to  what  education,  present future  can  in  help.  these  you  what  are  doing  effect  circumstances,  a  and  now,  how  College how  we  you  education can  improve  students.  You  are  questions.  the  only  person  All  information  who  has  will  be  kept  confidential.  We to  greatly  hearing  from  Thank  you.  Yours  truly,  Student  appreciate  your  assistance.  We  look  forward  you.  Services  115 Ft. St. John: 10908 - 100 St., Ft. St. John, B.C. V1J 3Z6 Phone (604) 785 - 6981 Tlx. 036 - 75193  Dawson Creek: 11401 - 8th St., Dawson Creek, B.C. V1G 4G2 Phone (604) 782 - 5251 Tlx. 036 - 77241  Chetwynd: Box 1059, Chetwynd, B.C. VOC 1J0 Phone (604) 788 - 2248  Ft. Nelson: Box 860, Ft. Nelson, B.C. VOC 1R0 Phone ffiTMi 774 - 3741 Tlx rflfi . 731 cn  Business Reply Mail N.*> F ' o s l j g e S i a m p Nect.'ss.'-ii.y if m a i l e d in C a i i i i i l n P o s r a g e w i l l be p a i d by  Northern Lights College Northern Lights College Dawson Creek Centre 11401 - 8 Street Dawson Creek, B.C. VIG 4G2  If  you h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d i n a n o t h e r s u r v e y ,  duolication. and y o u r  However, s i n c e  this  hone y o u w i l l  Questionnaire.  Once a o a i n , t h a n k y o u  for your  for  the  s t u d y was b e p u n o v e r o n e y e a r  resoonses are e s s e n t i a l , I  to connlete t h i s  I aoolom'ze  assistance.  117  aoo,  t a k e a few m i n u t e s  APPENDIX B: VERBATIM C O M M E N T S  In A p p e n d i x B, students' comments to the three o p e n - e n d e d questions a r e presented v e r b a t i m . Editing has b e e n necessary b e c a u s e of the length of s o m e responses, but no other changes in the text have b e e n m a d e . The quotes do not necessarily reflect typical points of view, but, rather, the selections represent a cross-section of students' comments.  119  1. V e r b a t i m responses to question 8, "What did you like most about Northern Lights College? 20 year old f e m a l e , A c a d e m i c P r o g r a m m e , D a w s o n C r e e k "the quality of the professors, size of classes." M a l e , a g e u n k n o w n , Carpentry and Joinery, D a w s o n C r e e k "It was very close to w h e r e I was living plus a very g o o d p r o g r a m m e . " 20 y e a r o l d f e m a l e , A c a d e m i c P r o g r a m m e , D a w s o n C r e e k "I could obtain the first 2 years of Education without leaving h o m e . " 46 y e a r old male, C a m p C o o k i n g , D a w s o n C r e e k " T h e e q u i p m e n t & the variety of foods to w o r k w i t h . " 31 y e a r old f e m a l e , C o l l e g e Foudations, C h e t w y n d " s o m e o n e was available to help w h e n stuck; w o r k generally"  at o w n  34 y e a r old f e m a l e , C o l l e g e Foundations, Kelly Lake "I like the w a y they had their studies set u p . " 18 y e a r old f e m a l e , C o o k Training, D a w s o n C r e e k "Pub night Thursday night" 53 y e a r old f e m a l e , Business C a r e e r s , D a w s o n C r e e k "the instructors" 19 y e a r old male, A u t o M e c h a n i c a l Repair, D a w s o n C r e e k " g o o d instruction, g o o d class a t m o s p h e r e " 38 y e a r o l d f e m a l e , C o l l e g e Foundations, Lower Post "Learning N e w Metric System, T a k e Driving Lesson, L e a t h e r w o r k " 21 y e a r old male, Heavy Duty Mechanics, D a w s o n C r e e k "the mechanics shops & courses w e r e well laid out" f e m a l e , u n k n o w n age, Chetwynd "Learning" 50 y e a r old f e m a l e , C o l l e g e Foudations, Lower Post "Reading & writing instruction" 20 y e a r old male, M e c h a n i c a l Practices, D a w s o n C r e e k " H a d the Dorm to stay in and the rates w e r e g o o d . " 24 y e a r old f e m a l e , A c a d e m i c Programme, Ft. St. John "Friendly!"  120  rate:  programme  26 y e a r old male, Agriculture, D a w s o n C r e e k "Small student population, g o o d a t m o s p h e r e , r e a s o n a b l e d u e s " 19 y e a r old f e m a l e , A c a d e m i c P r o g r a m m e , D a w s o n C r e e k " T h e c o n v e n i e n c e of attending college while living at h o m e . The friendliness a n d willingness to help by instructors a n d other persons at the college, i.e. librarians, secretaries, counsellors." 19 y e a r old f e m a l e , Business C a r e e r s , Ft. St. John "I think the p e o p l e (other students & staff) w e r e what I liked most of all. But there wasn't anything I didn't like about the college. The course was great, the facilities w e r e great a n d I found that there a r e many other courses I think I would enjoy (night courses) that I never realized w e r e a v a i l a b l e h e r e . " 23 y e a r old male, C o o k Training, D a w s o n C r e e k "instructor well v e r s e d in subject matter" 43 y e a r old f e m a l e , A c a d e m i c P r o g r a m m e , Ft. St. John " T h e availability of the college in Fort St. John. A b l e to do s o m e a c a d e m i c studies Wonderful to h a v e . "  —  28 y e a r old male, Carpentry and Joinery, D a w s o n C r e e k "Its coping the best it c o u l d " 25 y e a r old f e m a l e , Business C a r e e r s , D a w s o n C r e e k " W o r k i n g towards getting off assistance and b e c o m i n g i n d e p e n d e n t . " 47 y e a r old f e m a l e , Counselling, D a w s o n C r e e k "easily obtained, c o n v e n i e n c e of night classes" 15 y e a r old m a l e , C o l l e g e Foundations, Lower Post " T h e Indian Language program w e had going t h e r e . " 39 y e a r old f e m a l e , C o l l e g e Foundations, D a w s o n C r e e k " P r e p a r e m e for my G.ED XII e x a m which I wrote & passed. A b l e to help my children with their school work and in my job with the new measurements (Metric)." 18 y e a r old f e m a l e , C o l l e g e Foundations, D a w s o n C r e e k " T h e chance to participate in school activities in a way I never did in high school. W h e n I was in high school I went to school & that was it. A t the college I was on student council, helped with the newsletter & generally took m o r e of an interst in school activities." !  21 y e a r old f e m a l e , Dental Assisting, D a w s o n C r e e k "has great potential for a good c o l l e g e " 17 y e a r old male, A u t o M e c h a n i c a l Repair, D a w s o n C r e e k " T h e expertise and receptiveness of the instructor. I also felt the after recreation ie. sports, pub nights, etc., w e r e handled very w e l l . "  121  hour  47 y e a r old f e m a l e , Employment O r i e n t a t i o n for W o m e n , D a w s o n C r e e k "gaining c o n f i d e n c e " 45 y e a r old f e m a l e , C o l l e g e Foundations, D a w s o n C r e e k "Felt that I was achieving something, and m a k i n g my life m o r e u s e f u l " 20 y e a r old male, Heavy Duty Mechanics, D a w s o n C r e e k " W h e n I got out of class I was already home, no time wasted in transit"  2. V e r b a t i m responses to question 9, " W h a t did you like least (about Northern Lights College)?" 18 y e a r old f e m a l e , A c a d e m i c P r o g r a m m e , D a w s o n C r e e k " T h e buildings, the drabness of the a r e a " 21 y e a r old male, Heavy Duty Mechanics, D a w s o n C r e e k " T h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n & the study areas which weren't sufficient." 64 y e a r old f e m a l e Visual Arts, D a w s o n C r e e k "I would have liked m o r e instruction time, with a second y e a r with instruction divided evenly over the two years. Too much c r a m m e d into o n e y e a r . " 37 y e a r old f e m a l e , Dental Assisting, D a w s o n C r e e k " T h e number of students attending N.L.C. just because they w e r e being sponsored. Parking facilities". 26 y e a r old male, Agriculture, D a w s o n C r e e k " N o meal service on w e e k e n d s on c a m p u s " 21 y e a r old f e m a l e , Business C a r e e r s , D a w s o n C r e e k "Signing in every morning and lunch h o u r ! " 22 y e a r old male, A u t o M e c h a n i c a l Repairs, D a w s o n C r e e k ."My most concern was lack of money through Dept. of Labour" 28 y e a r old male, Carpentry and Joinery, D a w s o n C r e e k " S o m e organizational problems eg. instructor replacement during annual leave d o r m facilities" 21 y e a r old male, M e c h a n i c a l Practices, D a w s o n C r e e k "Repair manuals might be better catalogued and m o r e up to d a t e . " 46 year old f e m a l e , A c a d e m i c P r o g r a m m e , Ft. St. John "Limitation in choice of courses - initially - subjectwise, now - time slot unsuitability for w o r k i n g persons."  122  23 y e a r old f e m a l e , A c a d e m i c P r o g r a m m e , D a w s o n C r e e k " T h e limiting (although necessary) of academic studies to 1st & 2nd year, a n d no real contact with larger institutions for study b e y o n d these l e v e l s . " 26 y e a r old male, A c a d e m i c P r o g r a m m e , D a w s o n C r e e k "3 hour classes" 18 y e a r old f e m a l e , C o l l e g e Foundations, D a w s o n C r e e k " T h e enforcement of double standards on the mens & w o m e n s d o r m s . " 18 y e a r old f e m a l e , C o l l e g e Foundations, D a w s o n C r e e k "lack of transportation" 31 year old male, A c a d e m i c P r o g r a m m e , D a w s o n C r e e k "The smoking in the lecture rooms and the w r e t c h e d cat." 27 y e a r old male, Welding, D a w s o n C r e e k " K e e p i n g car running in cold w e a t h e r with no plug i n " 19 y e a r old f e m a l e , Business C a r e e r s , D a w s o n C r e e k " d o r m rules, not enough communication b e t w e e n (teachers)"  students  & campus  council  18 y e a r old male, C o o k Training, D a w s o n C r e e k "not being a b l e to cook at the dormitories on w e e k e n d s " 24 y e a r old male, A u t o M e c h a n i c a l Repairs, D a w s o n C r e e k "I felt the w o r k i n g day could have b e e n e x t e n d e d a couple of hours and the course itself could have g o n e into m o r e detail. I b e l i e v e the course, as it was laid out w h e n I attended, could be very beneficial especially if it w e r e to be e x t e n d e d to say eight months from the prsent five. A s I understood w h e n I left, the course outline was to be c h a n g e d to concetrate on first y e a r material. I do not believe this to be a g o o d idea. I feel the student should certainly have a little m o r e in depth training on the first y e a r level, however, I also b e l i e v e he needs an o v e r v i e w of the entire f i e l d . " 20 y e a r old male, Carpentry and Joinery, D a w s o n C r e e k "3 different teachers while building h o u s e " 34 y e a r old male, C o l l e g e Foundations, Lower Post "Science. I took first aid and fail cause I never like Science (smile)" 21 y e a r old male, Heavy Duty Mechanics, D a w s o n C r e e k " T h e meal hours. Dorm Life" 23 y e a r old f e m a l e , Business C a r e e r s , Ft. St. John " N o real lunch room as such and sometimes the lack of equipment for our class." 34 y e a r old f e m a l e , C o l l e g e Foundations, Kelly Lake " W h e n I had to travel to Dawson C r e e k for tests."  123  19 y e a r old f e m a l e , A c a d e m i c P r o g r a m m e , D a w s o n C r e e k "lack of school spirit, few student activities" 19 y e a r old male, A u t o M e c h a n i c a l Repairs, D a w s o n C r e e k " o l d training material in s h o p " 19 y e a r old male, Heavy Duty Mechanics, D a w s o n C r e e k " T h e drug abuse and alcohol. I drink a little but I don't think college is the place for drinking." 19 y e a r old male, A u t o b o d y Repairs, D a w s o n C r e e k "I never had e n o u g h to eat on w e e k e n d s " 30 y e a r old f e m a l e , C o l l e g e Foundations, C h e t w y n d " T h e p e o p l e that never sat d o w n to do their w o r k " 25 year old male, Carpentry and Joinery, D a w s o n C r e e k "Lately I have read once a g a i n w h e r e s o m e o n e newsworthy m e n t i o n e d how the trades fields lacked sufficient numbers of skilled trades persons. This article also mentioned, as they should, how C a n a d a imports large numbers of t r a d e s p e o p l e because of the low numbers of s a m e turned out here. It, as the other articles and politicians also mentioned other factors of this situation with which I'm sure you a r e familiar. The o n e aspect of this situation which to m e is most noteworthy is so because of its consistent absence. The fact is that w h e n a person choses to enter a tradeschool he is r e b u k e d , stalled and flatly refused the opportunity of e v e n applying. If a person s o m e h o w m a n a g e s to get into the course for the trade h e / s h e has chosen and complete it, they then face the prospect of convincing an e m p l o y e r that they w o u l d love to work for that company till completion of apprenticeship at poverty w a g e s and afterwards to try to m a k e a go of it with the s a m e outfit after obtaining those presciouse papers. The preciose papers that could guarantie f r e e d o m of choice in employment. Facing this situation, many people, in the carpentry trade at least, choose to simply work for better w a g e s as helpers, farmers, siding applicators or simply uncertified carpenters — a much m o r e profitable route than indentureship, no matter what any number of apprenticeship councellors say. The solutions? M a y b e I'll write a book on that o n e . "  3.Comments  22 y e a r old male, A c a d e m i c P r o g r a m m e , D a w s o n C r e e k " M y year at N.L.C. w a s / i s the most enjoyable of my 3 yrs. on my B . A . "  124  20 y e a r o l d f e m a l e , A c a d e m i c P r o g r a m m e , D a w s o n C r e e k "I was happy to have had Northern Lights to attend for my first 2 years, as I was a b l e to stay at h o m e and it was a g o o d way to learn the University way of studying while still on a smaller scale." 18 y e a r old male, Carpentry P r o g r a m m e , D a w s o n C r e e k " T h e work field is much different than in college. I think there should b e m o r e practical than theory, otherwise the course is A - l . " 26 y e a r old male, M e c h a n i c a l Practices, D a w s o n C r e e k "I a m totally dissatisfied with the apprenticeship p r o g r a m m e in g e n e r a l . I realise that y o u h a v e to look for yourself, but if the companies in this province don't e v e n want to talk to you if you a r e not an apprentice. H o w d o you get to b e a n app. if no o n e will hire y o u ! If the students w e r e e n d e n t u r e b e f o r e they leave school there w o u l d be no p r o b l e m and w e won't have a shortage of t r a d e s m e n . " 46 y e a r old male, C a m p C o o k i n g , D a w s o n C r e e k "I took the C a m p C o o k i n g Course to suppliment my f a r m income & it w o r k e d very well. ie. - the winter work. This cooking job put m e in the right place at the right time a l l o w i n g m e to try out as a Boilerman on a oil Service Rig. a l s o a winter job, a v e r a g e pay of $200/day. So now a m a Farmer - C o o k & or B o i l e r m a n . " 21 y e a r old f e m a l e , C o l l e g e Foundations, Ft. St. John " M y program at the college g a v e m e the will to go on to different things." 21 y e a r old f e m a l e , Dental Assisting, D a w s o n C r e e k " T h e college should train for jobs, should know and advise students of work possibilities prior to enrollment. I a m completely frustrated with the limited job market and lack of work opportunities. I don't want to l e a v e the community, but what can I d o ? " 53 y e a r old f e m a l e , Business C a r e e r s , D a w s o n C r e e k "For my age, I w o u l d have liked a few months on the job training." 19 year old male, A u t o M e c h a n i c a l Repairs, D a w s o n C r e e k " e n j o y e d time spent at NLC but think training material in shop could b e up d a t e d A l b e r t a training centres s e e m to be better in this a r e a . " "21 y e a r old male, Heavy Duty Mechanics, D a w s o n C r e e k "I found it difficult trying to find a job down South (F. Valley) if some kind of job centre just for C o l l e g e p e o p l e who finished a course like mine was set up it would m a k e it e a s i e r ! " 44 y e a r old f e m a l e , Employment O r i e n t a t i o n for W o m e n , D a w s o n C r e e k " T h e E.O.W. program is very much n e e d e d for w o m a n w h o h a v e b e e n out of the work force for a number of y e a r s . " 18 y e a r old male, Business Administration, D a w s o n C r e e k "With the additional education from the Bus. A d m i n , course, I had no problems getting the job I a m at now." 125  j  28 y e a r old male, Welding, D a w s o n C r e e k " A b r o a d e r a r e a of " i n - f i e l d " training w o u l d be d e s i r a b l e - if m o r e m o n e y was allotted to that aspect of the course I took, ie) 1) w o r k i n g alongside welders on the jobsite for 1 or 2 w e e k s . 2) w o r k i n g on heavy duty equipment brought in f r o m local shops/businesses to be finished in a given time p e r i o d . " 18 y e a r old f e m a l e , C o l l e g e Foundations, D a w s o n C r e e k "I feel w o r k i n g independently at your o w n pace w o r k s very w e l l . " 22 y e a r old male, Carpentry a n d Joinery P r o g r a m m e , D a w s o n C r e e k "instruction in the use of nail guns a n d air c o m p r e s s e d tools w o u l d have b e e n helpful." 23 y e a r old male, C o o k Training, D a w s o n C r e e k " T o o large a discrepancy in money given to students ie. B / T those s p o n s o r e d by Labour a n d those s p o n s o r e d by M a n p o w e r . Most p e o p l e under M a n p o w e r sponsorship also w e r e collecting UIC during their time at NLC. Efforts should be m a d e to give Labour s p o n s o r e d students m o r e funds. M o r e theory n e e d e d in cook training course, esp. in a r e a s such as f o o d costing & menu p l a n n i n g . " 38 y e a r old f e m a l e , A c a d e m i c P r o g r a m m e , D a w s o n C r e e k " D o r m life was very difficult due to student's noise. V e r y hard to study. Loud music, etc." 19 y e a r old male, A u t o b o d y Repairs, D a w s o n C r e e k "I think the autobody repair course is outdated a n d doesn't p r e p a r e the student for the m o d e r n body shops." 20 y e a r old male, Heavy Duty Mechanics, D a w s o n C r e e k " g o o d instructor; c r a m m e d course; machinery i n a d e q u a t e for practical e x p e r i e n c e . " 39 y e a r old f e m a l e , A g r i c u l t u r e P r o g r a m m e , D a w s o n C r e e k "I doubt that I w o u l d have b e e n so quickly p r o m o t e d without completing the ag c o u r s e ! I could not h a v e g o n e e l s e w h e r e for this training d u e to financial c o m mitments." 35 y e a r old f e m a l e , Dental Assisting, D a w s o n C r e e k "Thank you - it was a great y e a r " 18 y e a r old male, A u t o M e c h a n i c a l Repairs, D a w s o n C r e e k "I feel I b e n e f e t e d greatly by my course, but being a few hundred miles from h o m e a n d not really know a n y o n e at D a w s o n C r e e k m a d e it difficult after school hours." male, a g e u n k n o w n , Welding, D a w s o n C r e e k " T h e training from N.L.C. has e n a b l e d m e to b e c o m e an independent business m a n . without the highly skilled instructors help this would not have b e e n possible. The facilities a r e of the finest quality."  126  23 y e a r old male, A u t o M e c h a n i c a l Repairs, D a w s o n C r e e k " T h e course in g e n e r a l was very g o o d , but applicants should b e s c r e e n e d for aptitude in the f i e l d . " 26 y e a r o l d f e m a l e , Business C a r e e r s , D a w s o n C r e e k "I think that I should have g o n e to the upgrading course first to refresh my m e m o r y on all I'd forgotten. It w o u l d h a v e b e e n a lot e a s i e r than trying to relearn o l d skills a n d n e w ones at the s a m e t i m e . " 19 y e a r old male. Carpentry and Joinery, D a w s o n C r e e k " O v e r a l l I will never regret g o i n g to N.L.C. a n d g l a d I had the opportunity to go. I e v e n have plans to take another course s o m e d a y . " 21 y e a r o l d male, M e c h a n i c a l Practices, D a w s o n C r e e k "If I could do it again, I would, But Better I went to PVI a n d did a Ironworkers course finished with 8 0 % a v e r a g e (good comments) I find it take m e a little longer to d o something or accomplish something But Im learning a n d g r o w i n g u p . " 20 y e a r old male, Heavy Duty Mechanics, D a w s o n C r e e k " T h e course definately o p e n e d the door for m e to a c h i e v e an apprenticeship, but I found it was much different than what I was led to b e l i e v e ! Thanks a n y w a y s " 33 y e a r old f e m a l e , Business C a r e e r s , Ft. St. John " H o w e v e r , I w o u l d rather take educational courses than m o r e Business careers. T h e sole reason for taking that particular course was b e c a u s e there was m o r e opportunity for e m p l o y m e n t - although I a m not now w o r k i n g I f e e l sure I could get a job fairly easily b e c a u s e of the training in the c o u r s e . " 19 y e a r old male, Heavy Duty Truck Driving, Ft. St. John "I feel that the heavy duty truck driving course is the best thing that could h a v e h a p p e n e d since I quit high school in the way of training." 18 y e a r o l d male, A c a d e m i c P r o g r a m m e , Ft. St. J o h n " Y o u should " r e a c h " m o r e students in high school about the benefits of our community c o l l e g e . " 31 y e a r old f e m a l e , "I was not satisfied .and got paid poorly single but w e r e not  Business C a r e e r s , D a w s o n C r e e k with C a n a d a M a n p o w e r ' s pay cut as I w o r k e d hard on my course & t h e r e w e r e many there getting m o r e m o n e y b e c a u s e they w e r e taking the course seriously."  17 y e a r old f e m a l e , C o l l e g e Foundations a n d Business C a r e e r s , D a w s o n C r e e k "If there a r e courses offering training in creative writing a n d / o r c o m m e r c i a l art & portrait drawing, I would take them in a minute. How can I find o u t ? " 22 y e a r old male, A u t o M e c h a n i c a l Repairs, D a w s o n C r e e k "no money for apprentices in the field. I couldn't afford to pursue my ticket, or I w o u l d have went for it."  127  19 y e a r old male, M e c h a n i c a l Practices, D a w s o n C r e e k ". . . For my self it was a long way from enitial residance but I found many other students in the s a m e p r o b l e m s a n d getting to k n o w t h e m w a s a great help. Helping to get to k n o w them c a m e thorugh pub night. The after school activitys w e r e limited d e p e n d i n g on the w e a t h e r and I found what was at the college was s a t i sfactory to my point. Their could h a v e b e e n m o r e but in g e n e r a l it was pretty g o o d . The living accomidations w e r e I felt the absolute pits. O n numores ocations especially in the winter w e c o m p l a i n e d about no hot w a t e r for the showers. W e (the students) w e r e f e a d lines of B. S. that w o u l d run a mile up ones a r m It probily would have b e e n e a s i e r sleeping on a b e d of nails than the bed(s) and numores complaints I h e a r e d about the other beds. I finaly stold a sheet of plyw o o d just so you wouldn't have to us a winch to pull your self out of the center with two sides c a v e d in on you A s for the f o o d at the c a f i e t e r i a . It wasn't the cooks fait as I had a c o u p l e meals that w e r e p r e p a r e d for us by cooks on the w e e k e n d s a n d it was g o o d . A s for the ones in the cafiteria s o m e of them w e r e w o r s e the stuff I use to flush d o w n the tolet if y a get the m e a n i n g The could have e x p e r i m e n t e d with different goulashes meat loaf, hambergers, p e p p e r steaks, different ways to use chuck stk. & Rd Steak and other c h e a p e r cuts of meat. I h a v e also found out that my y e a r 78-79 was the best y e a r for students at the college w e fought for drinking privaleges, dances, pub-night a n d I also hear it was the cheapest y e a r for v a n d a l i z m at the college. I know thier was s o m e d o n e I mot saying w e w e r e angels But if in the future students a r e a l l o w e d to treated like humans, able to have better living a n d f o o d conditions Northern Light might find it self not having problems as much as they do. Right know I'm atending N e w C a l i d o n i a in Prince G e o r g e for my 2nd Y e a r in my machanices coarse. The college h e r e has no d o r m facilitys but has a m o d e that N.L.C. never did I enjoyed my self at N.L.C. met great p o e p l e had a great time considering what the college had to offer. Its what you put into the college not just what th c o l l e g e puts out. . . . .Also I've h e a r d stories from p e o p l e who I work with w h o w e r e N.L.C. D a w s o n C r e e k students a y e a r before us. Pretty soon enrollment at N.L.C. will reduce if the stories k e e p on cumulating. They should be stoped they way though is up to the college. W h e n things get better peoples attetude toward things get better. Facilty as well as students have to work together to do the changing new ways a n d o l d h a v e to be c o m b i n e d . . . . . Thank you for giving m e an opertunity to express my view as well I hope I have a n s e w e r d some of your questions." 20 y e a r old male, A u t o M e c h a n i c a l Repair, D a w s o n C r e e k " M o r e & better a c c o m o d a t i o n s " 17 y e a r old male, G e n e r a l W e l d i n g , D a w s o n C r e e k "I think I might have taken the w r o n g course for my interests now." 64 year old f e m a l e , Visual Arts, D a w s o n C r e e k "I a m a senior citizen, a n d I w o u l d like to s e e an a d v a n c e d course in V i s u a l Arts established as a second course under Visual A r t s the second year. G i v i n g the student m o r e instruction time."  128  19 y e a r old male, A u t o b o d y Repairs, D a w s o n C r e e k "I h a v e w o r k e d for over two y e a r s in body shops a n d the pay is almost 2 dollars a n hour less still than what I m a k e now. I've d e c i d e d to work in body work in the winter and lumber ind. in the s u m m e r . " 17 y e a r old male, A u t o b o d y Repair, D a w s o n C r e e k "For about 6 months after I went to NLC I w o r k e d in a body shop but I got laid off a n d haven't b e e n a b l e to get back into body w o r k . " 33 y e a r old f e m a l e , C o l l e g e Foundations, Ft. St. John "I c o m p l e t e d grd. 12 as most e m p l o y m e n t requires grd. 12 M y first appl. at Ft. St. John A i r p o r t was turne d o w n as all I had for marks w e r e what " c o m m e n t s " my instructor could supply. My marks w e r e "lost" s o m e w h e r e b e t w e e n h e r e a n d D a w s o n . I h a v e a c a r d which says I passed but no marks. To me, my time in the college was wasted" 28 y e a r old f e m a l e , Counselling, D a w s o n C r e e k " - Expansion of core credit courses in Human Services provincially. - Expansion of student counselling, better facilities, continuity in p r o g r a m m i n g for V o c a t i o n a l , A c a d e m i c & Community Ed. - Daycare facilities - Subsidy for H o m e m a k e r s or w e l f a r e recipients - M o r e credit classes in part time components - Lower fees for Community Ed. courses - Recognition of staff. A newsletter or p a p e r choosing a staff m e m b e r of the month with description of job, etc. - M o r e student participation on advisory boards. - Recognition of advisory b o a r d input. - O f f i c e hours in evenings for w o r k i n g p e o p l e . - Supporting bus service directly to college. - Bus service to Ft. St. John campus so m o r e courses do not have to b e duplicated; possibly m o r e courses can be o f f e r e d in this fashion. - A mobile van or trailer located in various areas in the community for info as well as classes. - Recognition of w o m e n as staff & students. - Skills Training for the 80's - offering overviw courses in order that students may m a k e wise vocational choices. - C a f e t e r i a p r o g r a m m to continue - Excellent v a l u e - M o r e supervision & evaluation by students & peers of courses o f f e r e d - 'improved staff relations - problems with staff e m a n a t e throughout c o l l e g e . " 25 y e a r old male, Carpentry and Joinery, D a w s o n C r e e k " Y o u n e e d m o r e P.R. not to many p e o p l e k n o w much about the c o l l e g e in t o w n . " 45 y e a r old f e m a l e , Business C a r e e r s , D a w s o n C r e e k "I wasn't at NLC very long but it g a v e m e a n interest in l e a r n i n g . " 25 y e a r old male, M e c h a n i c a l Practices, D a w s o n C r e e k "In my opinion, the M e c h a n i c a l Practices Program is the most sensible & pertinent course which NLC offers in the mechanical trades. Subject c o v e r a g e is fantastic." 129  15 y e a r old f e m a l e , C o l l e g e Foundations, Lower Post "Wish w e had N.L.C. h e r e a g a i n . " 34 y e a r old f e m a l e , Business C a r e e r s , Ft. St. John "I found the course rewarding, the instructors very helpful, a n d I w o u l d r e c o m m e n d the college to other adults s e e k i n g an A d u l t e d u c a t i o n . " 22 y e a r old male, A c a d e m i c P r o g r a m m e , Ft. St. John " T h e regional college concept is a n excellent o n e for the a v e r a g e person w h o wants to increase his education and still remain close to h o m e , h o w e v e r without e x p a n d e d facilities, specificly e a s e r access to study material, its a p p e a l with always b e limited." 24 y e a r old male, C o l l e g e Foundations, D a w s o n C r e e k " W o u l d have liked to take A u t o b o d y repair course but b e c a u s e I did not h a v e g r a d e ten had to take the upgrading course which was useless. It would not have m a d e any difference with the course I w a n t e d . There have b e e n others that w e r e a b l e to take the course they w a n t e d without going through the u p g r a d i n g . " 19 y e a r old f e m a l e , Business C a r e e r s , D a w s o n C r e e k " H a v e they got food in the cafeteria on w e e k e n d s yet? is there any financial help for those receiving monies from the Ministry of Labour (Not that you have to a n s w e r but its something to think about)"  130  A P P E N D I X C: B U D G E T  131  i  A P P E N D I X C: B U D G E T Total mailings: 727 Stationery:  750 sheets letter size — $8.68/1000 750 sheets legal size — $9.90/1000 other p a p e r 750 (4 x9'/2) e n v e l o p e s — $17.00/1000 750 (6'/a x 9Va) e n v e l o p e s — $20.00/1000 500 postcards 1000 index cards 48 sheets address labels — $11.00/33  Photocopying:  a) mailings 3 x 750 x $.02 ( p a p e r f i envelopes) 48 x $.02 (labels) b) report draft: 6 x copies x 140 p a g e s x $.10 final: 15 copies x 140 pages x $ . 0 6 2 copies 140 pages x $ . 10  Tape Stamps:  Printing:  750 x $.17 350 x $ . 15 (returns) 500 x $ . 15 (postcard) 50 x $.17 (second mailing) postcards  $  6.51 7.43 25.00 12.75 15.00 20.00 11.00 18.85  45.00 .96 84.00 126.00 28.00 25.00 127.50 52.50 75.00 8.50 35.00  Telephone  135.36  Typing  200.00  {Consultation: 5 return trips to V a n c o u v e r at $300 Total  $1500)  1,500.00 $2,559.36  132  APPENDIX D: QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES  133  A P P E N D I X D: Q U E S T I O N N A I R E RESPONSES  1. Did you have a full-time job during the y e a r b e f o r e attending Northern Lights College? yes 180 no 142 a) if yes, OR e m p l o y e d part-time, what was your job? b) if no, what did you d o ? 2. How satisfied w e r e you with what you w e r e d o i n g ? very satisfied satisfied partially satisfied dissatisfied very dissatisfied  55.9% 44.1%  39 99 103 52 23  3. What p r o g r a m m e did you t a k e at N o r t h e r n Lights C o l l e g e ? A c a d e m i c Studies 44 Agriculture 12 A u t o b o d y Repairs 14 A u t o M e c h a n i c a l Repairs 13 Business Administration 3 Business C a r e e r s 58 Carpentry & Joinery 24 C o l l e g e Foundations (B.T.S.D. Prep., Replace) 42 Cook Training 13 Camp Cooking 3 Counselling 18 Dental Assisting 11 Heavy Duty Mechanics 27 M e c h a n i c a l Practices 13 Visual & Performing A r t s 2 General Welding 11 W e l d i n g Upgrading 3 Employment O r i e n t a t i o n for W o m e n 4 Heavy Duty Truck Driving 9 Homemakers 4  134  12 % 31 % 32.6% 16.5% 7.3%  13.4% 3.7% 4.3% 4.0% .9% 17.7% 7.3% 12.8% 4.0% .9% 5.5% 3.4% 8.2% 4.0% .6% 3.4% .9% 1.2% 2.7% 1.2%  4. W h o sponsored (paid for) your p r o g r a m m e ? Self (fee payer) C a n a d a Employment U n e m p l o y m e n t Insurance Ministry of Labour Indian A f f a i r s H u m a n Resources A i d to the H a n d i c a p p e d Workers' Compensation Other  97 77 92 43 3 6  29.9% 23.8% 28.4% 13.3% .9% 1.9%  3 3  .9% .9%  -  -  5. If you had C o l l e g e to do over again, w o u l d you take the s a m e p r o g r a m m e ? yes 239 77.2% no 71 22.9% 6. How satisfied w e r e you at Northern Lights C o l l e g e with: a) the p r o g r a m m e very satisfied 130 satisifed 144 partially satisfied 38 dissatisfied 8 very dissatisfied 2  40.4% 44.7% 11.8% 2.5% .6%  b) the instructors very satisfied satisfied partially satisfied dissatisfied very dissatisfied  161 106 36 13 5  50.2% 33 % 11.2% 4 % 1.6%  c) sponsoring agency, if any very satisfied satisfied partially satisfied dissatisfied very dissatisfied  44 107 40 16 13  20 % 48.6% 18.2% 7.3% 5.9%  d) college life, in g e n e r a l very satisfied satisfied partially satisfied dissatisfied very dissatisfied  62 174 41 11 3  21.3% 59.8% 14.1% 3,8% 1.0%  135  7. If you withdrew b e f o r e completing your p r o g r a m m e , leaving? C h e c k as many as apply. ran out of money wasn't passing didn't like p r o g r a m m e didn't like instructor(s) p r o g r a m m e not what 1 e x p e c t e d d o u b t e d 1 could pass p r o g r a m m e had nothing to offer work responsibilities preferred to work family responsibilities other health  what w e r e your reasons for 7 8 2 10 6 6 1 13 8 18 5 7  7.6% 8.8% 2.2% 11.0% 6.6% 6.6% 1.0% 14.3% 8.8%  19.8% 5.5% 7.7%  8. What did you like most about Northern Lights C o l l e g e ? existence dorms 2 location 34 p r o g r a m m e content facilities 17 w o r k i n g conditions teaching learning 46 size 23 w o r k i n g on one's own cost 8 meeting others atmosphere 55 instructors organization 14 students meals 6 activities, social 9. What did you like least? location facilities meals dorms sponsorship organization limited variety  6 37 24 37 11 12 15  24 9 23 13 15 19  p r o g r a m m e content equipment instructors and staff students activities miscellaneous  10. Do you have a full-time job n o w ? yes no a) if yes, OR e m p l o y e d part-time, what is your job? b) If no, what a r e you d o i n g ? 11. How satisfied a r e you with what you a r e d o i n g ? very satisfied satisfied partially satisfied dissatisfied very dissatisfied  136  3 67 10 34 13 24 43 16 21  229 92  71.3% 28.7%  126 116 46 20 9  39.7% 36.6% 14.5% 6.3% 2.8%  12. C o m p a r e d to the time b e f o r e you attended Northern Lights C o l l e g e , how much has your monthly income increased? not applicable 74 24.1% none 56 18.2% 0-$100 10 3.3% $101 -200 39 12.7% $201 -300 13 4.2% over $300 115 37.5% 13. How well do you feel the p r o g r a m m e at Northern Lights C o l l e g e p r e p a r e d you for a job in that a r e a ? very well 76 26.4% well 84 29.2% somewhat 64 22.2% a little 32 11.1% not at all 32 11.1% 14. If your job is not related to your p r o g r a m m e at Northern Lights College, what is the O N E most important reason? N.L.C. p r o g r a m m e not job-related; 40 29 % could not find job in field; 29 21 % better pay than i n f i e l d ; 17 12.3% better opportunity for a d v a n c e m e n t ; 11 8 % did not want to w o r k in field; 4 2.9% w a n t e d to e x p l o r e other possibilities 35 25.4% other 2 1.4% 15. If your job is not related to your p r o g r a m m e at Northern Lights C o l l e g e , do you still plan to w o r k in the a r e a of your training? yes 119 78.3% no 33 21.7% 16. If you have b e e n a student since leaving Northern Lights C o l l e g e (or a r e currently in school), a) w e r e / a r e your studies related to your first p r o g r a m m e at Northern Lights College? yes 54 62.8% no 32 37.2% b) what educational institute did you attend? (are you attending) Northern Lights C o l l e g e 23 other B.C. C o l l e g e 21 U. of British C o l u m b i a 6 U. of Victoria 7 Simon Fraser U. 4 B.C. Institute of Technology 3 O p e n Learning Institute 3 U. of A l b e r t a 4 other A l b e r t a institution 4 other 3 i 137  29.5% 26.9% 7.7% 9.0% 5.1% 3.8% 3.8% 5.1% 5.1% 3.8%  c) how satisfied w e r e you with your preparation at Northern Lights C o l l e g e for further studies? very satisfied 34 27.2% satisfied 70 56.0% 14 11.2% partially satisfied 4 3.2% dissatisfied 3 2.4% very dissatisfied  138  A P P E N D I X E: C O D E M A N U A L  139  A P P E N D I X E: C O D E M A N U A L  Frequency Column Total Respondent Population Population  Code  Item  Source  337 347  155 173  1  1 male 2 female  sex  file  422 253  208 118  2,3  15-24 c o l l e g e a g e 25-64 adult a g e  age  file  4,5,6  001-726  number  assigned  college centre  file  Last g r a d e completed  file  502 104 271 7 8 15 12 9  273 41 7 1 1 2 2 1  7  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  80 189 70 243 19  23 84 35 152 6  8,9  02-08 09,10 11 12 13-16  163 55 19 3 17  96 27 10 3 1  10,11  9 1 24 7 48 17 90 61 11 13 23  3 0 14 4 24 6 46 32 5 2 9  1 Dawson Creek w h e r e last g r a d e 2 Ft. St John completed 3 Chetwynd 4 Ft. Nelson 5 other, northeastern B.C. 6 northwestern B.C. 7 central coast 8 Okanagan 9 Kootenays 10 central B.C. 11 V a n c o u v e r Island 12 Lower M a i n l a n d 13 A l b e r t a 14 Saskatchewan 15 M a n i t o b a 16 O n t a r i o  Dawson Creek Ft. St. John Chetwynd Ft. N e l s o n Kelly Lake Blueberry Lower Post G o o d H o p e Lake  140  file  5 2 0  3 0 0  12 0 12 11 15  2 0 2 2 8  136 548  46 282  8  3  4  2  5  2  1  1  13 10  6 1  31 11 8 7  8 5 5 1 328 70  17 Q u e b e c 18 N e w Brunswick 19 Prince E d w a r d Island 20 N o v a Scotia 21 N e w f o u n d l a n d 22 other, C a n a d a 23 U.S. 24 other 12  1 withdrew 2 did not withdraw  withdrawal  file  13,14  01 ran out of m o n e y 02 wasn't passing 03 didn't like programme 04 didn't like instructor 05 p r o g r a m m e not what I e x p e c t e d 06 d o u b t e d I could pass 07 p r o g r a m m e had nothing to offer 08 work responsibilities 09 p r e f e r r e d to work 10 family responsibilities 11 attendance 12 health 13 personal 14 other  reason for withdrawal  file  15  1 completed 2 returned by Post Office 3 no response  response  assigned  16  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  w h e n returned  assigned  286 26 74 36 56 25 18 29 24 35  first w e e k second w e e k third w e e k fourth w e e k fifth w e e k sixth w e e k seventh w e e k eighth w e e k ninth w e e k  141  156 86  17  18  6  62  (not tallied)  1 initial mailing m e t h o d used to 2 initial mailing plus obtain response postcard 3 initial mailing, postcard plus p h o n e call (message) 4 initial mailing, postcard plus p h o n e call (personal) 5 initial mailing, postcard, phone call, plus remailing  assigned  180 142  18  1 yes 2 no  full time job before College  ques. 1  108 57 78 10 5  19,20  13-29 30-39 40-49 50-58 63-74  Blishen rank of job before college  assigned  21,22  01 techologist/ occupation b e f o r e planner college 02 e n g i n e e r 03 m a n a g e r 10 social w o r k e r / counsellor 13 community service worker 14 minister 15 public health nurse 16 teacher 19 nurse 20 dental assistant, technician/ practical nurse 23 news director 25 clerk steno 26 cashier 27 computer operator 28 stock boy 29 a r m e d forces 30 telephone operator/ communications  142  ques. l a  31 claims adjustor/office worker/travel counsellor 32 sales clerk 33 b o o k k e e p e r 36 c o o k / w a i t r e s s 37 desk c l e r k / chambermaid 38 babysitting/ homemaker 40 janitor 41 f a r m e r 42 f a r m m a n a g e r 43 f a r m labourer 44 marine e n g i n e e r 50 oil rig w o r k e r 51 baker's helper 52 mill w o r k e r 57 w e l d e r 61 w e l d e r ' s helper 62 r e p a i r m a n 63 carpenter's helper 65 tire r e p a i r m a n 66 mechanic's helper 68 equipment operator 69 T. V. antenna repairman 70 construction worker/apprentice plumber/labourer 71 pilot 74 service station attendant/taxi, truck driver 76 w a r e h o u s e m a n 81 s e l f - e m p l o y e d / misc. 82 student 83 housewife 84 r e t i r e d / convalescent 85 u n e m p l o y e d 86 m a n a g e r 4 4 3 43 17  23,24  11 m a n a g e r i a l 23 professional 33 technical 41 clerical 43 skilled 143  occupational group  assigned  18 30 34 19 12 6  51 sales 53 semi-skilled 61 service 63 unskilled 71 f a r m i n g 73 s e l f - e m p l o y e d / other 77 m i n i n g / l o g g i n g 91 transport  20 6 39 99 103 52 23 69 20 19 23  44 12 14 13  7  3  83 42 181 28 37 6 14 46  58 24 42 18 13 3 11 27  19  13  3 31 11 11  2 11 3 4  21  9  7  4 97 77 92 42 3  26  1 very satisfied 2 satisfied 3 partially satisfied 4 dissatisfied 5 very dissatisfied  27,28  01 02 03 04  29  satisfaction with ques. 2 occupation prior to attending college  academic C o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e ques. 3 agriculture autobody repair automotive mechanical repair 05 business administration 06 business careers 07 carpentry 08 college foundations 09 counselling 10 cook training 11 c a m p cooking 12 dental assisting 13 heavy duty mechanics 14 mechanical practices 15 visual arts 16 w e l d i n g 17 w e l d i n g upgrading 18 e m p l o y m e n t orientation for women 19 heavy duty truck driving 22 h o m e m a k e r self Canada Employment Unemployment Insurance Ministry of Labour Department of Indian A f f a i r s 144  sponsor  ques. 4  6  6 7  3  8  3  9  M i n i s t r y of H u m a n Resources A i d to the Handicapped Workers' Compensation other  239 71  30  1 yes 2 no  repeat programme  ques. 5  130 144 38 8 2  31  1 2 3 4 5  very satisfied satisfied partially satisfied dissatisfied very dissatisfied  satisfaction with programme  ques. 6a  161 106 36 13 5  32  1 very satisfied 2 satisfied 3 partially satisfied 4 dissatisfied 5 very dissatisfied  satisfaction with instructor  ques. 6  44 107 40 16 13  33  1 very satisfied 2 satisfied 3 partially satisfied 4 dissatisfied 5 very dissatisfied  satisfaction with sponsor  q u e s . 6c  62 174 41 11 3  34  1 very satisfied 2 satisfied 3 partially satisfied 4 dissatisfied 5 very dissatisfied  satisfaction with C o l l e g e life  ques. 6d  01 r a n o u t of m o n e y 02 w a s n ' t p a s s i n g 03 didn't l i k e programme 04 d i d n ' t l i k e instructor 05 p r o g r a m m e not what I expected 06 d o u b t e d I c o u l d pass 07 p r o g r a m m e h a d n o t h i n g to o f f e r 08 w o r k responsibilities 09 p r e f e r r e d to w o r k 10 f a m i l y responsibilities  reason for withdrawing  ques. 7  7  8 2 9 6 6 1 13 8 18  35,36 and 67,68  145  I  5 7  11 o t h e r 12 h e a l t h 13 p e r s o n a l  31 17 46 23 8 55 14 6 3 67 10  37, 3 8 , 39,40 a n d 41 42 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21  34 13 24 43 16 21  30 31 40 41 42 50 4 3 , 44, 45, 46 and 47, 48  37 24 37 11 12 15 24 9 23 13 15 19 229 92 82 72 71 39 6  existence location facilities teaching size cost atmosphere organization meals dorms content equipment and working conditions learning w o r k i n g on o w n meeting others instructors students activities, social  10 11 12 13 14 15 16 20 21 30  location facilities meals dorms sponsorship organization limited variety content equipment instructors and staff 31 s t u d e n t s 40 activities 50 m i s c e l l a n e o u s  49  1 2  50,51  13-29 30-39 40-49 50-58 63-74  yes no  146  like most  ques. 8  College  programme  self-development people  like least  ques. 9  College  programme people  full-time job n o w  q u e s . 10  Blishen rank  assigned  (not tallied)  52,53  01 t e c h o l o g i s t / planner 02 e n g i n e e r 03 m a n a g e r 10 s o c i a l w o r k e r / counsellor 13 c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e worker 14 m i n i s t e r 15 p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e 16 t e a c h e r 19 n u r s e 20 d e n t a l assistant, technician/ practical nurse 23 n e w s d i r e c t o r 25 c l e r k s t e n o 26 c a s h i e r 27 c o m p u t e r o p e r a t o r 28 s t o c k b o y 29 a r m e d f o r c e s 30 t e l e p h o n e operator/ communications 31 c l a i m s adjustor/office worker/travel counsellor 32 s a l e s c l e r k 33 b o o k k e e p e r 36 c o o k / w a i t r e s s 37 d e s k c l e r k / chambermaid 38 b a b y s i t t i n g / homemaker 40 janitor 41 f a r m e r 42 f a r m m a n a g e r 43 f a r m l a b o u r e r 44 m a r i n e e n g i n e e r 50 o i l rig w o r k e r 51 b a k e r ' s h e l p e r 52 m i l l w o r k e r 57 w e l d e r 61 w e l d e r ' s h e l p e r 62 r e p a i r m a n 63 c a r p e n t e r ' s h e l p e r 65 tire r e p a i r m a n 66 m e c h a n i c ' s h e l p e r  147  i  i  ob e q u i p m e n t operator 6 9 T.V. a n t e n n a repairman 70 construction worker/apprentice plumber/labourer 71 p i l o t 74 s e r v i c e s t a t i o n attendant/taxi, truck driver 76 w a r e h o u s e m a n 81 s e l f - e m p l o y e d / misc. 82 s t u d e n t 83 h o u s e w i f e 84 r e t i r e d / convalescent 85 u n e m p l o y e d 86 m a n a g e r 50 97 109 48  54  18 2 4 7 51 33 6 67 19 6 15 7  5  no i m p r o v e m e n t c h a n g e in status slight i m p r o v e m e n t some improvement considerable improvement not a p p l i c a b l e  55,56  11 23 33 41 43 51 53 61 63 71 73  managerial professional technical clerical skilled sales semi-skilled service unskilled farming self-employed/ other 77 m i n i n g / l o g g i n g 92 t r a n s p o r t  occupational group  57  1 2 3 4 5  satisfaction with occupation after college  11 8 126 116 46 20 9  1 2 3 4  very satisfied satisfied partially satisfied dissatisfied very dissatisfied  148  assigned  assigned  q u e s . 11  14 56 10 39 13 115  58  1 2 3 4 5 6  76 84 64 32 32  59  1 very well 2 well 3 somewhat 4 a little 5 not at a l l  p r e p a r a t i o n f o r j o b q u e s . 13  40  60  1 p r o g r a m m e not job r e l a t e d 2 could not find job in f i e l d 3 better pay than in f i e l d 4 better opportunity for advancement 5 d i d not w a n t to w o r k in f i e l d 6 w a n t e d to e x p l o r e other possibilties 7 other  reason job not r e l a t e d to programme  q u e s . 14  119 33  61  1 yes 2 no  plans  q u e s . 15  81  62  1 yes  student since  ques. 16a (inferred)  studies related  ques. 16a  educational institution  ques. 16b  29 17 11 4 35 2  230 54  2 63  32 6 7 4 3 21 4 4 23 3 3  i n c r e a s e in s a l a r y  no  1 yes 2  64,65  not a p p l i c a b l e none 0-$100 $101-200 $201-300 over$300  q u e s . 12  no  01 01 03 04 05 06 07  U.B.C. U. V i c . S.F.U. B.C.I.T. B.C. C o l l e g e U. o f A . other Alberta Institute 08 N . L . C . 09 o t h e r 10O.L.I.  149  34 70 14 4  39 5 1 22 3 1 24 2 15 9 5 5  5 6 2 8 21  66  67, 68 69, 7 0 and 7 1 , 72  1 very satisfied 2 satisfied 3 partially satisfied 4 dissatisfied 5 very dissatisfied  ( s e e 35,36) 10 g e n e r a l , p o s i t i v e 11 g e n e r a l , n e g a t i v e 12 g e n e r a l , o t h e r 20 p o s i t i v e 21 n e g a t i v e 22 o t h e r 30 current situation 40 plans 41 p l a n t o c o n t i n u e education 50 job-related problems 60 g e n e r a l recommendations 61 r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s for m o r e course work, additional courses 70 g e n e r a l c o m m e n t s on p r o g r a m m e 71 w a n t a d v a n c e d c o u r s e in f i e l d 72 w a n t m o r e t h e o r y 73 w a n t m o r e practical 80 o t h e r  satisfaction with preparation for further studies  ques. 16c  comments  comments  r e l a t i o n s h i p of p r o g r a m m e to current situation  programme  >  150  

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