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A follow-up study of 1978 Northern Lights College students Olson, Corliss Patricia 1981

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FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF 1978 NORTHERN LIGHTS COLLEGE STUDENTS by CORLISS PATRICIA OLSON B. A., The University of British Columbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Educational Psychology) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (c) June 1981 Corliss Patricia Olson I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f /T2>i/<TSfT/osd/H- /*5/'c*/<m>£Ly The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 I 0 / 7 Q \ ABSTRACT A follow-up study of students who had attended Northern Lights College in 1978, was conducted two years later. The proposal for the study was submitted to the College Board and received partial funding. The population studied included all full-time students who had begun a programme of at least 30 days during the 1978 calendar year. The survey instrument was a one-page, mailed questionnaire. Students received the initial mailing, a reminder postcard and a telephone reminder and second questionnaire, if necessary. The response rate was 5 3 % , based on the number of questionnaires assumed to have reached the students. The goals of the study were: to assess student satisfaction with their college experience and determine reasons for early withdrawal; to assess the relevance (from the students' point of view) of the college educational experience to employment and to further education; and to assess the change both in students' socio-economic status and job satisfaction prior to enrollment at the College compared with two years after leaving the College. Data were statistically analyzed using Chi-square, z-tests and analysis of variance. It was found that students were generally satisfied with their college experience. Reasons for early withdrawal were investigated, but the small sample size did not allow conclusive statements. Students' expectations for good job preparation were met two-thirds of the time. Two years after college, most respondents wished to be employed in their fields of study and the reasons some were not were examined. There was evidence of problems in the implementation of the apprenticeship programme; specifically, funding during training and the availability of adequate, appropriate work afterwards. One-quarter of respondents indicated they had gone on for further studies and most of those continued in areas related to their programmes at Northern Lights College. A large proportion of those continuing their education stayed within the college system and many returned to Northern Lights. Most students were satisfied with their preparation for further studies. The number of respondents employed full-time increased significantly after college. There was a significant difference in full-time employment by sex both before and after college, but no significant difference between college-age and adult-age respondents. Changes in occupational group after college were reviewed: groups showing the greatest increase in numbers were the skilled and semi-skilled occupations. The change in job status, as measured by the Blishen socio-economic scale, was significant and the difference in job status between the sexes was signficant with males in lower ranking socio-economic groups both before and after college. Job satisfaction increased significantly after college for both sexes and both age groups. Two-thirds of respondents reported some increase in salary after college. The study concludes with 13 recommendations, based.on student responses, to the College Board. i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank some of the people and agencies who have contributed extensively to this paper. From the University of British Columbia, I especially wish to thank Dr. David Whittaker, my advisor, and my other committee members, Dr. John D. Dennison and Dr. Gary Dickenson. Grace Ho and Ray Tomusiak contributed many hours of assistance at the computer. I would like to thank Northern Lights College for financial assistance, both through the College Board and the B.C. Government Employees' Union Professional Development Fund. I would also like to thank the instructors and staff for input and assistance. John Spinelli was of immeasurable assistance with the statistical analysis and Don Howard helped with textual problems and proof-reading. The Peace River Block News, in Dawson Creek, receives credit for the physical production of the report, beautifully typed on their computer. Also for the physical production of the report, thanks are due to Sharon Kanda for many patient hours of typing and to Joan Olson, my mother, for her special skills at "cut and paste". Most importantly, I am grateful to the students of Northern Lights College who took the time to respond to the questionnnaire and made the study possible. To all these people, and my many indulgent friends, thank you. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE ABSTRACT ". i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS . ... i i i LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . v i I. INTRODUCTION 1 A. PURPOSE , . . . . . . 2 B. RATIONALE 3 II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 A . BRITISH COLUMBIA STUDIES. . . . . . . . . 9 B. OTHER CANAD IAN STUDIES 15 C. STUDIES CONDUCTED IN THE UNITED STATES. 18 D. SUMMARY 21 HI. M E T H O D O L O G Y . . . . . . 23 A. GENERAL APPROACH .23 B. RATES OF RETURN A N D RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS . .27 i i i IV. RESULTS, DISCUSSION A N D CONCLUSIONS 36 A. QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS A N D DISCUSSION 36 1. Question Number One . 36 2. Question Number Two 37 3. Question Number Three. 41 4. Question Number Four . . . 43 5. Question Number Five 43 6. Question Number Six 46 7. Question Number Seven 50 8. Question Number Eight , . 54 9. Question Number Nine 55 10. Question Number Ten . 55 11. Question Number Eleven 56 12. Question Number Twelve 59 13. Question Number Thirteen 63 14. Question Number Fourteen 67 15. Question Number Fifteen. . 72 16. Question Number Sixteen 73 Addition Comments 74 B. INTER-ITEM RESULTS, DISCUSSION A N D CONCLUSIONS . . . . . 76 1. The College Experience 76 a) Satisfaction with the college experience .76 b) Reasons for early withdrawal . . . 78 2. Relevance of College Education to Employment and Further Education 8Q a) Relevance of college education to e m p l o y m e n t . . . . . . . . . . . 80 b) Relevance of college education to further education 82 3. Change in Socio-economic Status and Job Satisfaction .83 a) Full-time employment . . . . . . . 83 b) Occupational group 86 c) Job status . 93 d) Job satisfaction 96 e) Increase in salary 98 V. SUMMARY A N D RECOMMENDATIONS . . 99 A. SUMMARY . .99 B. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH . . .102 C. RECOMMENDATIONS 104 iv SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY -108 APPENDICES 112 APPENDIX A: Mailings 113 1. Questionnaire •. . .114 2. Covering letter 115 3. Self-addressed envelope 116 4. Additional insert 117 5. Follow-up postcard 118 APPENDIX B: Selected Verbatim Comments 119 1. Comments in response to question 8, "What did you like most about Northern Lights Col lege?" . . . 120. 2. Comments in response to question 9, "What did you like least?" , 122 3. Additional Comments . . 124 APPENDIX C: Budget. . 131 APPENDIX D: Questionnaire Item Results 133 APPENDIX E: Code Manual. . . . 139 v LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Population by sex 28 2 Population by age 28 3 Rate of return by College Centre . • 30 4 Rate of return by level of schooling 31 5 Rate of return by place of completion of last grade 32 6 Rate of return by completion or non-completion of programme 33 7 Rate of response by programme 34 8 Satisfaction with occupation before attending college, for those in the labour force .38 9 Satisfaction with occupation before attending college, by sex 39 10 Satisfaction with occupation before attending college, by age 40 11 Location of last grade of schooling, by programme . 42 12 Would choose the same programme if enrolling again, by age 44 13 Would choose the same programme if enrolling again, by programme 45 14 Satisfaction with programme, by programme 47 15 Satisfaction with sponsor, by sponsor 49 16 Reason for early withdrawal from college, by sex. . . . . 51 17 Reason for early withdrawal from college, by programme 52 18 Reason for early withdrawal, by satisfaction with programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 19 Satisfaction with occupation after attending college, for those in the labour force . - . 57 20 Satisfaction with occupation after attending college, by age 58 21 "Would you take the same programme?" compared with level of job satisfaction after college . 59 22 Increase in salary for respondents who were in the labour force both before and after attending 60 23 Increase in salary by sex for those in the labour force 61 24 Increase in salary by programme 62 25 Assessment of job preparation in job-specific programmes 64 26 Preparation for job by programme 65 27 Satisfaction with programme by assessment of preparation for a job 66 28 Reason job unrelated to college programme for those in the labour force 68 29 Reason job unrelated to college programme by programme 69 30 Reason job unrelated to college programme for pre-employment and pre-apprenticeship programmes 70 31 Reason job unrelated to college programme by level of formal education before college . . . . 71 32 Satisfaction with occupation after college by reason job unrelated to college programme . . . . 72 33 Comments . 75 vi 34 Satisfaction with four aspects of the college experience 77 35 Full-time employment status before and after attending college 84 36 Full-time employment status by sex before and after attending college . . . . . . 85 37 Full-time employment status by age before and after attending college 85 38 Full-time employment status before and after attending college .86 39 Occupational group before and after attending college 87 40 Occupational group by sex, before and after attending college 89 41 Occupational group by age, before and after attending college. 90 42 Occupational group by last grade of schooling completed 92 43 Job status: Blishen socioeconomic rank before and after attending college. . . .93 44 Blishen socioeconomic rank by sex before and after college 94 45 Mean Blishen scores, by sex, before and after college 95 46 Satisfaction with occupation before and after attending college, for those in the labour force 96 47 Satisfaction with occupation before and after college, by sex -97 vii CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION A follow-up study of Northern Lights College students was designed and undertaken in an effort to determine what effect college had had, two years after attendance. For financial reasons, the study was limited to students who attended the College full-time in 1978, whose programmes were at least 30 days long. The majority of students at Northern Lights College take vocationally-oriented programmes, so the emphasis of the study is related to the work world. However, data were also gathered from students enrolled in non job-specific programmes. The largest number of these students were enrolled in adult basic education programmes (College Foundations) and Academic Studies. The study focuses on several aspects of the students' lives, before, during and after attending college. An assessment of students' satisfaction while attending college and comparisons and contrasts are drawn with regard to their employment circumstances before and after college. Some investigation was also made into the fate of transferring students. This study is the first comprehensive study of Northern Lights College students and has therefore made no attempt to cover all areas in great detail. Notably absent from the study is information about students who attended Northern Lights College solely for their own interest. However, this group is relatively small and data could be gathered at some other time if it is considered desirable. It is hoped that the information contained in this report will be interesting 1 and, above all, useful to Northern Lights College and other agencies, A. PURPOSE The purpose of the study is to obtain information from former students of Northern Lights College which could be used to plan and implement programme and service improvements in the College offerings. Specifically, the goals of the study are: 1. to assess student satisfaction with the college experience and determine reasons for early withdrawal; 2. to assess the relevance of the college educational experience to employment and to further education from the students' point of view; and 3. to assess the change both in students' socio-economic status and job satisfaction prior to enrollment at college compared with two years after leaving the college. The information required to make these assessments comes from specific items on a mailed questionnaire. The dimension "student satisfaction with the colcollege experience" requires an assessment of satisfaction with programmes, instructors and sponsoring agencies. (Many students receive financial assistance, or sponsorship, during their programme at the College, but frequently they encounter serious problems either in collecting these monies or receiving adequate funds. The hardships caused by inadequate or late funding becomes an intrinsic part of the college experience.) As a further assessment of the level of satisfaction with the college experce, students may indicate either regret at having taken a particular programme or they may indicate that, if they had the decision to make now, they would still choose the same programme. Reasons for early withdrawal from college programmes are recorded on 2 s t u d e n t s ' r e c o r d s . H o w e v e r , t h e c a t e g o r i e s a r e o f t e n v e r y b r o a d a n d e n c o m p a s s a v a r i e t y of r e a s o n s . By a s k i n g r e s p o n d e n t s w h o w i t h d r e w b e f o r e c o m p l e t i n g t h e i r c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s , to g i v e e x p l i c i t r e a s o n s f o r e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l , t h e C o l l e g e c a n g a i n v a l u a b l e i n s i gh t a n d p e r h a p s p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e to e n a b l e m o r e s t u d e n t s to c o m p l e t e t h e i r s t ud i e s . T h e r e l e v a n c e of t h e c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e to e m p l o y m e n t , f r o m t h e s t u d e n t s ' p o i n t of v i e w , c a n b e a s s e s s e d by e x a m i n i n g s t u d e n t s ' a s s e s s m e n t s of h o w w e l l t h e i r p r o g r a m m e s p r e p a r e d t h e m f o r w o r k in t h e i r f i e l d s a n d e x a m i n a t i o n of t he r e a s o n s s o m e a r e not e m p l o y e d in t h e i r f i e l d s of t r a i n i n g . A n a s s e s s m e n t of t h e r e l e v a n c e of t h e c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e t o f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e s a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n of s t u d e n t s w h o c o n t i n u e d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n in o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e if t h e y c o n t i n u e d in r e l a t e d a r e a s , w h i c h i n s t i t u t i on s t hey a t t e n d e d a n d t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r e p a r a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r s t ud i e s . T h e s t udy of t h e e m p l o y m e n t b e n e f i t s o f a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e r e v i e w of f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t s ta tu s , o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r a n k i n g s a n d j ob s a t i s f a c t i o n b e f o r e a n d a f t e r c o l l e g e . S a l a r y i n c r e a s e s a f t e r c o l l e g e y i e l d f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e p o s s i b l e i m p a c t of a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n o n s t u d e n t s ' e m p l o y m e n t p r o s p e c t s . A s t udy of d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to t h e g o a l s of t h e s tudy a n d a s s e s s m e n t s of c h a n g e o v e r t i m e c o m p r i s e t h e m a j o r th ru s t of th i s s tudy . A n a l y s i s of r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s a d d r e s s e s t h e s tudy g o a l s . B. R A T I O N A L E N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e s e r v e s a g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a w h i c h e n c o m p a s s e s t w o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e P e a c e R i v e r - L i a r d a n d t h e S t i k i n e ; a n d 3 four school districts, No. 59 (Peace River South), No. 60 (Peace River North), No. 81 (Fort Nelson), and No. 87 (Stikine). Although the region includes more than one-third of the geographical area of the Province, the population of the region is ap-proximately 47,000J The Peace River-Liard and Stikine Districts have high rates of functional illiteracy, defined as less than grade nine education. Twenty-six per cent of the population over fifteen years of age and not attending school full-time have a 2 grade eight education or less. O n a Province-wide basis, only 19% of the population falls into this category. The regions have a high rate of attrition in the regular school 3 system and a small proportion of the population with education beyond grade twelve. In B.C., 3 5 % of the population over fifteen and not attending school full-time have some education beyond grade twelve, compared with 2 7 % in the Northern Lights College region.^ Northern Lights College, serving the largest geographical College region in British Columbia and the smallest population, has special problems to overcome. The need to establish and maintain credibility as an educational institution is coupled with the need to remain flexible and innovative to meet the diverse needs of the people scattered throughout the region. There is considerable discussion about the changing value of education. Economic pressures, rising educational qualifications and job dissatisfaction have ^Statistics Canada, Population; Geographic Distributions, 1976 Census, Vol. 1 (Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1977), pp. 3-44, 3-45. Gary Dickenson, Undereducated Adults in British Columbia--!976, Adult Basic Education Studies and Reports, No. 3 (Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 1979), p. 13. 3 School District Enrollment Figures. 4 J u d y Reid, Statistics Canada, to Gary Weir, Victoria, 5 October 1979, compilation of 1976 Census figures. 4 been receiving the attention of many educators, economists and politicians. The problems of inflation and high employment are significant factors causing increasing and more critical scrutiny of expenditures of public funds for education. The simultaneous demands for fiscal restraint and -greater accountability have put colleges in an increasing squeeze: they are being asked to provide necessary ser-vices, and more of them, while at the same time reducing costs; British Columbia is currently facing the seeming anomoly of high unem-ployment and a lack of skilled labour. In a 1975 survey, two-thirds of employers had difficulty recruiting qualified people, particularly in construction, trades, manufacturing and community services. At the same time, employers complained of 5 a lack of practical preparation of graduates. Appropriately trained labour is essential for industrial and economic development. When the economic picture worsens, demands on educational institutions increase: greater efficiency is required to meet more closely the educational and training needs of the country and to respond to the demands for more appropriate training and decreased spending. Another phenomenon has been identified which has relevance to economic considerations of college education. As more people receive more education, the job market becomes more competitive and basic educational requirements for jobs increase in response to the availability of a better educated work force. Students' employment aspirations generally increase as their level of education rises. This artificial inflation of employment requirements coupled with rising expectations leads to a labour force whose job aspirations are not in line with job opportunities A 5 John Dennison et al., The Impact of Community Colleges, (Vancouver: B.C. Research, 1975), p. 107. 6 Lewis C. Solmon et al., Wisdom or Waste? College as a Training Ground  for Jobs, (Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare National Institute of Education, 1976), p. 7. Economic demands on educational institutions are for more appropriate training in areas required for industrial and economic development and for greater efficiency in training. A follow-up study can provide information vital to meeting these demands. Since the creation of Northern Lights College as a comprehensive institution in 1975, considerable growth has taken place, both in terms of student enrollment and programme offerings. To guide its development, the College has drafted an Educational Master Plan, articulating the College mandate to provide comprehensive College offerings, meeting regional, provincial, and interprovincial responsibilities. The goals of the College, as set out in the plan are: - to provide programming "...designed to have the greatest possible long lasting impact on the ADULT population of the North": and - "to make itsfthe College's] communities better places to live."[sic] In addition to these regionally oriented goals, provincial responsibility is acknowledged, particularly in vocational training, while co-operative ventures in the areas of community education and university transfer programming comprise the interprovincial r o l e / A follow-up study,can provide information vital to increasing the efficiency of an educational institution in meeting the training and educational requirements of society. Recognizing this, the United States Vocational Education Act requires from institutions, as a condition of funding, reports on training and placement in the field. Consequently, numerous educators in the United States have turned their attention Barry Moore, ed., Educational Master Plan, Northern Lights College, 1978- 1982, (Soanichton: Hancock House Publishers, 1978), pp. 8-10. 6 to follow-up studies. Lightfield, in an attempt to establish criteria for the assessment of training, listed several indicators of goal attainment: - the student should be enrolled in a transfer institution, employed, or unemployed voluntarily; - the student's occupation should be related to his/her studies; - the student should view the course as requisite to his/her job; - the student should view the course as increasing his/her earning potential; - the student should rank his/her present position as satisfactory; - the student should rate his/her educational experience as sound preparation for his/her job or for transfer to another institution; - the student should have encountered no difficulty in transferring to another educational institution; and, - the student should view financial aid during training as satisfactory.8 These criteria are relevant to Northern Lights College students and it is the objective of this study to investigate several of these areas. Information on some of these criteria will serve to help evaluate the College's progress towards meeting its goals. The student is both the consumer and the product of the College programmes and is therefore in the best position to provide insight into the adequacy and efficacy of those programs. Indeed, student feedback, when coupled with that of employers and the community may be the only definitive evaluation of 8 , T i m o t h y E. Lightfield, Student Follow-Up in Higher Education: A Systematic Approach, vol. 2 no. 6 (Washington, D.C, McMdnis Associates Inc., 1976), pp. 15-16. 7 t he w o r k of t he C o l l e g e a n d a s s e s s m e n t of its p r o g r e s s in m e e t i n g its m a n d a t e . The s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s in i d e n t i f y i n g n e e d s in c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m i n g a n d s e r v i c e s is c r i t i c a l . T h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t he d e g r e e to w h i c h t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l o r e m p l o y m e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r e i m p r o v e d as a r e su l t of a C o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n a r e i m p o r t a n t in e s t i m a t i n g t h e v a l u e of tha t e d u c a t i o n . The les s t a n g i b l e s t u d e n t g o a l s of s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t o r p e r s o n a l g r o w t h a r e m o r e d i f f i c u l t to s tudy . A s t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e s o u r c e f o r th i s i n f o r m a t i o n is t h e s t uden t , t he v a l u e of a f o l l o w - u p s tudy f o r e v a l u a t i o n is e n h a n c e d . A f o l l o w - u p s tudy c a n b e a t oo l f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e C o l l e g e : k n o w l e d g e of r e su l t s c a n p r o d u c e g r e a t e r s en s i t i v i t y to n e e d s a n d g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y to m e e t t h o s e n e e d s . The i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m a f o l l o w - u p s tudy of f o r m e r s t u d e n t s a n d e a r l y l e a v e r s c a n p r o v i d e e s s e n t i a l d o c u m e n t a t i o n n e c e s s a r y to p l a n k n o w l e d g e a b l e i m p r o v e m e n t s in p r o g r a m m e s a n d s e r v i c e s . The d e m o g r a p h y of t h e C o l l e g e a r e a , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s of s t u d e n t s a n d t h e n e e d f o r I n c r ea sed e f f i c i e n c y in e d u c a t i o n a l e n d e a v o r s d e m a n d tha t g r e a t e r e c o n o m y b e a c h i e v e d . A f o l l o w - u p s tudy c a n s e r v e as a pa r t of a s y s t e m a t i c a n d a n a l y t i c a l a s s e s s m e n t of t h e C o l l e g e a n d c a n p r o v i d e t a n g i b l e e v i d e n c e of its w o r k . P r o g r a m m e a n d s e r v i c e m o d i f i c a t i o n s d e s i g n e d to a s s i s t t h e C o l l e g e in m e e t i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s of t h e M a s t e r P l a n c a n b e b e t t e r c o n s i d e r e d in l i gh t of t h e s u r v e y ' s f i n -d i n g s . This s tudy w a s d e s i g n e d a n d u n d e r t a k e n to p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r i n c r e a s i n g t he e f f i c i e n c y of N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e in m e e t i n g t he e d u c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s of its s t uden t s a n d its c o m m u n i t i e s . 8 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Information on students in Canadian community colleges is not plentiful. When information has been compiled, it is usually a profile of students attending an institution. Little attempt has been made to assess the effectiveness of the Canadian college experience for the students attending those colleges. In British Columbia, numerous studies have been conducted assessing various aspects of the community colleges. Despite this fact, little information is available about either Northern Lights College students or vocational students throughout the Province. A. BRITISH COLUMBIA STUDIES A recent study published by B.C. Research included information about some Northern Lights College students. A Province-wide follow-up study of 1978 academic college students who did not continue their programme one year later was con-ducted in 1980. Of British Columbia's fourteen colleges, thirteen, including Northern Lights College, participated in the study. The methodology of the study allowed representatives of the colleges to participate in a planning workshop, to make recommendations on the study design and to review the items contained in a draft questionnaire. Many problems were anticipated and allieviated as a result of the information exchanged. Non-continuing first and second year academic students who attended college in September 1978 were included in the study. Each of these students was 9 sent a questionnaire and explanatory letter. Non-respondents were sent a reminder postcard six days later. If necessary, another copy of the questionnaire and a second letter were mailed eight days later. Calculated on the basis of questionnaires assumed to have been received, the response rate was 5 6 % . A total of 12% of the mailings were returned by the post office as undeliverable. The response rate for 9 Northern Lights College was 4 8 % with 11 % undeliverable. As well as investigating why students did not continue their education, the study also asked several questions about employment activity and the relationship of the college programme to current activity. Northern Lights College was found to have substantially fewer students than the Provincial average continuing their education (29% and 4 5 % , respec-tively). A slight statistical bias in the respondent population was found: female students and adult students (that is, twenty-five years of age and older) were the most likely to re spond .^ Although the subjects surveyed were enrolled on the academic programme, which generally is not considered to be job-specific, over half of the respondents indicated that the acquisition of vocationally-oriented knowledge or skills was their objective in attending college. Less than half (41%) of Northern Lights College respondents listed "knowledge for job" as their reason for attending college. Nevertheless, there is a strong indication that students are very concerned 9 Gordon Jones, G len C. Forrester, and John D. Dennison, A Follow-Up  Study of Non-Transfer, Academic Students from the British Columbia Community  Colleges: Technical Report, (Vancouver: B.C. Research, 1980), pp. 16-17, 28, 29. 1 0 l b i d . , pp. 124, 126. 1 1 Ibid., p. 30. 10 about employment prospects and suitable job preparation. In contrast, 3 0 % of Northern Lights College students, compared with 2 1 % for the Province, indicated 12 they had attended college to develop a "broad general outlook". Over 8 0 % of Northern Lights College respondents indicated they were employed, studying, or full-time in the home. This proportion is roughly comparable 13 to the Provincial sample of respondents. When compared with the Province-wide figure of 14%, a large proportion of Northern Lights College respondents (22%) indicated they were employed in professional fields. However, 5 9 % of Northern Lights College respondents also indicated they had their jobs before leaving college. These factors probably suggest that professionals in the community are taking college courses, not that Northern Lights College students find employment in professional areas as a result of their College programmes. This explanation is supported by the fact that one-third of Northern Lights College respondents indicated that college did not help them in obtaining their j o b s . ^ Employment in the clerical areas was also fairly common, as reported by 19% of Northern Lights College respondents. This is identical to the Provincial response; however, it may reflect that a greater concentration of Northern Lights College women students are employed in clerical fields because 69,% of the Nor-thern Lights College target population were women, compared with 5 9 % for the Province-wide target population. Of the total respondents, almost half reported full-time employment as 1 2 l b i d . , p. 124. 1 3 l b i d . , p. 126. 1 4 l b i d . , pp. 127-128. 11 their current activity with very little difference between college age and adult students. The proportion of students employed full-time was roughly comparable between the Provincial respondents and Northern Lights College respondents .^ Northern Lights College respondents were more likely to be engaged in full-time household/family duties or to be combining employment and education than were respondents from the Province-wide sample. Unfortunately, the com-bination of full-time household/family duties and education is not explored in the study although it is of particular interest to colleges with a large enrollment of women students. ^ Over half of Northern Lights College respondents (55%) indicated that they would choose the academic programme if enrolling again while 2 7 % stated they would choose some other programme. This compares with 4 3 % and 3 6 % , respec-tively, for the total respondent population. This may be partly a reflection of the characteristics of the older student population at Northern Lights College (69% over twenty-four years of age) compared with the Provincial group (54% over twenty-four). There is also less committment to studies, in terms of time, on the part of Northern Lights College respondents, 8 2 % of whom attended college part-time, compared with 6 0 % for the Provincial sample. '^ Approximately one-third of all respondents chose to utilize the "comments" section of the questionnaire. The majority of these responses were categorized as 18 favourable towards the colleges. 1 5 l b i d . , p. 81. 1 6 l b i d . , p . 126. 1 7 l b i d . , p p . 131, 121. 1 8 l b i d . , pp.94, 101, 103. A n earlier series of studies, published prior to the establishment of Nor-thern Lights College js. entitled The Impact of Community Colleges, A Study of the College Concept in British Columbia. This series of studies investigated numerous aspects of the college system and its influence in British Columbia. Those studies which were concerned with students' objectives and follow-up are relevant to the study. The "Opinion Survey" (1971) and the "Post-Secondary Survey" (1972) revealed that students' opinions about the goals of post-secondary education are as diverse as the college system itself. Responses indicated that "there is no consensus amongst students on basic educational objectives." Two objectives were ranked as important: the learning of skills that lead to a job and the development of a broad general outlook on a variety of subjects. Twice as many students enrolled in vocational programmes compared with students enrolled in other college or university programmes indicated learning job-related skills was of primary i'm-19 portance. Career programme graduates and academic transfer students who tran-sferred to university were studied after completion of their college programmes. However, because of difficulties in systematically identifying and locating non-transfer graduates, only Vancouver Community College students entering the work force were surveyed. The objectives of the study were: "1. to determine what college graduates were doing four months after graduation; 2. to determine if the college had provided curricula relevant to the needs of students and to the requirements of employers; Dennison, Impact, pp. 50-51. 13 3. to determine if the college had provided the necessary personnel to make the educational experience adequate and effective." Seventy-five percent of respondents indicated they were employed full-time shortly after leaving college. Eighty per cent of the employed respondents reported at least 20 some relationship between their areas of employment and their College studies. Some advantage in salary was attributed by college graduates to their college education. Students' satisfaction with their careers and college experience was considered, but problems were encountered in attempting to make definitive statements. The relationship between the time of training or education and choice of a career seems to have as much bearing on estimates of satisfaction as does course 21 content and its applicability to work situations. Students transferring to the University of British Columbia from British Columbia Colleges were studied extensively as part of the Impact project. It was found that students improve their achievement in the second and subsequent years 22 after transfer. Although students transferring to university have more diverse academic backgrounds than direct entry students, they do nearly as well 23 academically. This factor indicates that college education for transfer students is appropriate to university work. Two other British Columbia studies have relevance here. The first, a 1974 follow-up study of students at Vancouver Vocational Institute indicated that three months after completing their courses, 7 8 % of the respondents were employed full-time, 4 9 % in an area related to their job. Of 2,324 students who were sent 2 0 l b i d . , p . 8 5 . 2 1 l b i d . , p p . 8 6 , 87. 2 2 l b i d . , p . 9 4 . 2 3 l b i d . , p . 101. 14 24 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , 2 9 % r e s p o n d e d . The s e c o n d s tudy w a s c o n d u c t e d in 1975 to f o l l o w - u p C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e s t u d e n t s a t V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e . It f o u n d tha t m a n y s t u d e n t s w e r e not e m p l o y e d in t h e i r a r e a of t r a i n i n g f o r a v a r i e t y of r e a s o n s . S o m e s t u d e n t s f o u n d tha t jobs w e r e not a v a i l a b l e o r w e r e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . O t h e r s t u d e n t s c o u l d not m e e t t h e m e d i c a l o r p h y s i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . St i l l o t h e r s e x p r e s s e d a l a ck of i n t e r e s t in t h e 25 f i e l d . F i f t y - s e v e n p e r c en t i n d i c a t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r e m p l o y m e n t . B. OTHER C A N A D I A N STUDIES N e w B r u n s w i c k c o n d u c t e d s e v e r a l s t u d i e s of a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t r a i n i n g to i n v e s t i g a t e a h i g h d r o p - o u t r a t e . A p r e l i m i n a r y s tudy i n d i c a t e d t h e d r o p - o u t s w e r e 26 d u e c h i e f l y to a l a c k of i n t e r e s t , bu t a l a t e r s t udy c o n c l u d e d tha t s t u d e n t s d i d not 27 s e e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p a s w o r t h w h i l e , a s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n . The s t u d i e s a l s o o b s e r v e d that , d e s p i t e t h e c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g n a t u r e of a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t r a i n i n g in N e w B r u n s w i c k , t h e r e a r e f e w o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a to a s s e s s m o d i f i c a t i o n s to 28 t h e e x i s t i n g p r o g r a m m e s . 2 4 G o r d o n J o n e s , A l u m n i S tudy, 1973: V a n c o u v e r V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i tu te  C a m p u s G r a d u a t e s , ( V a n c o u v e r : V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e , 1974), pp . 8, 10. G o r d o n J o n e s , C a r e e r P r o g r a m m e F o l l o w - U p : C r i n i m o l J u s t i c e , ( V a n -c o u v e r : V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e , 1975), p. 8. 26 R o n a l d W . J o h n s o n , S o m e D i m e n s i o n s of t h e D r o p - O u t P r o b l e m , ( F r e d r i c t o n : N e w B r u n s w i c k D e p a r t m e n t of L abou r , 1967), p. 21. 27 R o n a l d W . J o h n s o n , Is A p p r e n t i c e s h i p S e e n as W o r t h w h i l e ? ( F r e d r i c t o n ; N e w B r u n s w i c k D e p a r t m e n t of L abou r , 1970), p. 20. 28 R o n a l d W . J o h n s o n , A S e c o n d Look at t h e D r o p - O u t P r o b l e m in A p - p r e n t i c e s h i p T r a i n i n g , ( F r ed r i c t on : N e w B r u n s w i c k D e p a r t m e n t of Labou r , 1968), p. o. 15 A s tudy c o n d u c t e d in 1975 in O n t a r i o set ou t t o d e t e r m i n e t he a b i l i t y of o c c u p a t i o n a l g r a d u a t e s to s e c u r e a n d h o l d jobs . W h i l e t h e g r a d u a t e s s t u d i e d w e r e g r a d u a t e s of a j un i o r a n d s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l p r o g r a m m e , s o m e of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h t h e s tudy y i e l d e d is r e l e v a n t . , N e a r l y ha l f of t h e g r a d u a t e s s t a y e d at t h e i r f i r s t job a n d f o u n d s o m e s a t i s f a c t i o n in it . O t h e r s h a d a t e n d e n c y to m o v e f r o m job to job a n d s t i l l o t h e r s w e r e c h r o n i c a l l y u n e m p l o y e d . R e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e in t h e e m p l o y m e n t p a t t e r n s . The u n e m p l o y m e n t r a t e of m a l e g r a d u a t e s w a s f o u n d to b e t h r e e t i m e s t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e . C o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n c o u r s e s w e r e m a d e a n d c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s ' b a c k g r o u n d s w e r e s t u d i e d . V a r i a b l e s of f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d w e r e e x a m i n e d a n d f o u n d to b e s i g n i f i c a n t to s t u d e n t s ' e m p l o y m e n t r e c o r d s . I nd i v i dua l f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d c o u p l e d w i t h t h e o v e r a l l e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s r e v e a l e d t h e c o n t i n u i n g e f f e c t of p o v e r t y a n d of t h e l ack of e d u c a t i o n a l a d -29 v a n t a g e . This s t udy w i l l c o n s i d e r c h a n g e s in s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s ta tu s e x p e r i e n c e d by N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e s t u d e n t s a f t e r a t t e n d i n g t h e c o l l e g e . The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s c a l e u s e d w a s d e v i s e d by B e r n a r d B l i s h e n a n d is t h e r e f o r e r e v i e w e d h e r e . In 1958, B e r n a r d B l i s h e n p u b l i s h e d t h e B l i s h e n s c a l e of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s ta tu s . The d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e s c a l e w a s b a s e d on t h e p r i n c i p l e of c l a s s s t r u c t u r e a n d t he p r e m i s e tha t t h e g r e a t e s t r e w a r d s a r e g i v e n f o r p o s i t i o n s of g r e a t e s t s o c i a l 30 i m p o r t a n c e a n d r e q u i r e t h e g r e a t e s t a m o u n t of t r a i n i n g a n d t a l e n t . To d e v e l o p t he s c a l e , B l i s h e n a r r a n g e d t he o c c u p a t i o n s l i s t e d in t h e 1951 29 E.B. H a r v e y a n d V.L. M a s e m a n n , O c c u p a t i o n a l G r a d u a t e s a n d t h e L a b o u r  Fo rce , . (Toronto : O n t a r i o D e p a r t m e n t of E d u c a t i o n , 1975), pp . 153, 154. 30 B e r n a r d R. B l i s h e n , " T h e C o n s t r u c t i o n a n d U s e of a n O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s S c a l e " , C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l of E c o n o m i c s a n d P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e 24 (1958):5<2A 16 census according to the incomes and years of schooling with which they were associated. These were then averaged and a standard score computed for each of the two measures. These scores were combined and occupations ranked according 31 to the combined standard scores. In 1967, the scale was revised, incorporating the Pineo-Pdrter prestige scale which attempted to evaluate occupational titles by using a national sample to estimate social standing. A regression equation, using the Pineo-Porter prestige scale as the dependent variable and income level and educational level indices as the independent variable was applied to 1961 census occupations. Only males were included on the assumption that family status was determined by the occupational 32 status of the husband in a working couple. In 1958, Blishen identified some shortcomings of the scale and raised several questions for consideration. Chiefly, he was concerned about the broadness of some categories and the lack of inclusion of an assessment of other social structures to which people belong. He raised questions about the applicability of 1951 census data to other time periods. He expressed concern that the scale could be dated by changes in the work force and by the pace of those changes. The factors used to compute the scale, namely, income and years of schooling for a particular 33 occupation, he pointed out, are also subject to change. A further revision of the scale was undertaken in 1971. The 1971 update included persons in the male labour force who worked in 1970, according to 1971 3 1 l b i d . , p.*22. 32 Bernard R. Blishen, Frank E. Jones, Kaspar D. Naegele, and John Porter, " A Socio-Economic Index for Occupations in Canada," Canadian Society: Sociological  Perspectives, (Toronto: Bryant Press Ltd., 1968) pp. 742-744 3 3 B l i shen , "Class Scale", p. 525. 17 census data. The income variable was based on information on employment income obtained from enumeration of the total labour force, a change from the earlier format. The lower limit of income earned was raised from $5000 or over to $6500 or over. Further modifications, notably in definition of educational level and application of the Pineo-Porter prestige variables and regression weights, were also made. Some of the basic problems of the Blishen scale persist. In particular, the broad categories and dating of the information on which the scale is based remain problems. However, the elimination of consideration of women in the labour force in construction of the scale poses another serious problem and raises questions about the applicability of the scale to the entire labour force, particularly in view of the number of women in the labour force and the discrepancies between jobs as held by men and women. C. STUDIES CONDUCTED IN THE UNITED STATES Lewis C. Solmon, in his book, Wisdom or Waste? College as a Training  Ground for Jobs, uses two variables, salary and job satisfaction, in an attempt to measure the value of education. Responding to popular wisdom, he challenges the view that the increasing education of the general population is evidence of an irreversible oversupply of talented manpower which will lead to acute job dissatisfaction. His viewpoint is that since the college-educated still earn more than those without a college education, college education is worthwhile. He does not refute the theory that over-supply leads to dissatisfaction nor does he provide evidence that money is an adequate criterion for determining the level of con-Bernard R. Blishen and Hugh A. McRoberts, " A Revised Socioeconomic Index for Occupations in Canada", Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 13(1) (1976): 71-73. 18 t e n t m e n t of t h e w o r k f o r c e . I ndeed , h e g o e s on to c i t e a s t udy w h i c h p r e s e n t s e v i d e n c e tha t a g o o d job o r a h i g h i n c o m e is o n l y of m o d e r a t e i m p o r t a n c e in a l i s t of l i f e g o a l s . 3 ^ In e x a m i n i n g t h e s e c o n d v a r i a b l e , job s a t i s f a c t i o n , S o l m o n c o n t e n d s t ha t m o s t p e o p l e a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r w o r k . O f t he g r a d u a t e s s u r v e y e d , h e f o u n d o n l y 6 % w e r e " n o t at a l l " s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r jobs . H e t h e n s t a t e s t ha t t h e g o a l s of e d u c a t i o n a r e not d e f i n e d a n d tha t , c o n s e q u e n t l y , e d u c a t i o n c a n n o t b e e v a l u a t e d . H e p r o p o s e s s e v e r a l d e f i n i t i o n s a n d a t t e m p t s to r e l a t e job s a t i s f a c t i o n to u t i l i z a t i o n of a c o l l e g e m a j o r . 3 ^ The f i n d i n g s of t h e s tudy , h o w e v e r , a r e o p e n to q u e s t i o n f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . S o l m o n r e p o r t s t ha t his s u r v e y re su l t s a r e f r o m 8,000 s t u d e n t s but h e n e i t h e r d e s c r i b e s t h e p o p u l a t i o n no r t h e s a m p l e a n d h e g i v e s no i n d i c a t i o n of t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e . B e c a u s e f e w p e o p l e of m i n o r i t y g r o u p s r e s p o n d e d , a s t r o n g b i a s in t h e s a m p l e g r o u p is s u g g e s t e d . S o l m o n d r a w s t h e c o n c l u s i o n t ha t m o s t p e o p l e a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r jobs but d o e s not p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e to s u p p o r t th i s c o n c l u s i o n , 37 e i t h e r f o r t he s a m p l e o r f o r t he p o p u l a t i o n . It is as r e a s o n a b l e to s u g g e s t t ha t t h o s e in t h e s a m p l e w h o w e r e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r jobs w e r e w i t h i n t h e g r o u p of n o n - r e s p o n d e n t s , a g r o u p of u n d i s c l o s e d s i z e . , W h i l e t h e s tudy d o e s m a k e a n a t t e m p t to d e f i n e c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n of c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n , a n d po i n t s ou t t h e d i f f i c u l t y of e v a l u a t i n g w i t h o u t t h e s e c r i t e r i a , it is f r a u g h t w i t h j u d g e m e n t a l t e r m s , i n c l u d i n g a r e f e r e n c e to v o c a t i o n a l j t a s k s a s " d i r t y w o r k " . It is th i s s u b j e c t i v e v i e w p o i n t , c o u p l e d w i t h t he e x c l u s i v e f ocu s o n u n i v e r s i t y 35 S o l m o n , W i s d o m o r W a s t e ? , p. 267. 3 6 l b i d . , p. 14. 3 7 l b i d . , p. 55. 19 u n d e r g r a d u a t e s a n d i n a d e q u a t e d a t a to s u p p o r t t h e c o n c l u s i o n s t ha t r e n d e r s t he r e s e a r c h s u s p e c t a n d t he s tudy les s r e l e v a n t to a s t udy of N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e t h a n it m i g h t o t h e r w i s e h a v e b e e n . S o l m o n ' s s t udy b e c o m e s a d e f e n s e of t h e s t a tu s q u o : h e b e c o m e s a n a p o l o g i s t f o r c o l l e g e s a n d c o n c l u d e s , "... w e s hou l d . . . e n -c o u r a g e s t uden t s to c o n t i n u e c o l l e g e d e s p i t e p u b l i c i t y a b o u t t h e d e c l i n i n g l a b o u r n 38 m a r k e t , b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e o t h e r v a l u e s to a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n b e s i d e s a j o b " . K r i s h a n P a u l d i s c u s s e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of s t u d e n t f o l l o w - u p to e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t in h e r a r t i c l e , " W h a t H a p p e n s A f t e r T r a i n i n g : A R e v i e w of  F o l l o w - u p of V o c a t i o n a l G r a d u a t e s " . She s t a te s tha t w h i l e t r a i n i n g p r o d u c e s s k i l l e d m a n p o w e r , it is t he f o l l o w - u p tha t p r o v i d e s a m e a s u r e of s ucce s s o r f a i l u r e . F o l l o w -up is t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l f o r i n d u s t r i a l a n d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . The succe s s of t r a i n i n g e n d e a v o r s is u s u a l l y m e a s u r e d p a r t i a l l y a n d i n t u i t i v e l y r a t h e r t h a n a n a l y t i c a l l y a n d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . P a u l a s k s t h e p e n e t r a t i n g q u e s t i o n s w h i c h e d u c a t o r s a n d t he pub l i c a r e b e g i n n i n g to a sk : Is t h e r e a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h o s e w i t h 39 t r a i n i n g a n d t h o s e w i t h o u t ? D o e s e d u c a t i o n jus t i fy t h e c o s t ? She s u gge s t s in he r s tudy t ha t t h e r e is no b e n e f i t to t r a i n i n g f o r f e m a l e s , 4 ^ but s h e d o e s not s u g ge s t a n y r e a s o n s f o r t h e s e r e su l t s . For e x a m p l e , ; is it a f u n c t i o n of t h e p r o g r a m m e s o r of t he k i n d s of jobs a v a i l a b l e f o r w o m e n ? P a u l c a p s u l i z e s t ha t t h e i m p a c t of a p r o g r a m m e is a f u n c t i o n of t he p r e v a i l i n g e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s a n d t he e f f i c i e n c y of t h e p r o g r a m m e . The p r o g r a m m e s c a n b e i m p r o v e d by s y s t e m a t i c p l a n n i n g a n d p r o p e r a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s . She c o n c l u d e s tha t v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a n d e c o n o m i c c y c l e s mu s t b e 3 8 l b i d . , pp . 269-270. K r i s h a n K. P a u l , W h a t H a p p e n s A f t e r T r a i n i n g : A R e v i e w of F o l l o w - U p of  V o c a t i o n a l G r a d u a t e s , ( N a s h v i l l e : N a s h v i l l e U r b a n O b s e r v a t o r y , 1976), p. 6. 4 0 l b i d . , p . 2 2 . 20 i e x a m i n e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a n d d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n mus t b e b a s e d o n a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d r e s e a r c h if g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y is to b e a c h i e v e d . 4 ^ E u g e n e V i n a r s k i a n d a s s o c i a t e s , i n v e s t i g a t i n g g r a d u a t e s a n d e a r l y l e a v e r s of c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s , e x a m i n e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n g r a d u a t e s a n d t h o s e w i t h p a r t i a l t r a i n i n g . (It is not c l e a r at w h a t po i n t in t h e p r o g r a m m e s t he e a r l y l e a v e r s t e r m i n a t e d t h e i r educa t i o n . ) H e f o u n d tha t t w i c e as m a n y g r a d u a t e s a s e a r l y l e a v e r s w e r e w o r k i n g in t h e i r f i e l d of s t udy a n d t ha t e a r l y l e a v e r s t e n d to b e y o u n g e r 42 t h a n g r a d u a t e s a n d les s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r w o r k . D. S U M M A R Y T h e r e is g r o w i n g c o n c e r n w i t h t h e cos t a n d e f f i c i e n c y of t r a i n i n g a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t r a i n i n g a n d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . In t he U n i t e d S ta tes , f o l l o w - u p s t ud i e s a r e r e q u i r e d as a c o n d i t i o n of f u n d i n g f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a s u b s t a n t i a l b ody of i n f o r m a t i o n o n s t u d e n t s w h o a t t e n d e d s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i on s is a v a i l a b l e . M o r e a t t e n t i o n is b e i n g p a i d to e a r l y l e a v e r s a n d m i d - c a r e e r c h a n g e s . S o m e c o u n t r i e s , n o t a b l y J a p a n , S w e d e n , a n d G r e a t B r i t a i n , a s s i g n s p e c i a l r e s o u r c e s to r e g a i n t h e los t p r o d u c t i v i t y of d i s s a t i s f i e d o r r e l o c a t i n g w o r k e r s . T h e r e is a c o n s i d e r a b l e b o d y of l i t e r a t u r e on f o l l o w - u p s t ud i e s . M o d e l s h a v e 4 1 Ib id., p. 29. E u g e n e T. V i n a r s k i et a l . , " 1975 C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e F o l l o w - U p S y s t e m : S u m m a r y of F i nd i ng s , S p r i n g 1976", ( S a l em, O r e g o n : O r e g o n S ta te D e p a r t m e n t of E d u c a t i o n , 1976), p. 13. 21 b e e n d e v e l o p e d , m a n u a l s p r o d u c e d , a n d b o o k s w r i t t e n o n t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r f o l l o w -up. In g e n e r a l , t h e r e is a g r e e m e n t o n t h e n e e d to e s t a b l i s h c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m m e s a n d t h e r e js r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e n e e d f o r d a t a - b a s e d r e s e a r c h . 22 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY A. GENERAL APPROACH A formal proposal for a follow-up study of students who attended Northern Lights College from 1975 to 1978 was submitted along with a budget to the College administration in September 1979. The administrators were then given an op-portunity to review the draft questionnaire to ensure the usefulness of the study to the College. In November, the College Board endorsed the proposal. A budget of $500 was approved and the scope of the study was reduced in an effort to meet budget constraints. The population for the study was all full-time students enrolled in a programme of at least 30 days duration who began their studies during the 1978 calendar year. The total population was 684 students, graduates and non-graduates. A 100 per cent sampling was used. The questionnaire went through several revisions and was administered to a group of five students from the 1977 calendar year as a pre-trial. Several modifications were made to questionnaire items as a result of ambiguities which were identified at that time. The survey instrument was then copied, on paper of differing colours, according to a colour code indicating the location of the College programmes (see appendix A). Data were collected through a manual search of registration records. Index cards were made up for each subject and the following information was recorded: 1. Name 23 2. A d d r e s s 3. P h o n e n u m b e r 4. P r o g r a m m e 5. Da t e s of e n r o l l m e n t 6. S ex 7. A g e 8. Last g r a d e c o m p l e t e d 9. W h e r e la s t g r a d e c o m p l e t e d 10. A l t e r n a t e a d d r e s s . The i n d e x c a r d s w e r e s o r t e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y a n d a s s i g n e d a s i x - d i g i t c o d e to s a f e g u a r d a n o n y m i t y . The sub jec t ' s s e x a n d a g e w e r e i d e n t i f i e d by t h e f i r s t t h r e e d i g i t s w h i l e t h e la s t t h r e e d i g i t s c o m p r i s e d a n a s s i g n e d n u m b e r . E a ch n u m b e r w a s w r i t t e n o n a n i n d e x c a r d a n d o n t h e t o p of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T w o a d d r e s s l a b e l s w e r e m a d e f o r e a c h s t uden t : o n e f o r t h e i n i t i a l m a i l i n g a n d o n e f o r t h e r e m i n d e r p o s t c a r d . C o d e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e m a i l e d to e a c h sub jec t w i t h a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r e x p l a i n i n g t h e p u r p o s e of t he s u r v e y ( see a p p e n d i c e s ) . A l s o e n c l o s e d w a s a r e t u r n e n v e l o p e b e a r i n g t h e w o r d s , " R e t u r n P o s t a g e w i l l b e p a i d by N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e " a n d t h e b u s i n e s s r e p l y p e r m i t n u m b e r o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e po s t o f f i c e . Each c o v e r i n g l e t t e r w a s s i g n e d by h a n d in b l u e ink t o m a k e t h e l e t t e r a s p e r s o n a l a s p o s s i b l e . W h e n a c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e w a s r e t u r n e d , t he w e e k in w h i c h it w a s r e c e i v e d w a s n o t e d on t h e a p p r o p r i a t e i n d e x c a r d a n d t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g a d d r e s s l a b e l w a s r e m o v e d f r o m the s u b s e q u e n t m a i l i n g l i s t . W h e n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e w a s r e t u r n e d by t he pos t o f f i c e a s u n d e l i v e r a b l e , a 24 i n o t a t i o n of t h e w e e k r e t u r n e d w a s m a d e o n t he c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n d e x c a r d . W h e n e v e r p o s s i b l e , a n a t t e m p t w a s m a d e to m a i l t h e s e r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to a n a l t e r n a t e a d d r e s s . A d d r e s s l a b e l s f o r u n d e l i v e r a b l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e r e m o v e d f r o m t h e s u b s e q u e n t m a i l i n g l i s t . A f t e r f i f t e e n da y s , a p o s t c a r d r e m i n d e r w a s s en t to n o n - r e s p o n d e n t s . S o m e c a r d s w e r e r e t u r n e d as u n d e l i v e r a b l e e v e n t h o u g h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e h a d no t b e e n r e t u r n e d a n d a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e w a s m a i l e d to a n a l t e r n a t e a d d r e s s , if a v a i l a b l e . The w e e k t h e c a r d w a s r e t u r n e d by t h e po s t o f f i c e w a s r e c o r d e d o n t h e i n d e x c a r d . A f t e r a f u r t h e r t e n day s , t e l e p h o n e ca l l s w e r e m a d e t o n o n - r e s p o n d e n t s . In s o m e i n s t ance s , s ub jec t s h a d not r e c e i v e d t h e i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r h a d lost i t . O t h e r s h a d c o m p l e t e d a n d r e t u r n e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , but t h e C o l l e g e h a d not r e c e i v e d it. A r e p l a c e m e n t m a i l i n g w a s m a d e in m o s t of t h e s e c a s e s . A n o t a t i o n of t h e d a t e of t h e t e l e p h o n e c a l l a n d t h e s ub jec t ' s r e s p o n s e w a s m a d e on t h e i n d e x c a r d . T h e cut -o f f d a t e f o r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u s e d in t h e s tudy w a s t w e l v e w e e k s a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l m a i l i n g . The i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h s t uden t w a s c o d e d a n d k e y p u n c h e d . A s w e l l a s i n f o r m a t i o n t a k e n f r o m s t u d e n t f i l e s a n d t h e r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , s t uden t s w e r e a l s o a s s i g n e d n u m b e r s to i n d i c a t e t h e i r s o c i o e c o n o m i c s ta tu s b e f o r e a n d a f t e r c o l l e g e . T w o n u m b e r s , o n e c o r r e s p o n d i n g to t h e s t u d e n t ' s o c c u p a t o n b e f o r e c o l l e g e a n d a n o t h e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g to t h e s t uden t ' s o c c u p a t i o n a f t e r c o l l e g e , w e r e s i x - d i g i t n u m b e r s t a k e n f r o m the B l i s h e n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s c a l e . The B l i s h e n s co re s w e r e t h e n c o l l a p s e d i n to f i v e g r o u p s . D a t a w e r e a n a l y z e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y u s i n g C h i - s q u a r e , z - tes t s a n d a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e , as a p p r o p r i a t e . 25 The major problem encountered in the gathering of data was the need to rely entirely on a hand search of the College files. Some data are stored on microfilm and some on hard copy. Current files are in alphabetical order, while some past records are filed by programme. A manual search, therefore, could not ensure in-clusion of all students who should have been part of the study. The problem of different filing methods was complicated by inaccuracies in College records. Since many students had not completely filled in the application form, some information was missing. The most common omissions were: birthdate, last grade completed and location of last schooling completed. A few classes, usually College Foundations or programmes which were not part of the regular College offerings, did not complete applications at all. Students in these programmes could not be included in the study because no addresses were recor-ded. It is estimated that there were twenty of these students. Some problems were encountered with the questionnaire. A surprizing number of respondents who had taken College Foundations, as adult basic education was called in the College calendar, checked "Academic" as their programme of study. A careful checking of data file cards was required to ensure these students were included in the correct programme. The chief difficulties in analyzing the data were the small samples of the population, which, in some instances made statistical analysis impossible. One question (number 7), which asked for multiple responses from a small group of respondents, presented special problems in analysis. Several respondents indicated impatience with the questionnaire and it is suspected that students on numerous mailing lists may have been reluctant to take part in the survey. Northern Lights College was conducting another follow-up study 26 simultaneously and several students were included in both mailings. B. RATES OF RETURN A N D RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS By the cut-off date 328 usable replies had been received, 4 8 % of the total 684 mailings. One hundred and fifty-six replies were received as a result of the first mailing and another eighty-six responses were received after the postcard reminder had been sent. A telephone call to students twenty-five days after the initial mailing had little effect, but when coupled with a second mailing of the questionnaire, another sixty-two responses were received. Seventy questionnaires, 10% of the total mail-out, were returned by the Post Office as undeliverable and no alternate address could be found. One questionnaire was received after the deadline for processing the data and one questionnaire had the code number blacked out and could not be identified. Calculated as a percentage of questionnaires assumed to have reached the student (that is, those questionnaires not returned by the post office), the return rate of usable questionnaires was 5 3 % . The total population was divided into three groups: respondents, non-respondents, and those for whom questionnaires were returned as undeliverable. A Chi-square test indicated that there was no significant difference between the groups by either age or sex. The figures are given in tables 1 and 2. 27 TABLE 1 Population by Sex Sex Respondents Undelivered Non-respondents Total N % N % N % N % Male 155 23% 38 6% 144 21% 337 49% Female 173 25% 32 5% 142 21% 347 51% Total 328 48% 70 10% 286 42% 684 100% X 2 = 1.37, p< .50 Age College-age Adult-age Total % Respondents N 208 31 % 118 18% TABLE 2 Population by A g e Total N % 422 63% 253 38% 326 48% 69 10% 280 42% 675 100% X2=?2.62, psr.27 Response rates by College Centre are shown in Table 3. A Chi-square test showed a significant difference between the three groups by College Centre; however, these results are not conclusive due to the small sub-samples. Eighty-three 28 per cent of respondents (273) had attended the Dawson Creek Centre and 13% (41) had attended college in Fort St. John. A total of 8 9 % of the total population had attended the two largest College Centres and 9 6 % of all respondents were from these centres. General ly, the response rate decreased as the distance from Dawson Creek (the Centre from which the questionnaire originated) increased. A possible explanation for this bias is that respondents who attended the Dawson Creek Centre probably were acquainted with the person whose signature appeared on the letter of explanation enclosed with the questionnaire. Also, the response rate was lowest among students enrolled in College Foundations (adult basic education), and a higher proportion of the student population in the more remote centres were enrolled in these programmes. 29 TABLE 3 Rate of Return by College Centre Centre Respondents Undelivered Non-res pondents N % N % N % Dawson Creek 273 5 4 % 49 10% 180 3 6 % Ft. St. John 41 3 9 % 17 16% 46 4 4 % Chetwynd 7 2 6 % 3 11 % 17 6 3 % Ft. Nelson 1 14% 6 8 6 % Kelly Lake 1 13% 7 8 8 % Blueberry 2 13% 13 8 7 % Lower Post 2 17% 1 8% 9 7 5 % Good Hope Lake 1 11% 8 8 9 % Total 328 X 2 * 58.76, p 70 .001 286 Response rates by level of schooling are shown in table 4. The level of education attained by students before attending Northern Lights College is recorded in the College files. A Chi-square test revealed a highly significant difference by level of previous education between respondents, non-respondents and students for whom questionnaires were returned by the post office (p ^ .001). The rate of response increased as the level of education increased up to completion of grade 12 and then decreased for students who had some post-secondary education. 30 TABLE 4 Rate of Return by Level of Schooling Grade Respondents Undelivered Non-res pondents N % N % N % Grades 2-8 23 2 9 % 8 10% 49 6 1 % Grades 9 & 10 84 4 4 % 23 12% 82 4 3 % Grade 11 35 5 0 % 10 14% 25 3 6 % Grade 12 152 6 3 % 19 8% 72 3 0 % More than Grade 12 6 3 2 % 1 5% 12 6 3 % Total 300 61 240 X s = 40.06, p .001 Table 5 gives response rates by location of last place of school attendance. Students who reported completing their last grade within the College region were more likely to respond to the questionnaire than those who attended school elsewhere. The difference between the three groups was again significant (p .001). 31 TABLE 5 Rate of Return by Place of Completion of Last Grade Place Respondents Undelivered Non-res pondents N % N % N % Northeastern B.C. 137 5 3 % 13 5 % 107 4 2 % Other areas of B.C. 97 5 0 % 19 10% 80 4 1 % Other provinces 53 4 1 % 24 19% 52 4 0 % Total 287 56 239 X 2 = 19.03, p <: . o o i Table 6 shows the rate of return by completion or non-completion of college programme. Students who completed their college programme were more likely to respond to the questionnaire than students who withdrew before completion. The difference between the three groups in relation to response rate was highly significant (p ^ .001), introducing a further bias in the respondent population. Twenty per cent of the total population did not complete their programmes. One-third of these early leavers responded to the questionnaire, representing 7% of the total respondent population. 32 TABLE 6 Rate of Return by Completion or Non-completion of Programme Completion or non-completion Non-completers Completers Total Respondents N % 46 3 4 % 282 5 2 % Undelivered N % 16 12% 54 10% 328 70 X 2 =13.9, p < .005 Non-respondents N % 74 5 4 % 212 3 9 % 286 Response rates by programme are shown in table 7. There appears to be a significant difference between the three groups by programme of studies but the small numbers preclude analysis. The rate of return based on programme varies from 2 3 % for College Foundations to 7 9 % for Dental Assisting. 33 TABLE 7 Rate of Response by Programme Programme Respondents Undelivered Non-respondents N % N % N % Academic 44 64% 3 4% 22 32% Agriculture 12 60% 8 40% Autobody Repair 14 74% 1 5% 4 21% Automotive Mechanics 13 45% 4 14% 12 41% Business Administration 3 43% 2 29% 2 29% Business Careers 58 70% 7 8% 18 22% Carpentry and Joinery 24 57% 4 10% 14 33% College Foundations 42 23% 22 12% 117 65% Counselling 18 64% 2 7% 8 29% Cook Training 13 35% 7 19% 17 46% Camp Cooking 3 50% 3 50% Dental Assisting 11 79% 3 21% Heavy Duty Mechanics 27 59% 5 11% 14 30% Mechanical Practices 13 68% 6 32% Visual Arts 2 67% 1 33% Welding 11 36% 5 16% 15 48% Welding Upgrading 3 27% 3 27% 5 46% Employment Orientation for Women 4 36% 2 18% 5 46% Heavy Duty Trucking 9 43% 3 14% 9 43% Homemakers 4 57% 3 43% Total 328 70 286 34 T h e r e w e r e n o s t a t i s t i c a l b i a s e s in t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e s by e i t h e r a g e o r s e x . H o w e v e r , s e v e r a l b i a s e s w e r e r e v e a l e d t h r o u g h a n a l y s i s of t h e t h r e e g r o u p s : r e s p o n d e n t s , t h o s e f o r w h o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w a s r e t u r n e d by t h e po s t o f f i c e , a n d n o n - r e s p o n d e n t s . S tuden t s w i t h g r a d e 12 w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to r e s p o n d to t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a n w e r e s t uden t s w i t h e i t h e r les s o r m o r e t h a n g r a d e 12. S t uden t s w h o c o m p l e t e d t h e i r l a s t y e a r o f p u b l i c s c h o o l in N o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to r e s p o n d t o t he q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a n w e r e s t u d e n t s w h o h a d c o m p l e t e d th i s l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n e l s e w h e r e . T h o s e w h o h a d c o m p l e t e d t h e i r p r o g r a m m e s at N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e w e r e m o r e l i k e l y t o r e s p o n d t h a n t h o s e w h o w i t h d r e w b e f o r e c o m p l e t i o n . The e n s u i n g d i s c u s s i o n of q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e su l t s s h o u l d b e r e v i e w e d w i t h t h e b i a s e s in t h e r e s p o n d e n t p o p u l a t i o n in m i n d . 35 CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS, DISCUSSION A N D CONCLUSIONS The results of the questionnaire are presented in two formats. The first section deals with each questionnaire item; the second consolidates items in con-formity to the specific purpose of the study as laid out on page 2 . While there seems to be some duplication, this format is designed to meet the needs of two different readers: those wanting to see responses by questionnaire item and those interested in the overall outcome of the study. Conclusions are restricted to the second half of the section and, where necessary, a summary of responses to in-dividual items is presented before the relevant conclusion. Figures expressed in percentages may not total 100% due to rounding errors. A. QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS A N D DISCUSSION 1. Did you have a full-time job during the year before attending Northern  Lights College? (N - 322) yes 180 5 6 % no 142 4 4 % Fifty-six per cent of respondents indicated they were employed full-time prior to attending Northern Lights College. Twenty-four per cent were not in the labour force by virtue of illness, household/family duties, retirement or educational activities before attending college. This means that 2 0 % were not employed and were seeking work. 36 Sixty-five per cent of male respondents were employed full-time before college compared with 4 8 % of female respondents. Sixty per cent of college-age students and 4 9 % of adult-age students were employed full-time prior to attending Northern Lights College. 2. How satisfied were you with what you were doing? (N - 316) Degree of Satisfaction Very satisfied Satisfied Partially satisfied Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied N % 39 12% 99 31 % 103 3 3 % 52 17% 23 7 % Forty-three per cent of respondents indicated they were satisfied or very satisfied with what they had been doing before attending college. Almost one-quarter (24%) indicated they were dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with what they had been doing prior to enrollment at college. Table 8 shows the level of satisfaction with occupation before attending college for those respondents who had been in the labour force at that time. 37 TABLE 8 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o c c u p a t i o n b e f o r e a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e , f o r t h o s e in t h e l a b o u r f o r c e D e g r e e of s a t i s f a c t i o n N % V e r y s a t i s f i e d 14 9 % S a t i s f i e d 43 2 8 % P a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d 51 3 3 % D i s s a t i s f i e d 34 2 2 % V e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d 14 9 % T o t a l 156 1 0 0 % M o r e m a l e s t h a n f e m a l e s w e r e d i s s a t i s f i e d o r v e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h w h a t t h e y w e r e d o i n g b e f o r e a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e , but t h e d i f f e r e n c e w a s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( t ab l e 9). 38 TABLE 9 Satisfaction with occupation before attending college, by sex Degree of satisfaction Male Female N % N % Very satisfied 17 11% 22 13% Satisfied 45 3 0 % 54 3 2 % Partially satisfied 46 3 1 % 57 3 4 % Dissatisfied 27 18% 25 15% Very dissatisfied 14 9 % 9 5 % Total 149 100% 167 100% X 2 - 2 . 7 8 , p = .60 The relationship between satisfaction with occupation prior to attending college and age was not significant. Figures are given in table 10. 39 TABLE 10 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o c c u p a t i o n b e f o r e a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e , by a g e D e g r e e of C o l l e g e - a g e A d u l t - a g e s a t i s f a c t i o n 15-24 o v e r 24 N % N % V e r y s a t i s f i e d 18 9 % 21 1 9 % S a t i s f i e d 68 3 4 % 31 2 7 % P a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d 65 3 2 % 37 3 3 % D i s s a t i s f i e d 38 1 9 % 13 1 2 % V e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d 12 6 % 11 1 0 % T o t a l 201 1 0 0 % 113 1 0 0 % X 2 = 10.18, p <. .05 1 40 3. What programme did you take at Northern Lights College? (N - 328) Programme N % Academic Studies 44 13% Agriculture 12 4 % Autobody Repair 14 4 % Automotive Mechanics 13 4 % Business Administration 3 1% Business Careers 58 18% Carpentry and Joinery 24 7 % College Foundations 42 13% Counselling 18 6 % Cook Training 13 4 % Camp Cooking 3 1% Dental Assisting 11 3 % Heavy Duty Mechanics 27 8% Mechanical Practices 13 : 4 % Visual Arts 2 1% Genera l Welding 11 3 % Welding Upgrading 3 1 % Employment Orientation for Women 4 1% Heavy Duty Truck Driving 9 3 % Homemaker 4 1% Total 325 100% Table 11 gives an indication of the places of origin of respondents, by programme. 41 TABLE 11 Location of last grade of schooling, by programme Programme Northeastern Other, Other, B.C. B.C. Canada No. % No. % No. % Academic 27 6 9 % 4 10% 8 2 1 % Agriculture 1 9 % 9 8 2 % 1 9 % Autobody Repair 7 5 0 % 7 5 0 % Automotive Mechanics 5 5 0 % 4 4 0 % 1 •10% Business Administration 3 100% Business Careers 32 6 2 % 11 2 1 % 9 17% Carpentry and Joinery 4 19% 13 6 2 % 4 19% College Foundations 24 7 1 % 1 3 % 9 2 7 % Counselling 3 19% 6 3 8 % 7 4 4 % Cook Training 4 3 3 % 8 6 7 % Camp Cooking 1 3 3 % 2 6 7 % Dental Assisting 6 5 5 % 2 18% 3 2 7 % Heavy Duty Mechanics 5 19% 19 7 0 % 3 11% Mechanical Practices 6 5 5 % 5 4 6 % Visual Arts Welding 6 6 7 % 2 2 2 % 1 11% Welding Upgrading Employment Orientation for Women 2 100% Heavy Duty Truck Driving 2 2 5 % 3 3 8 % 3 3 8 % Homemakers 2 5 0 % 2 5 0 % Total 137 97 53 42 4. Who sponsored your programme? (N - 324) Self Unemployment Insurance Canada Employment Ministry of Labour 5. If you had College to do over again, would you take the same  programme? (N-310) yes 239 7 7 % no 71 2 3 % Over three-quarters of respondents indicated that, if they had college to do over again, they would enroll in the same programme. The difference between college-age and adult-age students is highly significant when considering whether or not they would repeat the same programme (p .001); older students were more likely to indicate they would take the same programme, as shown in table 12. 97 3 0 % Ministry of Human Resources 6 2% 92 2 8 % Department of Indian Affairs 3 1% 77 2 4 % Workers 'Compensation 3 1% 43 13% Other 3 1% 43 TABLE 12 Would choose the same programme if enrolling again, by age Would choose the College-age Adult-age same programme 15-24 Over 24 N % N % Yes 142 7 1 % 97 8 8 % No 57 2 9 % 13 12% Total 199 100% 110 100% X 2 = 11.45, p .001 Table 13 shows a breakdown, by programme, of those who would and those who would not repeat the same programme if they had college to do over again. 44 TABLE 13 Would choose the same programme if enrolling again, by programme Programme Yes • N % N % Academic 40 91 % 4 9% Agriculture 8 73% 3 27% Autobody Repair 6 43% 8 57% Automotive Mechanics 10 83% 2 17% Business Administration 2 100% Business Careers 47 84% 9 16% Carpentry and Joinery 18 78% 5 22% College Foundations 28 68% 13 32% Counselling 15 94% 1 6% Cook Training 6 55% 5 46% Camp Cooking 3 100% Dental Assisting 6 55% 5 46% Heavy Duty Mechanics 16 67% 8 33% Mechanical Practices 10 77% 3 23% Visual Arts 2 100% Welding 10 91% 1 9% Welding Upgrading 1 33% 2 67% Employment Orientation for Women 4 100% Heavy Duty Truck Driving 5 83% 1 17% Homemakers 2 67% 1 33% Total 239 71 45 6. H o w s a t i s f i e d w e r e y o u a t N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e w i t h : a) t h e p r o g r a m m e ? (N - 322) D e g r e e of s a t i s f a c t i o n N % V e r y s a t i s f i e d 130 4 0 % S a t i s f i e d 144 4 5 % P a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d 38 1 2 % D i s s a t i s f i e d 8 3 % V e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d 2 1 % T h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c an t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n c o l l e g e - a g e a n d a d u l t - a g e r e s p o n d e n t s in t e r m s of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p r o g r a m m e s . T h e r e w a s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n in s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p r o g r a m m e s w h e n e a c h is c o n s i d e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y ( t ab l e 14), but t h e m a j o r i t y of r e s o n d e n t s ( 8 5 % ) i n d i c a t e d t hey w e r e e i t h e r s a t i s f i e d o r v e r y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p r o g r a m m e s . R e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d s o m e l e v e l of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n in o n l y f i v e p r o g r a m m e s . 46 TABLE 14 Satisfaction with programme, by programme Programme Very satisfied Satisfied Partially satisfied Very Dissatisfied dissatisfied N % N % N % N % N % Academic 20 46% 20 46% 2 5% 2 5% Agriculture 3 25% 5 42% 2 17% 1 8% 1 8% Autobody Repair 3 21% 8 57% 3 21% Automotive Mechanics 7 58% 3 25% 2 17% Business Administration 2 67% 1 33% Business Careers 29 51% 25 44% 3 5% Carpentry and Joinery 11 46% 10 42% 3 13% College Foundations 12 30% 19 48% 6 15% 3 8% Counselling 5 29% 9 53% 2 12% 1 6% Cook Training 3 23% 7 54% 3 23% Camp Cooking 2 67% 1 33% Dental Assisting 2 18% 5 46% 2 18% 2 18% Heavy Duty Mechanics 9 33% 10 37% 8 30% Mechanical Practices 7 54% 6 46% Visual Arts 1 50% 1 50% Welding 4 36% 7 64% Welding Upgrading 3 100% Employment Orientation for Women 1 25% 3 75% Heavy Duty Truck Driving 4 50% 3 38% 1 13% Homemaker 2 50% 2 50% Totals 130 144 38 8 2 47 b) t h e i n s t r u c t o r s ? (N - 321) D e g r e e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n N % V e r y s a t i s f i e d 161 5 0 % S a t i s f i e d 106 3 3 % P a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d 36 1 1 % D i s s a t i s f i e d 13 4 % V e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d 5 2 % T h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o a g e g r o u p s w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i n s t r u c to r s . c) t he s p o n s o r ? ( N - 2 1 4 ) 4 3 D e g r e e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n N % V e r y s a t i s f i e d 41 1 9 % S a t i s f i e d 106 5 0 % P a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d 40 1 9 % D i s s a t i s f i e d 14 7 % V e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d 13 6 % T h e g r e a t e s t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e s p o n s o r i n g a g e n c i e s w a s f o u n d a m o n g t h e g r o u p s p o n s o r e d by t h e M i n i s t r y of L a b o u r w i t h a l m o s t 3 0 % e x p r e s s i n g s o m e l e v e l of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h i r t e e n p e r c en t of r e s p o n d e n t s s p o n s o r e d by t h e U n e m -p l o y m e n t I n s u r ance C o m m i s s i o n e x p r e s s e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r s pon so r . T a b l e 15 t a b u l a t e s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s p o n s o r . Th i s N r e f l e c t s o n l y t h o s e s t u d e n t s w h o i n d i c a t e d t hey h a d b e e n s p o n -s o r e d a n d h a d r e p l i e d to th i s q u e s t i o n ( i .e., " s e l f " w a s r e m o v e d f r o m t h e c a t e g o r y " s p o n s o r " ) . 48 TABLE 15 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s pon so r , by s p o n s o r S a t i s f a c t i o n U. i .e. C.E.C. M i n i s t r y of L a b o u r O t h e r N % N % N % N % V e r y s a t i s f i e d o r s a t i s f i e d 61 6 9 % 54 77% 22 5 2 % 9 6 9 % P a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d 16 1 8 % 12 1 7 % 8 1 9 % 4 3 1 % D i s s a t i s f i e d o r v e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d 11 1 3 % 4 6 % 12 2 9 % To ta l 88 X 5 = 1 0 0 % 16.22, p 70 4. 1 0 0 % .01 42 1 0 0 % 13 1 0 0 % d) c o l l e g e l i f e , in g e n e r a l ? ( N - 2 9 1 ) D e g r e e of s a t i s f a c t i o n N % V e r y s a t i s f i e d 62 21 % S a t i s f i e d 174 6 0 % P a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d 41 1 4 % D i s s a t i s f i e d 11 4 % V e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d 3 1 % o 49 7. If you withdrew before completing your programme, what were your reasons for leaving? Check as many as apply. (69 respondents gave 90 responses) family responsibilities 18 health 7 work responsibilities 13 programme not what expected 6 didn't like instructor 9 doubted I could pass 6 wasn't passing 8 other 5 preferred to work 8 didn't like programme 2 ran out of money 7 programme had nothing to offer 1 There were considerable differences between male and female respon-dents by reason for withdrawal. (Chi-square calculations were not made due to the small numbers and multiple responses requested. Z-tests were performed and are discussed in the next section.) A summary of responses is given in table 16. Fourteen per cent of the total male respondent population and 2 7 % of the female respondent population gave reasons for early withdrawal. 50 TABLE 16 R e a s o n s f o r e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l f r o m c o l l e g e , by s e x R e a s o n f o r e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l M a l e F e m a l e N N W o r k - r e l a t e d r e a s o n s 8 13 Lack of s ucce s s 7 7 D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r o g r a m m e o r i n s t r u c t o r 6 12 F a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 5 13 O t h e r , p e r s o n a l 2 3 Ran ou t of m o n e y 1 6 H e a l t h 1 6 To ta l 30 60 90 r e a s o n s f o r e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l w e r e g i v e n by 69 r e s p o n d e n t s , 22 m a l e a n d 47 f e m a l e . The r e a s o n s f o r e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l by p r o g r a m m e a r e s h o w n in t a b l e 17. 51 TABLE 17 Reason for early withdrawal from college, by programme Programme Academic Agriculture Autobody Repair Automotive Mechanics Business Administration Business Careers Carpentry and Joinery College Foundations Counselling Cook Training Camp Cooking Dental Assisting Heavy Duty Mechanics Mechanical Practices Visual Arts Welding Welding Upgrading Employment Orientation for Women Heavy Duty Truck Driving Homemakers oc / 5 N N 4 1 3 5 2 1 2 N 4 N 4 1 1 .0 N 3 2 6 1 1 o / O * N 2 N 1 Total 18 14 21 18 52 M o s t r e s p o n d e n t s w h o w i t h d r e w b e f o r e c o m p l e t i o n w e r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p r o g r a m m e s , a s s h o w n by t h e f i g u r e s in t a b l e 18. TABLE 18 R e a s o n f o r e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l , by s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r o g r a m m e R e a s o n f o r e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l V e r y s a t i s f i e d o r s a t i s f i e d P a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d D i s s a t i s f i e d o r v e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d N N N Ran ou t of m o n e y 6 1 D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r o g r a m m e o r i n s t r u c t o r 7 6 5 Lack of s ucce s s 10 3 1 W o r k r e l a t e d r e a s o n s 18 2 1 F a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 16 2 O t h e r , p e r s o n a l 5 H e a l t h 6 T o t a l 68 14 7 53 8. Whot did you like most about Northern Lights College? (282 respondents gave 436 responses). programme content 67 facilities 17 atmosphere 55 students 16 teaching 46 organization 14 instructors 43 working on own 13 learning 34 equipment and working conditions 10 location 33 cost 8 meeting others 24 meals 6 size 23 existence 3 activities, socials 21 dorms 3 Students most frequently indicated they liked the content of their programmes. A n appreciation for the college atmosphere, encompassing such things as friendliness and helpfulness, was often expressed. The next most common notes were about the good quality of teaching and the helpfulness of the instructors. Eighty-six per cent of the returned questionnaires had at least one comment in this section. Appendix B contains numerous verbatim student comments. 54 9. W h a t d i d y o u l i k e l e a s t ? (201 r e s p o n d e n t s g a v e 254 r e spon se s ) d o r m s 37 o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s 37 l i m i t e d v a r i e t y of p r o g r a m m e s a n d c o u r s e s 24 a c t i v i t i e s s t u d e n t s 15 13 o r g a n i z a t i o n s p o n s o r s h i p e q u i p m e n t l o c a t i o n 12 11 9 6 ••v p r o g r a m m e c o n t e n t 24 m e a l s ; 24 i n s t ruc to r s a n d s taf f 23 m i s c e l l a n e o u s 19 S i x t y - o n e p e r cen t of r e s p o n d e n t s c o m m e n t e d i n th i s s e c t i o n of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The mos t f r e q u e n t a n d , in m a n y c a s e s , t h e mos t e m p h a t i c c r i t i c i s m w a s of t h e d o r m i t o r i e s a n d o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s . It is e s t i m a t e d tha t o n e - t h i r d of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s w h o h a d s t a y e d in t he d o r m i t o r y i n d i c a t e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t he f a c i l i t y . ' , j 10. Do y o u h a v e a f u l l - t i m e job n o w ? (N -321) ye s 229 71 % no 92 2 9 % A f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e , 7 1 % of r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e . S i x t e e n p e r cent w e r e not in t he l a b o u r f o r c e d u e to i l l ne s s , h o u s e h o l d / f a m i l y du t i e s , r e t i r e m e n t o r e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , a n d 1 3 % w e r e u n e m p l o y e d a n d s e e k i n g w o r k . The p r o p o r t i o n of bo th m a l e a n d f e m a l e r e s p o n d e n t s e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e i n c r e a s e d a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e : 9 0 % of m a l e s (137) w e r e e m p l o y e d fuM- t ime a f t e r c o l l e ge , ; and 5 5 % of f e m a l e r e s p o n d e n t s (92) w e r e e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e a f t e r c o l l e g e . , T h e r e w a s a n i n c r e a s e in t he p r o p o r t i o n of r e s p o n d e n t s e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e 55 a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e f o r b o t h c o l l e g e - a g e a n d a d u l t - a g e r e s p o n d e n t s : 7 6 % of c o l l e g e - a g e r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e . (A f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n of c h a n g e s o v e r t i m e w i l l b e d e a l t w i t h in t he n e x t sec t i on . ) 11. H o w s a t i s f i e d a r e y o u w i t h w h a t y o u a r e d o i n g ? ( N - 3 1 7 ) D e g r e e of s a t i s f a c t i o n N % V e r y s a t i s f i e d 126 4 0 % S a t i s f i e d 116 3 7 % P a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d 46 1 5 % D i s s a t i s f i e d 20 6 % V e r y D i s s a t i s f i e d 9 3 % By r e m o v i n g t h o s e not in t h e l a b o u r f o r c e , a m o r e a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e of t he l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o c c u p a t i o n s c a n b e o b t a i n e d , a s r e f l e c t e d in t a b l e 19. 56 TABLE 19 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e , f o r t h o s e in t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . D e g r e e of s a t i s f a c t i o n N % V e r y s a t i s f i e d 67 4 3 % S a t i s f i e d 52 3 3 % P a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d 26 1 7 % D i s s a t i s f i e d 10 6 % V e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d 2 1 % T o t a l 157 1 0 0 % T h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o c c u p a t i o n b e t w e e n m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e . T h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n c o l l e g e - a g e a n d a d u l t - a g e r e s p o n d e n t s in s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e . F i g u r e s a r e g i v e n in t a b l e 20. 57 TABLE 20 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e , by a g e C o l l e g e - a g e (15-24) A d u l t - a g e (ove r 24) N % N % V e r y s a t i s f i e d 73 3 6 % 52 4 7 % S a t i s f i e d 80 3 9 % 36 3 2 % P a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d 31 1 5 % 14 1 3 % D i s s a t i s f i e d 13 6 % 7 6 % V e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d 7 3 % 2 2 % T o t a l 204 1 0 0 % 111 1 0 0 % X 2 = 4 . 1 2 , p s . 3 9 T h e r e is a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( X 2 =12.29, p .05) b e t w e e n t h o s e w h o w o u l d t a k e t h e s a m e c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e if t hey h a d c o l l e g e to d o o v e r a g a i n a n d t h o s e w h o w o u l d not w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g t he l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e ( t ab le 21); t h o s e w h o w e r e m o r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e w e r e m o r e i n c l i n e d to i n d i c a t e t h e y w o u l d t a k e t h e s a m e p r o g r a m m e . 58 TABLE 21 "Would you take the same programme?" compared with level of job satisfaction after college Degree of satisfaction Yes No N % N % Very satisfied 101 4 3 % 18 2 5 % Satisfied 84 3 6 % 28 3 9 % Partially satisfied 28 12% 17 2 4 % Dissatisfied 16 7% 4 6% Very dissatisfied 5 2% 4 6% Total 234 71 X 2 =12.29, p < .05 The relationship between satisfaction with college programme and satisfaction with occupation after college was not significant. 12. Compared to the time before you attended Northern Lights College,  how much has your monthly income increased? (N - 307) not applicable 74 24% $101-200 39 13% none 56 18% $201-300 13 4 % 0-$100 10 3 % over $300 115 3 8 % Fifty-eight per cent of respondents indicated their salaries had increased since attending college. These figures include those moving into the labour force for 59 t he f i r s t t i m e o r f r o m a p e r i o d of u n e m p l o y m e n t . H o w e v e r , w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g o n l y t h o s e in t h e l a b o u r f o r c e b o t h b e f o r e a n d a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e , 6 6 % of r e s p o n -d e n t s i n d i c a t e d a n i n c r e a s e in s a l a r y a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e , a s s h o w n . TABLE 22 I n c rea se in s a l a r y f o r r e s p o n d e n t s w h o w e r e in t h e l a b o u r f o r c e b o t h b e f o r e a n d a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e I n c rea se in s a l a r y N % N o t a p p l i c a b l e 35 1 8 % N o n e 32 1 7 % 0 - $100 p e r m o n t h 6 3 % $101 - 200 p e r m o n t h 31 1 6 % $201 - 300 p e r m o n t h 9 5 % o v e r $300 p e r m o n t h 80 4 2 % To ta l 193 1 0 0 % S e v e r a l s t uden t s a d d e d no te s s a y i n g tha t t h e i r s a l a r i e s h a d i n c r e a s e d by w e l l o v e r $300 p e r m o n t h a n d q f e w w r o t e t h a t t h e i r s a l a r i e s h a d actuaMy d e c r e a s e d . T h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e by s e x in i n c r e a s e in s a l a r y w h e n c o m p a r i n g m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s in t h e l a b o u r f o r c e ( t ab l e 23); h o w e v e r , c o n s i d e r a b l y m o r e m a l e s t h a n f e m a l e s i n d i c a t e d t h e i r s a l a r i e s h a d i n c r e a s e d by o v e r $300 p e r m o n t h . 60 TABLE 23 I nc rea se in s a l a r y by s e x f o r t h o s e in t h e l a b o u r f o r c e I n c rea se in s a l a r y M a l e F e m a l e N % N % N o n e 19 2 1 % 13 1 9 % 0 - $ 1 0 0 4 4 % 2 3 % $101 - 2 0 0 14 1 5 % 17 2 5 % $201 - 300 2 2 % 7 1 0 % o v e r $300 52 5 7 % 28 4 2 % T o t a l 91 1 0 0 % 67 1 0 0 % X 2 = 8.61, p < . 0 7 T h e d i f f e r e n c e by a g e g r o u p in s a l a r y i n c r e a s e w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g t h o s e in t h e l a b o u r f o r c e b e f o r e a n d a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e w a s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c an t . W h e n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e t o t a l r e s p o n d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , h o w e v e r , t h e d i f f e r e n c e in s a l a r y i n c r e a s e by t h e t w o a g e g r o u p s a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e ( X 2 = 11.91, p « ^ .04), w h i c h c a n b e a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e m o v e m e n t of c o l l e g e a g e s t u d e n t s i n to t h e l a b o u r f o r c e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . T h e d i f f e r e n c e by p r o g r a m m e in s a l a r y i n c r e a s e is s h o w n in t a b l e 24. 61 TABLE 24 Increase in salary by programme Increase in salary Programme Not applicable none 0 -$100 $101 -200 $201 -300 over $300 % % % % % % Academic 4 9 % 2 0 % 10% 2% 2% 17% Agriculture 3 3 % 17% 17% 3 3 % Autobody Repair 14% 14% 7 % 7 % 7 % 5 0 % Automotive Mechanics 18% 9 % 2 7 % 4 6 % Business Administration 3 3 % 6 7 % Business Careers 2 2 % 16% 18% 6% 3 8 % Carpentry and Joinery 13% 2 2 % 2 2 % 4 4 % College Foundations 9 % 3 5 % 12% 12% 12% 2 1 % Counselling 3 5 % 6% 12% 6% 4 1 % Cook Training 4 6 % 8 % 15% 3 1 % Camp Cooking 6 7 % 3 3 % Dental Assisting 18% 2 7 % 9 % 9 % 3 7 % Heavy Duty Mechanics 11 % 19% 7 % 4 % 5 9 % Mechanical Practises 2 7 % 18% 18% 3 6 % Visual Arts 5 0 % 5 0 % Welding 9 % 9 % 8 2 % Welding Upgrading 3 3 % 6 7 % Employment Orientation for Women 7 5 % 2 5 % Heavy Duty Truck Driving 3 8 % 2 5 % 3 8 % Homemakers 2 5 % 2 5 % 2 5 % 2 5 % 62 The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n c r e a s e in s a l a r y a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h oc -c u p a t i o n a f t e r c o l l e g e w a s s i g n i f i c a n t ( X 2 - 9 . 2 1 , p < .001). T h e r e w a s n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in i n c r e a s e in s a l a r y by la s t g r a d e c o m p l e t e d . 13. H o w w e l l d o y o u f e e l t h e p r o g r a m m e a t N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e p r e p a r e d y o u f o r a job in tha t a r e a ? (N - 288) A s s e s s m e n t of job p r e p a r a t i o n N % V e r y w e l l 76 2 6 % W e l l 84 2 9 % S o m e w h a t 64 2 2 % A l i t t l e 32 1 1 % N o t a t a l l 32 1 1 % O v e r ha l f of t he r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t t h e i r p r o g r a m m e a t t h e C o l l e g e h a d p r e p a r e d t h e m w e l l o r v e r y w e l l f o r a job in t h e i r a r e a of s t u d i e s , but w h e n c o n -s i d e r i n g o n l y j ob - spec i f i c p r o g r a m m e s t h e a s s e s s m e n t of job p r e p a r a t i o n is s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t , as s h o w n by t he f i g u r e s in t a b l e 25. 63 T A B L E 25 A s s e s s m e n t of job p r e p a r a t i o n in j ob - s pec i f i c p r o g r a m m e s A s s e s s m e n t of job p r e p a r a t i o n N % V e r y w e l l 70 3 2 % W e l l 67 3 1 % S o m e w h a t 45 2 1 % A l i t t l e 22 1 0 % N o t a t a l l 15 7 % T a b l e 26 s h o w s r e s p o n d e n t s ' a s s e s s m e n t s of job p r e p a r a t i o n in e a c h p r o g r a m m e . 64 Programme TABLE 26 Preparation for job by programme Very well Well N % N Academic 3 10% 6 Agriculture 6 50% 2 Autobody Repairs 3 21% 2 Automotive Mechanics 7 58% 3 Business Administration 3 Business Careers 16 31% 17 Carpentry and Joinery 9 38% 8 College Foundations 3 9% 10 Counselling 4 27% 2 Cook Training 1 8% 5 Camp Cooking 1 33% 1 Dental Assisting 2 20% 2 Heavy Duty Mechanics 5 20% 9 Mechanical Practices 7 64% 2 Visual Arts 1 Welding 3 27% 5 Welding Upgrading 1 33% 2 Employment Orientation for Women 1 25% 1 Heavy Duty Truck Driving 3 50% 1 Homemakers 1 25% 2 Somewhat 1 25% A little Total 76 84 64 2 33% 1 25% 32 Not at all N % N % N % 8 26% 4 13% 10 32% 1 8% 1 8% 2 17% 4 29% 3 21% 2 14% 2 16% 12 23% 2 4% 5 10% 5 21% 1 4% 1 4% 10 29% 6 17% 6 17% 6 40% 3 20% 3 25% 2 17% 1 8% 1 33% 3 30% 1 - 10% 2 20% 7 28% 3 12% l; 4% 1 9% l 9% 2 18% 1 9% 1 25% 32 65 There was a significant relationship (X 2 » 52.83, p .001) between satisfaction with college programme and assessment of how well that programme prepared respondents for a job in the field (table 27). These results must be reviewed with caution, however, because of the small numbers involved. TABLE 27 Satisfaction with programme by assessment of preparation for a job Assessment Very satisfied or satisfied Partially satisfied Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied N ; % N % N % Very well 76 3 1 % / 1 10% Well 75 3 1 % 9 2 5 % Somewhat 51 2 1 % 13 3 6 % A little 18 7 % 9 2 5 % 5 5 0 % Not at all 23 10% 5 14% 4 4 0 % Total 243 84% X ' s 52.83, p <• 36 .001 13% 10 4 % 66 14. If your job is not related to your programme ot Northern Lights College, what is the ONE most important reason? (N - 138) N % N.L.C. programme not job-related 40 2 9 % Wanted to explore other possibilities 35 2 5 % Could not find job in field 29 2 1 % Better pay than in field 17 12% Better opportunity for advancement 11 8 % Did not want to work in field 4 3 % Other 2 1% Total 138 100% Twenty-nine per cent of respondents indicated their college programmes were not job related, closely approximating the 2 8 % of respondents who were enrolled in non job-specific programmes; namely, Academic Studies, College Foundations, Visual Arts, and Employment Orientation for Women. Table 28 sum-marizes the reasons respondents' current jobs were not related to their college programmes for those in the labour force. 67 TABLE 28 Reasons job unrelated to college programme for those in the labour force Reason job unrelated N % Wanted to explore other possibilities 21 2 6 % Could not find job in field 18 2 3 % Better pay than in field 15 19% Programme not job-related 13 16% Better opportunity for advancement 9 11 % Did not want to work in field 2 3 % other 2 .. 3 % Total 80 100% Table 29 shows reasons current jobs were not related to programme in each programme area. 68 TABLE 29 Reason job unrelated to college programme by programme / / f /• / / 5* / <? a <r v j! • -j- <? o Programme N % N % N % N % N % N % N % Academic 20 74% 1 4% 2 7% 3 11 % 1 4 Agriculture 1 20% 1 20% 1 20% 2 40% Autobody Repair 2 25% 3 38% 1 13% 2 25% Automotive Mechanics 1 20% 3 60% 1 20% Business Administration Business Careers 2 9% 8 37% 4 18% 1 5% 1 5% 6 27% Carpentry and Joinery 1 17% 1 17% 1 17% 2 33% 1 17 College Foundations 14 58% 3 13% 1 4% 2 8% 4 17% Counselling 1 17% 1 17% 4 67% Cook Training 1 13% 2 25% 5 63% Camp Cooking 1 100% Dental Assisting 2 67% 1 33% Heavy Duty Mechanics 6 60% 1 10% 3 30% Mechanical Practices 3 75% 1 25% Visual Arts Welding 3 100% Welding Upgrading Employment Orientation for Women 1 50% 1 50% Heavy Duty Truck Driving 2 100% Homemakers 1 50% 1 50% Total 40 29 17 11 4 35 2 69 Responses from students who had been enrolled in pre-employment programmes compared with those enrolled in pre-apprenticeship programmes show some differences in the reasons current jobs are not related to college programmes, as shown in table 30. TABLE 30 Reason job unrelated to college programme for pre-employment and pre-apprenticeship programmes Pre-employment Pre-apprenticeship Reason job unrelated programmes programmes N % N % Wanted to explore other possibilities 21 3 8 % 1 3 % Could not find job in field 16 2 9 % 11 3 7 % Better pay than in field 8 14% 7 2 3 % Programme not job-related 5 9 % Better opportunity for advancement 3 5%. 4 13% Did not want to work in field 3 5% 7 2 3 % Total 56 100% 30 100% Respondents with different educational backgrounds tended to cite dif-ferent reasons their current jobs were not related to their college programmes, as shown in table 31. 70 TABLE 31 Reason job unrelated to college programme by level of formal education before college Reason job unrelated Less than grade 12 Grade 12 or more N % N % Wanted to explore other possibilities 19 2 8 % 13 2 3 % Could not find job in field 18 2 6 % 9 16% Programme not job related 16 2 3 % 21 3 7 % Better pay than in field 9 13% 7 12% Better opportunity for advancement 4 6% 5 9 % Did not want to work in field 2 3 % 1 2% Other 1 1% 1 2% Total 60 100% 57 100% The relationship between satisfaction with occupation after college and reason job was unrelated to college programme could not be assessed statistically because of the small numbers; however table 32 reports the results. 71 TABLE 32 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a f t e r c o l l e g e by r e a s o n job u n r e l a t e d to c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e D i s s a t i s f i e d R e a s o n job u n r e l a t e d V e r y s a t i s f i e d o r s a t i s f i e d P a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d o r v e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d • N % N % N % P r o g r a m m e not j o b - r e l a t e d 27 3 0 % 7 2 7 % 6 2 7 % C o u l d no t f i n d job in f i e l d 10 1 1 % 7 2 7 % 11 5 0 % B e t t e r p a y t h a n in f i e l d 10 1 1 % 5 1 9 % 2 9 % B e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a d v a n c e m e n t 7 8 % 4 1 5 % D i d not w a n t t o w o r k in f i e l d 3 3 % W a n t e d t o e x p l o r e o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s 30 3 4 % 3 1 2 % 2 9 % O t h e r 2 2 % To ta l 89 1 0 0 % 26 1 0 0 % 22 1 0 0 % 15. If y o u r job is not r e l a t e d to y o u r p r o g r a m m e a t N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e ,  d o y o u s t i l l p l a n to w o r k in t h e a r e a of y o u r t r a i n i n g ? y e s 119 7 8 % no 33 2 2 % O f t h o s e w h o i n d i c a t e d t h e y w e r e no t c u r r e n t l y w o r k i n g in t h e a r e a s of t h e i r c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s , m o r e t h a n t h r e e - q u a r t e r s p l a n n e d to d o so. W h e n c o n -s i d e r i n g on l y j ob - spec i f i c p r o g r a m m e s , t h e f i g u r e s c h a n g e s l i g h t l y : 8 2 % of r e s p o n d e n t s (86) s t i l l p l a n to w o r k in t h e a r e a s of t h e i r c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s ; 1 8 % of r e s p o n d e n t s (19) d o not . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p l an s to w o r k in t he a r e a of t r a i n i n g a n d 72 satisfaction with current occupation was not significant. The relationship between plans to work in the area of training and satisfaction with college programme also was not significant. 16. If you have been a student since leaving Northern Lights College (or are  currently in school), a) were/are your studies related to your first programme at Northern Lights  Col lege? (N-86) yes 54 6 3 % no 32 3 7 % One-quarter of respondents indicated they had taken some kind of further studies since attending Northern Lights College and almost two-thirds of those continuing (54, 63%) indicated their studies were related to their programme at Northern Lights College. There was no significant difference between those who continued their education and those who did not when considering level of satisfaction with their programmes at Northern Lights College. b) what educational institute did you attend (are you attending)? (N - 78) N.L.C. B.C. college U. Victoria U.B.C. Simon Fraser U. 23 30% U . o f A . 4 21 2 7 % Other Alberta institute 4 7 9 % B.C. Institute of Technology 3 6 7 % Open Learning Institute 3 4 5% Other 3 5% 5% 4 % 4 % 4 % There was some discrepancy between the number of respondents who indicated they had taken further studies (86) and the number who indicated the 73 institution attended (78). c) How satisifed were you with your preparation at Northern Lights College for further studies? (N - 125) Degree of satisfaction N % Very satisfied 34 2 7 % Satisfied 70 5 6 % Partially satisfied 14 11% oDissatisfied 4 3 % Very dissatisfied 3 2% Eighty-three per cent of the 78 respondents who indicated they had at-tended another educational institute since their programme at Northern Lights College were satisfied with their preparation for further studies. Seven respondents (5%) who had continued their education expressed dissatisfaction. Additional Comments Over half of the respondents (173, 52%) chose to make additional com-ments in the space provided at the end of the questionnaire. Thirty per cent of those making comments made at least two comments and several wrote lengthy letters. Table 33 gives the coded responses and appendix B quotes many comments ver-batim. 74 TABLE 33 Comments N Genera l , positive comments 47 Other 40 Current situation 30 Relationship of programme to current situation (positive) 25 Plan to continue education 24 Job-related problems 10 Want more practical work in programme 9 Genera l recommendations 8 Genera l comments on programme • 7 Want advanced programme/course in field 6 Genera l negative comments 5 Recommendation for more course work, additional courses 5 Relationship of programme to current situation (negative) 4 Future plans 2 Want more theory in programme 2 Genera l negative comments 1 Total 225 75 B. INTER-ITEM RESULTS, DISCUSSION A N D CONCLUSIONS As the overall purpose of this study is to obtain, from former students of Northern Lights College, information which could be used to plan and implement programme and service improvements in the College offerings. This section deals with questionnaire items and groupings of items which specifically address the goals of the study. To reiterate, the goals are: to assess student satisfaction with the college experience and determine reasons for early withdrawal: to assess the relevance (from the students' point of view) of the college experience to em-ployment and further education; and to assess both the change in students' socio-economic status and their job satisfaction prior to enrollment at the College com-pared with two years after leaving the College. Reference is made to the pertinent question numbers prior to the discussion of each section. 1. The College Experience (questions 5, 6, 8 and 9) a) Satisfaction with the college experience Over three-quarters of respondents indicated they would choose the same programme if they had college to do over again. Older students were significantly more likely to indicate they would choose the same programme than were college-age students (table 12), suggesting greater consistency in educational or career choices among the older group. This difference could be due to better awareness of the College programmes and careers or to the life experience of the older students. Eighty-one per cent of respondents indicated they were very satisfied or satisfied with three aspects of their college experience. The greatest dissatisfaction was reported with sponsoring agency which, while part of the college experience, is 76 not under the control of the College. Table 34 summarizes student satisfaction with four aspects of the college experience. TABLE 34 Satisfaction with four aspects of the college experience Very satisfied or satisfied Partially satisfied Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied N % N % N % Programme 274 8 5 % 38 12% 10 4 % Instructors 267 8 3 % 36 11% 18 6% College life, in general 236 8 1 % 41 14% 14 5 % Sponsoring agency 147 6 9 % 40 19% 27 13% The majority of comments received in response to the three open-ended questions were favourable to the College. In response to the question, "What did you like most about Northern Lights Col lege?" 436 comments were made. This compares with 245 comments in response to the question, "What did you like least about Northern Lights Col lege?" The section at the end of the questionnaire produced many comments describing respondents' activities, plans and problems, and making recommendations, but it also yielded 47 general comments favourable to the College, compared with five negative comments. |t can be concluded that, two years after enrollment, most students viewed their college experience positively. However, while reporting overall satisfacton, 77 s t uden t s d i d no t g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n tha t t h e i r t i m e a t N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e w a s f r e e of m a j o r c o n c e r n s a n d p r o b l e m s , a n d m a n y s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e m e n t w e r e m a d e . b) R e a s o n s f o r e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l ( que s t i on 7) R e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d a v a r i e t y of r e a s o n s f o r e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l f r o m t h e i r c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s . M o s t f r e q u e n t l y , w o r k - r e l a t e d r e a s o n s w e r e c i t e d , but no c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n c a n b e m a d e b e t w e e n t h o s e w h o c h o s e to w o r k a n d t h o s e w h o f o u n d it n e c e s s a r y t o d o so, d e s p i t e t h e a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e d e f i n i t i v e i t e m s f o r r e s p o n s e o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Fo r e x a m p l e , r e s p o n d e n t s m a y h a v e c h o s e n to i n d i c a t e t ha t t h e y " p r e f e r r e d to w o r k " r a t h e r t h a n t ha t t h e y " r a n ou t of m o n e y " . F a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w e r e a l s o l i s t e d as a f r e q u e n t r e a s o n f o r e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l , e s p e c i a l l y a m o n g w o m e n s t uden t s . Th i s c a t e g o r y c o u l d i n c l u d e i l l n e s s i n t h e f a m i l y , p r o b l e m s f i n d i n g b a b y s i t t e r s o r d a y c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , e m o t i o n a l d e m a n d s , e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s o r a p r e g n a n c y . B e c a u s e of t he a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g n a t u r e of th i s r e s p o n s e i t e m , it is not p o s s i b l e to s p e c u l a t e as to p o s s i b l e r e m e d i e s . D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p r o g r a m m e o r i n s t r u c to r a c c o u n t e d f o r a s i z e a b l e n u m b e r of e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l s . T w i c e a s m a n y w o m e n as m e n i n d i c a t e d t h e y h a d w i t h d r a w n f o r o n e of t h e s e r e a s o n s . Th i s m a y i n d i c a t e t ha t w o m e n h a v e i n a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a p r o g r a m m e p r i o r t o e n r o l l i n g a n d t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e t h e r e f o r e no t m e t . F o r t y - s e v e n w o m e n , r e p r e s e n t i n g 2 7 % of t h e f e m a l e r e s p o n d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , c o m p a r e d w i t h 22 m e n , r e p r e s e n t i n g 1 4 % of t h e m a l e r e s p o n d e n t p o p u l a t i o n w i t h d r e w f r o m t h e i r c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s b e f o r e c o m p l e t i o n . S i n c e a n e q u a l n u m b e r of m a l e a n d f e m a l e r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h d r e w f o r r e a s o n s r e l a t e d to a c a d e m i c succes s , bu t f o r a l l o t h e r r e a s o n s t h e r e w e r e m o r e r e s p o n s e s f r o m w o m e n 78 t h a n f r o m m e n , th i s s e e m s to s u g g e s t t ha t w o m e n e n c o u n t e r b a r r i e r s to e d u c a t i o n w h i c h d o no t e x i s t f o r m a l e s t u d e n t s . D a t a o n m a r i t a l s t a tu s a n d f a m i l y i n c o m e w e r e no t g a t h e r e d by th i s s tudy, but f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n m a y w e l l r e v e a l a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l of w o m e n s t uden t s a n d s o c i o l o g i c a l p h e n o m e n a s u c h as p r o b l e m s of s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s a n d job g h e t t o s f o r w o m e n . (In c o n s i d e r i n g t he t h ru s t o f th i s s tudy , it w a s d e c i d e d t ha t d a t a o n m a r i t a l s t a tu s a n d f a m i l y i n c o m e w o u l d not b e c o l l e c t e d . This d a t a w o u l d h a v e b e e n of l i m i t e d u s e f u l n e s s a n d m a y h a v e r e d u c e d t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e b e c a u s e of its p e r s o n a l focus . ) Re su l t s f r o m t h e s t udy r e v e a l t h a t m o r e w o m e n t h a n m e n w i t h d r e w b e c a u s e t h e y r a n ou t of m o n e y a n d f o r h e a l t h r e a s o n s , bu t t h e s m a l l n u m b e r s m a d e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i m p o s s i b l e . T h e r e w a s a n i n d i c a t i o n tha t m o r e w o m e n t h a n m e n w i t h d r e w b e c a u s e of f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b l i t i e s , b u t t h a t d i f f e r e n c e w a s no t s i g n i f i c a n t o n a t w o - t a i l e d z - tes t (p .09). T h e r e a s o n s f o r w i t h d r a w a l b e f o r e c o m p l e t i o n of c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s a r e v a r i e d , bu t s u b s t a n t i a l l y m o r e w o m e n t h a n m e n d o no t c o m p l e t e t h e i r s t ud i e s . T h e r e c o u l d b e m a n y r e a s o n s f o r th i s d i s p a r i t y . W o m e n a p p e a r t o e n c o u n t e r m o r e b a r r i e r s to e d u c a t i o n a n d m o r e d i f f i c u l t y o v e r c o m i n g t h o s e b a r r i e r s t h a n m e n . C o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s m a y no t b e s u i t e d t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s of w o m e n o r m a y no t b e f l e x i b l e e n o u g h to m e e t t h o s e n e e d s . It is a l s o p o s s i b l e tha t w o m e n d o not p e r c e i v e c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n a s w o r t h w h i l e a n d a r e t h e r e f o r e l e s s l i k e l y t o c o m p l e t e t h e i r p r o g r a m m e s . F u r t h e r s t udy is r e q u i r e d to d e t e r m i n e if th i s is t h e c a s e a n d , if so, to w h a t e x t e n t it is a f u n c t i o n of t h e k i n d s of c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s a n d e m p l o y m e n t a v a i l a b l e f o r w o m e n . 79 2. Relevance of College Education to Employment and Further Education a) Relevance of college education to employment (questions 13, 14, 15) Slightly less than two-thirds of respondents in job-specific programmes felt that their programmes had prepared them well or very well for a job in their fields of training. In some specific job-related programmes, as many as 35 per cent of respondents indicated their programmes had prepared them "a little" or "not at a l l " for a job. Students entering job-specific programmes could be expected to express dissatisfaction with their programmes if they did not receive adequate preparation for a job and, indeed, there is a significant relationship between satisfaction with college programme and assessment of preparation for a job (X 2 s52.83, p «^ .001). Students in job-specific programmes expect training that will prepare them well for a job in the field and satisfaction with a college programme is, in part, dependent upon adequate job preparation. Thirty-six per cent of the 236 respondents who had taken job-related programmes gave reasons for not currently being employed in their fields of training. Almost half of those not employed in their fields indicated they could not find a job in the field or there was better pay or better opportunity for advancement in their current jobs than in their fields of training. Two other options ("did not want to work in f ield" and "wanted to explore other possibilities") were choices available for those not working in their fields of training by preference. It can therefore be assumed that the half who could not find a job or found better opportunities in other fields would have preferred to work in their fields of training. Many comments made by students support this contention (see appendix B). It can be concluded that the majority of those who entered the College for training in specific fields still wished to be employed in those fields two years after training, despite having obtained more 80 l u c r a t i v e e m p l o y m e n t in o t h e r f i e l d s . T a b l e 32 i n d i c a t e s t ha t s t uden t s w h o h a d t a k e n p r e - a p p r e n t i c e s h i p p r o g r a m m e s e x p e r i e n c e d g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y e m p l o y m e n t in t h e i r f i e l d s of t r a i n i n g t h a n d i d s t uden t s w h o h a d t a k e n p r e - e m p l o y m e n t p r o g r a m m e s , but t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o g r o u p s w a s not s i g n i f i c an t . A m o r e t h o r o u g h i n -v e s t i g a t i o n is r e q u i r e d to d e t e r m i n e if t h e r e is a r e a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o t r a i n i n g m e t h o d s a n d , if so, if th i s is a f u n c t i o n of t h e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p a p p r o a c h to t r a i n i n g , t h e job m a r k e t , o r s o m e o t h e r v a r i a b l e o r c o m b i n a t i o n of v a r i a b l e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n " r e a s o n c u r r e n t j ob not r e l a t e d t o c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e " a n d t h e la s t g r a d e c o m p l e t e d w a s not s i g n i f i c a n t ( t a b l e 31). T h e r e su l t s i n d i c a t e t ha t m o r e s t uden t s w i t h le s s t h a n g r a d e 12 e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g a job in t h e f i e l d w h e n c o m p a r e d t o t h o s e w i t h g r a d e 12 o r m o r e . This w o u l d s u g ge s t t ha t h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s a r e m o r e l i k e l y to f i n d e m p l o y m e n t t h a n a p p l i c a n t s w i t h s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g but l a c k i n g a h i g h s c h o o l d i p l o m a . The g r e a t e s t a m o u n t of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c u r r e n t o c c u p a t i o n w h e n c o m p a r e d w i t h " r e a s o n not c u r r e n t l y e m p l o y e d in f i e l d of t r a i n i n g " w a s e x p r e s s e d by t h o s e w h o c o u l d not f i n d a job in t h e f i e l d . The l e v e l s of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n e x p r e s s e d by t h o s e w h o h a d f o u n d a job w i t h s o m e c o m p e n s a t i n g f a c t o r ( for e x a m p l e , b e t t e r pay o r b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a d v a n c e m e n t ) i n d i c a t e d t hey w e r e m o r e r e c o n c i l e d to w o r k i n g o u t s i d e t h e a r e a of t h e i r t r a i n i n g . O v e r t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of t h o s e w h o w e r e not e m p l o y e d in t h e i r a r e a s of t r a i n i n g i n d i c a t e d t h e y p l a n n e d to w o r k in t h e i r f i e l d s s o m e t i m e in t h e f u t u r e . The l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c u r r e n t o c c u p a t i o n h a d n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e s e p l an s , i n d i c a t i n g t ha t s a t i s f a c t o r y e m p l o y m e n t in a n o t h e r f i e l d is not a s u f f i c i e n t d i s t r a c t i o n to k e e p r e s p o n d e n t s p e r m a n e n t l y a w a y f r o m t h e i r f i e l d s of t r a i n i n g . 81 D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e a l s o h a d n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to r e s p o n d e n t s ' d e s i r e s t o w o r k in t h e i r a r e a s of t r a i n i n g . Th i s w o u l d s u g ge s t t ha t a n u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e f i e l d , f r o m t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' p o i n t of v i e w , d i d not d e t e r r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m a c o n s i s t e n t d e s i r e to w o r k in t h e a r e a of t r a i n i n g o r i g i n a l l y c h o s e n . It c a n b e c o n c l u d e d tha t a s u b s t a n t i a l m a j o r i t y of s t uden t s w h o e n r o l l e d in j o b - s p e c i f i c p r o g r a m m e s s t i l l w i s h e d to w o r k in t h e i r f i e l d s t w o y e a r s a f t e r t r a i n i n g . b) R e l e v a n c e of c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n to f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n ( que s t i on 16) A p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - q u a r t e r of r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y h a d c o n t i n u e d w i t h f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n a f t e r l e a v i n g N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e . T w o - t h i r d s of t h o s e w h o h a d c o n t i n u e d h a d t a k e n s t ud i e s r e l a t e d to t h e i r p r o g r a m m e s a t N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r o g r a m m e a t N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e a n d c o n t i n u i n g s t u d i e s w a s not s i g n i f i c an t . It c a n b e c o n c l u d e d t ha t a s a t i s f a c t o r y e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a t N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e d i d not s e e m to e n c o u r a g e s t u d e n t s to p u r s u e f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n a n d a d i s s a t i s f a c t o r y e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e d i d not s e e m to d e t e r s t u d e n t s f r o m c o n t i n u i n g . O t h e r f a c t o r s , s u ch as a c c e s s i b i l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , p l a y m o r e i m p o r t a n t r o l e s in s t u d e n t s ' d e c i s i o n s to c o n t i n u e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . The m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s w h o w e n t on to f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s r e t u r n e d to N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e o r w e n t to a n o t h e r B.C. c o l l e g e . This is p a r t l y a r e su l t of t h e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p p r o g r a m m e w h i c h r e q u i r e s a p p r e n t i c e s to r e t u r n to c o l l e g e f o r u p g r a d i n g . S e v e n t e e n r e s p o n d e n t s w e n t to B.C. u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d f o u r c o n t i n u e d t h e i r s t ud i e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a . This g r o u p is c o m p r i s e d c h i e f l y of s t u d e n t s w h o 82 w e r e e n r o l l e d in t h e A c a d e m i c S tud i e s p r o g r a m m e , a n d it c a n t h e r e f o r e b e i n f e r r e d t ha t a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d of a l l a c a d e m i c s t u d e n t s t r a n s f e r to u n i v e r s i t y . Th i s c o m p a r e s w i t h t h e B.C. R e s e a r c h S tudy w h i c h f o u n d 2 9 % of N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e a c a d e m i c s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n ( no ted o n p.10). T h e v a s t m a j o r i t y of r e s p o n d e n t s ( 8 3 % ) w e r e s a t i s f i e d o r v e r y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n at N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s . It c a n b e c o n c l u d e d f r o m t h e s e d a t a t ha t s t u d e n t s w h o c o n t i n u e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h s t ud i e s t a k e n a t N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e a r e a p p r o p r i a t e to f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n . 3. C h a n g e in S o c i o - e c o n o m i c S ta tus a n d J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n a) F u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t ( que s t i on s 1 a n d 10) F i f t y - s i x p e r c en t of r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e e m p l o y e d f u l l t i m e b e f o r e a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e c o m p a r e d w i t h 7 1 % a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e . The n u m b e r of r e s p o n d e n t s u n e m p l o y e d a n d s e e k i n g w o r k d e c r e a s e d a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e . T a b l e 35 c o m -p a r e s f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t s ta tu s b e f o r e a n d a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e . 83 c o l l e g e E m p l o y m e n t s t a tu s B e f o r e C o l l e g e A f t e r C o l l e g e N % N % E m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e 180 5 6 % 229 7 1 % N o t e m p l o y e d f u l l t i m e , no t s e e k i n g w o r k 77 2 4 % 51 1 6 % N o t e m p l o y e d f u l l t i m e , s e e k i n g w o r k 64 2 0 % 41 1 3 % To ta l 321 1 0 0 % 321 1 0 0 % T a b l e 36 s u m m a r i z e s f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t s t a tu s by s e x . The p r o p o r t i o n of b o t h m a l e a n d f e m a l e r e s p o n d e n t s e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e i n c r e a s e d a f t e r e n r o l l m e n t a t t h e C o l l e g e , bu t t h e p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e w a s s u b s t a n t i a l l y m o r e f o r m a l e s t h a n f o r f e m a l e s . A C h i - s q u a r e te s t r e v e a l e d t ha t t h e d i f f e r e n c e in f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t by s e x w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t b e f o r e ( X 2 = 8 . 5 8 , p .005) a n d a f t e r ( X 2 = 47.38, p ^ .001) a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e . It is d i f f i c u l t to m a k e c o n c l u s i v e s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s b e c a u s e of w o m e n o p t i n g ou t of t h e l a b o u r f o r c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y b e c a u s e of f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . A n a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t s ta tu s b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s (F =39.42, p .001) a n d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t s ta tu s b e f o r e a n d a f t e r c o l l e g e ( F - 2 5 7 9 , p .001). The a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e a l s o s h o w e d t ha t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s in f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t s ta tu s w a s g r e a t e r a f t e r c o l l e g e t h a n b e f o r e ( F * 7.63, p ^ .01). 84 TABLE 36 F u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t s ta tu s by s e x b e f o r e a n d a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e E m p l o y m e n t s ta tu s M a l e F e m a l e N % N % E m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e b e f o r e c o l l e g e 98 6 5 % 82 4 8 % E m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e a f t e r c o l l e g e 137 9 0 % 92 5 5 % T h e r e w a s a n i n c r e a s e in t h e p r o p o r t i o n of r e s p o n d e n t s e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e f o r b o t h c o l l e g e - a g e a n d a d u l t - a g e r e s p o n d e n t s ( t ab l e 37). Fo r b o t h g r oup s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 5 % m o r e r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e a f t e r h a v i n g a t t e n d e d c o l l e g e . T h e r e w a s s o m e i n d i c a t i o n of a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o a g e g r oup s , but t h e d i f f e r e n c e w a s not h i gh l y s i gn i f i c an t . ( X 2 - 3.42, p <- .06 b e f o r e ; X 2 * 4.48, p .03 a f t e r ) . TABLE 37 F u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t s ta tus by a g e b e f o r e a n d a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e E m p l o y m e n t s ta tu s C o l l e g e - a g e A d u l t - a g e 15-24 o v e r 24 E m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e b e f o r e c o l l e g e E m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e a f t e r c o l l e g e N % N % 122 6 0 % 57 4 9 % 154 7 6 % 74 6 4 % 85 Table 38 compares full-time employment status before and after college. Sixty-seven per cent of the respondents reported no change in employment status after attending college: 4 7 % of those who were employed full-time before college were employed full-time after college; 2 0 % of those who were unemployed before college were unemployed after college. There is a significant relationship between full-time employment before and after college (X 2 = 32.85, p *< .001). Table 38 compares full-time employment status before and after college. TABLE 38 Full-time employment status before and after attending college Employed Not employed Employment status full-time full-time before col lege before col lege Employed full-time after college Not employed full-time after college N % N % 149 4 7 % 78 2 4 % 28 9 % 64 2 0 % b) Occupational Group (questions l a and 10a) The questionnaire asked respondents what they were doing both before and after college. From the responses, information was obtained about the oc-cupational groups in which respondents were represented. Table 39 shows the occupational groups of respondents employed full-time before enrolling at the college and after leaving the college. The groups which showed the greatest in-86 c r e a s e in n u m b e r s a f t e r c o l l e g e a r e t h e s k i l l e d a n d s e m i - s k i l l e d o c c u p a t i o n s , w h i l e u n s k i l l e d a n d s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s s h o w e d t h e g r e a t e s t d e c r e a s e s in n u m b e r s . ( A l l a p p r e n t i c e s a n d h e l p e r s w e r e p l a c e d in t h e c a t e g o r y " s e m i - s k i l l e d " w h i l e t h o s e f e w r e s p o n d e n t s in t h e t r a d e s a r e a s w h o h a d b e e n a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e i r j o u r n e y m e n ' s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s " s k i l l e d " . ) TABLE 39 O c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p b e f o r e a n d a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e O c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p B e f o r e c o l l e g e A f t e r c o l l e g e N % N % C l e r i c a l 43 2 0 % 51 2 1 % F a r m e r 12 6 % 15 6 % M a n a g e r i a l 4 2 % 3 1 % M i n i n g / L o g g i n g 20 9 % 11 5 % P r o f e s s i o n a l 4 2 % 4 2 % Sa l e s 18 8 % 6 3 % S e m i - s k i l l e d 30 1 4 % 67 2 8 % S e r v i c e 34 1 6 % 19 8 % S k i l l e d 17 8 % 33 1 4 % T e c h n i c a l 3 1 % 7 3 % T r a n s p o r t 6 3 % 8 3 % U n s k i l l e d 19 9 % 6 3 % O t h e r / S e l f - e m p l o y e d 6 3 % 7 3 % To ta l 216 1 0 0 % 237 1 0 0 % 87 T a b l e 40 s h o w s o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p by s e x b e f o r e a n d a f t e r c o l l e g e . W h i l e t h e r e a p p e a r s to b e a l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e of m a l e r e s p o n d e n t s t h a n f e m a l e r e s p o n d e n t s w h o h a v e c h a n g e d to a n o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a f t e r c o l l e g e , t h e s m a l l n u m b e r s p r e c l u d e s s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of t h e s e r e su l t s . M e n a n d w o m e n d o no t s e e m to h o l d m o r e s i m i l a r jobs a f t e r c o l l e g e t h a n b e f o r e , i n d i c a t i n g t ha t a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n d o e s l i t t l e t o e q u a l i z e t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of m e n a n d w o m e n in t h e w o r k f o r c e . 88 TABLE 40 O c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p by s e x , b e f o r e a n d a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e O c c u p a t i o n a l M a l e F e m a l e g r o u p B e f o r e c o l l e g e A f t e r c o l l e g e B e f o r e c o l l e g e A f t e r c o l l e g e N % N % N % N % C l e r i c a l 10 9 % 7 5 % 33 3 3 % 44 4 4 % F a r m e r 7 6 % 10 7 % 5 5 % 5 5 % M a n a g e r i a l 1 1 % 3 3 % 3 3 % M i n i n g / L o g g i n g 20 1 7 % 10 7 % 1 1 % P r o f e s s i o n a l 1 1 % 3 3 % 4 4 % S a l e s 7 6 % 1 1 % 11 1 1 % 5 5 % S e m i - s k i l l e d 27 2 3 % 64 4 7 % 3 3 % 3 3 % S e r v i c e 8 7 % 3 2 % 26 2 6 % 16 1 6 % S k i l l e d 6 5 % 23 1 7 % 11 11 % 10 1 0 % T e c h n i c a l 2 2 % 1 1 % 7 7 % T r a n s p o r t 6 5 % 8 6 % U n s k i l l e d 17 1 5 % 6 4 % 2 2 % O t h e r / S e l f - e m p l o y e d 3 3 % 5 4 % 3 3 % 2 2 % T o t a l 115 1 0 0 % 137 1 0 0 % 101 1 0 0 % 100 1 0 0 % T a b l e 41 s h o w s t h e b r e a k d o w n by o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p f o r c o l l e g e - a g e a n d a d u l t - a g e r e s p o n d e n t s b e f o r e a n d a f t e r c o l l e g e a t t e n d a n c e . The n u m b e r of c o l l e g e -a g e r e s p o n d e n t s is l a r g e r a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e , d u e c h i e f l y to y o u n g p e o p l e e n -t e r i n g t he w o r k f o r c e f o r t he f i r s t t i m e . 89 TABLE 41 Occupational group by age, before and after attending college  Occupational College-age Adult-age group (15-24) (over 24) Before college After college Before college After college N % N % N % N % Clerical 30 2 1 % 29 18% 13 18% 21 2 7 % Farmer 7 5% 10 6% 5 7 % 5 6% Managerial A 6 % 3 4 % Mining/Logging 15 10% 10 6 % 5 7 % 1 1% Professional 1 1% 4 6% 3 4 % Sales 15 10% 5 3 % 3 4 % 1 1% Semi-skilled 22 15% 52 3 3 % 8 11% 15 19% Service 23 16% 13 8 % 11 15% 6 8 % Skilled 8 6% 18 11% 9 12% 15 19% Technical 4 3 % 3 4 % 3 4 % Transport 2 1% 5 3 % 4 6% 3 4 % Unskilled 16 11% 6 4 % 3 4 % Other/ Self-employed 5 4 % 4 3 % 1 1% 3 4 % Total 143 100% 157 100% 73 100% 79 100% The difference between respondents with different educational backgrounds seemed to decrease after college attendance (table 42). For example, there was an increase across all grade levels in the number of respondents em-90 ployed in the skilled and semi-skilled areas after college. The smallness of the sample and the inclusion of those entering the work force for the first time precludes statistical analysis of this apparent trend. Further investigation is required to determine if a college education, regardless of previous education, is a major determinant of occupational group. It is possible that a college education gives the less educated a better chance to qualify for jobs formerly held only by high school graduates. 91 TABLE 42 Occupational group by last grade of schooling completed Occupational Less than grade 12 Grade 12 or more group Before college After college Before college After college N % N % N % N % Clerical 16 18% 17 17% 25 2 3 % 31 2 6 % Farmer 6 7 % 6 6% 5 5% 8 7 % Managerial 2 2% 3 3 % 1 1% Mining/Logging 10 11% 6 6% 9 8 % 4 3 % Professional 1 1% 3 3 % 4 3 % Sales 5 6% 2 2% 11 10% 3 2% Semi-skilled 10 11% 24 24% 17 16% 38 3 1 % Service 24 2 7 % 14 14% 10 9 % 4 3 % Skilled 6 7 % 16 16% 8 7 % 14 12% Technical 1 1% 3 3 % 2 2% 4 3 % Transport 1 1% 4 4 % 5 5% 4 3 % Unskilled 8 9 % 1 1% 7 6% 3 2% Other/ Self-employed 3 3 % 4 4 % 3 2% Total 88 100% 98 100% 109 100% 121 100% 92 c) J o b s t a tu s ( que s t i on s l a a n d 10a) In o r d e r t o a s s e s s job s ta tu s , t h e r e v i s e d B l i s h e n s o c i o e c o n o m i c s c a l e (1971) w a s u s e d . P e o p l e w h o r e p o r t e d f u l l - t i m e h o u s e h o l d / f a m i l y d u t i e s w e r e a s s i g n e d a r a n k e q u a l to t h e B l i s h e n r a n k f o r c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e w o r k e r s a n d i n c l u d e d in t h e c o m p a r i s o n s . T a b l e 43 s h o w s t h e r a n k i n g s of t h e r e s p o n d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , in g r o u p s , b e f o r e a n d a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e . A C h i - s q u a r e tes t i n d i c a t e d t ha t t h e r e w a s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in d i s t r i b u t i o n by s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r a n k b e f o r e a n d a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e (X Js= 125.55, p «< .001). Th i s m e a n s t h a t t h e r e w a s a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e in s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r a n k a f t e r c o l l e g e w h e n c o m p a r e d w i t h s o c i o -e c o n o m i c r a n k b e f o r e c o l l e g e . TABLE 43 J o b s ta tu s : B l i s hen s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r a n k b e f o r e a n d a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e B e f o r e c o l l e g e A f t e r c o l l e g e Rank N % N % 13 t h r o u g h 29 108 4 2 % 82 3 0 % 30 t h r o u g h 39 57 2 2 % 72 2 7 % 40 t h r o u g h 49 78 3 0 % 71 2 6 % 50 t h r o u g h 59 10 4 % 39 1 4 % 60 t h r o u g h 74 5 2 % 6 2 % T o t a l 258 1 0 0 % 270 1 0 0 % X 5 s i 2 5 . 5 5 , p .001 93 There was a significant relationship between sex and occupational status both before (X J = 60.51, p .001) and after (X J = 113.31, p .001) attending college (table 44). Male respondents are in lower socio-economic groups than female respondents, both before and after college. TABLE 44 Blishen socioeconomic rank by sex before and after college Male Female Rank Before college After college Before college After college N % N i % N % N % 13 through 29 69 6 0 % 61 4 5 % 39 2 7 % 21 16% 30 through 39 33 2 9 % 59 4 4 % 24 17% 13 10% 40 through 49 8 7 % 11 8 % 70 4 9 % 60 4 4 % 50 through 59 2 2% 3 2% 8 6% 36 2 7 % 60 through 74 3 3 % 1 1% 2 1% 5 4 % Total 115 100% 135 100% 143 100% 135 100% As a check on the groupings of Blishen scores, comparisons were done using the actual Blishen scores. The means are shown in Table 45. 94 TABLE 45 Mean Blishen scores, by sex, before and after college Male Female Before college After college Before college After college 31.804 32.868 37.049 42.671 Results obtained using the actual Blishen scores and the groupings of scores were very similar, indicating that the grouped scores gave a reliable approximation of socio-economic rank, according to the Blishen scale. These data indicate either that females generally have jobs with higher socioeconomic status than males or that the Blishen scale does not give an accurate reflection of socio-economic status. Several anomolies noted while coding oc-cupations strengthen the contention that the Blishen scale is in need of revision. For example, a roughneck on the oil rigs has a higher socio-economic rank than a welder and a farm labourer has a higher rank than a farmer. Also bringing the Blishen scale into question is the fact that men and women are ranked equally for the same job despite evidence equal pay often is not earned for equal work. A repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that the difference in socio-economic rank between males and females was significant (F=37.82, p <*£>.001) with females scoring higher than males and the interaction, or the change in Blishen rank was different for males and females (F=> 9.23, p ^ .005). A n analysis of variance of socio-economic status and last grade of formal education indicated a significant change in socio-economic rank after college ( F « 9 . 9 0 , p .005), with respondents moving upward on the Blishen scale. Neither 95 t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n g r a d e l e v e l s n o r t h e c h a n g e b e t w e e n g r a d e l e v e l s w a s s i g n i f i c an t . d) J o b s a t i s f a c t i o n ( que s t i on s 2 a n d 11) T h i r t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t of r e s p o n d e n t s in t h e l a b o u r f o r c e i n d i c a t e d t h e y w e r e s a t i s f i e d o r v e r y s a t i s f i e d w i t h w h a t t h e y w e r e d o i n g b e f o r e a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e , c o m p a r e d w i t h 7 6 % a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e ( X 2 s s 4 6 . 7 1 , p .001). A l m o s t o n e - t h i r d o f r e s p o n d e n t s in t h e l a b o u r f o r c e i n d i c a t e d t hey w e r e d i s s a t i s f i e d o r v e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h w h a t t h e y w e r e d o i n g b e f o r e c o l l e g e , c o m p a r e d w i t h 8 % a f t e r c o l l e g e . It c a n b e c o n c l u d e d t ha t q c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s t o f i n d i n g s a t i s f y i n g e m p l o y m e n t . F i g u r e s a r e s h o w n in t a b l e 46. TABLE 46 S a t i s f a c t i on w i t h o c c u p a t i o n b e f o r e a n d a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e , f o r t h o s e in t h e l a b o u r f o r c e D e g r e e of s a t i s f a c t i o n B e f o r e c o l l e g e A f t e r c o l l e g e N % N % V e r y s a t i s f i e d o r s a t i s f i e d 57 3 7 % 119 7 6 % P a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d 51 3 3 % 26 1 7 % D i s s a t i s f i e d o r v e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d 48 3 1 % 12 8 % X 2 - 46.71, p <=£ .001 o o 96 Figures on satisfaction with occupation, by sex, are shown in table 47. The relationship between sex and satisfaction with occupation was not significant either before or after college; however, respondents of both sexes reported a significant increase in job satisfaction after attending college ( X 2 » 2 6 . 8 7 , p .001 for males; X 2 s27.92, p .001 for females). These data suggest that college is beneficial to both males and females in terms of job satisfaction. TABLE 47 Satisfaction with occupation before and after college, by sex Degree of Ma le Female satisfaction N % N % N % N % Very satisfied or satisfied 62 4 2 % 121 7 9 % 76 4 6 % 121 7 4 % Partially satisfied 46 3 1 % 22 14% 57 34 % 24 15% Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied 41 2 7 % 10 7 % 34 19% 19 12% o Total 149 100% 153 100% 167 100% 164 100% A repeated measures analysis of variance indicated a significant relationship between satisfaction with occupation before and after college ( F n l 15.35, p .001), but no significant difference by sex. The results are the same when considering only those in the labour force; that is, the difference in job satisfaction is significantly greater after attending college and the difference in job 97 satisfaction between the sexes is not significant, e) Increase in salary (question 12) Almost two-thirds of all respondents (including those who had taken programmes which were not job-related) reported some increase in salary, suggesting that a college education is financially beneficial. 98 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY A N D RECOMMENDATIONS A. SUMMARY Student follow-up is frequently the purview of the Student Services com-ponent of colleges and universities. This study, recognizing the Student Services maxim that the student is the most important element of the college, was un-dertaken from a Student Services perspective. Work on the follow-up study began in 1979 when a formal proposal was submitted to the College administration. The project was endorsed and partially funded by the College Board. The population chosen was all full-time students who attended a programme of at least 30 days which began in the 1978 calendar year. The major problems encountered were those endemic to mailed surveys and small populations; specifically, the problems of locating students, obtaining a meaningful response rate and analyzing returns from small samples. Nevertheless, the overall response rate was 5 3 % based on the return of questionnaires assumed to have reached the students. There was a nearly equal split among men and women, both in the population (49% men, 5 1 % women) and the respondent sample (47% men, 5 3 % women). Approximately two-thirds of the respondent population were of college-age and one-third were of adult-age. Response biases were not present by either sex or age, but were present by college centre, by last grade completed, by place of last schooling and by completion or non-completion of college programme. 99 Keeping in mind that there may be a tendency to view past experiences favourably, students generally were satisfied with the college experience and expressed the greatest dissatisfaction with sponsoring agencies. Numerous com-plaints and suggestions were also received, indicating that students did not regard the college experience as free of major concerns and problems. There was an indication that more women than men withdrew from the college, possibly because of encountering more barriers to education than their male counterparts. The review of the literature suggests the possibility that training may be of less benefit to women than to men with the consequence that women withdraw more frequently because they do not consider college worthwhile. Con-trary to expectations, most people who had withdrawn before completion were satisfied with their programmes. Two-thirds of respondents who had been enrolled in job-specific programmes said they had been well-prepared for a job in the field. The need for the College to attend to the demands of the job market was underscored by respondents' expectations of good job preparation and the reasons given for not being employed in the fields of college study. Numerous students indicated that they could not find employment in their fields or that there were better opportunities for advancement and better pay in other fields. There was an indication of serious problems in the apprenticeship programmes; specifically, inadequate funding during pre-apprenficeship training and satisfactory job opportunities after training. Two years after college, most respondents indicated they still wanted to work in their fields. Respondents who expressed the greatest dissatisfaction with their current oc-cupations were those who, as yet, had not found employment in their fields. One-quarter of 1978 Northern Lights College students continued their 100 e d u c a t i o n , t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e m in r e l a t e d a r e a s . The l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of s t u d e n t s w h o c o n t i n u e d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n r e t u r n e d to N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e ( 3 1 % ) . G e n e r a l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r e p a r a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r s t ud i e s w a s e x p r e s s e d by t h o s e w h o c o n -t i n u e d t h e i r e d u c t i o n . S i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e t h a n b e f o r e a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e . T h e r e w a s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e n u m b e r s of m e n a n d w o m e n e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e b o t h b e f o r e a n d a f t e r c o l l e g e a n d t h e d i f f e r e n c e w a s s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r a f t e r c o l l e g e t h a n b e f o r e . T h e r e w a s n o s i g n f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n e m p l o y m e n t by a g e b e f o r e o r a f t e r c o l l e g e . C h a n g e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p o c c u r r e d a f t e r c o l l e g e w i t h s k i l l e d a n d s e m i -s k i l l e d o c c u p a t i o n s s h o w i n g t h e g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e s a n d u n s k i l l e d a n d s e r v i c e oc -c u p a t i o n s t h e g r e a t e s t d e c r e a s e s . M e n a n d w o m e n d i d no t a p p e a r to h o l d m o r e s i m i l a r jobs a f t e r c o l l e g e t h a n b e f o r e : m e n w e r e m o r e l i k e l y t o m o v e i n to t h e s k i l l e d a n d s e m i - s k i l l e d o c c u p a t i o n s a f t e r c o l l e g e w h i l e w o m e n m o v e d i n t o t h e c l e r i c a l a r e a s . S i m i l a r l y , d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s w e r e a p p a r e n t b e t w e e n t h e c o l l e g e - a g e a n d a d u l t - a g e g r o u p s b o t h b e f o r e a n d a f t e r c o l l e g e . T h e r e w a s a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e in job s ta tus a f t e r c o l l e g e . T h e d i f f e r e n c e in job s ta tu s by s e x w a s a l s o s i g n f i c a n t b e f o r e a n d a f t e r c o l l e g e : m e n w e r e in l o w e r r a n k i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s . The i n c r e a s e in job s a t i s f a c t i o n a f t e r c o l l e g e w a s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r b o t h m e n a n d w o m e n . T w o - t h i r d s of r e s p o n d e n t s in t h e l a b o u r f o r c e r e p o r t e d s o m e i n c r e a s e in s a l a r y a f t e r a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e . T h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e in s a l a r y by e i t h e r a g e o r s e x , bu t it mu s t b e e m p h a s i z e d t ha t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s in s a l a r i e s w e r e not r e v i e w e d , o n l y t h e i n c r e a s e s . 101 It m u s t b e r e c o g n i z e d t ha t th i s s u m m a r y g i v e s o n l y a b r i e f o v e r v i e w of t h e r e p o r t . The r e a d e r is r e f e r r e d t o p r e c e d i n g s e c t i on s f o r a m o r e e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n a n d a n a l y s i s of t h e d a t a . B. I M P L I C A T I O N S F O R FURTHER R E S E A R C H M a n y q u e s t i o n s r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n h a v e b e e n g e n e r a t e d by th i s s t udy . T h e q u e s t i o n w i t h t h e b r o a d e s t s c o p e is: w h a t a r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h o s e p e o p l e w h o h a v e a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n a n d t h o s e w h o d o n o t ? W h a t p e r s o n a l i t y a n d m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e s e t w o g r o u p s ? W h a t b a r r i e r s p r e v e n t p e o p l e f r o m p u r s u i n g a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n a n d h o w c a n t h e s e b a r r i e r s b e e l i m i n a t e d ? H o w e f f e c t i v e a r e c u r r e n t e f f o r t s , in g e n e r a l , t o e q u a l i z e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d , in p a r t i c u l a r , to e q u a l i z e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r w o m e n , f a c e d w i t h s p e c i a l b a r r i e r s t o h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n ? To w h a t e x t e n t d o e s a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n c h a n g e s o m e o n e ' s e m p l o y m e n t p r o s p e c t s ? T h e r e is e v i d e n c e to s u g ge s t t h a t a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n i m p r o v e s t he c h a n c e s not o n l y of o b t a i n i n g e m p l o y m e n t , but a l s o of e a r n i n g b e t t e r p a y a n d f i n d i n g m o r e s a t i s f y i n g w o r k . H o w e v e r , in t h e c a s e of y o u n g p e o p l e , s o m e of t h e g a i n s m a y b e d u e to a g e i n g a n d , in t h e c a s e of m e n a n d w o m e n in t h e w o r k f o r c e , t h e r e is s t r o n g e v i d e n c e w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e s e e m p l o y m e n t b e n e f i t s a r e m u c h m o r e sub -s t a n t i a l f o r m e n t h a n f o r w o m e n . T h e r e is a l s o e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n has a n e q u a l i z i n g e f f e c t f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d in t h e l a b o u r f o r c e (for e x a m p l e , y o u n g p e o p l e , t h e u n d e r e d u c a t e d a n d w o m e n ) . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e r e is a l s o e v i d e n c e t ha t g r a d u a t e s of a c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e w h o h a v e g r a d e 12 h a v e le s s d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g e m p l o y m e n t t h a n g r a d u a t e s of t h e s a m e p r o g r a m m e w h o d o not 102 h a v e g r a d e 12. E x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h is r e q u i r e d in o r d e r t o a s s i m i l a t e th i s c o n -. t r a d i c t o r y e v i d e n c e a n d d r a w c o n c l u s i o n s . F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n is a l s o r e q u i r e d t o a s s e s s t h e i m p a c t of t h e C o l l e g e w i t h i n its r e g i o n . W h a t c o n t r i b u t i o n d o t h e C o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s m a k e to t h e e m -p l o y m e n t p i c t u r e in t h e r e g i o n ? Is t h e t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e d by t h e C o l l e g e a p p r o p r i a t e t o job o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n ? T h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t ha t a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t r a i n i n g in B.C. is e n c o u n t e r i n g s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h a p p r e n t i c e s b e i n g u n a b l e t o f i n d s u i t a b l e p o s i t i o n s . A t h o r o u g h r e v i e w of t h e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p a p p r o a c h t o t r a i n i n g , a l l o w i n g f o r i npu t f r o m a p p r e n t i c e s , e m p l o y e r s , e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i on s a n d t h e p u b l i c , w o u l d p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n t o a d d r e s s t h e p r o b l e m s . D e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t r a i n i n g , a n d t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s , c o u l d b e m a d e o n t h e ba s i s on th i s r e s e a r c h . The s tudy of N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e s tha t t h e B l i s h e n s c a l e is w o e f u l l y ou t of d a t e . D e s p i t e t h e e n o r m i t y of t h e u n d e r t a k i n g , a c u r r e n t s o c i o e c o n o m i c i n d e x f o r C a n a d a is r e q u i r e d . T h e s e q u e s t i o n s a n d c o n c e r n s r e p r e s e n t m a j o r a r e a s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . A s w e l l , r e p l i c a t i o n of r e su l t s o b t a i n e d f r o m 1978 N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e s t uden t s c o u l d b e a t t e m p t e d w i t h s t uden t s of s u b s e q u e n t y e a r s . S i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n o t h e r B.C. c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s c o u l d b e e x p l o r e d . T h e e x t e n s i v e s t udy o f B.C. c o l l e g e s a n d t h e i r s t uden t s c a n a n d s h o u l d b e u n d e r t a k e n t o o b t a i n s o u n d d a t a u p o n w h i c h t o d e s i g n a n d i m p l e m e n t i m p r o v e m e n t s to t h e B.C. c o l l e g e s y s t e m . 103 C. R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S T h e s tudy w a s d e s i g n e d a s a n e x p l o r a t o r y f o l l o w - u p of N o r t h e r n L ights C o l l e g e s t u d e n t s t w o y e a r s a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n of t h e i r c o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e s . F r o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s a n d s t u d e n t s ' c o m m e n t s , r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o t h e C o l l e g e c a n b e g e n e r a t e d . 1. It is a p p a r e n t f r o m s t u d e n t s ' c o m m e n t s t ha t t h e o f f e r i n g s of t he C o l l e g e in its c o m m u n i t i e s a r e n e i t h e r e x t e n s i v e l y k n o w n n o r u n d e r s t o o d . It is t h e r e f o r e r e c o m m e n d e d tha t t h e C o l l e g e a t t e m p t to i n c r e a s e its v i s i b i l i t y in its c o m m u n i t i e s . 2. A c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e C o l l e g e is d i f f i c u l t f o r m a n y s t uden t s . It is t h e r e f o r e r e c o m m e n d e d tha t t h e C o l l e g e a t t e m p t to r e m e d y th i s p r o b l e m by: a) d e v e l o p i n g s t o r e f r o n t a n d n e i g h b o u r h o o d c o u n s e l l i n g a n d c l a s s r o o m f a c i l i t i e s ; b) s t r e n g h t e n i n g t h e W o m e n ' s A c c e s s p r o g r a m m e i n D a w s o n C r e e k a n d c o n s i d e r i n g its e x p a n s i o n to o t h e r c e n t r e s ; c) e s t a b l i s h i n g o n - c a m p u s d a y c a r e o r f a m i l y c e n t r e s ; d) e n s u r i n g f l e x i b i l i t y in s c h e d u l i n g a n d e x p a n s i o n of p a r t - t i m e p r o g r a m m e s f o r t h o s e w h o s e w o r k o r f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s p r e c l u d e t h e m f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ; e) e n s u r i n g t h e bes t p o s s i b l e bus s e r v i c e to t he C o l l e g e in D a w s o n C r e e k ; a n d f) a c t i v e l y e n c o u r a g i n g c a r p o o l s in t h e m a j o r c e n t r e s . 3. P r o b l e m s w i t h s p o n s o r i n g a g e n c i e s pe r s i s t a n d c a u s e h a r d s h i p s f o r s t uden t s . It is t h e r e f o r e r e c o m m e n d e d tha t : a) t h e C o l l e g e c o n t i n u e a n d s t r e n g t h e n its r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e C a n a d a E m p l o y m e n t C e n t r e a n d U n e m p l o y m e n t I n su rance C o m m i s s i o n ; 104 b) the College apply increased pressure on the Ministry of Labour to provide realistic subsidies to pre-apprenticeship students. 4. Students have complained about the lack of information available regarding the College and its programmes. It is therefore recommended that: a) the College increase its inter-agency involvement within its communities and the Province to ensure that up to date information is available, through a variety of sources, to those making enquiries; and b) the College retain and continuously up-date information on employment opportunities within its region and the Province and that this information be readily available to students and prospective students. 5. Respondents provided valuable insight into the College and information on its achievements and shortcomings. It is therefore recommended that: a) greater effort be made to obtain feedback from students while they are enrolled in their programmes; and b) greater effort be made to include student input to campus management and improve communications between students, staff, and instructors. 6. Students frequently criticized the meal hours for dormitory residents in Dawson Creek. It is therefore recommended that consideration be given to modifying the hours of meal service, based on more specific, current student response. 7. Although the group of respondents who withdrew before completion of their college programmes was small, valuable information was obtained. If is recommended that the College study in greater depth its non-completers and establish programmes designed to assist students to complete their studies. These could include remedial services and increased counselling capacity. 105 8. Financial problems contribute to the problem of non-completion and effect the progress and well-being of many students. It is therefore recommended that the scholarship and bursary fund be expanded through active solicitation of donations and bequests. 9. As a result of the amount of information generated by this study and the numerous expressions of appreciation from respondents for the opportunity of providing the information, it is recommended that the College devise a plan for systematically surveying students after their attendance at Northern Lights College. The advisability of incorporating some institutional research capacity into the College's operation is strengthened by the fiscal restraints and cutbacks currently being experienced by educational institutions. In the competition for money, the College would be well advised to be able to document its services and ac-complishments. 10. !t is recommended that the College study the job-specific programmes which students did not feel prepared them well for a job in the field to determine if this is a function of the students, the job market or the programme. 11. To ensure that vocationally-oriented programmes are kept relevant and up-to-date, it is recommended that adequate paid industrial liaison time be ensured and that industry input to the programmes be welcomed, encouraged, and increased. 12. It is recommended that staffing requirements be reviewed in order to provide increased information services and expanded services to students both to encourage greater enrollments and to improve prospects of programme completion. 13. It is recommended that discussions with the Ministry of Labour be held, regarding the special programme designed to encourage women to enroll in non-106 traditional programmes with a view to offering that programme at Northern Lights College. These recommendations are based on students' comments and analysis of responses to the questionnaire items. Progress towards implementation of these recommendations will ameliorate many of the problems and concerns raised by former Northern Lights College students and thus enhance the educational ex-periences of future students. 107 SELECTED B I B L I O G R A P H Y A n d e r s o n , L a u r a , e d . , F o l l o w i n g U p G r a d u a t e s : A M e a s u r e of A c a d e m i c Ef-f e c t i v e n e s s . A t l a n t a : S o u t h e r n R e g i o n a l E d u c a t i o n B o a r d , ERIC D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e : ED 140 684, 1977. B l i s h e n , B e r n a r d R., " T h e C o n s t r u c t i o n a n d U s e of a n O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s S c a l e . " C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l of E c o n o m i c s a n d P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e 24. 1958. B l i s h e n , B e r n a r d R., J o n e s , F r a n k E., N a e g e l e , K a s p a r D., a n d P o r t e r , J o h n . " A Soc i o -E c o n o m i c I ndex f o r O c c u p a t i o n s in C a n a d a . " C a n a d i a n Soc i e t y : S o c i o l o g i c a l  P e r s p e c t i v e s . T o r o n t o : B r y a n t P re s s L td. , 1968. B l i s h e n , B e r n a r d R., a n d M c R o b e r t s , H u g h A . " A r e v i s e d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n d e x f o r o c c u p a t i o n s in C a n a d a . " C a n a d i a n R e v i e w of S o c i o l o g y a n d A n t h r o p o l o g y . 13(1) 1976. K — 8 1 C o h e n , A r t h u r M . D a t e l i n e '79, H e r e t i c a l C o n c e p t s f o r t h e C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e . C a l i f o r n i a : G l e n c o P re s s , 1969. C o m p r e h e n s i v e E d u c a t i o n P l a n S choo l Y e a r 1977-78. W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : D i s t r i c t of C o l u m b i a P u b l i c S choo l s , O f f i c e of I n s t ruc t ion : ERIC D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e : ED 145 590, 1977. C o n d u c t a S t uden t F o l l o w - U p Study, M o d u l e A - 1 0 of C a t e g o r y A - - P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g , ~ D e v e l o p m e n t , a n d E v a l u a t i o n . C o l u m b u s : O h i o S t a te U n i v e r s i t y , C o l u m b u s N a t i o n a l C e n t e r f o r R e s e a r c h in V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n : ERIC D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e : ED 149 174, 1978. C o p e , Robe r t a n d H a n n a h , W i l l i a m . R e v o l v i n g C o l l e g e Doo r s : The c a u s e s a n d c o n -s e q u e n c e s of d r o p p i n g ou t , s t o p p i n g ou t a n d t r a n s f e r r i n g . N e w Y o r k : J o h n WlTeyand Sons, 1975. D e n n i s o n , J o h n D., a n d J o n e s , G . C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e T r a n s f e r S t uden t s a t U.B.C. -- A T h r e e Y e a r S tudy. V a n c o u v e r : V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e , 1970. D e n n i s o n , J o h n D,; Tunne r , A . ; J o n e s , G . a n d F o r r e s t e r , G . C. The Impact of C o m - m u n i t y C o l l e g e s , A S tudy of t he C o l l e g e C o n c e p t in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V a n c o u v e r : B7C . R e s e a r c h . 1975. D e n n i s o n , J o h n D. a n d J o n e s , G . O n e Y e a r A f t e r C o l l e g e : A S tudy of V a n c o u v e r C i t y  C o l l e g e C a r e e r S tuden t s~One Y e a r A f t e r t h e S c h e d u l e d G r a d u a t i n g D a t e of  A p r i l 1968. V a n c o u v e r : V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o l l e g e , 1969. 108 D i c k e n s o n , G a r y . U n d e r e d u c a t e d A d u l t s in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a - 1976. V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1979. F a w l e y , M a l c o l m J . Sou th D a k o t a V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n F o l l o w - U p . F i n a l Repo r t . S p r i n g f i e l d : Sou th D a k o t a U n i v e r s i t y : ERIC D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e , ED 145 224, 1977. F e n s t e m a c h e r , W i l l i a m P. C o l l e g e D r o p o u t s , M i n n e s o t a S ta te C o l l e g e S y s t e m , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U. B. C. L i b r a r y , V a n c o u v e r , B.C. G e l l , R o b e r t L.: A r m s t r o n g , D. F.; J o n e s , R. F. The G r a d u a t e s 1975. A F o l l o w - U p  S tudy of t h e S tuden t s W h o G r a d u a t e d f r o m M o n t g o m e r y C o l l e g e . R o c k v i l l e , M d : M o n t g o m e r y C o l l e g e , O f f i c e of I n s t i t u t i ona l R e s e a r c h , ED 132 997, 1976. G o a r d , D e a n ; B l a k e n e y , A . ; M c D o n a l d , B.; M c C a f f e r y , M . ; S ta i r s , C ; a n d T r i n e e r , T. W . Repo r t of t h e C o m m i s s i o n o n V o c a t i o n a l , T e c h n i c a l , a n d T r a d e s T r a i n i n g  in B T C " ~ " G o l d , B e n K. a n d M o r r i s , W i l l i a m . S t uden t A c c o u n t a b i l i t y M o d e l ( SAM) : O p e r a t i o n s  M a n u a l . S a c r a m e n t o , C a l i f o r n i a : Los A n g e l e s C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e D i s t r i c t , O f f i c e of t h e C h a n c e l l o r : ERIC D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e , ED 135 443, 1977. H a r v e y , E.B.; M a s e m a n n , V . L. O c c u p a t i o n a l G r a d u a t e s a n d t h e L a b o u r F o r c e . T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o D e p a r t m e n t of E d u c a t i o n : ERIC D o c u m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e , ED 146 338, 1975. J o h n s o n , M i l o P. a n d G r a f s k y , A l b e r t J . A c c o u n t a b i l i t y E v a l u a t i o n f o r O c c u p a t i o n a l P r o g r a m m e s . C h i c a g o : A m e r i c a n T e c h n i c a l Soc i e t y , 1973. J o h n s o n , R o n a l d W . A S e c o n d Look at t h e D r o p - O u t P r o b l e m . F r e d r i c t o n , N e w B r u n s w i c k : N e w B r u n s w i c k D e p a r t m e n t of L abou r , 1968. J o h n s o n , R o n a l d W . Is A p p r e n t i c e s h i p S e e n as W o r t h w h i l e ? F r e d r i c t o n , N e w B r u n s w i c k : N e w B r u n s w i c k D e p a r t m e n t of L abou r , 19707 J o h n s o n , R o n a l d W . S o m e D i m e n s i o n s of t he D r o p - O u t P r o b l e m in A p p r e n t i c e s h i p . F r e d r i c t o n , N e w B r u n s w i c k : N e w B r u n s w i c k D e p a r t m e n t of L abou r , 1967. J o n e s , G o r d o n a n d D e n n i s o n , J o h n , D. A C o m p a r a t i v e S tudy of P e r s i s t e r a n d N o n - P e r s i s t e r C o l l e g e S t uden t s . V a n c o u v e r : V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e , 1972. J o n e s , G o r d o n ; F o r r e s t e r , G . C ; D e n n i s o n , J . D. A F o l l o w - U p S tudy of N o n - T r a n s f e r , A c a d e m i c S tuden t s f r o m t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e s : T e c h n i c a l Repo r t . V a n c o u v e r : B.C. R e s e a r c h , 1980. 109 Lightfield, E. Timothy. Student Follow-Up in Higher Education: A Systematic Ap - proach. Advanced Institutional Development Program (AIDP) Two year College Consortium, vol. II, no. 6. Washington, D. C : McManis Associates, Inc.: ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 134 276, 1976. Little, J.K. and Whinfield, R.W. "Follow-up of 1965 Graduates of Wisconsin Schools of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education." Industrial Relations. McKinney, Floyd. Program Evaluation in Vocational Education: A Review. Inr formation Series No. 117. Columbus: Ohio State University: ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED 149 186, 1977. Moore, Barry, ed. Educational Master Plan, Northern Lights College. 1978-1982. Foreword by B.A. Brown. Saanichton, B. C. Hancock House Publishers, Ltd., 1978. Paul, Krishan K. What Happens After Training: A Review of Follow-Up of Vocational  Graduates. Nashville, Tennessee: Nashville Urban Observatory, ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 141 010, 1976. Placement and Follow-Up Annual Report. Miami, Florida: Dade County Public Schools, Department o? Public Personnel Services: ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 137 680, 1976. Queen, John E. and Rusting, Jean. Survey of Non-Returning Non-Vocational  Students. Norwalk, California: Cerritos College Office of Institutional Research, ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED 140 906, 1977. SIRF: System for Implementing Review and Follow-Up. Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue " University: ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED 133 508, 1975. Solmon, Lewis C ; Bisconti, A.S.; Ochoner, N. L. Wisdom or Waste? College as a  Training Ground for jobs. Washington! U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, National Institue of Education: ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED 135 274, 1976. Student Information System. Student Follow-Up. Management Information System. Austin, Texas: Division of Occupational Research and Development: ERIC Qocument Reproduction Service: ED 138 772, 1976. A Survey of Queensborough Community College Alumni: 1962-1974. Bayside, New "~ York: Queensborough Community College: ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED 144 649, 1977. TRACE: A System for Student Follow-Up, Management Handbook. California: Santa Barbara County Schools: ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED 133 588, 1974. 110 V i n a r s k i , E u g e n e T.; M a n s p e a k e r , J .C . ; H a r g i s , N . 1975 C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e F o l l o w -U p S y s t e m : S u m m a r y of F i n d i n g s . S a l e m : O r e g o n S t a te D e p a r t m e n t R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e : ED 136 877, 1976. W e n t l i n g , T. a n d L a w s o n , T. E v a l u a t i n g O c c u p a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a n d T r a i n i n g  P r o g r a m s . B o s t o n : A l l y n a n d B a c o n , Inc., 1975. W i l l i a m s , W i l l i a m G . a n d Snyde r , F.A. " T h e S tatus of C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e F o l l o w - U p . " A m e r i c a n V o c a t i o n a l J o u r n a l 49 ( J a n u a r y 1974): 40-43. I l l A P P E N D I C E S 112 A P P E N D I X A : M A I L I N G S 1. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 2. C o v e r i n g l e t t e r 3. S e l f - a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e 4. A d d i t i o n a l i n se r t 5. F o l l o w - u p p o s t c a r d 113 APPENDIX D: QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Did you have a full-time job during the year before attending Northern Lights College? yes no a) if yes, OR employed part-time, what was your job? - • b) if no, what did you do? ' 2. How satisfied were you with what you were doing? very satisfied - satisfied partially satisfied dissatisfied 3. What programme did you take at Northern Lights College? very dissatisfied Academic Studies Agriculture Autobody Repairs Auto Mechanical Repairs Business Administration Business Careers Carpentry & Joinery College Foundations (B.T.S.D. Prep., Replace) Counselling 4. Who sponsored (paid for) your programme? Self (fee payer) Canada Employment Unemployment Insurance Ministry of Labour Cook Training Camp Cooking Dental Assisting Heavy Duty Mechanics Mechanical Practices Visual & Performing Arts General Welding Welding Upgrading Other, please specify Indian Affairs Human Resources Aid to the Handicapped 5. If you had College to do over again, would you take the same programme? yes no 6. How satisfied were you at Northern Lights College with: a) the programme very satisfied satisifed b) the instructors very satisfied satisfied c) sponsoring agency, if any very satisfied satisfied d) college life, in general very satisfied satisfied partially satisfied partially satisfied partially satisfied partially satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied very dissatisfied very dissatisfied very dissatisfied very dissatisfied 114 7. If you withdrew before completing your programme, what were your reasons for leaving? Check as many as apply. ran out of money programme had nothing to offer wasn't passing work responsibilities didn't like programme preferred to work didn't like instructor(s) family responsibilities programme not what I expected other, please specify doubted I could pass 8. What did you like most about Northern Lights College? 9. What did you like least? , 10. Do you have a full-time job now? yes no a) if yes, OR employed part-time, what is your job? , • b) If no, what are you doing? '  11. How satisfied are you with what you are doing? very satisfied satisfied partially satisfied dissatisfied very dissatisfied 12. Compared to the time before you attended Northern Lights College, how much has your monthly income increased? not applicable none 0-$100 $101-200 $201-300 over $300 13. How well do you feel the programme at Northern Lights College prepared you for a job in that area? very well well somewhat a little not at all 14. If your job is not related to your programme at Northern Lights College, what is the ONE most important reason? N.L.C. programme not job-related; could not find job in field; better pay than in field; better opportunity for advancement; did not want to work in field; wanted to explore other possibilities other 15. If your job is not related to your programme at Northern Lights College, do you still plan to work in the area of your training? yes no 1 14 a 16. If you have been a student since leaving Northern Lights College (or are currently in school), a) were/are your studies related to your first programme at Northern Lights College? yes no b) what educational institute did you attend? (are you attending) c) how satisfied were you with your preparation at Northern Lights College for further studies? very satisfied satisfied partially satisfied dissatisfied very dissatisfied Additional comments: _ _ _ _ _ _ 114 b NORTHERN LIGHTS COLLEGE S E R V I N G N O R T H E A S T E R N B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Dear We w o u l d l i k e t o a s k f o r y o u r a s s i s t a n c e . N o r t h e r n L i g h t s C o l l e g e i s u n d e r t a k i n g a f o l l o w - u p s t u d y o f f o r m e r C o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . We a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n w h a t y o u a r e d o i n g n o w , h o w y o u v i e w y o u r C o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n , w h a t e f f e c t a C o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n h a s h a d o n y o u r p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a n d h o w w e c a n i m p r o v e t h e C o l l e g e f o r f u t u r e s t u d e n t s . O n l y y o u c a n h e l p . Y o u a r e t h e o n l y p e r s o n w h o h a s t h e a n s w e r s t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l b e k e p t c o n f i d e n t i a l . We g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e y o u r a s s i s t a n c e . We l o o k f o r w a r d t o h e a r i n g f r o m y o u . T h a n k y o u . Y o u r s t r u l y , S t u d e n t S e r v i c e s 115 Ft. St. John: 10908 - 100 St., Ft. St. John, B.C. V1J 3Z6 Phone (604) 785 - 6981 Tlx. 036 - 75193 Dawson Creek: 11401 - 8th St., Dawson Creek, B.C. V1G 4G2 Phone (604) 782 - 5251 Tlx. 036 - 77241 Chetwynd: Box 1059, Chetwynd, B.C. VOC 1J0 Phone (604) 788 - 2248 Ft. Nelson: Box 860, Ft. Nelson, B.C. VOC 1R0 Phone ffiTMi 774 - 3741 Tlx rflfi . 731 cn B u s i n e s s R e p l y M a i l N.*> F 'os l jge S i a m p Nect.'ss.'-ii.y if mailed in Ca i i i i i l n Posrage w i l l be paid by Northern Lights College Northern Lights College Dawson Creek Centre 11401 - 8 Street Dawson Creek, B.C. VIG 4G2 I f you have been i n c l u d e d i n a n o t h e r s u r v e y , I a o o l o m ' z e f o r t h e d u o l i c a t i o n . However , s i n c e t h i s s t u d y was bepun o v e r one y e a r a o o , and y o u r r e s o o n s e s a r e e s s e n t i a l , I hone you w i l l t a k e a few m i n u t e s t o c o n n l e t e t h i s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Once a o a i n , thank y o u f o r y o u r a s s i s t a n c e . 117 APPENDIX B: VERBATIM COMMENTS In Appendix B, students' comments to the three open-ended questions are presented verbatim. Editing has been necessary because of the length of some responses, but no other changes in the text have been made. The quotes do not necessarily reflect typical points of view, but, rather, the selections represent a cross-section of students' comments. 119 1. Verbatim responses to question 8, "What did you like most about Northern Lights  College? 20 year old female, Academic Programme, Dawson Creek "the quality of the professors, size of classes." Male, age unknown, Carpentry and Joinery, Dawson Creek "It was very close to where I was living plus a very good programme." 20 year old female, Academic Programme, Dawson Creek "I could obtain the first 2 years of Education without leaving home." 46 year old male, Camp Cooking, Dawson Creek "The equipment & the variety of foods to work with." 31 year old female, College Foudations, Chetwynd "someone was available to help when stuck; work at own rate: programme generally" 34 year old female, College Foundations, Kelly Lake "I like the way they had their studies set up." 18 year old female, Cook Training, Dawson Creek "Pub night Thursday night" 53 year old female, Business Careers, Dawson Creek "the instructors" 19 year old male, Auto Mechanical Repair, Dawson Creek "good instruction, good class atmosphere" 38 year old female, College Foundations, Lower Post "Learning New Metric System, Take Driving Lesson, Leatherwork" 21 year old male, Heavy Duty Mechanics, Dawson Creek "the mechanics shops & courses were well laid out" female, unknown age, Chetwynd "Learning" 50 year old female, College Foudations, Lower Post "Reading & writing instruction" 20 year old male, Mechanical Practices, Dawson Creek "Had the Dorm to stay in and the rates were good." 24 year old female, Academic Programme, Ft. St. John "Fr iendly!" 120 26 year old male, Agriculture, Dawson Creek "Small student population, good atmosphere, reasonable dues" 19 year old female, Academic Programme, Dawson Creek "The convenience of attending college while living at home. The friendliness and willingness to help by instructors and other persons at the college, i.e. librarians, secretaries, counsellors." 19 year old female, Business Careers, Ft. St. John "I think the people (other students & staff) were what I liked most of all. But there wasn't anything I didn't like about the college. The course was great, the facilities were great and I found that there are many other courses I think I would enjoy (night courses) that I never realized were available here." 23 year old male, Cook Training, Dawson Creek "instructor well versed in subject matter" 43 year old female, Academic Programme, Ft. St. John "The availability of the college in Fort St. John. Ab le to do some academic studies — Wonderful to have." 28 year old male, Carpentry and Joinery, Dawson Creek "Its coping the best it could" 25 year old female, Business Careers, Dawson Creek "Working towards getting off assistance and becoming independent." 47 year old female, Counselling, Dawson Creek "easily obtained, convenience of night classes" 15 year old male, College Foundations, Lower Post "The Indian Language program we had going there." 39 year old female, College Foundations, Dawson Creek "Prepare me for my G.ED XII exam which I wrote & passed. Ab le to help my children with their school work and in my job with the new measurements (Metric)." 18 year old female, College Foundations, Dawson Creek "The chance to participate in school activities in a way I never did in high school. When I was in high school I went to school & that was it. At the college I was on student council, helped with the newsletter & generally took more of an interst in school activities." ! 21 year old female, Dental Assisting, Dawson Creek "has great potential for a good col lege" 17 year old male, Auto Mechanical Repair, Dawson Creek "The expertise and receptiveness of the instructor. I also felt the after hour recreation ie. sports, pub nights, etc., were handled very wel l . " 121 47 year old female, Employment Orientation for Women, Dawson Creek "gaining confidence" 45 year old female, College Foundations, Dawson Creek "Felt that I was achieving something, and making my life more useful" 20 year old male, Heavy Duty Mechanics, Dawson Creek "When I got out of class I was already home, no time wasted in transit" 2. Verbatim responses to question 9, "What did you like least (about Northern Lights College)?" 18 year old female, Academic Programme, Dawson Creek "The buildings, the drabness of the a rea " 21 year old male, Heavy Duty Mechanics, Dawson Creek "The accommodation & the study areas which weren't sufficient." 64 year old female Visual Arts, Dawson Creek "I would have liked more instruction time, with a second year with instruction divided evenly over the two years. Too much crammed into one year." 37 year old female, Dental Assisting, Dawson Creek "The number of students attending N.L.C. just because they were being sponsored. Parking facilities". 26 year old male, Agriculture, Dawson Creek "No meal service on weekends on campus" 21 year old female, Business Careers, Dawson Creek "Signing in every morning and lunch hour! " 22 year old male, Auto Mechanical Repairs, Dawson Creek ."My most concern was lack of money through Dept. of Labour" 28 year old male, Carpentry and Joinery, Dawson Creek "Some organizational problems eg. instructor replacement during annual leave -dorm facilities" 21 year old male, Mechanical Practices, Dawson Creek "Repair manuals might be better catalogued and more up to date." 46 year old female, Academic Programme, Ft. St. John "Limitation in choice of courses - initially - subjectwise, now - time slot unsuitability for working persons." 122 23 year old female, Academic Programme, Dawson Creek "The limiting (although necessary) of academic studies to 1st & 2nd year, and no real contact with larger institutions for study beyond these levels." 26 year old male, Academic Programme, Dawson Creek "3 hour classes" 18 year old female, College Foundations, Dawson Creek "The enforcement of double standards on the mens & womens dorms." 18 year old female, College Foundations, Dawson Creek "lack of transportation" 31 year old male, Academic Programme, Dawson Creek "The smoking in the lecture rooms and the wretched cat." 27 year old male, Welding, Dawson Creek "Keeping car running in cold weather with no plug in" 19 year old female, Business Careers, Dawson Creek "dorm rules, not enough communication between students & campus council (teachers)" 18 year old male, Cook Training, Dawson Creek "not being able to cook at the dormitories on weekends" 24 year old male, Auto Mechanical Repairs, Dawson Creek "I felt the working day could have been extended a couple of hours and the course itself could have gone into more detail. I believe the course, as it was laid out when I attended, could be very beneficial especially if it were to be extended to say eight months from the prsent five. As I understood when I left, the course outline was to be changed to concetrate on first year material. I do not believe this to be a good idea. I feel the student should certainly have a little more in depth training on the first year level, however, I also believe he needs an overview of the entire f ield." 20 year old male, Carpentry and Joinery, Dawson Creek "3 different teachers while building house" 34 year old male, College Foundations, Lower Post "Science. I took first aid and fail cause I never like Science (smile)" 21 year old male, Heavy Duty Mechanics, Dawson Creek "The meal hours. Dorm Life" 23 year old female, Business Careers, Ft. St. John "No real lunch room as such and sometimes the lack of equipment for our class." 34 year old female, College Foundations, Kelly Lake "When I had to travel to Dawson Creek for tests." 123 19 year old female, Academic Programme, Dawson Creek "lack of school spirit, few student activities" 19 year old male, Auto Mechanical Repairs, Dawson Creek "old training material in shop" 19 year old male, Heavy Duty Mechanics, Dawson Creek "The drug abuse and alcohol. I drink a little but I don't think college is the place for drinking." 19 year old male, Autobody Repairs, Dawson Creek "I never had enough to eat on weekends" 30 year old female, College Foundations, Chetwynd "The people that never sat down to do their work" 25 year old male, Carpentry and Joinery, Dawson Creek "Lately I have read once again where someone newsworthy mentioned how the trades fields lacked sufficient numbers of skilled trades persons. This article also mentioned, as they should, how Canada imports large numbers of tradespeople because of the low numbers of same turned out here. It, as the other articles and politicians also mentioned other factors of this situation with which I'm sure you are familiar. The one aspect of this situation which to me is most noteworthy is so because of its consistent absence. The fact is that when a person choses to enter a tradeschool he is rebuked, stalled and flatly refused the opportunity of even ap-plying. If a person somehow manages to get into the course for the trade he/she has chosen and complete it, they then face the prospect of convincing an employer that they would love to work for that company till completion of apprenticeship at poverty wages and afterwards to try to make a go of it with the same outfit after obtaining those presciouse papers. The preciose papers that could guarantie freedom of choice in employment. Facing this situation, many people, in the carpentry trade at least, choose to simply work for better wages as helpers, farmers, siding applicators or simply uncertified carpenters — a much more profitable route than indentureship, no matter what any number of apprenticeship councellors say. The solutions? Maybe I'll write a book on that one." 3.Comments 22 year old male, Academic Programme,Dawson Creek "My year at N.L.C. was/is the most enjoyable of my 3 yrs. on my B .A." 124 20 year old female, Academic Programme, Dawson Creek "I was happy to have had Northern Lights to attend for my first 2 years, as I was able to stay at home and it was a good way to learn the University way of studying while still on a smaller scale." 18 year old male, Carpentry Programme, Dawson Creek "The work field is much different than in college. I think there should be more practical than theory, otherwise the course is A - l . " 26 year old male, Mechanical Practices, Dawson Creek "I am totally dissatisfied with the apprenticeship programme in general. I realise that you have to look for yourself, but if the companies in this province don't even want to talk to you if you are not an apprentice. How do you get to be an app. if no one will hire you! If the students were endenture before they leave school there would be no problem and we won't have a shortage of tradesmen." 46 year old male, Camp Cooking, Dawson Creek "I took the Camp Cooking Course to suppliment my farm income & it worked very well. ie. - the winter work. This cooking job put me in the right place at the right time allowing me to try out as a Boilerman on a oil Service Rig. also a winter job, average pay of $200/day. So now am a Farmer - Cook & or Boilerman." 21 year old female, College Foundations, Ft. St. John "My program at the college gave me the will to go on to different things." 21 year old female, Dental Assisting, Dawson Creek "The college should train for jobs, should know and advise students of work possibilities prior to enrollment. I am completely frustrated with the limited job market and lack of work opportunities. I don't want to leave the community, but what can I do? " 53 year old female, Business Careers, Dawson Creek "For my age, I would have liked a few months on the job training." 19 year old male, Auto Mechanical Repairs, Dawson Creek "enjoyed time spent at NLC but think training material in shop could be up dated -Alberta training centres seem to be better in this area. " "21 year old male, Heavy Duty Mechanics, Dawson Creek "I found it difficult trying to find a job down South (F. Valley) if some kind of job centre just for College people who finished a course like mine was set up it would make it eas ier ! " 44 year old female, Employment Orientation for Women, Dawson Creek "The E.O.W. program is very much needed for woman who have been out of the work force for a number of years." 18 year old male, Business Administration, Dawson Creek "With the additional education from the Bus. Admin, course, I had no problems getting the job I am at now." 125 j 28 year old male, Welding, Dawson Creek "A broader area of " in-f ield" training would be desirable - if more money was allotted to that aspect of the course I took, ie) 1) working alongside welders on the jobsite for 1 or 2 weeks. 2) working on heavy duty equipment brought in from local shops/businesses to be finished in a given time period." 18 year old female, College Foundations, Dawson Creek "I feel working independently at your own pace works very wel l . " 22 year old male, Carpentry and Joinery Programme, Dawson Creek "instruction in the use of nail guns and air compressed tools would have been helpful." 23 year old male, Cook Training, Dawson Creek "Too large a discrepancy in money given to students ie. B/T those sponsored by Labour and those sponsored by Manpower. Most people under Manpower spon-sorship also were collecting UIC during their time at NLC. Efforts should be made to give Labour sponsored students more funds. More theory needed in cook training course, esp. in areas such as food costing & menu planning." 38 year old female, Academic Programme, Dawson Creek "Dorm life was very difficult due to student's noise. Very hard to study. Loud music, etc." 19 year old male, Autobody Repairs, Dawson Creek "I think the autobody repair course is outdated and doesn't prepare the student for the modern body shops." 20 year old male, Heavy Duty Mechanics, Dawson Creek "good instructor; crammed course; machinery inadequate for practical experience." 39 year old female, Agriculture Programme, Dawson Creek "I doubt that I would have been so quickly promoted without completing the ag course! I could not have gone elsewhere for this training due to financial com-mitments." 35 year old female, Dental Assisting, Dawson Creek "Thank you - it was a great year" 18 year old male, Auto Mechanical Repairs, Dawson Creek "I feel I benefeted greatly by my course, but being a few hundred miles from home and not really know anyone at Dawson Creek made it difficult after school hours." male, age unknown, Welding, Dawson Creek "The training from N.L.C. has enabled me to become an independent business man. without the highly skilled instructors help this would not have been possible. The facilities are of the finest quality." 126 23 year old male, Auto Mechanical Repairs, Dawson Creek "The course in general was very good, but applicants should be screened for ap-titude in the f ield." 26 year old female, Business Careers, Dawson Creek "I think that I should have gone to the upgrading course first to refresh my memory on all I'd forgotten. It would have been a lot easier than trying to relearn old skills and new ones at the same time." 19 year old male. Carpentry and Joinery, Dawson Creek "Overal l I will never regret going to N.L.C. and glad I had the opportunity to go. I even have plans to take another course some day." 21 year old male, Mechanical Practices, Dawson Creek "If I could do it again, I would, But Better I went to PVI and did a Ironworkers course finished with 8 0 % average (good comments) I find it take me a little longer to do something or accomplish something But Im learning and growing up." 20 year old male, Heavy Duty Mechanics, Dawson Creek "The course definately opened the door for me to achieve an apprenticeship, but I found it was much different than what I was led to bel ieve! Thanks anyways" 33 year old female, Business Careers, Ft. St. John "However, I would rather take educational courses than more Business careers. The sole reason for taking that particular course was because there was more op-portunity for employment - although I am not now working I feel sure I could get a job fairly easily because of the training in the course." 19 year old male, Heavy Duty Truck Driving, Ft. St. John "I feel that the heavy duty truck driving course is the best thing that could have happened since I quit high school in the way of training." 18 year old male, Academic Programme, Ft. St. John "You should " reach" more students in high school about the benefits of our com-munity college." 31 year old female, Business Careers, Dawson Creek "I was not satisfied with Canada Manpower's pay cut as I worked hard on my course .and got paid poorly & there were many there getting more money because they were single but were not taking the course seriously." 17 year old female, College Foundations and Business Careers, Dawson Creek "If there are courses offering training in creative writing and/or commercial art & portrait drawing, I would take them in a minute. How can I find out?" 22 year old male, Auto Mechanical Repairs, Dawson Creek "no money for apprentices in the field. I couldn't afford to pursue my ticket, or I would have went for it." 127 19 year old male, Mechanical Practices, Dawson Creek ". . . For my self it was a long way from enitial residance but I found many other students in the same problems and getting to know them was a great help. Helping to get to know them came thorugh pub night. The after school activitys were limited depending on the weather and I found what was at the college was s a t i -sfactory to my point. Their could have been more but in general it was pretty good. The living accomidations were I felt the absolute pits. O n numores ocations especially in the winter we complained about no hot water for the showers. We (the students) were fead lines of B. S. that would run a mile up ones arm It probily would have been easier sleeping on a bed of nails than the bed(s) and numores complaints I heared about the other beds. I finaly stold a sheet of ply-wood just so you wouldn't have to us a winch to pull your self out of the center with two sides caved in on you As for the food at the cafieteria. It wasn't the cooks fait as I had a couple meals that were prepared for us by cooks on the weekends and it was good. As for the ones in the cafiteria some of them were worse the stuff I use to flush down the tolet if ya get the meaning The could have experimented with different goulashes meat loaf, hambergers, pepper steaks, different ways to use chuck stk. & Rd Steak and other cheaper cuts of meat. I have also found out that my year 78-79 was the best year for students at the college we fought for drinking privaleges, dances, pub-night and I also hear it was the cheapest year for vandalizm at the college. I know thier was some done I mot saying we were angels But if in the future students are al lowed to treated like humans, able to have better living and food conditions Northern Light might find it self not having problems as much as they do. Right know I'm atending New Calidonia in Prince George for my 2nd Year in my machanices coarse. The college here has no dorm facilitys but has a mode that N.L.C. never did I enjoyed my self at N.L.C. met great poeple had a great time considering what the college had to offer. Its what you put into the college not just what th college puts out. . . . .Also I've heard stories from people who I work with who were N.L.C. Dawson Creek students a year before us. Pretty soon enrollment at N.L.C. will reduce if the stories keep on cumulating. They should be stoped they way though is up to the college. When things get better peoples attetude toward things get better. Facilty as well as students have to work together to do the changing new ways and oldhave to be combined. . . . . Thank you for giving me an opertunity to express my view as well I hope I have ansewerd some of your questions." 20 year old male, Auto Mechanical Repair, Dawson Creek "More & better accomodations" 17 year old male, Genera l Welding, Dawson Creek "I think I might have taken the wrong course for my interests now." 64 year old female, Visual Arts, Dawson Creek "I am a senior citizen, and I would like to see an advanced course in Visual Arts established as a second course under Visual Arts the second year. Giving the student more instruction time." 128 19 year old male, Autobody Repairs, Dawson Creek "I have worked for over two years in body shops and the pay is almost 2 dollars an hour less still than what I make now. I've decided to work in body work in the winter and lumber ind. in the summer." 17 year old male, Autobody Repair, Dawson Creek "For about 6 months after I went to NLC I worked in a body shop but I got laid off and haven't been able to get back into body work." 33 year old female, College Foundations, Ft. St. John "I completed grd. 12 as most employment requires grd. 12 My first appl. at Ft. St. John Airport was turne down as all I had for marks were what "comments" my in-structor could supply. My marks were "lost" somewhere between here and Dawson. I have a card which says I passed but no marks. To me, my time in the college was wasted" 28 year old female, Counselling, Dawson Creek "- Expansion of core credit courses in Human Services provincially. - Expansion of student counselling, better facilities, continuity in programming for Vocational, Academic & Community Ed. - Daycare facilities - Subsidy for Homemakers or welfare recipients - More credit classes in part time components - Lower fees for Community Ed. courses - Recognition of staff. A newsletter or paper choosing a staff member of the month with description of job, etc. - More student participation on advisory boards. - Recognition of advisory board input. - Office hours in evenings for working people. - Supporting bus service directly to college. - Bus service to Ft. St. John campus so more courses do not have to be duplicated; possibly more courses can be offered in this fashion. - A mobile van or trailer located in various areas in the community for info as well as classes. - Recognition of women as staff & students. - Skills Training for the 80's - offering overviw courses in order that students may make wise vocational choices. - Cafeteria programm to continue - Excellent value - More supervision & evaluation by students & peers of courses offered - 'improved staff relations - problems with staff emanate throughout college." 25 year old male, Carpentry and Joinery, Dawson Creek "You need more P.R. not to many people know much about the college in town." 45 year old female, Business Careers, Dawson Creek "I wasn't at NLC very long but it gave me an interest in learning." 25 year old male, Mechanical Practices, Dawson Creek "In my opinion, the Mechanical Practices Program is the most sensible & pertinent course which NLC offers in the mechanical trades. Subject coverage is fantastic." 129 15 year old female, College Foundations, Lower Post "Wish we had N.L.C. here again." 34 year old female, Business Careers, Ft. St. John "I found the course rewarding, the instructors very helpful, and I would recommend the college to other adults seeking an Adult education." 22 year old male, Academic Programme, Ft. St. John "The regional college concept is an excellent one for the average person who wants to increase his education and still remain close to home, however without expanded facilities, specificly easer access to study material, its appeal with always be limited." 24 year old male, College Foundations, Dawson Creek "Would have liked to take Autobody repair course but because I did not have grade ten had to take the upgrading course which was useless. It would not have made any difference with the course I wanted. There have been others that were able to take the course they wanted without going through the upgrading." 19 year old female, Business Careers, Dawson Creek "Have they got food in the cafeteria on weekends yet? is there any financial help for those receiving monies from the Ministry of Labour (Not that you have to answer but its something to think about)" 130 A P P E N D I X C: B U D G E T 131 i APPENDIX C: BUDGET Total mailings: 727 Stationery: 750 sheets letter size — $8.68/1000 $ 6.51 750 sheets legal size — $9.90/1000 7.43 other paper 25.00 750 (4 x9'/2) envelopes — $17.00/1000 12.75 750 (6'/a x 9Va) envelopes — $20.00/1000 15.00 500 postcards 20.00 1000 index cards 11.00 48 sheets address labels — $11.00/33 18.85 Photocopying: a) mailings 3 x 750 x $.02 (paperfi envelopes) 45.00 48 x $.02 (labels) .96 b) report draft: 6 x copies x 140 pages x $.10 84.00 final: 15 copies x 140 pages x$.06 126.00 2 copies 140 pages x$ . 10 28.00 Tape 25.00 Stamps: 750 x $.17 127.50 350 x $ . 15 (returns) 52.50 500 x $ . 15 (postcard) 75.00 50 x $.17 (second mailing) 8.50 Printing: postcards 35.00 Telephone 135.36 Typing 200.00 {Consultation: 5 return trips to Vancouver at $300 $1500) 1,500.00 Total $2,559.36 132 APPENDIX D: QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES 133 APPENDIX D: QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES 1. Did you have a full-time job during the year before attending Northern Lights College? yes 180 55.9% no 142 44.1% a) if yes, OR employed part-time, what was your job? b) if no, what did you do? 2. How satisfied were you with what you were doing? very satisfied 39 12 % satisfied 99 31 % partially satisfied 103 32.6% dissatisfied 52 16.5% very dissatisfied 23 7.3% 3. What programme did you take at Northern Lights Col lege? Academic Studies 44 13.4% Agriculture 12 3.7% Autobody Repairs 14 4.3% Auto Mechanical Repairs 13 4.0% Business Administration 3 . 9 % Business Careers 58 17.7% Carpentry & Joinery 24 7.3% College Foundations (B.T.S.D. Prep., Replace) 42 12.8% Cook Training 13 4.0% Camp Cooking 3 .9% Counselling 18 5.5% Dental Assisting 11 3.4% Heavy Duty Mechanics 27 8.2% Mechanical Practices 13 4.0% Visual & Performing Arts 2 .6% Genera l Welding 11 3.4% Welding Upgrading 3 .9% Employment Orientation for Women 4 1.2% Heavy Duty Truck Driving 9 2.7% Homemakers 4 1.2% 134 4. Who sponsored (paid for) your programme? Self (fee payer) 97 29.9% Canada Employment 77 23.8% Unemployment Insurance 92 28.4% Ministry of Labour 43 13.3% Indian Affairs 3 . 9 % Human Resources 6 1.9% A id to the Handicapped - -Workers' Compensation 3 . 9 % Other 3 . 9 % 5. If you had College to do over again, would you take the same programme? yes 239 77.2% no 71 22.9% 6. How satisfied were you at Northern Lights College with: a) the programme very satisfied 130 40.4% satisifed 144 44.7% partially satisfied 38 11.8% dissatisfied 8 2.5% very dissatisfied 2 . 6 % b) the instructors very satisfied 161 50.2% satisfied 106 33 % partially satisfied 36 11.2% dissatisfied 13 4 % very dissatisfied 5 1.6% c) sponsoring agency, if any very satisfied 44 20 % satisfied 107 48.6% partially satisfied 40 18.2% dissatisfied 16 7.3% very dissatisfied 13 5.9% d) college life, in general very satisfied 62 21.3% satisfied 174 59.8% partially satisfied 41 14.1% dissatisfied 11 3,8% very dissatisfied 3 1.0% 135 7. If you withdrew before completing your programme, what were your reasons for leaving? Check as many as apply. ran out of money 7 7.6% wasn't passing 8 8.8% didn't like programme 2 2.2% didn't like instructor(s) 10 11.0% programme not what 1 expected 6 6.6% doubted 1 could pass 6 6.6% programme had nothing to offer 1 1.0% work responsibilities 13 14.3% preferred to work 8 8.8% family responsibilities 18 19.8% other 5 5.5% health 7 7.7% 8. What did you like most about Northern Lights College? existence 2 dorms 3 location 34 programme content 67 facilities 17 working conditions 10 teaching 46 learning 34 size 23 working on one's own 13 cost 8 meeting others 24 atmosphere 55 instructors 43 organization 14 students 16 meals 6 activities, social 21 9. What did you like least? location 6 programme content 24 facilities 37 equipment 9 meals 24 instructors and staff 23 dorms 37 students 13 sponsorship 11 activities 15 organization 12 miscellaneous 19 limited variety 15 10. Do you have a full-time job now? yes 229 71.3% no 92 28.7% a) if yes, OR employed part-time, what is your job? b) If no, what are you doing? 11. How satisfied are you with what you are doing? very satisfied 126 39.7% satisfied 116 36.6% partially satisfied 46 14.5% dissatisfied 20 6.3% very dissatisfied 9 2.8% 136 12. Compared to the time before you attended Northern Lights College, how much has your monthly income increased? not applicable 74 24.1% none 56 18.2% 0-$100 10 3.3% $101 -200 39 12.7% $201 -300 13 4.2% over $300 115 37.5% 13. How well do you feel the programme at Northern Lights College prepared you for a job in that area? very well 76 26.4% well 84 29.2% somewhat 64 22.2% a little 32 11.1% not at all 32 11.1% 14. If your job is not related to your programme at Northern Lights College, what is the ONE most important reason? N.L.C. programme not job-related; 40 29 % could not find job in field; 29 21 % better pay than inf ield; 17 12.3% better opportunity for advancement; 11 8 % did not want to work in field; 4 2.9% wanted to explore other possibilities 35 25.4% other 2 1.4% 15. If your job is not related to your programme at Northern Lights College, do you still plan to work in the area of your training? yes 119 78.3% no 33 21.7% 16. If you have been a student since leaving Northern Lights College (or are currently in school), a) were/are your studies related to your first programme at Northern Lights College? yes 54 62.8% no 32 37.2% b) what educational institute did you attend? (are you attending) Northern Lights College other B.C. College U. of British Columbia U. of Victoria Simon Fraser U. B.C. Institute of Technology Open Learning Institute U. of Alberta other Alberta institution other i 137 23 29.5% 21 26.9% 6 7.7% 7 9.0% 4 5.1% 3 3.8% 3 3.8% 4 5.1% 4 5.1% 3 3.8% c) how satisfied were you further studies? very satisfied satisfied partially satisfied dissatisfied very dissatisfied with your preparation at Northern Lights College for 34 27.2% 70 56.0% 14 11.2% 4 3.2% 3 2.4% 138 A P P E N D I X E: C O D E M A N U A L 139 APPENDIX E: CODE M A N U A L Frequency Column Total Respondent Population Population Code Item 337 347 422 253 502 104 271 7 8 15 12 9 80 189 70 243 19 163 55 19 3 17 9 1 24 7 48 17 90 61 11 13 23 155 173 208 118 273 41 7 1 1 2 2 1 23 84 35 152 6 96 27 10 3 1 3 0 14 4 24 6 46 32 5 2 9 1 1 male 2 female 2,3 15-24 college age 25-64 adult age 4,5,6 001-726 7 1 Dawson Creek 2 Ft. St. John 3 Chetwynd 4 Ft. Nelson 5 Kelly Lake 6 Blueberry 7 Lower Post 8 G o o d Hope Lake 8,9 02-08 09,10 11 12 13-16 10,11 1 Dawson Creek 2 Ft. St John 3 Chetwynd 4 Ft. Nelson 5 other, northeastern B.C. 6 northwestern B.C. 7 central coast 8 Okanagan 9 Kootenays 10 central B.C. 11 Vancouver Island 12 Lower Mainland 13 Alberta 14 Saskatchewan 15 Manitoba 16 Ontario sex age number college centre Source file file assigned file Last grade completed where last grade completed file file 140 5 2 0 12 0 12 11 15 136 548 8 4 5 1 13 10 31 11 8 7 3 17 Quebec 0 18 New Brunswick 0 19 Prince Edward Island 2 20 Nova Scotia 0 21 Newfoundland 2 22 other, Canada 2 23 U.S. 8 24 other 46 12 1 withdrew 282 2 did not withdraw 3 13,14 01 ran out of money 02 wasn't passing 03 didn't like programme 04 didn't like instructor 2 05 programme not what I expected 2 06 doubted I could pass 07 programme had nothing to offer 1 08 work responsibilities 6 09 preferred to work 1 10 family responsibilities 8 11 attendance 5 12 health 5 13 personal 1 14 other 328 15 1 completed 70 2 returned by Post Office 286 3 no response 26 16 1 74 2 36 3 56 4 25 5 18 6 29 7 24 8 35 9 first week second week third week fourth week fifth week sixth week seventh week eighth week ninth week withdrawal reason for withdrawal file file response assigned when returned assigned 141 156 17 1 initial mailing method used to assigned 86 2 initial mailing plus obtain response postcard 18 3 initial mailing, postcard plus phone call (message) 6 4 initial mailing, postcard plus phone call (personal) 62 5 initial mailing, postcard, phone call, plus remailing 180 18 1 yes full time job ques. 1 142 2 no before Col lege 108 19,20 13-29 Blishen rank of assigned 57 30-39 job before college 78 40-49 10 50-58 5 63-74 (not tallied) 21,22 01 techologist/ occupation before ques. l a planner college 02 engineer 03 manager 10 social worker/ counsellor 13 community service worker 14 minister 15 public health nurse 16 teacher 19 nurse 20 dental assistant, technician/ practical nurse 23 news director 25 clerk steno 26 cashier 27 computer operator 28 stock boy 29 armed forces 30 telephone operator/ communications 142 31 claims adjustor/office worker/travel counsellor 32 sales clerk 33 bookkeeper 36 cook/waitress 37 desk clerk/ chambermaid 38 babysitting/ homemaker 40 janitor 41 farmer 42 farm manager 43 farm labourer 44 marine engineer 50 oil rig worker 51 baker's helper 52 mill worker 57 welder 61 welder's helper 62 repairman 63 carpenter's helper 65 tire repairman 66 mechanic's helper 68 equipment operator 69 T. V. antenna repairman 70 construction worker/apprentice plumber/labourer 71 pilot 74 service station attendant/taxi, truck driver 76 warehouseman 81 self-employed/ misc. 82 student 83 housewife 84 retired/ convalescent 85 unemployed 86 manager 4 23,24 11 managerial occupational group assigned 4 23 professional 3 33 technical 43 41 clerical 17 43 skilled 143 18 51 sales 30 53 semi-skilled 34 61 service 19 63 unskilled 12 71 farming 6 73 self-employed/ other 20 77 mining/logging 6 91 transport 39 26 1 very satisfied 99 2 satisfied 103 3 partially satisfied 52 4 dissatisfied 23 5 very dissatisfied 69 44 27,28 01 academic 20 12 02 agriculture 19 14 03 autobody repair 23 13 04 automotive mechanical repair 7 3 05 business administration 83 58 06 business careers 42 24 07 carpentry 181 42 08 college foundations 28 18 09 counselling 37 13 10 cook training 6 3 11 camp cooking 14 11 12 dental assisting 46 27 13 heavy duty mechanics 19 13 14 mechanical practices 3 2 15 visual arts 31 11 16 welding 11 3 17 welding upgrading 11 4 18 employment orientation for women 21 9 19 heavy duty truck driving 7 4 22 homemaker satisfaction with ques. 2 occupation prior to attending college College programme ques. 3 97 77 92 42 3 29 self Canada Employment Unemployment Insurance Ministry of Labour Department of Indian Affairs sponsor ques. 4 144 6 6 M i n i s t r y of H u m a n R e s o u r c e s 7 A i d to t h e H a n d i c a p p e d 3 8 W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n 3 9 o t h e r 239 30 1 y e s r e p e a t p r o g r a m m e q u e s . 5 71 2 no 130 31 1 v e r y s a t i s f i e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h que s . 6 a 144 2 s a t i s f i e d p r o g r a m m e 38 3 p a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d 8 4 d i s s a t i s f i e d 2 5 v e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d 161 32 1 v e r y s a t i s f i e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h q u e s . 6 106 2 s a t i s f i e d i n s t r u c t o r 36 3 p a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d 13 4 d i s s a t i s f i e d 5 5 v e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d 44 33 1 v e r y s a t i s f i e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h q u e s . 6c 107 2 s a t i s f i e d s p o n s o r 40 3 p a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d 16 4 d i s s a t i s f i e d 13 5 v e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d 62 34 1 v e r y s a t i s f i e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h que s . 6d 174 2 s a t i s f i e d C o l l e g e l i f e 41 3 p a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d 11 4 d i s s a t i s f i e d 3 5 v e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d 7 35,36 a n d 6 7 , 6 8 01 r a n ou t of m o n e y r e a s o n f o r q ue s . 7 8 02 w a s n ' t p a s s i n g w i t h d r a w i n g 2 03 d i d n ' t l i k e p r o g r a m m e 9 04 d i d n ' t l i k e i n s t r u c t o r 6 05 p r o g r a m m e not w h a t I e x p e c t e d 6 06 d o u b t e d I c o u l d pa s s 1 07 p r o g r a m m e h a d n o t h i n g to o f f e r 13 08 w o r k r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 8 09 p r e f e r r e d to w o r k 18 10 f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 145 I 5 7 31 17 46 23 8 55 14 6 3 67 10 34 13 24 43 16 21 37 24 37 11 12 15 24 9 23 13 15 19 229 92 82 72 71 39 6 37, 38, 3 9 , 4 0 a n d 41 42 43, 44, 45, 46 a n d 47, 48 49 50,51 11 o t h e r 12 h e a l t h 13 p e r s o n a l 10 e x i s t e n c e l i k e m o s t 11 l o c a t i o n 12 f a c i l i t i e s 13 t e a c h i n g 14 s i z e 15 cos t C o l l e g e 16 a t m o s p h e r e 17 o r g a n i z a t i o n 18 m e a l s 19 d o r m s 20 c o n t e n t 21 e q u i p m e n t a n d w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s 30 l e a r n i n g 31 w o r k i n g on o w n 40 m e e t i n g o t h e r s 41 i n s t r uc to r s p e o p l e 42 s t uden t s 50 a c t i v i t i e s , s o c i a l q u e s . 8 p r o g r a m m e s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t 10 l o c a t i o n 11 f a c i l i t i e s 12 m e a l s 13 d o r m s 14 s p o n s o r s h i p 15 o r g a n i z a t i o n 16 l i m i t e d v a r i e t y 20 c o n t e n t 21 e q u i p m e n t 30 i n s t r uc to r s a n d s ta f f 31 s t uden t s 40 a c t i v i t i e s 50 m i s c e l l a n e o u s 1 y e s 2 no 13-29 30-39 40-49 50-58 63-74 l i k e l ea s t q u e s . 9 C o l l e g e p r o g r a m m e p e o p l e f u l l - t i m e job n o w q u e s . 10 B l i s h e n r a n k a s s i g n e d 146 (not t a l l i e d ) 52,53 01 t e c h o l o g i s t / p l a n n e r 02 e n g i n e e r 03 m a n a g e r 10 s o c i a l w o r k e r / c o u n s e l l o r 13 c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e w o r k e r 14 m i n i s t e r 15 p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e 16 t e a c h e r 19 n u r s e 20 d e n t a l a s s i s t an t , t e c h n i c i a n / p r a c t i c a l n u r s e 23 n e w s d i r e c t o r 25 c l e r k s t e n o 26 c a s h i e r 27 c o m p u t e r o p e r a t o r 28 s tock b o y 29 a r m e d f o r c e s 30 t e l e p h o n e o p e r a t o r / c o m m u n i c a t i o n s 31 c l a i m s a d j u s t o r / o f f i c e w o r k e r / t r a v e l c o u n s e l l o r 32 s a l e s c l e r k 33 b o o k k e e p e r 36 c o o k / w a i t r e s s 37 d e s k c l e r k / c h a m b e r m a i d 38 b a b y s i t t i n g / h o m e m a k e r 40 j a n i t o r 41 f a r m e r 42 f a r m m a n a g e r 43 f a r m l a b o u r e r 44 m a r i n e e n g i n e e r 50 o i l r i g w o r k e r 51 b a k e r ' s h e l p e r 52 m i l l w o r k e r 57 w e l d e r 61 w e l d e r ' s h e l p e r 62 r e p a i r m a n 63 c a r p e n t e r ' s h e l p e r 65 t i r e r e p a i r m a n 66 m e c h a n i c ' s h e l p e r 147 i i ob e q u i p m e n t o p e r a t o r 69 T.V. a n t e n n a r e p a i r m a n 70 c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k e r / a p p r e n t i c e p l u m b e r / l a b o u r e r 71 p i l o t 74 s e r v i c e s t a t i o n a t t e n d a n t / t a x i , t r uck d r i v e r 76 w a r e h o u s e m a n 81 s e l f - e m p l o y e d / m i s c . 82 s t u d e n t 83 h o u s e w i f e 84 r e t i r e d / c o n v a l e s c e n t 85 u n e m p l o y e d 86 m a n a g e r 50 54 1 no i m p r o v e m e n t c h a n g e in s ta tu s a s s i g n e d 97 2 s l i gh t i m p r o v e m e n t 109 3 s o m e i m p r o v e m e n t 48 4 c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p r o v e m e n t 18 5 no t a p p l i c a b l e 2 55,56 11 m a n a g e r i a l o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p a s s i g n e d 4 23 p r o f e s s i o n a l 7 33 t e c h n i c a l 51 41 c l e r i c a l 33 43 s k i l l e d 6 51 s a l e s 67 53 s e m i - s k i l l e d 19 61 s e r v i c e 6 63 u n s k i l l e d 15 71 f a r m i n g 7 73 s e l f - e m p l o y e d / o t h e r 11 77 m i n i n g / l o g g i n g 8 92 t r a n s p o r t 126 57 1 v e r y s a t i s f i e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h que s . 11 116 2 s a t i s f i e d o c c u p a t i o n a f t e r 46 3 p a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d c o l l e g e 20 4 d i s s a t i s f i e d 9 5 v e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d 148 14 58 1 no t a p p l i c a b l e i n c r e a s e in s a l a r y q u e s . 12 56 2 n o n e 10 3 0-$100 39 4 $101-200 13 5 $201-300 115 6 o v e r $ 3 0 0 76 59 1 v e r y w e l l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r job q u e s . 13 84 2 w e l l 64 3 s o m e w h a t 32 4 a l i t t l e 32 5 not at a l l 40 60 1 p r o g r a m m e not r e a s o n job not q u e s . 14 job r e l a t e d r e l a t e d to 29 2 c o u l d not f i n d p r o g r a m m e job in f i e l d 17 3 b e t t e r p a y t h a n in f i e l d 11 4 b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a d v a n c e m e n t 4 5 d i d no t w a n t t o w o r k in f i e l d 35 6 w a n t e d to e x p l o r e o t h e r p o s s i b i l t i e s 2 7 o t h e r 119 61 1 y e s p l a n s q u e s . 15 33 2 no 81 62 1 ye s s t u d e n t s i n c e q u e s . 16a 230 2 no ( in-f e r r e d ) 54 63 1 ye s s t ud i e s r e l a t e d que s . 16a 32 2 no 6 6 4 , 6 5 01 U.B.C. e d u c a t i o n a l q u e s . 7 01 U. V i c . i n s t i t u t i o n 16b 4 03 S.F.U. 3 04 B.C.I.T. 21 05 B.C. C o l l e g e 4 06 U. of A . 4 07 o t h e r A l b e r t a Ins t i tute 23 08 N.L.C. 3 09 o t h e r 3 10O.L. I . 149 34 70 14 4 66 39 5 1 22 3 1 24 2 15 9 5 5 5 6 2 8 21 67, 68 69, 70 a n d 71, 72 1 v e r y s a t i s f i e d 2 s a t i s f i e d 3 p a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d 4 d i s s a t i s f i e d 5 v e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r e p a r a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r s t ud i e s que s . 16c r e l a t i o n s h i p of p r o g r a m m e to c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n ( see 35,36) 10 g e n e r a l , p o s i t i v e c o m m e n t s 11 g e n e r a l , n e g a t i v e 12 g e n e r a l , o t h e r 20 p o s i t i v e 21 n e g a t i v e 22 o t h e r 30 c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n 40 p l a n s 41 p l a n to c o n t i n u e e d u c a t i o n 50 j o b - r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s 60 g e n e r a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 61 r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r m o r e c o u r s e w o r k , a d d i t i o n a l c ou r s e s 70 g e n e r a l c o m m e n t s on p r o g r a m m e 71 w a n t a d v a n c e d c o u r s e in f i e l d 72 w a n t m o r e t h e o r y 73 w a n t m o r e p r a c t i c a l 80 o t h e r c o m -m e n t s p r o g -r a m m e > 150 

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