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Making the classroom a healthy place : the development of affective competency in Aboriginal pedagogy Brown, Francis Lee 2004

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M A K I N G T H E CLASSROOM A H E A L T H Y P L A C E : T H E D E V E L O P M E N T OF AFFECTIVE COMPETENCY IN ABORIGINAL PEDAGOGY By FRANCIS L E E B R O W N B.A., The University of Washington, 1971 M.A, National University, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n T H E FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Educational Studies) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A September 2004 © Lee Brown, 2004 ABSTRACT This thesis explores the development of affective competency in Aboriginal pedagogy through the exploration of the Native Training Institute (NTI), an institute that functioned from 1980 to 1987 in Kamloops, British Columbia. Ten students, two administrators arid one elder were interviewed to explore how the processes of affective education were included in the NTI curriculum. The thesis develops a theory of educational transformation based on the educational principles developed at the Native Training Institute that posits a theory of affective development founded on Aboriginal knowledge, learning identity, values, compe-tencies, ideals and vision. Four arguments for the inclusion of affective education in contemporary curriculum are presented. First, the Indigenous assertion that emotions and values are essential to the decolonization process and therefore necessary for Aboriginal success in the educational environment is defined. Second, the argument of modern European philosophy that affect is more essential to the process of learning than has been previously thought. Third, the recent developments in cognitive science that uphold the Aboriginal world view that thinking and feeling are not only connected but that emotion plays the major role in the functioning of mind and memory. Fourth, the comments of the students from the NTI that the affective aspect of the curriculum at the institute was essential to their learning. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT ii T A B L E OF CONTENTS , : • i i i LIST OF TABLES vii LIST OF FIGURES viii A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S ix DEDICATION x CHAPTER l : A N INTRODUCTION TO T H E R E S E A R C H l Introduction l Beginning of the study: The need to document the Native Training Institute 5 Institute background 8 Rationale of the study . 9 Overview of the study 14 Knowledge gap : 15 Precise purpose of the study 15 CHAPTER 2: A REVIEW OF T H E LITERATURE 17 Introduction 17 Aboriginal approaches to affective education 17 Unheard voices: The colonization of Aboriginal emotion 19 Knowledge, the classroom and the development of affective competency 21 Relationship, learning and mythology . 22 Developing affective and moral competencies 24 Different approaches to education based on value differences 26 Affective competency and Aboriginal values 29 Where do we go from here? 34 C H A P T E R 3 : M E T H O D O L O G Y . . . . 37 Scope of the study..... 37 Research questions 37 Research design 42 Participants and access 43 Site identification 45 Data collection methods , 45 Position of the researcher 47 Data analysis 49 iii C H A P T E R 4 : EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF T H E NATIVE TRAINING INSTITUTE , 53 Founding principles of the Native Training Institute 53 Elements of cultural pedagogy at the NTI 55 Educational philosophies of the NTI 60 The medicine wheel 61 The Anisa model 63 The creation of teachability . 71 Aborimmanence 74 Aboriginal transcendence 74 Re-evaluation counselling 75 Relationships 76 Leadership 79 Learning 80 Internalized oppression 81 Alcoholic Anonymous 84 Transactional analysis '. 86 Functions of the parent, adult and child 88 John Lee Kootnekoff 89 Traditional stories and philosophies 9 1 Conclusion • 94 CHAPTER 5: WITHIN CASE ANALYSIS . . . 9 6 Case study 1: Aiona Anderson 96 Case study 2: Fred John 101 Case study 3: Susan Smith 106 Case study 4: Marie Anderson 109 Case study 5: Ross Albert 115 Case study 6: Deb Draney 119 Case study 7: Verna Billy 125 Case study 8: Walter Leech 131 Case study 9: Pauline Terbaskit 136 Case study 10: Yvonne Duncan 142 Chapter conclusion 147 CHAPTER 6: CROSS-CASE ANALYSIS 148 The dual process of healing/learning 148 Cross-case analysis 15° Physical realm 150 Thematic analysis of the dual process of healing/learning for the physical realm 152 Thematic conclusions in the physical realm 152 Mental realm 154 Thematic analysis of the dual process of healing/learning for the mental realm 155 Thematic Conclusions in the Mental realm 156 Spiritual realm 159 Thematic analysis of the dual process of healing/learning for the spiritual realm • 162 Thematic conclusions in the spiritual realm 164 i v Emotional realm 166 Thematic analysis of the dual process of healing/learning for the physical realm 17° Thematic conclusions in the emotional realm..... 172 Volitional realm 175 Thematic analysis of the dual process of healing/learning for the physical realm 176 Thematic conclusions in the volitional realm 178 Summary of learning blockages 180 Summary of healing aspects 181 Conclusion 183 C H A P T E R 7: E P I L O G U E : A F I N A L R E F L E C T I O N O N T H E P R A C T I C A L A P P L I C A T I O N O F A H O L I S T I C T H E O R Y O F C U L T U R A L P E D A G O G Y : S E V E N C I R C L E S O F T R A N S F O R M A T I O N T O W A R D A P A T H O F L E A R N I N G .' 185 A holistic theory of cultural pedagogy 185 The first circle of transformation: Aboriginal knowledge 189 Ceremonial knowledge •••• 189 Oral knowledge 190 Teachings of the individual's gift 193 Integrated knowledge 195 The second circle of transformation: The medicine wheel 195 The third circle of transformation: Strengthening learning identity 197 The elements of learning identity 201 Physical-awareness 201 Self-concept : 202 Self-image 203 Self-esteem 205 Self-determination 206 Self-worth 208 The fourth circle of transformation: Values 209 Physical values 210 Learning values ; 210 Spiritual values 211 Volitional values 211 Social values 212 Learning identity and values at the NTI 212 Fifth circle of transformation: The development of competency 213 Physical competency 217 Mental competency.... 217 Spiritual competency 217 Volitional competency 218 Emotional competency 219 Understanding emotional process 221 The ability to identify emotions 223 The ability to communicate emotions 224 Understanding emotional feedback : 225 Emotional management 226 The creation of positive values 227 Emotional healing 227 v Curriculum processes and affective competency... 231 The sixth circle of transformation: The creation of ideals : 231 Physical ideals 233 Mental ideals 233 Spiritual ideals 234 Volitional ideals 234 Emotional ideals 234 The seventh circle of transformation: Vision 235 Making the classroom a healthy place..... 237 Conclusion 239 BIBLIOGRAPHY 242 APPENDIX: HISTORY OF E U R O P E A N AFFECTIVE T H O U G H T A N D PHILOSOPHY 250 European theories of emotion ; 255 Carl Jung 255 Alfred North Whitehead 257 Max Scheler... 259 Hulsey Cason 261 Elizabeth Duffy .....262 Piaget 264 Daniel Jordan 267 Carolyn Saarni 269 Lazarus 271 Daniel Goleman 271 Gemma Fiumara 273 Megan Boler '. 273 Conclusion 277 Cognitive science 278 vi LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Native Training Institute Instructors and Their Philosophies of Education 60 Table 2. Anisa Competencies 65 Table 3. Native Training Institute Curriculum Content 150 Table 4. Healing Aspects and Learning Blockages in the Physical Realm .151 Table 5. Themes and sub themes in the Physical Realm 152 Table 6. Healing Aspects and Learning Blockages in the Mental Realm 154 Table 7. Themes and Sub Themes in the Mental Realm 156 Table 8. Healing Aspects and Learning Blockages in the Spiritual Realm 160 Table 9. Themes and Sub Themes in the Spiritual Realm 163 Table 10. Healing Aspects and Learning Blockages in the Emotional Realm .. 167 Table 11. Themes and Sub Themes in the Emotional Realm 171 Table 12. Healing Aspects and Learning Blockages in the Volitional Realm 175 Table 13. Themes and Sub Themes in the Volitional Realm 177 Table 14. Summary of Healing Aspects and Learning Blockages 179 Table 15. The Effects of Learning Blockages 181 Table 16. Summary of Healing Aspects 182 Table 17. Seven Founding Principles of the Native Training Institute 183 Table 18. Learning Identity and Values 212 Table 19. The Process of Strengthening Values 214 Table 20. A Curriculum of Holistic Cultural Pedagogy... 238 Table 21. Anisa Categories of Potential and the medicine wheel 269 vii LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure l . The Medicine Wheel 17 Figure 2. Dual Process Analysis Design 51 Figure 3. Competencies and the Medicine Wheel 66 Figure 4. Diagram of Teachability 73 Figure 5. Re-evaluation counselling and the medicine wheel 83 Figure 6. Dual Process Curriculum 149 Figure 7. The Seven Circles of Transformation 188 Figure 8. The medicine wheel 196 Figure 9. Learning Identity and the Medicine Wheel 197 Figure 10. The Values Wheel 209 Figure 11. The Competency Wheel 216 Figure 12. The Process of Emotional Development 222 Figure 13. The Path of Emotional Pain 229 Figure 14. The Wheel of Ideals 232 Figure 15. The Wheel of Vision 236 Figure 16. The Expanding Circles of Learning 240 Figure 17. Epistemology 253 Figure 18. Emotional Development Continuum 277 viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express appreciation to the Department of Educational Studies and the fac-ulty of education at UBC. In particular I would like to express my thanks to Dr. Jo-ann Archibald for her encouragement, wisdom and understanding of this thesis. In addition, special thanks are extended to Dr. Michael Marker and Dr. Jean Barman who supported this work with valued insights and direction along the path of development. In addition a special thanks to Dr. Richard Vedan and all the members of the long-house community that provided strength and encouragement. Thanks is also expressed to Dr. Eduardo Jovell and the people of ACAD RE that provided needed support for this work. I thank the administrators, students and elder at the Native Training Institute that provided the possibility of such a study and who worked so hard to bring a healing educa-tional process to the Aboriginal community. Beyond the academic world, I extend a heartfelt thank you to the elders and teachers that have contributed their valuable knowledge and wisdom to this work. Finally, I express thanksgiving to my family, children and friends for their support and understanding during this arduous work. ix DEDICATION Aboriginal knowledge is the elder of the world. This research is dedicated to the de-velopment of a curriculum of affective competence that educates the hearts as well as the minds of future generations. It is in the heart that the root of the sacred tree lives and it is the root that nourishes the tree and gives life and energy to all human beings. My first counsel is this: Possess a pure, kindly and radiant heart Baha 'u'llah x CHAPTER 1: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE RESEARCH This chapter articulates the need to document the Native Training Institute (NTI). It provides a brief knowledge of the institute's background and a rationale and overview of the study. The chapter also defines the knowledge gap that creates the need to develop affective curriculums. The NTI was the site of an Aboriginally developed holistic curriculum and was therefore suitable for this investigation. Introduction The announcer's voice is proclaiming the sounds of Joe Louis, the brown (not black) bomber, the pride of Harlem, defending his world heavy weight championship title. Several black men, train porters, are listening to the fight, among them is Malcolm Little who will one day become known as Malcolm X. They are moving, throwing punches in the air, smil-ing, joking, talking when the white overseer enters the train car to check on them. The movement stops, the faces become blank, emotion vacates, the radio is quickly turned off as their boss, Mr. Cooper, tells them to get to work. Malcolm offers a racial insult saying, "yes Mr. Charlie," and the boss reacts with "It's Cooper, Mr. Cooper." Malcolm says, "Yes, Mr. Cooper." The boss leaves the room and the older black porters chastise Malcolm saying, "What's wrong with you BOY, Mr. Cooper is good white folks." Malcolm smiles, someone turns the radio back on, the movement, the emotion and the voices resume. This scene from the movie Malcolm X reveals an important aspect of colonialism and oppression in education. In colonialist oppressive education, the name of the oppressor is important, our names are not. The voice of the oppressor is important, our voice is not and most importantly the feelings of the oppressor must be acknowledged and respected, our ) feelings - the feelings of First Nations people - must not be. And still today in classrooms everywhere the teacher functions as an oppressor of affect. The teacher's feeling about us are paramount and ours are never mentioned, never acknowledged, never addressed, never taught and never developed into a curriculum that would move us toward emotional well-ness and emotional competency. I remember one day, years ago, when I was working quietly in my art studio, Paul Harvey's The Rest of the Story came on the CBC afternoon radio. The story that day was about a surgeon, Dr. Ignaz Semmelwies, who was a well-respected doctor in a Vienna maternity ward during the 1840's. Semmelwies had noticed that the mortality rate in the delivery room staffed by medical students was three times higher than in the maternity ward staffed by midwives who maintained a much cleaner area than the doctors. He theorized that perhaps cleanliness was the factor that made the difference. As the years of his career went by, he had noticed increasing evidence that cleanliness, not believed in at that time in Europe, was important to patient survival. He eventually announced his conclusion that every surgeon should wash his or her hands between every surgery. For this he was laughed out of his profession. He became a joke and eventually died a broken, defeated and ridiculed man (Case, 2003, p. 1). Today, of course, his conclusions are commonplace but he had the great misfortune of being the first to notice them. In 1879, thirty years after his request that surgeons wash their hands, Semmelwies' findings were being denied by a speaker at a seminar at the Academy of Medicine in Paris. A young man in the audience rose to vehemently protest that in fact deadly microbes were passed through unwashed hands from patient to patient. The young man was Louis Pasteur. He argued throughout his life for increased hygiene. Pasteur was also met with skepticism. In fact as late at 1910 doctors in New York City sent a petition to the mayor claiming that hand washing was "ruining medical practice" (Case, 2003, p. 2). Despite this overwhelming 2 disbelief in hand washing such a short time ago it is considered today to be the "most impor-tant means of preventing the spread of infection" (Case, 2003, p. 2). When I began the Ph.D. project, I read that it was okay to do a doctorate on anything but emotion. Writing or researching about emotion was not respected academic material, I was told. Damasio (1999) comments on this phenomenon: Throughout most of the twentieth century, emotion was not trusted in the laboratory. Emotion was too subjective, it was said. Emotion was too elusive and vague. Emotion was at the opposite end from reason, easily the finest human ability, and reason was presumed to be entirely independent from emotion. This was a perverse twist on the Romantic view of humanity. Romantics placed emotion in the body and reason in the brain. Twentieth-century science left out the body, moved emotion back into the brain, but relegated it to the lower neural strata associated with the ancestors who no one worshiped. In the end, not only was emotion not rational, even studying it was probably not rational (p. 39). Now, I find myself in the position of Semmelwies. I must say that emotions, which are as ignored by teachers in education and curriculum development as hand washing once was by physicians, are not as important as the cognitive aspects of learning. They are more important. In fact if we had to choose it would be better to educate the heart because then we would know that the student would become an adult who would be kind and useful to themselves and others. But if we educate only the mind and leave affect out, we cannot be sure what educational processes will create. We can easily imagine and often hear of scenarios when at the beginning of the school day a young bright straight 'A' student rises in his classroom, pulls a semi-automatic handgun from his coat and begins to shoot his classmates. When the shooting is over, students lay dead and others are wounded as he turns the gun on himself and ends his very cognitive life. The mind of this student was taught, he did well, but his heart was not taught and therefore he did not do well with what he was taught. A mind is a terrible thing to waste but a mind educated when the heart is not is sometimes just a terrible thing. What makes it a terrible thing is what is at the root of the mind, the heart. Would it not be wiser to teach the 3 heart and make sure that the student has the emotional competency to use their acquired knowledge with care and compassion? Kelly (1965) comments that the heart is not only the root of the mind but also determines our behavior: ... how a person feels is more important that what he knows. This seems true because how one feels controls behavior, while what one knows is used in behavior ... but the way it is used depends upon positive or negative feelings. It is possible to be a saint or a demon with similar knowledge, (p. 455) In the medicine wheel, emotions are the root of the sacred tree of life. Emotions provide the energy for learning that is activated through perception, creating the possibility of thought and understanding. Without emotions, there is no thought, no learning, no education, no teaching, no research, no dreams and no conscious life. In Native symbology emotions are represented, at times, as water. Can you imagine the earth without water? That would be like having a school where emotions are not primary in the curriculum. And that is in fact the environment in most schools, in this world, today. The need for affective education is as obvious as the importance of washing our hands before surgery. There is increasing evidence in second-generation cognitive science that emotion not only precedes thought but enables thought and memory (Damasio, 1999, p. 42). Emotion is not the inconvenient, threatening, little sister of thought that was por-trayed by Decartes, Kant and Locke. Emotion is the wise grandmother, the hag. A hag was once a positive description of a European woman of knowledge; a hag was an elder, a teacher. However, today a hag is defined as "an ugly old woman, a witch" (Barber 1998, p. 631). The same historical, societal, political and educational forces that have devalued the word 'hag' from respectful grandmother to threatening witch have separated the mind from the heart, devalued the importance of affective education, and eliminated emotion from philosophy and pedagogy. Once the philosophical disconnection of affect was embraced, the absence of emotion allowed the oppression of the earth and the peoples of the earth. 4 However today, as Damasio (1999) argues, the study of emotion and its relationship to reason and consciousness is being recognized as essential to learning. He argues that emotion is the support system of reason (p. 42). Damasio writes: In recent years both neuroscience and cognitive neuroscience have finally endorsed emotion. A new generation of scientists is now making emotion their elected topic. Moreover, the presumed opposition between emotion and reason is no longer accepted without question. For example, work from my laboratory has shown that emotion is integral to the processes of reason and decision making, for worse or for better (pp. 40-41). The most feared specter of the slave master, the white train porter or the educator, is not that the oppressed will become educated but that we will feel. Beginning of the study: The need to document the Native Training Institute It was a calm early morning when the decision to pursue this Ph.D. was made. News that one of the few Aboriginal graduates from a local high school in Vernon, British Colum-bia, had taken his life after the graduation party the evening before was making its way from home to home. When I heard the news, I walked down into the woods below my house and sat near my sweat lodge contemplating the need to develop the emotional side of the stu-dent, the emotional realm of the medicine wheel of our being. How strong was the statement of this student, a bright young man from a good home, that the school system had taught him well cognitively but had failed to teach him to care about his self, to have emotional competency. I sat by the sweat and remembered an incident that had happened in August of 1981 when I was singing with a group of elder men in Montana at a large Native ceremonial, Crow Indian Fair. We waited for a long time in the hot sun to show off our voices and when our time came to sing, many people gathered around the drum to hear and tape record the song. When the lead singer began to sing, a small bird landed on my shoulder and stayed there for the entire song. When the song was over, a.young boy attempted to grab the bird and it took 5 flight. At this time one of the elder singers, Dale Running Bear, a Dakota, turned to me and said, "you are going to sing our songs before the nations and peoples of the earth." A look of disbelief must have come upon my face because Dale reassured me that this was true. Then he said, "when you sing these songs always remember these words, 'our songs are prayers, they are prayers now and they were prayers in the distant past'." "When you sing these songs," he said, "some are going to ask you what these songs mean. This is because they have lost the way of the heart and will try to understand these songs with their mind and that cannot be done." He continued, "there will be a few that will hear these songs with their hearts and welcome them as old friends. But, most of the people living on the earth today have lost the way of the heart; they will ask you what the songs mean. This is when you remember these words, our songs are prayers." In our understanding - the understanding of singers - singing is a way of life, a sup-plication that becomes a way of being. Sometimes you can pick singers out of a crowd just by the way they stand or the way they move. The words of the elder remind us that each word spoken is an exercise of power and a use of medicine. Therefore, with our words we can create good medicine. With our words we design our path of life, with the etching of power that lies within the wisdom of the word. Singing is the concentration and magnification of this power. Fortunate is the man or woman who can raise their hand to the mountain and sing with all their being as an expres-sion of joy. The greatest sadness in life, for me, is to perceive potentialities in those around me and know that they will be unexpressed. The elders say that every human being, in each of the four directions, has a song that expresses their uniqueness within creation, their power at the center of the universe and the rhythm of the meaning of their life. Each person's personal song represents their nature and teaches them of their true self and the lessons of their ultimate potential, the gift they have brought to life by being. 6 They say that when a person begins to sing from the mouth. As years go by, the songs begin to move deeper in the being of the singer and he or she learns to sing from the throat. At this point the singer begins to touch the power and essence of the song. As more years go by the singer begins to sing from the heart. Here, the singer finds the light, the flame within the heart, which is the source of purification of the songs. As more years pass the singer travels even deeper into the spiritual reality of being and begins to sing from their center. At this point the singer becomes connected with creation through the center of their being. When they sing the songs they connect with the ancestors receiving strength, are purified as they pass through the heart, receive the power of the throat and the intonation of the voice and fly from their mouth to descend upon the community as a blessing. The process of becoming a singer and the educational process of becoming emotion-ally competent are similar: To achieve affective competency, first we must learn how to identity our emotions as we learn how to sing the songs. Second, we must learn to under-stand the meaning and feedback of the emotional process as we understand the meaning and history of the songs. Third, to become emotionally competent means we are accomplished at managing our emotional state, which is an internal process that requires self-knowledge similar to the knowledge of self that develops in the process of learning to sing from deep within ourselves. And fourth, we connect both emotional competence and singing to the community and society around us. Being a singer and being emotionally competent are both blessings to the community. An emotionally competent person uses their emotional energy to promote their potential and the potential of those around them. The singer uses their songs to support the community processes and ceremonies that assist the people. The desire to focus on the importance of affective education, and perhaps fulfill the words of the elder, easily combined with a suggestion from the Aboriginal community regarding the importance of documenting the history of the Native Training Institute (NTI). Irene Adams, a former student at the institute, made the suggestion that it would be an 7 excellent topic for investigation. In October of 2002,1 traveled with Marie Anderson, the former director of the NTI, to the Cooks Ferry First Nation to collect the NTI documents for study and analysis. Marie had informed me that there were twenty-six boxes of NTI materi-als stored in the basement of a vacant home at Spences Bridge. There were twenty-six boxes, however twenty-three were empty. Someone had removed most of the NTI documents. In two of the three boxes containing materials, I found class lists and applications for enrol-ment. In the other were eleven audiotapes that contained discussions of the philosophical foundation used in the development of the institute's Human Service Worker social work program. The missing materials underscored the need to document the history of the NTI. This need provided an opportunity to investigate the affective development of Aboriginal students. The Native Training Institute developed a holistic model of education that in-cluded the use of curriculum materials based on the medicine wheel. Because their educational philosophy included a strong emphasis focused on the emotional realm of the wheel, they met the criteria for investigating the influence of incorporating emotional development into a holistic curriculum, in an Aboriginal setting. Institute background The Native Training Institute was established in 1979 through the efforts of four Abo-riginal women, Norma Kenoris Manuel (Secwepmc), Elaine Hebert (Secwepmc), Marilynn Napoleon (Lillooet) and Marie Anderson (Thompson). They formed a society to assist in the development of a Native Human Service Worker social work program. This program was developed to meet the training needs of social service workers employed by First Nations band administrations. These workers were deluged with problems and felt the need for advanced expertise. Marie Anderson, who became the director of NTI in 1980, commented that: It was mainly education workers and social workers doing the work and nobody had any kind of training and the alcoholism was rampant. There were 8 all kinds of social problems. Kids were dropping out of school. And the work was very hard and sometimes you know you felt quite alone so it was a place to go for support if you wanted, to support one another and help one another. (Anderson interview, 2003, p. 6) The NTI developed the Native Human Services (NHS) as a certificate program through an administrative affiliation with Cariboo College, now the University College of the Cariboo. Rationale of the study Aboriginal communities have been impacted by an educational philosophy that has been alien and unhealthy. A salient impact of the rationalist philosophy has been the de-crease in the emotional maturity in Aboriginal communities. The evidence of emotional immaturity is the litany of statistics issued by various government agencies regarding the high levels of incarceration, alcohol and drug abuse, suicide, family and child problems, as well as the low levels of educational accomplishment. However, the NTI was founded on the belief that Aboriginal communities, despite colonization and the influence of residential schools, still contain knowledge that provides the foundation for a holistic and balanced education and supports the development of emotional competency. Within this knowledge base are the teachings necessary to create an emotionally mature and competent adult through the development of affective competencies in relation to the mental, physical, volitional and spiritual aspects of being. However, colonization for Aboriginal Canadians included a colonization of emotions, a colonization of affect. Aboriginal values were defined as unacceptable in the classroom and Aboriginal emotion became a prime target for social control. John Fire Lamedeer stated on many occasions that Native children have been put in many square boxes where the mind is taught but the heart is forgotten (Lamedeer, c. 1970). In this statement, Lamedeer (1980), states symbolically that in many square boxes, or schools, Aboriginal students face years of education in which the mind is educated but the emotions are left undeveloped. Those who understand the medicine wheel believe that the mind and the heart are connected and 9 therefore educating the mind alone is absurd. In the medicine wheel, the symbolic meaning of the south, the direction of the heart is nourishment. The heart provides nourishment to the mind as well as the physical and spiritual realms of the wheel. Thus, the development of the affective capacity is essential to the development of cognitive capacity. Lamedeer con-cluded that we come out of school as flat tires, the wholeness of our being only partially developed (Lamedeer, c. 1970). This creates a situation where "many are concerned that we are being over-developed cognitively and under-developed affectively" (Carney, 1976, p.i). Life to us is a symbol to be lived. John Fire Lamedeer (pg. 118) Fiumara (2000) discusses the problems that result from the colonization of affect and the absence of emotional education that have created emotional immaturity and illiter-acy. She argues that affective incompetence is a destructive social force that can "sabotage even the most enlightened of cultural enterprises" (p. 88). She refers to this as the cost of "insufficient affective intelligence" (p. 89) and argues that affective illiteracy creates internal "psychic violence" (p. 91) that manifest in the external world as "affective calamities" (p. 90). Goleman (1995) also agues that emotional illiteracy has been created by the absence of affective education in the classroom. Goleman discusses the cost of emotional illiteracy. He finds that emotional literacy dropped in all ethnic, racial and income levels of school-aged children between 1970 ad 1980. Based on teachers' assessments and evaluations, there is a steady decline in emotional ability including: (1) presence of social problems; (2) presence of depression and anxiety; (3) problems with attention or thinking processes; (4) increase in aggressive and delinquent behavior (p. 233). Goleman argues that the students are both angrier and more isolated than the previous generation and that these 1 0 indicators relate directly to poor self-esteem and self-identification based on emotional incompetence. Boler (1999) argues that emotions must be public rather than private to create the space for political activity and change (p. 142). This is true of Aboriginal emotions as a source of change in Aboriginal society. Aboriginal people and communities have often internalized a sense of value inferiority as a result of the colonialization and oppression of emotion. As I will discuss below, emotions become structured as values and the denial of Native values in the classroom creates a sense of powerlessness in Aboriginal students. This makes the expression of Aboriginal emotion in the classroom impossible, and thereby denies the learning energy that arises from values to Aboriginal students. The emotional silence of the classroom combines with the Aboriginal value of silence to allow the Aboriginal student to remain in the twilight zone of near nonexistence. This isolation becomes internal and numbs even the innermost energies in the emotional realm. Isolation becomes a garden of powerlessness in the classroom and teaches Aboriginal children the lessons of negative identity. However, an articulated awareness of values by Aboriginal communities can create a starting point for change. The raising of emotional consciousness is necessary to allow Aboriginal students to identify the negative alienation of racism (Bryde, n.d.; Stubben, 2001). Aboriginal communities need to become aware of the omission of Aboriginal values in curricula while articulating their traditional values as part of the school curricula. This is the politics of values in developing pedagogies. The elimination of emotion from Aboriginal societies through education began with the writings of John Locke, including A n Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690), which became foundational in the development of English public schools. These schools were the highly private schools in which the agents of the British colonial empire were trained. Eventually, the empiricist theories embedded in these "public" schools were used to design and implement Indian boarding schools in the United States. More than any other 11 philosopher, John Locke influenced the development of the governmental relationship with Aboriginal peoples (Arneil, 1996, p. 168). His philosophy was used to justify the appropria-tion of Native lands based on the concept that Aboriginal people had not developed the land; the land was considered "vaccum domicillum" or waste land (Arneil, 1996, p. 141). In fact, it has been said that every church in the colonies had two books: the bible and Locke's Two Treatises on Government. Huyler (1995) states: Locke indefatigably addressed the issues and arguments of churchmen and businessmen, political writers and radical reformers, scientists and philosophers, and ancients and moderns. Locke brought together under one vast philosophic roof, a plethora of historical concerns, historiographical traditions, economic findings, and religious commitments, (p. 33) Arneil (1996) argues that Locke was "elevated to the status of a major prophet" in the colonies (p. 171). Locke brought together the European exaltation of reason over emotion. Arneil states: Natural men or Amerindians are inferior to Englishmen, according to Locke, primarily because their reason has not yet been developed to the same extent ... Locke draws a parallel between savages, idiots, and children, asseting that all have a diminished sense of understanding, (pp. 30-31) Locke stated that "Christianity will spread throughout the world by virtue of the growth of natural man's [Aboriginal] reason" (Arneil, 1996, p. 303). In Canada, the British North America Act of 1867 granted legislative power over In-dians to the Canadian government. That same year, N. F. Davin, a government commissioner, was sent to the United States to examine Indian boarding schools. Davin's recommendations laid the foundation for Indian residential schools in Canada. Davin writes: The experience from the United States is the same as our own as far as the adult Indian is concerned. Little can be done with him ... The child again, who goes to a day school learns little, and what he learns is soon forgotten, (as cited in Haig-Brown, 1998, p. 26) Attempts to initiate Native residential schools began in New France in 1620. How-ever, the modern era of Canadian residential schools started in 1879 with the establishment of industrial and boarding schools. On December 4,1998 a United Nations report con-12 demned Canadian Indian residential schools with the "harshest [criticism] ever leveled at a developed country" (Haggart, 1998, p. 1). Although the countless quotes regarding genocidal atrocities committed in residential schools could be included here we will focus on consid-erations relevant to emotional development. An Assembly of First Nations (1994) study focused on "how First Nations children were emotionally wounded during their time at residential school" (p. 37). The report states: A child becomes wounded emotionally when the expression of feelings is . suppressed, discouraged, or belittled (or when threatened). Wounding emotionally is also affected by withholding nurturance. Finally, emotional wounding occurs through shaming and humiliation, ridiculing, and "putting down" children (p. 38). Aboriginal children were being physically, emotionally and sexually abused for speaking their language and practicing their way of life (White, 1992, p. 22). Haig-Brown (1998) comments on emotional dysfunction as a planned design of the residential school curriculum: "their education must consist not merely of the training of the mind, but of a weaning from the habits and feelings of their ancestors, and the acquirements of the lan-guage, arts and customs of civilized life" (p. 25). As a final comment on the devastation of residential schools, I mention the statement of Father Hugonard, who expressed a sense of pride that: "the success of Indian education was 'something to be proud of ... In the period between 1884 and 1905 ... only nineteen percent of the children who had come to [Hugonard] had died under his care"(Milloy, 1999, p. 92). Father Hugonard had reason for his pride. This was the lowest death rate at any Indian residential school in Canada. The death rate at many approached 50 percent. For instance, the death rate at the Old Sun residential school in Alberta was 47 percent (Minister of Supply and Services, 1996, p. 18). These schools consciously attempted to destroy the nurturing heart/mind connection defined in The Sacred Tree (Brown et al., 1984). The residential school legacy is an emotion-ally crippling event that has left a vacuum of affective incompetence in Aboriginal families 13 and communities. Residential schools were designed to destroy the Native family. They have failed. They were necessary because of the tremendous strength of tribal families. Aboriginal families have been harmed by residential schools; they have been abused and endured all manner of evils. But Aboriginal families are still existent, still alive and in a processes of healing and rebirth. One process that is critically necessary to this healing and rebirth is the re-establishment of emotional maturity and competence in Aboriginal families, communities and education. Thus, the Native Training Institute provides a wonderful opportunity to critically examine an attempt to recreate an Aboriginal approach to education. Overview of the study The theoretical framework of Aboriginal affective development is explored in this thesis through qualitative interviews. The interviews investigate the educational processes used at the NTI including talking circle ceremonies, teaching of the legend cycle, introduc-tion to peer counselling techniques, and the introduction to the traditional ceremonial processes. This research identifies the key affective factors that facilitated educational transformation for the graduates of the NTI program from the student, faculty and adminis-trative perspectives. Ten students, two administrators and one elder were interviewed. In addition, the tapes of faculty conferences were analyzed to determine the NTI philosophies of education, how the emotional side of the student was instructed and developed, and how affective curriculum provided a foundation for competent and successful learning. This knowledge has implications for current Aboriginal educational and cultural regeneration through a theory of cultural pedagogy. In an unpublished Ph.D. dissertation Bopp (1985) states that: There is an [ongoing] organic curriculum process inherent in all living cultures which encourages and guides human interaction with the universe in ways that promote the unfolding of human potential. Hence contrived curriculum must root itself in the process of this already ongoing organic curriculum process, (p. 281) 14 This thesis investigates the "organic curriculum process" identified by Bopp as it emerged and developed at NTI. This allowed the determination of how this curriculum design can be used to develop the emotional realm of the human being through the use of a theory of affective competency within a holistic curriculum. Knowledge gap The complete teachings of how affective maturity was developed in Aboriginal com-munities is unavailable in any organized manner to contemporary Aboriginal or educational communities. A tribal theory of emotional competency that outlines the development of the emotional realm of the child is unavailable in the literature. However, emotional competency is developed through the inculcation of values and it is possible to find tribal scenarios and histories that discuss the value-learning process and thereby gain an understanding of how emotional development occurred. However, a comprehensive understanding of the devel-opment of Aboriginal affective competency has not been defined. This research will seek to define the key elements of Aboriginal affective development that assisted the graduates of the NTI. Precise purpose of the study The precise purpose of this research is to advance the understanding of how to use the emotional realm of the medicine wheel in education. The goal was to glean the knowl-edge of affective development from the graduates of the NTI to find out what assisted students as transformative practice. The NTI program was examined to determine how the holistic context created and supported the emotional development of the students. As the research developed, the importance of the holistic nature of the program became increas-ingly apparent and the final outcome was that affective education was investigated in its relation to the elements of a holistic curriculum rather than being explored as a separate 15 realm of the curriculum. This research developed principles of transformation based on the use of emotional development in a holistic Aboriginal learning context. In the words of Docstator (1993) the "translation of the philosophical principles of Aboriginal epistemology into a curriculum that is usable to support the affective develop-ment of children in a contemporary classroom is difficult but possible" (p. 8). In fact, Joe Duquette High School in Saskatoon has accomplished this with the spiritual dimension of the medicine wheel by using elements of the culture. Joe Duquette's successes and its uniqueness are based primarily in the consistent and insistent commitment of all involved to a focus on Aboriginal spirituality within the school and all the relationships there. The sacred circle ... is the foundation of the school's philosophy and is evident throughout. Sweet grass circles, trips to the sweat lodge, feasts, and respect for the teachings of elders are central to all of the school's activities. (Archibald, Haig-Brown, Regnier, & Vermette, 1994, p. 1) 16 CHAPTER 2: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction Why are emotions and values central to Aboriginal education and learning? First, there is a need to understand the colonization of Aboriginal emotion in order to develop an understanding of how to regain the emotional maturity necessary for de-colonization. Secondly, the acquisition of knowledge in the classroom is dependent on the development of affective competency. Third, there is a need to understand the development of Aboriginal values to increase the learning potential of Aboriginal students. Fourth, it is important to develop a theory of affective competency that can be used for transformation learning and curriculum development. Aboriginal approaches to affective education Figure 1. The Medicine Wheel 17 The medicine wheel is a traditional Aboriginal model that provides a holistic phi-losophy for education and development (see Figure l). The medicine wheel philosophy developed into a theory of growth and development at the Native Training Institute. It was used to organize Native and non-Native knowledge into a holistic pedagogy that developed knowledge, skills and values usable in confronting the many 'kinds of social problems' that existed in the communities for which the NTI was providing training (Anderson interview, 2003, p. 6). The medicine wheel teaches us that each of the aspects to our nature - the physical, the mental, the emotional, the spiritual and the volitional - must be equally developed in a healthy, well-balanced educational process (Brown, Lane, Bopp & Bopp, 1984, p. 12). This teaching is central to development of holistic curricula based on the medicine wheel philosophy. The medicine wheel is the very Way of Life of the People. It is an Understanding of the Universe. It is the Way given to the Peace Chiefs, our teachers, and by them to us. The medicine wheel is everything of the People. The medicine wheel is the Living Flame of the Lodges, and the Great Shield of Truth written in the Sign of the Water. It is the Heart and the Mind. It is the Song of the Earth. It is the Star-Fire and the Painted Drum seen only in the Eyes of Children. It is the Red Pipe of the Buffalo Gift smoked in the Sacred Mountains, and it is the Four Arrows of the People's Lodge. It is our Sun Dance. The medicine wheel begins with the Touching of our Brothers and Sisters. Next it speaks to us of the Touching of the world around us, the animals, tress, grasses and all the other living things. Finally, it Teaches us to Sing the Song of the World, and in this way to become a Whole People. Hyemeyohsts Storm, Northern Cheyenne (as cited in Lane, Bopp & Bopp, 1984b, p. 3) The medicine wheel, as a philosophical and epistemological concept, represents a multi-layered and multi-faceted reality. The layers of the wheel have been used as a meta-phor to describe the four directions, the four winds, the four races, and the four elements of creation: earth, water, air and fire - and the four worlds of existence: mineral, plant, animal and human. Lane, Bopp and Bopp (1994b) articulate the significance of the medicine wheel dimensions: 18 I believe our purpose as human beings is to learn and know and love the creator. In the process I believe our purpose is to develop spiritual qualities, the qualities of justice, of love, of compassion, of patience and so forth. I think the creator has given us many worlds to interact with in order to develop those spiritual qualities. The mineral people teach of something when we interact with them. The plant people, the animal people, the human people and the unknown world, from the spiritual world. They all teach us things. I also believe that human beings are spiritual as well physical beings. I believe that human beings can only be seen and understood in relationship to everything that relates to them and that is everything. Everything in the universe is one and is related to everything else. That people in order to understand the universe have to see this connectedness, the interrelatedness of all things. Everything is related to everything else and that the hurt of one is the hurt of all and the honor of one is the honor of all. (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 92) In the medicine wheel philosophy, the mind and the heart are connected. Indeed, the mind and heart are not only connected but the heart is the root of the mind. Thus, the develop-ment of the affective capacity is essential to the development of cognitive capacity. This concept was essential to the development of a curriculum that supported and encouraged affective development and healing. v We Native people understand that all living things are one large extended family and that we therefore should be working together in all the four corners of the world ... Every decision should be made in reference to how that decision will affect the seventh generation in the future. Oran Lyons, Onandaga (as cited in Lane, Bopp & Bopp, 1984a, p. 5) Unheard voices: The colonization of Aboriginal emotion Marie Battiste and James Henderson (2000) write that Aboriginal peoples have ex-perienced a "colonization of our creation, our ecologies, our minds and our spirits" (p. 11). They also state that colonization disordered Aboriginal social relations and their ways of "thinking, feeling, and interacting with the world" (p. 13). In these two quotes we have the colonization of the entire medicine wheel, the mental, emotional, physical (ecological) and emotional (social, feeling) realms. Linda Smith (1999) states that "decolonization is about centering our concerns and worldviews and then coming to know and understand theory from our own perspectives and for our own purposes" (p. 39). Smith reveals the importance 19 of understanding the process of affective colonization that has occurred in North America and the need to develop a theory of affective competency that is relevant to Aboriginal education. Battiste and Henderson (2000) argue that cognitive imperialism "postulates the su-periority of Europeans over non-Europeans" (p. 21). I argue for the inclusion of the concept of affective imperialism as an aspect of the "Eurocentric monologue" (p. 13). As was stated above, Europeans focused on the destruction of the Aboriginal emotional self during the process of colonization. The emotional self contains key elements that must be destroyed to dehumanize and colonize a people. When we expand the emotional realm of the medicine wheel, it grows into the social realm that includes family, values and relationship. Battiste and Henderson articulate that it is the "social process of learning" in the emotional realm that makes traditional knowledge traditional (p. 46). It is this social process of acquiring and sharing knowledge that is unique to each tribe and nation! Thus, knowledge acquisition is based on "social relations" that are founded on emotional development (p. 47). Battiste and Henderson (2000) conclude that the emotional realm is the "source of all teachings" through the "caring and feeling" that are derived from the process of "listening for the truth" (p. 42). They write: Indigenous knowledge emerged from the processes of Indigenous peoples' collective experience with ecologies, including the products of their human minds and hearts [emphasis added]. Indigenous peoples embody their knowledge in dynamic languages that reflect the sounds of the specific ecosystems where they live and maintain continuous relationships. All Indigenous knowledge flows from the same source: relationships within the global flux, kinship with other living creatures and the life energies embodied in the environment, and kinship with the spirit forces of the earth, (p. 125) Battiste and Henderson imply that the heart and mind are connected and work together in the development of Aboriginal knowledge. They argue that the mind is oriented toward the relational processes contained in the heart, (p. 102). These relational processes "connect everything with a continuous state of transformation" in contrast to the Eurocentric view 20 that minds are oriented to objects rather than processes in a compartmentalized reality (p. 101). Knowledge, the classroom and the development of affective competency Walter Lightning (1992) has commented on Elder Louis Sunchild's beliefs regarding the importance of heart/mind development in his article Compassionate Mind. Lightning states that his article deals with the "nature of mind" but, in fact, it deals with the nature of the mind and the heart (p. 215). The term 'compassionate' references emotion rather than cognition. The phrase 'compassionate mind' echoes Battiste and Henderson's argument that the mind and heart work together in Aboriginal philosophy. Lightning comments that in order to advance through the "stages of knowledge" one must learn how to learn with "intuitive feeling" which he articulates this as a definition of holistic learning (pp. 216-217). comprehend holistically I not only had to learn something intellectually, I had to learn it emotionally as well. For this to happen, timing and synchronicity play very important part in regulation and realization of the entire process, (p. 217) Lightning (1992) defines the process of learning through the "grasping of meaning" as involving the elements of cognition, insight, relationship between teacher and student, sensation, and spirituality. It is not just a cognitive (mental) act, but an emotional - thus physical - act. Learning is felt. It is a sensation. It is something that involves emotions. And as the elder here points out, learning is ideally a spiritual thing, because the compassionate mind is one that is spiritually centered (p. 232). Sunchild states that "great care should be given to the head and the heart" (Light-ning, 1992, p. 235). Lightning (1992) comments that this is an expression of the importance of the unity of the mental and emotional in the "context of individual volition" (p. 235). Lightning states that the emotional and mental realms are "put together" to allow learning. The highest state of self is when one is in volitional control while experiencing a "harmoni-ous state ... of connectedness with others" (p. 236). Thus, Sunchild sees the mind/heart 21 connection as important in relationship to self and others. More importantly, Lightning comments that this relationship has implication for "large-scale connectedness" (p. 239). Vine Deloria's (1995) statement regarding the unheard nature of Aboriginal knowl-edge sets the tone for an investigation of emotional competency. Deloria writes: The problem with the Indian traditions is that hardly any open minded scientist has heard them, and an even lesser number know how to listen to Indian elders, catch the nuances of meaning, and be prepared to elicit the proper information from the story, (p. 232) Dennis and Barbara Tedlock (1975) advance Vine Deloria's (1995) philosophical out-look with their comment that, "in order to become the Indian's students, we have to recognize that some of what he has to teach transcends cultural or historical boundaries" (Tedlock & Tedlock, 1975, p. xiii). The Tedlocks refer to this as a problem of "inexpressibil-ity" (p. xvi). They argue that one method of overcoming inexpressibility is the creation of relationships by following Black Elk's advice that we view all things as our relatives (p. xvi). The primary inexpressibility is that of expression of Indigenous emotion in the classroom through the values of relationship. Relationship, learning and mythology Oscar Kawagley (1999) advances the concept of relationship discussed by Tedlock and Tedlock (1975). Kawagley reveals the metaphysical interrelatedness of relationships as a matrix of "culture, knowing and living" (p. 31). Kawagley argues that the metaphysical view of nature allows a harmonious relationship with the environment through the creation of relationships. Kawagley's concept of relationship supports the interrelationship of culture and knowing that was viewed at the NTI as a learning matrix that included culture, identity, values and learning. Learning at the NTI was viewed as manifesting from a self-identity that was strengthened by interactions with cultural learning that created meaning and health (Brown, 1984, p. 12). 22 Importantly, Kawagley (1999) argues that of the four areas of holistic thought, the emotional is paramount. He emphasizes the importance of affective competency in Aborigi-nal pedagogy. This comment also supports the affective curriculum development that occurred at the Native Training Institute. Kawagley argues that the heart is on a higher plane in Aboriginal thought than the mind. He writes: • To achieve a secure sense of oneself involves meditation, visualization, intuition, and tempering all thoughts and actions with the "heart," which is on a higher plane than knowledge of the mind. "Heart" can best be explained by giving examples: to give freely of oneself to help a person with personal problems; to bring a little bird home with a broken leg and care for it to restore its health; to come upon a moose mired in soft snow and shovel the snow away to free it; to be motivated by kindness and care—these all involve the exercise of the heart. You can recognize people with heart by the respect shown them by others through kind words, inclusion in community activities, and acceptance as a stable and common-sensical member of the community. (P-44) This quote affirms the fact that affective competency was an important aspect of traditional pedagogy. Affective competency, as stated here, was an observable learning outcome in the Aboriginal system of child development. Kawagley argues that this orientation to learning, an orientation that puts affective development at the forefront, is what is needed to provide education that can "counteract the depression, hopelessness, and despair" (p. 43). Jeanette Armstrong echoes Kawagley's (1999) belief in Dagmar Thorpe's (2001) in-terview The Spirit of the People has Awakened and is Enjoying Creation Through Us. Armstrong argues that a learning process which reflects Aboriginal principles is essential to re-integrate "beliefs, ceremonies, political movement, in relation to our land, ecology and understanding the society itself (as cited in Thorpe, 2001, p. 250). Armstrong agrees with Kawagley that feeling together is an "underlying functional process" important for the reinstitution of values (p. 252). In addition, Armstrong identifies key areas of connection in affective curriculum by addressing the interconnectedness of traditional teachings, beliefs and ceremonies with areas of sovereignty such as political movement, land and society. 23 Developing affective and moral competencies Native societies teach values as a method of developing the affective content of the child rather than teaching directly about emotions (Bryde n.d.; Cajete 1997; Deloria 1995; Red Horse 1997; Stubben, 2001). If values are taught, they structure emotions in positive directions - both individually as emotional competency, and socially as moral competence. Keith Basso (1987) affirms this theoretical orientation to Aboriginal values in his ar-ticle Stalking with Stories: Names, Places, and Moral Narratives Among the Western Apache. Basso argues that values are tied to Apache stories about the land. He states that, "the land makes people live right" (p. 95). Basso lists five ways in which values are used on the "purposive dimension" to teach proper conduct through myth and historical tales. These focus emotional energy toward "objectives that Apache Narrators typically have in recount-ing them" (p. 103). These five objectives are to enlighten, to instruct, to criticize, to warn and to "shoot" the listener with the knowledge of values (p. 103). These objectives reflect one tribal method of using values to structure emotion in ways that create an emotionally competent person who will be of benefit to themselves and those around them while main-taining acceptable moral relationships within the tribal, community and family context. Basso argues that immoral behavior is a community affair (p. 105). This is a tribal approach to affective and moral competency. Basso states that the failure to teach values connected to the land can cause youth to "get into trouble" (113). He writes: ... children who do not learn to associate places and their names with historical tales cannot appreciate the utility of these narratives as guidelines for dealing responsibly and amicably with other people. Consequently ... such individuals are more likely to act in ways that run counter to Apache social norms ... (p. 113) Julie Cruikshank (1999) also argues that stories have social (moral) meanings in her article The Social Life of Texts: Editing on the Page and in Performance. Cruikshank writes that the elders in the Yukon realize that "children now learn by reading" (p. 103). She indicates that written stories in the Yukon may accomplish what Basso states the land 24 accomplished for Apache storytellers. She describes that she understands the teachings of elders Angela Sidney, Annie Ned, and Kitty Smith to mean that "words have work to do" (p. 104). That work includes the development of emotional competency by the structuring of emotions as Aboriginal values. Of course, ideally, tribal societies could employ a combina-tion of these sources of emotional development, written and oral. Cruikshank posits that written stories from the oral tradition can become part of the "larger social process" of the community (p. 98). The optimism of Cruikshank (1999) is offset by the concerns raised by Ron and Suz-anne Scollon (1981) in their chapter in Narrative, Literacy and Face in Interethnic Communication. The Scollons point out that relationship, the core Aboriginal value, is absent in "non-indexical" (p. 48) literacy. That is, the primary relationship in non-indexical writing is between "sentence and sentence, rather than between speakers or between sen-tence and speaker" (p. 48). Since the text is non-indexical, it requires nothing outside the text for meaning or interpretation. Therefore, meanings attached to the land, as in the Apache value stories, as well as to relationships outside the text are lost. The Scollons argue that essayist literacy is decontextualized. This is the natural result of taking emotions and values out of texts that are based on the expression of rational knowledge. The authors discuss that this creates a clash of worldviews because decontextualized literature is unchar-acteristic of Aboriginal (in this case Athabaskan) thought (p. 5 3 ) . In decontextualized literature the relationship between audience and author are obscured. However in Aborigi-nal writing this relationship is often the essence of the communication. At the NTI the development of values, emotions and affective competency was achieved through process experience as well as through literature. Jack Forbes, in his 1997 article Nature and Culture: Problematic Concepts for Na-tive Americans, writes about the existence of emotions within the "unity of the entire world and, indeed, of the universe" (p.7). This unity is in contrast to the dualism of European 25 thinking. Forbes argues that European dualism relegated emotions to the lesser realm of creation along with women who were perceived as being "hysterical and non-reasoning" (p. 7). The non-rational also included Indigenous peoples and the wilderness. Mother Earth was viewed as uncultivated and undomesticated and therefore dangerous (p.7). Forbes writes that Indigenous peoples were believed to be "wild and emotional with a 'primal' ability to connect with the equally 'wild' world of'nature' and prerational 'power'" (p.7). These concepts agree with the theory of European disconnection from the land mentioned above. Brown (2002) writes: "in Europe, instead of developing a philosophy similar to the medicine wheel that combined the mental and emotional in relationship with each other philosophers developed a model of being which brought the mind and heart into opposition" (p. 6). Unfortunately, Forbes (1997) goes on to state that there is a "presence of wisdom in the environment" without discussing the presence of emotion or the emotional aspect of the environment (p. 10). As Megan Boler (1999) argues in her work, Feeling Power, the expres-sion of emotion is the essence of de-colonialization (p. 142). This focuses the importance of James Clifford's (1986) comment that "a great many portrayals of'cultural' truths now appear to reflect male domains of experience" (p. 18). As cultural portrayals become more and more masculine the distance from liberating emotional content becomes greater. Different approaches to education based on value differences. The major difference between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal philosophies of educa-tion is the development and use of different values in the classroom. There is a need to understand the development of Aboriginal values and emotions to increase the learning potential of Aboriginal students. Eduardo Duran (1990) notes in Transforming the Soul Wound: A Theoretical/Clinical Approach to American Indian Psychology that: ... we have a basic difference in cosmology in that the west is masculine and the Indian cosmology is more in alignment with the feminine ... A thinking 26 function that has its root metaphors in masculine psychology is going to be diametrically opposed to a thinking function that is feminine, (p. 59) Teachers are trained in academic institutions devoid of knowledge relevant to Native values. In addition to not teaching about the history of colonization in the Western Hemi-sphere, most teachers are totally unaware of both the positive and negative cultural realities of Native students. Not only are teachers unaware of the Native world, many fear it. Some teachers hold the view that Natives should have disappeared long ago and are enraged at the mention of the idea that our worldview should even be considered. Most school administra-tors and teachers, viewing Native student entering the doors of their school, dressed in the same fad clothes as all the other students, cannot conceive that these students actually carry within themselves a different world view. It is not a matter of a different cultural knowledge, which is content curriculum, that may be taught in a First Nations 12 class. These students carry different values, which is process curriculum that required a different way of 'doing' learning. Eduardo Duran (1990) writes: Even the beginning student can see the disparity in systems and to impose one system of thought over another is very difficult without the input of discussion with the different world view ... It's not a matter of a worldview being better or worse or more enlightened than another. The issue is one of quality such as can be illustrated in the color blue being different form orange- neither one is better or worse, they are merely different, (p. 51) A problem with European approaches to developing Native curriculum content is the phenomenon that Duran (1990) calls "psychological imperialism" (p. 23). In our case it becomes educational imperialism. Educational imperialism values content curriculum above process curriculum and chooses cognition over affect. This Eurocentric view assumes the quantitative and qualitative superiority of the European worldview and includes Aboriginal content in the curriculum only as an afterthought. In the words of Duran, western education institutions "not only discredit thinking that is not western but also engage in practices that imply that people who do not prescribe to their world view may indeed be genetically infe-rior" (p. 23). 27 Eurocentric philosophy is detached and objectified within noun-based language. Bat-tiste and Henderson (2000) state that this "creates a detachment from that which is known, so that knowledge does not inform or create meaning" (p. 123). They quote Steven Augustine, a Mi'kmaw historian, who argues that "this lack of feeling as a lack of connection with the earth ... explains the lack of respect Eurocentric science has shown toward other living creatures" (p. 123). This explains the emphasis on cognitive rather than affective mental structures in European epistemology. Aboriginal values represent a relational, affective approach to reality. It is important to understand that when the European male (Zeno, Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Descartes, etc.) separated their mind from their heart and, in medicine wheel terms, began the oppression of the heart by the mind that they also separated themselves from their environment. One might argue that this emotional detachment from their lands allowed them to leave their homeland and export their philosophy of oppression throughout the globe. When Europeans became detached from their affective awareness, it enabled them to avoid the emotional feedback from their exploitation of the world's peoples and environments. The oppression of the European heart by the European mind was the beginning of the oppression of Indige-nous peoples, women, and the earth itself; Boler (1999) notes that this is the reason why emotions are glaringly absent from Western historical discourse (p. 19). The Lakota speaker Luther Standing Bear has stated: The old Lakota was wise. He knew that man's heart away from nature becomes hard; he knew that lack of respect for growing living things soon led to lack of respect for humans too. So he kept the young people close to its softening influence, (as cited in McLuhan, 1971, p. 6). An examination of Michael Marker's (2000) analysis of the "clash zone" between First Nations and non-First Nations communities reveals that the existing economic, politi-cal and cultural power relationships place Aboriginal communities at the center of hegemonic negotiation that often requires communities to compromise their values and 28 accept economically and politically dictated education. Marker argues that "economic, cultural, and political" forces constrict First Nations educational self-determination (p. 30). This is obviously true. Native communities are forced to negotiate education and research parameters with forces far more powerful that often do not have their best interests at heart. Marker writes: "in short, Indian education is about Indian-White relations. It has been, and remains, the central arena for negotiating identities and for translating the goals and pur-poses of the cultural Other" (p. 31). When viewing Marker's (1998/2000) analysis in terms of the values discussed above we can articulate the need of educational institutions to comprehend their relatedness with Aboriginal communities. Adapting what Marker stated about non-Aboriginal professors in Going Native in the Academy, educators who desire to create more meaningful education will "interrogate their own ethnicity and the ways that culture is animated by historic rela-tions of power between groups" (1998, p. 478). Affective competency and Aboriginal values As stated above, a complete teaching of a tribal theory of emotional competency that outlines the development of the emotional realm of the child is unavailable in the literature. However, since emotional competency is developed through the inculcation of values, it is possible to find tribal scenarios and histories that state the value-learning process and thereby gain an understanding of how emotional development occurred. The values in tribal society can be determined from contemporary and historical writers. Several authors do comment on the values as the elements of emotional competency (Archibald, 1990; Cajete, 1997; Kawagly, 1999; Sterling, 1997). John Bryde (n.d.) writes in his article a New Approach to Indian Education, that Na-tive peoples have been offered Western worldview values based on the assumption that they would be assimilated and become educated in the American non-Indian sense (p. 1). He 29 attributes the huge dropout rate of Aboriginal students (60 percent in the US and 70 percent in British Columbia) to value conflict in the classroom. Vine Deloria (1984) writes that identities can come into conflict when they represent "different historical arrangements of emotional energy" (p. 67). Bryde argues that this value conflict can only be overcome by first using Aboriginal values to provide a foundation for Aboriginal education (p. 1). He states that after four hundred years of attempted acculturation the "Indian personality constella-tion remains the same" (p. 1). He is also emphatic in his argument that non-Native values alone will never resolve the value conflict felt and experienced by Aboriginal Students. Bryde (n.d.) also points out that the value conflict is directly responsible for the emo-tional problems experienced by Aboriginal students (p. 2). He argues that the solution to the emotional problems is to bring Aboriginal values into full consciousness and awareness in curricula and use them as a source of learning motivation. Bryde believes that Aboriginal students can learn and understand non-Aboriginal values but must have their own values in the educational process. Cajete (1997) also states that the key to greater viability in educa-tion for Aboriginal peoples is to "translate their values, their meaning, and their process into modern education" (p. 70). These values, Bryde states, must be established first in the curriculum prior to introducing Western worldview learning projects. If Aboriginal values are not established first, attempts at learning will be "largely thwarted because of value conflict" (p. 2). Bryde's cultural approach teaches Native values as the foundation of all learning for Aboriginal students. Bryde writes: The time and place to teach an Indian the cultural approach - how to use his [sic] values - should be at the time and place when he is most susceptible to learning, - when he is young and in school. Teaching an Indian child, from his first day in nursery school, how to use his Indian values in the modern work-for-money world in which he must live, would equip him with the functional, learned responses to cope with the crisis of cultural identification occurring at adolescence, (p. 3) Bryde's (n.d.) beliefs are supported by the research of Jerry Stubben (2001) in The American Behavioral Scientist. Stubben found that regardless of the degree of assimilation 30 or blood quantum in American Indian families, cultural pride is both evident and important in the education of their children. Stubben found that 95.4 percent of Native families in his study identified cultural values as being "very important to their family" (p. 1472). In an-other study Stubben determined that 96 percent of American Indian Families indicated that cultural respect was the "key" to success in school (p. 1472). Stubben's research has also indicated that family involvement in cultural activities and ceremonies reduced alienation, incidents of violence and substance abuse (p. 1472). In addition, he notes that: American Indian families are the cultural translators of community beliefs, norms, values, and personal and tribal histories, as well as language. The cultural and societal relationships that they promote (extended family, grandparent - grandchild relationships, and clan systems) are often difficult to define for a Western-oriented academic or societal viewpoint, (p. 1473) Stubben points out that Western-trained scholars may even view cultural practices as dysfunctional. John Red Horse (1997) also discusses Aboriginal values. "Traditional communities adopt overarching value orientations that foster responsible and orderly relations" (p. 245). Red Horse states that family systems provide value orientation through the storytelling and spiritual metaphors of elders that "guide cooperative behavior" in family kinship systems (p. 245). He concludes that "traditional communities immerse individuals in environments in which values, spirituality, and family structure are inseparable and omnipresent" (p. 245). The primary value is to maintain harmonious relationships within kinship and tribal systems through the exercise of proper responsibility. He states that responsibility is a concept that binds the generations and genders together (p. 245). In general, responsibilities increase with age and culminate in the elder. Red Horse agrees that Native values create Native behaviors such as non-interference, cooperation, and harmonious conduct. Red Horse (1997) notes that the circular nature of Indian culture returns individuals to core values as surface changes are occurring due to imposition by the dominant Western society (p. 246): "the essence of spirituality brings the past face-to-face with the future" 31 (p. 247). Therefore, Red Horse agrees with Bryde (n.d.) that it is a reasonable conclusion that these value orientations remain current and relevant to contemporary Aboriginal education. In the comments of Bryde (n.d.), Deloria (1995), Red Horse (1997) and Stubben (2001), we see the connection between the destruction and denial of Aboriginal values in the classroom and negative learning identity. Negative learning identity hurls students toward the big four destroyers of Aboriginal youth, addiction, violence, suicide and homicide (Brown, 1984, p. 12). It is important to note that once negative identity is established the problem is usually defined as belonging to the student. The problem is defined at the indi-vidual level and not as an outcome of the socio-historical colonialization and subjugation process. Boler (1999) would argue that this is the subjugation of emotion in the classroom (p. 19) a subjugation that denies the socio-historical past and present of the Aboriginal student. The school is seldom aware of itself as a participant in the continuing colonial process of ethnocide. School systems usually view themselves as a-contextual (Duran, 1990, p. 68). Thus, blame is often directed at the individual student, the Native family or even at the Aboriginal culture that possesses the positive learning values and teachings that hold the resolution of the 'problem'. When the reality of the socio-historical context is ignored, an irrational and absurd situation is created in actual solution to Aboriginal educa-tional problems is impossible. This process of blaming is witness to how out of touch most schools are with the Native populations they serve (p. 78). Jean Briggs (1987), a research professor in the Department of Anthropology in New-foundland's Memorial University, wrote In Search of Emotional Meaning, for Ethos, a publication of the Society for Psychological Anthropology. This article is noteworthy because in her research with Inuit people she discovered two "all-pervasive values" (p. 9) that define emotional content in day to day existence for Inuit peoples. First, "nallik", which Briggs discusses as attachment, nurturance or a combination of love and pity that requires feeding 32 and protection while suppressing negative or hostile feelings. The second value is "isuma", which is control over impulsive behaviors while using the ability to think calmly and judge accurately various possibilities or outcomes of a situation (p. 10). Briggs writes that "isuma" defines a good person and an adult in Inuit society. There are two interesting aspects of Briggs' (1987) definitions. First, they surprisingly match the latest research on cognition and affect, ""nallik"" represents affect and ""isuma"" represents cognition. Both are advanced conceptualizations of cognitive and affective processes. Second, Briggs points out that in Inuit society it is values that are taught in order to develop emotional competence and mature emotional behavior. She writes: Adults ... provide highly consistent models of desirable behavior, and they explicitly and frequently state their very consistent expectation that as the child's "isuma" [emphasis in original] grows he will pick up the desirable behavior on his own initiative. Therefore, it's neither necessary nor desirable to employ confrontational tactics, (p. 10). Briggs concludes that the "value-learning process" in Inuit society simply involves modeling and stating expectations (p. 11). She agrees that emotional behavior leading to emotional competency is taught indirectly through the value-learning process. Underlying the value learning is a dynamic complexity of developing feeling and emotion that has strong personal meaning to tribal individuals experiencing the value development process. Briggs' research reveals the advanced development of affective concepts available in Indigenous communi-ties. Donna Paskemin (1999) describes childhood and adolescence in her Cree upbring-ing. She states that her identity was developed by: stories told by her grandmother (p. 2); lectures from her mother and father as well as older siblings (p. 3); and modeling of caring and loving behaviors by her mother (p. 14). She writes "my father would begin to tell us that the elders told him ... how to think and consequently how this thought affects your behavior" (p. 9). Paskemin agrees with Briggs (1987) that Aboriginal pedagogy teaches values with the expectation of emotional development and mature behavior as the result. 33 Bruyere (1983) comments that Indigenous youth had ample support during tradi-tional child rearing and development. She argues that "ceremonies such as the first fast, naming ceremonies, and the Sweat Lodge" as well as the oral tradition teachings of elders were sources of support through traditional teachings (p. 46). Dan Lukiv (1996) quotes Banks that "teachers can use students personal cultural knowledge as a vehicle to motivate students and as a foundation for teaching" (p. 1). He also agrees with Marina (1997) that research has established a correlation between respect for Aboriginal student's dignity, and values, and their success in education (p. 2). He states that cultural identity, which is formed from cultural values, must be respected in the classroom. Indeed he argues that the curriculum should be built upon the "rich cultural heritage" (p. 3) to develop Aboriginal student pride in personal and cultural identity. Lukiv agrees that disrespecting Aboriginal values such as cooperation can not only have a detrimental impact on the Aboriginal student but on the Aboriginal community as well. Arthur More (1985) connects the teaching of legends and storytelling to the devel-opment of emotions by agreeing with Scollon and Scollon (1981), that storytelling is "the primary method of the teaching values and attitudes" (p. 5). He states the teaching was conceptualized in an entirely different manner in Aboriginal pedagogy. Harriet Light and Ruth Martin (1985) agree with More (1985) that Aboriginal pedagogy connects emotional development through the teaching of beliefs, values and attitudes. They write: For most Native American peoples, the prenatal period and birth are religiously important. The beginning of life and the years of childhood are times when beliefs, values and attitudes must be communicated to the child. The future of their community and the responsibility of nurturing respect for their heritage must be communicated to the children during this time period (Light & Martin, p. 2). Where do we qo from here? J.T. Garret (1984), an Eastern Cherokee, writes of the concerns of Cherokee elders, that Aboriginal children learn their unique heritage, traditions and way of life (p. 18). Garret 34 agrees that storytelling was the primary method of transferring knowledge in Aboriginal pedagogy. This places the focus of learning on the Native values of listening, observation and respect rather than personal competition and gain. "The stories shared by Indian elders teach culturally related values for learning and encourage that we all get along with each other" (p. 21). Storytelling teaches connection to "every living thing" in a pedagogical method that strengthens the family, clan and tribal relationships (p. 21). Garret argues that storytelling creates learning based on an acceptance of Aboriginal values in the classroom, an acceptance by both the students and the school system. Peter Hanohano (1999) writes of the importance of restoring balance and harmony to Aboriginal education (p. 206). He also advocates that connectedness with culture, language and land is the key to establishing a strong identity. He states a purpose of adding a spiritual perspective to education that would encourage relationships with one another and with the land. He quotes Wilkinson that the Aboriginal goal is not just to survive but to "survive as community" with relationship being promoted by ceremonial processes (p. 210). He also quotes Soiui (1992) that Native societies were matriarchies in which there was an awareness that women educated the social and human virtues that maintain relationship with existence and that "culture, therefore, is fundamentally a question of values" (pp. 17-20). Hanohano quotes Colorado's (1988) argument that relationship in Aboriginal community creates a moral content that teaches proper power relationships. Hanohano agrees with other authors that elders are the key to providing stories, ceremonies and values in curricula that create binding relationships in Aboriginal communities (p. 216). Boler (1999) writes that there is no "theory of emotions that adequately understands them as collaboratively constructed terrain" (p. 5). I would agree that the literature lacks a well-developed theory that would allow students to use their emotions and values to maxi-mize their learning potential. Current literature lacks the theoretical relevance to allow the construction of an emotionally based curriculum that could provide structure to affective 35 competency and could develop a healing approach to the issues of anger, grief and sorrow in Native communities. Research, such as Stubben's (2001) above, has shown time and again how historical and current educational institutions have failed Native communities; failed to allow for the strengthening of holistic approaches and healing of emotional wounds; and failed to develop a whole and complete being with emotional competency. The failure of educational systems to provide affective education that has value relevance, cultural rele-vance, and is holistically based contributes to the huge drop out rate for Native students mentioned by Bryde (n.d.) above. Cajete (1997) states that the "affective foundation of tribal education" is the internal emotional response to education (p. 40). He argues that emotion is the foundation on which we understand what we are learning. It is our "primary motivation" and the method by which we establish personal and communal meaning of learning (p. 40). Cajete refers to the affective foundation as the "heart of learning" and writes that the affective foundation cultivates our "intention (will), choice, trust, responsibility ..." and is a primary motivation for service (p. 40). A number of important principles arise from this discussion of Aboriginal values and emotions. First, a strong value system is essential for learning. Second, the student's values must be recognized and incorporated into the curricula to promote learning. Third, emo-tions must be allowed to be expressed and enthusiastically incorporated into the life of the school and the everyday activities in the classroom. It may be that some little root of the sacred tree still lives. Nourish it then, that it may leaf and bloom and fill with singing birds... • ' - • Black Elk 36 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the methodology used in this dissertation. The research ques-tions are stated and the research design is reviewed including data collection methods, site identification, and the development of a method of data analysis based on the medicine wheel. Scope of the study This study examines the educational process at the Native Training Institute. The purpose of this investigation is to explore the affective education of NTI students in the context of the holistic program offered at NTI. Interviews of students, administrators and an elder, as well as transcripts of faculty meetings, provided a rich data foundation to develop an understanding of emotional development in NTI learning processes. Research questions The theoretical framework of Aboriginal affective development is explored through interviews. The interviews investigated the curriculum and cultural processes used at the NTI such as: talking circle ceremonies, teaching of the legend cycle, introduction to counsel-ling techniques, and the introduction to the traditional ceremonial processes. The identification of affective factors was explored to determine how education of the emotional side of the student supported the educational and transformational learning at the NTI. I examine how emotional supports were provided to create a foundation for competent and successful learners. Central to this research is one fundamental question: "How was affective compe-tency developed in students at the NTI within the context of holistic medicine wheel teachings?" 37 The investigation of this research question followed the methodological pattern of Eber Hampton's (1988) groundbreaking research in Indian education. Hampton, an Okla-homa Chickasaw, asked participants only four basic questions and allowed a process of "reflective thinking" to evolve (p. 29). The reflective style allows a maximum exploration of the topic in an Aboriginal context that enabled Hampton and his participants to "build [their] thoughts together in an additive or sometimes exponential way" (p. 29). Hampton was able to "gather scattered thoughts and experiences" relating to Indian education in a way that produced his twelve principles of Indian education (p. 29). This method of ques-tioning was useful in articulating the fundamental principles and elements of affective development in an Aboriginal educational institution such as the NTI. A number of considerations were followed in building on Hampton's (1988) ap-proach. First, the participants each received culturally acceptable traditional offerings following the guidelines of Jo-ann Archibald (1996), a member of the Sto:lo First Nation in British Columbia: Because I am an insider of the culture, I observed the cultural learning protocol: the elder determines where we should meet, the learner ensures that there is sharing of food and tea. The learner creates unhurried time and talking space so that the topic of discussion arises at the 'right' moment. It would have been disrespectful to ask my questions immediately, (p. 5) Second, appropriate smudging was observed before the interview began with either sweet-grass or sage. Third, an interview was conducted with the NTI elder Mary Anderson. These practices were followed to create a context that was culturally appropriate and comfortable and supportive of the reflective process developed by Hampton. A respectful Aboriginal context was created to enable an Aboriginal process to produce Aboriginal content. There is a saying in the Aboriginal community that advises one to follow "the natural flow of things." Sometimes it is necessary to 'go with the flow' and ask questions when possible and sometimes it is necessary to be silent. However, semi-structured reflective interviews were conducted and questions were asked consistently in each interview. Sterling 38 (2001) suggests that the questions used should relate to the "content, context and process" happening during the interview (personal communication, February 11, 2001). The questions used to interview the NTI graduates were as follows: 1. Introductory background questions. For example, What was your life like before the NTI? What led you to NTI? How did you acquire your knowledge, how were you raised? 2. When did you attend NTI? 3. Will you describe, in your own words, the NTI program? 4. Was there an outstanding, or life changing event that occurred for you during your time at the NTI? 5. The NTI was founded on the concept of holistic education that used physical, mental, spiritual and emotional content in the classroom. Could you comment on how the holistic approach influenced or assisted you education. 6. Were there particular events, or teachings at NTI that assisted you in your physi-cal development? 7 . Were there particular events, or teachings at NTI that assisted you in your mental development? 8. Were there particular events, or teachings at NTI that assisted you in your Spiri-tual/cultural development? 9. Were there particular events, or teachings that assisted you in your emotional de-velopment? 10. What changes in your emotional maturity have you observed as a result of the teaching you received at the NTI? 11. Were there particular events, or teachings at NTI that assisted you in your voli-tional development? 12. What do we need to do in our communities and schools to regain emotional ma-turity? 13. How does the lack of emotional maturity affect youth today? 14. What is the role of Aboriginal values in the development of emotional maturity? How did the NTI affect your values? 15. How was your emotional development related to teachings received regarding: a. Naming ceremonies b. Coming of age ceremonies c. Discipline 39 d. The development of the child's gift e. The use of storytelling and the legend cycle f. Ceremonies including pre-birth and birth ceremony g. Participation in the ongoing ceremonial life of the community h. Talking circles i. Counselling techniques 16. What was the role of the holistic medicine wheel approach used at NTI in your emotional development? 17. How did the teachings you received at the NTI influence the relationships in your life? 18. How would you define traditional Aboriginal emotional development? 19. What teachings relating to emotion that you received at the NTI have you used with your children? 20. Do you recall how the emotional development occurred at NTI? 21. Could comment on specific memories of teachings received from the teachers at NTI? Bill Mussel Phil Lane Dave Grant Patrick Paul Lorraine Brave Tom Kelly John Lee Kootnecoff Michael and Judy Bopp Martha Many Grey Horses Rick Weber Lee Brown 22. Could you comment on specific memories of the following philosophies of learning that were used by teachers at the NTI? Medicine wheel Co-counselling Transactional Analysis Anisa Model of Education Alcoholic Anonymous Jungian Psychology 23. How have the teachings you learned at the NTI developed over time? Do you still use them and how have they developed. 24. What do you know now about learning and education that you did not know after graduating from the NTI? 40 In addition, the following questions were used to interview the NTI administrators Marie Anderson and Elaine Hebert: 1. Can you provide some background on the Institute? When did it start? How did it come about? What was the conceptualization of the program? How did you theorize the NTI? 2. What effect were you expecting or looking for, what results for the students, community? 3. Who were the originators of the institute? 4. What was the relationship with Cariboo College? 5. How were the instructors found and hired? 6. Who were the students? 7 . What was the basic philosophy of the institute? 8. Tell me about the needs that lead up to the NTI. 9. Was the residential school experience considered when developing NTI 10. Can you describe the NTI educational philosophy? 11. To what degree was the medicine wheel used in the development of the NTI edu-cational philosophy? In what ways was physical education considered? In what ways was mental education considered? In what ways was spiritual education considered? In what ways was emotional education considered? In what ways was volitional education considered? 12. Was there a conscious awareness of holistic educational approaches when NTI was formed? 13. What can you tell me about the philosophies used at NTI including: Alcoholics Anonymous John Lee's model Traditional teachings Traditional stories Anisa Model Transactional Analysis 41 14- Was there a conscious attempt to integrate the materials in all classes with or into a holistic model? 15. What were some of the structural (cultural) differences in at the NTI? How was the NTI different than other institutions? 16. What was the emotional pedagogy taught at the NTI? How could we define it? 17. What were some of the difficulties surrounding accreditation? 18. How do you see these difficulties in reference to Native educational program-ming? 19. If you were to revive the institute, what would you do differently? 20. How has your educational philosophy developed since the NTI? Research design This research uses a qualitative design with a multiple-case study approach that in-corporates reflective ethnographic-interviewing techniques. Qualitative research is advisable when the initial research question is a 'how' question (Creswell, 1998, p. 17). In this study, the question is "how emotional education was accomplished at the NTI." Thus, the nature of the inquiry and the topic lend themselves to qualitative analysis. Creswell (1998) states that a topic needs to be 'explored' when theories are unavailable to explain the topic of research. Therefore, we will use a qualitative method to explore a 'detailed view' of the topic (p. 17). Cresswell defines qualitative research as: an inquiry process of understanding based on distinct methodological traditions of inquiry that explore a social or human problem. The researcher builds a complex, holistic picture, analyzes words, reports detailed views of informants, and conducts the study in a natural setting, (p. 15) Qualitative investigation provides a systematic procedure for inquiry that allows an indepth exploration of the available knowledge. The choice of a qualitative tradition pro-vides: a. A systematic procedure for inquiry b. Access to natural cultural settings 42 c. Collection of a variety of empirical resources including: Case study Personal experience Interviews Introspection Observation in cultural context Historical, Interactional and Visual texts (p. 15) A second rationale for the selection of a qualitative case methods study is participant receptivity and comfort with the investigative process used (Creswell, 1998, p. 17). It is predictable that community members will be comfortable with the reflective process of investigation developed by Hampton (1988). This research remains within the four R's of respect, relevance, reciprocity, and re-sponsibility defined by Kirkness and Barnhardt (1991, p. 1). It was conducted with respect for the participants being interviewed and the total cultural matrix in which they exist. This research provides socio-political relevance by organizing cultural knowledge that will be usable by contemporary educators. It provides reciprocity by using the data analysis to provide knowledge and curriculum implications that will be useful to Aboriginal communi-ties and educational institutions. The research will provide responsibility by maintaining appropriate conduct in the Aboriginal cultural setting. Respectful, reciprocal, relational, research affirms liberation, trans-formation and facilitates healing. It restores wholeness and self-determination process. The researchers examine their own intentions and move beyond the historical methodologies that, for the most part, form decontextualised, individually biased, self serving, approaches to research. (Young, 2001, p. 13) Participants and access Data was collected from ten students, two administrators and one elder. The purpose of the research was explained during the introductory meeting with the former director of the Native Training Institute, Marie Anderson. A list of possible participants was developed in consultation with Marie. It was also decided that it would be correct protocol to include Mary Anderson, the 93 year old elder that had helped guide the development of the NTI. 43 Mary, a member of the Cooks Ferry Indian Band, is the only surviving elder of those involved with the institute. Mary provided a connection to the traditional understandings incorporated into the institute design. The participants in the study were selected from among the graduates of the NTI during the years 1980 to 1990.1 met with Marie Anderson and we generated names of people who had attended the institute that were available for an interview. The passage of time and the limitations of funding prevented a full sampling of the former NTI students. However, graduates who went on to higher education and those who had not were both selected. The graduates were divided into two groups: those who advanced to post-secondary education and those who remained employed. Participants were chosen from each list according to the percentage of graduates/non-graduates. Approximately 70-80 percent of the graduates advanced to post-secondary education. Students were interview according to this ratio. Over twenty years have passed since the classes at the NTI. Participants often stated they had difficulty remembering specific classes, theories or events. Details had definitely faded. However, much was remembered, if fact, the interviews produced over three hundred pages of information. Ethical traditions around informed consent were carefully observed as well as Native traditional concerns around the possession of knowledge within the cultural context. There-fore, all participants were allowed to read the transcripts and sign permission agreements before the knowledge was used in the development of the thesis. All participants were allowed a right of privacy through anonymity or a right of claim on their knowledge through acknowledgement, depending on their choice on the consent form. This research follows the considerations of Haig-Brown and Archibald (1996): In our journeys as educators we search for respectful ways to bring First Nations contexts and ethnographic research together: perhaps to create an 44 appropriate meeting place. We seek ways for our research motives and methods to honour, or at least be compatible with, First Nations ways (p. l). Site identification In a case study a site may be "multiple individuals, events, processes, activities, or programs" (Creswell, 1998, p. 114). In this research, the multiple cases are individuals. It is important to note that the NTI is not the case being studied. Creswell (1998) cautions against research in "your own backyard" or within your own institution. Although this concern is problematic because I was one of the instructors at the NIT, it is mitigated by the fact that the NTI is no longer in existence and therefore I do not have an interest in the facility. Stake (1994) discusses the issue of detachment in terms of the concept of empathy. Stake comments that the researcher decides what is reported and what is necessary for an objective understanding of the case (p. 20). In this research, the only objective interest is to determine how the emotional realm of the medicine wheel was developed with the greatest accuracy possible. Neither the participants nor I have any vested interest in any particular outcome and that is some assurance of objectivity and detachment. Data collection methods Creswell (1998) advises the use of only four cases in a case study. However, the moti-vation for additional cases was the need to thoroughly explore the knowledge available. Creswell states, "what motivates the researcher to consider a large number of cases is the idea of generalizability [italics in original]" (p. 63). An additional number of cases will increase the validity of the research by allowing greater crossreferencing of the information received. Data was gathered using an Aboriginal ethnographic approach that incorporated the use of traditional instruments of data collection. These traditional instruments included tobacco, cloth, sweetgrass, sage, an eagle feather and the traditional pipe. Techniques of 45 ethnography were used in the data collection process including semi-structured reflective interviews and open-ended interviewing questions. The ethnographical interviewing tech-niques allowed greater acquisition of relevant information. Cresswell (1998) states that researchers may "mix procedures from several" traditions of qualitative research (p. 21). The mix of this research was case study and ethnography. All aspects of the research followed the tradition of the case study except the use of ethnographic questioning techniques. Ethno-graphic techniques were limited to the data collection and narrative aspects of the research. Merriam (1988) includes Wolcott's distinction between ethnographic techniques and eth-nographyJtself (p. 14): Specific ethnographic techniques are freely available to any researcher who wants to approach a problem or setting descriptively. It is the essential anthropological concern for the cultural context that distinguishes ethnographic method from fieldwork techniques and makes genuine ethnography distinct from other 'on-site-observer' approaches. (Wolcott, 1980, p. 59) All interviews were tape recorded with permission. At the same time notes were taken when allowed by the cultural setting of the interview. The tapes were transcribed and submitted for reading and editing by the participants. The approved transcriptions were used. The tapes will be stored permanently. An opportunity for a collaborative group participation of all participants to review and discuss the findings of the research was held on March 27, 2004. Interviewees were invited to attend a workshop for the purposes of presenting and reviewing the findings of the research. Three of ten interviewees and five community members were present at the meeting. This meeting helped to fulfill the requirements of respectful and reciprocal re-search by allowing the interviewees and the Aboriginal community an opportunity to review the research and provide additional input. The participants confirmed that the research resonates with their own experiences. All participants agreed that they have suffered from the colonialization of Aboriginal emo-46 tion and several shared stories of how the suppression of Aboriginal affect has affected them or their children. Participants also emphasized the importance of strengthening identity and releasing emotion in the educational process. Many personal stories were shared as a reaction to feelings raised by the sharing of the research findings. In a closing circle the interviewees and the community affirmed the research and commented that the understand-ing of Aboriginal history and its relationship to emotion was important. Position of the researcher As mentioned above by Young (2001) "the framework of respect, relevance, reciproc-ity, relationship, reverence and responsibility" is a value based framework that can provide an academic foundation to inform research (p. 17). In our ceremonial processes, we are asked by the elders to deeply examine the intent that lies at the centre of our beings. My motive for the research is to document an educational development that occurred in the British Columbia Aboriginal community. The purpose of this documentation is to record the history of the NTI and to examine the affective education developed in the holistic approach developed at the NTI. As Gregory Cajete (1994) writes in Look to the Mountain: An Ecology of Indigenous Education: "Indian people must determine the future of Indian education and that future must be rooted in a transformational revitalization of our own expressions of education" (p. 219). The NTI was such an effort that needs to be recorded, analyzed and understood. The position of a Native researcher doing research in an Aboriginal setting is a rela-tively new and rare phenomenon that often raises issues of objectivity, validity and reliability because of insider issues and closeness of the researcher to the community. As stated above, I was one of the instructors at the NTI. I taught both sociology and psychology. These concerns were addressed by increasing the number of interviews beyond the recommended 47 four (Cresswell, 1998, p. 63). The increased number of cases provides additional crossreferencing and, thereby, increases validity and reliability. Archibald (as cited in Kirkness & Barnhardt, 1990) speaks of the need "to define and create new ways of thinking and writing about" traditional knowledge including literacy and its relationship to orality. With the technological advances of video, television and film, our world has become a combined oral/literate/visual one. This combination has exciting possibilities for First Nations because it is gearing the traditional holistic approach to teaching and learning which is needed to heal our people who have been adversely affected by history, (p. 8) In defining the situatedness of this research and my position as researcher, consideration of the reflective ethnographic approach delineated by Hampton (1988) is helpful. Hampton identifies a process of investigation that was comfortable and valuable to the Aboriginal community (p. 28). I would like to situate myself among Native academics such as Archibald, Kirkness and Hampton. This research will contribute to the creation of good schools with balanced curriculum for Aboriginal children. And although, "increasing the university's domain of human knowledge to include and respect First Nations cultural values and traditions is a formidable task" (Kirkness & Barnhardt, 1991, p. 8), it must be attempted in the spirit of service to the "Aboriginal research landscape" (Young, 2001, p. 14). My personal qualifications to ask the questions include my involvement in traditional Native settings. In addition to being an instructor at the NTI, during the last twenty-two years I have worked at Round Lake Native Healing Centre. I was an instructor at the NTI for ten years. I have also been involved in other traditional processes within the Aboriginal community. I am known to the traditional elders in the community and am familiar with the traditional protocols necessary to approach a traditional subject area. In addition, I am familiar with the structures of meaning existent in the Aboriginal system of ceremonial thought and symbolism. This will preclude the need to disrupt the cultural fabric through 48 importation of foreign models of thought. "Cultural researchers who seek to unfold the petals of the delicate flower of culture without tearing it to shreds must be extremely wary of importing analytical models and systems into the process" (Bopp, 1985, p. 80) Data analysis In the words of Stake (1995): "there is no particular moment when data analysis be-gins. Analysis is a matter of giving meaning to first impressions as well as to final compilations" (p. 71). With this study, the learning began with the first meeting and during those precious moments when the participants 'felt' like sharing the words of knowledge that they have stored within themselves. A multiple case format was used. Cresswell (1998) suggests providing a detailed description of each case, a within-case analysis, followed by a thematic analysis called a cross-case analysis (p. 63). This format was followed. The student interviews provided the data for analysis and the administrative inter-views provided background data on the development and educational theory used at the NTI. These interviews were taperecorded and transcribed. In addition, transcriptions were made of a NTI faculty meeting in 1983 that provided the information on the NTI philosophy that is the basis for the Chapter 4.1 personally transcribed the interviews to become more familiar with the data. In addition, I read all the interviews once through before starting the individual analysis. The interviews were then read to begin identification of broad categories that could be used to create an analysis matrix. The initial within-case analysis was at-tempted with a matrix (square) design. An attempt was made to define variables that could be developed into themes. The following were mentioned as significant in the educational process at NTI: • Physical appearance • Pride/shame • Values Christian/Native .• Negative/traditional positive • Negative history/true positive history 49 • Whole/wholeness • Connection/connectedness • Talking circles • Less judgmental/more acceptance/self acceptance • Communication/counselling/listening/talking circles/emotional healing • Growth • Forgiveness • Meaning • Quality evaluation by students • Patience - Trust • Sharing • Respect for male/female • Support/ask for help • Leadership • Cultural teachings • Self-confidence • Relationship • Contextualized learning • Positive relationship • Emotional healing • Anger • Resentment • Love • Self-awareness • Self-respect • Will/goals However, during the second reading the realization emerged that the square matrix design was not as useful as the medicine wheel design for evaluation and interpretation of data. The NTI was developed on the medicine wheel philosophy and a circular design was developed to analyze the data. The interviews were then read again identifying variables that fit into the five realms of the medicine wheel: the mental, spiritual, emotional, physical and volitional. As this process unfolded, it became apparent that a dual process was at work in each of the areas of the medicine wheel. First, a process of healing that enabled a second process of learning. At the NTI these two processes worked hand in hand toward the trans-formation of students. I began to review the data categories in terms of this dual process using the design as seen in Figure 2. 50 Mental 1/ Physical Spiritual Emotional Volitional Figure 2. Dual Process Analysis Design As the conceptualization of the dual process of healing/learning emerged healing and learning variables were identified in each area. The medicine wheel provided a circular matrix to analyze the data. It became apparent that in the physical realm, there was the need to heal the negative physical awareness created in public and residential schools and to learn positive physical awareness and self-care. In the mental realm, there was the necessity of healing the mes-sages regarding lack of intelligence and to create a positive view of Aboriginal intelligence. In the spiritual realm, there was the need to heal the negative messages about Native culture and religion and to create a positive cultural identity. In the emotional realm, there was the need to heal the shame, hurt and pain and replace it with positive loving energies. In the volitional realm, there was the need to heal the negative messages of never being able to 51 achieve and replace it with the self-confidence of self-determination. The concept of a dual process in Aboriginal education emerged and a diagram representing this dual process was developed. The data analysis proceeded with a within-case analysis. Cresswell (1998) suggests that when a multiple case format is used, a description of each case - called a within-case analysis - should be presented. Once the within-case analysis is complete, a cross-case analysis is developed using the medicine wheel realms to organize data. An ethnographic, case description suggested by Yin (1988) is used with this research data (pp. 106-7) which produced a "rich, thick description" as coined by Geertz (1973) and discussed by Denzin (1989) in his qualitative research (p. 83). The variables of each realm of the medicine wheel for each interviewee were gathered together and themes were developed through an inter-pretive phase as suggested by Cresswell (1998, p. 63). Themes were developed for the physical, mental, spiritual, emotional and volitional realms. The data produced four primary healing themes: holistic education, strengthening identity, emotional healing and Aboriginal knowledge, and produced four primary learning blockages: negative school effects, negative Identity, emotional hurt, and conflict that were involved in the transformation process at NTI. These are discussed in Chapters 6 and 7. "I shall explain, " Black Elk Said, "What our pipe really is: peace may come to those peoples who can understand, an understanding which must be of the heart and not of the head alone." [emphasis added] (Brown, 1953, p. xx) 52 CHAPTER 4: EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF THE NATIVE TRAINING INSTITUTE There were seven philosophical approaches to education integrated into the curricu-lum at the Native Training Institute. This chapter briefly examines these approaches and provides examples of how they were integrated into the curriculum. The educational phi-losophy of the Native Training Institute was developed through a holistic conceptualization of a human being based on the medicine wheel philosophy. This philosophy was articulated in an audio video of the 1983 NTI graduation ceremony. The video states that a holistic approach to education using the four realms of the medicine wheel - the intellectual, the emotional, the physical and the spiritual - was the fundamental philosophy of the Human Services Worker program. Founding principles of the Native Training Institute The Native Training Institute began as an effort to bring training to band workers employed in the human service areas of band administration (M. Anderson Interview, May 27, 2003; E. Hebert Interview, May 23, 2003). Anderson stated that there were two essential foci in the initial creation of the institute. First, was the desire to help the community and, secondly, was the desire to help human service workers because: ... everybody was feeling kind of lost in their jobs because there was no training. Some people were doing the work because they were hired to do the work. Or feeling frustrated because they didn't know how to help people really. I think one of the main difficulties was, of course, alcohol abuse, you know, most visible and family breakdown and the like and it was really hard to help in that setting. (Interview, May 27, 2003, p. 2) Hebert agreed with Anderson that the NTI grew out of need for training. She states that there was "no real training" (Interview, May 23, 2003, p. 4) available for people working in social service areas of band administration. The social service areas considered for educa-53 tion in the development of the institute included alcohol and drug addiction counsellors, social development workers, home school coordinators and community health representa-tives (p. 4). We can piece together the following developmental history of the institute from the records still in existence. The program was conceptualized during discussions between Marilynn Napolean and Elaine Herbert in 1979 (E. Herbert, Interview, May 23, 2003, p. 6a). Norma (Kenoris) Manual became involved to assist in the negotiation for funding and college credit. Marie Anderson became involved because her role in the Department of Indian Affairs created an access to possible funding and resources (E. Herbert, Interview, p. 6a). These discussions created some basic visualizations of what the training would need to hold out the possibility of improving the life situation of band workers and community workers. Anderson identified four key elements of concern in forming the institute: 1. There was a need for an educational structure 2. There was a desire to "organize our own program" (Anderson, Interview, May 27, 2003, p.2). A corollary to this premise was the idea that the curriculum would be preferable if it was created and taught by Aboriginal instructors. "We didn't want college instructors because we wanted our own curriculum, or our own content" (P- 4)-3. There was the idea that human service workers needed training in knowledge, skills and attitudes. "What kind of knowledge do we want people to get. What kind of skills do we want them to learn? Basically what kind of attitudinal ad-justment or change do we want? We actually looked at it that way. We focused on those three things" (pp. 3-4). 4. There was an awareness that there were emotional educational needs that should be addressed. 54 Elements of cultural pedagogy at the NTI This gap in training needs resulted in a search toward a "multidisciplinary, culturally relevant social service training" (Herbert, Interview, May 23, 2003, p. 8) curriculum that would "meet the needs of a cross-section of people in the social services sector (Hebert, 2003, p. 4). The search expanded to included meetings with community representatives and workshops. This produced an expanded understanding of what the curriculum must contain to create a "basic foundation" (Hebert, 2003, p. 4) for all community services workers including the following educational dimensions: 1. It must address "the whole notion of culture" (Hebert, 2003 p. 4). ... [I]t was revisionist history for us because the history that we had known about who we were didn't have a lot of information about that (culture) and there was not a lot of validation about Aboriginal Native culture as many people had known it to be especially those who are survivors of the residential school.... It validated who we were as a people. It was kind of like giving people permission or ideas of how to practice and to revive practice or to learn what there was there because a lot of people didn't know anything about [cultural] practice. Didn't know what to do because they had lost a lot of that in their own experiences through their own parents or were themselves damaged through school. As people were taught these things or they were encouraged to revive what they knew and people did that. (Herbert, Interview, May 23, 2003, p. 14) 2. It must be meaningful, relevant and effective in the workplace. Anderson comments on the importance of the NTI philosophy belonging to the community. I think in the beginning our philosophy was that we would do it for ourselves. We were tired of being 'white is right' we already knew that. We wanted something authentically First Nations and we wanted it local, by local I mean that we wanted it in our own area ... we wanted it to be First Nations and all we wanted was Indian control, First Nations control. (Anderson, Interview, May 27, 2003, pp. 5-6) 3. It must include an element of Aboriginal knowledge. Hebert comments that the concept that was most integral to the NTI curriculum was the presence of Aboriginal knowledge throughout the curriculum. She states: "I think that was probably the theoretical basis that everybody shared is that it did address the part of us 55 that was Aboriginal, Native, First Nations and that it addressed more that just the mental" (Herbert, Interview, May 23, 2003, p. 16). Anderson also comments that traditional knowledge represented by ceremony can provide a healing aspect within a dual process curriculum: ... that in our culture. We can heal through smudging, can be of help, through sweat bathing, through having a Yuwipi and things like that and all these things take time. Like smoking the pipe and I guess in a way our circle, what were those things? We didn't have but that was our pipe, if you will, or our sweat bath, I think shared in that circle, in that place, in that time through doing that. We didn't have what we describe now with all those names. So our pedagogy I suppose you could say it was tradition in the truest form without the ritual. It was just that time and place. I think it happened. And I believe that the creator was there doing it for us. I feel emotional. Yeah, I think the creator was there all along when I think about it. We were just helping, fumbling around in the dark and finding him or her. (Anderson, Interview, May 27, 2003, p. 14) 4. It must be relevant to the experience of the students. ... [Tjhe curriculum focused a lot on Aboriginal experiences or First Nations experiences. So we could identify with those experiences and therefore that validated us as people our experiences ourselves but also our parents and all the other people in our own communities. (Herbert, Interview, May 23, 2003, p. 11) 5. It must include more than just the mental aspect of being. Anderson states that it was important in the mental education that students learn to communicate and to understand why Aboriginal people were "where they were at" (Anderson, Interview, May 27, 2003, p. 7) and why the type of mental knowledge was important. Hebert commented that: ... in mainstream society if you go to learn that part of the learning that is addressed is the mental knowledge, is the skill development. You hardly ever experience having your emotional needs being addressed or your spiritual needs addressed .... usually that is the difference between what we ended up doing in our training that was different than and that is what makes that training when you say it is holistic or the medicine wheel training that is what makes it different than mainstream training is because we looked at the other parts of the person that need to be addressed in order for them to learn. (Herbert, Interview, May 23, 2003, pp. 10-11) 56 It must include emotional, physical and spiritual elements in addition to the mental. Anderson comments on the importance of a physical aspect of the program: [W]e thought it was important because one of the things that we noticed in our communities was that physically people were not flourishing. We realized, well, I personally realized that people were not in a good way physically. I felt that some awareness had to be brought to people who were working in that field to assist people to get better physically. Either through diet or exercise or whatever, that was my own person awareness. I think that my colleagues also share that and we felt that it should be part of the whole thing. (Anderson, Interview, May 27, 2003, p. 6) Hebert comments on the emotional aspects: People felt like they had permission to talk in those circles about what was happening to them and then in the training we addressed what happened to people and then a lot of the students identified with those experiences because they had had them themselves and because they had not worked through their own experiences or trauma or whatever it gave them that opportunity to do that in the group. The instructors took the time to deal with those kinds of experiences. (Herbert, Interview, May 23, 2003, p.12) What it really did and when I think about this program is that it really gave the group, all the people that went through that program it gave them permission to feel, it gave them permission to all themselves to feel their emotions and to actually express them ... when we look at Aboriginal people, First Nations people because of their history it is like they don't feel, don't talk about feelings that people have experienced forever. Then you have a group of helpers who are supposed to be helping and they themselves have not learned how to express their feelings, then learning how to do that within that environment. I think the environment that not only people learned about how to do that but they were given permission to do it in that space. And for a lot of people they felt safe to do that. I don't everybody did and I think some people started to learn how to do that and probably went on to do it better in safer environments but certainly I think people did think that they had permission and certainly learned how (Herbert, Interview, May 23, 2003, p. 19). True education is the bringing together of the heart and mind Kevin Locke, Dakota (Bopp and Bopp, p 92) ' Anderson comments on the spiritual incorporation into the program: I feel like it evolved into a more holistic model. Because part of the whole thing was discovering our spirituality like in the whole thing it just sort of 57 happened. It other thing that we made time for was the emotional healing part... (Anderson, Interview, May 27, 2003, p. 12) 7. It must be accommodating to the educational levels of social service workers in the communities. Community meetings and workshops produced an understanding of the basic re-quirements mentioned above. However, it was during the first year of teaching that the staff of the NTI became exposed to the medicine wheel as a holistic model of education. Anderson comments that as soon as they came into contact with the model they realized that it fulfilled the elements an Aboriginally appropriate educational program. It provided a method of education that included all of the seven identified requirements mentioned above. It ad-dressed issues of Aboriginal knowledge in a culturally relevant model. It was relevant to the personal and professional lives of the students. The model addresses more than just the cognitive realm by incorporating the physical, emotional and spiritual realms. And most importantly it was a holistic model providing a foundation for healing understanding in a classroom setting. Anderson states that although the holistic model was not known to the NTI founders at the beginning of the institute, when they came across it they realized that it could to be incorporated into the curriculum strategy of the NTI. Somehow when we got going we started learning about the medicine wheel x and the holistic model and it made really big sense to us so we were free then to incorporate what we were learning. It was like as we learned something we incorporated it because we were in charge we could do that. (Anderson, Interview, May 27, 2003, p. 7) Hebert commented on the importance of the medicine wheel for her: We wanted to be able to also provide the kind of training that was going to be meaningful, relevant and effective to the work that was being done by the people there (in the band administrations). I think we also looked at the whole notion of what we call holistic and of course. And what was it at that time? It was kind of trying to meet all of the needs of the people and I don't know if it was at that point that we recognized, I don't know if it was that we recognized the lack of culture slash spirituality in any kind of... or any concept. (Herbert, Interview, May 23, 2003, p. 21) 58 ... the medicine (sage) itself created a different feeling for me and I understood it that point that it had some sort of way of touching the essence of who people were and allowing you to be in touch with whatever you needed to get into touch with. Whether it was spirituality, for me it was feelings, the feelings of who I was and that happened and just being in the circle and talking ... (Herbert, Interview, May 23, 2003, p. 7) The medicine wheel became the guiding model for a holistic approach after it was en-countered by Hebert and Anderson at a four worlds training program. The founders of the institute realized that the model contained the essential elements they were seeking for the curriculum. The integration of the curriculum into the model occurred as a result of this desire to development of a holistic philosophy. This was a deep insight into the nature of the socio-historical inheritance of Aboriginal communities (Anderson Interview, May 27, 2003, p. 2). The medicine wheel fulfilled the need for a model that would include emotional edu-cation and allow healing while incorporating culture and traditional knowledge. The presence of the medicine wheel in the NTI courses integrated traditional knowledge into all subject areas with a respectful methodology. In addition, courses included as much Aborigi-nal content as possible. For instance, in psychology classes, aspects of Native psychology were taught. In sociology, aspects of Native sociology were integrated into the usual course work. The structure that was created for the NTI was a modular approach that would bring visiting instructors to teach one week a month (Anderson, Interview, May 23, 2003, p. 3). Anderson believed that the structure had to be centered on the student (in this case the human service worker) and where they were at in terms of educational level and training needs. At this time Anderson's philosophy had been influenced by 1. life skills training; 2. Solcanics (a program of social mechanics that has originated out of Saskatchewen as training for social service workers); 3. The writings of Virginia Satir; 4. The writing of Paulo Freire; and 5. Workshops that had been presented by Richard Vedan. 59 Educational philosophies of the NTI Within the pedagogical context of the NTI each Instructor used one or more key phi-losophies to develop their personal teaching strategy. The instructors present at the 1983 faculty meeting who articulated teaching philosophies were: Table 1. Native Training Institute Instructors and Their Philosophies of Education Instructor Philosophy (s) Phil Lane Co-counselling, Anisa Model Patrick Paul Alcoholics Anonymous Lorraine Brave Traditional Stories John Lee Kootnekoff Four Step Model of Visualization Tom Kelly Transactional analysis David Grant Traditional philosophies Lee Brown Anisa Model, Co-counselling. Education is based on a philosophical conceptualization of what a human being is that provides a vision of academic potential and defines the process through which that potential can manifest in a transformational process. Lakoff and Johnson (1999) comment on the need for a philosophical base for education: Living a human life is a philosophical endeavour. Every thought we have, every decision we make, and every act we perform is based on philosophical assumptions .... Such questions arise out of our daily concerns, for the metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of mind, ethics, and so on. (p. 9) Indeed, Phil Lane stated that "it is impossible for any enterprise to promote human well-being unless it has a clear vision of what a human being is, and how a state of well-being comes about" (Lane, Bopp & Bopp, 1984a, p. 2). Lakoff and Johnson (1999) state: 60 Philosophical theories are attempts to make sense of our experience—to figure out why things are the way they are, to learn who they are, and to decide how we ought to live. A philosophical theory tries to answer such "big" questions by seeking a comprehensive, internally consistent, rational account of the world and our place in it. (p. 337) Elaine Hebert commented on the importance of Aboriginality as the basis for the phi-losophical unity of the NTI curriculum: I think that [culture] was probably the theoretical basis that everybody shared is that it did address the part of us that was Aboriginal, Native, First Nations and that it addressed more that just the mental. If that could be the foundation of the theory between everybody that was shared I guess that is what it would be. (Interview, May 23, 2003, p. 16). The medicine wheel As stated above in Chapter 2, the medicine wheel is a traditional, holistic Aboriginal model of human development. The medicine wheel provided the philosophical foundation of the Native Training Institute and organized most the philosophies discussed in this chapter. All of the instructors at the NTI used the medicine wheel as a reference point to their teach-ing with the possible exception of Dr. Tom Kelly who taught transactional analysis. This is important because if philosophy and education are not tied to the beliefs, theories, models and metaphors that define a culture, then, as Lakoff and Johnson (1999) state, "it couldn't possibly make sense to ordinary people (in this case students) or have any bearing on their lives" (p. 341). They argue that philosophy must be built up from the "conceptual and inferential resources of a culture" (p. 341) that provides realistic guidance in the physical, mental, spiritual and emotional realms. The medicine wheel was the conceptual reference point at the Native Training Institute. Patrick Paul believed, as did most of the instructors at the NTI, in the medicine wheel teachings as integral to his own life, personal development and teaching methodology. He commented that: I had to grow in all these [four areas of medicine wheel on flip chart]. I could not grow in one area alone. But once I started growing then the other areas seemed to have followed. I did start growing a little more physically and in the mental area and then that helped me to become more rounded [in the emotional and spiritual areas]. (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 105) 61 The medicine wheel as a traditional Native pedagogical concept of human develop-ment guided the educational process at the NTI. The medicine wheel guides education by organizing the four dimensions of human knowing: action, reflection, interpretation and understanding with the four dimensions of human potentiality: the physical, mental, spiri-tual and emotional (Lane, Bopp, & Bopp, 1984a, pp. 11-12). The medicine wheel not only organizes the dimensions of human knowing and potentiality but also explains the principle of interconnectedness that allows balance and harmony within a holistic matrix. It provides a holistic approach to growth and development toward a vision of wholeness in all areas of human potential. This principle of wholeness is stated in The Sacred Tree is: The medicine wheel teaches us that we have four aspects to our nature: the physical, the mental, the emotional, and the spiritual. Each of these aspects must be equally developed in a healthy, well-balanced individual through the development and use of volition. (Brown et al., 1984, p. 12) At the NTI students worked with the medicine wheel in relation to their own per-sonal growth. Students used the medicine wheel as a way of organizing the other philosophies presented as curriculum materials in all classes. They engaged in process experiences in class that used the medicine wheel to allow reflection on class content. Walter Leech comments on using the medicine wheel in his learning process: But when I began to learn I noticed a heavy load always came from the emotional side and the medicine wheel depicted, I think truly represents, the concept. When I made my own medicine wheel I noticed my own emotional was the most difficult thing to deal. (Interview, February 26, 2003, p. 12) Fred John also comments on the use of the medicine wheel in curriculum experi-ences at the NTI: The medicine wheel made sense. So much sense that every part of our emotion, physical and spiritual fit into that one circle. They all have to be worked on. I noticed that it pointed out the weaknesses that I have in myself the things that I haven't been working on. It gave me an awareness of that so I was able to develop and work on that. It really worked, it really made sense, the medicine wheel. The colors and all of that, I still use that all of the time for teaching or just to have it around. (Interview, January 20, 2003, pp. 22-23) 62 In summary, the pedagogical organization of the NTI can be viewed as a process that included a philosophical view of human development based on the medicine wheel that created a theory of transformation that developed teaching strategies and curriculum in an effort to provide knowledge, values and skills to students. Marie Anderson comments on the integration that the medicine wheel brought to students at the NTI: Well the main thing is the whole concept of balance. There is a time and a place it seems, for everyone. And we all have our beginning and our end. That there is not beginning or end. It is a mystery in a way.... It is a way to describe balance. It is a way to describe how to be, how to be an integrated person, I guess, integrated, how to be whole ... (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 31) The Anisa model Phil Lane and Lee Brown studied the Anisa model of education and brought its teachings to the Native Training Institute. The administrators of the NTI had the opportu-nity to learn about the model early in the development of the institute. Phil Lane commented at the 1983 faculty meeting that: Elaine and Marie and Norma, all three of you came .... and were having a class in curriculum development using the Anisa model... They got a chance to discuss it and so forth and look at the philosophy behind it. Theories of development and learning that they got to utilize and look at the curriculum in terms content and process, teaching methods and strategies, thoughts about that, how it would be administered and also we talked a little about evaluation. All those elements were in that proposal and then of course they came back and implemented it here at the college (NTI) as a process. (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 70) The name Anisa is derived from a root word that "refers to a flowering and fragrant plant or tree" (Jordan, 1975, p. 1). The model is an educational system that draws extensively from organismic philosophy including the writings of Alfred North Whitehead (1942). Whitehead states: Education is the guidance of the individual towards a comprehension of the art of life; and by the art of life I mean the most complete achievement of varied activity expressing the potentialities of that living creature in the face of its actual environment, (p. 39) 63 Organismic philosophy promotes "creativity guided by purpose and expressed by the two fundamental capacities" (Jordan & Streets, 1973, p. 292) which are the ability to know and love. These capacities are developed through the process of "translating potentiality into actuality" (p. 292). The Anisa model defines immanence as the accumulated past stored as memory and transcendence as the immediate present in preparation of the future (p. 292). Immanence and transcendence are directed through purpose, toward self-transcendence or the actualization of potential. Whitehead (1942) referred to this process as "concrescence" (Jordan & Streets, 1973, p. 295). Concrescence included everything normally called devel-opment and "man's unique ability to go beyond himself (Jordan & Streets, 1973, p. 295). Verna Billy expressed the benefit of the Whiteheadian, organismic orientation of the Anisa model: The ability for me to trust at that level I could trust a co-worker or a peer to do whatever they need to do to make it happen and I am totally okay with that. I think that came from the foundation of the Anisa Model. The ability allow people the opportunity to make mistakes and accept those mistakes as teachable moments, as a learning tool and not be angry about it. (Interview, February 10, 2003, p. 22) In the Anisa model learning is defined as the differentiation, integration, and gener-alization of experience. Leaning competence is defined as: The conscious ability to breakdown experience, whether internal or external, into separate contrastable elements (differentiation); to combine those elements in a new way, thereby generating new perceptions, new thoughts, new feelings or emotions and new intentions which may or may not become expressed immediately in some form of new, overt behavior (integration); and, to transfer the new combination or integration to similar situations (generalization). (Jordan, 1974, p. 60) Learning competence requires students to take charge of their own learning process, to learn how to learn. Remarkably, this concept is reflected in the philosophical statement of Phil Lane: I think we can assist them to be conscious of how to learn and they need to learn how to learn. I think they have a natural desire to have that ability. I believe that there are non-actual forms of reality and that is potentiality. (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 93) 64 Learning competence was developed at the NTI by guiding students to learn how to learn. This was perceived by some students as contributing to leadership skills in academic, (Billy) Political, (Smith) and cultural (John) areas. Walter Leech comments on the impor-tance of validation of non-actual forms of reality. In his case his internal propensity to create a future through dreams: I think it (NTI) validated (our intelligence) because a lot of time what came out of it was that I am a dreamer and dreams are unborn actions so I had a lot of dreams inside that were waiting to be born. So it kind of opened the door in that way that I have the potential to create anything I wish, to make the reality out of what was inside here. (Interview, February 26, 2003, pp. 13-14) Anisa is based on a theoretical and philosophical model that includes five categories of human potential (Jordan, 1973, pp. 294-296) defined here in terms of their competencies. Table 2. Anisa Competencies Psycho-motor competence Learning how to move and gain control over the voluntary muscles Perceptual competence The ability to differentiate sensory information, integrate the information into patterned interpretations of reality that enable meaningful decisions and actions Cognitive competence The ability to differentiate aspect of thought, integrate them into logical patterns, an generalize them to solve problems, form concepts, or generate new ideas Affective competence The ability to organize one's emotions to acquire learning and support the release of potential Volitional competence Developing purpose through the intrinsic motivation of the will While working at the NTI, I developed a teaching paper entitled Learning Identity: A study in Values, Identity, Culture, and Learning in the Classroom which integrated the medicine wheel with the psychological competencies of the Anisa model to provide a blue-print for developing a strong learning identity in the classroom. The concept of learning identity incorporated the Anisa categories of competency with the structure of the medicine 65 wheel and the Aboriginal sense of personal and community vision. This created a body of knowledge that allowed for the creation of a concept of affective competence that was teach-able in the NTI and that was also in agreement with the medicine wheel concept that the heart is the root of the mind. I placed the five competencies on the medicine wheel in relation to the four direc-tions and the center of the wheel. Psycho-motor competencies relate to the physical aspect,of being, cognitive relates to mental development, perceptual relates to the spirit that enables movement and perception, affective relates to emotional development, and volitional relates to the will which is traditionally at the center of the will and manifests from voice. Mental Cognitive competence Physical Psycho-motor competence Spiritual Perceptual competence Emotional Affective competence Figure 3. Competencies and the Medicine Wheel 66 Verna Billy the integration of the Anisa model with the medicine wheel as a founda-tion for her learning at NTI: If I was to think really hard about it I think that is where that base started to come from and my belief in adult education to be that and the idea that the medicine wheel concept would fit into that whole philosophy. (Interview, February 10, 2003, p. 22) Many curriculum exercises were done with the medicine wheel and the Anisa model giving students a chance to develop stronger identities. A number of students comment below that these process experiences were critical to their transformation process at the NTI. Deb Draney notes that: "We did activities and exercises that helped us to see ourselves in a better light or to be more appreciative of our strength. Self-esteem building activities, group-building activities" (Interview, February 14, 2003, pp. 11). Susan Smith also remarks on the transformative nature of the process exercises at the NTI. ... the exercises ... were transformative because, even though we were terrified to do them we did them anyway. Then you could see the difference in people, you did that one day and we are all survived and came back the next day and you could just see it. It was amazing. (Interview, January 27, 2003, pp. 20-21) In a synoptic view of the Anisa model, these competencies are developed through in-teraction with four environments: physical, human, unknown and self. The interaction with the four environments, which is process learning, enables the acquisition of curriculum content such as science, math, history, philosophy, etc. The interaction with the environ-ments develops three symbols systems: Math in the interaction with the physical environment, language in the interaction with the human environment, and art in the interaction with the unknown environment. This process formulates three kinds of values: material, social and religious (cultural) in a movement toward three higher order competen-cies of technological, moral and spiritual competence. The three higher order competencies are combined in the self as personal effectance (Jordan, 1973, p. 304). 67 Values are developed by expressing and organizing emotion during the actualizing of potential. Values are: relatively enduring patterned uses of energy that are organized through the actualization of potential (psychomotor, perceptual, cognitive, affective, and volitional potential)... (that) predispose one to respond in a particular way to aspects of the material, human and unknown environments (Jordan, 1973, p. 304). Aiona Anderson the importance of the teaching of Aboriginal values at the NTI: ... learning of our own culture and you know all the wonderful things about it the values of our culture. It was totally inspiring, beautiful and really kinda transforming. I started to really feel good about who I was and I could walk down the street with my head up and started not really worrying so much about what people think about me if they saw the colour of my skin or any of those other outward things. Because I knew inside I had found something indescribably beautiful... (Interview, November 15, 2002, p. 8) A very important aspect of the Anisa model includes the development of affective competencies. The Anisa model does "not leave the emotional and moral development of the child to chance, but treats it as an obligation of high priority" (Carney, n.d., p. 5). The Anisa model promotes affective development that teaches "how to feel" (Carney, n.d., p. 2). 'How to feel' implies the ability to feel the right emotion at the right time. The right emotions are those that provide maximum viability while optimizing our movement toward our potential. In the Anisa model "emotions are non-verbal states of consciousness the purpose of which is to inform the organism of its condition of viability" (Carney, n.d., p. 6). Emotions are a feedback system that evaluates the expression of energy toward viability. Magdalene'Carney (n.d.), one of the foremost developers of the affective area of the Anisa model, wrote: Built into each one of us is an internal cybernetic (feedback) system through which information about how the organism is expending energy is represented in consciousness in the form of feelings or emotions. Each living human being is an energy system. Its viability as a system (organism) depends on how it uses energy available to it both in the maintenance of internal operations and it its interaction with the external environment, (p. 6) The Anisa model organizes affective competence around hope-related and fear-related emotions. According to Jordan (1972), fear-related emotions develop from painful 68 experience and hope-related emotions develop from pleasurable experiences. Jordan theorizes that perception and cognition are always "accompanied by an appraisal of viability" (p. 7). This is emotional feedback. When the hope and fear related emotions are accurate in their assessment of viability then survival is maximized. Jordan provides the following definition: Affective competence is the conscious ability to differentiate affective states which reflect varying degrees of viability of the organism, to integrate them appropriately so that they accurately inform the organism of its condition of viability, and to generalize the integration to anticipated experiences and the experiences of others. Affective competence involves the differentiation of emotions and feeling, their integration in reference to memories, objects events, people, or ideals, and their generalization in ways that provide a basic stability in life. (Carney, nd. p. 5) Damasio (1999) indicates that consciousness is based on the need for survival and supports this definition. "Survival depends on finding and incorporating sources of energy and on preventing all sorts of situations which threaten the integrity of living tissue" (p. 23). He argues that consciousness, based on emotion, is a device that is the "root of survival" (p. 24). The more effective consciousness is the greater the survival. The effectiveness of consciousness is enhanced by accurate emotional response to situations through processing of interactions with objects in the environment that result in drives and motivations. Dama-sio writes: Emotions are complicated collections of chemical and neural responses, forming a pattern; all emotions have some kind of regulatory role to play, leading in one way or another to the creation of circumstances advantageous to the organism exhibiting the phenomenon; emotions are about the life of an organism, its body to be precise, and their role is to assist the organism in maintaining life (p. 51). Jordan's (1972) philosophical framework is in accordance with the medicine wheel teachings that the emotions are connected to all other areas of the wheel. Affective development refers to the organization of emotions ... When values, emotional habits (attitudes), and feelings are organized into a coherent whole unified by a strong sense of purpose, energies are released which would otherwise be dissipated ... This organization must be internally consistent, relatively free from conflicts and compatible with reason. The organization of 69 emotion is one of the most important learning processes that occur during a person's life. (p. 26) Carney (n.d.) concludes that a person has achieved affective competency when their emotions effectively increase the quality of survival for themselves and others. The develop-ment of affective competencies moves a student toward their ideals at an optimum rate of development. This is accomplished through the energy released from the emotional realm of the medicine wheel to the other three realms (spiritual, mental, physical). The Anisa model incorporates underlying processes that develop affective compe-tence. These processes enable the accurate organization of emotions such that assessment will be accurate and create behaviour that enhances survival. Damasio (1999) also states that emotions and consciousness are essential to human survival. Consciousness allows feelings to be known and thus promotes the impact of emotion internally, allows emotion to permeate the thought process through the agency of feeling. Eventually, consciousness allows any object to be known - the "object" emotion and any other object, and, in so doing, enhances the organism's ability to respond adaptively, mindful of the needs of the organism in question. Emotion is devoted to an organism's survival, and so is consciousness, (p. 56) Evaluative processes allow students to assess patterns of energy in response to envi-ronmental data. Regulative processes resolve "affective dissonance" (Carney, 1976, p. 41) and provide constructive methods to regulate and negotiate experience while releasing the appropriate level of energy to move toward the actualization of potential. Regulative proc-esses also integrate emotion through relationship with cognitive awareness. The Anisa model postulates a number of pedagogical implications of affective processes. They include: 1. Arranging the environment such that the teachers actions, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings promote the maximum potential of every child in the classroom. 2. Teachers must model affective competency 3 . Teachers must regard human diversity with appreciation and without prejudice. 4. Ground rules must be clear and enforced in the classroom. 5. Teachers must guide interactions in the classroom to maximize potential. 70 6. Teachers must give accurate and clear feedback that relates the use of emotional energy to learning and potential. (Carney, 1976, pp. 50-55) Pauline Terbaskit comments on the importance of the teachers as role models at the NTI: On a role modeling kind of framework and that just brings up NTI. I was surrounded by role models; I was surrounded by brown faced role models that I went 'oh my God, these guys are doing things' how could I have ever thought. Having Aboriginal instructors, primarily, was an amazing impact. (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 21) Marie Anderson agrees with the use of the Anisa model: "I just remember that it seemed at the time appropriate and applicable .... I remember thinking that if we could educate our children that way I think we would all be better off and they would be better off' (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 33). The creation of teachability In the Anisa model, teachability is created by the teacher in the classroom when the teacher successfully relates to everything the students have become (their immanence), and everything they will become in the future (their transcendence) (Jordan, 1968, p. 50). Damasio (1999) comments on these as key aspects of the self involved in the development of personal (and I would argue emotional) maturity. Damasio writes: " I believe that a key aspect of self-evolution concerns the balance of two influences: the lived past and the antici-pated future" (p. 225). The most significant element of the learning environment is the teacher. If the teacher fails to accept a student's immanence by invalidating their language, culture, relig-ion, race, clothing or social status, they create unteachability. When the teacher rejects a student's immanence, the student intuitively feels the invalidation as a frustration of his or her own potential. When the teacher does not accept the transcendence of the student by invalidating their potential, the same frustration results. When a teacher loses faith in the potentials of a student, the student loses faith in their self. Absolutely nothing upsets a 71 youngster as much as the frustration of their potentiality. In Psychology in the Classroom, Rudolf Dreikurs (1968) writes: In the past the role of teacher was to "teach" to impart knowledge which the child was supposed to absorb. If the child failed to absorb such knowledge, the process of learning stopped ... Today these methods of teaching no longer bring about the desired result. Our schools produce an increasing number of illiterates and many of our pupils simply refuse to study, (p. 28) If the teacher creates unteachability and the student is an introvert, the student tends to express frustration inwardly as self-destruction (see Figure 4, next page). The most extreme form of self-destruction is suicide. Not all suicides result from the failure of our schools but there is no doubt that some are the result of the unteachability created by a teacher. If the student is an extrovert, they will tend to express their frustration outwardly. The most extreme form of the expression of the frustration of extroverts is homicide. Again, not all homicides are the result of the failure of the schools but some certainly are the result of frustrated potentiality. Dr. Jordan, the founder of the Anisa model stated, that we have two institutions to deal with failure of our schools, prisons and mental hospitals. Brown comments on the creation of teachability in his classes at NTI: The [Anisa] model views the human being as everything a person has become and everything a person can become, their immanence and their transcendence, everything they are and everything they can become. As a teacher I believe I create within the student the maximum desire to learn when I connect with these two things. When I can totally accept and love the student as they are, everything they have become given what they have went through. When I am also in touch with their potentiality, given what they are and what they can become which is infinite as Phil [Lane] mentioned. I see development as unenveloping, the word development actually means to take the envelope off. I see my role as a teacher to unwrap that human being and let what is in there come out, their unique potential. So I create teachability by connecting with these two. If I can't relate to the students, their hair color or their eye color or what they eat for breakfast then I as a teacher create unteachability. If I don't believe that student can become a Ph.D. in psychology some day then I create unteachability. (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, PP-90-91) 72 Creates Teachability Strong learning identity • Strong sense of values Development of Competencies • Creates Unteachability Introvert Extrovert Violence to others Violence to self Development of Ideals and Vision Mental illness Suicide Imprisonment Homicide Figure 4 . Diagram of Teachability 73 I would argue that the immanence and transcendence of students be respected and accepted. This one change in the classroom environment will create teachability and give rise to a sense of direction and purpose, which will be healing to the current conflict between teachers and students. Aborimmanence Aboriginal immanence, or aborimmanence, is the accumulated socio-historical con-text of Indigenous peoples that culminates in the present. Aboriginal values cannot be addressed, strengthened or expressed if aborimmanence is not accurately addressed in the curriculum; in fact, the higher the degree of aborimmanence, the greater the strength of learning energies. It may also be argued that an optimal learning experience for all students necessitates aborimmanence, since all students, regardless of their background, are part of the North American experience by definition. At the NTI, aborimmanence was accepted and acknowledged. The acceptance of aborimmanence created teachability and optimal learning energies for Aboriginal students. Aborimmanence was promoted by including and validating Aboriginal knowledge and culture in the classroom. [E]ach distinct cultural group has people with unique strengths and capacities which healing can be based. You cannot build on what is wrong or missing. You have to build on who people actually are and on what they have. (Bopp & Bopp, 2001, p. 69) Aboriginal transcendence Aboriginal transcendence is the infinite potential of Aboriginal students. Any limita-tion that is placed on the infinite nature of this potential by the teachers or administrators in a school system contributes to the academic failure of Aboriginal students. Pauline Terbaskit expressed the failure of school systems to accept and promote her potential as a source of hurt that lessened her academic experience. 74 Re-evaluation counselling Re-evaluation counselling (RC) was practiced by at least two of the Native Training Institute instructors: Lee Brown and Phil Lane. Re-evaluation Counselling is a theory of peer counselling that was developed by Harvey Jackins (1973). It posits a theory of human behaviour that became part of the NTI philosophical view of a human being. It aims at regenerating human intelligence by eliminating distress patterns through a system of procedures for expediting emotional discharge while engaging in a re-evaluation process. RC is a collection of insights into the nature of reality that promises a successful alternative to individual and social irrationality. Re-evaluation counselling argues that rational human behaviour is qualitatively different from the behaviour of other forms of life. The essence of rational human behaviour consists of responding to each moment with a new response, created at that moment to precisely fit the situation as it is defined by the information received through the senses of the person. Therefore, the ability to create new and exact responses may be defined as human intelligence (Jackins, 1973, p. 2). Intelligence operates by comparing and contrasting new information with that stored from past experiences and constructing a response based on similarities to past situations but modified to allow for differences. Every normal person has an unlimited inherent capacity for rational, intelligent behaviour. RC was used at the NTI to enable students to discharge traumas including those they brought to the institute as part of personal experiences resulting from colonialism and oppression. Counselling sessions were used at the NTI any time trauma surfaced in the educational process. For instance, if a lesson in history restimulated hurt and trauma among the students, the class would form a talking circle, do a smudge, and take the time to release the negative feeling created by the very process of learning. Aiona Anderson comments on the importance of counselling process in learning and healing at the NTI (Interview, No-vember 15, 2002, p. 18). More importantly students actually became counsellors and some 75 received certification by the Re-evaluation Counselling institute (Smith). In the process of becoming counsellors and learning counselling skills, students not only released the hurts of colonialism but also learned new forms of behaviour and emotional communication skills. Draney comments on the importance of the two-way counselling sessions that were part of class process at the NTI: "... and co-counselling of course that is a great way of interacting with somebody you know I talk for five minutes and you talk for five minutes and it is like an equal type of sharing": (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 19). Relationships RC theory argues that conflict between human beings is irrational and the result of distress pattern because human beings are born naturally loving and kind. People are not born with any hatreds or prejudices. Negative emotion between individuals and groups is the result of hurt and distress (Jackins, 1973, p. 3). Ross Albert shares how co-counselling improved his relationships: "I think after that my relationships had turned healthy, it is learning to listen, learning to express my feeling, express my opinions without getting angry, without getting upset" (Interview, February 7, 2003, pp. 13). RC argues that all healthy human beings possess genius intelligence and that if hu-man intelligence is not distressed, then the natural emotional state of the human being is zestful enjoyment of life. Therefore, a natural relationship between any two human beings is defined by loving affection, communication and cooperation. However, the special human capacity for rational response can be interrupted or suspended by an experience of physical or emotional distress. Jackins (1973) writes: Our concept of the basic underlying integral nature of the human being is primarily based on the assumption of a very large amount of flexible intelligence, of the ability to come up with new, accurate, successful responses for each person .... The nature of the human is integral, wholesome [emphasis in original]. The natural feeling of the human being is zest, the natural relationship with other human beings is love and co-operation. We assume this is the inherent nature. We regard distress as a disfunction ... (p. 2) 76 Immediately after the distress experience, people spontaneously seek to claim the aware attention of another person (Jackins, 1973, p. 4). If he or she is successful in claiming and keeping the aware attention of the other person, a profound healing process, termed 'discharge' in the RC counselling theory, ensues. Brown discusses the use of this process at NTI: Part of the unwrapping and the releasing of the potential is the healing and removal of those hurts. I believe in my classes that I teach that if there is hurt in the circle, rather than do a two-hour lecture on fundamentals of sociology it is a real good idea to deal with those hurts. A person can learn more in five minutes when they are not hurting than they can learn in a week when they are sitting there hurting. Somebody in the circle is sitting there hurting it is best to stop and deal with that. (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 104) Discharge occurs through a set of physical processes (Jackins, 1973, p.4). These are: crying or sobbing (with tears), trembling with cold perspiration, laughter, angry shouting and vigorous movement with warm perspiration, live, interested talking; and in a slightly different way, yawning, often with scratching and stretching. Interviewees commented that they were raised in environments where discharge of their hurt and pain was not allowed. Duncan comments that "I think crying .... we weren't allowed to cry. Because we were taught that way it was really, really hard to cry, (or) even laugh ..." (Interview, May 30, 2003, p. 6). Many students commented on crying for weeks after being introduced to co-counselling and releasing their first discharge. Ross Albert comments: I can remember just actually crying for days, just discharging for days. Yeah, there were thought that I was going ... There were thoughts for a while that I was going crazy. How could I be so emotional? Yeah, it was quite an experience. (Interview, February 7, 2003, p. 8) Rational evaluation and understanding of the distress experience occurs automati-cally following emotional discharge. This eliminates the negative and anti-rational effects of the experience (p. 4). At the Native Training Institute students learned and practiced many forms of discharging negative emotions. This occurred as demonstrations with instructors in front of the class, in small group work, in one on one co-counselling sessions and in talking 77 circles. For instance, Deb Draney notes her experience working in front of the class with Phil to discharge some negative emotions that came from previous childhood school experiences. The session was a life-changing event for Deb: So Phil worked with me with that and he said come up here. I was kind of scared to go up, but oh okay I'll get up there and he was going to do some therapy with me around that. Anyway, we went through this exercise and he had me confront it. That was really empowering. I will always remember that. (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 10) The effect of an undischarged distress experience is a compulsive, repetitive re-enactment of negative emotional behaviour. This is the RC explanation for all observable irrational behaviour in human beings. RC theory argues that any human being can become free of the irrational behaviour caused by accumulated distress experience recordings through the discharging of the negative pattern in a counselling relationship. In addition, our children can be allowed to remain free of negative patterns by protection from distress experiences and by encouraging the full discharge and re-evaluation on the ones that do occur. By taking turns or co-counselling, two people can become effective with helping each other to discharge accumulated distress patterns (Jackins, 1973, p. 4). RC defines chronic distress patterns as those that have been reinforced by repeated restimulation (Jackins, 1973, p. 7). To discharge these requires initiative, skill, and resource on the part of the counsellor. However, they are riot different in origin or effect from lighter distresses, and can be completely discharged and evaluated. Distress experiences result from any unfavourable aspect of the environment. How-ever, in our present state of civilization, most childhood distress results from the distress recordings of adults, which the adults received from earlier generations when they were children. RC theorizes an intergenerational transmission distress to each new generation. The irrationalities of society (enforcements, punishments, exploitations, prejudices, group conflicts, wars) are reflections of the individual human distress patterns that have become fossilized in the society. RC teaches that no individual human has an actual rational conflict 78 of interest with another human because cooperation is the most intelligent behaviour (Jackins, 1973, p. 2). And no group of humans has an actual, rational conflict of interest with another group of humans. Given rationality, the actual desires of each individual and each group can best be served by mutual cooperation. Only distress patterns prevent communica-tion, agreement, and cooperation between humans. Awareness of these distress patterns allows individuals and communities to discharge them and return to rational behaviour. A major contribution of RC to the NTI curriculum was a philosophy of healing that was both explained much of the political, social and historical reality of the students and at the same time allowed healing without blame. One of Harvey Jackin's (c. 1970) most well-known sayings is that "when all things are considered, every human being has done their very best at every moment and deserves neither condemnation or blame" (Jackins, c. 1970). Leadership RC theory argues that leadership is an inherent human characteristic. Therefore, RC has developed a theory of leadership as it relates to counselling. Leadership functions in RC must be performed if a group is to function well and therefore leadership is encouraged. RC teaches that a good leader should elicit the thinking of all the members of the group and organize and communicate it back to the group to secure their agreement and their com-mitment. RC encourages people to "take charge" of their life situation and arise to leadership (Jackins, 1973, p. 8). In any situation it is always possible for an individual to take the initiative and exercise complete responsibility, which is considered the natural attitude of each human being in RC theory. RC teaches that the attitude of powerlessness is imposed by distress and conceals an actuality of leadership ability that allows at least one elegant solu-tion for any real problem. Susan Smith remarks on her rise to leadership in co-counselling. That is part of what Native Human Services [Native Training Institute] did. It was almost a fringe benefit is that, was developing leaders, people who are 79 doing more that they would have if they hadn't attended that training. I think that everyone stepped out and did something whether it was a spiritual leader or as a political leader or even a leader in their own families. (Interview, January 27, 2003, p. 10) Learning RC theory states that any undamaged human brain is capable of learning anything. All learning difficulties are the result of distress patterns. Distress interferes with and prevents learning. RC argues that learning is greatly enhanced by the learner being allowed to talk during the learning process. The learning process is accelerated by the learner feeling approved, respected, having success, and an aware closeness with other students. RC encourages a classroom with playing and ongoing discharge in the learning process. Brown comments: On the other hand I feel there is a whole other training that goes along at the same time which is the development of the development of the individuals in . the class through process experiences ... Once a process is started I am not as concerned with the outcome of the process as what is going on in the process (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 39) In RC theory, learning occurs when new information is presented in relation to something the learner already understands, using small increments that are understood before the next increment is presented. RC theorizes that presenting new information too quickly creates confusion that prevents learning and that presenting information too slowly creates boredom that prevents learning (this is relatable to the Anisa concept of optimal challenge). A concept of RC theory that was evident in the philosophy of NTI instructors is that learning occurs optimally from a teacher who loves and regards their students as peers. Teachers at the NTI were discouraged from positioning themselves as an "authority." This teaching is consistent with the use of the circle in the classroom at the NTI. Co-counselling knowledge and technique was practiced in the talking circles at the NTI. Pauline Terbaskit discusses the equal nature of the circle: [Talking circles] had the most impact in the sense that I was part of a whole sitting in the circle that the strength of the circle is the ability of the weakest 80 link to acknowledge and support. So that holistic, it was the practice, we were getting taught theory and some understanding and background but it was the practice that the instructors had. Everything, the stories or the modules of instruction that they advanced was practiced. It was not just sitting there having one-way communication or being taught something, it was this dialogue that was respected and that is what and so because of that, because of the talking circle, I know I have been referring to it as the healing circle because I think that is inherent in the process, is that I was being listening to and I was also listening. There was giving and receiving, it was two-way, that is, was equal, I mean all of those values were practiced. (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 17) Students at the NTI were formally taught Re-evaluation co-counselling techniques. The techniques that were taught included: • Listening • Validation • Goal-setting • Telling dreams • Paying attention • Self-appreciation • Loaning confidence • Contradicting distress • Strategizirig for re-emergence • Discharging earliest memories • Storytelling- earliest memories • Taking responsibility for everything • Creating client and counsellor notebooks • Creating and repeating positive directions • Counsellor contradicting the client's distress • Placing attention away from distress and on reality Internalized oppression RC developed a concept that was very useful at the NTI to explain the oppression of Aboriginal people by other Aboriginal people. The concept of internalized oppression explains that the hurt that results from colonialism, racism and all forms of oppression that have been systematically initiated, encouraged, and powerfully enforced by the distress patterns of individual members of the majority culture and their institutions. Native people have been the victims of abuse, invalidation, oppression, and exploitation. This mistreat-ment installed heavy chronic distress patterns upon Aboriginal people. The result has been that these distress patterns, created by oppression and racism from the outside, have been 81 internalized and expressed within the community: by members of the Aboriginal community on other Aboriginal persons (particularly upon those over whom we have some degree of power or control - our children), and by members of the Aboriginal community upon themselves (through all manner of self-invalidation, self-doubt, isolation, fear, feelings of powerlessness, and despair). Today, many of these responses to mistreatment have become embedded in Aboriginal culture. RC counselling theory teaches that internalized oppression creates a situation where oppressed groups oppress themselves, their families, and their own people through the distress patterns that result from the racism. RC argues for liberation through the discharge of emotional distress patterns. Marie Anderson discusses this phenomenon: But being a First Nations person, for many, has negative, very big negative connotations and that translated into low self-esteem that many felt and (developed) into all the abuse. It got into all those abuse issues, self-abuse we had internalized this oppression. (Interview, May 2003, p. 10) I adapted RC to the medicine wheel at the NTI by placing the main elements of the RC theory of human behaviour - intelligence, the capacity to be loving, the desire to be cooperative and full of energy - on the medicine wheel in relation to the four elements (mental, emotional spiritual and physical). This adaptation may have made re-evaluation counselling more acceptable to the NTI students (see Figure 5). Brown comments on this philosophy at the 1983 faculty meeting: The other thing I believe in is the co-counselling model. This is a way of looking at a human being as tremendous intelligence, tremendous energy, the capacity to loving and the capacity to be cooperative, these are our natural qualities. These four qualities relate to the four areas of the medicine wheel. I believe anything that is not intelligent, loving, cooperative is because of hurts they have been through in life. (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 104) 82 Infinite Intelligence Loving Kindness Figure 5. Re-evaluation counselling and the medicine wheel The process of hurt creates distress and lessens each of the four qualities. After re-ceiving distress a student becomes less intelligent, less loving, less kind, less cooperative and has less energy. In fact, the energy that was given to us for life is used to hold the hurts in place. The good news is that when we discharge hurts we regain our intelligence, our capac-ity to be loving and kind, our ability to cooperate and our energy and zest for life. However, if distress is not discharged, it can snowball into a situation where the person is partially or completely incapacitated. Pauline Terbaskit eloquently speaks of the return of her values and the capacity to be loving toward her family: They made me appreciate my values. They made me appreciate the value of family, the value of respect and honesty, the value of caring and loving all of those values that I had known I that I had but weren't being very reciprocated from others. And that is one of the things that because of my trauma or because of my life experiences, my negative experiences. I came to the realization that I minimized and discounted my own family because of my 83 shame and because of the distortion, the distorted picture I had of my family because of all these other experiences that were going on in my life. Now I can say and then I can say my mom and dad were my foundation. My family was my foundation. I accepted that and they gave me some very strong values and principles. I kind of lost those over the years but NTI helped me acknowledge that I had them myself and that they are core. They are core! (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 15) Alcoholic Anonymous Several instructors including Rich Weber, Patrick Paul, Lee Brown and Phil Lane used the teachings and theory of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in their classroom. Rick Weber and Patrick Paul were the two main proponents of the program. Although the program was not presented in detail it was used as a reference point at all times. Alcoholics Anonymous began in 1935 in Akron, Ohio (AA Grapevine Inc., 1981, p. 16). It developed from the meeting of two men. One was a New York stockbroker and the other was a surgeon. Both were severe alcoholics who discovered that talking about their problem ('discharge' in co-counselling terms) assisted them in staying sober. These two men borrowed from the disciplines of medicine and religion to develop the twelve steps of A A (AA World Services, 1995, p. 16). Three years later they published Alcoholics Anonymous, a book about their discoveries of how to get alcoholics sober. From these two men A A has been used by over two million people world by the year 2001 (AA World Services, 1995, p. 15) with over 90,000 AA groups in 141 countries (AA World Services, 1995, p. xxii). AA not only provides an alternative view of the defeat of Alcoholism but also from the humiliation of colonialism and oppression. Many students viewed alcoholism and the despair of reserve life as two aspects of the contemporary Aboriginal situation. In fact some students viewed alcoholism as a symptom of Aboriginal oppression and powerlessness. A A provides the "first steps toward liberation and strength" (AA World Services, 1995, p. 21). A A argues that by acknowledging powerlessness, power is regained - a philosophy congruent to the RC philosophy of regaining power by discharging internalized oppression. The humility 84 required to begin the A A program by admitting powerlessness is the same humility sought through traditional process. Marie Anderson describes the importance of A A for students dealing with alcohol problems: I feel like AA is a very important support system. I really like their practice about, you know, sponsoring because I think that when a person is first on their journey to the red road that they need lots of support and they need somebody who has been through the same thing so the can dispense with the bs or whatever so that it is a really honest program. I feel like it is a place to go to when you are struggling to get the help and it is also a place to go when you are not struggling and give the help. It is a very ideal support. (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 33) It was often discussed in classes at the NTI that Alcoholism and drug abuse has func-tioned as a form of self-medication, an anaesthetic to the wounds of colonialism and oppression. A A teaches, however, that only by taking personal responsibility for our situa-tion can we regain our strength as individuals and communities. These concepts were congruent with the overall of the NTI to strengthen students' personal identities while creating leaders and teachers. Most students attending the NTI became sober during their two years of training. Draney describes: Finally I made that recognition and admitted that I was alcoholic, I was twenty-six, twenty-seven and decided to quit drinking, that was it and from there that totally changed. When I look at NHS it opened the doors for me to move to that next level. (Interview, February 14, 2003, pp. 7-8) The A A program is structured around twelve steps and twelve traditions. It is a spiri-tual program that provides a setting for co-counselling style discharge through the telling of personal stories and events that have occurred in the lives of the members. The twelve steps are: Step One: We admitted we were powerless over alcohol - that our lives had become unmanageable. Step two: Came to believe that a Power greater than ourselves could restore us to sanity. Step Three: Made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of God as we understood Him [emphasis in original]. Step Four: Made a searching and fearless moral inventory of ourselves. 85 Step Five: Admitted to God, to ourselves, and to another human being the exact nature of our wrongs. Step Six: Were entirely ready to have God remove all these defects of character. Step Seven: Humbly asked Him to remove our shortcomings. Step Eight: Made a list of all persons we had harmed, and became willing to make amends to them all. Step Nine: Made direct amends to such people wherever possible, except when to do so would injure them or others. Step Ten: Continued to take personal inventory and when we were wrong promptly admitted it. Step Eleven: Sought through prayer and meditation to improve our conscious contact with God as we understood Him, [emphasis in original] praying only for knowl-edge of His will for us and the power to carry that out. Step Twelve: Having had a spiritual awakening as the result of these steps, we tried to carry this message to alcoholics, and to practice these principles in all our affairs. (AA Grapevine Inc., 1981, pp. 5-12) Transactional analysis One member of the Native Training Institute teaching team, Dr. Tom Kelly, practiced and taught transactional analysis (TA) as his foundational philosophy of instruction. T A was a very influential philosophy in the lives of some students. TA is based on a structure analy-sis of "ego states" that are organized into three categories: (1) parent ego states, (2) ego states that are autonomously directed toward objective appraisal, and (3) still active ego states with archaic remnants of early childhood (Berne, 1964, p. 23). These are termed respectively the exteropsychic or parent, the neopsychic or adult, and the archaeopsychic or child ego states. The premise of TA is that at "at any given moment each individual in a social organization with exhibit a Parental, Adult or Child ego state" (Berne, 1964, p. 24). These are capitalized to show that they are formal terms in T A philosophy. Draney com-ments on the phenomenon common among interviewees of being an adult at an early age because of dysfunctional family systems. 86 [TJhe transactional analysis parent, child and adult I could relate to that being the adult most of my life. Not knowing how to let the child, I know I was childish you know immaturity, but also being and adult and letting the child come out to play a little bit more. (Interview, February 14, 2003, pp. 18-19) The introduction of T A at the NTI enabled students to experience an increased wholeness of personality. The three primary implications of this model of human behaviour are: 1. Every individual has had parents (or substitute parents) and that he carries within him a set of ego states that produce the ego states of those parents and that these ego states can be activated under certain circumstances which gives rise to Parent functioning. (Berne, 1964, p. 24) 2. Every individual is capable of objective data processing if the appropriate ego state can be achieved which gives rise to Adult functioning (Berne, 1964, p. 24). 3. Every individual carries with him fixated relics from earlier years, which will give rise to Child functioning (Berne, 1964, p. 24). Transactional analysis teaches that the complete personality of any individual in-cludes the three states commonly referred to as Parent, Adult and Child (Berne, 1964, p. 25) T A teaches that a confused and unhealthy child will create unfortunate consequences in the adult life. This would have obvious meanings for the NTI students that came from dysfunc-tional families. The goal of TA is to develop a healthy child who contributes positive creativity to the life of the adult. The child is exhibited either as an adapted Child or as the natural Child (emphasis in original, Berne, 1964, p. 26). The adapted Child has modified his/her behaviour to the parental influence, whereas the natural Child expresses creativity or rebellion (Berne, 1964, p. 26). TA states that all people have a well-structured Adult and mature people are people who can keep the Adult in control. The Parent in T A is expressed directly or indirectly, directly as an active ego state and indirectly as an influence upon the Adult. Kelly noted the importance of examining these internal states: I have this core of divine presence inside me. And if this is my feelings here or my life or my body or whatever I express the world to be. Then my world out here can be effected by my core here. If I put an access to my core, I'm looking inside, I have access to infinite wisdom, infinite really, infinite truth, infinite credibility and infinite everything. (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 101) 87 Pauline Terbaskit describes the importance of TA to the overall holistic philosophy of the NTI: I remember ... the OK corral and various concepts and theories of human relationships and personal self. I think that too was an important aspect and module to the holistic approach to NTI was having that understanding of self. (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 13) Functions of the parent, adult and child The Child functions to contribute "intuition, creativity and spontaneous drive and enjoyment" (Berne, 1964, p. 27). The Adult contributes the function of survival. The Parent has two functions, First to be a parent of children and secondly, to allow automatic re-sponses to situations that conserves time and energy (Berne, 1964, p. 27). Berne (1964) states: Thus, all three aspects of the personality have a high survival and living value, and it is only when one or the other of them disturbs the healthy balance that analysis and reorganization are indicated. Otherwise each of them, Parent, Adult, and Child, is entitled to equal respect and has its legitimate place in a full and productive life. (p. 28) T A posits a theory of transactional stimulus and response that may be complementary or crossed. If the response is complementary then the result is acceptable but if the transaction is crossed then problems (pp. 29-31). T A defines many games involved in transactions between people. A game is "an on-going series of complementary ulterior transactions progressing to a well-defined predictable outcome" (Berne, 1964, p. 48). Berne (1964) describes games as "basically dishonest" interactions between people (p. 48). The primary concern is with games played between people that form the "most important aspect of social life all over the world" (p. 49). Within the transactional paradigm of each game there is a social level and a psychological level. The function of games is to allow social and psychological to occur within acceptable limits of intimacy (p. 61). The goal of TA is the "attainment of autonomy" that is described by as a "continual battle" (p. 182). Autonomy is attained by the recovery of "awareness, 88 spontaneity and intimacy" (p. 178), Awareness is defined as the capacity to see and hear in a clear and realistic manner (p. 178). Spontaneity is the freedom to choose and express one's feelings as Parent feelings, Adult feelings, or Child feelings. Spontaneity creates emotions that are liberating from the compulsion of game playing; it literally means having the appropriate feelings at the appropriate time (p. 180). Intimacy is the spontaneous game-free awareness of a liberated person in the present (p. 180) At the NTI, students practiced the games of transactional analysis in the classroom. Marie Anderson talks about the impor-tance of the games for her: Tom Kelly talked about transactional analysis. That kind of made sense to me, I think he kind of quoted Berne about games people play and the OK corral. I remember that and that made sense to me as well. I remember reading the book that he recommended. I got a lot out of transactional analysis, parent, adult, child. I realize that I work that way because I realize that even with my adult children. (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 34) John Lee Kootnekoff John Lee Kootnekoff was an instructor at the Native Training Institute who brought his own philosophy that developed from his Doukhabor ancestry. His philosophy of educa-tion was based on a four-part strategy of teaching that was designed to help develop positive self-image in students. "When you have love you have life. When you have life you learn. When you learn you change. When you change you grow" (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 86). Draney comments on Kootnekoff s fun and energetic style of teaching: "[He was] making sure that you are balanced physically, hope, affirmations, again, how to use all those things. Fun, lots of fun, humorous, and just really accepting" (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 24). At a faculty meeting of the Native Human Service Program in 1983, Kootnekoff quoted Howard Cardinal's belief that the Indian child's education must help in the discovery of a positive self-image and must arm him or her with the skills that will help to survive in our new wilderness, modern society. Kootnekoff based his education philosophy on the 89 importance of self-image and a four-step process of teaching. First, he posited the impor-tance of developing trust by creating a comfortable environment in the classroom. Second, he believed that focus was created through concentration and fascination with educational topics that are related to educational goals congruent with the life aims and expectations of the students. Third, he taught visualization techniques as a way of developing focus toward educational goals. Fourth, Kootnekoff developed an affective connection to the material presented in the learning process. We have head and heart channel. A lot of folks ... love to teach about what they know. They want to give you a lot of information that is very knowledgeable. I want to take that knowledge and connect it with my heart channel. So the head and heart channel must work together. Aiona Anderson remarks on the relationship between trust and connection with feelings that was key to Kootnekoff s model: "And I think the big thing is opening up and trusting being able to talk about those feelings and being able to identify those feelings ..." (Interview, November 15, 2002, p. 8). Kootnekoff stated that positive feeling about self and curriculum content was neces-sary for learning. Marie Anderson remembered him as the "guy who taught the power of positive thinking" (Interview, January 30, 2003p. 32). Equally important in his philosophy was a positive belief in oneself and the outcome of one's learning objectives that is based on a positive self-concept. This aspect of his philosophy fit into the mental (self-image) and emotional (self-esteem) areas of the medicine wheel. Fred John talks about the positive values taught at the NTI: "... but the major [value taught at the NTI] is the positive. We switched over from the negative to the positive. We switched over even the negatives are positive as we look at them" (Interview, January 20, 2003, p. 11). Kootnekoff agreed with the Native Training Institute philosophy of a holistic educational philosophy that is "grounded to earth" (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 84). 9 0 In addition Kootnekoff s philosophy defined three keys to elements of achievement. First, the necessity of a precise outcome in the educational process; second, the element of sensory acuity that allows students to acquire information from curriculum resources that advances them toward the precise outcome; and third, the necessity of behavioural flexibility in the classroom that will allow students to learn how to think rather than learn what to think. Traditional stories and philosophies Aboriginal philosophy, spirituality and ceremony were present in the curriculum at the NTI. Through traditional stories and cultural ceremonies held in class a process learning was experienced. Talking circles, including smudging, occurred daily in most classes. These combined Aboriginal environment and ceremony with the knowledge of co-counselling, A A and the Anisa model to create a space for healing and learning. In addition, more formal ceremonies, including pipe ceremonies, were also performed in the classroom. David Grant and Lorraine Brave, as well as other instructors at the Native Training Institute, believed in using traditional materials as a primary method of presenting the subject matter. Perhaps David Grant personified this approach more than any other. Grant was able to introduce Native spirituality to the students in a way that tied it securely to the other realms of the medicine wheel: physical, mental, emotional and volitional. His argu-ment that the four realms should be tied together is reflective of the general philosophy of the Native Training Institute: I think we have pretty much agreed that there are four levels or four aspects to our total being. The mental, the spiritual, the emotional and the physical... I think that we ought to (develop) our curriculum and our classes that we as an organization that... all those bases are covered ... if we want to develop the complete person within ourselves and within others. The following passage from the presentation of his philosophy at the 1983 gathering represents the essence of the spiritual foundation to Grant's pedagogy: 91 This fan represents the Great Spirit as he is in the Eagle. The Eagle, he flies highest. So he represents that aspect of Wakan Tanka. He is way up there and sees most. So we pray to him. We pray to that one who flies highest and sees most. We have this understanding and it is part of all the religious ways that I have experienced. It is necessary in order to gain the power or the under-standing or the love and the resources that are there for us through that relationship. We need to accept that he does hear us. He cares about us and loves us. He is a giver. He can teach us how to love. We have the under-standing and we have the creativity. We can look at ourselves or we can look around the room here at the magic, the creativity of the creation all around us. Artistry, power, sometimes people see things different based on our understanding and the knowledge that we have been exposed to. One of the ways that I look at things that helps me to nurtured, to be empowered, to feel good, to love, to be the good things in life is the six directions. (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 76). This quote reflects the way in which Grant tied spirituality, emotion and creativity together. Grant also tied the spiritual realm, the blue road of the medicine wheel, to the physical realm as is represented by his statement that: "The other thing that I think is real important that is related to the physical is the mind. I think that it is absolutely essential for us not only to have a healthy physical body through exercise and nutrition" (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 30). Grant also tied the mental to the emotional, the red road of the medicine wheel. Grant valued teachings that developed the mind in relationship with emotion. Grant states: "I believe that the mental, how I perceive things, the idea that I have about situations is directly related to how I respond emotionally, so that I can actually begin to feel the way that I want to feel" (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 18). Grant asserted that tradition, prayer, mental affirmations, and ceremonies such the sweat and the pipe were essential for developing the inter-relatedness of the four realms in the NTI curriculum. Grant commented that "we pray and we exercise and be ourselves, develop our self-concepts through the medicines and also through affirmations" (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 36). He introduced these concepts to the students at the NTI in his classes. Grant stated that, "we have a wealth that is waiting for us, available to us if we could look at it, a wealth in our Indian identity" (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 30). Grant 92 believed, lived and taught that a holistic Indian Identity could be developed through tradi-tional teachings that developed the entire person. This identity created a positive self-image that contained responsibility toward Native identity. Grant argues that student must realize that "it is important for us as Indian people, people who are conscious of ourselves as Native people who come from a place who have responsibilities who have ways" (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 30). Grant taught that the goal of holistic curriculum was a positive self-concept and self image that allowed students to make the healthy possible choices for themselves in reference to all four realms of their being. He states: "What I want to do is I want to choose the healthiest response that I can possibly express in all situations ..." (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 32). Grant expressed himself with an eloquent statement of his beliefs: But I had made a decision one time; I want to depend on these ways. I give myself to these ways, I give myself to you O Wakan Tanka, to these ways. Work with me through these ways, I'm going to lean on you. I'm going to go to the sweat lodge when I'm sick. When I need to be purified and I'm going to pray with the pipe and I'm going to tie tobacco offering I'm going to do it that way. I'm going to lean on that. (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 28) Lorraine Brave also taught from the traditional perspective through the use of the circle that included the instructors as co-participants. Learning at the NTI was viewed as circular and nonlinear. There was a strong tenant of NTI philosophy that the instructors were a part of the circle and therefore were learning as well as teaching. Brave states: Here is the teacher, here is the desk, learning in a line instead of being in a circle ... we want our workshops [classes] in a circle. We are all there sharing. We don't have the instructor standing way up front and the circle way in back. The instructor is part of that circle because the instructor is also learning and giving and taking and we share that all together. (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, P- 57) Storytelling is an essential aspect of Aboriginal pedagogy. Lorraine Brave used stories as a critical part of her teaching methodology. An example of her storytelling is the story of the deer with the beautiful antlers. 93 There is a story that my father always told me when I was growing up. I didn't really understand it. But he tells the story of the deer and how he looks at his reflection in the pond and he admires those beautiful antlers. He just thinks they are beautiful. And he looks at his legs and he thinks what ugly legs. And then the hunter comes and those ugly legs is what is taking him and he is running faster and faster and he is getting away and suddenly he gets caught in this bush by his beautiful antlers and the hunter gets him. (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 108) The use of story, both through the teaching of traditional stories and by providing space for students to tell their stories, was an essential aspect of Native Training Institute educational philosophy. Listening to the students in a way that affirmed their reality allowed. the release of oppression and hurt while creating the space to accept the positive values of traditional story. Storytelling is a process experience that engages the self in the transforma-tion of potentiality into actuality. Conclusion The medicine wheel was the foundational philosophy at the NTI. However, other phi-losophies were used and related to the wheel. The Anisa model assisted the development of the Native Training Institute by creating a sense of the importance of the emotional state of the students in the learning process. It created a foundation for the development of emo-tional competency. At the same time the co-counselling model defined the need to heal negative emotional states and negative emotional identity and provided a methodology to develop positive emotional strategies of personal, family and community healing of preju-dice, racism and internalized oppression. This created the foundation for the twin processes of emotion development and emotional healing necessary for the effectiveness of the affec-tive competency model. In addition, the philosophies of Alcoholics Anonymous, Transactional Analysis, storytelling, traditional philosophy and John Lee Kootnekoff s model, were all integrated with the medicine wheel teachings to provide a consistent and traditionally based pedagogy of education. 94 At the end of the 1983 faculty meeting Brown was invited to make a final comment in which he summarizes the philosophical vision of the NTI: I would just like to make the comment before we close that I made earlier today that we have been through long period of our history where education has been something that has resulted of family hurt and many communities have attitudes toward education but we have now come to a time in our history where we have the opportunity to use education as a healing tool and I think it is one of the many healing tools that are coming forward to us at this time that we are using as our communities begin to reawaken and things are beginning to happen across North and even South America in Native communities and people are beginning to awaken and look for new approaches and one of the really exciting things and I'm really happy to be a part of it is the use of education as a process of healing. Healing of the emotional, the spiritual, the physical as well as the mental realms of our being. We have come to this time now when we are entering, what our ancestors predicted, a time of change and a time when we would assume our role among the people and nations of the earth. Right now I believe we are in a time of preparation to assume that role and I feel the education that has been happening at the Native Training Institute in Kamloops, British Columbia is an important part or the preparation of people for what we have to do in the near future and I am just really grateful to be a part of that, thank you, all my relations. (NTI Philosophy Tapes, 1983, p. 125) The development of emotional capacities for love, loyalty, generosity, compassion and kindness... are important lessons to be learned.... The Sacred Tree 95 CHAPTER 5: WITHIN CASE ANALYSIS This chapter presents the within-case analysis for each of the ten student interview-ees. Each student is introduced and an analysis of each of the realms of the medicine wheel is examined. Student's names are used with permission. The first interviewee is Aiona Anderson who speaks of overcoming the shaming of the residential school to achieve self worth at the NTI. The second student interview is Fred John who discusses the importance of accurate history in his effort to overcome the hurt and pain of residential school experi-ence. Susan Smith is the third interviewee who talks about rising to leadership after her training at the NTI. The forth interviewee is Marie Anderson who was both a founding administrator and student at the NTI. The fifth interviewee is Ross Albert who overcame alcoholism and reconnected to his family and culture. Deb Draney, the sixth interviewee, articulates her journey from personal struggle to becoming an educator. The seventh student interviewed, Verna Billy, speaks of regaining the drive and ability to learn at the NTI. Walter Leech comments on his arduous journey from the prison cell to becoming a respected leader in his community. Pauline Terbaskit, the ninth interviewee, discusses the "community of knowledge in movement and transition" that existed at the NTI (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 7 ) . And Yvonne Duncan speaks of breaking through her shell to become articulate in her learning process at the NTI. Case study 1: Aiona Anderson The first interview was with Aiona Anderson. Aiona was raised with Nklukumcheen as her first language. She stated that she was raised in a healthy manner by parents who did not allow alcohol in the home. She was confirmed as an Anglican after entering a residential school at age eight. She described her residential school experience as a process of "sham-96 ing" that included emotional and psychological abuse that including the denial of her lan-guage. In this statement she begins to define the dual process of healing and learning that was necessary for learning to occur at the Native Training Institute. Aiona states: I really realized that I had a lot of issues and hurt that I had to really deal with from the Boarding school and let go on a lot of that before I could move on and free myself from, from the pain and the anger and the blame ... (Interview, November 15, 2002, p. 4) Physical realm In the physical realm Aiona speaks of the need to resolve the physical shame created by the residential school. She speaks of her journey toward physical "acceptance" that included the realization that the physical was part of her "whole" being (Interview, Novem-ber 15, 2002, p. 5). She states: I was as a dark skinned Indian woman, or whatever, that was supposedly not good and [at the NTI I] started to feel like I was a whole being ... I started realizing my whole being not just the physical, I mean the physical is important but that was just one part of who I was as well. So I could actually look at my skin and not think that it was bad or dirty. Because at boarding school they made us scrub our skin and our elbows till they hurt. Cause they said they were dirty and made us scrub with these brushes and try to get rid of the dark, you know, the brown. And so I started accepting who I was. (Interview, November 15, 2002, pp. 5-6) Aiona comments on the importance of the emotional processes used at NTI in rela-tion to physical healing. In addition, she describes that the learning of history in the mental realm and the learning of culture in the spiritual realm all contributed to her physical healing. This statement reveals the necessary interconnectedness of the realms of the wheel in the holistic dual process of healing and learning that developed at the NTI. Aiona states: I think, first of all, that is was emotional healing, once I had more of that I could feel better about my physical being. And also learning more of the history, more of our history, other that what we had been taught in school. You know because we were taught the negative history. Once we started learning more of the real history, um that really happened, and that you know we weren't the savages, we weren't the bad people that we were, you know, led to believe when we were children. And so I think learning the history, learning the culture, the beauty of it, the beauty of who we really are as a people on this planet. That we were just as important a people on this planet 97 as any other race. Was very, very healing for me and I started to feel less conscious of who I was as ... (Interview, November 15, 2002, p. 5). Mental realm In the mental realm, Aiona defines several aspects of the dual process necessary for her learning and healing at NTI. First, she comments on the importance of experiencing a holistic educational approach to contradict the effects of the residential school (Interview, November 15, 2002, p. 11). Secondly, she mentions the importance of healing the psycho-logical abuse at the residential school that taught her that she was not intelligent and replacing it with a belief in her intelligence. Finally, she talks about the importance of healing the negative historical concept she had learned and replacing them with a positive view of Aboriginal history (p.6). Importantly, she once again relates the healing in the mental realm to a holistic approach that included all the realms of the medicine wheel. She states: ... if we went into the Native Human Service [program] and just learned the information, learned history, and learned co-counselling skills and learned whatever else, sociology, like they taught us in university then, or college or whatever. I think it would have been beneficial to learn the truth about certain things for example history. But I think because the spiritual was also a part of it, and the emotional, the healing that's what made the course what it was. And because it was the holistic approach and enabled us to deal with all our traumas, give us self-confidence in who we were and accept who we were. Then ... we were free to put our energies into learning the other things as well. (Interview, November 15, 2002, p. 6). Spiritual realm In the spiritual realm, Aiona states that she felt that something was missing for her before her attendance at the NTI: I was raised by my parents to not have any alcohol and of course they had those strong values instilled in us as well. You know, they were more the Christian values ... so I have that in me that kind of real, whatever it was, dignity that I felt... but still there was something missing ... that I think Native Human Service really just brought all that to a life for me and all the teachings of the Native culture. (L Brown): Could you put a word to that something? 98 Something missing [long sigh] I would say it was who I was or who I am and that identity of my cultural and my ancestral heritage cause I didn't have the knowledge of that although it was in there it had never been fed or brought to fruition and with that education I got through NHS that all came alive for me and it gave me a lot more confidence in who I was and what I could accomplish. And it got rid of the shame ... (Interview, November 15, 2002, P-4) Here Aiona comments on the importance of the rebirth of her identity in relation to the cultural/spiritual dual process of learning and healing. She mentions it again later in the interview: ... until I went to the Native Human Institute the only spiritual thing I was aware of was church you know, getting down and praying, and the bible, and I accepted that way of a spiritual path because that was the only way I had ever known. But I accepted it even though I had a lot of negative experiences in boarding school with religion. My father had brought that to us in a healthier way although kind of in a preachy way too . . . . And so when I came to Native Human Services and I learned more of the spiritual teachings of our own people [weeping]. It was something I had been looking for a long time, and then I realized that it was something probably my father had been looking for his whole life. And I couldn't believe that we been so deprived that they have taken away from us ... [more crying, sobbing] I guess even now I still have a hard time that the language, all those things that had been taken ... it was like I knew a word [deep sigh] maybe rebirth is a good word the religion uses, for me it was like a'rebirth. (Interview, November 15, 2002, p. 7) Emotional realm Aiona identifies a number of the elements of the dual process in regard to learning/ healing in the emotional realm. She comments on the dual process of letting go of judgement and achieving self-acceptance (Interview, November 15, 2002, p.12). She comments on the role of ceremony and the talking circles in healing the shame, low self-esteem, emotional trauma and negative self-judgement that were created for her as residential school affect. She also identifies several important aspects of the process of emotional development and healing including; leaning about emotional processes, talking about feelings, identifying feelings, creating trust, learning to love one's self, family and culture, and the ability to communicate emotions (p. 8) while strengthening traditional cultural values (p. 4). She states: 99 I think that a lot o f the talking circles that we had ... being able to share without fear of being judged ... Just learning about the emotional being and the psychological being ... of us as human beings. Learning about all of that and how it works how to start to heal those hurts was so beneficial.... Because a lot of times I might be having a feeling and not really know where it came from I mean it may, something present may have triggered it in my life, but when I look back it was, you know, a mood swirl a lot deeper. So starting to really look and find those, the first time that pain was planted, and it buried (Interview, November 15, 2002, p.8). Volitional realm In the volitional realm, Aiona commented on the importance of will in relation to all the other realms of the medicine wheel. The dual process here is that the teachings at the institute healed the negative messages about herself that she received at the residential school while increasing self-confidence and belief in her values which strengthened her will. She states: Well I would say again i t . . . can't be S e p a r a t e d so specifically. [The will] is so connected to everything else that we learned. Again having to do with my self-confidence and my belief in who I was and the value of who I was and my teachings as a child there was, and my, the teachings of my ancestors my grandfathers and grandmothers. Those are all now a part of who I [am] and I could feel really good about that and as a child I had that strong will I made up my mind as a child that I was going to live my life a certain way ... .1 feel like I have a very strong will and that was all enhanced by NHS teachings. And I learned to love myself and I love my culture and my values and I love my family and my people and my children and I figured if I failed myself I was failing all of those people too and I didn't want to do that that was just not who I was or who I am so now I have to give credit to NHS for helping me too remember all those things [sniffle]. (Interview, November 15, 2002, p. 10) Conclusion Aiona makes a very important observation. She states that the holistic education, learning about trauma, creation of self-confidence and self-acceptance, all combined to free her "energies" to enable learning (Interview, November 15, 2002, p. 16). In this interview we begin to see a primary theme for the data. It was the holistic nature of the program that enabled healing and transformation. As Aiona describes, if learning had been attempted without healing, the learning would have been - if not impossible - then greatly mitigated. 1 0 0 The key elements to learning healing were the holistic context and the ability to use the emotional realm to release the pain of Aboriginal history. Case study 2: Fred John Fred John was raised on the Fountain reserve in Lillooet, British Columbia until he began to attend a Catholic residential school. In the physical realm, Fred had difficulties as a child. His mother passed on with tuberculosis when he was two, and his father when he was four years old. Then Fred contracted the illness and spent five years in the hospital. Physical realm As with Aiona, Fred mentions the development of shame around his physical being: I was ashamed of my appearance, I was ashamed of the way I talked. I was even ashamed of doing sports because I couldn't keep up because of that health problem I had with tuberculosis and it affected my lungs to the point where I couldn't do sports full out. And I really, really felt ashamed, of that and I did not want to participate in any sports. I did not want to participate in any physical things that would put a spotlight on my weakness. So I had a lot of weaknesses, physically that [the program] helped me come out of that. (Interview, January 20, 2003, p. 6) He attributes the development of shame to a combination of his physical situation and the residential school experience. He states that "the residential school sure put a damage to my thoughts. Thinking that I wasn't any good for that or anything ..." (Interview, January 20, 2003, p. 7). He also states above that the NTI program helped him resolve these issues. This was achieved through the dual process of healing the emotional hurt while providing positive teachings around the physical self. As a result he states that: I was able to take on the sport activities. Go out and enjoy myself and I remember these ... I used to wear my long sleeve shirts and hide my arms because I thought I was skinny. I thought I was really just not very good so I made sure I was well hidden. Then I started changing my style of appearance. Not being ashamed of the way I look. Those kind of things, I felt better being active even swimming in open public or those kind of things. (Interview, January 20, 2003, pp. 6-7) 101 Mental reaim In the mental area, Fred states that the NTI returned his feeling of pride that he had lost through the residential school experience: ... when we did that program the first year there was so much change in my life. There was so much meaning, feelings, pride; everything was coming back to me, the pride that I left in the residential school when I was five years old. (Interview, January 20, 2003, p. 3) For Fred, this mental dual process was one of healing the negative concepts of self and developing a positive self-concept that emphasized and was in harmony with the tradi-tional way. Fred stated that he learned at the NTI to "always deal with life with the positive" (Interview, January 20, 2003, p. 12). He comments that the style of teaching at the institute enabled the change in "our way of thinking" to a more traditional style of thought (p. 12). An interesting aspect of the mental healing that occurred with Fred through the dual process of healing the hurt of the residential school combined with healthy learning was that he was able to overcome stuttering. He comments: The Native Human resources program helped me overcome my stuttering. When I used to stutter so much. I remember that stuttering so much because of the beatings I took in residential school. I couldn't speak anymore. I got beat for stuttering but I overcame that by working with myself through that program and the teachings they taught me. I was really glad for that. Our teachers were really excellent. They knew how to get to each one of us. They knew what it takes for us to carry on. From those tools that they taught us I learned how to use them in my counselling skills, in my traditional skills, and all of those. So I was really grateful for that. (Interview, January 20, 2003, P-3) This reveals the interdependence of the mental, emotional, spiritual realms and the impact they can have on the physical realms. The teachings in the mental realm (the teach-ings they taught me) combined with ceremonial spiritual knowledge (the sweat lodge, traditional teachings) and emotional counselling to produce a remarkable result in the physical realm of the medicine wheel. As Aiona in case one, Fred also describes the impact of learning Aboriginal history as an important aspect of the mental dual process. He states that an accurate Aboriginal view of 102 history is a "foundation in society today which was taken from us" by the residential school and that the return of a positive view of Aboriginal history can reestablish a good foundation for life (Interview, January 20, 2003, p. 4). Fred also talks about how he learned how to teach while at the NTI. He states that learning how to teach was an important part of the resolution necessary for healing during the dual process. Through the style of teaching used at the NTI, "they taught us how to be teachers" and this strengthened his self-concept with regard to his feelings about his intelli-gence. This is in contrast to his residential school experience that he describes as a place "where they pound it into you" (Interview, January 20, 2003, p. 4). Spiritual realm The spiritual/cultural area was very important for Fred. He states that he lost his pride at the residential school and the dual healing/learning process in the spiritual realm returned his pride to him. Although Fred does not speak of a conflict in this area he de-scribes that the traditional spiritual teachings had a significant impact on healing his residential school effect while at the NTI: ... the smudging, the feathers, the open talks like the circle, honest talk. The pipe carrier was brought in; we learned about the pipe. We learned about the spiritual life of our people. We looked at the whole continent, [including] South America as all of our people. (Interview, January 20, 2003, p.8) In fact, the spiritual had such an influence on Fred that he became a person who used the traditional spiritual teaching in his work in the Aboriginal community. Now I could do work and understand the healing source, the healing power that by going to the hospitals and helping out or when someone is not feeling good I can diagnose that and work and help out. There are a lot of other teachings too I learned from other certain traditional helpers and workers. Because of what NHS started me off on. (Interview, January 20, 2003, p. 24) 103 Emotional realm In the emotional realm, Fred speaks of the grief and pain and the ability of the talk-ing circles to create an environment where he could receive healing and let the pain go (Interview, January 20, 2003, p. 16). However, it was not an easy journey; it was a challenge to face the need for emotional healing as part of the educational process. My emotional was, that was quite a challenge on my part where I had to face my inner self [and]... go ahead and work on things that I did not want to talk about. I did not want, was afraid to say. When I was able to deal with that I felt so much better and people were able to listen to me. I remember trying to speak about it before I went to the program and people said, they would tell me, nobody is going to help me, just be quiet. Nobody is going to listen to you, just don't talk about [the residential school experience]. Ta lk ing about it is where the heal ing starts [emphasis added]. I was able to share it, emotionally cry and let my anger go. And those kind of things, my trust in things, I had a lot of abandonment issues, a lot of anger. A lot of those things were holding me back on my skills and on my social life and all of that. I was able to deal with that in that program. (Interview, January 20, 2003, p. 8) He states that the holistic approach provided by the NTI broke down barriers and walls and enabled him to understand his experiences and feel unafraid (Interview, January 20, 2003, p.5). The emotional searching and healing in the spiritual realm helped create meaning that enabled a higher order of reason: "... this program allowed us to search within ourselves and find our meaning and our centre to be able to put all that into the reasoning and it made the program really enjoyable" (Interview, January 20, 2003, p. 4). The primary resolution in the emotional dual process for Fred was the return of his pride. As stated above, his pride, lost in the residential school was returned to him. The healing aspect of this emotional work enabled him to: 1. Learn counselling skills 2. improve his social life 3. develop communication skills 4. reconnect with emotional feelings 5. reconnect with his inner self 6. develop trust 7. resolve abandonment issues 104 Fred speaks of the loss of the ability to feel through the "pounding" of the residential school experience. He eloquently expresses the rediscovery of his heart and the emotional dimensions of his being through the healing/learning process at the NTI. I found that, I could see now I was seeing that there was that there was in dimensional life there is different levels and at that stage I was in I was at a level that I couldn't have the feelings from my heart. My heart is something that will come out and do and see and hear a lot of things in life that I could not see before. (Interview, January 20, 2003, p. 7 ) Volition realm In the volition realm, the dual process accomplished the resolution of the idea that he was "not good for anything" and enabled Fred to establish goals that he was able to achieve. It is important to notice here that it is was the elimination of negative feelings that re-energized the will (Interview, January 20, 2003, p . 7 ) . Fred states: Yes, the will, what it brought to me were the things that I can really do now. I did make goal for myself in a way to be a traditional helper, a traditional worker. Everything I did brought in my spiritual strength on all the matters that I did. Whether if was sports, working, family, all of that. My goal was to help the people. Help the people out there, help the community and that was my goal. I was starting to go that direction and I felt good about that. I found it easy to do. Everything came really easy, I understood because I have been there, I have done that, I am able to handle it now. I can help others a lot more effective now. (Interview, January 20, 2003, p.10) Conclusion Fred achieved his goal of being a spiritual worker for the community. He has been employed as a cultural resource person since leaving the NTI. He was able to use the learn-ing/healing environment at the NTI to reawaken his Aboriginal spirituality and use it for the benefit and blessing of those around him. Through the release of the residential school effect, Fred was able to achieve what he referred to as the good way of thinking that existed among traditional Aboriginal people. For Fred, the healing of the emotional ream created the possibilities for healing in the mental, physical and spiritual realms. Achieving a good mind enabled learning. 105 Case study 3: Susan Smith Susan (pseudonym), a member of an interion Indian Band, stated that she decided to attend the Native Training Institute because she observed transformations within other family members who were attending. Susan had parents who taught her a lot about "tradi-tions and traditional and sacred sites" in the Okanagan Valley (Interview, January 27, 2003, p. 2). Because her childhood was free of residential school and alcohol, there may not have been as great a need for resolution and as is articulated in other case studies. For instance, she does not mention shame as a problem that needed resolution. However, the program did have a healing and transforming effect on her: I really think that because of the work I do as an advocate, the training that I had there helped me more than any of the other training that I have taken, because there isn't anything that is so broad and ... anywhere. (Interview, January 27, 2003, p. 5) Physical realm In the physical area, Susan had no comment in response to the questions regarding transformation with regard to her physical self. She did state that she missed the modules where the teachings of physical development were emphasized. Mental realm In the mental area, Susan talked about the importance of the holistic approach in giv-ing her a new perspective on.learning the teachings taught at the NTI. She expressed conflict with previous classes at other schools where information was shared with a perspective presented by non-Native teachers using textbooks written by non-Native authors. She states: [The holistic model] helped me analyze things differently and it helped me to take information no matter what it was and make it relevant to our own people. So I think that it helped me to analyze things better so I wasn't' rejecting things as quickly as I was before and could make somehow shift the information no matter what it was and make it relevant. I think that was huge for me because I still do tend to be very analytical and am a very critical thinker. So it was very hard taking classes in the mainstream because of who 106 they are written by and who they are written for. It really opened a door. (Interview, January 20, 2003, p. 5) Spiritual realm Although the dual process of healing and learning was not strongly stated by Susan in the physical and mental realms, it begins to appear in the spiritual realm. As stated above, Susan had experienced conflict in previous education as a mental phenomenon. The teach-ing provided by the institute, especially the teaching of history from an Aboriginal viewpoint, provided the opportunity for Susan to affirm her relationship with Aboriginal ancestors and knowledge. Since Susan's childhood had provided her with a strong knowledge base, the conflict was only that created by non-Aboriginal educational experiences. She states: "I think that it was information that really affirmed our ancestors and really affirmed traditional teachings. I think that it helped all of us as a group see how important our ancestors teach-ings are" (Interview, January 27, 2003, pp. 13-14). This reaffirmation of Susan's belief was strengthened by the teachings at NTI that created the concept of being a teacher. Susan used the word "liberating" to describe the process experiences (i.e. talking circles, ceremonies, etc.) where she came to view herself as a leader and teacher. It really helped me to see that each of us is a teacher. I am still reluctant to really accept but I could see that and that each of us is fine wherever we are. I had always been very, very shy about that aspect, my spiritual aspect, I still am. I think as the result of interacting with everyone, listening to everyone that I had more of an appreciation of my own teachings and my own life. (Interview, January 27, 2003, p.7) For Susan, the result of this process was the creation of the balance through the use of the medicine wheel (Interview, January 27, 2003, p. 23). In addition, she states that the creation of leadership was a fringe benefit of the training: I think we need to do leadership development. That is part of what NHS did. It was almost a fringe benefit is that, was developing leaders, people who are doing more that they would have if they hadn't attended that training. I think that everyone stepped out and did something whether it was a spiritual leader 107 or as a political leader or even a leader in their own families. (Interview, January 27, 2003, p. 11) Emotional realm In the emotional, realm Susan commented that Re-evaluational counselling probably helped her the most (Interview, January 27, 2003, p. 8). It provided better communication, the ability to share and accept others without judgement, the ability to ask for support and a method for resolving issues with others. Susan had strong values when she came into the program but felt the program helped her to solidify and strengthen her values partially through the practice of Aboriginal values offered in the process experiences of the program, particularly the talking circles (Interview, January 27, 2003, pp. 11-12). In addition, Susan states that the NTI program helped her to release the anger and resentment she held within (p.16). This was accomplished both through the talking circles and ceremony. I think on the group it (re-evaluation counselling) was probably most important tool of transformation that we had there. I really do. Along with the talking circle because a lot time people brought up whatever and then needed to take time talking with someone. (Interview, January 27, 2003, p. 14) Volitional realm In the volitional realm, Susan made commitments to be a part of the transforming and healing process by becoming a leader: I really had a hard time accepting and taking on leadership roles and that was something that I did in co-counselling community. You know I was a reluctant leader. As we went through, I think it was the first year in NHS there were a number of us who talked about [leadership] and I decided that I would be a council member in our own community and did it! I was elected and served as a council member for four terms [eight years]. (Interview, January 27, 2003, p. 10) Conclusion Susan views counselling and ceremony as important aspects of transformation. Counselling created a liberation from oppression by removing negative emotional obstacles to growth, she mentions fear, anger, issues with men and resentment among others. Cere-108 mony then created trust in the process by overcoming fear of transformation engendered hope related emotions. These two, counselling and ceremony, functioned together in the emotional realm to create a space for transformation in relation to the cognitive understand-ing that reaffirmed the validity of the ancestors and traditional teachings. This would strengthen the ability to learn. In addition, the medicine wheel provided a traditional structure (Interview, January 27, 2003, p. 21) to analyze the areas where healing and learn-ing was needed to create the accurate perception necessary for the dual process of Indigenous transformation to occur in a movement toward balance (Interview, January 27, 2003, p. 21). Case study 4: Marie Anderson Marie, a member of the Cooks Ferry Indian Band, had a stable childhood filled with strong family values and teachings from her father and mother. She. relates the story of how her father, Jacob Anderson, would share teachings: We would just sit there and he would talk or tell me stories. He paid a lot of attention to us. He talked to us and he told us things. I think one time I remember we laid on our backs and we were watching clouds and he would say, "does that look like anything to you." To this day I still look at the clouds and I see images in the clouds and that is from him. (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 3) Marie's father and mother went to great lengths not to send her to residential school. This included boarding her out with relatives so she could attend public school. She states: ... the other teaching that I think I really got from him was because mother and father didn't send us to residential school. In that decision they taught us that it was okay to go against the grain, you know, to go against the tide. They discovered alternatives for us and figured out a different way for us to go to school for as long as they could. (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 3) Marie became involved with the NTI as an organizer and developer of the program. She was interviewed for this thesis both as a student and as an administrator of the program. Marie had attended a few classes at Cariboo College but, like Susan, had not been excited by the non-Native content and orientation. However, at the NTI she experienced a holistic 109 education that included spiritual/cultural teachings and this created a sense of connection that led her to continue her education and eventually receive a Master's degree in Social Work. Physical realm In the physical realm, Marie defines the essence of a dual process of healing and learning. She comments that she learned both about fasting and nutrition. Fasting, on the physical level represents the letting go of food and the cleansing and purification of the body. Nutrition is the learning that can create better health and develop a sound physical founda-tion for learning. Here, Marie articulated the twin process of healing the negative and learning the positive in the physical realm. She comments: Through the NTI, Native Human Services training program I stopped drinking altogether because I felt that was a detriment. You know, detrimental to my physical body. When you make a life changing decision like that I think you strive also to become fit physically. (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 11) Mental realm In the mental realm, Marie identifies several areas of resolution. First, she resolved the negative beliefs about being a First Nations person. Second, she resolved the issue around the validity of Aboriginal knowledge and this resolved personal issues with regard to self and its relationship to learning Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal forms of knowledge that developed a "clarity... that it was okay to be me" (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 9). Marie comments on the time when it was not popular to be a First Nations person. She states that teachings reestablished the pride she had in herself: ... there was this period in time when it was not really popular to be an Indian or First Nations person. It was a very negative thing. People didn't want to identify with First Nations because there was lots of prejudice. There was lots of Negativity around it. So what it brought back I think was a pride in ones heritage and from that pride one could only gain strength ... (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 9) 110 Marie describes that she was very conflicted with regard to Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal knowledge. She states that "growing up over the years it felt like we were turned, you know we you would almost say assimilated. We had turned into non-Native people" (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 8). This perception created the feeling that it was necessary to give up one's self to become educated. "It was in me to think that I have to forsake my being to be educated" (p. 12). Marie believed that education based on "white is right learn-ing" could be "cultural suicide" (p. 12). This conflict created a block to learning that was resolved when she realized that both forms of knowledge could be learned and incorporated into a strong Aboriginal self. ... [S]omehow through this process of the NHS Native Training Institute I realized that I could be in both worlds. I could do both and not give up on myself or my Native self and be part of another learning institution. I had the ability to be both. So I feel like that sort of, reservation or reticence to go to a public institution was taken away or evaporated. When I began to learn and maybe it was because too because some of the teachers had gone to other institutions and still embraced their traditionality showing me that I could indeed be the same way. I didn't have to relinquish anything. I could only stand to gain something. (Interview, January 30, 2003, pp. 12-13) Marie shared a story about riding a double horse that represented the resolution of this conflict for her. ... [T]o live in this world you have like two horses that are galloping. One is the mainstream horse and one is your own horse, your traditional horse. You have a leg on each on and you are going and you are going fast. You can do it but the thing you need is balance. You need balance on all four areas. You can ride that horse and you can gallop wherever you want because you have the reins to steer to. It is like riding a double horse. (Interview, January 30, 2003, pp. 17-18) In addition, Marie commented (as did Fred) that becoming a teacher and doer in the cultural realm was an important part of healing in this dual process. Marie refers to this as contextualized learning: learning that was relevant and valid in her context of being. She states: So I kind of learned some contextual things. I was able to contextualize some things. (LB: Such as?) Such as we could do our own teaching and we could do our own learning and it was okay to do that. That was a mental realization 111 that we could, that we had what it took to teach ourselves and to teach others. I think that is a pretty major, that was a major awareness for me because, again, having grown up in a society that said you know, white is right. That is a big mental awakening and that made me feel a lot more confident. (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 12) Spiritual realm Marie states that she was extremely conflicted in the spiritual realm. I think that was one of the greatest conflicts in my life as well.... I felt really conflicted about religion because it was religion that got in the way... In religion I feel there are restrictions, there are certain ways of doing things,... What happened in the NTI and NHS was that, like I told you, it was like coming home and again it felt like being connected. That is the only thing I can describe. This is how I describe my own spirituality and that I don't even know if that is spirituality but that is how I describe it. It is like a joy of living, a joy for having all the gifts that have come my way, also, a feeling of responsibility for them to try to pass them along. (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 13) Marie talks about how her conflict about religion "got in the way" of learning. This is an example of the kind of block to learning that creates the need for a dual process that includes healing in Aboriginal education. This block was removed by the introduction to cultural knowledge and ceremony. One of the ceremonies was the sage ceremony. Marie commented, as did other interviewees, that after her first sage ceremony she cried for weeks. This emotional release reconnected Marie to her spiritual realm and illustrates how the elimination of a learning block can be accomplished through the release of emotional energy. Marie states that this was an incredible "connection of... mind, body and spirit" though emotional release (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 7). Here again it is evident that the healing of the emotional realm allows the integration of the self during a holistic educational process. In addition, in the spiritual realm we find a dual process that involved the healing of disconnection from the culture through the re-establishment of strong cultural connections through spirituality, ceremony and knowledge. Marie describes that she felt disconnected from her cultural context. 112 Up to then I didn't know what a smudge was. I didn't know what a pipe ceremony was. I didn't know what a sweat was. I remember going to my first sweat and that was really special because I did go in with my mom. (LB: where was that at) It was at Spences Bridge, I went in with my mom and it was just an incredible experience. It was just a family sweat but we learned how to do that and in the learning of that to that connected us back to our elders. (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 8) Through the NTI, Marie gained the "feeling of connectedness and the whole ability to do ceremony" and the learning of cultural history (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 8). It just seem like so, it was such a welcome knowledge because it felt like a certain validity to my own personal being came over me somehow. Again, a sense of security or sacredness or affirmation, it was just wonderful to hear those teachings, it was incredible. It felt like my ears had just been waiting to hear that. Like waiting to hear that and it felt like a really special time consequently I remember during that time reading Black Elk Speaks and Lamedeer. I really took great care in reading those books. I remember buying those books and going to certain places in my area to read those books. I drove in my car, I went by myself and I went to certain places to read them. (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 25) In addition, Marie argues that the culture connection is still important in learning situations today. I really feel that the connection to culture still is as important today as it ever was. Because really that is who we are and I think that we, you know like I tell people too, we are a great people, we are still here, all the things that have happened to us, we are still here! We are strong our people are strong. (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 19) Emotional realm Marie states that her emotionality was turned off before she started the NTI by other school experiences. She had been "immobilized" in her ability to learn (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 15). Her emotionalness had been turned off through separation from her family and loss of her cultural self (p. 14). She indicates that she was "grieving" for this loss and that this grieving process had created a stress that "hindered me from being all I could be" (p. 14). Here again is a good example of a block to learning, created by hurt, which must resolved and released before learning can be optimal. What happened I remember that the first time we burnt sage I cried. I cried and I cried. I remember I was thinking about it then that I hadn't cried in a 113 long time. (LB: sage burned in class?) Yes, wept, an overwhelming feeling of tears came and I just wept and I have no idea what happened. During that time I wept for probably two weeks straight. Not constantly, but I used to drive from Merrit to Kamloops. I remember driving and I would be crying, crying going home and crying coming back. I just cried buckets, it was incredible but after it all was over I was ready to learn. (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 15). Marie's emotional development at the institute strengthened her values and helped her realize that she had potential and that she "could realize her own potential" (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 20). An important aspect of this process was the creation of a cultural vocabulary of feeling (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 30). This enabled Marie to speak of her emotional states, discharge her hurts and create healing possibilities. Volitional realm In the volitional realm, Marie comments that her will was strong from family teach-ings but that it was also conflicted. After the NTI she felt the conflict was removed and she had the feeling of being whole and complete. She states that the healing of her conflicted will gave her the "permission to really fly" in the realm of learning (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 17). Her comment on the resolution of volitional immobility (ambivalence) is interesting. She stated that the ceremonial emotional healing that is the release of the tears and the negative emotions eliminated the block to potentiality that were established in the volitional conflict created by negative emotional experiences around culture and identity (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 17). Conclusion The major outcome of the dual process of learning and healing for Marie was the creation of cultural confidence in the learning process in relation to her identity and sense of self. Marie's case articulates the importance of emotional healing in the removal of learning blocks in the physical, mental and spiritual realms. Her description of this understanding, 114 stated above, is precise. The combination of emotional release and cultural teaching devel-oped the sense of belonging, the feeling of connectedness and confidence in relation to Aboriginal people and ancestors necessary for learning to occur. In addition, Marie states that Native History (prophecies) created validity to Aboriginal knowledge (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 25). She mentions three qualities of Aboriginal knowledge: sacredness, affirmation and security that were important to her ability to learn. Case study 5: Ross Albert Ross, a member of the Cooks Ferry Indian Band, describes that he "grew up in resi-dential school" (Interview, February 7, 2003, p. 1). His earliest memory was going to the residential school at age five. He ran away in grade eight and did not finish residential school. He then worked at a variety of jobs in the lumber industry and then became inter-ested in advancing his education. He heard about the Native Training Institute program and decided to attend. He comments that the program was "absolutely different than what I had experienced" in other schools (p. 2). I think it was 1982 when I went, for me it was different in that it wasn't a class room per se like it was in vocational school or in college or in university. It was relaxed. There were all First Nations people there. It certainly was different, the atmosphere was different, it was much more relaxed. I guess what was different for me was that there was the opening circle every morning and ... People would talk about their lives. That was different for me that never happened before in the schools that I went to. Sometimes people would, it would be their turn to speak and sometimes they would just sit there and cry for fifteen or twenty minutes, half an hour, forty five minutes and nobody would say a word. We would all sit there and be with that person while they discharged. That was different. Then after everybody had finished sometimes the circle would take us all day, sometimes it would take us half a day wherever people were and depending how many people were in the group. After that was finished we would take a break and we would get into whatever the lessons were for the day. That was very different. (Interview, February 7, 2003, pp. 2-3) Ross' statement supports the need for a dual process of healing/learning. He com-ments that there was a lot of pain and that this pain was a block to academic accomplishment. Therefore it was imperative that it be removed to enable learning. 115 There was a lot of pain. I wasn't the only one that had all of this pain and yet when we were sitting around laughing and talking you would think that they were okay but really when you got to know them there was a lot of hurt there. That was one of the things that I learned but I had to get past that before we could do anything. (Interview, February 7, 2003, p. 4) Physical realm In the physical realm, Ross (as Fred and Aiona) comments on his complete lack of physical self-acceptance that resulted from his experiences at the residential school. His healing process involved self-acceptance of being Native. As a result of the healing discharge of negative emotions accompanied by the positive presentation of Aboriginal culture and history, Ross was able to accept the man in the mirror. It is apparent through Ross' com-ments that his "feelings about" his self changed. He states that, "I got to the point you know where I am me, I like me" (Interview, February 7, 2003, p. 6). I was able to look in the mirror and see myself for who I really was and like myself. Because I can remember some of the stuff that they used to say at the residential school. For example, things like: you are never going to amount to much, your mother is whore, your father is a drunk, you will never get anywhere. I can remember those peoples, those teachers, those supervisors, and stuff like that saying that to me and that stuck with me. I guess the other part of that was that I was ashamed to be Native. When you are brought up in that kind of environment, one certainly does, you know shame based. When you are told by adults that you are dirty and that you are not allowed to speak your language and all that kind of stuff. (Interview, February 7, 2003, p.5) Mental realm In the mental area, again, the need for the dual process of healing/learning is clear. Ross states that not only did he have a low self-concept, he would go so far as to say he had no self-concept. The residential school effect had completely eliminated any clear visualiza-tion of his self in his mind. He states that it was if he was nothing, floating in space. I don't think I had one. I think I was lost. (LB: okay) Yeah, I think if I had some concept of who I was I probably wouldn't have gotten into all the trouble I was in. Meaning the alcohol and the jail and all of those things. I think I was trying to pass as white because that was the in thing back then. I think there was a lot of people that used to try and pass. But I couldn't no matter where I went people knew. I didn't have a concept of who I was I was just kind of floating around nowhere. When I accepted myself as First Nations 116 then I think things began to turn around for me. (Interview, February 7, 2003, p. 5) Positive affirmations, a re-evaluational counselling technique employed at the NTI, played an important role in healing the negative messages of the residential school. He states: I guess for me one of the things was that I had to erase those old tapes, those old tapes that I was playing all the time that I was playing all the time from the residential school. For example, I will never amount to much. That was one of the big ones that I had to erase and I had to put a new tape in there. That was through positive affirmations that one of the instructors had provided. I can't remember who it was, probably all of you guys were in that, but I can't remember who it was specifically. But I remember making positive affirmations and remember saying affirmations over and over again. In my mind and out loud ... (Interview, February 7, 2003, p. 7) In the mental realm, Ross also identified the learning of the legends, history, Native prophecies and the teachings of the medicine wheel as contributing to the positive re-construction of his self-concept. The mere discharge of the pain alone would not re-establish a positive identity unless positive information and affirmations are available to fill the void left after the discharge of the pain. The healing must be accompanied by learning for the wholeness, which is the healing, to return Spiritual realm In the spiritual realm, the self-acceptance of his physical self, mentioned above, was accompanied by the cultural/spiritual acceptance of being Indian. He states that "getting back to culture" was critical to his self-acceptance (Interview, February 7, 2003, p. 4). His dual process of healing/learning in this area included healing the negative messages of the church and the Anglican residential school accompanied by positive learning about cultural processes including; the sage/sweet grass circle, the sweat lodge, the drum and the cultural teachings. The essence of this process for Ross, was a reconnection to self that he described as his real self. This dual process is reflected in his comment: 117 The sage ceremony, the sweetgrass ceremony, the drum, all of those things. That was for me what kind of connected. I guess in the spiritual part that is what connected me. (LB: connected you to what) I guess to my higher being, to my higher power, to my Great Spirit. I think the church kind of tries to do that but I didn't like the way they were doing it. You were kind of forced and you got a licking and you got a strap and all that kind of stuff. You had to dress up to go to school and you had to dress up to go church and you prayed, I don't know how many times a day and all that kind of stuff so that kind of really turned me off. It was different. (Interview, February 7, 2003, p.6) Emotional realm In the emotional realm, as mentioned above, Ross talks about the tremendous pain existent in Aboriginal students and the need to release the pain. He comments that prior to the NTI, his emotional self "remained stunted, immature" (Interview, February 7, 2003, p. 9). Ross identifies the emotional as the key element in the holistic process of learning with the spiritual being a close second. For him, the emotional and the spiritual combined to support the process of learning in the medicine wheel model. These two enabled him to trust and to feel during classroom processes. An important part of the healing for Ross in the emotional realm was eliminating his sense of abandonment and alienation of self, culture and family. He was able to reconcile and make amends with his family during and after his attendance at the NTI (Interview, February 7, 2003, pp. 3-4). He attributes success in this reconciliation to the development of the skills of learning to listen, identifying his feelings and being able to express his feelings in a healthy manner. ... [G]rief, fear, abandonment, alienation, those were the big ones for me. Alienation was the big one. (LB: how was alienation, what does that mean?) Well, alienation from self. Alienated from family, alienated from culture. Getting back to it was like I had finally had come home. Like I had been lost all these years and I had finally got home. I can remember in some of the classes it was like I was finally accepted. It was like I had been travelling around all over the place working and I was never accepted anywhere. I probably didn't accept myself and maybe it was an acceptance of self... (Interview, February 7, 2003, p. 6) 118 Volitional realm In the volitional realm, the primary goal that Ross developed during the NTI was a decision to become an educated person. He accomplished this by acquiring a Masters Degree in Social Work. Ross connects this decision to the healing that occurred in the emotional realm. I went inside and I said this is what I am going to do. (LB: Do you think that there were experiences at the institute that caused you to go inside like that or was it after the institute?) I think it was at the institute, yeah, I mean there was a lot of these things we talked about was very difficult to talk about. Very emotional, but there was also something about all vulnerability that drew everybody together. I can remember that after classes a lot of people wouldn't want to leave because it seems like for the first time many of us were family perhaps. It was quite interesting. (Interview, February 7, 2003, p.9) Conclusion Ross comments that the medicine wheel enabled him to look at all of the areas of his life and define the work he had to do in each area. I mean the whole thing about the medicine wheel as I understand it was once you looked at the medicine wheel and were honest with self and look at all the areas. And look at the areas that one needed to develop or grow and you could see it and plot it out on a chart. You could see it if you were honest with yourself. I need to grow mentally, I need to grown physically, I need to grow emotionally, I need to grow spiritually, You could see it and visualize it. Before that I mean I think it was just all mental when I was going into the school in Prince George. (Interview, February 7, 2003, p. 17) Ross, as well as the other interviewees, clearly identifies the emotional as the "key element" necessary for the healing of the other realms of the wheel. When emotional release combines with healing in the other realms, the return to wholeness is possible. Ross' com-ments illustrate the belief stated above that the heart is the root of the sacred tree and the place where healing must begin. Case study 6: Deb Draney Deb Draney is a Metis born in Edson, Alberta. Both her parents were Cree speaking members of an active Metis community. She states: 119 We grew up with our Metis culture and my father was a fiddle player and a guitar player and could play almost all kinds of instruments. My mom jigged and she could help play and sing a few things too. So I grew up in a lively Metis arts culture I guess you could call it. But with that also came the drinking and the socializing. (Interview, February 14, 2003, pp. 1-2) Deb's parents gave her strong values that included the message that she could ac-complish more through education. She states that she was raised with a strong work ethic and sense of spiritual values. However, her family became increasing dysfunctional through alcoholism. She decided at age fifteen to live on her own to continue her education. This comment gives a strong insight into Deb's character: At one point I lived by myself in grade ten. I look at that now and I wouldn't let my kids do it. But, I was fifteen living in Barrierre [British Columbia] living in this little cabin by myself in grade ten because my cousin and his wife had broken up. So rather than me going back home to my family home which was quite dysfunctional the welfare people said I could stay out there and somebody in kind of kept an eye on me. So I did and got myself up and went to school. (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 2) Physical realm Deb had two significant issues in the physical realm when she started the NTI. She was struggling with an eating disorder and from alcoholism. Deb attributes the safe class-room environment at the NTI to her ability to resolve these issues through a dual healing/learning process. She states that the NTI "was probably one of the most life chang-ing things I have done in my life. From there that kind of opened the doors to a lot of other personal growing opportunities" (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 6). She attributes this resolution to the inclusion of emotional processing with the academic at NTI. We sat in circles sometimes all day. I thought whoa is this all we did today was sit in circle. Because I am still thinking of the intellect and not maybe the emotional but that is what helped me to change was that cellular emotional/spiritual connection. That is what I needed and I was hungry for it. (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 6) For Deb, it was the emotional release of the pain, spoken of by every interviewee, that allowed the dual process of healing/learning to occur in the physical realm. Here again we see the interrelatedness of the emotional and physical which Deb referred to as the cellular 120 emotional/spiritual connection. Through the healing/learning process in the NTI Deb was able to heal both the eating disorder and the alcoholism. Again Deb contributes her ability to quit drinking to the emotional/spiritual aspect of the program. I was twenty-six, twenty-seven and decided to quit drinking, that was it and from there that totally changed. When I look at NHS it opened the doors for me to move to that next level. It opened the doors for me to start to heal. If I had taken a regular Social Work course with paper and assignments you know the good student that I am I could do that intellectually but it wouldn't have permeated through me to make some changes in my life. It was the circles, it was the smudging, and it was listening to others. (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 8) With regard to the eating disorder, the emotional/spiritual work at NTI enabled Deb to seek professional help. She writes: From sixteen to about twenty-six I had an eating disorder. I started to work on that [at the NTI] and I started to get resources and there wasn't a lot of information back then about bulimia or anything like that. I was writing away to these associations and I remember going to a doctor, finally I had the courage to go this woman doctor in Cache Creek, she examined me and then she said I have an eating disorder. (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 8) Mental realm In the mental realm Deb needed to resolve the old messages she had received about her self that told her she was not good enough to achieve academically. An important aspect of her dual process was the use of affirmations by several of the teachers at NTI. The nega-tive messages Deb had received about not being good enough were tied to "cultural shame" (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 11). She had received positive messages about education from her parents but had received negative messages also from the society and schools around her. She referred to this as a "double message" about herself (p. 12). Deb argues that the cultural and emotional processes used at NTI assisted her to resolve her "cultural self-hatred" by returning a sacred part of herself (p. 16). She states: Well, it was like touching into an ancient part of myself and just a real pride. Because, again, coming [to NTI] with I guess you call it, cultural self-hatred, but coming in like that and knowing that those were our ancestral ways and we had those in place. That we were all born highly creative and highly 121 intelligence and there was a purpose for us in this life. Those words stay with me. (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 16) Deb argues that the teachings of accurate Aboriginal history and the concept of each child having a gift helped her develop a philosophy about her potential as a human being. Deb finished her teaching degree and was able to incorporate this philosophy into her teaching style. Spiritual realm In the spiritual realm, Deb describes the need to reconnect to her spiritual self and overcome the cultural self-hatred mentioned above as being important aspect of her healing/ learning process: It felt, as I mentioned, the experiential through the circles and through the smudging and through the traditional ceremonies. That is what I remember the most... it is from the experiential.... It is from the cultural teachings and the dreams ... the songs ... it is the spirit that brings us back. It is like a touching of the spirit brought me back. That was the biggest thing in NHS. (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 9) Deb was a person very focused in the mental realm. However, she states that the use of the medicine wheel enabled her to achieve a more balanced view of her self and her education that created a healthier self, a healthier learner and a more spiritual being (Inter-view, February 14, 2003, p. 28). I think it deepened. I think I came in already feeling, given that my life was all over the place; I always felt that I was spiritual. My parents gave me that when I was little ... So I think I came in with that and with the cultural/spiritual teachings, it strengthened. (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 12) Emotional realm As stated above, Deb credits the emotional realm with enabling the changes in the physical, mental and spiritual realms. The primary consideration for Deb in her emotional dual process was to open up her emotional realm, release the pain and achieve balance with her intellectual, academic self. 122 On the other hand I could also feel hearing a lot of the pain of our people speaking which included mine and sometimes I would leave there and my shoulders would just be tense and I would feel really tired and worn out by four o'clock. I was just so tired because I was feeling all this stuff for the first time and I was starting to allow myself to cry. I always prided myself on not crying and being tough but allowing myself to have some tears in my eyes. So that was a beginning of opening up that emotional. (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 6) As Deb released the pain that was a blocking her ability to learn in a healthy manner she was able to heal her bulimia and alcoholism and achieve balanced learning. They gave me more ability to be honest with myself and a little bit more connected to myself emotionally and spiritually. From there I think we can do the intellectual but I am starting to switch now and thinking that all those things happen all at once or otherwise we just stay in the emotional work that has to be done. We are not getting anything over here [intellectual] and getting the work done which will also enhance self-esteem and will also enhance purpose in life and all those other things that have to so they all have to happen all at once so it is learning how to be creative. So I have the tools and being creative and how to put it all together. (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 28) Another issue for Deb was the deep cultural shame mentioned above. At the NTI in-structor Phil Lane assisted Deb to reconcile the deep shame and achieve cultural pride through the use of affirmations and emotional release combined with cultural and historical teachings (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 10). Phil worked with me with that and he said come up here. I was kind of scared to go up, but oh okay I'll get up there and he was going to do some therapy with me around that. Anyway, we went through this exercise and he had me confront [the shame]. That was really empowering ... (Interview, February 14, 2003, p.10) The dual process here is the elimination of old messages that contain personal and cultural shame combined with the introduction of positive messages that created "self-esteem". (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 11). Deb identifies the following processes that created positive self-esteem for her: l: Self-esteem building activities 2. Group-building activities 3. Affirmations 4. Talking circles 5. Ceremonies 123 6. Learning of accurate Aboriginal history 7. Reconnecting with Aboriginal spirituality 8. Learning cultural knowledge 9. Understanding the relationship between the realms of the medicine wheel 10. Developing communication skills 11. Strengthening cultural values 12. Developing acceptance for self and others Volitional realm In the volitional realm, Deb echoes a number of the interviewees when she states that the teachings at the NTI strengthened an already strong will. She describes that she has "a strong will anyway but [NTI] just helped me to direct it more" (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 13). A significant aspect of this strengthening process for Deb was the resolution of "self-pity" that enabled her to take more responsibility for her life (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 20). Conclusion Deb finished her education and became a teacher. She commented on her struggle during her professional teaching career to bring the teachings of the NTI into the classroom for her students. It was Deb's use of the term "dual role" as a teacher with a holistic back-ground that led to the identification of the term 'dual process' in this thesis. She comments: So I think, first of all ourselves, we need to continually have opportunities to grow and have support as teachers and workers anybody in these fields. From that is to know that there is more than just heads sitting in those chairs; that those are people with spirits and emotions. To incorporate that into the classroom setting where we take the time, even though we have to cover this curriculum, we sit down and do a circle. (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 14) Deb states that the important foundation of education is to remember balance: Again walking in balance, being completely connected, about the nations I , think that is what stays in my mind the most that there is not one race that is more powerful or better than the other. We all bring gifts to the circle and to this world. The gifts of the Black, the red, the white and the yellow I found that really fascinating and the aspects of our selves, emotional, physical, spiritual and how to access those parts of ourselves. (Interview, February 14, 2003, p. 26) 124 Case study 7: Verna Billy Verna is the second daughter of a family of six biological brothers and seventeen adopted brothers. Verna spent a great deal of time with her great grandmother until she passed and then she was raised on the Bonaparte reserve with her mother and father. Her grandfather was very politically active and she traveled with him as his transcriber and thereby received an introduction into Native politics in British Columbia. She became involved in a violent physically abusive marriage with an alcoholic husband. She states: I didn't drink but he did. There were beatings and I became very depressed. As a result I gained a lot of weight, I didn't go anywhere and I stayed home to look after my kids. A lot of times I was black and blue so I couldn't go out of the house. He took away everything I had, my money, my vehicle, so I was kind of stuck. (Interview, February 10, 2003, p. 2) At this difficult time in her life she began the course of study at the NTI. She com-ments on the importance of safety in the classroom an necessity of a healing/learning environment. For the first few days of that week I was scared because of what I was going to go back to. It was a mess. Then the fourth day I started to think about where I came from and what I was there. One of them was a personal growth, we were in a circle and you were talking about what our goals were in life. I realized that I had a lot of goals that I didn't fulfill and I was afraid to. It was at that point in time was the changing time in my life. It was, I think, I was able to do that because it seems like everybody, it seems like, that was in the program had a story that I could relate to and were overcoming a lot of the hurts and pains and disillusions that I was and it was supportive. I felt safe there, I felt safe talking to the people there. (Interview, February 10, 2003, p. 2) Verna articulates both aspects of the dual process of healing/learning in response to a question asking her to describe the program in her words. For her it was primarily an academic program. She emphasized the role of successful achievements as re-building her personal strength and identity. She states: Each week that I went I got stronger and stronger and stronger and the things that I learned in NHS were the foundations that built me back up to where I am now. Without that I don't think I would be here. I don't think I would be doing what I am doing. I think I would still be back on the reserve in a relationship that is totally unhealthy. (Interview, February 10, 2003, p. 3) 125 Physical realm In the physical realm, Verna's dual process (as Deb Draney's above) centered on weight and eating. At the start of the NTI program, Verna weighed three hundred and ten pounds; two years later she weighed a hundred and sixty five, without dieting. She com-mented that she remembers crying through entire meals before the NTI but the NTI program gave her "the permission to heal and learn at the same time" (Interview, February 10, 2003, p. 6). This developed a security of identity based on hope. She attributes her reconnection with her physical self to the physical education that was provided in some of the modules with special credit being given to David Grant for getting her back into running again. When I started to become more secure with myself I quit eating, I didn't eat like that, my whole eating habits changed. I started exercising again, I started to play hockey, which I was always active in sports. I played baseball again, which I hadn't played in a long time. I started to be more outgoing, become more physically fit I guess. (Interview, February 10, 2003, p. 7) Mental realm Verna stated that by the time she began the NTI she had lost "the ability and the drive to learn" that she had as a youth. Essentially, she had developed a negative self-identity that had become a blockage to learning. This blockage was removed at the NTI. She attrib-utes this removal to a dual healing/learning process of instruction that emphasized both emotional healing and academic learning. ...[T]hat ability to push at that level when people were going through all the healing, the hurt and the pain and still the instructors had the compassion and the fortitude to push you to learn, to write good, to do well, to expand your concepts, to think about those concepts in relationship to your own life ... Yeah, it is the foundation that got me back to school because right after the third years I quit work and went back to school full time. That is what I did, it was hard, it was rough but nothing could stop me. (Interview, February 10, 2003, p.7) As Verna states, once the blockage of negative self identity was removed, her drive to learn, which is essentially a quality of the will, was re-established. Here we see the intercon-126 nection of the mental with the emotional and volitional realms. The emotional realm is the root of the medicine wheel and learning energy that arises out of the emotional realm proceeds to the will and then travels to the mind through the red road of the north/south pole of the wheel. The development of negative emotions created a negative identity, elimi-nating a once strong will to learn. When the blockage of negative self-emotion was removed her will strengthened and regained its role as the container other processes of learning. In her words it became her 'foundation' for future achievement. Spiritual realm The dual process for Verna in the spiritual realm involved the healing of the conflict between Christianity and traditional teachings. Verna had attended a Catholic Church for some time during her childhood but had not been able to totally accept Christian teachings or reconcile them with the teachings other grandmothers. She states: ... although we were raised Catholic for a period of our life ... My grandmothers didn't do that stuff we were more into doing sweat lodges and those kinds of ceremonies, the sun up and the sun down ceremonies and the passing of age ceremonies and that is what I knew and then to go into the Christianity was something very unfamiliar to me and I didn't like it. So I lost that until I went back to NHS and started to reawaken the things that my grandmother had taught me and that those were valid that those things meant something to me and that they were a guide to my life. (Interview, February 10, 2003, p. 8) Through the NTI teachings about the importance of ancestors and tradition, Verna was able to reconnect to her spirituality in a way that was supportive of learning. She notes that an important aspect of this process was the permission and safety to explore her culture and the related emotions freely. To balance my self with my emotions, my learning and where I was going to go with it and what I was going to do with it. To bring me back to my spirituality which I still do today ... the fact that there was still a large academic component to the program was a reward but it was the other things that made it healthy and rewarding to me emotionally. Being given permission to cry and not have to explain why you were doing it and people supporting that, just allowing you to do that was a new experience with me because I don't show emotion that well. (Interview, February 10, 2003, p. 6) 127 Here again, we see the interconnectedness of emotional release, learning and balance within a holistic educational framework. Verna talks about how the cultural teachings reconnected her to the teachings she had learned from living with her great grandmother. This connection was important because it connected her to a time when a strong identity gave her a strong will to learn. It created a sense of self-worth that directly re-energized her learning identity. She states: ... with Martha Many Grey Horses ... we were talking about the strength of women and the women as nurturers and developers and as family members and as keepers of knowledge and the keepers of tradition. It was then that I realized that everything that I learned as I was growing up ... had a place and an importance in my life as well as someone else's life. (Interview, February 10, 2003, p. 4) The teachings at the NTI validated the Aboriginal knowledge of Verna's great grand-mother. Among the important teachings mentioned by Verna were those relating to Aboriginal women, accurate Aboriginal history, investigation of self, and the teaching about colonization and de-colonization as related to change in Aboriginal communities. This was important in strengthening Verna's will to learn and thereby an aspect of the dual process in the mental realm. And as we will see below, it was also an important aspect of the healing component of the dual process in the spiritual realm. Emotional realm For Verna, the dual process of learning/healing in the emotional realm involved re-lease of anger, abandonment issues, and hatred for men while developing trust, love, and the ability to express feelings positively through the learning of counselling techniques (Inter-view, February 10, 2003, p. 11). As stated above, Verna felt the safe, supportive environment of the NTI allowed her to release and overcome the pain, hurt, disillusionment and fear that were blockages to learning (p. 2). The permission to cry within a supportive cultural process created and supported a sustained learned focus and provided a balance between the healing and learning aspects of the curriculum. The supportive cultural process was combined with 128 the teachings of Re-evaluation counselling to create a non-judgmental approach to the release of the pain. Verna comments: We need to allow people who have that ability to acknowledge and to cherish and to accept the healing .... That is what NHS did. I cant explain how that happened but I know that from class to class I had the ability to do that... (Interview, February 10, 2003, p.11) In addition to releasing negative emotions, positive emotions were structured as values during the course of the NTI program. The primary values mentioned by Verna were hope and trust. She states: They strengthened the values, they reawakened a lot of my values, I had lost a lot of them along the way I am sad to say. Even today I find myself judging people and situations based on my values that I have been able to define. (Interview, February 10, 2003, p. 11) She states that her hope was returned through the re-establishment in the hope for the future of Aboriginal people in relation to the accurate Aboriginal history that was taught at the NTI. This defines the relationship between the value of hope as a structured energy of emotion and the process of the will that allows for the establishment of goals. Verna com-ments that the development of a feeling of self-worth was necessary and supportive to this process. Volitional realm Verna's interview provided several comments on the important relationship among emotion, will and physical/mental/spiritual realms of the medicine wheel. She describes how her ability to establish goals was directly related to the creation of hope as a positive emotion. It was in Bill Mussel's class and we were talking about colonization and de-colonization. We were also discussing the whole thing about around what is going to make our lives different and what is going to make our lives change. We talked about the hope or the idea of Aboriginal people getting credentials to be on an equal playing field. And it was at that time that I realized that is what I wanted to do, that was my goal. I wanted to go back to school finish my undergraduate work, do a bachelors, complete it, do a masters and do a Ph.D. (Interview, February 10, 2003, p.4) 129 Conclusion Verna states that "the medicine wheel has allowed (her) to see holistic patterns and it has allowed [her] to integrate those patterns" into her life and work. It is the model that provided a framework for the dual process of healing/learning in each of the five realms while integrating them into a holistic learning process. This process returned the strength of learning identity and allowed her to achieve her goals. She is currently completing her Ph.D. and is the educational administrator of Nicola Valley Institute of Technology. She com-mented: I think what I want to say about the whole program and the way it evolved and it came about has been a really phenomenal curriculum program experience that was way ahead of its time. And that Elaine and Marie and all the instructors that were involved had a concept that was phenomenal. That concept is something now that needs to happen and we thank Marie and Elaine for the courage and the perseverance they had to make it happen. I don't know if anyone has ever told them that. It was just phenomenal and the people that they brought together at that time, I mean we are talking ten, fifteen years ago [twenty years ago]. Oh my God, at that time the kind of Aboriginal academics we had were very limited and those people all in one place teaching a group of students was so empowering, so empowering to think that you would be one of them someday and I think that was motivational, it was empowering, it was motivation and it was such a phenomenal role model for a lot of us that have gone through the program and continued on. I thank them all for that because I am sure that at a lot of times there was a lot of sacrifice and there was a lot of pain and growth that went through all the people that did that but we never saw it as students. We saw cohesive, collective unit that was just an optimum machine. (Interview, February 10, 2003, p. 25) Verna brings together elements of the dual process of healing/learning to reveal how it is foundational to learning. Expectations around acquiring knowledge, the optimal challenge of the classroom combine with healing of abuse issues to promote physical devel-opment and learning. This is a very precise and clear statement of the theory of dual process that is developing through the analysis of these interviews. 130 Case study 8: Walter Leech Walter states that he was "lucky" he did not start residential school till he was eight years old (Interview, February 26, 2003, p.i). Walter was born into a close family of ten children on the Lillooet reserve. Eventually he attended residential school at St. Mary's in Mission, BC. At age fifteen, he was expelled from residential school for stealing food. He began to work and experiment with alcohol, and the day he turned twenty-one he was sentenced to two years in prison for stealing alcohol. Walter made the amazing statement that prison was a step up from residential school: When I look back I guess probably the worst thing that happened to me was the residential school system it actually acclimatized myself for the penal institution. I actually felt that the penal institutions were treating me a lot better than the residential school because they let you make choices and whatever I performed was rewarded and when I was bad I was, there was consequences but in my mind it was fair. (Interview, February 26, 2003, p. 2) Walter attributes his eight and a half years in prison between the ages of twenty-one and thirty to the low self-esteem and low self-confidence that he developed during his childhood at the residential school. He states that he had become negative in his thinking and was hiding and refusing to deal with life issues. Then at age thirty-six, Walter made his seventh suicide attempt by shooting himself in the stomach: The way I quit drinking is that I shot myself in the stomach. From that day forward I never drank but I believe, a lot of people think I am a masochist when I say this, that it is probably the best thing that ever happened to me because that is the first time that I ever really prayed sincerely. When I felt that sting I said, "oh my God I don't want to die; I want to live". (Interview, February 26, 2003, p. 3) This was a turning point in Walter's life. He began a journey toward what he referred to as "becoming a human being, being human" (Interview, February 26, 2003, p. 5). In 1979, he entered the Native Training Institute program after gaining sobriety and becoming a community support worker in his community. He states that: "[NTI] opened my eyes be-cause it intrigued me, it opened my eyes to be curious and to go out and begin to really search" (Interview, February 26, 2003, p. 9). 131 Physical realm Walter had to resolve two dual process issues in the physical realm, first, issues around nutrition, being overweight, and, secondly, coming to terms with diabetes. He stated that the physical aspects of the program, especially those presented by David Grant and John Lee Kootnekoff, brought him more in tune with his feelings (Interview, February 26, 2003, p. 13). He was able to attain a freer state of being with regard to his physical and come out of the hiding personality that he had developed during the residential school and prison years though discharging feelings. He states: I didn't want to deal a lot of issues. I was rebellious and it was so easy to meet people in the same life stream that I was in; I very negative and I usually preyed on my own people really, the people on skid row and loggers and that kind of stuff. (Interview, February 26, 2003, p. 3) Mental realm The dual process of healing/learning for Walter in the mental realm involved healing the negative messages he had received about Natives from residential school, prison and books. He states: I learned to really isolate myself in prison because you spend a lot of time in just a cubicle. That is where I done a lot of reading and thinking. I read a lot of, almost like history books. It really discouraged me to read about the negative things said about Native people. (Interview, February 26, 2003, p. 2) These experiences had created identity issues for Walther: There was a lot of identity issues that needed to be resolved, a lot of residential school stuff. A lot of conflict with the law, trying to commit suicide and so it all just fit in for me and so I enrolled in [the NTI]. (Interview, February 26, 2003, p. 7) The NTI replaced the negative knowledge with validations of his intelligence and identity as an Aboriginal person. Walter states that the NTI reaffirmed and validated the positive knowledge he had acquired from Aboriginal teachings through the use of positive textbooks and Aboriginal facilitators (Interview, February 26, 2003, p. 9). The dual heal-ing/learning process created a positive identity for Walter. He states: 132 ... I got to know myself, I had an identity. I knew who Walter was, I knew where Walter wanted to go and I guess in the back of the mind I knew a lot of these resource people would be my support system ... (Interview, February 26, 2003, p. 11) Walter stated that the resolution brought about at the NTI through accepting and validating his Nativeness created an increased interest in learning (Interview, February 26, 2003, p.7). The validation of his intelligence opened the doors to the realization of his potential as a human being and healed the previous message of "I can't" that he had received about himself. I think it validated [our intelligence] because a lot of time what came out of it was that I am a dreamer and dreams are unborn actions so I had a lot of dreams inside that were waiting to be born. So it kind of opened the door in that way that I have the potential to create anything I wish, to make the reality out of what was inside here. So yeah, I feel that way, where as I used to feel, as I told you, I can't, I'm not allowed to, you know, that kind of thing. (Interview, February 26, 2003, pp. 13-14) The resolution process for Walter was through ceremony, release of the hurt and validation. He states that these processes were primary for him and the content aspects of the program, the formal learning, were secondary. The thing that I really liked that continued was the smudge ceremony that we had before every session and we had the where are we [talking circle] to see where people were at before we go home. We had the hugs you know and when there was someone feeling down we would all participate in the healing kind of stuff with a confirmation of what they were going through. I think the real formal education was secondary because I think we all needed that connection to being ... (Interview, February 26, 2003, p.10). Spiritual realm In the spiritual realm Walter's dual process of healing/learning involved the familiar conflict between religion and Native spirituality. He had been taught at the residential school that Native ways were evil and sinful. He states, "I really had a conflict between my Native spirituality and my religious upbringing. I really wanted to be an Indian but my religion said that was a sin and I believed it..." (Interview, February 26, 2003, p. 4). 133 I used to hate white people, I used to hate God, I used to hate religion so like I say people ... put in front of me seem to come in at the very moment I needed them. (Interview, February 26, 2003, p. 8) Walter commented that the sage ceremonies, talking circles and the medicine wheel were healing because it created confidence and developed the capacity to communicate with his family and community (Interview, February 26, 2003, p. 10). They created a sense of comfort with his self, family and extended family. This sense of comfort extended to all four areas of the wheel through embracing the medicine wheel teachings. Emotional realm In the emotional realm Walter's dual process of healing/learning reconciled his low self-esteem and low self-confidence by creating a good feeling about his self within the context of the strengthened identity mentioned above. His self-concept was strengthened in his mental realm and this interconnected with his self-esteem in the emotional realm. The talking circles strengthened his self-concept and his self-esteem. He states: I found even dealing with or listening to other peoples issues, their day by day stuff, when we had circles it taught me that someone that has a difficult time or going through a trauma or whatever, they opened up and by the time that circle finishes that person really feels good so it made me feel good being part of that. I think I learned so much just be what came out with the honesty and I think probably that is what made the whole thing (NHS) for me be successful... (Interview, February 26, 2003, p. 8). Through this process Walter gained acceptance of his self and of others. He became less judgmental, he states that this process happened "emotionally... by watching them and listening to them and noticing the big change, the acceptance" (Interview, February 26, 2003, p. 14). However this was not an easy process for Walter, he stated that when he made his medicine wheel during the NTI program and analyzed the four realms "I noticed my own emotional was the most difficult thing to deal with" (p. 12). In fact, for a while he argued that the emotional should not be part of the NTI program because he had embraced the Christian 134 concept of "mind, body and spirit" (p. 12). However, once he accepted the emotional it became the foundation of his healing in the mental, spiritual and physical realms. He states: ... when they talked about an emotional thing I could see how it affects the physical, the mental and the spiritual. Right away something about connection comes to my mind when I hear something being taught in the medicine wheel way. Especially about balance and when I think of balance I think about harmony so for me it is a goodness kind of thing. I get excited about it and the other thing is that there is no right or wrong type of concept and it allows you to explore. (Interview, February 26, 2003, p.25) Walter eventually arrived at the realization of balance, which is the first goal of the good red road. Balance enabled Walter to open the door to better communication: Walter commented that the sage ceremony, talking circles (Interview, February 26, 2003,10) and medicine wheel were healing because it created confidence and developed the capacity to communicate with his family and community. They created a sense of comfort with his self, family and extended family. ... I guess that is another thing that opened the doors for me spiritually, mentally, physically, and emotionally that human services had taught. So it opened the doors to be able to see better, to hear better, you know, to communicate more, more lightly or in a civil manner. And that is what I was taught to not only just talk but to listen. (Interview, February 26, 2003, pp. 12-13) Volitional realm The important accomplishment for Walter in the volitional realm was to develop the ability to create a planning process with self-discipline. "[W]e learned about planning and take it step by step, it is like a process, change is a process, you can't expect miracles over-night ..." (Interview, February 26, 2003, p. 15). Conclusion Walter indicates that the NTI program "multiplied" his Native values. He eloquently expresses the personal progress he has made in relation to the puberty ceremony that he might have had in his youth. He states: 135 Today I tell people that it took me thirty-seven years to achieve what my ancestors achieved in four days on the vision quest. I had to go to residential school, skid road, jailhouse and almost died to find my path, my comfort zone with my self.... I became more interested in learning who I was and it was for me a step by step thing. (Interview, February 26, 2003, p. 5). Walter came to believe in the medicine wheel teachings, emotions and all, while he studied at the NTI. That it is a continuous journey, no shortcuts, that it changes with process and you have to follow it and that we have relatives in all of the directions. We are comprised of all of the qualities of all the direction sometimes maybe the North will be the thing that influences us at the moment or even the East where we become very spiritual being or even the south where we become very emotional and time oriented person. So everything that is said about the medicine wheel I really follow and believe in. I have experienced it mentally tired [and then] the whole part of it is tired; when I am alert all of it is alert. (Interview, February 26, 2003, p. 24) Case study 9 : Pauline Terbaskit Pauline Terbaskit, a member of the Similkameen band, is the youngest of nine sib-lings. During her childhood she witnessed the infiltration of her family and community by alcohol and the accompanying problems. They affected her directly. She was involved in a traffic accident that led to her attendance at the NTI on the recommendation of Similkameen band workers, Felix and Bernice Squakin, who had already attended the institute. Pauline comments: I recall having a pretty stable home life in my early years and then the infiltration as I seen it and experienced the drug and alcohol abuse in my family. I became more conscious of it and as a young person thinking about some of the hurt or the pains that it caused me and the trauma that it caused me, I started to experience it, I guess maybe unwillingly or willingly. My first experience with alcohol was when I was twelve years old. I didn't know it at the time until the NTI that I really had a problem. (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 1) Physical realm Pauline's dual process of healing/learning in the physical realm centered on her iden-tity and body-awareness as an Aboriginal woman and her struggle with alcohol and drugs. Pauline comments that her physical self as a woman of colour created educational situations 136 where she felt excluded. "I may have been excluded because of my skin colour and who I was and that these non-Aboriginal people were either consciously or unconsciously expressing themselves that way" (Interview, February i8 , 2003, p. 9). Issues around being Native created identity conflicts for Pauline: I really had an identity crisis that I was going through and when I was able to reflect on my life which I thought was normal in the sense of 'okay this is how home life is, this how being Indian is', then I always had this need to fit in and I never did ever feel good enough about who I was and what being Indian in the Similkameen was in the broader community. So school, my public education school experience was hell. I can't recall many positive experiences. (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 1) Pauline lists the lack of positive experiences, invalidations and denial of her Aborigi-nal identity as contributors to her educational problems and to the increasing seriousness of her alcohol problem. The dual healing/learning process at the NTI that led her to sobriety and a more positive feeling about herself as an Aboriginal woman included positive teach-ings about her physical being that created an acceptance of her personal beauty. She states: With the physical we had the whole thing ... [with] John Eagleday and being very conscious of our health and what we were doing to our beautiful vessels. Are we kind or are we abusive? That good health means good everything, it starts from your [physical] self. (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 9) In addition, in the learning aspect of the dual process, Pauline received knowledge of the disease of alcoholism and its impact on Aboriginal people. This knowledge along with the teaching of accurate Aboriginal history had an impact on Pauline's view of her physical self and her physical conduct. She states that "Rick [Weber] also did a piece on drug and alcohol impacts on our nations in the Americas. That really made me want to understand the dis-ease, really understanding that it was a disease" (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 11). She also attributes her healing in the physical realm to the talking circles and the holistic ap-proach used at the NTI in an environment where she felt safe. So I would say that my life altering experience was the introduction to the healing circle or the medicine wheel or the understanding or holism, holistic learning and holistic pedagogy that there are four primary elements to who we are ... I recall sitting in the circle with twenty other individuals and 137 thinking that okay if I risk here and have the courage and talk about this maybe I will be more understood and accepted. I felt very safe; something really odd about it was that I felt very safe there ... That was in September or October and by December I had made the conscious choice to be sober. It has been January 1ST, 1984 since I have not drank. (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 8). Mental realm The dual healing/learning process for Pauline, as with other interviewees, involved the healing of negative invalidations of her intelligence and potentiality that denied her Aboriginal immanance. As stated above, her school experience, in which she felt uncomfort-able, created a sense of powerlessness that left her feeling doubt about her identity and worth as a person. In grade ten Pauline was tracked into a lower standard of academic class called general studies even though she had been an A / B student up until then. She was told by school administrators: '[Y]ou will do better, you will do much better just taking general studies.' And so even today I think back, like I am always still today always reflecting and trying to understand who I am as a person still and what I missed out on and why I missed out on it. So that was a real blow and I felt powerless. (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 3) Her school experience invalidated her intelligence, beliefs, attitudes, actions and im-portantly, her understanding of Aboriginal Knowledge. It left her with the feeling that there was an academic barrier for her, she states, "there is this barrier that says you are not smart enough to do that, you are not good enough to write" (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 9). The NTI provided a means of exploring this barrier as "systematic racism or academic racism" in relation to self and identity (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 9). Pauline com-ments: So [the NTI] made you use your, they looked at all your skills and sensitively and patiently let you explore that about yourself... being able to understand that you had a critical mind, that you had a mind, that you had some intelligence, whatever that intelligence may be. (Interview, February 18, 2003, pp. 9-10) 138 The dual process at the NTI created a positive, safe learning environment where she received "a real grounding of who you were as an Indian person, rather that be Okanagan or Shuswap or whoever you were; that is who you were and that is okay" (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 6). The Native Training Institute was a liberating, rewarding, life changing experience for me. (L. Brown: how so?) It was a program that I felt listened to, acknowledged, and validated by having knowledge. I mean, heaven forbid, I had knowledge and that I was a smart intelligent woman and it supported all those concepts for myself. It was a program in respect to pedagogy that provided me with the understanding of critical analysis. I was able to then as objectively as possible separate myself from my situation and circumstances and look at a more bigger, broader, number of very complex issues of community and as being Indigenous person. (Interview, February 18, 2003, P- 6) Pauline argues that learning about the colonization process and Aboriginal land is-sues created a desire to learn more. The healing/learning process became a liberating process that connected this liberating knowledge to self and human relationships (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 11). This allowed Pauline to think of "an Aboriginal community in the context of the wider community" (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 14) but with reference to the acknowledgement of Aboriginal elders and their knowledge (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 18) in a way that connected to her self-concept. This strengthened her self-concept and thereby strengthened her learning identity which had been weakened by previous invalidating educational experience. Spiritual realm In the spiritual realm, Pauline's dual process included the healing of cultural shame. This was accomplished by reconnection with Aboriginal history that created pride and healed shame. From the spiritual, of course, it was that connection of just acknowledging your heritage, your past, your history and that was okay and something to be very proud as opposed to being very shameful of, there is a big difference. The social, cultural that was a really important aspect because that was the whole community aspect of understanding relationships, understanding history and 139 politics and government and community and all of those very complex layers in society. (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 10) Important in this process were the talking circles and ceremonies included in the NTI curriculum. Pauline comments that "[t]he pipe made an impact, the eagle fan made an impact, just these small things that people might not think as relevant or important just little things kept me coming back each month" (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 12). At the NTI the teaching of positive cultural knowledge was combined with the actual experiencing of cultural praxis. This created a classroom environment that healed the cultural shame and made learning the positive aspects of the culture possible. In addition, it strengthened the learning identity of the students. Examples of this combination of traditional process with content learning were the use of storytelling and talking circles. Pauline comments that "the value of oral tradition was practiced ... this whole oral ability to transfer knowledge just by sharing stories of life experience and of those ancestral beliefs and customs" (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 16). Emotional realm As mentioned above, Pauline describes how she did not feel good enough about being "Indian in the Similkameen" to have a good basis for her learning identity. She states that at the NTI "it was really important that people were able to feel good about themselves and accepting of where they were" as a preparation and foundation to learning (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 9). The feeling of safety and validation of intelligence and the creation of a sense of potentiality combined to create an empowering courage to learn (Interview, February 18, 2003, pp. 8-9). Pauline comments that the development of emotional maturity (competency) is required to sustain an effort to learn oyer time (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 13). 140 Pauline talks about the teachings at the NTI that increased and strengthened her Aboriginal values through the healing of trauma, shame and the distorted view she had of herself and family. She states: They made me appreciate my values. They made me appreciate the value of family, the value of respect and honesty, the value of caring and loving all of those values... And that is one of the things that because of my trauma or because of my life experiences, my negative experiences. I came to the realization that I minimized and discounted my own family because of my shame and because of the distortion, the distorted picture I had of my family because of all these other experiences that were going on in my life. Now I can say... mom and dad were my foundation. My family was my foundation. I accepted that and they gave me some very strong values and principles. I kind of lost those over the years but NTI helped me acknowledge that I had them myself and that they are core. They are core! (Interview, February 18, 2003, pp. 14-15) Volitional realm In the volitional realm, Pauline's dual process healed the negative messages that she could not achieve and provided her with the knowledge that she had a strong will as a powerful Aboriginal woman. She states that the NTI "empowered me to be conscious of my choices" and to take responsibility for these choices (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 7 ) . Her discipline was developed and strengthened. Being really aware of my power when I was physical and the ability to get up at four in the morning and run ten miles ... in a real discipline because life is about discipline also in every aspect. So it really looked at how you have to take, be accountable to, again, your self, nobody else is going to do it. (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 10) For Pauline, just the inclusion of teaching about the volitional aspect of the medicine wheel in the curriculum strengthened her process of learning. ... [Kjnowing that I had this volition, this will, to learn and to change and to see that is just part of who you are and when you are not being who you are your spirit, or your will, is hampered, it is there, it would never leave you, but you have the power to change. (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 12) 141 Conclusion Pauline referred to the NTI as a "community of knowledge in movement and transi-tion" (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 7). This statement combines the dual process of healing (movement and transition) with learning (community of knowledge) that was accomplished in the process and content curriculum of the NTI. Pauline states that the NTI had a "profound" impact on her life. The two primary influences she felt from the program were the talking circles and the overview of an accurate Native history (Interview, February 18, 2003, p. 24). Case study 10: Yvonne Duncan Yvonne, a member of the Lytton band, received most of her traditional teachings during her childhood from her father. She states: He was there for us when we were growing up. My mom wasn't there .... when we came of age, you know like you go through the puberty right things, he did part of that even though it wasn't his job to do that.... he actually left a lot of those teachings with us through making us do things, going to the mountain, going to the water ... (Interview, May 30, 2003, p. 1). Yvonne's father also encouraged her to continue her academic education. "He was constantly drilling us to finish school, you are not going to get anywhere if you don't go to school" (Interview, May 30, 2003, p. l). In addition, Yvonne's grandmother, who spoke only her Native language, was a positive role model and provided her with additional traditional teachings. Physical realm Yvonne comments on the self-hatred she developed towards her personal physical self during her childhood. Unlike the previous cases, Yvonne's self-hatred was not from residential school or societal racism but developed through her relationship with her mother. Her dual process of healing/learning at NTI included the resolution of this hurt. She comments that the lack of negative judgements in the educational processes used at the NTI 142 assisted her in releasing the hurt that was a blockage holding her back from learning. Valida-tions and positive teachings about the body combined with the healing process experiences to create a positive outlook for her body-awareness. ... [T]hey never judged you. They were always helpful and they were always making positive comments... At that time I think that is what I needed rather than having a negative outlook on life...They actually gave me a positive one that I was worth something and that I could do whatever I wanted to do without all that pain from back there holding me back. (Interview, May 30, 2003, p. 5) Yvonne commented that she had built a wall around herself as a result of childhood pain. This wall created another blockage to the healing/learning process. However, she was able to release the wall during the process/experiential curriculum that included the talking circles, ceremonies and counselling, used at the NTI. In addition Yvonne's comments reflect the teachings shared as part of the content curriculum at the NTI that spoke directly of the wall. The teachings showed that people sometimes build a wall around their selves as a defense but the wall created as a defense can also become a prison that prevents one from attaining their potential as human beings. Yvonne comments that: ...T had built this wall around me all over... ever since I was small. I wouldn't allow anybody into that space of mine. I think it was really hard having to take that risk and letting that down and letting people in and letting whatever that closeness there. I have always shielded myself from other things that happened so it was like for me that was one of the biggest things I think was letting go of that shield. Not a shield it was an armor, it was so thick right. (Interview, May 30, 2003, p. 3) Yvonne comments on the actual releasing of the wall during process experiences at the NTI. The teaching about the wall, she describes as words, was accompanied by experi-ences that gave her the opportunity to actually release the wall. She also comments that this has been a permanent effect in her life. The wall has stayed down over the years after the NTI. Then releasing and then listening to the words and actually acting on them rather than just saying, oh yeah, they are just words, it is not going to help me but I have noticed over the years that it has helped me. (LB: in what ways?) Because every time that I get into a stressful or something happens ... if 143 something happens to me I deal with it right away, I don't go away and stew about it or ... (Interview, May 30, 2003, pp. 3-4) Mental realm Yvonne argues that the door to learning was opened to her through the dual process of healing/learning at the NTI that brought healing to her low self-identity. She expresses that the ability to release the hurt enabled "actual learning" (Interview, May 30, 2003, p. 2). She was able to explore areas that were blockages to her learning, release them and develop a positive learning identity. She comments: I learned more in the Native Human Services than I did anywhere else ... The learning and the teachings and the teachers helped you feel and explore those areas of your life that you wouldn't even touch. Especially if you were hurting on some areas of your life and you have never dealt with it, well; you were allowed to deal with it there. Whereas, if you went to a university or college ... I don't think you would have been able to get that, been able to handle that, been able to express that and opening up the door to actual learning. For me it was like the ultimate. (Interview, May 30, 2003, p. 2) Yvonne also describes how the learning of accurate Aboriginal history was very im-portant to her in the content aspect of the healing/learning process. These teachings "validated" the teaching she had received from her father and her family. In addition, the holistic aspect of the curriculum at the NTI was important to her. The medicine wheel provided a model for her to accept her potential in a balanced healing/learning process. She states: I don't know just looking at it and seeing that there was this whole, I guess it was just like this new book being opened to you. It was overwhelming but also very real. And it could be attainable in a sense because it was like you had the power within yourself to work on all those aspects of your life and become centered rather than being stuck on the outside in one of the areas whether it be the mental or the spiritual. That is what stuck out with me most of all is the fact that we as human beings have the capacities to change our life and possibly to heal your life. Everybody has that power. (Interview, May 30, 2003, p. 15) 144 Spiritual realm Yvonne's primary blockage to the healing/learning process was in the spiritual/ cul-tural realm of the medicine wheel. She had become immersed in Christian religion and had developed negative attitudes toward Aboriginal spirituality and culture. She states that this had shut down her entire medicine wheel when she began the NTI. I realized that when you get stuck in one place and all the other ones are neglected, right.:. I got religious and forgot about all of the other things ... [The medicine wheel] was really helpful on my part because I was just working on one aspect of my life. Rather than working as a whole so that is a big change there too. (Interview, May 30, 2003, p. 4) Yvonne's dual process included healing the negative feelings of unworthiness that her religious view had created and replacing it with a balanced healthy view that included Aboriginal spirituality. ... I didn't feel like I was worthy ... thinking about what the Anglicans would say. Like how bad it was for us to be doing those healing kinds of things. It was kind of fight between I wasn't worthy because I was Indian but then also coming from the Anglican point of view that it was not a good thing. But to actually do it (ceremony) and feel good about it that was positive I think. (Interview, May 30, 2003, p. 10) The ceremonial praxis in the curriculum at the NTI assisted Yvonne to develop new healthy spiritual/cultural values that replaced her previous blockage to learning. I think a lot of it had to do with looking at myself as an Indian person and going through some of the ceremonies that we went through. The pipe ceremonies, the sweat lodge because I think... we were actually doing it so it elevated what I figured should be happening. We should be doing those regardless of what other people say because it helps us spiritually. It helps us as First Nations people to reach our higher power. (Interview, May 30, 2003, p. 6) Again Yvonne emphasizes that the teachings were not just taught as content curriculum but were experienced at process curriculum. This created relevance to her as an Aboriginal student. 145 Emotional realm Yvonne was taught by her mother to never cry; laughing was also discouraged. There-fore, as stated above, she was locked behind her own wall of unexpressed emotions. She stated that the NTI taught her to cry again (Interview, May 30, 2003, p. 6). More important was the teaching that it is okay to release feelings in the classroom. Emotional release was encouraged as a curriculum process through talking circles, ceremonies and re-evaluation counselling (p. 16). As stated in Yvonne's mental realm above, this emotional release enabled her to let go of the wall and develop a strong learning identity. Yvonne learned how to identify and express her emotional feelings and thereby broke the explosive cycle of going from emotional crises to crises in life. She states: Now... if somebody bothers me I can tell them I hear what you say and it bothers me and I don't think you should say that where as before I would just let you say it and forget about it. Not really forget about (it) but actually it would build up inside me and then Twill just blow off at the next person but I don't do that anymore so it is kind of nice. (Interview, May 30, 2003, p. 2) Yvonne also learned to trust and accept others, especially males. I learned trust I guess. Trusting males basically. Trust and having to open up yourself to something new. What I can't understand is that I had a wonderful relationship with my dad but when it came to outside relationships, forget it. (Interview, May 30, 2003, p. 16). Volitional realm Learning about volition was scary for someone as learning blocked as Yvonne was when she began the NTI. Fear was the primary blockage that needed to be removed in the volitional aspect of her healing/learning process. She was able to overcome the fear and begin to establish learning goals as part of her education volition. That scared the hell out of me. That part, (LB: what was scary about that?) a lot of it had to do with for me in the volition or in the ... you have to risk all kinds of stuff. You have to take that step and the next step. Then sometimes you take one step forward and fall two steps back. (Interview, May 30, 2003, P-7) 1 4 6 Conclusion Yvonne's potentiality was unlocked through the process and content curriculum at the NTI (Interview, May 30, 2003, p. 16). After the NTI she completed librarian courses and became a school librarian. She continues to walk her healing path and progress toward the achievement of her goals. Yvonne's talks about the wall of negative self identity that oppressed people build around themselves. Each brick of the wall is a negative experience that creates a prison of self that prevents learning. The essential requirement to liberation is the release of negative emotion expressed through a will that allows a vision toward the four directions of the "actual learning" (Interview, May 30, 2003, p. 2) mentioned by Yvonne. Chapter conclusion According to Verna Billy, the NTI philosophy included expectations, knowledge and healing that allowed the healing of the pain of colonialism and oppression to enable learn-ing(Interview, February 10, 2003, p. 10). Each student interviewed overcame the obstacles of their personal struggle to reach toward their gift. The journeys of these students illustrate the connectedness of the realms of the medicine wheel and the degree to which the healing/ learning process curriculum at the NTI enabled the return to balance and harmony with self, family, community and culture. If metal can be polished to a mirror-like finish— What polishing does the mirror of the heart require? Rumi 147 CHAPTER 6: CROSS-CASE ANALYSIS The dual process of healing/learning Chapter 6 presents the cross case analysis, using the medicine wheel as an instru-ment of investigation. The five realms of the medicine wheel were examined for each of the ten students interviewed to determine the healing aspects and learning blockages involved i: their learning experience at the NTI. Healing aspects are the experiences that promoted healing in the learning process. Learning blockages are those qualities, personal and system atic, that prevented the students from learning. The combination of using the healing aspects to remove the learning blockages I have called healing/learning. A summary of healing aspects and learning blockages is developed into categories. From these categories, eight themes emerged: four summarizing the healing aspects of the curriculum and four summarizing the learning blockages identified by the interviewees. The healing aspects identified by the students are holistic education, strengthening identity, emotional healing and Aboriginal knowledge. The learning blockages identified by the students are negative school effects, negative Identity, emotional hurt, and conflict. The concept of a dual process of healing/learning emerged during the within case analysis. It was observed during the analysis that healing processes that were part of the curriculum (talking circles, ceremonies and counselling) combined with Aboriginal and non Aboriginal knowledge presented as content curriculum to produce transformation that removed learning blockages released the potential of the students. The term 'dual process curriculum' emerged to describe the healing/learning approach during the interview with Deb Draney when she used the term "dual role" with regard to her efforts as a teacher (Interview, February, 14, 2003, p. 28). It was observed that the dual process of healing/ learning brought together content and process curriculum for each realms of the medicine 148 wheel. The cross case analysis was used to identify themes based on the dual process nature of the curriculum at the NTI. This thematic analysis of the dual process of healing/learning is presented in this chapter. Figure 6 diagrams how the healing aspects and learning block-ages were examined in each of the realms of the medicine wheel. Analysis with Realms of the medicine wheel Mental Healing Aspects Theme Development Learning Blockages Spiritual Emotional Figure 6. Dual Process Curriculum The content curriculum at the NTI included courses in Sociology, Psychology, Hu-man Services English and Political science as well as traditional Aboriginal knowledge. The process healing curriculum included talking circles, ceremonies and counselling experience The process curriculum was integrated into all classes as part of the experiential nature of the institute (see Table 3 ) . 149 Table 3. Native Training Institute Curriculum Content Content Learning Curriculum Process Healing Curriculum Year one Year two Sociology 101 Sociology 201 Talking Circles Sociology 102 Psychology 202 Ceremonies Sociology 103 Psychology 203 Sweat lodge Sociology 104 Psychology 204 Pipe ceremony Psychology 101 Human Services 201 Smudging ceremony Psychology 102 Human Services 202 Counselling techniques Psychology 103 Human Services 203 Individual sessions Human Services 101 Human Services 204 Group sessions Human Services 102 English 220 Human Services 103 English 221 Political Science 101 Political Science 201 Political Science 102 Political Science 202 Cross-case analysis Each realm of the medicine wheel for each of the ten interviews was reviewed for evi-dence of dual process. Although each of the students spoke of the need for healing as part of the learning process, not all students experienced a need for a healing process in every realm of the medicine wheel. However, all students had blockages to learning in at least one realm that required removal through experiences in the process curriculum before learning could be acquired through the content curriculum. Physical realm In the physical realm, each student identified healing aspects and learning blockages that were significant to their learning experiences at the NTI. These are summarized in Table 4. 150 Table 4 . Healing Aspects and Learning Blockages in the Physical Realm Student Healing Aspects Blockages to learning Aiona Anderson Emotional process important Cultural learning History I ntercon nected ness Physical shame Fred John Positive teaching of physical self Healing emotional hurt Healing stuttering Physical Shame Susan Smith None None Marie Anderson Knowledge of nutrition Knowledge of cultural processes relating to physical health, i.e. fasting Alcoholism Ross Albert Emotional resolution Cultural teachings Physical acceptance Shame Alcoholism Deb Draney Physical safety Emotional resolution of pain Eating disorder Alcoholism Verna Billy Safety Emotional release Physical exercise Physical education Reconnection to physical Eating disorder Walter Leach. Reconnecting to feelings reconnected him to the physical Physical education Over weight Diabetes/health Pauline Terbaskit Positive teachings about body Physical education Knowledge of alcoholism Healing (talking) circles Release of emotion safety Alcoholism Physical identity Yvonne Duncan Validations of physical self Teachings about the body Releasing the hurt Acceptance talking circles, ceremonies counselling Physical self hatred Shame Wall 151 Thematic analysis of the dual process of healing/learning for the physical realm In Table 5, the healing aspects and learning blockages identified by interviewees in the physical realm are developed into a thematic analysis. These are organized into themes and sub themes (indented); the numbers after each theme and sub theme indicate the number of occurrences of each in all ten interviews. Table 5. Themes and sub themes in the Physical Realm Healing Aspect themes Blockage themes Release of hurt (7) Shame (4) Counselling (1) Physical self-hatred (1) Acceptance (1) Physical acceptance (1) Cultural teachings (4) Physical identity (1) Ceremonies (1) Health issues Talking circles (2) Alcoholism (4) History (1) Diabetes (1) Fasting (1) Eating disorders (2) Physical teachings (5) Weight problem (1) Physical education (4) Stuttering (1) Cultural teachings about self (2) Knowledge of alcoholism (1) Validations of physical self (1) Nutrition (1) Physical exercise (1) Safety (3) Interconnectedness of teachings (1) Numbers represent the number of occurrences of each theme in the ten student interviews. Thematic conclusions in the physical realm The two primary learning blockages identified by the students in the physical realm were health issues and physical shame. Health issues included: alcoholism, eating disorders, weight problems, stuttering and diabetes. Alcoholism, which was identified as a concern by forty percent of the interviewees, is a major physical blockage to learning. The other physical concerns were also difficulties but would not be major impediments to learning. Physical shame, which included physical self-hatred, lack of self-acceptance and concerns about 152 physical identity, represents a major affective learning blockage centered in the physical realm. These blockages were removed though a holistic combination of cultural teachings about physical being, ceremony and emotional release. Physical teachings, included physical education, cultural teachings about the physical self, knowledge of the disease of alcoholism and nutrition, and validations of the physical self. In addition, instructors John Eagle Day and David Grant promoted physical exercise. Cultural teachings about the self included historical knowledge of physical fitness as well as the knowledge of Native games provided by John Eagle Day. Included in the physical knowledge were teachings regarding fasting as an Indigenous method of maintaining health. (Fasting was also discussed as a spiritual method.) Release of the issues of physical hurt, including physical abuse and physical shame, was accomplished by ceremonies including the smudge, talking circles, pipe ceremonies and sweats. In addition, students at the NTI learned and practiced counselling techniques. As a number of the interviewees commented above, the combination of learning ceremonies and counselling techniques combined with a practice of these in the classroom was essential for the removal of learning blockages in the physical realm. The interconnected praxis of the teachings was the key to their effectiveness. For example, Fred John overcame his stuttering; Aiona Anderson, Pauline Terbaskit and Yvonne Duncan were able to feel proud of their physical selves as Aboriginal women; and Verna Billy, Deb Draney and Walter Leech were able to overcome eating difficulties. Also of note, because of the frequency with which it was mentioned, was the feeling of safety in the classroom environment. Safety with the instructors and with the other students was a primary aspect that allowed the release of emotions and physical pain. 153 Mental realm In the mental realm each student identified healing aspects and learning blockages that were significant to their learning experiences at the NTI. Table 6. Healing Aspects and Learning Blockages in the Mental Realm Student Healing Aspects Blockages to Learning Aiona Anderson Holistic educational approach Included emotional and spiritual Belief in intelligence Positive view of Aboriginal history Residential School effect (psychological abuse) Feeling of not being intelligent Negative view of Aboriginal history Fred John Positive self concept Harmony with traditional way Style of teaching Positive Aboriginal History Learning how to teach Belief in intelligence Loss of pride Negative self-concept Negative Aboriginal History Negative view of intelligence Residential school effect Physical abuse Susan Smith Holistic approach Native perspective Relevant to life Compartmentalized education Marie Anderson Pride in First Nations Self acceptance Strengthening of self Resolved conflict with Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal knowledge Balanced learning Acceptance of validity of Aboriginal knowledge Feeling of intelligence Learning how to teach Contextualized learning relevant and valid Cultural confidence in the learning process Conflict with Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal knowledge Fear of cultural suicide Negative Beliefs about being First Nations Negative belief about Aboriginal knowledge Ross Albert Positive affirmations Positive view of First Nations history Holistic learning (medicine wheel) Reconstruction of self-concept Discharge of mental pain Residential School effect Negative belief about self Low self concept Negative concept of First Nations identity Deb Draney Positive affirmations Cultural pride (cultural and emotional processes) Accurate Aboriginal history Child's gift Philosophy of potential Negative beliefs about intelligence created in public school and society Cultural shame Cultural self hatred 154 Student Healing Aspects Blockages to Learning Verna Billy Emotional healing and Academic Learning combined release of pain and hurt Cultural teachings Acceptance of Aboriginal knowledge Aboriginal women, accurate Aboriginal history Investigation of self Teachings about de-colonization Negative self-identity Weakening of personal will Walter Leach Accurate view of Aboriginal history Validations of: intelligence, identity, Aboriginal teachings, Nativeness Realization of potential Strengthened identity Positive textbooks Aboriginal facilitators Ceremony (Talking circles) Release of the hurt Residential School effect Identity issues Negative messages about self and intelligence Negative view of Aboriginal History Pauline Terbaskit Safe learning environment Validation of intelligence Validated Aboriginal knowledge Learning about colonization Relevant curriculum Strengthened self-concept Strengthened learning identity Invalidation of intelligence and potentiality Negative self-worth Negative view of Aboriginal Knowledge Yvonne Duncan Release the hurt Validation of cultural teachings Accurate Aboriginal history Holistic learning Negative self identity Pain and hurt Thematic analysis of the dual process of healing/learning for the mental realm. In Table 7, the healing aspects and learning blockages identified by interviewees in the mental realm are developed into a thematic analysis. These are organized into themes and sub themes (indented); the numbers behind each theme and sub theme indicate the number of occurrences of each in all ten interviews. 155 Table 7. Themes and Sub Themes in the Mental Realm Healing Aspect themes Blockage themes Relevant curriculum (1) Residential school effects (5) Accurate view of Aboriginal History (7) Negative belief about First Nations (2) Positive Textbooks (1) Negative beliefs about intelligence (4) Psychological abuse (1) Holistic education (4) Physical abuse (1) Relevant perspective (2) Public school effects (2) Medicine wheel (1) Negative beliefs about intelligence (2) Emotional and spiritual (1) Negative Self-identity (3) Contextualized learning (1) Negative self-concept (1) Balanced learning (1) Low self-concept (1) Combining learning and healing (1) Negative messages about self (1) Cultural confidence in learning (1) Loss of pride (1) Cultural teachings (1) Negative self-worth (1) Learning about decolonization (2) Negative view of Aboriginal history (3) Belief in Intelligence ( 3) Negative view of Aboriginal Knowledge (2) Learning how to teach (2) Conflict with Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal Positive affirmations of intelligence (3) Knowledge (1) Affirmation of identity (1) Cultural shame (1) Nativeness (1) Cultural self-hatred (1) Positive self-concept (2) Non-Native approaches to learning Self-acceptance (1) Compartmentalized education (1) Strengthening of self (1) Fear of cultural suicide (1) Reconstruction of self (1) Pain and hurt (1) Investigation of self (1) Validation of Aboriginal knowledge (4) Harmony with Aboriginal way (1) Acceptance of Aboriginal knowledge (1) Resolution of conflict with Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal knowledge (1) Knowledge of Aboriginal Women (1) Emotional healing (4) Discharge of mental pain (1) Ceremony (1) Talking circles (1) Philosophy of potential (2) Child's gift (1) Aboriginal teachers (1) Style of teaching (1) 156 Thematic conclusions in the mental realm In the mental realm, the major blockages to learning were negative attitudes learned in the residential and public school. An interesting note here is that it appears that students who had attended residential schools developed very negative attitudes about their self that were more personally oriented than students who attended public schools. Public school graduates learned negative attitudes about being Native but these attitudes were less per-sonalized. Examples of this include the stories of residential school students disliking their skin colour where public school students spoke more often about feeling that their 'Native-ness' was invalidated. This mental pain centering on self-concept was a blockage to learning in both cases. The major block to learning in the mental realm was negative self-identity that in-cluded negative beliefs about their self, their intelligence and First Nation's history and knowledge. This created low self-worth and a weak self-concept (which of course would lessen the energy available to the identity to support learning). An outcome of the negative learning situation for interviewees in public and residential school was the conflict between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal knowledge. Students developed a negative view of Aboriginal culture and knowledge that weakened their learning identity and created a learning block-age. In addition, several interviewees commented that prior to the NTI they rejected learning non-Aboriginal knowledge because of the threat to their existence as Aboriginal people (Anderson, Albert, John, Leech). It is also import to note that the compartmentalization of knowledge in the non-Aboriginal world had been an impediment to learning in public and residential schools. The holistic educational approach used at the NTI was the most mentioned source of healing/ learning in the mental realm. In fact, all interviewees mentioned that the holistic methodol-ogy was a key to eliminating the learning blockages. This approach included the use of the medicine wheel as a method of organizing the content knowledge; the combination of 157 learning knowledge (content) with healing experiences (process) created what interviewees referred to as balanced learning. There were a number of balances mentioned including the balance between the emotional and the cognitive realms of the medicine wheel, the spiritual and physical and process and content learning. This provided the students with a perspective that they defined as relevant to their selves, families, communities and workplace. Aboriginal knowledge was validated at the NTI within the holistic context of balanced learning. The primary aspect of this validation was the teaching of an accurate view of Aboriginal history based on oral tradition, myths, legends and written sources. Interviewees mentioned the importance of textbooks that presented a positive view of Aboriginal history and peoples (Leech, Anderson, Albert). Again this created the perception of a curriculum relevant to the students. The validation of Aboriginal knowledge created a validation of self-concept that released the learning blockages and thereby energized the learning identity of the students. Students were able to accept Aboriginal knowledge in process experiences (talking circles, ceremonies, and counselling) that also increased self acceptance and strengthened self-concept. This created a resolution between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal knowledge that enabled the learning of both (Anderson, Smith). Also mentioned, as signifi-cant sources of knowledge, were the teachings about colonization, de-colonization and teachings about Aboriginal women and the sacredness of each person's life and gift. The third aspect of the healing/learning that occurred was the development of a posi-tive self-concept. Included in this development was the creation of self-acceptance including acceptance of family and Nativeness (Anderson). This reconstruction of the self included a strengthening of the self based on positive affirmations. The most important affirmations mentioned by interviewees were those of being intelligent and having a positive identity. Students had lost the belief in their intelligence in the residential and public schools and had a weakened identity. The process and content curriculum at the NTI revived students sense 158 of identity within a context of Nativeness based on a belief in their own intelligence and their ability to learn. The fourth aspect of healing/learning in the mental realm was emotional healing of the mental pain of negative Aboriginal experience endured by the students during residen-tial and public school education. This emotional healing was the discharge of mental pain centered on the invalidation of Aboriginal knowledge, self and intelligence mentioned above. When any child hears the invalidation of their culture and people it is experienced as a pain that discourages their movement toward their potential. The healing was accomplished primarily through the use of talking circles, ceremony, counselling technique and the learn-ing of valid historical Aboriginal knowledge. In addition, two more important aspects of healing/learning emerged in the mental realm. The creation of a philosophy of potential and the teachings that all children are born with a gift and a purpose in life were very important to the interviewees (Anderson, Smith, John). As well, the use of Aboriginal teachers and an Aboriginal style of teaching was important (John). Spiritual realm In the spiritual realm, each student identified healing aspects and learning blockages that were significant to their learning experiences at the NTI (see Table 8). 159 Table 8 . Healing Aspects and Learning Blockages in the Spiritual Realm Student Healing Aspects Blockages to learning Aiona Anderson Strengthened spiritual identity Cultural teachings Strengthening of cultural values Eliminated shame Experienced Spiritual rebirth Weak cultural identity Weak connection with ancestors Residential school effect Pain of spiritual deprivation Fred John Ceremony Smudging, Use of feathers, The pipe The drum Spiritual teachings Holistic approach Culture created meaning Talking circles Overcame the wall Emotional searching Developed trust Overcame fear Healed the anger Balance Residential school effect Anger Abandonment issues Spiritual pain Loss of pride Loss of culture Susan Smith Affirmed Ancestors Traditional teachings Becoming a teacher Becoming a leader Talking circles Ceremonies Balance Holistic education through Medicine wheel Public school effect Loss of connection with Culture Ancestors Marie Anderson Reconnection to Culture Elders Cultural knowledge Ceremony Sage Pipe Sweat Release of tears Validity of being Native Affirmation of culture Christian/traditional conflict Disconnection from the culture 160 Student Healing Aspects Blockages to learning Ross Albert Reconnection Residential school effects Deb Draney Reconnect Spiritual self cultural teachings Talking circles Traditional ceremonies smudging experiential dream songs Holistic teachings Medicine wheel Balance Strengthened spirituality Cultural self hatred Verna Billy Validated Native cultural practice Reawakened spirituality Cultural safe environment Release spiritual emotions Reconnect to Ancestors Tradition Spirituality Returning to Balance through emotional release Christian /traditional conflict Walter Leach Sage ceremonies, Talking circles Medicine wheel Communication skills Acceptance of Spiritual self Residential School effect Christian /traditional conflict -Native ways sinful/evil Hatred of other, and religion 161 Student Healing Aspects Blockages to learning Pauline Terbaskit Reconnection Cultural shame Yvonne Duncan Ceremonies Christian/traditional conflict Pipe negative feelings of Sweat unworthiness Created positive sense of Loss of balance Self Experiential Learning Cultural teachings Thematic analysis of the dual process of healing/learning for the spiritual realm. In Table 9, the healing aspects and learning blockages identified by interviewees in the spiritual realm are developed into a thematic analysis. These are organized into themes and sub themes (indented); the numbers after each theme and sub theme indicate the number of occurrences of each in all ten interviews. 162 Table 9 . Themes and Sub Themes in the Spiritual Realm Healing Aspect themes Blockage themes Ceremony (8) Residential school effects (4) Sage (4) Pain of spiritual deprivation (1) Pipe (5) Spiritual pain (1) Sweat (3) Anger(1) Drumming (2) Abandonment issues (1) Singing (1) Negative messages about culture (1) Use of Eagle fan (2) Religious Physical Abuse (1) Talking circle (5) Native ways sinful/evil (1) Overcame the wall (1) Public School effect (1) Developed trust (1) Loss of culture (1) Overcame fear (1) Loss of connection with Healed Anger (1) Ancestors (1) Emotional searching (1) Culture (1) Release of tears (1) Christian/traditional conflict (4) Release of spiritual emotion (1) Feelings of unworthiness (1) Created positive sense of self (1) Disconnection from culture (1) Experiential (1) Weak cultural identity (1) Cultural teachings (4) Weak connection with ancestors (1) Created cultural meaning (1) Loss of pride (1) Cultural knowledge (1) Loss of culture (1) Cultural knowledge combined with Cultural self-hatred (1) Cultural praxis (1) Cultural Shame (1) Oral tradition (1) Loss of Balance (1) Talking circles (1) Theory combined with practice (1) Affirmation of Culture (1) Reconnection (5) Culture (teachings) (3) Elders (1) Spiritual self (1) Higher power (1) Ancestors (1) Spirituality^ 1) Aboriginal History (1) Tradition (1) Heritage (1) Holistic education (4) Medicine wheel approach (2) Balanced learning (3) Through emotional release (1) Affirmation (1) affirmed our ancestors (1) affirmed traditional teachings (1) culture (1) Spiritual teachings (1) Strengthened spiritual identity (1) Acceptance of spiritual self (1) Spiritual rebirth (1) 163 Healing Aspect themes Blockage themes Reawakened spirituality (1) Strengthened spirituality (1) Eliminated shame (1) Validity of being Native (1) Validity of Native Cultural practice (1) Safe environment (2) Communication skills (1) Practicing values in classroom (1) Thematic conclusions in the spiritual realm The three primary blockages in the spiritual realm are the residential and public school effects, the conflict between Aboriginal and Christian beliefs, and the sense of discon nection from culture. In the mental realm, the learning blockages arose from negation of Aboriginal knowledge but in the spiritual realm the blockages form as the pain of cultural loss that includes the loss of tradition, culture, and spiritual belief all of which combine as a loss of pride and self worth. The residential and public schools' effects in this realm include the spiritual pain of cultural deprivation, abandonment and loss of connection with family and ancestors. Pain was created through physical religious abuse (John, Leech) such as being forced to pray or punished as spiritual training, and through the psychological abuse of being given negative messages about Aboriginal culture and ancestors that included the invalidation that all things Native were sinful and evil (Leech, John). A very significant blockage to learning and healing that existed in most of the stu-dents at the NTI was the conflict between Native Spirituality and Christianity. This created feelings of unworthiness and doubt for students that did have a strong cultural background (Billy, Anderson, Smith, John, Leech). The sense of unworthiness in this blockage vitiates learning energy in the spiritual realm that disables the student's ability to interact with culture. Since culture in the repository of knowledge this is a major block to learning. 164 The third major blockage in the spiritual realm is the disconnection from culture that resulted from the Aboriginal/Christian conflict mentioned above. The disconnections that most bothered students were those from culture, family and ancestors, creating a weakened cultural identity and contributed to a loss of pride and manifested cultural self-hatred and cultural shame (Draney). The healing aspects of the curriculum in the spiritual realm included: ceremony, cul-tural/spiritual teachings, reconnection, holistic education and affirmations. Participants stated that ceremony developed trust and helped them take down their personal walls of defense and explore communication and relationship in the ceremonial context (Duncan, Leech). In addition, the talking circle ceremony helped students overcome fear and thereby develop the courage to interact with the unknown and explore their potential. The talking circle helped heal the anger and cultural loss through the power of cultural reconnection and the release of negative spiritual emotion. This encouraged searching for positive emotions such as those contained in Aboriginal ceremonial context such as caring, sharing and kind-ness. Participants stated that the healing aspects of the curriculum created a positive sense of self through experiential process in the classroom. The use of cultural teachings at the NTI created cultural meaning that was strength-ened through cultural praxis including oral tradition, talking circles and ceremonies. This combined the culture with practice of the culture. Ceremonies can be taught in the classroom which is curriculum content, but at the NTI, ceremonies were experienced in the classroom which is process curriculum. Ceremonies that were used included the sage and sweetgrass smudge ceremony, the talking circles, the pipe, the sweat, use of the eagle fan and drumming and singing. Students experienced the culture though participation in ceremony and tradi-tion in the classroom. This affirmed Aboriginal cultural knowledge and spiritual teachings as well as the cultural/spiritual self of the NTI students. Participants commented that this 165 approach reawakened their spiritual selves and created a spiritual rebirth that energized their learning identity (Albert, Anderson, Duncan). Participants discussed that the cultural/spiritual knowledge and practice at the NTI created a reconnection with culture, elders, tradition, and ancestors. The cultural teachings were combined with an accurate view of Aboriginal history to reconnect students to their entire Aboriginal heritage as well as their unique spiritual selves. This reconnection was stated to be like a coming home, an awakening, a knowledge their ears had waited to hear that created a new breathe in their academic beings and initiated the transformation process (Anderson, Ross, John). As in the previous realms, an essential aspect of the healing/learning process in the spiritual realm was that it was connected to the other realms of the medicine wheel through a holistic approach. The balanced learning approach allowed both emotional release and healing through the interconnectedness of the teachings. Affirmations of cultural self and 'okay-ness' to be Native also assisted in the recon-nection to ancestors, traditional teachings and culture. The validations helped to eliminate cultural shame and validate the acceptance of being Native. This supported the acceptability of cultural practice. Also worthy of note in the spiritual realm was the mention, as in previous realms, of the importance of a safe environment, the development of communication skills and the practicing of cultural values in the classroom by the instructors at the institute. Emotional realm In the physical realm each student identified healing aspects and learning blockages that were significant to their learning experiences at the NTI (see Table 10). 166 Table 10. Healing Aspects and Learning Blockages in the Emotional Realm Student Healing Aspects Blockages to learning Aiona Anderson Ceremony Residential school affect. Talking circles Low self-esteem, Learning how to heal the hurts Emotional trauma Healing self-judgement Shame Achieving self-acceptance Emotional development and Healing/learning Learning about emotional . Processes Talking about feelings Identifying feelings Creating trust Ability to communicate Emotions Learning to love Self Family Culture Strengthening traditional cultural values Fred John Recovery of Pride Residential School affect Emotional healing/learning Physical Abuse Learn counselling skills Loss of Pride Improve social life Develop communication skills Reconnect with emotional Feeling Inner self Develop trust Resolved abandonment issues Rediscover emotional self Susan Smith Re-evaluational counselling Anger Better communication Resentment Ability to share Issues with others Accept without judgement Ability to ask for support Method for resolving issues Strengthen her values Practice of values offered in Process experiences Talking Circles Talking circles and ceremony Release Anger Resentment 167 Student Healing Aspects Blockages to learning Marie Anderson Sage ceremony "Immobilized" in ability to learn Ross Albert Emotional key element in holistic Need to release pain process Emotionally stunted-immature Holistic learning Medicine wheel Emotional and spiritual Combined Support the process of Learning Processes experiences Enabled Trust Ability to feel healthy feelings Release feelings eliminated sense of Grief Fear Abandonment Alienation from Self Culture Family Development of emotional skills Learning to listen Identifying feelings being able to express feelings Accepted by others Accepted self Deb Draney Opened emotional realm Unbalanced to the mental self Released the pain Emotional pain Achieve balance with Cultural shame Intellectual self Personal shame Academic self Allowed self to cry in talking circles . Balanced learning Honest with self connected to self emotionally spiritually Enhanced self-esteem Increased creativity Healed cultural shame Affirmations Emotional release Cultural teachings 168 Student Healing Aspects Blockages to learning Historical teachings Created positive self-esteem by: Self-esteem building activities Group-building activities Affirmations Talking circles Ceremonies Learning of accurate Aboriginal History Reconnecting with Aboriginal Spirituality Learning cultural knowledge Understanding the medicine wheel Developing communication skills Strengthening cultural values Developing acceptance for self and others Verna Billy Counselling techniques Anger Developed trust Abandonment issues Love Hatred for nen Ability to express feelings Loss of hope Environment Pain Safe Hurt Supportive Disillusionment Cultural process Fear permission to cry Loss of values Balanced healing/learning Counselling/culture Non-judgmental Allowed release of pain Strengthened values Structured emotions as values Defined values Hope Trust Developed Self-worth Walter Leach Strengthened identity Low self-esteem Positive self-esteem Low self-confidence Talking circles Conflict with Christian concept Acceptance Self Others Less judgmental Sense of safety Comfort with self Healing Learned to listen Medicine wheel Balance 169 Student Healing Aspects .Blockages to learning Harmony Connectedness Better communication Holistic learning Medicine wheel Ceremony Talking Circle Pauline Terbaskit Safe environment Self-acceptance Validation of intelligence Sense of potential Empowering courage to learn Strengthened Aboriginal Values Respect Family Honesty Caring Loving Negative view of Aboriginal Identity Trauma Shame Distorted view Self Family Yvonne Duncan Talking circles, Ceremonies and re-evaluation counselling Learned to cry again Removed wall Learned to identify emotions Learned to express emotions Strengthened identity Resolved conflict with males Trust Acceptance Learned to not express emotion Created wall Emotional crisis Thematic analysis of the dual process of healing/learning for the physical realm. In Table 11, the healing aspects and learning blockages identified by interviewees in the emotional realm are developed into a thematic analysis. These are organized into themes and sub themes (indented); the numbers after each theme and sub theme indicate the number of occurrences of each in all ten interviews. 170 Table 11. Themes and Sub Themes in the Emotional Realm Healing Aspect themes Strengthening traditional cultural values (6) Practice (1) Realized potential (1) Created positive self esteem (1) Structured emotions as values (2) Defined values (1) Hope (1) Trust (1) Respect(1) Family (1) Honesty (1) Caring (1) Loving (1) Holistic learning (2) Healing/learning (3) Talking Circles, Ceremony and Re-evaluation Counselling (6) Balanced learning (2) Process experiences (1) Talking circles (3) Combining Emotional/spiritual (2) Healing the hurts (1) Developed trust (6) Learning to love (2) Self (2) Family (2) Culture (2) Rediscover emotional self (4) Develop emotional skills (1) Ability to express emotions (12) Develop communication skills(5) Ability to share (1) Accept without judgement (4) Ability to ask for support (1) Method for resolving issues (1) Removed wall (1) Learned to identify emotions (3) Cultural vocabulary of feeling (1) Describe emotional states (1) Discharge her hurts (1) Create healing possibilities (1) Strengthened identity (1) Enhanced self-esteem (1) Improve social life (1) Blockage themes Distorted view of Self (1) Residential school affect (2) Negative view of Aboriginal Identity (1) Low self-esteem (2) Low self-confidence (.1) Shame (2) Cultural shame (1) Personal shame (1) Physical Abuse (1) Loss of Pride (1) Loss of Cultural Self (1) Emotional pain (4) Emotional Crisis (1) Trauma (2) Anger(2) Hatred for men (2) Loss of hope Disillusionment (1) Fear(1) Abandonment issues (2) Grief (1) Resentment (1) Emotional Stunted (1) Unbalanced toward the mental (1) Loss of values (1) Conflict with Christian concepts (1) 171 Healing Aspect themes Blockage themes Increased creativity (1) Resolved abandonment issues (2) Learned to listen (2) Acceptance of self and others (4) Safe environment (3) Recovery of pride (1) Resolved conflict with males (1) Trust (1) Acceptance (1) Affirmations (2) Self-esteem (1) Self-worth (2) Medicine wheel (2) Balance (1) Harmony (1) Connectedness (1) Thematic conclusions in the emotional realm In the emotion realm, there were two main blockages to learning: emotional pain and a distorted, inaccurate view of self and identity. Emotional pain was caused by all of the issues already discussed with regard to the other realms of the wheel. However, in this realm they are identified as the emotions of anger, hatred, fear, grief, resentment and loss of hope. The participants cited emotional crisis, disillusionment, abandonment issues, the conflict of traditional spirituality with Christianity, loss of cultural values, and hatred for men as sources of emotional learning blockage. There was a belief expressed by some interviewees that the lack of emotional development had left them unbalanced and emotion-ally stunted, that their emotional potential had been untapped by curriculums that emphasized only the cognitive and in more extreme cases their affective self had been damaged by residential or public school effect. The result of this emotional stunting was a distorted view of self that included a negative view of Aboriginal identity accented by a loss of cultural self. This lessened self-esteem, and self-confidence and thereby decreased the learning energy available from the 172 emotional realm. The cultural and personal shame felt as the result of psychological and physical abuse during time spent in schools with cognitive curriculums that created a negative view of Aboriginal realities all contributed to the blockage of emotion necessary to provide learning energy to the physical, mental and spiritual realms of the medicine wheel. The three primary healing aspects in the emotional realm were emotional healing, strengthening of values and the development of emotional skills. This is consistent with the Anisa theory that values are relatively enduring patterns of energy. The salient aspect of the response in this realm is the degree to which emotional healing was related to the holistic learning model at the NTI. Participants mentioned the Importance of the following combi-nations within their holistic education as being important in their holistic learning; ceremony combined with Re-evaluation counselling techniques, balanced learning, process experiences combined with content learning, and combining the emotional and spiritual. In addition, the use of the medicine wheel as a model created balance, harmony and connect-edness and was an important contribution to healing/learning by NTI students. The holistic approach contributed to the release of hurt during process experiences such as ceremonies and counselling. This was enhanced by learning in a safe environment that encouraged the return of pride during the healing of shame. Emotional affirmations (affirming the positive emotional qualities in the student) were also important in this process. Participants identified a number of emotional skills developed through the curricu-lum process at the NTI. These include: 1. The development of trust 2. The discovery and exploration of the emotional self 3. The ability to express and share emotions 4. The ability to communicate emotion in a healthy manner 5. Improvement of emotional skills 6. The ability to identify emotions 173 7 . The creation of a cultural vocabulary of feeling that enabled students to describe emotional states (consistent with medicine wheel teachings of caring, sharing, kindness and respect) •> 8. The ability to release hurts 9. The acceptance of self and others without judgment 10. The ability to seek support and methods for resolving issues 11. The ability to listen These eleven emotional skills resulted in a number of emotional accomplishments for students at the NTI including the strengthening of identity though enhanced self-esteem. Since the emotion developed in the emotional realm of the student energizes all other realms of the students identity this is an extremely important finding. Participants often spoke of self-worth in addition to self-esteem. Self worth developed as a term for a strengthening of learning identity in all the realms of the medicine wheel (body-awareness, self-concept, self-image, self-esteem and self-determination). The release of emotional pain and the strength-ening of self-esteem increased the creativity of participants, removed the defensive walls and improved the social life and interactions of students. Again it is important to note that emotional competency would be expressed as a reflection of moral competence in the interaction with others. Another important healing aspect mentioned by a number of participants was the resolution of negative emotions with regard to the opposite sex (Bona, Duncan, Terbaskit, Leech) and the resolution of abandonment issues created by the residen-tial school effect (Albert, Leech, John). Another aspect of the healing/learning that occurred for participants was the strengthening of traditional cultural values. Participants commented that the practice of values in the classroom contributed to the strengthening of their own values. The practice, of values during ceremonial classroom experiences enhanced the strengthening of self-esteem and contributed to the structuring of positive emotions (developing in the classroom) into values. Participants spoke of returning to or developing Aboriginal values including learning 174 to love self, family and culture. In addition the values of hope, trust, respect, family, honesty and caring were mentioned. Volitional realm In the physical realm each student identified healing aspects and learning blockages that were significant to their learning experiences at the NTI (see Table 12). Table 12. Healing Aspects and Learning Blockages in the Volitional Realm Student Healing Aspects Blockages to learning Aiona Anderson Strengthened will through self-confidence belief in identity value of identity Belief in values Love self culture values family will important in relation to other realms of the wheel Residential school effect Negative feelings about self Fred John Establish goals (spiritual helper) Elimination of negative feeling energized the will Residential school effect Not good for anything Susan Smith Establish goal (becoming leader) Counselling and ceremony important to remove negative emotions Ceremony then created trust in the process by overcoming fear of . transformation Validity of ancestors and traditional teachings Medicine wheel provided a traditional structure for transformation Reluctant to move toward leadership goal Negative emotional blockages Fear Anger Issues with men Resentment Marie Anderson Ceremonial emotional healing Release of the tears and negative emotions Eliminated block to potentiality Validate identity Conflicted will Volitional immobility Negative emotions Negative info on culture Negative info on identity 175 Student Healing Aspects Blockages to learning Aboriginal history Ceremony Cultural teaching Emotional release Reconnection with Ancestors Family teachings Created block to potentiality Ross Albert Established goal To become educated Medicine wheel Emotional release Blocked by Mental and disconnected to rest of the wheel Deb Draney Strengthened will Self-pity Negative emotions Verna Billy Ability to establish goals Directly related to the creation of hope as a positive emotion Established goal of becoming educated person Negative emotions Anger Lack of trust Walter Leach Learned about planning process Residential School effect Negative self-identity Pauline Terbaskit Strengthened discipline Conscious and responsible for choices Conscious awareness of volition Negative message that she could not achieve Yvonne Duncan Established learning goals Negative emotion Fear Thematic analysis of the dual process of healing/learning for the physical realm. In Table 13, the healing aspects and learning blockages identified by interviewees in the physical realm are developed into a thematic analysis. These are organized into themes and sub themes (indented); the numbers after each theme and sub theme indicate the number of occurrences of each in all ten interviews. 176 Table 13. Themes a n d Sub Themes i n the V o l i t i o n a l R e a l m Healing Aspect themes Blockage themes Ability to establish goals Residential school effect directly related to the creation of hope as a Negative feelings about self (1) positive emotion (1) Not good for anything (1) Established goal of becoming educated (3) Residential School effect Establish goal of leadership (1) Negative self-identity (1) Establish goal of being spiritual helper (1) Conflicted will created volitional immobility (1) Learning about planning process (1) Negative emotions (1) Strengthened will (2) Negative info on culture (1) '\ Discipline (1) Negative info on identity (1) Elimination of negative feeling (1) Created block to potentiality (1) Self-confidence (1) Reluctant leadership (1) Belief in identity (1) Negative emotional blockages (4) Value of identity (1) Fear (3) Belief in values (1) Anger(2) love (1) Lack of Trust (1) self (1)' Self pity (1) culture (1) Issues with men (1) values (1) Resentment (1) family (1) Blocked by being in Mental and disconnected Medicine wheel (1) to rest of the wheel (1) Medicine wheel provided a traditional structure for transformation (1) Will important in relation to other realms of the wheel (1) Emotional release (1) Counselling (1) Ceremony (2) Created trust (1) Eliminated fear of transformation (1) Eliminated block to potential (1) Strengthened identity (1) Validate identity (1) Aboriginal history ^ Ceremony Cultural teaching (3) Ancestors (1) Family teachings (1) Conscious awareness of will (1) Responsible for choices(l) Awareness of volition (1) 177 Thematic conclusions in the volitional realm In the volitional realm the blockage to learning emerged as a "conflicted will' (Ander-son) that was immobilized by negative emotional energy. This volitional immobility (Anderson) was a block to the release of student potential. Students cited a combination of negative emotions and negative teachings they had received on Aboriginal culture and identity as being responsible for the learning blockage in their wills. The primary negative emotions in this area were identified as: fear, anger, lack of trust, self-pity and resentment. The negative teachings were attributed to the residential and public school effects that left students with negative feelings about their selves and with the idea that they were "not good for anything" (Ross) and that therefore they could not express their will toward the actuali-zation of their potential. Volitional immobility became the blockage at the center of their negative learning identity. The four primary healing aspects in the volitional realm of students at the NTI were: creation of a conscious awareness of the will, emotional release, identity validation, and strengthening the will. Participants reported that becoming conscious of the will created volitional awareness that brought responsibility for decision making into their life. They realized a responsibility for decision making that assisted them in the establishment of goals once their will had been strengthened. A key element of the strengthening of volition was validation of identity. Participants cited the teaching of Aboriginal history and the use of ceremony and cultural teachings as important to the validation and strengthening of their volitional abilities. In addition, the emotional release of pain through counselling and ceremony created the trust necessary to eliminate fear and remove this learning block. Emotional release was also cited as strengthening identity. Participants cited many benefits from the strengthening of the will and the removal of conflicts from their volition. Included in these were increased discipline and the ability to establish goals. Participants established goals in the areas of education (Terbaskit, Billy, 178 Anderson, Ross), leadership (Smith, John) and cultural advancement (John, Leech, Ter-baskit). Participants reported that the elimination of negative feelings created a stronger belief in Aboriginal identity and values and thereby created greater self-confidence and the ability to express positive emotion toward their self, culture, and family. Their increased self-worth was experienced as increased self-confidence in the volitional realm. Interviewees stated that the healing in the volitional realm was promoted by having the medicine wheel as a traditional structure for transformation and the establishment of goals in each of the realms of the medicine wheel. Each of the realms were reviewed and the healing aspects and learning blockages were organized into categories presented Table 14. Table 14. S u m m a r y o f H e a l i n g Aspec ts a n d L e a r n i n g Blockages Medicine wheel realm Healing Aspects Learning Blockages Physical Physical teachings Cultural teachings Ceremony Emotional release Health issues Physical shame Mental Holistic learning Validation of Aboriginal knowledge Developing a positive self-concept Emotional healing Philosophy of potential Aboriginal teachers Residential school effect Public school effect Negative self-identity Compartmentalization of Knowledge Spiritual Ceremony Cultural/spiritual teachings Reconnection Holistic education Affirmations Residential School effect Public school effect Negative view of Aboriginal knowledge & culture Conflict between Aboriginal and Christian Belief Disconnection from culture Loss of tradition Emotional Emotional healing Strengthening of values Development of emotional skills Emotional pain Distorted, inaccurate view of self and identity Volitional Conscious awareness of the will Emotional release Identity validation Strengthening the will Conflicted will Negative emotional energy 179 Summary of learning blockages The learning blockages identified by the students interviewed can be organized into four major categories: negative school effects, negative identity, emotional hurt, and conflict. These created negative identity, emotional hurt, conflict and learning blockages in all five realms of the medicine wheel. In the physical realm, negative experiences and teachings about the Aboriginal physical presence combined to create a negative body-awareness and feelings of physical shame that created a conflict between Aboriginal and European physical awareness. In the mental realm, the invalidation of Aboriginal knowledge created a negative view of Aboriginal intelligence that developed a negative self-concept. This created mental pain and left students conflicted about the validity of Aboriginal knowledge. This conflict supported feelings of cultural shame and fears that non-Aboriginal education was cultural suicide. In the spiritual realm, residential and public school effects invalidated Aboriginal culture and spirituality creating a negative self-image filled with spiritual/cultural pain arising from the conflict between Native spirituality and Christianity. Interviewees com-mented that they felt a loss of balance resulting from the disconnection from their spirituality. In the emotional realm, learning blockages created self-hatred based on the experience of emotional pain and creation of negative self-esteem. Students commented that they felt emotionally stunted; that their emotional growth was at a standstill when they entered the NTI. This created a conflict between the positive emotions of love and hope and the negative emotions of hate and fear. In the volitional realm the will was negated through messages invalidating Native potential. These messages created a negative sense of self-determination based on self-hatred and fear that created the wall spoken of by many stu-dents. The messages resulted in a will conflicted between potentiality and feelings of worthlessness and unworthiness. 180 Table 15. The Effects of Learning Blockages "' School Effects Negative Identity Emotional Hurt Conflict Physical Negative physical awareness Negative body awareness Physical Shame Physical presence / White image Mental Negative view of intelligence Negative self-concept Mental pain Validity of Aboriginal knowledge Spiritual Invalidation of culture and spirituality Negative self-image Spiritual pain Traditional knowledge / Christianity Emotional Self-hatred Negative self-esteem Emotional pain Love and hope vs. hate/fear Volitional Negated will Negative self-determination Volitional conflict Positive goals / sense of worthlessness Summary of healing aspects The healing aspects identified by the students interviewed can also be organized into four major categories: holistic education, strengthening identity, emotional healing and Aboriginal knowledge. The learning identities of the students were strengthened through the healing of negative emotional energy and the inclusion of Aboriginal knowledge in all realms. In the physical realm, teachings about the body, physical education (including exercise) and the release of negative emotions about the physical self (including physical shame) strengthened body-awareness. In the mental realm, cognitive education that in-cluded the validation of Aboriginal knowledge (and the structuring of that knowledge in an Aboriginal model) combined with the release of negative emotions about the mental self (including the release of feelings about not being intelligent) to strengthen self-concept. In the spiritual realm, cultural education containing Aboriginal cultural/spiritual knowledge (including the process experiences that involved the practice of this knowledge as ceremony) 181 combined to strengthen the self-image of the students. In the emotional realm, affective education (counselling skills, knowledge of emotion, Aboriginal teachings of feelings and emotion) developed emotional skills that combined with the release of negative emotion to strengthen self-esteem. In the volitional realm, education about the will created a conscious awareness of the process of creating goals and objectives combined with the release of negative emotions to strengthen the self-determination of the students. The strengthening of all five aspects of learning identity increased the learning energy available to the students. Table 16. Summary of Healing Aspects Holistic education Strengthened Learning -Identity Emotional Healing Aboriginal Knowledge Process Curriculum Physical Physical education Body awareness Release of negative emotions about physical self Physical teachings Exercise Mental Cognitive education Self-concept Release of negative emotions about mental self Validation of Aboriginal knowledge Academic learning Spiritual Cultural education Self-image - Release of negative emotions about spiritual self Cultural spiritual knowledge Ceremony Emotional Affective education Self-esteem Release of negative emotions about emotional self Development of emotional skills Talking circles / counselling practice Volitional Volitional education Self-determina-tion Release of negative emotions about will and potential Consciousness of will Ceremony / talking circles 182 In summary, holistic education at the NTI strengthened learning identity through healing/learning experiences that strengthened the body-awareness, self-concept, self-image, self-esteem and self-determination of the students. This was accomplished through the inclusion of affective development in a content and process curriculum. Conclusion A comparison of the major themes discussed above with the founding philosophy of the Native Training Institute reveals that the original goals were achieved and, more impor-tantly, that the founders of the Institute accurately identified the necessary healing and learning aspects for educational transformation. Although they do not include the concept of identity in the original principles, the strengthening of identity was achieved by ensuring that the curriculum was meaningful and relevant to the personal and professional lives of the students. The founders correctly identified the need for emotional healing although it had not been related to the residential and public school effects in the early efforts of the Institute. Finally, the founders of the Institute correctly theorized the necessity of Aboriginal knowledge as a healing and transformational aspect of the curriculum. The principle that curriculum must be accommodating to the educational levels of the community was accom-plished through a strong process experiential component at the NTI. Table 17. Seven Founding Principles of the Native Training Institute 1. Education must address "the whole notion of culture" 2. Education must be meaningful, relevant and effective in the workplace 3. Education must include an element of Aboriginal knowledge 4. Education must be relevant to the experience of the students. 5. Education must include more than just the mental aspect of being. 6. Education must include emotional, physical and spiritual elements in addition to the mental. 7. Education must be accommodating to the educational levels of social service workers in the communities. 183 Anderson stated that there was a need for an educational structure, designed by the Aboriginal community, that would deliver the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes that could address community needs. A comparison of the major conclusions of the students interviewed to the seven founding principles of the Native Training institute articulated by Anderson and Herbert reveals that the healing aspects of the curriculum identified by the interviewees achieved the seven founding principles of the NTI. The development of emotional capacities for love, loyalty, generosity, , compassion and kindness... are important lessons to be learned.... The Sacred Tree - • ; 184 CHAPTER 7: EPILOGUE: A FINAL REFLECTION ON THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF A HOLISTIC THEORY OF CULTURAL PEDAGOGY: SEVEN CIRCLES OF TRANSFORMATION TOWARD A PATH OF LEARNING A holistic theory of cultural pedagogy This dissertation began with the question: how was affective competency developed in students at the NTI within the holistic context of medicine wheel teachings? This chapter defines and articulates a cultural pedagogy based on the educational philosophy developed at the NTI and organizes the findings into seven circles of transformational education. It examines the dual healing/learning process that emerged from the desire of the founders to create a holistic pedagogy that belonged to the Native community at the institute. This pedagogy creates a practical application of theory and provides an example of a model for a complete restructuring of the educational context including curricula, teaching and admini-stration to address the crisis in Aboriginal education. This crisis is made obvious by the fact, stated above, that only 42 percent of Aboriginal students graduate from public high schools in British Columbia (British Columbia Ministry of Education, 2003, p. 25). These seven circles of transformation provide a model for the practical application of the NTI holistic theory. Aboriginal knowledge, the medicine wheel, learning identity, values, competencies, ideals and vision created a transformational spiral that moved students upward in a movement toward healing and learning. I have named this holistic model of education the affective competency model, because the inclusion of an affective aspect to the curriculum is essential in every circle of transformation. The affective aspect of the model provides the healing in the healing/learning curriculum. In fact, "Aboriginal commu-nities and the Aboriginal 'healing movement' have long argued that healing and community development are inseparable" (Lane, et al., 2002, p. 23). The dual process of heal-185 ing/learning created a transformational classroom environment at the NTI that allowed students to heal, learn, change and grow. Healing/learning was made possible though the combination of two essential elements of transformation identified by students at the NTI, a holistic curriculum that included a model of affective competency. The healing occurs as process experiences in a classroom methodology that consciously integrates affective and cognitive processes. Hebert, an administrator and co-founder of the NTI, identifies the need for the ongo-ing dual-process education that was developed to heal the trauma and pain resident in the Indigenous learning process. She points out that the very act of learning can be traumatizing for Aboriginal students because of the trauma contained in Canadian history. Lane et al. (2002) describe the multigenerational impact of Aboriginal trauma: It becomes clear when considering these various sources of trauma, that the eventual impact of trauma originating from outside Aboriginal communities was to generate a wide range of dysfunctional and hurtful behaviors ... which began to be recycled generation after generation inside communities. What this has meant is that as many as three to five generations removed from externally induced trauma, the great, great grandchildren of those who were originally traumatized by past historical events are now being traumatized by patterns that continue to be recycled in the families and communities of today, (p. 6) This trauma created the learning blockages identified in this research that can para-lyze the learning process if a healing component is absent in the curriculum. Herbert comments: ... say someone was doing a skill development and it had nothing to do at all with dealing with people's feelings or spirituality and then people would still talk about what happened to them and then sometimes they would have to . process feelings and so people were allowed to do that in the classroom .... There wasn't a lot of time in the training where people didn't have major incidences where people were actually re-traumatized by the information they were hearing. (Interview, May 23, 2003, p. 12). In every transformation circle the inclusion of the affective is the key to transforma-tion learning. In the first circle of transformation, the inclusion of Aboriginal knowledge in the curriculum, the knowledge of Aboriginal values and Aboriginal theories of releasing 186 emotion in ceremonies such as the talking circle, create the foundation for the emotional healing necessary for transformational healing/learning. Lane et al. (2002) state that healing "within the Canadian Aboriginal context refers to a cluster of ideas, activities, events, initiatives and relationships happening at every level from the individual to the intertribal" (p. 23) The second circle of transformation, the medicine wheel, creates the holistic space for healing/learning. Essential to this space is the emotional realm of the wheel which is the root of the tree of learning. The root of the tree connects to the ancestral Aboriginal knowledge embedded in the earth and draws the emotional energy of earth based and earth connected values from the deep ground of the past. This energy moves up the trunk of the tree though the force of volition to physical, mental and spiritual branches that bring forth the fruit of competency. In the third circle of transformation, learning identity, the development of positive self-esteem supports the development of all other areas of a positive learning identity: body-awareness, self-concept, self image and self-determination. In the fourth circle of transfor-mation, values, affective development is essential to learning because a value is a relatively enduring patterned use of emotional energy that motivates the learning process. All positive values depend on positive emotional energy that is structured toward learning. Positive values are strengthened and healed by the release of negative emotional energy. In the fifth circle of transformation, competencies, emotional competency determines the strength and functioning of all other competencies. That is to say that emotional competency supports and is essential to cognitive competency as well as physical, spiritual and volitional compe-tencies. In the sixth circle, the creation of ideals within the curriculum, emotional ideals are again the key to cognitive ideals. 187 Learning Identity Aboriginal Knowledge Figure 7. The Seven Circles of Transformation Cognitive ideals establish goals and direction in the learning process but affective ideals, such as hope and kindness, support the positive, constructive movement toward these ideals. Cognitive ideals without competent, positive affective ideals can lead to destruction, disintegrative learning. In the seventh circle of transformation, the capacity to entertain vision, emotional vision, the capacity to envision our highest and best emotional state guides the process of transformation because it is the root of and supportive to the other realms of vision. 188 The first circle of transformation: Aboriginal knowledge The use of Aboriginal knowledge in the curriculum at the NTI was the foundational to the transformation of students. It provided for the "notion of culture," created a meaning-ful and relevant curriculum that related to the reality of the students. The very presence of Aboriginal knowledge was healing and validating to the student's identities. As Marie Anderson stated: "[i]t just seem like so, it was such a welcome knowledge because it felt like a certain validity to my own personal being came over me somehow" (Interview, January 30, 2003, p. 25). The healing/learning process at the NTI was rooted in the wisdom of Aboriginal knowledge and culture. The four most important aspects of this Aboriginal knowledge that were identified by the interviewees included: ceremonial knowledge, oral knowledge, knowl-edge involving the development of an individual's gift and Aboriginal knowledge that was integrated into the subjects taught at the NTI. The foundation of transformation was estab-lished by validating Aboriginal knowledge. Transformation requires that you build on what the people have and not on what they have not. Ceremonial knowledge The ceremonial knowledge used at the NTI was derived from Aboriginal ceremonial principles. These principles included balance, harmony, alignment, peacefulness and con-nectedness. These were taught both as content and through the process experience of the ceremonies themselves. The ceremonial aspects of the curriculum that were held to be significant by the students included the smudging ceremonies, talking circles, pipe and sweat lodge ceremonies, the use of the drum and eagle fan in class. Students commented that the ceremonial process curriculum provided spiritual teachings that enabled them to reconnect with their self, family, history, ancestors and elders! This sense of reconnection 1 8 9 with self on the cultural/spiritual level was important to the strengthening of self that supported a renewed energy of learning. Oral knowledge The oral knowledge presented at the NTI included traditional and contemporary knowledge that provided Aboriginal cognitive and affective content in the process of learn-ing. Myth, symbols, storytelling, legend cycles, and Aboriginal knowledge were included in the curriculum as oral knowledge. Oral knowledge is the story by which people live. Bopp and Bopp (2001) argue that transformation necessitates the generation or renewal of the story of "who we are and who we are becoming" (p. 40). When students are disconnected from their myths and stories they become disconnected from their land and identity. Dis-connection from the land also disconnects students from their moral and ethical base. Because the oral tradition is connected to the land and contains ethical teachings, disconnec-tion from this knowledge can cause students to lose an important source of knowledge that organizes their emotional energy as ethical values and thereby contributes to emotional competency. Students described their disconnection from Aboriginal knowledge as a source of pain. The transformational healing/learning process at the NTI successfully reversed this process through validation and respect for Aboriginal oral tradition that transformed the self-hatred created by residential and public school effects was transformed into self-worth by oral tradition. Students described reconnection with their cultural self, family and com-munities as the source of this self-worth. Oral tradition helped answer the question, "who am I" in a way that reclaimed identity and worthiness. Oral tradition also provided a validation of Aboriginal knowledge in learning process of the NTI. Lakoff and Johnson (1999) argue that knowledge is situated and what is valid knowledge depends on the situations. They write: Science, as Kuhn rightly observed, does not always proceed by the linear accretion of objective knowledge. Science is a social, cultural and historical 190 practice, knowledge is always situated, and what counts as knowledge may depend on matters of power and influence. Accordingly, we reject the simpleminded ideas that all science is purely objective, that issues of power and politics never enter into science, that science progresses linearly, and that it can always be trusted. Moreover, we strongly reject the myth that science provided the ultimate means of understanding everything and that humanistic knowledge has no standing to anything that calls itself science (p. 89). Oral tradition at the NTI was important in establishing the accurate view of history. This was important to the students as a validation of Aboriginal knowledge that they identi-fied as critical to the reformation of strong identities. The use of Aboriginal mythology, stories and legends created relevancy in the curriculum. Fred John stated: ... they spoke a lot about the storytelling of the [pause]. They more or less went into the legends of where a lot of the creatures ... our coyote, took part in a lot of storytelling legends. What is passed on down to them. People that told a lot of stories and they explained to us what it is that the stories are about. It is a teaching tool. They broke it down so we could understand it and also learn how to do it with ourselves in our community. (Interview, January 20, 2003, p. 16). Mythology was used to produce cultural meaning in psychology