UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Formulation of a visual stimuli kit designed as an aid to developing visual awareness for grade 3, 4… Williamson, James Alfred 1977

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1977_A8 W54.pdf [ 33.19MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055659.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055659-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055659-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055659-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055659-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055659-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055659-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055659-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055659.ris

Full Text

FORMULATION OF A VISUAL STIMULI KIT D E S I S T E D A S :0 .AID TO rmiiwpnm VISUAL AWARENESS FOR G R A B S 39 h A N D 5; SGKDC«^'tiiffifiS#. BY THE ELEKEKTARY CLASSROOM TEACHER By JAMES ALFRED WILLIAMSON Fellot-fsfiip Diploma of Art, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF t THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION (Graduate Division) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1977 (g) James Alfred Williamson, 1977 i i . In presenting this thesis i n partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of Bri t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 ABSTRACT i i i . J Formulation of a Visual Stimuli Kit designed as an aid to develop-ing Visual Awareness for Grade 3> U, and 5 school children by the elemen-tary classroom teacher. In the elementary school, perception i s important i n many areas of the curriculum. Contemporary art education theorists have become more concerned with the development of children's visual perception as an i n -tegral part of the art program. Although there are adequate books and periodicals for teachers about art education theory and method, there i s a lack of useful, easily understood, simple to use visual aids. This researcher's aim was to provide the means for teachers to develop perception with the help of visual aids. This k i t was designed i n such a way as to be easily used by the generalist classroom teacher without specialist training i n art, or art education. After reviewing literature i n the general area of visual percep-tion and when selecting images for the k i t , the researcher believed that two considerations were of paramount importances the relation of the image to the child's own environment; and the relation of the image to the interests of children. Consideration was given not only to the image but to the relationship between two views of the same object. The views of two independent evaluators were sought for c l a r i f i c a t i o n of and assess-ment of the potential k i t . The potential k i t was composed of black and white, 11" x l h " prints made after taking photographs of environmental areas and articles I i v . considered genera l ly i n t e r e s t i n g to c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . An examination revealed that many p r i n t s were unsui tab le f o r var ious reasons . The r e -searcher a l so found that many needed mod i f i ca t ion because of i n s u f f i c i e n t content f o r d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s . A d d i t i o n a l enlarged photographs were made and inc luded i n each s e t . Questions were compiled and photographs were mounted i n p repara t ion f o r p i l o t t e s t i n g . P i l o t t e s t i n g was undertaken wi th a grade h and a grade 5* c l a s s from two p u b l i c schools i n Vancouver. V i s u a l s were shown and quest ions were asked about each. Responses were recorded and ana lysed . I t was concluded that the V i s u a l S t i m u l i K i t would be su i tab le f o r f u r t h e r use with only one v i s u a l omi t ted . Previous t e s t i n g had suggested reportab le d i f f e r e n c e s i n o v e r a l l t h i n k i n g and percept ion between grade k and grade 5. Large d i f f e r e n c e s were revea led i n degree of percept ion and c h i l d r e n ' s c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . Further t e s t i n g was c a r r i e d out wi th grade 3, h and £ c h i l d r e n with responses tabulated and analysed. Grade U c h i l d r e n with previous perceptua l t r a i n i n g showed d i f f e r e n c e s i n q u a l i t y of responses. Results from classroom t e s t i n g gave p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t i o n s of the s u i t a b i l -i t y of the V i s u a l S t i m u l i K i t f o r classroom use. V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF FIGURES v i i Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 1 Background to the Study • • • • 1 Statement o f Purpose and S i g n i f i c a n c e . . . . 2 Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . • 11 2. FORMULATION AND MODIFICATION OF THE KIT . 13 I n i t i a l S e l e c t i o n o f Images f o r the V i s u a l S t i m u l i K i t 13 Formulat ion and M o d i f i c a t i o n o f the K i t 17 Summary • • • 20 3. INITIAL TESTING OF THE KIT 21 P i l o t Tes t ing f o r Responses . . . . . . 21 Tes t ing i n School 'A ' 21 Test ing i n School 'B< 22 The V i s u a l s , the Questions and the Answers . . . . . . . 23 Eva lua t i on of P i l o t Tes t ing w i th the Grade k Ch i ldren . 68 Eva lua t ion of P i l o t Tes t ing with the Grade £ Ch i ldren . 69 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 U. FURTHER TESTING 70 Tes t ing with Grade £ 70 Responses from Ch i ld ren i n Grade $ a t School ' C . . . 71 Genera l i zat ions Derived from C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Responses From the Grade $ Ch i ld ren 79 v i . Page Tes t ing with Grade h • 81 Responses from Ch i ld ren i n Grade k a t School 'C» 82 Genera l i za t ions Derived from C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Responses from the Grade h Ch i ld ren . . . . . . . . . . 88 Tes t ing wi th Grade 3 89 Responses from Ch i ld ren i n Grade 3 at School ' C 90 Genera l i zat ions Derived from C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Responses from the Grade 3 Ch i ldren . . . . . . . . . . 99 Teacher Test ing 100 Impl icat ions f o r Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Summary • • 102 CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS . . . . 103 Impl i cat ions f o r Further Research 10U Summary • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 105 3RENCE CITATIONS 106 ZOGRAPHX 109 5NDIX I : Copies of V i s u a l s Used i n This Study, wi th Accompanying Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . I l l 5NDIX I I : L e t t e r o f Exp lanat ion to Accompany Each Set of V i s u a l s . . 133 SNDIX I I I : Copies of Rejected V i s u a l s 13U v i i . I LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. McFee's Perception/Delineation Theory . 7 i i | Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Background to the Study For some time art educators and others have been concerned with how man relates to his visual environment. Perception and the processes of perception have been a topic of concern, not only because of the pro-cess i t s e l f , but because of the effect that i t has on children's develop-ment. In the f i e l d of art, perception plays a major part i n the process of making arte Children's drawings are largely the result of their perr ceptions of an object or objects. This researcher's interest i s not i n the perceptual or cognitive process of moving from the stimulus to the drawing, but i n the type and the amount of input that the child gets from his surroundings. The auth-or's personal observations indicate that many children are not aware of the objects that constitute their surroundings, and of- the events that constitute their experience. This belief i s supported by the literature i n art education. There i s a need to formulate some materials that w i l l , to some degree, give the elementary school teacher concrete support i n the development of visual awareness i n the schools. Over the last decade, several books have been written about how to teach for the development of visual awareness or environmental aware-ness to school children. » c» J These books, although containing inter-esting and worthwhile material are generally designed as a text for future art teachers rather than as material to be used with children. Van Nostrand Reinhold, NYT teaching Resources, and other similar organizations have developed Perceptual Enrichment or Sensory Awareness 1. Kits. While these can be used successfully, this researcher believes that •they are not truly representative of the natural and man-made environment of the child. Statement of Purpose and Significance In this study, visual awareness i s defined as the children's a b i l -i t y to discriminate visual features i n their immediate environment. The purpose of this study i s to identify visual stimuli teaching materials for use i n developing visual awareness of the environment, and to produce these materials i n a format useful to the classroom teacher. This material w i l l differ from other teaching aids i n that i t w i l l be designed to develop children's interest and discrimination towards the environment. I t w i l l not develop just perception, nor w i l l i t be a series of interesting pictures or exercises i n aesthetic sensitivity or taste, but rather a series of visuals designed to make children more conscious of and aware of their environment. The materials are designed to be used at the grades three, four and five levels at the elementary school. Young children perceive things differently from adults. Accord-ing to Piaget, the processes from i n i t i a l sight to drawing are: . . . perceptual images - the ones we have as we look at an object. . . . representational images - the ones we retain (as memory images) after our experience with the object has passed. . . . drawing - based on our representational images.^ If we can believe Lansing and Piaget, then that which children i n i t i a l l y perceive has a direct bearing on the content i n their drawings. 3 . Kagan^ suggests that the a b i l i t y to reflect on alternative solu-tion possibilities and to analyse visually are fundamental to cognitive processes and perceptual recognition. McFee says that "... the tendency to analyse conceptually i s re-lated to the a b i l i t y to analyse visually."^ | Both these statements give weight to the fact that visual analysis |is directly related to conceptual thinking. I t naturally follows that breadth and depth of children's vision i s fundamental to this process. Visual awareness determines visual analysis which i n turn affects concept-ual thinking. The development of visual awareness i s of major importance i n art education. Review of the Literature Visual Awareness, whether i t be known as 'visual appreciation', 'aesthetic awareness' or some other name, continues to be extensively ex-amined by educators, philosophers, and social and behavioural scientists. McFee quite categorically states: There i s considerable evidence that learning i s required i n seeing, so one of the responsibilities of the teacher i s help-ing children acquire more visual awareness and concepts with which to think about what they see.7 She continues: A second purpose i s to help teachers to understand the grajnmar of vision, so that they may help children become more visually literate and sensitively aware, both to what i s projected to them through the broad arts and to their own creations and contributions to society." Ronald Neperud i s also concerned that this awareness should not be los t . . . . education of the sensitive individual i s s t i l l the basis for any c r i t i c a l concern. For i f one i s incapable of rich multisensory experiencing - the hot breeze upon one's face, the u odor of coal smoke, the glance of recognition, the hoot of an owl on a b i t t e r l y cold evening, i f one does not attend to the subtleties of visual dimensions, their patterns and organiza-tions, or i f function means f u l f i l l i n g only the so-called basic needs, a painting w i l l remain a painting, a house a house, a flower a flower.' His philosophy, although calling for the education of sensitive individuals, s t i l l expresses the need to be aware of our environment for this development. This quotation from McFeefs Preparation for Art embodies the views of a considerable body of educators who are concerned with the art educa-tion curriculum. Much of formal education has been focused on the recognition of objects to sort them into concepts, rather than analysis of their visual qualities. As a result many people grow up without learning to see beyond conceptual recognition. They classify an object according to their past experience. I f an individual has had a rich visual experience, then his processes of recognition w i l l bring many visual aspects into memory. I f not his experience may be limited and stereotyped. He w i l l miss much of the beauty around him, and be more l i k e l y to ignore the ugliness he and others may create.1° If this i s the case, then i t follows that suitable teaching mater-i a l s be developed. Considerations for Designing Visual Stimuli Materials The aforementioned citations t e s t i f y to the growing concern for more emphasis on learning s k i l l s that relate to the quality of l i f e . I t i s necessary that as many contributing factors as possible be considered to allow for maximum learning of these s k i l l s . Perceptual Readiness McFee explains how a person responds to his environment. Several different kinds of behaviours are related to the way a person responds to his surroundings. A sorting process i s basic 5". to response—a sorting of the visual qualities of things by size, shape, colour, and texture, A second type of behaviour i s the integration of the visual qualities with the cultural values one has learned. A third type of behaviour i s the process of being consciously aware of what one i s seeing. These behaviours are influenced by personality t r a i t s , cognitive habits, and a t t i -tudes. H She says that when we deal with a l l this visual information, we classify i t i n three ways. 1. We classify similar things as units. We do not respond cognitively to a l l the leaves of a tree or to a l l the blades i n a plot of grass. We deal with green trees and grass unless we purposefully look for small details and variations. 2. We classify the random by averages. When we drive i n fast moving t r a f f i c , we do not have time to recognize cognitively each kind of car we pass even though our eyes may be receiving enough visual information for us to do so. We have to average out the visual qualities of a l l the cars i n terms of their movements i n relation to our own car. We select and use those averages of movement and direction that are necessary to us i n the act of driving, and we constantly change our behaviour on the basis of these averages. 3o We classify according to wholes or completions. I f we see part of a face we tend to envisage the rest of the face: we see part of a c i r c l e as belonging to the whole, circle.1* I t would seem then that unless we help children to classify and select details and variations, they are unlikely to do so of their own accord. There are many theories of how learning takes place i n the arts. Arnheim1^ feels that a r t i s t i c production i s not based upon intellectual abstraction but on broader cognition, and that the form that i s represented cannot be derived only from the object perceived. Lark-Horovitz believes that perception i s a highly complex combina-tion of the senses. In i t s widely inclusive meaning, perception involves observation and to a degree a l l the senses, and a highly complex sorting mechanism of great sensitivity. I t i s more than just seeing. I t i s an involved balance of the senses with certain discrimina-tory bridges to conscious thought and subconscious memory, A person experienced i n observing and evaluating art perceives at a glance the kind of art he i s viewing, the subject, the media, and the technique, composition and general period of the paint-ing. He need not consciously think about each of these separ-ately. But this automatic awareness of many aspects i n the complex whole of a work of art does not just happen. I t i s the result of exposure, conscious learning and developed sensitivity.-" The most acceptable theory that explains how learning i n art takes place, i s McFee's Perception/Delineation theory. She identifies six points which she posits as being crucial to art learning. The f i r s t i s the readiness of the child to respond cognitively, both perceptually and conceptually. The second i s the psycho-cultural transaction of the child with his environment. ^Point three i s the visual-physical environment introduced by the teacher. Information handling by the child i s the fourth where the teacher helps him integrate new information into his es-tablished system and expand his habits of information handling. The f i f t h i s the creative delineation of his response to his own work or the work of others. Finally there i s the evaluation of feedback and the transfer of learning to the next task.^> McFee's schema, as presented i n Figure 1, makes the relationship of stages quite clear. 1. Readiness 1.1 Perceptual - Conceptual Development 1.2 Cognitive Style 1.3 Cultural Effects on Perceptual Learning l.U Prior Learnings 1.5 Art Values of Child's Subculture 1.6 Readiness for Creative Behaviour 1.7 Present Physical Condition Figure 1. 7 McFee's Perception/Delineation Theory Children's Interest Relating the visuals to the direct interests of the children app-eared to be a desirable way of stimulating the children's enthusiasm. This i s supported by Xark-Horovitz who states that children's art interest i s dependent ". . .on the dominating interests both of the age levels and the sex of the child. Children's choice of subjects for their own draw-ings and their expressed preferences of pictures by adult artists confirm t h i s . " 1 6 Many views are expressed on the influence of gender and the inter-ests of the child. Views di f f e r somewhat on the children's interests but 8. a l l agree that there i s an influence. In his study Barnes (1902) found: . . . that buildings, pictures and other works of art are not strong centres around which to gather a r t i s t i c feelings at any time i n the elementary school period.17 Ballard (1912) concluded that boys and g i r l s from the ages of three to fifteen: . . . l i k e to draw l i v i n g things. As they grow older, this interest i n houses decreases. But plant l i f e remains a great favourite with g i r l s , even with increasing age, while ships are featured more prominently i n the pictures of boys, espec-i a l l y those between the ages of seven and eleven.-° Lark-Horovitz quotes an investigation of the 1890's which dealt with the content of voluntary drawings by five to seventeen-year olds. I t was found that humans, animals, and plants were the subjects most frequently selected for drawing up to age ten. Houses, the child's habitat and his intimate world, were also important subjects, although they ranked second to humans. In another investigation made i n the early 1900's houses or houses i n their gardens ranked highest as their chief subject, next comes animals and then people. 19 Although these studies were undertaken around the turn of the cen-tury, there appears to be no agreement on children's interests. More recent investigations reflect a great change of emphasis, largely brought about by the change i n l i f e s t y l e and the children's environment. Among more recent investigations, Lark-Horovitz gives a different view of children's interests. Between the ages of nine and twelve, boys l i k e to draw vehicles, especially ships, tanks, airplanes, rockets, flying saucers and space ships. Girls seldom draw vehicles, but often draw horses. From the age of nine on, the differences between the sexes i n product and attitude becomes increasingly evident. Girls are more l i k e l y to choose s t i l l l i f e as a subject than are boys. Boys are attracted by machines and start drawing them at an early age. Girls, i f they draw machines at a l l , do so later.20 Further evidence useful i n appreciating the importance of relating subject matter to the child, has been advanced by Lowenfeld and Lambert Brittain who claim that: At this age (Preschematic stage 1-7 years) i t i s particularly important that any motivation be related directly to the child himself. This i s an age that shows great pains i n awareness. Developing a sensitivity to his own body parts should be one of the prime considerations for subject matter.21 As a result of this review, i t seems reasonable to assume that educationally useful visual stimuli material for didactic purposes which i s to be produced should include humans, animals, l i v i n g things and plant l i f e i n addition to technological items from the local environment. Colour One important element in children's perceptual development i s colour. To date, i t s importance has not been examined i n depth. The re-lationship colour has to children's perception and responses has been ob-served. Several theories are examinable. Evidence suggests that colour plays an important part i n the attitude and responses of children. Children, eleven to thirteen year olds, make colour and degree of naturalism the cr i t e r i a of judging.22 Lark-Horovitz, i n making this statement, i s influenced by Todd's^ study which had been designed to ascertain the degree of children's inter-est i n works of art. Her views are relevant as there i s a similarity i n perceiving the natural environment or photographs of the environment to that of looking at works of art. The elaboration of a Visual Stimuli Kit to include colour has ob-vious merit. However, as i t was the investigator's intention to produce an introductory series, the decision was made to omit the colour factor. It i s anticipated that a series of slides on colour w i l l be a further and 10. separate area of concern. This development may be complex. MacGregor^ believes that i n perceiving colour, a person i s particularly prone to " f i l l i n " information. i This writer's previous experience with perception i n elementary i i school children leads him to believe that some children think that they L e e colour i n black and white photographs. I f this i s so, then perception of colour i s a major area of concern deserving extensive investigation. Cultural Influences Environment, as modified by subcultural experience, appears to have more influence than race. "It appears that there are genuine percep-tual differences that are determined by environmental factors rather than by r a c i a l factors ."25 In this investigation, the researcher makes the assumption that this i s so. I t would follow then that i n designing the visuals, consider-ation should be given to images which are not culturally biased ( i f such images are possible). The Transference of a Three Dimensional Image to Two Dimensions The relationship between the image as seen i n real l i f e and the recorded image should be questioned. Several studies have been undertaken on the d i f f i c u l t i e s that one has when looking at a photograph or a picture (two dimensions) of a three dimensional subject. Segall, Campbell and Herskovits have this to say: . . . i t i s hard for us as Westerners to realize that the tradition of representing three dimensions i n two has the , character of an arbitrary linguistic convention. Hudson (i960) has shown that one who i s not familiar with this communica-tive intent does not find this 'language' at a l l obvious. In many respects, i t i s a language that has to be learned, l i k e any other.2? 11. In light of those opinions about language or ling u i s t i c conven-tions, this researcher i s making the assumption that a l l children with whom these materials are going to be used w i l l be familiar with this 'language.11 [Choice of Images for the Visual Stimuli Kit Guilford's views on learning give weight to the fact that i t i s not imperative to have subjects that the children have actually seen. Children can also learn to extricate familiar objects from inferring irrelevant material. This has been demonstrated by Elkind, Koegler, and Go^ o i n a study with hidden figures. With children of ages six, seven, and eight, they applied such procedures as t e l l i n g the child what kind of object to look for and covering a l l the picture except the hidden ob-ject. Using 2k different pictures, they determined each child's score for seeing the hidden figures before training, after training and again a month later. In every age group there was substantial gain with mean scores becoming approximately doubled.29 Perception of hidden figures has also been used by MacGregor^ i n his Perceptual Index. Here the children were asked to see hidden f i g -ures i n photographs of the environment. I t therefore appears important to include objects and environments that the children can relate to but not necessarily that have seen before. In the elementary school, perception plays a major role i n many areas of the curriculum. Contemporary art education theory has become more concerned with developing children's visual perception as an integral part of the art program. Although there are adequate books and periodicals for teachers about art education theory and method, there i s a lack of useful, easily Summary 12. understood, simple to use audio visual aids. This researcher's aim has been to provide the means for teachers to develop perception by means of visual aids. This k i t has been designed i n such a way as to be easily used by the generalist classroom teacher lithout specialist training i n art or art education. i I Chapter 2 FORMULATION AND MODIFICATION OF THE KIT Initial Selection of Images for the Visual Stimuli Kit As a result of reviewing the literature in Chapter 1 the two fact-ors that seem to deserve initial consideration are (a) images which relate to the child's environment, and (b) those which cater to the interest of the child. This includes interest of both boys and girls. Therefore i t 'appears imperative that subjects should be sought from areas with which all children come into contact. However, i t also seems important that the ;children should be confronted with material which they have not seen but I which allows for the more perceptive child to extend himself. It follows j that the above should naturally fall into two distinct areas: (a) subjects | which all children should have come into contact with (food, clothing, j playthings, toys, etc.) and (b) subjects from further afield (houses, boats, airplanes, textures, etc.). It was expected that the main emphasis should be to assist the children to look at all the features in the photograph before final inter-pretation. The details in the photographs were chosen to give visual clues as to the true identity of the subject. In order to develop perceptual skills i t was decided in several cases to include two different views of the same subject. The first image would include a close-up view. The following visual would show a more distant one. By using this technique, i t was expected that the children would be more sensitive toward searching for the discriminatory character-istics in each image. They should be able to see an immediate relation-ship between the separate textures, lines, shapes and the whole, 13. Set 1 included various types of food, parts of bicycles, views of stores, etc. It was considered that children would be familiar with these objects and could identify the distant views quite readily. More dif f i -culty would be experienced with the close-up pictures. In these cases the children would be required to look carefully at the characteristics shown in each photograph, and then to relate this data to their previous experi-ences. The researcher posited that when viewing the distant photographs, the children would more often rely on a 'hunch' or on the results of a quick cursory glance. Here there would be a need for very careful ques-tioning that would lead to a more detailed analysis of each visual. Set 2 included mostly distant views. Because i t was intended to be an extension of skills developed in Set 1, each visual included more complex subject matter. Children were to be encouraged to look at the salient features of each visual before making a final decision on its subject matter. Subject matter varied from natural forms and rocks, to ships, airplanes, houses and comparative environments. Although one might expect that airplanes and boats may often be unfamiliar sights to some children, i t was anticipated that the children's interest in such areas would overcome any limitations from the infrequent exposures. In fact testing showed this was indeed so. Many children had visited the beach area very few times and even less had first hand know-ledge of helicopters, but because of their interest and perhaps the in-fluence of television, most were able to quickly identify the helicopter rotor. Before testing, both Sets were shown to two independent evaluat-ors. Two university professors specializing in art education for young 15. children at the universities of Victoria and Manitoba respectively were selected. The following are extracts of interviews and comments by both persons. Suggestions were considered and in some cases, changes were made. Both art educators felt that the kit could be successfully used to develop perception in children in grades 3 through 5, The question arose as to whether the visuals favoured boys rather than girls. Each visual was examined independently from this point of (view. In light of contemporary children's interests, it was decided that the visuals favoured neither gender. Each visual was considered to be equally familiar to boys and girls. The question of "levels" of percep-tion arose. The investigator, in his search of the literature on art edu-cation, had found no mention of "levels" or "grades" of perception. It was concluded that it was infeasible to attempt such a classification. JThe responses expected from each individual should be left entirely up to I the teacher leading each discussion group. Quality and quantity of res-i ponses were expected to relate to each individual child. This relates to McFee's^ --" six critical points to learning. Children in Grade 3 are con-sidered to be ready to respond perceptually and conceptually. One would naturally expect that the responses will directly reflect the visual, physical environment introduced by the teacher and parents. All children should be able to relate to all visuals. Possible difficulties associated with visual no. lh in Set 1 were discussed (Safeway pushcart). The problem of what children would look for, identification of unfamiliar elements, i.e., lights, reflections, etc., and anticipated responses. These elements were thought to be identi-fiable at each relevant age level. This subject was considered equally viable for all children. 16. The choice of subjects for each set was questioned. On what basis ias each chosen? All visuals were chosen primarily for their relationship o the environment of children in the Vancouver area. Other important actors were: interest to children in grades h and 5>, relation to the hildren's vocabulary, and the interest of the visual content. Set 1 was considered as an introductory or "lead in" to visual discrimination, with the children concerning themselves with elements of content which they have to sift in order to arrive at the final solution. Children are en-couraged to look for the salient features of the photographs rather than to guess what each represents. Set 2 was designed to follow on from Set 1 in the same vein but with more complex photographs. The visuals are of an environment which is further afield than those on Set 1. An assumption was made that children will not have directly seen each subject. Set 2 visuals were also designed for a more comparative study of content, e.g., two slides of a street corner. It was expected that children will have to use past experience coupled with present cues in "deciphering" these visuals. Several have embedded figures or shapes designed for more heightened or sophisticated perception. Does each set provide for children who have predominate interests in masculine (machines, war games) or feminine (dolls' costumes, colour) themes? While the investigator realizes that this is an area of concern that needs investigation, because of the complexity, i t was decided to limit the subjects to areas which have a presumed dual interest. To what range or area do the visuals apply? Whilst being designed specifically for students in the Vancouver area, the researcher holds the view that 17. they could be used successfully in many areas of Canada, the USA, Australia and other Western countries. Overall, the visuals were considered by the two experts to be re-lated to the interests of the proposed population and i t was expected that the material would be useful for developing perceptual skills quite well. The possibility of marketing each set with related information was dis-cussed. Such a venture would necessitate either of three types of infor-mation* (1) Suggested questions related to each visual; (2) key words related to each visual; (3) a synopsis of each visual which would give an overall resume* of that which the investigator considered important and relative to each set. No. 1 was considered the most helpful to the class-room teacher and was consequently adopted for t r i a l . Formulation and Modification of the Kit Using the general interest areas mentioned in the above section as a guide, specific images were sought. Seventy black and white photographs were taken of features from the environment in and around Vancouver. These ranged from fences, garbage dumps, and chairs to onions, carrots and lemons, to seaplanes, helicopters, and buildings being demolished. Films were processed and the plates printed. At this stage con-sideration was given to which images would be more suitable for the close-up views. The most appropriate images were blown up to suitable sizes (lli" x 11") and printed. A l l prints were then examined and a selection was made. Careful sifting and classifying realized two sets of visuals with twenty-one photographs in each. Visuals were discarded for the following reasons: the farmyard, 18. horses, apartment house, logs on the river, chickens, garbage dump and street violinist were discarded because they were applicable to too narrow a range of the population. "he gingerbread house, Christmas cake, moving truck, and front cover of a child's book were discarded because they unduly favoured boys or girls. Several views of houses, streets and buildings were discarded because of lack of interest within the photograph. It was thought that the holly, the Christmas cake, the signwriter and the (interior of the bus had limited use in the development of perception be-cause of confusion within the visual itself. Several others were discarded because there were a sufficient number of views of that particular subject. The fishing boats remained although i t was considered that this would apply to a limited section of the population. It was thought that this was necessary for a direct comparison with the sailboats. Arranging the visuals in correct sequence seemed critical as i t was considered that this could more readily develop perceptual skills. In Set 1 i t seemed appropriate to start with prints of the child's rubber ball and the fruit. An assumption was made that these images would be familiar to children and, as such, would be readily identified. Other images were arranged in sequence with those expected to be quickly identi-fied first, leading to the more complex images. A quick investigation with three children within the grade 3 to grade 5 range revealed that there was not a sufficient degree of complexity. For example, children were able to identify each without an indepth analysis. Close-up views of the first four images were then printed. The visuals were then rearranged !9-with these additional images included foremost in the f i r s t set of prints. A l l prints were then shown to the previously mentioned three children. Now, in order to identify each, the children would have to look for the textures, lines, overlapping, etc., and then make a reasoned judgement based on their perception. The blurred images in the close-up views were expected to generate more involvement from children. In this subsequent viewing these children immediately realized that they could not make an immediate classification but would have to search for more information. The responses from the children suggested that these types of images could generate enthusiastic discussion. To follow on in sequence, i t seemed natural at this point to in-clude images of a water faucet and shopping basket. They were followed by blurred images of bicycles and bricks and a side view of a shoe. In an attempt to avoid monotony and also to relate one's i n i t i a l mode of perception to typical scenes, the interior view of a Safeway store was inserted. This procedure and sequence was successful when tried with the i n i t i a l three children. In Set 2 the view of the cedar panelling, and the view of the bricks were shown f i r s t , followed by rocks at the seashore. This appeared to follow naturally from Set 1. The three boat scenes were grouped to-gether. Then to ensure that the girls could be adequately catered for, the three views of the houses were placed next. The series on airplanes was grouped next to allow for a comparative study which was expected to be more complex than the comparison of houses. The final series on street scenes and building related directly to the environment with which the children would be most familiar. In these photographs, there are more I I 20. subtle differences than in many of the previous photographs. The photographs were mounted on suitable card which would facili-tate ease of handling and storage. Two boxes were constructed, one for each set. Using the initial testing operations with the three children as a procedural model, a preparatory series of questions were compiled for use as a basis for the final questions which were to accompany each visual. These were modified constantly throughout the pilot testing until a final list was compiled. Summary In selecting images for the kit, the researcher believed that two considerations were of paramount importance: the relation of the image to the child's own environmentj and the relation of the image to interests of the children. Consideration was given not only to the image but also to the relationship between two views of the same object. The views of two independent evaluators were sought for clarification of and assessment of the potential kit. Using the general interest areas as a basis, photographs were taken of specific subjects within each area. These were printed on 111" x 11" black and white photographic paper. An examination revealed that many were unsuitable for various reasons. The researcher also found that many visuals needed modification because of insufficient content for detailed analysis. Additional enlarged photographs were made and included in each set. Questions were compiled and photographs were mounted in preparation for pilot testing. Chapter 3 INITIAL TESTING OF THE KIT Pilot Testing for Responses To test the kit it was decided to seek out two schools in the Greater Vancouver area. Permission was sought from the appropriate auth-orities and i t was decided to test the Grade ii children at school 'A' and the Grade $ children at school 'B' in the same lower mainland school dist-rict. Both schools are considered to be in the middle to lower socio-economic status and children come from a variety of cultures and back-grounds. It was judged that if suitable responses could be obtained from children with such diverse backgrounds then the Visual Stimuli kit should enable equally suitable responses from children from higher SES areas and less diverse backgrounds. Testing in School 'A' One group of 10 children was randomly selected from Grade h» The group consisted of five girls and five boys. Testing was carried out in a discussion room consisting of one table and ten chairs. Two separate sessions were given with the group, each taking approximately thirty min-utes. In each session, the visuals were shown by the researcher to the children in sequence. Questions as outlined in Appendix 1 or similar questions, depending on the situation, were asked. Each child was encour-aged to respond for as long as he wished on each image shown. The time spent on each image varied, depending upon the time that children wished to spend looking and responding. In some instances the investigator felt 21. 22. it necessary to curtail the verbalization and move to the next visual. The reason was generally because of children becoming sidetracked, talking about obscurely related or unrelated subjects. Where there were differing opinions, the children were encouraged to discuss the variations among the group. All sessions were carefully controlled to provide each child with the maximum opportunity to give his opinion. Sessions were taped. i I There appeared to be an equal amount of enthusiastic discussion [from both boys and girls on all visuals. Lack of vocabulary appeared to prevent the children from expressing themselves immediately with clarity. Even so they were able to satisfactorily express themselves. The resear-cher saw that there was a distinct difference in what the children were looking for from the first visual to the final six. Children initially attempted to guess at the content of each photograph. With guidance, the children gradually looked for the key elements which aided in identifica-tion. The number of responses obtained for the final six photographs in Set 1 greatly exceeded those expected, especially in light of those given earlier in that session. In the second session with Set 2, there was a definite increase in the quality and quantity of the responses. Girls were equally enthusiastic about ships and boats, a characteristically male interest. Testing in School 'B' The group in this school was similar to that of school 'A'. Ten children were randomly selected from Grade 5. Five boys and five girls constituted this group. Discussion was carried out in a similar manner. One difference was that the sessions immediately followed one another. The sessions were again directed by the researcher and every effort was 23. made to ask similar questions to those previously asked. Again each child was allowed sufficient time to make his or her response. The results of the pilot testing revealed marked differences in response, children's perception, and children's overall thinking. The vo-cabulary used is considered particularly relevant. Not only did i t show the way in which the children were thinking, but also i t showed increase in perception and the type of vocabulary that children use to communicate their perceptions. Relevant extracts from the children's dialogue reveal elements of their depth of perception and their critical thinking. Children were en-couraged to think aloud while they were responding to the photographs. i •All responses represent group answers. It should be assumed that all children contributed to the total response. The following responses testify to the various responses from image to image and between grade levels. The Visuals, the Questions and the Answers Set 1. These are related to the child's most immediate environment. 2ii. 1. Portion of an orange, portion of a child's b a l l , grass. Questions: What might this be? What do we have here? What shape can you see? Can you see any cracks? Can you see any texture? What could the long things be? How could you describe the long things? Do you think one i s a golf ball? Why or why not? Responses: School 'A', Grade h* rocks, rounded shape, orange, round, watermelon, grass, sticks, straight, c i r c l e , globe, golf b a l l , gumball, octopus, map of the world. Responses: School 'B', Grade 5» that's an orange, could be an egg, round shape, not exactly round, could be grass, has the same shape as grass. 25". 2. Orange and two toy ba l l s . Questions: What might this be? What can we say about the shape of each? Why would there be a line around the shape at the rear? Responses: School 'A', Grade U. egg, orange, b a l l . Responses: School 'B', Grade $, orange, because of the lumps and holes, egg, no golf b a l l , there i s a l i n e , i t couldn't be an egg i f i t had a line on, a b a l l s i t t i n g on grass, rough, spongy because of the cracks, l i t t l e spots, looks l i k e a rubber b a l l , an orange, a lemon doesn't have those spots, and i t i s sort of oval shape. 2 6 3. Close-up view of eggs. Questions: What might these be? What shape would they be? What could they be sitting on? Are the shapes oval like a football or football field? Can you think of a name that means 'in front o f ? Responses: School 'A', Grade U. eggs, pointy at the end, oval shape, f i r s t . Responses: School 'B', Grade 5» eggs, because of the shape, they are kind of oval, they are white, i t is sitting on grass, that one's on top, it's covering them, overlapping. 27. U. Seven eggs on grass. Questions: What do you think these are? How can you t e l l they are eggs? Which egg i s the closest to the camera? How can you t e l l ? Is there an egg that does not have overlapping? Which one? How many eggs are there? Gould there be more? Why or why not? Responses: School 'A', Grade k» on the top, shows the most, point by the side. Responses: School 'B', Grade 5. this egg i s on the top, there are seven eggs, you can't see an extra egg. 23. 5. Portion of a lemon. Questions: What might this be? What makes you think that i t i s a lemon/orange? Could i t be anything else? Responses: School 'A', Grade U. dots, orange, things with seeds inside, brownish, lemon. Responses: School 'B', Grade 5, looks l i k e a lemon, an orange, a soft-b a l l , no, i t looks too big, a golf b a l l , no a golf b a l l has deeper holes, this one i s too big here, could be a close-up view, this one i s i n the water because i t i s blurry, could be frogs' eggs, frogs' eggs i n the water, frogs' eggs underwater. 29. 6. A group of lemons on grass. Questions: What do you think these could be? How can you t e l l they are lemons? What else i s i n the picture? How could we describe the surface of the lemons? Is photograph $ part of this photograph? What section i s the same? Are they a l l lemons? Why i s one lemon blurry? Responses: School 'A1, Grade U. two things on the end, dots, polka dots. Responses: School 'B', Grade $, lemons, not a l l lemons, yes, a l l lemons, because of the things on the end, that one i s blurry because i t was at the back. 7. A tap or water faucet. Questions: What could this be? What can you see that gives you clues? What else is in the picture? What word can we use that tells us that i t looks like water? Responses: School 'A', Grade h» part of a sink, tap, water faucet, looks like steel, has a thing on the end, moisture. Responses: School 'B', Grade 5". water faucet, that thing, round and water comes out of i t , you can see where i t comes out, i t looks like the number seven with the top cut off, these look like water spots, that looks like the stem part and the hot water tap, moisture, this looks shiny. 31. 8. Portion of an onion. Questions: What might this be? Why do you think i t i s an onion? What could the white things be? How could you describe the out-side surface? What word could we use to describe i t ? Could i t be a rat? Why or why not? Responses: School 'A', Grade U. onion, bulb that goes i n the ground, roots, l i k e a leaf, paper that onions have, protection, trees have bark, skin. Responses: School 'B1, Grade 5, an onion, because there i s roots, couldn't be a rat, a rat wouldn't have skin peeling off, a rat has hair and this has roots, there are new roots and old roots, you can peel these off, the skin comes off i n layers, there i s a lump, no a hole, i t could be a rotten onion. 32. 9. Onions. Questions: What are these? How can you t e l l that they are onions? Could they be anything else but onions? Is the large one an old onion or a young one? Responses: School 'A', Grade U. onion, took the skin off. Responses: School 'B1, Grade 5. onion, garlic bulb, t u l i p bulb, onions peel more, this i s an onion because when you cut i t the layers stick up, i t i s an old onion because i t peels more and i t i s sort of shrivelled, i t has bruises on, i t i s rotten, i t has brown stuff around and i t ' s older, the skin i s more b r i t t l e and cracking. 33. 10. Portion of a banana and apples. Questions: What might this be? Can you see any prickles or hairs? What other elements or shapes can you see? What can you see i n the background? Is i t natural (something grown) or i s i t something somebody has made? What parts might give you a clue as to what i t is? Responses: School *A', Grade Ii. a pumpkin, a mushroom, a watermelon, white dots, l i t t l e prickles, a caterpillar, worm, li k e an apple. Responses: School 'B', Grade 5. li k e a mushroom, a banana, a banana that large? fungus, looks l i k e a giraffe, piece of wood, a frog, l i t t l e mushroom, a beetle bug, worm, sky and stars, this line could be part of an apple, this shape looks li k e a worm or a f i s h or a tadpole, hair, like a mouse, stars or spots. 3U. 11, Bananas and apples. Questions: Can you identify what i s i n this picture? Can you t e l l whether the apples are 1st grade or 2nd grade? Do bananas always have spots? Responses: School 'A', Grade l i . apples, worm, black dots. Responses: School 'B1, Grade 5. bananas, was a worm, a bunch of bananas, 2nd grade apples because of the spots, the apples have spots because they are old, somebody s p i l t something on them, 2nd grade because they are not shiny, the bananas look old because they have black on top, they a l l have that. 35". 1 2 . Portion of a carrot. Questions: What might this be? What i s i t that gives you clues about i t s identity? Responses: School 'A1, Grade k» carrot, shaped l i k e a carrot, on the top i t gets thick and the bottom i t gets skinnier, i t gets lines that get big and then smaller and smaller, carrot when you are about to peel i t , lines. Responses: School 'B', Grade S>. carrot, because a carrot has stripes on i t , i t i s shaped li k e a carrot, the top i s here and the bottom skinnier, i t looks l i k e a long sided triangle. 3 6 13* Four carrots. Questions: What might these be? How many carrots can you see? Can you see any lines on the carrots? Where are they? Responses: School 'A', Grade k» four carrots, not fi v e , skin. Responses: School 'B', Grade 5". there are four carrots, there are the roots to get i n the water. l i t . Side view of a Safeway shopping basket. Questions: What could this be? Would i t be wood or metal? What i s i n the background? Does the background help you identify i t ? Responses: School 'A', Grade k» a cage, a steel cage, a pushcart, a Safeway pushcart, big ones and two thick ones, sticks, fence, looks l i k e water, and the channel, reflections, bridge, a cage with a stick behind i t , fence. Responses: School *B', Grade 3>. cage, basket, start of a woven basket, a hut, i t ' s steel and shiny, looks l i k e l i t t l e bars, could be wooden bars, i t i s wood, no, i t ' s steel, when i t i s wood i t i s more l i k e l y to be crooked, this part looks l i k e a shopping cart, because of the shape of i t , these things here, the back of them looks li k e a shopping cart, i t has bars going up and down and then they have them going across, this i s a shadow, that's the side of a shopping cart. 38 15. Interior of a Safeway store. Questions: Where was this photograph taken? Why do you think i t i s a Safeway store? What season i s i t ? How can you t e l l ? What other label would f i t suitably on the empty black space? Is i t more l i k e l y to be shelves or freezers beneath the black notice board? Why? Responses: School 'A', Grade U. Safeway, which Safeway?, i t i s the one on Fraser, because of these signs, you always see them at the Safeway store, winter, Christmas decorations, Santa Claus, b e l l . Responses: School 'B1, Grade 5« Safeway because i t has these, i t also says Safeway on the wall, i t i s Christmas because of the signs and has Christmas decorations and a Christmas b e l l . I t says Christmas on the outside, below the sign could be dog food, chocolate, ice cream, frozen pizzas, frozen carrots, canned food, shelves and freezers would be below the signs, i t may be ice cream. 39 16. Portion of a bicycle seat. Questions: What might this be? What features can you see? Responses: School 'A', Grade it. spring, shocker, shocks, spring from a car, spring from a bike. Responses: School 'B', Grade 5. engine, car, screws, l i k e a t i r e , disc brakes there, shock absorbers, spokes, springs, something l i k e a zipper, a can opener. Uo 17. A larger view of a bicycle seat. Questions: What might this be? What features t e l l you that i t i s a bicycle seat? Why a bicycle seat and not a motorcycle seat? From what material would the seat be made? Responses: School 'A1, Grade U. spring from a bike, maybe a motorcycle, shape, a l l bikes have springs under the seat, that's a key. Responses: School 'B', Grade $» a bicycle seat, because of the top shape, a new frame, i t i s i n the shape of a bicycle, i t looks li k e a mattress, i t ' s up here and i f so you would have seen i t a l l the way up to here, there are two kinds of bicycle seats, this i s a five speed or a ten speed bike, this i s to attach a bicycle tag with your name or else a l i t t l e bag with a wrench or something, i t i s made from plastic or leather, because i t i s shiny, you can see the sun reflecting on i t . i i i . 18. The rear sprocket of a bicycle. Questions: What could this be? Why couldn't i t be a motorcycle? What is the slotted part for? Is there any part of the chain that is different from the rest? Why is one link different? What is the special link called? Does the owner look after his bicycle? Responses: School 'A', Grade l i . chain, pushcart doesn't have this (wheel), this tire, this is to hold the tire on to the frame, slot, slide this out, chain has been oiled, clips, part of chain, that part, something has to come out. Responses: School 'B', Grade 5". bicycle wheel, bicycle chain, spoke and guard, the brake, the slot is there so you can adjust i t , adjust i t i f the wheel is too long, you can push this back and the chain would become tighter, the link is fatter and i t doesn't look the same, there is grass stuck there, the link is there so you can take i t apart. U2 19. Portion of a shoe. What could this be? How can you t e l l ? Could i t be a snake? What features t e l l us i t i s part of a shoe? School 'A1, Grade U. shoe, shoelace, these things right there, braided, that part looks l i k e a shoe, holes i n i t . School 'B1, Grade 5. I think i t i s a runner or a shoe, or something l i k e that, that's a shoelace, i t ' s too fat to be a snake, i t ' s too wrapped around, a snake has scales, i t i s woven, that's sort of put across, i t has holes and lines there. Questions: Responses: Responses: 20. Three bricks with moss or lichen clinging to the surface. Questions: What might this be? What different features can you see? Where are you likely to see this? Responses: School 'A', Grade U. rain, moisture on house, dirt, mud, water, frost, texture, grass with snow on i t , straight lines, river, raining and you took the picture, ground, dirt and grass together, garbage. Responses: School 'B', Grade 5. road, h i l l , a bicycle track, no it's a car track, it ' s a bicycle track, trees, could be a crumbling wall with moss on, i t looks like a car track, a t r a i l , bicycle track, i t looks like a sideways H, the white things look like rocks, grass clinging to a board. 10u Set 2. These visuals are related to the child's surrounding environment. It i s expected that the children may not have seen many visuals i n this set. 1. Rough cedar wall panelling from a storefront. Questions: What could this be? How can you t e l l ? What do you think the unusual part near the centre could be? What can you t e l l me about the surface? How are these pieces of wood placed? Would the wood be smooth or rough? Which board would you most l i k e l y get slivers (splinters) from i f you rubbed your hand against i t ? Responses: School 'A', Grade U. i t i s the side of a house, here i s the wood, you can see lines on i t , bark, nails, hole, i t makes the tree grow, root, something sticky, knot, shingles, fence, have to sand i t , nails that go right through i t , slivers going only one way, pointy l i k e steps, you can see down i t , going down like the side of a house, l i k e shingles, cracks, f l a t . Responses: School 'B1, Grade 5» wood, slivers, they sort of go like i this, you can see the little cracks there, i t goes on the i j flat, then i t drops and goes up again, like stairs, could be a porch, a wall or something like that, the outside of a wall, going across all the way down, i t looks like the outside of a house that hasn't been painted yet, i t has this thing here, i t has a knot, you can see the knot showing, it's a brown colour, it would be sand-papered, you can see a loose sliver. 2, A rock wall from outside a Safeway store. Questions: What might this be? Where might i t be seen? Would i t be formed naturally or placed there deliberately? What makes you think so? Would the surface be suitable for a roadway or sidewalk? Responses: School 'A', Grade i i . rock wall, dam wall, rocks on the ground, side of a river, part of a chimney. Responses: School *B', Grade 5>» rock wall, i t ' s deliberate, someone could have stacked them up, i t has been put up a certain way, maybe they are old and they have cracked, someone's front garden, could be a road, li k e i n Gastown, they have a road that looks li k e t h i s , could be an old cobblestone road, i t would be good on a wall. hi. 3. Boulders and concrete on the foreshore. Questions: What might this be? Are they a l l rocks? What features t e l l us that the shape on the right side is concrete (cement)? Where might you see this scene? Responses: School 'A1, Grade h» rocks, dirt, weeds, boulders, gravel, ground, cement, rocks sticking together, like a sidewalk, smoother, like a different shape, different design, like a cave. Responses: School 'B', Grade 5. corals, it's near the beach, boulders, trees, shrubs, bluestones, grass, sand, the beach, rocks, broken concrete, this is together, there are bricks there, i t looks like the beach, when you are at the beach you sit back from the hot sand and when you want to get to the water you have to go over the rocks and coral. U8. km Sailing boats with a freighter and North Vancouver i n the background. Questions: What type of boats would these be? How can you t e l l ? Can you t e l l anything about where this was taken? How can you t e l l that they are not fishing boats? Responses: School 'A', Grade U, where i s i t ? , i t ' s here i n Vancouver, Richmond, Horseshoe Bay, there i s a fence around i t , i t i s a boat dock, they are s a i l boats, that's not a ferry, that's a freighter, i t ' s down by the trai n tracks, Stanley Park, North Vancouver, there i s a man walking his dog, they are not f i s h -ing boats because they have s a i l s . Responses: School 'B', Grade 5, harbour of Burrard Inlet, I can see North Vancouver, i t looks l i k e a freighter, sort of a ferry, no way—a freighter, s a i l boats, fishing boats, looks l i k e reels that they reel the f i s h i n , those are motor boats, masts, piers. h9. 5. Fishing boats. Questions: What type of boats could these be? What features t e l l you that they are fishing boats? Would people l i v e on these boats? How do they differ from s a i l boats? Responses: School 'A', Grade l i . these have antennas, there i s one boat here and there i s a walkway to i t , fishing boats have tires and bumpers on them to stop them bumping into the dock or other boats, they have bigger cabins, they could be house-boats, cabins are bigger here, they are thick at the bottom and thin on top, this i s a fishing boat because they have names on them, so do s a i l boats because my Granps has one, they have a l l kinds of cabins on them, they are houseboats because they have curtains and things li k e that. Responses: School 'B', Grade fishing boats, trawler boats, fishing li g h t s , these are fishing l i g h t s , t i r e s , i t i s near the docks, there are the big poles, i t i s to stop i t being scratched, trees, fishing boats, these things there look li k e where you put the fi s h down. 5"0. 6. Bow of a freighter i n dock. Questions: What type of ship could this be? How can you t e l l i t i s a very big boat? What would the round things on the ropes be made of? What could they be for? Responses: School 'A', Grade 1*. a freighter, i t has a real big anchor, and a real big boat, those are anchors, they are things to protect the boat, i t ' s rubber, no, i t ' s paint. Responses: School '3', Grade 5. ferry, no, i t looks li k e an ocean freighter, a ship, a freighter, a ferry, no, there's cranes there, those things are anchors, i t ' s a cargo ship, they are on the thing to tie to the docks, i f they weren't they would make the ship f a l l back. 51 7 . A well kept large house taken at Christmas. Questions: What can you see i n this picture? What type of house could this be? What clues t e l l you so? What season could i t be? What are the things on the trimmed shrubs? What type of person would l i v e i n a house l i k e this? Responses: School 'A', Grade k» a house, a bush, maybe a farmhouse, maybe a cabin i n the country, the season? we think i t i s summer because i t i s sunshine and the leaves aren't off, evergreen trees, that i s not evergreen, i f i t was winter, i t should have snow, no i t shouldn't, bushes with Christmas light s , therefore i t must be winter, a rich person and his family l i v e there. 52. Responses: School 'B1, Grade $» house, a big one, 'cause there is a whole bunch of grass, and looks tall, you can tell because i t keeps going on, i t can't be because the house goes around the other side, i t could be big on the other side, the season is spring, no summer, oh Christmas lights, Christmas, some people leave them up all year round, they don't bother taking them down, the owner keeps his trees trimmed, you don't see any garbage around, rich persons who have a fancy house have windows like this. 53 8, Frontal view of a slightly older house. Questions: What can you t e l l me about this house? What type of person would li v e i n a house like this? Would i t be a cloudy or a sunny day? Responses: School 'A', Grade k. a very rich person lives there because i t i s a big house, sundeck over here, sundeck over there, three windows i n one room, no i t ' s two windows and one door, they are rich because they have plants and everything, the house i s quite big because i t i s two storey, there i s a basement down there, i t would be a sunny day. Responses: School 'B', Grade 5. this i s an older house, by the window, part of the paint i s off, some of the paint i s off and i t i s peeling, i t has kind of marks on i t , they don't take care of the trees and i t looks old, the style of the house with the big porch and the stairs, the triangular thing at the corner of the house—usually older people have that. 5U. 9. A church taken at Christmas. Questions: What would this building be? If i t didn't have a name could you s t i l l t e l l i t is a church? What is behind the person taking the photograph? Can you see anything unusual on the f i r tree in front of the building? Responses: School 'A', Grade h. i t is a church because of the grass, and i t has a name, only churches have crosses, i t has a rock wall, and lots of trees behind i t , i t is Christmas because of the lights on the tree. Responses: School 'B', Grade £. church because i t has a cross on i t , i t has a name on i t , a forest in the background and behind the photographer because i t is reflected. 55. 1 0 . A seaplane taking off with North Vancouver i n the background, Questions: What type of plane do you think this could be? Why? How many persons would i t carry? What can you t e l l about the mountain? Is i t taking off or landing? Responses: School 'A', Grade U. Stanley Park, i t i s a water plane because i t has skis on, very low f l y i n g , probably going to land, i t ' s slanting down, the mountains have lots of trees on them and there i s a l i t t l e b i t of snow on the mountains. Responses: School 'B', Grade 5. plane, seaplane because of those things on the bottom, platoons, floats, i t i s landing because i t i s going low, going down, i t i s slanting down, planes usually don't go that low. 56 Questions: What could this be? What t e l l s you so? What mechanical parts can you see? Responses: School 'A*, Grade h, i t i s the propellor of a helicopter, because the things are there, you can see twisted wire, 6 bolts, nuts and a name plate so you can see who's i t i s , what company i t i s from, i f i t breaks they can f i x i t . Responses: School 'B', Grade 5. propellor of a helicopter because on T.V. you see helicopters, i t looks like i t on top, this looks like a propellor and this i s the shape, over on the bottom i t has a thing that turns i t around, right there i n the middle, there's a turret, spring bolts, chain, could be an o i l derrick, those things that go deep i n the ground. 57. 12. A helicopter. Questions: What can you t e l l me about this picture? What could i t be used for? Is i t moving? How can you t e l l ? Responses: School 'A1, Grade U. police helicopter, because of the round things on top, i t i s for l i t t l e things that k i l l s bugs on, i t may be one that sprays flowers, i t has ear muffs and radio things, we can see numbers and Vancouver Island. Responses: School 'B', Grade 5» helicopter, there is a machine gun, i t s radar i s not off the ground, these could be the rudders of i t , i t i s called Vancouver Island. 58 13. The reverse image of photograph 12. A helicopter Questions: Compare this photograph to photograph 12. What is the difference? Is i t the same plane? Explain the reason for Vancouver Island being spelt backwards in this photograph. Responses: School 'A1, Grade U. both the same thing, that is the left side of the plane and this is the right side of the plane, the colour of the ground is different, one side is longer than the other, they're different, but look at the grass, one is darker, there is something on the bottom that looks like dice, i t looks like water of a light. Responses: School 'B*, Grade 5. this is the other side, I don't think so, this should be on that side, then that could be the shad-ows, the shadows are on the other side, they are the very same, you can see the head phones hanging in the same way, you can see the white thing where they have taken part off, i t is the same shape on both sides, same picture except taken from a different side, you can t e l l , Vancouver Island is spelt backwards, you switched the film around. 59. llw Different helicopter taking off. Questions: Is this the same helicopter as the previous ones shown? How can you t e l l ? Is i t flying or standing s t i l l ? Responses: School 'A', Grade U. this i s a different helicopter because of the different name, i t i s flyi n g , landing because i t i s going lower, lower there because i t i s going up, a pi l o t i s there. Responses: School '3", Grade 5. i t ' s pointing up, i t ' s f l y i n g because you can see the water below i t , a man i s inside, point i s pointing up, over here the top i s different, a different number i s on top. 15. A lamp-post at the corner of West 10th and Alma with the traffic lights showing green. Questions: What can you see in this picture? Where is this post situ-ated? What colour is the light? Responses: School 'A', Grade Iw a street light and a sign to which way, West 10th and Alma, the street light is green because i t is on the bottom. Responses: School •!', Grade 5". lamp-posts and signs of two streets, Alma and West 10th, crossing lights, thirty-seven hundred block, the lights are green because green is always on the bottom. ^ — i I I i i p m i — 16. A street corner, corner of Alma and West 10th, Questions: Where i s this situated? Can you see the pole that was i n photograph no. 15? What colour does the t r a f f i c light show? How do you explain the fact that each pole says West 10th and Alma? Responses: School 'A', Grade U. this i s the same, i t i s a red light and the other i s green, you can see the gas station on the corner and the cars, the light i s supposed to be on this one but i t isn't, the cars are stopped so i t must be red, you took this side and while you were waiting to take the other picture, the lights changed and you took i t , and i t was a red lig h t and the poles are different, one i s wooden and the other i s steel, and the lights are on a different pole, that i s the other side of the street. 62. Responses: School 'B', Grade $» Esso gas station, i t i s the same lamp-post, no i t isn't, because there are no street l i g h t s , there i s a lamp-post li k e that on the other side of the street, lights are on red, a l l the cars are stopped, the lamp-post i s red, the other side of the street is lighter on the bottom, the lamp-post by the gas station i s wood and the one on the other side i s steel, the steel has l i t t l e things sticking out and i s not rotten, the wood has brown stuff and looks l i k e o i l , and the steel i s much smoother. 6 3 . 17. A city street, West Hastings and Seymour. Questions: Is this photograph taken i n the c i t y , the suburbs, or the country? Why do you think so? Responses: School 'A', Grade It. i t i s downtown because I can see where my dad used to work, i t i s i n the city because i t has red lights, big buildings, buses, downtown they only have the lights where i t says 'one way' because lots of people and lots of cars. Responses: School 'B', Grade 5. near the Granville mall, buildings, lots of buildings and stores, Seymour, 'one way', highrise, c i t y , because of lots of cars and lots of people, lots of stoplights, stores and restaurant—Green Parrot. 61i. 18. Section of Chinatown, Vancouver. Questions: Where would this photograph be taken? Would i t be a two way or a one way street? Responses: School 'A1, Grade U. Chinatown, buses come here, Chinese writing, i t i s Vancouver because I have been there, there i s the Hotel Vancouver. Responses: School 'B', Grade 5. near Chinatown, here i s the tea room and the Chinese temple, i t i s i n Vancouver because you can see the top of Woodwards i n the background, no way, that's the radio company. 65. 1 9 . A suburban street, West Broadway. Questions: Would this be i n the city, the country or i n the suburbs? Would trolley buses go by here? Responses: School 'A', Grade h. 3roadway, Fraser, buses go by there because of the electrical lines, that's on Broadway, I think I have passed there before. Responses: School 'B', Grade 5. not i n the cit y , Kingsway, not downtown because not many buildings, not much t r a f f i c , no highrises. 66 building i n f i n a l stages of completion. What type of building would this be? Is i t being b u i l t or being pulled down? What makes you think so? School 'A', Grade U. they're s t i l l building the building, they s t i l l have that thing on the outside, outside elevator, ladder. School 'B', Grade 5. Sears, because of the sign, because i t i s a round sign, being b u i l t , because i t hasn't been finished, they have an elevator attached, side of the building isn't finished, and they a l l have steel things where the men can put planks of wood on to stand on and work, and the crane i s on top. 20. Sears Questions: Responses: Responses: 67. 21. Side of a building being torn down. Questions: What i s happening to this building? How can you t e l l ? What was the building made of? Is i t b u i l t of the same material as the building i n photograph 20? Responses: School 'A', Grade U. destroyed, pulled down, because i t i s a l l broken, the place has been condemned, because i t i s a l l wrecked, probably just being b u i l t , this one i s a l l broken and this one i s a l l together, not made of the same materials, cement, old cedars. Responses: School 'B1, Grade 5>. this i s being torn down, i f they were building i t , the place would be neater, they are just letting i t f a l l down and break, that i s for hitting i t down, this i s buil t of different material, this i s wood and this i s rock. 68. Evaluation of Pilot Testing With the Grade h Children An examination of the responses of the children reveals that as the sessions progressed the children not only perceived more in the vis-uals but were attempting to express themselves more. In responding to the earlier photographs the children gave such responses as, "dots, orange, things with seeds inside, brownish, lemon, oval shape, looks like steel, has a thing on the end." The final set of photographs brought forth such answers as, "this is a different helicopter because of the different name, it is flying, landing, because i t is going lower, lower there because i t is going up, a pilot is there." Children were looking for more visual clues in the photographs. This perception is reflected in their thinking, e.g., "the cars are stopped so it must be red." Vocabulary The visuals helped the researcher ascertain what vocabulary the children use and the limitations of their present vocabulary. This would be an excellent way of searching for words that the children would use instead of trying to make do with unsuitable words, e.g., " i t gets lines that get big and then smaller and smaller!) (gradation, gradual), '$lt has a real big anchor and is a real big boat-!.large, immense). After using both kits with the Grade h group, i t was decided to omit photograph 21 from Set 1. While being an interesting photograph from the point of view of pattern, it was not as related to perception as much as the others. All others were felt to be very related and were kept in the set. 69. Eva luat ion of P i l o t Tes t ing With the Grade 5 Ch i ld ren The responses given by the grade 5" c h i l d r e n show that t h i s group has greater perceptua l acqu i ty to s t a r t w i t h . When shown photograph 8 i n Set 1, the grade h c h i l d r e n could i d e n t i f y i t but could f i n d very few c lues as to why they thought i t was an on ion. In c o n t r a s t , the grade 5> c h i l d r e n were able to i d e n t i f y the d i f f e r e n t kinds of roo ts , the layered s k i n , and the lump which they thought could i n d i c a t e that i t may be r o t t e n . I n i t i a l l y they a l so had greater d i sc r im ina tory sense. They were able to see the more subt le d i f f e rences from the photographs. Words such as ' s h r i v e l l e d , b r i t t l e and c r a c k i n g ' were seldom used by c h i l d r e n i n the lower age group although the c h i l d r e n would know the meanings. The grade 5" c h i l d r e n had a much l a r g e r range of vocabulary on which to c a l l . Using the p i l o t sess ion as a guide, the researcher f e l t that the V i s u a l S t i m u l i K i t would be most use fu l i n developing grade 5* c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n towards the environment. A f i n a l l i s t of quest ions was made, based upon those asked by the researcher when working with both grades. Summary P i l o t t e s t i n g was undertaken with a grade h and a grade 5 from two schools from the Vancouver a r e a . V i s u a l s were shown and questions were asked about each. Responses were recorded and ana lysed . I t was concluded t h a t the v i s u a l s t i m u l i k i t would be su i tab le f o r f u r t h e r use with only one v i s u a l omi t ted . Chapter k FURTHER TESTING At this stage, both sets of visuals were considered relevant for the particular purpose for which they were designed. An appropriate school for further testing was sought. One school was chosen from the lower mainland district of British Columbia. The researcher felt that i t represented a middle socio-economic area of the Vancouver and lower mainland districts. This school will be called school "C*. Children from three grades were selected from this school, grade 3, grade h, and grade 5. All children in the grade 3 were given sessions using the visuals. In the h and $ grades a random sample of 10 children was selected. Although all children in the testing program were chosen randomly, the researcher felt i t advisable to give all of one grade the visuals, to ascertain whether responses represented all children in that grade. Testing With Grade g Based on the findings just described and in the interests of seeking further insights about the potential and limitations of the kit, the researcher obtained permission to select a random sample of ten stud-ents from one grade 5 class for testing. Eight boys and two girls were shown the visuals in the morning and afternoon. Responses were very similar to those obtained from the grade $ students at School 'B' during pilot testing. All students were enthusiastic about the visuals and re-tained their span of attention for the duration of the testing. Due to the fact that the class was able to talk freely during the time and the 70. 71. added fact that they had.come from a less structured situation, slight d i f f i c u l t y was experienced whilst conducting the discussion. Children's eagerness to participate i n one or two instances almost prevented responses from a few of the less eager individuals. This was basically a procedural problem that would occur no matter what was discussed and as such would not affect the va l i d i t y of the visuals. Responses were tabulated and analysed as follows: Responses from Children i n Grade 5 -t School 'C when shown images from the Visual Stimuli K i t . Set 1. 1. two oranges, one orange, i t has that l i t t l e thing on the end, and roundish l i k e an orange, could be a golf b a l l with a mark on i t , an orange and an apple, two oranges lying on the ground, mushrooms. 2. looks like two eggs and an orange, an orange, a rubber b a l l and that back one i s a rubber b a l l also, sort of a sponge b a l l and a lacross b a l l , sponge b a l l because they put sort of paint or plastic coating over i t and i t cracks. I f i t was an orange i t wouldn't have that stripe on i t , they would have i t a l l together, a sponge b a l l and that's a ping pong b a l l , ping pong balls look l i k e that, could be a croquet b a l l , i t has cracks. 3. a bird nest surrounded with eggs i n i t , oval shaped, looks l i k e chicken eggs 'cause they're around i t , a bird nest because of the straw, or sticks or something, they are touching each other. 72. ii . just a bunch of eggs on grass, they look like they just laid them there, just chicken eggs or something, this one is closer because it's on top of everyone, I think it's this one because it's cut off, it's closer because it's a l l oh top of the other ones, and you can see a l l of them, it's folded. 5". golf ball, i t has those dots in there, oranges, because i t has a l l those dots on i t , could be a peach, i t has sort of hair, a tennis ball because i t looks sort of fuzzy on the outside like a tennis ball, 6. a lemon, because it's got those two parts on i t , 'cause it's shaped like i t , could be a lime, limes are greener and a lemon is yellow and that looks like a lime because it's darker, 7. a tap, it's a kitchen tap because the bathroom tap doesn't have a shape like that, could be either really because some of them are like that, and i t looks like that one over there, i t doesn't have that stubby part coming down, so he couldn't do i t as good, on the side of the picture you can see how you can turn the water on, it's a tap because you can t e l l by the shape of i t and it's attached to the sink, i t looks like steel, i t looks like a kitchen tap because you have to connect i t and put these things up in your sink so your dishwasher thing stays on. 8. onion, onions look like that, they look a l l crumpled, on the end of i t they have that papery stuff on the outside, skin—that stuff that goes in and out and in again, it's probably an onion because when you touch i t you can see some sort of a dint and the skin comes out a bit and the roots have a new skin over on the side. 73. 9. onion, that one's cut open, this is an onion because i t looks like that, four onions, no three and one's chopped in half, they're all onions but that one in the corner, the peel's been taken off, i t shows one with peel on and it's just coming off and the peel's already a l l off and it's ready to cut or something. 10. it's like the end of a pumpkin because pumpkins have those things that go up so when you cut thera you can carry them by the top, looks like the top of a banana, they're all together because it's sort of like wood and they came up to the top, and they all join like that, sort of seems like zucchini, comes down and shows a picture and then comes up, looks like two apples on the bottom and a worm coming out of one of the apples, could be a broken branch. 11. two bananas and three apples, they're sort of shaped like a banana, they're never clean without a spot so you can tell by the bottom part, and the stripes on i t , and those dots you can tell i f they're ripe or not, like, you can tell i f they're starting to turn brown or something, they have bigger dots on them, you can tell they're bananas because that's the colour of bananas, they look like i t too, second grade apples because they look darker and they have worms crawling through, first grade apples because they look clean and everything, second grade apples because they have spots and they're dark. 12. it's a carrot 'cause it's sort of pointy, because i t has lines on i t , it's a carrot because you can sort of peel the top off i t , you can tell by the shape. 7U. 13. i t i s a carrot, four of them, when you pu l l carrots out, they look a l l dirty and that looks dirty, you can spray them with the water hose, i t looks white and shiny and looks like water at the side. l l n looks like a Safeway cart, looks l i k e a greenhouse because they have the skinny l i t t l e wood that makes i t go up and. there's a basket i n the middle,.street buggy, see that line there, well that's from the end of the buggy, looks l i k e a j a i l c e l l because of a l l those bars, a wired fence, a fence i n front of a greenhouse, that's wood so i t ' s a greenhouse. 15. looks li k e a Safeway store, summer because i t has lights on, Christ-mas time, i t has a l l those bells up there, Santa Claus and a l l those l i k e ropes, there i s a wall on the side and i t says Seasons Greetings, a sign to go i n there could be ice cream, i t would probably be i n the frozen food section, meat and chickens are frozen. 16. a spring, i t looks l i k e wires to your house 'cause i t has shiny l i t t l e sections l i k e scales, could be a hose going around and around, looks like the inside of those freezers there, they have bars and stuff going down, looks li k e a tractor type thing 'cause you can see the tracks going down by the side. 17. a bike seat, i t ' s shaped li k e a bike seat, probably a car seat because when you bounce back on a car seat, the springs bounce back, looks like a motorcycle seat because i t goes downward like that, i t ' s a bike seat that one sit s on, i t ' s a one seater, i t ' s the same shape and doesn't have those fancy things on the side, i t i s made from leather, the leather looks l i k e i t could be the top of a car, that part i s so you can ;put a bag with things i n , i t ' s for your name. 75". 18. looks l i k e where a l l the spokes come together and where the cha in comes together on a b i k e , i t could be a motorcross, no, the spokes are o f f t h e r e , i t must be a b ike because the chain i s so s m a l l , j u s t an ord inary b ike 'cause the t i r e s are skinny and that th ing i s to loosen the wheel up and down so you can take the chain o f f and put a new one on, that i s the master key or something, i t ' s a l l greasy, the chain has ho les f o r the back of the wheel and i t turns around i n the p i n i o n and gets the gr ip of i t , i t looks l i k e where the p ieces of cha in j o i n , he doesn' t look a f t e r i t because i t i s l y i n g down, i t ' s greasy, i t looks sor t of rusted i n t h e r e . 19. l a ces on a guy's shoe, running shoe 'cause you can t e l l , i t has those, snakes can ' t make a knot and make those-'two round th ings , on the shoe l a c e there i s a whole bunch of d i f f e r e n t kinds of threads going t o -gether and i t c a n ' t have that many kinds of threads . 2G. s ide of a d i t c h , h i l l with d i r t coming out of i t , mud on the b a t h , p iece of metal or something, looks so r t o f r u s t y , moss on.a b r i c k or something, 'cause you can see h a i r y s t u f f hanging down, mud 'cause i t ' s a l l gushy,' looks l i k e a chimney that has moss growing on i t , b r i c k s l e a k -i n g or something. Set 2. 1. houseboards going sor t o f s ide s l an t and a l l - t h e boards look the same, i t has to be t i l t e d a b i t more, then i t ' s the s ide of a house, should be upside down, the other way, i t ' s not painted but i t looks l i k e rough wood with a knot i n i t , s l i v e r s . 76. 2. rock fence, made as a fence, an old fashioned fence or something, could be rocks a l l piled up, they are building new houses now and some of the fireplaces go like that, and they put a whole bunch of bricks to make i t look fancy, i t could be a beach because beaches have lots of rocks on like that. 3. that's big rocks, can't be a l l rocks, big boulders on a h i l l , could be a shooting star and i t came and landed and broke into pieces, i t looks like the dump because in the back i t looks like pieces of garbage mixed in with the dirt, that's boulders, no, coral, i t looks like they are try-ing to make houses and they had to push a l l the dirt and they had to move the big boulders, looks like a desert and they had to move they had to move the boulders. U. looks like boats in a dock, sailing boats, fishing boats don't have big poles, they are sailboats, you can t e l l more than the big poles, ;in one of them they have the mast but it's down, in the very back i t looks like there is a freighter or something, you can t e l l it's a fishing boat, sailboats have new things, they don't have big, big poles, they look like sailboats, a whole bunch of yachts there and everything. 5". those are fishing boats, looks like Steveston 'cause it's a l l junked up, fishing boats 'cause they have tires on the side, and there is one that looks like an older motor boat, and the rest looks like old fishing boats, fishing boats 'cause they are made like that, 'cause there are nets everywhere, they have lots of nets to see a l l around, like a normal boat has a motor, but this has a motor in the bottom, and this has a round hole in i t , they have a crane and they l i f t the ship nets up, that one looks like a tugboat. 77. 6. a fe r r y , a cargo boat with cargo, you can t e l l by the post and a l l the s t r i n g around, a cargo ship because i t ' s made l i k e that, i t ' s not a fe r r y because i t would be cleaner and made d i f f e r e n t l y , you could drive i t i n the front or i t would have a crane where you could l i f t i t out, but they don't have f e r r i e s l i k e that, those cranes don't l i f t cars up l i k e t hat, they have t h i s b i g door, i t could be a cruise r , a cruiser with cranes?, the cranes could be background. 7. a r i c h person could l i v e there because i t sort of stands up, i t ' s a neat house, he's right i n the middle, not r i c h , not poor, spring because you can see a l l of the trees and you can see daylight, could be summer because i t looks sunny and the trees look green, couldn't be f a l l because the leaves are not a l l on the ground, i t ' s not summer because i t looks d u l l and drimsy. 8. a r i c h person, an old person's house, because i t looks kind of old and r i c k e t y , not much flowers around, i t has a l i t t l e garden there, i t seems out of pattern, l i k e most new houses are : l i k e t h i s , i t looks l i k e a f i f t e e n or sixteen year old house, l i k e they don't make styles l i k e that any more, i t ' s sunny because of the shadows, re f l e c t i o n s off the windows there. 9. a church, there i s a cross i n the window, a l l churches are shaped l i k e that with a point on the top and a f l o o r opening, i t ' s a church be-cause i f i t was an apartment you wouldn't have a window l i k e that, i t looks l i k e f a l l because the leaves have f a l l e n off the trees, winter be-cause i t looks foggy, a church has two doors and no windows. 78. 10. i t ' s landing 'cause i t ' s low, i t ' s a water plane, i t would take six people, two seats, one i n the front and two i n the back, about sixteen people maybe because look at the windows on one side and some on the other side, i t ' s winter because of the snow on the mountains. 11. helicopter, the thing that goes on the top of the helicopter, on T.V. shows they always show those two things and the middle one f i r s t . It looks like the two blades of a helicopter, the two parts that go we can see. 12. i t ' s a chopper, just an ordinary helicopter, i t ' s going to Vancouver Island, i t ' s standing s t i l l because you can see part of the blade back there, i t ' s not going because no-one's i n there. 13. i t ' s the same but a different angle, on the other side you took a picture of the helicopter, one on the l e f t side and one on the right side, i n the background you can see a building and i n this you can see the same building, you can see that's the same helicopter because i t has a point i n there. l l i . different helicopter, police helicopters are shaped like that, i t ' s taking off because you can see the sea, the other one had two stripes on and this didn't and there i s a man i n i t and i t ' s taking off, i t doesn't say Vancouver Island. 15". city or town or something, could be Vancouver, green lights because the green i s usually at the bottom. 16. yes, same pole, no different poles, i t ' s just on the other side, 79. this has wires near the bottom and the other has wires near the top, the stop light says red, could be the opposite side of the street. 17. Gastown, could be England, downtown Vancouver, downtown or England because i n England they have a l l big buildings, could be Seattle, i t i s i n the city. 18. looks like Chinatown because Chinatown has a lot of things like that, buildings have got f l a t tops and then there i s big buildings, i t says Tearoom, you can see Chinese writing on there, old buildings and stuff. 19. -K6t i n the city, real big streets, Hastings, i t i s i n the cit y , a shopping area, looks like just a town, i t doesn't have lots of cars zoom-ing down the street, i t has a lot of cars parked and i t doesn't have big buildings i n the background, i t ' s early i n the morning and there i s cables going across for ci t y buses. 20. .new Sears building, a crane, they're sort of building i t , because those ladders wouldn't be there i f they weren't building i t . 21. a building being demolished, looks sort of blown up, could be a crane with a b a l l breaking part of i t , looks like i t had a f i r e , being torn down because the wires are a l l ripped and everything JLs slanted, i t wouldn't be i n that shape i f they weren't tearing i t down. Generalizations Derived from Characteristics of Responses  From the Grade 5 Children 1. Overall, their vocabulary was more, extensive, e.g., "lacrosse b a l l , 80. 'croquet ball, paint or plastic coating over i t . " Although this was so for the majority of students tested, not a l l children had this range, e.g., " i t looks like that one over there, i t doesn't have that stubby part coming down, so he couldn't do i t as good." 2. The children used logic in many cases to deduce the answer, e.g., "it's not a ferry because i t would be cleaner and made differently," " i t could be a cruiser, a cruiser with cranes? the cranes could be background." 3. The children appeared to have a much fuller understanding of the subjects, e.g., "pumpkins have those things that go up so when you cut them you can carry them by the top." ii. There was a realization that there were other possibilities or solu-tions to the problem. "It's probably an onion because when you touch i t you can see some sort of dint . . . " 5". There was an overall tendency to short cut the perceptual process. Children were inclined to name the objects rather than look at the visual clues beforehand. Often the children guessed what the subject was, went back and looked at the clues and re-evaluated the answer. 6. The children had a bigger range of possibilities for the images. Generally, they have more to say about each. 7. In Visual No. 1 in Set 2 they were quite adamant that the photograph should have been tilted sideways and felt uneasy about the boards being in an abnormal position. 8. The children were more inclined to 'brainstorm'. They made a concen-trated search for the solution. 9. ,;In several instances, the children whilst looking at the photograph, 81. talked about what they know rather than what they could see, e.g., "fishing boats 'cause there are nets everywhere, this has a motor in the bottom and this has a round hole in i t . " 10. The children had a broader understanding of the environment, e.g., "It could be downtown or England because they a l l have big buildings like that." 11. Overall there was a more acute perceptual awareness with the children at this age level, e.g., "It's early in the morning and there are cables going across for city buses." Testing With Grade k This particular class was selected because the children had been given systematic training in perception during the preceeding six months. Reinhold Visuals had been presented to the students by a visiting univer-sity professor for the express purpose of developing children's abilities to perceive, discriminate, and discuss art and environmental visual mater-i a l . Consideration was given to whether previous training would affect children's responses, whether this might be evident in testing, and to what extent might there be degrees of difference. In the researcher's opinion, training affected the responses, with the children perceiving images almost to the same degree as the grade 5" students. Moreover, the difference between quality of responses between this class and children in the grade 3 class was great. It seemed evident that whilst training does develop children's perception and awareness, maturity is a necessary pre-requisite. 82. Responses from Children i n Grade k at School 'G1 when shown images from the Visual Stimuli; K i t . Set 1. 1. looks li k e an orange because there i s l i t t l e holes and cracks i n the round skin, and that thing on top, that funny l i t t l e thing could be a wal-nut, a walnut at the top has lines on i t , i t looks l i k e that, that could be grass, eggs don't have cores, eggs are smooth. 2. oranges, orange and two ba l l s , a b a l l because i t i s round and i t has this line across the centre here, most of the small balls have lines across, i t means they used two halves and glued i t together, grass or lawn, a sponge b a l l , i t looks l i k e one, i t has lines and i t i s big. 3. eggs, they're smooth and has an end lik e an egg, i t ' s white, eggs are white, i t ' s pure white l i k e an egg. h» eggs, the one on the top i s the closest because i t i s bigger, no i t isn't, a l l of them are the same size because i t looks closer, that one i s because.the person who i s taking i t only got half of i t i n so i t must be closer to him. 5. orange because i t has l i t t l e dots on, an orange, an egg and a b a l l , an apple, i t could be a grapefruit. 6. a lemon, the shape of i t , lemons have those l i t t l e points at the end, the thing on the top l i k e a l i d , that's grass, that lemon on top i s s i t t i n g on other lemons. 83. 7. a tap, because it's the shape of a tap, that, right there, that's where the water comes out, you can see part of that thing where you turn e i t on and water comes out, because it's on that thing and has those things that are on a tap, same colour as a tap, that part on the very end is always on a tap. 8. an onion, a bulb, i t could be a bulb because bulbs have those and i t has root growing out like a plant, I think it's an onion because of the skin on i t , the skin is thin and some of it's off and some of it's all light and it's thin and you can peel i t off easy, an onion because it has those little white shapes. 9. an onion, bulb, I think that is an onion because i t is cut in half and you can see the insides, there's rings in there, that's how onions are, these things, roots, are like they are peeled off. 10. that's a bulb, no a banana, a cucumber, cucumbers have prickly stuff on i t , a rosebud, i t looks like bananas because bananas have that and are attached, and i t has that thing on the end, i t looks like an apple, part of an orange, that's the core, yes, it's all apples and a banana. 11. apples and bananas, it's a banana because i t looks like a banana, bananas are long and sort of skinny and they have polka dots on, and they're yellow and they grow on big stacks on trees, that's an apple because i t has a stem on i t . 12. carrot, because of the shape of i t , carrots have those lines on beside them and they're long and the top is fatter than the bottom. 81u 13. carrots, four of them, you can see the part where i t grows from, you know where the lettuce stuff is on top of i t , i t looks like a carrot because as you get to the top i t gets rounder and more fatter. lli» shopping carriage, a basket, a metal one, a fence, a window, i t looks like a shopping carriage because at the back you.can see like a fence, you can see wire, you can see food. 15. Safeway, one of the lines, at Christmas time, because of the bell and Christmas decorations and there is a Christmas tree out there, ice cream would be suitable because i t is sort of like pie fillings 'cause they're a l l like desserts, frozen foods, this side is frozen stuff and that side is where they keep the sandwich fillings and stuff. 16. the thing under the peat seat on a bike, shocks, springs, like a bike seat, there is a spring right there to make i t softer and i t has springs going right there, and that side looks like the side of a seat, those things, they have them on a bike. 17. a bicycle seat, it's shaped like your legs can go there and i t has a spring on i t , could be from a motorcycle, this could be made from leather or something because i f i t rains then you can sit on i t and the water won't get into the sponge underneath i t , so i t won't tear easy, you can hook something on to that, like one of those light things. 18. a chainon a bike, a bike wheel, that is so the bike will hold to-gether, it's there so i t won't f a l l off or something, you put the wheel in so i t won't f a l l off, it's an ordinary everyday chain, there's a link that holds i t together or to take i t apart, that looks like a shoe shape and 85. the other one's kind of roundish, he doesn't look after his bike because i t looks like it's lying on the ground, there's rust.on that thing, that's o i l and i t has string on i t . 19. a shoe because i t has laces on i t , i t has those holes in i t , i t couldn't be a snake because i t doesn't look like i t and a snake can't tie itself in a knot, at the end there's a kind of tape thing. 20. an oven a l l dirty, rocks on the ground, rain on the window, side of a mountain, a wall, rocks or something and l i t t l e plants, grass, a side-walk, could be rocks on a field and the picture's taken from a helicopter. Set 2. 1. a fence, a wooden fence, like a wood crate, a box or inside of a house like in a ditch with some wood over i t , i t looks like they took a picture sideways of a house outside, like a house from outside, i t has a knot in i t , i t hasn't been painted, might be painted white", no brown, no, i t might be painted because the pictures are black and white, the wood i s outside because of the grooves, rough wood because there's a l l the slivers and stuff in i t . 2. the side of a church or a rock fence, a stone wall deliberately made, not a sidewalk because there's holes and stuff, and you can f a l l and hurt yourself. 3. there are rocks and there is a hole, that's not rocks, that is sand, there's big rocks, trees, grass and a big pile of sand, a beach, looks like gravel or sand, cement, there is a rock in that hole down there. 86. U. a place where you can keep your boats, fishing boats, sailing boats, big masts, vacation boats, a big freighter, a ferry. 5". fishing boats, that's a tugboat there, there's an old black one there, with the wheels on i t , there parked by the river place, and there's usually lots of old stuff around i t , people don't live in there, that one right at the very front maybe. 6. a freighter, a ferry, because it's really big, because i t doesn't have an upstairs place where you can look out and see a l l the scenery like a ferry has, I think i t is a freighter because i t has a crane on i t , ferries have big spokes sticking out. 7« a house, a rich person's house, lots of trees and i t is private, medium because i t doesn't look like a rich person's house, and i t doesn't look like a poor person's house, summer because the trees are usually hanging low, i t has to be after Christmas because they have just taken down the lights, winter. 8. old people, rich person because it's big, it's old because i t has a l l those vines, i t has a funny colour to i t and i t kind of looks weird, a l l the wood looks like it's kind of eaten up, there's a coal space right there underneath. 9. a church because i t has a cross there, and churches usually go up like that, like a vee upside down, i t has a steeple and says church there. 10. it's taking off because it's close to the water and it's going to land on the water, and it's a water boat because i t has those floats on 87. the bottom to keep i t up, i t would take three or two people, twelve because there's window spaces plus the two pilots, eighteen people, the snow is on the mountains, it is winter. 11. a construction machine, an oil pipe, a helicopter propellor because i t has those pipes going up and i t has one on each side. 12. a helicopter, it's landed, it's just sitting there, it's not moving, you can tell i t isn't moving because all the grass would be blowing from the propellor, you can tell by the rudder, i t isn't moving. 13. i t is the same helicopter taken from a different angle, you can tell that one is going to go up because it is going up at the back there, no-body's in i t , you can see the scenery behind i t , i f you put them together they seem the same, like twins, both the same scenery, that was taken on the same side, you can see that double, they had two helicopters and they took one picture with one and another picture with another, no, same heli-copter, one from a different view. lU. this one is taking off because it's sort of on a slant and there is a person inside, different helicopter because of a different window, this one doesn't have a big stripe and doesn't go upward, that has letters on the bottom and they're different from these ones. 15. the lights are orange, no red, no green. 16. same lamp post, no a different one, no because I don't see the light, there is some wire there and there i t isn't, right at the very top, that one has no lights on, that could be the other side and that could be the other side. 88. 17. a c i t y , because you can see people and a whole bunch of s t o r e s , t h e r e ' s a whole bunch of t a l l b u i l d i n g s , i t says England on there , no, t h a t ' s jus t a s t o r e , no, i t ' s not England, i t ' s ctowntown Vancouver, b e -cause of a l l those b i g s t o r e s . 18. a c i t y , downtown, because downtown they have that b i g b u i l d i n g wi th a l l the cars and i t ' s crowded t h e r e , I saw your Dad's c a r , i t ' s crowded. 19. a town, t h a t ' s going out o f town because t h e r e ' s not many b u i l d i n g s and i t ' s not very busy. 20. a store being b u i l t , i t ' s Sears , they d i d n ' t have the e levator out -s i d e , they had them i n s i d e , t h e r e ' s windows with no windows i n them, y e s , there i s . 21. b u i l d i n g be ing p u l l e d down, i t ' s a l l raggedy and everyth ing and wood hanging from i t , and you can see the bottom par t of the crane, I can see the b r i c k , i t ' s a l l cracked, you can see the wires hanging down and that white s t u f f t h e r e , i t ' s made from wood, s h i n g l e s , b r i c k s , cement. Genera l izat ions Derived From C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Responses  From the Grade It Ch i ld ren 1. The c h i l d r e n were most a r t i c u l a t e about i d e n t i f y i n g the v i s u a l c l u e s . In contrast to other c lasses t e s t e d , the c h i l d r e n immediately were able to i d e n t i f y re levant fea tures i n the v i s u a l s . For example, i n the f i r s t v i s u a l that they saw remarks were: " looks l i k e an orange because there i s l i t t l e holes and cracks i n the round s k i n . " Ch i ld ren i n the other c lasses made s i m i l a r statements only a f t e r seeing many 89. visuals, not immediately. This was to be expected, however, as this class had been given training in perception during the previous six months. 2. The children based their responses in many cases on past experiences, e.g., "a sponge ball, i t looks like one, i t has lines and i t is big." 3. When compared to the grade $ children, the children showed a lack of understanding in one or two instances. In attempting to explain which egg is closest in visual no. k, Set 1, the grade $ children are most inclined to see the overlapping whereas the younger children give answers as "because i t looks closer, that one is closer because the person who is taking i t only got half of i t in so i t must be closer." lu The children did not have as wide a range of vocabulary from which to draw when giving responses, e.g., "because it's on that thing and has those things that are on a tap." 5". There was very little difference between the children in grade k and the grade 5" children as to the amount of correct responses. Their previous training in perception was considered to account for this fact. 6. Children were more inclined to offer many solutions as to what the photograph could be. The grade £ children were less inclined to give outlandish answers. Testing With Grade 3 This class was randomly split into two sections, ten children in one group and eleven in another. Sessions were given in the school lib-rary during the morning. As with all pilot testing, all children were 90. encouraged to give their views on each photograph. There was no appreci-able difference in the responses from each group. Children responded similarly to the visuals. It can be argued that grade 3 would be an ideal time to introduce the visuals to children. Both boys and girls were en-thusiastic and most interested in each. As can be seen in the following responses, children developed discriminating techniques towards the later section of the sessions. Responses from Children in Grade 3 at School 'C when shown images from the Visual Stimuli Kit. Set 1. 1. eyeballs, mushrooms, oranges, because of the shape and they look the same, this one doesn't look like an orange, because it's different, that one looks like a bomb because of the little things on the side, water-melon because it's bigger, grass because it's shaped like i t and it's sort of tall, i t looks green. 2. orange, melon and a ball, two balls, that's a watermelon and that's a ball, I see a stripe in between the ball, it's smooth and it's round, stripe, someone could have picked at i t , worn out, maybe a globe, it's shaped like i t , it's not in colour, lines—because that's the way they make the ball—mold them. 3. eggs, shaped like an egg, looks like a nest, balls, they look like i t , chicken eggs in a nest. U. seven eggs, could be another egg behind those three, the closest egg is this because not much of i t shows, and i t would be really close, 91. that one because it's right in the middle, that one because it's bigger, he might have made a design. 5". oranges and an egg, that is smooth like an egg, and this has l i t t l e dots the same as a golf ball, you can hardly see the dots the same as the golf ball, a l l oranges, oranges and eggs. 6. lemons and eggs, lemons, i t has a part that goes out on i t , it's round and shaped, like a lemon, flat a l i t t l e , a lot and then round again, orange and a person put his finger in. 7. water faucet, I can see the tap on the side and i t looks like a water faucet, and i t looks like it's metal and it's supposed to be round like that, and you can see the sink, you can see the water there and the tap, you can see l i t t l e germs on i t . 8. onions, no skin or peel, I can see roots, white funny things, coco-nut, round like a coconut, and i t is bigger on one side there, looks like someone has tried to crack i t open, you can t e l l i t's an onion because at the end i t has this l i t t l e stuff there, onions have these hairy things there, roots. 9. onions, because onions are soft and have stuff over them that you can take off easy and i t looks like you can take that off easy, they make you cry, and onions have rings around them, and there are rings on the inside, because some of this is light and some of i t is dark, and someone is trying to open i t , and you can smell i t . 10. banana, pumpkin, because of the skin and sometimes the stems have a 92. top on like this, I think i t is a fruit bowl with some apples and some bananas, bananas and an orange, this looks like the top of two and this is round, sort of round, a fruit basket with bananas and peaches and oranges, celery and pumpkin stem because i t looks like i t , it's like a worm right between, that's an apple there and the worms coming out. 11. bananas and apples, bananas have skins like that and apples are shaped like that, and i t is yellow, and has little brown dots like that, you can see the yellow and brown dots, because of the shape, 2nd grade apples because of the size and they're real red, there is two worms, they are bananas because they have dots. 12. carrot because of the shape, this part is the top and this part is the bottom, that's not all of i t because I seen all little lines on the side of i t , it's the colour because this would be the bottom because it's all white and when this goes up it gets little and littler, I think it's the shape because it's skinny and i t has lines and looks like it's pretty dirty, i t looks like it's a little bit of white like a little bit of white on carrots, I think they're carrots growing, carrots because carrots have white lines, it's kind of dirty and a little bit could be old carrots (turnips), could be the top of a hot dog but I doubt i t . 13. carrots, i t could be those weird white carrots (turnips), I can see four carrots, shaped and the leaves, the green stuff is cut off, there is just a little stem left, how come everything is on the grass? lli. shopping cart, fence, shopping cart because i t has little steel things down and the shape, because fences have long things and I can see 93. aflittle bit of gold stuff behind, right behind there, I can see food behind the shopping cart, there is a whole bunch of shopping carts, be-cause in the background you can see a whole bunch of these, the shopping cart, you can see one side, and another side, so that's another one, you can see right through to the other side, it's a bird cage because it's in the shape of one, it's a shopping cart because you can see that part going down like that in the background, i t looks like sticks. 15. Safeway, i t has an S, it's Christmas time too, i t has a bell, a whole bunch of decorations, you can tell it's a store because i t says frozen beans, frozen corn and stuff, frozen peas and frozen meat pies would suit, frozen dinners, frozen because everything else is frozen, except jams, jellies, spices, I think that's a heater, jams, jellies and pie fillings, jello cakes, shelves are under the empty one because the frozen stuff would be in the freezers, shelves here. 16. a spring from a tractor, a bicycle, a truck, all different parts of tool stuff, like springs, nuts and bolts, big steel bars, a wheel thing. 17. a seat off a car, a bicycle seat, because i t is shaped like i t , could be a motorcycle seat, a bicycle seat is not as big, i t is a lot softer, a motorcycle is a bit different, a bicycle doesn't have shocks and everything, i t doesn't have that spring, i t is for the shocks, yes, i t does, that might be to keep the chain on, so i t won't fall off, to keep the bolt inside. 18. bicycle chain, tire, wheel spokes, chain, could be fixing the bicycle, it's a wheel because it's shaped like a wheel, and here's the chain and 91*. here's the thing that keeps the spokes on, i t looks l i k e i t ' s been neglec-ted because the chain looks kind of rusted and i t looks dirty and f i l t h y , i t needs a wash, i t looks like he threw i t on the ground because the wheel i s like t h i s , i t i s not up l i k e that, looks l i k e he threw i t i n the mud puddle and took i t out, chain, there i s a thing that i s attached to the screw, the slot i s to hold the wheel together, to hold this part right here so i t won't f a l l off, this i s different because that i s the part that joins the two ends of the chain together, I think i t i s leaking because there i s o i l on the spokes. ' 19. that's a shoe because I can see the string and I can also see the lines that runners have, and the toe part, a shoe not a snake, I think i t i s a runner, shoes don't look like that,, runners have white stuff there and shoes are a l o t different, i t has circles and a snake doesn't have ci r c l e s . 20. i t ' s a dirty oven, i t ' s a window and i t ' s just rained, the other side of the shoe, i t could be a track that's got wet and dirty, a road, the lawn with the snow on i t , d i r t , water, dirty window, snow that's wet and dirty, you can see a l i t t l e b i t of glass, oh, yes, you can see, i t goes that way and then i t goes that way. Set 2. 1. wood, wood that you can build with of course, i t has this stuff, o i l or something, i t could be the side of a house or i t could be a picnic table with seats that you put your stuff on, a house, I think i t ' s pieces of wood cut because i t has sliver things and has that thing with rings 95". around i t , that thing (knot) is like when you get wood out of a tree, sometimes the tree has little things and looks like that, they call i t knots, i t is going down like stairs, the person who took i t would be cock-eyed, but really i t would be straight. 2. rocks because they are all glued together, they are square and all different shapes, and they look like they're al l hard, it's in Stanley Park, near the waterfall, i t could be a cliff, one of those cliffs up on the mountains, it looks like a house we know that has rocks, i t could be a cave of a boogy woogy, i t wouldn't be good for a sidewalk because people trip over them, in Ireland they have roads like that. 3. I think they are boulders because they look like giant rocks and I can see a hi l l and trees and i t looks like the shape and I can also see bumps on i t , I think i t is a mountain with boulders on i t , i t could be a dyke, when you look down on i t there's lots of rocks around, I think i t could be by the ocean or a little beach or something, i t could be the one that we live near by. In a boatyard, a place where people put their boats so that they don't have to take them home, I think it's at the water, Stanley Park, Horseshoe Bay because that's where those kind of boats go, ferryboats, I think it is a boatyard because I can see all boats and the thing where you get the thing where you can sail, these are flags, these are tug boats, fishing boats, they're masts, they're sailboats because I can see flags down there, sails. 5. boats with motors on catching fish, we have been there sometime, I can remember, near the sand dunes there is a place where you keep your boats. 96. 6. cruiser ships, the front of i t , army boat, a ferry, there's window in the front, and usually ferries have them and other boats usually don't have them, I think it's a USA boat because i t looks like i t , and has lots of stuff, they take things out like that (cranes), and that's, how USA boats have them, i t can't be a ferry boat because I think ferry boats are kind of black and blue, that is a freighter that carries things to differ-ent places, a ferry has got bigger stories and is wider and this one looks more like you can store things down below. 7. a house, a big house, a person with a big family, looks like an old house, the windows are very old, i t could be a farmer's house because farmers have windows across like that, i t could be your house maybe, i t might be spring or winter, i t could be Christmas because there are lights on the trees. 8. i t is an older family house, i t is a show house, i t could be a fam-i l y house with lots of things over i t , i t could say on the door—welcome every day, a mansion it's a big house, and it's priceless except for people who have a lot of money, i f it's priceless, then money can't buy i t , I think it's real older because there's a cellar down underneath the porch, i t looks like a house in Vancouver. 9. a church, because I see grass on the window, and there is a name that says church, i t could get Christians there, Anselms Crush. 10. a seaplane because i t looks like a plane and it's got those things on i t and you come along and your out of i t , i t would take four people, two could go in the front and four in the back, eight people could go in 97. there because there is eight windows, that could take about sixteen people, i t could be landing because he's a little bit down in the water, that looks like my granpa's plane, he went down to there and he landed in the water and he landed there. 11. drainage pipe, helicopter thing that propellors i t up, I think i t is a helicopter thing because I seen helicopters on lots of movies, I see one big thing and two big things that make i t move, a helicopter because on both sides it's smooth and on helicopters there's two things. 12. helicopter, a rescue helicopter, a police helicopter because their planes-are blue and white, a rescue helicopter because that's where they put the person and there's a speaker where they can talk to the hospital. 13. they're both the same, except where they are turned, this one is facing this way and this one is facing this way, exactly the same, crash-ing each other, they are taken from different angles, no because i f you took i t from there you would have some movement, i f they were different angles all you have to do is walk where the sun, like the bridge is dark there or something and the tail of it is that way and this tail is that way, all you have to do is look back on i t , and this is backwards right there, I think they aren't the same ones because that one is bigger than that one, it could be taken from a different angle, because you can go from this side and then the other side looks different. lU. different helicopter, i t didn't have that window thing and that same top, it's not the same helicopter because in the other two pictures I sai* these things the same, that one's taller than that one, and that 98. one has a person in i t , this one doesn't have a person in i t and it's on the ground, this one is flying. 15 • that's in Vancouver, two streets away from West 13th, one of them street light things, the light is green because i t is on the bottom. 16. a couple of streets away from a shopping store in Vancouver, it's close to a bridge, that is on this picture because it's on that one right there, that's the same pole as that, no, it's not, because that's on that pole, and that's on that pole, I can remember seeing that car, i t was in front of us, I can even t e l l by the licence plate, I think it's not the same one because you wouldn't have seen the car whatever, 17. Vancouver, near where they sell tickets to people, it's Seattle, it's England because i t says England right there, it's in a city because there are lots of buildings, could be British Columbia. 18. Chinatown, Chinese printing, Vancouver, because Chinatown is in Vancouver, I went to Chinatown last Saturday and I saw this kind of writ-ing there. 19. this is in Vancouver, downtown, East Hastings Street, there is a bit more traffic than here and there is busy streets, because there is lots of stairs and cars parked a l l around, in Richmond we don't have those kinds of things for buses and maybe it's in Vancouver. 20. the new Sears building that they made, it's just built because of this, they haven't put this in (scaffolding) that is where the elevator i s , they haven't put the top on the building, you can t e l l it's being 99. destructed, you can almost say that but I think it's being build, it's new because when they tear an old building down it's already falling apart, the Sears building. 21. it's at a barn, because I can see the hay, it's being a building torn down, because buildings are sometimes torn down, it's being built because maybe they haven't finished i t , i t looks like an old torn down fire station, it looks like a sawdust in there or a pipe, I think it is s t i l l a building because there is a crane there. Generalizations Derived from Characteristics of Responses  From the Grade 3 Children The researcher felt that eight characteristics of children's res-ponses were worthy of note. They are as follows: 1. On several occasions the children mentioned that they could see colour in the black and white photographs. 2. The children were more inclined to hazard a guess when asked about each. 3. Children were more imaginative in their responses. In many cases they imagined far more than is in the photograph. h» The children xjere more inclined to tell more than what was in the photographs, e.g., "onions, because onions are soft and have stuff over them that you can take off easy, they make you cry." 5. Children were limited in their vocabulary to explain what they wished to say, e.g., "shopping cart because i t has little steel things down and the shape, because fences have long things and I can see a little bit of gold stuff behind." 100. 6. They were less inclined to notice detail in the photographs, e.g., the fact that a "ferry boat" had containers aboard. 7. The children had difficulty in explaining what characteristics or features help them identify the photographs, e.g., "it's a wheel be-cause it's shaped like a wheel." 8. Children appeared limited in their general knowledge. Some could not tell the difference between sails and flags, tugboats and sailboats. Teacher Testing As the Kit was designed for use by the generalist classroom tea-cher, i t was considered necessary to have i t tested by such person before complete acceptance. One school was chosen from the Vancouver district and one grade k teacher was asked to test the Kit. The teacher was to test the images and report on: (a) suitability for the designed use. (b) ease of use by the teacher, e.g., any prerequisite training needed. (c) other possible benefits, e.g., visual thinking. The following report was given by the classroom teacher in response to this request. This report appears to give added support to the suitabil-ity of the visuals. General • I took 2 separate groups for each set, . In each there were at least 2 kids who obviously didn't have a clue on most of them. 101. • Generally very responsive—many comments on 'that was fun' as they lefto • Stimulated great discussions. I had to cut them off—unfortunately. • The 'brightest' kids responded more, showed more interest—espec-ially the second set. • Generally more interest in the second set. • At first the children were disappointed—I picked separate groups. . I'd find them useful for many things: (i) developing visual perception, the children were really interested in what 'clues' they hadn't noticed. (ii) creative writing (iii) discussions—especially Socials. • Generally they tended to pick up clues on first set more— probably had to look closer to identify. • Generally more observant—some of them surprised me. • I would like to have time to do this on a one-to-one basis. Implications for Teaching Based on the aforementioned teaching and testing, the evidence so far suggests that the visuals would be suitable for use with children at the grade 3, h and 5 levels. No judgement can realistically be made as to whether they would be of use in higher or lower grades than those men-tioned although it is expected that they would be beneficial. It should be expected that responses would differ from level to level and that other differences would naturally occur. This researcher feels that because of the versatility of the Kit, each set would be equally suitable 102. at each level. One underlying factor governing possible success is the degree of realization by the teacher of what she is teaching and why. These images in the Kits are not a curriculum in themselves, but serve as an aid to the implementation of a curriculum. It is anticipated that a classroom teacher would be able to obtain equally positive results as those previously outlined. Summary Previous testing had suggested reportable differences in overall thinking and perception between grade h and grade 5. large differences were revealed in degree of perception and children's critical thinking. Further testing was carried out with grade 3, h and 5 children, with responses tabulated and analysed. Grade Ii children with previous per-ceptual training showed differences in quality of response. Results from classroom testing gave positive indications on the suitability of the Visual Stimuli Kit for classroom use. Chapter 5 CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS The development of the two sets of visuals is a result of a con-centrated study by the investigator in the area of visual perception. Images were carefully chosen and field tested for responses indicative of visual perception or awareness. All responses were analysed and the diff-erences noted. Although several visuals produced more interest and res-ponse than did others in the set, i t is considered that all can make con-tributions to the process of learning. Each is arranged in sequence to allow for a gradual build up of knowledge and understanding by the child-ren. It is to be noted that the children tested were enthusiastic about the images, in particular those where there was an element of doubt as to its identity. It seemed that those appearing ambiguous were particularly suited for initial work with children with very little perceptual training. The order of presenting the visuals is considered to be important, particu-larly with children in early grades. Systematic questioning was deemed important, but not necessary. Although a list of questions was prepared for each photograph they were considered as a guide only. Questions asked would seem to depend entirely upon the nature of each individual classroom and as such, will vary greatly. The grades 3j U, and 5 were considered the most suitable levels for this type of work. Mary Rouse considers children at levels h and 5* ready for such experiences.^ Fourth Grade Since the child is beginning to be able to see objects from a single point of view, he ought to be given practice in this kind of 'seeing'. 103. ioU. Games must be devised that demand the finding of different kinds of natural or man-made objects, the intense observation of their details and the ordering of these details. Fifth Grade He can be given practice in all kinds of behaviours already suggested, but perhaps at slightly high levels and in more depth. It does appear that this Visual Stimuli Kit would be suitable to develop the experiences mentioned. In reference to CEMREL (Central Midwestern Regional Educational Laboratory) learning packages i t has been stated: "The content in a sys-tem of packages, however, must not only reflect the nature of the discip-lines in what is to be taught but also the attributes of the student."33 Based on the findings being reported here, it is reasonable to conclude that this Visual Stimuli Kit does account for the CEMREL require-ments and that as such the Kit would be most beneficial to elementary classroom teachers in the development of children's awareness of the en-vironment and visual perception. Implications for Further Research The Visual Stimuli Kit provides the teacher with one means of teaching perceptual awareness in the elementary classroom. Images were selected from the children's environment. These had particular interest to children from Vancouver. One aspect worthy of future research might be based on an investigation into responses from children who come from an environment which has no mountains and seas. In the earlier grades, children mentioned colour in their descriptions of black and white prints. Further inquiry might be made into the realm of colour perception. Colour represents a complex field of study, one which needs investigation 105. i f a complete study of perception is to be undertaken. Summary The images in the Visual Stimuli Kit are introductory only and as such leave the door open for the development of more complex images which take into account various types of visual awareness and discrimination in children of all ranges and abilities. The writer believes that such mat-erials are not only desirable but necessary with the increasing emphasis in art education being placed on the need to develop perceptual skills. 106. Reference C i t a t i ons 1. Pattemore, A . , A r t and Environment. Van Nostrand Re inhold , New York, 1971*. 2. Peck, R., A r t Lessons tha t Teach Ch i ld ren About T h e i r Natural Env i ron-ment. Parker Pub l i sh ing Co . , New York, 1973. 3. l inderman, E.W., Herberholz , D.W., Developing A r t i s t i c and Perceptua l Awareness. Wm. C. Brown C o . , Iowa, 1969. U. Lans ing , K.M., "The Research of Jean Piaget and I t s Impl i cat ions f o r Ar t Educat ion i n the Elementary Schoo l , " i n Studies i n A r t Educat ion . V o l . 7, No. 2, Spr ing 1966. 5. Kagan, J . , Rosman, B . L . , A l b e r t , J . , and P h i l l i p s , W., "Information Process ing i n the C h i l d : S i g n i f i c a n c e of A n a l y t i c and R e f l e c t i v e A t t i t u d e s , " i n Psycho log i ca l Monographs. No. 5 7 8 , V o l . 77, No. 1, pp. 1 - 3 7 , 1961*. 6. McFee, J . K . , Preparat ion f o r A r t (2nd e d i t i o n ) . Wadsworth Pub l i sh ing Co. I n c . , Oregon, 1970, p . 92. 7. I b i d . , p . 1*9. 8. I b i d . , p . U9. 9. Neperud, R.W., "Art Educat ion: Towards an Environmental A e s t h e t i c , " i n A r t Educat ion . V o l . 26, No. 3, p . 9, March 1973. 10. McFee, J . K . , 1970, p . 55. 11. I b i d . , p . 53. 12. I b i d . , p . 55. 13. Arnheim, R., A r t and V i s u a l Percept ion . U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , Berke ley , C a l i f o r n i a , 195li. lU. L a r k - H o r o v i t z , B . , Lewis, H. , Luca, M., Understanding Ch i ld ren ' s A r t  f o r B e t t e r Teaching, Chas. M e r r i l l Books, Ohio, 1967, p . 258. 107. 15. McFee, J.K., 1970, p. 260. 16. Lark-Horovitz, 1967, p. 28. 17. Barnes, E., "The Prettiest Thing," i n Studies i n Education I I . No. 5, p. 203, 1902. 18. Ballard, P.B., "What London Children Like to Draw," i n Journal of Experimental Pedagogy. Vol. 1, No. 3, p. 185, March 1912. 19. Lark-Horovitz, 1967, p. 28. 20. Ibid., p. l l l w 21. Lowenfeld, V., Lambert Br i t t a i n , W., Creative and Mental Growth;., (6th edition). Macmillan Publishing Co., New York, 1975, p. 176. 22. Lark-Horovitz, 1967, p. 152. 23. Todd, J., "Preferences of Children for Modern and Older Paintings," i n Elementary School Journal. Vol. kh, pp. 223-231, 19U3. 2li. MacGregor, R., "The Development and Validation of a Perceptual Index for Utilization i n the Teaching of Art," i n Studies i n Art Educa-tion. Vol. 13, No. 2, p. 11, Winter 1972. 25. Segall, H., Campbell, D., Herskovitz, M., The Influence of Culture on Visual Perception. Bobbs-Merrill Co. Inc., U.S.A., 1966, p. 67. 26. Hudson, W., "Pictorial Depth Perception i n Subcultural Groups i n Africa," i n Journal of Social Psychology. Vol. 52, pp. 183-203, I960. 27. Segall, H., et a l . , 1966, p. 9U. 28. Elkind, D., Koegler, R.R., Go, E., "Effects of Perceptual Training at Three Age Levels," i n Science. Vol. 137, p. 755* 1962. 29. Guilford, J.P., The Nature of Human Intelligence. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967, p. 26U. 30. MacGregor, R., 1972, p. 11. 31. McFee, 1970, p. 260. 108. 32. Rouse, M., "What Research T e l l s Us About Sequencing and S t r u c t u r i n g A r t I n s t r u c t i o n , " i n Ar t Educat ion . V o l . 2kt No. 5*, p . 2lt, May 1971. 33. Madeja, S . S . , K e l l y , H.T . , "A Curr iculum Development Model f o r Aes-t h e t i c Educat ion ," i n Journal o f Aesthet i c Educat ion . V o l . U, No. 2, pp. 53-63, A p r i l 1970. BIBLIOGRAPHY A r t i c l e s Barnes, E . "The P r e t t i e s t Th ing . " Studies i n Educat ion I I . 1902, 5, 203. B a l l a r d , P .B . "What London Ch i ld ren L i k e to Draw." Journal o f E x p e r i -mental Pedagogy, March 1912, 1(3), 185. E l k i n d , D., Koegler , R.R., and Go, E . " E f f e c t s of Perceptua l T r a i n i n g a t Three Age L e v e l s . " Sc ience , 1962, 137, 755. Hudson, ¥ . " P i c t o r i a l Depth Percept ion i n Subcu l tura l Groups i n A f r i c a . " Journal S o c i a l Psychology, I960, 52, 183-203. Lans ing , K.M, "The Research of Jean Piaget and I t s Impl i ca t ions f o r A r t Educat ion i n the Elementary S c h o o l , " Studies i n A r t Educat ion . Spr ing 1966, 7(2) Kagan, J . , Rosman, B . L . , A l b e r t , J . , and P h i l l i p s , W. "Information Process ing i n the C h i l d : S i g n i f i c a n c e of A n a l y t i c and R e f l e c t i v e A t t i t u d e s . " Psycho log i ca l Monographs, 196U, No. 578, 77(1), 1-37. MacGregor, R. "The Development and V a l i d a t i o n o f a Perceptual Index f o r U t i l i z a t i o n i n the Teaching o f A r t . " Studies i n A r t Educat ion , Winter 1972, 13 (2), 11. Madeja, S . S . , and K e l l y , H.T. "A Curriculum Development Model f o r A e s t h e t i c Educat ion ." Journal of Aes thet i c Educat ion , A p r i l 1970, U (2), 53-63. Neperud, R.W. "Art Educat ion: Towards an Environmental A e s t h e t i c . " A r t Educat ion , March 1973, 26(3), 9. Rouse, M. "What Research T e l l s Us About Sequencing and S t r u c t u r i n g A r t I n s t r u c t i o n . " A r t Educat ion , May 1971, 2U(5) 109:. l i e . Todd, J . "Preferences o f Ch i ld ren f o r Modern and Older P a i n t i n g s . " Elementary School Journa l , 19^ 3, __, 223-231. Books Arnheim, R. A r t and V i s u a l Percept ion . Berke ley , C a l i f o r n i a : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press , 195U. G u i l f o r d , J . P . The Nature of Human I n t e l l i g e n c e . New York: McGraw-Hil l , 1967. L a r k - H o r o v i t z , B . , l e w i s , H . , Luca , M. Understanding Ch i ld ren ' s Ar t f o r Be t te r Teaching. Ohio: Chas. M e r r i l l Books, 1967. Linderman, E.W., and Herberholz, D.W. Developing A r t i s t i c and Perceptua l Awareness. Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Co . , 1969. Lowe rife Id, W., and Lambert B r i t t a i n , W. Creat ive and Mental Growth. (6th e d i t i o n ) . New York : MacMil lan Pub l i sh ing Co . , 1975. McFee, J .K . P reparat ion f o r A r t . (2nd e d i t i o n ) . Oregon: Wadsworth Pub l i sh ing Co. I n c . , 1970. Pattemore, A . A r t and Environment. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold , 197k. Peck, R. A r t Lessons that Teach Ch i ldren About The i r Natura l Environment. New York: Parker Pub l i sh ing C o . , 1973. S e g a l l , H . , Campbell, D., and H e r s k o v i t l , M. The Inf luence of Culture on V i s u a l Percept ion . U .S .A . : Bobbs -Mer r i l l Co. , I n c . , 1966. 111. Appendix I Fo l lowing are photographs of the v i s u a l s used. Each v i s u a l meas-ured 11" x l l i n . Each was numbered and l i s t e d . On the back of each are the suggested quest ions . Each set i s i n d i v i d u a l l y packaged and each v i s u a l mounted on good q u a l i t y c a r d . Quest ions: What might t h i s be? What do we have here? What shape can you see? Can you see any cracks? Can you see any texture? What could the long th ings be? How could you descr ibe the l ong th ings? Do you th ink one i s a g o l f b a l l ? Why or why not? 112. A 2. Orange and two toy b a l l s . Questions: What might t h i s be? What can we say about the shape of each? Why would there be a l i n e around the shape at the rear? A 3 . Close up view of eggs. Quest ions: What might these be? What shape would they be? What could they be s i t t i n g on? Are the shapes ova l l i k e a f o o t b a l l o r f o o t b a l l f i e l d ? Can you th ink of a name tha t means ' i n f r o n t o f ? 113* A I 4 . . Seven eggs on g rass . Quest ions: What do you th ink these are? How can you t e l l they are eggs? Which egg i s the c l o s e s t to the camera? How can you t e l l ? I s there an egg tha t does not have overlapping? Which one? How many eggs are there? Could there be more? Why or why not? A 5>. P o r t i o n of a lemon. Quest ions: What might t h i s be? What makes you th ink that i t i s a lemon/orange? Could i t be anything e l se? l l l u A 6. A group of lemons on g r a s s . Quest ions: What do you th ink these could be? How can you t e l l they are lemons? What e l s e i s i n the p i c t u r e ? How could we descr ibe the surface of the lemons? I s photograph 5 p a r t o f t h i s photograph? What s e c t i o n i s the same? Are they a l l lemons? Why i s one lemon b l u r r y ? A 7. A tap or water f a u c e t . Quest ions: What cou ld t h i s be? What can you see tha t g ives you c lues? What e lse i s i n the p i c t u r e ? What word can we use t h a t t e l l s us t h a t i t looks l i k e water? 115. A 8 . Por t ion o f an on ion . Quest ions: What might t h i s be? Why do you th ink i t i s an onion? What could the white th ings be? How could you descr ibe the outs ide surface? What word cou ld we use t o descr ibe i t ? Could i t be a r a t ? Why or why not? A 9. Onions. Quest ions: What are these? How can you t e l l that they are onions? Could they be anything e lse but onions? I s the l a rge one an o ld onion o r a young one? 116. A 10, Por t ion of a banana and a p p l e s . Quest ions: What might t h i s be? Can you see any p r i c k l e s or h a i r s ? What other elements or shapes can you see? What can you see i n the background? Is i t n a t u r a l (something grown) or i s i t something somebody has made? What par ts might give you a c lue as to what i t i s ? Quest ions: Can you i d e n t i f y what i s i n t h i s p i c t u r e ? Can you t e l l whether the apples are 1st grade or 2nd grade? Do bananas always have spots? 117. A 12. P o r t i o n of a c a r r o t . Quest ions: What might t h i s be? What i s i t that g ives you c lues about i t s i d e n t i t y ? A 13. Four c a r r o t s . Quest ions : What might these be? How many car ro ts can you see? Can you see any l i n e s on the car rots? Where are they? 118, A l b . Side view of a Safeway shopping basket . Quest ions: What could t h i s be? Would i t be wood or metal? What i s i n the background? Does the background he lp you i d e n t i f y i t ? A 15. I n t e r i o r o f a Safeway s t o r e . Quest ions: Where was t h i s photograph taken? Why do you th ink i t i s a Safeway store? What season i s i t ? How can you t e l l ? What other l a b e l would f i t s u i t a b l y on the empty b lack space? Is i t more l i k e l y to be shelves o r f r e e z e r s beneath the black n o t i c e board? Why? 119. A 16. Por t ion of a b i c y c l e s e a t . Quest ions: What might t h i s be? What features can you see? A 17. A l a r g e r view of a b i c y c l e s e a t . Quest ions : What might t h i s be? What fea tures t e l l you that i t i s a b i c y c l e seat? Why a b i c y c l e seat and not a motorcycle seat? From what m a t e r i a l would the seat be made? A 18. The r e a r sprocket of a b i c y c l e . Quest ions: What could t h i s be? Why cou ldn ' t i t be a motorcycle? What i s the s l o t t e d par t f o r ? Is there any par t o f the cha in t h a t i s d i f f e r e n t from the r e s t ? Why i s one l i n k d i f f e r e n t ? A 1 9 . Po r t i on of a shoe. Quest ions: What could t h i s be? How can you t e l l ? Could i t be a snake? What fea tures t e l l us i t i s p a r t of a shoe? 121, A 20. Three b r i c k s wi th moss or l i c h e n c l i n g i n g to the s u r f a c e . Quest ions: What might t h i s be? What d i f f e r e n t fea tures can you see? Where are you l i k e l y to see t h i s ? Set 2. B 1. Rough cedar w a l l p a n e l l i n g from a s t o r e f r o n t . Quest ions: What could t h i s be? How can you t e l l ? What do you th ink the unusual par t near the centre cou ld be? What can you t e l l me about the surface? How are these p ieces o f wood placed? Would the wood be smooth or rough? Which board would you most l i k e l y get s l i v e r s ( s p l i n t e r s ) from i f you rubbed your hand aga ins t i t ? 122 B 2, A rock w a l l from outs ide a Safeway s t o r e . Quest ions: What might t h i s be? Where might i t be seen? Would i t be formed n a t u r a l l y or p laced there d e l i b e r a t e l y ? What makes you t h i n k so? Would the sur face be su i tab le f o r a road-way or sidewalk? B 3 . Boulders and concrete on the f o r e s h o r e . Quest ions : What might t h i s be? Are they a l l rocks? What features t e l l us that the shape on the r i g h t s ide i s concrete (cement)? Where might you see t h i s scene? 123 . B U. S a i l i n g boats wi th a f r e i g h t e r and North Vancouver i n the background. Quest ions: What type of boats would these be? How can you t e l l ? Can you t e l l anything about where t h i s was taken? How can you t e l l that they are not f i s h i n g boats? B 5. F i s h i n g b o a t s . Quest ions : What type of boats could these be? What features t e l l you tha t they are f i s h i n g boats? Would people l i v e on these boats? How do they d i f f e r from s a i l b o a t s ? B 6. Bow of a f r e i g h t e r i n dock. Quest ions! What type of sh ip could t h i s be? How can you t e l l i t i s a very b i g boat? What would the round th ings on the ropes be made of? What could they be f o r ? B 7» A we l l kept l a rge house taken a t Chr istmas. Quest ions: What can you see i n t h i s p i c t u r e ? What type of house could t h i s be? What c lues t e l l you so? What season cou ld i t be? What are the th ings on the trimmed shrubs? What type of person would l i v e i n a house l i k e t h i s ? 125. B 8. F r o n t a l view of a s l i g h t l y o lde r house. Quest ions: What can you t e l l me about t h i s house? What type of person would l i v e i n a house l i k e t h i s ? Would i t be a cloudy or a sunny day? B 9 . A church taken at Chr istmas. Quest ions: What would t h i s b u i l d i n g be? I f i t d i d n ' t have a name could you s t i l l t e l l i t i s a church? What i s behind the person t a k i n g the photograph? Can you see anything un-usual on the f i r t ree i n f r o n t of the b u i l d i n g ? 126 B 10, A seaplane tak ing o f f wi th North Vancouver i n the background. Quest ions: What type of plane do you th ink t h i s could be? Why? How many persons would i t car ry? What can you t e l l about the mountain? Is i t tak ing o f f or landing? B 11. The main r o t o r of a h e l i c o p t e r . Quest ions: What cou ld t h i s be? What t e l l s you so? What mechan-i c a l pa r t s can you see? 127. B 12. A h e l i c o p t e r . Quest ions: What can you t e l l me about t h i s p i c t u r e ? What could i t be used for? Is i t moving? How can you t e l l ? B 13. The reverse image of photograph 12. A h e l i c o p t e r . Quest ions: Compare t h i s photograph to photograph 12. What i s the d i f f e r e n c e ? Is i t the same plane? E x p l a i n the reason f o r Vancouver I s l a n d be ing s p e l t backwards i n t h i s photograph. 128* B 1U. D i f f e r e n t h e l i c o p t e r t a k i n g o f f . Quest ions: Is t h i s the same h e l i c o p t e r as the prev ious ones shown? How can you t e l l ? I s i t f l y i n g or standing s t i l l ? 129. B 15. A lamp post at the corner of West 10th and Alma wi th the t r a f f i c l i g h t s showing green. Quest ions: What can you see i n t h i s p i c t u r e ? Where i s t h i s post s i tuated? What co lour i s the l i g h t ? 130. B 16. A s t r e e t corner , corner of Alma and West 10th. Quest ions: Where i s t h i s s i tuated? Can you see the pole that was i n photograph 15. What co lour does the t r a f f i c l i g h t show? How do you e x p l a i n the f a c t that each pole says West 10th and Alma? B 17. A c i t y s t r e e t , West Hastings and Seymour. Quest ions: I s t h i s photograph taken i n the c i t y , the suburbs, or the country? Why do you th ink so? B 1 8 . Section of Chinatown, Vancouver. Questions: Where would t h i s photograph be taken? Would i t be a two way or a one way street? B 19o A suburban street, West Broadway. Questions: Would t h i s be i n the c i t y , the country, or i n the suburbs? Would t r o l l e y buses go by here? 132. B 20. Sears building i n f i n a l stages of completion. Questions: What type of building would this be? Is i t being b u i l t or being pulled down? What makes you think so? B 21. Side of a building being torn down. Questions: What i s happening to this building? How can you t e l l ? What was the building made of? Is i t b u i l t of the same material as the building i n photograph 20? 133. Appendix I I L e t t e r o f exp lanat ion to accompany each set of v i s u a l s . V i s u a l S t i m u l i Teaching K i t . These mater i a l s have been designed to a i d the teacher i n the development of v i s u a l percept ion i n elementary school c h i l d r e n . I t i s ray b e l i e f that many c h i l d r e n are not aware of the objects that cons t i tu te t h e i r surroundings, and the events tha t cons t i tu te t h e i r exper ience . S p e c i f i c a l l y , these v i s u a l s have been designed to develop i n the c h i l d r e n the a b i l i t y to d i s c r im ina te v i s u a l features i n t h e i r immediate environment. I t should a l s o develop t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the environment. Two sets have been developed. Images have been arranged i n sequence. Ch i l d ren should be encouraged to look c l o s e l y at v i s u a l f e a t - , ures (shapes, l i n e s , t ex tu res) that w i l l a i d i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the image. I t i s expected tha t the teacher would vary the type of quest ions accord ing to what i s expected from the l e s s o n . A l i s t of quest ions i s inc luded only as a g u i d e l i n e . I t i s hoped t h a t , w i th wise use these v i s u a l s w i l l develop c h i l d r e n ' s v i s u a l percept ion as they were des igned. James A . Wi l l iamson 135. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0055659/manifest

Comment

Related Items