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International house on the University of British Columbia campus McCombs, Arthur Rae 1974

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INTERNATIONAL HOUSE ON THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA CAMPUS by ARTHUR RAE McCOMBS B . A . S c , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Col lege o f Educat ion We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1974 In p resent ing t h i s thes is in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y sha l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission fo r ex tens ive copying o f t h i s thes is f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or by h is r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t hes i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be al lowed wi thout my w r i t t e n permiss ion. Department of Educat ion The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date August, 1974 ABSTRACT I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i s d i r e c t e d towards promot ing unders tand ing and g o o d w i l l among s tudents o f a l l c o u n t r i e s a t t e n d i n g the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Wi th the f o s t e r i n g of more f r i e n d l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and w o r l d peace as an a im, the House has a s s i s t e d the s tudents and the U n i v e r s i t y i n h a n d l i n g academic and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r . As I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has developed over the past twenty y e a r s , i t s programs and a c t i v i t i e s have r e f l e c t e d s t u d e n t , U n i v e r s i t y and com-muni ty i n t e r e s t and invo lvement . The o r c h e s t r a t i o n o f programs and a c t i -v i t i e s consonant w i t h these i n t e r e s t s has been c e n t r a l to i t s development. This s tudy at tempts t o p rov ide i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to the de-velopment and f u n c t i o n s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House on the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia campus by a t t emp t ing t o i d e n t i f y major t h r u s t s i n i t s development and s i g n i f i c a n t t rends i n i t s a c t i v i t i e s . I n o rder t o f u r t h e r c l a r i f y the use and f u n c t i o n s o f the House, t h i s s tudy a lso at tempts to i d e n t i f y the 1970-72 s tudent c l i e n t e l e and p rov ide a rough w e i g h t i n g of s tudent o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs and a c t i v i t i e s . To p rov ide i n f o r m a t i o n on i t s development, an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a v a i l a b l e documentat ion r e l a t e d t o I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i s supplemented by open-ended i n t e r v i e w s w i t h s e l e c t e d persons assoc ia ted w i t h i t . Examination o f program b u l l e t i n s , booking arrangements and s tudent i i i i i q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses i s undertaken to expand upon and o b t a i n da ta on the na tu re and charac te r of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs and a c t i -v i t i e s and s t u d e n t s ' op in ions of them. Major f i n d i n g s : 1 . The pr ime concern of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has been the programs and s e r v i c e s i t o f f e r s t o i n t e r e s t e d Canadian and non-Canadian s tudents as w e l l as U n i v e r s i t y and community peop le . 2. L i t t l e s u b s t a n t i a l , c o - o r d i n a t e d or c o n t i n u o u s research o f a s u p p o r t i v e na tu re i s a v a i l a b l e t o improve, shape and a i d I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House programing. 3. Problems of program balance assoc ia ted w i t h the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s tudent groups appear t o have been a r e c u r r i n g concern t h r o u g h -out the development o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. 4. St rong community p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been ev iden t i n the sponsorsh ip and suppor t o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs b u t , w i t h few n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s , the i n t e g r a t i o n o f community groups and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t o I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing has been d i f f i c u l t . 5. A r e g u l a r , c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n a l programing component i s no t e v i -dent . Academic research has been i n i t i a t e d but no t s u s t a i n e d . 6. The s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has been i m p o r t a n t . W i t h i n the l i m i t s o f i t s p a r t i c u l a r s tudent and community resou rces , and complemented by o the r U n i v e r s i t y a d v i s i n g f a c i l i t i e s , I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House has at tempted t o meet s tudent needs by o f f e r i n g sma l l but impor tan t s t u d e n t - o r i e n t e d c o u n s e l l i n g and o t h e r s e r v i c e s . 7. The m a j o r i t y of users of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i n 1970-72 were non-Canadian s tudents who at tended once or tw ice per te rm. On the i v basis of questionnaire responses, Canadian students appeared to hold a more favourable impression of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House than non-Canadians, but l i k e non-Canadian students, expressed concern r e -garding ethnic group s e c l u s i o n , the paucity of Canadian student p a r t i c i p a t i o n and programing balance between academically and s o c i a l l y oriented programs. Recommendations From a consideration of the data, the following recomm ndations are made: 1. That I n t e r n a t i o n a l House develop and maintain a system of program evaluation to support that research which would be u s e f u l i n shaping future programs of the House. 2. That I n t e r n a t i o n a l House achieve a balance between i t s formal and informal, academic and s o c i a l , group and i n d i v i d u a l programs. 3. That I n t e r n a t i o n a l House attempt to gain funding to r e a c t i v a t e i t s research committee i n order to provide basic information f o r a better understanding of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l programing. 4. That I n t e r n a t i o n a l House c l a r i f y the s p e c i f i c nature and extent of i t s s e r v i c e functions i n order to concentrate i t s resources on those most e s s e n t i a l . 5. That I n t e r n a t i o n a l House c l a r i f y the "image" i t wishes to portray, develop appropriate programs, and then i n i t i a t e a p u b l i c i t y campaign to advertise i t s programs and a c t i v i t i e s . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . . . . . i i LIST OF TABLES . . i x ACKNOWLEDGMENT x CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Statement o f the Problem 3 Sources of I n f o r m a t i o n . . . . . . . 3 Methods and Procedures . . . . . . . 4 Basic Assumptions . . . . . . . 5 L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study 6 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 6 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Study 9 2 RELATED RESEARCH ' 10 Research Survey 22 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Houses - U.S.A 24 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Houses - Canada . . . . . . . . 27 I n t e r n a t i o n a l House - U.B.C 31 Summary . . . . . . 40 v v i CHAPTER P a S e 3 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE U.B.C. INTERNATIONAL HOUSE 43 4 AFFILIATED GROUPS, MEMBERSHIP, PERSONNEL, PLANT 58 A f f i l i a t e d Groups 58 Student Groups 58 The U n i v e r s i t y 60 Rotary Clubs 6 0 I n t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n - B. C. Chapter, . . . 61 Vancouver Counc i l f o r F r i e n d l y Re la t i ons w i t h Overseas Students 63 Vancouver Zonta Club 66 Membership . 67 Personnel 70 P h y s i c a l P l a n t 72 Summary 73 5 INTERNATIONAL HOUSE PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES 74 Use o f the House 74 C u l t u r a l Groups 77 Community Programs • 83 I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h U n i v e r s i t y Teaching and Research Funct ions 88 Educa t iona l Programs 92 Serv ice Programs 98 Counse l l i ng 98 Accommodation 102 O r i e n t a t i o n and Recept ion 105 Summary - Basic Issues 106 v i i CHAPTER Page 6 STUDENT INVOLVEMENT 1970-71, 1971-72 108 Questionnaire 108 Non-Participating Students . 113 A c t i v i t i e s Attended by P a r t i c i p a t i n g Students . . . . . 117 Educational Component 119 S o c i a l Component . . . . . 120 General Use of the House 122 Community Contact 123 Student Assessment of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Programs . . 124 Weighting of Respondents' Opinions . . . . . . . . . 125 Favourable Impressions 127 Problem of Cro s s - C u l t u r a l Interactions 131 Problem of Involving Students . . . . . 132 Lack of Canadian Student P a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . . . . . 134 Programing Balance . . . . . . 135 Summary 136 7. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS 139 Summary of the Problem 139 o Conclusions 140 Recommendations . 143 Areas f o r Further Research 143 BIBLIOGRAPHY 145 APPENDICES 1 RECENT RESEARCH ON NON-CANADIANS STUDYING IN CANADA . . . 156 2 STUDENT CLUB PRESIDENTS 163 v i i i APPENDICES Page 3 INTERNATIONAL HOUSE ASSOCIATION - B. C. CHAPTER PRESIDENTS . 165 4 CHAIRMEN OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS 166 5 DIRECTORS OF INTERNATIONAL HOUSE 168 6 STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF INTERNATIONAL HOUSE, December 1 , 1964 170 7 INTERNATIONAL HOUSE ASSOCIATION INC 171 8 STUDENT MEMBERSHIP IN INTERNATIONAL HOUSE . . . . 174 9 COMMUNITY MEMBERSHIP I .H .A . - INTERNATIONAL HOUSE 176 10 QUESTIONNAIRE i 7 8 11 COVERING LETTERS 180b 12 REMINDER CARD I 8 2 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Student Questionnaires Sent 109 2 Questionnaire Returns I l l 3 Attendance of Respondents at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia - T o t a l Sample 112 4 Attendance of Respondents at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia at Some Time During the Years 112 1970-71 and 1971-72 5 Attendance of Respondents at In t e r n a t i o n a l House at Some Time During the Years 1970-71 and 1971-72 . . . 113 6 Student Reasons f o r not Going to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House During 1970-71 and/or 1971-72 . . . . 115 7 Inte r n a t i o n a l House A c t i v i t i e s Attended by P a r t i c i p a t i n g Students 1970-71 and/or 1971-72 . . . 118 8 Educational Component A c t i v i t i e s Attended by P a r t i c i p a t i n g Students 1970-71 and/or 1971-72 . . . . . . . 119 9 S o c i a l Events Attended by P a r t i c i p a t i n g Students 1970-71 and/or 1971-72 . . . . . . . 121 10 Community Contact Arranged by In t e r n a t i o n a l House f o r non-Canadian Students - Student Evaluation . . . . . . . 124 11 Frequency of Student Use of In t e r n a t i o n a l House 1970-72 -Number of Students 125 12 Frequency of Student Use of In t e r n a t i o n a l House 1970-72 -Weighted Responses 127 13 Students' Assessment of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House 1970-72 . . . 128 14 Students' Assessment of In t e r n a t i o n a l House 1970-72 . . . 130 i x ACKNOWLEDGMENT Many i n d i v i d u a l s have off e r e d t h e i r assistance and cooperation i n making t h i s study p o s s i b l e . I am extremely g r a t e f u l to Dr. Joseph Katz, Dr. Jorgen Dahlie, and Dr. A. V. Parminter, my advisory committee, f o r t h e i r guidance and assistance i n the development of t h i s p r o j e c t . Debt i s acknowledged to the Inte r n a t i o n a l House Board of Directors for permitting the research to be c a r r i e d out. A s p e c i a l acknowledgement i s given to Dr. C o l i n H. Smith, Executive Director of In t e r n a t i o n a l House for h i s encouragement, i n s p i r a t i o n and complete cooperation i n f a c i l i -t a t i n g the necessary research. Debt i s also g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged to the many sincere students, U n i v e r s i t y personnel, and community volunteers who through t h e i r past and continued i n t e r e s t i n Int e r n a t i o n a l House provided assistance i n the preparation of t h i s study. Gratitude i s expressed to In t e r n a t i o n a l House and the Faculty of Education at the Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e i r f i n a n c i a l assistance. For her wil l i n g n e s s to s a c r i f i c e and provide continuous encourage-ment, an expression of gratitude i s due to my wife Anne. x CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Introduction Students representing most countries of the world have graduated from Canadian colleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s ; over the past t h i r t y years the t h i r d l a r g e s t u n i v e r s i t y i n Canada, the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, has a t t r a c t e d large numbers of non-Canadians.''" The contributions made, the experiences encountered, and the impressions gained by students who remain i n Canada or those who return to t h e i r home countries are of great importance to Canada and to the i n s t i t u t i o n s with which they are c l o s e l y associated during t h e i r f i r s t years i n t h i s country. Non-Canadian students attending U.B.C. provide opportunities for c u l t u r a l exchanges which have the p o t e n t i a l of being unique e x p e r i -ences for not only the non-Canadians, but the Canadians as w e l l . Such exchanges and i n t e r n a t i o n a l contacts provide the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r students to acquire through i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and discussions an aware-ness of the c u l t u r a l values and problems of others. I t provides, as Senator J . W. F u l b r i g h t has expressed so w e l l , the p o s s i b i l i t y , i n an One hundred and forty-seven non-Canadian students were at U.B.C. i n 1947-48. By 1962-63, the number grew to 1,478 students rep-resenting approximately 10.8 percent of the t o t a l winter enrollment. In 1972-73 there were 2,709 or 14.2 percent non-Canadian students on campus. (Academic Planning O f f i c e , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.) 1 2 i n t e r n a t i o n a l con tex t " . . . t o develop empathy, t h a t r a r e and wonder fu l 2 a b i l i t y to pe rce ive the w o r l d as o thers see i t . " I n t h i s r e g a r d , Dr . N.A.M. MacKenzie, P res iden t Emeritus o f the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, c l e a r l y s t r e s s e d h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t : . . . the o n l y hope o f a decent l i f e f o r the b i l l i o n s o f human beings on t h i s p l a n e t i s an unders tand ing o f each o the r and o f t h e i r problems and a common e f f o r t , an u n i t e d e f f o r t as w e l l as the i n d i v i d u a l one, toward the s o l u t i o n . 3 Thus, th rough the expansion o f the boundar ies o f human wisdom, sympathy and p e r c e p t i o n , g rea t b e n e f i t s are p o s s i b l e . I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia stands i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f these b e n e f i t s . I t s main purpose i s : . . . t o promote unders tand ing and g o o d w i l l among s tuden ts o f a l l c o u n t r i e s a t t e n d i n g the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Colum-b i a , and t o a s s i s t the s tudents and the U n i v e r s i t y i n h a n d l i n g academic and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r , and thereby t o f o s t e r more f r i e n d l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n -sh ips and w o r l d peace.^ A l though s tudents and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s s tand t o b e n e f i t f rom a s u c c e s s f u l I n t e r n a t i o n a l House program, s tudy abroad does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e s u l t i n an u n c r i t i c a l a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the hos t s o c i e t y . I n f a c t , as E. J . Wi lson p o i n t s o u t , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are e x t e n s i v e : When we get i n v o l v e d i n the educa t ion o f s tuden ts f rom overseas, we o b l i g a t e ourse lves to a commitment t h a t 2 J . W. F u l b r i g h t , "Educat ion f o r a New Kind o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Educa t iona l and C u l t u r a l Exchange, 3 ( W i n t e r ) : 17. 3 I n t e r v i e w between the w r i t e r and Dr. N.A.M. MacKenzie, P res iden t Emeritus o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, September 27, 1972. C o n s t i t u t i o n o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House o f the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 3 goes beyond the con f ines o f the u n i v e r s i t y s t r u c t u r e . We at once become a p a r t n e r i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s of the n a t i o n and the w o r l d — a complex and f a r - r e a c h i n g invo lvement . -> Statement o f the Problem The major concern o f t h i s s tudy i s t o examine I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n o rder t o understand i t s development and f u n c t i o n s on the campus. To t h i s end, the major t h r u s t s i n the development o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House are t r a c e d , and s e l e c t e d years are examined i n o rder t o ga in i n s i g h t s i n t o the f u n c t i o n s o f the House and t o i d e n t i f y , where p o s s i b l e , s i g n i f i c a n t t rends i n i t s a c t i -v i t i e s . I n a t e n t a t i v e sense, t h i s s tudy at tempts a lso to gauge the use and f u n c t i o n s o f the House by e v a l u a t i n g the i n v o l v e m e n t , o f bo th s tudent members and non-members i n i t s a c t i v i t i e s . I n b r i e f , t h i s s tudy i s in tended as an i n v e s t i g a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f the f u n c t i o n s , a c t i v i t i e s and programs o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i n the l i g h t o f i t s development f rom 1949 t o September 1972, when t h i s s tudy was under taken. Source o f I n f o r m a t i o n The pr imary sources of i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : 1 . Records and f i l e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n and the Counc i l f o r F r i e n d l y R e l a t i o n s w i t h Overseas E. J . W i l son , "Summary o f Paper on O r i e n t a t i o n and the Impact o f the Fore ign Student on the Campus and Community," Research i n Programs  f o r Fore ign Students - A Report (New York: I n s t i t u t e o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Educa t ion , 1969), p. 54. Students that are a v a i l a b l e at Int e r n a t i o n a l House, i n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia archives or from persons i n t e r e s t e d i n the House. These include minutes of meetings, reports, p u b l i c a t i o n s and correspon-dence. 2. Personal interviews with past and present students, s t a f f and int e r e s t e d people d i r e c t l y involved i n In t e r n a t i o n a l House over the years. 3. A v a i l a b l e minutes of the meetings of the Board of Directo r s of Int e r n a t i o n a l House at U.B.C. 4. A v a i l a b l e minutes of executive and annual general meetings of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Ass o c i a t i o n . 5. Responses to a questionnaire sent to a sample of U.B.C. students 6. U n i v e r s i t y p u b l i c a t i o n s . 7. Data obtained as a r e s u l t of a l e t t e r sent to f o r e i g n student advisors at Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher l e a r n i n g . Methods and Procedures Two primary methods of i n v e s t i g a t i o n were employed i n t h i s study. The f i r s t involved gathering information on the In t e r n a t i o n a l House at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia by means of a search f o r , and an examination of, a v a i l a b l e documentation r e l a t e d to In t e r n a t i o n a l House. Factual material gleaned from records, f i l e s , and pub l i c a t i o n s was supplemented by information supplied during open-ended interviews with s e l e c t e d persons associated with I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. Not a l l key persons who had been associated with the House were interviewed because of p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s . 5 A second method, in tended to add re levancy and a more u p - t o -date p e r s p e c t i v e t o the s t u d y , i n v o l v e d i n v e s t i g a t i n g the academic years 1970-71 and 1971-72 i n d e t a i l i n o rder t o eva lua te the use made o f the House. Th is e v a l u a t i o n was c a r r i e d out by i d e n t i f y i n g those a c t i v i t i e s h e l d a t and i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l House by exa-min ing program b u l l e t i n s , booking arrangements, and c a t e g o r i z e d r e -sponses t o a s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e mai led t o a sample of s tudents a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The sample i nc luded those s tuden ts r e g i s t e r e d f o r the 1970-71 and 1971-72 academic years whose addresses were s t i l l a v a i l a b l e and who were s t i l l s t u d y i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y d u r i n g the 1972-73 academic y e a r . Those s t u d e n t s , t h e r e f o r e , who used the House i n 1970-71 and/or 1971-72 and graduated or l e f t the campus were exc luded . Basic Assumptions 1 . I n examining the programs and a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out a t I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House, i t i s assumed t h a t the a c t u a l f u n c t i o n s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House are i n d i c a t e d by the v a r i o u s programs which have occur red and shown a degree o f permanence. I n t h i s sense, i t i s assumed t h a t the programs and a c t i v i t i e s i n d i c a t e the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f the s t a t e d purposes o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C. 2. I n the survey o f s t u d e n t s ' invo lvement w i t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a c t i v i t i e s , i t i s assumed t h a t the person who was responding t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t e r p r e t e d i tems i n the same manner as the researcher . 3. F i n a l l y , the survey o f research concerning non-Canadian s tudents s t u d y i n g i n Canada i s based on the assumption t h a t f o r e i g n s tudent adv iso rs or persons a c t i n g i n t h a t c a p a c i t y , are aware o f any research under-taken a t t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s . L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study This s tudy i s l i m i t e d by the absence o f a complete set o f I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House f i l e s . The d i f f i c u l t y i n r e t r i e v i n g b a s i c documentat ion over pe r iods o f up t o f o u r years i s a s e r i o u s l y l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . A l though i n t e r v i e w s w i t h s e l e c t e d people have compensated t o some e x t e n t , i t has not been p o s s i b l e t o gather i n f o r m a t i o n f rom a l l people connected w i t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. I n s h o r t , the l a c k o f c o n s i s t e n t , complete records and bas i c documentat ion o f past a c t i v i t i e s , programs and issues l i m i t s t h i s s tudy i n terms o f e n t i r e t y and p r e c i s i o n . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Lack o f consensus among Canadian u n i v e r s i t y personne l as t o who i s a " f o r e i g n " s tuden t i s e v i d e n t . For some purposes, f o r example, s t a t i s t i c a l c o l l a t i o n o f f o r e i g n s tudent admissions t o a u n i v e r s i t y , i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h s tuden ts possessing landed immigrant s t a t u s f rom those possessing s tudent v i s a s . For o ther purposes, f o r i n s t a n c e , the s tudy o f the s e r v i c e s p rov ided f o r " f o r e i g n " s tuden ts and the problems they encounter because they have no t l i v e d i n Canada and are " . . . d i f f e r e n t f rom the s tudent who comes t o u n i v e r s i t y out o f a Canadian m i l i e u . . . , " 7 those w i t h landed immigrant s t a t u s and ^Norma Walmsley, Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Develop- ment (Ottawa: A s s o c i a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t i e s and Col leges of Canada, 1970) , p. 98. 7 I b i d . , p. 99. 7 student v i s a s t a t u s are considered the same. Such c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , however, does not take i n t o account the g rea t h e t e r o g e n e i t y of f o r e i g n s tudents nor does i t suggest c o n t r o l s over the i n t e l l e c t u a l , l i n g u i s t i c , and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s which might be " c a u s a l " f a c t o r s i n the i n t e r p r e -g t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s of research . The terms " o v e r s e a s , " "ou t of c o u n t r y , " " i n t e r n a t i o n a l , " and "non-Canadian" have a lso been used i n the p a s t , bu t l i t t l e o r no agree-ment e x i s t s on when or how the terms should be used. The most u s e f u l d e f i n i t i o n seems to depend t o a l a r g e degree on the problem under con-s i d e r a t i o n . I f the problem i s t o assess the c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s o f the House, then the "home c o u n t r y " o f the s tudent seems i m p o r t a n t . The s tudent f rom Great B r i t a i n or the Un i ted States i s c e r t a i n l y i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o f a m i l i a r i z e h i m s e l f w i t h Canada and a Canadian u n i v e r s i t y m i l i e u than the s tudent who i s e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y w i t h E n g l i s h o r French o r i s the on ly person f rom h i s / h e r coun t ry on campus. On the o t h e r hand, i f the House i s seen as a p lace where i n t e r n a t i o n a l con tac ts and i n t e r a c t i o n s between s tudents f rom a l l c o u n t r i e s take p l a c e , then i t i s as impor tan t f o r the s tudent f rom Great B r i t a i n or the U n i t e d States to be i n v o l v e d as the s tudents f rom o the r c o u n t r i e s . I n t h i s case, the d e f i n i t i o n of " f o r e i g n " shou ld be broad and a l l i n c l u s i v e . A l though the term "overseas" has gained a degree o f acceptance and i s reasonably v a l i d i f s tudents f rom the Un i ted States are exc luded , the present s tudy uses the term "non-Canadian" t o i n c l u d e a l l s tuden ts L. K i r s t e i n , e d . , Research Programs f o r Fore ign Students - A Report (New York: I n s t i t u t e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Educa t ion , 1969) , p. 25. 8 not possessing Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p whether they are landed immigrants or hold other types of v i s a s . This use of the term i s based on the assumption that an open-structured I n t e r n a t i o n a l House should attempt to create i n t e r n a t i o n a l contact and understanding among a l l students. Students from the United States of America or Great B r i t a i n who are often not considered i n any r e a l sense f o r e i g n to Canada, should a l s o have the opportunity of meeting both students from Canada and other countries. I t i s also f e l t that since students from the United States of America and Great B r i t a i n c o n s t i t u t e a large percentage of the non-Canadian student population at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, they should be included i n a study of t h i s nature. In a d d i t i o n , the term "non-Canadian" avoids unfavourable conno-tations associated by some with the term " f o r e i g n " and eliminates the r e s t r i c t i v e aspects of the term "overseas" which suggests that the s t u -dents from the United States of America or Mexico need not be considered. Although the term "non-Canadian" i s too broad a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r d i s -cussions on counselling and guidance, the use of the term i s based on the assumption that an i n t e r n a t i o n a l house i s concerned mainly with c r o s s - c u l t u r a l contacts and i n t e r a c t i o n s and not mainly with he l p i n g new students make the t r a n s i t i o n to Canadian u n i v e r s i t y l i f e . I t must be recognized, however, that as long as a lack of consensus among univer-s i t y personnel e x i s t s as to who i s included i n the term " f o r e i g n , " con-fusion w i l l p e r s i s t and meaningful dialogue w i l l be hampered. This creates d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the c l e a r understanding of a v a i l a b l e w r i t i n g s and data. Wherever new data are c o l l e c t e d and analyzed, t h i s study 9 uses the te rm non-Canadian to i n c l u d e those not possessing Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p . Organ iza t i on of the Study Chapter 1 of t h i s s tudy i s concerned w i t h p r o v i d i n g an i n t r o -d u c t i o n t o the genera l area o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I n t r o d u c t i o n , Statement o f the Problem, L i m i t a t i o n of the Study, Basic Assumpt ions, Sources o f I n f o r m a t i o n , Methods and Procedures, D e f i n i t i o n of Terms and O r g a n i -z a t i o n o f the Study are i t s p r imary components. Chapter 2 cons i s t s of an a t tempt t o d i scover the e x t e n t and na tu re o f research rega rd ing non-Canadian s tuden ts s t u d y i n g i n Canada i n the hope o f i s o l a t i n g o the r s t u d i e s r e l a t e d t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l houses. Chapter 3 o u t l i n e s the genera l development o f the House s i n c e 1949 i n o rder t o p rov ide a f o u n d a t i o n f o r a n a l y z i n g the major t h r u s t s i n i t s development and f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s i g n i f i c a n t t rends i n i t s a c t i -v i t i e s . Chapter 4 comprises a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the groups a f f i l i a t e d w i t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, i t s membership, p h y s i c a l p l a n t and p e r s o n n e l . Chapter 5 c o n s i s t s of an examinat ion o f a c t i v i t i e s and programs i n o rde r t o h i g h l i g h t t h e i r n a t u r e , c h a r a c t e r and f u n c t i o n s . Chapter 6 at tempts to more c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y the s tudent c l i e n -t e l e o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House and the events they a t t e n d . I t f u r t h e r seeks t o p rov ide a rough w e i g h t i n g o f s tudent o p i n i o n rega rd ing I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House programs and a c t i v i t i e s . Chapter 7 conta ins the Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations o f the s tudy . CHAPTER 2 RELATED RESEARCH Int e r n a t i o n a l House at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i s an i n s t i t u t i o n which, through i t s very aims and o b j e c t i v e s , i s concerned with both Canadian and non-Canadian students on the U n i v e r s i t y campus. Research i n Canada on the broad topic of i n t e r n a t i o n a l education or on student exchanges i s very l i m i t e d . Research on the more s p e c i f i c t o p i c of i n s t i t u t i o n s such as an I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, i t s operation and function i s characterized by an even greater paucity. As l a t e as 1963 a p a r t i c i p a n t at the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Study Conference at the Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia commented that " . . . there has been no study on the academic achievements of students that have come to t h i s i n s t i -t u t i o n f o r a degree, nor of the success or f a i l u r e of the Canadian students who have gone to study i n f o r e i g n institutions."''" Another speaker at the same conference s a i d that a great deal of the d i f f i c u l t y experienced i n the f i e l d of student exchanges and i n t e r n a t i o n a l contacts " . . . a r i s e s out of the f a c t that so much of what we do i s based on what we f e e l or what we hope, and very l i t t l e i s based on what we know." ^"John Haar,"International House Study Conference," Report of a study conference to consider "The Role of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i n the Un i v e r s i t y and i n the Community," The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, March 2, 1963 (Mimeographed), p. 7. 2 John P o r t e r , " i n t e r n a t i o n a l House Study Conference, The Role 10 11 Al though scho la rs have t r a v e l l e d t o o the r c o u n t r i e s to acqu i re and exchange knowledge s ince the ex i s tence o f u n i v e r s i t i e s , the e x t e n -s i v e involvement o f u n i v e r s i t i e s and co l leges i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l educa t ion i s a r e l a t i v e l y recent occur rence. Most s t u d i e s r e l a t e d to t h i s f i e l d 3 have appeared s ince World War I I when overseas s tuden t en ro l lmen t a t i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h igher l e a r n i n g inc reased c o n s i d e r a b l y . Canadian involvement w i t h non-Canadian s tudents i n terms o f percentage o f the t o t a l u n i v e r s i t y s tudent p o p u l a t i o n has been s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n , f o r example, the Un i ted States o f Amer ica. N u m e r i c a l l y , t h e r e are fewer non-Canadian s tudents i n Canada bu t they represen t a l a r g e percentage 4 of the t o t a l s tudent p o p u l a t i o n . I n 1968, the 110,315 f o r e i g n s tuden ts i n the Un i ted States represented less than two per cent"' o f the t o t a l enro l lment i n American i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g whereas the 6 7 27,263 non-Canadian s tudents i n Canada approximated 10 per cent o f the t o t a l en ro l lmen t i n 1968-69. The h i g h e r percentage o f non-Canadian o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i n the U n i v e r s i t y and i n the Community," The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, March 2 , 1963 (Mimeographed), p. 10. 3 Nolan E. Shepard, "The A c c u l t u r a t i o n o f Fore ign Students i n Southern Col leges and U n i v e r s i t i e s " (unpub l ished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s i s s i p p i , 1970) , p. 26. ^ I n s t i t u t e o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Educa t ion , New York , 1968. 5 R h o d e l i a C. B. Lozada, " F o r e i g n Students a t Purdue U n i v e r s i t y : A Study o f Selected Personal and Academic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n R e l a t i o n to Current Experiences and Future E x p e c t a t i o n s " (unpubl ished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Purdue U n i v e r s i t y , 1970) , p. 2 . ^Norma Walmsley, Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s and I n t e r n a t i o n a l De- velopment (Ottawa: A s s o c i a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t i e s and Col leges of Canada, 1970) , p. 102. 7 I b i d . , p. 102. 12 s tudents i s no t p a r a l l e l e d by an inc rease i n r e s e a r c h , documentat ion and c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . Pro fessor Norma Walmsley, i n her s tudy o f resources a v a i l a b l e at Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s t h a t cou ld suppor t Canadian programs o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l ass is tance and c o - o p e r a t i o n , i s a p ioneer i n t h i s f i e l d i n Canada. I n her s tudy p u b l i s h e d i n 1970 she found t h a t a t most u n i v e r -s i t i e s , f a c t s and f i g u r e s e s s e n t i a l to document her s tudy d i d not e x i s t i n r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e f o r m , and t h a t evidence revea led q u i t e c l e a r l y t h a t u n i v e r s i t y p r a c t i c e s i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l development area had been most ly n e g l e c t e d , w i t h l i t t l e p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n o r c r i t i c a l exami-n a t i o n done. Fur thermore , she no ted t h a t w i t h the excep t ion o f a few i n d i v i d u a l s " . . . those who were i n a p o s i t i o n t o i n f l u e n c e u n i v e r -s i t y p o l i c i e s had r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a c c u r a t e , s p e c i f i c and u p - t o - d a t e 9 i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h which t o do s o . " I n her o p i n i o n , he r r e p o r t con ta ins more comprehensive i n f o r m a t i o n than has ever been a v a i l a b l e i n one p lace about Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s ' invo lvement i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l deve lop-ment. Moreover, she s t a t e s t h a t i t rep resen ts the f i r s t comprehensive at tempt made to d i s c o v e r , on a Canada-wide b a s i s , the n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f our u n i v e r s i t y involvement as i t p e r t a i n s t o non-Canadians s t u d y i n g on our campuses .^ " F o r e i g n s t u d e n t s " were on ly a segment o f her s t u d y , bu t she asked each u n i v e r s i t y t o p rov ide as complete d e t a i l s as p o s s i b l e on i t s involvement w i t h overseas students."'""'' Walmsley, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development, p. i . 9 I b i d . 1 0 I b i d . 1 1 L e t t e r f rom Pro fessor N. E. Walmsley t o the w r i t e r dated January 16, 1973. 13 As her study progressed i t became very c l e a r that not only was there r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e information known i n general about f o r e i g n students, but most u n i v e r s i t i e s r e a l l y did not know ". . . exactly how many of which category (landed immigrant or student visa) they had 12 on t h e i r campuses or of which n a t i o n a l i t y . " At each u n i v e r s i t y v i s i t e d , Professor Walmsley requested d e t a i l s from overseas student advisors (or t h e i r equivalent) regarding any follow-up or evaluation of f o r e i g n students' work (how many succeeded, how many returned home, and any other information known to them or others on campus of that u n i v e r s i t y ' s experience with overseas students). Once again the ". . . r e s u l t s supplied were very sparse indeed - each one admitting that very l i t t l e i f any 13 information was a v a i l a b l e , and that much research was required." Even where small studies had been undertaken the persons most concerned with overseas students were usually unaware of the f i n d i n g s . As l a t e as 1970 then, very l i t t l e research on non-Canadian students studying i n Canada existed or was r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e -search purposes. A Commission's study of the r o l e of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Student Centre at the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto i n d i c a t e d a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n . In i t s preamble i t acknowledged the paucity and expressed the hope " . . . that w i t h i n a few years there w i l l be a more advanced understanding of foreign student needs and p o t e n t i a l , and a more developed l i t e r a t u r e on the subject w i l l have emerged." 1 4 12 L e t t e r from Professor N. E. Walmsley to the w r i t e r dated January 16, 1973. Ibid. 1 4 L e t t e r to Mr. R. Ross, Vice President and R e g i s t r a r , U n i v e r s i t y 14 L i t e r a t u r e regarding non-Canadian students studying i n Canada exis t s mainly i n the form of reports of conferences, workshops and i n -formation b r o c h u r e s ; ^ and although numerous handbooks f o r v i s i t i n g students are a v a i l a b l e , the proceedings of a number of conferences and the few surveys which have been conducted i n d i c a t e that very l i t t l e comprehensive work has been done. What i s notably absent i n the Cana-dian context i s the type of comprehensive work attempted by such organi-zations as the American National A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Foreign Student Affairs."'"*' E x i s t i n g Canadian work i s r e l a t i v e l y recent and re s u l t e d from an awareness of in t e r e s t e d groups and organizations who expressed concern f o r overseas students i n Canada whose numbers increased from 2,700 i n 1953 to more than 6,000 by- I960."'"7 These organizations recognized not only the problems and the p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s of having overseas students i n Canada but also that these considerations seemed ". . . to be more 18 f u l l y appreciated by countries other than our own." In 1961 when of Toronto, i n the Report of the Commission to Investigate the Future  Role of the Inte r n a t i o n a l Student Centre, by Ke l v i n Andrews, Chairman (University of Toronto: I n t e r n a t i o n a l Student Centre, 1971). "^This i s demonstrated i n se c t i o n M - Int e r n a t i o n a l Student Services - of a recent bibliography on student services at Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s a v a i l a b l e from the Ass o c i a t i o n of U n i v e r s i t i e s and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Mimeographed), pp. 52-55. •^National A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Foreign Student A f f a i r s , L i s t of  Materials i n NAFSA Archives from 1948 to June 1, 1971 (N. W. Washington, D.C. : NAFSA, 1971), 12 pages. "^World U n i v e r s i t y Service of Canada. Problems of Overseas  Students i n Canada. Report of the Ontario-Montreal Regional Conference held at the U n i v e r s i t y of Western Ontario, London, March 1961. (Toronto: World U n i v e r s i t y Service of Canada, 1961), p. 1. 18 A. J . Earp, condensed version of address given to the World U n i v e r s i t y Service of Canada Regional Conference on Problems of Overseas  Students i n Canada (Toronto: World U n i v e r s i t y Service of Canada, 1961), p. 11. 15 overseas s tudents represented some 6% of the t o t a l Canadian u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n , the then Assoc ia te Secre tary o f the Canadian Commission f o r UNESCO expressed s u r p r i s e t h a t . . . Canada, which at the p resent t ime [1961] spends about $100 m i l l i o n annua l l y on v a r i o u s i n t e r n a t i o n a l ass is tance programmes, has not found i t p o s s i b l e t o f i n a n c e and p rov ide adequate arrangements f o r the recep-t i o n and w e l f a r e o f those who come t o Canada a t the i n v i t a t i o n o f the Canadian government under o f f i c i a l o r s e m i - o f f i c i a l auspices.19 I n response t o the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t i t was no longer p o s s i b l e f o r Canadians t o be i n d i f f e r e n t t o the presence o f the growing number 20 o f overseas s tudents i n Canada, t h i r t y - f o u r overseas s tuden ts and f o r t y - t h r e e Canadians a t tended a r e g i o n a l conference o f overseas s tuden ts 21 r e g i s t e r e d a t On ta r io and Quebec u n i v e r s i t i e s , and d iscussed the va r ious problems f a c i n g overseas s t u d e n t s . The t o p i c s f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n c l u d e d problems p r i o r to a r r i v a l , arrangements on a r r i v a l , accommo-d a t i o n , l i v i n g i n Canada, l i f e on campus, con tac ts w i t h Canadians and v a c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . C r u c i a l problems o f t h a t t ime concern ing overseas s tudents were recognized bu t l i t t l e documentary research r e s u l t e d . Questions r a i s e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Conference - Why do the overseas s tuden ts come to Canada? What are t h e i r impress ions when 19 Lewis Perinbam, condensed v e r s i o n o f address g iven to the World U n i v e r s i t y Serv ice of Canada Regional Conference on Problems o f Overseas  Students i n Canada (Toronto : World U n i v e r s i t y Serv ice of Canada, 1961) , p 20 World U n i v e r s i t y Serv ice o f Canada. Overseas S tudents , p. 1 . 21 Robert Y i -M ing Huang, "Problems o f Overseas Students i n Canada, NCCUC Proceedings of the Annual Conference 37 (1961) :42 . 16 they a r r i v e ? How do they get a long w i t h Canadian s t u d e n t s , p r o f e s s o r s , government o f f i c i a l s and the p u b l i c ? What are t h e i r f e e l i n g s toward Canada when they r e t u r n home? - remain unanswered i n any comprehensive form today. Severa l months l a t e r , responding t o much the same i n t e r e s t and concern, the N a t i o n a l Conference o f Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s and C o l -leges arranged a s p e c i a l symposium t o d iscuss problems of overseas s tuden ts 22 and t o r e c e i v e the r e p o r t o f i t s sub-commit tee on the prob lem. F o l l o w i n g i t s recommendations, a guide f o r s tudents f rom o t h e r c o u n t r i e s who were 23 p l a n n i n g t o s tudy a t Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s was p u b l i s h e d . I n the same year the F i r s t World Conference o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Houses and Centres was h e l d i n P a r i s . Wi th most c o u n t r i e s o f Europe represented a long w i t h I n d i a , Ceylon, Japan, C h i l e , U.S.A. and Canada the conference con-s ide red " . . . s tudent problems i n a s t range l a n d " and the goals o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l houses. Emphasis was g i ven t o r e s i d e n t i a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l 24 houses. Ten years l a t e r , the Second I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Houses and Centres was h e l d a t U.B.C. w i t h A u s t r a l i a , the Un i ted S t a t e s , England and Canada represented by t w e n t y - n i n e p a r t i -25 c i p a n t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y the r e p o r t o f the conference i s d i f f i c u l t t o 22 D. B. C la rk jejt a l . "Problems o f Overseas Students i n Canada," NCCUC Proceedings o f the Annual Conference 37 (1961) :pp . 23-53. 23 Canadian U n i v e r s i t y Foundat ion (CUF), U n i v e r s i t y Study i n Canada, Ottawa, 1962. 24 Minutes o f the Execut ive Mee t ing , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Asso-c i a t i o n , B.C. Chapter , September 28, 1961. 25 Report of the Second World Conference o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Houses  and Cent res , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, May 15-16, 1971, 20 pages. 17 eva lua te s ince i t i s composed o f b r i e f comments made by p a r t i c i p a n t s du r i ng panel p resen ta t i ons and d i s c u s s i o n s , r a t h e r than papers p resen ted . Session t o p i c s i n c l u d e d : Student Involvement i n Programing, Admin is -t r a t i o n , Boards and Committees, the Community; Workshop on Major Problems Facing the I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r ; the Role o f the V o l u n t e e r ; Fund-r a i s i n g and Alumni R e l a t i o n s . The need f o r more knowledge was recogn ized , however, and some o f the problems r a i s e d i n 1961 a t the WUSC conference were aga in i d e n t i -f i e d s i x years l a t e r by a d i r e c t o r o f a Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l House when he w r o t e : We d o n ' t know t o what degree f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ' t r a i n i n g i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r career needs a t home. We d o n ' t know what percentage o f f o r e i g n s tudents do go home, nor o f those who do, what percentage e s t a b l i s h themselves s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n s . We d o n ' t know how ex-t e n s i v e l y , or s u b t l y f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s ' goals change w h i l e they are h e r e , nor what t h e i r o r i g i n a l mot ives were i n coming. He c o n t i n u e s : We d o n ' t know what percentage o f f o r e i g n s tudents enjoyed s o c i a l acceptance i n Canada, nor which ones, nor why o thers d o n ' t . We h a v e n ' t the s l i g h t e s t i dea how many f o r e i g n s tudents r e a l l y have no s o c i a l or l e a r n i n g goals w i t h regard to Canadians and Canadiana. Nor do we have any n o t i o n how many or which s tuden ts come w i t h comple te ly f a l s e preconcept ions or w i t h t o t a l l y u n r e a l i s t i c goals and e x p e c t a t i o n s , no r why. We do suspect t h a t i f we checked w i t h a l a r g e number o f s tuden ts f rom one coun t ry we would probably run the gamut o f expec ta t ions and e x p e r i -ences . 26 E d i t o r i a l , B u l l e t i n , Canadian Serv ice f o r Overseas Students and Trainees (now CBIE), August 1967, No. 13, p. 1 . 18 Related documented research on non-Canadians studying i n Canada i s sparse, and attempts to i d e n t i f y such work have y i e l d e d l i t t l e . A follow-up study to the Walmsley Report has not been undertaken by the 27 Association of U n i v e r s i t i e s and Colleges of Canada. A bibliography of higher education i n Canada by Harris includes an entry on "Admission of Chinese Students to Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s " i n 1922, two a r t i c l e s on f o r e i g n students i n 1954, and ent r i e s on the two previously mentioned 28 conferences concerning the problems of overseas students. A recent bibliography of American d i s s e r t a t i o n s on Canadian education does not 29 include e n t r i e s on non-Canadian students studying i n Canada nor does 30 a recent bibliography of Canadian theses on i n t e r n a t i o n a l education. A master's t h e s i s of re l a t e d concern was l i s t e d i n the Canadian Asso-31 c i a t i o n of Education l i s t i n g s but few s i g n i f i c a n t works are i n d i c a t e d 27 L e t t e r from Nancy Geddie, Information Associate, AUCC, to the w r i t e r , dated January 9, 1973. 28 Robin S. H a r r i s , A Bibliography of Higher Education i n Canada  Supplement 1971 (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971). , A Bibliography of Higher Education i n Canada (1965). , A Bibliography of Higher Education i n Canada (1960). 29 F r a n k l i n Parker, American D i s s e r t a t i o n s on Foreign Education -Canada, V o l . I (New York: The Whitston Publishing Company, 1971). 30 H. L. Narang, "A Bibliography of Canadian Theses on Comparative and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Education," Canadian and Int e r n a t i o n a l Education, 1 (June 1972):79. 31 Amera Rvzvia Raza, " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Ideology and Interpersonal Ideology: The Case of the Pakistan Students" (unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1970). 19 32 i n the Canadian Bureau f o r In t e r n a t i o n a l Education's l i s t of p u b l i c a t i o n s 33 or i n correspondence with them. On the other hand, sev e r a l survey-type studies are a v a i l a b l e 34 i n c l u d i n g one on the s i z e , extent and nature of fo r e i g n student o f f i c e s and another concerned with the extent of the fo r e i g n student advisors' 35 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the f a c i l i t i e s f o r overseas students. Further i n t e r e s t as r e f l e c t e d i n recent pu b l i c a t i o n s has been shown i n language 36 37 38 d i f f i c u l t i e s , l i n g u i s t i c i n t e g r a t i o n s , the n a t i o n a l i t i e s and 39 admission quotas. Although such surveys have been conducted, Canadian research comparable to that c a r r i e d out i n the United States i s l i m i t e d . 32 Canadian Bureau f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Education, L i s t of P u b l i -cations (Mimeographed), November 1972. 33 L e t t e r from Mr. A l l a n Rix, Executive D i r e c t o r , Canadian Bureau for I n t e r n a t i o n a l Education to the w r i t e r , dated January 10, 1973. 34 Kananur V. Chandrasekharaiah, A Study of Foreign Student  Advising i n Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s (Bangalore, India: Jagadeeshaiah and Bros., 1970). 35 Canadian Bureau f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Education, Areas of Respon- s i b i l i t y of Foreign Students Advisors (Ottawa, 1972). 36 Diane Morris, English P r o f i c i e n c y : Summary of Programmes on  Canadian Campuses (Ottawa: Canadian Bureau f o r In t e r n a t i o n a l Education, 1971), 37 S. R. Munro, " L i n g u i s t i c Integration of Foreign Students into Canadian U n i v e r s i t y Classrooms," I n t e r n a t i o n a l Education Inter- nationale (Canadian Bureau f o r International Education, B u l l e t i n No. 20, September 1970). 38 Dean E. S i r l u c k , Survey of N a t i o n a l i t y of Graduate Students  Enrolled i n Masters and Doctoral Degree Programmes at Ontario Univer- s i t i e s i n 1968-69 (Ontario Council on Graduate Studies, A p r i l 1969). 39 F. Sukdeo, "An Assessment of Student Quotas and Fees i n A l b e r t a U n i v e r s i t i e s , " The A l b e r t a Journal of Educational Research, XVIII (Septem-ber 1972):223-233. 20 I n f a c t , the c o n t r a s t between the Canadian and the Un i ted States s i t u a t i o n rega rd ing research on overseas s tuden ts i s q u i t e marked. I n 40 a d d i t i o n to an ex tens ive b i b l i o g r a p h y on the broad t o p i c o f i n t e r -n a t i o n a l educa t i on , i n the U.S. the research r e l a t e d t o overseas s tudents alone i s ex tens ive and has been ca tego r i zed i n terms of (1) s t u d i e s r e l a t e d t o background and p r e d e p a r t u r e , (2) s t u d i e s r e l a t e d t o the 41 42 so jou rn - the s t u d e n t s ' problems and the se rv i ces a v a i l a b l e t o them 43 and (3) s t u d i e s r e l a t e d t o the p o s t - r e t u r n p e r i o d . I n Canada, however, i n the case o f the e v a l u a t i o n o f s tudy programs, Walmsley found w i t h 44 few e x c e p t i o n s , " . . . n o evidence ( i n f a c t on ly two or t h r e e campuses 40 R. E. Spencer and Ruth Awe, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Educa t i ona l Exchange: A B i b l i o g r a p h y (New York : I n s t i t u t e o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Educa t ion , 1968) , 370 pages. 4 1 F o r example see: J . W. P o r t e r , "The Development o f an I n v e n t o r y t o Determine the Problems o f Fore ign Students" (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Michigan S ta te U n i v e r s i t y , 1962) ; R.C.B. Lozada, " F o r e i g n Students a t Purdue U n i v e r s i t y : A Study o f Selected Personal and Academic Charac-t e r i s t i c s i n R e l a t i o n t o Current Experiences and Fu ture E x p e c t a t i o n s " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Purdue U n i v e r s i t y , 1970) ; S. Sharma, "A Study t o I d e n t i f y and Analyze Adjustment Problems Experienced by Fore ign Non-European Graduate Students E n r o l l e d i n Se lec ted U n i v e r s i t i e s i n the S ta te o f Nor th C a r o l i n a " (Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Nor th C a r o l i n a , 1971) . 42 Neal R. B e r t e , "An A n a l y t i c a l Study o f the Fore ign Student P r o -gram a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f C i n c i n n a t i " (Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C i n c i n n a t i , 1966) . 43 T.A. A l a n , "The Value t o Fore ign Student Alumni o f t h e i r Educat ion i n the Un i ted States o f Amer ica" (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r -s i t y o f Nor thern Colorado, 1971) . 4 4 " C u l t u r e Shock: An E x p l o r a t i o n i n O b s e r v a t i o n , " Co l lege Student  Personnel A b s t r a c t s 11 (1967): 171-172. This s tudy t o determine the r e a c t i o n to Canadian c u l t u r e was conducted when a government program sponsored 15 teachers i n 1964 and 30 teachers i n 1965 f rom Uganda t o the U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a f o r one year teacher t r a i n i n g . The f i n d i n g s revea led t h a t the most annoying d i f f e r e n c e s f o r Uganda s tudents concerned had ever conducted any kind of a study on fore i g n student achievement) of s p e c i f i c programme evaluation or any serious study on achievement of overseas students." 4'' On a n a t i o n a l basis she could write that ". . . most statements made with reference to the general s i t u a t i o n i n Canada, i . e . n a t i o n a l l y , are without basis i n f a c t , since very few 4 accurate s t a t i s t i c s e x i s t to substantiate them one way or the other." Where s t a t i s t i c s are a v a i l a b l e , they p e r t a i n to s p e c i f i c categories of students only and are usually f o r a l i m i t e d region. For instance she i d e n t i f i e d the study by C.S. Belshaw as one of the f i r s t 'single campus' s t u d i e s . 4 7 Others included a s p e c i f i c program e v a l u a t i o n 4 ^ 49 and a study on the 'a d a p t a b i l i t y of fo r e i g n students.' the b u s i n e s s - l i k e r o l e of Canadian women, punctual emphasis on time, absence of spontaneous personable behaviour, and f o o l i s h questions about Uganda. 45 Walmsley, Development, p. 112. 4 6 I b i d . , p. 100. 47 C. S. Belshaw, "A Voyage For Knowledge: An Exploratory Study of Overseas Students i n the Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia," U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963. (Mimeographed.) 4^Walmsley, Development, p. 112. 49 Canadian Research Anthropology, St. Pauls U n i v e r s i t y , Ottawa, Ontario - (An attempt to obtain information on t h i s research was un-successful) . 22 Research Survey I n view of the p a u c i t y o f back-up s t u d i e s i n t h i s genera l area and i n the hope t h a t Walmsley's p rev ious i n q u i r y had sparked f u r t h e r s t u d i e s , an at tempt was made f o r the purpose of t h i s s tudy to o b t a i n more recen t research . Based on the assumption t h a t f o r e i g n s tuden t adv iso rs or those a c t i n g i n t h a t c a p a c i t y would be aware o f such r e s e a r c h , f o r t y - n i n e f o r e i g n s tudent adv iso rs (or t h e i r e q u i v a l e n t s ) were contac ted by l e t t e r and asked t o i d e n t i f y research p e r t a i n i n g t o non-Canadian s tudents t h a t had been i n i t i a t e d or completed a t t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s s ince the Walmsley study was p u b l i s h e d i n 1970 . "^ Represent ing a r e t u r n o f 80 per c e n t , t h i r t y - n i n e r e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d . Of t hese , s i x ( i n -c l u d i n g one i n s t i t u t i o n whose adv i so r knew o f research bu t "had n o t rece ived a copy o f the f i n d i n g s " ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t research on the s u b j e c t o f non-Canadian s tuden ts s t u d y i n g i n Canada had been i n i t i a t e d o r com-p l e t e d s ince p u b l i c a t i o n o f the Walmsley Repor t . Four adv i so rs were unable t o supply i n f o r m a t i o n because they were e i t h e r new t o the p o s i t i o n or the s u b j e c t was under c o n s i d e r a t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y . One o the r u n i v e r s i t y had conducted some s i g n i f i c a n t i n q u i r i e s b u t saw no p o s s i -b i l i t y a t t h i s t ime o f e a r l y p u b l i c a t i o n . One respondent " . . . d i d no t cons ider s tudents as sub jec t s f o r research p r o j e c t s . " At Water loo Lutheran U n i v e r s i t y , one o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s where work has been c a r r i e d out s ince 1970, e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r program i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l business management and expor t p romot ion f o r persons f rom See Appendix 1 . developing nations has involved keeping i n touch with graduates a f t e r they returned to t h e i r own country i n order to obtain some i n d i c a t i o n of the relevancy of the t r a i n i n g o f f e r e d . As the e f f o r t s of the Inter-n a t i o n a l Business Programs are now d i r e c t e d toward t r a i n i n g i n the developing areas, they are conducting research into student needs i n developing countries."* 1 A second i n s t i t u t i o n , the Ontario I n s t i t u t e for Studies i n Education, i d e n t i f i e d two theses i n progress which r e l a t e to students i n Canada. One e n t i t l e d the "Educational Treatment of West Indian Children i n Toronto" and the other "Students from India i n Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s . " In a d d i t i o n , an unpublished t h e s i s , e n t i t l e d "Les etudiants afri c a n s au Canada" has been completed at the department d'anthropo-52 l o g i e , U n i v e r s i t e Laval. Also reported were a survey of Eng l i s h l a n -53 guage programs a v a i l a b l e to f o r e i g n students on Canadian campuses which was completed i n 1971 at McMaster U n i v e r s i t y ; a report on a c u l -54 t u r a l workshop held i n Toronto; and of most i n t e r e s t to the present ^ L e t t e r from B. Bonner, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Business Programs, Water-loo Lutheran U n i v e r s i t y to the w r i t e r dated March 26, 1973. 52 L e t t e r from Mr. A l l a n Rix, Executive D i r e c t o r , Canadian Bureau f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Education to the w r i t e r , dated January 10, 1973. 53 Diane Morris, English P r o f i c i e n c y : A Summary of Programmes  on Canadian Campuses (Ottawa: Canadian Bureau for I n t e r n a t i o n a l Edu-cation, 1971). 54 Report of a c u l t u r a l workshop, Chinese Students and Employment  A C u l t u r a l Workshop (International Student Centre, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto September 1972). 24 study, a report of a commission formed to recommend a future r o l e of the International Student Centre at the U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o . 5 5 International Houses - U.S.A. Some of the f i r s t conferences and research on i n t e r n a t i o n a l houses have been i n connection with those houses which were r e s i d e n t i a l and recognized the need f o r a c t i v e measures to guard against the loss of ". . . warmth and personal concern that large numbers of residents 56 and s t a f f and a busy round of a c t i v i t i e s tend to engender." New York In t e r n a t i o n a l House was reminded as early as 1954 that experiences of the students from a l l over the world with respect to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House were ". . . i n any supportable way l o s t , c e r t a i n l y so i n terms of that research which would be h e l p f u l i n shaping the future programs 57 58 59 of the House." Since then research by Davis and Kwochka has Report of the Commission to Investigate the Future Role of  the In t e r n a t i o n a l Student Centre, by Ke l v i n Andrews, Chairman (Univer-s i t y of Toronto: I n t e r n a t i o n a l Student Centre, 1971). 5 ^ J . L. Davis, "A Survey of Present and Former Foreign Students Regarding the E f f e c t s of t h e i r Residence i n the In t e r n a t i o n a l House of New York" (Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Teachers College, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1963), p. 34. 5 7 A . Jones and E. Setzer, " I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, New York: Summary Report of a Survey of Function, Program, Organization, Business Operations, Plants, Finance," Part I, 1954, pp. 29-39. (Mimeographed.) 58 Davis, "Survey Foreign Residents." 59 V. F. Kwochka, "A Survey of United States Students Regarding the E f f e c t s of t h e i r Residence i n the In t e r n a t i o n a l House of New York" (Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1970). 25 s t ressed t h a t e v a l u a t i o n should be an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the program e f f o r t s o f the New York I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, I n 1950 an at tempt was made t o determine the reasons Americans chose t o r e s i d e a t the New York I n t e r n a t i o n a l House and what f a c t o r s seemed t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . ^ At t h a t t ime Hami l ton i n t e r v i e w e d 50 o f the 250 American r e s i d e n t s and found t h a t on ly seventeen s t a t e d t h a t the i n t e r n a t i o n a l aspects o f l i v i n g i n the House was the main reason f o r t h e i r cho ice . Other e a r l y s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d one by Jones and S e t z e r ^ 1 who, i n an in tended economic examinat ion o f the New York House, found t h a t o f f o r e i g n and American r e s i d e n t s , a " . . . goodly 62 number o f bo th groups . . . " expected l i t t l e more than a s a t i s f a c t o r y or convenient p lace t o l i v e . For the year 1952-53 they d iscovered t h a t o f the 176 a c t i v i t i e s programed, 115 were t e a s , dances, or mus ica ls and recommended a change i n programing t o i n c l u d e more research seminars , conferences, and d i s c u s s i o n s e r i e s . ^ 3 64 A major s tudy by Davis examined, by the use o f a combinat ion o f an essay and c h e c k - l i s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the exper iences o f a decade Mary A. H a m i l t o n , "Fac to rs I n f l u e n c i n g American S tuden ts ' Reasons f o r Coming to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, and t h e i r L a t e r Responses t o i t s Purpose" (unpubl ished M a s t e r ' s Degree t h e s i s , The New York School o f S o c i a l Work, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1950) , p. 3. 6 1 A . Jones and E. Se tze r , ' I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. New York : Summary Report o f a Survey o f F u n c t i o n , Program^ O r g a n i z a t i o n t Business Opera-tionSj P l a n t , Personne l , F i n a n c e s , " P a r t I , 1954. (Mimeographed.) Kwochka, " U n i t e d States S t u d e n t s , " p. 42. 6 3 Jones and S e t z e r , ' I n t e r n a t i o n a l House," New York , p. 2 1 . ^ 4 D a v i s , "Survey o f Fore ign R e s i d e n t s , " p. 34. 26 (1951-1961) of for e i g n students during t h e i r stay i n the House and a f t e r return to t h e i r homelands. Based on the return of 697 completed ques-tionnaires (53.0%) he found that " j u s t l i v i n g " i n the same r e s i d e n t i a l house was not s u f f i c i e n t to develop the close and continued contact desired between American and overseas students.^ 5 With respect to contacts with "American l i f e " he found that I n t e r n a t i o n a l House New York had had but " . . . l i m i t e d success i n helping i t s f o r e i g n r e s i -66 dents to experience American l i f e . " He recommended that greater at t e n t i o n be given to the objectives of the House and to the develop-67 ment of p o l i c i e s that would serve to implement these o b j e c t i v e s . He f e l t that the human resources of the House should be 'marshalled' more e f f i c i e n t l y and that by acquiring the habit of obje c t i v e s e l f -i n q u i r y and the p r a c t i c e of d i s t r i b u t i n g relevant fin d i n g s to other i n s t i t u t i o n s , the House could assume a greater leadership r o l e . In hi s opinion, through continued research and evaluation, the House should be able to ". . . i n t e r p r e t , u t i l i z e and disseminate the lessons gained from t h i s c r u c i b l e of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s , a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t i o n -,,68 ships. Six years l a t e r another study concentrated on the United States 69 residents at the New York I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. In an examination Davis, "Survey of Foreign Residents," p. 238. 6 6 I b i d . , p. 240. 67 I b i d . , p. 247. 6 8 I b i d . , p. 248. 69 Kwochka, "United States Residents." 27 of the r e c i p r o c a l aspects of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s tudent res idence Kwochka found t h a t the b e n e f i t s t o the m a j o r i t y o f Americans l i v i n g i n the House were g r e a t . Many r e p o r t e d t h a t they gained cons iderab le p e r s p e c t i v e on the U n i t e d States d u r i n g t h e i r res idence and came to b e t t e r understand o t h e r e t h n i c and r a c i a l groups i n A m e r i c a . 7 ^ She concluded t h a t the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House o f New York was on ly meet ing t o some ex ten t i t s o r i g i n a l b a s i c goals and recommended t h a t i t have d i s c u s s i o n groups and seminars concerned no t on ly w i t h domestic and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s , bu t a l so w i t h the s o c i a l problems which may a r i s e i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l community and i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s . 7 1 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Houses - Canada Comprehensive i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l houses i n Canada f o l l o w s the same genera l t r e n d as research on overseas s tuden ts i n Canada i n t h a t t h e r e has been l i t t l e work o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . A recen t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , p r e v i o u s l y ment ioned, was conducted a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto by a commission formed t o " . . . recommend a f u t u r e r o l e f o r the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Student Cent re , and t o eva lua te i t s impact on the 72 U n i v e r s i t y and, t o some degree, the community as a w h o l e . " The Com-miss ion met w i t h t w e n t y - e i g h t persons i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s tudent a f f a i r s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l educa t i on . F u r t h e r , they p o l l e d 390 users Kwochka, "Un i ted States R e s i d e n t s , " p. 277. I b i d . , p. 286. Andrews, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Student Centre Repor t , p. 1 . 28 of the Int e r n a t i o n a l Centre, made a survey of a sample group of the University's foreign students, and, although only one responded, i n v i t e d group leaders of n a t i o n a l or ethnic groups to meet with the Commission or submit b r i e f s . Forty-one recommendations by the Commission included aspects such as the organization of the centre, the s t a f f i n g requirements, the r e l a t i o n and function of the centre with respect to the U n i v e r s i t y , the students and community. On the operation of the centre, the Com-mission noted ". . . a number of serious impediments . . . " t o the r e a l i z a t i o n of the hope that " . . . persons from d i f f e r i n g c u l t u r a l back-grounds w i l l meet on formal and informal bases to the enrichment of the 73 p a r t i e s involved." They'noted also that most of the fo r e i g n students' tended to be older than the Canadian students, to be i n graduate s t u d i e s , and to be married. The Commission f e l t that t h i s impeded Canadian-f o r e i g n student i n t e r a c t i o n on a casual l e v e l , and that get-togethers which are based on the simple d e s i r e to create such i n t e r a c t i o n s tend 74 to f a i l . This f i n d i n g was supported by Kwochka when she concluded that " . . . the type of meeting which i s arranged f o r the sake of estab-l i s h i n g f r i e n d s h i p i s less l i k e l y to succeed i n that aim than meetings which centre around common i n t e r e s t s . " 7 5 73 Andrews, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Student Centre Report, p. 10. 74T, .. Ibid . 7 5 I b i d . , p. 23. 29 It was also f e l t by the commission i n v e s t i g a t i n g the Toronto Student Centre that " . . . recent changes i n Canadian student l i f e s t y l e s have resulted i n a s i g n i f i c a n t l y decreased involvement i n groups which are organized on a continuing b a s i s , but i n contrast, that f o r e i g n student involvement i n organized groups has become more i n t e n s i v e . " It expressed the opinion that the r i s i n g t i d e of nationalism i n many parts of the world has i n t e n s i f i e d overseas student organization along n a t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l l i n e s as opposed to other l i n e s of common i n t e r e s t and noted that " . . . the tendency i n recent years has been f o r many foreign students to become much more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r own n a t i o n a l or ethnic group, and less i n t e r e s t e d i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . " 7 7 S i g n i -f i c a n t l y the Commission noted: As the program l i f e of I.S.C. i s cur r e n t l y based, to a considerable extent, on the a c t i v i t i e s of these rather closed groups, i t i s understandable that Canadian student i n t e r e s t i s minimal. Many f o r e i g n students show great reluctance to involve themselves i n a c t i v i t i e s which are dominated by Canadian students. Many I.S.C. users consider the r e s t of the campus to be "Canadian," and I.S.C. to be t h e i r s . In ad d i t i o n to sensing strong s o c i a l b a r r i e r s outside I.S.C, many fo r e i g n students show reluctance to engage i n I.S.C. a c t i v i t i e s which are led or w e l l attended by d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l s . Most Canadians are simply not int e r e s t e d i n "meeting fo r e i g n students."78 On the other hand, the n a t i o n a l or ethnic group leader who responded to the Commission's i n v i t a t i o n to present a b r i e f i n d i c a t e d h i s b e l i e f that the International Student Centre might w e l l discontinue i t s support 76 Andrews, International Student Centre Report, p. 11. 7 7 I b i d . 7 8 I b i d . 30 to the overseas student a s s o c i a t i o n groups, as they have, i n e f f e c t , established t h e i r r e a l f o c i of i n t e r e s t elsewhere and simply use I.S.C. as an occasional meeting place. Other than s p e c i f i c recommendations ap p l i c a b l e to the Toronto Int e r n a t i o n a l Student Centre, the Commission recommended a greater i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l student and u n i v e r s i t y expertise and i t s increased u t i l i z a t i o n i n the schools, the community and the univer-s i t y i n a gradual increased involvement of the centre i n . . the academic areas of the U n i v e r s i t y ' s l i f e . . . . " In the opinion of the Commission the I.S.C. should attempt to develop a s e r i e s of seminars r e l a t i n g the p r a c t i c e of various p r o f e s s i o n a l vocations to various parts of the world. They also recommended the importance of a s e r v i c e function such as dispensing information, o r i e n t a t i o n programs, p r o v i -sions f o r counselling, and English language t u t o r i a l s along with a program function with respect to dances, discussions and f a c i l i t i e s f o r n a t i o n a l , ethnic and i n t e r e s t group a c t i v i t i e s but expressed the b e l i e f that student programs should be p r i m a r i l y a student matter. It recommended that " . . . good general programming, based on i n t e r e s t s other than common n a t i o n a l i t y should be introduced i n a d d i t i o n to the programmes which n a t i o n a l and ethnic groups w i l l run, and that short-79 term project oriented a c t i v i t i e s should also be encouraged." Regarding co u n s e l l i n g , English language d i f f i c u l t i e s and over-seas student problems the Commission recommended that " . . . comprehensive Andrews, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Students Centre Report, p. 12. 31 and c e n t r a l i z e d i n f o r m a t i o n sources d e a l i n g w i t h a l l s i g n i f i c a n t areas o f concern t o f o r e i g n s tudents . . . be developed a t the I n t e r n a t i o n a l 80 Student Centre . . . " and t h a t adequate records be kept t o enable assess-ment o f the major r e c u r r i n g prob lems, i n o rder t o f o r m u l a t e s o l u t i o n s 81 to them. They i n d i c a t e d t h a t e f f o r t s t o promote a 1 1 . . . home away f rom home . . . " atmosphere should be cont inued but t h a t t h i s should be a s u b s i d i a r y f u n c t i o n o f the Cent re . I n t e r n a t i o n a l House - U.B.C. I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia has encountered a range o f problems s i m i l a r t o those f a c i n g o the r I n t e r -n a t i o n a l houses and the r e p o r t s o f conferences, s tudy seminars and s u r -veys i n d i c a t e a recorded concern f o r them. For example, a World U n i v e r -s i t y Serv ice of Canada Conference h e l d a t I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i n March 82 1962 considered "Overseas S tuden ts : T h e i r Problems and O p p o r t u n i t i e s . " Hos t ing the M i n i s t e r o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , Howard Green, and Dr. N.A.M. MacKenzie as gues ts , the conference addressed i t s e l f t o d e f i n i n g the ques t ions which must be asked i f our u n i v e r s i t i e s are t o be o f g r e a t e s t s e r v i c e t o the i n t e r n a t i o n a l community. R e a l i z i n g t h a t once the ques t ions had been i d e n t i f i e d , an i m p o r t a n t s tep i n f i n d i n g the answers would have been t a k e n , the t o p i c o f the w e l f a r e o f overseas s tuden ts on campus, 80 Andrews, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Student Centre Repor t , p. 20. ^ I b i d . , p. 15. 82 B r i e f Summary o f Conference (no d e t a i l s on d i s c u s s i o n l o c a t e d ) 32 the immigration and the employment problem, and the academic problem were considered. A year l a t e r , on the occasion of the fourth anniversary of Inte r n a t i o n a l House, the f i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l House study conference at U.B.C. was held to consider "The Role of In t e r n a t i o n a l House i n the 83 U n i v e r s i t y and i n the Community." Attended by more than 100 f a c u l t y , community and student p a r t i c i p a n t s , i t drew a t t e n t i o n to the problems associated with the growth and development of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. Speaking on the general concept of programs at i n t e r n a t i o n a l houses 84 as he perceived them, the f i r s t p a n e l i s t expressed the view that the II o r i g i n a l purpose of In t e r n a t i o n a l House i n New York was of a 85 s o c i a l nature . . . " that there had been an expansion of a ". . . whole new echelon of people who s p e c i a l i z e i n problems of f o r e i g n students . . . " and he wondered i f a great deal of what In t e r n a t i o n a l House could and should be doing was being missed i f t h i s s o c i a l function was not 86 included. He also f e l t that the overseas student does not appreciate the d i s t i n c t i o n of being fo r e i g n and that anything which emphasized " d i f f e r e n t n e s s " should be avoided. Another speaker and former president of the In t e r n a t i o n a l House Club stressed that a l l students would not u t i l i z e I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. 83 "Report on the Int e r n a t i o n a l House Study Conference," Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, March 2, 1963 (Mimeographed). 84 Names have been omitted but are a v a i l a b l e on request. o r International House Study Conference," p. 2. 8 6 I b i d . He suppor ted the f i r s t p a n e l i s t by suggest ing t h a t the needs f o r which I n t e r n a t i o n a l House was o r i g i n a l l l y in tended t o f u l f i l were now be ing met by o the r campus se rv i ces such as s tudent res idences and the common b l o c k . I n h i s o p i n i o n , o the r l o c a t i o n s on campus f u n c t i o n e d as p laces where f o r e i g n and Canadian s tudents cou ld l i v e and eat i n a comple te ly i n f o r m a l and uncon t r i ved manner and t h a t the problem faced by I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House a t t h a t t ime was t o achieve a balance between the pe rsona l and the organized approach t o f o r e i g n s tudent a c t i v i t i e s . He f e l t t h a t i n 1962 a t t e n t i o n had been concent ra ted very much on the o r g a n i z e d , 87 fo rma l programs and t h a t c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n ought t o be g i ven t o the i n c l u s i o n o f complete ly i n f o r m a l and re laxed types o f programs and t h a t program d i v e r s i t y shou ld be emphasized i n o rde r t o g i v e as many people as p o s s i b l e the o p p o r t u n i t y t o fo rm an i n t e r e s t at I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. Speaking on the f u n c t i o n i n g o f the House, the then p r e s i d e n t o f the Graduate Student Centre suggested t h a t i n so f a r as on ly 200 o f the 1,200 overseas s tudents a t U.B.C. i n 1963 were members o f the I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House Club, i t seemed t h a t , i n i t s p resent s t r u c t u r e I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House d i d not appeal t o a s u f f i c i e n t number o f s t u d e n t s . The f a c t t h a t s tudents must j o i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Club w i t h i t s " e x c l u s i v i t y " and " c l u b hobby- type o f o b j e c t i v e " i n o rder t o r e c e i v e any i n f o r m a t i o n on the s t u d e n t - o r g a n i z e d , s tudent -sponsored s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , was r e f e r r e d t o as one o f the components which he f e l t 88 " . . . des t roy the i d e a l o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House." He suggested t h a t 87 " I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Study Conference, " p. 2 . Q O I b i d . , p. 9. 34 . . . without a defined membership, there would occur more casual exchanges of ideas and more student p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and the overseas student would be b e t t e r oriented towards campus l i f e through International House and through h i s contacts with other students.89 At the same conference, a c a l l f o r more research to a i d i n the understanding of i n t e r n a t i o n a l education was made by a former d i r e c -tor of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House - U.B.C. He i n d i c a t e d that studies were required to gain knowledge on the problems, achievement, successes and education of fo r e i g n students. P o s i t i v e steps should be taken to encourage and fund research by u n i v e r s i t y departments and i n t e r e s t e d agencies and to c l a r i f y the areas of genuine research which could be 90 b e n e f i c i a l both to International House and others. Another speaker, from the United States, drew a t t e n t i o n to the idea that although the i n t e r n a t i o n a l exchange of students has been going on as long as there have been u n i v e r s i t i e s , the idea of programing 91 i s quite new and expertise i n the f i e l d l i m i t e d . He pointed out that successful programing requires c l a r i f i c a t i o n of goals. To him, "one of the most important aspects of the whole area of programming f o r e i g n student a c t i v i t y i s a recognition of what we are t r y i n g to do, and what 92 are the purposes behind the programming i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House." 89 " I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Study Conference," p. 9, 9°Ibid., p. 8. 9 1 I b i d . , p. 10. Ibid. 35 From the United States standpoint, the purpose of programing was " . . . f i r s t to eliminate or reduce the interferences that prevent the student from achieving h i s education goals; and second, to give the student 93 opportunities to know us." This conference was followed by a preliminary survey by C. S. Belshaw which was i n i t i a t e d to ". . . explore i n a preliminary way the s o c i a l and academic factors which mould the experience of overseas 94 students at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia." Intended to ". . . delineate the nature of these f a c t o r s so that u n i v e r s i t y a u t h o r i t i e s would be i n a p o s i t i o n to b u i l d a constructive p o l i c y and adopt a consis-95 tent and h e l p f u l a t t i t u d e towards overseas students," a c h e c k l i s t of topics was used i n unstructured interviews of 149 students from t h i r t y -seven countries who were i n the Vancouver area during the summer break. Seventy-three of those interviewed by the student a s s i s t a n t s were over-seas students from India, Hong Kong, T r i n i d a d and the United Kingdom. Of the remaining t h i r t y - t h r e e countries, most were represented by three or fewer students. A Canadian c o n t r o l group was not included. Q u a l i t a t i v e findings with respect to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House at the time of the study i n d i c a t e d that " . . . r e l a t i o n s of overseas students 96 with Canadian societ y and Canadian students i s [ s i c ] at best p a r t i a l . " 93 "International House Study Conference," p. 10. 94 Belshaw, "Voyage For Knowledge." Ibi d . , p. 4. 9 6 I b i d . , p. 52. 36 I t was found that overseas students were appreciative of In t e r n a t i o n a l House, but the appreciation " . . . was tempered . . . by i n d i c a t i o n s . . . that there were too many Canadian adults associated with some House 97 a c t i v i t i e s , and not nearly enough Canadian.students," and that some students f e l t that ". . . instead of mixing people, the House tended to 98 emphasize group d i f f e r e n c e s . " Some of the interviewed students drew attention to the d i s t i n c t i o n between what they f e l t were the overly s o c i a l and Caribbean dominated a c t i v i t i e s i n i t i a t e d by the In t e r n a t i o n a l House Student Asso c i a t i o n and the somewhat a r t i f i c i a l and s t i l t e d a c t i -99 v i t i e s i n i t i a t e d by the Director's s t a f f . Many respondents f e l t that more Canadian student p a r t i c i p a t i o n would be b e n e f i c i a l and some f e l t that " . . . there are too many p a r t i e s and not enough by way of informal relaxed but serious d i s c u s s i o n . R e s p o n s e s to t h i s survey contained very l i t t l e expression of i n t e r e s t i n the kind of ' f a m i l y - f r i e n d ' programs organized by Int e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n but i n d i c a t e d students ". . . were impressed by the p h y s i c a l scenery and by the new fri e n d s h i p s they make with other students . . . d u r i n g t r i p s to other communities. Student responses also revealed that membership of overseas students was l i m i t e d to four organizations. These were the Graduate 97 *Ibid. Belshaw, "Voyage For Knowledge," p. 47. 98, 99 I b i d . 1 0 0 I b i d . 101 T , . . , n  I b i d . , p. 40. 37 Student Cent re , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, an e t h n i c group where a p p r o p r i a t e , and the U.N. Club. Belshaw specu la ted t h a t " . . . perhaps the I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House-ethn ic group complex has l i m i t i n g a s p e c t ; , a n d perhaps the m u l t i f i o u s [ s i c ] and v igorous campus c lubs are i n s u f f i c i e n t l y o r i e n t e d 102 towards an i n t e r e s t i n v o l v i n g the overseas s t u d e n t s . 1 I f t r u e , he commented t h a t I n t e r n a t i o n a l House had a major task to pe r fo rm i n i n -v o l v i n g o r d i n a r y c lubs w i t h overseas s t u d e n t s . Questions r e g a r d i n g the e x c l u s i o n o f academic mat te rs f rom the House and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a more a c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e were a lso d iscussed i n the e x p l o r a -t o r y s t u d y . I n s h o r t , l a c k o f Canadian s tuden t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n House a c t i v i -t i e s , the p a u c i t y o f overseas s tudents i n campus c l u b s , and the p o s s i -b i l i t y o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House be ing " . . . too a d u l t and v o l u n t a r y asso-103 c i a t i o n c e n t e r e d , " g i v i n g a " . . . s u s p i c i o n o f c h a r i t y t o some aspects o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a c t i v i t y , " ' ^ 4 were seen as i n h i b i t i n g f a c t o r s t o the a t ta inmen t o f the goals o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. F i n a l remarks i n c l u d e the sugges t ion t h a t perhaps these and o t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s could be lessened i f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House were a s tuden t run c lub o r i e n t e d towards achievement o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House o b j e c t i v e s , i f i t were a f a c u l t y - s t u d e n t p a r t n e r s h i p a long the l i n e s o f World U n i v e r s i t y S e r v i c e , or i f t h e r e were more c o n s c i o u s l y - o r i e n t e d a c t i o n w i t h i n i t s p resent framework. ^ 5 102 Belshaw, "Voyage For Knowledge," p. 48. 103 T , . . c o 104 T , I b i d . , p. 52. I b i d . 1 0 5 I b i d . 38 The concerns expressed i n the above s tudy were f u r t h e r i n d i -cated f o u r years l a t e r when a committee was e s t a b l i s h e d by the Board of D i r e c t o r s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House " . . . t o cons ider the o b j e c t i v e s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House and p o l i c i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o these o b j e c t i v e s 106 . . . . " This Committee f e l t t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s were adequate ly expressed i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House C o n s t i t u t i o n and t h e r e f o r e concen-t r a t e d on p r a c t i c a l r a t h e r than t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . " ^ 7 I t s f i n d i n g s , a l though d i f f i c u l t t o assess because of the l a c k o f c l a r i f i -c a t i o n o r d i scuss ion rega rd ing a c t u a l respondents , were based on r e s u l t s ob ta ined f rom a twenty i t e m m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e type q u e s t i o n n a i r e which was c i r c u l a t e d t o users and non-users o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, as w e l l as , on the op in ions o f a number o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n c l u d i n g those most 108 i n t i m a t e l y concerned w i t h the runn ing o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. I n i t s r e p o r t the committee i n d i c a t e d t h a t " . . . the p r imary f u n c t i o n o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i s a s o c i a l one, bu t t h a t o rgan ized 109 f u n c t i o n s and meetings a lso c o n t r i b u t e much t o i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . " Changes i n the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n were seen as hav ing the p o t e n t i a l f o r the g r e a t e s t a l t e r a t i o n t o the present f u n c t i o n i n g of the House .^® 106 Minutes o f the Board o f D i r e c t o r s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, January 24 , 1967. 107 I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Annual Report, Four th Annual General Meet ing , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U . B . C , November 7, 1967, p. 16. 108 Frank Hamlin e t a l . , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Study R e p o r t , " U . B . C , 1967, p. 1 . (Mimeographed.) 1 0 9 T , . , , I b i d . , p. 3. " ^ " ^ I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Annual Repor t , 1967, p. 16. 39 S o c i a l and maturational b a r r i e r s between graduate and undergraduate students were recognized and the greater percentage of graduate students among overseas students was acknowledged, and both were seen as major factors i n the i n t e r a c t i o n between the Canadian and overseas students. Responses on the questionnaire also i n d i c a t e d that those who v i s i t e d the House most frequently f e l t I n t e r n a t i o n a l House had been h e l p f u l i n broadening t h e i r understanding of other countries. Forty-two per cent of the respondents wanted to see the community and f a c u l t y involved i n a c t i v i t i e s at I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, and a large number strongly supported the involvement of other i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y oriented organizations and groups. The two most d i f f i c u l t problems f o r overseas students were ranked by both Canadian and non-Canadian as " s o c i a l adjustment" and "language," with accommodation reported as a fur t h e r major problem. With respect to accommodation, d e t a i l s regarding immediate s p e c i f i c room and space u t i l i z a t i o n w i t h i n the House were recommended and i t was suggested that ". . . the only major expansion of premises that might be considered i n the period under review i s to provide s p e c i a l residence a c c o m m o d a t i o n . i n the area of c o u n s e l l i n g , problems were found to be centered around d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with c u l t u r a l adjust-ment to a new m i l i e u . The Committee noted the d i v e r s i t y of problems and drew a t t e n t i o n to the occurrence of " c u l t u r a l misunderstanding," to the v a r i e t y of "habits concerning personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s " and problems of "adjustment i n matter of d i e t , " and of c l o t h i n g . The Committee Hamlin, " i n t e r n a t i o n a l House Study Report," p. 8. 40 suggested that such d i f f i c u l t i e s might be overcome i f there was a s p e c i a l counselling s e r v i c e f o r overseas students and recommended that I n t e r n a t i o n a l House " . . . press f o r a review of student services throughout the Univer-s i t y , recognizing that present services work i n varying and sometimes - . ..112 confusing m a n n e r s . . . . On the subject of s p e c i f i c programs, the Committee suggested that I n t e r n a t i o n a l House should be open at weekends and during vacations providing s t a f f i n g arrangements could be made, and recognized the need f o r more debates, p o s s i b l e involvement i n intramural sports, informal dance lessons and p r o v i s i o n f o r playing chess, bridge, chequers and shuffle-board. The Committee also saw the importance of making the appointment of an Information O f f i c e r , the r e v i s i o n of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House information l e a f l e t s , t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n to a greater number of students, and c l o s e r co-operation of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House groups and other organizations throughout the campus. Summary L i t e r a t u r e searches and d i r e c t contact with those people most concerned with non-Canadian students i n Canada f a i l e d to i d e n t i f y any s i g n i f i c a n t body of research. Although a host of research areas have been defined i n the American context, very l i t t l e documentation e x i s t s or i s r e a d i l y obtainable regarding non-Canadian students' problems, a s p i r a t i o n s , or responses to t h e i r education and experiences i n Canadian Hamlin, "International House Study Report," p. 8. 41 society that would be us e f u l i n a supportive way to improve and shape future programs and approaches to non-Canadian students studying i n Canada. Even though abundant research concerning overseas students e x i s t s i n the United States, much of i t has y i e l d e d l i t t l e because i t has consisted l a r g e l y of small, one i n s t i t u t i o n studies with non-113 generalizable r e s u l t s . Richard E. Spencer stresses that research on fo r e i g n students i n America: . . . s u f f e r s from r e s t r i c t e d and biased sampling, unrepresentativeness, and lack of c o n t r o l over i n t e l -l e c t u a l , l i n g u i s t i c , and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s which might be the "causal" f a c t o r s i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s . No c o n t r o l groups or treatment groups are used, and there i s no evidence of r e p l i c a t i o n . The usual s c i e n t i f i c methodology does not seem to be evident i n fo r e i g n student research. S i g n i f i c a n t l y lacking i n most f o r e i g n student research are studies that c r o s s - v a l i d a t e or r e p l i c a t e findings so that generalizations may be drawn. In Canada, the same lack of progress of documenting and s o l v i n g the problems of non-Canadian students e x i s t s . The problem areas d i s -cussed at the 1961 symposium on "Problems of Overseas Students i n 113L ~lu. K i r s t e i n , ed. , Research Programs f o r Foreign Students - a Report (New York: I n s t i t u t e of In t e r n a t i o n a l Education, 1969), p. 20. 1 1 4 R i c h a r d E. Spencer, "Summary of Paper on the Academic P e r f o r -mance of Foreign Students i n American Colleges and U n i v e r s i t i e s : Comments on the l i t e r a t u r e , 1960-1967," A Report on Research Programs f o r  Foreign Students (New York: I n s t i t u t e of In t e r n a t i o n a l Education, 1969), p. 25. ^ 5 I b i d . , p. 26. 42 C a n a d a , n a m e l y : advance i n f o r m a t i o n , language, r e c e p t i o n , accommo-d a t i o n , s tudent w e l f a r e , f i n a n c e s , i m m i g r a t i o n and employment and e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s are s t i l l h i g h on the l i s t o f " . . . any s i m i l a r group meet ing t o d iscuss concerns of overseas s t u d e n t s , and on ly s l i g h t progress seems t o have been made toward f i n d i n g s o l u t i o n s . On the o the r hand, i n t e r n a t i o n a l houses i n Canada and the U n i t e d States have addressed themselves t o the programs and a c t i v i t i e s concerned w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l houses. I n t e r n a t i o n a l House - New York has seen the n e c e s s i t y o f con t inued s o p h i s t i c a t e d research t o guide i t s deve lop-ment o f programs and a c t i v i t i e s . Canadian Houses contac ted as a p a r t o f t h i s s tudy have expressed concern through s tudy con ferences , and commissions bu t l i t t l e research o f a suppor tab le n a t u r e e x i s t s even though the number o f non-Canadian s tudents i n Canada i s l a r g e . The lack of genera l agreement as t o who should be i n c l u d e d i n the te rm " f o r e i g n s t u d e n t " confuses such work and h i n d e r s comparat ive and meaning-f u l work o f broad a p p l i c a b i l i t y . I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia has addressed i t s e l f t o the problems concerned w i t h the programs and a c t i -v i t i e s o f the House and has a c t i v e l y sought s o l u t i o n s t o them. However, a l though cons ide rab le e f f o r t has been expended i n s o l v i n g the problems f rom year t o year and i n making I n t e r n a t i o n a l House o p e r a t i v e , l i t t l e conce r ted , cont inuous research work o f a s u p p o r t i v e n a t u r e i s a v a i l -able t o a i d programing dec is ions and to guide f u t u r e developments. 116 7 Walmsley, Developments, p. 5 D. B. C la rk et a l . , "Problems o f Overseas Students i n Canada." 11 . CHAPTER 3 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE U.B.C. INTERNATIONAL HOUSE The d i f f u s i o n of the concept of an I n t e r n a t i o n a l House at U.B.C. leading to i t s subsequent l e g i t i m a t i o n has developed as a r e s u l t of the co-operative e f f o r t of a number of U n i v e r s i t y and community organizations. Sparked by the students, encouraged by the President, supported m a t e r i a l l y and f i n a n c i a l l y by community organizations and maintained by the Univer-s i t y on land which i t gave, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i s a product of i n i t i a t i v e , enthusiasm and human e f f o r t of considerable dimension. I n i t i a t e d by people with the aim of obtaining an I n t e r n a t i o n a l House along the l i n e s of the r e s i d e n t i a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l Houses i n New York, Berkeley, and Chicago i n the United States of America, and with an emphasis on a s s i s t i n g those overseas students who came to U.B.C. to study, the House, and the idea behind i t , has undergone considerable change and development over the past twenty years. Concerned with overseas students and i n broadening the i n t e r n a t i o n a l experience of Canadian students, i t has developed as a centre whose functions, programs and developments r e f l e c t an intimate involvement with s p e c i f i c a f f i l i a t e d groups. Closely associated with I n t e r n a t i o n a l House throughout i t s de-velopment have been the students. This group has continued to be the largest body of people using the House, and has to a considerable extent 43 44 given purpose to other a f f i l i a t e d groups. Early i n 1949, Frene Ginwala and F e l i c i t y Pope l a i d the basis f o r one of the f i r s t plans to organize the increasing number of non-Canadian students on the campus. Active i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Relations Club and generally acknowledged as the spark i n the c r i t i c a l mix of overseas and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y aware students, Frene Ginwala had had considerable i n t e r n a t i o n a l exposure.''' Born i n South A f r i c a , she t r a v e l l e d to India i n 1942 and l a t e r to England i n 1946 to undertake studies i n chemical engineering. Unable to obtain admission to a B r i t i s h u n i v e r s i t y she applied to U.B.C, one of the 2 few i n s t i t u t i o n s which had no objections to women engineers. As one of the growing number of overseas students and veterans r e g i s t e r i n g at U.B.C, she ". . . had seen the In t e r n a t i o n a l House i n New York; she had brought with her the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Ideal; and she helped through her i n i t i a t i v e to e s t a b l i s h an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Students' Club on 3 the Campus." At a time when the United Nations Club was discussing a ". . . proposed c o u n c i l of a l l clubs at U.B.C associated with i n t e r n a t i o n a l 4 a f f a i r s to co-ordinate t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . . . " a meeting f o r i n t e r e s t e d students was held Thursday February 23, 1949, to discuss the proposed c o n s t i t u t i o n of an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Students Club. On March 16, 1949, ^P. Ford, "A Monument to Brotherhood, Canada's F i r s t Interna-t i o n a l House," U.B.C. Alumni Chronicle 12 (Summer 1958):24-25. 2 The Daily Ubyssey, U.B.C, Thursday, March 3, 1949. 3 S. E. Read, "Under One Roof," In t e r n a t i o n a l House Quarterly. 19 (Spring 1955):32. 4 The Da i l y Ubyssey, U.B.C, Wednesday, February 22, 1949, p. 3. 45 the execu t i ve was e l e c t e d and the unanimous choice o f the f i f t y members f o r p r e s i d e n t was Frene G i n w a l a . 5 Others on t h i s o r i g i n a l execu t i ve were F e l i c i t y Pope, V i c e - p r e s i d e n t ; Joan Gonasson, program d i r e c t o r ; Peter S t e c k l , t r e a s u r e r ; and Ern ie Payne, s e c r e t a r y . ^ The now Pres iden t Emeritus N.A.M. MacKenzie accepted honorary pres idency o f the c l u b . The aims o f the c lub were : t o get v i s i t i n g s tudents and Canadian s tuden ts to meet t o g e t h e r on an i n t i m a t e b a s i s ; t o f a c i l i t a t e the exchange o f i deas ; t o he lp f o r e i g n s tudents t o become acquainted w i t h campus l i f e ; and t o a i d i n the es tab l i shment o f an I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. 7 Wi th the f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s c l u b , the s tuden ts had g i ven a major t h r u s t t o the idea o f an I n t e r n a t i o n a l House on campus. L a t e r , a few s t u d e n t s , f e e l i n g t h a t the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S tuden ts ' g Club tended t o be too s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d , pressed f o r a s p e c i f i c com-m i t t e e t o concen t ra te p r i m a r i l y on the es tab l i shment o f an I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. A committee c o n s i s t i n g o f Peter S t e c k l , Joan Gonasson and Anne Harvey met s e v e r a l t imes w i t h Dr. W. G. Black t o make i n i t i a l p lans 9 f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f such an o r g a n i z a t i o n . This commit tee, which was formed i n 1950 and c o - e x i s t e d w i t h the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S tudents ' Club f o r t h ree years be fo re they amalgamated t o inc rease t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s , saw Acadia Camp as an I n t e r n a t i o n a l res idence . I t viewed the camp, 5 F o r l i s t o f subsequent p r e s i d e n t s see Appendix 2. 6 The D a i l y Ubyssey, U . B . C , Thursday, March 3, 1949. 7 The D a i l y Ubyssey, U . B . C , Wednesday, February 22, 1949, p. 3. g I n t e r v i e w between the w r i t e r and Mr. Peter S t e c k l , Ot tawa, February 9 , 1973. 9 L e t t e r f rom Dr. W. G. Black t o Pro fessor Stan ley Read, Sep-tember 12, 1957 (U.B.C. A r c h i v e s ) . 46 w i t h i t s l a r g e number o f overseas s tudents and v e t e r a n s , as an i d e a l l o c a t i o n f o r the nucleus o f a f u t u r e I n t e r n a t i o n a l H o u s e . I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n , B. C. Chapter , the newly formed " p a r e n t " group"^ suppor ted and helped the s tuden t commit tee, under the d i r e c t i o n 12 o f Peter S t e c k l , t o o b t a i n Acadia Camp as a temporary I n t e r n a t i o n a l House d i r e c t e d by the Acadia Counc i l and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Com-m i t t e e i n March 1951. As s t a t e d i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n adopted i n the F a l l o f 1951, the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Committee, under the pres idency o f Ragbir Singh Basi had made concre te progress towards the f u l f i l l m e n t o f i t s o b j e c t i v e s ; 1 . To f i n d ways and means f o r the es tab l i shment o f a permanent I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a t U . B . C , which w i l l b e , as w e l l as a home on the Campus and a p lace f o r i n d i v i d u a l s tudents o f d i v e r s e backgrounds t o form l a s t i n g f r i e n d s h i p s , a House ded ica ted to the promot ion o f under-s tand ing and f e l l o w s h i p among the peoples o f the w o r l d . 2 . To d i r e c t an exper iment i n the a c t u a l work ing o f a temporary I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a t Acadia Camp, and t o f u n c t i o n i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h Acadia Camp Counc i l u n t i l such t ime as a permanent I n t e r n a t i o n a l 13 House i s e s t a b l i s h e d . ^ " P r o p o s a l o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Commit tee," f o r meet ing convened by Mr. Peter S t e c k l ( U . B . C A r c h i v e s ) . ^ F o r a l i s t o f past p r e s i d e n t s of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n - B. C. Chapter , see Appendix 3. 12 The Ubyssey, U . B . C , Thursday, March 29, 1951. 13 The C o n s t i t u t i o n o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Committee (Mimeo-graphed) . On October 2 1 , 1951, Dr. N.A.M. MacKenzie, f i r m l y s u p p o r t i n g the i d e a l s behind the movement, o f f i c i a l l y opened I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a t U . B . C , w i t h Mrs. Sherwood L e t t . Dur ing the ceremony the Consular Corps o f Vancouver assured the s tudents of t h e i r f u l l s u p p o r t , and the newly formed I n t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n presented a poster-emblem symbo l i z ing the i d e a l "That Brotherhood May P r e v a i l " th roughout the 14 w o r l d . " I n i t s f i r s t y e a r , the major p a r t o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Committee's a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i s t e d o f the Sunday D i n n e r s , w i t h Swedish, Spanish, Burmese, Chinese, French and E t h i o p i a n d inners complemented by a u t h o r i t a t i v e speakers d i s c u s s i n g some aspect o f t h e i r n a t i o n ' s l i f e . The same y e a r , averag ing a d a i l y a t tendance o f 120 s t u d e n t s , a f i v e - d a y "Canadian O r i e n t a t i o n S e r i e s " - the f i r s t t o be g iven i n Canada - was i n i t i a t e d . Spec ia l events i n c l u d e d a s e r i e s f e a t u r i n g I n d i a n cab ine t m i n i s t e r s who presented a s e r i e s o f l e c t u r e s on v a r i o u s aspects o f I n d i a n c u l t u r e , a group o f w o r l d - t r a v e l l e d s tuden ts f rom France, and a p o l i t i c a l debate. The f i r s t "Congress o f Vienna B a l l , " organized i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n , a lso was h e l d and p rov ided the means " . . . t o i n i t i a t e a b u i l d i n g fund f o r a permanent I n t e r n a t i o n a l House on the Campus, i n -the t r a d i t i o n o f the p resent houses i n New York , Rome, P a r i s , Havana, and o ther c i t i e s a l l over the w o r l d . I n a d d i t i o n , the s tuden ts rece ived a Christmas 14 The-Ubyssey, F r i d a y , October 26 , 1951 , p. 2. "'""'Annual Report o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Committee, 1951-52 (Mimeographed). 1 6 I b i d . 48 present o f a card t a b l e , cha i r s and lamps f rom the Zonta Club o f Van-couver , r e p r e s e n t i n g the f i r s t , concre te a c t i o n by community o r g a n i -z a t i o n s . A l though the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Committee had been one o f the more a c t i v e campus o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i t had been o p e r a t i n g w i t h o u t an o f f i c e o r room.' '" 7 F o l l o w i n g i t s success i n o b t a i n i n g an o f f i c e i n 18 Acadia Camp, however, committee members suppor ted by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n - B. C. Chapter , a t tempted t o secure hu t f o r t y - t w o f o r the 1953-54 sess ion to serve as a temporary r e s i d e n t i a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l House and as a community cen t re f o r meetings and a c t i v i t i e s . Desp i te concerted a c t i o n by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Committee and o t h e r s , e f f o r t s t o l ay the bas i s f o r a r e s i d e n t i a l house were not s u c c e s s f u l . I n c o n t r a s t , the long term goa l o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a permanent I n t e r n a t i o n a l House was moving nearer as i t became c l e a r t h a t a r e a l d r i v e towards r a i s i n g funds f o r a house cou ld not be made u n t i l an adequate board of t r u s t e e s was e s t a b l i s h e d . The s tudents brought the 19 mat te r t o the a t t e n t i o n o f the Pres iden t o f the U n i v e r s i t y who i n d i -20 cated he was i n favour o f i t , and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n -21 B. C. Chapter suggested and acted on i t themselves and i n c o - o p e r a t i o n 1 7 T h e Ubyssey, U .B .C. , Thursday, October 2 , 1952. "'"^Minutes o f the Execut ive Meet ing o f the B. C. Chapter o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n , October 10, 1952. 19 Memorandum t o Dr. N.A.M. MacKenzie, P r e s i d e n t , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, f rom Robert Loosemore, Chairman I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Committee, September 20, 1952. 20 Minutes o f Execu t ive Meet ing o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Asso-c i a t i o n , October 10, 1952. 2 1 I b i d . 22 w i t h the s t u d e n t s . C o i n c i d i n g w i t h t h i s , the re had been a s h i f t i n the p o s i t i o n of non-Canadian s tudents on the campus: Because of the growing awareness and acceptance by a l l campus groups o f the f o r e i g n s tudents a t U . B . C , the p u r e l y s o c i a l needs o f the f o r e i g n s tudent were d i m i n i s h i n g , and the necess i t y f o r a c lub o r i e n t e d express ly towards h i s i n t e g r a t i o n lessened a c c o r d i n g l y . 2 3 I n view o f these f a c t o r s i t was decided t o amalgamate the I n t e r -n a t i o n a l S tudents ' Club and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Committee t o fo rm the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Club which t o g e t h e r w i t h the I n t e r n a t i o n a l 24 House A s s o c i a t i o n , suggested f i v e I .H .A . members as T r u s t e e s . They were Mr. Thomas F l i n n , Mrs. E l l e n H a r r i s , P ro fessor S. E. Read, Miss M a r j o r i e Smith and Dr. Murray Cowie. The Board o f Governors o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y gave t h e i r approva l and the group became r e s p o n s i b l e f o r promot ing the idea o f an I n t e r n a t i o n a l House and f o r s t i m u l a t i n g i n -25 t e r e s t i n and suppor t o f such an u n d e r t a k i n g . Dr . N.A.M. MacKenzie became an e x - o f f i c i o member. Dr . H e r r i c k Young, D i r e c t o r o f I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House I n c . , and Dr. D.C.G. MacKay, a t tended as guests a t the f i r s t meet ing where Mr. T. F l i n n , Marpole R o t a r y , was e l e c t e d as the 22 L e t t e r t o Dr. N.A.M. MacKenzie, P r e s i d e n t , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f rom Robert Loosemore, Chairman, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Committee, December 10, 1952. 23 I n t e r n a t i o n a l House N e w s l e t t e r , "A B r i e f H i s t o r y o f I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Clubs at U.B.C. - 1945-55 , " January 1956, p. 4 (Mimeographed). 24 L e t t e r t o Dr. N.A.M. MacKenzie, P r e s i d e n t , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, f rom M a r j o r i e J . Smi th , P r e s i d e n t , B. C. Chapter , I . H . A . , May 4 , 1953. 25 L e t t e r t o Miss M a r j o r i e J . Smi th , P r e s i d e n t , B. C. Chapter , I . H . A . , f rom Dr. N.A.M. MacKenzie, P r e s i d e n t , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, June 16, 1953. 50 26 27 f i r s t chairman and Dr. M. A. Cowie as secretary. The o f f i c i a l machinery and l e g i t i m a t i o n of the idea for the further development of an I n t e r n a t i o n a l House was now established. Within i t s f i r s t month of existence, t h i s small group of Trus-tees recommended and secured the appointment of a part-time f o r e i g n student advisor and a part-time d i r e c t o r of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House and the establishment of a Trust Fund ". . . to receive and disburse 28 monies which may from time to time be made a v a i l a b l e to the Board." They also recommended that a hut be released f o r use as an I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Centre. The l a t t e r recommendation and the e f f o r t s of the three main organizations involved, Zonta, Marpole Rotary, and I.H.A., r e s u l t e d i n the U n i v e r s i t y providing a hut at a time when there was an acute shortage of b u i l d i n g s . Manpower and money made a v a i l a b l e by Marpole Rotary's i n t e r -n a t i o n a l committee renovated the 26 x 52 foot hut which featured knotty pine w a l l s , d i r e c t o r ' s o f f i c e , kitchen, and a w a l l - s i z e d map of the world; Zonta and the Faculty Women's Club supplied the f u r n i t u r e ; and I.H.A. 29 contributed kitchen equipment. On March 16, 1954, the Ubyssey c a r r i e d 26 For a l i s t of past Chairmen of the Board of D i r e c t o r s of International House see Appendix 4. 27 Minutes of the f i r s t meeting of the Board of Trustees f o r an International House at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, September 29, 1953 at the home of Dr. M. A. Cowie. 28 L e t t e r to Dr. N.A.M. MacKenzie, President, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia from Dr. M. A. Cowie, Secretary, Board of Trustees for an I n t e r n a t i o n a l House at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, November 23, 1953. 29 Interview between the w r i t e r and Mr. T. F l i n n , then Chairman, Marpole Rotary Club's I n t e r n a t i o n a l Committee and Chairman, Board of Trustees, October 17, 1972. 51 30 the headlines " P r e s i d e n t i a l N a i l Opens I.H.A. Clubroom." With the President and Mrs. Sherwood Lett o f f i c i a t i n g at the opening, the f i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Centre i n Canada came i n t o existence. Although i t was not a r e s i d e n t i a l House, an objec t i v e of the I.H.A. and i t s student members had been achieved and the problem of a meeting place solved. In a d d i t i o n , the l a t e r appointment of an Int e r n a t i o n a l House Di r e c -31 t o r provided the or g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t i n u i t y and student-centred adminis-t r a t i v e advice that had been la c k i n g . Moreover, as a r e s u l t of the opening of the Centre, student membership i n the I.H.A. rose from 62 to 204. Enthusiasm f o r a permanent house grew. Support and impetus f o r the idea of b u i l d i n g I n t e r n a t i o n a l House came from many sources i n c l u d i n g Dr. Herrick Young, Marpole Rotary members, I.H.A. members and Dr. N.A.M. MacKenzie. The Vancouver Rotary Club, on October 12, 1954, following extensive correspondence between Professor Stanley Read 32 and Mr. Leon Ladner, accepted a committee proposal headed by Mr. Tom Ladner to undertake the establishment of an I n t e r n a t i o n a l House on the U.B.C. campus. Mr. Leon Ladner was given r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r developing plans and r a i s i n g funds f o r the b u i l d i n g , furnishings and landscaping of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, at a cost of not les s than $150,000. A t r u s t fund was established and trustees authorized to administer sums of The Ubyssey, U.B.C, Tuesday, March 16, 1954. 31 For a l i s t of past Di r e c t o r s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House see Appen-dix 5. 32 Much of t h i s correspondence i s i n U.B.C Archives. 52 money deposited by the Vancouver Rotary Club f o r 1 1. . . the purpose of 33 b u i l d i n g the f i r s t u nit of Int e r n a t i o n a l House." Later, i n response to the complexity of developments, a Board of Directors of In t e r n a t i o n a l House with an enlarged membership and a c o n s t i t u t i o n , responsible to the Board of Governors of the U n i v e r s i t y , was f i n a l i z e d , with Dr. Murrie Cowie as chairman. 34 The f i r s t meeting of the In t e r n a t i o n a l House executive was held December 12, 1955, to consider the p r o v i s i o n of funds f o r the functioning of the Board of Directors of In t e r n a t i o n a l House, and the formation of the b u i l d i n g committee. Under the continued drive of committee chairman, Mrs. R. C. H a r r i s , enthusiasm was maintained, b u i l d i n g plans provided by Professor F r e d e r i c Lasserre, and on November 20, 1957, the s o c i a l unit of an In t e r n a t i o n a l House complex was begun. Enthusiasm spread, and as construction neared completion, i n t e r i o r decorating expertise was donated by Mrs. Simone Holloway, and the move from the old hut was celebrated by the students' Shipwreck party, Novem-ber 14, 1958. The new House was o f f i c i a l l y opened by Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt on March 4, 1959. In the days followi n g , Dr. Margaret Mead and others "'"'Membership l e t t e r , Rotary Club of Vancouver from Mr. Theo Berry, President of Rotary Club of Vancouver, and Mr. Leon Ladner, Chairman, Rotary Committee f o r In t e r n a t i o n a l House Fund (not dated). 34 Chairman, Dr. Murrie Cowie; Vice Chairman, Mr. R. C. H a r r i s ; Secretary, Dr. Donald C. G. MacKay; Chairman Board of Trustees, Professor E. D. MacPhee; Pub l i c Relations, Professor S. E. Read; Membership, Miss Kay Gurrie; Programs, Mr. Jacob Lunder - Minutes of the F i r s t Meeting of the Executive of the In t e r n a t i o n a l House Board of D i r e c t o r s , December 12, 1955. 53 p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a symposium on "Can Brotherhood P r e v a i l i n the Space Age," the students gave an i n t e r n a t i o n a l concert, and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House As s o c i a t i o n - B.C. Chapter arranged a banquet and Candle-Lighting 35 Ceremony. The co-operative e f f o r t s , enthusiasm and d r i v e of many, 36 supported by major money donors, had come to f r u i t i o n . The f i r s t permanent In t e r n a t i o n a l House i n Canada was i n operation. I t s purposes were to promote: . . . understanding and goodwill among the students of d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s and races attending the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and thereby f o s t e r i n g more f r i e n d l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and world peace. As an i n c i -dent to t h i s purpose, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i s to be provided with a house on the campus of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia which s h a l l be a centre of i t s a c t i v i t i e s and i n which students of d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s and races may l i v e and study i n a s s o c i a t i o n with one another.37 ^ T h e Candlelight Ceremony, a t r a d i t i o n of the New York Inter-n a t i o n a l House symbolizes the meaning of the House to the world at large. There, each student i s provided with a candle and a progression of l i g h t i s begun from the head table, the flame from one candle being kindled from another u n t i l the room i s aglow with hundreds of t i n y l i g h t s . Then i n unison the students pledge t h e i r determination to carry to the outerworld the sense of fellowship gained by t h e i r e x p e r i -ence i n the House. Kathryn Close, "That Brotherhood May P r e v a i l , " reprinted from the Autumn 1944 issue of The I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Quarterly, revised A p r i l 1, 1952, p. 12. 36 Rotary Club of Vancouver, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Rotary Club of Marpole, Zonta Club of Vancouver, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Ass o c i a t i o n , B. C. Chapter, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Club, Consular Corps, KVOS Bellingham, R. M. M i l l e r Memorial Fund, i n a d d i t i o n to the many donors both i n d i v i d u a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l who had contributed to the B u i l d i n g Fund, Furnishing Fund, and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House L i b r a r y . 37 The C o n s t i t u t i o n of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, as approved by the Board of Governors of the Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, September 26, 1955. 54 The new International House was seen by many involved i n i t s establishment as only a f i r s t step toward a r e s i d e n t i a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l House complex. Following the i n i t i a l construction of the House, the focus of i n t e r e s t s h i f t e d to i t s function and development. The nature of i t s operation, future development and r e l a t i o n s h i p to associated groups became c e n t r a l issues. By 1961-62, u n i v e r s i t y residences i n general were under discussion. Supporters of the concept of In t e r -n a t i o n a l House as a r e s i d e n t i a l house f e l t that i t would not achieve 38 i t s r e a l purpose without the pro v i s i o n of residences. They argued that an Int e r n a t i o n a l House was not simply a h o t e l - l i k e residence but a centre where non-Canadian and Canadian students could broaden t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l experiences. They bel i e v e d that the d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n of d i f f e r i n g backgrounds and cultures i n d a i l y l i f e could do more to d i s p e l differences than any other academic, c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l 39 attempt at c r y s t a l l i z i n g the v i s i o n of "one world." Although the Board of Directors of In t e r n a t i o n a l House estab-l i s h e d a dormitory fund f o r the development of a r e s i d e n t i a l Inter-n a t i o n a l House, i t d i d not eventuate. Counterarguments were r a i s e d with respect to the d e s i r a b i l i t y of segregating the non-Canadian students 40 from the re s t of the campus i n one p a r t i c u l a r residence and of providing 38 L e t t e r to Dr. P h y l l i s Ross, Chancellor, U.B.C. from Dr. P. Ford, past I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Board of Directo r s Chairman, June 18, 1962. 39 President's Annual Report, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n , June 3, 1964. 40 Reprint of l e t t e r from President J . B. MacDonald to Mr. C. Wakely, Chairman, Board of D i r e c t o r s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, August 16, 1962. 55 them with s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . As w e l l , concern was expressed regarding the d e s i r a b i l i t y of l i m i t i n g the function of the House to a closed structure rather than pressing f o r an open s t r u c t u r e which would allow f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y of i t becoming a centre " . . . that would br i n g 41 together a l l campus a c t i v i t i e s i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i e l d . " Despite the f a c t that the House has not become a r e s i d e n t i a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, the t r a d i t i o n s of the New York and other r e s i d e n t i a l houses and t h e i r alumni have h e a v i l y influenced i t s development. In i t s present form, however, In t e r n a t i o n a l House at U.B.C. has no s p e c i f i c parent establishment on which to pattern i t s a c t i v i t i e s as a non-residen-t i a l house. Instead, i t s function and "raison d'etre" have evolved i n i t s own s e t t i n g , and c l a r i f i c a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n of the House as an i n s t i t u t i o n have occurred with the implementation and a r t i c u l a t i o n of i t s programed a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t e d concerns. One such concern was the expansion of House a c t i v i t i e s so i t would become ". . . an i n t e r n a t i o n a l centre coordinating a c t i v i t i e s of student and f a c u l t y groups, U n i v e r s i t y departments and community . i.42 organizations whose objectives are i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n nature. In 1962, with the p o s s i b i l i t y of centering the a c t i v i t i e s of the United Nations Club, World U n i v e r s i t y Service, Commonwealth Club, 41 L e t t e r to Mr. W. C. Wakely, Chairman, Board of D i r e c t o r s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, from Mr. A. H. Sager, D i r e c t o r , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, J u l y 6, 1962. 4 2 I b i d . 56 Canadian U n i v e r s i t y Services Overseas and eventually, the student ethnic groups, at Int e r n a t i o n a l House, i t seemed to the D i r e c t o r to be ". . . l o g i c a l to locate permanently at the House the United Nations Educational 43 Centre and other u n i v e r s i t y undertakings i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i e l d . " Indeed, the i n t e g r a t i o n of the United Nations Educational Centre with 44 I n t e r n a t i o n a l House was approved by the Board of Governors i n May 1962, and the Canadian U n i v e r s i t y Service Overseas Committee lodged there on a t r i a l b a s i s . By September, however, the United Nat-ions Educational Centre was dissolved and the Director's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t r a n s f e r r e d to the a c t i v i t i e s of the House. At t h i s point a major c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the function of In t e r -n a t i o n a l House appears to have developed. In a l e t t e r to the chairman of the Board of D i r e c t o r s , the recommendation from the new President of the U n i v e r s i t y stated that " . . . any recommendations made by the Board of Directors should be l i m i t e d to areas which would not c o n f l i c t with the proper r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of other agencies w i t h i n the Univer-s i t y . " H J In h i s personal view the . . . wise function of the House might include p r i m a r i l y the p r o v i s i o n of a s u i t a b l e o r i e n t a t i o n program f o r f o r e i g n 43 L e t t e r to Mr. W. C. Wakely, Chairman, Board of D i r e c t o r s , International House, from Mr. A. H. Sager, D i r e c t o r , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, Ju l y 6, 1962. 44 L e t t e r to Dr. J . B. MacDonald, President, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i -t i s h Columbia, from Mr. W. C. Wakely, Chairman, Board of D i r e c t o r s , International House, August 6, 1962. 45 L e t t e r to Mr. W. C. Wakely, Chairman, In t e r n a t i o n a l House Board of D i r e c t o r s , from Dr. J . B. MacDonald, President, U.B.C, August 16, 1962. students newly a r r i v e d on the campus and secondly, the pr o v i s i o n of a centre f or student a c t i v i t i e s (preferably open to a l l students) i n which the program i s designed to provide an i n t e r n a t i o n a l f l a v o r to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r student function.^6 The i n i t i a l thrust of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House movement had been towards the establishment of a r e s i d e n t i a l house. Later, an attempt had been made to centre at the House a l l U n i v e r s i t y a c t i v i t i e s which were i n t e r -n a t i o n a l i n nature. Both p o s s i b l e developments were truncated and the prime concern of the House became the programs and services i t could o f f e r to non-Canadian and Canadian students. In review, from i t s beginning as a centre f o r groups of persons in t e r e s t e d i n the needs of non-Canadian students and i n broadening the outlook and i n s i g h t s of Canadian students, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House evolved as a centre f o r a group of organizations, a l l helping s e v e r a l l y , but without c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of the function of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the Board of D i r e c t o r s , the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f and the a f f i l i a t e d groups. By the end of 1964, following the incorporation of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Club and I n t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n , B. C. Chapter i n t o I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, i t had evolved as a u n i f i e d s t r u c t u r e with a f u l l -47 time d i r e c t o r , a Board of Direct o r s and a number of committees. I t i s w i t h i n t h i s s t r u c t u r e that I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has since developed. 46 Le t t e r to Mr. W. C. Wakely, Chairman, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Board of D i r e c t o r s , from Dr. J . B. MacDonald, U.B.C, August 16, 1962. 47 These committees are l i s t e d i n Appendix 6. CHAPTER 4 AFFILIATED GROUPS, MEMBERSHIP, PERSONNEL, PLANT From a general discussion of the d i f f u s i o n of the idea, to the f i n a l l e g i t i m a t i o n of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i n the previous chapter, l e t us now turn to a more s p e c i f i c d e s c r i p t i o n of the groups a f f i l i a t e d with the House and t h e i r d i r e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n to i t . Included are des-c r i p t i o n s of the House's membership, personnel and p h y s i c a l p l a n t , each e s s e n t i a l to an understanding of the functioning of the House. A f f i l i a t e d Groups Student Groups The development, functions and programs of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House r e f l e c t an intimate involvement with s p e c i f i c a f f i l i a t e d groups. One such group, the students, has been c l o s e l y associated with I n t e r n a t i o n a l House throughout i t s development. Both the In t e r n a t i o n a l Students' Club, formed i n 1949, and the In t e r n a t i o n a l House Committee, c o n s t i -tuted i n 1951, worked f o r the establishment of an In t e r n a t i o n a l House on campus. By 1953, following the amalgamation of the In t e r n a t i o n a l Students' Club and the Int e r n a t i o n a l House Committee, the students functioned as a committee of the Int e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n - B. C. Chapter -58 as student members of the alumni group, and at the same time as a club under the student Alma Mater Society. This arrangement which involved dual a l l e g i a n c e had many confusing aspects and i n 1955 the students formed t h e i r own r e g u l a r l y constituted organization w i t h i n the Alma Mater Society of U.B.C, known as the In t e r n a t i o n a l House Club. I t s purpose was to furth e r friendship and goodwill among nations and people i n whatever ways poss i b l e toward the furtherance of the motto - "That Brotherhood May P r e v a i l . " I t s i n t e n t i o n was to work toward the estab-lishment of a permanent Int e r n a t i o n a l House. "^  I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Club maintained the aims and objectives of the world-wide I n t e r n a t i o n a l House As s o c i a t i o n ; i t was a f f i l i a t e d with the students' c o u n c i l , and had representatives on the I.H.A., the Council f o r Frien d l y Relations with Overseas Students, and the Inte r n a t i o n a l House Board of D i r e c t o r s . I t was housed at f i r s t i n a temporary hut, continued as a club when the permanent I n t e r n a t i o n a l House was o f f i c i a l l y opened i n 1959, and remained as a club u n t i l 1964 when i t was replaced by a standing committee of the Board of Di r e c t o r s of the Int e r n a t i o n a l House, known as the Program and Service Committee, and since 1970, as the In t e r n a t i o n a l Students' Program Committee. Formed as an open-ended committee, i t consisted of twenty to t h i r t y i n t e r e s t e d students and enabled emerging leadership to p a r t i c i p a t e 2 at any time. "'"The C o n s t i t u t i o n of the In t e r n a t i o n a l House Club (I n t e r n a t i o n a l House f i l e s ) . 2 Inte r n a t i o n a l House Notes, March 1965 (International House f i l e s ) . 60 The U n i v e r s i t y The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia has been inti m a t e l y asso-ciated with the development of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House idea on campus. President Emeritus Senator N.A.M. MacKenzie provided an administration that was receptive to the idea of an I n t e r n a t i o n a l House and f a c i l i t a t e d i t s establishment. He and other i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y i n t e r e s t e d f a c u l t y members s u b s t a n t i a l l y aided the development of the House by c r e a t i n g a climate f o r , and i n t e r e s t i n , such i n t e r n a t i o n a l endeavours. This i s evidenced by the U n i v e r s i t y ' s i n t e r e s t i n non-Canadian students and the money and f a c i l i t i e s which have been provided and maintained on a continuing basis with respect to the land, landscaping, s t a f f and operational finances. In a d d i t i o n , the Board of Dir e c t o r s of I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House i s responsible to the Board of Governors of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Rotary Clubs Dedicated to the advancement of i n t e r n a t i o n a l understanding, goodwill and peace through a world-fellowship of business and profes-s i o n a l men united i n the i d e a l of s e r v i c e , Rotary Clubs i n B r i t i s h Columbia have made s i g n i f i c a n t contributions to the establishment and development of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. The Rotary Clubs of Vancouver and Marpole (now Vancouver South) have f o r many years supported I n t e r n a t i o n a l House with leadership, funds and f a c i l i t i e s . Marpole Rotary became acti v e very early i n the development of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House idea on campus and supplied the needed i n i t i a t i v e , leadership and manpower to obtain and renovate the army hut that served as the f i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Centre i n Canada. To honour the f i f t i e t h anniversary of Rotary I n t e r n a t i o n a l , the Vancouver Rotary Club made the present House f i n a n -c i a l l y possible by r a i s i n g $150,000 f o r i t s construction. R e f l e c t i n g continuing support, the Chairman of the f i r s t Board of Trustees f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l House was a Rotarian, Mr. Thomas F l i n n , and a large number of the chairmen of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Board of Directors have been Rotary members and were a c t i v e i n the Inter-n a t i o n a l House As s o c i a t i o n and the Council f o r F r i e n d l y Relations with Overseas Students during the formative years of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the Rotary Clubs of Vancouver and Vancouver South have e x - o f f i c i o membership on the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Board of D i r e c t o r s . Moreover, these and other Rotary Clubs i n the province continue to show an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House through support f o r tours, v i s i t s to such communities as Powell River, and Penticton, and the extension of h o s p i t a l i t y to overseas students. In a d d i t i o n , a c t i v e f i n a n c i a l support f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i s represented by s u b s t a n t i a l cash contributions toward the expansion of kitchen f a c i l i t i e s i n the House. International House As s o c i a t i o n - B. C. Chapter The B r i t i s h Columbia chapter of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Asso-c i a t i o n Inc. was formed i n 1950. I t obtained i t s charter i n 1951 and has since been a group comprised mainly of alumni of r e s i d e n t i a l I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Houses who l i v e i n the Vancouver area and a large number of associate members who have had an i n t e r e s t i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House idea. I t had representatives on the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Board of 62 D i r e c t o r s , The Vancouver Council f o r F r i e n d l y Relations with Overseas 3 Students and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House As s o c i a t i o n Inc. i n New York. Apart from meetings, the Chapter's a c t i v i t i e s focused upon students by providing a Tea f o r new overseas students i n the f a l l of each year, a F a l l F a i r organized i n co-operation with the students and ethnic groups, Sunday Night Dinners, h o s p i t a l i t y , co-operation with other groups i n t e r e s t e d i n overseas students, f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i -butions to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House and the s e t t i n g up and operation of the snack bar i n the permanent House. Since i t s i n c e p t i o n , the B. C. Chapter worked f o r the establishment of a r e s i d e n t i a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l House on the U.B.C. campus patterned on the idea of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Houses as they existed at such s i t e s as New York, Chicago, and Berkeley. Apart from f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Asso-c i a t i o n was a major supportive and i n f l u e n t i a l force i n the development of International House, U.B.C. Its members, i n co-operation with student groups, did much of the pioneering work associated with introducing, d i f f u s i n g and l e g i t i m a t i n g the idea of an I n t e r n a t i o n a l House and ob-t a i n i n g the present b u i l d i n g on the U.B.C. campus. Through Sunday Night Suppers and other programs they i n t e r e s t e d organizations and i n d i v i d u a l s i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House movement, and were involved i n a l l developments contr i b u t i n g to the evolution of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C. Appendix 7 provides background information on the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Association Inc. i n New York. 63 In June 1964, Int e r n a t i o n a l House As s o c i a t i o n Incorporated -B. C. Chapter amalgamated with I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C. In recog-n i t i o n of t h i s f a c t o r , many programs of I.H.A. became t r a d i t i o n a l pro-grams of the House, and the purpose of In t e r n a t i o n a l House, as i n d i c a t e d i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n was broadened to include . . . the stimu l a t i o n of p u b l i c support f o r the Inter-n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of the U n i v e r s i t y and the a c t i v i t i e s of I nternational House, and, where s u i t a b l e , the encouraging of analogous i n s t i t u t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s on other campuses and i n other communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia and co-opera-t i o n with other I n t e r n a t i o n a l House organizations.4 In a d d i t i o n , r e f l e c t i n g the major c o n t r i b u t i o n of the organization and i t s members, the majority of Honorary Members of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House are former In t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n members. Vancouver Council f o r F r i e n d l y Relations with Overseas Students As a r e s u l t of an exploratory meeting i n Toronto c a l l e d i n 1949 fo r the representatives of the Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., se r v i c e clubs, com-munity groups, churches, the Canadian Council f o r Reconstruction through U.N.E.S.C.O. (C.C.R.U.), In t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n (Toronto group) and the Int e r n a t i o n a l Student Organization (Toronto U n i v e r s i t y ) , a new Canadian organization known as the National Council f o r F r i e n d l y Relations with Overseas Students (F.R.O.S.) was established to help overseas students Its purpose was to welcome students from other countries and to provide opportunities f o r mutual understanding and appreciation. I t stressed bringing together overseas students and Canadians f o r the mutual The Co n s t i t u t i o n of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971. 64 enrichment of both groups and believed . . . that i t i s a matter of n a t i o n a l and indeed i n t e r -n a t i o n a l importance that the experience of overseas students i n Canada should be as s a t i s f a c t o r y as po s s i b l e , and that t h i s should be of concern to the government, the univer-s i t i e s , and the communities.^ Over the next decade i t worked to e s t a b l i s h contact with e x i s t i n g groups and encouraged the formation of new groups across Canada. As a port of entry f o r non-Canadian students going to the Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and other u n i v e r s i t i e s , Vancouver was of p a r t i -cular i n t e r e s t , and i n 1953, a l o c a l F.R.O.S. community c o u n c i l was established f o r the purpose of co-ordinating the various s e r v i c e s to non-Canadian students, and f o r amplifying and improving such services.** Groups represented were the Zonta Club, I.O.D.E., C a t h o l i c Women's League, s e v e r a l Protestant church groups, U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club, Rotary Club of Vancouver, Marpole Rotary Club and o t h e r s . 7 This volun-tary independent c o u n c i l of twenty-five organizations hoped i t would be able to co-ordinate a c t i v i t i e s to a s s i s t overseas students, and through i t s a c t i v i t i e s , provide a u s e f u l medium f o r exchange of opinions. The Vancouver F.R.O.S. Council found that i t could not f u l f i l l i t s i n i t i a l l y stated purpose of co-ordinating f o r e i g n student welfare 5Mrs. K. R i d d e l l , preliminary d r a f t of "History of F.R.O.S. and I.S.C. i n Toronto," 1973. Dr. W. G. Black was the f i r s t corresponding member of the National F.R.O.S. i n Vancouver. Dr. M. Cowie became the f i r s t chairman of the community c o u n c i l May 20, 1953. 7F.R.0.S. Membership l i s t , May 20, 1953. In 1959 some f o r t y -two groups had F.R.O.S. membership. By 1965 the groups again number twenty-five. g Notes on Friend l y Relations with Overseas Students (U.B.C. Archives), p. 3. 65 9 and assistance and gradually moved in t o the area of d i r e c t a c t i o n . This r e s u l t e d i n an annual Christmas party, student overnight t r i p s to points of i n t e r e s t such as V i c t o r i a and Penticton, day t r i p s i n the Fraser V a l l e y and Vancouver area, teas f o r overseas and Canadian students, transient h o s p i t a l i t y i n homes f o r students en route to other i n s t i t u t i o n s , and other r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . F.R.O.S. was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the reception of overseas students a r r i v i n g at Vancouver, i n c l u d i n g con-t a c t i n g them before they l e f t home, meeting them on a r r i v a l , helping them with housing, and introducing them to the community and to Canadian l i f e i n general. A t t e n t i o n was centered on a l l non-Canadian students at Un i v e r s i t y , i n d u s t r i a l schools, a r t schools, h o s p i t a l s , and on other government-sponsored students. The Vancouver Council was he a v i l y and d i r e c t l y involved with students, and sponsored and worked j o i n t l y with I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i n many a c t i v i t i e s . However, as the programs and s t r u c t u r e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House evolved, F.R.O.S. was faced, as were other organizations, with the d i f f i -c u l t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g a "ra i s o n d ' e t r e . " In 1968, four years a f t e r I.H.A. had amalgamated with I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, an "ad hoc" committee was formed to determine, on the basi s of an assessment of student wishes, the d e s i r a b i l i t y of the continuation of c e r t a i n of the a c t i v i t i e s of F.R.O.S.10 On January 8, 1970, 1 1 the Vancouver Council was formally Notes on F r i e n d l y Relations with Overseas Students (U.B.C. Archives), p. 4. 1 0Minutes of the Board of Directo r s of Int e r n a t i o n a l House, February 29, 1968. 1 : LMinutes of F.R.O.S. meeting, January 8, 1970 (U.B.C. Ar c h i v e s ) . 66 disbanded as an organization. A l l those i n t e r e s t e d were to j o i n Inter-12 n a t i o n a l House on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . The National Council became part of a new organization i n 1964 known as the Canadian Service f o r Overseas Students and Trainees (C.S.O.S.T.) and l a t e r , the Canadian Bureau f o r International Education (C.B.I.E.). Vancouver Zonta Club The B r i t i s h Columbia chapter of Zonta I n t e r n a t i o n a l , an i n t e r -n a t i o n a l women's organization, has been involved with I n t e r n a t i o n a l House since i t s i n c e p t i o n and provides one of the f i r s t , concrete examples of community support f o r the In t e r n a t i o n a l House idea by i t s donation of furnishings f o r the Acadia Camp Centre used by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Students' Club. Since then, i t has contributed i n many ways, i n c l u d i n g both the establishment and program development of the House, and. has made s u b s t a n t i a l contributions towards the fu r n i s h i n g of the e x i s t i n g House. Members have been a c t i v e i n the I.H.A. and F.R.O.S., and an acti v e Zonta member, Mrs. R. C. H a r r i s , chaired the b u i l d i n g committee and the f i r s t Board of Directo r s of the permanent House. In February 1969, when the club was undergoing reorganization and was temporarily i n a c t i v e , the Zonta representative resigned from the Board of Directors of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. Subsequently, the Vancouver Zonta Club disbanded. Executive Meeting of F.R.O.S. Council, November 23, 1969 (U.B.C. Archives). 67 Membership Membership i n International House has included f a c u l t y , students, community groups, i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , campus groups, consulates and other organizations. Before June 30, 1964, membership i n In t e r n a t i o n a l House, other than by representation on the Board of D i r e c t o r s , was not pos s i b l e . Interested people j o i n e d one or other of the a f f i l i a t e d groups which i n turn were represented on the Board of Directo r s and used I n t e r n a t i o n a l House f o r a v a r i e t y of functions and a c t i v i t i e s . O f f i c i a l r ecognition by the U n i v e r s i t y of the wide spectrum of student, f a c u l t y and community i n t e r e s t and involvement i n In t e r -n a t i o n a l House i s i n d i c a t e d by the membership of the Board of Directo r s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. In 1955, i n ad d i t i o n to U n i v e r s i t y represen-t a t i o n , e x - o f f i c i o members of the Board of Directors included the p r e s i -dents of the B. C. Chapter of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n , the Alma Mater Society, the student I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Club executive, three members of the Rotary Clubs of Vancouver, and one nominee of the Zonta Club of Vancouver. Thus, students, f a c u l t y and community were drawn i n t o I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. A f t e r June 30, 1964, the amalgamation of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House As s o c i a t i o n and In t e r n a t i o n a l House and r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the Board of Directors made i t p o s s i b l e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s to become members of the In t e r n a t i o n a l House i n t h e i r own r i g h t . Organizations wishing to i d e n t i f y themselves with the objectives of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House and support i t s a c t i v i t i e s could gain membership by obtaining approval from the Board of Directo r s to be represented on the Board. Automatic 68 e l i g i b i l i t y f o r charter membership was extended to the Rotary Club of Vancouver, the Rotary Club of Marpole (now Vancouver South), the Zonta Club of Vancouver, the Vancouver Council f o r F r i e n d l y Relations with Overseas Students, and the Alma Mater Society of the U n i v e r s i t y . Sus-t a i n i n g , ordinary, and family memberships were a v a i l a b l e and reduced rates were given to any student e n r o l l e d at the U n i v e r s i t y and any trainee i n the Vancouver area who was a guest of the Canadian government. By 1971, however, r e f l e c t i n g the disbanding of s e v e r a l a f f i l i -ated organizations, automatic e l i g i b i l i t y f o r charter membership excluded a l l but the Rotary Club of Vancouver, the Vancouver South Rotary Club, and the Alma Mater Society of the U n i v e r s i t y . Other categories of membership remained the same. Although no membership figures could be located f o r the years 1962 to 1968, the membership s t r u c t u r e changed considerably during t h i s period. In 1964, the student club was replaced by a standing committee of the Board of D i r e c t o r s . Membership i n March 1965, f o r a nominal fee, 13 was optional and was required only f o r voting p r i v i l e g e s . By 1969-70 student membership changed from the holding of membership i n an I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House Club to a s i t u a t i o n i n which membership had, and s t i l l has, l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e other than f o r mailing and voting purposes. Since t h i s time the House has continued to be used f r e e l y by both members and non-members. Inte r n a t i o n a l House Report, March 1965. 69 In 1969-70, only 46 of the 887 student members and 55 of the 14 221 community and f a c u l t y members on the mailing l i s t were paid mem-bers. Student membership was comprised mainly of newly r e g i s t e r e d s t u d e n t s . 1 5 Sixty-two of the 225 community organizations, i n d i v i d u a l s and consulates responded to requests to renew t h e i r membership. In 1970-71 o f f i c i a l membership, as i n d i c a t e d by the mailing l i s t and i n c l u -ding complimentary membership f o r f i r s t year students who f i l l e d out a card, stood at 456 students and 390 community members. At present, membership i n the House does not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e degree of commitment or involvement i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. Some of the most a c t i v e students i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a c t i v i t i e s do not possess membership i n the House. At the end of the year 1971-72, 710 students 16 were on the mailing l i s t as members. Of these, 76 had paid the one d o l l a r fee, 533 were on the mailing l i s t but had not purchased t h e i r membership, and 101 held complimentary memberships. By 1971-72, member-ship i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House seems to have become somewhat i l l - d e f i n e d with a number of students using the House who were n e i t h e r "paid-up" nor "mailing l i s t " members. Although the evaluation of an I n t e r n a t i o n a l House cannot be measured i n terms of numbers, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the sum t o t a l of "paid-up" and "mailing l i s t " student members i n 1971-72 was 1 4 R e p o r t of the Seventh Annual General Meeting of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C., November 10, 1979 (Mimeographed), p. 10. 1 5 I b i d . " ^ I n t e r n a t i o n a l House mailing l i s t and membership cards. 70 smaller than the "club membership" of 1961-62."^ These figures stand i n even sharper contrast i n view of the fac t that over the nine year period, 1963-72, student winter r e g i s t r a t i o n at the Un i v e r s i t y increased by 45.8 percent, from 13,598 to 19,826, and the non-Canadian student enrollment by 105.5 percent, from 1,478 to 3,037. The number of non-Canadian students holding student visas rose by 45.6 percent, from 522 18 to 760, over the same period. As i n the case of student membership, the nature and involvement of community membership has undergone considerable change. The s h i f t from membership i n a f f i l i a t e d groups such as I.H.A. and F.R.O.S. to d i r e c t membership i n the House was p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Increasing from the o r i g i n a l 51 I n t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n members i n 1951, community membership i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House rose to 412 i n 1971-72. On the other hand, i t i s also i n t e r e s t i n g to note the existence of a pattern s i m i l a r to that of student membership. During the academic year 1972-73 for example, only 58 community members renewed t h e i r paid membership."^ Personnel In t e r n a t i o n a l House has a Board of Direct o r s which i s respon-s i b l e to the Board of Governors of the U n i v e r s i t y . The Board of D i r e c -tors has a number of standing committees to carry out i t s work which ^ F o r l i s t of student membership see Appendix 8. 18 Academic Planning O f f i c e , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 19 The number of community membership i s shown i n Appendix 9. 71 i s co-ordinated by a paid p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , supplemented by volun-teers and part-time student a s s i s t a n t s . ' Apart from the Executive, Finance and Nominating committees, an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Student Program Committee, open to any student i n -terested i n developing a program i n the House, plans and c a r r i e s out events on i t s own and i n co-operation with the s t a f f and the Community  L i a i s o n Committee. This l a t t e r committee i s composed of community members and friends i n t e r e s t e d i n meeting non-Canadian students on an i n d i v i d u a l and family basis through such a c t i v i t i e s as the o r i e n t a t i o n , Christmas party, tours, t r i p s and a f a r e w e l l party. A furth e r committee, the Reception and Orie n t a t i o n Committee, c o n s i s t i n g of i n t e r e s t e d students, community members and s p e c i a l representatives from various f o r e i g n student a s s o c i a t i o n s , arranges correspondence with non-Canadian students planning to come to U.B.C. i n the f a l l . I ts a c t i v i t i e s include a i r p o r t reception and a s e r i e s of s o c i a l and information events i n September to introduce the new students to the U n i v e r s i t y and Canada. In a d d i t i o n , there i s a Housing Committee which i s concerned with the off-campus housing needs, a Personnel Committee which reviews job d e s c r i p t i o n s , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and s a l a r i e s , and assesses s t a f f performance and needs, and the B u i l d i n g and Furnishing Committee which reviews the need f o r b u i l d i n g a l t e r a t i o n s , maintenance and improvement of furnishings. Another a f f i l i a t e d committee, the C.U.S.O. Presidents Committee determines the p o l i c y and development of the l o c a l C.U.S.O. a c t i v i t i e s . The paid s t a f f i n 1972 included the D i r e c t o r and Associate D i r e c t o r , supported by two s e c r e t a r i e s , a r e c e p t i o n i s t , resident 72 custodian, three part-time student a s s i s t a n t s and snack bar s t a f f . P h y s i c a l Plant I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i s a 60' x 80' b u i l d i n g s i t u a t e d on a land-scaped corner of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia campus close to the Graduate Student Centre, the Nitobe Gardens, a student residence and the Pan-Hellenic Clubhouse. I t i s s i t u a t e d between the proposed Museum of Man and Sanyo p a v i l i o n . From i t s main entrance, steps lead to a basement containing washrooms, s e r v i c e space, d u p l i c a t i n g room, a large r e c r e a t i o n room with an adjoining kitchen and snack bar used at noon, and glass doors leading to an outside p a t i o . This room i s e a s i l y converted f o r the use of other large gatherings, dances and p a r t i e s . D i r e c t l y above the r e c r e a t i o n room i s another more comfortable lounge with modern s t y l e f u r n i t u r e , rugs and a grand piano. This lounge i s used f o r general r e l a x a t i o n , banquets, weddings, l a r g e r meetings and the occasional dance when two bands are used. At one end, a stage with a push-back p a r t i t i o n doubles as a room f o r student club storage space, meetings and c l a s s e s . The s p l i t - l e v e l east s i d e of the b u i l d i n g provides o f f i c e space a v a i l a b l e to C.U.S.O. and other i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y oriented organizations as w e l l as a board room and seminar rooms. A s u i t e , presently occupied by the resident custodian, i s located on the south si d e of the b u i l d i n g . 73 Summary The groups a f f i l i a t e d with International House have d i r e c t l y contributed to i t s development and programs i n terms of finances, ideas and volunteer s e r v i c e s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has drawn together i n t e r e s t e d students, U n i v e r s i t y personnel, and community people who have been respon-s i b l e f o r i t s formation and development. Many of the o r i g i n a l community-based support groups have disbanded or have been amalgamated i n t o the International House administrative s t r u c t u r e . With t h i s background est a b l i s h e d , i t i s to a more d e t a i l e d exa-mination of the nature and character of the programs and a c t i v i t i e s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House over time that a t t e n t i o n i s now turned. CHAPTER 5 INTERNATIONAL HOUSE PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES We now turn to a d e t a i l e d examination of the nature and charac-te r of the programs and a c t i v i t i e s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House over time i n order to b e t t e r understand i t s development and functions on campus. S i g n i f i c a n t trends appear over a spectrum of a c t i v i t i e s with respect to problems of c o n t i n u i t y and balance of a c t i v i t i e s , uniqueness of pro-grams, and r e s o l u t i o n of issues. These trends are r e f l e c t e d i n the use of the House, the nature of the a f f i l i a t e d groups, and the balance and con t i n u i t y of t r a d i t i o n a l academic,service and s o c i a l programs. Use of the House Perhaps one of the most obvious i n d i c a t o r s of the nature and character of the programs and a c t i v i t i e s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House are the changes that have occurred i n i t s b a s i c booking p o l i c y and the student groups that have used i t . In i t s e a r l y h i s t o r y two forces appear to have created a climate which influenced the development and use of the House. The f i r s t was the need f o r overseas students to have a place to s o c i a l i z e , and the second, the b e l i e f of others that there should be a place f o r Canadian and non-Canadian students to meet i n an informal, relaxed manner. The opening of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House centre i n 1954 p a r t l y s a t i s f i e d these needs by serving as a drop-in and program centre 74 75 fo r student members, but i t was not u n t i l the permanent In t e r n a t i o n a l House was completed that the l a t t e r o b j e c t i v e was more f u l l y achieved. The preference given to student club members i s apparent i n the d i r e c t o r ' s premise that the primary purpose of the House was to serve I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Club members who along with t h e i r guests should have f u l l use of i t . 1 He f e l t that I.H.A. as a founding organization, should be given the same p r i v i l e g e s , but attend student or House programs only by i n v i -t a t i o n . An early i n d i c a t i o n of the problem of balance i n the use of the House and i t s unique function on campus i s evidenced by the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed on other student clubs and groups. I t was f e l t student clubs should not have u n r e s t r i c t e d access to the House but should be allowed the use of f a c i l i t i e s , on request, f o r meetings, seminars and programs of a c u l t u r a l and educational nature. S i m i l a r l y , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House was not seen merely as another meeting place f o r r e n t a l by f a c u l t y and community. In the view of the D i r e c t o r , the House should i n i t i a t e pro-grams to which community groups would be i n v i t e d and perhaps asked to 2 p a r t i c i p a t e . A more balanced pattern of use appears to have developed by 1961. Although I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Club had a standing booking each Friday evening and used the House on t h i r t y - t h r e e other days i n the Inte r n a t i o n a l House Director's Report, November 27, 1958. A student r e a c t i o n to the " e x c l u s i v i t y " of the In t e r n a t i o n a l House Club i s also expressed f i v e years l a t e r by the president of the Graduate Student Centre at the "International House Study Conference," 1963. 2 I b i d . 76 F a l l and Spring terms, twelve other student clubs held functions or meetings during the year. U n i v e r s i t y departments used the House s i x t y times f o r p u b l i c and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s , seminars and workshops, and off-campus organizations, mainly ethnic groups, were "permitted" 3 to use the House on eight separate occasions. During the following years a s i m i l a r trend i s evident. In 1962-63 World U n i v e r s i t y Service, United Nations Club, and the Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s Service Overseas were i n v i t e d to l o c a t e t h e i r o f f i c e s i n the House i n an e f f o r t to f o s t e r close r co-operation. In 1965, suggesting an unique program p o t e n t i a l , The Modern Language Departments and t h e i r students held regular s o c i a l discussions, conducted i n a v a r i e t y of languages, at the House. Two years l a t e r , the student program committee stressed i t s i n t e r e s t i n encouraging co-sponsorship i n student programing."* By 1971, however, as i n d i c a t e d by reservation records, there appears to have been a broader booking p o l i c y and a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the pattern of use of the House. During the 1971 F a l l term, f i f t e e n d i f f e r e n t student groups, mainly ethnic or l i n g u i s t i c , h eld a t o t a l of 105 meetings at the House and could a v a i l themselves of storage space and c l e r i c a l s e r v i c e s . A f u r t h e r broadening trend i n booking p o l i c y i s demonstrated by a corresponding increase i n s o c i a l events. Twelve dances, 3 Report of the D i r e c t o r of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, May 4, 1961. 4 A Report on the Work of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, Ju l y 1, 1962 to July 30, 1963 (U.B.C. Archive s ) . "*This point i s stressed i n the Minutes of the Program and Service Committee Meeting, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, October 25, 1967. ten " p u b - i n s " and a cons iderab le number o f p r i v a t e s tudent p a r t i e s were he ld a t the House. T h i r t y - t w o bookings were made by a t a b l e t e n n i s c l u b , and community and f a c u l t y groups h e l d e leven c losed f u n c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g wedding recep t i ons and p r i v a t e p a r t i e s . S i m i l a r l y , i n con-t r a s t w i t h the uniqueness of the l i n g u i s t i c d i scuss ions conducted by the Modern Language Departments i n 1965, 401 c l a s s e s , i n v o l v i n g t h i r t y -one r e g u l a r U n i v e r s i t y courses w i t h o u t an apparent i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , f o r i ns tance commerce, were h e l d a t the House i n F a l l , 1971. I n the same p e r i o d , f requency o f use by i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e r v i c e groups ranged f rom t w e n t y - f o u r bookings by C.U.S.O. t o s i x bookings by Experiment i n I n t e r -n a t i o n a l L i v i n g and fewer by Crossroads and W.U.S. By 19 7 1 , the t r e n d toward a more open booking- p o l i c y i s c l e a r when compared w i t h the a t t e n -t i o n pa id i n 1961 t o the type o f book ing t h a t ensured usage c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the purposes o f the House. A l though p re fe rence was g iven t o s tuden t groups i n 1971 and the spectrum o f users broadened, i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , c o n t r i b u t i o n s , a c t i v i t i e s o r s tudent program committee co -sponsorsh ip , do not appear to have been c r i t e r i a f o r use o f the House. C u l t u r a l Groups R e l a t i o n s h i p s and i n t e r a c t i o n s between I n t e r n a t i o n a l House and s tudent c lubs a lso i l l u s t r a t e t rends i n the development and f u n c t i o n s o f the House on campus. A l though p r i o r t o 1963 the House d i d not serve as a main cen t re f o r non-members o r e t h n i c and n a t i o n a l s tudent asso-c i a t i o n s , t h e r e were moves toward b r i n g i n g s tudent groups i n t o a c l o s e r 78 r e l a t i o n s h i p . ^ As early as 1949 the United Nations Club considered the formation of a co-ordinating body and the chairman of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Board held several meetings i n 1958-59 to i n v e s t i g a t e i t s imple-mentation. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Organizations, i n c l u d i n g the U.N. Club and Conference on Inter-American Student Projects had been located at various times at I n t e r n a t i o n a l House and incorporated i n i t s programing. The p r a c t i c a l co-ordination of student ethnic and n a t i o n a l club a c t i v i t i e s r e f l e c t s problems of balance i n the use of the House. On the one hand, the c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l d i v e r s i t y of such groups has added g r e a t l y to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing by bringing the "world to i t s doorstep," but on the other, i t i n t e n s i f i e d the problem of balance by expanding the tendency f o r more n a t i o n a l rather than i n t e r n a t i o n a l meetings. The involvement with student group programs and a c t i v i t i e s f u r t h e r h i g h l i g h t s problems of balance associated with the dominance of one group 7 and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d preference f o r students who belong to organized n a t i o n a l and ethnic groups to the p o s s i b l e exclusion of students who are not members of a s p e c i f i c overseas or ethnic a s s o c i a t i o n but enjoy the House as an i n t e r n a t i o n a l meeting place. °In the Directors Report, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, May 1, 1959, he w r i t e s : Although the ethnic and n a t i o n a l clubs d i d not have free use of the House as did the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Club, many Friday evening programs involved t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . This i n t r o d u c t i o n not only improved r e l a t i o n s between the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Club and other campus organizations, but also r e s u l t e d i n a number of these groups j o i n i n g the House. 7 This problem i s stressed at the meeting of the ad_ hoc Steering Committee f o r an I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s Committee, May 26, 1964 when i t recorded that the Board of Dir e c t o r s was concerned that any one p a r t i -cular group not representing a l l the students might dominate and as a power group determine p o l i c y . Another example i s i n d i c a t e d i n the Belshaw Study, "Voyage For Knowledge," 1963, i n i t s reference to the student f e e l i n g of some of the Caribbean student dominated functions. 79 In 1964 a new climate existed f o r an evaluation of the Inter-n a t i o n a l House Club and i t s programs. The U.B.C. President's suggestion that there be cl o s e r l i a i s o n with the A.M.S., A.M.S. exploration of the p o s s i b i l i t y of an integrated operation between I n t e r n a t i o n a l House and the planned student union b u i l d i n g coincided with a recently completed research study which drew a t t e n t i o n to the need to improve ways of i n -volving overseas and Canadian students. As a r e s u l t , the new D i r e c t o r of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House recognized the need to broaden the base of student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n In t e r n a t i o n a l House a c t i v i t i e s . In h i s opinion, i t was important to formulate the goals of In t e r n a t i o n a l House programing, estab-g l i s h an e f f e c t i v e committee with maximum student i n i t i a t i v e and develop 9 a working r e l a t i o n s h i p with the A.M.S. A commitee was established to consider the co-ordination of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l student a c t i v i t i e s and to consider methods which would enable I n t e r n a t i o n a l House to be an e f f e c t i v e force on campus, but discussed only the fo r m e r . 1 0 Although the o r i g i n a l s t e e r i n g committee recommended the crea t i o n of an A.M.S. i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s sub-committee to i n i t i a t e , promote and co-ordinate i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs i n conjunction with I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, a close r e l a t i o n s h i p The Ubyssey, September 22, 1964, p. 12, records that the Inter-n a t i o n a l House Club was abolished when no new executive was elected. 9 Open l e t t e r to a l l those i n t e r e s t e d i n the future development and use of In t e r n a t i o n a l House, from the D i r e c t o r , A p r i l 21, 1964. Minutes of the second meeting of the ad hoc ste e r i n g committee for I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s , May 26, 1964. 80 did not m a t e r i a l i z e . 1 1 These proceedings r e f l e c t a d i f f e r e n c e i n com-mittee members' perception of the meaning of " i n t e r n a t i o n a l . " Some d i d not recognize the bene f i t s of ethnic group representation on an i n t e r -n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s committee and f e l t that although U.N. Club, C.U.S.O. and W.U.S. should be represented, ethnic groups were not concerned with i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s i n the same way. The f a i l u r e to e s t a b l i s h a campus-wide organization responsible f o r the co-ordination of a l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y i n t e r e s t e d student groups d i r e c t l y influenced the formation and character of the In t e r n a t i o n a l House Program and Service Committee. Since no machinery of t h i s type existed, the d i r e c t o r suggested that I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i n v i t e the various n a t i o n a l , ethnic and i n t e r e s t groups to appoint representatives 12 to serve on a program and s e r v i c e committee w i t h i n the In t e r n a t i o n a l House stru c t u r e . This committee, when formed, a c t i v e l y sponsored programs J" LThe ad hoc s t e e r i n g committee closed i t s discussions before considering how to make In t e r n a t i o n a l House a more e f f e c t i v e f o r c e on campus. (Minutes of the t h i r d meeting of the ad hoc Steering Committee for I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s , June 2, 1964.) Several other attempts have been made to e s t a b l i s h such an organization. The D a i l y Ubyssey, February 22, 1949 r e f e r s to one of the f i r s t attempts to form such an organization when the United Nations Club discussed a proposed c o u n c i l of a l l clubs at U.B.C. that had i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . In 1966 the A.M.S. president requested a j o i n t study committee to explore p o s s i b l e i n t e g r a t i o n with I n t e r n a t i o n a l House with the operation of the new student union b u i l d i n g . The In t e r n a t i o n a l House Board minutes of March 30, 1966 record the recommendation that no s p e c i a l a c t i o n or study be taken as s u f f i c i e n t f l e x i b i l i t y i n the use of the new student union b u i l d i n g would provide fo r such i n t e r e s t should i t a r i s e i n the future. The joint-sponsorship of the In t e r n a t i o n a l B a l l i n 1966 r e f l e c t s a concern f o r c l o s e r co-operation between the A.M.S. and Int e r n a t i o n a l House. Minutes of the Board of Directors Meeting, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C., August 11, 1964. 81 13 and co-sponsored many ethnic group a c t i v i t i e s . However, there are in d i c a t i o n s that i t did not have the desired i n t e r n a t i o n a l programing 14 component. Concern f o r the lack of group-mixing and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l contacts i s in d i c a t e d by the suggestion that students should merge in t o groups such as Afro-Asian, Pan-American, and European to f a c i l i t a t e mixing and understanding."^ A continued concern f o r the i n t e r n a t i o n a l i -zing of events i s apparent i n concerted e f f o r t s to increase overseas student a s s o c i a t i o n representation on the program committee"^ and i n the e f f o r t s of non-Canadian students' associations to expand i n t e r -c u l t u r a l and inter-group events and programs.^ 7 The problems of balance associated with ethnic group p a r t i c i p a t i o n appears to have remained a concern f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. On the one hand, i t was observed i n 1967 that non-Canadian students tended to lac k any sense of belonging; on the other, questions were r a i s e d regarding conscious encouragement of the strengthening of overseas student associations 13 This i s very c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d i n the o r i e n t a t i o n program of 1967 where three i n t e r n a t i o n a l student organizations together with nine overseas student associations co-operated i n the sponsorship of events. "The Report of the Int e r n a t i o n a l House Study Conference," U.B.C, March 2, 1963, suggest that i f the committee were made up of represen-t a t i v e s of the various ethnic groups and in t e r e s t e d students, greater student p a r t i c i p a t i o n would be e f f e c t e d than with the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Student Club and the tendency f o r the ethnic groups to s t i c k together rather than mix with other students might be avoided. ^ I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Annual Report, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, November 7, 1967. ^Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors of Inter-n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, February 4, 1969. ^Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors of Inter-n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, October 23, 1969. 82 18 by the student program committee. I t was also suggested that Inter-n a t i o n a l House programs should not be based on a t t r a c t i n g students as 19 non-Canadian or Canadian p a r t i c i p a n t s , but as students "per se." Later, i n what appears to be a move to emphasize i t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l component, the name of the student committee was changed to In t e r n a t i o n a l Students Program Committee (I.S.P.C.). Like i t s predecessor, i t was open-ended i n the sense that i t provided a means f o r anyone (non-members of the House included) to develop a programing idea. Although f i f t e e n student groups were associated with I n t e r n a t i o n a l House and were e l i g i b l e f o r committee representation, there appears to have been a continuing lack of inter-group thrust and sponsorship i n I.S.P.C. programing. The a c t u a l , l i m i t e d group representation i n the I.S.P.C. suggests that i t has not become the true focus of these groups. The importance attached to the ethnic and n a t i o n a l component, however, i s demonstrated by the f a c t that unlike organizations such as Crossroads and W.U.S., the presidents of the student associations have d i r e c t representation on the Board of Dir e c t o r s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. In sum, problems of balance associated with booking p o l i c y and the co-ordination of student groups have been a re c u r r i n g concern through-out the development of In t e r n a t i o n a l House. Despite the f a i l u r e of attempts to e s t a b l i s h i n co-operation with A.M.S. an organization to 18 Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors of Inter-n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, July 10, 1967. 19 Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of D i r e c t o r s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, February 4, 1969. 83 unify a l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l and ethnic student groups, the House has t r i e d to serve t h i s function but has been faced with d i f f i c u l t i e s and problems s i m i l a r to those of a m u l t i - c u l t u r a l nation l i k e Canada. I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has attempted to support ethnic groups and at the same time f o s t e r i n t e r - c u l t u r a l contacts and group i n t e r a c t i o n s . On a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l , i t has experienced the dominance of a s i n g l e group and continued to face the problem of providing a place f o r meaningful p a r t i c i p a t i o n by students who do not have strong ethnic a s s o c i a t i o n s . Community Programs As i n the case of student groups, trends i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House involvement with community- group programs and a c t i v i t i e s have been s i g n i -f i c a n t i n i t s development and functions on campus. In f a c t , p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s have been an important component i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House pro-graming. The 1965 summer, weekend and holiday programs i n d i c a t e the extent of community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and off-campus endeavours. T h i r t y -f i v e students were hosted f o r periods of up to ten days as family guests on ranches and i n the homes of ten B. C. communities. Approximately one hundred students were guests of B. C. f a m i l i e s on Thanksgiving and other weekends; toured s i x Kootenay communities during the Christmas break; and a Malaysian couple spoke at Williams Lake, Quesnel and Prince George as guests of Rotary Clubs. In Greater Vancouver, students responded 20 to requests to speak and c a r r i e d out over f i f t y engagements. 20 Comments Accompanying the Chairman's report on I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, March 1965 (Typewritten). 84 A second, more d i r e c t focus of community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s evident i n the sponsorship of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs. Community members have been involved i n e s s e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s such as o r i e n t a t i o n by working on p i c n i c s , weekend d r i v e s , emergency housing and afternoon teas. They have sponsored the I n t e r n a t i o n a l F a i r , Annual F a l l Teas and Sunday Suppers and have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n many student-family oriented a c t i v i t i e s , as f o r example, the host family and u n i v e r s i t y c h i l d health "good neighbour" programs. I n d i v i d u a l community members headed sub-committees which worked i n 1967 with corresponding overseas student a s s o c i a t i o n s , helped i n the snack bar, provided English coaching, hosted students and made arrangements f o r students to u t i l i z e unused t i c k e t s f o r opera, sport and theatre events. The involvement i n these and other programs r e -f l e c t s the large community component which has been evident i n Inter-n a t i o n a l House programing. Despite these con t r i b u t i o n s , the mounting of many su c c e s s f u l programs and the forming of personal f r i e n d s h i p s , the nature of com-21 munity programs i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House appears to have been an issue. ^ x T h i s i s not unique to the U.B.C. In t e r n a t i o n a l House. At the Toronto I n t e r n a t i o n a l Student Centre, i n the Report on the Future Role  of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Student Centre, K. Andrews, Chairman, Toronto, September 22, 1971, p. 23, recognized that p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s had increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y but the s e r v i c e club o r i e n t a t i o n had declined. Even though the I.S.C. h i s t o r i c a l l y evolved from the F r i e n d l y Relations with Overseas Students and the Community Committee which has been con-sidered an i n t e g r a l part of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Student Centre, the com-mission saw a change i n the volunteer s e r v i c e r o l e of the committee to a more academic and i n t e r e s t a c t i v i t i e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . They recommended that the Community Committee be disbanded as a committee of the Inter-n a t i o n a l Student Centre and that the Centre c a l l upon t h i s group as i t would any other alumni or community group. 85 On the one hand, the community provided leadership, volunteers and a basis for s o c i a l and personal contact, while on the other, the appropriateness of some of the community programs has been questioned. The many attempts to improve working r e l a t i o n s h i p s with community members str e s s the impor-tance I n t e r n a t i o n a l House places on maintaining t h e i r involvement and points to the apparent need for constant review. A strong evaluative and l i a i s o n component was b u i l t i n t o the Community L i a i s o n Committee 22 when i t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1965, but the continued expression of concern f o r improvement suggests that the volunteer s e r v i c e component has been paramount and the d i f f i c u l t y i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a sustained working r e l a t i o n -ship remains a constant. The Belshaw study, 1963, found there were i n d i c a t i o n s that Inter-23 n a t i o n a l House was perhaps too adult and volunteer centered. In the same year, a study conference underscored the importance and advantages of student community homestays and exchanges but cautioned against the 24 p o s s i b i l i t y of unsuitable placement s i t u a t i o n s . In an attempt to 22 The purposes of the committee str e s s t h i s evaluative component: a) to evaluate programs which involve the community; b) to work as a nucleus to encourage the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of other community people; c) i f deemed desi r a b l e to i n t e r p r e t to the community through o r i e n t a t i o n seminars a b a s i c working philosophy f o r e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n -ships with f o r e i g n students; d) (possibly) to a s s i s t i n the development of programs con-sidered to be p o t e n t i a l l y valuable. 23 Belshaw, "A Voyage For Knowledge," p. 52. 24 II "Report of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Study Conference, Inter-n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C. (Mimeographed), March 2, 1963, p. i i . J . L. Davis i n "A Survey of Present and Former Foreign Students Regarding t^e E f f e c t s of t h e i r Residence i n the International House of New York"(Ed.D. 86 a i d e f f e c t i v e program development, a pamphlet was prepared by community 25 and overseas student members and w r i t t e n evaluations of some Sunday teas considered. Despite these evaluative attempts, continued concern for some programs sponsored by community groups i s i n d i c a t e d by an exa-mination of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of continuing c e r t a i n F.R.O.S. a c t i v i t i e s 26 based on an assessment of student wishes. These a c t i v i t i e s were d i s -continued f o r a year and l a t e r , a second committee, responsible p a r t l y f o r assessing the extent to which programs were co n t r i b u t i n g to the achievement of the goals of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, recommended that a set of suggestions be prepared to i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c ways and means through which the Community L i a i s o n Committee could be of help to I n t e r n a t i o n a l 27 House. Responding i n part to the lack of community involvement i n some programs i n 1970, frank discussions were held and r e s u l t e d i n a strong executive committee being formed to enlarge and r e a c t i v a t e com-munity member support. In 1971, a s t a f f a s s i s t a n t was employed to act as a l i a i s o n person between student groups and the Community L i a i s o n Committee, D i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1964), p. 241, also stresses the neces-s i t y of t h i s contact with f a m i l i e s . He recommends that the student be an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n the home rather than a sightseer. He stresses the d e s i r a b i l i t y of an extended period - at l e a s t ten days and that each family must be c a r e f u l l y selected to meet the needs and i n t e r e s t s of the i n d i v i d u a l student. Mary Wellwood et a l . , "Some Ideas f o r E f f e c t i v e Community Programmes with Foreign Students," A F i r s t D r a f t , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, September, 1965. (Mimeographed.) 26 Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Dir e c t o r s of I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, February 29, 1968. 27 Report of the Personnel Committee, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, March 1969. 87 i n t e r v i e w i n g s t u d e n t s , sc reen ing requests and g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n 28 t o f a c i l i t a t e the matching o f s tudents and host f a m i l i e s . Though I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs have cont inued t o be mounted w i t h community s u p p o r t , sus ta ined p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s i n o t h e r areas have not been e s t a b l i s h e d . I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has not had a s u s t a i n i n g f i n a n -c i a l source or program fund based on community or a lumni s u p p o r t . Such 29 endeavours as the "F r iends o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House" i n d i c a t e the need was recognized and acted upon, bu t a t tempts t o e s t a b l i s h a broad com-30 muni ty base f o r the House have been s p o r a d i c . Community suppor t appears t o have weakened somewhat w i t h the c o l l a p s e o f p lans f o r a r e s i d e n t i a l house, the amalgamation of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n , and f u r t h e r breaks w i t h community groups when F.R.O.S. disbanded i n 1970. The s i t u a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n an apparent t r e n d toward more s t u d e n t - o r i e n t e d programing, fewer community-sponsored events and more l i m i t e d community s u p p o r t . D iscuss ions w i t h one community a s s o c i a t i o n draws a t t e n t i o n t o the need f o r sus ta ined p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , the maintenance o f d i a l o g u e , the importance o f balanced programing and a p u b l i c image. Responding 28 Other d u t i e s i n c l u d e d a s s i s t i n g w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s p e c i a l t r i p s and tou rs conducted by community groups, reco rd keeping and a s s i s -t i n g i n o r g a n i z i n g s o c i a l even ts . 29 A " F r i e n d " was asked to g i ve a cash donat ion o f $100.00 and g ive $25.00 a year f o r f o u r y e a r s . I n 1960 the goa l was se t a t one hun-dred " F r i e n d s . " Twenty Fr iends had c o n t r i b u t e d $2,025.00 and promised $1,825.00 more to be p a i d over the nex t t h r e e y e a r s . 30 The U n i v e r s i t y p rov ides the o p e r a t i n g budget f o r s t a f f , main-tenance and o f f i c e opera t ions but the membership and the Board o f D i r e c t o r s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r funds f o r a l l aspects of program development. 88 negatively to a request f o r f i n a n c i a l support f o r expansion of Inter-31 n a t i o n a l House f a c i l i t i e s , the a s s o c i a t i o n i n d i c a t e d that the com-munity a t t i t u d e i n 1970 was not sympathetic to supporting a centre f o r non-Canadian students, viewed as p r i m a r i l y s o c i a l , with conditions which compared favourably with other f a c i l i t i e s on campus. Apart from Rotary Clubs and some university-based community groups, the present trend i n community support and involvement i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House appears to be . toward i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and away from a broad a s s o c i a t i o n or s e r v i c e club b a s i s . Integration with U n i v e r s i t y Teaching and Research Functions In i t s u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g , and through co-operation with other departments, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing i s provided with unique p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the i n c l u s i o n of an educational component. Whereas some think i t should be a more i n t e g r a l part of the U n i v e r s i t y academic str u c t u r e enjoying the b e n e f i t s of the teaching and research f a c i l i t i e s of the U n i v e r s i t y , others have considered i t more of a s o c i a l centre. The establishment of a r e g i o n a l t r a i n i n g centre f o r r e c i p i e n t s of United 32 Nations' fellowships and scholarships at U.B.C. i n 1959 serves as an example. I t was added i n 1962 to the administrative s t r u c t u r e of the House, but was discontinued i n the same year. ^'Htinutes of the meeting of the Board of D i r e c t o r s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, March 3. 1970. 3?"New F r o n t i e r s , U.N. T r a i n i n g Center," Alumni Chronicle 13 (Summer 1959):24-25. 89 Other proposals which would give I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a d e f i n i t e place i n the academic structure of the U n i v e r s i t y are also s i g n i f i c a n t . Dr. C. S. Belshaw presented a proposal f o r the establishment of a centre that would co-ordinate a l l u n i v e r s i t y administrative and academic a c t i -v i t i e s i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i e l d and suggested that t h i s centre should 33 be located at or i n close a s s o c i a t i o n with the House. Five years l a t e r , i t was proposed that I n t e r n a t i o n a l House services be extended to accommodate seve r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs designed to meet an i n -creasingly expressed need f o r preparation of people f o r s e r v i c e with the Company of Young Canadians, Colombo Plan P r o j e c t s , External A i d 34 Programs and other agencies. In December of the same year, i n d i c a t i n g an apparent need f o r both a p h y s i c a l centre and the p r o f e s s i o n a l resources to develop an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y , c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g and conference centre, a d r a f t proposal f o r a r e s i d e n t i a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l conference and t r a i n i n g complex was put forward. Although i n t e r e s t i n a centre of t h i s nature also has been expressed by n a t i o n a l bodies such as the then Department of Northern and Indian A f f a i r s , and I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has worked towards the formation of a proposed complex, these ser v i c e s have not been incorporated i n t o I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing. On the other hand, the proposal represents e a r l y I n t e r n a t i o n a l House re c o g n i t i o n of L e t t e r to Mr. C. Wakely, Chairman, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Board of D i r e c t o r s , U.B.C, from Mr. A. H. Sager, D i r e c t o r , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, August 2, 1962. A Proposal for Furthering Development of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Programs, In t e r n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, July 1967 (Mimeographed). 90 the ultimate need f o r conference, seminar, l i b r a r y , lounge and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g m u l t i - l i n g u a l t r a n s l a t i o n services i n a main con-ference and seminar area. 3"* In a d d i t i o n to long-range planning, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has encouraged, sponsored and co-operated i n research. One of the f i r s t studies i n Canada on the subject of non-Canadian students was c a r r i e d 36 out at U.B.C. under the auspices of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. By 1963, a standing research committee was established to design, i n i t i a t e and 37 take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r future research on fore i g n students, and regu-l a r i z e d procedures were set up f o r obtaining a record of the non-Canadian student population at U.B.C. i n order to f a c i l i t a t e f u r t h e r approved research. A Koerner Foundation grant of $2,000 supported a number of research p r o j e c t s ; and a s p e c i a l summer seminar research p r o j e c t dealing 38 with non-Canadian students was conducted i n 1964. In co-operation with the Research Committee, the f i r s t p o r t i o n of a study i n t r a n s i t i o n s t a t e s , taking the form of a demographic study, was completed by 1967. The Committee also co-operated with two American u n i v e r s i t i e s i n a study 35 A Proposal f o r a R e s i d e n t i a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference and Tra i n i n g Centre, A Preliminary Draft, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, December 21, 1967. 36 Belshaw, "Voyage For Knowledge," U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Colum-b i a (Mimeographed), 1963. The senior author received a grant from the Research Committee of the U n i v e r s i t y of B. C., and other monies were obtained from the Koerner Foundation. 37 Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors of Inter-n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, September 27, 1963. 38 Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors of In t e r -n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, June 4, 1964. 39 of Chinese college students on the west coast. In an apparent move away from research on non-Canadian students, four $250.00 prizes were 40 awarded to promote c r o s s - c u l t u r a l studies on campus by students. Another committee a c t i v i t y was the recommendation and exploration of ways and means of extending the reading f a c i l i t i e s i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. With funds exhausted i n 1968, however, the Research Committee became i n a c t i v e . In a d d i t i o n to the work of t h i s committee, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has i n i t i a t e d and supported a number of f a c t - f i n d i n g surveys and evalu-ations. Although i n d i v i d u a l l y the studies have been small and of an "ad hoc" nature, the fac t that they have been undertaken i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms of future research p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Studies have included i n -q u i r i e s to determine and evaluate the needs of new overseas students* wives, housing problems, Sunday programs and English language coaching. Drawing together community, f a c u l t y and students, a 1963 study conference considered the r o l e of In t e r n a t i o n a l House i n the U n i v e r s i t y and commu-41 n i t y . Four years l a t e r , the Board of Director s established a committee to review the objectives of the House and examine i t s p o l i c i e s w i t h i n 39 Report of the Research Committee, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, Annual  Report, U.B.C, November 1, 1966. 40 The studies included: Mr. Nyan Boon Hung, "A Comparative Study of the Recent Use of Corporate Income Taxation i n Canada and i n Singa-pore"; Miss Pat Buckley, "Drinking Patterns Among Ethnic Groups i n the Lower Mainland"; Mrs. Frances Robinson, a study of f i n e arts i n two cultures and Miss Wendy R. Taylor, c r o s s - c u l t u r a l research i n the Depart-ment of Health and Epidemiology. 4Li Report on International House Study Conference," International House, U.B.C. (Mimeographed), March 2, 1963. 9 2 4 2 t h i s framework. An M.A. thesis evaluation of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l con-4 3 ference hosted by In t e r n a t i o n a l House was also c a r r i e d out. What appears to be in d i c a t e d i s that I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has attempted to work toward developing a research, academic component i n i t s a c t i v i t i e s . Research projects undertaken appear to have provided a sharper understanding of the purpose and functions of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. Surveys of overseas students, c r o s s - c u l t u r a l studies and evalu-a t i v e surveys already i n i t i a t e d i n d i c a t e the need f o r research and sug-gest possible research areas that can be b e n e f i c i a l to both I n t e r n a t i o n a l House and other u n i v e r s i t y departments. Educational Programs In i t s student programing, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has attempted to include an educational component i n i t s a c t i v i t i e s through co-operation with f a c u l t y and community groups. The t r a d i t i o n a l Friday night program i n 1956 was aimed at acquainting members with other countries and cultures through t a l k s , f i l m s , movies and commentaries. The remainder of the 4 4 evening was taken up with dancing, singing, and conversation. F. Hamlin, et a l . , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Study Report," Inter-n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, 1967. (Mimeographed.) 4 3 K. P. Peterson, "The Influence of Evaluative Conditions and Pre-Conference Contact on P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Evaluation of a Conference," (Unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia), Sept. 1971. Report of the Program Committee, Int e r n a t i o n a l House News- l e t t e r , U.B.C, January 1956. (Mimeographed.) 93 C u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l , t r a v e l and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l programs were common. In 1961, however, i t was reported that students tended to a r r i v e i n time V'' for the s o c i a l and refreshment part of Friday night programs, but not 45 the more serious part. By 1965, the Friday night programs appear to have become mainly s o c i a l , with the academic aspects a l l o c a t e d to separate programs. With the exception of an apparent lack of continuity i n t o p i c s , few trends are evidence inthe programing of academic t a l k s and discussions. 46 This may r e f l e c t the changing ethos and i n t e r e s t s of the students or perhaps the lack of a consistent programing p o l i c y . In the l a t t e r case, although responses to many programs suggest a sound basis f o r academic program planning, the majority of those already i n i t i a t e d were not con-tinued and the momentum was apparently l o s t . An exception appears to have been the "In t e r n a t i o n a l Education Seminar" program sponsored j o i n t l y by the Faculty of Education and In t e r -n a t i o n a l House. In t h i s program, non-Canadian students v i s i t e d campus and community seminar groups to describe and discuss the l i f e and edu-cation of t h e i r respective countries. Three years a f t e r i t s implementation i n 1965, more than t h i r t y - t h r e e requests were received from seminar 45 Minutes of the Int e r n a t i o n a l House Asso c i a t i o n Executive Meeting, In t e r n a t i o n a l House, June 25, 1961. 46 An important component i n t h i s and other program a c t i v i t i e s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House could w e l l be the increase i n the percentage of non-Canadian students i n graduate studies. In 1953-54 the Personnel o f f i c e l i s t s 13.3% of the 294 fore i g n students as graduate students. In 1972-73, the Academic Planning O f f i c e records 34.7% of the 2,709 non-Canadian students as graduate students. 94 advisors i n the Faculty of Education and f i f t e e n off-campus groups. As a means of u t i l i z i n g the considerable expertise of the non-Canadian students and of providing them with the opportunity to contribute to the i n t e r n a t i o n a l component of the t r a i n i n g of student teachers, t h i s program developed a degree of permanence over a period of seven years and involved some f o r t y seminar addresses a year by approximately f o r t y -f i v e non-Canadian students to about 800 education students. The 1966 "Today's S o c i e t i e s i n T r a n s i t i o n " s e r i e s featured high c a l i b r e discussions of current s o c i a l , economic, c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l i ssues, and appears to have contained the elements of f l e x i b i l i t y neces-sary f o r program c o n t i n u i t y and development. The following Spring 1967, the A f r i c a n Students A s s o c i a t i o n and the International House Program and Service Committee sponsored an " A f r i c a i n T r a n s i t i o n " s e r i e s i n co-operation with U.B.C. f a c u l t y members who had experience i n A f r i c a . In October, A f r i c a Week, arranged as a follow-up, presented four noon-hour tal k s and discussions which r e f l e c t e d the so p h i s t i c a t e d pool of student t a l e n t , experience and expertise a v a i l a b l e on campus. Non-Canadian students, i n co-operation with I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, also p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the o r i e n t a t i o n f o r C.U.S.O. volunteers going to South-East A s i a . In 47 1968, an outstanding symposium, " A f r i c a ' s C o n f l i c t and Prospect," organi-zed by the A f r i c a n students, appears to have terminated t h i s type of program s e r i e s . In other areas of i n t e r e s t , f o r example Canadian t o p i c s , academic 47 The high c a l i b e r of t h i s program i s r e f l e c t e d i n the topics discussed. Is A f r i c a n Unity a Reality? C r i s i s Leadership i n A f r i c a . One-Party System i n A f r i c a . Education i n A f r i c a . P o l i t i c a l Scene i n Cameroons. Nigerian C i v i l War. 95 discussion was organized on a p e r i o d i c basis and consistent programing i s not apparent. The 1956 Spring program of the Int e r n a t i o n a l House Club, included a wide range of Canadian topics on p o l i t i c s , a r t , labour, music, economics, l i t e r a t u r e and a r c h i t e c t u r e , and representatives from Canada's f i v e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s spoke at "Introducing Canada" i n 1958. A Saturday 48 evening "Meet Canada" f i l m s e r i e s and the "Canada i n T r a n s i t i o n " s e r i e s of 1966-67 were not continued. The "Canada Under the Microscope" work-shops, 1967-68, on record as an examination of Canada by non-Canadian students, appears to i n d i c a t e sustained i n t e r e s t i n gaining knowledge of Canada and an attempt to understand and c l a r i f y problems associated with c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n s i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l and Canadian context. The 49 "Con-Fusion" s e r i e s h e l d - i n the same year and a r e s i d e n t i a l seminar also discussed problems, but were not repeated as regular academic program features. Talks aimed at preparing graduating students f o r t h e i r return home"^ and introducing a l l students to i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i o n programs i n d i c a t e f u r t h e r areas of i n t e r e s t and a growing concern f o r se r i o u s , frank considerations of Canadian and i n t e r n a t i o n a l problems and issues. Presentations by Indian c h i e f s of t h e i r views on solutions to the problem of brotherhood i n Canada, and a discu s s i o n of the Canadian White Paper 48 Sponsored j o i n t l y by. the Faculty of Education and In t e r n a t i o n a l House, the program attempted to look at changes taking place i n the roles which women, youth, a r t , and i n d i v i d u a l s played i n the l i f e of Canada. 49 This summer discu s s i o n program considered "black," "white" and "red" power. ~^These speakers were businessmen. Mr. Robert Bonner: Vice President, McMillan Bloedel Ltd. Mr. Guran Kuarstrom: Swedish Trade Commissioner Mr. E. E. C u r t i s : Sandwell and Co., Consulting Engineers Mr. Jack Delf: President, E. A. Morris and Co. Importers. 96 on External Aid also serve as i l l u s t r a t i o n s . On the other hand, a chaotic d i s r u p t i o n which occurred during the 1971 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Week program demonstrates the programing r e a l i t i e s of providing an open forum f o r discussion of i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l i s s ues. I t also underscores an apparent f a l l a c y i n the assumption that study abroad r e s u l t s i n an un-c r i t i c a l appreciation and a f f e c t i o n f o r the host s o c i e t y , 5 1 and suggests the need f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing to be s e n s i t i v e to the d i f f e r i n g frameworks through which students perceive the world. In the case c i t e d above, a minority of students attempted to accomplish reform by ". . . 52 methods that by-passed regular avenues f o r debate and change." In t h i s period, the increase i n campus unrest, decrease i n planned academic events, and emergence of general p o l i c y l i n e s f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing d i r e c t l y influenced the nature and character of i t s a c t i v i t i e s and program development. Members of the Board of D i r e c t o r s agreed that I n t e r n a t i o n a l House should not sponsor programs of a p o l i t i c a l 53 nature, that the student program committee a c t i v i t i e s should be i n This point i s c l e a r l y s t r e ssed by W. McCormack, "Student Ex-change as an Instrument of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Understanding," I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Educational and C u l t u r a l Exchange, V o l . 4, No. 4 (Spring 1969), p. 29. When he emphasizes that often the e f f e c t s of personal adjustment on a student's outlook i s ignored. The assumption that study abroad may auto-ma t i c a l l y lead to p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s overlooks the f a c t that some students cannot ignore f o r example, many of the g l a r i n g inadequacies of most s o c i e t i e s such as r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . 52 Chairman's Report for the year 1970-71, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House  Annual Reports, Eighth Annual General Meeting, November 3, 1971, p. 2. 53 Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors of I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, August 31, 1971. harmony with I n t e r n a t i o n a l House p o l i c i e s , and that n e u t r a l i t y was e s s e n t i a l i n a l l p u b l i c a t i o n s . In the Board's opinion, bookings f o r p o s s i b l e c o n t r o v e r s i a l programs were to be accepted only when e i t h e r p r i v a t e , or chaired by a n e u t r a l chairman who would ensure that both sides received an adequate, peaceful h e a r i n g . 5 5 I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has been p u b l i c l y c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s s t and, 5^ but open c o n f l i c t s such as the one occurring during I n t e r n a t i o n a l Week 1971 i n d i c a t e the need to e s t a b l i s h a balance. On one l e v e l , student sponsorship of t h i s type of academic and p o l i t i c a l program r e f l e c t s an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t ; on another l e v e l , however, the dissension expressed i n d i c a t e s the complexity and d e l i c a c y of program endeavours which attempt to promote c r o s s - c u l t u r a l understanding and f r i e n d l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e -l a t i o n s . I f t h i s view i s accepted, the problems of balance and con-t i n u i t y and the d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n the o r c h e s t r a t i o n of a v a r i e d program, cognizant of a changing world s i t u a t i o n , are apparent. 54 Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of D i r e c t o r s of Inter-n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, August 31, 1971. 55 Chairman's Report f o r the Year 1970-71, In t e r n a t i o n a l House  Annual Reports, Eighth Annual General Meeting, November 3, 1971, p. 2. 5^The Ubyssey, October 22, 1964, p. 12, quotes graduate student from Punjab U n i v e r s i t y , India, H a r d i a l Bains as saying " I n t e r n a t i o n a l House trea t s f o r e i g n students as i f they were delinquents and needed s p e c i a l help." He stressed that "Canadian students go to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House to study the f o r e i g n student's [ s i c ] problems . . . but t h i s d i d not seem to help foreign students mix with the r e s t of the campus." A more recent example of c r i t i c i s m i s The Ubyssey, January 22, 1971, p. 2, a r t i c l e by Steve McField a student from the Cayman Islands. In h i s a r t i c l e " I n t e r n a t i o n a l House: c o l o n i a l r e l i c " he c r i t i c i z e d the s u p e r f i c i a l i t y of some of i t s programs and f o r i t s f a i l u r e to attempt to come to grips with the urgent problems that i n t e r n a t i o n a l students face d a i l y on the campus and i n the community. 98 Service Programs  Counselling Further c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the development and functions of Inter-n a t i o n a l House on campus i s gained by an examination of se r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s associated with counselling and accommodation problems and o r i e n t a t i o n . In the area of counselling and information dissemination, despite a considerable body of evidence i n d i c a t i n g the need f o r personal and other types of advising, services have been tenuous and tempered by pressures to u t i l i s e e x i s t i n g campus f a c i l i t i e s . Attempts to obtain a for e i g n student advisor to co-ordinate counselling and information flow met with l i m i t e d success. Early e f f o r t s by the In t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n and the Vancouver Council f o r Fri e n d l y Relations with Overseas Students, f o r example, sought the appoint-ment of a d i r e c t o r who would also act i n t h i s capacity."* 7 In 1954, a Un i v e r s i t y P r e s i d e n t i a l Committee was established to co-ordinate the a c t i v i t i e s of student advisors on campus; three years l a t e r an In t e r -n a t i o n a l House lobby submitted b r i e f s and exerted pressure which drew at t e n t i o n to the problems and issues associated with the advising of 58 foreign students at U.B.C. and i n 1959, when overseas students at U.B.C. accounted f o r one-third of the t o t a l number attending Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s , a b r i e f was submitted to the administration s u b s t a n t i a t i n g Minutes of the Executive Meeting of the In t e r n a t i o n a l House As s o c i a t i o n , B. C. Chapter, March 31, 1954. 58 Minutes of the Annual General Meeting of the Board of Directo r s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C., May 8, 1957. 99 59 the need f o r a foreign student advisor. Eight years l a t e r , an Inter-n a t i o n a l House study committee reported that campus services often worked i n confusing ways, and recommended Int e r n a t i o n a l House press f o r a review of student services throughout the U n i v e r s i t y . ^ Again, nineteen years a f t e r the idea of a foreign student advisor was f i r s t mooted, the Board of Dire c t o r s established an "ad hoc" committee i n 1971 to consider the creation of such a p o s i t i o n . ^ These attempts r e f l e c t two points of view which sharpen the issue i n r e l a t i o n to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House s e r v i c e s . On one s i d e i t was f e l t that, by 1959, the U n i v e r s i t y had expended a considerable amount of money i n s a l a r i e s and services connected with f o r e i g n students' needs, that a f o r e i g n student advisor should be a v a i l a b l e to a l l f o r e i g n students 62 rather than j u s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l House club members, that the same coun-s e l l i n g f a c i l i t i e s should serve both Canadian and non-Canadian students, and that i t would not be wise to s i n g l e out non-Canadian students f o r 63 s p e c i a l treatment. On the other, i t was argued that co-ordination of e x i s t i n g campus services was necessary because of the m u l t i p l i c i t y 59 I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, "A Foreign Student Advisor at U.B.C." A Report Submitted to the President of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1959. ^ H a m l i n , "International House Study Report." ^"Slinutes of the Meeting of the Board of Dir e c t o r s of Inter-national House, U.B.C, May 25, 1971. 62 Minutes of the Annual General Meeting of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, Board of D i r e c t o r s , U.B.C, May 1, 1959. 6 3 Minutes of the Annual General Meeting of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Board of D i r e c t o r s , U.B.C, May 8, 1957. 100 of o f f i c e s and persons involved, that the l o g i c a l person to act as co-ordinator i n the non-academic f i e l d would be a foreign student advisor, and that such an appointment would i n no way c o n f l i c t with the work of the counselling services since students would be r e f e r r e d to the appro-p r i a t e person f o r f i n a n c i a l , language, or other problems. Creation of the p o s i t i o n was viewed as the concentration of information i n the form of one person who would maintain f i l e s on f o r e i g n students, arrange i n t e r -views, give help with non-academic problems, and act as an intermediary 64 between the f o r e i g n student and the community. R e f l e c t i n g the type of s e r v i c e offered by I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i n 1957, an information l e a f l e t advised overseas students that help with academic and language problems was a v a i l a b l e elsewhere, but that the House manager, act i n g i n a p r i v a t e capacity, was w i l l i n g to help with personal problems.^ 5 A 1963 report to the President i n d i c a t e s both the nature of the counselling a c t i v i t i e s and the r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween In t e r n a t i o n a l House and other campus s e r v i c e s . Informal c o u n s e l l i n g i n areas such as English language improvement, finance, employment, s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s was c a r r i e d out with r e f e r r a l to other o f f i c e s where appropriate. In general, English-coaching was pro-vided on an i n c i d e n t a l b a s i s ; assistance i n f i n d i n g employment was rep-resented by an i n t e n s i v e e f f o r t i n June, and both were undertaken i n 64 I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, "A Foreign Student Advisor at U.B.C." A Report Submitted to the President of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Colum-b i a , 1959. ^"Welcome to Students from Abroad," I n t e r n a t i o n a l House (Mimeo-graphed l e a f l e t ) , September 1957. 101 close co-operation and consultation with other campus departments. As reported, the major counselling concern of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House was to a s s i s t c r i t i c a l cases a r i s i n g from English language d e f i c i e n c i e s , d i f f i -66 c u l t i e s i n f i n d i n g summer employment and r e l a t e d f i n a n c i a l c r i s e s . Subsequently, English-coaching was formalized and incorporated as a regular program; an emergency short-term loan fund was e s t a b l i s h e d , ^ 7 and information flow to new students before t h e i r a r r i v a l at U.B.C, 68 f a c i l i t a t e d by o r i e n t a t i o n programs such as "Reach Out." An i n f o r -mation centre f o r work, study and t r a v e l , which was i n i t i a t e d , provided the basis f o r more extensive information dissemination, but was terminated. The evaluation of such s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e s the development and functions of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House on campus. Within the l i m i t s of i t s own p a r t i c u l a r student and community resources comple-mented by other student advising f a c i l i t i e s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has attempted to meet student needs by generating and o f f e r i n g small but important student-oriented counselling and other s e r v i c e s . On the other hand, there appears to have been a continuing need f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the s p e c i f i c nature and extent of the c o u n s e l l i n g function. S t a f f job d e s criptions i n 1969 include i t as a minor a c t i v i t y , although by A Report on the Work of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, July 1, 1962 to June 30, 1963, A Report to the President of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (U.B.C. Archives). ^ I n d i c a t i v e of t h i s s e r v i c e , fourteen students i n 1965-66 were helped with short-term loans ranging from $25.00 to $250.00. 6 8 Canadian and non-Canadian students correspond with new over-seas students coming to U.B.C p r i o r to t h e i r a r r i v a l . 102 1971, the job d e s c r i p t i o n f o r the D i r e c t o r makes s p e c i f i c reference to such student services as the interviewing of a l l new students, assistance with immigration and employment problems, and the counselling and advising of " i n t e r n a t i o n a l " students. In the main, se r v i c e appears to have been conducted on an ad hoc informal b a s i s , without reg u l a r i z e d procedures f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l House to make contact with a l l non-Canadian students. Since I n t e r n a t i o n a l House appears to dup l i c a t e services provided e l s e -where on campus, i t i s pos s i b l e that with c l e a r e r d e f i n i t i o n of the In t e r n a t i o n a l House counselling f u n c t i o n , and at l e a s t p a r t i a l r e s o l u -t i o n of the associated i s s u e s , a more meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p with over-a l l campus counselling f a c i l i t i e s could be developed, and the u t i l i z a t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n of limited- I n t e r n a t i o n a l House s t a f f and community r e -sources could be maximized. Accommodation Examination of another area of s e r v i c e provides f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o the development and functions of the House. Since i t s i n c e p t i o n , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has been involved, as have other campus s e r v i c e s , with the problem of f i n d i n g appropriate and adequate accommodation f o r students, on both a short-term and long-range planning b a s i s . Each September, members and i n t e r e s t e d organizations have been encouraged to meet a r r i v i n g students, i n c l u d i n g those i n t r a n s i t to other Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s , and to supply overnight accommodation i n 69 cases where permanent accommodation has not yet been arranged. The ^ 9The t o t a l number of students met at the Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t increased from 619 i n 1965 to 1,193 i n 1970. Overnight accommo-dation was provided for 64 students i n 1965 and 49 i n 1970. 103 organization of t h i s s e r v i c e , and co-ordination with n a t i o n a l agencies 7^ a s s i s t i n g non-Canadian students, has resu l t e d i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House d i r e c t l y representing the Un i v e r s i t y i n i t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l involvement. On another l e v e l , the arrangement of off-campus housing f o r non-Canadian students7"*" has brought the House i n t o d i r e c t contact with the problems of unsuitable accommodation and instances of apparent prejudice, and has l e d to e f f o r t s to improve r e l a t i o n s between landlords and students through housing surveys, interviews, and other contacts, An a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e area, the p r o v i s i o n of on-campus accommo-dation, has been a continuing concern and has r a i s e d issues which have influenced the pattern of development and functions of the House. In discussions centering around the o r i g i n a l concept of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House as a r e s i d e n t i a l complex with equal Canadian and non-Canadian student representation, some have viewed the r e s i d e n t i a l component as e s s e n t i a l f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of the f u l l p o t e n t i a l of the House and implementation of the experience of i n t e r n a t i o n a l l i v i n g ; others have seen i t as a possible "ghetto," while others have f e l t i t might avoid, to a c e r t a i n extent, off-campus d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . As i n the discu s s i o n surrounding counselling s e r v i c e s , those opposed thought i t unwise to b u i l d a s p e c i a l f a c i l i t y f o r non-Canadian students, and advocated u t i l i z a t i o n of general ' u T h i s has been mainly through F.R.O.S., Canadian Service f o r Overseas Students and Trainees (C.S.O.S.T.) and the Canadian Bureau f o r International Education, as t h i s organization has developed and changed names over the years. 7^"In 1955 for example, i t was arranged that a l l overseas students would be re f e r r e d d i r e c t l y to the In t e r n a t i o n a l House Club from the housing o f f i c e . (Report of the Manager of Int e r n a t i o n a l House, October 1955.) residences where a greater number and wider range of the student body could mix. Apart from dealing with the immediate housing problem on campus, Int e r n a t i o n a l House has worked, i n conjunction with p r i v a t e and govern-72 ment agencies, for the establishment of r e s e r v a t i o n p r i o r i t i e s f o r the housing of non-Canadian students, and has expressed concern that non-Canadian students be made aware of the need to apply f o r housing w e l l i n advance of t h e i r a r r i v a l . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Board of D i r e c t o r s , i n a b r i e f to the Advisory Committee on housing at U.B.C, suggested that the U n i v e r s i t y should recognize the necessity of housing f o r a l l new students on and o f f campus, consider accommodation as an i n t e g r a l part of the U n i v e r s i t y f u n c t i o n , and seek s p e c i a l f i n a n c i n g f o r i t . Off-campus housing, they maintained, should be inspected by the U n i v e r s i t y with a view to implementing an approval system based on minimum standards and conditions f o r r e n t a l agreements. In sum, through i t s development of accommodation s e r v i c e s , I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House has d i r e c t l y a s s i s t e d i n the s o l v i n g of housing problems faced by many non-Canadian students. By using a v a i l a b l e community and student resources, compiling l i s t s of off-campus housing, interviewing landlords and formulating guidelines to help landlords and overseas In an attempt to extend the breadth of appeal and support for the overseas student housing problem, housing b r i e f s were sent by I n t e r n a t i o n a l House to such o f f i c e s as the External Aid O f f i c e , The Asso c i a t i o n of U n i v e r s i t i e s and Colleges of Canada and the Canadian Services f o r Overseas Students and Trainees (C.S.O.S.T.). (Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, June 26, 1967.) 105 73 students e s t a b l i s h harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has met a major student need. Orientation and Reception Reception and o r i e n t a t i o n programs, two of the most popular s e r v i c e s , reveal another facet of the development and functions of Inter-n a t i o n a l House on campus. In 1952, o r i e n t a t i o n took the form of a tea party f o r f o r e i g n students and v i s i t i n g professors and a noon-hour s e r i e s 74 of f i v e o r i e n t a t i o n t a l k s on general Canadian t o p i c s . By 1961, a much more extensive o r i e n t a t i o n program and involvement of resource people i s i n d i c a t e d by coverage of a wide range of topics i n c l u d i n g 75 p r a c t i c a l information r e l a t e d to u n i v e r s i t y l i f e . In 1964, the "Buddy" system introduced the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r d i r e c t contact between the new student, fellow countryman and Canadian students. I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Annual Reports, U.B.C, November 27, 1971, p. 10. 74 Canadian Ori e n t a t i o n Series - 1952 - "Canadian A r t " : Mr. B. C. Binning - "Canada Looks Ahead": Dr. F. H. Soward - "Canadian Music": Miss Barbara Pentland and Mr. Harry Adaskin - "Economic and P o l i t i c a l Geography of Canada": Dr. J . L. Robinson - " S o c i a l Security i n Canada": Miss Marjorie J . Smith 7 5 0 r i e n t a t i o n - 1961 (Two Day F u l l Program) - "Welcome to Foreign Students": Dean G. C Andrew - "This i s Canada": Dr. J . L. Robinson - "The C i t y of Vancouver" - "The U n i v e r s i t y of B. C " : John Banham - Information O f f i c e , U.B.C. - "Student Government at U.B.C": Mr. Alan Cornwall, President, Alma Mater Society - " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Students Club": Mr. A j u i t Rupaal, Inter-n a t i o n a l House Student Club - "Canadian Immigration Regulations and You": - Mr. Hawkins, Canada Dept. of Immigration 106 The exchange of l e t t e r s and information before the new student's depar-ture from his/her home country provided a r e a l basis for Canadian p a r t i -c i p a t i o n i n House o r i e n t a t i o n , a method of passing on c r i t i c a l i n f o r -mation, and the opportunity for making personal contacts upon a r r i v a l i n Canada. This development appears to have been p a r a l l e l e d by changes i n the programing and sponsorship of events. Orientation was presented i n 1966 as a month-long program with a large number of non-Canadian student associations hosting tours, drop-in nights, f i l m nights on Canada v a r i e t y and t a l e n t concerts, and discussion panels on u n i v e r s i t y services student government, Canada, and the experiences of students i n Canada. Orientation i n 1972 r e f l e c t s a s i m i l a r trend but with s i g n i f i c a n t de-creases i n a c t i v i t i e s and non-Canadian student a s s o c i a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Summary - Basic Issues Examination of the nature and character of the programs and a c t i v i t i e s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House over time serves to c l a r i f y i t s de-velopment and functions on campus. S i g n i f i c a n t trends i n d i c a t e problems of c o n t i n u i t y and o v e r - a l l balance inherent i n programing which r a i s e a number of issues associated with involvement of students, the U n i v e r s i t y and the community i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a c t i v i t i e s . Three appear to have been of major importance. . . . - "Services f o r Handling Your Money": Mr. D. B. Jewell, Bank of Montreal " S o c i a l Customs i n Canada": Mrs. H. McCrae, Dean of Women Mrs. K. R o l l i n s o n , A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House "New Foreign Students Meeting": Mr. John P a r n e l l - R e g i s t r a r , U.B.C. 7 ^ I n 1967 twelve student associations hosted o r i e n t a t i o n events whereas two did i n 1972. 107 1. With regard to students, the nature and character of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs and a c t i v i t i e s appear to have been paramount. On one hand, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has been viewed as a haven from i n t e r n a t i o n a l problems, where friendships may develop on a personal b a s i s ; on the other hand, i t has become evident that the improving of i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s and understanding, and the f o s t e r i n g of meaningful i n t e r - c u l t u r a l contacts require the discussion of issues besetting the i n t e r n a t i o n a l community and students i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s . 2. Integration of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House with U n i v e r s i t y teaching, research and s e r v i c e functions appear to have been an issue which has d i r e c t l y influenced I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing. Although some i n d i -v i d u a l members of f a c u l t y have made considerable contributions to I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House programs and i t s educational co-ordination and research, u t i l i z a t i o n of U n i v e r s i t y personnel with i n t e r n a t i o n a l experience does not appear to have been f u l l y u t i l i z e d to give balance, c o n t i n u i t y and a f u l l e r academic, i n t e l l e c t u a l component to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs. 3. A t h i r d issue evident i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs and a c t i -v i t i e s has been the optimum u t i l i z a t i o n of the contributions of community groups and i n d i v i d u a l s . Whereas community i n d i v i d u a l s and groups have provided finance, leadership, volunteers and a basis f o r non-Canadian s o c i a l and personal contact with the Canadian community, the i n t e g r a t i o n of these groups i n t o I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing i n a meaningful way remains problematic. With s i g n i f i c a n t trends i d e n t i f i e d , we turn now to a c l o s e r examination of the student involvement i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a c t i v i t i e s i n order to examine those a c t i v i t i e s attended by students i n 19 70-71 and 1971-72, and t h e i r assessment of International House programs. CHAPTER 6 STUDENT INVOLVEMENT 1970-71 , 1971-72 I n an at tempt to f u r t h e r c l a r i f y the n a t u r e and charac te r o f the programs and a c t i v i t i e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House over t i m e , we t u r n now t o a more d e t a i l e d examinat ion o f the involvement of s tudents i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a c t i v i t i e s i n the academic years 1970-71 and 1971-72. C learer d e f i n i t i o n o f the s tuden t c l i e n t e l e and the use they made o f the House d u r i n g t h i s two-year p e r i o d i s sought . This chapter a l so endeavours t o p r o v i d e a rough w e i g h t i n g o f o p i n i o n o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs and a c t i v i t i e s by those s tudents who have, and have no t been, t o I n t e r n a t i o n a l House d u r i n g the years under s t u d y . Ques t ionna i re I n f o r m a t i o n analyzed i n t h i s chapter was ob ta ined f rom responses t o a q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1 sent t o two main groups o f s t u d e n t s . The f i r s t group inc ludes s tudents who were l i s t e d as members o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, were r e g i s t e r e d a t I n t e r n a t i o n a l House du r ing the academic years 1970-71 and/or 1971-72, and were s t i l l a t t e n d i n g U.B.C. i n February , 1973. The second group inc ludes Canadians and non-Canadians who were not members o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, bu t had a lso a t tended U.B.C. du r i ng See Appendix 10 f o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 108 109 the academic years 1970-71 and/or 19 71-72, and were s t i l l attending U.B.C. i n February, 1973. Because response expectations to t h i s type of problem were not a v a i l a b l e f o r U.B.C. students and because of prac-t i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n s , a t o t a l of about 1,400 questionnaires were sent on the following b a s i s . In the f i r s t instance, since the number of members of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House was small, the questionnaire was sent to a l l members who s a t i s f i e d the attendance and membership c r i t e r i a . In the second, because non-members of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House c o n s t i t u t e the bulk of the U n i v e r s i t y student population, our sample was chosen by i n c l u d i n g every eighth name from the 1973 r e g i s t r a r ' s l i s t of non-Canadian students at U.B.C. and every twenty-seventh Canadian non-member of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House from the 1973 student d i r e c t o r y . Table 1 i n d i c a t e s the approximate number of students i n each group and the number of questionnaires sent. Table 1 Student Questionnaires Sent Student Group Population Questionnaires Sent Canadian, I.H. member 95 95 Non-Canadian, I.H. member 299 299 Canadian, non-I.H. member =17,000 609 Non-Canadian, non-I.H. member = 3,700 391 T o t a l 1,394 110 The questionnaire i d e n t i f i e d those a c t i v i t i e s that were held at I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i n the two years i n question, and students were asked to i n d i c a t e the a c t i v i t i e s which they did or did not attend. Further, they were asked to comment on those a c t i v i t i e s which they considered to be i n need of improvement and to give t h e i r general im-pressions of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs and a c t i v i t i e s . Where a student had never been to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, he was d i r e c t e d to respond to a s p e c i a l s e c t i o n . The questionnaire was vetted by obtaining responses to i t from a l i m i t e d number of people f a m i l i a r with I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a c t i v i t i e s , and an equal number who were unfamiliar with i t s a c t i v i t i e s . As a r e s u l t , minor changes were made. The 1,394 questionnaires were mailed February 28, 1973, together 2 with two covering l e t t e r s and a prepaid addressed return envelope. Since 52 were undeliverable and returned by the post o f f i c e , a t o t a l of 1,342 were considered to have a r r i v e d i n the hands of students. Within three weeks an o v e r a l l return of 36 percent was obtained. On March 26, 3 a follow-up reminder card was sent, r e s u l t i n g i n a t o t a l return of 41.3 percent. Questionnaire returns are tabulated i n Table 2. As e v i -dent, non-members responded s l i g h t l y b e t t e r than members of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, with Canadian non-member returns the highest at 43.9 percent. See Appendix 11 f o r covering l e t t e r s . See Appendix 12 for sample reminder card. I l l Table 2 Questionnaire Returns Student Group Questionnaires Delivered Questionnaires Returned No. Percent Canadian, I.H. members 90 29 32.2 Non-Canadian, I.H. members 285 105 36.8 Canadian, non-I.H. members 592 260 43.9 Non-Canadian, non-I.H. members 375 160 42.6 T o t a l 1,342 554 41.3 The majority of returned questionnaires (302) were from students who had attended U.B.C. i n both the 1970-71 and 1971-72 academic years. As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 3, a large number of students (166) were i n at t e n -dance f o r 1971-72 only, and a l i m i t e d number (62) had not attended U.B.C. e i t h e r of the two years, and therefore did not s a t i s f y the c r i -t e r i a f o r the study. Most of the l a t t e r were students who were e n r o l l e d for the f i r s t time at U.B.C. i n the 1972-73 academic session. With the 62 respondents who did not attend U.B.C. at any time during 1970-71 and 19 71-72 academic sessions eliminated, the t o t a l number of u s e f u l respondents f or the purposes of t h i s study-is 492. Table 4 c l a s s i f i e s the respondents who attended U.B.C. at some time during the years 1970-71 and 1971-72. 112 Table 3 Attendance of Respondents a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Dur ing the Years 1970-71 and 1971-72 - T o t a l Sample Years o f Attendance Canadian Non-Canadian T o t a l Members Non-members Members Non-members 1970-71 on ly 1 17 3 3 24 1971-72 on ly 7 74 31 54 166 Both years 17 149 46 90 302 N e i t h e r year _4 20 25 13 62 T o t a l 29 260 105 160 554 Table 4 At tendance o f Respondents a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia a t Some Time Dur ing the Years 1970-71 and 1971-72 Canadian Non-Canadian Members Non-members Members Non-members T o t a l 25 240 80 147 492 113 N o n - P a r t i c i p a t i n g Respondents A l though e n r o l l e d a t U . B . C , a l a r g e number of respondents d i d not a t t e n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l House d u r i n g the 1970-71 and 1971-72 academic terms. As shown i n Table 5, t h i s group inc luded bo th members and non-members o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. Table 5 Attendance o f Respondents a t I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a t Some Time Dur ing the Years 1970-71 and 1971-72 Attendance a t I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Canadian Non-Canadian Members Non-members Members Non-members T o t a l At tended 20 69 62 78 229 Did no t A t tend _5 171 18 69 263 T o t a l s 25 240 80 147 492 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t a cons ide rab le number o f non-members a t tended I n t e r n a t i o n a l House at some t ime i n the two years i n q u e s t i o n , and t h a t o f these 28.7 percent were Canadian non-members but a much l a r g e r percentage (53.1) were non-Canadian non-members. C l a r i f i c a t i o n of s t u d e n t s ' assessments o f the programs and a c t i v i t i e s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i s gained by examining the programs and a c t i v i t i e s a t tended by s tudents and t h e i r op in ions and remarks rega rd ing them. Before doing t h i s , however, i t i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o 114 consider the information given by those respondents who d i d not go to Int e r n a t i o n a l House during the two years under study. In an attempt to sound out the reasons which best describe why they had not gone to Int e r n a t i o n a l House, these respondents were dire c t e d to complete only part I of the questionnaire. Most gave more than one reason f o r not attending I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. However, the percentage of student responses i n each category provide an i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e impor-tance of each p a r t i c u l a r reason. Table 6 itemizes these responses. Personal reasons such as "other i n t e r e s t s " and " i n s u f f i c i e n t free time" were frequent. Another very common area of comment, one that f a l l s w i t h i n the c o n t r o l of In t e r n a t i o n a l House, was that of pub-l i c i t y and information flow. Sixty percent of those respondents who had not gone to In t e r n a t i o n a l House i n the two years under study i n d i -cated they were unaware of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , many expressed i n t e r e s t i n i t s programs through w r i t t e n comments. Several f i r s t heard of In t e r n a t i o n a l House through t h i s research and expressed s u r p r i s e at the scope and v a r i e t y of the a c t i v i t i e s covered i n the • questionnaire. A general theme was that students d i d not consider themselves uninformed about campus events, but were unaware of Inter-n a t i o n a l House a c t i v i t i e s . The comment of a Canadian non-member i n d i c a t e s the common tone of many: "To be honest, I am quite ignorant of the programs and a c t i v i t i e s I.H. o f f e r s . Except f o r the occasional poster, pamphlet, or Ubyssey coverage, I.H. remains (unfortunately) unknown." 115 Table 6 Student Reasons for not Going to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House During 1970-71 and/or 1971-72 Reason No. Percent A. Personal Reasons: I do not have s u f f i c i e n t free time I have other i n t e r e s t s I have no i n t e r e s t i n meeting students at I.H. I am attempting to l e a r n Canadian cus-toms, not to r e t a i n the t r a d i t i o n s of my homeland 128 166 25 49 63 10 B. P u b l i c i t y of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House: Never heard of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House 11 Am not aware of I.H. programs 150 Understood I.H. was f o r overseas students only 57 Usually f i n d out about events too l a t e 31 4 60 22 12 C. Programs and A c t i v i t i e s : The programs and a c t i v i t i e s have no relevance f o r me The programs should not h i g h l i g h t the di f f e r e n c e s between c u l t u r e s s but should s t r e s s t h e i r common elements The program should be of a more: educational nature s o c i a l nature p o l i t i c a l nature t r a v e l nature 50 10 15 41 5 17 19 6 16 2 6 * Percentage i n each group i s c a l c u l a t e d from the t o t a l of those who did not attend I.H. ( i e . 263). 116 Several f e l t that p u b l i c i t y must have been handled i n t e r n a l l y f o r members or f o r those who go there frequently. Although I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has advertised major events i n the Ubyssey and, f o r a time, replaced the newsletter with Ubyssey coverage, the lack of a good p u b l i c i t y program i n the opinion of one respondent has a somewhat s t i f l i n g e f f e c t . I t creates, i n her words, 1 1. . . a s l i g h t ' c l i q u i s h * f e e l i n g so that people who are not members - even though they know about events i n the Ubyssey -are r e l u c t a n t to go a l l the same." Poor information flow as a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i s fur t h e r r e f l e c t e d i n the s u r p r i s i n g l y large number of respondents who understood I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House was f o r "overseas" students only. Indeed, 22 percent of those who had not been to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House gave t h i s as a reason for not going. This impression of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House does not appear to be l i m i t e d to Canadians. Several non-Canadian students s a i d they did not consider themselves " f o r e i g n " enough to a v a i l themselves of the programs. Although I n t e r n a t i o n a l House advertisements i n d i c a t e everybody i s welcome, i t appears, on the basis of these comments, that many students hold the view that I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i s mainly to help non-Canadian students and i s not a m u l t i - c u l t u r a l or i n t e r n a t i o n a l centre. Questionnaire comments suggest that t h i s opinion i s not based on f i r s t -hand knowledge, but on assumptions implied by t h i s response: "Although I am aware of I.H.'s existence I have no r e a l idea what i t s reasons f o r existence are. I suppose I have assumed i n the past that i t was the sort of place where get-togethers are held f o r fo r e i g n students." 117 A large number of students, however, simply had l i t t l e time for extra c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , or had other i n t e r e s t s . A few comments indica t e d more general reasons f o r not going to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. Some stated they did not mix w e l l with l a r g e r groups of people or were too shy to go to In t e r n a t i o n a l House alone. Several f e l t the House was too i s o l a t e d geographically and remote from other student centres. Others, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House members who had not been to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House during the period 1970-72, f e l t that other f a c i l i t i e s on campus such as residences and classes provided adequate opportunity to meet non-Canadian students. O v e r a l l , however, i t i s f a i r to say i n summary that although many students i n d i c a t e d they had other i n t e r e s t s , a s i g n i -f i c a n t number also expressed an i n t e r e s t and appreciation f o r the idea behind I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. Having considered some of the reasons given by students f o r not going to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, we now look at events that have been attended by students. That i s , we examine f i r s t the patterns of atten-dance at House events, and secondly, we attempt to gain a sounding of students' impressions of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs and a c t i v i t i e s . A c t i v i t i e s Attended by P a r t i c i p a t i n g Students Responses by the 229 students who attended I n t e r n a t i o n a l House at some time during the years 1970-71 and/or 1971-72 i n d i c a t e that s o c i a l events and general use of the House dominate the nature and character of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs. This i s consistent with booking records. , Over 70 percent of the respondents who had been to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House 118 had attended e i t h e r a s o c i a l event, a v a r i e t y of club meetings or made use of i t s supplementary s e r v i c e s . In contrast, 34 percent of the respondents had attended an educational or i n t e l l e c t u a l discussion-type event. Table 7 categorizes the kinds of In t e r n a t i o n a l House a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by p a r t i c i p a t i n g students. Each category w i l l then be inves-tigated i n more d e t a i l . Table 7 In t e r n a t i o n a l House A c t i v i t i e s Attended by P a r t i c i p a t i n g Students 1970-71 and/or 1971-72 Canadian Non--Canadian Totals Category No. Percent 1 No. 2 Percent No. Pe r c e n t 3 Educational Component 34 38 44 31 78 34 S o c i a l Events 57 64 109 78 166 72 General Use of the House (club meetings, i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y oriented organiza-tions , spplementary services) 59 66 111 79 170 74 Percent i s c a l c u l a t e d from the 89 Canadians who attended Inter-n a t i o n a l House. Percent i s c a l c u l a t e d from the 140 non-Canadians who attended International House. 3 Percent i s c a l c u l a t e d from the 229 respondents who attended International House. 119 Educational Component The educational component of In t e r n a t i o n a l House programing i s c l a r i f i e d i n Table 8 which shows the educational a c t i v i t i e s attended by p a r t i c i p a t i n g students i n 1970-71 and/or 1971-72. Table 8 Educational Component A c t i v i t i e s Attended by P a r t i c i p a t i n g Students 1970-71 and 1971-72 Canadian Non--Canadian Totals A c t i v i t y No. Percent''" No. 2 Percent No. 3 Percent Regular U n i v e r s i t y Credit Course 18 53 4 10 23 28 36 Non-Credit Courses or Lessons 2 6 12 27 14 18 Spe c i a l Seminars and Discussions 16 5 23 52 39 50 Percent i s expressed as a p o r t i o n of t o t a l number of Canadians who attended an educational event. Percent i s expressed as portion of t o t a l number of non-Canadians who attended an educational event. 3 Percent i s expressed as a po r t i o n of the t o t a l number of p a r t i -c i p a t i n g students who attended an educational event. 4 Since some persons attended more than one a c t i v i t y v e r t i c a l percentages are i r r e l e v a n t . 120 Of those educational events attended, s p e c i a l seminars such as C.U.S.O. meetings and discussion nights were mentioned most often. Frequency of attendance and implications underlying the number of both Canadian and non-Canadian students who attended, suggest that these events provide a common ground f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l mixing. Not a l l educational events, however, reveal t h i s pattern. Under-standably, few Canadian students attended English language courses, but where many non-Canadian respondents attended non-credit language courses such as Mandarin, Cantonese, or language days, very few Canadian student respondents i n d i c a t e d e i t h e r i n t e r e s t or involvement. Regular u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t courses were the second most frequently attended. In f a c t , 36 percent of those who had been to an educational event, had attended a class at I n t e r n a t i o n a l House on a regular b a s i s . These were mainly Canadians and were not members of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. In short, whereas the majority of Canadian respondents who had attended an edu-c a t i o n a l event were e n r o l l e d i n a regular c l a s s , non-Canadian students appear to have attended s p e c i a l seminars and discussions most frequently. S o c i a l Component A much more s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i v i t y at I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i n terms of student attendance i s i t s s o c i a l program. Whereas 34 percent of the respondents who had been to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House during 1970-72 attended an educational event, more than twice as many, 72 percent, i n d i c a t e d they attended a s o c i a l event. Student dances, open to the e n t i r e student body, were the most frequently attended, as shown i n Table 9. 121 Table 9 S o c i a l Events Attended by P a r t i c i p a t i n g Students 1970-71 and/or 1971-72 S o c i a l Event Canadian Non-Canadian Totals No. P e r c e n t 1 No. Percent No. Percent Student Dances (open) 34 60 90 83 124 75 Student P a r t i e s (clubs) 13 23 36 33 49 30 Regular Events 25 44 41 38 66 40 Pub-Ins 21 37 37 34 58 35 Musical Evenings 8 14 12 11 20 12 F i l m Series 10 18 11 10 21 13 Percent i s expressed i n proportion to the t o t a l number i n each of the two groups p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s o c i a l events. Canadian = 57, non-Canadian = 109, t o t a l = 166. Despite t h e i r smaller number on campus, a much l a r g e r percentage of non-Canadian students attended the open dances than d i d Canadian students. In contrast, other popular s o c i a l events appear to have at t r a c t e d a l a r g e r percentage of Canadians. Regularly scheduled pub-i n s , musical evenings and f i l m s e r i e s a t t r a c t e d a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r percen-tage of Canadian students. Although a l a r g e r percentage of non-Canadian respondents take part i n student dances gener a l l y , no apparent preferences f o r one p a r t i -c ular sponsor are shown. As w e l l , Canadian respondent attendance at dances appears to be evenly d i s t r i b u t e d over most dances. Student p a r t i e s , however, r e f l e c t a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e . Non-Canadians attended a wide 122 va r i e t y of club p a r t i e s , but Canadian attendance at many of the l i n -g u i s t i c or ethnic based club p a r t i e s was poor. Several Canadian respon-dents attended p r i v a t e p a r t i e s , but club attendance appears to be ex-tremely l i m i t e d . An analysis of the p a r t i e s attended by other respon-dents suggests a s i m i l a r pattern of l i m i t e d mixing. General Use of the House The nature and character of In t e r n a t i o n a l House a c t i v i t i e s i s further suggested by the casual, general use of the House. As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 7, a large percentage of respondents attended such a c t i v i t i e s as club meetings, i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d organizations or made use of supplementary s e r v i c e s . The snack-bar a t t r a c t e d the greatest number of both Canadians and non-Canadians regardless of whether or not they were members. The second most frequent use of the House was as a place for meeting friends and r e l a x i n g i n the lounge. Many non-Canadians used i t as a mailing address and some, but not many, i n d i c a t e d they enjoyed reading the magazines. The seeking of information on housing p o s s i b i l i t i e s was seldom mentioned by Canadians, but a large number of non-Canadian respondents i n d i c a t e d t h i s was a reason f o r t h e i r going to International House. Although very few Canadians or non-Canadians i n d i -cated they sought information on academic or f i n a n c i a l matters, many students s i g n i f i e d they sought information on t r a v e l , work and study. Only a few sought information on immigration and employment. C.U.S.O. information nights and other C.U.S.O. meetings were most frequently mentioned as the meetings attended. P o s i t i v e responses to others, such as Crossroads, W.U.S.C. and U.N. meetings, not formally 123 centered at I n t e r n a t i o n a l House were rare. Regular student club meetings, on the other hand, were attended by approximately 15 percent of the respondents who had gone to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. Several appear to have attr a c t e d both Canadian and non-Canadian students, but others were men-tioned only by non-Canadians. Those clubs which apparently a t t r a c t e d both were I I Caffe, E l C i r c u l o , the German Club and A l l i a n c e Francaise. Community Contact I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a c t i v i t i e s have included arrangements designed to help non-Canadian students meet people from Vancouver and other B r i t i s h Columbia communities. As revealed i n Table 10, 22 percent of the non-Canadian respondents who had been to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House during 1970-72 made contact with community people as a r e s u l t of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House arrangements. Of these, the l a r g e s t number di d so through day v i s i t s to l o c a l points of i n t e r e s t . The second most frequently mentioned means of contacting the community were as a weekend guest of a family and as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n sponsored weekend t r i p s to B. C. communities. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that whereas no non-member of Inter-n a t i o n a l House was a weekend guest of a community family, both members and non-members i n d i c a t e d that they had been guest speakers f o r a commu-n i t y club, school class or other group. Very few mentioned contact with business or p r o f e s s i o n a l groups. 124 Table 10 Community Contact Arranged by I n t e r n a t i o n a l House f o r Non-Canadian Students -Student Evaluation Member Non-Member T o t a l Evaluation No. P e r c e n t 1 No. Percent No. Percent Made Community Contact 20 32 11 14 31 22 Did Not Make Com-munity Contact 36 58 58 74 94 67 No Response to the Question _6 10 _9 12 15 11 T o t a l 62 100 78 100 140 100 Percent i s expressed i n proportion to the number of non-Canadian students who i n d i c a t e d they had gone to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i n 1970-72. Student Assessment of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Programs Through open-ended comments and responses to s p e c i f i c ques-ti o n s , respondents were asked to give t h e i r opinions of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a c t i v i t i e s and programs. Questions focused on p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n with I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing and t h e i r opinions regarding i t s programs as an a i d to gaining i n s i g h t s i n t o another c u l -ture that would f a c i l i t a t e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l understanding. A rough weighting of opinions i n d i c a t e s that although a very p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g toward the i d e a l of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House e x i s t s , problems of ethnic group s e c l u s i o n , a paucity of Canadian p a r t i c i p a t i o n and programing balance are evident. 125 Weighting of Respondents' Opinions As evident i n Table 11 which shows the frequency of student use of In t e r n a t i o n a l House during the period i n 1970-72, the greatest number of respondents v i s i t e d the House once or twice per term, i . e . 4 r a r e l y ; and only 16 of the 229 respondents who v i s i t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i n 1970-72 did so once or more per week (often). I t i s also i n t e r e s t i n g to note that almost twice as many non-Canadian students used I n t e r n a t i o n a l House as d i d Canadian students. Table 11 Frequency of Student Use of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House 1970-72 - Number of Students Canadian Non-Canadian Frequency Members Non-Members T o t a l Members Non-Members T o t a l Grand T o t a l Rarely 10 43 53 37 52 89 142 Occasionally 4 23 27 22 22 44 71 Often _6 _3 _9 3 4 _7 16 T o t a l 20 69 89 62 78 140 229 Terms used i n the questionnaire were s p e c i f i e d as: Rarely (once or twice per term), Occasionally (once or twice per month), Often (once or more per week). 126 In order to give more weight to the assessment and opinions expressed by those respondents who used I n t e r n a t i o n a l House most f r e -quently, a value or weighting system i s here employed. A response given by a student who v i s i t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l House r a r e l y i s given a value of one; a response by a student who v i s i t e d o c c a s i o n a l l y , a value of two; and response of often, a value of three. Further, a two-year average i s obtained. I f a person v i s i t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l House often f o r both years, h i s responses are valued 3 + 3 or 3. I f a person went r a r e l y 2 one year and often the next, h i s responses are valued at 1 + 3 or 2; 2 and so on. Using the weighted values of v i s i t s , the frequency of d i s t r i -butions of student use of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House f o r 1970-72 i s i n d i c a t e d i n Table 12. The assessment of In t e r n a t i o n a l House i s therefore drawn from 142 weighted responses by respondents who v i s i t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l House r a r e l y , another 142 weighted responses by those who v i s i t e d occa-s i o n a l l y and 48 weighted responses by those who were there often. In t h i s way, the responses by those who v i s i t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l House most frequently are given three times as much weight as those who only v i s i t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l House r a r e l y . 127 Table 12 Frequency of Student Use of Int e r n a t i o n a l House 1970-72 - Weighted Responses Canadian Non-Canadian Frequency Members Non-Members T o t a l Members Non-Members T o t a l Grand T o t a l Rarely 10 43 53 37 52 89 142 Occasionally 8 46 54 44 44 88 142 Often 18 9 27 9 12 21 48 T o t a l 134 198 332 Favourable Impressions Table 13 provides an index of students' assessment of In t e r -n a t i o n a l House by recording t h e i r responses to three questions concerning I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing. A p o s i t i v e response to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing i s r e f l e c t e d i n the 55 percent of the weighted responses i n d i c a t i n g that I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has met student expectations through i t s a c t i v i t i e s and programs. A smaller percentage of weighted responses were p o s i t i v e with respect to the suggestion that I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing enabled them to more f u l l y appreciate another c u l t u r e . Cana-dian members, however, responded d i f f e r e n t l y than non-Canadians. Whereas 60 percent of the Canadian members f e l t they had learned to more f u l l y appreciate another c u l t u r e , only 39 percent of the non-Canadian members ind i c a t e d t h i s to be so. A s i m i l a r pattern i s seen i n student responses Table 13 Students' Assessment of International House 1970-72 Canadian Non-Canadian Non- Non- T o t a l Members Members Members Members Value % Value % Value % Value % Value % Assessment (36) (98) (90) (108) (332) Through i t s a c t i v i t i e s and programs, I.H. has met student's expectations: Yes 19 53 50 51 53 59 59 55 181 55 No 13 36 16 16 24 27 27 25 80 24 No Response 4 11 32 33 13 14 22 20 71 21 T o t a l 36 100 98 100 90 100 108 100 332 100 Through involvement with I.H. a c t i v i t i e s , student learned more f u l l y to appreciate another c u l t u r e : Yes 22 61 28 28 35 39 44 41 129 39 No 12 33 36 37 26 29 40 37 114 34 No Response 2 6 34 35 29 32 24 22 89 27 To t a l 36 100 98 100 90 100 108 100 332 100 Through involvement i n I.H. a c t i -v i t i e s , student's i n s i g h t s have been deepened or a t t i t u d e s changed: Yes 16 44 10 10 19 21 29 27 74 22 No 19 53 48 49 46 51 54 50 167 50 No Response 1 3 40 41 25 28 25 23 91 28 T o t a l 36 100 98 100 90 100 108 100 332 100 ho 00 129 to the question regarding the deepening of t h e i r i n s i g h t s i n t o another culture through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing, whereas i n the case of Canadian members, 44 percent of weighted responses were p o s i t i v e , only 21 percent of the non-Canadian responses were p o s i t i v e . On t h i s b a s i s , i t appears f e a s i b l e to hypothesize that Canadian members, more than other groups or non-Canadians, f e l t they b e n e f i t t e d from the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l aspects of In t e r n a t i o n a l House programing. Another i n d i c a t i o n of students' impressions of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i s evident i n Table 14 which r e f l e c t s a generally favourable view of the House on the part of those students who v i s i t e d i t during the 1970-72 period. While a few f e l t i t was outmoded or detracted from the " r e a l " i n t e r n a t i o n a l problems, nearly 60 percent of the weighted responses are favourable. On the same b a s i s , 24 percent i n d i c a t e the House i s a "good idea but i n e f f e c t u a l i n promoting brotherhood," and 37 percent that i t "aids i n t e r n a t i o n a l understanding and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l contact." Once again, s l i g h t l y more of the Canadian weighted responses r e f l e c t a more favourable impression of the House than do the non-Canadian weighted responses. This f i n d i n g , together with the l a r g e r percentage of Canadian members who f e l t they had learned to more f u l l y appreciate another culture (Table 13) suggests that Canadians f e e l they receive more from I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a c t i v i t i e s and programs than do non-Canadian students. 130 Table 14 Students' Assessment of In t e r n a t i o n a l House 1970-72 Canadian Non- Canadian Assessment Members Value % Non-Members Value % Members Value % Non-Members Value % T o t a l Value % Students' impression of I.H.: Completely outmoded; requires r e d i r e c t i o n - 3 3 - - 1 1 4 1.2 " C o l o n i a l r e l i c " ; smacks of pater-nalism —  1 1 3 3 2 2 6 1.8 A c t i v i t i e s detract from the " r e a l i n -t e r n a t i o n a l prob-lems" 7 20 2 2 2 2 4 4 15 4.5 Good idea but i n -e f f e c t u a l i n pro-moting brotherhood 5 14 22 22 21 23 32 30 80 24.1 Aids i n t e r n a t i o n a l understanding and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l contact 16 44 40 41 32 36 36 33 124 37.4 Excellent as a ve h i c l e to promote i n t e r n a t i o n a l unders tanding 2 2 8 9 9 8 19 5.7 No response 8 22 28 29 24 27 24 22 84 25.3 Problems of Cross-Cultural Interactions 131 Although these basic questions r e f l e c t a generally favourable impression of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing, comments by those students who d i d not f e e l that I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs had met t h e i r expec-tations h i g h l i g h t a v a r i e t y of concerns which furt h e r c l a r i f y I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a c t i v i t i e s and i t s functions on campus. In t h i s regard, by f a r the greatest number of comments focused on the lack of programs that bring students from d i f f e r e n t countries together. A large number of respondents f e l t that the House programs tended to keep students of s i n g l e countries together. Some questioned whether the House should a c t i v e l y support various ethnic clubs which they viewed as b a r r i e r s to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l mixing and understanding. Remarks by a graduate student from Switzerland t y p i f i e d t h i s sentiment. I t i s my experience that programs such as yours a c t u a l l y encourage students of the same n a t i o n a l i t y to draw together. Instead of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t i e s you f o s t e r i n t r a - c u l t u r a l t i e s . The r e s u l t i s a remarkable lack of understanding of Canadian l i f e on the part of foreigners. This i s what prompts me to stay away and seek contacts of my own. Another non-Canadian student, f a m i l i a r with I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing, offered a s i m i l a r viewpoint: There are many fore i g n student groups; consequently a t y p i c a l group would be small i n the number of members. This doesn't encourage many act i v e programs. Furthermore, t h i s f r a c t i o n a t i n g tends to keep people i n t o closed groups. The r e s u l t w i l l be hard on the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House task of promoting i n t e r n a t i o n a l contacts. I suggest that I.H. may help by helping to organize a dance or get-together between 2 or more clubs, o c c a s i o n a l l y varying the combi-nation. Several students suggested that the House was not i n t e r n a t i o n a l but "pro foreign student" and stressed the idea that more i n t e r a c t i o n 132 between groups was needed. A few expressed concern regarding t h e i r a b i l i t y to "break i n t o " the various groups, but only one student found " . . . the various cliques rather impenetrable. 1 1 Many students suggested the need f o r a common-interest goal so that d i f f e r e n t groups could work with a common aim. Using the example of few j o i n t African-Chinese a c t i v i t i e s , one student saw the lack of i n t e r - r a c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n as the main reason the House was i n e f f e c t u a l i n promoting i n t e r n a t i o n a l understanding. Another student f e l t that good r e l a t i o n s between the clubs was l a c k i n g and c i t e d as an example the fa c t that "members from the C.S.A. very seldom go to the German Club's functions." A more t y p i c a l and o p t i m i s t i c comment, however, i s represented by the view that the House " . . . seems to be d i r e c t e d toward s p e c i a l i z e d minority groups on campus, but the idea of I.H. i s a good one and has the p o t e n t i a l to be the hub of campus l i f e . " Problem of Involving Students Several non-Canadian students expressed t h e i r desire to become more involved i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a c t i v i t i e s . A few wanted to form a club of t h e i r own but more t y p i c a l l y , comments centered on the r e s t r u c -turing of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing to enable the u t i l i z a t i o n of the enthusiasm and expertise of v i s i t i n g students. Although I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has organized seminars i n conjunction with the Faculty of Education to provide an opportunity f o r non-Canadian students to t e l l others about t h e i r countries, many students appear to f e e l they have not had the opportunity to organize themselves and contribute. A B r a z i l i a n g i r l who i n the past v i s i t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l House o c c a s i o n a l l y , but now seldom, f e l t many students ". . . had ideas and ta l e n t s but, without s t r u g g l i n g , 133 do not have opportunities to show them." Although t h i s view i s counter-balanced somewhat by the f a c t that the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Students Program Committee provides an open forum for anyone i n t e r e s t e d i n i n i t i a t i n g or p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a c t i v i t i e s , comments by s e v e r a l students suggest that some students see the programs of the House as u n i - d i r e c t i o n a l , with l i t t l e chance f o r them to p a r t i c i p a t e . A graduate student from Tanzania, fo r example, implies t h i s i n her remark that "I.H. represents a p a t r o n i s i n g body f o r f o r e i g n students . . . and 'being helped' becomes a p a i n f u l process when one does not have an opportunity to c o n t r i b u t e . " On the other hand, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs are seen by many students as extremely valuable f o r newly a r r i v e d non-Canadian students. A large number expressed the opinion that the House programs are and should be d i r e c t e d towards welcoming people to Canada. Many comments focused on the d i f f i c u l t y of maintaining contacts beyond the f i r s t year, and s e v e r a l c r i t i c i z e d the lack of in-depth follow-up programs, but almost a l l were appre c i a t i v e of the o r i e n t a t i o n programs. The comment of a medical student from Hong Kong i s t y p i c a l : I.H. d e f i n i t e l y helps f o r e i g n students get oriented to Canada and U.B.C. and provides r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s to help meet other students from other countries and to reduce f e e l i n g s of l o n e l i n e s s and uncertainty. I t has, however, become l e s s meaningful f o r me as I gain more confidence and move out i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y . Comments expressing appreciation f o r the i n i t i a l help provided by I n t e r n a t i o n a l House are tempered i n s e v e r a l instances, however, by remarks and reservations that r e f l e c t an important aspect of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs and a c t i v i t i e s . A graduate student from Sweden, f o r example, commented that " . . . only when an immigrant comes to Canada 134 du r ing the f i r s t month i s p a t e r n a l i s m j u s t i f i e d . . . then i t i s b e t t e r t o meet people f rom o ther c o u n t r i e s through a medium such as c r o s s -c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s . " The remarks o f a s tudent f rom Japan who v i s i t e d the House o f t e n i n 1969, but r a r e l y by 1972, serves as a f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n : When f i r s t I came to U . B . C , I thought I . H . was on ly f o r the f o r e i g n s tudent a i d and i t was so. A f t e r 2 y e a r s , I cou ld manage almost e v e r y t h i n g w i t h o u t I . H . so I dropped out and l a t e r on I met s e v e r a l community people through the f u n c t i o n s . I found they were the people who are happy t o do something good f o r somebody, no f u r t h e r i n t e r e s t . So I l o s t any i n t e r e s t i n I . H . and community peop le . But s t i l l I thank I . H . f o r h e l p i n g me f i r s t year I came and a f t e r a t t e n d i n g s e v e r a l d i s c u s s i o n programs (68-70) I found t h a t most people are no t i n t e r e s t e d accord ing t o i t s poor a t tendance. I had l i v e d w i t h two o ther f o r e i g n e r s . I learned l o t s about t h e i r c o u n t r i e s , but no t f r o n I . H . Lack o f Canadian Student P a r t i c i p a t i o n Another s t r o n g area o f focus ev iden t i n s tudent comments draws a t t e n t i o n to the l a c k o f Canadian s tudent p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs and a c t i v i t i e s . Many non-Canadian s tuden ts expected t o meet more Canadians. As one s tudent f rom B r a z i l remarked, " . . . when one a r r i v e s i n the c o u n t r y , one i s hoping to meet more Canadians than overseas s t u d e n t s . " Another g i r l f rom South America t y p i f i e s many o f the comments when she w r i t e s t h a t " . . . no t enough Canadian s tuden ts know o f I . H . They f e e l i t i s o n l y f o r f o r e i g n s tudents . . . People only seem to know I . H . f o r dances, no t as an environment f o r unders tand ing o the r races , peop le , a t t i t u d e s , elsewhere i n the w o r l d . " Th is apparent problem was recognized a lso by a Canadian who suggests t h a t the House i n v o l v e the vas t number o f Canadian s tudents who go to Europe each summer • 135 i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing. Showing considerable i n s i g h t , another student remarked that I n t e r n a t i o n a l House should attempt to get the "average student" involved i n order to help Canadian students r e a l i z e that they are indeed i n t e r n a t i o n a l and hence part of the House. Poor p u b l i c i t y and information flow appears to be d i r e c t l y r e -lated to the apparent lack of Canadian student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Inter-n a t i o n a l House programs. Comments by sev e r a l Canadian students i n d i c a t e d they were unaware that I n t e r n a t i o n a l House was f o r t h e i r use as w e l l as f o r non-Canadians. One wrote: 1 1. . .my impression, when I f i r s t came to U.B.C. was that I.H. was f o r students from other nations, not for Canadians. Hence I never made a point of going there. I had hoped before coming to U.B.C. that i t would be a place f o r l o c a l students too." Moreover, 28 percent of the Canadian respondents who had not been to In t e r n a t i o n a l House during the two years under study stated the impression that I n t e r n a t i o n a l House was f o r overseas students only as t h e i r reason for not v i s i t i n g . A comment by a g i r l from U.S.A. f o r example, i s of i n t e r e s t and h i g h l i g h t s the problem: "When I f i r s t came to U.B.C. I had the impression that I.H. was more f o r students from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s , yet as an American, I had great d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g my way i n Canadian s o c i e t y . " Programing Balance Problems of balance associated with I n t e r n a t i o n a l House pro-graming and a c t i v i t i e s also received considerable a t t e n t i o n i n students' comments. Several students expressed the view that the House should continue to provide the same programs, but with more vigour and p u b l i c i t y . 136 Many advocated the need f o r an increase i n i n t e l l e c t u a l " c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s " and discussion programs; others stressed s o c i a l , relaxed, informal programs. Several students suggested that more contact between clubs could be engendered by holding " i n t e r n a t i o n a l " sports meets, competitions of various types and other s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s . One student suggested inexpensive weekend t r i p s throughout B r i t i s h Columbia as a means of pro-v i d i n g an opportunity f o r students to see more of the province and to meet other students i n an informal, relaxed manner. Summary Questionnaire responses i n d i c a t e that more than 53 percent of the 492 respondents had not been to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House during the two year period 1970-72. A somewhat s u r p r i s i n g 60 percent of these students i n d i c a t e d they were not aware of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs, and 22 percent stated they understood I n t e r n a t i o n a l House was f o r overseas students only. Other i n t e r e s t s or a lack of free time f o r e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s were also frequently stated as reasons f o r not v i s i t i n g the House. A few non-Canadian students stated they did not f e e l " f o r e i g n " enough to p a r t i c i p a t e . Many expressed i n t e r e s t i n the programs shown on the questionnaire. Most c r i t i c i z e d the lack of p u b l i c i t y of House a c t i v i t i e s and programs. The majority of respondents who went to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House during the period 1970-72 were non-Canadian students, and most of these attended r a r e l y , i . e . once or twice per term. As r e f l e c t e d i n atten-dance percentages, s o c i a l events and "general use of the House" are the dominant i n d i c a t o r s of the nature and character of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs during the two years under study. Non-Canadian respondents appear to have attended open dances and club p a r t i e s while Canadian students attended more regular events such as "pub-ins," musical evenings and f i l m s e r i e s . The c a f e t e r i a a t t r a c t e d by f a r the l a r g e s t body of respondents with a s i g n i f i c a n t number using the House simply as a place f o r meeting friends or r e l a x i n g i n the lounge. A much smaller number attended regular club meetings or educational events. S p e c i a l seminars and discussions were attended most by non-Canadian students, with the majority of Canadian respondents using the House f o r regular scheduled u n i v e r s i t y classes. In general, a very p o s i t i v e response to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing i s i n d i c a t e d by students' comments. More Canadian than non-Canadian members, however, f e l t that I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing had enabled them to more f u l l y appreciate another culture and deepen t h e i r i n s i g h t s . The responses of most students who had been to I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House r e f l e c t e d a favourable impression of the House, but i n d i -cated a v a r i e t y of concerns. Most of the l a t t e r focused on the lack of an e f f e c t i v e program st r u c t u r e designed to b r i n g together students from d i f f e r e n t countries and ethnic clubs. Many expressed the opinion that the emphasis on clubs acted as a b a r r i e r to the generation of a c t i -v i t i e s based on common i n t e r e s t goals. Some remarked on the d i f f i c u l t y of f i n d i n g opportunities to contribute to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing. Orientation was assessed, by almost every respondent, as a very worthwhile and appreciated program. Many commented on the apparent lack of Canadian 138 student p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Many Canadians and some non-Canadian students i n d i c a t e d they thought I n t e r n a t i o n a l House was mainly f o r the use of "f o r e i g n " students from a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e . Comments on programing p o s s i b i l i t i e s include a wide v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s ranging from completely informal "drop-ins" to more academically oriented discussions of i n t e r -n a t i o n a l , n a t i o n a l , p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l t o p i c s . CHAPTER 7 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS Summary of the Problem In t e r n a t i o n a l House at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i s dir e c t e d towards promoting understanding and goodwill among students of a l l countries attending the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. With the f o s t e r i n g of more f r i e n d l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and world peace as an aim, the House has a s s i s t e d the students and the U n i v e r s i t y i n handling academic and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l character. As I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has developed over the past twenty or so years, i t s programs and a c t i v i t i e s have r e f l e c t e d student, U n i v e r s i t y , and community i n t e r e s t s and involvement. The orch e s t r a t i o n of programs and a c t i v i t i e s consonant with these i n t e r e s t s has been c e n t r a l to i t s development. Despite the importance of Int e r n a t i o n a l House as a means to develop s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r c u l t u r a l communication, l i t t l e co-ordinated information and research data are a v a i l a b l e . The problem of t h i s study i s to provide information r e l a t i n g to the development and functions of In t e r n a t i o n a l House on the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia campus by attempting to i d e n t i f y major thrusts i n i t s development and s i g n i f i c a n t trends i n i t s a c t i v i t i e s . In order to further c l a r i f y the nature and character of i t s programs and a c t i v i t i e s , t h i s study also attempts to i d e n t i f y the 1970-72 student c l i e n t e l e and 139 140 provide a rough weighting of student opinion (members and non-members) regarding I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs and a c t i v i t i e s . Conclusions 1. In the development of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, sev e r a l trends are apparent. The i n i t i a l thrust of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House movement was towards the establishment of a r e s i d e n t i a l house. Later, attempts were made to centre at the House a l l U n i v e r s i t y a c t i v i t i e s which were i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n nature. Both p o s s i b l e developments were truncated and the prime concern of the House became the pro-grams and services i t could o f f e r to i n t e r e s t e d Canadian and non-Canadian students as w e l l as U n i v e r s i t y and community people. 2. Very l i t t l e research documentation e x i s t s or i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e regarding non-Canadian students' problems, a s p i r a t i o n s , or responses to t h e i r education and experiences i n Canadian s o c i e t y . Although considerable e f f o r t has been expended i n addressing the problems concerned with the programs and a c t i v i t i e s of the U.B.C. Int e r -n a t i o n a l House, l i t t l e s u b s t a n t i a l , co-ordinated research work of a supportive nature i s a v a i l a b l e to improve, shape and a i d pro-graming decisions and to guide future developments and approaches to I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing. 3. Problems of program balance associated with the co-ordination of student groups appear to have been a r e c u r r i n g concern throughout the development of In t e r n a t i o n a l House. Attempts to e s t a b l i s h an organization i n co-operation with the A.M.S. have not been 141 su c c e s s f u l . Trends toward a broadening base of student p a r t i c i -pation i n Int e r n a t i o n a l House a c t i v i t i e s , support of ethnic groups, and, at the same time the f o s t e r i n g of i n t e r - c u l t u r a l contacts between i n d i v i d u a l s and groups are apparent. One s i g n i f i c a n t pro-graming trend i s the problem of balancing s o c i a l programs with meaningful discussions of issues besetting the i n t e r n a t i o n a l com-munity and students i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s . Programing r e a l i t i e s associated with the p r o v i s i o n of an open forum of i n t e r -n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l issues are evident. I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has attempted to o f f e r an i n t e r n a t i o n a l environment f o r i n d i v i d u a l s and groups who wish to meet and i n t e r a c t i n such a s e t t i n g . 4. Strong community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s evident i n the sponsorship and support of In t e r n a t i o n a l House programs. The volunteer s e r v i c e component has been important i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing. Over time there appears to be a trend toward i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and away from a broad a s s o c i a t i o n or s e r v i c e club b a s i s . Apart from a few notable exceptions, the d i f f i c u l t y of i n t e g r a t i n g com-munity groups and organizations i n t o I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing i n a meaningful way remains problematic. 5. I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has attempted to include an academic, research component i n i t s programing and a c t i v i t i e s . Apart from the Edu-cation seminars, however, a regular, sustained p o l i c y i s not evident i n i t s educational programing. Excellent programs have been i n i -t i a t e d , but few appear to have achieved c o n t i n u i t y or permanence. 142 6. The s e r v i c e function of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has been important. Within the l i m i t s of i t s own p a r t i c u l a r student and community resources, and complemented by other U n i v e r s i t y advising f a c i l i t i e s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House has attempted to meet student needs by o f f e r i n g small but important student-oriented counselling and advising s e r -v i c e s . Throughout i t s development, there appears to have been a continuing need f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the s p e c i f i c nature and extent of the counselling function. Other s e r v i c e functions include a c t i v e assistance with off-campus housing and the p r o v i s i o n of a reception and o r i e n t a t i o n f o r new non-Canadian students. 7. The majority of users of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i n 1970-72 were non-Canadian students who attended once or twice per term. On the basis of questionnaire responses, Canadian students appear to hold a more favourable impression of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs than non-Canadians, but l i k e the non-Canadian students, expressed concern regarding ethnic group s e c l u s i o n , the paucity of Canadian student p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and program balance between academically and s o c i a l l y oriented programs which f a c i l i t a t e the meeting of students from d i f f e r e n t c u ltures. During the 1970-72 academic years, the major programing thrust was s o c i a l i n nature, with events attended mainly by non-Canadian students. A large number of Canadian respondents viewed I n t e r n a t i o n a l House as a place f o r "overseas students only." Student comments tended to support the findings of both the Univer-s i t y of Toronto Commission and Kwochka with respect to the success of programing which centers around common i n t e r e s t rather than the e s t a b l i s h i n g of f r i e n d s h i p s . 143 Recommendations From a consideration of the data, the following recommendations are made: 1. That I n t e r n a t i o n a l House develop and maintain a system of program evaluation to support that research which would be u s e f u l i n shaping future programs of the House. 2. That International House achieve a balance between i t s formal and informal, academic and s o c i a l , group and i n d i v i d u a l programs. 3. That I n t e r n a t i o n a l House attempt to gain funding to r e a c t i v a t e i t s research committee i n order to provide b a s i c information for a better understanding of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l programing. 4. That I n t e r n a t i o n a l House c l a r i f y the s p e c i f i c nature and extent of i t s s e r v i c e functions i n order to concentrate i t s resources on those most e s s e n t i a l . 5. That I n t e r n a t i o n a l House c l a r i f y the "image" i t wishes to portray, develop appropriate programs and then i n i t i a t e a p u b l i c i t y campaign to advertise i t s programs and a c t i v i t i e s . Areas f o r Further Research This study suggests research and i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the following topics and questions: 144 1. The s p e c i a l problems and needs of non-Canadian students and t h e i r f a m i l i e s at U.B.C. i n the area of housing, f i n a n c i a l assistance and adjustment which could be provided for by s p e c i a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l House s e r v i c e , s o c i a l and educational programing. 2. The influence and e f f e c t of c u l t u r a l l y determined i n t e r - p e r s o n a l communication va r i a b l e s such as perception, language (verbal and non-verbal), values and a t t i t u d e s on the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r , and outcomes of, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programing. 3. The extent to which the problems of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l programing i n an I n t e r n a t i o n a l House are s i m i l a r to those facing a m u l t i - c u l t u r a l country l i k e Canada. How may an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House microcosm further our understanding of the o r c h e s t r a t i o n of a m u l t i - c u l t u r a l society? 4. The extent to which the B r i t i s h Columbia school system u t i l i z e s the h i s t o r i c a l and t r a d i t i o n a l m u l t i - c u l t u r a l component of Canada to create a "cosmopolitan curriculum" that would develop an i n t e r -n a t i o n a l component i n the students' education. Is the lack of Canadian student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to previous schooling experiences? 5. The image of Canadians and t h e i r way of l i f e h e ld by non-Canadian students. How can these views be used to guide the formulation of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House programs and a c t i v i t i e s ? BIBLIOGRAPHY A. PRIMARY SOURCES 1. Constitutions, Reports Hamlin, Frank; Nichols, E. M. ; Selman, M.; and T s i k a y i , F. "I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Study Report." In t e r n a t i o n a l House, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967. Int e r n a t i o n a l House Annual Reports. 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"A Proposal f o r Furthering Development of Inter-n a t i o n a l Programs," U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, July 1967. Inte r n a t i o n a l House f i l e s . (Mimeographed.) International House. "A Proposal f o r a R e s i d e n t i a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l Con-ference and Training Centre, A Preliminary D r a f t , " U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, December 21, 1971. Int e r n a t i o n a l House f i l e s . (Mimeographed.) International House. "Report of the Personnel Committee," U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, March, 1969. In t e r n a t i o n a l House f i l e s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. "International House Study Conference," Report of a study to consider "The Role of In t e r n a t i o n a l House i n the Un i v e r s i t y and i n the Community," The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Colum-b i a , March 2, 1963. Report of the Second World Conference of In t e r n a t i o n a l Houses and Centres, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, May 15-16, 1971. Report of the Commission to Investigate the Future Role of the Int e r - n a t i o n a l Student Centre. By Ke l v i n Andrews, Chairman. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Student Centre, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1971. Report of a c u l t u r a l workshop, Chinese Students and Employment: A C u l t u r a l  Workshop. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Student Centre, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, September, 1972. "Report on the Work of In t e r n a t i o n a l House, July 1, 1962 to June 30, 1963. A Report to the President, U.B.C." U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Archives. Steckl, Peter. "Proposal of In t e r n a t i o n a l House Committee," n.d. Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Archives. Vancouver Council f o r the Fr i e n d l y Relations with Overseas Students. Membership L i s t , March 20, 1953. Personal c o l l e c t i o n of Dr. G. W. Black. Wellwood, Mary; Cuthbert, S.; Romilly, S.; Shanker, S.; T a i , Jo. "Some Ideas f o r E f f e c t i v e Community Programmes with Foreign Students," A F i r s t Draft. I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, September, 1965. (Mimeographed.) 147 2. Minutes of Meetings Board of Trustees f o r an In t e r n a t i o n a l House at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Minutes of the f i r s t meeting, September 29, 1953. Inter-n a t i o n a l House f i l e s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s Committee, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Minutes of the ad hoc s t e e r i n g committee, May 26, 1964; June 2, 1964. Int e r n a t i o n a l House f i l e s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia Chapter. Selected minutes of executive meetings, 1951-1964. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Archives and In t e r n a t i o n a l House f i l e s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Board of D i r e c t o r s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Minutes of the f i r s t meeting of the executive, December 18, 1955. In t e r n a t i o n a l House f i l e s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Board of D i r e c t o r s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Selected minutes, 1955-1973. I n t e r n a t i o n a l House f i l e s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, Program and Service Committee. Minutes of meeting held October 25, 1967. I n t e r n a t i o n a l House f i l e s . Vancouver Council f o r the Fr i e n d l y Relations with Overseas Students. Selected minutes of the executive, 1953-1970. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Archives and personal c o l l e c t i o n of Dr. W. G. Black. Vancouver Council f o r the Fr i e n d l y Relations with Overseas Students. Selected minutes of membership meetings, 1953-1970. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Archives and personal c o l l e c t i o n of Dr. W. G. Black. 3. Newspapers and B u l l e t i n s The D a i l y Ubyssey, February 22, 1949. The D a i l y Ubyssey, March 3, 1949. Int e r n a t i o n a l House Newsletter, January, 1956. U.B.C. In t e r n a t i o n a l House f i l e s . Munro, S. R. " L i n g u i s t i c Integration of Foreign Students i n t o Canadian U n i v e r s i t y Classrooms," I n t e r n a t i o n a l Education Internationale (Canadian Bureau f o r In t e r n a t i o n a l Education, B u l l e t i n No. 30, September, 1970). 148 Program B u l l e t i n s , I n ternational House, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, U.B.C. International House F i l e s . The Ubyssey, March 29, 1951. The Ubyssey, October 26, 1951. The Ubyssey, October 2, 1952. The Ubyssey, March 16, 1954. The Ubyssey, September 22, 1964. 4. Le t t e r s Acadia U n i v e r s i t y . Personal correspondence between E. S. Hansen, Pro-vost and Dean of Student A f f a i r s , and the w r i t e r . February 28, 1973. Assoc i a t i o n of U n i v e r s i t i e s and Colleges of Canada. Personal corres-pondence between Nancy Geddie, Information Associate, and the w r i t e r . January 9, 1973. Bishop's U n i v e r s i t y . Personal correspondence between B. Coulter, D i r e c t o r , Student Services, and the w r i t e r . January 4, 1973. Brandon U n i v e r s i t y . Personal correspondence between A. R. Balchen, Registrar, and the w r i t e r . January 18, 1973. Canadian Bureau f o r International Education. L e t t e r from J . A l l a n Rix, Executive D i r e c t o r to C. E. Nichols. March 15, 1973. . Personal correspondence between J . A l l a n Rix, Executive D i r e c t o r , and the w r i t e r . January 10, 1973. Carleton U n i v e r s i t y . Personal correspondence between Robert Perron, Acting Overseas Students' Advisor, and the w r i t e r . February 26, 1973. Personal correspondence between Robert Perron, Acting Overseas Students' Advis or, and the w r i t e r . March 13, 1973. College Jean-De-Brebeuf. Personal correspondence between Edouard Troudeau, Directeur des services pedagogiques and the w r i t e r . January 26, 1973. Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y . Personal correspondence between E. T. M a r r i o t t , Assistant Dean of Student Services,and the writer. March 5, 1973. 149 Lakehead U n i v e r s i t y . Personal correspondence between D. W. Wallace, Assistant to the Dean of Students, and the w r i t e r . February 27, 1973. Loyola College. Personal correspondence between B. T. Counihan, As s i s t a n t Dean of Students, and the w r i t e r . March 6, 1973. M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . Personal correspondence between J . Stanley Kennedy, D i r e c t o r , Student Counselling Aid O f f i c e , and the w r i t e r . January 10, 1973. McMaster U n i v e r s i t y . Personal correspondence between Diane Morris, Overseas Students Advisor, and the w r i t e r . January 18, 1973. Marionopolis College. Personal correspondence between Mark S. K e l l y , D i r e c t o r of Student Services, and the w r i t e r . January 9, 1973. Mount A l l i s o n U n i v e r s i t y . Personal correspondence between L. Dale Gray, D i r e c t o r of Student A f f a i r s , and the w r i t e r . February 7, 1973. Notre Dame Un i v e r s i t y of Nelson. Personal correspondence between Douglas R. Forbes, Dean of Students, and the w r i t e r . February 20, 1973. The Ontario I n s t i t u t e For Studies i n Education. Personal correspondence between D. H. Brundage, As s i s t a n t Professor of Education, and the w r i t e r . January 18, 1973. Queens U n i v e r s i t y . Personal correspondence between Kasper Paid, Execu-t i v e Secretary, Overseas Student Advisor, and the w r i t e r . January 16, 1973. Rotary Club of Vancouver. Membership l e t t e r from Mr. Theo Berry, P r e s i -dent of the Rotary Club of Vancouver, and Mr. Leon Ladner, Chairman, Rotary Committeefor the Int e r n a t i o n a l House Fund, n.d. Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y . Personal correspondence between Jean Reed, Int e r n a t i o n a l O f f i c e Coordinator, and the w r i t e r . January 9, 1973. S i r George William U n i v e r s i t y . Personal correspondence between Magnus Flynn, Dean of Students, and the w r i t e r . January 11, 1973. St. Francis Xavier U n i v e r s i t y . Personal correspondence between J . A. Ross, D i r e c t o r , Guidance Center, and the w r i t e r . A p r i l 27, 1973. Trent U n i v e r s i t y . Personal correspondence between Alan E. F r a n k l i n , Foreign Student Advisor, and the w r i t e r . January 11, 1973. The Un i v e r s i t y of Al b e r t a . Personal correspondence between N e i l Henry, Foreign Student Advisor, and the w r i t e r . March 8, 1973. 150 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. L e t t e r from Dr. W. G. Black to Professor Stanley Read. September 12, 1957. (U.B.C. Archives.) . L e t t e r from Dr. M. A. Cowie, Secretary, Board of Trustees f o r an International House at U.B.C. to Dr. N.A.M. MacKenzie, President, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. November 23, 1953. . Le t t e r from Dr. P. Ford, past I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Board of Directors Chairman, to Dr. P h y l l i s Ross, Chancellor, U.B.C. June 18, 1962. . Memorandum from Robert Loosemore, Chairman, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Committee, to Dr. N.A.M. MacKenzie, President, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. September 20, 1952. . Lett e r from Robert Loosemore, Chairman, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Committee to Dr. N.A.M. MacKenzie, President, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. December 10, 1952. . Reprint of l e t t e r from Dr. J . B. MacDonald, President, Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, to Mr. W. C. Wakely, Chairman, Board of Di r e c t o r s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C. August 16, 1962. . L e t t e r from Dr. N.A.M. MacKenzie, President, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, to Marjorie J . Smith, President, B. C. Chapter, Int e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n . June 16, 1953. . Le t t e r from Mr. A. H. Sager, D i r e c t o r , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, to Mr. W, C Wakely, Chairman, Board of D i r e c t o r s , Inter-n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C. Ju l y 6, 1962. . L e t t e r from Mr. A. H. Sager, D i r e c t o r , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, to Mr. W. C. Wakely, Chairman, Board of D i r e c t o r s , I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C. August 2, 1962. . Le t t e r from Marjorie J . Smith, President, B. C. Chapter, I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House Ass o c i a t i o n . May 4, 1953. . Open l e t t e r from J . B. Thomas, D i r e c t o r , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, to a l l those i n t e r e s t e d i n the future development and use of Int e r -n a t i o n a l House. A p r i l 21, 1964. . Lett e r from Mr. W. C. Wakely, Chairman, Board of D i r e c t o r s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U.B.C, to Dr. J . B. MacDonald, President, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. August 6, 1962. Univ e r s i t y of King's College. Personal correspondence between A. R. Clark, Registrar, and the w r i t e r . February 19, 1973. Univer s i t e Laurentienne. Personal correspondence between G. C. Dumas, Coordinnateur des A f f a i r s Etudiantes, and the w r i t e r . A p r i l 9, 1973. 151 Un i v e r s i t y of Lethbridge. Personal correspondence between Gordon W. Russel, Co-ordinator of Student A f f a i r s , and the w r i t e r . February 21, 1973. The U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba. Personal correspondence between P a t r i c k C. Benson, Overseas Student Advisor, and the w r i t e r . January 9, 1973. U n i v e r s i t e De Moncton. Personal correspondence between G i l l e s Landry, di r e c t e u r , Service d'Aide Financiere, and the w r i t e r . March 5, 1973. Uni v e r s i t e De Montreal. Personal correspondence between Therese Beau-regard, Le c o n s e i l l e r des etudiants etrangers, and the w r i t e r . March 22, 1973. Un i v e r s i t y of New Brunswick. Personal correspondence between E. Joyce Stocker, Overseas Student Advisor, and the w r i t e r . March 1, 1973. U n i v e r s i t e d'Ottawa. Personal correspondence between Suzanne Robinson, Foreign Student Advisor, and the w r i t e r . March 16, 1973. Un i v e r s i t e du Quebec a Montreal. Personal correspondence between Gerard LaFleur, Directeur des A f f a i r e s Etudiantes, and the w r i t e r . January 18, 1973. U n i v e r s i t e du Quebec a T r o i s - R i v i e r e s . Personal correspondence between Jeaa-Paul Bettez, Directeur des Services aux Etudiants, and the w r i t e r . January 30, 1973. Un i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan - Regina Campus. Personal correspondence between Owen S t i l l , J r . , Chaplin, and the w r i t e r . January 23, 1973. Un i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan. Personal correspondence between W. G. Feader, Foreign Student Advisor, and the w r i t e r . January 23, 1973. Universite 1 De Sherbrooke. Personal correspondence between Anne Marie Nantel, S e c r e t a r i e a l a V i e £tudiant, and the w r i t e r . January 24, 1973. U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto. Personal correspondence between E r i c A. McKee, Di r e c t o r , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Student Centre, and the w r i t e r . January 26, 1973. . L e t t e r from Kelvin Andrews, Chairman, Commission to Inves-t i g a t e the Future Role of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Student Centre, to Mr. R. Ross, Vice President and Registrar, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto. 1971. The U n i v e r s i t y of Western Ontario. Personal correspondence between R. W. McGraw, Foreign Student Advisor, and the w r i t e r . January 10, 1973. 152 U n i v e r s i t y of Windsor. Personal correspondence between G. L. DeLuca, Dean of Men, and the w r i t e r . February 1, 1973. Waterloo Lutheran U n i v e r s i t y . Personal correspondence between T. Katie Peters, Co-ordinator of Counselling Services, and the w r i t e r . March 7, 1973. _ . Personal correspondence between Brant Bonner, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Business Programs, and the w r i t e r . March 26, 1973. Personal correspondence between Norma E. Walmsley, Research Professor, and the w r i t e r . January 16, 1973. York U n i v e r s i t y . Personal correspondence between Mary M. Junjek, Student Advisor, and the w r i t e r . A p r i l 13, 1973. 5. Interviews Cox, A l b e r t . Vancouver, B. C. Interview, March 26, 1973. F l i n n , Thomas. West Vancouver, B. C. Interview, October 17, 1972. Ford, Peter. Vancouver, B. C. Interview, October 26, 1972. Furness, Anne. Vancouver, B. C. Interview, November 15, 1972. Hamlin, Frank. Vancouver, B. C. Interview, September 27, 1972. K r a j i n a , Vladimir. Vancouver, B. C. Interview, A p r i l 2, 1973. MacKay, Donald C. G. Vancouver, B. C. Interview, October 26, 1972. MacKenzie, Norman A. M. Vancouver, B. C. Interview, September 27, 1972. Read, Stanley E. Vancouver, B. C. Interview, A p r i l 19, 1973. Rule, Jane. Vancouver, B. C. Interview, A p r i l 4, 1973. Skinner, Kay. West Vancouver, B. C. Interview, March 26, 1973. Steckle, Peter. Ottawa, Ontario. Interview, February 9, 1973. Thomas, Jack B. Vancouver, B. C. Interview, May 15, 1973. Tyhurst, L. Vancouver, B. C. Interview, October 18, 1972. Wakely, C e c i l W. Vancouver, B. C. Interview, November 1, 1972. Wellwood, R. W. Vancouver, B. C. Interview, A p r i l 2, 1973. Woodsworth, Edith. Vancouver, B. C. Interview, March 23, 1973. 153 B. SECONDARY SOURCES 1. A r t i c l e s Close, Kathryn. "That Brotherhood May P r e v a i l . " Reprinted from the Autumn 1944 issue of The In t e r n a t i o n a l House Quarterly, r e v i s e d A p r i l 1, 1952, p. 12. "Culture Shock: An Exploration i n Observation. 1 1 College Student Per- sonnel Abstracts 11 (1967):171-172. Ful b r i g h t , J . W. "Education f o r a New Kind of Int e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s . " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Educational and C u l t u r a l Exchange 3 (Winter 1967):17. Ford, Peter. "A Monument to Brotherhood, Canada's F i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l House." U.B.C. Alumni Chronicle 12 (Summer 1958):24-25. Read, S. E. "Under One Roof." In t e r n a t i o n a l House Quarterly 19 (Spring 1959):32. Sukedo, F. "An Assessment of Student Quotas and Fees i n A l b e r t a Univer-s i t i e s . " The Al b e r t a Journal of Educational Research XVIII (Septem-ber 1972):223-233. Narang, H. L. "A Bibliography of Canadian Theses on Comparative and Int e r n a t i o n a l Education." Canadian and In t e r n a t i o n a l Education 1 (June 1972):79. "New F r o n t i e r s , U.N. Trai n i n g Centre." Alumni Chronicle 13 (Summer 1959):24-25. Yi-Ming Huang, Robert. "Problems of Overseas Students i n Canada." NCCUC Proceedings of the Annual Conference 37 (1961):42. 2. Books, Surveys and Related Studies A l l a n , T. A. "The Value to Foreign Student Alumni of t h e i r Education i n the United States of America." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Northern Colorado, 1971. Belshaw, C. S. "A Voyage For Knowledge: An Exploratory Study of Overseas Students i n the Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia." U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963. (Mimeographed.) 154 Berte, Neal R. "An A n a l y t i c a l Study of the Foreign Student Program at the U n i v e r s i t y of Cincinnate." Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C i n c i n n a t i , 1966. Canadian Bureau f o r In t e r n a t i o n a l Education. Areas of R e s p o n s i b i l i t y  of Foreign Student Advisers. Ottawa: CBIE, 1972. Canadian Bureau f o r Int e r n a t i o n a l Education. L i s t of P u b l i c a t i o n s , November 1972. (Mimeographed.) Canadian U n i v e r s i t y Foundation. U n i v e r s i t y Study i n Canada. Ottawa, 1962. Chadrasekharaiah, Kananur V. A Study of Foreign Student Advising i n Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s . Bangalore, India: Jagadeeshaiah and Bros., 1970. Clark, D. B. "Problems of Overseas Students i n Canada." NCCUC Pro- ceedings of the Annual Conference 37 (1961):23-53. Davis, J. L. "A Survey of Present and Former Students Regarding the E f f e c t s of t h e i r Residence i n the In t e r n a t i o n a l House of New York." Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Teachers College, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1963. Hamilton, Mary A. "Factors Influencing American Students' Reasons f o r Coming to In t e r n a t i o n a l House, and t h e i r Later Responses to i t s Purpose." Master's t h e s i s , The New York School of S o c i a l Work, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1950. Ha r r i s , Robin S. A Bibliography of Higher Education i n Canada Supplement  1971. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971. . A Bibliography of Higher Education i n Canada. Toronto: Univer-s i t y Press, 1965. . A Bibliography of Higher Education i n Canada. Toronto: Univer-s i t y Press, 1960. Jones, A., and E. Setzer. " I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, New York: Summary Report of a Survey of Function, Program, Organization, Business Operations, Plant, Finance, Part I . " In t e r n a t i o n a l House, New York, 1954. (Mimeographed.) K i r s t e i n , Laurette, ed. The Second Seminar on Research i n Programs f o r Foreign Students. New York: The I n s t i t u t e of In t e r n a t i o n a l Edu-cation , 1969. Kwochka, V. F. "A Survey of United States Students Regarding the E f f e c t s of t h e i r Residence i n the In t e r n a t i o n a l House of New York." Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1970. 155 Lozada, Rhodelia C. B. "Foreign Students at Purdue U n i v e r s i t y : A Selected Personal and Academic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n Relation to Current Ex-periences and Future Expectations." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Purdue U n i v e r s i t y , 1970. Morris, Diane. English P r o f i c i e n c y : Summary of Programmes on Canadian  Campuses. Ottawa: Canadian Bureau for I n t e r n a t i o n a l Education, 1971. National A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Foreign Student A f f a i r s . L i s t of Materials  i n NAFSA Archives from 1948 to June 1, 1971. Washington, D.C: NAFSA, 1971. Parker, F r a n k l i n . American D i s s e r t a t i o n s on Foreign Education - Canada. New York: The Whitston Publishing Company, 1971. Raza, Amera R. " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Ideology and Interpersonal Ideology: The Case of the Pakistan Students." M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1970. Shepard, Nolan E. "The A c c u l t u r a t i o n of Foreign Students i n Southern Colleges and U n i v e r s i t i e s . " Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of M i s s i s s i p p i , 1970. S i r l u c k , Dean E. Survey of N a t i o n a l i t y of Graduate Students E n r o l l e d  i n Masters and Doctoral Degree Programmes at Ontario U n i v e r s i t i e s  i n 1968-1969. Ontario Council of Graduate Studies, 1969. Spencer, R. E., and Ruth Awe. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Education Exchange: A  Bibliography. New York: I n s t i t u t e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Education, 1968. Walmsley, Norma. Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development. Ottawa: Association of U n i v e r s i t i e s and Colleges of Canada, 1970. World U n i v e r s i t y Service of Canada. Problems of Overseas Students i n  Canada. Report of Western Ontario, London, Regional Conference. (Toronto: World U n i v e r s i t y Service of Canada, 1961.) APPENDIX 1 RECENT RESEARCH ON NON-CANADIANS STUDYING IN CANADA In order to obtain recent works as they p e r t a i n to non-Canadian students i n Canada, l e t t e r s were sent to forty-nine f o r e i g n student advisers and personnel acting on that capacity at Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s as i d e n t i f i e d by a recent survey c a r r i e d out by the Canadian Bureau fo r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Education. "^  L e t t e r s i n the appropriate o f f i c i a l language were sent early i n January requesting the f o r e i g n student advisers (or t h e i r equivalent) to s p e c i f y the research i n i t i a t e d or completed at t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n on the subject of non-Canadian students studying i n Canada since p u b l i c a t i o n of Walmsley's report e n t i t l e d Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development (1970). Six weeks l a t e r when approximately 24 [49%] of the advisers had responded, a follow-up l e t t e r was sent which increased the responses received to 39 [80%]. '° Three of the ten u n i v e r s i t i e s that had not responded had le s s than 100 f o r e i g n students, two had between 100 and 500 f o r e i g n students, and the U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary and the U n i v e r s i t y of Waterloo had more ''"Canadian Bureau f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Education, Areas of Respon- s i b i l i t y of Foreign Student Advisers (Ottawa: CBIE, January 1972). 156 157 than 500 for e i g n students. The response was very good from both large and small u n i v e r s i t i e s . Regionally, non-respondents were from four Ontario u n i v e r s i t i e s , f i v e from the Maritimes, two from French speaking u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Quebec, and one from Calgary, A l b e r t a . Of the 39 (80%) u n i v e r s i t y f o r e i g n student advisers (or equiva-lent) who responded, 29 (76%) r e p l i e d that they were aware of no research which had been i n i t i a t e d or completed at t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n on the subject of non-Canadian students studying i n Canada since the Walmsley report (1970). Three (10%) of those who r e p l i e d gave no answer one way or the other because: they were i n "no p o s i t i o n to provide the information"; i t was under discussion at the u n i v e r s i t y ; or they d i d not consider students as subjects f o r research p r o j e c t s . Two responded but d i d not answer the question. Six (20%) of those who responded i n d i c a t e d that research on the t o p i c of non-Canadian students had been i n i t i a t e d or completed at t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n . Of these, one adviser knew that "there are some doing such research" but he had not received a copy of t h e i r f i n d i n g s . S i r George Williams had conducted some i n q u i r i e s but saw no p o s s i b i l i t y of early p u b l i c a t i o n . Those works i d e n t i f i e d by f o r e i g n student advisers include two studies underway at the Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education where Mr. John Cumberbatch i s presently working on "The Educational Treatment of West Indian Children i n Toronto" and Nipa Banerjee i s studying "Students From India i n Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s . " At McMaster Un i v e r s i t y Mrs. Diane Morris i d e n t i f i e d "English P r o f i c i e n c y : Summary 158 of Programmes on Canadian Campuses," published by the Canadian Bureau for I n t e r n a t i o n a l Education, Ottawa, 1971. At the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, a report of a workshop e n t i t l e d "Chinese Students and Employment: A C u l t u r a l Workshop" and a commission report on the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Student Centre ( I . S . C ) , which concerned the examination of the future r o l e of the I.S.C, were also i d e n t i f i e d . Copies of the l e t t e r s sent to the u n i v e r s i t i e s follow. 159 FIRST LETTER January 4, 1973 Dear : As part of my postgraduate work i n Comparative and I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Education, I am assessing the research c a r r i e d out on non-Canadian students studying i n Canada. I c a l l upon your knowledge of them f o r assistance. Professor Walmsley, on behalf of the A s s o c i a t i o n of Univer-s i t i e s and Colleges of Canada, prepared a report e n t i t l e d Canadian  U n i v e r s i t i e s and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development (1970). Part of t h i s report attempted to c o l l e c t and i d e n t i f y the e x i s t i n g research on non-Canadian students studying i n Canada. For the purposes of my study I request your co-operation i n up-dating her findings by s p e c i -fying the research i n i t i a t e d or completed at your i n s t i t u t i o n on the subject since her study was published i n 1970. Thank you f o r your kind co-operation. Sincerely yours, A. Rae McCombs RM/sh 160 FIRST LETTER l e 15 Janvier, 1973 CherS : Pour ma m a i t r i s e en Education Comparee et Internationale j'analyse l e s recherches f a i t e s sur les etudiants etrangers au Canada. Le professeur Walmsley, au nom de l ' A s s o c i a t i o n des univer-s i t e s et des colleges du Canada, a redige un rapport i n t i t u l e Canadian  U n i v e r s i t i e s and In t e r n a t i o n a l Development (1970). Une p a r t i e de cet ouvrage essaye de c l a s s e r et d ' i d e n t i f i e r l e s recherches f a i t e s sur ces etudiants. Pour pouvoir completer ma these, j e s e r a i s tres reconnaissant pour votre cooperation en mettant a jo u r ses recherches, et en s p e c i f i a n t c e l l e s qui ont ete entreprises ou achevees sur ce sujet a votre i n s t i t u t i o n depuis l a date de p u b l i c a t i o n de son rapport. Je vous remercie de votre cooperation. Cordialement a vous, A. Rae McCombs RM/sh SECOND LETTER February 21, 1973 Dear : In a l e t t e r of January 4, I requested your assistance i n i d e n t i f y i n g and up-dating the e x i s t i n g research on non-Canadian students studying i n Canada, but have not yet received a r e p l y . I ask you to a s s i s t me i n up-dating part of Professor Walm-sle y ' s report - Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s and Int e r n a t i o n a l Development (1970) - by s p e c i f y i n g the research i n i t i a t e d or completed at your i n s t i t u t i o n , since her study was published i n 1970, on the subject of non-Canadian students studying i n Canada. I t would be of great assistance i f you would give my request your prompt a t t e n t i o n . Regardless of other research done, I would be very pleased i f you would i n d i c a t e the number of non-Canadian students presently studying f u l l t i m e on your campus. Thank you, I look forward to your r e p l y . S i n c e r e l y , A. Rae McCombs RM/sh 162 SECOND LETTER l e 14 mars, 1973 Chere" : Dans une l e t t r e du 15 Janvier, j e vous a i demande votre aide en i d e n t i f i a n t et an mettant a jour l e s recherches a c t u e l l e s f a i t e s sur les etudiants etrangers au Canada. Jusqu'a present j e n'ai pas encore recu de reponse. Je vous a i demande a m'aider en mettant a jour l e rapport du Professeur Walmsley i n t i t u l e Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s and I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Development (1970), en s p d c i f i a n t l e s recherches i n i t i e e s ou com-pl£t6es a votre i n s t i t u t i o n depuis l a date de p u b l i c a t i o n de son rapport sur l e s etudiants etrangers au Canada. Je s e r a i s tres recon-naissant de vos attentions immediates sur ce s u j e t . Mises a part l e s recherches f a i t e s , j e s e r a i s tres heureux s i vous auriez l a bonte" de m'indiquer l e nombre d'etudiants etrangers qui sont i n s c r i t s a votre u n i v e r s i t e en ce moment. En vous remer-ciant d'avance de vos soins, V e u i l l e z agreer, Mademoiselle, 1'assurance de mes sentiments respectueux, A. Rae McCombs APPENDIX 2 STUDENT CLUB PRESIDENTS 1. In t e r n a t i o n a l Students Club (Formed March 16, 1949), President 1949- 50 - Frene Ginwala, F e l i c i t y Pope 1950- 51 - Ana Hutchinson 1951- 52 - George Rohn 1952- 53 - Michel Wertman 1953 - Pat Brock 2. I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Committee (1950), Chairman 1950- 51 - Peter S t e c k l 1951- 52 - Ragbir Singh Basi (Acadia Camp opened as I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Camp October 21, 1951) 1952- 53 - Robert Loosemore (International Students' Club merged (Dec. 1, with In t e r n a t i o n a l House Committee) 1953) 1952- 53 - Anne Choma (Dec. -3. Int e r n a t i o n a l House As s o c i a t i o n - B. C. Chapter, Students Branch (1953) (Student group j o i n e d I.H.A.) 1953- 54 - Anne Choma (International House Centre opened March 16, 1954) 1954- 55 - Richard Mundell 163 164 4. In t e r n a t i o n a l House Club (1955) (Students form a separate club under Alma Mater Society. They use I n t e r n a t i o n a l House as i t s club house) 1955- 56 - Jakob Lunder 1956- 57 - Fred Van Andel 1957- 58 - Elmer Hara 1958- 59 - Peter St. John ( F i r s t permanent Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l House - U.B.C.) 1959- 60 - A j i t Singh Rupaal (This year was f u l l of changes i n the executive. A. S. Rupaal served as house chairman, v i c e president and f i n a l l y as president of the I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House Club) 1960- 61 - A j i t Singh Rupaal 1961- 62 - Ty Colgur 1962- 63 - Jim Ward 1963- 64 - L o r r i s E l l i o t 1964- 65 - Mike Geddes (Program and Service Committee formed) 1965- 66 - Basanta Sarkar 1966- 67 - Mervin Romilly 1967- 68 - Olu Sowenimo 1968- 69 - Hanson Lau 1969- 70 - Brian T r o f f e 1970- 71 - Judy Young (In t e r n a t i o n a l Students Program Committee formed) 1971- 72 - Cathy Tyhurst 1972-73 - Arnim Hughes APPENDIX 3 INTERNATIONAL HOUSE ASSOCIATION - B. C. CHAPTER, PRESIDENTS 1951 (May 16) - Mrs. Ernest H i l l (Chairman of Organizational Meeting) 1951 (May 16) - Miss Marjorie Smith (Elected President, leaves on F u l -brig h t Scholarship, Dr. Murrie Cowie becomes p r e s i -dent) 1951-52 — Dr. Murrie Cowie 1952-53 - Marjorie J . Smith 1953-54 - Marjorie J . Smith 1954-55 - Dr. D.C.G. MacKay 1955-56 - Prof. S. E. Read 1956-57 - Dr. Peter Ford 1957-58 - Dr. J . K. Friesen 1958-59 - Dr. Marion L. Cowie 1959-60 - Dr. Guy Dutton 1960-61 - Dr. Vladimir K r a j i n a 1961-62 - Mrs. R. W. Wellwood 1962-63 - Dr. D.C.G. MacKay 1963-64 — Dr. McNairn (I.H.A. amalgamates with I n t e r n a t i o n a l House) 165 APPENDIX 4 CHAIRMEN OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS 1953-54 - Mr. Thomas F l i n n ( F i r s t Board of Trustees) - Dr. Murrie Cowie (Board of Director s of Inter-n a t i o n a l House) 1955- 56 - Dr. Murrie Cowie 1956- 57 - Dr. Murrie Cowie 1957- 58 - Mrs. R. C. Harris 1958- 59 - Mrs. R. C. Harris 1959- 60 - Dr. D.C.G. MacKay 1960- 61 - Dr. Peter Ford 1961- 62 - Dr. Peter Ford 1962- 63 - Mr. W. C. Wakely 1963- 64 - Mr. W. C. Wakely July 1964 - Mr. A.W.S. Mortifee (Interim Board established Nov. 1, 1964 u n t i l Annual General Meeting, Nov. 1, 1964) 1964- 65 - Mr. A.W.S. Mortifee 1965- 66 - Mr. A.W.S. Mortifee 1966- 67 - Mr. Ted Nichols 1967 (to Dec. - Mr. Ted Nichols 5, 1967) 1968-69 - Dr. J . Katz 166 1969- 70 (Aug. 4) 1970- 71 1971- 72 1972- 73 - Dr. J . Katz - D r . F. Hamlin - Mr. Geoff Gould - Mr. Geoff Gould i APPENDIX 5 "DIRECTORS" OF INTERNATIONAL HOUSE U n t i l a part-time D i r e c t o r was appointed by the U n i v e r s i t y administration, the Int e r n a t i o n a l House As s o c i a t i o n Inc., B. C. Chapter presidents - Dr. Murrie Cowie and Miss Marjorie Smith - members of the I.H.A. executive, and Mrs. Margaret Sage Heyward acted i n an advisory capacity. A p r i l 1954 - Miss Anne Furness (School of S o c i a l Work) part time 1954 (Summer) - Mr. Farguharson (Acting D i r e c t o r - Summer Session) part time 1954- 55 - Mrs. B. A. Robinson ( f i r s t D i r e c t o r i n I. H. Hut) part time 1955- 58 - Miss Kathleen Gorrie ( f u l l time 1957-58) 1958-60 - Mr. Al b e r t Cox (appointed D i r e c t o r on 1/3 time basis) ( f u l l time, 59-60) - Miss Jane Rule (Assistant D i r e c t o r , f u l l time 58-59) - Mrs. Kay Rol l i n s o n (Assistant D i r e c t o r , f u l l time 59-60) 1960-62 - Mr. John Haar (Director of I. H. and student a c t i v i t i e s ) - Mrs. Kay Rol l i n s o n (Assistant D i r e c t o r , f u l l time) 1962 (June- - Mr. Art Sager Nov. 22) - Mrs. K. Skinner (Mrs. K. Rollinson) (Assistant D i r e c t o r ) 168 169 1963-1969 - Mr. Jack B. Thomas ( f i r s t f u l l - t i m e D i r e c t o r i n new House) - Miss Thora Hawkey (Program Assistant) - Mrs. Kay Edwards (Program Di r e c t o r 65-68) - Mrs. Pat Fieldwalker (Program As s i s t a n t 68-69) 1969-1972 - Mr. Dave Roxburgh (Director) - Mrs. Pat Fieldwalker (Program A s s i s t a n t 69-70) (Administrative A s s i s t a n t 70-71) (Associate D i r e c t o r 71-72) 1972 - - Dr. C o l i n Smith (Director) APPENDIX 6 STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF INTERNATIONAL HOUSE December 1, 1964 1. Program and Service 2. Membership 3. Finance 4. Fund-Raising 5. B u i l d i n g Extension and Improvements 6. F a l l F a i r 7. L i b r a r y 8. Research 9. Employment 10. English Coaching 11. Regular Teas 12. SnadcBar Volunteers 13. Community Programs and Service - L o c a l Tours - Out of Town Tr i p s - Small Group Discussions - "Friends f o r a Year" - Home Cooking (International) - Reception and Hosting Government Trainees and S p e c i a l V i s i t o r s - Furniture and Clothing Exchange - Complimentary Tickets 170 APPENDIX 7 INTERNATIONAL HOUSE ASSOCIATION INC. Dedicated to the hope "That Brotherhood May P r e v a i l , " the f i r s t and l a r g e s t residence i n the United States of America f o r graduate students from a l l countries of the world,^ the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House at 500 Riverside Drive, Manhatten, has been the focus of a pioneer i n t e r n a t i o n a l experi-^ ment. As a residence and program centre for 500 f o r e i g n and American graduate students and an a d d i t i o n a l number of non-resident members i t has provided a means whereby " . . . human beings of diverse backgrounds 2 can come together on an equal f o o t i n g , with i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm . . ." to form friendships so that through " . . . knowing each other, students might come to understand other cultures - t h e i r problems, t h e i r points of view." By l i v i n g together, and taking part i n an a c t i v e educational and s o c i a l program, i t was hoped that students would become " . . . aware of one another as p e r s o n a l i t i e s rather than as types and would come to """J. L. Davis, "A Survey of Present and Former Foreign Students Regarding the E f f e c t s of t h e i r Residence i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l House of New York" (unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1964), p.2. 2 Kathryn Close, "That Brotherhood May P r e v a i l - The Story of the International House Idea, History and Purpose of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Houses and I n t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n , " reprinted from the Autumn, 1944 issue of The I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Quarterly, revised A p r i l 1952 (New York: In t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n , 1952), p. 4. 3 I b i d . , p. 5. 171 172 r e a l i z e t h a t na t i ons are composed o f human b e i n g s . " I t was hoped t h a t they a lso might e v e n t u a l l y i n f l u e n c e the w o r l d f o r good. I n t e r n a t i o n a l House i n New York has developed through the years a program designed to ca r ry out i t s t h r e e f o l d purpose: 1) To he lp each s tudent achieve the e d u c a t i o n a l and pe rsona l goals which brought h im to New York , 2) To p rov ide f o r e i g n s tudents w i t h the broadest oppor-t u n i t i e s t o exper ience the many f a c e t s o f American l i f e and g i ve them a deeper unders tand ing o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and 3) To g i ve American s tudents an o p p o r t u n i t y t o broaden t h e i r ho r i zons through f r i e n d s h i p w i t h people f rom d i ve rse backgrounds and c u l t u r e s . 5 The idea f o r the House grew out o f a chance meet ing i n 1909 between Mr. Harry Edmonds and a Chinese s t u d e n t . S t ruck by the s t u d e n t ' s l o n e l i n e s s , he arranged a supper a t h i s home the f o l l o w i n g Sunday w i t h o ther overseas s t u d e n t s . Over the nex t s e v e r a l y e a r s , as i n t e r e s t and programs developed, each meet ing p lace became too s m a l l i n c l u d i n g the house leased t o p rov ide accommodation. Consequent ly , f u r t h e r l and was acqu i red and a t h r e e m i l l i o n d o l l a r b u i l d i n g , the f i r s t i n s t i t u t i o n o f i t s type i n the w o r l d , was e r e c t e d . Th is ven tu re was so s u c c e s s f u l t h a t o the r Houses i n Chicago, Berkeley and Par i s f o l l o w e d q u i c k l y , edu-c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l programs were developed, and a lumni groups formed. I n 1947, t h i s growth cu lminated i n the f o r m a t i o n o f the I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n I n c . , u n i t i n g member Houses, Chapters , and Close, " B r o t h e r h o o d , " p. 6. 5 1963 Annual Repor t , New York I n t e r n a t i o n a l House (New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, 1963). members at large a l l over the world. The purposes of the As s o c i a t i o n were ". . . to further the attainment of the i d e a l that brotherhood may p r e v a i l throughout the world; to a i d i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of a better knowledge of the culture and l i f e of a l l peoples f o r the furtherance of goodwill between nations and races." I n t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n Inc. disbanded i n 1961. By-Laws of the B r i t i s h Columbia Chapter of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Association Inc. (International House f i l e s ) . APPENDIX 8 STUDENT MEMBERSHIP Year Membership Year Membership Year Membership 49 1201 56-57 3806 64-65 49-50 57-58 3007 65-66 50-51 58-59 4098 66-67 51-52 832 59-60 9 530* 67-68 52-53 60-61 550 1 0 68-69 887 1 3 (46 paid up) 53-54 623 61-62 548 1 1 69-70 54-55 4 204 62-63 = 4001 2 70-71 456^^ (on mailing l i s t s ) 55-56 2205 63-64 71- 72 72- 73 225 1 5 (September 1971) 16 511 (November 1972) xThe Totem, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1952, p. 84. 2 Annual Report of the Int e r n a t i o n a l House Committee, 1951-52. 3 Student A c t i v i t i e s - I n t e r n a t i o n a l House A s s o c i a t i o n - B. C. Chapter, Summary Report, June 1954. 4 Minutes of the Executive Meeting of the B. C. Chapter, Inter-n a t i o n a l House As s o c i a t i o n , November 30, 1954. ^Report of the In t e r n a t i o n a l House Club President to the Board of D i r e c t o r s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, October 21, 1955. 6 I b i d . , October 30, 1956. continued . . 174 175 ^Report of the Int e r n a t i o n a l House Club President to the Board of D i r e c t o r s , International House, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957-58. 8 I b i d . , May 1, 1959. 9 I b i d . , May 2, 1960. 1 0 F r i e n d l y Relations with Overseas Students, Observations on V i s i t to U.B.C. In t e r n a t i o n a l House, February 23, 1961. "'""Slinutes of the Board of D i r e c t o r s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, January 25, 1962. 12 Int e r n a t i o n a l House Study Conference, I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, March 2, 1963 (Mimeographed). 13 In t e r n a t i o n a l House Annual Report, November 10, 1970, p. 10. 14 In t e r n a t i o n a l House Annual Report, November 3, 1971, p. 10. (This year I n t e r n a t i o n a l House granted complimentary memberships to every f i r s t year student who f i l l e d out a membership form.) "''"'Directors Report to the I.H. Board of Directo r s f o r September 1971, October 18, 1971. ^A n n u a l Report of the In t e r n a t i o n a l House, November 9, 1972. APPENDIX 9 COMMUNITY MEMBERSHIP I.H.A. -INTERNATIONAL HOUSE Year Membership Year Membership Year Membership 51-52 58-59 23 s i n g l e s 7 15 f a m i l i e s 65-66 52-53 511 33 singles 9 doubles 59-60 868 38 sin g l e s 48 f a m i l i e s 66-67 53-54 - 402 60-61 1119 67-68 54- 55 55- 56 663 504 61- 62 62- 63 132 1 0 200 1 1 68- 69 69- 70 221 1 3 56-57 665 42 s i n g l e s 18 f a m i l i e s (I.H.A. amalga-mates with I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House 70-71 14 390 57-58 56 singles** 64-65 122 1 2 (Membership d i r e c t l y i n the House be comes possible) 71-72 412 1 5 "'"Report of the Membership Committee - In t e r n a t i o n a l House Asso-c i a t i o n , June 22, 1953. 2 J o i n t Meeting of the Executive of I.H.A. and I.H.C., February 24, 1954. 3 Minutes of the Exec. Meeting of the B. C. Chapter, I.H.A., Nov. 30, 1954. Minutes of the Exec. Meeting of the B. C. Chapter, I.H.A., Oct. 20, 1955. ^Minutes of the Exec. Meeting of the B. C. Chapter, I.H.A., May 7, 1957. continued . . . 176 177 Minutes of the Exec. Meeting of the B. C. Chapter, I.H.A. January 22, 1958. ^Minutes of the Exec. Meeting of the B. C. Chapter, I.H.A., October 22, 1958. g Minutes of the Exec. Meeting of the B. C. Chapter, I.H.A., October 8, 1959. 9 Minutes of the Exec. Meeting of the B. C. Chapter, I.H.A., October 13, 1960. "^Presidents Report, I.H.A. - B. C. Chapter Annual Meeting, May 30, 1962. "^Presidents Report, I.H.A. - B. C. Chapter Annual Meeting, June 11, 1963. 12 Minutes of the Board of Di r e c t o r s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l House, October 8, 1964. 13 In t e r n a t i o n a l House Annual Report - November 10, 1970, p. 10. 14 In t e r n a t i o n a l House Annual Report - November 3, 1971, p. 10. "^I n t e r n a t i o n a l House Annual Report - November 9, 1972, p. 21. APPENDIX 10 178 INVOLVEMENT OF STUDENTS WITH INTERNATIONAL HOUSE ACTIVITIES (Please indicate with "X") PART I Male • Mar r ied o Underg radua te • F a c u l t y (please specify) Female • Single • Gradua te • B i r t h d a t e (year) C o u n t r y o f c i t i zensh ip (please specify) Landed i m m i g r a n t • S t u d e n t visa • 1. (a) H o w m a n y p rov inces have y o u v is i ted in Canada? (b) I f Canad ian c i t i z e n , have y o u t rave l led ou ts ide o f Canada? Y E S • N O o (c) I f " y e s " in above, have y o u t rave l l ed : ( ( ( ) to the U.S.A. only? Y E S o N O • i) to only one country other than the U.S.A.? Y E S • N O D ii) to more than one country? Y E S • N O • (d) H o w long have y o u spent ou ts ide o f Canada? (specify number) Y E A R S M O N T H S W E E K S . (a) W o u l d y o u cons ider y o u r i n v o l v e m e n t in ex t ra -cu r r i cu la r ac t i v i t ies in t h e un ive rs i t y or t h e Grea te r V a n c o u v e r c o m m u n i t y (or b o t h ) : H E A V Y a A V E R A G E • L I G H T • (b) D o y o u have f r i ends in the Greater V a n c o u v e r c o m m u n i t y w i t h w h o m y o u feel f ree t o v is i t? Y E S • N O • (c) I n y o u r f ree t i m e d o y o u associate m a i n l y w i t h : ( i) f r i e n d s f r o m d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s o ( i i ) f r i ends f r o m one par t i cu la r c o u n t r y • v " ( i i i ) others (please specify) (d) A r e these f r i e n d s m o s t l y f r o m y o u r c o u n t r y o f c i t i zensh ip? Y E S • N O a (a) D i d y o u k n o w a b o u t I n t e r n a t i o n a l House be fo re a r r i v ing at U . B . C ? Y E S • N O D (b) H o w d i d y o u f i r s t hear a b o u t I n t e r n a t i o n a l House? (c) D o y o u c o n t i n u e t o hear a b o u t I n t e r n a t i o n a l House m a i n l y t h r o u g h : Newspapers • Rad io • Campus posters • F r i ends • I .H . b u l l e t i n s • O t h e r • 4. (a) Years o f a t tendance at U . B . C : (Please check "X" those years attended full-time.) 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67 1967-68 1968-69 1969-70 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 Others • o • • • • • • • (b) F o r the years y o u a t tended U . B . C , d i d y o u reside ma in ly O N or O F F campus? 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67 1967-68 1968-69 1969-70 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 ON CAMPUS a • • • D a • • • OFF CAMPUS a • • D • • • • • (c) F o r the years y o u a t tended U . B . C , ind ica te the f r e q u e n c y o f y o u r use o f I .H . : 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67 1967-68 1968-69 1969-70 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 NEVER a • • D • • • • • R A R E L Y (once or twice per term) • • o a • • , a a • O C C A S I O N A L L Y (once or t w i c e per monih) • • • • Q • D • O F T E N Q • • • • • • • O 179a FOR 1970-71 A N D / O R 1971-72 IF YOU HAVE BEEN TO I N T E R N A T I O N A L HOUSE IN EITHER 70/71 OR 71/72 GO DIRECTLY TO PART l l . - > IF YOU HAVE NOT BEEN TO I N T E R N A T I O N A L HOUSE IN 70/71 AND 71/72, CONCLUDE BY COMPLETING THE FOLLOWING SECTION ONLY. Ind ica te the reasons w h i c h best descr ibe w h y y o u have n o t gone t o I .H. in 7 0 / 7 1 or 7 1 / 7 2 . I nd i ca te m o r e t h a n one reason if i t is a p p r o p r i a t e . (a) Personal reasons: I d o n o t have s u f f i c i e n t f ree t i m e • I have o t h e r in terests o I have n o interest in mee t ing s tuden ts a t I .H . • I a m a t t e m p t i n g t o learn Canadian c u s t o m s , n o t t o re ta in the t r a d i t i o n s o f m y h o m e l a n d o (b) P u b l i c i t y o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l H o u s e : Never heard o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l House • A m n o t aware o f I .H. p rog rams • U n d e r s t o o d I .H . was f o r overseas s tuden ts o n l y • Usua l l y f i n d o u t a b o u t events t o o late • (c) Programs a n d ac t i v i t i es : T h e p rog rams and ac t iv i t ies have n o relevance f o r me. • T h e p rog rams s h o u l d n o t h i g h l i g h t the d i f fe rences be tween cu l tu res , b u t shou ld stress t he i r c o m m o n e lements . • T h e p rograms s h o u l d be o f a m o r e : educa t iona l na tu re • p o l i t i c a l na tu re • social na tu re • t ravel na tu re • (d) O t h e r reasons (please specify). PART l l - < (Complete this section only if you have been to I.H. in 1970-71 and/or 1971-72) HOUSE A C T I V I T I E S E d u c a t i o n a l C o m p o n e n t : I n t e r n a t i o n a l House a c c o m m o d a t e s b o t h c red i t and n o n c red i t courses. Please ind ica te " X " those w h i c h y o u have at-tended at I n t e r n a t i o n a l House. (a) Regular un i ve rs i t y c r e d i t courses m e e t i n g at I .H . : Y E S o N O • Spec i f y name o f course in each year : 7 0 / 7 1 .-7 1 / 7 2 (b ) N o n - c r e d i t courses o r lessons: Y E S a N O • S p e c i f y : 7 0 / 7 1 7 1 / 7 2 7 0 / 7 1 7 1 / 7 2 Cantonese • • Language Days • • Engl ish speaking c l u b • • M a n d a r i n Lessons • • O t h e r courses please spec i f y (c) Special seminars and discussions: Y E S • N O • Spec i f y name o r t o p i c o f seminar : 7 0 / 7 1 7 1 / 7 2 (d) I f " y e s " in (c) above, d i d the seminar fea tu re : 7 0 / 7 1 7 1 / 7 2 a single speaker • n a deba te • • a panel o f several a u t h o r i t i e s • • o the rs (spec i fy ) (e) I f y o u have any suggest ions fo r i m p r o v i n g the educa t iona l c o m p o n e n t o f I .H . , please c o m m e n t : 179b Social Events : Please ind ica te w i t h " X " those social events y o u a t tended at I n t e r n a t i o n a l House , (a) S t u d e n t dances (open t o a l l ) . Y E S • N O a I n d i c a t e the dance a t t e n d e d . 70/71 7 1 / 7 2 7 0 / 7 1 7 1 / 7 2 African students D D Pakistan students • • Alliance Francatse • • Summer Session dance • • Chinese Students Assoc. • • International Fair dance • • El Circulo • • International Buffet/Dance • • German Club • • International Week Dance D • Jamaican Club • • Farewell Dance • a Malaysian/Singapore Student Assoc. • • Hallowe'en Dance • • Nigerian Students D • Harambee • • Greek Dinner/Dance • • (b) O t h e r dances (open t o all) Please name S t u d e n t par t ies (open o n l y t o m e m b e r s o f a pa r t i cu la r c l u b and the i r guests). Spec i f y sponsor ing c l u b : Y E S • N O • (c) Regular social events: 7 0 / 7 1 . 7 1 / 7 2 . Pub- Ins. Musical Evenings F i l m Series O t h e r s spec i fy .... 7 0 / 7 1 • • • 7 1 / 7 2 • • • 3. Genera l Use o f t h e House : S t u d e n t s c o m e t o I n t e r n a t i o n a l House f o r a va r ie t y o f reasons o t h e r t h a n f o r social o r e d u c a t i o n a l events. I n d i c a t e t h e o t h e r reasons f o r w h i c h y o u w e n t t o I .H . (a) T o a t t e n d a regular s t u d e n t c l u b m e e t i n g : S p e c i f y w h i c h c l u b : 7 0 / 7 1 7 1 / 7 2 (b) T o a t t e n d a mee t ing o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n : Y E S • N O • Y E S • N O • (c) S p e c i f y o r g a n i z a t i o n : 7 0 / 7 1 7 1 / 7 2 7 0 / 7 1 7 1 / 7 2 C U S O i n f o r m a t i o n n igh ts • • W U S • • O t h e r C U S O meet ings • • W U S C • • Crossroads • • U N E S C O • • U . N . • • O t h e r o rgan iza t ions : 7 0 / 7 1 7 1 / 7 2 S u p p l e m e n t a r y services: T o seek i n f o r m a t i o n o n : 7 0 / 7 1 7 1 / 7 2 7 0 / 7 1 7 1 / 7 2 A c a d e m i c m a t t e r s • • T o use t h e lounge • • Financ ia l m a t t e r s • • T o use t h e snack bar • • H o u s i n g • • • T o p i c k u p m a i l • • Trave l • D T o p lay t h e p i a n o • • W o r k overseas • • T o read magazines • Q S t u d y overseas • • T o m e e t f r i e n d s • • T o s t u d y o O t h e r s : 7 0 / 7 1 7 1 / 7 2 , (d) I f y o u have any suggest ions or c o m m e n t s o n i m p r o v i n g the general use o f t h e H o u s e , please c o m m e n t . 180a A G E 4 COMMUNITY CONTACT mernational House attempts to facilitate intercourse between students and the community outside that of the university. (a) Through the auspices of I.H., have you made community contact? YES • NO • Please specify how: 70/71 71/72 70/71 71/72 Weekend guest with a community Luncheon guest with business or family • • professional group • • Guest speaker for club, class or Day visit to a point of interest • • group, etc. • • Family guest at holiday time • • Evening outing to movie, theatre, etc. • • Others (please specify) 70/71 71/72 ASSESSMENT OF INTERNATIONAL HOUSE I. Your opinion of International House (a) Has I.H., through its activities and programs,met your expectations of it? YES • NO o (b) If not, how has it not met your expectations? (c) Which programs and activities best facilitated your meeting and getting to know students from countries other than your own? please specify (d) Do you feel you learned to more fully appreciate another culture through your involvement in any activities associated with International House? YES • NO • (e) Do you think any of your insights have been deepened or attitudes changed through involvement in International House activities? YES a NO • (f) If "yes" in (e) above, what insights have been deepened? (g) Circle the phrase which best describes your impression of International House: completely outmoded activities detract f rom aids international understanding requires redirection the "real international and cross-cultural contact problems" "colonial rel ic" good idea but excellent as a vehicle smacks of paternalism ineffectual in to promote promoting international brotherhood understanding (h) In view of your impression of I.H., what should be the nature of the programs and activities of International House? Please comment in general or specific terms Further Comments If you wish to comment on any aspect of International House, your remarks are welcome. Please insert additional sheet. APPENDIX 11 COVERING LETTERS INTERNATIONAL HOUSE THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER 8, CANADA February 19, 1973. Dear Student: I am writing to ask your help in a project which is important to the future of International House. This research has been approved by the University of British Columbia through the Board of Directors of International House. Many of us believe that the House has not yet realized the full potential which is possible among the Canadian and overseas students who enrich our campus through their international contributions and interests. A t a time when an international awareness among professionally trained people can have significant consequences internationally, the influence of International House looms great. As a student at U.B.C. you are in a critical position to provide meaningful information which will be useful in assessing the programs of International House. I strongly ask you to contribute your opinions and experiences by completing the enclosed questionnaire. Confidentiality will be assured in this study. Your name at no time wil l be published to any authority. As the study has my fullest support, I urge you to take the few minutes needed to give your professional opinion. This simple act could well represent a small step forward for global man. Yours sincerely, Colin H . Smith, Director. INTERNATIONAL HOUSE T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A V A N C O U V E R 8, C A N A D A February 19, 1973. Dear Student: As a student at U.B.C. you have information and opinions which will aid in developing and strengthening the student programmes at International House. In this regard I ask you to contribute 15 minutes of your valuable time. My study assesses your use of International House, your opinions of its programmes, and your suggestions for its improvement. If you are not a member of International House, or if you have never used International House, your response is equally important and is desired. As accurate information coming from the students of U.B.C. will most directly contribute to the future development and growth of International House, please take the time required to provide it. All responses will be treated confidentially and will be used for statistical purposes only. For your convenience, a stamped self-addressed envelope is enclosed for returning the questionnaire. Thank you very much for your cooperation. Sincerely, A. Rae McCombs Post-Graduate research Comparative Education APPENDIX 12 REMINDER CARD Several weeks ago, you received a questionnaire on your involvement in International House. If you have already returned it, disregard this note. If not, please take the 15 or so minutes required to provide the information requested and return it to me in the self-addressed envelope. Thank you again. Good luck in your studies! Sincerely, 

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