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Educational change and year-round schooling : the role of transformative leaders Oberg, Steven Lynn 2005

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EDUCATIONAL  C H A N G E A N D Y E A R - R O U N D S C H O O L I N G : THE R O L E OF TRANSFORMATIVE LEADERS  by STEVEN LYNN  OBERG  BS (1980) University of Utah MEd (1996) University of Utah  A THESIS COMPLETED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ('EDUCATIONAL STUDIES)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July 2005 © Steven Lynn Oberg, 2005  ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e s w h e t h e r there is a relationship b e t w e e n t r a n s f o r m a t i v e leadership with its constituent ideas of agency, moral purpose, and p o w e r , a n d the ability to successfully introduce sustainable school c h a n g e . T h e central t e n e t of the conceptual f r a m e w o r k is transformative leadership as informed b y t h e literature on year-round schooling a n d educational c h a n g e . T h r o u g h a series of interviews, I e x a m i n e w h y a n d h o w educational leaders, at school a n d district levels, continue to p r o m o t e a n d introduce school-calendar c h a n g e ( c o m m o n l y k n o w n as year-round schooling) in t h e f a c e of w h a t are often substantial political and social battles. My r e s p o n d e n t s c a m e f r o m four jurisdictions in the United States and three in C a n a d a , s o m e in which the reform w a s m a n d a t e d a n d others in which it w a s voluntarily instituted by school leaders. T h e y c a m e f r o m schools with various c a l e n d a r s — m u l t i , single, and dual-track that had b e e n implemented b e t w e e n 1969 a n d 1999. T h e i m p e t u s for the reform (whether voluntary or m a n d a t e d ) had little to d o with its viability, but the implementation p r o c e s s e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s used by the school leader w e r e critical. A calendar c h a n g e w a s implemented to accomplish various goals, from a c c o m m o d a t i n g m o r e students in existing buildings to bettering the learning experience of children to achieving equity. Not only w e r e explicit goals realized, m a n y unanticipated o u t c o m e s w e r e also f o u n d . Findings relate to the three-part c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k . First, participants report that year-round schooling is a viable e d u c a t i o n a l reform with the ability to provide fiscal a n d educational benefits to t h e w h o l e school community. It can  ii  Abstract  garner t h e support of the parents and w i d e r c o m m u n i t y and m a k e a difference beyond the school itself. S e c o n d , successful educational reform requires goal clarity, attention to processes, a n d an understanding that the forces of tradition (habitus) are powerful but m a y be o v e r c o m e . T h i r d , transformative educational leaders m a y s u r m o u n t resistance a n d introduce successful educational c h a n g e if they understand the interconnections a m o n g agency, moral purpose, a n d power. All three are simultaneously necessary to achieve reform that has the ability to d e c r e a s e inequities in educational p e r f o r m a n c e a n d thus to be transformative.  iii  Table of contents  T A B L E OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  LIST O F T A B L E S  vii  LIST O F F I G U R E S  viii  GLOSSARY OF TERMS  ix  LIST O F A B B R E V I A T I O N S  xii  DEDICATION  xiii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xiv  C H A P T E R 1: T H I N K I N G A B O U T E D U C A T I O N A L R E F O R M Background Theoretical Framework.... Purpose Personal Interest Definitions Limitations a n d Delimitations Overview Significance  1 2 5 7 8 9 12 13 13  C H A P T E R 2: H I S T O R I C A L O V E R V I E W — S O M E F A M I L I A R T E N S I O N S T h e Role of Education Institutionalizing the School Calendar in North A m e r i c a A Press for C h a n g e S u m m a r y of Historical O v e r v i e w C H A P T E R 3: L I T E R A T U R E R e s e a r c h a b o u t Y e a r - R o u n d Schooling Impact on Student A c h i e v e m e n t Motivation and Burn-Out S c h o o l A t t e n d a n c e and Drop-Outs D e c r e a s e in V a n d a l i s m a n d Delinquency Benefits to T e a c h e r s Fiscal a n d Physical Benefits T h e Negative C o n s e q u e n c e s of Y e a r - R o u n d Schooling  iv  15 15 21 25 26 28 28 30 .31 31 32 33 34 35  Table of contents  S u m m a r y of Y R S Literature E d u c a t i o n a l C h a n g e : Challenges a n d Perspectives C h a n g i n g Educational Structures C h a n g e through the Lenses of Habitus and O u t s i d e d n e s s T r a n s f o r m a t i v e Leadership and Educational C h a n g e Agency Moral Purpose T h e Power of Educational Leadership S u m m a r y of Literature CHAPTER 4. METHODOLOGY P e r s o n a l Positioning D a t a Collection and Sources S i t e s S e l e c t e d for This Study Data Analysis O r g a n i z a t i o n of Findings C H A P T E R 5. T H E A M E R I C A N E X P E R I E N C E F r a n c e s Howell School District: W h e r e C h a n g e B e g a n Y e a r - R o u n d Schooling: A Risk T h a t Paid Off B e c k y David: C h o s e n for Innovation C h a n g e s over T i m e S u m m i n g up the Frances Howell Experiment U t a h : A M a n d a t e d Reform Perceived Advantages Perceived Disadvantages S u m m a r y of the Utah Experience Florida: F r o m M a n d a t e to Choice In the S h a d o w of the M o u s e Jerico Elementary School Martin P o p p e r Elementary S c h o o l S u m m a r y of the Florida Experience S u m m a r y of U S Implementation  38 38 39 43 47 49 51 53 57 59 60 61 64 66 67 70 71 71 73 77 80 81 92 94 95 96 97 102 104 ...111 112  C H A P T E R 6. T H E C A N A D I A N E X P E R I E N C E 114 Huntsville Elementary School 115 A l b e r t S c h o o l District: Implementing a S u c c e s s f u l Dual-Track M o d e l ....119 T h e D r e a m : A New S c h o o l is A n n o u n c e d 120 The Opening 122 Continuing Innovation a n d Implementation Issues 123 T h e D r e a m Expands 127 S w e e t w a t e r S c h o o l District: A Less Successful Implementation 128 Permission Granted ..129 Implementation Struggles 129 Discontent and Discontinuation 135 S t e p h e n Lewis Junior High: A D r e a m G o n e A w r y 136  Table of contents  Planning Multiple Innovations School Opening and Ongoing C h a n g e N e w Directions: A New Principal Arrives S u m m a r y : From Multi-Track to Single-Track S u m m a r y of C a n a d i a n Implementation C H A P T E R 7. I N S I G H T S F R O M T H E D A T A T h e I m p e t u s for Y e a r - R o u n d Schooling Facility Issues C o m p l e x Interplay of R e a s o n s A n Impetus for Choice a n d Learning S u m m a r y of Findings about Impetus I m p l e m e n t a t i o n Procedures a n d P r o c e s s e s "Failing" Implementation Processes... "Successful Implementation Processes A n t i c i p a t e d Goals a n d A c h i e v e d O u t c o m e s Goals and O u t c o m e s in Involuntary Programs Goals and O u t c o m e s in Voluntary Programs Unanticipated O u t c o m e s Resources a n d Support Impact on Students Equity Issues Trust and Public Image..... N e w a n d Transformative N o r m s S u m m a r y of Findings  136 139 142 147 148 152 153 154 156 158 159 160 .........161 166 169 170 173 176 177 178 181 183 186 189  C H A P T E R 8. L O O K I N G F O R W A R D O v e r v i e w of the Study L e s s o n s Learned Lessons Learned about Y e a r - R o u n d Schooling Lessons Learned about Educational Reform L e s s o n s Learned about T r a n s f o r m a t i v e Leadership Recommendations. R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s Related to Y e a r - R o u n d Schooling R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a b o u t Educational R e f o r m R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a b o u t T r a n s f o r m a t i v e Leadership Questions Raised: For Further R e s e a r c h Concluding C o m m e n t : Looking B e y o n d  191 191 193 194 198 206 213 216 216 217 217 220  REFERENCES  223  A P P E N D I X A: Y R S C A L E N D A R S . .  232  A P P E N D I X B: I N T E R V I E W Q U E S T I O N S  238  vi  List of tables  LIST OF T A B L E S T a b l e 1. Participants  65  T a b l e 2. I m p e t u s for Y R S and the d e g r e e to w h i c h goals w e r e m e t  154  T a b l e 3. Implementation processes and procedures  161  T a b l e 4. G o a l s and the extent to w h i c h they w e r e realized  170  T a b l e 5. Unanticipated o u t c o m e s  177  vii  List of figures  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. C o n c e p t u a l Framework  29  Figure 2. N e w Conceptual Framework...  viii  218  Glossary  GLOSSARY OF TERMS  Critically low l i s t — A list established by s o m e state boards of education to identify schools in which the students are performing well below a v e r a g e on three or more measures of a c a d e m i c achievement. E f f e c t i v e — T h i s t e r m suggests that a school or district meets its defined educational goals for a c a d e m i c a n d n o n - a c a d e m i c student o u t c o m e s . I n t e r s e s s i o n — I n a year-round school, this is the period of time b e t w e e n formally s c h e d u l e d academic terms for given g r o u p s of students or teachers. A l t h o u g h no compulsory schooling occurs during intersession, individual schools m a y opt to introduce p r o g r a m s for remediation, enrichment, or acceleration that students m a y take on a voluntary basis. S o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s — T h i s t e r m is a c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e w o r d s social, economic, and status and recognizes that in our North A m e r i c a n society, w e often assign status according to these characteristics.  Low  socio-economic status (SES) is associated with low levels of income, lack of formal education, and student "at-risk" characteristics, while high S E S suggests that children c o m e f r o m a d v a n t a g e d h o m e s with well educated parents a n d higher than average income levels. T r a c k — T h i s is the term used to designate the s c h e d u l e of a group of students a n d teachers on a single calendar, w h o rotate in and out of school together.  Glossary  Traditional c a l e n d a r — A l s o k n o w n as the agrarian calendar. This is t h e a c a d e m i c s c h e d u l e that usually begins after Labor Day and e n d s early in the s u m m e r , with a break at Christmas, designated statutory holidays, and a long s u m m e r vacation. Y e a r - r o u n d s c h o o l i n g — A l s o referred to as alternative, balanced, or modified school calendar. T h e r e are n u m e r o u s different models, but t h o s e m e n t i o n e d here are: Single-track: T h e w h o l e school adopts a calendar in w h i c h s o m e of the s u m m e r vacation time is redistributed as regular breaks t h r o u g h o u t the school year. This permits the use of intersession p r o g r a m m i n g if desired. Dual-track: S o m e of the classes and teachers remain on the traditional school-year calendar, while other classes a n d t e a c h e r s in t h e s a m e school adopt a modified school year, s u c h as the 4 5 - 1 5 . T h i s offers flexibility of scheduling a n d a c c o m m o d a t e s a variety of preferences. Multi-track: •  4 5 - 1 5 : T h i s is o n e of the m o s t c o m m o n four-track s c h e d u l e s . Students attend school for 4 5 days (or nine w e e k s ) , followed by 15 d a y s (or three w e e k s ) of vacation. E a c h group of students is a s s i g n e d to a track that rotates in an overlapping configuration so that at any given time, A 3  of t h e students are in school, a n d % o n vacation, t h u s providing a potential for 3 3 % m o r e students to be a c c o m m o d a t e d in t h e building.  Glossary  6 0 - 1 5 : T h i s is the schedule used by S t e p h e n Lewis Junior High S c h o o l . Students are assigned to five tracks, e a c h of w h i c h attends school for 6 0 days (or 12 w e e k s ) , followed by 15 d a y s (three weeks) of v a c a t i o n . A t any given time, / of the students are in school, and / on 4  1  5  5  v a c a t i o n , thus providing a potential for 2 5 % m o r e students to be a c c o m m o d a t e d in the building.  xi  List of abbreviations  LIST OF A B B R E V I A T I O N S  F-CAT  Florida C o m p r e h e n s i v e A c h i e v e m e n t Test  GED  General Education Diploma  LAUSD  Los A n g e l e s Unified School District  MT  Multi-Track  NAYRE  National Association for Y e a r - R o u n d Education  PTA  Parent T e a c h e r Association  SES  S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Status  SSHRC  Social Sciences a n d Humanities Research Council ( C a n a d a )  ST  Single-Track  TCS  Traditional Calendar Schools  TSA  T e a c h e r on Special A s s i g n m e n t  UBC  T h e University of British C o l u m b i a  YR  Year-Round  YRE  Y e a r - R o u n d Education  YRS  Y e a r - R o u n d School  xii  Dedicated to Lynn Edwin O b e r g . This one's for y o u , Pop.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS For now we shall see through a glass darkly, but then face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall understand fully, even as I have been fully understood. I Corinthians 8:12-13 King James Bible  For various reasons, in 1990,1 began to s e e life "though a glass, darkly." S o m e t i m e s this d a r k e n e d glass w a s an elementary c l a s s r o o m window. S o m e t i m e s it w a s the r e m e m b e r e d lens of a d a m a g e d past. I have seen it as the haze that is there for m e after a seizure. For m u c h of one year in the mid-90s, it w a s the reinforced glass of a hospital psychiatric w a r d . Carolyn Shields helped m e to see other glass, other w a y s , other t h a n darkly. S h e e n c o u r a g e d m e to apply to the University of British C o l u m b i a . S h e e n c o u r a g e d m e to work on research projects with her. S h e e n c o u r a g e d m e to stay in the p r o g r a m , with t h e p r o g r a m , and to look at the program in a different light. She has m y profound a n d enduring gratitude. W e n d y Poole a n d Dan Brown both put in endless hours reading, critiquing, guiding, e n c o u r a g i n g , prodding, and generally helping to stimulate long a b a n d o n e d n e u r o n pathways. T h e y e a c h have m y lasting and heartfelt appreciation. A special t h a n k s g o e s to J e a n Barman, w h o met with m e before I ever applied to the university a n d continuously w o r k e d with m e t h r o u g h o u t m y tenure there. Her unflagging e n c o u r a g e m e n t and o p e n - m i n d e d c o m m i t m e n t helped m e m o r e than s h e will ever know.  xiv  C H A P T E R 1. THINKING A B O U T E D U C A T I O N A L R E F O R M For m o s t of t h e last 50 years, the educational landscape in North A m e r i c a has been m a r k e d by n u m e r o u s initiatives directed at educational reform a n d restructuring. O n one hand, restructuring initiatives have increased decentralization of educational decision-making, including site-based m a n a g e m e n t a n d new governance structures. O n the other hand, they have focused on increased centralization with an e m p h a s i s on accountability that includes d e v e l o p i n g new fiscal a r r a n g e m e n t s a n d e x p a n d i n g standardized testing of both students and teachers. S o m e structural c h a n g e s s u c h as open classrooms have b e e n intended to facilitate c h a n g e s like t e a m teaching a n d multi-age g r o u p i n g s , while others have f o c u s e d on pedagogical c h a n g e s like new math a n d w h o l e language. M a n y of t h e s e educational change initiatives have experienced a surge of interest followed by a backlash of often-virulent protest and a subsequent early demise. S o m e of t h o s e that did not die quickly s e e m e d d o o m e d to quiet failure. Gidney (1999) talked about educational c h a n g e in the last half of twentieth century Ontario. He said that change w a s largely unsuccessful in that, "A succession of 'reforms' have not abolished the effects of social class, or at least the effects of i n c o m e , on student achievement or life c h a n c e s " (p. 283). In recent years, with t h e a d v e n t of standardized testing a n d international comparisons of student a c h i e v e m e n t , the organization of the school year has b e c o m e a topic of interest to policy m a k e r s seeking to improve the a c h i e v e m e n t of all students.  Ch. 1. Thinking about reform ... p.  2  A l t h o u g h t h e discussion has predominantly centered on the length of t h e North A m e r i c a n school year c o m p a r e d to that in m a n y other industrialized countries, there is also an emerging d e b a t e about the distribution of in-class a n d vacation time. T h e f o c u s of the latter conversation is a calendar adaptation called yearround schooling (YRS), and m o r e recently, modified, balanced, or alternative calendars. M y interest in year-round schooling w a s the impetus for this study. I w a n t e d to explore the possible relationships between transformative leadership a n d school reform with a particular e m p h a s i s on Y R S . This led m e to interview school a n d district leaders w h o had been involved in the implementation of a school-calendar change in s e v e n selected regions in the United States a n d C a n a d a . T h e study w a s guided by a conceptual f r a m e w o r k that e m p h a s i z e d the values inherent in moral purpose, agency, and power as key e l e m e n t s of transformative leadership. It w a s also informed by the literature related to school reform and year-round schooling and by a desire to understand the relationships a m o n g these bodies of literature.  Background T h e history of year-round schooling has been marked by a d v o c a c y or adversarial literature and considerable confusion over the purposes a n d f o r m s of year-round education. A l t h o u g h f o r m s of year-round schooling (YRS) have been implemented in North A m e r i c a since the beginning of c o m m o n schools, the first m o d e r n year-round schooling occurred almost simultaneously in Illinois, California, and Missouri. In 1968, H a y w a r d , California, implemented a p r o g r a m at  Ch. 1. Thinking about reform ... p.  3  Park E l e m e n t a r y School, which b e c a m e the first Y R S following W W I I . T h e next year, Francis H o w e l l School District in St. Charles, Missouri, introduced the first multiple-track (MT) calendar in the nation (History..., 2 0 0 5 ) . W h i l e there is s o m e dispute as to w h i c h jurisdiction first m a d e the decision to implement a year-round schedule, there is no doubt that Becky David Elementary S c h o o l in Missouri w a s one of the first, a n d remained the longest running multi-track year-round school in North A m e r i c a until 1999 w h e n it m o v e d to a single-track s c h e d u l e — o n e in which all students once again attended school at the s a m e time (Shields & O b e r g , 2001). At the beginning of the twenty-first century in North A m e r i c a more than two million students in approximately 6 0 0 districts and m o r e t h a n 3000 schools are being educated in schools with modified school-year calendars. A s with m a n y educational initiatives, c h a n g e s in the school calendar have often s w u n g on a wild p e n d u l u m between public e n t h u s i a s m a n d disdain. For example, the State of Florida rode a t e m p e s t u o u s five-year implementation change cycle for year-round schooling. Although it had had no y e a r - r o u n d schools (YRS) in 1992, a f e w years later, Florida had placed 164 of its schools on modified calendars. By 1997, only 38 Y R S w e r e left (Rasberry, 1994). O n the other side of the continent, seven British C o l u m b i a school districts, after having been given a grant to investigate year-round schooling in 1995, decided that the climate for school calendar c h a n g e w a s too politicized to i m p l e m e n t e v e n pilot programs. In both instances, explanations for the failure of the initiatives varied widely, d e p e n d i n g on the source of the opinion. From approximately 1996, interest in w h a t are n o w often called  Ch. 1. Thinking about reform ... p.  4  alternative, modified, or balanced calendars s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t the w o r l d . In 1996, N e w Z e a l a n d mandated a four-term school year with terms o f t e n w e e k s interspersed w i t h three balanced vacation periods of t w o w e e k s a n d a six-week s u m m e r / C h r i s t m a s vacation. In D e c e m b e r 2 0 0 1 , the Independent C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e S c h o o l Y e a r in Britain r e c o m m e n d e d that Britain m o v e to a six-term year consisting of t w o s e v e n - w e e k a n d four six-week terms, interspersed with five t w o - w e e k breaks and one longer four-week holiday period (Price, personal c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . In 2002, the British C o l u m b i a g o v e r n m e n t introduced Bill 28, that contained a clause called Extended day and year-round schooling. Section 78 of the Bill states that no collective a g r e e m e n t can limit the power of a board to vary t h e "days of the w e e k or m o n t h s of t h e y e a r on or within which educational p r o g r a m s are to be provided." T h e bill states that such a m o v e requires consultation with parents and e m p l o y e e representatives. Implementation of a new calendar occurs in two main ways. T h e first is as a result of a legislated m a n d a t e of s o m e kind, generally at t h e state or provincial level. In this instance, schools are required to consider a structural calendar c h a n g e to a d d r e s s a specific challenge to fiscal or facility resources. M o r e c o m m o n in recent years, is the implementation that occurs at a school level w h e n the principal, teaching staff, and/or parent c o m m u n i t y initiate conversations about a c a l e n d a r c h a n g e . In this case, the principal's ability to take the concept forward, to resolve conflict, a n d to facilitate decision-making is critical. W h i l e both formal a n d informal leadership at all levels m a y b e involved in this latter t y p e of implementation, without the support of the school leader a n d at the very least,  Ch. 1. Thinking about reform ... p.  5  the willingness of district leaders not to block t h e initiative, a calendar c h a n g e could not occur. A n y leader proposing consideration of a calendar c h a n g e , as w e shall see in more detail later, needs to be a w a r e that the d e b a t e m a y be intense. Despite (and perhaps b e c a u s e of) the continued interest in year-round schooling, w h e n e v e r it is proposed as a reform initiative, its mixed reputation p r e c e d e s it. S o m e parents s u p p o r t it with a l m o s t missionary zeal b e c a u s e t h e long s u m m e r holiday is redistributed in more evenly placed breaks through-out the school year. Others fear that their family routines, holiday schedules and s u m m e r vacations will be disrupted. Communities resist changing t h e school year b e c a u s e they are c o n c e r n e d that there will be m o r e youth u n e m p l o y m e n t , disruption of recreation p r o g r a m m i n g , and a detrimental impact on the traditional n o r m s of c o m m u n i t y and family. S u m m e r c a m p o w n e r s a n d directors, a m u s e m e n t park operators, and child c a r e providers join t h e fray, all fearing that a c h a n g e in t h e school y e a r will negatively affect their livelihoods (Shields & O b e r g , 2000). Moreover, s o m e w o u l d a r g u e that structural c h a n g e is not only met with resistance, but that it rarely m a k e s a difference to student a c h i e v e m e n t (Levin, 2 0 0 1 ; Ungerleider, 2003).  Theoretical Framework This study w a s informed by three separate bodies of literature that a p p e a r relevant to the topic and purpose of the inquiry. In Chapter 3,1 started with the literature specific to year-round schooling itself. Although there are reported challenges in implementing calendar reform, in the Y R S literature the benefits  Ch. 1. Thinking about reform ... p.  6  s e e m to clearly o u t w e i g h the negatives related to the c h a n g e . W h e n one turns to t h e w i d e r literature o n c h a n g e ( C u b a n , 1998; Fullan, 1993; Levin, 2 0 0 1 ) there is (perhaps surprisingly) no mention of school-calendar reform, despite the fact that it represents a relatively w i d e s p r e a d a n d long-standing e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e . My m o r e general examination of educational reform w a s twofold; first I explored literature related to school change itself and then w i d e n e d the lens and concentrated on t w o theories: Bourdieu's concept of habitus (Bourdieu & W a c q u a n t , 1992) and Bakhtin's (1986) notion of outsidedness. Bourdieu's explanation of habitus helped to s h o w w h y educational reform s e e m s so difficult to accomplish while Bakhtin's understanding of outsidedness provided an explanation of how c h a n g e d o e s and can occur. T h e most important lens, however, through w h i c h I a p p r o a c h e d this study, w a s that of transformative leadership. A l t h o u g h there w a s little mention of leadership in t h e literature related to educational reform (see for e x a m p l e the w o r k s of Goodlad & M c M a n n o n , 1997; Lieberman, 1986), I found increasing interest in education in ethical a n d purposeful leadership (see for e x a m p l e Bogotch, 2000: F u r m a n & Shields, in press; Sergiovanni, 1992; Starratt, 1 9 9 1 , 1995) and in the c o n c e p t of transformative (as o p p o s e d to transformational) leadership. T h u s , it s e e m e d to m e critically important to attempt to discern w h e t h e r there is a relationship b e t w e e n transformative leadership with its goals to "enhance equity, social justice, and the quality of life" (Astin & Astin, 2000, p. 6); s o m e constituent ideas like agency, power, and moral purpose; and the ability to successfully introduce sustainable school change.  Ch. 1. Thinking about reform ... p.  7  Purpose My c o n c e p t u a l framework, elaborated in C h a p t e r 3, led m e to ask w h e t h e r transformative leadership helps educational leaders to successfully implement change. T o a n s w e r that overarching question, I w a n t e d to e x a m i n e and understand m o r e clearly the role of educational leaders in introducing school reform, in particular the structural change of Y R S . I w i s h e d to learn w h y and how, at both school a n d district levels, educational leaders continue to promote and introduce s c h o o l calendar change in t h e f a c e of t h e substantial political and social battles that often need to be fought. My objectives w e r e : 1. to understand the impetus of educational leaders for introducing YRS, 2. to c o m p r e h e n d leaders' implementation procedures and processes, 3. to identify what the leaders hoped to accomplish by enacting Y R S , 4. to d e t e r m i n e the leaders' perceptions about the extent to which their goals were realized, a n d 5. to describe the leaders' perceptions about unanticipated o u t c o m e s of Y R S . T h r o u g h this e x a m i n a t i o n of the motivations a n d e x p e r i e n c e s of educational leaders related to school calendar change, I w a n t e d to m a k e s o m e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s to educators and policy m a k e r s regarding t h e relationships between their various purposes for implementing year-round schooling, the o u t c o m e s t h e y anticipated, and those they achieved. T h e topic is an important one because, despite the prevalence of Y R S ,  Ch. 1. Thinking about reform ... p.  8  there has been little research into w h y educational leaders c h o o s e to implement a n e w school calendar, how they p r o c e e d , and w h a t they hope to accomplish. This f o c u s on Y R S offers a unique opportunity to better understand w h y educational leaders choose to adopt a structural c h a n g e as well as to explore w h e t h e r there is transformative motivation or potential in s u c h activity. It will also inform policy m a k e r s at both district a n d regional levels about s o m e critical considerations relative to the implementation of school-based c h a n g e (such as a c h a n g e of school calendar).  P e r s o n a l Interest M y interest in this topic s t e m s f r o m m y years as a teacher and administrator in elementary schools that experimented with various structures in order to a c c o m m o d a t e m o r e children in existing classrooms a n d to e n h a n c e their learning opportunities. I have w o r k e d within the traditional school-year calendar, an e l e m e n t a r y extended-day calendar, and multi-track year-round school ( M T Y R S ) calendars. Until I facilitated a study in Davis School District in Utah, I had c o m e to accept the M T - Y R S as the w a y w e had been forced to organize for instruction, but had no knowledge of the impact of the M T - Y R S calendar in m y district o n student achievement (see Shields & O b e r g , 1999). Additionally, b e c a u s e m y district had implemented multi-track year-round schooling to alleviate o v e r c r o w d e d schools, I had originally been unaware of other reasons w h y districts might opt for year-round schooling. A s I b e g a n to work with Dr. Shields as her research assistant in various projects related to Y R S , I b e c a m e increasingly interested in the potential of a  Ch. 1. Thinking about reform ... p.  9  calendar c h a n g e to promote social justice. W e studied schools in w h i c h a calendar c h a n g e had been m a n d a t e d at a state or district level to a c c o m m o d a t e more children in the buildings, but in which a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t w a s reported to have i m p r o v e d . In s o m e schools, the calendar c h a n g e h a d b e e n introduced, w e w e r e told, to e n h a n c e opportunities for the least successful a n d often the least a d v a n t a g e d socio-economically, and in which educators raved about the results. In a f e w schools, w e w e r e also told about h o w t h e calendar c h a n g e had been associated with c h a n g e s in the wider community, both in t e r m s of structures like n e w p r o g r a m s for m o r e children and in t e r m s of increased parental involvement in a n d support for t h e school. This study arose f r o m m y desire to investigate t h e s e transformations a n d their relationship to the a p p r o a c h e s to educational leadership of those that implemented t h e m .  Definitions My study requires the clarification of terms related to y e a r - r o u n d education. It also necessitates an understanding of h o w I a m using the terms leader, initiation, implementation, continuation or sustainability, s u c c e s s , a n d restructuring. Here I define the terms used most frequently t h r o u g h o u t the study, with a m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e glossary included in the introductory pages. Year-round schooling (YRS) is t h e t e r m given to t h e redistribution of t h e normal school year to shorten the long s u m m e r vacation and insert m o r e regular vacation periods throughout the school year. In most cases, no c o m p u l s o r y inschool t i m e is a d d e d t o the school year. T o contrast with Y R S , I frequently refer to what I call t h e traditional calendar. This is the m o s t c o m m o n l y recognized w a y  Ch. 1. Thinking about reform ... p.  10  of organizing t h e school year in North A m e r i c a , one in w h i c h students generally begin school in late s u m m e r and continue, with f e w breaks, until late May or June w h e n they e n j o y a s u m m e r vacation of two to three months. A l t h o u g h there are many, a n d often m o r e accurate, s y n o n y m s for year-round schooling (such as alternative, modified, and balanced calendars), in this study I t e n d to use the most c o m m o n l y used term "year-round schooling" as the m o r e generic label, and others w h e n they refer to specific and identifiable modifications. Single-track (ST) Y R S is most often introduced for educational purposes and is a f o r m of calendar change in w h i c h the w h o l e school modifies its schedule. Multi-track (MT) Y R S is most often introduced to place m o r e students in existing buildings, either to alleviate overcrowding or to defer capital e x p e n s e s related to building new schools (see diagrams in A p p e n d i x A ) . Dual-track is the t e r m applied to a school in w h i c h part of t h e school remains on a traditional calendar and part m o v e s to a f o r m of single-track Y R S . Intersession is the n a m e given to the vacation periods, usually f r o m one to four w e e k s , inserted b e t w e e n educational terms. Optional instructional activities, including remedial, enriched, or accelerated, are often provided during intersession. Leader m a y refer either to a person formally appointed to a position of responsibility in a school or district or to any e d u c a t o r or c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r w h o takes on informal leadership roles. For the most part in this study, m y focus is on those in f o r m a l leadership positions, especially the principal.  Ch. 1. Thinking about reform ... p.  11  Initiation is a term used by Fullan (1993) to refer to the first phase of a c h a n g e initiative, sometimes also k n o w n as the adoption phase. This includes the data collection, planning, and decision making up to and including a formal decision to implement a specific strategy. Implementation is the term used to refer to the actions taken s u b s e q u e n t to the f o r m a l adoption decision, including planning for start-up as well as the start-up p h a s e of an innovation. For the purposes of a change to year-round schooling, this phase would include the time s o m e t i m e s spent in a "pilot" situation, prior to a decision to continue the calendar modification on a p e r m a n e n t basis. Continuation orsustainability'are t e r m s often used to indicate that a reform initiative has not only been successfully introduced, but that it has b e c o m e more or less entrenched in the culture of the institution and the c o m m u n i t y it serves. T h e c h a n g e therefore persists for at least several years b e y o n d the pilot period. Success is an elusive concept and m e a n s different things to different people. W h e n I write about the success of a reform, I a m referring to its continuation over time accompanied by fulfillment of stated goals as well as support, a c c e p t a n c e , and expressed satisfaction by the school and wider communities it serves. I use t h e term restructuring in a specific way, not as a theoretical lens as in structuralism or post-structuralism, but to identify a type of c h a n g e that, at least in its formal features, is structural in nature. W h e n talking about schooling,  Ch. 1. Thinking about reform ... p.  12  structures m i g h t include decision-making structures a n d m e c h a n i s m s , t h e facility itself, the organizational chart (with lines of c o m m a n d and d e p a r t m e n t s identified), as well as the school calendar and timetable. T h e s e structures provide a f r a m e w o r k within w h i c h t h e daily activities of teaching a n d learning occur. C h a n g i n g the in-school and vacation periods changes the f r a m e w o r k for learning, but does not necessarily involve any concomitant c h a n g e s in p e d a g o g y or school culture. It should b e noted, however, that the introduction o f a c h a n g e that is primarily structural d o e s not necessarily preclude other c h a n g e s f r o m occurring simultaneously, nor d o e s it limit the potential of a structural c h a n g e to act as a catalyst for other t y p e s of c h a n g e s . Transformative leadership is s o m e t i m e s confused with transformational leadership. W h i l e transformational leadership s e e k s to transform the unit in which leadership t a k e s place (for e x a m p l e , the school), transformative leadership also seeks c h a n g e s in the quality of life in both the institution and the larger community.  Limitations and Delimitations T h e study is limited by the n u m b e r and availability of y e a r - r o u n d schools. There is a w i d e choice in t h e United States that m a d e it necessary for m e to delimit m y study to selected districts in three states. T h e r e are f e w e r participating schools in C a n a d a , thus limiting the range of communities f r o m w h i c h I could identify educational leaders for this study. I w a s also limited by financial and time resources as to the n u m b e r of schools a n d distances to which I could travel to conduct interviews a n d by the willingness of principals to participate. I have  Ch. 1. Thinking about reform ... p. 13  c h o s e n t o delimit m y study to f o c u s o n principals a n d their e x p e r i e n c e s a n d perceptions, but to include district administrators a n d informal t e a c h e r a n d c o m m u n i t y leaders w h e r e appropriate.  Overview S i n c e I b e g a n doctoral studies, I have b e c o m e interested in understanding w h y school administrators c h o o s e to introduce a calendar c h a n g e despite the substantial hurdles associated with this innovation. T o understand w h y the school c a l e n d a r s e e m s so entrenched and w h y there is so m u c h resistance to changing it, o n e first needs to be aware of the d e v e l o p m e n t a n d evolution of our current school year. In the next chapter, to provide a context for this study, I provide a brief overview of the history of c o m m o n schooling in North A m e r i c a , followed by a description of the evolution of t h e current "traditional" s c h o o l calendar. In c h a p t e r three, I provide a conceptual m a p and an o v e r v i e w of relevant literature; chapter four describes m y methodology; while chapters five and six contain the findings of this study. In chapter s e v e n , I s u m up the research findings with respect to m y guiding questions. In the final chapter, I identify s o m e implications of t h e s e findings, discuss the role of transformative leadership in educational c h a n g e , and m a k e s o m e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s for practice.  Significance This is a study of leadership for educational c h a n g e a n d educational reform. T h e vehicle I have selected to explore the challenges and potential of structural c h a n g e s in schools is the calendar c h a n g e k n o w n most c o m m o n l y as  Ch. 1. Thinking about reform ... p. 14  y e a r - r o u n d schooling. Given the renewed interest in transformative leadership, educational reform, and school calendars, it s e e m s timely to acquire a d e e p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the various reasons for a calendar change, the underlying motivations of educational leaders, their expectations, and the o u t c o m e s of their initiatives. Identifying the patterns of motivation and purpose, agency a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and o u t c o m e s that are either sustained and successful or that have b e e n discontinued or unsuccessful, m a y help administrators and policy m a k e r s to a d o p t calendar changes in w a y s that will promote improved educational experiences for both students and teachers.  Ch. 2. Historical overview ... p. 15  C H A P T E R 2. H I S T O R I C A L O V E R V I E W — S O M E F A M I L I A R T E N S I O N S In this chapter, I provide an overview of schooling in North A m e r i c a , with an e m p h a s i s o n the d e v e l o p m e n t of the most c o m m o n l y used school calendars. It s h o w s h o w s o m e key educational leaders w o r k e d to achieve their vision of education; it demonstrates how they exercised their power to both i m p l e m e n t their vision a n d to resolve conflicts; it explains how c o n s e n s u s around the school calendar w a s eventually achieved in order to implement the goal of a c o m m o n curriculum. This overview permits us to understand that the traditional calendar, although apparently enshrined in history, w a s f o r m e d out of tensions that are as old as public schooling itself. This chapter allows us to understand s o m e of the trends in the d e v e l o p m e n t of the calendar and the competing p u r p o s e s a n d underlying tensions that not only existed historically but which persist to the twenty-first century. I demonstrate that t h e use of school calendars to a d d r e s s social inequities is not simply a current challenge, but one that has existed for almost two centuries. T h e purpose of this chapter, therefore, is to put this study of leadership a n d year-round schooling in a broader historical context.  The Role of Education Since the time of Pericles, w h o s e idea of d e m o c r a c y in s o m e w a y s a p p r o a c h e s current concepts of meritocracy (Kreis, 2000), there has b e e n a belief that d e m o c r a c y cannot exist without an educated and informed populous. Not surprisingly, the quest for free c o m m o n schooling has been an underlying  Ch. 2. Historical overview ... p. 16  t h e m e in the d e v e l o p m e n t of public education in m a n y d e m o c r a t i c societies. Cubberley (1920) provided an overview of how W e s t e r n public formal education e m e r g e d f r o m five different p h a s e s of w h a t he called "eighteenth century liberalism" (p. 4 7 2 ) . He argued that the various forces that e m e r g e d f r o m the Reformation a n d the Enlightenment b e g a n to wrest t h e institution of education f r o m the control of the church and enabled it to benefit t h o s e other t h a n the elite. In this process, education b e c a m e liberalized and d e m o c r a t i z e d . In the United States, the constitutions of seven of the sixteen states that belonged to t h e Union by the early 1800s included provisions for public education (Cubberley, 1920, p. 522). T h e model of "local control" that b e c a m e the norm in North A m e r i c a did not e m e r g e easily f r o m its democratic roots. T h e w e a k e n i n g of the Puritan m o n o p o l y in N e w England "materially affected both the support and the character of the education provided in the colonies" (1920, p. 5 1 9 - 5 2 0 ) . A l m o s t e v e r y w h e r e , people disagreed over the goals of public education as well as w h a t strategies should b e e m p l o y e d for implementation a n d g o v e r n a n c e . T h e s e tensions b e t w e e n local control and legislation still present challenges for school reform, as the most recent initiatives to modify the school y e a r calendar in British C o l u m b i a demonstrate. During the nineteenth century, the rural school b e l o n g e d , in a real sense, to the local c o m m u n i t y w h e r e it w a s often the center of m o s t of the community's social interactions. In one r o o m schools "all over the nation, ministers met their flocks, politicians c a u c u s e d with the faithful, families g a t h e r e d for C h r i s t m a s parties and h o e - d o w n s , ... a n d neighbors gathered to hear spelling bees and  Ch. 2. Historical overview ... p. 17  declamations" (Tyack, 1974, p. 16). Village schools, often run by local churches and parishes, w e r e subjected to pressures for consolidation a n d conformity f r o m the " c o m m o n school crusade of the 1840's a n d 1850's" (Tyack, 1974, p. 29). B e c a u s e schools today are still often perceived to be local defenders of c h e r i s h e d w a y s o f life a n d family values, "life style" a n d "family value" a r g u m e n t s are often central to resistance to attempts to c h a n g e the school calendar. C r u s a d e r s such as Horace M a n n , Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education (the first state board of education), w e r e influential in the d e v e l o p m e n t of universal, free, non-sectarian, a n d public education. Cubberley (1920) says t h a t M a n n "soon b e c a m e t h e a c k n o w l e d g e d leader in school organization in the United States" (p. 689). "He not only started a great c o m m o n school revival in M a s s a c h u s e t t s . . . but one w h i c h w a s felt a n d w h i c h influenced d e v e l o p m e n t in every Northern State. He will always be regarded as perhaps the greatest of the 'founders' of our A m e r i c a n s y s t e m of free, public schools" (p. 690). A l s o influential w a s J. D. Philbrick w h o , in 1885, published a c o m p r e h e n s i v e survey of City School S y s t e m s in T h e United States. His purpose w a s to hasten that 'uniformity of excellence' in u r b a n e d u c a t i o n w h i c h he f o r e s a w as a product of a n e w enterprise a n d a n intensified emulation a m o n g A m e r i c a n school managers. (Tyack, 1974, p. 39). T o s y s t e m a t i z e and perfect urban education, the superintendency w a s introduced a n d incumbents were given considerable authority to introduce "controls over pupils, teachers, principals and other subordinate m e m b e r s of the school hierarchy" (p. 40). In C a n a d a , m u c h of the credit for establishing a c o m m o n school s y s t e m has been given to Egerton Ryerson, w h o a s s u m e d the position of Upper C a n a d a  Ch. 2. Historical overview ... p. 18  Assistant Superintendent of Education in 1844. T h e following year he traveled a b r o a d to over 20 countries a n d returned with a vision for c o m m o n schools, c o m m o n textbooks, normal schools for teacher education, and a s y s t e m of universal, free, elementary education. His classic Report of 1846  consolidated  his ideas and proposed the blueprint that has been the basis for public e d u c a t i o n in Ontario (and subsequently for m o s t of the rest of C a n a d a ) through t h e C o m m o n School A c t s of 1846 a n d 1850. W h i l e the 1850 Act m a d e possible free c o m m o n schooling for all children if the districts imposed a property tax, there w a s for s o m e time considerable reluctance on the part of the local authorities to levy the tax. M a n y p e o p l e objected to contributing to the cost of educating children other than their o w n . A s one irate taxpayer wrote to Ryerson, "I do not wish to be compelled to e d u c a t e all the brats in the neighbourhood." Ryerson's reply w a s that "to e d u c a t e all the brats in t h e neighbourhood is just t h e very object of the clause" ( J o h n s o n , 1968, P-39). Over the next century, social pressures affected the s h a p e of society a n d the e m e r g i n g education s y s t e m . Increased immigration and industrialization led to a perceived need to socialize new immigrants to democratic principles a n d practices, to teach t h e m English, a n d especially, to assimilate t h e m into North A m e r i c a n society. W h i l e the parochial schools that existed to educate the w e a l t h y did not disappear, a n e w t y p e of school w a s introduced, intended primarily to e d u c a t e the working class both to contribute to the good of society and to e n a b l e the c o m m o n m a n to m o r e intelligently participate in the democratic  Ch. 2. Historical overview ... p. 19  process. T o d a y , the increase of charter schools and school v o u c h e r p r o g r a m s are attempts to bridge the boundaries that still exist b e t w e e n private a n d public education. (A recent illustration is Ontario's, May 2 0 0 1 , proposal for a tuition rebate p r o g r a m for private school attendance.) A s t h e urban areas grew in size and industrialization increased in importance, civil control c a m e to be perceived as a pressing issue. A l o n g with a strong police force, public education w a s seen a m e a n s of maintaining social order and "stringent legislation [was passed] to force truants to g o to school" and remove t h e m f r o m the d e c a d e n t influence of "the streets" (Tyack, 1974, p. 68). Tyack describes how, in 1852, e v e n before the compulsory e d u c a t i o n law of Boston, Massachusetts, schools had b e c o m e institutions for sorting a n d segregating various social g r o u p s in society: "The school c o m m i t t e e had created de facto segregation by establishing intermediate schools catering to poor and immigrant children" (p. 69). In the 1880's, the state superintendent in California wrote that "citizens should support compulsory education to s a v e t h e m s e l v e s f r o m the rapidly increasing herd of non-producers ... to save t h e m s e l v e s f r o m the wretches w h o prey upon society like wild beasts" (p. 69). A r g u m e n t s for yearround schooling today often focus on the needs of poor or immigrant children, not labeling t h e m as "wild beasts" but attempting to find w a y s to e n s u r e that they achieve to t h e s a m e level as their peers. Early education programs in the United States, while ideally f o u n d e d on democratic and egalitarian principles, often turned to a m e c h a n i s m for class separation a n d social control. Likewise, as late as 1940's C a n a d a , G i d n e y (1999)  Ch. 2. Historical overview ... p. 20 maintained that t h e primary secondary school mission in g r a d e s 12 a n d 13 w a s to prepare students for universities. B e c a u s e of the highly a c a d e m i c bias of the programs, 8 0 % either d r o p p e d out or failed (p. 14-15). Civil control a n d the best w a y to p r o m o t e a civil society from diverse school populations are still topics of heated d e b a t e (Bloom, 1987; May, 1998; Schlesinger, 1988). T h e s e tensions are also seen in t h e ongoing d e b a t e about the relative value of liberal or so-called practical e d u c a t i o n . In the last half of the 1800's, similar pressures d e v e l o p e d in agrarian North A m e r i c a n society. T h e H o m e s t e a d A c t s of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the US and C a n a d a brought new w a v e s of immigrants, enticed by the offer of free land. Although most of the immigrants w e r e of European extraction, m a n y w e r e not English speaking. E d u c a t i o n w a s s e e n as the m e a n s of assimilating t h e m into t h e wider society. A s t h e population of rural areas c h a n g e d , the role of education b e c a m e more visible a n d m o r e important and the concomitant problems m o r e apparent. Although t h e f o c u s is no longer explicitly on assimilation, the introduction of a modified school calendar is s o m e t i m e s explained as a w a y of assisting immigrants and non-English speaking students today. By t h e e n d of the nineteenth century, rural a n d urban life b e c a m e more interrelated as farming a n d industry b e c a m e m o r e m e c h a n i z e d . Disparities in the educational experiences a n d opportunities of rural a n d urban students b e c a m e evident. T h e "bookish curriculum, haphazard selection and supervision of teachers, a n d voluntary character of school a t t e n d a n c e " (Tyack, 1974, p. 21),  Ch. 2. Historical overview ... p. 21 c o m b i n e d w i t h generally substandard school buildings a n d woefully inadequate instruction, w e r e seen to be s y m p t o m s of an inability of rural folk to administer education that w a s appropriate for their place in an increasingly c o m p l e x society. In t h e 1890's United States, the National Education Association C o m m i t t e e of T w e l v e on Rural Schools articulated its proposed solutions: Consolidation of schools and transportation of pupils, expert supervision by county superintendents, 'taking the schools out of politics,' professionally trained teachers, a n d connecting the curriculum 'with the everyday life of the community.' (Tyack, 1974, p. 23) It is fascinating to note the c o n t e m p o r a r y nature of t h e s e proposals m a d e m o r e than a century ago. It is important to recognize that the evolution of the North A m e r i c a n school year into its present state w a s never straight-forward, rapid, or s m o o t h . In fact, it took almost a century and a half of m e a n d e r i n g , e v e n tortuous, negotiation for educators to arrive at the standardized-calendar c o m p r o m i s e w e currently have. In the following section, the discussion of the fixing of the school-year calendar illustrates the tensions that were, and are still, present in effecting educational c h a n g e in North A m e r i c a .  I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g the S c h o o l C a l e n d a r i n N o r t h A m e r i c a A l t h o u g h standardization w a s slow, t h e creation of a generally accepted school year w a s influenced by the m a n d a t e for c o m p u l s o r y education in North A m e r i c a . A s with m a n y other aspects of educational innovation, Massachusetts w a s pivotal in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of the school calendar. It w a s the only state in the US to have c o m p u l s o r y education prior to the A m e r i c a n Civil W a r . A statute  Ch. 2. Historical overview ... p. 22 passed in 1852 required that children b e t w e e n the ages of eight and 14 attend 12 w e e k s of schooling annually, although only six of these w e e k s n e e d e d to b e consecutive. Over the next 4 0 years, the requirements in M a s s a c h u s e t t s c h a n g e d frequently, with modifications relating to children of different a g e s a n d varying situations. For e x a m p l e , in 1860, a bill stipulated that children under 12 could not b e e m p l o y e d in manufacturing unless they had attended school for 18 w e e k s in the preceding year. By 1902, all g r a m m a r school children w e r e required to attend school for 32 w e e k s — a period roughly equivalent to the current 180 days m a n d a t e . A n o t h e r leader in A m e r i c a n c o m p u l s o r y education w a s the state of N e w York. By 1874, children b e t w e e n the ages of eight and 14 w e r e required to attend school for fourteen w e e k s , eight of w h i c h h a d to be consecutive. However, in this state as elsewhere, there w e r e great discrepancies b e t w e e n the rural a n d urban s c h o o l years. In the cities, the school w a s the m e a n s for providing a vocational education for workers as well as for the assimilation of immigrants w h o had c o m e seeking a better life; hence the length of the school year w a s progressively increased until it e x c e e d e d 2 0 0 days. By the middle of the nineteenth century, several different calendars had been d e v e l o p e d . While in m a n y urban areas, the school year operated on an eleven or twelve-month basis, in rural areas, the school year lasted for five to six m o n t h s (from the last harvest to the first planting) to a c c o m m o d a t e the needs for children to work on the farms.  Ch. 2. Historical overview ... p. 23  R a p p r o c h e m e n t b e t w e e n the two calendars occurred largely as a result of curriculum standardization and a m o v e m e n t towards m o r e uniform a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e d u r e s . In 1847, curricular modifications to address the newly i m p l e m e n t e d 1  grade-level organization of schools w e r e introduced (Glines, 1988). In order to offer the standard curriculum, urban schools reduced the length of their y e a r a n d rural areas increased the n u m b e r of school days to w h a t w e h a v e c o m e to k n o w as the traditional or "agrarian" calendar, a year with approximately nine m o n t h s of schooling and a three-month s u m m e r break. By the e n d of the century, the shorter urban school y e a r had brought a n u m b e r of critiques. W h e n the U.S. C o m m i s s i o n e r of Education c o m p a r e d t h e school years in several major cities for 1891-92 with those of fifty y e a r s earlier, he f o u n d that "in New York, the school year had g o n e d o w n f r o m 2 4 5 to 20214 days; in Chicago, f r o m 2 4 0 to 192 days; in Philadelphia f r o m 25114 d a y s to 201 days" (Rakoff, 1999, p. 11). A r o u n d this time, a U S C o m m i s s i o n e r of Education, William T. Harris, lamented the reduced n u m b e r of school d a y s in this way: "The boy of today m u s t attend school 11.1 years in order to receive as m u c h instruction, quantitatively, as the boy of 50 years ago received in eight years" (National Education C o m m i s s i o n , 1994, p. 31). T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of the school year in Ontario, C a n a d a , closely paralleled the US experience. A l t h o u g h the Upper C a n a d a School A c t of 1841 m a d e no mention of school holidays, the t w o - w e e k s u m m e r vacation established in 1846 was gradually c h a n g e d until, in 1913, the present t w o - m o n t h holiday w a s  1t is interesting, again, to note how the twin drivers of assessment and a standardized curriculum drove schools then as they do now. 1  Ch. 2. Historical overview ... p. 24  adopted ( B r o w n , 1999, p.1). In 1 8 7 1 , Egerton Ryerson reported that m o s t schools w e r e o p e n almost all year, with an average t i m e of o p e n i n g of eleven months a n d six d a y s — t w i c e the average time of either Pennsylvania or Ohio. This period of staying o p e n , of course, did not imply that children n e e d e d to be in school for that length of time, instead that they w e r e able to c h o o s e to attend school during that period. In 1 8 7 1 , Ryerson, the Assistant Superintendent of Education, introduced the Compulsory Education Act of Ontario, that for the first time, m a d e m e n t i o n of a specified s u m m e r vacation of o n e m o n t h for c o m m o n schools a n d six w e e k s for secondary schools. In C a n a d a , too, there w e r e discrepancies b e t w e e n urban a n d rural calendars, this time with rural dwellers urging a longer school y e a r t h a n that desired by t h e cities. Evidence for this interpretation is f o u n d in petitions from various county councils in 1886 located in the Ontario A r c h i v e s (Series R G 2-42, cited by B r o w n , 1999, p. 8) in which rural schools sought permission to remain o p e n in t h e s u m m e r . In support, they petitioned: That m a n y of the pupils, by reason of their age, the long distance f r o m school, and the storms of the long winter, are unable to attend e x c e p t in s u m m e r ; That present Holidays take out of the time for their attendance a large part of the best portion of the year, as regards time a n d weather. That a g e n e r a l feeling exists a m o n g the parents of our constituencies that the Vacations are too long; Y o u r petitioners therefore pray that y o u will c a u s e s u c h alterations as will materially shorten the m i d - s u m m e r Vacation for Rural Schools... A l t h o u g h it appears that it w a s the majority urban populations that ultimately w o n t h e day in t e r m s of the school year calendar a n d the standard two  Ch. 2. Historical overview ... p. 25  to three m o n t h s u m m e r vacation, t h e calendar is still popularly a n d mistakenly considered to be a reflection of agrarian needs for a s u m m e r planting a n d harvest period. Interestingly, the school calendar devised for c o m p u l s o r y education prior to t h e beginning of the T w e n t i e t h Century w a s usually based on a m a n d a t e d m i n i m u m required length of s u m m e r vacation, rather than a m i n i m u m daily a t t e n d a n c e . Ultimately, t h e s u m m e r holiday w a s fixed at approximately t w o m o n t h s and t h e fall t e r m set to begin in early September. This w a s , in part, d u e to c o m m o n beliefs t h a t both children a n d t e a c h e r s n e e d e d t i m e for t h e regeneration of their mental a n d physical energies. T h e long s u m m e r vacation w a s , perhaps, also a r e s p o n s e to the c o m m o n belief, e x p r e s s e d in a petition circulated by the city of G u e l p h , Ontario (in about 1886), that cited a large n u m b e r of C a n a d i a n , as well as A m e r i c a n , medical journals that w a r n e d of "injury d o n e to t h e bodies a n d brains of children 'by the overstrain of their brain at t o o early a n age,' a n d at one w h e n it is rapidly a n d actively developing a n d easily excited to take o n disease" (Brown, 1 9 9 9 , p. 17).  A P r e s s for C h a n g e Despite t h e general standardization of school calendars at t h e e n d of the nineteenth century, c h a n g e s continued to occur. W h a t s o m e regard a s early year-round schools were introduced in Bluffton, Ohio, in 1904; Newark, New Jersey, in 1 9 1 2 ; a n d Minot, North Dakota, in 1917. Glines (1988) indicates that T h e y w e r e b e g u n for m a n y reasons. N e w a r k did it to help immigrants learn English and to enable students to accelerate; Bluffton did it to improve curriculum a n d learning a n d to provide  Ch. 2. Historical overview ... p. 26  family a n d student options ... and Minot did it to meet the needs of the 'laggards.' (p. 17) Brinkerhoff, an educational researcher of the 1930s, reported the s u c c e s s of w h a t w e r e t h e n called "all-year schools." T h e y graduate "a higher p e r c e n t a g e of their pupils; they s h o w a lower g r a d e age; t h e y have less retardation; they lose f e w e r pupils before graduating." Moreover, Brinkerhoff s a w "no e v i d e n c e of 'brain fatigue, loss of mental health, or impaired physical development'" (cited in Doyle & Finn, 1985, p. 31). Due to new e c o n o m i c and social pressures, these early f o r m s of year-round schooling did not persist beyond T h e Great Depression and W o r l d W a r II.  Summary of Historical Overview Recognizing that the present " c o m m o n calendar" w a s the result of a negotiated conciliation to address the changing needs of society might help us to accept a similar process of negotiation today. T h e so-called "traditional" calendar is not c o m m o n l y s e e n as the constructed c o m p r o m i s e that it is. B e c a u s e t h e traditional calendar is enshrined in the perceived profound insight and sacred c u s t o m s of times wiser and more g r o u n d e d than ours, the traditional calendar is often s e e n as a n objective "best s y s t e m " (Tyack, 1974). This often m a k e s c h a n g e exceedingly difficult. Suggestions for modification are perceived not as w a y s of addressing needs in society, but as challenges and threats to the roots and stability our culture and social s y s t e m . T h e preceding overview of the d e v e l o p m e n t of the "typical" school year, a n d discussion of t h e current thinking about year-round schooling, d e m o n s t r a t e that the d e v e l o p m e n t and evolution of the present education s y s t e m in North  Ch. 2. Historical overview ... p. 27  A m e r i c a w e r e s h a p e d by t e n s i o n s — t e n s i o n s b e t w e e n socializing goals a n d educative goals of the educational s y s t e m , b e t w e e n professionalism a n d bureaucracy, decentralization a n d centralization, rural and urban interests, societal m a n d a t e s and individual rights, rich and poor, vocational a n d a c a d e m i c purposes and by emotional as well as rational arguments. Nevertheless, in spite of a period of d o r m a n c y following W o r l d W a r II, interest in year-round schooling continues to recur. This study is a n a t t e m p t to understand and explain this p h e n o m e n o n f r o m the perspective of educational leaders.  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 28  C H A P T E R 3. L I T E R A T U R E In this chapter I provide an overview of s o m e strands of literature that c o m b i n e to provide a foundation for this study. I first e x a m i n e the topic of y e a r - r o u n d schooling in general with particular f o c u s on its reported benefits a n d challenges. T h e n , I investigate literature related to educational reform more generally, with a focus on s o m e of the challenges in implementing c h a n g e . Here I concentrate on theoretical perspectives that help to explain w h y educational c h a n g e a n d reform often a p p e a r so difficult and consider w a y s to m o v e beyond the constraints. Finally, I e x a m i n e the literature related to transformative leadership a n d its relation to the introduction of successful educational change. This conceptual f r a m e w o r k is schematically depicted in Figure 1.  Research about Year-Round Schooling A l t h o u g h year-round schooling has existed in s o m e form or other in North A m e r i c a for almost a century, there is no coherent body of literature that explains w h y o n e should introduce year-round schooling as a structural reform. For the most part, the literature f o c u s e s on various reasons given by principals in separate locations for choosing their unique Y R S calendars. W h a t follows is an o v e r v i e w o f s o m e of the m o s t c o m m o n reasons for changing school calendars. O n e will note, however, that there are no underlying conceptual f r a m e w o r k s , a n d no unifying t h r e a d s ; indeed, the reasons range f r o m educational to political to fiscal a n d e v e n personal.  Ch. 3. Literature ... p. 29  Figure 1. Conceptual framework.  Y E A R - R O U N D SCHOOLING  impact on student learning  motivation & burn-out  attendance & drop-outs  vandalism & delinquency  teacher benefits U  U fiscal & physical benefits  negative consequences  gap?  EDUCATIONAL CHANGE  changing educational structures  lenses on change  habitus  outsidedness  tenuous \^^connection ?  T R A N S F O R M A T I V E LEADERSHIP  agency  moral purpose  power  A literature map showing the relationships between literature on year-round schooling, educational change, and transformative leadership.  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 30  Impact o n Student A c h i e v e m e n t M a n y studies have f o u n d that year-round schooling is associated with i m p r o v e m e n t s in student a c a d e m i c achievement (Baker, 1990; Bradford, 1993; Grotjean & Banks, 1993; Kneese, 1996; Los A n g e l e s Unified School District, 1982-83; Mutchler, 1993; Peltier, 1 9 9 1 ; Perry, 1 9 9 1 ; W i n t e r s , 1995). Other careful reviews of t h e literature (Goren & Carriedo, 1986; Hazelton et al, 1992; Merino, 1983; Z y k o w s k i et al, 1991) have identified studies in w h i c h there w a s either a slight gain or, at m i n i m u m , no difference w h e n t h e a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t of students in traditional and year-round schools w a s c o m p a r e d . It should be noted that while t h e finding of "no difference" has frequently been used as an a r g u m e n t against proceeding with Y R S , Shields and L a R o c q u e (1997) posited that a finding of "no difference" with respect to student a c h i e v e m e n t should be interpreted in a relatively positive light, in that it d e m o n s t r a t e s that it is possible for structural c h a n g e , increased facility use, and cost benefits to occur without negative c o n s e q u e n c e s to important student o u t c o m e s . T h e r e is compelling evidence that the positive effects of Y R S are e n h a n c e d for students in at-risk groups (Capps & Cox, 1 9 9 1 ; G a n d a r a & Fish, 1994; Perry, 1 9 9 1 ; Serifs, 1990). O n e apparent exception, frequently cited in the literature, is t h e study by Quinlan and associates (1987). T h e y found that student a c h i e v e m e n t in multi-track year-round schools in the large, urban c o m m u n i t y studied w a s lower t h a n in other schools; however, they qualified this finding by saying that it w a s neither unexpected nor attributable to Y R S , but likely d u e to a n u m b e r of o t h e r factors inherent in the setting.  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 31  A f e w other studies s h o w a mixed impact o n student achievement. Harlan (1973) f o u n d that students with IQs below 100 w e r e negatively affected by the Y R S calendar. A San Diego study conducted in 1994 (Fass-Holmes & Gates) f o u n d that Y R S h a d a negative impact o n its experimental middle school, while having a positive impact on the achievement of its elementary single-track schools. Motivation and Burn-Out T h e literature also indicates that students in Y R S s e e m m o r e ready to learn and to maintain their motivation t h r o u g h o u t the year than their peers in traditional schools (Hazelton et al., 1992; Z y k o w s k i et al., 1991). Most children indicate that the s u m m e r vacation associated with the traditional calendar b e c o m e s long a n d often boring and m a n y report they are ready to return to school earlier (Shields & O b e r g , 2000). T h e t h r e e - w e e k breaks distributed throughout the school year a p p e a r to be almost ideal for a reprieve f r o m the routine of schooling. Teachers and parents, as well as students report that just as motivation w a s dwindling, school breaks o c c u r r e d ; likewise, e v e r y o n e s e e m e d ready to return following the breaks. Hence, increasing student motivation a n d lessening burn-out is another reason often given for introducing Y R S . S c h o o l Attendance and Drop-Outs T h e r e is a c o n s e n s u s in the literature that Y R S reduces the student dropout rate, facilitates retention in school, and increases student attendance rates (Baker, 1990; Bradford, 1993; Brekke, 1983: L A U S D , 1983; White, 1987; White, 1988). This finding s e e m s to relate to the previous notions that higher and  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 32  more sustained levels of motivation, increased school success, and sustained involvement in extra-curricular activities m a y be associated with better attendance and completion rates. If a student has missed an e x t e n d e d period of time d u e to family circumstances or personal illness, s o m e t i m e s he or s h e is permitted to attend a class o n a different track during a break (Shields & O b e r g , 2000). T h e opportunity to spend time during the break to catch up m a y facilitate moving a h e a d with peers. T h e benefits m a y be increased in high schools w h e r e students s o m e t i m e s b e c o m e discouraged and drop out of school or w h e r e loss of credits s o m e t i m e s delays graduation or prevents entry into s u b s e q u e n t programs. W h e r e intersession offered the opportunity for a student w h o has failed a class to retake it and not repeat a whole year, the benefits w e r e perceived to be considerable. T h u s , the increased opportunities offered by both ST and M T - Y R S for enrichment, for catch-up, and for remediation offered by the m o r e regular pattern of schooling and vacation, a n d s o m e t i m e s e n h a n c e d by intersession programs, s e e m s t o h a v e a n indisputably positive effect on student a t t e n d a n c e a n d course completion (Shields & O b e r g , 2000). Decrease in Vandalism and Delinquency M a n y year-round schools also report a decreased incidence of student v a n d a l i s m a n d communities noted a concomitant decrease in juvenile crime (Ballinger, 1987; Brekke, 1983; Hazelton e t a l . , 1992; Merino, 1983). S o m e hypothesize that d e c r e a s e d v a n d a l i s m m a y be associated with increased u s e of school facilities over a longer portion of the school year. Others suggest that  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 33 decreased juvenile crime m a y be attributed, in part, to reduced student b o r e d o m and to smaller n u m b e r s of students not in school at a n y o n e time. Benefits to T e a c h e r s A l t h o u g h administrators generally tout the a d v a n t a g e s to students, there is little d o u b t that often the impetus for a calendar c h a n g e c o m e s f r o m teachers w h o have h e a r d a b o u t t h e benefits related t o their o w n quality of w o r k life. T h e research clearly indicates that teachers with experience in both year-round and traditional c a l e n d a r schools (TCS) are overwhelmingly positive about t h e relative merits o f Y R S c o m p a r e d to T C S (Brekke, 1 9 8 3 ; Christie, 1 9 8 9 ; G a n d a r a , 1992; L A U S D , 1983; Merino, 1983; M c N a m a r a , 1 9 8 1 ; Peltier, 1 9 9 1 ; W e b s t e r & Nyberg, 1992). S o m e reasons for general satisfaction relate to perceptions of higher student e n j o y m e n t a n d motivation (Hazelton et al., 1992; Z y k o w s k i et al., 1991), higher personal levels of motivation (Shields & O b e r g , 1995), a n d s o m e t i m e s , higher salaries ( G o r e n & Carriedo, 1986). Prior to w o r k i n g in Y R S , teachers expressed c o n c e r n s a b o u t w h e t h e r there w o u l d be a n opportunity to complete university courses a n d other professional d e v e l o p m e n t activities. T h e y also w o n d e r e d w h e t h e r there w o u l d be difficulties associated with family vacations. T h e s e concerns have been found to be unwarranted. S o m e teachers reported increased opportunities for professional d e v e l o p m e n t ( H e r m a n , 1991) a n d m a n y others indicated a preference for the resulting vacation schedule (Shields & Oberg, 1995). Especially convincing w a s the finding that after three years o n the complex Orchard Plan, in which students  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 34 actually rotate in a n d out of classes, only o n e of 57 teachers had requested a transfer a n d 9 5 % stated a continuing preference for the plan (Gandara, 1992). Fiscal and Physical Benefits A n o t h e r r e a s o n for choosing to introduce t h e multi-track version of yearround schooling is its reputed ability to avoid capital cost expenditures, to s a v e on district per pupil operating costs, a n d t o r e d u c e overcrowding by a c c o m m o d a t i n g m o r e children in a rotating schedule in existing buildings. D e n t o n and W a l e n t a (1993) cite the e x a m p l e of a district in California, and say that w h e n the district factored in the capital costs it w o u l d have e x p e n d e d for new buildings, Y R S does save money. G o r e n a n d Carriedo (1986) identify increased costs largely due to inclusion of transitional e x p e n s e s such as new district f o r m s , increased rubbish disposal, and n e w vehicles required by the transportation department. A l t h o u g h s o m e studies suggest that year-round schools are m o r e expensive to operate than traditional calendar schools. W h i t e (1992) identified the unanticipated costs w h e n Jefferson County, Colorado, after 14 years on a M T y e a r - r o u n d calendar, returned to a traditional calendar. H e clarified t h e n e e d t o distinguish b e t w e e n the costs for an individual school and those that are district expenditures by saying, "even t h o u g h e a c h school's total operating costs rise w h e n the school switches to a year-round schedule, the district's unit costs drop" (p. 30). He a d d e d , W h e n Jefferson County built and o p e n e d new schools to displace t h e y e a r - r o u n d operation, t h e district's total operating costs far e x c e e d e d the costs for serving the s a m e enrollment on a yearround calendar. Yet no one had ever m a d e a convincing case to  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 35 the public that explained the savings involved in the y e a r - r o u n d a p p r o a c h . " (p. 30) A l t h o u g h there are n u m e r o u s district studies in which there is detailed analysis of parent, student, teacher satisfaction, f e w assess the costs or fiscal benefits of y e a r - r o u n d schooling. T h i s is particularly interesting in v i e w of o n e of the stated purposes: to save money. Brekke (1983, 1985) presented extensive cost analyses of Y R S in Oxnard School District. In each analysis, the general findings w e r e similar, that Y R E within the Oxnard School District has s h o w n a very substantial saving in operational and capital e x p e n s e . . . [It] has, in the a b s e n c e of school building funds, kept the District f r o m a massive p r o g r a m of double/half-day session classes. (1985, p. 16) The Negative C o n s e q u e n c e s of Y e a r - R o u n d S c h o o l i n g T h e previous overview of various aspects of research into Y R S has focused on its positive attributes and o u t c o m e s . T o attempt to "balance" this overview with a discussion of its negative aspects is extremely difficult in that most of the negativity related to Y R S s t e m s either f r o m pre-conceived preimplementation concerns or from difficulties associated with implementation procedures. T h e r e is very little in the literature to suggest negative o u t c o m e s w h e n implementation has been careful and ultimately successful. T h a t said, there is certainly a body of literature that e x p r e s s e s concern, often raising questions about the relative merits of putting m o r e students in existing buildings or about the conclusiveness of research indicating a c a d e m i c benefits (Ascher, 1988; Naylor, 1995). For e x a m p l e , s o m e authors suggest that e v e n putting additional students in existing facilities with a concomitant finding of "no difference" (Carriedo & Goren, 1989; Z y k o w s k i et al. 1991), to student  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 36  learning is negative (Naylor, 1995). Others argue that fiscal accountability and savings with n o detrimental effects on student learning are not negative but responsible (Shields & L a R o c q u e , 1997). Although s o m e authors claim that Y R S does not effect fiscal-savings, it is b e c a u s e they have considered school operating e x p e n s e s rather t h a n overall district costs including capital expenditures (Denton & W a l e n t a , 1993; Hough, Z y k o w s k i , & Dick, 1990; Zykowski et. al., 1991). S o m e t i m e s , too, as Denton and W a l e n t a (1993) and Zykowski and colleagues (1991) have d e m o n s t r a t e d , increased w e a r a n d tear on existing buildings is considered as a cost, but the parallel savings in capital outlay are not considered. T h e r e is an additional body of literature that raises questions about the need for c h a n g e given that the "traditional" calendar s e e m s to have b e e n so enduring a n d to have served previous generations well. In fact, it is this literature that p r o m p t e d m y focus on c h a n g e in the next section. It is fair to say that the concerns relate to the need to reconceptualize s u c h activities a s s u m m e r vacation a n d daycare and with their underlying values and traditions (Smith, 1992; W h i t e , 1990). S o m e t i m e s , in an apparent effort to discredit Y R S , authors provide a list of schools a n d districts that have c h o s e n to discontinue the Y R S calendar, without including a parallel list of newly implementing schools a n d districts. For e x a m p l e , Rasberry (1994) included in her article, the name of one Utah school that had discontinued t h e calendar but failed to note that in the s a m e year, a d o z e n other schools m o v e d to the Y R calendar.  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 37 T h e o n e limitation and challenge of Y R S that s o m e say c a n n o t be a d d r e s s e d is t h e challenge of organizing s c h e d u l e s if children a r e in schools with different calendars. This is once again, m o r e a n issue of c o m p e t i n g schedules, than a specific problem with t h e Y R calendar; nevertheless, for s o m e families, it constitutes a real barrier to acceptance of a modified calendar. This s e e m s to be particularly true in that the balanced calendar is prevalent at t h e elementary level, thus requiring families with children in both e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y school to juggle s c h e d u l e s . It must however, be noted that in districts like Chandler District, Arizona or S a n M a r c o s District in California in w h i c h s e c o n d a r y schools are all o n a Y R calendar, t h e problem does not arise (Shields & O b e r g , 2 0 0 0 ) . For t h e most part, the literature suggests there a r e challenges rather than negative a s p e c t s — c h a l l e n g e s most frequently related to issues of implementation such as consultation, decision-making, c o m m u n i c a t i o n , c o m m u n i t y relations, c h a n g e , a n d t h e persistence o f tradition. Perry (1991) s u m s this up in this w a y : E c o n o m i c considerations...do not have t h e persuasive p o w e r to foster exploration of the savings to be gained by alternative s c h e d u l i n g . T h e barriers that predominate are t h o s e of habit a n d t r a d i t i o n — v a c a t i o n s , s u m m e r e m p l o y m e n t , collective a g r e e m e n t s — with less consideration of issues relative to l e a r n i n g — i n t e g r a t i o n of the s c h o o l a n d the community, a c c e s s to p r o g r a m s , a n d remedial a n d instructional innovation, (p. 15) S u m m a r y of Y R S Literature In t h e foregoing section I have e x a m i n e d literature related to the benefits and challenges related to Y R S calendars. For t h e m o s t part, research has d e m o n s t r a t e d that a school calendar c h a n g e m a y be associated with higher  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 38  a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t for m a n y students, increased motivation (and less b u r n out) for t e a c h e r s and students, better overall attendance, lower student drop-out and lower rates of vandalism a n d student suspensions. Other benefits relate to items s o m e t i m e s considered t o b e non-educational, s u c h a s increasing t h e capacity of existing buildings a n d avoidance of capital outlay during periods of rapid growth or fiscal restraint. T h e literature addressing challenges is less conclusive, focusing m o r e c o m m o n l y o n attitudes than on findings. Y e t for a n y school leader w a n t i n g to i m p l e m e n t a calendar c h a n g e , attitudes a r e no less real a n d present significant challenges during the adoption a n d implementation stages of the reform a n d resistance is often encountered. B e c a u s e Y R S is a type of educational c h a n g e that falls under a more general rubric of educational reform, in the next section I e x a m i n e t h e literature related to educational change to determine w h e t h e r it s h e d s light o n t h e challenges of implementing Y R S .  Educational Change: Challenges and Perspectives Despite a huge body of literature that e x a m i n e s educational reform, I w a s unable to find a n y studies o f large scale reform that included mention o f yearround schooling. For example, in the edited book by Leiberman (1986), there is a section entitled "new images and metaphors" in w h i c h "fresh w a y s to think about school i m p r o v e m e n t " (p. vii) are e x a m i n e d , but school calendars are notably a b s e n t / L i k e w i s e in the examination of the purpose of public education a n d schooling b y G o o d l a d a n d M c M a n n o n (1997) there is extensive discussion of d e m o c r a c y a n d school reform, again with no mention of school calendars.  Ch 3. Literature ... p.  39  Perhaps even m o r e telling is that in t w o recent h a n d b o o k s related to educational leadership a n d administration (see English, 2 0 0 5 ; a n d Leithwood & Hallinger, 2002), there is still no mention of calendar reform, despite several articles addressing the current reform climate. Despite the lack of m e n t i o n of Y R S , I first e x a m i n e s o m e literature related to educational reform and then e x t e n d m y gaze to literature m o r e broadly addressing the challenges of o v e r c o m i n g resistance in order to implement change. Changing Educational Structures C h a n g e literature s e e m s to d e - e m p h a s i z e structural c h a n g e a n d to promote cultural change as the primary focus for lasting c h a n g e , o n e that promotes capacity building and collaboration. Hargreaves a n d Fullan (1998) assert that it is important to place "a high priority on reculturing y o u r s c h o o l . . . a n d not merely restructuring it" (p.118). Structures, s u c h as school buildings, school organization, or school calendars, m a n y believe (see also Levin, 2001) have little to d o with student learning. Further, m a n y educators are suspicious of structural c h a n g e , believing it is a form of tinkering with the f a c a d e of the organization and leaving the central core of teaching and learning intact. Failing to recognize that current structures reflect past cultures, they claim that structural c h a n g e d o e s not really reach areas w h e r e the major changes need to occur. Hargreaves a n d Fullan (1998), for e x a m p l e , state that restructuring which refers to "changes in the formal structure of schooling in terms of organization, timetables, roles and the like [has a] terrible track record" (p. 118). On the other hand, they assert that "reculturing does m a k e  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 40  a difference in t e a c h i n g a n d learning" (p. 118). Levin (2001), in his analysis of reform in five jurisdictions, supports this perspective. He studied structural reforms related to school choice, charter schools, increased testing, stricter curriculum guides, and c h a n g e s in g o v e r n a n c e in England, N e w Z e a l a n d , C a n a d a (Manitoba and Alberta), and the United States (Minnesota). Overall, he f o u n d that t h e c h a n g e s h a d little significant impact o n student achievement. Levin supports his a r g u m e n t by citing Elmore w h o wrote in 1995, " C h a n g e s in structure are w e a k l y related to c h a n g e s in teaching practice, and therefore structural change d o e s not necessarily lead to changes in teaching, learning, a n d student performance" (in Levin, 2 0 0 1 , p. 27). T h e r e is s o m e research to support Levin's (2001) claim. T h e r e is, for example, little convincing e v i d e n c e that a change on the part of a high school to or f r o m block scheduling or semestering, without any c o n c o m i t a n t c h a n g e s in pedagogical strategies, has any significant or lasting effect on student learning (Brake, 2 0 0 0 ; Pisapia & Westfall, 1997). Likewise, if w e c h a n g e the levels of responsibility or the lines of communication in a district office, there is little reason to think the new organization will have a m o r e direct impact on student learning t h a n the previous one. If w e m o v e the site of funding decisions from a district c o m m i t t e e to a school committee, there m a y be a better c h a n c e that local conditions a n d n e e d s will be considered, but unless the decision relates to classroom e q u i p m e n t or learning materials, it is unlikely to be noticed by the students or to have any identifiable impact on their learning environment.  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 41  C h a n g e s that have a direct impact on the lives of teachers a n d students may be m o r e likely to affect classroom practice and hence the core functions of learning a n d teaching. Yet even here w e need to be cautious. Despite considerable research into class size, an aspect of schooling that definitely pertains to the classroom, more than 5 0 % of all studies have found an inconclusive impact on student performance (Hanushek, 1998). Nevertheless, a new m a t h curriculum, for example, is more likely to c h a n g e the w a y in w h i c h math is both taught and understood than including m o r e parents on a committee. A c h a n g e f r o m segregated p r o g r a m m i n g for E S L or learning disabled students will c h a n g e t h e classroom relationships a n d the n o r m s of instruction. Moreover, c h a n g e s that impact teaching practice are not the only reforms that have the potential to affect student performance. Sleegers, Geijsel, and van d e n Berg (2002) specifically address the structural-functional perspective on educational innovation which they say has, over t h e past several decades, "dominated in research, policy, and practice" (p. 78). T h e y e x p l a i n : Within this m o d e l of school organization, the role of the principal b e c o m e s essentially managerial in nature.... Innovation is construed as a strategy through which the school controls teacher behaviors t o w a r d achievement of desired o u t c o m e s of the organization.... In fact, the structural-functional perspective is entirely consistent with the traditional w a y of thinking about m a n a g e m e n t in industrial settings, (p. 78) Here, educational change is seen in terms of control, with a governing body having the power, not only to initiate and m a n d a t e the c h a n g e , but to identify input controls that are designed to produce the anticipated outcomes. If Y R S w e r e introduced according to this model, inputs related to teaching, learning, and  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 42  attendance, for example, w o u l d be tightly prescribed. Because there are no such prescriptions identified in the literature on Y R S , despite the reported benefits to students d e s c r i b e d previously, this a p p r o a c h to educational c h a n g e d o e s not s e e m useful for this study. T h e primary contribution, therefore, to this study by the structuralfunctional literature on educational c h a n g e is not that it explains how c h a n g e should occur, but that it offers n u m e r o u s descriptions of the difficulty of introducing change. C u b a n (1998) o b s e r v e d , for example, that "schools are m o r e likely to c h a n g e imposed reforms than imposed reforms are likely to c h a n g e schools" (cited in Kowalski & Brunner, 2 0 0 5 , p. 159). Fullan (1993) attributed the difficulty in achieving educational c h a n g e t o t h e intrinsic conservatism of today's schools: O n the one hand w e have the constant a n d expanding p r e s e n c e of educational innovation a n d reform. It is no exaggeration to say that dealing with change is e n d e m i c to p o s t - m o d e r n society. O n t h e other hand, however, w e have an educational s y s t e m that is fundamentally conservative. T h e w a y that teachers are trained, the w a y that schools are organized, the w a y that the educational hierarchy operates, and the w a y that education is treated by political decision-makers results in a s y s t e m that is m o r e likely to retain the status quo than to change. W h e n change is attempted under such circumstances, it results in defensiveness, superficiality or at best short-lived pockets of success, (p. 3) Fullan's s e n s e of conservatism is basically a recognition of homeostasis, a recognition that without continuous attention a n d effort, social s y s t e m s t e n d t o w a r d equilibrium and maintenance of the status quo rather t h a n to c h a n g e . For t h a t reason, it is t h e wider literature o n c h a n g e that offers t h e m o s t useful contribution to m y conceptual framework, particularly elements of Bourdieu's sociological theory a n d of Bakhtin's literary theory of culture a n d outsidedness.  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 43 C h a n g e through the L e n s e s of Habitus a n d O u t s i d e d n e s s Bourdieu's (1993) theory of habitus and t h e relationships b e t w e e n cultural fields s u c h as education a n d organizational structures (such as school-year calendars) explain h o w people are constrained by their social, political, a n d cultural realities ( s e e also Bourdieu & W a c q u a n t , 1992). Here, I d o not purport t o adopt Bourdieu's theory wholesale or to adequately represent t h e body of his work. I simply t a k e t h e explanatory potential of habitus as useful for this study of educational c h a n g e . Bourdieu is widely recognized for his F r a m e w o r k that addresses t h e agency/structure p r o b l e m in c o n t e m p o r a r y social theory. He in fact w a s o n e of t h e first poststructuralist sociologists to bring actors back into t h e structural m o d e l s of stratification by showing that t h e idea that structures reproduce a n d function as constraints is not incompatible with t h e idea that actors create structures. (Swartz, 1997, p. 2 9 0 ) . Despite the originality of his a p p r o a c h to the agency-structure d i l e m m a , he is still critiqued for lacking a n institutional perspective o n a g e n c y (see for e x a m p l e Lamont, 1989). Y e t , as Swartz points out, he has "consistently maintained that practices derive f r o m the intersection of habitus with structures" (p. 121). Bourdieu believes that culture is c o m p o s e d of a variety of fields (such as education, the state, religion, a n d political parties) which "define the structure of the social setting in which habitus operates" (Swartz, 1997, p. 117). Each field occupies positions that have d e v e l o p e d over long periods of t i m e a n d w h i c h reflect their p o s s e s s i o n of various forms of capital. T h e recognition of social, economic, a n d cultural capital has led to the study of each field's o w n traditions, rules, a n d practices. Bourdieu used the term habitus as a w a y o f explaining t h e norms that h a v e d e v e l o p e d in e a c h specific field. He argues that "a s y s t e m of  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 44 dispositions c o m m o n to all products of the s a m e conditionings" (1990, p. 59) explains w h y m e m b e r s of the s a m e institutions tend to share cultural and social experiences that s h a p e t h e m and constrain their understandings and ability to change. T h e implication is that choice is therefore b o u n d e d by w h a t w e know. Bourdieu's explanation of habitus is relevant to our understanding of c h a n g e in e d u c a t i o n . He writes: Habitus t e n d s to generate all the 'reasonable' a n d ' c o m m o n s e n s e ' behaviours (and only those) which are possible within t h e limits of t h e s e regularities, and which are likely to be positively sanctioned b e c a u s e they are objectively adjusted to the logic characteristic of the field, w h o s e objective future they anticipate. At the s a m e time...it t e n d s to exclude all 'extravagances' ('not for the likes of us'), that is, all the behaviors that w o u l d be negatively sanctioned b e c a u s e they are incompatible with the objective conditions, (p. 5556) W i t h respect to t h e school calendar, therefore, a n y modification f r o m that w h i c h people have experienced first hand themselves often s e e m s to be an e x t r a v a g a n c e that should be "negatively s a n c t i o n e d " in that it is incompatible with the n o r m . Bourdieu tends to focus on fields as t h e product of relationships and struggles situated in history, a view which leads to a "finalizing" of a particular cultural artifact. Bourdieu's (1990, 1993) theory of fields promotes understanding of c h a n g e a n d continuity in social institutions a n d is helpful in understanding w h y educational c h a n g e is so difficult. He does not, however, provide m u c h assistance regarding h o w c h a n g e m a y occur. Indeed, this is o n e a r e a (although not the only one) in which critiques have been leveled at Bourdieu's thinking (see for e x a m p l e S w i n g e w o o d (1998)., In contrast, Bakhtin's (1986) concept of outsidedness, an analysis of the material realities that have shaped the culture a n d that m a y lead to  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 45 understanding, s e e m s more able to e m b r a c e c h a n g e . A s with Bourdieu, I do not intend t o address, e x a m i n e , or incorporate t h e b o d y of Bakhtin's thinking, with its foci on literary criticism, chronotopes, dialogism, a n d carnival. I t a k e the concept of "outsidedness" to suggest o n e w a y ( a m o n g m a n y possible a p p r o a c h e s ) of conceptualizing educational change. Outsidedness explores h o w people with different beliefs a n d experiences c o m e to s e e o n e another as outsiders. Exploring this concept, Bakhtin believes that T h e truth is not born a n d d o e s not reside in the h e a d of a n individual person; it is born of the dialogical intercourse between people in the collective search for truth (Bakhtin & Volosinov, 1973, p. 90) T h e c o n c e p t of outsidedness is c o m p l e m e n t e d by his better k n o w n notions of dialogue a n d dialogism through w h i c h people c o m e to understand e a c h other, to identify possible change, and hence, to m o v e b e y o n d the forces of culture and tradition. For Bakhtin, dialogue is not simply talk. It is not speech at all but an ontology, a w a y of life. Dialogue is living in o p e n n e s s to new concepts, not as reified things, but as ever changing meanings. He writes, A m e a n i n g only reveals its depths once it has e n c o u n t e r e d a n d c o m e into contact with another, foreign m e a n i n g : they e n g a g e in a kind of dialogue, which s u r m o u n t s the closedness and o n e s i d e d n e s s of these particular meanings, these cultures. (1986, p. 7) For Bakhtin, despite enduring cultural structures, the boundaries are always p e r m e a b l e , always fluid, and never static. Hence, as Shields (2003) states, his concepts "permit us to m o v e forward, to o p e n the boundaries, to o v e r c o m e the inertia of a fixed notion of culture or power, and to recognize the fluidity a n d ever changing nature of an educational community" (p. 323).  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 46  Bakhtin argues that no m e a n i n g s are fixed, but that they constantly need to be negotiated and renegotiated for different times a n d contexts. He says: T h e r e is neither a first nor a last w o r d and there are no limits to the dialogic context (it extends into the boundless past and the boundless future). E v e n past meanings, that is, those born in the dialogue of past centuries, c a n never be stable (finalised, e n d e d o n c e a n d for all) - they will always c h a n g e (be renewed) in t h e process of s u b s e q u e n t future d e v e l o p m e n t of the dialogue. (Bakhtin, 1986, p. 170) Bakhtin's theory therefore supports the need to e x a m i n e how educational leaders approach the difficult process of understanding their communities, of negotiating new m e a n i n g s that have the potential to m o v e people b e y o n d the current habitus of education, and therefore, how they understand education itself a n d thus, how they introduce and lead educational c h a n g e in their contexts. T h e foregoing theories suggest the inextricably interrelated nature of culture and structure. T h e y help to explain the findings of m a n y educational researchers that "educational reforms have often b e e n thwarted by t h e robust nature of established school practices" (Silins & Mulford, 2002, p. 567). Both Bourdieu and Bakhtin recognize that cultural artifacts, w h e n e n t r e n c h e d over time, b e c o m e e m b o d i e d in societal structures. In turn over time, the structures themselves b e c o m e e m b o d i e d in the cultural artifacts. In short, despite m a n y current educational theories to the contrary, it is unproductive for educational reformers a n d policy m a k e r s to attempt to separate culture f r o m structure or to determine w h i c h is the m o r e important lever for educational c h a n g e . Given that there is a strong a n d endurable interactive effect, it is important to e x a m i n e both simultaneously.  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 47 In the following section I briefly e x a m i n e literature that a d d r e s s e s the role of the principal (or formal leader) in implementing educational c h a n g e . S o m e of this literature a d d r e s s e s c h a n g e , but remains silent on the issue of its impact on students. A t the s a m e time, there is also a body of literature that suggests that the primary reason w h y a principal might choose to implement c h a n g e is t r a n s f o r m a t i v e — t o e n h a n c e the a c a d e m i c climate and o u t c o m e s of her student body a n d to e n h a n c e social justice in the wider c o m m u n i t y . A s w e shall see, this is particularly true of educational leaders introducing a f o r m of year-round schooling.  Transformative Leadership and Educational Change I t a k e as a starting point the statement of Silins and Mulford (2002) that "the contributions of school leadership to past and c u r r e n t . . . school reform efforts have b e e n found to be undeniably significant, e v e n if these contributions are indirect" (p. 564). S o m e have suggested that o n e of the most promising approaches to leadership that m a k e s a difference to student o u t c o m e s is transformational leadership. Sleegers, Geijsel, and v a n d e n Berg (2002) state that "transformational leadership has e m e r g e d as one alternative m o d e l with potential for enriching our understanding of innovation in schooling" (p. 84). Drawing on t h e w o r k of Leithwood and colleagues, they identify six dimensions of transformational leadership (vision building, individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, fostering the acceptance of group goals, creating high performance expectations, and modeling important values and practices) (p. 86). Although t h e s e dimensions may well be part of the motivation of educational  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 48  leaders introducing change, their focus e n d s with the school and hence did not s e e m to m e to be adequate to inform this study. I w a n t e d to look at impact that educational leaders had on both the school e n v i r o n m e n t and the wider c o m m u n i t y b e y o n d it. For that reason, m y focus here is transformative leadership, described by Astin and Astin (2000) in the following terms: W e believe that the value e n d s of leadership should be to e n h a n c e equity, social justice, and the quality of life; to e x p a n d access a n d opportunity; t o e n c o u r a g e respect for difference a n d diversity; to strengthen democracy, civic life, a n d civic responsibility; a n d to p r o m o t e cultural enrichment, creative expression, intellectual honesty, the a d v a n c e m e n t of knowledge, and personal f r e e d o m coupled with responsibility, (p. 6) It is this e m p h a s i s on leadership that e n h a n c e s equity a n d social justice that is interested in enhancing the quality of life for students a n d their families a n d for increasing a c c e s s a n d opportunity that is t h e overarching guiding c o n c e p t for this study. Traditional ideas associated with w h a t are most c o m m o n l y considered rational a n d technical approaches to leadership including m e a s u r e m e n t , organizational m a n a g e m e n t , and administration of material and h u m a n resources are well k n o w n a n d have b e e n extensively discussed in educational leadership literature (English, 2 0 0 3 ; Fairholm, 2 0 0 0 ; Hoy & Miskel, 2004). Moreover, these aspects of educational leadership are almost universally derided but are extensively practiced and regularly attended to b e c a u s e of their enduring importance (Foster, 1996; Fairholm, 2000, Starratt, 1995). In this overview, I take these traditional approaches as well understood and as needing no further explication. Instead, I focus here on a c o m p o s i t e picture of transformative leadership as it e m e r g e s f r o m s o m e recent studies a n d theoretical writing. This  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 49 broader conception of leadership b e c o m e s the touchstone against w h i c h I examine the leadership of the participants in this study. O n e current definition of leadership is proposed by Bogotch (2000), "Deliberate intervention that requires the moral use of power." This definition is consistent with the discussion of Astin a n d Astin in that it is v a l u e - b a s e d and focuses on purposeful change. Moreover, it suggests three s u b - t h e m e s that have bearing on this study of leadership for educational reform: agency, moral purpose, and t h e use of power. It is these three aspects of leadership I investigate in m o r e detail here.  Agency T h e a g e n c y — t h e deliberate i n t e r v e n t i o n — i d e n t i f i e d in Bogotch's quotation is intriguing b e c a u s e it does not situate leadership in a particular person or position, but rather leaves the door o p e n for leadership to occur at a n y level of the organization and by any m e m b e r of an institution. Moreover, this "agentic" intervention m a y be initiated by an individual or by a group. A g e n c y , as I a m using it, implies both the desire and the ability to act in order to achieve one's mission, goals, and objectives in a proactive way. A l t h o u g h Bourdieu's theory of habitus allows for an e l e m e n t of agency, he is clear that a g e n c y is limited, confined by the enduring structures of habitus, because the "individual mind is socially b o u n d e d , socially structured. T h e individual is always, w h e t h e r he likes it or not, t r a p p e d " (Bourdieu & W a c q u a n t , 1992, p. 126, e m p h a s i s in original). O g a w a (2005) writes on the c o n c e p t of  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 50  agency a n d t a k e s it a little further, although h e also suggests that a g e n c y is held in balance by f o r c e s outside of individual control. He uses H u m a n a g e n c y as a heuristic for e x a m i n i n g theory a n d research o n educational leadership. A g e n c y involves the control that people exert over their destiny, which is m a t c h e d against deterministic forces a s s u m e d to lie largely beyond their control, (p. 90) O g a w a further states that m u c h current theory treats organizations as a constraint on leadership, but argues for the alternative a p p r o a c h of Katz and K a h n (1966) w h o think of leadership as "outside t h e b o u n d s of organization's routine directives, or structures" (2005, p. 93). He goes on to quote S c h e i n (1992) w h o defines leadership as "the ability to step outside the [organization's] culture" (p. 93). Rather than think about leadership as constrained by t h e norms of the institution in s o m e way, an agentic perspective on leadership t a k e s the leader outside the b o u n d s of the organization's culture in such a w a y as to take deliberate action that m a y m a k e a difference. In O g a w a ' s terms, an exceptional leader e x c e e d s "the limits established by the norms and values e m b e d d e d in existing organizational structures" (p. 93). O g a w a explains: Individuals d o not lead w h e n they gain the compliance of others by virtue of the organizational roles they occupy. Rather, leaders gain c o m p l i a n c e by employing personal, rather than organization resources, (p. 93). This is consistent with Bakhtin's perspective that change requires outsidedness, dialogue, a n d encounter with different perspectives and experiences. In this study, thinking about w h o actually exercises a g e n c y in the selection and implementation of an educational reform such as year-round schooling, w h o has control over w h i c h aspects of the situation, a n d to w h a t extent elements of the reform process lie b e y o n d any educational leader's control is an integral part  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 51  of being able to a n s w e r my guiding questions. Most importantly however, is a consideration of if or how the leaders in m y study m a y step outside the limits of their organizational structures in order to i m p l e m e n t the desired reform. Moral Purpose T h e idea of agency itself has moral implications. If w e have the ability to m a k e choices a n d to determine a course of action that not only affects us as individuals but has a wider and perhaps m o r e enduring impact on others, w e m u s t not only c h o o s e , but c h o o s e thoughtfully a n d wisely. It is, of course, quite possible to m a k e choices that are neither in our best interest nor that of others, but w h e n w e knowingly m a k e such decisions, w e are not acting with moral purpose. This is consistent with one the theory of moral philosophy that holds that "right action m u s t be understood in t e r m s of h u m a n g o o d or well-being." It is also informed by virtue ethics in that it suggests the need to be sensitive to various contexts a n d situations. It is not simply a matter of "happiness," but also of reducing inequalities and of ensuring that people are treated respectfully and equitably (see Honderich, 1995, p. 593). A l t h o u g h m a n y people use the term "moral purpose," definitions are hard to c o m e by. A t its core, it c o m b i n e s concepts related to morals, ethics, or morality with the notion of goals or purpose. Fullan, o n e of the f e w w h o is willing to attempt a definition, shows up repeatedly in t h e educational literature. H e defines w h a t he calls "moral purpose writ large" in the following way: "principled behavior c o n n e c t e d to s o m e t h i n g greater than ourselves that relates to h u m a n and social d e v e l o p m e n t " (2002, p. 15). W h i l e discussions of moral purpose is m a y vary  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 52  according to context, I will adopt Fullan's (2003) definition and guidelines. Fullan identifies four levels of what he calls the moral i m p e r a t i v e — t h e individual, school, regional, a n d societal (p.30). In talking a b o u t w h a t c o n n o t e s a m o r a l p u r p o s e for schools, he states: T h e criteria of moral purpose are the following: that all students a n d teachers benefit in t e r m of identified desirable goals, that the gap b e t w e e n high and low performers b e c o m e s less as the bar for all is raised, that ever-deeper educational goals are pursued, a n d that the culture of the school b e c o m e s so transformed that continuous i m p r o v e m e n t relative t o t h e previous three c o m p o n e n t s b e c o m e s built in (p.31). Fullan s u m s up w h a t this m e a n s by saying, "Moral purpose of t h e highest order is having a s y s t e m w h e r e all students learn, the g a p between high and low performance b e c o m e s greatly r e d u c e d , and w h a t people learn e n a b l e s t h e m to b e successful citizens and w o r k e r s in a morally b a s e d k n o w l e d g e society" (p. 29). O n c e again I recognize that in adopting terms such as "moral" or "purpose," I a m using ideas e m b e d d e d in long a n d contested historical, epistemological, philosophical, and theoretical perspectives. Fullan's a p p r o a c h begs for clarity and consideration of terms such as "all students," "high and low p e r f o r m a n c e " a n d "successful citizens." It is not m y purpose here to delve into his underlying assumptions, simply to note that prominent educational writers a n d theorists have taken up the topic a n d recognized the importance of moral purpose. P u r p o s e itself suggests a clear relationship between the goals of educational leadership and the w a y s in w h i c h it is practiced. Brown (2005) declares that "at times there has been little relationship between the e x p r e s s e d  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 53 goals of education and actual educational practices" (p. 110). Leading with moral purpose w o u l d require a g r o u n d e d n e s s in w h i c h there is c o n g r u e n c e b e t w e e n expressed p u r p o s e a n d practice. S o m e (for e x a m p l e Evans, 1996; Terry, 1993) call this authentic leadership. Terry says that authentic leadership is not just action but ethical a c t i o n — b e i n g "true to ourselves a n d true to the world, real in ourselves a n d real in the world" (p. 139). Dantley (2005) s u m m a r i z e s m a n y of the t h e m e s I have b e e n discussing when he says that Moral leadership, therefore, is broader t h a n traditional school m a n a g e m e n t . It d e m a n d s a d e e p investment of the g e n u i n e or authentic self of the educational leader. Moral leaders have the courage to locate their work in a broader as well as d e e p e r s p a c e as they work to bring about societal transformation. Moral leadership is problematic b e c a u s e it interrogates w h a t s c h o o l s y s t e m s and communities have essentialized. It is problematic b e c a u s e it d a r e s to demystify those structures and rituals that have b e c o m e a l m o s t reified after s o m a n y y e a r s of a c c e p t a n c e , (p. 4 5 ) . Here w e have the concept of leadership as outside the institution, c o m b i n e d with the s e n s e of moral purpose, and the courage to e x a m i n e structures a n d rituals (like the school calendar) that m a y have b e c o m e entrenched over time). It is important to recognize, however, as Fairholm (2000) d o e s , that moral leadership is not new. He explains: "the problem is w e have not thought of our leadership in values terms. So the idea of values leadership is "new," while the practice is m u c h m o r e c o m m o n " (p. xxi). The P o w e r of Educational L e a d e r s h i p T h e final element in Bogotch's definition of leadership is power. It is important to recognize that p o w e r has a creative a n d generative function as well  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 54 as a potential for misuse. It is neither inherently g o o d nor evil, but without power, educational leaders w o u l d not be able to exercise agency. T h e y w o u l d not be able to m a k e m o r a l choices or to influence others t o introduce educational change. By definition, the ability to act and thus act morally requires power. T h u s , examining h o w educational leaders conceptualize t h e p o w e r they have a n d how they actually put their beliefs into practice m a y be a n important e l e m e n t of this study of educational change. For t h e most part, power has b e c o m e perceived as a negative element of h u m a n interaction. S e n g e and colleagues (2000) believe that t o d a y too m u c h of the discussion a r o u n d school reform takes place in a power-coercive f r a m e w o r k . State legislatures a n n o u n c e that, in effect, "These children will achieve." Regardless of w h e t h e r t h e y have b e e n fed well, live in s a f e neighborhoods, have parents at h o m e , have g o o d medical care, or live in a peaceful and tranquil environment, they will be j u d g e d against children w h o have t h o s e things. T e a c h e r s , similarly, are told, "You will have high test scores or w e will close y o u d o w n . " . . . T h e results they w a n t are laudable but t h e y s h o w no a w a r e n e s s of the process that must occur naturally to p r o d u c e t h o s e results, (p. 393-394). Obviously, this is not the use of power that generates successful educational reform. But it is the type of power, too often seen in educational reform processes, a n d the one that gives the term p o w e r itself negative connotations and implications. O n e of Foucault's contributions to our understanding of p o w e r w a s the notion that "the effective exercise of power [may] be disguised" (in Seidman & Alexander, 2 0 0 1 , p. 72). He asserts that power is exercised, not just through sovereignty, but also through techniques a n d discourses. Power, as Foucault  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 55 conceptualized it, is neither inherently negative nor positive. His a r g u m e n t is that its discourses must be interrogated to determine w h o is served a n d w h o is o p p r e s s e d . T o understand power, one must e x a m i n e its social a n d historical contexts, the regimes of "truth" of any given society (Rainbow, 1984, p. 73). T h e r e is little doubt that power, w h e t h e r personal, positional, or discursive m a y perpetuate inequities. Shields (2002) states that understanding h o w "forms of power operate in an organization is a complex task, c o m p o u n d e d by issues of class, language, socio-economic status, levels of education, and historical position" (p. 226). In 1999, Bishop and Glynn p r o p o s e d a model f r o m w h i c h to e x a m i n e the impact of power imbalances on educational change. T h e y posit the need to explore any reform effort by investigating t h e five areas of initiation (who establishes t h e goals), benefits ( w h o will benefit directly or indirectly), representation (whose reality is depicted), legitimization (whose realities and experiences are considered legitimate), and accountability (to w h o m reformers are accountable) (p.55). T h e s e are important aspects to keep in mind w h e n conducting a n y study that e x a m i n e s the perceptions and practices of school leaders introducing educational reform. A t t h e s a m e time, Silins a n d Mulford (2002) s u m m a r i z e leadership studies that found that r e s e a r c h describing productive f o r m s of leadership has referred to a s p e c t s of a transformational m o d e l of leadership, for e x a m p l e : leadership which is e m p o w e r i n g (Blaise & Blaise, 2 0 0 0 ; Reitzug, 1994) , sensitive to local c o m m u n i t y aspirations (Limerick & Nielsen, 1995) , supportive of followers (Blaise, 1993), builds collaborative s c h o o l structures (Deal & Peterson, 1994), a n d e m p h a s i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e of a shared vision (Mulford, 1994). (p. 565)  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 56  T h e s e findings suggest that productive school leaders not only use the power they have, but also e m p o w e r others. T h e y develop professional learning communities, build capacity a m o n g all m e m b e r s of the community, a n d develop shared vision. T h e y also s u g g e s t t h a t educational leaders are transformative. Fraser (1995) adds to our understanding of leadership that is transformative. She asserts that different strategies need to be used to address different f o r m s of inequity that systematically disadvantage s o m e g r o u p s of people vis-a-vis others. S h e proposes to distinguish two broadly c o n c e i v e d , analytically distinct understandings of injustice. T h e first is socioeconomic injustice, which is rooted in the political-economic structure of society... T h e s e c o n d kind of injustice is cultural or symbolic and is rooted in social patterns of representation, interpretation, and c o m m u n i c a t i o n , (p. 70-71) Fraser posits that a f o r m of redistribution is called for to redress e c o n o m i c injustice and also says that the r e m e d y for cultural injustice is s o m e sort of cultural or symbolic change. Both types of change require a t w o p r o n g e d approach involving affirmation and transformation. S h e explains: By affirmative remedies for injustice I m e a n remedies a i m e d at correcting inequitable o u t c o m e s of social a r r a n g e m e n t s without disturbing the underlying f r a m e w o r k that generates t h e m . By transformative remedies, in contrast, I m e a n remedies a i m e d at correcting inequitable o u t c o m e s precisely by restructuring the underlying generative framework, (p. 82) Educational leaders w h o exercise their p o w e r to m a k e a difference, not only t o the learning climate within the school, but to the lived experience of students a n d their families b e y o n d the s c h o o l h o u s e door are e n g a g e d in transformation. T h o s e w h o take the time and e x p e n d the e n e r g y required to introduce a calendar  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 57 change, c o n v i n c e d that it has a positive i m p a c t o n several a s p e c t s o f school life as well as o n t h e wider community, m a y actually be e n g a g e d in transformation.  S u m m a r y of Literature In this chapter, I have provided a n overview o f s o m e of t h e literature related t o y e a r - r o u n d schooling, t o educational reform, a n d t o leaders' roles in these p r o c e s s e s . A l t h o u g h t h e c o n c e p t of transformative leadership provides a unifying t h r e a d , there are s o m e significant g a p s in t h e literature I have r e v i e w e d — g a p s that I hope this study c a n help to address. T h e literature on year-round schooling with w h i c h this chapter opens suggests that t h e benefits of a calendar c h a n g e m a y m a k e it w o r t h t h e effort, despite the difficulties educational leaders m a y face. S o m e of t h e s e benefits include e n h a n c i n g student achievement; improving motivation a n d school attendance; decreasing burn-out, drop-out rates, v a n d a l i s m , a n d delinquency; e n h a n c i n g t h e w o r k i n g conditions a n d quality of life for teachers; a n d increasing accountability related to expenditures a n d facilities. It is curious, therefore, that there are no conceptual links in t h e literature between a c h a n g e of school-year calendar and other educational reforms. T h e literature o n e d u c a t i o n c h a n g e , however, helps to inform this study by demonstrating not only that change is difficult, but by providing s o m e explanations f o r the challenges. S o m e theorists believe it is better to initiate change by modifying the culture than by addressing t h e structure. I have pointed to literature t h a t suggests that the notions of structure a n d culture are intricately interwoven a n d have suggested that modifying either m a y impact t h e other. T h e  Ch 3. Literature ... p. 58  concept of habitus helped to explain the difficulties of educational c h a n g e , but did not provide a w a y forward. For that, I turned to the w o r k of Bakhtin (1986) related to how dialogue c a n create m o r e p e r m e a b l e boundaries. A l t h o u g h there are s o m e conceptual links in t h e literature b e t w e e n educational reform and leadership, most studies f o c u s either on managerial or transformational a p p r o a c h e s t o leadership. I h a v e f o u n d t h e conceptual lens of transformative leadership to be the most promising w a y to both g r o u n d a n d guide this study. T o elaborate this concept, I have u s e d a c o m p l e m e n t a r y definition of leadership by Bogotch (2000) as well as the three related sub-categories of agency, moral purpose, and power in educational leadership. All three are issues that confront t h o s e w h o are concerned with m a k i n g a c h a n g e in any context, but are particularly relevant for those w h o w a n t to introduce transformative c h a n g e . B e c a u s e t h e y are interconnected, they all play important roles in t h e successful e n a c t m e n t of a n y educational c h a n g e initiative. Curiously, although there is a m p l e e v i d e n c e of benefits, none of the literature explicitly addresses the underlying leadership approaches, the motivation or s e n s e of purpose that might prompt leaders to take the social and political risks a n d to e n g a g e in the struggles that a calendar change usually involves. It is for this reason that I have c h o s e n to attempt to understand, not only the explicit r e a s o n s given by educators, but their underlying motives, a n d the resultant o u t c o m e s . It is m y hope that this study will address these gaps in the educational c h a n g e literature as well a s provide s o m e guidance to educational leaders w a n t i n g to e n g a g e in meaningful educational reform.  Ch. 4. Methodology ... p. 59  C H A P T E R 4. M E T H O D O L O G Y In this chapter I describe the m e t h o d s of this study including m y relationship to the topic, my data sources and participants, and m y strategies for data analysis. I conclude by providing an overview and rationale for t h e decisions I m a d e regarding the presentation of m y findings in the s u b s e q u e n t t w o chapters. M y d o m i n a n t approach in this study is qualitative. A wide range of methodological approaches c o m e s under the heading of qualitative research. It e m b r a c e s m e t h o d s such as narrative, archival analysis, discourse analysis, ethnography, c a s e studies, surveys, interviews, and even descriptive statistics. Denzin and Lincoln (1999) state that, overall, qualitative research is multimethod in focus, involving an interpretive, naturalistic a p p r o a c h to its subject matter. This m e a n s that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to m a k e s e n s e of, or interpret, p h e n o m e n a in t e r m s of the m e a n i n g s people bring to t h e m . (p. 3) This a p p r o a c h has the a d v a n t a g e of presenting respondents' viewpoints a n d permitting us to confront multiple and s o m e t i m e s conflicting perspectives on a single topic. This research d o e s not result in generalizability but it can help to inform both theoretical and practical understanding of a particular topic. M y research uses various qualitative methods, with an e m p h a s i s on interviews, observations, and appropriate d o c u m e n t analysis; however, I rely primarily on information that w a s gained through interviews with school principals a n d district administrators w h o have been associated with the implementation of a c h a n g e to s o m e f o r m of year-round schooling.  Ch. 4. Methodology ... p. 60 Personal Positioning In 1992, I b e g a n a master's of educational administration p r o g r a m (MEd) at the University of Utah w h e r e I met Dr. Carolyn Shields, t h e n an assistant professor in the department. A t that time, she b e c a m e a w a r e that I w a s an administrator in a multi-track year-round school in Davis S c h o o l District. Dr. Shields m o v e d to the University of British Columbia in 1994, a time w h e n a number of schools and districts in BC were considering t h e introduction of a form of year-round schooling. S h e and colleague Dr. Linda L a R o c q u e f r o m S i m o n Fraser University w o n a contract to work with the Ministry of Education, developing a literature review on year-round schooling a n d helping to plan a provincial c o n f e r e n c e on the topic. In 1994, Drs. Shields and L a R o c q u e invited several educators w h o m they k n e w to be involved in various modifications of the school calendar to participate in the conference and they asked m e if I could join t h e m a s a m e m b e r of the planning committee. This c o n f e r e n c e w a s t h e culminating event in a pilot program established by the B C Ministry of Education in w h i c h s e v e n school districts had been given grants to explore the possibility of a calendar c h a n g e . W h e n no school or district p r o c e e d e d to implement the reform, Dr. Shields and I w e r e both curious as to why. During her time in Utah, Dr. Shields had never heard discussion of the constraints a n d disadvantages that c a m e to the forefront during the BC period of exploration. A s w e talked, w e determined that a small research project in m y district w o u l d help us to better understand the difficulties a n d possible benefits of a year-round calendar. I w a s as intrigued as she w a s and helped to arrange  Ch. 4. Methodology ... p. 61 access to t h e district for w h a t b e c a m e a preliminary s t u d y for w h a t b e c a m e a n ongoing S S H R C - f u n d e d investigation of various aspects of school calendar reform. B e c a u s e of the unanticipated a c a d e m i c benefits w e f o u n d in that pilot study, w h e n Dr. Shields received her first S S H R C grant, s h e inquired about w h e t h e r I w a s interested in completing a doctoral p r o g r a m a n d working with her as a research assistant. After being accepted to U B C , I w o r k e d as a research assistant to Dr. Shields f r o m 1996 to 2 0 0 2 . W i t h her, I collected d a t a f r o m m a n y extant sources, including examination of d o c u m e n t s and a c h i e v e m e n t results, and traveled to n u m e r o u s sites w h e r e I assisted in the c o n d u c t of interviews. W h i l e the overarching research project is Dr. Shield's, she w a s clear from the outset that I should identify a specific area of interest a n d focus that w o u l d constitute m y doctoral research. W h i l e m a n y of the interviews that f o r m the basis of this dissertation w e r e conducted jointly, t h e specific questions of this study a n d the analyses for the purposes of this dissertation are mine. W h e r e I have w o r k e d with Dr. Shields in data analysis and writing of research articles or w h e r e I have d r a w n o n her work, the published material is referenced. T h e interpretations and understandings contained in this dissertation are not only new, but are solely mine. T h e details of this project are described in the rest of this chapter.  Data Collection and S o u r c e s For the p u r p o s e of this specific project, the primary d a t a sources w e r e school a n d district administrators. Administrator interviews included all principals assigned to a g i v e n school during t h e period of our d a t a collection (1995-2003),  Ch. 4. Methodology ... p. 62 a n d w h e n available, the district personnel responsible for t h e implementation of Y R S . T h e s e interview data w e r e s u p p l e m e n t e d by interviews with teachers, and often by data collected f r o m parents and students by m e a n s of surveys. W e also e x a m i n e d available student a c h i e v e m e n t results, including school reports of state-wide standings, and, in s o m e places, results for individual students, classes, a n d schools on statewide, standardized achievement tests. T h e research t e a m usually consisted of Dr. Shields and myself but at times included other interested a c a d e m i c s and graduate students. W e interviewed over 80 e d u c a t o r s — a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and teacher l e a d e r s — w h o w e r e instrumental either in the decision to adopt a calendar change or in the implementation of the c h a n g e process itself. T h e respondents w e r e e a c h interviewed on at least t w o occasions, for a m i n i m u m of one hour each time. T h e s e semi-structured interviews w e r e t a p e d (with respondents' permission), transcribed, a n d t h e n c o d e d for s u b s e q u e n t analysis. A s a t e a m , w e used a semi-formal interview protocol, with o p e n - e n d e d questions, covering a range of topics (see A p p e n d i x B). In each interview, all topics w e r e c o v e r e d , but not necessarily in the s a m e order, as w e e n g a g e d the r e s p o n d e n t s in a relatively free-wheeling conversation. In e a c h interview, w e asked administrators questions about their explicit a n d implicit motivations and goals: w h y they had implemented a year-round calendar a n d w h e t h e r it had been m a n d a t e d or c h o s e n . If chosen, w e w a n t e d to k n o w w h a t t h e impetus had been, w h e r e the idea had c o m e f r o m , and w h a t the p r o c e d u r e had been from initiation to implementation. If it had been m a n d a t e d ,  Ch. 4. Methodology ... p. 63 w e were interested in the origin of a n d rationale for the m a n d a t e . A s e c o n d set of questions related to their expectations and concerns. W e w o n d e r e d w h a t they had hoped to accomplish, and the extent to which their goals had b e e n realized. W e tried to understand t h e o u t c o m e s of the change, by asking a b o u t anticipated and unanticipated results a n d t h e perspectives a n d responses of various community and policy groups. For t h e most part, these administrators a n d leaders w e l c o m e d t h e opportunity to talk about t h e structural c h a n g e ; hence t h e interviews often s e e m e d to take on a life of their o w n , a n d very little probing w a s needed t o elicit a great deal of information. T h e t e a m a p p r o a c h to conducting t h e interviews w a s particularly effective in that o n e person generally took t h e lead role while t h e other w a s able to monitor the interview guide, ensuring that all questions w e r e c o v e r e d a n d that follow-up probes w e r e used as necessary. This technique also permitted o n e person t o e n g a g e in conversation while t h e other reflected m o r e o n t h e underlying m e a n i n g and checked periodically for understanding. T h e respondent group included at least o n e district level administrator from e a c h of W e s t e r n C a n a d a , Ontario, Florida, Missouri, a n d Utah. A t least four school principals f r o m each jurisdiction w e r e interviewed. In addition, w e often interviewed teachers to extend our understanding of w h a t h a d occurred. S o m e t i m e s this resulted in confirmation of what t h e principal had said. A t other times, w e f o u n d considerable disparity; always there w a s clarification about the implementation of year-round schooling. Chronologically, t h e r e s p o n d e n t s represent people w h o implemented a f o r m of year-round calendar in e a c h  Ch. 4. Methodology ... p. 64  decade f r o m the 1960s to the present. Additionally, they represent various models of year-round schooling, including multi-track, dual-track, and single-track versions of the calendar as well as the d y n a m i c s of both m a n d a t e d a n d voluntary change in a variety of cultural and socio-political contexts.  Sites Selected for This Study M y d a t a are representative of various time periods a n d geographic locations (see T a b l e 1). T h e s e educators w e r e c h o s e n purposefully in order to include educators involved in year-round schooling f r o m its inception in N o r t h A m e r i c a (about 1969) to the present time, to include those involved in a m a n d a t e d as well as a voluntary reform initiative, as well as single, dual, and multi-track calendars. Respondents were also c h o s e n f r o m various g e o g r a p h i c locations across C a n a d a and the United States. This w a s to e n s u r e that the effect of different socio-political and cultural contexts w a s a c c o u n t e d for in m y analysis. I d e c i d e d to select seven districts, separated in t i m e a n d place, e a c h with a story that needed to be told, and to recount that story by focusing primarily on one or t w o schools and the colorful people associated with t h e m within e a c h district. In the United States, I chose the district with the first and longest running year-round schools, Frances Howell, Missouri; Delphi District in Utah, a district that w a s a relatively early implementer with a large n u m b e r of m a n d a t e d multitrack schools; and several Florida districts. T h e latter w e r e selected because they constituted a geographic cluster in which the districts e x p r e s s e d mutual influence a n d in w h i c h the implementation and o u t c o m e s varied considerably.  C h . 4. Methodology ... p. 65  Table 1. Participants. NAME  POSITION  DISTRICT  SCHOOL  CALENDAR  INITIATION  MISSOURI Gene Henderson (GH)*  Superintendent  Frances Howell*  Becky David  MT-YRS  District decision  MT-YRS  State mandate  Wilma Cole (WC)* Harry Snider (HS) Keri Zane (KZ) UTAH CW  Principal Teacher-leader Assist. Super.  Sally Pearson (SP) Steve Rob (SR) David Best (DB) Karen Brian (KB) FLORIDA Dana Lougheed (DL)  Principal Vice-Principal Principal Principal Assist. Super.  Central  ST&MT  Brenda Marion (BM)  Assist. Super.  Sage Vista  MT-YRS MT-YRS  Dick Child (DC) Esther Harwood  Vice-Principal Principal  Taft  Jane Bowes ONTARIO, CANADA Dan Patterson* John May Joseph Smart (JS)** Gwen Dolan (GD)**  Assoc. Super.  Lightfoot Kain Wycliffe  ST&MT District mandate Voluntary District mandate  Jerico  MT-YRS  Principal  Martin Popper  ST-YRS  District mandate Voluntary  Principal Vice-Principal Principal  Huntsville  Dual track  Voluntary  Principal  Rusty Knowles Susan Taylor (ST)**  Teacher Teacher  WESTERN CANADA** Naomi St. John  Principal  Lydia Duschene William Smith  Delphi  Albert  Kate Smith**  Dual-track  Voluntary  Sweetwater  Lakota**  Dual track  Voluntary  Kelvin  Stephen Lewis Jr. High(SLJHS)  MT-YRS  Voluntary  Principal Principal  Jim Daley (JD)**  Learning Leader  Becky Roland (BR)**  Teacher  *AII names are pseudonyms except those with asterisks that are a matter of the historic record. ** In some instances to promote confidentiality, I developed a composite of several regions, schools, or individuals, identified here with **.  Ch. 4. Methodology ... p.  66  T h e C a n a d i a n sites w e r e selected to be representative of w h a t w a s happening in C a n a d a at the time of this study and b e c a u s e the C a n a d i a n situations w e r e uniquely different f r o m w h a t h a d b e e n observed in t h e United States. T h e choice of S t e p h e n Lewis Junior High School is obvious in that it represented C a n a d a ' s only experiment with a multi-track s e c o n d a r y year-round calendar. T h e Ontario schools, with their predominantly dual-track calendars, w e r e also unique; they w e r e clustered in several districts w h i c h permitted t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of composite images to e n s u r e confidentiality, while the other possible C a n a d i a n schools in Dr. Shields' wider study w e r e so isolated it w o u l d have been difficult, if not impossible, to e n s u r e confidentiality.  Data Analysis Consistent with normal procedures of qualitative analysis, d a t a analysis b e g a n informally as soon as each interview w a s c o m p l e t e d . I also reflected on the similarity or differences of t h e m e s a n d approaches and e n g a g e d in ongoing discussion with other research collaborators involved in studying Y R S . F o r m a l analysis m a d e use of triangulation, coding of interview transcripts, field notes of observations, and analysis of d o c u m e n t s collected during e a c h site visit. Each researcher followed a coding strategy identified by T e s c h (1990) in w h i c h d a t a are decontextualized for preliminary t h e m e s and topics a n d then recontextualized for m e a n i n g . T o assist with this analysis, I m a d e use of a c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m called NVivo that permits various levels of coding a n d sorting a n d assists with thematic analysis of the data. All but o n e of the respondents in this study w e r e white, making any kind of  Ch. 4. Methodology ... p. 67 analysis related to ethnicity difficult. T h e r e w a s a roughly 5 0 % g e n d e r breakd o w n , with both male and f e m a l e principals, teachers, a n d district educators participating in this study. Because ethnicity w a s not a consideration for identification a n d selection of participants a n d b e c a u s e s o m e of t h e respondents are presented in the findings chapters as composites, this study d o e s not examine the relationships a m o n g gender, ethnicity, or other socio-cultural background factors as they might influence educators' beliefs, perceptions, and practices. T h e s e are important topics, however, a n d w o r t h y of consideration in a future study. A l t h o u g h m u c h of the data collection and analysis w e r e c o n d u c t e d collaboratively, e a c h researcher also identified topics a n d t h e m e s of particular individual interest and w o r k e d independently on the pursuit of the topics and questions so identified. This dissertation is therefore the result of m y individual inquiry.  Organization of Findings In order to help m a k e sense of the reams of d a t a , I explored various m e a n s of d a t a presentation. A t first I t h o u g h t I w o u l d use t h e guiding questions as an organizing principle; then I thought I w o u l d identify various t y p e s of l e a d e r s — t r a n s a c t i o n a l , charismatic, transformative, a n d so forth. I reflected on organizing t h e d a t a based on the type of calendar i n n o v a t i o n — s i n g l e - t r a c k , multitrack, with intersession or without. I thought about a geographic order, moving f r o m west to east or vice versa. Finally, I decided to present the U S c a s e s in chronological order, starting with the earliest implementation. In C a n a d a , I also  Ch. 4. Methodology ... p. 68 presented the elementary schools in chronological order (starting f r o m the earliest) and t h e n finished with the one s e c o n d a r y school in the study. T h o u g h I tell the story of year-round schooling in these seven districts, I also at times bring in data and interviews f r o m other (usually neighboring) jurisdictions with t h e purpose of establishing a richer context for the study. In all but a f e w identified cases, t h e n a m e s of districts, schools, a n d people are p s e u d o n y m s , in order to protect the anonymity and confidentiality of participants. Quotations f r o m educators are s h o w n with initials that represent the p s e u d o n y m s I have a s s i g n e d to each educator. In the following chapter, I present the stories of four A m e r i c a n districts. Frances Howell School District in Missouri represents o n e of the first districts that i m p l e m e n t e d a multi-track calendar, in Becky David Elementary School. At the turn of the century, it w a s the longest continually running multi-track year-round school in t h e U S . Because of the historic significance of this school and district, I have c h o s e n (with permission) not to use p s e u d o n y m s for t h e sites or for t h e instigating principal or district superintendent, W i l m a Cole and G e n e H e n d e r s o n , respectively. I t h e n f o c u s on Delphi School district, located in Utah, a district in which school administrators were required to find a structural solution to address the o v e r c r o w d e d conditions that developed in m a n y urban schools. This account is followed by an examination of two contiguous districts in Florida, with quite different histories related to year-round schooling. In V i s t a District, the e n v i r o n m e n t w a s relatively hostile, while in Taft District, the onus w a s mostly on  Ch. 4. Methodology ... p. 69  individual schools to m a k e decisions about school calendars. Here I e x a m i n e the case of Jerico and Martin P o p p e r Elementary Schools. In the Chapter 6,1 write a b o u t several e x a m p l e s of year-round schooling in C a n a d a , w h e r e the earliest implementation experiment b e g a n in t h e early 1990s in Huntsville, Ontario. I t h e n m o v e to Albert District to visit Kate Smith Elementary School's successful experiences with year-round schooling. Next I e x a m i n e S w e e t w a t e r Elementary School and the m o r e problematic experiences of Lakota School District. I conclude by looking at S t e p h e n Lewis Junior High School, C a n a d a ' s only experiment with multi-track schooling.  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 70  C H A P T E R 5. T H E A M E R I C A N E X P E R I E N C E T h e first year-round school ( Y R S ) in the United States o p e n e d in Bluffton, Indiana, in 1904 for the purposes of increasing school building capacity a n d student a c h i e v e m e n t (Glines, 1995). A small n u m b e r of other schools followed suit (for e x a m p l e , Newark, NJ; Minot, ND). W i t h the e c o n o m i c a n d social pressures of the Depression a n d the S e c o n d W o r l d W a r , the first instances of year-round schooling in North A m e r i c a c a m e to an e n d . It w a s not until the late 1960s, w h e n fiscal pressures a n d burgeoning populations resulted in o v e r c r o w d e d schools and classrooms, that multi-track y e a r - r o u n d school w a s almost simultaneously introduced in California, Illinois, Minnesota, and Missouri (Glines, 1988, p. 17). A l t h o u g h there is s o m e dispute as to the first year-round school, o n e of the first and the longest running experiment with year-round e d u c a t i o n , w a s that of Frances Howell School District in St. Charles, Missouri. In this chapter, I first e x a m i n e how district educators there retrospectively m a d e s e n s e of their experience. I t h e n e x a m i n e the implementation in one district in Utah, o n e of the states with t h e highest incidence of multi-track year-round schools. In t h e third part of the chapter I turn to Florida, w h e r e s o m e would say that year-round schooling has failed, to e x a m i n e a n d better understand the very m i x e d , often tortuous process experienced by several districts.  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 71  F r a n c e s Howell S c h o o l District: W h e r e C h a n g e B e g a n In m a n y w a y s , Missouri s e e m s to be a strange place for multi-track yearround schooling to have b e g u n . T o the east a n d t h e w e s t are t h e state's t w o major cities, Saint Louis and Kansas City, both with t h e d i c h o t o m y of sophistication a n d urban decay that populate m o s t c o n t e m p o r a r y North A m e r i c a n cities. T h e s e m o d e r n metropolises bracket fertile f a r m l a n d s a n d t h e rolling hills of t h e Ozarks, w h e r e every small t o w n s e e m s t o h a v e a white clapboard Baptist church a n d a n undersized all-purpose Wal-Mart. A solidly Midwestern state that is also a part of t h e South and "the gateway t o t h e W e s t , " portions of t h e Missouri political d e b a t e of the 1990s revolved around w h e t h e r or not cock-fighting should be b a n n e d a n d w h a t role riverboat gambling revenues should play in funding education. Missouri's Frances Howell School District boundaries are congruent with t h o s e of Saint C h a r l e s County, a once-rural a r e a that h a s b e c o m e a s u b u r b of Saint Louis. W h i t e flight and the growing affluence of the middle class led to its rampant a n d almost uncontrolled growth in t h e 1960s. Farmland w a s being bought up a n d converted into subdivisions a n d single housing units. N e w h o m e s meant f a m i l i e s — a n d families meant more children for t h e schools (GH).  Y e a r - R o u n d S c h o o l i n g : A R i s k That P a i d Off T h e g r o w t h rate w a s p h e n o m e n a l . T h e school district w a s in a bind. It literally could not build schools fast e n o u g h b e c a u s e the board w a s not allowed to. It wasn't that they didn't have the w i l l — t h e y simply didn't have the way. There were t w o r e a s o n s for this. One, the property tax rate (that w a s by far t h e largest  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 72  m a n d a t e d support for education) w a s not as high for residential property as it w a s for industrial a n d commercial property. Saint Charles had plenty of residential a n d f a r m land, but very f e w businesses. S e c o n d , t h e school b o a r d w a s restricted on the a m o u n t that it could increase revenues by borrowing m o n e y or raising taxes. By state law, the district w a s limited to borrowing no m o r e than ten percent of its assessed evaluation. So Frances Howell District b o r r o w e d m o n e y a n d built s c h o o l s — a s quickly as allowed. W h a t w a s allowed just wasn't fast e n o u g h . Schools and classrooms w e r e exploding with new students ( G H ) . G e n e H e n d e r s o n had been hired by Frances Howell District as superintendent in 1965. He had inherited a problem that seemingly had no solution. H e said of the time, ' W h e n I arrived, there w e r e only 2 5 0 0 students in the w h o l e district. F r o m the outset w e had a terrible growth p r o b l e m . I don't r e m e m b e r t h e figures but it s e e m s like w e had a 3 0 % growth increase in o n e year." He had too m a n y students, no place to house t h e m and the inability to go after the f u n d s required to build new schools. So he did what a n y o n e in his place w o u l d d o . H e rented s p a c e s f r o m local churches. H e n d e r s o n again: " W e h a d been renting s p a c e from churches a n d still n e e d e d more. O n e church s e e m e d quite supportive of us." He qualified this, "Using c h u r c h e s w a s a horrendous e x p e r i e n c e for everyone." They even considered double sessions but " s o m e students w o u l d have had to leave h o m e as early as 4 : 3 0 a m a n d others arrive h o m e as late as 8:30pm." G e n e attended conferences, read the literature, and brainstormed with district p e r s o n n e l . At one district meeting a m a t h teacher w h o w a s also an acting  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 73 principal attended. Harry Snider, a teacher w h o h a d taught in the district at the time, described w h a t h a p p e n e d , "Mr. Mathematics said, 'Well y o u know, there really is a better solution to this. If y o u use the facility twelve m o n t h s a year and you cycle the students' attendance, y o u could increase the capacity of t h e building by a third.' A n d the principals all looked at him like, W h a t the hell do y o u know? You're a math teacher'." But G e n e H e n d e r s o n w a s intrigued a n d called the math teacher back in to discuss the idea. W h e n asked if the plan w a s in place a n y w h e r e else, he w a s told that they had already e n a c t e d it in Valley V i e w Elementary, near Chicago. G e n e w a n t e d to go a n d look at h o w it w a s w o r k i n g , but after making s o m e queries, f o u n d out that it hadn't actually b e g u n yet. "They had s o m e kind of federal grant a n d all kinds of m o n e y and time investigating it. But w e actually started first, b e c a u s e w e couldn't afford to wait."  Becky David: Chosen for Innovation T h e district could h a v e c h o s e n to experiment with t h e n e w calendar in any n u m b e r of schools. T h e y settled on the 1000 student Becky David Elementary for one r e a s o n — t h e potential for air conditioning. G e n e Henderson said, " T h e contractor told m e that the hot w a t e r pipes w e r e large e n o u g h to be converted to cold w a t e r so that the school could be easily cooled. It just wasn't true." A principal at the school said that they "had two full years of s w e a t i n g " before air conditioning arrived. W i l m a Cole had been the "lower grades principal" at Becky David Elementary since 1963. S h e used to j o k e with G e n e that s h e didn't have e n o u g h work to d o to justify her eleven m o n t h contract a n d , in the long, d e a d s u m m e r ,  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 74 that she used to stop in at the school on her w a y to play a little golf. "That's the last time I ever said I w a s under w o r k e d , b e c a u s e t h e next y e a r w e introduced year-round schooling." A p p r o v a l w a s not difficult. T h e school board w a s happy to have a possible w a y to solve the problem. After a " n u m b e r of public meetings" t h e parent council decided that a vote w a s needed. So W i l m a Cole sent h o m e a survey to her patrons. " W e let e a c h family have one vote. T h e m o t h e r could be for it and the father against it, but w h o e v e r w a s the most persuasive got to vote." T h e y had two thirds in favor, but those against w e r e very vocal, e v e n threatening lawsuits against the district if they p r o c e e d e d . T h e state legislature had to modify s o m e language that defined beginning and ending parameters of the school year. Last of all, the teacher's union had to give approval. T e m p t e d by the opportunity of optional alternative teacher contracts (read: m o r e d a y s in the c l a s s r o o m for m o r e p a y ) — t h e union g a v e its blessings. Despite a loud minority of parents, angry a b o u t the introduction of a Y R calendar, the district w e n t ahead with its plans, promising that if the n e w calendar didn't w o r k t h e y w o u l d return to t h e traditional calendar in t h e following year. Besides, it w a s only being introduced in one school a n d parents could take their children to a different facility if they wished. W i l m a Cole r e m a r k e d that "it w a s a m a z i n g that w e got state, teacher, and parent approval within a f e w months." S h e also stated, "People have to understand that the m o d e l w e look at today w a s s o m e t h i n g that h a p p e n e d by a series of changes. Y e a r - r o u n d school, as most people k n o w it, is quite a different animal from that beast w e had first."  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 75 O p e n i n g day arrived with a great deal of trepidation and anticipation. G e n e and W i l m a w o n d e r e d whether any students w o u l d s h o w up that first day. W i l m a says, W e w e r e kind of a m a z e d they s h o w e d u p — d i s m a y e d almost. T h e y loved it, too. T h e y just c a m e in leaps a n d bounds. W e had m o r e t h a n w e e x p e c t e d . I thought that s o m e w o u l d m o v e a w a y as t h e y w e r e so vocally opposed to this concept. G e n e H e n d e r s o n reflected, "Looking back, it w a s a w o n d e r parents didn't rebel. ... It's kind of interesting. T h e b o y s a n d girls c a m e to school, enthusiastic about learning and the teachers w e r e scared to death because no o n e had the answers in t e r m s of the one million questions that our new schedule generated." He c o n t i n u e d : "I think the parents and children enjoyed it because they w e r e on T V now a n d t h e n . " Both he and W i l m a vividly recalled how in the first interview, a television reporter w a s out on the playground interviewing students. T h e first three s h e interviewed said, of the n e w schedule, "Yes. I love this calendar" a n d "I don't care" a n d "I hate it." T h e y indicated that the press w a s quite favorable a n d often s h o w e d pictures of the school and children getting on and off buses. G e n e and W i l m a w e r e also on talk shows and call-in sessions and there w a s an article, "Year-round schooling: A n idea w h o s e time has c o m e , " published in 1970 in the Readers' Digest about G e n e and W i l m a and the school. Although m u c h of the c o v e r a g e o c c u r r e d at the outset of t h e n e w calendar's implementation, additional but m o r e s p o r a d i c attention by the press continued for years. W i l m a described how they still got s o m e interest, especially over the s u m m e r , w h e n they w e r e "still the only g a m e in town." She said that all of a s u d d e n there w o u l d be a report that s u g g e s t e d that "They have discovered year-round school in the St. Louis  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 76  area." One s u c h e x a m p l e w a s the s u m m e r the Missouri River c r e s t e d a n d t h e newspapers contacted t h e m to see how m a n y schools had been flooded out. (Of course, none had been.) T h e four calendar tracks w e r e divided up according to bus r o u t e s — a true serendipity. Instead of taking parental requests (as w e will s e e h a p p e n s in other districts implementing multi-track year-round schooling), tracks w e r e assigned according to geographic areas and buses simply picked up all n e i g h b o r h o o d children at one time. T h o u g h not m u c h t h o u g h t w a s given to this plan, this strategy w o r k e d well, avoiding the track request booby-trap that w a s to s a b o t a g e m a n y rotating track schooling p r o g r a m s in other locales. This option offered the a d v a n t a g e of keeping neighbors together on o n e track. It eliminated the time and tension experienced by m a n y administrators w h o attempt to fulfill parental requests. Most of all, they said, it eliminated inequities d u e to differences in s o c i o - e c o n o m i c status or ethnicity. T h e y explained that, as the d e m o g r a p h i c s of t h e district c h a n g e d , they simply shifted t h e track boundaries by slicing t h e pie differently. It is ironic that the relatively trouble-free and relatively equitable plan of one of the first multi-track districts is still rarely adopted by schools or districts implementing the year-round school calendar t o d a y — d i s t r i c t s perhaps overly anxious to a c c e d e to parental requests a n d to keep their public h a p p y at all costs. At first, teacher contracts were creative. W i l m a : "Even our contract options turned out to b e a nightmare. I'm glad it only took a couple of years to get that ironed out." Most teachers taught all year-round with the students rotating to new  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 77 teachers every time they c a m e back on track. It didn't t a k e long for e v e r y o n e to conclude that this wasn't the best thing for the students a n d w a s also a nightmare for teachers. Harry, a teacher-leader, r e m e m b e r e d that first y e a r in B e c k y David in this way: T h e r e w a s o n e group that just really sticks out in m y mind b e c a u s e it w a s s u c h a bizarre collection of kids... Each t e a c h e r w a s relieved they w e r e only going t o b e t h e g r o u p ' s t e a c h e r for 4 5 days. After the first d a y they w o u l d shake the group like a w e t d o g a n d say, T h a n k G o d , there's only 4 4 m o r e d a y s . ' . . . A s this year p r o g r e s s e d , and all of us w a t c h e d these kids, I think w e pretty m u c h said to ourselves that if schools are for kids and schools are s u p p o s e d to meet the needs of kids, then this plan m a y or m a y not be in the best interest of children. (HS)  Changes over Time In this first year, teachers taught as if they w e r e in a traditional school but with e x t e n d e d contracts. A s children rotated in and out of school, they c h a n g e d teachers e a c h new t e r m . Harry elaborated: " W e c h a n g e d kids every quarter, which w a s really awful...I had more than 4 0 0 students assigned to m e that first year." By the s e c o n d year, the teachers had met to d e t e r m i n e w h a t t h e y hoped w o u l d be a better w a y . E a c h teacher w a s assigned a g r o u p of kids a n d t h e d a y w a s d e p a r t m e n t a l i z e d . W i t h only three groups in attendance, a t e a c h e r could t e a c h t h e kids m a t h and science or social studies or t h e l a n g u a g e arts block. Harry c o n t i n u e d , W h e n t h e y went off on their vacation, another group c a m e in, but y o u h a d previous experience with that group as their m a t h a n d science teacher. So the only thing that changed w a s the t i m e of d a y that y o u m e t the group. A n d w e kept that for another five years, a n d that w a s cool, I m e a n it w o r k e d , w e got to know our kids.  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 78  A l t h o u g h this concept w o r k e d for the intermediate students, the primary grades, especially kindergarten, could not stand the transitions. T h o s e working with the lower g r a d e s soon m o v e d to w h a t is n o w t h e m o s t c o m m o n multi-track schedule, 4 5 d a y s in class followed by 15 d a y s of vacation (known as 45-15) in which students and teachers rotated together. T h u s , after two years of experimenting, only three options w e r e left. T h e primary teachers opted for the 45-15; s o m e teachers, such as art and music specialists, w o r k e d extended contracts that c o v e r e d the w h o l e year; and the intermediate grades stayed with their d e p a r t m e n t a l s y s t e m , but dropped it a f e w years later. O n e factor that helped t h e m over the initial h u m p w a s that, in 1969 w h e n the year-round calendar w a s instituted, there w a s a shortage of teachers in the state. By w o r k i n g at Becky David, a teacher could earn a full year's pay working for twelve m o n t h s . At that time, Becky David had a faculty of 60 people, 18 of t h e m w e r e m e n , something that w a s very unusual for an elementary school. It w a s t h e e c o n o m i c p h e r o m o n e of increased earning p o w e r that m a d e the j o b attractive to m a l e s . C h a n g e s occurred very quickly. A s teachers b e g a n to c h a n g e rooms every cycle, t h e district developed the concept of having a cart on w h e e l s for e a c h t e a c h e r to help alleviate the h e a d a c h e of moving all their materials. T h e airconditioning p r o b l e m w a s eventually solved, although for t h e first t w o years, W i l m a r e m e m b e r e d that "parents even had to lend t h e m fans and that each room h a d t w o or t h r e e f a n s that ran d a y and night." A n d t h e district procedures for ordering materials w e r e refined to take account of the needs of the new school.  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 79 I asked m y respondents if there had been any impact on student learning. G e n e and W i l m a recalled that a Danforth Study had been conducted at a cost of a quarter of a million dollars to investigate that question. But they l a m e n t e d that the study had b e e n ill-conceived, had f o c u s e d primarily on statewide standardized test results, a n d h a d f o u n d little if a n y difference. T h e n e w calendar grew rapidly. In the s e c o n d year, another school c a m e o n board, with a third school the following year. S o o n the w h o l e district a d o p t e d the schedule up to the sixth grade. Y e a r - r o u n d schooling b e c a m e simply t h e w a y education h a p p e n e d in Frances Howell S c h o o l District. W h e n , in a g i v e n year, the enrolment for a specific school d r o p p e d , the school m o v e d to a single-track schedule, locally referred to as E Track. W h e n the school's population g r e w again, it returned to a multi-track calendar. In Frances Howell, this situation continued for over thirty years, with constant experimentation and modifications. T h e y learned to a c c o m m o d a t e small, remote schools as well as their largest s u b u r b a n elementary school of approximately 1800 students (the largest in the state and one of the three or four largest in the nation). They experimented with various track configurations, track principals, a n d executive principals. T h e schedule permitted Becky David to grow to a c c o m m o d a t e over 1600 students by 1998. O n l y after t h e turn of t h e 2 1  s t  century, did the district find itself able to  m o v e a w a y f r o m large multi-track elementary schools. Nevertheless, it did not return t o a traditional calendar, but placed all schools, w h e r e they are today, o n Cycle E — t h e district's term for its single track year-round school calendar. This is  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 80  consistent with t h e preference t h e incumbent superintendent reported to m e in the late 1990s. W h e n I a s k e d , in t h e best of all worlds, w h a t his preference would be, he replied, " N o question. Cycle E. K-12. With intercessions." A n assistant superintendent a d d e d , "Everybody just loves it. That's t h e single track a n d it's the best of all worlds" (KZ). S u m m i n g up the F r a n c e s H o w e l l E x p e r i m e n t T h e strong a n d colorful leadership of G e n e H e n d e r s o n a n d W i l m a Cole, with their spirit of experimentation, flexibility, a n d willingness to c h a n g e led Frances Howell into the year-round school experiment in 1969 a n d carried it through periods of legal action, parental unrest, changing fiscal, social, a n d d e m o g r a p h i c realities. In Frances Howell, people said proudly that the yearround calendar is the w a y schooling w o r k s for their district. Never m a n d a t e d by state legislation, year-round schooling nevertheless has offered solutions to major problems for over 30 years. By making year-round schooling t h e "way education w a s d o n e " in the district, G e n e a n d W i l m a permitted t h e district to be not just successful, but a flagship for the state. Moreover, t h e y did so in a transformative w a y , ensuring equity of educational opportunity a n d services a n d creating n u m e r o u s opportunities for c o m m u n i t y involvement. I m o v e n o w to Utah, a state in which the s a m e calendar w a s introduced a little later, also to address s o m e pressing problems of overcrowding a n d lack of capital funds.  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 81  Utah: A Mandated Reform Utah's d o m i n a n t population is M o r m o n . M e m b e r s of t h e C h u r c h of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints believe in large families. Typically they reject birth control and the m o t h e r stays h o m e or w o r k s a relatively l o w - w a g e job. T h e largest minority is Hispanic C a t h o l i c — a l s o a g r o u p that t e n d s to have large families. T h u s , in Utah, per capita income is relatively low b e c a u s e of the large families. Rothstein (2000) reported for example that out of the 50 states and the District of C o l u m b i a , Utah ranked 5 1  s t  in total per pupil s p e n d i n g ($4620 per  pupil), while N e w Jersey which ranked first, spent almost twice that a m o u n t ($8470). B e c a u s e of the low tax base and the large n u m b e r of children, Rothstein explained that "citizens of Utah must m a k e the greatest sacrifice to provide for public e d u c a t i o n — P I P S  1  is only 5 9 % of the national a v e r a g e " (p. 43).  Y e a r - r o u n d schooling in Utah w a s introduced in the late 1980s to counteract s o m e of these specific problems related t o e d u c a t i o n in the state. T h e State Legislature, following California's decision to offer incentives to districts that instituted y e a r - r o u n d schooling to reduce overcrowding (Zykowski et al., 1 9 9 1 , p. 18), i n f o r m e d school districts that funding for n e w school buildings w o u l d only b e forthcoming if districts introduced s o m e f o r m of efficiency calendar. Delphi District first r e s p o n d e d to this m a n d a t e in s o m e pilot e l e m e n t a r y schools by introducing w h a t it called "extended day schools." In this m o d e l , o n e principal explained, half of the students arrived at school at 7 a m a n d left at 2 p m , with the others arriving at 9:30 a m and returning to their h o m e s at 4 : 3 0 p m . T h e 2.5 hour  1  PIPS = personal income per student.  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 82  blocks at the beginning and end of the day provided time for "core subjects" to be taught by "core teachers" "in classes that w e r e kept as small as classes ever are in U t a h " (SP). T h e more "general" s u b j e c t s — s c i e n c e , art, music, a n d physical e d u c a t i o n — w e r e taught to double sized classes in the middle block of the day (one can only imagine the challenge of teaching science to a c l a s s r o o m of 70 mixed g r a d e elementary students). M a n y teachers taught the full d a y a n d h e n c e were paid more, something that never fails to please. T h e district also appreciated unexpected benefits of the e x t e n d e d - d a y calendar, in that it did not have to hire as m a n y t e a c h e r s and benefits a n d other peripheral costs w e r e kept stable. T h e sole group for w h o m the experiment really did not w o r k w a s the students. In particular, "parents felt as if y o u n g e r children were lost in these large classes" (SP). Although students still performed well in their c o r e classes, the rest of the day b e c a m e essentially "a baby-sitting process" (SR). Few, if any, art or science concepts w e r e taught and students learned little. Even after trying to supplement the classroom instruction with teachers' aides, students did not perform as well as they had before. A l t h o u g h the model did not work for students, teachers w h o w e r e earning an additional 3 0 % by working the full d a y w e r e reluctant to give up the new calendar. O n e principal, w h o in adopting a year-round schedule w a s happy to be rid of e x t e n d e d day, said, "It carried us through until w e c a m e up with a better m o d e l " (SP). A n o t h e r principal s u m m e d the e x t e n d e d day up by saying that it w a s "a horrible thing to put kids through" (DB).  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 83  In 1988, Delphi District decided to e n d the experiment with t h e extended day calendar and chose instead to implement multi-track y e a r - r o u n d schooling in schools that w e r e grossly o v e r c r o w d e d . By this time, additions h a d b e e n m a d e to s o m e of the elementary schools originally built for 4 5 0 students a n d still m o r e space had been acquired through the installation of portable c l a s s r o o m s to provide for up to 6 0 0 students. However, at that time, s o m e s c h o o l s enrolled as m a n y as 1200 students. At the t i m e of data collection, the district served over 58,000 students in seven high schools, 13 junior high schools, s e v e n alternative programs, a n d 4 8 elementary schools. O f t h e 4 8 schools, 34 f o l l o w e d t h e traditional school-year calendar, 12 used a multi-track year-round calendar, and two schools, w h i c h opened in A u g u s t 1995, b e g a n with a single-track year-round calendar a n d c h a n g e d to a multi-track calendar in the fall of 1996. T h e 12 original multi-track year-round schools, s o m e of w h i c h have been operating on that schedule since 1989, represent 2 5 % of the e l e m e n t a r y schools a n d hold approximately 3 6 % (11,160) of the elementary s t u d e n t s . T h e facilities 2  are relatively large, housing b e t w e e n 4 1 0 and 1242 students. However, the traditional calendar schools are also quite large with student populations b e t w e e n 366 a n d 854 students. For schools that had piloted the e x t e n d e d day, parents and students w e r e eager to try something else. For those p a c k e d elementary schools that had b e c o m e used to overcrowding, the c h a n g e to a multi-track school proved to be m u c h m o r e challenging (perhaps in part b e c a u s e any m o v e a w a y f r o m the  The only experiment with year-round schooling beyond the elementary level only lasted one year in this district. 2  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 84  "traditional" in Utah is viewed with suspicion). Nevertheless, the state and district remained a d a m a n t and multi-track year-round schooling b e c a m e a w a y of life for a large n u m b e r of Delphi District parents and students. Implementation in Delphi District w a s varied. A t first, there w a s little institutional support for the change a n d little district recognition of the special needs of year-round schools. O n e principal recounted his first c o m m e n t to a new superintendent: Y o u ' v e got to stop treating year-round school like an ugly a d o p t e d child. Y o u need to appoint an administrator at the district level w h o is only responsible for year-round school so w e don't keep calling d o w n there and hearing, " O h , the w a r e h o u s e is closed for inventory. W e forgot about year-round school... O h , in-service? Y o u ' r e off-track? W e forgot about y o u . " (DB) A s y e a r s p a s s e d , the district matured in its a p p r o a c h to implementation. A district administrator w a s assigned to be responsible for year-round schooling. Separate meetings w e r e a d d e d for principals of year-round schools; additional office help w a s provided; the testing schedule w a s compiled to a c c o m m o d a t e the year-round school schedule; a compensatory salary stipend w a s a d d e d for yearround school principals a n d a T S A (Teacher on Special A s s i g n m e n t ) p o s i t i o n  3  w a s a d d e d to provide administrative support and relief for principals. T h e district learned to offer two school opening institutes as well as to offer professional d e v e l o p m e n t activities during year-round school track breaks. T h e effect of these  In the words of one principal, this position is a "mix between a teacher and administrator" (DB). Those assigned to the position were generally experienced teachers who taught half the day and for the other half took over some administrative tasks (testing, discipline etc.). They were also officially in charge of the school when the principal was absent for any reason.  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 85  changes over t i m e w a s to increase the status of a multi-track e l e m e n t a r y school principal to s o m e t h i n g roughly equivalent to that of a junior high school principal. In t h e beginning, however, Delphi District required its principals t o d o almost all the implementation and design of the y e a r - r o u n d schooling programs in their o w n schools. Reminiscent of the early d a y s in Frances Howell, o n e principal d e s c r i b e d how he had to "literally run and get pencils a n d bring t h e m back" before t h e w a r e h o u s e closed for the s e a s o n . He recognized, however, that part of the p r o b l e m w a s his o w n lack of organization a n d a d d e d , " M a y b e w e should have d o n e that in D e c e m b e r w h e n ordering w a s at a m i n i m u m . " T h e m a i n question principals w e r e f a c e d with w a s not if they w e r e going to implement y e a r - r o u n d schooling but how. Moreover, there w a s little guidance or assistance f r o m a district that w a s as "green" as the principals about the new concept. At t h e time, Utah had school councils, e a c h of w h i c h w a s e m p o w e r e d to m a k e decisions for its respective school. Principals, therefore, had the task of generating a c o n s e n s u s in their respective parent and teacher c o m m u n i t i e s to ensure that the required vote worked out positively in favor of year-round schooling. T h e problem, as o n e principal stated, "was primarily with parents w h o did not k n o w h o w they would m a n a g e without the w h o l e s u m m e r off' (SP). A n o t h e r put it m o r e bluntly. He said that year-round schooling had been "a tough pill to swallow," but added that he thought anything "so new in education always is" (DB). Despite this requirement, the greatest challenge for principals of yearround schools in Utah w a s not gaining a c c e p t a n c e for the concept, but  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 86 assignment of teachers and students to tracks. This too w a s left to e a c h principal a n d accomplished differently f r o m school to school. Often, a s s i g n m e n t w a s d o n e , not in the systematic fashion of Frances Howell School District, but in a first c o m e , first served basis. Parents w e r e often a s k e d to prioritize their choice of track; they w e r e also guaranteed that if t h e y so desired, all children f r o m one family could b e o n the s a m e track. Unfortunately, lower s o c i o - e c o n o m i c status (SES) parents often failed to submit a track request f o r m . Ultimately this led to a sort of socio-economic streaming. In Lightfoot Elementary, o n e of t h e schools that piloted both extended d a y a n d year-round schooling, one vice-principal described t h e difficulties in this w a y : Initially everybody w a n t e d track A or track D which replicated the traditional schedule... There w e r e parents that weren't on the P T A board a n d that weren't really a w a r e of w h a t w a s h a p p e n i n g in t h e school w h o were getting the last choice or weren't making a choice a n d so they would be assigned to tracks that w e r e less popular. S o w e have track C for e x a m p l e with a majority of our Hispanic kids. (SR) O n e principal stated that "it is almost a school district philosophy that w e try to honor parent requests as m u c h as possible" (KB). T h e fulfillment of parents' w i s h e s w a s often taken to such an extent that classes w e r e unevenly distributed across tracks. For example, at one point, there w e r e three track A first g r a d e classes in Lightfoot elementary school, with one additional first grade class on e a c h of the other three tracks. W h e n Sally Pearson took over as principal of the school, she f o u n d that "when track A w a s off, w e had to rattle through the halls looking for kids ... w h e n track A w a s here, t h e c o m p u t e r labs w e r e o v e r - c r o w d e d and there w e r e safety hazards on the playground and buses."  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 87  However, in another school in Delphi District, parents believed that keeping neighbors on the s a m e track w a s most appropriate. K a r e n Brian reported that parents said: W e don't care. W e think y o u have wonderful teachers. W e aren't worried about which teacher. W e really aren't so worried a b o u t which track. W h a t w e w a n t here is to have our n e i g h b o r h o o d together. This sentiment s e e m e d similar to the track a s s i g n m e n t policy that had been established (almost by default) in Frances Howell School District. In o n e s c h o o l of only 6 0 0 students, o n e of the school principals o p t e d for only three t r a c k s — a decision that later caused problems in the school community. A l t h o u g h he stated that this w a s so that four times during the year everyone w o u l d be there at one time, it w a s undoubtedly d u e to parental pressure. T h e eliminated track C w a s by all accounts the least popular of the four tracks used in the district. A t the s a m e time, he complained that w h e n all students w e r e in attendance, "It took 4 0 minutes to get t h e m all into an assembly." He described how at first he had not equalized the enrollments on e a c h track, but h a d finally c o m e to t h e conclusion (in spite of parental pressure) that it w a s best to have two teachers and classes at each g r a d e level o n each track. T h e n e e d to m a n a g e parental a n d staff opinion w a s also problematic for this principal. A l t h o u g h he w a s critical of the district for not taking the year-round s c h e d u l e into account, he himself admitted that he had "blown it a couple of times." For e x a m p l e he had forgotten "that D track w a s not in session w h e n guests w e r e invited to the school" (DB). More importantly, David Best reflected  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 88 that he h a d not y e t d e v e l o p e d t h e appropriate skills a n d mind-set required of a year-round school principal. W h e n one prominent parent c h o s e to w i t h d r a w his children f r o m t h e s c h o o l , David put him o n the school council, hoping that involvement w o u l d bring support for the schedule. Instead, t h e parent d r u m m e d up so m u c h support for a return to a traditional calendar that David decided he needed a veto over w h o w o u l d be m e m b e r s of the P T A Board. Ultimately a surge in enrolment m a d e his point moot and the school remained on a multi-track schedule. Over the years, the district learned, as one associate superintendent said, "that it w a s important to assign their best principals to year-round schools" (CW). By 1995, w h e n the district required further e x p a n s i o n , all new e l e m e n t a r y schools that w e r e built o p e n e d as single-track year-round schools, with the proviso that as e n r o l m e n t inevitably increased, they w o u l d b e c o m e multi-track year-round schools. Moreover, t h e y w e r e d e s i g n e d with t h e multi-track s c h e d u l e in m i n d , with additional storage rooms, teacher w o r k s p a c e s , classroom pods, a n d air conditioning. Karen Brian, a principal with prior experience in both traditional a n d multi-track schools, w a s assigned to one of these new schools. In t h e first year, she indicated that opening as a single-track school w a s "wonderful": It has b e e n especially helpful for a brand n e w school b e c a u s e it's given all of us a c h a n c e to get to k n o w e a c h other. T h e t e a c h e r s get to k n o w e a c h other and bond and the s a m e for the kids. (KB) She described how rapidly the c o m m u n i t y w a s growing and the decision process involved in c h o o s i n g to m o v e to a multi-track s c h e d u l e the following year. T h e decision to r e m a i n on single track for another year or to m o v e to multi-track w a s  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 89  really up to the community. Karen indicated that she had informed the c o m m u n i t y that they "might be able to survive o n e m o r e y e a r staying single track." However, most of the parents w h o had previously e x p e r i e n c e d multi-track s c h e d u l e s rejected t h e idea. T h e y w a n t e d multi-track b e c a u s e t h e y "liked having m o r e access to t h e c o m p u t e r labs" and "fewer students at a time." S h e indicated that she m a y have helped t h e m to see these a d v a n t a g e s , but that "it w a s u n a n i m o u s in support f r o m the parent group." T e a c h e r s also opted to m o v e to the multi-track schedule the s e c o n d year. W h e n they v o t e d , 22 of the 28 teachers "voted to go with t h e multi-track a n d six said they w o u l d prefer to stay single-track a n o t h e r year." T h e decision reflected the understanding of both principal a n d teachers that despite their enjoyment of the year on single-track, the multi-track schedules offered s o m e "real pluses" (KB) such as increased availability to c o m p u t e r labs, restrooms, to the m e d i a center. T h e y noted that the playground w a s not as c r o w d e d , t h u s reducing potential conflicts, and that other activities w e r e smoother, for e x a m p l e , "lunch does not take as long to serve" (KB). T h e idea of both individuals a n d t h e district maturing into t h e concept w a s both implicitly a n d explicitly mentioned in Karen's c o m m e n t s . S h e described her first y e a r as a multi-track principal in another school by saying, "The first year on multi-track... I w a s blind-sided m a n y times. O h d a r n , y o u know, y o u ' v e got to do that." But s h e a d d e d that you quickly "start to pick up a n anticipatory s e n s e of being multi-track." S h e described how s h e actually colored her planner a n d m a r k e d colored bands across the top with the colors of the tracks in session: I w e n t t h o u g h m y planner and marked a l o n g . . . so this w e e k w o u l d have yellow, blue, and green, and then m a y b e this w e e k w o u l d  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 90  have yellow, blue, a n d r e d . . . w h e n I w a s at a district m e e t i n g , s o m e b o d y thought I had too m u c h time on m y hands and w a s sitting there coloring. S h e talked about how there had b e e n a strong pool of applicants for positions in her school, although legally, s h e had to draw f r o m t e a c h e r s w h o s e positions had b e e n made redundant w h e n they had d o w n s i z e d d u e to district d e m o g r a p h i c changes. Here, Karen's assistant principal, present for t h e interview, supported the notion that the district had learned the importance of a having a strong principal, particularly in a year-round school, and said, " O n e reason for the large applicant pool w a s they had n a m e d the principal...it's very true. It w a s a turning point for a lot of teachers I w a s working with." A s s o o n as teachers learned w h o had been appointed principal, they began to apply for the school. By the s e c o n d year, the school w a s running smoothly on a multi-track schedule. Karen described the transition as having occurred "very well" with the most taxing issues, as always, being a s s i g n m e n t of teachers and students to tracks. Here, once again, experience paid off. Karen took advantage of the "once in a lifetime c h a n c e " to set up new procedures. With her teachers, she d e v e l o p e d a p r o c e s s that w a s not purely based on having the most senior teachers always getting their track preference. For the first year, seniority determined track assignment, but in the following years, selection rotated so that the person w h o h a d their first choice one year, had the last choice the following year. A l t h o u g h this process is equitable and gives teachers equal opportunity to c h a n g e track, Karen indicated that she felt teachers at s o m e grade levels would not change,  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 91  while other t e a c h e r s w o u l d o p t for a c h a n g e . This process, a l t h o u g h not always the most popular with parents, prevented teachers f r o m b e c o m i n g e n t r e n c h e d . In terms of student assignment, although Karen supported t h e district policy of trying to honor parental requests, she w a s not strictly tied to it. S h e and the teachers "highlighted s o m e students" that, in spite of parental requests, they would not m o v e . They: went t h o u g h and looked at all of the resource kids and all of t h e kids that can have behavior issues. T h e n w e pulled their c a r d s a n d ... divided t h e m up first a n d put t h e m into the c o m p u t e r by h a n d . W e did not leave it to chance. A n d then w e put in all the other n a m e s after that. T h a t equalized it. W e ' r e not telling p a r e n t s w e did it b e c a u s e they m a y not get the track they w a n t e d , but [it's] for the good of the child a n d the class... It impacts the learning of all the kids in the class a n d it impacts those kids tremendously. Here, w e find an experienced principal using the multi-track s c h e d u l e to override general district guidelines and parental requests in the best interests of all students. In Delphi S c h o o l District, year-round schooling w a s not a choice. It w a s not instituted b e c a u s e teachers or parents w a n t e d a n e w or different or better w a y of educating students. Instead, it w a s implemented to solve the p r o b l e m of too m a n y students in too f e w buildings with too little m o n e y . T h e r e w a s a relatively steep learning curve, with little support from the district during the initial stages. Over time, however, both district a n d principals learned h o w t o both support and m a k e g o o d use of the multi-track schedule. Despite t h e s e factors, a n d despite the fact that implementation took place in different w a y s at e a c h school, there w a s general c o n s e n s u s on the part of the Utah principals about the a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s of the schedule.  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 92  Perceived Advantages For t h e m o s t part, principals believed that the schedule offered a better use of school buildings, and of educational resources. O n e s u m m e d it up: W e really utilize every inch of space. T h e school is the c o m m u n i t y center. W e ' r e using taxpayer m o n e y wisely. W e ' r e housing 2 5 % m o r e children than w e could before. It happens smoothly a n d happily as well. It's e a s y to d o and gives us the ability to m a x i m i z e our s p a c e and our materials. (SP) T h e nature of the calendar helped teachers to plan in structured units that s e e m e d to facilitate planning a n d t e a c h i n g together a n d to e n c o u r a g e sharing of ideas. T h e y reported that during breaks m a n y teachers traveled but still reflected on the u p c o m i n g units. "I d o hear t h e m saying things like 'while w e w e r e off-track, I t h o u g h t about this....' they've traveled; they've d o n e other things a n d t h e y bring things back to their grade level, to their group" (DB). Karen reported that "one teacher had been to Alaska a n d brought back s o m e books a n d s o m e things that she picked up there about a unit they w e r e doing in reading" a n d s h a r e d t h e m with t h e other grade level teachers (KB). David indicated that "year-round school is a catalyst to thinking." T h e y also talked about reduction of tensions a n d disciplinary incidents in t h e school. Sally reported having "less discipline problems." Karen elaborated: S o m e t i m e s kids that really constantly harassed each other w e r e not there together. Y o u could split t h e m up. ... I could see the teachers g e t to a point w h e r e they w e r e ready to lay o n hands a n d t h e n t h e y w e r e apart for three w e e k s . T h e y ' d c o m e back and they could regroup and handle it again. (KB) Both teachers and students returned f r o m breaks refreshed, enthusiastic, motivated, a n d ready to learn. "About the time that the teachers energy a n d e n t h u s i a s m starts to w a n e , it's time to go off track and take three w e e k s and  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 93 b e c o m e invigorated a n d excited a n d t h e t e a c h e r s c o m e b a c k enthusiastic, about to start again a n d s o are t h e kids" (SP). S o m e of t h e s e benefits h a d b e e n unanticipated w h e n t h e M T s c h e d u l e w a s first introduced with the a i m of finding w a y s to h o u s e Utah's b u r g e o n i n g population. For e x a m p l e , the reduction of t h e principal's isolation t h r o u g h the presence of the T S A w a s a pleasant surprise. Sally indicated that it " m a k e s all the difference in the world." A n o t h e r w a s t h e positive impact of the calendar on y o u n g e r students w h o s e parents report that "year-round gives kindergarten children a n d even first grade children a c h a n c e to c o m e in, get their feet wet, and t h e n be back h o m e with M o m and D a d a bit and then c o m e back in. It's not s u c h a n abrupt thrust into the cold, cruel world of schooling" (SP). A n additional response f r o m the wider c o m m u n i t y w a s also perceived as a benefit. D a y c a r e providers adjusted their schedules to a c c o m m o d a t e children throughout the y e a r and reported that the new s c h e d u l e w a s not only beneficial in terms of providing year-round e m p l o y m e n t for t h e m , but also in spreading the p a y m e n t s t h r o u g h o u t the year. This helped parents w h o struggled to m e e t the costs. Flexible and responsive c h a n g e s were also m a d e by caring a n d responsive c o m m u n i t y leaders. C o m m u n i t y g r o u p s such as parks and recreation and sports associations adjusted their schedules to provide activities for children during the school breaks. Because the district w a s on a multi-track schedule, there w e r e always s o m e children participating in c o m m u n i t y activities while their peers w e r e in school. This change permitted t h e m to offer classes, courses, a n d  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 94 activities such as s w i m m i n g lessons or soccer c a m p s in three w e e k blocks, thus permitting m o r e children to be involved in smaller g r o u p s , a n d h e n c e with more individualized attention. Perceived Disadvantages D i s a d v a n t a g e s w e r e also identified by m y respondents, although most related to t h e w a y s in w h i c h the schedule w a s i m p l e m e n t e d rather than to the calendar itself. T h e inequitable allocation of students to tracks b e c a u s e o f the policy of acceding to parental requests w a s by f a r t h e most important of these. Other d i s a d v a n t a g e s noted w e r e t h e kind of "rental mentality" related t o t h e sharing of textbooks a n d spaces: "That is a problem with room m a i n t e n a n c e too b e c a u s e they m a y b e moving to a different room, s o w h y keep this o n e up....There's no ownership, y o u know"; so in addition to the need to track textbooks, there is d a m a g e to desks, a n d a certain a m o u n t of depreciation of c l a s s r o o m equipment. A n o t h e r w a s t h e problem of communication with teachers w h o were off track a n d of ensuring that special activities were available to all students. For e x a m p l e , a s s e m b l i e s with special guests often n e e d e d to be offered twice to ensure that all students benefited f r o m the information. T h e r e w e r e also s o m e c o m m e n t s about h o w t h e track breaks were difficult for a f e w children b e c a u s e of their special need f o r continuity. For these children, principals w e r e careful to assign t h e m to the tracks with t h e shortest s u m m e r vacation a n d t h e f e w e s t breaks. Despite t h e general e n t h u s i a s m for year-round schooling, Karen qualified her response:  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 95 I do have one child that this d o e s not w o r k well for. Justin is a little boy with severe anxieties, very frightened to c o m e to school a n d any break is hard for him to c o m e back after. W e w e r e e v e n trying to figure out s o m e w a y to h a v e h i m c o m e into t h e school a c o u p l e of times while he w a s off track just to keep that going.... S o y o u k n o w for the great majority I think it w o r k s very well. You'll a l w a y s have o n e or two that that's not true for. (KB)  Summary of the Utah Experience Utah's unique population and e c o n o m i c issues required t h e implementation of year-round schooling. In a n earlier study I c o n d u c t e d with Dr. Shields, w e found that not only had the new calendar accomplished its goal, but that based on district norm-referenced, standardized-test data, a c a d e m i c achievement in multi-track year-round schools is statistically as good or better t h a n student a c h i e v e m e n t in traditional schools. W h e n w e adjusted for socio-economic status, our analysis of the performance of fifth g r a d e students in schools with different calendars ... a d d e d considerable weight to the p e r c e p t i o n that multi-track y e a r - r o u n d schools m a y actually e n h a n c e student achievement for their respective populations. (Shields & O b e r g , 1999, p. 150). Overall, w e f o u n d that students in multi-track schools met state expectations for a c h i e v e m e n t s e v e n times m o r e often t h a n t h o s e in traditional calendar schools. A s w e elaborated in our article, s o m e of the c o m m e n t s of the principals cited here, as well as other perceptions b e y o n d the s c o p e of .this study, help to explain these findings. T h e interviews I conducted with leaders in this district both supported a n d e x t e n d e d the findings of Dr. Shields' study. Not only did they tell m e that Y R S had increased student achievement, a n d provided n u m e r o u s related educational  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 96  benefits, but also that they had e x p e r i e n c e d increased support f r o m both parents and the wider community. In Delphi District, despite a rocky start, these principals have demonstrated how educators and parents w o r k e d together to m a k e the c h a n g e work. Their flexibility a n d willingness to consider individual a n d c o m m u n i t y needs, to persevere, to m a k e c h a n g e s , to spend extra m o n e y as n e e d e d , resulted in an innovation that has b e c o m e institutionalized as o n e normal w a y to e d u c a t e c h i l d r e n — a n innovation that h a s lasted almost t w o d e c a d e s .  F l o r i d a : F r o m M a n d a t e to C h o i c e From this brief overview of one of the early implementing districts and m y examination of a district in which year-round schooling w a s a fiscal necessity, I m o v e to F l o r i d a — a state in which the successful implementation of y e a r - r o u n d schooling has been mixed at best, but a state in w h i c h there is also a relatively long history of various implementation attempts. W h e n I first visited Florida in 1997, n e w s p a p e r articles had reported the rapid rise and equally rapid d e m i s e of year-round schooling in the state. T h e fact that in a span of five y e a r s Florida districts h a d g o n e f r o m n o schools o n a year-round calendar t o 164 a n d then back to 38 s e e m e d quite convincing evidence of the non-viability of year-round schooling (Rasberry, 1994). I visited four counties to attempt to understand what s e e m e d to b e a counterbalance to t h e positive reports f r o m t h e districts I h a d studied in Missouri or Utah. Here I provide a brief overview of policy issues in three districts a n d then e x a m i n e in m o r e detail the experiences of t w o principals  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 97 in Taft District in w h i c h year-round schooling w a s d e t e r m i n e d to have primarily pedagogical a n d educational benefits. In the S h a d o w o f t h e M o u s e Central C o u n t y s e e m s to have b e e n t h e birthplace of y e a r - r o u n d schooling in Florida. Yet it w a s there that Y R S also experienced its greatest d e m i s e — a fall that w a s instrumental in the discontinuation of year-round schooling in m a n y other Florida districts (fieldnotes). In fact, the district year-round school representative informed m e that "as Central goes, so goes Florida" (DL), an indication that the d e m i s e elsewhere w a s not particularly surprising to anyone. Central County is the largest county in central F l o r i d a — h o m e of both Disney W o r l d a n d Universal Studios. T h e s e tourist attractions w e r e so dominant in the e c o n o m i c and social context in this area that I w a s often told as I interviewed s c h o o l leaders, that t h e y existed "in t h e s h a d o w of t h e m o u s e . " T h e phrase indicated both pride and f r u s t r a t i o n — p r i d e in the Disney establishment itself, but frustration that m a n y schools in the a r e a w e r e not able to benefit from the fiscal r e s o u r c e s that had transformed Central Florida. T h e elaborate new brick multi-storied office building o w n e d by the district w a s both an indication of the wealth a n d g r a n d e u r of the district as well as a fiscal liability. T h e initial c o m m i t m e n t to year-round schooling w a s so strong that the district appointed a year-round schooling coordinator w h o quickly b e c a m e widely k n o w n as "Ms. Y e a r - R o u n d Schooling." W h e n I interviewed D a n a L o u g h e e d , s h e told m e there had b e e n a five-year plan to convert all elementary schools t o Y R S — s o m e to a single-track s c h e d u l e b e c a u s e it w a s perceived to have strong a c a d e m i c  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 98  b e n e f i t s — a n d others, for reasons of space, to a multi-track schedule. S h e told m e that the first schools implemented as single-track schools w e r e located in poorer, inner city areas w h e r e the intersession periods w e r e also used for remediation a n d enrichment. T h e s e schools s e e m e d to be enjoying b o t h support and success, but w h e n it c a m e the turn of schools in m o r e affluent areas to implement the new calendar, resistance d e v e l o p e d a n d Y R S b e g a n to die. Parents just didn't see the need for it and mustered strong opposition. O n e of the major problems w a s that promises of improved a c a d e m i c benefits had been m a d e , but w h e n the district tried to d o c u m e n t these i m p r o v e m e n t s early in the first year of implementation, it could not s h o w the promised change. A l t h o u g h this should not have been surprising since the reform had not been given time to prove itself, a subsequent election found the incumbent superintendent defeated on the issue of year-round schooling and the reform died a rapid and unnatural death. O n e of the principals I spoke with in Central District, w h o had o p e n e d two different schools on a year-round calendar, told m e that she really missed Y R S in that s h e e n j o y e d the opportunity to w o r k with smaller g r o u p s of staff a n d students in a m o r e f o c u s e d way. She believed that m a n y of the other Central County principals w h o h a d Y R S experience felt as s h e did, while s o m e others shared t h e view of a colleague w h o w e l c o m e d the opportunity to have all of her school c o m m u n i t y t o g e t h e r on a traditional calendar again. This principal said that m a n y y e a r - r o u n d s c h o o l administrators had g o n e to a board meeting at which the decision w a s to be made w h e t h e r to continue, e x p a n d , or discontinue Y R S . T h e y  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 99 were frustrated with the fact that, despite a request to be put on t h e a g e n d a , the decision w a s taken without giving any of t h e m a c h a n c e to s p e a k on behalf of YRS. Following the lead of Central District, a neighboring county, S a g e School District, had implemented year-round schooling in one e l e m e n t a r y school and then a d d e d a middle school a n d its three feeder elementary s c h o o l s — a l l on multi-track schedules. T h e intention w a s to provide a cluster of schools in w h i c h the calendar offered parental choice and an anticipated improved learning environment. Educators h a d carefully planned the innovation, a n d had included intersession and daycare activities. T h e assistant superintendent stated that the collapse of Central District's p r o g r a m w a s followed by a general climate of suspicion about the year-round calendar. Fearing that it w o u l d not be re-elected, the board there also decided that all schools should return to the traditional calendar. Nevertheless, one of the district principals, as enthusiastic as a stereotypical used-car s a l e s m a n , s p o k e in glowing terms about his experience with y e a r - r o u n d schooling. W i t h verve, he s e e m e d to really w a n t to sell m e on the benefits of Y R S , especially for the students. Despite its demise, there too, the e d u c a t o r s I s p o k e with expressed a belief that year-round schooling w o u l d s o o n return b e c a u s e the economic benefits w e r e too good to pass up. A visit to the small neighboring Vista District provided further insight into the failure of year-round schooling in Florida, despite the temporary continuation of the c a l e n d a r in several schools I studied. There, I learned that year-round schooling had been introduced as a temporary measure. Schools there w e r e told  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 100  they would only have a year-round calendar for a period of four y e a r s a n d that the district w o u l d t h e n solve the problem of rapid growth a n d c r o w d e d facilities in another w a y . T h e r e w a s no buy-in or c o m m i t m e n t to t h e c o n c e p t w h i c h had been sold as a t e m p o r a r y inconvenience. T h e assistant superintendent a c c o m p a n i e d m e as I studied the schools. She w a s surprised to learn that the negative response of m a n y principals to Y R S w a s unfortunately connected m o r e to a betrayal and broken p r o m i s e s o n the part of t h e district t h a n t o a p r o b l e m inherent in t h e c o n c e p t of y e a r - r o u n d schooling itself. S h e stated that "it w a s s u p p o s e d to be an interim solution to a d d r e s s an o v e r c r o w d e d situation, a n d it has b e c o m e more of a p e r m a n e n t solution" (BM). S h e agreed that no other solution to district problems had b e e n sought. O n e assistant principal stated: "They sold us w h e n w e started in on this, w e w e r e o v e r c r o w d e d then; we're o v e r c r o w d e d now. T h e idea w a s that it w o u l d buy us four years. This is our seventh year" (DC). Moreover, several polices related to year-round schooling had strongly contributed to the negativity of the educators as well as the general public. For example, in that district, those w h o w o r k e d 240 days w e r e considered to be working full-time and eligible for a different w a g e and benefit package. Principals of multi-track year-round schools w e r e assigned a workload of 2 3 9 d a y s — " o n e day shy of accruing vacation days" (DC) a n d hence, despite their heavy load, w e r e not eligible for vacation pay or additional benefits. Dick continued: I just c a m e f r o m the county office w h e r e w e w e r e having a meeting o n incentive pay a n d so forth... Ok, take s o m e o n e right n o w that w o r k s 2 3 9 with no vacation days accrued. Give t h e m 2 w e e k s vacation to w h e r e they could take s o m e of that time off during the  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 101  c o u r s e of the year and so forth that would have s o m e feeling of relief, s o m e feeling of giving y o u time to get rested up, get y o u r batteries rejuvenated and so forth to go again. Right now, t h e y h a v e no vacation days. In g e n e r a l , disillusionment with year-round schooling w a s s t r o n g and e v e r y o n e a g r e e d that although t h e district might not h a v e b e e n intentionally unsupportive, those schools on the new calendar w e r e "just forgotten." T h e r e was still a s e n s e that if properly introduced and supported, the y e a r - r o u n d schedule could b e better for kids. In fact, Dick c o n c l u d e d , "There's a lot of people w h o do not like the present s y s t e m , but w o u l d be m o r e agreeable to a single track." In a n o t h e r adjacent county, Taft District, year-round schooling had been introduced in the mid 1990's for t w o reasons. O n e school a d o p t e d a year-round schedule d u e to the initiative of the principal w h o s e e m e d in part to w a n t to e n h a n c e t h e profile of her school. B e c a u s e of her strong a d v o c a c y a n d the c o m m i t m e n t of her staff and parent group, the school w a s successful for over a decade. Other multi-track year-round schools w e r e introduced in response to overcrowding c a u s e d w h e n boundaries w e r e redrawn to c o m p l y with courtordered integration, but by the time of the data collection for this study, only three schools persisted as models of Y R S for the district. T w o of t h e s e principals, Esther a n d J a n e , are exemplars of leaders w h o d e m o n s t r a t e the w a y s in which Y R S can be e n a c t e d as a reform to benefit student achievement. Jerico Elementary School Newly-appointed African-American principal Esther H a r w o o d found a sprawling, o v e r c r o w d e d school with two new w i n g s a n d 28 portable classrooms.  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 102  A c c o r d i n g to a district m a n d a t e that if a school e x c e e d e d its designated capacity by at least 2 0 % , the principal w a s to introduce multi-track year-round schooling. A l t h o u g h t h e m a n d a t e had not b e e n enforced in m o r e affluent areas, it w a s enforced for Jerico Elementary School, a low performing school in a low S E S area. T h e school's population included 5 0 % Hispanic students a n d a large group (33%) of children w h o s e parents w h o w e r e migrant workers. Jerico Elementary School w a s included on Florida's list of "critically low performing schools." Esther threw herself into the c h a n g e , believing it might be a w a y of shaking up the staff and helping the teachers think about new a p p r o a c h e s to instruction a n d to involving the c o m m u n i t y in the p r o g r a m s of the school. She stated: I said to m y teachers, "Do you think kids can learn? Do you believe w e c a n t e a c h ? Well then let's d o it. ... W e have real challenges. I don't w a n t to deny w e have real challenges, but w e I won't accept e x c u s e s e v e n though s o m e of the migrant kids are in and out and in a n d o u t — 5 times a year as they follow the apples and the t o m a t o e s . " (EH) At Jerico Elementary School, teachers also decided to introduce intersession programs, for regular remediation or enrichment, to m e e t individual needs as a n a d d e d and ongoing benefit of year-round s c h o o l i n g — even w h e n it meant finding a room in an adjacent apartment c o m p l e x or church b a s e m e n t because there w e r e no spare facilities on the school premises. Esther u s e d the calendar as a catalyst for n u m e r o u s c h a n g e s that included s u c h activities as G E D tutoring for parents, Drive-Through Fridays w h e n parents could drop off their children and pick up a cold breakfast with an a c c o m p a n y i n g sheet of parenting tips, W o n d e r f u l W e d n e s d a y s w h e n breakfast  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 103  w a s served to both parents a n d children, M a k e - a n d - T a k e — a r o o m in w h i c h parents could m a k e educational materials to use with their children. A l t h o u g h Esther and her staff w o r k e d to m a k e t h e school (now open year-round) the center of the community, she said it w a s the schedule itself that provided the most significant impetus for a c a d e m i c improvement. Recognizing the need for a great deal of a c a d e m i c support, Esther set out to c h a n g e t h e students' performance. A m o n g other c h a n g e s , s h e u s e d s o m e of her Title 1 m o n e y to reduce class size, particularly in the problem a r e a of math. She assigned her special education t e a c h e r s to a four-day w e e k , a n d t h e n asked t h e m to t e a c h intersession classes to small groups of students w h o n e e d e d remediation. Students w e r e identified w h o w e r e in particular need of assistance and invited to attend for one w e e k ' s intensive instruction during their three-week. Intersession instruction w a s s u p p l e m e n t e d by a three-hour school held o n Saturday m o r n i n g s and staffed by t e a c h e r s Esther hired f r o m a r o u n d t h e district (her h u s b a n d , h o w e v e r — a l s o a teacher at another district s c h o o l — t a u g h t for free). After one year, Esther submitted her school's test results, as required, to the State Office of Education. A l t h o u g h not every principal w h o s e scores increased considerably w a s asked to do so, she said she w a s "called to Tallahassee" to defend her results. S h e explained that she thought part of the reason w a s that the other principals w e r e white and there w a s still a lot of racism in the state a n d district. S h e recounted the dramatic tale: I t o o k a v a n to T a l l a h a s s e e with s o m e teachers, our test scores, enrollment lists, and videos of the school, and I responded to their  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 104  c o n c e r n s by saying, ' Y o u told us to d o it, y o u told us w e could d o it, a n d w e did it a n d now y o u don't believe us!' I told t h e m to c o m e t o see for t h e m s e l v e s a n d not waste my time driving all that w a y . Only two of t h e m ever c a m e . (EH) T h e state d i d , however, send a t e a m to her school b e c a u s e her m a t h scores had g o n e "over t h e t o p " (EH), even higher t h a n most other state math scores. S h e continued, T h e y c a m e in one d a y a n d told m e to t a k e a d a y off a n d g o to Orlando a n d shop. W h i l e I w a s in Orlando, unsuspecting, t h e y took 12 of m y fourth graders a n d re-tested t h e m . T h e y t h o u g h t I h a d c h e a t e d b u t t h e y tested just as well as t h e y h a d before! ( E H ) I asked Esther whether, given her success, s h e t h o u g h t m a n y other schools w o u l d be moving to a year-round calendar. Her response w a s that s h e believed the future of Y R S schooling in the district w a s "null a n d v o i d " b e c a u s e other administrators s a w h o w hard s h e a n d her staff had w o r k e d at Jerico School and didn't w a n t a n y part of it. T h e y w e r e also d i s c o u r a g e d b y Central C o u n t y ' s failure. Nevertheless, she told m e of one school principal w h o had d e c i d e d to introduce a single-track calendar the following year. Martin P o p p e r Elementary S c h o o l I m a d e contact with J a n e Bowes, a n d arranged to visit her school the next year. Martin P o p p e r Elementary School is in a starkly appalling high poverty area in t h e state. A s o n e drives t h r o u g h t h e neighborhood, o n e s e e s c a m p e r trailers set up as p e r m a n e n t dwellings on cinder blocks, a b a n d o n e d dilapidated w a r e h o u s e buildings, cracked blacktop, a n d no sidewalks. W h e n I first visited the school, litter w a s e v e r y w h e r e . Although t h e a r e a n o w s e e m s c l e a n , there is still a pervasive s e n s e of grinding poverty. T h e school serves a highly transient, largely migrant population, with a n increasing proportion of t h e students c o m i n g from  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 105  Spanish-speaking families (from Mexico). T h e total student population is roughly 680, but d u e to t h e constant changes, tracking t h e actual e n r o l m e n t of individual students has b e c o m e one of the major tasks of the vice-principal. My first impression of Jane w a s that she s e e m e d an unlikely candidate as s o m e o n e w h o w o u l d initiate reform. T h e small, quiet-spoken, almost "frumpy" principal g r e e t e d m e w a r m l y and took m e to a m e e t i n g r o o m w h e r e , as w e spoke, m a n y other teachers joined the conversation. J a n e a n d her teachers talked about how hard everyone had been working over a n u m b e r of years and how they believed they had gone as far as they could with the tools they had to help their children. T h e y w e r e all completely enthusiastic about the new calendar. Unlike other principals I had interviewed, Jan had h a d to beg and plead with the district to be permitted to introduce it. In each other case, there had been a financial or capital need on the part of the district. In her case, the only impetus w a s to help her students. J a n e described her philosophy and that of her teachers in the following way: W e k n o w that the h o m e situations s o m e t i m e s can affect the w a y a child c o m e s to school, how he feels that day a n d y o u know mother's in jail or you know stories that could just m a k e you sit d o w n a n d cry but our job is to always focus. W e have to remind ourselves everyday a n d w e have to focus. O u r j o b is just to give t h e m the best that w e can give t h e m — i n a c a d e m i c s , in love, and e m o t i o n a l strength. W h i l e they're with us, w e just do the best w e can a n d it's like being on a mission field...You just teach t h e m the best y o u can w h e n they're here a n d w e do believe that you can t e a c h t h e s e children that c o m e f r o m poverty h o m e situations. Y o u can t e a c h t h e m . W h e n the school staff first decided that a single-track year-round school calendar might serve the needs of their population, they took the request to the  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 106  board w h e r e they w e r e met with resistance and skepticism. T h e y persisted by saying that if the new calendar did not work, they could always return to a traditional one. After a period of several years, Martin Popper S c h o o l w a s permitted t o institute their p r o p o s e d calendar. Part of t h e impetus, p e r h a p s , w a s the high stakes testing s y s t e m in Florida w h i c h had first labeled the s c h o o l "low performing" a n d then categorized it as a D school. Jane, in typical Jane fashion, gave the credit to her teachers. S h e explained that it w a s a group of teachers that had b e g a n to explore the option of year-round schooling: T h e teachers started reading about it and giving m e pamphlets. At that time I really wasn't interested in it. T h e m o r e I r e a d — a n d t h e n w h e n I w e n t to the y e a r - r o u n d c o n f e r e n c e out in H o u s t o n — I c a m e back sold because I could not believe there w e r e so m a n y schools like ours w h e r e their a c h i e v e m e n t had g o n e up. I thought, "This w o r k s for these schools a n d s o m e of t h e m w e r e m u c h higher f r e e and reduced lunch than w e are." I said we're going to try it. S o w e decided to go before the school board and request permission to d o it. T h e y said wait a n d study it another year. W e h a d to study it a n o t h e r year and then finally s o m e of the school board m e m b e r s really got it and said, "This might be g o o d . " So they let us try it. During the first year on the single-track schedule, Jane a n d her t e a m of t e a c h e r s instituted n u m e r o u s changes. T h e y indicated that the primary reason for implementing the single-track schedule w a s to offer intersession support to the students, 8 8 % of w h o m qualify for free and reduced lunch. B e c a u s e of this high proportion of students w h o qualify for Title 1 funding, they m a d e several choices. Title 1 f u n d i n g w a s used to provide t w o resource teachers, o n e in reading a n d o n e in writing, to work with other teachers in the school. (By the third year of the n e w calendar, they added a math resource teacher as well). T h e resource t e a c h e r s w e n t into regular classrooms, m o d e l e d instruction, and pulled out those  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 107  students w h o n e e d e d additional w o r k for o n e - o n - o n e or small g r o u p instruction. They stated that if y o u "focus on those areas, you are eventually going to have good results" (JB). Additionally, the intent w a s to develop school-wide e m p h a s e s related to reading, writing, a n d math b e c a u s e J a n e had d e v e l o p e d a firm belief that "we have to d o things school-wide." S h e said, "I'm a real believer in that in all the years that I've been in education I've learned that w h a t you d o school-wide is going to b e effective." S u m m e r school m o n e y w a s used to fund intersession p r o g r a m s . During the three w e e k breaks in October a n d in February, teachers offered t w o w e e k s of additional instruction, providing for e x a m p l e , a c a d e m i c skill-building c o m b i n e d with fun activities. In general, attendance w a s approximately 150 fourth a n d fifth grade students. T h e children "want to c o m e " to intersession so m u c h that they always had m o r e students s h o w up than the n u m b e r enrolled. Even t h o u g h parents m a y not have signed t h e m up, they still attended. S o m e t i m e s they used a t h e m e such as a pioneer t h e m e , or, as in the October session: T h e fifth g r a d e r s had a novel a n d I did writing p r o m p t s associated with w h a t e v e r they w e r e reading that d a y . . . t h e y kept journals on w h a t they w e r e reading...the type of thing w h e r e they are doing reflective thinking.... W e ' v e f o u n d our kids really need to have m o r e non-fiction-type material to r e a d . . . w e find that non-fiction is a high interest for these kids anyway. (JB) A s the principal and specialist teachers spoke, I learned that their intersession instruction used an integrated curriculum a p p r o a c h based on the current e v e n t s topics identified in t h e Scholastic News Weekly Readers. A s a n e x a m p l e , students not only read and talked about ideas, they d e v e l o p e d math graphs to explain a n d interpret the information. In this way, teachers tried to help  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 108  students b r o a d e n their horizons while learning the type of information they would need to be successful on the F-CAT test. But the f o c u s w a s not just on testing. Jane d e s c r i b e d h o w they w e r e learning as teachers to do what they did during intersession a n d t a k e t h a t non-fiction stuff called science ... a n d put it a s part of y o u r daily lesson and m a k e it part of your writing a n d m a k e part of y o u r English a n d m a k e it part of your reading... In other w o r d s , intersession not only provided additional support for students, but w a s the catalyst for a change in the pedagogical e m p h a s i s of the regular classes as well. J a n e stated that "because of the high percentage of free and reduced lunches, they had basically not really expected to see a lot of c h a n g e in the first year." Nevertheless, principal a n d teachers alike w a i t e d impatiently for t h e results of the state-wide testing in their first year on their n e w schedule. Jane reported w h a t s h e described as a "funny story." In her o w n w o r d s : I w a s in Massachusetts on vacation a n d everybody's calling m e a n d I'm calling my daughter w h o is a teacher at another school in [Taft County] and I asked if the grades had c o m e out yet. S h e tried to find out by checking on the computer, but I still didn't know. I arrived b a c k at the airport a n d s h e g r e e t e d m e at t h e airport with the n e w s p a p e r and she said, 'I think you're going to w a n t to s e e this.' T h e r e I w a s praying for a "C" b e c a u s e w e ' r e a " D " school, right? S h e hands m e the paper and I'm looking at Martin Popper S c h o o l a n d I see a "B." I w e n t ballistic right there. W e w e r e just c o m i n g out of the gate with people all a r o u n d . I didn't e v e n k n o w a n o t h e r person w a s there because I'm screaming a n d hollering 'Hallelujah!' W e were so thrilled that w e w e r e a " B " that w e h a d a big celebration breakfast with the teachers. W h a t an accomplishment for the school to m o v e f r o m a D to a B in just one year. T h e district would have to permit t h e m to continue their calendar experiment. But the story did not e n d there. J a n e picks it up again.  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 109  T h e n I started looking at the criteria b e c a u s e as a principal y o u do look at w h o else got A's a n d B's and d e t e r m i n e w h a t w e w o u l d have h a d to do to get an "A." T h e criteria said w e h a d to test 9 5 % of the children and w e had met that criteria although the report said w e had only tested 9 2 % . I called in the vice-principal and said, 'Okay L e n n y you're in c h a r g e of testing y o u were s u p p o s e d to test every kid.' He replied, ' W e tested every single one. I'll s h o w y o u . ' Lenny calculated and recalculated w h i c h children had been eligible for testing, which children had transferred in a n d out of the school, and w h o had actually w i t h d r a w n f r o m the school. He f o u n d 10 children w h o w e r e listed on the state's record as being part of the school w h o had officially m o v e d out, just e n o u g h to meet the 9 5 % criteria. J a n e then submitted the correct information and an appeal to the district, excited at the prospect of showing that they had actually attained a n "A" status. T h e district t h e n called t h e m and "threw a d a m p e r " (JB) on their excitement. T h e m e s s a g e w a s : Y o u might w a n t to rethink this, you know. Y o u might w a n t to g o slowly. O n c e you get an A, it's hard to maintain. Y o u might w a n t to wait a n d s e e if you get an A next year. (JB) J a n e ' s response was, "You k n o w s o m e t h i n g w e m a y never be an 'A' again." T h e y pursued the appeal so the kids a n d their parents could have the e x p e r i e n c e of knowing they were an "A" school. It had the additional effect of raising t e a c h e r s ' expectations for the children. S h e explained that following this a m a z i n g achievement, they keep telling kids, that "You're an 'A'. W e expect you to do better a n d better all the time." S h e a d d e d , "And the teachers need to keep those high expectations. That's one of the things that is a challenge in this type of school." T e a c h e r s reportedly appreciated the fact that children had not forgotten as m u c h o v e r t h e s u m m e r as they usually did. T h e y c a m e "back in July a n d I can  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 110  r e m e m b e r the teachers just being so a m a z e d . T h e y said, 'They r e m e m b e r stuff. T h e y remember. W e don't have to do this review again...I m e a n t h e y w e r e so excited." S h e a d d e d that even children's behavior had c h a n g e d a n d they no longer had to re-teach routine procedures such as walking d o w n t h e hall. "They take a three w e e k break and they c o m e back like they have never b e e n away." A n o t h e r unanticipated c o n s e q u e n c e of the new calendar a n d the intersession initiatives w a s a d e c r e a s e in transience f r o m 74 to 6 1 % . Parents recognized that the school w a s making an effort for their children a n d said, "You know, w e really don't w a n t to m o v e t h e m out of this school b e c a u s e w e like the calendar." Moreover, Jane described how the calendar actually benefited the neighborhood: I think our parents really like it b e c a u s e the children aren't h o m e for long periods of time. T h e y are all in survival m o d e . T h e y love their children but they are so busy surviving that it m a k e s it nice for t h e m w h e n they are only h o m e for a short time in the s u m m e r . A n d they can handle t h e m being h o m e for a shorter time w h e n w e h a v e our little breaks. T h e next year, the school did slip to a "B", but the e m p h a s i s o n students, on school-wide initiatives, and on excellence is maintained. In fact, as I write, Martin Popper School, still on a single-track year-round school calendar, is reported to have once again (in 2 0 0 4 ) received an "A" standing, with scores above the state average in both math a n d writing. It still tries to maintain a low profile and not to m a k e w a v e s with the district. Despite their s u c c e s s , there is constant concern that the district will ask t h e m to return to a traditional calendar for the sake of uniformity. A s new superintendents and board m e m b e r s are elected, the process of re-educating t h e m begins again.  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 111  S u m m a r y o f the Florida E x p e r i e n c e T h e experience of Florida schools and districts with t h e implementation of Y R S w a s varied. Influenced by t h e strong a n d charismatic leadership of D a n a L o u g h e e d , m a n y schools took up the implementation challenge in t h e early 1990s. Over time, however, as districts experienced various political and fiscal realities, Dana's influence lessened and individual differences in district e x p e r i e n c e s with Y R S c a m e to t h e fore. T h e initial motives in both Central and S a g e Counties w e r e mixed while in Vista t h e goals w e r e clear but the implementation processes problematic. In e a c h case, t h e n e w calendar w a s discontinued. A l t h o u g h it had b e e n h o p e d that yearround schooling w o u l d reduce capital costs, there w a s also a v a g u e sense that it would r e d u c e burnout and tensions and improve a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . In Central a n d Vista Districts, Y R S w a s m a n d a t e d at first in lower S E S schools identified by t h e district, while in Sage, implementing schools did s o o n a voluntary basis. T h e impetus did not s e e m as important to t h e o u t c o m e s as the lack of goal clarity or unfulfilled promises. More t h a n anything else, o n e or both of t h e s e t w o f a c t o r s s e e m e d t o be associated with t h e failure of t h e c a l e n d a r in these counties. In Taft, t h e picture changed. T h e r e the implementing principals of the continuing schools, regardless of w h e t h e r the c h a n g e w a s m a n d a t e d or sought after, had a clear a c a d e m i c purpose, solid goals for improving s t u d e n t achievement, a n d a vision for h o w t h e calendar c h a n g e could help t o accomplish those goals. For that reason, based on reported i m p r o v e m e n t s in test scores,  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 112  Y R S in Taft district w a s particularly effective in making a difference in high poverty, high needs schools and their surrounding communities. M u c h can be learned f r o m the experiences in Florida about educational leadership for school change. Here I have learned f r o m these educators m u c h about h o w to avoid premature discontinuation of an innovation as well as h o w to promote enduring change with the potential to have a transformative impact on children a n d their communities.  Summary of US Implementation This brief overview of s o m e of the experiences of educators in several districts in three states d e m o n s t r a t e s that, since 1968, year-round schooling has had a b u m p y and varied track record. In s o m e places it has b e e n m a n d a t e d with success, while in others an unsupported m a n d a t e has resulted in disaster. Likewise, s o m e voluntary implementation has e n d e d quickly while in other sites, the c h a n g e has persisted. Moreover, these c a s e s have s h o w n that the specific calendar selected (i.e., single or multi-track) d o e s not determine the extent of e d u c a t o r e n t h u s i a s m , academic achievement, or c o m m u n i t y support. In Frances Howell, w h e r e Y R S w a s a necessary, multi-track reform, little information w a s available about student achievement, although I learned m u c h about implementation processes and c o m m u n i t y involvement and support. State records indicate, however, that students in the year-round schools continued to perform as anticipated, with scores that w e r e historically typical for the county and c o m p a r a b l e to those in surrounding districts.  Ch 5. The American experience ... p. 113  In Delphi District, the reform w a s instituted to put more children into existing (and later new buildings), and easily fulfilled this goal. In part b e c a u s e of strong a n d responsive district a n d school leadership, it also had t h e unanticipated o u t c o m e of improving student achievement in those schools that changed to a multi-track year-round school schedule. In Florida, w h e r e the experiences with Y R S w e r e m u c h m o r e m i x e d , there can be no e a s y s u m m a r y of the situation. Nevertheless it is fair to say that the integrity a n d goal clarity of the leaders and their implementation p r o c e s s e s had m u c h to do with the success or failure, e n d u r a n c e or discontinuation of the calendar. In the next chapter, I look at several C a n a d i a n situations, e a c h of w h i c h is voluntary in nature, but in which there are also mixed results.  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 114  C H A P T E R 6: T H E C A N A D I A N E X P E R I E N C E Year-round schooling in C a n a d a is m u c h younger t h a n in its A m e r i c a n neighbor. Here, all implementations of a modified school calendar w e r e not only voluntary, they often w e r e completed in the face of considerable resistance a n d challenge. While several of the innovations I e x a m i n e d in the U S date f r o m the 1970s, the first year-round school in C a n a d a w a s established in a small vacation c o m m u n i t y in Ontario in 1992. W i t h the single exception of S t e p h e n Lewis Junior High, o p e n e d in July 1995 as C a n a d a ' s first multi-track year-round school, the Canadian e x p e r i m e n t s took the f o r m either of single-track schools or of dualtrack m o d e l s . W h e n studying the Canadian schools, the problems of confidentiality increase dramatically. I treat the first implementing school, the elementary school in Huntsville, Ontario, as I did Frances Howell in Missouri, in t h a t its identity a n d that of its initiating principal cannot be hidden. It is therefore presented as a foil for the discussion of the other Ontario schools. In Ontario, there have been at no time m o r e t h a n seven schools on a year-round schedule. T h e r e too, individuals may be easily identified particularly because the implementation varied considerably f r o m district to district. There, as elsewhere, I interviewed all principals a n d vice-principals involved with the reform over time as well as a n u m b e r of t e a c h e r s a n d district administrators in e a c h area. A l t h o u g h all data are correct, I have c h o s e n to develop composite images of schools in each district, to attempt to preserve the confidentiality of my respondents. T h u s , for example, I  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 115  c o n d u c t e d interviews with a n u m b e r of people in t w o schools in a single district I call Albert. In each case, the selected dual-track m o d e l w a s the s a m e , the implementation policies under which the reform w a s instituted remained constant, and the o u t c o m e s were similar in that both schools' innovations persisted over a period of t i m e (and still exist in 2005). However, I s p e a k as if there w e r e only o n e school studied and call the school Kate Smith Elementary School. In a s e c o n d district, identified as Sweetwater, I follow the s a m e process, for t h e s a m e reasons; however, as w e shall see, success in Lakota Elementary S c h o o l w a s m u c h m o r e elusive. I w a n t to include the only multi-track y e a r - r o u n d school in C a n a d a . Although its identity and location are a matter of record, I still use a p s e u d o n y m for the school and avoid specific naming of its province so that the story, and not the actual identity of the school, takes p r e c e d e n c e . I call the school S t e p h e n Lewis Junior High School and have taken pains to conceal the individual identities of m y respondents. T h u s I have included "track leaders" as well as viceprincipals a n d principals and will refer to all of t h e m interchangeably as educators or administrators. I begin at the b e g i n n i n g — w i t h Huntsville Elementary School. Huntsville Elementary S c h o o l Huntsville Elementary School is a small K-8 school located on a pristine lakeshore in o n e of Canada's most popular s u m m e r playground a n d vacation areas. M a n y of the children's parents work in j o b s related to the tourist industry. Dan Patterson, the visionary principal, had learned in the late 1980s about the  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 116  increasing popularity of the y e a r - r o u n d s c h o o l m o d e l in t h e United S t a t e s a n d t a k e n an opportunity to attend the a n n u a l conference of the National Association for Y e a r - R o u n d Education ( N A Y R E ) in S a n Diego. Upon his return he s o u g h t permission within his board to implement a pilot project. Unlike the implementation initiatives I e x a m i n e d f r o m t h e United States, this o n e w a s o n a very small scale. It b e g a n with only o n e class of fourth, fifth, and six graders o n w h a t the district called an "alternative, dual-track schedule" and grew to four c l a s s e s representing approximately one-third of t h e school's total population, with an annual waiting list for the alternative s c h e d u l e classes. T h e s e classes w e r e still c o m b i n e d grades: one comprised g r a d e s 1, 2, a n d 3; the next three contained two grades e a c h : a 4  t h  and 5 , one 5 th  th  a n d 6 , and one 7 th  t h  and 8  t h  grades. T h e  school itself w a s very small, with a total of approximately 365 students. T o m a k e the alternate schedule work, the school a d o p t e d w h a t is now k n o w n in Ontario as a "dual-track model." T h o s e students opting for the alternative (or y e a r - r o u n d calendar) b e g a n school in roughly the s e c o n d w e e k in A u g u s t a n d e n d e d (with the rest of t h e students) about June 30. T h e r e w a s a t w o - w e e k vacation period in October, t w o w e e k s at Christmas, a n d a final t h r e e - w e e k break in M a r c h . T h e rest of the students were in school for the normal period between Labor Day a n d J u n e 30. T h u s for all students in the school, there were two w e e k s in August, October, a n d March and a f e w additional days at Christmas during w h i c h the school h a d either one third or two thirds of its students in session.  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 117  T h e s e periods offer relief to the school, reducing tensions in t h e halls, and offering additional access to the g y m and c o m p u t e r lab for the s t u d e n t s that are present. T e a c h e r s report, for e x a m p l e , "It is a m a z i n g h o w f e w e r kids on the playground m a k e it a m u c h m o r e m a n a g e a b l e g r o u p for supervising at recess." A n o t h e r said, "I love the m o n t h of A u g u s t . . . b e c a u s e y o u have m o r e r o o m to spread out, y o u can do different things with kids, . . . m y h u s b a n d can c o m e in and do s o m e w o o d w o r k i n g with the kids, and things like that." A l t h o u g h the calendar w a s introduced with virtually no cost to t h e district, there have b e e n s o m e "political" costs in the f o r m of d e c r e a s e d s u p p o r t for the school based o n concern about split-grade classes. T h o s e teachers a n d educators w h o have been involved with the p r o g r a m , however, report considerable benefits and s e e m less concerned a b o u t the difficulties of teaching split grades. Likewise, s o m e parents s e e m to feel the benefits o u t w e i g h the disadvantages. D a n said that the school o p e n s on an annual basis with an o p e n i n g breakfast in A u g u s t w h e n parents c o m e with their kids, a n d w e provide all the students and parents with a breakfast of fruit a n d muffins a n d things. W e all have a big hello and all stay t o g e t h e r for a f e w m o m e n t s , and then in time the kids take off to their classes ... (DP) At first, there w a s also a large m e d i a presence. W h e n w e e x p a n d e d , the m e d i a that c a m e w a s almost unimaginable. W e h a d television crews a n d w e asked t h e m if they w o u l d wait until the e n d of the first w e e k of school. T h e kids k n e w that it w a s pretty neat a n d pretty important. (DP) T h e principal believed that students on alternative calendars w e r e the only ones in the c o u n t r y w h o were ever consulted a b o u t w h e n they w a n t e d to begin  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 118  school a n d h e n c e had m a d e the choice to begin before their peers. T h e fact that there had b e e n family dialogue helped to provide a "tremendous positive start." Others reported that a real sense of bonding a n d c o m m u n i t y occurred a m o n g the students w h o b e g a n together in the s u m m e r a n d said that the "feeling...lasts throughout t h e year." O n e of t h e teacher-leaders, c o m m e n t i n g on s o m e of the benefits, stated: I t e a c h in t h e p r o g r a m as well as I'm a n administrator, a n d y o u k n o w obviously I t e a c h , but I found after the t w o - w e e k break in the fall, at Christmas I found myself far m o r e able, healthier, keener. ... I do notice that other staff w h o teach in the alternate year remark in the s a m e way, that the rest in the fall is invaluable to how you reach C h r i s t m a s a n d y o u c a n certainly contrast it with our colleagues w h o don't h a v e that break, w h o typically drag t h r o u g h D e c e m b e r struggling with, you know, the burden of all the Christmas concert stuff a n d all the rest of it. (JM) Others reported less time needed for review after the breaks. Still others c o m m e n t e d o n the opportunity for families to take vacations together in the f a l l — s o m e t h i n g that w a s impossible in the s u m m e r d u e to the heavy d e m a n d s of the parents' w o r k in the tourist industry. Administrators in this district indicated that although there w e r e a few issues with t h e T e a c h e r s Federation at t h e outset, t h e n e w calendar w a s not seen as an issue. O n e said, "I heard it expressed this way: that w h e n they lobbied to t h e director, he threw t h e m out of his office and said it w a s a non-issue and they didn't need to worry about bothering with a grievance" (JM). For the most part, t h e y believed the dual-track calendar w o r k e d b e c a u s e parents w h o w a n t e d to remain on the traditional schedule could d o so, while those w h o w a n t e d an alternative had the opportunity to c h o o s e it. He concluded: "I think if  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 119  the g o v e r n m e n t c o m e s d o w n a n d lays it on for parents they'll balk a n d the specialness of it will be g o n e a n d it w o n ' t be as successful as it is." W o r d a b o u t the popularity a n d s u c c e s s of this small program in Huntsville b e g a n to s p r e a d , as the implementing principal s p o k e with almost missionary zeal to colleagues. S o o n other schools in his and neighboring districts w a n t e d to experiment to achieve similar perceived benefits: flexibility of vacation time, reduction of t e n s i o n s and review time, increased interest a n d motivation for learning, and perhaps above all parental a n d student choice. They, too, b e c a m e k n o w n as innovative and pioneering principals.  Albert School District: Implementing a Successful Dual-Track Model A t a b o u t the s a m e time as Huntsville's principal w a s beginning his experiment, another Ontario principal also attended s o m e annual meetings of N A Y R E and b e c a m e a convert to the principle of year-round schooling. W h e n Albert S c h o o l District a n n o u n c e d that it w a s ready to build a new school at the east side of a major city, J o s e p h marshaled his forces and lobbied for the position. Kate S m i t h Elementary School o p e n e d in 1996 in a reasonably affluent area of a rapidly growing Ontario c o m m u n i t y of about 100,000 people. It w a s a s p a c i o u s brick building with wide hallways, a n d a curving entry foyer. J o s e p h S m a r t talked openly about his hopes for the n e w school, his implementation processes, a n d the benefits he sees in the year-round schedule.  Chapter6. The Canadian experience ... p. 120  The D r e a m : A N e w S c h o o l is A n n o u n c e d W h e n the n e w school w a s a n n o u n c e d , J o s e p h had b e e n principal of a neighboring school built for 4 5 0 students, but w h i c h had b u r g e o n e d to over 700 students with 15 portable classrooms to a c c o m m o d a t e . J o s e p h indicated he had long been interested in a year-round school c a l e n d a r — s i n c e the d a y s w h e n he and his wife had taught on a Cree Indian Reserve in Northern M a n i t o b a in a school that modified its calendar to meet the n e e d s of the c o m m u n i t y . T h e r e he says, he had "a taste of the modified calendar" w h e r e they started school a w e e k early a n d then took a w e e k off in the fall for hunting. A n d I thought it w a s a m a r v e l o u s concept. It w a s a g o o d time period, and I thought, as a matter of fact, y o u could extend it b e c a u s e y o u can have shorter a c a d e m i c periods with breaks at t h e e n d of t h e m . A n d true to f o r m , as w e ' v e e x p e r i e n c e d here, y o u c o m e back refreshed f r o m those breaks. H e w a s also a w a r e that his district had e x a m i n e d t h e topic five y e a r s earlier a n d had a b a n d o n e d it b e c a u s e "there w a s a lot of controversy at that time, quite heated d e b a t e about year-round school." Six pilot schools had b e e n identified at that time, but because of the vote that occurred in e a c h school, yearround schooling had been turned d o w n in the district. J o s e p h s a w his c h a n c e w h e n the position as principal of the new school o p e n e d up, so he m a d e a proposal to t h e board. He expressed interest in the position a n d asked that it be coupled with permission to open the school on a single-track year-round calendar. T h e board a c c e p t e d his proposition a n d J o s e p h ' s work started. He describes h o w he b e g a n : I just talked to the superintendent about the concept, a n d it started m e g o i n g . I g o t excited about it, and I pulled together 12 people that I called the d r e a m t e a m . D r e a m because they were important  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 121  people f r o m the community, f r o m the school c o m m u n i t y , and staff a n d so on, it w a s a cross-representation of the c o m m u n i t y . . . . So w e h a d this series of meetings, w e talked a b o u t t h e s c h o o l motto, the mission statement, the calendar, everything w a s d o n e with the c o m m u n i t y after this d r e a m t e a m had b e e n established and it w a s presented to the admin, council of our superintendents. J o s e p h ' s appointment as principal w a s tied to his proposals for the school, with the calendar as an integral part of the package. O n c e he had been approved, his t e a m w o r k e d tirelessly. M e m b e r s sent newsletters out to the public a n d held monthly m e e t i n g s w h i c h attracted an increasingly large a n d v o c a l n u m b e r of participants e a c h time. At each meeting, there w a s a large group of interested parents, but also a "segment of the vigilant c o m m u n i t y protectors. So there w a s always a challenge to deal with that aspect of it a n d at the s a m e time promote the idea of a modified calendar and be excited a b o u t it." J o s e p h r e m e m b e r e d : A n d I kept beating the bushes, I had displays at the local malls, w e h a d o u r teachers going door to door with flyers. A n d the other g r o u p w e n t door to door as well with their o w n a g e n d a , trying to c o n v i n c e people not to register. Every parent that attended a meeting w a s m a d e an official m e m b e r of the c o m m i t t e e a n d given a proposed calendar and a n information package to share with their friends a n d neighbours. Joseph indicated, "Once they s a w the concept of eight w e e k s or nine w e e k s at school and two w e e k s off, t h e y w e r e immediately converted. By the e n d of that 4 5 minutes to an hour m e e t i n g , m a n y parents said, 'Well that's a s y s t e m I w a s on in Britain or in Europe, or wherever.'" T o e n s u r e the success of the new school, J o s e p h had also convinced the district to authorize open boundaries for the school to permit t h o s e parents w h o w a n t e d a y e a r - r o u n d calendar to take advantage of it. Initially the plan had been to have o n e t r a c k — w i t h all students on a single-track calendar; however, parents  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 122  "voted" as they registered their children and it b e c a m e apparent that there w a s e n o u g h d e m a n d for a dual-track school, but not for a wholesale c h a n g e . During the t w o - w e e k w i n d o w w h e n registration w a s o p e n , J o s e p h contacted parents w h o had not indicated a preference, ensuring that everyone w a s a w a r e of the possible choices and the potential benefits of e a c h .  The Opening T h e school opened with about 3 0 0 students, about 150 o n e a c h schedule. Of these 300 students, about 40 transferred f r o m a neighbouring Montessori School, 2 0 - 3 0 f r o m Catholic Schools, in Ontario called "separate schools," a n d s o m e w h o s e parents drove t h e m up to half an hour f r o m adjacent communities. This large g r o u p f r o m outside the original c a t c h m e n t area represented parents w h o w e r e v e r y k n o w l e d g e a b l e a n d c o n c e r n e d a b o u t their children's e d u c a t i o n , w h o had not taken the decision to join Kate Smith Elementary School lightly. For e x a m p l e , J o s e p h indicated that 7 5 % of the parents f r o m the Montessori S c h o o l interviewed him personally before m a k i n g their decision. J o s e p h ' s original intent w a s to introduce a calendar he believed w o u l d be beneficial to students: "I believe in looking at c h a n g e as a w a y to improve the a c a d e m i c potential of a school and not c h a n g e for the s a k e of change, a n d I felt that this w a s a really valid proposal." A l t h o u g h J o s e p h ' s initial objective w a s not to have a dual-track school, he b e c a m e a convert. It offered the best of all worlds as far as he w a s c o n c e r n e d . He t h o u g h t that if people understood the benefits of a single-track year-round calendar, there w o u l d naturally be a d e m a n d , but at the s a m e time, having an option for a traditional track w o u l d address the concerns of  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 123  t h e nay-sayers. E v e n t h o u g h s o m e might argue t h a t having a dual-track calendar requires m o r e split grade classes, J o s e p h is c o n v i n c e d that is not a d r a w b a c k . He explains that his teachers " c o m e a r m e d with information extolling t h e virtues of split-grades t o o . . . W h e n it is just 2 g r a d e s in o n e , w e call it a split grade, but w h e n w e get into 3 w a y splits w e call t h e m multi-aged or family groupings."  Continuing Innovation and Implementation Issues J o s e p h soon began to talk a b o u t the possibility of implementing additional tracks in his school that would maintain the dual-track calendars but a d d specific programs, that might, for example, e m p h a s i z e t h e fine arts, offer a gifted p r o g r a m , science, or French Immersion. He said that it w a s in no w a y his intent to create an elite school, but one that met the needs of all children. J o s e p h a n d his wife (the special education teacher in the school) w e r e firmly committed to the benefits of the alternate calendar for children with special needs. This w a s one of the groups that J o s e p h perceived the extended c a l e n d a r benefitted the most. J o s e p h reported that the allocation of district-sponsored special-education classes to specific schools had b e c o m e an issue, with s o m e teachers wanting to avoid having an increasing n u m b e r of special n e e d s children in their school. But J o s e p h t o o k a n opposing position. H e believed t h a t "there is every single a r g u m e n t for having those classes on the modified calendar." At one point, J o s e p h offered to split the costs with the Board of bussing special needs children from a r o u n d the district because he "believed so fervently that that's w h a t it is all about. T h e special needs kids should be on a modified calendar." So he took  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 124  money f r o m his school budget to support this belief. This w a s not a c h a n g e that c a m e easily. J o s e p h reports that sitting at a meeting with parents, trying to convince t h e m that their child n e e d s to be in a behaviour class is a large block. T o put a n o t h e r roadblock in there by suggesting that it's a modified calendar, I s e e as a n enticement, t h e y s e e it a s a roadblock. S o m e of the specific benefits of the calendar to children with special n e e d s w e r e s u m m e d up by their t e a c h e r in these words: I felt the special education kids w e r e really sharp again after the breaks on the modified calendar. T h e routines w e r e still established in their heads and there w a s no d o w n time. T h a t w a s great to s e e b e c a u s e these little guys have so m a n y problems. Learning is s u c h a challenge for t h e m anyway. J o s e p h and his t e a m of teachers were enthusiastic about the benefits to all children offered by the dual-track calendar. For t h o s e w h o opted for the modified track, school started at t h e beginning of A u g u s t a n d t h e n benefited f r o m "two w e e k s off in October, two w e e k s at Christmas, t w o w e e k s at March break (as o p p o s e d to one on the regular calendar) and another w e e k in May." In August, however, there w e r e also s o m e modifications m a d e to t h e daily schedule. School b e g a n slightly earlier in the morning; the lunch period w a s shortened; and students finished classes by about 2:30 t o enable t h e m to enjoy t h e w a r m s u m m e r w e a t h e r and still have time with their friends f r o m traditional tracks. Instruction during the m o n t h of A u g u s t w a s different as well. T h e school arranged to take a d v a n t a g e of a regional Pioneer Village. Half g o on one week, and the other half on the other. A n d t h e n w e do the s a m e thing for the regular calendar in the fall... W e ' r e permitted to d o that in the fall only because w e have participated in the s u m m e r . Other schools in the district only get a d a y at a time at the Pioneer Village.  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 125  W h e n J o s e p h told me they also had an O l y m p i c week, a p r o g r a m at the zoo, and other high interest activities, I asked if t e a c h e r s thought this kind of p r o g r a m m i n g m a d e it more difficult to cover the curriculum. J o s e p h r e s p o n d e d : W e l l , I t h i n k they have t h e foresight to realize t h a t that is t h e curriculum, and they can integrate it a n d really any experience that brings interest to it can be modified to deliver t h e prescribed curriculum. I think it's m o r e palatable t o deliver it that way, t o o . For t h e ten w e e k s w h e n only half of the school is in session, students benefit f r o m additional access to specialized areas (computers, music, g y m , playground equipment, etc.), f r o m additional s p a c e , a n d h e n c e enjoy f e w e r tensions a n d conflicts. For that reason, J o s e p h believes everyone benefits and no one is d i s a d v a n t a g e d . At the s a m e time, it is important not to " m a k e a distinction b e t w e e n modified a n d regular." J o s e p h elaborated, W e ' r e o n e school, it just happens like any business, that people take holidays at different times. W e have the s a m e mission statement; w e have the s a m e goals, s a m e curriculum, s a m e n u m b e r of school days. Everything else is the s a m e . W h e n o n e first visits Joseph's office, one is struck by the bulletin boards covered with press releases about the school, with headlines like, "School's in for the S u m m e r ! " Yet, not everything w a s positive. He s h o w e d m e a binder that he called " S t o r m " — f u l l of articles about the school and the year-round calendar. He admitted that there had been initial problems a n d that t h e local m e d i a did whip up t h i n g s . . . W e had a picket line out here at o n e point, and they really picked up on that. S o did the television station. But by and large, I believe that the m e d i a s w u n g over to our s i d e b e c a u s e it simply m a d e sense. I think that t h e big factor that 150 children were registered on the modified calendar, s p o k e for itself. H o w are you going to argue with that? Y o u ' r e not going to say to p a r e n t s , well, w e don't like the concept so de-register your kids!  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 126  J o s e p h s e e m s to thrive on conflict and new challenges. He indicated that he had been "invigorated by the w h o l e challenge of bringing in a new concept, a n d w a s thrilled to be a part of it. A n d all t h e w a y along," he said, "I didn't t a k e a n y of this personally. I understand that people have a lot of trouble with change." W h e n it w a s a concept he believed in, the benefits o u t w e i g h e d any of the challenges of implementation. J o s e p h responded in the s a m e w a y to the need for accountability that c o m e s f r o m having such a high profile calendar. I asked J o s e p h to s u m up his belief about the year-round school calendar. He r e s p o n d e d : Y o u can't depend on a modified calendar to deliver a g o o d p r o g r a m . It's a great schedule, but y o u still have to have the substance. A n d w e w e r e really cautious, a n d it w a s a really important m a n d a t e for us to provide an innovative p r o g r a m b e c a u s e w e ' r e so accountable. That's w h a t I love about this, is that if w e ' r e not delivering a g o o d p r o g r a m , people are not going to c h o o s e to c o m e here. A n d right now, our population is here by c h o i c e . . . So, I love accountability! A n o t h e r aspect of accountability that should not be forgotten is J o s e p h ' s involvement with the community a n d the role of the school council. He e n t h u s e d : "The b e a u t y of having school c o m m u n i t y councils is that they can m a k e cooperative decisions." He elaborated, "And w h e n y o u have parents that are purely m o t i v a t e d to d o the right thing, not out of self-interest, the decisions are usually g o o d o n e s a n d with this process, w h e n y o u get consensus, it is a n o v e r w h e l m i n g , strong consensus." T h e r e s e e m s to be little doubt that the w a y s in w h i c h J o s e p h w o r k e d to build c o n s e n s u s with his communities were especially helpful in building support for his innovative a p p r o a c h to education. J o s e p h w a s not only persuasive, but inclusive and committed to working for w h a t he believed. At the s a m e time, he w a s able to tolerate opposing  Chapter6. The Canadian experience ... p. 127  viewpoints and the challenges that c o m e f r o m conflict a n d ambiguity. Perhaps for these reasons, he w a s able to attract others to his school and to his w a y of thinking. O n e of the vice-principals w h o w o r k e d with him talked a b o u t the w a y Joseph w a s t h o u g h t of in the district. He said the superintendent a n d central office recognize that "no question J o s e p h is a visionary. He plants the seed and cultivates it."  The Dream Expands I indicated at the outset that this description of J o s e p h a n d Kate Smith Elementary S c h o o l is a composite. Although this is true, it is also important to report that four years after one of the principals o p e n e d the first new school in the district as a dual-track school, he had the opportunity to implement the s a m e process in a s e c o n d new school, with similar successful o u t c o m e s . O n e of his vice-principals stated that "about five staff m e m b e r s f r o m the original t e a m that c a m e with J o s e p h . " A d d i n g that "people s e e m to follow him a r o u n d , " he indicated that in fact J o s e p h ' s appointment had been his own incentive for applying at that school. J o s e p h ' s influence, however, in his district goes well b e y o n d the opening of t w o dual-track calendar schools. School C o m m u n i t y Councils are m a n d a t e d by the g o v e r n m e n t of Ontario for every school. O n e of their m a n d a t e s , undoubtedly influenced by J o s e p h ' s pioneering efforts and his high profile as an innovative educator, is to examine school calendars. More specifically, as a result of his c o m m i t m e n t a n d success within the district, Albert School District e n a c t e d a policy that w h e n e v e r a new school is about to o p e n , the School C o m m u n i t y  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 128  Council must consider (but not necessarily implement) the potential benefits of a dual-track a n d other alternative calendar options. In Albert School District, although the expansion of the year-round calendar m a y not have been as rapid or as extensive as J o s e p h w i s h e d , it has b e c o m e widely accepted as both viable and desirable as an alternative a p p r o a c h to educating students. This successful implementation w a s d u e in large part to the dedication a n d c o m m i t m e n t of Joseph Smart, an innovative and persistent educational leader. I turn n o w to a second composite district and school in w h i c h the implementation of alternative calendars did not m e e t s u c h a h a p p y fate. Sweetwater S c h o o l District: A L e s s S u c c e s s f u l Implementation Following closely on the heels of the first year-round schools in Ontario, Huntsville a n d Kate S m i t h Elementary Schools, t h e principal of Lakota Elementary S c h o o l in S w e e t w a t e r School District d e t e r m i n e d to introduce a similar calendar. S w e e t w a t e r District, like that of the Huntsville Elementary School, is located in a resort and vacation a r e a in Ontario, with a predominantly tourist b a s e d e c o n o m y . If the calendar had w o r k e d for Huntsville, surely it would bring credit to Lakota! Fuelled by her e n t h u s i a s m about the reports of the first two schools, in particular her conversations with D a n Patterson "founding father" of Y R S in Ontario a n d the initiating principal of Huntsville Elementary, G w e n presented a request to the board. She had initially been interested, not only b e c a u s e of her conversations with D a n , but also b e c a u s e t h e calendar s e e m e d to be very similar to the British c a l e n d a r — o n e s h e had grown up with. S h e w a s  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 129  supported in her request by a f o r m e r local T e a c h e r s ' Federation president w h o had also w o r k e d with the "founding father." A t t h e time, several schools w e r e c o m p e t i n g for the honor of implementing a modified calendar in the district, a n d she w o n out over the principal of a neighboring school, w h o in d u e time w a s also able to i m p l e m e n t the calendar. It is the story of t h e s e two implementers that I tell under the rubric of Lakota Elementary School.  Permission Granted A n information meeting w a s first held at o n e of the competing schools, with a turn-out of approximately 6 0 people w h o s e e m e d interested in the proposal. However, G w e n explained, "The c o m m u n i t y here is very small-c conservative a n d quite traditional and they don't like change, any kind of change. A n d I think they w e r e afraid that it w a s going to affect the rest of the school. Actually, it affects the rest of the school in a positive way." O n c e Lakota School w a s given the g o a h e a d , a m o n t h w a s designed for pre-registration. T h o s e involved w e r e disappointed that there w e r e not long lines of people wanting to register. In fact, even after t h e school had b e e n on a dual calendar for several years, she said that in the registration m o n t h , she w o u l d like to have s e e n long line-ups, but that they did not get t h e m . S h e c o m m e n t e d , "Unfortunately, this indicated to m e that a) it's s l o w in catching on or b) perhaps w e w e r e not doing a good e n o u g h j o b here f r o m this school."  Implementation Struggles A l t h o u g h the initial intention here, unlike at Kate Smith, w a s to o p e n as a dual-track school, G w e n had hoped for more interest. T h e result of the lukewarm  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 130  enthusiasm (75 students opting for the modified calendar), c o m b i n e d with the already relatively small size of the school (462), w a s that classes on both calendars b e c a m e multi-grade situations (a 1, 2, 3 grouping; one class of 4 , 5 , t h  and 6  t h  graders, and a 7  t h  and 8  t h  th  grade class). This w a s , of course, n o different  f r o m Kate Smith's implementation, but s e e m e d to have been less well received. Also, like Kate Smith Elementary School, the s u m m e r schedule w a s modified to permit m a x i m u m e n j o y m e n t of the out-of-doors. O n e teacher d e s c r i b e d an e x c h a n g e overheard a m o n g s o m e students: I had three girls sitting talking once in m y modified class with t w o that aren't, a n d that w a s the concern, like, "Well, we'll be at t h e beach and y o u won't be." A n d the girl in m y class said, "Well, w h a t time d o y o u normally g o ? " A n d they said, "Well, s o m e t i m e after two," a n d s h e said, "So I'll be ten minutes late. That's all." B e c a u s e the day b e g a n at 8:30 and e n d e d at 2:30, with a shortened lunch period and the elimination of the afternoon recess, students w h o started school in A u g u s t w e r e still able to enjoy t i m e at the beach with their friends. Unlike the processes used to introduce the alternative c a l e n d a r at Kate S m i t h — t h e m o n t h s of meetings, the e a g e r n e s s to bring the w h o l e c o m m u n i t y in to the conversations, the o p e n n e s s of the public debate, the willingness to listen to opposing viewpoints, the tolerance of ambiguity, the e m b r a c e of the m e d i a , and the general c o m m i t m e n t of the e d u c a t o r s — t h e process at Lakota S c h o o l w a s confined to the principal's report to the staff and c o m m u n i t y that the alternative calendar w o u l d be implemented. O n e teacher told us that the decision w a s m a d e b e c a u s e the principal had requested it, but that there had been no consultation a m o n g the staff, a n d  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 131  certainly n o v o t e o n t h e part of either teachers or t h e parent c o m m u n i t y . S h e stated, W e w e r e just told this is happening. I don't e v e r r e m e m b e r being a s k e d if w e w e r e interested in having it or not.... W e w e r e a s k e d if w e w e r e interested in teaching in it and if y o u w e r e interested in t e a c h i n g in it, you could apply to do so. A n o t h e r t e a c h e r described it as G w e n ' s "little baby." S h e continued, " S h e sort of said, T d like to d o this and this. A r e there teachers that w o u l d be interested and parents a n d students?"' Still another told us it had b e e n : sort of laid on us because G w e n had m a d e the decision that she w a s going to try it. It w a s going to be a pilot project, a n d I m e a n , e v e n if w e had voted against it, I think, she probably sort of w o u l d ' v e overruled it and said, "Well, we're going to try it anyway." In addition, there had been no opportunity to explore the rationale or the pros and cons of the proposal. T e a c h e r s reported that the principal pressured t h e m "not to say anything negative about it" an approach that m a n y felt w a s "a little restricting" w h e n t h e y w a n t e d to e x a m i n e all the issues. A l t h o u g h in Kate Smith the project o p e n e d with the involvement of approximately 5 0 % of the school, in Sweetwater, administrators a p p e a r e d satisfied with a bare m i n i m u m of students. Moreover, they did not e n c o u r a g e media attention or public debate that might have g e n e r a t e d additional support. One said, "I didn't e n c o u r a g e it. I m e a n , not that I said no, but I didn't g o out looking for it. I just w a n t e d it to go nice and smoothly" ( G W ) . O n e w o n d e r s if there w a s fear that t h e media would be negative; nevertheless, t h e low key approach w a s less than satisfactory and is indicative of m a n y of t h e ensuing implementation problems.  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 132  W h e n I interviewed administrators, all teachers on the modified calendar, and s o m e of the teachers on the traditional schedule, I heard m a n y complaints about h o w the calendar had been i m p l e m e n t e d , but none about the c o n c e p t itself. A l t h o u g h I s e n s e d that there had been difficulties, it w a s only after several visits, several rounds of interviews, and strong a s s u r a n c e s of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y — particularly that w h a t teachers reported w o u l d not be t a k e n back to the principal, that I b e g a n to understand s o m e of the real issues at Lakota School. P r o b l e m s of implementation quickly c a m e to the forefront. T e a c h e r s stated that b e c a u s e t h e three modified class teachers d o their o w n supervision in August, t h e y are e x e m p t from duties the rest of the year. B e c a u s e the music teacher, Rusty, h a p p e n e d to be on the modified schedule, the rest of the school lost five w e e k s of music instruction while he w a s on break. T h e r e w a s obvious jealousy a n d c o n c e r n on the part of the other t e a c h e r s about the p r o g r a m m i n g for the modified classes. This w a s particularly pointed against Rusty's handling of his o w n senior grade class. O n e teacher stated that: w h a t h a p p e n s is his students get a really g o o d start in music, and have t h e c o m p u t e r lab to themselves, s o they d o m o r e c o m p u t e r work, a n d t h e n they go on m o r e field trips as well b e c a u s e in A u g u s t y o u k n o w they should be outdoors more, so they do m o r e of an o u t d o o r program in August. A l t h o u g h this does not s e e m very different f r o m w h a t w e heard in Kate Smith, here, there is no sense of this being curriculum with an integrated a n d thematic a p p r o a c h . Instead, it s e e m e d that Lakota School operated in A u g u s t with a series of special d a y s — f i s h i n g , golf, e t c . — s e p a r a t e in almost every w a y from the regular curriculum. Unlike in other dual-calendar schools, having s o m e students a b s e n t during the regular t e r m did not permit the use of additional s p a c e  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 133  by teachers. O n e teacher described how she w a n t e d to use an adjacent room for a d r a m a project, but could not, "because they locked it." T h e allocation of teachers is particularly illustrative of the p r o b l e m s experienced in Sweetwater District. G w e n said: I had four teachers w h o w a n t e d the three positions, w h i c h m a d e it difficult to c h o o s e ! I did it by, first c o m e , first served, as to w h o got there ... I asked t h e m to put in a letter as to w h y they w o u l d w a n t to t e a c h the alternative, and w h i c h grades. I looked at flexibility. S o m e of t h e m said they wouldn't mind either junior or intermediate, or primary or junior. A n d I also looked at whether the three w o u l d be compatible, so that entered into it, too. G w e n ' s s t a t e m e n t appears to e n c o m p a s s contradictory criteria. Moreover, it suggests a unilateral rather than a collaborative process, one that increased competition a n d divided the staff, rather than unifying it a r o u n d an exciting experiment. Class size w a s another major issue. O n the modified schedule, classes ranged in size f r o m 18 to 22 students, while the traditional calendar classes had 29 students in the middle grades, with over 30 in the 7-8 class. In fact, I w a s told by a t e a c h e r that "Parents can't c h o o s e teachers, but they can c h o o s e w h e t h e r they're going to have traditional or the year-round program, a n d s o de facto, they can c h o o s e teachers." This w a s complicated even m o r e by the fact that the senior t e a c h e r in the modified calendar w a s one w h o w a s described as "not being appropriate for all kids." O n e sixth grade teacher on the regular calendar stated, Probably, the biggest problem I have with the modified calendar looking at it f r o m my standpoint of having a grade 6 class going to the 7 grade, is w h o is teaching it. I don't like to be negative t o w a r d s Rusty Knowles. He's extremely well educated but in his p r o g r a m , you have to work independently. So those t w o students t h  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 134  f r o m my class that are considering going to his, they w o u l d be fine. T h e y w o u l d sort of survive that sort of trip, but a student w h o is w e a k e r a n d n e e d s the teacher focused all the w a y a l o n g , w o u l d have p r o b l e m s in that classroom simply b e c a u s e of his style. A n o t h e r reported: "I'm sorry to have to say it, but Mr. K n o w l e s has very limited behaviour control m a n a g e m e n t skills within his c l a s s r o o m . " In fact, the two sixth g r a d e t e a c h e r s had rejoiced w h e n Mr. K n o w l e s w a s placed on the modified calendar, saying, "Phew, w e don't have to s e n d our kids on to Mr. Knowles b e c a u s e he's going to be doing the alternative year." Putting y o u r w e a k e s t teacher in the senior class of a pet project might look like a sure w a y to kill it, but G w e n , perhaps unwittingly, m a d e the situation even worse. B e c a u s e not e n o u g h students had pre-registered for the next year of the modified calendar at the 7  t h  grade level, she introduced a n e w plan. Students  were told that if 8 or 9 of t h e m didn't volunteer, at least that m a n y students w o u l d be placed in that classroom in September. So the alternative year w o u l d start in August, and then 8 or 9 kids w o u l d be placed in that r o o m in S e p t e m b e r after the class had been running, a n d in October, then those 8 or 9 w o u l d be split up into another c l a s s r o o m . T h e y wouldn't start in August, because, of course, that wouldn't w o r k out with the parents' schedule. T h e y w o u l d start in September, but t h e y w o u l d be in that classroom, so they would've m i s s e d all the A u g u s t p r o g r a m . T h e y would start in September. (ST) In this way, students not opting for the modified calendar w o u l d not have to begin before September, but w h e n the rest of their class w e n t o n the modified breaks, t h e y w o u l d be placed in other regular classes a n d f o r c e d to m a k e up the time. T e a c h e r s said that students looked puzzled and asked, "Like could it be m e that's forced to g o in there?" One teacher, s u m m i n g this n e w plan up, m a d e the understatement of the year: "I don't k n o w how this is going to work."  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 135  T h e n s h e elaborated, "They w e r e keen o n s o m e of the selling points." T h e principal promised these students they w o u l d have "no French for a m o n t h and hour-long physical education and extra instrumental music and c o m p u t e r lab every day" (not to mention the day trips discussed earlier).  Discontent and Discontinuation It is little w o n d e r that after the plan had b e e n c o m m u n i c a t e d to the students, o n e teacher told m e she had been: g r e e t e d in the hall, the first thing t h e next m o r n i n g by a parent w h o said, "I'm tired of having this r a m m e d d o w n m y throat. It's in the paper. It's s p o k e n about at every assembly, y o u know. Now, m y d a u g h t e r w a n t s to be involved in the p r o g r a m b e c a u s e it w a s sold to her, y o u know, with a hard sell, a n d w e k n o w it won't w o r k for our family. W e know about the p r o g r a m . Forms have c o m e h o m e . W e ' r e informed. W e can't be involved in it." A n d so she w a s upset. In S w e e t w a t e r District, the modified calendar c a u s e d disruption of classes, and as e n r o l m e n t declined, increased hard feelings, as schools e x p e r i e n c e d p r o g r a m cuts and lost specialist teachers like librarians. Nevertheless, a series of different superintendents permitted the dual-track calendar to exist for five years because it offered an element of choice to a small g r o u p of parents. No other educational benefits w e r e identified, and as I have reported, m a n y problems d e v e l o p e d a r o u n d the w a y s in w h i c h t h e innovation w a s conceptualized a n d introduced here. In t h e sole multi-track year-round school in C a n a d a , w e will s e e next how, despite m u c h m o r e initial success than in Lakota School, s o m e similar i m p l e m e n t a t i o n problems ultimately also led t o its d e m i s e as a year-round calendar s c h o o l .  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 136  Stephen Lewis J u n i o r High: A Dream Gone A w r y In July 1995, to great m e d i a fanfare and e n o r m o u s public interest, Stephen Lewis Junior High School o p e n e d as C a n a d a ' s first multi-track yearround school, comprising grades 7, 8, and 9. T h e new school building had been approved by the district over two years before to m e e t the needs of a growing low socio-economic, highly ethnically-diverse a r e a of a large metropolitan city in W e s t e r n C a n a d a , described in t h e school h a n d b o o k as "a c o m m u n i t y rich in h u m a n resources and ethno-cultural groups." T h e c o m m u n i t y w a s also one with associated social problems such as unemployment, crime, a n d y o u t h violence. Because students had previously been b u s s e d out of their neighbourhood and dispersed a m o n g existing schools in other parts of the city, there had been no real junior high c o m m u n i t y in the area. A s a result, the n e w school quickly took on a considerable level of importance as a focal point for c o m m u n i t y activities. (Shields & O b e r g , 2 0 0 0 , p. 52)  Planning Multiple Innovations Eighteen months before the building w a s to be o p e n e d , t h e n e w principal, N a o m i St. J o h n , w a s appointed with a m a n d a t e to work with the architects, to 1  d e v e l o p a n innovative school p r o g r a m , a n d to hire her staff. T h e result w a s not only a five-track year-round school, but o n e in w h i c h e a c h track constituted a "learning c o m m u n i t y , " in w h i c h assistant principals w e r e replaced by "learning leaders," t e a c h e r s w o r k e d collaboratively to integrate the curriculum around  Because this study was conducted after Naomi St. John had left the school, I was unable to conduct a formal interview with her, or to include direct quotes from her in this section (although on several occasions I tried unsuccessfully to schedule an interview). Nevertheless, she participated in the British Columbia conference on year-round schooling in 1995 and I had the opportunity to meet with her and discuss the school at that time. My informal interactions with her were consistent with the comments made by my respondents (her successors, as well as teachers and learning leaders who had remained at the school). 1  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 137  thematic units, parents and students participated widely in g o v e r n a n c e , and in which students w e r e g r o u p e d and regrouped in multi-age classes. S o m a n y innovative ideas w e r e c o m b i n e d under one roof that one m a n t r a of t h e school, one that w a s an attempt to e n c o u r a g e continued innovation and p r e v e n t reversion to traditional approaches, b e c a m e , "If it hasn't b e e n tried in S t e p h e n Lewis, t h e n it hasn't b e e n tried." This attitude of innovation is reflected in phrases in the student handbook, s u c h as "uniqueness, risk-taking, a n d p e r s o n a l excellence are valued in our y o u n g people" and "we e n c o u r a g e collaboration through mutual trust and respect." Moreover, the foundation s t a t e m e n t itself is "meant to be flexible in the sense that it is continually questioned a n d ree x a m i n e d . " T h i s s e n s e of innovation, flexibility, experimentation, a n d excitement pervaded the early years of Stephen Lewis Junior High School. But at the s a m e time, these e l e m e n t s f o r e s h a d o w s o m e of the difficulties that w o u l d s o o n b e c o m e apparent. T h e impetus behind the 60-15 calendar and p r o g r a m s at S t e p h e n Lewis School w a s to provide an innovative, participatory, c o m m u n i t y - o w n e d , and caring e n v i r o n m e n t for the population of relatively high n e e d s students. T h e r e w a s a sense that t h e population w o u l d grow a n d that S t e p h e n Lewis S c h o o l w o u l d need to have a multi-track calendar to a c c o m m o d a t e the potential ultimate enrolment. T h e decision to open with five learning c o m m u n i t i e s w a s a w a y to bring smaller g r o u p s of students together with a group of caring teachers in the hope that no s t u d e n t w o u l d fall t h r o u g h the cracks. E a c h learning c o m m u n i t y consisted of a leader, a resource teacher, and one generalist t e a c h e r for approximately  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 138  thirty students. T h e school also had a core group of specialist t e a c h e r s w h o taught all of t h e art, music, computing, d r a m a , physical education, and h o m e e c o n o m i c s to all communities of students. For the most part, the school-day w a s organized a r o u n d a series of flexible groupings, including grade-level groupings, multi-age or cross-grade groups, ability (or cross-ability) groups, or interest groups. A t t i m e s large groups of students w e r e taught by one or t w o teachers, freeing the other teachers to work with smaller g r o u p s or individuals. At other times, c o m m u n i t i e s were divided more equally. A l t h o u g h officially n a m e d a "junior high school" the school had more of a "middle-school" feel to it. T h e plan w a s that s t u d e n t s and teachers would stay together for three years, that a bond of caring, friendship, and support would develop and that individual student needs could be identified and met in a w a r m , respectful community-like learning environment. T h u s , the multi-track calendar w a s m o r e or less a container for the school p r o g r a m . It h a d contributed to the physical design of the building in w h i c h four learning c o m m u n i t i e s w e r e clustered around the central core, requiring c o m m u n i t i e s to relocate after each track c h a n g e . W i t h i n each pod, learning spaces had also been flexibly designed, with large L-shaped classrooms, and a n u m b e r of s m a l l w o r k - r o o m s clustered around e a c h one. T h e s e design features, although intended to e n h a n c e the flexibility of the instructional p r o g r a m , later b e c a m e s e e n as restrictive a n d problematic. Prior to the opening of the school, m u c h planning had occurred. However, most of the planning had related to "big picture" issues, to concepts like school  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 139  philosophy, mission, and vision statements. O n e teacher described t h e effect of the lack of attention to detail in this way: Before, w h e n w e were hired, w e w o r k e d on mission statements. W e w o r k e d on o u t c o m e - b a s e d a s s e s s m e n t . W e w o r k e d on p h i l o s o p h y a n d tried to get e v e r y o n e in agreement, o n board or o n side. W e walked into the first d a y of school and w e were a s k e d , " C a n kids w e a r hats?" W e found w e w e r e divided right d o w n t h e middle on the simplest issues b e c a u s e w e had never brought t h e m up. It w a s depressing. O u t c o m e - b a s e d a s s e s s m e n t w a s t h r e e m o n t h s a w a y before w e w e r e going to argue about that. W e d e c i d e d w e knew all about it. Y o u know. H o w d o w e take a t t e n d a n c e ? W e didn't know. Report cards c a m e around a n d w h e r e are the report cards? W e don't have one. So w e have to m a k e one. Let's d e c i d e to m a k e one. W h a t do y o u w a n t the report card to look like? S o now w e have fifty professionals in the building fighting over w h a t t h e report card w o u l d look like. (BR)  School Opening and Ongoing Change W h e n the school o p e n e d , m a n y structures, including g o v e r n a n c e structures h a d not been finalized, again, with t h e intent of e n c o u r a g i n g w i d e participation a n d input into their development. T h e administrative t e a m held w e e k l y m e e t i n g s , alternating b e t w e e n before a n d after school hours. In the first year, a s c h o o l council w a s established with representation f r o m parents, students, teachers, a n d the community at large. W h e n students discovered that provincial legislation required that parents hold the majority of voices, they c o m p l a i n e d that their point of v i e w would be lost. O n c e the school o p e n e d , there w e r e staff committees (staff d e v e l o p m e n t , teaching and learning, c o m m u n i c a t i o n , assessment, g o v e r n a n c e , fund-raising, technology, special events, student activities, and awards and recognition) involving teachers f r o m different Learning Communities w h o s e w o r k established the policies a n d practices of the school. It w a s necessary to have two chair-persons per committee to e n s u r e continuity as the Learning C o m m u n i t i e s rotated in and out of the school. ( L a R o c q u e et al., 1998, p. 38)  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 140  T h e parent assembly, which w o r k e d through eight additional c o m m i t t e e s , met monthly. A student assembly also met regularly, first as a participatory council, but later as a representative council. Everything w a s up in the air and to be discussed and decided by committees. A t e a c h e r r e m e m b e r e d a discussion about w h e t h e r the student w a s h r o o m s should be co-educational or not in this junior high s c h o o l : "They d e c i d e d to have t h e w a s h r o o m s c o - e d . A n y o n e could go into any w a s h r o o m . Well it didn't take l o n g — a w e e k — b e f o r e a little girl said, 'We're not going into the w a s h r o o m s . ' " T h e policy w a s quickly r e v e r s e d . Problems arose, not only b e c a u s e so m u c h w a s left undefined at the outset, but b e c a u s e changes continued to occur, almost on a monthly basis. Moreover, so m u c h time w a s t a k e n up making collaborative decisions a b o u t topics like the wearing of hats (for a while the only rule in the school that w a s enforced), that little time w a s left for, discussions of how to implement the innovative p e d a g o g i c a l ideas. Specialist t e a c h e r s w h o h a d b e e n hired struggled with h o w to t e a c h t h e m a t i c / i n t e g r a t e d concepts, in a more "generalist" w a y . T e a c h e r s initially had too m a n y roles and c h a n g e w a s constant. T h e p r o b l e m with scheduling the music program is illustrative. T h e music teacher indicated that he had b e e n invited to join the district steering committee, because originally, there had been no-one representing fine arts. His task, during the eighteen m o n t h s planning for the school, he said, w a s to constantly ask "What about fine arts? W h a t about fine arts?" At one point he left the c o m m i t t e e in frustration, but later accepted t h e position a s m u s i c t e a c h e r at t h e school. I asked h o w t h e music program had been organized in the first year, a n d he stated,  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 141  "I can't tell y o u b e c a u s e it's been five years. It c h a n g e s every year, absolutely every year. A n e w challenge. I've been here five y e a r s and I've had four calendar years a n d five schedules." T e n s i o n s soon appeared as it w a s generally unclear w h i c h group had the power to m a k e a n d enforce which decision. Moreover, so m u c h t i m e w a s taken up by meetings, t h a t m a n y teachers quickly b e c a m e d i s e n c h a n t e d with t h e participatory processes. In fact, by the third year, only 13 of the original 4 0 + teachers r e m a i n e d , with one learning c o m m u n i t y having lost all of its teachers. Perhaps m o r e influential in the ultimate d e m i s e of t h e innovative a p p r o a c h w a s the fact that n e w staff w h o were hired had no orientation to the philosophical underpinnings either of the year-round calendar or the p e d a g o g y that f o r m e d the foundation for the creation of the learning communities. Despite the m a n y changes that occurred at S t e p h e n Lewis over the years, and the very large staff turnover, by the fifth year, s o m e of t h e original staff w e r e still holding o n to the d r e a m . O n e original learning leader stated that It w a s exciting. T h e t e a m s w e r e working together. T h e administration w a s working together. T h e r e w e r e all the things that w h e n y o u o p e n a brand new school. T h e r e w e r e no traditions. So e x p e c t a t i o n s h a d to be set. Our principal w a s a strong a d v o c a t e of stewardship a n d collaborative decision m a k i n g . T h e n that process t e n d s to take a little bit of time. ... W e didn't have any infighting on t h e a d m i n t e a m . W e ' r e still close friends.... I still believe in it. I believe in the learning c o m m u n i t y a p p r o a c h . I believe in year-round s c h o o l i n g . (JD) O t h e r s , however, did not r e m e m b e r the early days in s u c h a positive light. "The philosophy of the school looks so good on paper, total integration, total inclusion, total integration of subjects. W e tried to d o everything all at once ... one of the philosophies of the school w a s 'student voice, student choice'. M a n y found  Chapter6. The Canadian experience ... p. 142  it o v e r w h e l m i n g a n d reported that student choice did not always w o r k . O n e recalled: I could not believe, again it w a s not just with m y personal belongings, but even the school itself. T h e r e w a s such destruction the first year. T h e walls, everything. Six m o n t h s and the s c h o o l looked like it had been lived in for thirty years. A n d that is improving as well. But w o w for the first three years. (BR) N a o m i St. John left the school during its s e c o n d year of operation to t a k e a high profile executive position in a national organization in the c o m m u n i t y . T e a c h e r s w e r e not particularly surprised as they had s e e n her, not only as an "experienced principal" but as a "mover and shaker."  New Directions: A New Principal Arrives A n e w principal w a s chosen by the district, o n e equally e x p e r i e n c e d , and w h o had also been an original m e m b e r of the district design committee. S h e accepted t h e position with the intent of making t h e school work. S h e w a s "a risk taker, so it w a s interesting ... it captured m y imagination. I also felt I w a s n e e d e d . " But t h e cracks that had b e g u n to open quickly b e c a m e c h a s m s . E v e n t h o u g h Lydia shared the initial vision for the school, she soon experienced difficulties working in the unstructured a n d f r a g m e n t e d environment. She d e s c r i b e d the challenge of "walking into a multi-track with constant change." For the first year, s h e tried to work within the established s y s t e m but found she w a s constantly being blind-sided, often by the learning leaders w h o had their o w n status as quasi-administrators, and their o w n a u t o n o m y in t e r m s of making decisions for their communities. S h e described t h e m , a year later, as C o w b o y learning leaders. T h e y w e r e running their o w n private s c h o o l s a n d the attitude w a s that they could do w h a t e v e r they  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 143  w a n t e d . ...So T h u r s d a y afternoon, w h e n m o s t of the school is doing final e x a m s before Christmas, one books the d r a m a r o o m and has a d a n c e going on. A n d y o u can hear the t h u d , t h u d , t h u d of t h e b a s s t h r o u g h o u t the school. (LD) Overall she found that the building w a s in "chaos, with each learning centre being different unto itself." Every track did its o w n thing a n d it w a s like "five minis c h o o l s " — a situation that did not help to create a cohesive school. After her first year in the school, Lydia g a i n e d permission f r o m the board to change the five learning leaders' positions a n d to hire a vice-principal. William Smith c a m e on board, w o r k e d with her through the implementation of a n u m b e r of c h a n g e s , and eventually w a s appointed principal upon Lydia's retirement. W h e n Lydia w e n t into the school she implemented a n u m b e r of c h a n g e s to a d d r e s s s o m e of the problems with fragmentation, decision-making, c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and scheduling of classes (such as music and d r a m a ) . Overall, William said, she c a m e in and started tightening the reigns a n d bringing back a m o r e curriculum focused, grade appropriate a p p r o a c h . T h e perception of s o m e of t h e parents in the c o m m u n i t y started to c h a n g e for t h e better. ( W S ) C h a n g e s had an impact on both students and parents. William continued, " W e cleaned house. W e had kids w h o had been there three years a n d had virtually run the s c h o o l . A n d w e had to tell t h e m w e w e r e running the school. Not t h e m . That w a s an interesting scenario." Lydia described how parents had believed that track choice w a s a "godgiven right" that w a s difficult to violate. Nevertheless, it quickly b e c a m e apparent (as I h a v e f o u n d elsewhere) that permitting parents to c h o o s e the track resulted in inequity. S h e learned that there w a s a disparity in the a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 144  scores across the different tracks. She learned that the "red" a n d "purple" tracks had the highest scores in language, math, science, and social s t u d i e s — a b o v e the school average. For e x a m p l e , in language arts, the range a c r o s s t h e tracks w e n t f r o m 5 5 . 2 % on the "orange" track to 9 0 . 7 % on the "red" track. Interestingly, virtually all the parent council had children on the s a m e track. Lydia explained that b e c a u s e parents request only certain tracks a n d certain t e a c h e r s , t h e n parents w h o don't m a k e a request get w h a t is left over. T h e s e are often places on what are considered to be less desirable tracks; further, the resulting particular grouping of students s o m e t i m e s achieve disparate test s c o r e s . "So certain tracks get a bad reputation and get ghettoized as teachers that are not so g o o d get left o n those tracks" (LD). Lydia took pains to try to equalize allocation to tracks. W h e n s h e had incoming students, she still asked w h a t track they w o u l d prefer, but tried to distribute t h e m m o r e evenly (according to ability, ethnicity, and s o c i o e c o n o m i c status) across the tracks. Challenging instances of a u t o n o m y a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e presented themselves. Lydia talked about how one learning c o m m u n i t y had organized a fundraiser without having talked to her. "All of a s u d d e n boxes of c a n d y w e r e coming into t h e school that kids w e r e going to sell. I could not believe a n y o n e would do that." S h e continued, "If it w a s n ' t f u n d raising, it w a s heading off on a field trip without filling out the proper forms."  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 145  This w a s her w a y of raising a significant break-down of c o m m u n i c a t i o n that resulted in t r a g e d y . S h e explained, " W e had one child die on a fieldtrip." She described h o w one track organized a camping trip through the local "Y." P a r e n t s w e r e s u p p o s e d to c o m e into a meeting. Only t h r e e parents c a m e . It w a s d o n e through the Y. Of course they didn't tell m e w h e n t h e y had the meeting. It w a s very interesting how that all w e n t together. A n d t h e n on the day that she d r o w n e d the learning leader w a s s u p p o s e d to be there, but she wasn't. (LD) T h i s incident c a u s e d a lack of confidence, but w a s , of c o u r s e , only one of m a n y r e a s o n s w h y S t e p h e n Lewis Junior High School had m o v e d completely away f r o m its multi-track and multi-age programs by t h e fall of 2 0 0 1 . In s o m e w a y s the d r o w n i n g w a s the last of m a n y high profile incidents that not only attracted p r e s s attention, but gave creditability to the increasingly v o c a l critics of the school. T e a c h e r s and learning c o m m u n i t y leaders alike talked a b o u t h o w f r o m the outset, the school had been besieged by requests for visits f r o m educators f r o m all over North A m e r i c a , f r o m researchers, c o m m u n i t y volunteers, a n d the media. One said, W e had television c a m e r a s in here everyday. W e had every research student (no offense), everyone doing a paper in our school f r o m d a y one. For the w h o l e year it w a s a fishbowl. A n d it w a s not directed f r o m N a o m i . But from people saying w e ' r e c o m i n g in. W e ' l l be s e n d i n g s o m e o n e over to y o u r school. T h e school board will be sending s o m e o n e over to y o u r school. (JD) All of the attention w a s flattering but m a d e it particularly difficult either to m a k e decisions, to achieve consistency, or paradoxically, to enact necessary change. In s o m e w a y s , they had to live up to the mythic reality created for and about t h e m .  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 146  At t h e outset, the district did everything in its p o w e r to e n s u r e that the experiment w o r k e d . It provided extra f u n d i n g , additional staffing, a n d ongoing support for t h e t e a c h e r s a n d administrators in t h e s c h o o l . After her first year as principal, L y d i a w e n t to the superintendent w o n d e r i n g if it would be better to m o v e a w a y f r o m the multi-track calendar all together. Her a r e a superintendent told her "not e v e n to anticipate the possibility of not keeping it." H o w e v e r , a year later, following Lydia's retirement, the district c a m e to reluctant a g r e e m e n t and most of t h e innovations at Stephen Lewis School, including the multi-track calendar a n d t h e learning communities w e r e s c r a p p e d . T o s o m e extent, the o u t c o m e is reflective of a battle b e t w e e n different leadership styles. Naomi w a s described as "one of t h o s e people w h o m a d e me kind of think b e y o n d w h a t I was," a principal w h o w o u l d e m p o w e r t e a c h e r s and her administrative t e a m . O n e former learning leader stated, S h e w o u l d e m p o w e r s o m e b o d y a n d trust t h e m a n d be able to take a break. A s principal, you have to be able to d o that. Lydia h a d difficulty letting go. S o m e people do. W h a t s o m e o n t h e staff described as "having trouble letting go," others lauded as taking a p p r o p r i a t e charge, creating a m o r e accountable a n d calmer s y s t e m , and making n e c e s s a r y c h a n g e s . Despite her popularity a n d exciting vision, one person said of N a o m i that "the administration can really set the tone of the school. Not to say that N a o m i didn't have the best interest of the students in mind, but I think s h e w a s t o o idealistic." A s I c o n c l u d e d m y d a t a collection, W i l l i a m w a s preparing for t h e school to open, in A u g u s t of 2 0 0 1 , on a single-track modified calendar. His hope w a s that  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 147  this would preserve m a n y of the benefits of the previous multi-track s y s t e m and also o v e r c o m e a n u m b e r of the existing deficits.  S u m m a r y : F r o m Multi-Track to Single-Track A l t h o u g h t h e close b o n d s that h a d d e v e l o p e d a m o n g students a n d teachers in the learning c o m m u n i t i e s had m a n y positive aspects, they also helped to f r a g m e n t t h e school a n d t o prevent a s e n s e of " s c h o o l n e s s " — a concept mentioned repeatedly in the interviews as central to the vision of the school. A s he considered how to assign students to classes a n d classes to the various pods in the building, William determined not to permit the existing tracks to remain intact, but said he w o u l d throw all the n a m e s "in a hopper a n d see w h a t c a m e out." William w a s convinced that "people are starting to see the benefits of the modified year-round program with its shorter s u m m e r holidays a n d the breaks in b e t w e e n , " a n d thought that they w e r e "going to s e e s o m e high schools moving in t h a t w a y fairly quickly." "I don't think it will be long," he c o n c l u d e d . A l t h o u g h he e x p r e s s e d h o p e that the benefits of the year-round calendar w o u l d s o o n be m o r e widely r e c o g n i z e d , m a n y of the more innovative (and perhaps m o r e idealistic) aspects of t h e initial vision of Stephen Lewis S c h o o l w e r e lost. W i t h t h e m o v e away f r o m the multi-track calendar, there w a s a fear that the benefits of the learning communities w o u l d also be lost. Jim, a f o r m e r learning leader, described how: T h e feeling of community w a s a lot stronger and opportunities for g o o d relationships with students. Also the teachers w o r k e d together  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 148  with a c o m m o n planning time. T h e r e w a s support for t e a c h e r s w h o w e r e not w o r k i n g in isolation. T h e r e w a s e m p o w e r m e n t for t e a c h e r s w h o could get ideas through interaction with others. T h e r e w a s a l w a y s a c h a n c e for new things to be h a p p e n i n g . F r o m the yearround, y o u get m o r e c h a r g e d , m o r e frequently during the year. Kids c o m e back p u m p e d for another first day of school. He a d d e d , " B e c a u s e w e believed in cooperative learning, a n d b e c a u s e w e also implemented multi-aging, y o u could get a lot of peer support for the kids....You almost n e e d e d it there to m a k e the s y s t e m work." T h e multi-track y e a r - r o u n d calendar in S t e p h e n Lewis Junior High S c h o o l w a s an interesting, innovative, and high profile c h a n g e that g a r n e r e d attention from m a n y other educators over a six-year period. It b e g a n with vision and e n t h u s i a s m , with N a o m i ' s personal c h a r i s m a being instrumental in building c o m m i t m e n t for her innovative ideas. It b e g a n to flounder w h e n teachers were o v e r w h e l m e d with the time and energy d e m a n d e d to translate the vision into reality. It b e g a n t o die w h e n s h e left t h e school a n d a n e w leader, with a different style, a n d a different interpretation of the vision c a m e on board so early. Perhaps the vision w a s too idealistic; perhaps it w a s an idea w h o s e time h a d c o m e but that n e e d e d m o r e follow-through than she w a s able to give it. O n e cannot help but w o n d e r w h a t might have h a p p e n e d had N a o m i not left so s o o n and if the initial vision a n d e n t h u s i a s m she s e e m e d to e n g e n d e r had b e e n able to have been m a i n t a i n e d .  Summary of Canadian Implementation In e v e r y instance in C a n a d a , the introduction of a modified, alternative, or year-round c a l e n d a r occurred on a voluntary basis a n d b e c a u s e a school leader took up t h e c h a l l e n g e of implementing a modified school calendar.  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 149  In Albert District, J o s e p h b e g a n with a vision of w h a t a y e a r - r o u n d school could d o for students. He w a s willing to adapt his initial vision of a modified calendar to a dual-track calendar in order to gain public support. H e d e m o n s t r a t e d c o m m i t m e n t to a goal as well as a vision and w a s willing to work to m a k e it h a p p e n . His zeal and c o m m i t m e n t b e c a m e legendary. T h e flexibility of his a p p r o a c h , the clear f o c u s on a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t for students, the provision of parental choice w e r e factors in m a k i n g his d r e a m a reality. He w a s able to w o r k with School Councils; he e m p o w e r e d parents and g a r n e r e d w i d e s p r e a d support. A n d he w a s able to see s o m e of the fruits of his efforts as he established two new schools on the s a m e m o d e l a n d p e r h a p s m o r e importantly, influenced policy in both his board a n d the province. It is not an o v e r s t a t e m e n t to call the innovations in Albert S c h o o l District an unqualified success. In contrast, one cannot help but describe the similar innovation in S w e e t w a t e r District a s a failure. B e g u n with similar h o p e s a n d also influenced by the successful story of Huntsville's small scale implementation, the calendar in Lakota S c h o o l did not reap the benefits found in Kate Smith Elementary School. G w e n ' s failure to treat the school as a community, to consult with the teachers, to c o m m u n i c a t e openly with her students, their parents, and the c o m m u n i t y at large, spelled d o o m f r o m the outset. She s e e m e d to lose sight of the goal of benefiting students. Despite her initial vision a n d e n t h u s i a s m , not only did s h e fail to build the support n e c e s s a r y to implement a new calendar, s h e m a d e a n u m b e r of unwise d e c i s i o n s that s e e m e d more and m o r e manipulative. Her choices of the  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 150  w e a k e s t , least popular teacher in t h e school c o m b i n e d with her t h r e a t t o place children in modified classes on a traditional schedule during breaks (resulting in the worst of both worlds) w e r e not only unwise but appear to border on the unethical. It is difficult to see how, given t h e s e factors, the reform c o u l d have had a more positive o u t c o m e . T h e implementation at S t e p h e n Lewis Junior High School is in s o m e w a y s the most interesting and most complex of a n y schools and districts I studied. Begun with collective optimism and creativity, extensive resources of time, intellect, a n d m o n e y , it still did not work. Probably overly ambitious, t h e complexity a n d t i m e - c o n s u m i n g nature of the planning and implementation soon took their toll. In s o m e ways, the educators at this school m a y have w a n t e d to do too m u c h too fast to support their high-needs student body. T h e y w a n t e d to educate, e m p o w e r , nurture, and include students and parents, but f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s unable to fully accomplish t h e s e goals as they had h o p e d . It is difficult to k n o w w h e t h e r it w a s the realization that the project could not work that lead N a o m i to leave prematurely or w h e t h e r her early departure led to the failure of the project. All told, the stories about the C a n a d i a n experience m a k e a narrative that is, at times inspiring, at times frustrating. It provides insight into leadership for change and helps us to understand h o w to m a k e the implementation of reform, and especially of year-round schooling, successful; at the s a m e time it offers s o m e cautions about w h a t not to do.  Chapter 6. The Canadian experience ... p. 151 In C h a p t e r 7,1 re-examine the questions with w h i c h I b e g a n this study and revisit the e x p e r i e n c e s of both the A m e r i c a n and C a n a d i a n educational leaders and identify s o m e insights gleaned f r o m the data.  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 152  C H A P T E R 7: I N S I G H T S F R O M T H E D A T A I began this study because of m y o w n e x p e r i e n c e as an administrator in a multi-track year-round school. A s a research assistant to a professor examining t h e topic of year-round schooling, my.interest w a s piqued to try to better understand the complexities a n d challenges, the s u c c e s s e s a n d failures of an innovation I had originally t h o u g h t to be quite straight-forward. I b e g a n to w o n d e r about t h e impact of a reform that w a s voluntary or mandated, about t h e importance of district support, c o m m u n i t y d y n a m i c s , a n d about the impact of t h e reform o n students a n d their families. O n e district assistant superintendent had told m e that central to all of this w a s the school principal (KZ). Another district superintendent ( C W ) h a d stated that the major factor in t h e success or failure of educational innovation, especially s o m e t h i n g a s d e m a n d i n g as year-round schooling, w a s administrative leadership. Further, I h a d b e e n intrigued by the concept of transformative leadership (Astin & Astin, 2 0 0 0 ) . Informed by m y personal experience with Y R S a n d by a conceptual f r a m e w o r k f o c u s e d o n transformative leadership, s u p p l e m e n t e d by the literature on Y R S a n d educational reform, I set out to investigate w h e t h e r a transformative a p p r o a c h to leadership helps educational leaders to successfully implement structural c h a n g e . T o answer that overarching question, I w a n t e d to e x a m i n e a n d understand m o r e clearly t h e role of educational leaders in introducing school reform. I wished to learn w h y a n d how, at both school a n d district levels, educational leaders  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 153  continue to p r o m o t e and introduce school calendar c h a n g e in the f a c e of the substantial political and social battles. M y specific objectives w e r e : 1. to understand the impetus of educational leaders for introducing Y R S , 2. to c o m p r e h e n d leaders' implementation procedures a n d processes, 3. to identify w h a t the leaders hoped to accomplish by enacting Y R S , 4. to determine the leaders' perceptions about the extent to w h i c h their goals w e r e realized, a n d 5. to describe the leaders' perceptions about unanticipated o u t c o m e s of YRS. In this chapter, I d r a w on m y d a t a to a n s w e r these five questions, but to avoid r e d u n d a n c y , I c o m b i n e the responses to questions three a n d four u n d e r the heading of "anticipated goals and achieved outcomes."  The Impetus for Year-Round Schooling T h e r e is little research that attempts to e x a m i n e either the impetus for starting a y e a r - r o u n d school or the impact that differences in the impetus might h a v e o n t h e o u t c o m e s a n d the long-term success of the reform. S o m e talk in passing of a legislative m a n d a t e for c h a n g e (Donato, 1996; McDaniel, 1993) or of a district's need to a c c o m m o d a t e m o r e children in existing buildings (White, 1992; Z y k o w s k i et al. 1991), while others (see for e x a m p l e , G a n d a r a , 1992; Pyron, 2 0 0 4 ; Shields & O b e r g , 2 0 0 0 ) describe implementations that w e r e voluntarily i m p l e m e n t e d . Table 2 s u m m a r i z e s t h e impetus I discovered in this study for the introduction of the reform initiatives.  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 154  Table 2. Impetus for Y R S and the success reported. DIST.&/SCHOOL Frances Howell  CALENDAR MT**  INITIATOR District initiated  Delphi  MT a few begun with ST**  State mandated  Both MT&ST  District mandated  Sage  MT  Vista  MT  Voluntary at school level District mandate  Central Florida Central  Taft Jerico Martin Popper  MT ST  IMPETUS Overcrowding Bond restrictions Overcrowding  SUCCESS* Yes  Overcrowding, Desire to raise scores Provide choice  No  Overcrowding  No  District mandate Teacher initiated Principal supported Principal initiated Principal initiated District, principal & staff  Overcrowding Low achievement Low SES High transience Albert Dual-Track Belief in YRS benefits Sweetwater Dual-track Desire for choice Stephen Lewis MT Low SES Need for community Potential area growth * Success here refers to my working definition as outlined in Chapter One and implies goals met and support and satisfaction achieved. ** MT = multi-track, ST= single-track, YRS= year-round school  Yes  No  Yes Yes  Yes No No  a combination of  Facility Issues In several school districts, the impetus for the year-round calendar c a m e from various w a y s of explaining the lack of fiscal and physical resources. Due to overcrowding, s o m e talked about the need to a c c o m m o d a t e m o r e children in existing buildings; others spoke about restrictions in terms of bond limitations or lack of capital funding that limited n e w school construction. In Frances Howell School District, w h e n the district w a s unable to raise bond m o n e y quickly e n o u g h to increase capacity, the superintendent introduced year-  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 155  round schooling to address the needs of a rapidly growing population. T h r e e years later, he a d d e d another multi-track school. F r o m then on, as elementary schools b e c a m e o v e r c r o w d e d , they c h a n g e d to a multi-track calendar. S o o n , t h e district had such success with the new calendar that even its under-populated elementary schools w e r e c h a r g e d to operate on a modified calendar, albeit, a single-track one which t h e y called E-track. This district is still recognized as a "year-round school" district as well as for having had the longest running multi-track year-round schools in the United States. T w o d e c a d e s later, Delphi District implemented a similar a p p r o a c h . Although s o m e educators attended the annual year-round school conference, most decisions were internal rather than influenced by the experience of others, s u c h as Frances Howell. H e n c e , t h e district leaders experienced a learning curve in s o m e w a y s similar to that of leaders in Frances Howell. T h e implementation of Y R S in Delphi District took a slightly more convoluted route. In response to a legislative decision not to provide n e w capital funds to over-crowded districts until necessary "efficiency" s c h e d u l e s had b e e n introduced, Delphi District b e g a n experimenting. After a few tough y e a r s of trying out an extended-day, over-lapping student-body formula, Delphi District opted to try multi-track year-round schooling in the mid 1980s. After y e a r s of trial and error, the solution provided by w i d e s p r e a d implementation of Y R S still exists in the first d e c a d e of the 21st century a n d shows no e v i d e n c e o f decline in t h e foreseeable future. All n e w e l e m e n t a r y schools that are built in Delphi District are designed and constructed as year-round schools, with new  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 156  buildings o p e n i n g on single-track calendars a n d switching to the multi-track m o d e w h e n they b e c o m e too crowded to a c c o m m o d a t e all students at o n e time.  Complex Interplay of Reasons T h e situation in Florida w a s (and still is) m o r e complex. Central District took an early lead a n d hired Dana L o u g h e e d , a district Y R S coordinator w h o m a n d a t e d year-round school in the district's poorest n e i g h b o r h o o d s in order to a c c o m m o d a t e m o r e students, but w h o also nurtured the belief that the n e w calendar implementation w o u l d result in improved test scores. For that reason, the district coordinator originally anticipated a w h o l e s a l e c h a n g e to year-round schooling. Ultimately, however, the o u t c o m e s of implementing the calendar failed to meet her high expectations. Test scores w e r e not as high as the district had p r o m i s e d and a newly elected school superintendent eliminated the year-round school calendar. T h e d e m i s e of the project in Central District negatively influenced t h e situation t h r o u g h o u t the state. In Sage District, several school principals a n d a district s u p e r i n t e n d e n t h a d been quick t o catch t h e vision of D a n a L o u g h e e d in Central District, in e a c h case, hoping for a calendar that w o u l d provide parental choice and educational benefits. W h e n Y R S b e g a n to lose public support in neighboring Central District, s o m e S a g e District decision-makers s e e m e d as e a g e r as those in Central had b e e n to dismantle the calendar. At a m e e t i n g of the school board, despite enthusiastic support for Y R S f r o m participating principals, teachers, a n d parents, the decision w a s m a d e to discontinue the alternative calendar. T h e impetus for introducing the Y R calendar in neighboring Vista District w a s the existence of several dilapidated buildings coupled with a low tax base and m o r e  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 157  t h a n a f e w o v e r - c r o w d e d schools. There, the superintendent had o r d e r e d the implementation of the M T - Y R S calendar in several schools; he p r o m i s e d that the schedule w o u l d be a t e m p o r a r y solution to the district's w o e s a n d t h a t t h e calendar w o u l d be replaced by a new yet-to-be-determined solution within a f e w , short years. In part, Y R S quickly m a g n e t i z e d opposition w h e n no other solutions w e r e found and w h e n implementation procedures s e e m e d inequitable. Y e a r - r o u n d schools in Taft District w e r e i m p l e m e n t e d for s e v e r a l different reasons. In Jerico Elementary School, year-round schooling had b e e n m a n d a t e d b e c a u s e of o v e r c r o w d i n g . T h e r e , however, the principal took w h a t w a s , for the district, a cost-saving f o r m u l a and turned it into a school-saving f o r m u l a — t h e catalyst for c h a n g i n g how the teachers thought about and delivered e d u c a t i o n . Her success with her high needs, low s o c i o e c o n o m i c and d i s a d v a n t a g e d families brought not only t h e attention of the state officials but the notice of s o m e teachers in other district schools. Notable w a s Martin P o p p e r Elementary S c h o o l , w h e r e the teachers p e r s u a d e d the principal to investigate year-round schooling as a partial solution to their o w n "critically low" and failing school status. O n c e c o n v i n c e d of the potential of t h e calendar to a d d r e s s s o m e of t h e needs of her challenging school population, J a n e forged a h e a d . T h e o u t c o m e , there, w a s not only a voluntary implementation, but one that w a s hard w o n through persistent lobbying of the district. Thus, in Florida, I found a range of compelling reasons for implementing year-round schooling a n d a concomitant range of o u t c o m e s .  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 158  An Impetus for Choice and Learning In C a n a d a , no school has adopted the year-round calendar as a cost-saving m e a s u r e or to a c c o m m o d a t e m o r e students in less space. In every instance in C a n a d a , the stated reason for implementation w a s either to offer parental choice or to improve t h e learning environment for s t u d e n t s — a n d s o m e t i m e s both. In Albert District, the "choice" and "learning" motives w e r e both present. J o s e p h , the instigator and visionary w h o successfully introduced the calendar, w a s clear about both goals. There w a s no sense in w h i c h it w a s a simple "change for the sake of c h a n g e , " in Albert District's schools. In Sweetwater, there s e e m e d to be m o r e e m p h a s i s on doing s o m e t h i n g new and different, with the most frequently stated reason for the dual-track schedule, being to offer choice to families. T h e r e the principals s e e m e d to have been influenced by t h e success in other areas, perhaps without wholly understanding the potential c h a l l e n g e s and benefits. In s o m e w a y s , they s e e m e d to have w a n t e d to be on the crest of a w a v e of innovation they t h o u g h t w o u l d gain considerable public support a n d e x p r e s s e d disappointment that " m o r e people did not line up" w h e n given the opportunity. A l t h o u g h for a while it w a s t h o u g h t that S t e p h e n Lewis's population might grow to the point w h e r e a multi-track school w a s absolutely necessary, the first principal conceptualized the school in that w a y to permit the a c c o m m o d a t i o n of the learning c o m m u n i t y concept. T h e calendar b e c a m e a vehicle for a larger, m o r e grandiose plan that involved extensive a n d d r a m a t i c c h a n g e s in organization and  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 159  p e d a g o g y — c h a n g e s that were expected not only to benefit student learning but to e m p o w e r the c o m m u n i t y and to "put it on the m a p . "  Summary of Findings about Impetus Multi-track year-round school calendars w e r e introduced in both Frances Howell and Delphi District b e c a u s e neither district could find a better solution to o v e r c r o w d i n g a n d b e c a u s e both lacked t h e capital f u n d s to m e e t their populations' needs. In t h e s e districts, educators introduced year-round schooling initially as the lesser of possible evils. In Florida, the schools in Vista District a n d Jerico Elementary in Taft District w e r e originally confronted with a district m a n d a t e to implement a yearround calendar. In the other sites (Sage, s o m e schools in Central, a n d Martin P o p p e r S c h o o l in Taft District), the implementation w a s voluntary a n d intended specifically to a d d r e s s the learning needs of students. All of the C a n a d i a n sites introduced a version of a modified or year-round calendar on a voluntary basis, again i n t e n d e d to offer choice to families a n d to e n h a n c e the educational e n v i r o n m e n t for educators a n d students alike. A l t h o u g h Michael Fullan (1993, p. 21) states that "you cannot m a n d a t e what matters," m y respondents have reported that t h e m a n d a t e to introduce a year-round calendar w a s in s o m e cases the catalyst, not only for cost savings, but also for improving s t u d e n t achievement. W h i l e a m a n d a t e did not in a n d of itself improve student learning, in s o m e cases, it certainly helped to create the conditions under w h i c h i m p r o v e d p e d a g o g y and learning took p l a c e . At the s a m e time, the m a n d a t e in Vista District (although it undoubtedly saved t h e district m o n e y ) s e e m e d to result in little m o r e t h a n frustration and hard feelings.  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 160  T h e initial impetus did not predict the s u c c e s s or failure of t h e reform. W h a t this study has demonstrated is that a successful innovation m a y be m a n d a t e d or voluntarily i m p l e m e n t e d as can an unsuccessful reform. In s o m e w a y s , the explanation for this finding c o m e s f r o m the s e c o n d guiding question for this study, an examination of administrators' implementation procedures and p r o c e s s e s . A c c o r d i n g to m y earlier definition of s u c c e s s — s u c c e s s f u l implementation referred to schools that not only met the leaders' explicit goals for t h e calendar c h a n g e , but in which the reform e n d u r e d and g a r n e r e d support f r o m both the school and wider c o m m u n i t i e s served. T h e least successful calendar c h a n g e s w e r e associated with the leaders' implementation p r o c e d u r e s and processes; further, these calendar changes did not last m o r e than a f e w years.  Implementation Procedures and Processes W h i l e m a n d a t e d multi-track schools w e r e originally instituted to solve a c c o m m o d a t i o n problems, m y respondents also reported m a n y benefits to the a c a d e m i c learning e n v i r o n m e n t — b e n e f i t s that b e c a m e the impetus for s o m e of the single-track, voluntary programs in other schools a n d districts. Hence the singletrack p r o g r a m s I found in Florida and the dual-track p r o g r a m s in Albert District in Ontario w e r e impelled, not by the need for cost savings or for m o r e s p a c e for students, but by a vision for supporting a n d e n h a n c i n g student achievement. T h e r e w e r e as m a n y different a p p r o a c h e s to implementing a new school-year calendar as there w e r e educational leaders in this study. Nonetheless, a close analysis of the data demonstrates s o m e commonalities a m o n g the more successful implementers as well as s o m e similarities in a p p r o a c h a m o n g those w h o failed.  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 161  Table 3 s u m m a r i z e s the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s e s a n d also r e p e a t s t h e c o l u m n f r o m T a b l e 2 indicating s u c c e s s or failure. Table 3. I m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s e s and p r o c e d u r e s . DIST. & SCHOOL Frances Howell  IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES & PROCEDURES Constant review & revision, adequate support & fiscal  SUCCESS* Yes  resources, widespread consultation Delphi  District modified support & processes as needed, parent  Yes  consultation, careful appointment of principals Central Florida Central  Missed promises, uneven implementation, mixed message, unwillingness to take political risks  No  Sage  Copycat approach, lack of understanding, desire for uniformity  No  Vista  Promise YRS was temporary, little support, lack of district understanding of school situation, political campaign stance  No  Consistent learning opportunities, parental communication &  Yes  Taft Jerico & Martin Popper  empowerment, calendar was part of overall improvement plan, use of intersession, widespread support of faculty  Albert/Kate Smith  Alternate summer pedagogy & schedule, widespread consultation, enthusiastic support of principal, collaboration with policy makers  Yes  Sweetwater/Lakota  Begun with lack of support, few policies related to staffing or enrolment, unilateral decision making  No  Stephen Lewis  Too much consultation, too many meetings, lack of firm  No  decision making, autonomous learning communities, failure to generate adequate in-school support, principal turn-over  " F a i l i n g " Implementation Processes Let m e start with t h o s e that s e e m e d to be t h e least s u c c e s s f u l either b e c a u s e the g o a l s w e r e not fulfilled or b e c a u s e the goals w e r e m e t but t h e r e w a s e x p r e s s e d dissatisfaction o n the part of the s c h o o l staff or w i d e r c o m m u n i t y . T o be clear, t h e s e are the s c h o o l s in Central, V i s t a , a n d S a g e Districts in Florida as well as S w e e t w a t e r District a n d S t e p h e n Lewis S c h o o l in C a n a d a .  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 162  Central a n d Sage Districts suffered f r o m w h a t I a m calling "lack of goal clarity" and lack of political will. In each of these districts, the position of superintendent of education is a n elected position, with the incumbent particularly attentive to public response to educational change. Because these positions are normally up for election (or re-election) every two years, there is little time to institute meaningful reform in t h e district. This makes it difficult to institute a reform and to give it a c h a n c e to s u c c e e d before there is a public outcry against c h a n g e w h i c h m a y be unpopular, at least in "my backyard." T h e innovation in Central District w a s led by D a n a L o u g h e e d with the best of i n t e n t i o n s — t o improve student a c h i e v e m e n t as well a s t o alleviate o v e r c r o w d i n g in s o m e s c h o o l s . Implementation proceeded by requiring schools that w e r e in t h e m o r e o v e r c r o w d e d areas to be the first to m o v e to a multi-track schedule. B e c a u s e these schools j u s t " h a p p e n e d ' to be in the least e d u c a t e d , m o s t d i s a d v a n t a g e d , a n d most ethnically d i v e r s e neighborhoods, D a n a reported that the reform w a s instituted there without m u c h public notice or agitation. W h e n t h e promised first-year improvement of test s c o r e s failed to materialize, the outcry b e c a m e a c r e s c e n d o w h e n it c a m e time for s c h o o l s in more affluent areas to implement the calendar. A r m e d with the a m m u n i t i o n of "broken promises," parents a r g u e d that if the reform had not been successful in lower performing schools, there w a s no need to c h a n g e their s c h o o l s — schools that w e r e already working well. T h e failure in Central District is, in part, that educational leaders m a d e the argument b a s e d on improving test scores, w h e n in fact, the early implementation, at least, had b e e n designed to provide cost savings a n d to a c c o m m o d a t e m o r e  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 163  students in existing buildings. T h e m e s s a g e w a s mixed and the e l e c t e d officials could not t a k e the risk of continuing the p r o g r a m . In nearby Sage District, there had been more ambivalence, w i t h individual educators citing the experience of Central District and opting to introduce a modified calendar with f e w clearly stated goals for t h e project. W h e n Central m o v e d a w a y f r o m year-round schooling, S a g e trustees again cited their neighbor's e x p e r i e n c e a n d opted to discontinue the experiment for the s a m e reason, this t i m e , however, in spite of extensive support f r o m participating educators and parents. By the time t h o s e w h o w e r e involved in a year-round school w e n t to their board m e e t i n g to request permission to continue on their calendar, they w e r e told t h e board had already voted and w a s not willing to consider more than one calendar. Here again, political will a n d lack of goal clarity ruled t h e day. In Vista District, while there w e r e both political will and goal clarity, there w e r e still significant problems with both p r o m i s e s m a d e a n d the p r o c e s s e s of implementation that were selected. At t h e outset, the promise w a s m a d e to implementing schools that year-round schooling w o u l d be a t e m p o r a r y m e a s u r e (lasting at m o s t three years). For that reason, educators said they initially a c c e p t e d the innovation but b e c a m e increasingly disillusioned by the lack of district support. After five years, they had b e c o m e resentful of district policies such as the one that resulted in administrators working harder, but with no vacation pay or full-time benefits. T h e lack of understanding of the situation on the part of the relatively newly appointed assistant superintendent supported principals' perceptions that after the calendar had been introduced in several schools, they had been "forgotten" by the  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 164  district. Indicative of this lack of attention w a s the fact that the newly elected superintendent had actually run on a c a m p a i g n of "no m o r e y e a r - r o u n d school." S w e e t w a t e r District also suffered f r o m an acute c a s e of lack o f goal clarity. In this district, however, this w a s c o m p o u n d e d by questionable policies a n d practices. T h e district permitted Lakota School to begin its p r o g r a m with too s m a l l a base of support, with a lack of consultation, and with no policies to a d d r e s s staffing or e n r o l m e n t issues. T h e principal f o r g e d a h e a d with s o m e t h i n g t h a t s e e m s s o clearly (from m y outside perspective) to have been her o w n a g e n d a . Nevertheless, although she said she believed in the calendar and had experienced similar benefits in England, G w e n m a d e s o m e serious mistakes. Her unilateral selection of faculty, the appointment of a seventh-grade teacher perceived to be incompetent, her coercion of students, her lack of oversight of the c u r r i c u l u m — a l l proved to be stumbling blocks to the implementation of a new calendar. This kind of a p p r o a c h s e e m s to support t h e literature that s u g g e s t s that a structural c h a n g e d o e s not necessarily affect teaching a n d learning (Levin, 2001). In S t e p h e n Lewis Junior High School, the reasons for the failure w e r e s o m e w h a t different, although one could argue that there w a s still a strong element of lack of goal clarity in the profusion of innovation and lack of specific policy w h e n the school o p e n e d . Here, the initial idealism and e n t h u s i a s m w e r e mistaken for vision and clear goals. Because everything w a s up for grabs including a decision about w h e t h e r or not t o have m i x e d - g e n d e r w a s h r o o m s , t h e t a s k w a s simply t o o all e n c o m p a s s i n g a n d too vast for busy educators w h o w e r e also trying to develop curriculum a n d figure out how to teach three y e a r s of content to multi-aged  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 165  groupings of various s h a p e s and sizes. T h e loss of the initiating principal certainly contributed to the failure of the program. But there w e r e other factors that also c a m e into play. T h e a u t o n o m y of the learning communities a n d t h e learning leaders led to a loss of the "schoolness" they w e r e so concerned about at the outset. Attempting to be so participatory that all parents and students w e r e invited to their respective governing a s s e m b l i e s meant, in this specific community, that f e w p e o p l e actually participated. W h i l e at t h e outset, t h e a p p r o a c h s e e m e d promising, it quickly b e c a m e an exercise in frustration with very few parents ever attending meetings. T e a c h e r s , too, b e c a m e disillusioned about the a m o u n t of time required to m a k e decisions and later c o m p l a i n e d that: W e ' d g o to endless meetings and never feel decisions w e r e being m a d e . S u d d e n l y w e w e r e sitting d o w n , discussing decisions that w e r e j u s t t h e r e . . . . y o u w o u l d discuss, discuss, and discuss and nobody w o u l d arrive at anything. T h e n you w o u l d sit d o w n w o r k i n g on it. A n d y o u w o u l d s a y to yourself, "I don't r e m e m b e r deciding to d o this. I r e m e m b e r this being an option, but w h y are w e working on this. I didn't like this t o begin with." T h e c a s e of S t e p h e n Lewis School d e m o n s t r a t e s that e v e n w h e n people w a n t to be part of a n innovation, g o o d intentions are not e n o u g h . It t a k e s clear goals, excellent c o m m u n i c a t i o n and coordination, a n d s o u n d leaders with at least one foot in reality to m a k e an idea a success. O v e r a l l , both the successful and the less successful projects in this study w e r e introduced in similar communities for s o m e w h a t similar reasons. T h e less successful projects w e r e those in w h i c h goals w e r e not m e t or w e r e only partially met, as indicated in Table 3, or in which there w a s w i d e s p r e a d dissatisfaction with the implementation processes. Yet, it is clear that the major factors contributing to  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 166  their lack of s u c c e s s were unfocused or inappropriate implementation procedures of the district or school leaders. " S u c c e s s f u l " Implementation Procedures T h o s e schools and districts I consider to have been successful include Frances Howell, Delphi, a n d Taft Districts in the United States a n d Kate Smith Elementary S c h o o l in Albert District in C a n a d a . In Frances Howell School District, t h e introduction of a multi-track year-round school calendar spread from Becky David to other schools a n d ultimately b e c a m e the district calendar. Despite a n u m b e r of surprises in the initial years, t h e district superintendent a n d initiating principal had a clear vision of the n e e d s a n d h o w to a d d r e s s t h e m . A l t h o u g h schools could not b e constructed quickly e n o u g h to a c c o m m o d a t e the growing population, t h e year-round school calendar w a s not really instituted a s a cost-saving m e a s u r e (but b e c a u s e of a capital outlay restriction) a n d over t h e years, t h e district w a s willing to put a d e q u a t e money, effort, a n d support into t h e p r o g r a m for it to s u c c e e d . A s w e saw, in the initial years, G e n e a n d W i l m a constantly reviewed and revised the innovation, always modifying it in w a y s that w o u l d better m e e t the needs of students, teachers, a n d the broader c o m m u n i t y . Consultation w a s widespread a n d those w h o w e r e to be involved in a calendar c h a n g e w e r e apprised of the situation all along t h e w a y . Delphi District also initiated the y e a r - r o u n d school calendar to address physical n e e d s a n d to alleviate overcrowding. Schools w e r e given very little choice in the matter but there, too, the implementation w a s not only successful but b e c a m e the w a y e d u c a t o r s structured new schools a n d t h o u g h t about education in the district.  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 167  There, t o o , educators f r o m the district w e r e willing to learn how to s u p p o r t the new calendar (additional principal meetings, assistant principals, district coordinators, c h a n g e s in district schedules, etc.), thus alleviating s o m e of the initial p r o b l e m s and showing t h o s e w h o participated that their concerns were t a k e n seriously. W h e n district leaders learned that c h a n g e s w e r e needed, they a d d e d s u p p o r t to m a k e the calendar work. Principals said that as teachers and parents b e c a m e m o r e familiar with t h e y e a r - r o u n d calendar a n d with its benefits in t e r m s of increasing motivation and learning and reducing stress a n d tension, it b e c a m e well k n o w n within the district that both parents and t e a c h e r s increasingly w a n t e d to be part of year-round schools. A l t h o u g h principals reported that a c a d e m i c benefits w e r e anticipated (and ultimately realized), there w e r e no false promises m a d e and no hidden a g e n d a s on the part of either district or school-based administrators. In fact, the district appointed what t h e y considered to be their strongest and most innovative administrators to positions in y e a r - r o u n d schools ( C W ) . In Taft District, the s u c c e s s of the year-round schools w a s p e r h a p s e v e n m o r e surprising given the m o r e negative experience of so m a n y neighboring schools a n d districts. Here, I found that it w a s primarily the clear vision and hard w o r k of the principals that m a d e the innovation w o r k in both Jerico and Martin P o p p e r schools. "Working" here, however, did not simply (or e v e n primarily) m e a n a c c o m m o d a t i n g m o r e students (although the calendar did facilitate that for Jerico Elementary), but "making the innovation work" m e a n t giving additional a n d m o r e consistent opportunities for learning to students w h o s e h o m e lives w e r e often difficult a n d w h o s e families w e r e often d i s a d v a n t a g e d socio-economically.  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 168  In this c a s e , the district w a s virtually absent. R e s p o n d e n t s s a i d that there w a s little district s u p p o r t for the innovation, aside f r o m permitting it to occur, but neither did the district inhibit or block the principals f r o m fulfilling their vision for improved student s u p p o r t a n d achievement. It basically "did n o h a r m . " T h e s u c c e s s here w a s largely d u e to the transformative w a y s in w h i c h the principals c o n c e i v e d of using the calendar, especially the intersession time, to provide additional support to those students w h o m o s t n e e d e d it. Additionally, Esther a n d J a n e t o o k s t e p s to e n s u r e that the p e d a g o g i c a l benefits of intersession transferred to the regular school program. In Kate Smith Elementary, J o s e p h described how t h e p e d a g o g y of the A u g u s t alternate c a l e n d a r p r o g r a m spilled over into t h e regular c l a s s r o o m s a n d t e a c h e r s began to s e e h o w fun-filled thematic activities could be the curriculum rather than an addition to the required curriculum. T h e main reason, however, for t h e success of Albert District, w a s the vision, energy, a n d c o m m i t m e n t of J o s e p h himself. He used extensive consultative processes with the c o m m u n i t y , b e c a m e a strong advocate for the benefits of the p r o g r a m , especially to students with special needs, and "sold" the program to policy m a k e r s at every level. T h e r e too, although his original vision w a s a single-track school, he w a s willing to be flexible a n d innovative, almost singlehandedly popularizing the dual-track calendar a n d m a k i n g it work. Overall, I f o u n d those schools in which the year-round calendar w a s successful to be heavily d e p e n d e n t on the skill, k n o w l e d g e , c o m m i t m e n t , vision, and ability of the s c h o o l - b a s e d administrator to m a k e the innovation work. Regardless of w h e t h e r it had b e e n d e e m e d necessary by the district or not, regardless of what the district h o p e d might be a c c o m p l i s h e d , regardless of w h e t h e r there w a s district  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 169  support or not, it w a s the principal w h o determined the success or failure of t h e calendar. T h o s e principals w h o were successful took seriously their roles as t r a n s f o r m a t i v e school leaders (Astin & Astin, 2 0 0 0 ; Fraser, 1995); they w e r e committed to including and to e m p o w e r i n g their staffs (Silins & Mulford, 2005). T h e y e n c o u r a g e d agency, shared power, and consulted about the leadership tasks involved in implementing the reform with their t e a c h e r s and often with parents a n d other m e m b e r s of the wider community. A s O g a w a (2005) defined agency, he talked about having a s e n s e of control over one's environment. This is one of t h e factors that m a d e t h e difference between those innovations that w e r e not successful, w h e r e educators believed they had no support and no control, and those in w h i c h the success w a s apparent. Moreover, those successful principals not only listened to their staffs a n d w i d e r community, but reported that they took seriously the potential of Y R S to effect a c a d e m i c benefits for all students (Baker, 1990; Bradford, 1993; Grotjean & Banks, 1993; Kneese, 1996). T h u s , t h e y took m e a s u r e s that helped to transform not only their schools but the wider c o m m u n i t y (Fraser, 1995).  Anticipated Goals and Achieved Outcomes In this section, to avoid repetition and clarify the relationship between w h a t individual educators hoped to accomplish, what t h e y perceived they had a c c o m p l i s h e d , and the extent to w h i c h their goals w e r e realized, I take m y third a n d fourth research questions together. T h e s e data are s u m m a r i z e d in Table 4. T h e r e is, of course, a close relationship b e t w e e n the impetus for the n e w calendar and w h a t administrators h o p e d to accomplish, especially w h e n the implementation w a s  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 170  voluntary a n d originated f r o m t h e s c h o o l itself. In this section, I differentiate b e t w e e n the innovations that n e e d e d t o o c c u r f o r capital r e a s o n s a n d t h o s e that w e r e voluntary or s o u g h t after. T a b l e 4. G o a l s a n d t h e extent to w h i c h t h e y w e r e realized. DIST/SCHOOL  IMPETUS  GOAL  REALIZED  Frances Howell  Overcrowding Bond restrictions  More students in existing buildings Postpone building No degradation of academic achievement  Yes Yes Yes  Delphi  Overcrowding  More students in existing buildings  Yes  Maintain programs  Yes  No degradation of academic achievement  Yes  More students in existing buildings Improve academic achievement School clusters on YRS calendar Improve academic achievement More students in existing buildings  Yes No Temporary No  High transience Low achievement Low SES  More students in existing buildings Consolidate programs Improve academic achievement More instructional time Improve academic achievement More instructional time Better serve community  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  Belief in YRS  Support at-risk students  Yes  Central Florida Central Sage  Overcrowding Raise scores Provide choice  . Vista  Overcrowding  Taft Jerico  Overcrowding Low achievement Low SES  Martin Popper  Albert  benefits  Temporary  Better climate for all  Yes  Gain more support for school  Yes No  Sweetwater  Desire for choice  Implement YRS  Stephen Lewis  Low SES  More instructional time  No  Need for community  Better serve community  Mixed  Potential area  Be innovative  Yes  growth  Be responsive  Mixed  G o a l s a n d O u t c o m e s in Involuntary P r o g r a m s  F r a n c e s Howell, Delphi District, a n d s o m e Florida Districts (Central, V i s t a , a n d Taft, a s i d e f r o m Martin P o p p e r S c h o o l ) are e x a m p l e s of p r o g r a m s that w e r e  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 171  initiated outside of individual schools. Districts that w e r e faced with overcrowding and needed to find w a y s to a c c o m m o d a t e additional students in existing buildings m a n d a t e d c a l e n d a r c h a n g e . In this instance, t h e g o a l w a s implied in t h e impetus for the c h a n g e . For e x a m p l e , if the impetus w a s overcrowding, t h e goal w a s to a c c o m m o d a t e m o r e children in existing buildings or as G e n e H e n d e r s o n put it, to put more " b u m s in seats." W h i l e principals m a y have understood and s y m p a t h i z e d with district challenges related to budgets and capital outlay, t h e y w e r e primarily c o n c e r n e d with how the calendar w o u l d affect their schools and with s u c h issues as t h e welfare of their teachers, the a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s of their students, and the s u p p o r t of their parent community. Here, the question w a s not so m u c h w h a t principals h o p e d to accomplish, but w h a t they hoped to avoid (or at least maintain) with t h e implementation of year-round schooling. In t e r m s of teachers, these principals w a n t e d to e n s u r e they w o u l d not have a massive e x o d u s of g o o d teachers, indeed, that they w o u l d still b e able to attract those t e a c h e r s they w a n t e d to add to their programs. T h e y w a n t e d teachers to be satisfied, not to experience additional stress and burn-out w h e n they shortened the long traditional s u m m e r vacation. T h e y also w a n t e d teachers to find that planning and delivery o f instruction w a s at least no more difficult on the n e w schedule. W i t h t h e exception of Vista District, w h e r e there w a s not only a lack of district support but district policies that actually subverted the p r o g r a m , principals found these goals w e r e achieved. In fact, teachers found the m o r e regular breaks to be so beneficial that they reported never needing the long "downtime" often required by  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 172  "regular" c l a s s r o o m teachers. They reported that if anything it w a s easier to plan and t e a c h on a modified calendar because it provided natural beginning a n d ending points for instructional units and assessment. T e a c h e r s found they w e r e planning for blocks of three, six, or nine w e e k s m o r e naturally t h a n they had before. After having experienced s o m e f o r m of year-round calendar for at least a year, all respondents in this study consistently reported that they preferred the Y R S calendar. Hence principals f o u n d very f e w t e a c h e r s w h o w a n t e d to leave their s c h o o l s a n d a large n u m b e r of applicants for any rarely available position. In t e r m s of students, principals obviously w a n t e d to maintain their enrollments a n d their a c a d e m i c standings, perhaps e v e n to improve t h e m . A t the very least, they w a n t e d the n e w calendar to result in a finding of "no difference" w h e n a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t w a s analyzed. In Frances Howell, the only formal analysis of student a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t before and after the new c a l e n d a r w a s d o n e during the first year of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n — a time w h e n others w o u l d s u g g e s t that it w o u l d be t o o early to anticipate a n y significant changes (Fullan, 1991). O v e r time, there w a s a s e n s e in the district that, student achievement w a s "consistently s o m e w h a t a b o v e the state average," a n d relatively similar to that of neighboring districts. In Delphi District, a systematic analysis of achievement over a six year period found significant i m p r o v e m e n t s o n the part of the year-round schools (Shields & O b e r g , 1999). T h e p a r e n t communities in both Frances Howell a n d Delphi District were not particularly u p s e t by t h e implementation of year-round schooling. T h e r e were initial vocal minorities, but as families experienced the n e w calendar they found it did not detract f r o m opportunities for family vacation, day-care, or student employment. In  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 173  fact, it did not significantly interfere with their established lifestyles. H e n c e , as time w e n t o n , t h e parent c o m m u n i t y b e c a m e increasingly supportive of t h e new calendar. W h e n enacted with clear vision as to w h a t w a s to be a c h i e v e d a n d reasonable processes to carry out said vision, calendar reform in so-called involuntary implementations w o r k e d well. Districts w e r e able to m e e t goals by paying attention to the needs of m e m b e r s in the schools and the larger c o m m u n i t i e s . Alternatively, t h e lack of district support d o o m e d the calendar c h a n g e to failure, a s did the lack of c o m m u n i c a t i o n with teachers, parents and the w i d e r c o m m u n i t y .  Goals a n d Outcomes in Voluntary Programs U n d e r this heading, I include all of the C a n a d i a n schools and Martin P o p p e r S c h o o l in Taft District. Jerico School is an a n o m a l y because, although the calendar w a s m a n d a t e d by the district to alleviate overcrowding, Esther, the principal, f o u n d w a y s to m a k e use of it to accomplish other explicit goals. T h u s , although it w a s m e n t i o n e d in the previous section, it also belongs here. In t h o s e schools in w h i c h a y e a r - r o u n d , modified, or alternative calendar w a s voluntarily c h o s e n , principals had specific goals a n d concerns. A s with the other group, all principals were d e t e r m i n e d to garner t h e support of their t e a c h e r s a n d w i d e r c o m m u n i t y . Further, t h e e x p e r i e n c e of t e a c h e r s w a s similar to t h a t in t h e previous g r o u p — o n c e they had tried it, they w e r e overwhelmingly positive a b o u t the new s c h e d u l e . Parents responded in various w a y s . It w a s particularly important, for e x a m p l e in the C a n a d i a n schools, to gain parental support. W h e r e the implementation w a s d o n e well, as in Albert District, parental support w a s very strong. Indeed, principals  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 174  reported, in part b e c a u s e of all of the consultation and attendant e m p o w e r m e n t , that parents b e c a m e m o r e k n o w l e d g e a b l e and supportive of their s c h o o l s t h a n they had b e e n prior to t h e n e w calendar. S w e e t w a t e r District a p p e a r e d to h a v e decided that, because the n e w calendar offered a choice, there w a s little need for parental e m p o w e r m e n t or education. A l t h o u g h there w a s no parental outcry, parents w e r e less k n o w l e d g e a b l e about the disadvantages and/or benefits of t h e n e w calendar. Moreover, b e c a u s e of s o m e of the implementation problems, parents b e c a m e disillusioned a n d there w a s no increase of initial support for or interest in, the new calendar. T h e increased enrolment hoped for a n d anticipated by t h e principals did not materialize. In the t w o implementing schools in Taft County, Florida, b e c a u s e of the highly transient and low socio-economic base of the school communities, principals w e r e less c o n c e r n e d about building parental and c o m m u n i t y support b e c a u s e of the disconnected a n d generally uninvolved nature of their parent c o m m u n i t y . Nevertheless, they took care to inform the parents about the n e w calendar. Here the principals w e r e mostly focused on student a c h i e v e m e n t and used this focus as a w a y of gaining parental involvement a n d support. In the y e a r - r o u n d school p r o g r a m s in Taft District, the f o c u s w a s on improving student a c h i e v e m e n t . Neither Esther nor J a n e w o u l d have considered the c h a n g e had they not believed that the more regular rhythm of schooling a n d the additional instructional t i m e afforded by intersession w e r e right for their respective student population. E v e n though the initial year-round calendar in Jerico S c h o o l w a s m a n d a t e d by t h e district, the principal treated it as an opportunity rather than as a  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 175  m a n d a t e , a n d h e n c e I include it with m y discussion of neighboring Martin Popper School. E a c h principal with almost alarming speed (at least to state officials) described h o w s h e m o v e d her school off the critically low list and d e m o n s t r a t e d t r e m e n d o u s g a i n s in student achievement on Florida's high stakes testing program. Here, t h e y said that their goals for the i n n o v a t i o n — t o use Y R S as a catalyst for improved s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g — w e r e unequivocally met. In A l b e r t District, the principal articulated multiple reasons for wanting to e x p e r i m e n t with the new calendar. He believed he could offer choice, improve the learning e n v i r o n m e n t , free up learning resources, and achieve increased c o m m u n i t y support a n d i n v o l v e m e n t — a l l by implementing an alternative calendar. All of these w e r e a c h i e v e d , he believed, by his selection a n d refinement of the dual-track approach. In t h e less successful C a n a d i a n voluntary projects, S w e e t w a t e r a n d S t e p h e n Lewis, the principals' initial focus w a s less clear. In t h e former, there w a s little talk of student a c h i e v e m e n t or c o m m u n i t y e m p o w e r m e n t , but rather an e m p h a s i s on offering choice. P e r h a p s it is for that reason t h e calendar did not g r o w a n d choice of calendar w a s not only limited, but ultimately eliminated. In S t e p h e n Lewis, I found the opposite p h e n o m e n o n : too m a n y goals, too m u c h consultation, too m u c h talk, too little decision m a k i n g a n d focus. T h e initiating principal had w a n t e d a school unlike any o t h e r — o n e that w o u l d serve the needs of the unique student population and bring recognition to the school and its broader community. P e r h a p s b e c a u s e of the overly ambitious nature of the plan itself, the goals w e r e partially realized at first, in that there w a s a great deal of public interest in  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 176  the school a n d m a n y educators f r o m across both C a n a d a and the United States w h o apparently t o u t e d it as an e x a m p l e of education innovation and reform. Nevertheless, my d a t a s u g g e s t e d that the seeds of its failure m a y have been p r e s e n t f r o m the outset a n d t h e very broad-ranging nature of the experiment a n d t h e lack of leadership stability led to its demise. It is likely fair to say that w h e r e y e a r - r o u n d school w a s introduced with a clear vision a n d appropriate levels of c o m m u n i t y participation a n d involvement, the principals' original goals w e r e met, regardless of the impetus for the n e w calendar. W h a t is p e r h a p s even more interesting, however, w e r e the unanticipated o u t c o m e s I identified in response to m y fifth research question. S o m e w e r e relatively minor; others w e r e m u c h more far-reaching.  Unanticipated Outcomes T h e unanticipated o u t c o m e s are, in s o m e ways, a m o n g the m o s t interesting findings. No matter how m u c h research, d e v e l o p m e n t , and consultation w e n t into the processes, implementation of year-round schooling plans always had unforeseen results that w e r e related to the specific local contexts. Needless to say, w h e r e planning w a s haphazard, the unanticipated o u t c o m e s w e r e usually e v e n m o r e d r a m a t i c — a n d at times, tragic. T h e unanticipated o u t c o m e s ( s u m m a r i z e d on Table 5) can be discussed under the following headings: resources a n d support, impact on students, equity issues, trust a n d public image, a n d new and transformative norms.  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 177  T a b l e 5. Unanticipated o u t c o m e s . DISTRICT &/ SCHOOL Frances Howell Delphi  UNANTICIPATED OUTCOMES Media attention, YRS became the district norm, Training ground for administrators Need for extra support, More teacher applications-ease of finding substitutes, Better achievement in YRS, More conversation about teaching and learning, more collaboration, Improved student achievement, Potential for inequity  Central Florida Central Sage Vista TaftJerico Martin Popper Albert Sweetwater Stephen Lewis  Parent backlash, Impact of elections District decision without school input Backlash regarding district policies, not YRS ' ~ Off critically low list, More parental involvement, Dispelling of deficit mentality Test scores moving from D to A (F-CAT), Increased parental support, Reduction in transient rate, Dispelling of deficit mentality Increase in at-risk student applications, Impact on district policy, Lack of parental support, Impact of teacher reputation, Difficulty making decisions-failure of participatory processes, Lack of participation in committees & decision making, Lack of support for the innovations, Negative response to the structure, Inequitable outcomes by track.  Resources and Support S o m e unanticipated c o n s e q u e n c e s e m e r g e d quite quickly. In both Frances Howell a n d Delphi Districts, the district found it necessary to introduce additional support structures. Additional storage space, large storage cabinets o n w h e e l s for every teacher, and air conditioning w e r e w a y s of gaining support and alleviating s o m e of t h e inconvenience of a multi-track schedule. District administrators s o o n found that multi-track year-round schools required s o m e additional d a y s of secretarial time. Small p a y m e n t s to teachers for "track c h a n g e days" w e r e instituted in Delphi District although I found no mention of m o n e t a r y rewards elsewhere.  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 178  In several districts, for e x a m p l e in Florida a n d in Delphi District, w h e n teachers w h o w e r e off-track were selected as substitute teachers, there w a s more reported consistency in the educational program. O n e administrator stated, "Finding substitutes has never been easier, and the quality is better than w e used to have because the off-track teachers k n o w the kids" (SR). Related to the topic of resources w a s the w a y in w h i c h t h e actual physical building w a s perceived to facilitate or inhibit learning. In S t e p h e n Lewis School, m a n y teachers, although they had asked to teach there, found they did not like the combination of large classrooms and smaller, m o r e individualized s p a c e s . S o m e complained that they could not see their whole class at one time while sitting in the L-shaped c l a s s r o o m , a n d s o o n e v e n walls in the s c h o o l w e r e m o v e d or a d d e d . In Frances Howell, however, individual tracks b e c a m e learning c o m m u n i t i e s — a l m o s t like schools within a s c h o o l — a n d an increased s e n s e of c o m m u n i t y w a s reported to have e m e r g e d .  Impact on Students Unanticipated pedagogical a n d educational o u t c o m e s w e r e identified by parents, teachers, and school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s — s o m e positive, s o m e negative. T h e vast majority of positive o u t c o m e s related to perceptions of a m u c h improved learning climate including better attendance, increased motivation, decreased burn-out and f e w e r tensions, as well as to i m p r o v e m e n t s in the academic achievement of students. T e a c h e r s reported that there w a s m o r e conversation about teaching a n d learning in year-round schools. A s t e a c h e r s c a m e back, refreshed from  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 179  breaks, t h e y s h a r e d what they had been thinking a b o u t their u p c o m i n g units while off-track a n d talked about their holiday experiences: I definitely think that w e as teachers collaborate a lot more on this s y s t e m t h a n w e did before. W e ' r e coming back a little bit r e j u v e n a t e d a n d e v e r y three w e e k s s o m e b o d y is c o m i n g back w h o is fresh and full of i d e a s and grabbing us all together on that Friday, prep d a y and s a y i n g okay, "I've thought about this, how a b o u t this?" I m p r o v e d teacher and student attendance as well as the reduction of disciplinary incidents and tensions w e r e also unanticipated benefits. O n e said: W e actually have fewer discipline issues, behavioral issues, b e c a u s e children reach that level of "I'm sick of it; I'm frustrated. G e t m e out of this place." T h e y do "get out of this place" and c o m e back refreshed, so I think I have f e w e r discipline problems. T e a c h e r s look forward to having their three w e e k s off, they c o m e back refreshed, too. (SP) Principals reported that w h e n they s a w the test data for their Y R S schools they w e r e surprised that there had b e e n considerable i m p r o v e m e n t in student a c h i e v e m e n t ( C W , SR). Initially introduced simply to address s o m e of Utah's unique educational challenges, the fact that they s a w that student a c h i e v e m e n t in the yearround s c h o o l s had improved considerably provided w e l c o m e support for the district's need to m a k e use of the year-round calendar to alleviate overcrowding and fiscal limitations. Improved achievement w a s not only o n e impetus but a desired and anticipated o u t c o m e for J a n e and Esther in Taft District, but the extent of the i m p r o v e m e n t in both c a s e s w a s surprising to t h e e d u c a t o r s involved ( C W ) . J a n e h a d hoped that the c h a n g e in calendar w o u l d m a k e s o m e difference in student a c h i e v e m e n t and said she w a s surprised w h e n the calendar (along with her other initiatives) g e n e r a t e d what could only be described as a dramatic improvement. S h e had h o p e d to get her school off the state's critically low " D " rating and said she would h a v e b e e n satisfied in the first year with a " C . " S h e had not been ready for a  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 180  m o v e f r o m a " D " to an "A". Esther, too, had e x p e c t e d improved a c a d e m i c performance, but said she had not anticipated the results w o u l d b e s o dramatic she w o u l d be s u m m o n e d to the state capital to defend t h e m . In t w o schools, h o w e v e r — S t e p h e n Lewis Junior High School a n d Lakota Elementary S c h o o l — t h e r e w e r e also s o m e unanticipated negative c o n s e q u e n c e s for students. This w a s largely d u e to s o m e of the w a y s in w h i c h the school and its p r o g r a m s w e r e organized. S t e p h e n Lewis's experience, as previously indicated, w a s m i x e d . It o p e n e d with great fanfare and success, with no one anticipating that in three years things w o u l d begin to unravel, and that in six, all but the single-track y e a r - r o u n d calendar w o u l d have d i s a p p e a r e d . T h e r e w e r e unanticipated o u t c o m e s related to multi-age and grade g r o u p i n g , to the initial decision not to have students c o m p e t e competitively against other schools in t h e district, to the extensive discussions in multiple c o m m i t t e e s , to the design of the building, a n d to the consultation processes t h e m s e l v e s . Senior students, looking forward to being the "top d o g " in their 9 year, w e r e not happy being g r o u p e d with 7  t h  and 8  t h  t h  grade  graders; moreover, teachers  had not d e t e r m i n e d how to instruct at a multi-grade level a n d , at t h e s a m e time, h o w to ensure that the 9  th  graders w e r e adequately prepared for high school. Believing  that it w a s m o r e important for junior high school students to e n g a g e in cooperative rather t h a n competitive activities, "the a d m i n t e a m had m a d e the arbitrary decision to keep the s c h o o l out of district sports competitions and only to play in exhibition g a m e s " (JD). T h e refusal of the students to go along with this decision s e e m e d to c o m e as a s h o c k to the administrators.  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 181  In L a k o t a , the assignment of teachers and students to classes and grades proved not only challenging, but almost impossible b e c a u s e there had been so little g e n e r a l support for the alternative (dual) track. This meant that there, too, three g r a d e s of students were allocated to one classroom, a situation that w a s met with considerable student and parent resistance. Moreover, the a s s i g n m e n t of a teacher perceived as particularly undesirable to the alternative track w a s not only detrimental to the survival of the Y R p r o g r a m , but also had a negative impact on t h e students themselves.  Equity Issues O n e potentially negative and unanticipated c o n s e q u e n c e related to w h e t h e r equity issues had been explicitly considered and addressed during the conception and implementation of the n e w calendar in multi-track schools. This related to the potential inequities that might arise if track assignments resulted in all children f r o m a specific ethnic or socio-economic b a c k g r o u n d or a c a d e m i c orientation w e r e grouped together on a track in w a y s that a d v a n t a g e d s o m e tracks a n d disadvantaged others. This potential for inequity had b e e n a d d r e s s e d successfully in Frances Howell District w h e n students w e r e allocated to tracks by neighborhoods, with the boundaries being shifted slightly w h e n d e m o g r a p h i c s c h a n g e d . In this district, parents w e r e never a s k e d for track preferences, but children w e r e assigned to tracks and therefore to school s u b - c o m m u n i t i e s by the school a n d district policy. T h e w a y this w a s a c c o m p l i s h e d w a s the distribution of students according to convenient bus routes (rather than parental request). O f course, allocating students to tracks according to bus routes could result in inequities. But in Frances Howell, as  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 182  d e m o g r a p h i c shifts in the population occurred, the bus routes w e r e adjusted slightly.  1  I w a s told that w h e r e v e r parental requests for specific track assignments were permitted there w a s a potential for inequity. In Delphi District and in S t e p h e n Lewis Junior High School, although intended to offer choice for parents, unmitigated track choice resulted in inequity. Educators f r o m both districts reported that parents w h o were t h e most e d u c a t e d and knowledgeable about the p r o c e s s e s of schooling, and therefore likely already the most involved in their children's education, t e n d e d to select tracks first, opting for the track most like the traditional calendar a n d choosing those t e a c h e r s that w e r e reputed to be the "best." Other parents t h e n had to take w h a t w a s left over. Unfortunately, this t e n d e d to s e g r e g a t e students by ethnicity, h o m e language, socio-economic status, and parental b a c k g r o u n d . This inequity w a s particularly noticeable in S t e p h e n Lewis Junior High School w h e n student test scores w e r e analyzed by track, with o n e track having a m e a n score as m u c h as 4 0 % below the m e a n scores of another track. T h e problem, as in Delphi District, w a s that parents had a choice of track, a n d the school had no policies to mitigate d e m o g r a p h i c inequities that resulted. Parents necessarily m a k e choices in t h e best interest of their children and their family, but may be unaware of the w h o l e picture of the needs of the school. T h u s , the principal must have the ability  For example, if the 360° "pie" were divided with the first track beginning at 0° and going to the 72°, the next going to 144° and so on, with the population shift, the first track might begin at 15° with each of five tracks still comprising 72°. Hence the change in the angle of the line would result in a redistribution of the route that is more equitable. 1  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 183  to use p r o c e d u r e s that override, w h e n necessary, the ability of parents to m a k e choices t h a t w o u l d be detrimental to others.  Trust and Public Image M a n y of the unanticipated c o n s e q u e n c e s s e e m e d to relate to the w a y s in which the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a Y R S calendar mobilized public opinion either in favor of or o p p o s e d to the innovation. This is true w h e t h e r the innovation w a s voluntary or m a n d a t e d , s m a l l or large scale, or implemented early in the life history of Y R S or considerably later. Overall, principals reported that regardless of t h e impetus for the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , as they provided information to their parent a n d c o m m u n i t y groups, surveyed their communities, and prepared (in s o m e cases) for a decisive vote, they garnered not only s o m e opposition, but considerable support for the school. W h a t they s e e m e d not to have anticipated w a s that this support w o u l d persist b e y o n d the initial i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and result in a m o r e informed a n d m o r e involved parent community. In F r a n c e s Howell, another initial unforeseen o u t c o m e of implementing a multi-track y e a r - r o u n d school calendar in 1969 w a s the extensive m e d i a attention as well as attention f r o m educators f r o m school districts a r o u n d the country. This w a s also true for Kate Smith Elementary School in w h i c h I w a s s h o w n large posters and extensive binders of m e d i a reports covering the first year of the school. Educators f r o m S t e p h e n Lewis Junior High School reported a similar p h e n o m e n o n in that not only had the school opening received extensive m e d i a coverage, but they had also received visitors f r o m across C a n a d a and t h r o u g h o u t the United States.  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 184  In F r a n c e s Howell, there w a s a unique unanticipated c o n s e q u e n c e . A s u p e r i n t e n d e n t told us that because their year-round schools w e r e often so large, the district a l w a y s had available positions for assistant principals, positions that no neighboring district had. S h e explained that this resulted in Frances Howell District providing t h e training ground for neighboring districts' administrators, for often after serving a n assistant principal position in Frances Howell, a leader returned to his or her h o m e district to a principalship (KZ). In Florida, particularly in Central and V i s t a Districts, I learned that w h e n n u m e r o u s promises were m a d e that w e r e not fulfilled, year-round schooling b e c a m e symbolic of an uncommitted and unsupportive district office. T h e implementation of policies that w e r e seen to achieve cost savings o n t h e backs of the t e a c h e r s a n d s c h o o l - b a s e d administrators led not only to frustration but to outrage. T h e complication of the elected superintendency contributed to the problem but the major issue w a s t h e lack of trust because of the a p p a r e n t lack of attention paid to the w i s h e s of the educators a n d parents. W h i l e the failure of reform implemented with untenable promises is likely not to be unanticipated, the educational leaders in these districts s o m e h o w failed to foresee the c o n s e q u e n c e s in t e r m s of public backlash. A n o t h e r important unanticipated o u t c o m e w a s t h e failure of the extensively consultative a n d participatory processes introduced at S t e p h e n Lewis Junior High School. Teacher-leaders told us there w a s too m u c h consultation about too m a n y things. T o o m u c h voice w a s time c o n s u m i n g but resulted in f e w decisions. M a n y things w e r e " m a d e up" as they w e n t along, with p e o p l e "finding themselves working on strategies and then wondering w h e n a related decision had been m a d e " (BR).  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 185  Learning t e a m leaders had so m u c h p o w e r and a u t o n o m y that the s e n s e of "schoolness" dissipated. B e c a u s e all of these processes required excellence in c o m m u n i c a t i o n skills and strategies, w h e n c o m m u n i c a t i o n broke d o w n , the results w e r e both tragic and shattering for the innovative program itself. In Lakota Elementary School in S w e e t w a t e r District, as in V i s t a District, most of the unexpected o u t c o m e s w e r e unanticipated by participants, but d o not c o m e as a surprise to a n y o n e w h o hears the story of its implementation. T h e r e , w h a t w a s unanticipated by the school principal, w a s t h e limited interest in a n d support for the calendar. Yet, I have argued previously that this w a s due in large part to lack of c o m m u n i c a t i o n and promotion as well as to a lack of clarity with respect to goals and implementation procedures. Perhaps the most surprising o u t c o m e I identified here w a s the extent to which having a g o o d (or in this c a s e a poor) t e a c h e r involved in an innovation m a k e s it successful or unsuccessful. Overall, it w a s the implementation processes a n d p r o c e d u r e s of the school and district leaders, more t h a n a n y specific feature of the Y R calendar itself that prompted the school c o m m u n i t y to offer either support or resistance. W h e r e educational leaders w e r e o p e n , consultative, a n d flexible, they normally g e n e r a t e d trust; w h e r e they w e r e secretive or offered misinformation, the c o m m u n i t y responded negatively. In order to transform the school and larger communities, school leaders needed to be willing to use their p o w e r a n d to d o so in morally responsible w a y s .  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 186  New and Transformative Norms A central tenet of the conceptual f r a m e w o r k that informed this study w a s transformative leadership. It w a s , nevertheless a surprise to m e to discover the extent to w h i c h , in s o m e cases, the introduction of Y R S had actually had a transformative impact on a school or n e i g h b o r h o o d . In s o m e c a s e s , t h e new c a l e n d a r simply c h a n g e d t h e w a y p e o p l e t h o u g h t about a n d practiced "schooling"; in other cases, it brought about significant c h a n g e to the wider c o m m u n i t y itself. For e x a m p l e , the fact that Frances Howell School District b e c a m e k n o w n for having the longest running multi-track year-round school in the United States gave it a mark of notoriety that w a s unanticipated. T h e expansion of the calendar throughout the district permitted it to maintain a unique status (although unsought and largely unrecognized). B e c a u s e t h e calendar has been so e n t r e n c h e d , educators said it p r o m o t e d a m o r e flexible a n d m o r e natural rhythm of schooling and family life throughout the district. A l t h o u g h they had not expected to remain on a year-round calendar, year-round b e c a m e , as one principal told us "the w a y w e do education in Frances Howell School District" ( W C ) . Delphi District in U t a h f o u n d the s a m e thing. A l t h o u g h the Y R calendar h a d not b e e n instituted t h r o u g h o u t the district, it b e c a m e a c c e p t e d as the w a y in w h i c h all new schools a n d m a n y existing schools operated. Neither district f o u n d it necessary to conduct studies, to c o m p a r e its attendance or a c h i e v e m e n t with that of neighbors; rather, there w a s simply a d e e p belief that the calendar w a s better for students and teachers and helped the district to offer quality educational p r o g r a m s .  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 187  J o s e p h ' s a p p r o a c h in Albert District led to an unanticipated c o n s e q u e n c e of a different s o r t — a c h a n g e in district policy. W h i l e J o s e p h had no d o u b t in his mind about the positive impact of a year-round school calendar for his school community, he had not anticipated that it would b e c o m e district policy to require the school council of all n e w schools to e x a m i n e alternative c a l e n d a r s before settling on the appropriate o n e for their school. This led to a greater a w a r e n e s s of the constraints of the traditional (so-called agrarian) calendar and to increased conversation throughout the district about various aspects of organizational structure and school programs. T h e m o s t significant unanticipated c o n s e q u e n c e s of this study, at least in terms of the transformative potential of the innovation, related to the dramatic impact not only on student o u t c o m e s , but also on c o m m u n i t y involvement, identified in both Martin P o p p e r and Jerico Elementary Schools. T h e extent of the impact warrants its inclusion here rather than in the previous section that a d d r e s s e d other impacts on students. In Martin Popper, the introduction of a S T - Y R S calendar w a s a c c o m p a n i e d by a dramatic d e c r e a s e in the transient rate (from 7 4 % to 6 1 % ) w h i c h J a n e stated had also had a positive impact on student learning. Here, I discuss it here as an issue of transformation. T h e c h a n g e w a s explained by J a n e in t e r m s of parents seeing that the school w a s m a k i n g a difference, feeling a c c e p t e d , believing that the school cared about their children, a n d w a s doing everything possible to m a k e a difference. Jane reported that not only w a s the rapid increase in student a c h i e v e m e n t and test score results unanticipated, but also the fact that parents tried to find j o b s in the  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 188  n e i g h b o r h o o d so that their children could continue to attend the school. Several years later, t h e parents were not only m o r e involved in the life of the school, but had also taken p a i n s to improve the c o m m u n i t y itself, forming c o m m i t t e e s to clean up the n e i g h b o r h o o d a n d to provide support for families in need of assistance. Esther h a d a similar experience with her school. Her ingenuity (based around the calendar c h a n g e ) had included m a n y activities that involved t h e community. B e c a u s e of t h e s e , the highly transient a n d largely uninvolved c o m m u n i t y itself began to take an interest in the life of the school. S h e had a volunteer translator in the office to help Spanish-speaking parents to negotiate the b u r e a u c r a c y of their children's e d u c a t i o n . Parents took a d v a n t a g e of her G E D p r o g r a m s a n d w e r e learning to tutor their children in critical subjects. T h e y volunteered at school "fairs" and helped the school to raise needed monies to fund their intersession a n d afterschool p r o g r a m s . S h e had not anticipated the d e g r e e of reciprocation that the c o m m u n i t y w o u l d s h o w w h e n the school d e m o n s t r a t e d a c o m m i t m e n t to it. Moreover, in both cases, institutional responses to significant improvement in test scores o n the part of populations that had not normally b e e n high performing magnetized support for the school. W e have s e e n that in Jerico School, the scores improved so m u c h that Esther w a s suspected of "cheating" by the Florida State Office of Education. W e noted that in Martin Popper School, J a n e had to argue with her district to have her status c h a n g e d f r o m a " B " to the "A" that the school had earned. Each case suggests the extent to w h i c h the school district a n d the state office responses implied a deficit mentality. Nevertheless, t h e s e t w o school principals said they had been surprisingly instrumental in c h a n g i n g public a w a r e n e s s  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 189 a n d attitudes a s t h e y demonstrated that students f r o m minority a n d socioeconomically d i s a d v a n t a g e d backgrounds could perform a s well as students in higher s o c i o - e c o n o m i c areas of the state. Hence, the major u n e x p e c t e d o u t c o m e of the year-round c a l e n d a r in Taft district (and in the wider study) w a s t h e extent to w h i c h it helped to dispel t h e c o m m o n mythology that children f r o m disadvantaged h o m e s w o u l d a l w a y s perform at a lower standard t h a n their m o r e a d v a n t a g e d peers. B e c a u s e t h e y w e r e willing to act, to use a n d share power, a n d to function with s e n s e of moral p u r p o s e , both Jane and Ether had had a profound impact o n their schools a n d t h e w i d e r communities. Each is a g o o d e x a m p l e of a transformative leader.  Summary of Findings T a k e n together, this study of leaders' implementation of year-round schooling, a reform generally t h o u g h t to be limited to a c h a n g e of school-year calendar, has d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e complexity of c h a n g e (Bakhtin, 1986; B o u r d i e u , 1993) a n d specifically o f educational c h a n g e (Fullan, 1993; Levin, 2 0 0 1 , Shields, 2002). I have found that e v e n a reform that s e e m s as straightforward a s c h a n g i n g t h e school calendar m a y be introduced for a variety of reasons. T h e educational leaders I studied u s e d , with varying d e g r e e s of success, m a n y different implementation procedures a n d processes. Educators across t h e country c h o s e to implement the s a m e reform a s a response to different challenges in their contexts a n d in order to accomplish different o u t c o m e s . Further, they perceived that the implementation of a f o r m o f Y R calendar, not only permitted t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f their goals, but w a s often a c c o m p a n i e d by unanticipated outcomes. T h e c o m b i n a t i o n a n d interplay of  Chapter 7. Insights from the data ... p. 1  t h e s e factors resulted in s o m e new understandings that permit m e to identify, in C h a p t e r 8, s o m e of the lessons learned f r o m this study and to m a k e s o m e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s related to the successful implementation of educational c h a n g e .  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p. 191  C H A P T E R 8: L O O K I N G  FORWARD  In previous chapters, I have presented the b a c k g r o u n d a n d rationale for this study, a brief history of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e school calendar, t h e guiding questions and conceptual f r a m e w o r k , and the findings based o n interviews of m a n y educators in schools and districts throughout North A m e r i c a . Here I recap the study a n d t h e n revisit m y overarching question in the light of the findings as well as the conceptual f r a m e w o r k d e v e l o p e d in Chapter 3. I conclude by identifying s o m e lessons learned f r o m this study a n d m a k i n g s o m e related r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s .  O v e r v i e w of the S t u d y I set out to investigate w h e t h e r there is a relationship b e t w e e n transformative leadership with its constituent ideas of agency, moral purpose, a n d power, a n d the ability to successfully introduce sustainable school change. T h r o u g h a series of interviews, I e x a m i n e d w h y a n d h o w educational leaders, at school a n d district levels, continued to p r o m o t e a n d introduce school-calendar c h a n g e ( c o m m o n l y k n o w n as year-round schooling) in the face of w h a t w e r e often substantial political a n d social battles. In C h a p t e r 1,1 introduced the study a n d defined s o m e of the most c o m m o n l y used t e r m s , a m o n g t h e m single-track, dual-track, multi-track calendars, a n d intersession. C h a p t e r 2 provided a historical overview that d e m o n s t r a t e d that s o m e f o r m of modified calendar has been a part of the educational landscape in North A m e r i c a since the mid 1800s a n d that it recurs with increased intensity a n d interest  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p. 192  at various times in the history of education, each t i m e with a different impetus. Chapter 3 provided a review of the literature related to y e a r - r o u n d schooling, including s o m e of the c o m m o n l y perceived a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s . There I also reviewed s o m e of the literature on educational c h a n g e a n d identified s o m e current perspectives relevant to transformative educational leadership. Here I argued that in part, it is t h e w a y s in w h i c h w e are u s e d to thinking a b o u t education (our habitus) that m a y inhibit educational change s u c h as the introduction of yearround schooling (Bourdieu, 1993). I also posited that looking f r o m the borders and the outside, as Bakhtin suggests (1986), might provide a n e w lens for understanding. Most importantly, I d e v e l o p e d the hypothesis that successful educational c h a n g e (change that is enduring and supported) might best be introduced by transformative educational leaders acting with agency, moral purpose, a n d ethical use of power. For t h e focus of this study, I decided to look at leaders in schools that w e r e changing their school calendars to w h a t is often referred to as y e a r - r o u n d schooling. In this, I had s o m e t h i n g of an insider/outsider s t a t u s — a s k n o w l e d g e a b l e about yearround schooling but as an outsider to the specific schools studied. T h e approach I took is d e s c r i b e d in C h a p t e r 4, w h e r e I identified m y personal position, outlined m y data collection sources, described m y analytical processes, a n d reported how I chose to present the data through the stories contained in C h a p t e r s 5 and 6. My respondents c a m e from three jurisdictions in the United States a n d three in C a n a d a , s o m e in w h i c h the reform w a s m a n d a t e d a n d others in w h i c h it w a s voluntarily instituted by s c h o o l leaders. T h e y c a m e f r o m s c h o o l s with various c a l e n d a r s — m u l t i , single, a n d dual-track that had been implemented b e t w e e n 1969 a n d 1999.  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p. 193  T h r o u g h a series of interviews, I e x a m i n e d w h y a n d h o w educational leaders, at school a n d district levels, continue to promote a n d introduce school-calendar c h a n g e ( c o m m o n l y k n o w n as year-round schooling) in the f a c e of w h a t are often substantial political and social battles. Chapter 5 presented the stories of selected schools a n d districts in the United States and C h a p t e r 6 told the stories of schools in several C a n a d i a n jurisdictions. In chapter 7, I revisited m y guiding questions and d i s c u s s e d m y findings. There I demonstrated that t h e impetus for the reform (whether v o l u n t a r y or m a n d a t e d ) had little t o d o w i t h its viability, but t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n processes and procedures used by t h e school leader w e r e critical. A calendar c h a n g e w a s implemented to accomplish various goals, f r o m a c c o m m o d a t i n g m o r e students in existing buildings to bettering the learning experience of children to achieving equity. Not only w e r e explicit goals realized, but m a n y unanticipated o u t c o m e s were also f o u n d . O n t h e basis of the insights gleaned f r o m the analysis a n d discussion of m y data, I n o w d i s c u s s s o m e of the major lessons learned f r o m this study and m a k e s o m e related r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s both for further practice and s u b s e q u e n t research.  Lessons Learned In this section, using as an organizer the c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k developed in Chapter 3,1 d r a w together the findings f r o m m y five research questions to consider s o m e of the m a j o r lessons that m a y be d r a w n f r o m this study. Here I revisit the f r a m e w o r k to d e t e r m i n e w h a t has been learned a b o u t year-round schooling itself, about e d u c a t i o n a l reform m o r e generally, a b o u t transformative educational leadership, a n d about the inter-relationships a m o n g t h e s e three parts of m y  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p. 194  f r a m e w o r k . In each section I also m a k e s o m e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s that e m e r g e f r o m the lessons learned.  Lessons Learned about Year-Round S c h o o l i n g This w a s not specifically a study of y e a r - r o u n d schooling, but rather a study in w h i c h the calendar change w a s the vehicle for e x a m i n i n g and understanding the motivations a n d a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s of school leaders in introducing the calendar. Y R S in this study w a s conceived of as an instance of m o r e general educational reform. I started with the literature on year-round schooling to determine w h a t I might anticipate f r o m educators in terms of their goals a n d the potential o u t c o m e s they might have identified. However, as I reviewed this literature, it a p p e a r e d that t h e purported benefits clearly outweighed the d i s a d v a n t a g e s and that t h e y t e n d e d to fall into three categories: fiscal accountability, e d u c a t i o n a l benefits, and c o m m u n i t y impact. Principals' expressed convictions about t h e s e benefits a n d their c o m m i t m e n t to m a k e positive change provided reasons for t h e m to persist with c h a n g e efforts, s o m e t i m e s in the face of opposition. Fiscal a n d facility benefits. O n e lesson learned f r o m this study is that educators implement Y R S b e c a u s e they are c o n v i n c e d it is an educational reform that has the potential to provide benefits in terms o f fiscal and facility e c o n o m i e s . W h e n the g o a l in selecting Y R S w a s fiscal benefits, the calendar c h a n g e w a s always initiated f r o m outside the school, m a n d a t e d at the state or district level. This outside m a n d a t e w a s not directly associated with the s u c c e s s or failure of the reform; it rarely involved efforts to develop collaborative structures within schools (Fullan, 1999) or to d e v e l o p learning organizations ( S e n g e , 1990). Nevertheless, all  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p. 195  participants recognized its ability to a c c o m m o d a t e m o r e children in existing buildings a n d averted or postponed the need for new buildings. Further, as in t h e cases of Frances Howell a n d Delphi Districts the reform persisted until it b e c a m e a normal part of the educational fabric. This study has found,as have others reported extensively in t h e literature, that w h e n the goal of implementation w a s to achieve fiscal savings, Y R S w a s successful (Denton & W a l e n t a , 1993; H o u g h et al., 1990; Zykowski e t a l . , 1991). Educational benefits. Generally success had m o r e to d o with t h e w a y in w h i c h the reform w a s implemented than with the location of the impetus. A l t h o u g h Hargreaves a n d Fullan (1998) d o w n p l a y e d the importance of structural c h a n g e , I learned f r o m m y analysis of m y participants' c o m m e n t s and e x p e r i e n c e s , not only that Y R S can accomplish the goal of increasing the capacity of existing facilities, it can be a catalyst for positive c h a n g e s in teaching a n d learning as well. A s numerous studies had previously f o u n d (Baker, 1990; Bradford, 1993; Grotjean & Banks, 1993; Kneese, 1996; Los A n g e l e s Unified School District, 1982-83; Mutchler, 1993; Peltier, 1 9 9 1 ; Perry, 1 9 9 1 ; Winters, 1995), my respondents w e r e also c o n v i n c e d of and committed to t h e educational benefits of a c h a n g e to year-round s c h o o l , a change they found can be of particular benefit to "at-risk" students ( C a p p s & Cox, 1 9 9 1 ; G a n d a r a & Fish, 1994; Perry, 1 9 9 1 ; Serifs, 1990). This w a s evident in both multitrack sites (Frances Howell a n d Delphi Districts), a n d also in single a n d dual track implementations (Albert a n d Taft Districts). Sleegers, Geijsel, a n d v a n d e n Berg (2002) s u g g e s t e d that a structural change is often a reflection of a desire to control behaviors t o w a r d desired o u t c o m e s  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p. 196  (p. 78). For t h e most part, this did not s e e m to be true a m o n g m y respondents w h e r e a calendar c h a n g e w a s most often associated, not with additional control, but with increased flexibility and f r e e d o m . Moreover, w h e r e the implementation s e e m e d to go hand in h a n d with a desire for power, a lack of c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d excessive control (as in several Florida Districts and the situation in S w e e t w a t e r ) , the positive o u t c o m e s f o u n d e l s e w h e r e did not materialize. T r a n s f o r m a t i v e benefits. T h e literature reports that a c h a n g e to Y R S can e n h a n c e t h e quality of school life by reducing a b s e n t e e i s m a n d burn-out and increasing t h e attendance and motivation of t e a c h e r s a n d students. It can decrease transciency, v a n d a l i s m , and student tensions a n d it can prompt a c h a n g e in the w a y s in w h i c h t e a c h e r s think and talk about t e a c h i n g a n d learning (Baker, 1990; Bradford, 1993; Brekke, 1983: L A U S D , 1983; Shields & O b e r g , 2 0 0 0 ; White, 1988). It c a n also, as discovered through the interviews with m y respondents, provide a n e w context for educational activities in w h i c h t h e r e n e w e d e n t h u s i a s m and increased conversation m a y help to c h a n g e the w a y s in w h i c h teachers think about the abilities of specific groups of students, learn to reject deficit thinking, and to be m o r e inclusive of all m e m b e r s of the school c o m m u n i t y . A s these changes occur, e d u c a t o r s often reported that there w a s increased support and involvement on the part of t h e wider community. This is consistent with the Fullan's (2003) assertion of the importance of changing context. He states that "to c h a n g e immediate context, even in small w a y s can result in n e w b e h a v i o r s — i n short order" (p. 27). H e m a k e s t h e connection b e t w e e n s u c h a c h a n g e a n d transformation of o u t c o m e s by saying that contexts m a y be hard to alter but transformative change by  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p. 197  definition m e a n s changing the context. Individual b a c k g r o u n d s can't b e fixed b e c a u s e they are in the past; contexts can be b e c a u s e they are now. (p. 27) E d u c a t o r s report that implementing a f o r m of n e w school-year calendar c h a n g e s the educational context for the school and its c o m m u n i t y in small but significant w a y s that I have f o u n d in this study to be transformative. S u m m a r y . All school leaders in this s t u d y (even in w h a t might be considered as failing implementations) believed that Y R S h a d the potential to m a k e a positive difference to the educational experiences of children a n d to the educational climate of their school. Moreover, this w a s true w h e t h e r t h e idea and impetus for the c h a n g e had b e e n theirs or had c o m e f r o m elsewhere. In general, I found that t h e impetus for the introduction of a year-round school calendar played relatively little role in determining its success. Regardless of w h e t h e r t h e reform w a s m a n d a t e d or voluntary, single, dual, or multi-track, it s o m e t i m e s garnered considerable w i d e s p r e a d support and at other times provoked strong dissatisfaction. S o m e t i m e s it s u c c e e d e d (as defined in C h a p t e r 1) in that it w a s continued over time, fulfilled t h e stated goals, a n d w a s widely supported a n d a c c e p t e d by the school a n d wider c o m m u n i t i e s it served. S o m e t i m e s it failed, in t h e s e n s e that it did not fulfill the original explicit goals and w a s not accepted by t h e school and wider c o m m u n i t i e s . R e g a r d l e s s of the extent to which benefits w e r e realized, the educational leaders w h o successfully implemented a c a l e n d a r c h a n g e w e r e always conscious that t h e c a l e n d a r itself w a s not a p a n a c e a . T h e recognized its potential to create a s c h e d u l e within w h i c h other c h a n g e s could also b e introduced to improve student learning. T h e implementation and o u t c o m e s w e r e positive or negative d e p e n d i n g  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p. 198  primarily on the skills, focus, processes, integrity, a n d c o m m i t m e n t of the school principal, in short, depending on his or her leadership style a n d a p p r o a c h . T h e potential for Y R S to be beneficial to students, educators, families, and the wider c o m m u n i t y w a s determined to be so compelling that Albert District, strongly influenced by Joseph's e n t h u s i a s m , conviction, and success, d e v e l o p e d an innovative policy. It required the leaders and councils of all new schools to carefully consider w h i c h school calendar w o u l d be most appropriate for their specific c o m m u n i t y a n d school. A further lesson, therefore, to be learned f r o m this study is that Y R S might profitably be included in discussions about school policy.  Lessons Learned about Educational Reform Given the extent of current Y R S implementation with over t w o million North A m e r i c a n students enrolled in s o m e f o r m of balanced or modified school calendar, and given the findings of extensive possibilities for educational c h a n g e , it is surprising that there is little mention in the educational reform literature of school calendar c h a n g e . Moreover, studying t h e motivations a n d e x p e r i e n c e s of educational leaders as they bring about such a c h a n g e can inform educational c h a n g e initiatives m o r e generally. In this section, I identify s o m e of the lessons learned f r o m this study that can also have wider implication. In general, t h e s e lessons fall under the headings of the importance of process, the need for goal clarity, a n d o v e r c o m i n g resistance a n d habitus. T h e importance of process. O n e key feature of the s u c c e s s or failure of each educator w a s his or her a w a r e n e s s of p r o c e s s e s that were appropriate for the specific context of the school a n d district in question. In each successful case,  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p. 199  adaptation w a s o n g o i n g in recognition of changing c i r c u m s t a n c e s over time. This is consistent, of course, with m u c h thinking about educational reform that focuses on c h a n g e as a j o u r n e y (or a series of processes) rather t h a n an e v e n t (Fullan, 1993). It is also congruent with current thinking on the i m p o r t a n c e of understanding complexity theory (Fullan, 2 0 0 3 ; Morrison, 2002). Morrison asserts that complexity c o m e s f r o m a Latin w o r d m e a n i n g "to entwine" a n d states that o n e key c o n c e p t is "the notion that an o r g a n i s m interacts dynamically with its e n v i r o n m e n t , influencing and, in turn, being influenced by its environment" (p. 5). Fullan (2003) e m p h a s i z e s the importance of understanding this intricate relationship, s a y i n g : Y o u c a n n o t get to n e w horizons without grasping the e s s e n c e of complexity theory. T h e trick is to learn to b e c o m e a tad m o r e comfortable with the awful mystery of complex s y s t e m s , to do f e w e r things, to aggravate w h a t is already a centrifugal problem, resist controlling t h e uncontrollable, and to learn to use key complexity concepts to design and guide m o r e powerful learning s y s t e m s . Y o u need to tweak and trust the p r o c e s s of c h a n g e while knowing that it is unpredictable, (p. 21) T h u s , both theory a n d practice provide e v i d e n c e of the n e e d to attend t o — " t o t w e a k " — p r o c e s s e s while at the s a m e time realizing that the o u t c o m e s m a y be unpredictable. T h e m o r e successful leaders in this study u n d e r s t o o d this. T h e y recognized t h e need for o p e n and honest c o m m u n i c a t i o n , for building support through this c o m m u n i c a t i o n , for accepting and dealing with conflict, a n d for persevering to accomplish their goals. T h e y w e r e flexible and adaptable, willing to take risks, to try things that h a d not been tried before, but w e r e able to keep their perspective.  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p.200  I have learned h o w W i l m a , G e n e , a n d the U t a h e d u c a t o r s had to learn h o w to adapt the reform to their respective contexts and cultures. Each had to develop schedules, d e t e r m i n e bus routes, e n s u r e the availability of supplies, a n d provide support for schools on the new calendar within the f r a m e w o r k of district norms and possibilities. J o s e p h , Esther, a n d Jane constantly revised their processes, c o m m u n i c a t i n g with their publics, and finding strategies to build support and involvement for t h e decisions they w e r e taking. In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e y a s k e d , " H o w can w e m a k e t h e vision of year-round schooling w o r k ? " T h e y did not, however, ask the public's permission to implement their reforms. T h e y did not a s s u m e support, nor m a k e u n t e n a b l e promises, but w o r k e d with their s c h o o l staffs a n d communities, never a b r o g a t i n g their positions as educational leaders. S u c c e s s f u l principals in this study paid particular attention to the specifics of their context. In order to implement a calendar c h a n g e , they attended both to the school culture a n d to the details of the structural c h a n g e . This is consistent with the finding of Fullan a n d Hargreaves (1998) that "without structural change, c o m m u n i t y pressures a n d educational innovations just o v e r w h e l m [teachers]" (p. 25). Thus, they have t a u g h t m e that the introduction of year-round schooling w a s often the catalyst and i m p e t u s for changing c u l t u r e s — i n c l u d i n g the w a y s in w h i c h t e a c h e r s thought about p l a n n i n g , the w a y s in which parents thought a b o u t vacations a n d child-care, the w a y s in w h i c h administrators t h o u g h t about s c h e d u l i n g , equity, a n d c o m m u n i t y involvement, e v e n the w a y s in which c o m m u n i t y a g e n c i e s delivered services. Especially w h e n t h e implementation w a s d o n e carefully a n d d e v e l o p e d a n d a d a p t e d to the local c o n t e x t (see for example Frances Howell, Delphi, Albert, a n d Taft  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p.201  Districts) respondents d e e m e d that the structural c h a n g e had a positive impact on t h e culture of t h e school a n d often t h e district. In t h o s e c a s e s in w h i c h implementers failed to consider the local situation, a n d tried to impose a sort of "cookie-cutter a p p r o a c h " f r o m e l s e w h e r e (as in V i s t a , Central, a n d Lakota Districts), t h e c h a n g e had a toxic impact on cultures, and consequently on the reputation of t h e innovation itself. T h e failure of the implementation in Central County, for e x a m p l e , w a s said to have had a chilling effect on surrounding c o m m u n i t i e s such as S a g e District, indeed, on the rest of Florida. It is this cultural o u t c o m e that educators s u c h as J a n e and Esther fight against in order to improve the education they offer to their students. At times, the processes of consultation and collaboration also s e e m e d problematic. G w e n failed to recognize the importance of building a b a s e of support. Perhaps b e c a u s e it had w o r k e d elsewhere, it s e e m e d natural that the reform w o u l d be widely e m b r a c e d . S t e p h e n Lewis' e x a m p l e d e m o n s t r a t e s most clearly the result of taking t h e concepts of participation a n d collaboration to the e x t r e m e , leaving every decision to be m a d e by a committee, a n d ensuring frustration, a n d timec o n s u m i n g d e b a t e s about the most inconsequential of issues a n d processes. O n e of the implications of this study is that there are limits to the a m o u n t of collaboration and participation that reform can e n d u r e before it b e c o m e s so w a t e r e d d o w n or so extensively modified that the original vision is lost. A l t h o u g h there is no doubt that consultation a n d the institution of consultative a n d participatory processes m a y build support a n d c o m m i t m e n t for an innovation, they m a y also backfire. A s I s a w in S t e p h e n Lewis Junior High School, too m u c h involvement m a y lead to a lack of decision m a k i n g a n d end up in endless and time  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p. 202  and e n e r g y - c o n s u m i n g discussions. More importantly, consultation d o e s not ensure either b a l a n c e or equity. This is particularly true if parents m a k e d e c i s i o n s that benefit t h e m without consideration of the impact on others. For e x a m p l e , I found that the seemingly innocuous decision to allow parental choice in track selection tended to result in t h e ghettoization of certain socio-ethnic or cultural g r o u p s . For that reason, it is important for educators and policy m a k e r s to include a n d enforce policies that consider the g o o d of the w h o l e school c o m m u n i t y . A s f o u n d earlier (Shields & O b e r g , 2001), choice must be b o u n d e d in the interests of equity if reform is to be successful. Moreover, o n c e parents or students have c h o s e n a particular calendar, t h e y cannot continue to expect to attend all assemblies, for e x a m p l e , or to have the s a m e vacation benefits as those on a different calendar. T h e n e e d for goal clarity. O n e specific difference b e t w e e n s u c c e s s f u l and unsuccessful principals and reforms appears to have b e e n the d e g r e e to which the principals u n d e r s t o o d t h e goals of t h e implementation a n d w e r e a b l e t o c o m m u n i c a t e t h e m clearly. A s Barth (1990) says, "In order to m o v e a school from w h e r e it is to w h e r e one's vision w o u l d have it be, it is necessary to c o n v e y what the vision is" (p. 134). T h u s , in the first two instances, Frances Howell a n d Delphi District, the principals w o r k e d with the district to a c c o m m o d a t e children in existing buildings. T h e y did not m a k e additional promises, but a c c e p t e d t h e n e e d for fiscal accountability. A t the s a m e time, as they discovered the benefits to teachers and students, they w e r e tireless in their willingness to c o m m u n i c a t e t h e m . T h e potential benefits identified p r e v i o u s l y — i m p r o v e d a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t , increased motivation, r e d u c e d stress, less v a n d a l i s m , d e c r e a s e d review time, a n d m o r e  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p. 203  balanced opportunities for structured lessons and l e a r n i n g — w e r e all o u t c o m e s that w e r e constantly c o m m u n i c a t e d in the educators' o n g o i n g w o r k to maintain support for t h e calendar. T h e r e w a s an apparent lack of clarity in the implementation of Central, Vista, Sage, Lakota Districts, and even Stephen Lewis School. T h e y w e r e "reforming" or "temporarily solving a p r o b l e m " or "providing choice" without clarity about w h a t kind of choice, t h e reasons for it, the problems to be solved, or the reasons for the reform. In these c a s e s (with the possible exception of Vista District), reform for the sake of reform s e e m e d to be the n o r m . T h e best e x a m p l e s of goal clarity resulting in successful implementation w e r e those led by J o s e p h , Esther, and J a n e — e a c h of w h o m chose (or in Esther's case used) the particular f o r m of calendar (dual track, multi-track, or single-track) in order to improve t h e learning environment, opportunities, a n d o u t c o m e s of their student populations. Moreover, w h e r e the reform w a s instituted with the explicit goal of making a difference to student achievement, principals reported that t h e Y R S calendar w a s successful in helping the school attain its goal. Therefore, one of the most important, and perhaps least anticipated, o u t c o m e s of this study is that goal clarity is essential to a successful structural c h a n g e . O v e r c o m i n g resistance and habitus. W e s a w in C h a p t e r 2 that the current "traditional" s c h o o l calendar w a s developed over a long period of time a n d as a result of c o m p r o m i s e s d e s i g n e d to permit the d e v e l o p m e n t of c o m m o n curriculum. However, in part b e c a u s e of the structuring p r o c e s s e s ascribed by Bourdieu (1993) to fields s u c h a s e d u c a t i o n , the c o m p r o m i s e calendar over time b e c a m e the  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p.204  calendar e n s h r i n e d in and perpetuating various aspects of North A m e r i c a n culture. It b e c a m e part of t h e habitus of schooling. A s m u c h of the population m o v e d f r o m rural to urban a r e a s , the long s u m m e r vacation b e c a m e anticipated by families and organizations alike and soon b e c a m e inviolate. A s with any cultural artifact, n u m e r o u s interests, such as c a m p i n g associations, marketing divisions of large retail outlets, a n d m a n y workplaces, developed stakes in perpetuating the so-called agrarian c a l e n d a r — d e v e l o p e d around the rhythm of a long s u m m e r vacation followed by back-to-school times and the g e n e r a l public accepted the calendar as normative, or as T y a c k (1974) it as the "one best s y s t e m " of organizing schooling. This c o n c e p t of habitus also helps to explain why, in almost every implementation, participants identified tensions a n d conflict related to the introduction of Y R S . For the most part, the fears a n d c o n c e r n s originating f r o m parents a n d s o m e t i m e s constituents in the w i d e r c o m m u n i t y w e r e s y m p t o m a t i c of the educational h a b i t u s — t h e educational culture (or fields) that had b e c o m e traditions over time. This resulted in a hesitancy to e m b r a c e c h a n g e but also to misperceptions that later often proved to be straw m e n . T h u s , successful educational leaders understood resistance to a n e w calendar as a normal part of the c h a n g e process a n d took steps to address and o v e r c o m e it. A s people acquired m o r e e x p e r i e n c e with the new school-year calendar, earlier misperceptions d i s a p p e a r e d a n d acceptance grew. Bakhtin (1986) explained this as o u t s i d e d n e s s or learning on the margins, w h e r e b y p e o p l e learn that boundaries are p e r m e a b l e a n d develop new understandings as they c o m e into contact with ideas f r o m the outside. B e c a u s e he  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p.205  s a w society in a state of constant flux and c h a n g e as being a natural process, he advocated the use of dialogue to develop n e w m e a n i n g s and p r o m o t e o n g o i n g change. For Bakhtin, dialogue is not simply talk. It is not necessarily s p e e c h at all, but an ontology, a w a y of life. Dialogue is living in o p e n n e s s to n e w c o n c e p t s , not as reified things, but as ever c h a n g i n g m e a n i n g s . He writes, A m e a n i n g only reveals its depths o n c e it has e n c o u n t e r e d a n d c o m e into contact with another, foreign m e a n i n g : they e n g a g e in a kind of dialogue, w h i c h s u r m o u n t s the c l o s e d n e s s and o n e - s i d e d n e s s of these particular meanings, t h e s e cultures. (1986, p. 7) A s people w h o had only e x p e r i e n c e d traditional calendars c a m e into contact with and e x p e r i e n c e d a different w a y of organizing the school calendar, beliefs c h a n g e d and a c c e p t a n c e grew. Most early implementations of Y R S w e r e m a n d a t e d b e c a u s e of fiscal and physical challenges within a district, but as a w a r e n e s s increased a b o u t the potential benefits of a calendar c h a n g e , school leaders t e n d e d to initiate t h e reform in the belief it w o u l d m a k e a positive difference to their schools a n d c o m m u n i t i e s . Although they knew in a d v a n c e they w o u l d face resistance, they said they m e t t h e challenge willingly, convinced of the benefits of the new calendar, a n d they initiated dialogue with parents, teachers, and the wider c o m m u n i t y to gain support a n d d e v e l o p new understanding. Each started with the s a m e goal, but as I explore in the next section, those w h o i m p l e m e n t e d successful c h a n g e took on the mantle of transformative leadership in order to push the boundaries of the habitus of education a n d create new a n d m o r e effective structures of schooling in their contexts.  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p.206  S u m m a r y . I have learned that various e l e m e n t s of educational reform are intricately interrelated. To implement change in structures that have b e c o m e normative o v e r t i m e requires an understanding of their complexity. T h e p r o c e s s e s in w h i c h implementers of reform e n g a g e are crucial to their success. W h e n educational leaders attempt to predict a n d control all aspects of the c h a n g e , or paradoxically, w h e n they permit consultation a n d discussion to go on without closure, effective c h a n g e cannot occur. P r o c e s s is central but one unmistakable lesson f r o m this study is that leadership is not simply a matter of effective c o m m u n i c a t i o n and consultative processes. Educational leaders wanting to effect m e a n i n g f u l c h a n g e must have a clear s e n s e of the context a n d w h a t they want to accomplish. T h e y must c o m m u n i c a t e the goals u n a m b i g u o u s l y and develop shared c o m m i t m e n t to these goals. W h e n the g o a l s are v a g u e or co-opted by others the p r o c e s s e s b e c o m e e n d s in themselves and t h e c h a n g e fails. In order to o v e r c o m e the inertia of the habitus of education in North A m e r i c a , educational leaders need to be willing to f a c e conflict and t a k e up the challenge of dealing effectively with resistance to c h a n g e .  Lessons Learned about Transformative Leadership L e a d e r s h i p at m a n y levels is critically important for successful educational reform. S o m e studies have f o u n d that the formal leader plays a particularly important role in effecting c h a n g e (Born, 1996; Burns, 1978; F u r m a n & Shields, 2 0 0 3 ; Silins & Mulford, 2 0 0 5 ) . Others suggest the importance of m o r e distributed, t e a m leadership. Fairholm (2000) states that leadership is ... a task of creating t e a m s unified by a c o m m o n mind-set about a p u r p o s e and v a l u e s that both leader a n d led c a n use to  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p.207  m e a s u r e group and personal progress. T h e leader-created culture e m b o d i e s institutional purpose. Leaders preach it to others and b e h a v e personally according to it. T h e y attain follower support b e c a u s e the attitudes a n d purposes they articulate c o m e to m e a n as m u c h to group m e m b e r s a s they d o to t h e leader, (p. 85) T h u s , successful change relies not only on the efforts of a leader, but on the extent to w h i c h t h e t e a m is e m p o w e r e d . W h e n I explored the concept of transformative leadership in C h a p t e r 3,1 identified the three topics of agency, moral purpose, a n d power as constituent parts. Here I return to these concepts as a w a y of focusing the lessons learned about leadership. A g e n c y . This is a t e r m that implies both the desire and the ability to act in order to a c h i e v e one's mission, goals, and objectives in a proactive w a y . Despite the importance of a g e n c y on the part of school leaders ( O g a w a , 2005), t h e y cannot always o v e r c o m e the impact of unwise policies, ill-advised school practices, or pressures f r o m outside forces. T h e e x a m p l e s of Central, Vista, and Lakota s h o w the detrimental effects of district involvement (or lack thereof) that does not understand or a d e q u a t e l y support the desired c h a n g e . A l t h o u g h principals w e r e able to implement reform without district support, no district w a s successful without principals w h o exercised a g e n c y at the school level. T h e s e leaders are critically important. W i l m a Cole in Frances Howell S c h o o l District w a s an innovative a n d forward-thinking leader w h o rose to the challenge provided by G e n e H e n d e r s o n and began a process that b e c a m e "the way" education h a p p e n e d in the district. J o s e p h , Esther, a n d J a n e acted almost single-handedly to prove, not only t h a t y e a r - r o u n d schooling could work, b u t t h a t it could be g o o d for c o m m u n i t i e s , families, a n d especially for children. J o s e p h a n d J a n e accomplished this in spite of  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p.208  initial resistance f r o m their districts. Esther w o r k e d to o v e r c o m e t h e g e n e r a l belief that although the calendar might permit the a c c o m m o d a t i o n of m o r e children in school, there w a s no w a y it could help facilitate s u c h a d r a m a t i c i m p r o v e m e n t in student learning. A l t h o u g h individual principals in Delphi District w e r e not given a choice as to w h e t h e r to implement or not, the district soon learned (as the assistant superintendent told me) that they h a d to put their strongest a n d best principals in the schools they w a n t e d to c h a n g e to multi-track y e a r - r o u n d s c h e d u l e s . Despite the fact that these principals w e r e not responsible for taking the initial decision, t h e district relied o n their s e n s e of a g e n c y in order for the implementation to be successful. T h e principals of the less successful c h a n g e efforts also e x e r c i s e d agency. G w e n in Lakota School and the s u c c e s s i o n of principals at S t e p h e n Lewis Junior S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l almost equally single-handedly spelled t h e failure of their respective reforms. Their actions related to implementing the goals of the reform resulted in failure. In Lakota District, t h e p r o b l e m w a s that, a l t h o u g h t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t k n e w the implementation in S w e e t w a t e r S c h o o l w a s not successful, he permitted t h e principal t o exercise a g e n c y b e y o n d a r e a s o n a b l e length of time. This d i s a d v a n t a g e d parents a n d students, and ultimately resulted in the discontinuation of t h e calendar district-wide. In Central a n d V i s t a Districts, unrealistic p r o m i s e s a n d lack of attention to detail c a u s e d the d e m i s e of year-round schooling. T h e vital role of t h e principal in e a c h of t h e s e c a s e s — f o r g o o d or i l l — i s incontrovertible. Yet it is clear that a g e n c y in a n d of itself is not e n o u g h to effect  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p.209  successful educational c h a n g e . It is for that reason that a g e n c y must be a c c o m p a n i e d by a s e n s e of moral purpose if reform is to p r o c e e d in desirable ways. Moral purpose. Moral p u r p o s e suggests a clear relationship b e t w e e n the goals of educational leadership a n d the w a y s in w h i c h it is practiced to effect positive change or to b e s t o w positive benefit on the school c o m m u n i t y . Indeed it is the moral purpose or lack of moral purpose that explains a n d a c c o u n t s for our actions. In this study, one of the major lessons learned is the i m p o r t a n c e of m o r a l purpose for those w h o w o u l d introduce beneficial educational c h a n g e . This is consistent with the current mantra of education expressing the need for moral leadership (Fullan, 2 0 0 3 ; F u r m a n & Shields, 2 0 0 3 ; Sergivanni, 1992; Starratt, 1 9 9 1 , 1995). T h e positive o u t c o m e s I have identified w e r e associated with transparent goals a n d a n u n a m b i g u o u s sense of purpose. O p e n , honest, modest, purposeful c h a n g e s w e r e instituted by t h e leaders t h a t w e r e t h e m o s t successful. A s Shields (2003) states, " G o o d intentions are not e n o u g h . " G o o d intentions, as evidenced by leaders like G w e n in C a n a d a and D a n a L o u g h e e d in Florida, and by Naomi St. J o h n , the initiating principal of Stephen Lewis Junior High School, did not result in positive or lasting o u t c o m e s . In each case, the visions w e r e cloudy, the goals w e r e imprecise, a n d to s o m e extent, personal ambition got in the w a y of success. W h e r e principals w o r k e d tirelessly with their t e a c h e r s a n d wider school communities for the g o o d of the children, seemingly giving little t h o u g h t to personal a d v a n c e m e n t or glory, their moral purpose helped t h e m to achieve successful reforms.  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p. 210  T h i s is particularly evident in t h e stories of p e o p l e like G e n e H e n d e r s o n w h o faced a lawsuit a n d the possible loss of his job or J o s e p h w h o dealt as kindly with picketers outside his school as with t h e m e d i a w h o s u p p o r t e d his reform, or Esther w h o took her v a n of data to the state capital, or e v e n of J a n e w h o fought long and hard t o g a i n t h e "A" status the school w a s entitled to, despite t h e district's misgivings. Clear vision in a n d of itself did not bring about their success, but b a c k b o n e , a n d a strong s e n s e of moral purpose w e r e required. Power. A g e n c y and moral purpose, however, m a y still not result in transformative leadership. O n e m a y have the will to act (agency) and a clear sense of moral p u r p o s e but still not have the power, either formal or informal to turn one's intentions a n d desires into positive o u t c o m e s . Further, this study has d e m o n s t r a t e d that productive school leaders not only use the p o w e r they have but also e m p o w e r others (Silins & Mulford, 2002). This w a s evident in the failed implementation of Vista District in w h i c h the school leaders had the will and sense of a g e n c y as well as the k n o w l e d g e a n d moral purpose required to implement positive reform, but t h e district had acted in w a y s that d i s e m p o w e r e d t h e m . School leaders could not m a k e modifications relevant to their specific context; they w e r e not able to introduce p r o c e s s e s to garner support; a n d they w e r e u n a b l e to take power to c h a n g e the negative district policies. In neighboring S a g e District, the superintendent implied that he had had the p o w e r (evidenced by the fact that he had introduced t h e Y R S program) a n d he had k n o w l e d g e t h a t s e e m e d to reflect moral purpose in that he explicitly talked about the benefits of Y R S . W h e n the issue c a m e before t h e school board, he failed to exercise  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p.211  t h e p o w e r vested in him by virtue of his position a n d his conviction to m a k e an a r g u m e n t for w h a t he told m e w a s t h e best e d u c a t i o n a l option. A l t h o u g h power w a s s o m e t i m e s seen as negative ( S e i d m a n & Alexander, 2001), a n d especially in the implementations of Y R S that did not last, for t h e most part p o w e r in this study w a s found not only to be positive but essential for leaders wanting to introduce c h a n g e . Power in this s e n s e is e q u a t e d with t h e ability as well as the desire to act in order to influence others a n d accomplish o n e ' s goals. G e n e a n d W i l m a took advantage of the pressures for c h a n g e and used their p o w e r to implement a reform that w a s , at the time, only partly conceptualized. Nevertheless, it w a s their willingness to t a k e their s e n s e of p u r p o s e and a g e n c y a n d to use p o w e r ethically that m a d e it possible for Frances Howell S c h o o l District to b e c o m e one of the early implementers of the reform. I have a r g u e d earlier that J o s e p h , Esther, and J a n e w e r e motivated by a s e n s e of moral p u r p o s e — a desire to improve t h e educational experiences of the students in their respective school. Yet, without taking action, in the face of resistance, their reforms w o u l d never have c o m e to fruition. T h e y had to actively c h o o s e to use the p o w e r they had a n d to build o n it in order t o a c h i e v e their desired o u t c o m e s . In fact, J o s e p h , Jane, Esther f o u n d t h a t c o m m u n i t y a n d parental support increased b e c a u s e of the consultations related to the implementation of year-round schooling; in turn each had gained m o r e p o w e r to convince the district of the importance of the n e w school calendar. Sharing power in terms of inviting the involvement of and collaborating with m e m b e r s of t h e wider c o m m u n i t y w a s also f o u n d to be an important factor in the ethical use of power. Delphi District shared p o w e r by e m p o w e r i n g its Y R S principals  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p.212  by instituting special p r o c e s s e s and giving s o m e additional r e s o u r c e s to t h e m . J o s e p h e m p o w e r e d his s c h o o l - c o m m u n i t y to m a k e the decision a b o u t w h e t h e r to go forward with a calendar c h a n g e a n d to determine w h i c h type of c a l e n d a r to implement. J a n e e m p o w e r e d her vice principal to analyze the test d a t a a n d m a k e the case for being an "A" school with the district; s h e also e m p o w e r e d her teachers to m a k e decisions about how to conduct intersession. Power sharing w a s not only an important e l e m e n t of the s u c c e s s of these leaders, it is increasingly evident in the literature. Hargreaves and Fullan (1998) state that "parents and other c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s are crucial and largely u n t a p p e d resources w h o have ... a s s e t s and expertise that are essential to the partnership" (p. 6 8 ) . S e n g e a n d others (2000) talk about the importance of "administrators sharing m o r e and m o r e power" (p. 4 0 0 ) . T h e findings of this study not only support the need for an educational leader to share power but d e m o n s t r a t e that w h e n it is shared, o n e often acquires m o r e power. S u m m a r y : Transformative educational leadership. W h e n a g e n c y , moral purpose, a n d p o w e r are used together they provide the basis for not only ethical but transformative leadership. A s Bogotch (2000) s u g g e s t s , they permit deliberate intervention that uses power morally for the good of the w i d e r c o m m u n i t y . Part of transformation, as w e s a w in C h a p t e r 3, is the ability to identify inequities and to distribute a n d redistribute resources to redress t h e m . Fraser (1995) says that to redress inequities in resource allocation, w e must redistribute resources. S h e goes on to say that if the inequities are cultural or social, w e must e n g a g e in w h a t she calls the "politics of recognition" (p. 82) to identify a n d address t h e m . Redistribution a n d recognition m a y be manifest in either affirmative or  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p.213  transformative w a y s . Affirming the need for a single-track calendar, for e x a m p l e , in order to provide m o r e continuous learning for her students, is an e x a m p l e of the w a y s in w h i c h J a n e tried to o v e r c o m e the inequitable opportunities often provided for her students to learn successfully. I have already noted that this attitude is quite rare a m o n g e d u c a t o r s w h o often s u c c u m b to the difficulties of making a positive difference for t h o s e w h o are disadvantaged, reverting to a sort of "blame the victim" or deficit mentality. Yet the schools in this study in w h i c h the calendar c h a n g e w a s introduced with clarity in order to improve student learning, received an additional unanticipated benefit. Not only did educators s h o w m e their state test results; they claimed the i m p r o v e m e n t w a s due, in large part, to the calendar. T h e y also reported, again attributing it to the n e w calendar and to its opportunities for m o r e continuous p r o g r a m m i n g t h r o u g h o u t the year, that there had b e e n transformation within t h e teacher, parent, and student communities t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s s t u d y has s h o w n how educators have used the year-round school calendar to offer additional and ongoing support to students most in need of help, to provide stability a n d continuity for children and families w h o s e lives are often traumatic a n d unstable. T h e examples of Martin P o p p e r a n d Jerico Elementary Schools offer d r a m a t i c e v i d e n c e that educators can also c o m b i n e a clear focus on instruction w i t h structural c h a n g e s in the school-year calendar to e n h a n c e the a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t of students w h o s e h o m e or c o m m u n i t y environments are not generally s e e n to be particularly supportive. W e h a v e s e e n that transiency w a s reduced as parents r e s p o n d e d to t h e efforts of the s c h o o l , m a d e efforts to remain in the school c a t c h m e n t area, and  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p.214  further, b e g a n to take pride both in their school and in their c o m m u n i t y as well. A s the structural c h a n g e affected the culture of t h e school, it also c h a n g e d the culture of the c o m m u n i t y . T e a c h e r s began to believe students could learn; they m a d e m o r e efforts to visit families and to work with t h e m . S t u d e n t s took pride in their ability a n d their school a n d lined up for additional classes during intersession. T h u s , one critically important finding of this study is that educational reform m a y b e transformative; it m a y be implemented in s u c h as w a y as to have a positive social impact. E d u c a t o r s w h o w a n t to m a k e a difference t h r o u g h the implementation of a c h a n g e that has the potential to e n h a n c e the a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e of children f r o m the least a d v a n t a g e d groups in their schools m u s t c h o s e a reform carefully. T h e use of intersession, for example, may provide the additional learning t i m e a n d support that h e l p s children to b e successful. A s parents s e e their children's increased s u c c e s s , c o m m u n i c a t i o n between h o m e a n d school m a y also increase. T r a n s f o r m a t i v e jurisdictional, district, or s c h o o l leaders a d o p t t h e right choices for the right reasons. Both district educators a n d school-based administrators talk about a n d m o d e l moral leadership. No one a b r o g a t e s his or her educational leadership responsibilities to the c o m m u n i t y or to a superior. This implies, for e x a m p l e , that choices m a d e about the implementation of an educational reform should not u n d u l y disadvantage s o m e p e o p l e in order for the reform to be p e r p e t u a t e d . It also m e a n s that o u t c o m e s should be carefully considered and monitored d u r i n g the implementation of a reform.  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p.215  T h e lessons learned f r o m this study support the importance of t h e transformative educational leader, working with moral purpose, clear goals, and a strong sense of c o m m i t m e n t to the children in their care, to institute p r o c e s s e s and practices that m a d e the reform work. In the next section, I m a k e s o m e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s based on these f i n d i n g s — r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s that I h o p e will help policy m a k e r s and educational leaders alike as they institute reforms to m e e t the various a n d c o m p l e x needs of students.  Recommendations This study has found that successful policy reform m a y be initiated at different l e v e l s — b y geo-political jurisdictions, districts, or schools. Policy a n d p r o c e d u r e s m a y originate f r o m t o p - d o w n or f r o m bottom-up (Fullan, 1993), but the origin is really not particularly important to a successful o u t c o m e . I have f o u n d that successful reform m a y be instituted by principals or by district personnel and that it m a y be m a n d a t e d or voluntary. For that reason, it d o e s not s e e m useful to differentiate the r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s that arise f r o m this study. T h e y are applicable to all w h o are involved in creating policies a n d implementing educational r e f o r m . In particular, t h e y are critically important for those w a n t i n g to introduce reform that will have a positive impact on student achievement. I present m y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s to be consistent with m y lessons learned under the headings of m y conceptual f r a m e w o r k : y e a r - r o u n d schooling, educational reform, a n d transformative leadership.  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p.216  Recommendations Related to Year-Round Schooling 1. If educators identify a need to e n h a n c e the capacity of existing buildings in order to achieve fiscal efficiencies, there is no significant reason to avoid m a n d a t i n g multitrack y e a r - r o u n d schooling. 2. Despite s o m e persistent negative beliefs a b o u t Y R S , educational leaders w h o want to create conditions under which i m p r o v e m e n t s in a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t may be realized might carefully consider a form of balanced school y e a r calendar. This may be particularly true for students often considered to be " d i s a d v a n t a g e d " or "atrisk." 3. School leaders w h o w a n t to m a k e a difference in the quality of life of their teachers a n d students a n d to have a positive impact on the w i d e r community, may want to reflect o n h o w a balanced calendar might help to facilitate the desired transformation.  Recommendations about Educational Reform 1. B e c a u s e c o n t e x t s vary widely, educational c h a n g e should be a d a p t e d to specific situations and constantly t w e a k e d . Educational leaders s h o u l d , however, recognize that the o u t c o m e s are unpredictable. 2. In order for p e o p l e to understand and support a reform a n d a s s e s s its outcomes, a proposed reform should have clearly c o m m u n i c a t e d a n d explicit goals. 3. T o build support, it is important to inform, consult with, a n d involve the wider school c o m m u n i t y . A t the s a m e time, educational leaders m u s t e n s u r e that they never lose sight of their goals.  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p.217  4. C u r r e n t w a y s of organizing schooling are not sacrosanct. T h e y are cultural artifacts that should not be underestimated in their p o w e r but at t h e s a m e time s h o u l d n o t be o v e r e s t i m a t e d in their usefulness. R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s about Transformative Leadership 1. E d u c a t i o n a l leaders n e e d t o understand t h e essential interconnections a m o n g a g e n c y , moral purpose, a n d power. Each requires t h e others for both effective educational reform a n d t h e practice of transformative leadership. 2. E d u c a t o r s introducing structural reforms to m e e t t h e needs of a specific c o m m u n i t y should d e t e r m i n e h o w to adapt the reform to m e e t t h e needs of a specific community. 3. In t h e p r e s s to achieve support a n d c o m m u n i t y involvement a n d to introduce "voice a n d choice," educational leaders must e n s u r e that the n e e d s of those w h o are a b s e n t or silent are also a d d r e s s e d . 4. E d u c a t o r s d o not necessarily need to set out to t r a n s f o r m society but should recognize t h a t w h a t happens in the school c a n a n d indeed, will, have a n impact on the w i d e r c o m m u n i t y .  Questions Raised: For Further Research I have b e g u n t o understand through this research t h e p o w e r a n d potential o f transformative leadership a n d would encourage o t h e r educational leaders a n d researchers t o use a n d explore the c o n c e p t m o r e fully. I believe this study has d e m o n s t r a t e d s o m e connections b e t w e e n the s e p a r a t e t h e parts of m y conceptual f r a m e w o r k ( s e e Figure 2). This study has therefore m a d e a contribution to helping to bridge t h e g a p s b e t w e e n what have been separate a n d discrete bodies of literature  Ch. 8. Looking forward ... p. 218  Figure 2. New conceptual framework.  YEAR-ROUND SCHOOLING  impact on student learning  motivation & burn-out  attendance & drop-outs  vandalism & delinquency  teacher benefits  LJ  fiscal & physical benefits  negative consequences  YRS is a viable educational reform—one that deserves to be considered in the mainstream reform literature.  EDUCATIONAL CHANGE  changing educational structures  lenses on change  habitus  outsidedness  Transformative leadership helps to determine the success of educational change and should be considered as an integral Dart of educational reform.  TRANSFORMATIVE LEADERSHIP  agency  moral purpose  power  A literature map showing the relationships between literature on year-round schooling, educational change, and transformative leadership.  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p. 219  related specifically to y e a r - r o u n d schooling, to educational reform, and to transformative leadership. I have f o u n d that year-round schooling is a viable and useful educational reform with significant benefits and transformative potential and hence deserves to be given a m o r e central place in t h e literature of educational reform. In like fashion, considering educational c h a n g e t h r o u g h t h e lens of transformative leadership with its interplay of agency, moral p u r p o s e , a n d power, helps to d e m o n s t r a t e the importance of taking these e l e m e n t s into consideration w h e n initiating or studying educational reform. This study not only d e v e l o p e d a better understanding of s o m e issues related to t h e successful implementation of educational reform, a n d particularly of t h e role of transformative leadership, it also raised s o m e questions that might profitably be investigated further. T h e s e relate b o t h to my findings and c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k and include t h e following: •  H o w c a n e d u c a t o r s bring the potential of Y R S to t h e attention of those w h o are c o n c e r n e d with implementing educational reform that has the potential to have a positive impact on student o u t c o m e s ?  •  H o w c a n moral purpose be understood in a c o m p l e x reform such as c a l e n d a r c h a n g e w h e n s o m e t i m e s the w i s h e s of parents need to be over-ridden in the interests of a w h o l e school c o m m u n i t y ? W h o defines it a n d h o w c a n this type of action be explained?  •  W h a t , if any, are the limits of such highly regarded p r o c e s s e s as choice, participatory decision m a k i n g , a n d collaboration?  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p.220  •  W h a t is the relationship b e t w e e n formally appointed leaders and informal teacher-leaders in a reform p r o c e s s a n d w h a t d o e s power s h a r i n g actually look like?  •  H o w do educational leaders achieve goal clarity w h e n implementing a reform that is constantly changing, in part b e c a u s e of the need to be responsive to outside political f o r c e s ?  •  Is it possible for an educational leader to consciously set out to be transformative and how can w e better understand the interactions of a g e n c y , moral purpose, and p o w e r ?  T h e r e are, of course, other issues that I w a s not able to investigate in this study that cry o u t for further exploration. O n e of t h e s e relates to the issue of diversity and h o w (or w h e t h e r ) the ethnicity or g e n d e r of the school leader plays into the successful r e f o r m initiative. A l t h o u g h I w o u l d have liked to have broken d o w n m y d a t a in this w a y , it w a s impossible, in that only o n e of m y r e s p o n d e n t s w a s other than C a u c a s i a n , and b e c a u s e I chose to present c o m p o s i t e s to preserve s o m e of the confidentiality of my respondents, thus possibly m a s k i n g g e n d e r effects. T h e s e and likely m a n y o t h e r questions c o m e to m i n d o n reading this study.  Concluding Comment: Looking Beyond It is difficult to m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s about beliefs a n d attitudes, but one of the most i m p o r t a n t findings of this study, one I hope all educators and educational reformers a n d policy m a k e r s will take to heart, is that schools c a n m a k e a difference to the e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t of all students a n d to t h e c o m m u n i t i e s f r o m which they c o m e . A l t h o u g h this study did not attempt to d e m o n s t r a t e the a c a d e m i c benefits  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p.221  of Y R S a n d t h u s offers no proof that a year-round school calendar improves student a c h i e v e m e n t , t h e potential is there. S o m e t i m e s w e t e n d to believe implicitly, if not state explicitly, that poor children, or children f r o m single-parent h o u s e h o l d s , or children of m i g r a n t workers, or those w h o s e h o m e language is not English (or another high status language) cannot learn as well as their middle or upper class c o u n t e r p a r t s , this is not true. Schools d o not n e e d to find e x c u s e s for lower a c h i e v e m e n t o n t h e part of high n e e d s populations. Educators d o not necessarily need m o r e m o n e y . Schools do not necessarily n e e d m o r e teachers or m o r e resources. Districts do not necessarily need m o r e or better school buildings. Parents d o not necessarily need m o r e consultation. W h a t this study has s h o w n is that transformative educational leaders can m a k e a difference to the learning e n v i r o n m e n t of all students. I have e x a m i n e d various w a y s that educational leaders i m p l e m e n t e d a f o r m of y e a r - r o u n d , modified, or alternative school year calendar. I have f o u n d that w h e t h e r the calendar w a s introduced to a c c o m m o d a t e m o r e children in school buildings, to provide choice for families, or specifically to improve student a c h i e v e m e n t , w h e r e the reform w a s i m p l e m e n t e d with agency, moral purpose, a n d ethical use of power, it w a s successful in accomplishing t h e intended goals. T h e reform also o p e n e d t h e d o o r for other c h a n g e s that helped to improve the learning opportunities and a c h i e v e m e n t of students w h o often fare the least well in traditional schools in which the rhythm of learning is not as balanced. I have also s h o w n h o w transformative educational leaders, by carefully implementing educational reform, w e r e s o m e t i m e s able to have a positive impact o n the wider community.  Chapter 8. Looking forward ... p.222  It is m y hope that this study will lead educational leaders and policy m a k e r s to t a k e seriously the relationships b e t w e e n transformative leadership a n d t h e potential of y e a r - r o u n d schooling to have a positive impact on student learning. It is m y hope that they will e x a m i n e more carefully the role of habitus in inhibiting educational reform a n d thoughtfully consider w a y s to o v e r c o m e it. It is m y hope that they will take to heart the finding that agency, moral p u r p o s e , a n d ethical use of p o w e r must go h a n d in hand to bring about successful c h a n g e . I d o not intend to suggest that a new school-year calendar is magic, that it will a d d r e s s all of the challenges of m o d e r n e d u c a t i o n , or that it will o v e r c o m e all of the difficulties of educating our least a d v a n t a g e d or least successful students. I posit that, based on the findings of this study, educators should take seriously t h e lesson that a c h a n g e of structure can bring a b o u t other positive results. I further a r g u e that the importance of transformative leaders cannot be overstated in making t h e reform a success. 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A review of year-round education research. Riverside, CA: California Education R e s e a r c h Cooperative. E D 3 3 0 0 4 0 .  Appendix A... p.232  APPENDIX A DIAGRAMS OF A L T E R N A T E S C H O O L - Y E A R C A L E N D A R S  S = Single-track  Appendix 1.2 Irregular single-track calendar  S = Single-track  Appendix 1.3 Dual track calendar 4  6  8  ulv  ]  i io  .a  T  5 26 : 7 28 :9 30 31 24 ;  M  U U U Q U U U  T  •••••iiiiii  i i  October  una D1EB EE] (C •• - • • •• i• i•iI imii  U3EBEQEQE3BIE3 tiitatJtiitjitJKjLJta • • •••••£•111111  • • • • a i  M  JmwWL  1  ••••••••••iill ••••••••  1  D O D O • i • i • • I mi m  • • • i •  T = Traditional calendar s c h e d u l e M = Modified calendar  May D O O D E B EUIH liJ II] tU LJ t u • • • • • • • I • • • • • • • • I • • • • • • • • I B  •• •• ••  IE  • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •  E 3 B 1 H E J E 1 - J 61 I B • • • • • •  June • • • • • • • m\im !• • • • • ana • • • •  ' I- I.'J* J? I'  :  | | »|"l"l'Jl"l'»l'«l"lielnliol5n5r?i I24l25lal27l;alarx1  , , l  Appendix 1.4  Multi-track 45-15 calendar.  A , B, C, D = T r a c k s  Appendix 1.5 Five track secondary calendar  O = Orange B = Blue  R = Red G = Green  P = Purple  Appendix B ... p.238  APPENDIX B  INTERVIEW QUESTIONS  Appendix B ... p.239  Interview Questions Initial Impetus. Tell me about how YRS started in this district. Does the district have a policy on YRS? What was the view of the superintendent? The Board members? How important was their role? What was the impetus for YRS? (probe regarding perceived and anticipated cost savings, facility issues, educational benefits) Were there outside consultants?  Context Tell me about your school (probes: size, demographics, academic success, socioeconomics, ethnic mix, etc.) Are there special circumstances in this school/area that made it more or less desirable/difficult, etc? Demographics of the staff (follow-up—How do you staff?)  Principal's role: Did you, as a principal, have a choice? Where did the idea come from? Whose idea was it? Did you attend any meetings of NAYRE? Other organizations? If you had a choice, why did you implement YRS? If not, how did you feel about it?  Implementation: How was the decision made? Did you do a survey? Was a vote required? What specifically did you do? ie How did you proceed? Was there opposition? (If so, how did you handle it?) What was the original reception (real estate agents, media, etc.)  ,  Ongoing Issues: What kind of support do you get from the district? What kind of support do you get from the community? What problems does YRS pose for you? For parents? Students? Etc? What benefits (anticipated or unanticipated) have you found? (same probes) Do you have intersession? (If so, why, how, who, support, etc.) Are there other programs in the school that this facilitates? Ongoing community response and support? Ongoing district issues (scheduling, funding, continuation of calendar, etc.) Has YRS m a d e any difference to the school? (probes re academic achievement, community involvement, demographics, attendance etc.) Do you have a n y data to support these perceptions (test info etc,) What do you s e e as the future of YRS? If you had a choice of MT-YRS, ST-YRS or traditional calendar, which would you choose and why? (probe re impact on holidays, burn-out, who benefits most, etc.) If you could c h o s e one calendar that you think would be most beneficial to student learning, what would it b e ?  

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