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From imperialism to internationalism in British Columbia education and society, 1900 to 1939 Nelles, Wayne Charles 1995

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FROM IMPERIALISM TO INTERNATIONALISM INBRiTISH COLUMBIA EDUCATION AND SOCIETY, 1900 TO 1939byWAYNE CHARLES NELLESB.A., Simon Fraser University, 1979M.A., Simon Fraser University, 1984A THESIS SUBMLTED iN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFDOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHYinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(Department ofEducational Studies)We accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardAUNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAApril 1995ØWayne Charles Nelles, 1995In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)___________________Department of hica%o> / $%6j’The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate / /, “9DE-6 (2/88)11AbstractThis study argues for a transition from imperialism to internationalism in British Columbiaeducational thought, policy and practice from 1900 to 1939. Three contrasting and complementaryinternationalist orientations were dominant in British Columbia during that period. Some educatorsembraced an altruistic “socially transformative internationalism” built on social gospel, pacifist, socialreform, cooperative and progressivist notions. This contrasted with a self-interested “competitiveadvantage internationalism,” more explicitly economic, capitalist and entrepreneurial. A third type wasinstrumental and practical, using international comparisons and borrowing to support or help explain theother two.The thesis pays special attention to province-wide developments both in government and out.These include the work of the British Columbia Teachers’ Federation (BCTF), of several voluntaryorganizations, and provincial Department of Education policy and programme innovations. Examplesinclude the rise, demise, and revival of cadet training, technical education, Department curriculum policy,and the work of the Overseas Education League, the National Council on Education, the Junior RedCross, the World Goodwill Society of British Columbia, the Vancouver Board of Trade, and the League ofNations Society in Canada. A diverse array of BCTF leaders, parents, teachers, voluntary organizations,students, educational policy makers and bureaucrats, editorialists, the general public, and the provincialgovernment supported international education and internationalist outlooks.The argument is supported chiefly by organizational and government documents, by editorials,letters, articles, commentaries, conference reports, and speeches in The B.C. Teacher, by Department ofEducation and sundry other reports, by League of Nations materials, and by newspapers and otherpublications.Distinctive imperially-minded educational ideas and practices prevailed in British Columbiafrom about 1900 to tle mid-1920s, whereas explicitly internationalist education notions and practicescomplemented or overshadowed imperial education from about 1919 to 1939. The transition fromimperialism to internationalism in British Columbia education and society coincided with Canada’sindustrialization in an interdependent global economy, and its maturation into an independent selfgoverning nation within the Commonwealth and League of Nations.111TABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract iiTable of Contents iiiAcknowledgement VChapter One: IMPERIAL AND INTERNATIONAL IDEAS AND PRACTICESIN BRITISH COLUMBIA EDUCATIONProblem and Research Question 2Research Scope 5Related Research and Significance of this Study 6Definitions and Principal Concepts 22Chapter Two: IMPERIALIST AND INTERNATIONALIST EDUCATIONALINNOVATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1900-1919Background 38Imperial Education Ideas and Policies in Canada, 1900-19 19 41Rhodes Scholarships and Cadet Training, 1900-19 19 47Internationalism, Progress, Patriotism and National Development 56Nationalist and Internationalist Challenges to Imperialist Education:Imperialism’s Reluctant Demise 62Promoting Economic Internationalism: Competitiveness and Technical Education 65Chapter Three: INTERNATIONALISM IN THE BRITISH COLUMBIA TEACHERS’FEDERATION, 1919-1939Harry Charlesworth, J.G. Lister and the BCTF--Educational Imperialism,Internationalism and Diplomacy 90Charlesworth and BCTF Visions for a Better World 105The BCTF, Internationalism, and the Labour Affiliation Debate 112The BCTF and Anglo-American Educational Cooperation 116BCTF and CTF in the World Federation of Education Associations 126The 1923 San Francisco Conference and its Aftermath 134BCTF, CTF and the WFEA: World Progress, Politics and Educational Diplomacy 138Chapter Four: CANADIAN VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS ANDINTERNATIONALISM IN BRITISH COLUMBIA PUBLICEDUCATION, 1919-1939Junior Red Cross 156The Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire 163Internationalism and Canadian Education Week 168World Good-Will Day 173Pedagogy for Profit: The Vancouver Board of Trade and Education 188The League of Nations Society in Canada and British Columbia 199ivChapter Five: INTERNATIONALISM iN BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OFEDUCATION POLICY AND PROGRAMMES, 1919-1939The Putman Weir Report and After 228Cadet Training and the New Internationalism 258Imperialism, Internationalism and the 1937 Coronation 267Imperialism, Internationalism and the National Council ofEducation 270The Overseas Education League, Educational Exchanges and Travel 282Internationalist Teacher Training, League Teaching, and International EducationalRelations and Policies in British Columbia 293Chapter Six: THEMES AND CONCLUSIONSFrom Imperialism to Internationalism 301Two Dominant Internationalist Visions 304International Borrowing, Standards and Policies 305Internationalization 307Progressivism and the Social Gospel 308Canadian Foreign and Economic Policy 309General Conclusions, Policy Implications and Future Research 311Bibliography: PART I--PRIMARY SOURCES1. Reports and Proceedings (Published) 3211.1 GovernmentDocuments 3211.2 Association Reports and Proceedings 3232. Contemporary Books 3233. Contemporary Periodicals, Pamphlets and Reports 3253.1 The B.C. Teacher 3253.2 Pamphlets and Reports (Printed and Typescript) 3303.3 Contemporary Periodicals 3324. Newspapers 3365. Manuscript Records and Published Corresdondence 3405.1 Minutes of BCTF and CTF 3405.2 Correspondence 340(a) Published Correspondence 340(b) Manuscript Correspondence 3405.3 Manuscript Records 341(a) Collections 341(b) Unpublished Papers 3416. School Textbooks 341Bibliography: PART H--SECONDARY SOURCES7. Government Documents 3438. Articles 3439. Books 35010. Theses 357Appendix 1: WORLD CONFERENCE ON EDUCATION (SAN FRANCISCO, 1923>SIGNIFICANT POLICY AND PROGRAMME RESOLUTIONS 358Appendix 2: LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 361VAcknowledgementThis study would not have been possible without the encouragement and support from myresearch supervisor, William Bruneau. I thanlc him for allowing me to pursue a topic which I enjoyedveiy much, and should prove useful for my future academic and professional career. Dr. Bruneau’seditorial assistance helped immensely, and he gave generously of his time and expertise. Professors PeterSeixas and Ivan Head were also extremely helpful thesis committee members providing insightfulcomments, guidance, and moral support.I would also like to thank the archivists, librarians and others who assisted me locally at theBritish Columbia Teachers’ Federation, the British Columbia School Trustees Association, VancouverSchool Board, Vancouver City Archives, and University ofBritish Columbia Special Collections. Thoseat the Canadian Teachers’ Federation, and National Archives of Canada in Ottawa, Victoria’s provincialarchives, and the League ofNations Archives in Geneva were also a great help.Finally, I would like to thank my mother, Catherine Nelles, for some financial assistance whichallowed me to complete my thesis.I1Chapter OneIMPERIAL AND INTERNATIONALIDEAS AND PRACTICES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA EDUCATIONFrom 1900 to 1939 British Columbia educational thought, policy, and practice moved from apredominantly imperialist outlook to incorporate distinctively internationalist views. Imperialism itselfwas not static, as it evolved to embrace internationalist orientations. Internationalism both as popularattitude and as an organized “movement,” variously grew out of imperialism, of North Americancontinentalism, and of Canadian nationalism after 1919. Notions of internationalism among BritishColumbia educators varied, often exhibiting both altruistic or social transformational, and self-interestedeconomic or competitive tendencies.No one has yet systematically described or explained the development of internationalism inBritish Columbia educational thought and society from 1900 to 1939, or its links to imperialist andnationalist attitudes and practices. I have tackled the question under several thematic heads. I examinethe evolution of technical education and training in British Columbia. I also explore the promotion,demise and revival of cadet training in schools; education abroad through teacher, student, and academicexchange; the international educational work of various non-governmental organizations that directlyinfluenced school programmes; and British Columbia educators’ role in imperial and internationaleducational institutions and conferences. I particularly consider British Columbia participation in theLondon imperial education conferences beginning in 1907 through the League of Empire, and thepioneering role of The British Columbia Teachers’ Federation (BCTF) in founding and developing theWorld Federation of Education Associations (WFEA) from 1923. I further examine policies andprogramme initiatives resulting from international agreements and negotiations at internationalconferences such as teacher, student, and academic exchanges, and Empire Day and World Goodwill Dayin the schools. I draw other examples from the League of Nations and show American educators’demonstrable effect on British Columbia educational ideas, policies, and programmes.My study emphasizes internationalist ideas and programmes in government policy andprogrammes, and especially the views of British Columbia teachers represented in the BCTF. The2BCTFs view of education, to the extent it ever managed to convey a unified opinion, was from the early1920s was broader than mere schooling. It included the fonning of adults, the influencing of publicopinion, extra-curricular activities, non-formal instruction, and education in post-secondary settings.1This approximates a definition proposed by historian Lawrence Cremin who “defined education broadly,as the deliberate, systematic and sustained effort to transmit, evoke, or acquire knowledge, values,attitudes, skills, and sensibilities, as a well as any learning that results from that effort, direct or indirect,intended or unintended.”2 Cremin’s concept is analogous to the notion of “lifelong learning,” proposed byUNESCO, seeing education in a variety offormal, nonformal and informal ways and settings, among bothchildren and adults, from cradle to grave.3Problem and Research QuestionI began this research to understand the historical foundations of recent, apparently newinternational education policies and programme developments in British Columbia. I uncovered a massof evidence, and therefore narrowed my focus to concentrate on the period from 1900 to 1939. Since thisstudy ends at 1939, it does not directly explain recent developments. Nonetheless, they stimulated thepresent study and deserve a brief overview.Several international education developments in British Columbia during the 1980s and 1990sappeared to be radical departures, and received substantial government funding in times of fiscalconservatism.4 Almost all were province-wide, government-funded initiatives in the 1980s stillSee especially BCTF General Secretary, Harry Charlesworth’s Editorial, “The Magazine and ItsPurpose,” The B.C. Teachers Federation Magazine 1, nos. 1-2 (Sept.-Oct. 1921): 3; and allusionsthroughout Chapter Three of this study.2 Lawrence Cremin, American Education: The Metropolitan Experience 1876-1980 (New York: Harper &Row, 1988), x.Edgar Faure (Commission Chair), Learning to Be: The World of Education today and tomorrow (Paris:United Nations Educational and Scientific Organization, 1972).See Gordon Bailey, “Politicizing Education,” in Warren Magnusson, Charles Doyle, R.B.J. Walker, andJohn DeMarco, eds., After Bennett: A New Politics for British Columbia (Vancouver: New Star Books,1986), 296-312; and Elaine Jacobson and Larry Kuehn, In the Wake ofRestraint: The Impact of Restrainton Education in B.C. - A Research Report (Vancouver: Education Audit, B.C. Teachers’ Federation,December, 1986).3continuing in 1994, and at all levels of the education system from Kindergarten to grade twelve (K-12), topost-secondary institutions. They involved a host of organizations, interest groups, and levels ofgovernment. They included explicitly provincial innovations, federal initiatives, and internationalprojects launched or headquartered in British Columbia.The BCTF, for example, sponsored the B.C. Global Education Project after 1989. A new B.C.Centre for International Education began in 1990. On another hand, the Ministry of Educationestablished an International Education Branch and launched its Pacific Rim Education Initiativesprogramme in 1987. There was also a formal agreement in 1986 to establish a national committee on“Education-Related International Activities” with British Columbia participating along with the Councilof Ministers of Education, and the Department of External Affairs. The BCTF led a Peace EducationCoalition and launched a new Peace Education PSA (Professional Specialist’s Association) in 1986. TheAsia Pacific Foundation, was federally founded in 1984 in Vancouver, and administered the Pacific 2000education program. A provincial Environment and Education Committee initiated an educational policyand program review through the B.C. Roundtable on the Environment and Economy, in the wake of the1987 report of the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development. A new PacificRim Tourism Training Institute was established in 1988 by the government of British Columbia. A newScience Council of British Columbia began in 1978 and grew in the 1 980s, mostly to facilitate research intechnology and science which would make the province more competitive internationally. The newCommonwealth of Learning opened its headquarters in Vancouver in 1988, partly funded by the BritishColumbia government. New multicultural and anti-racist policies and programmes also appeared andEnglish as a second language (ESL) programmes dramatically increased.5BCTF programmes meanwhile promoted an altruistic, “socially transformative” perspective,6whereas those initiated by government were largely self-interested, competitive, and economic inDetailed references, except for the brief notes below go beyond the scope of this study.6 See for example: a brochure entitled British Columbia Teacher’s Federation and International Work(Vancouver: BCTF, October, 1985); policy statements and objectives in the B.C. Teacher’s Federationpolicy manual: Members’ Guide to the BCTF 199 1-92 (Vancouver: BCTF, 1991), 2, 46, 48, 53-54, 67, 94-97; and Global Concerns: A Directory of B.C. International Development Groups and Resources 19914orientation.7 Such publications as Killian’s School Wars, and comments from the Vancouver Board ofTrade denouncing teachers’ attacks on international competitiveness in business, show a dichotomy invalues and perspectives.8 Given this background, the research question for the present study came to havethis fonn:What are the principal historical foundations of current public international educationimages, policies, relationships, and programmes in British Columbia; and to what extentcan these be explained as aspects of at least two internationalist approaches in Canada,namely one which promotes social justice or transformation, in contrast to anotherwhich has predominantly competitive, conservative, and implicitly or explicitly laissez-faire economic or capitalist ideals?As research proceeded, the roots of even recent and more explicitly internationalist innovationsof the 1980s seemed to reach into the nineteenth century. I thus present the “foundations” of recentdevelopments here in the period 1900 to 1939. This was a formative era in British Columbia educationand society, when internationalism in British Columbia education grew with the province, partly inresponse to world conditions. I do not argue that these completely explain more recent developments fromthe 1 980s on. They are a necessary, but not a sufficient condition of understanding such later innovations.Another study for the post-War period would usefully clarify and qualify this assumption.(Vancouver: BCTF, 1991), a joint publication in cooperation with the B.C. Council for InternationalCooperation.See the unpublished report entitled Post-Secondary International Education in British Columbiaprepared by Gordon Gilgan, Patricia Keays, Gayle McGee, Patricia Robison, and David Scott inconsultation with Peter Williams (Victoria: The Ministry of Advanced Education and Training, June1988); Province of British Columbia, The Ministry of Advanced Education and Training, Annual Report,1989-1990, p. 9; a glossy brochure/bookiet entitled British Columbia, Post-Secondary InternationalEducation in the 90’s (Victoria: The Ministry of Advanced Education and Training, n.d.); and JohnCrawford’s remarks in f)onald C. Wilson, David Grossman, and Keriy J. Kennedy, eds., “BritishColumbia Pacific Rim Initiatives,” Asia and the Pacific: Issues of Educational Policy, Curriculum, andPractice (Calgary: Detselig, 1990), 17-20.Crawford Killian, School Wars: The Assault on B.C. Education (Vancouver: New Star Books, 1985);and Darcy Rezac “Is Education Headed Down the Wrong Road?,” Sounding Board (Official Publication ofthe Vancouver Board of Trade) (October 1992): 4.5Research ScopeMy principal data sources are government reports and documents, and non-governmentalpublications, but especially the journal and archives of the British Columbia Teachers’ Federation. To alesser extent I have used the British Columbia School Trustee’s Association (BCSTA) office records, andCanadian Teachers’ Federation (CTF) Records at the CTF’s Ottawa offices. I have consulted theUniversity of British Columbia (UBC) special collections, Vancouver City Archives, National Archives ofCanada in Ottawa, League of Nations Archives in Geneva, and Victoria’s provincial archives. Provincialgovernment records were incomplete as interwar documents were commonly discarded in 1949 during amove to the new British Columbia Government records building.9 Still, the Journals of the LegislativeAssembly of British Columbia from 1871 on, Department of Education reports, and sundry otherdocuments show that the questions of imperialism and internationalism arose routinely in BritishColumbia educational discussions and programmes.Department of Education Annual Reports provided a starting point in studying imperial andinternational matters. The Annual Reports of the Vancouver School Board and of the BCSTA offer alocal and a provincial overview. For British Columbia’s imperialist views in adult and nonformal media,two sources were especially helpful--the Proceedings of the Royal Colonial Institute of London and thoseof the Canadian Club of Vancouver. Vancouver Board of Trade reports and newsletters also providedinsight into the competitive and economic internationalism that motivated some educators and policymakers.Before 1919, and even before 1900, proponents of internationalism included several nongovernmental adult or non-local educational organizations, as well as the provincial government. Keyeducational promoters after 1919 were principally the ECTF and its leaders as well as a variety of newPatrick Dunae, The School Record: A Guide to Government Archives Relating to Public Education inBritish Columbia 1852-1946 (Victoria: Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Government ServicesBritish Columbia Archives and Records Service, 1992), 25.6non-governmental and government organizations. The BCTFs journal, The B.C. Teacher, became aprincipal source, along with BCTF Executive Conunittee minutes. I supplemented these with publicnewspaper accounts, and student views on internationalist themes in The Ubvssev, UBC’s campusnewspaper. Finally, I examined regular reports, proceedings, and newsletters from The League of NationsSociety in Canada, the Junior Red Cross, and the World Federation of Education Associations, ThJournal of Proceedings and Addresses of the National Education Association of the United States, Houseof Commons Debates, and Royal Commission Reports concerning technical education. A League ofNations publication, Educational Survey was also revealing.Related Research and Significance of this StudyThis study was meant to contribute new evidence and theory to recent debates on Canadian andBritish Columbia educational history, and to the history of Canadian foreign policy and internationalrelations. Systematic and methodologically advanced study of British Columbia educational history isrelatively recent. F. Henry Johnson’s 1964 survey, A History of Public Education in British Columbiafollowed the tradition established by Charles Phillips in his 1957 history of Canadian education.’° As J.Donald Wilson notes, three problems were inherent in these pioneering works. One was the whiggish andprogressive tone of such writing, where public education was portrayed in a linear, “onward and upward”fashion, in always-improving and almost triumphant terms. The second problem was the lack of politicaland social context for descriptions of educational developments, and a third was that sources were mainlyinstitutional and official. The result was a quasi-”official” history lacking in critical assessment,minimizing conflicts and tensions on educational questions, and providing a skewed impression of thepast.1’‘°F. Henry Johnson, A’History of Public Education in British Columbia (Vancouver: University of BritishColumbia Publications Centre, 1964); and Charles E. Phillips, The Development of Educational inCanada (Toronto: W.J. Gage and Company, Ltd., 1957).“Noted on p. 8 of J. Donald Wilson, “The Historiography of British Columbia Educational History,” in J.Donald Wilson, and David C, Jones, eds., Schooling and Society in Twentieth Century British Columbia(Calgary: Detselig, 1980), 7-21.7Canadian educational history after the 1970s corrected some limitations of early writing bylinking it to social history, thawing on new evidence from the history of specific groups, new allieddisciplines, new archival sources, and new perspectives to build a more balanced and comprehensivevision of the past. Educational history as a result has recently become more specialized. Scholars haveexamined a variety of social actors, issues, and educational forms. They have written on women’s rolesand perspectives, native or indigenous experiences, class and gender differences, labour concerns,childhood, students, race and ethnicity, rural and urban experiences of schooling, nation-building,progressivism, imperialism, the role of voluntaiy organizations, agricultural education, industrial andvocational education, and curricular reform, to name a few. Such research has used new methods such asoral history, gone beyond dry administrative histories to critical assessments of policy, and examinededucational influences and practices both in and outside the classroom, in rural and urban locales, and informal and non-formal settings.’2My study contributes to this now widely shared tradition in Canadian educational historiography,placing “Canadian educational development more centrally in the mainstream of Canadian socialdevelopment.”3 It examines internationalism (as an attitude and as organized politics) in British12 Standard published surveys synthesizing or interpreting a range of literature, or reproducing this workin edited collections are: Neil Sutherland, Children in English-Canadian Society: Framing the Twentieth-Century Consensus (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976); George Tompkins, A CommonCountenance: Stability and Change in the Canadian Curriculum (Scarbourough: Prentice Hall, 1986);Canadian Education: A History edited by J. Donald Wilson, Robert M. Stamp and Louis-Phillipe Audet(Scarbourough: Prentice Hall, 1970); J. Donald Wilson, Nancy Sheehan, and Robert Stamp, eds., Shapingthe Schools of the Canadian West (Calgary: Detselig, 1979); G.S. Tompkins, ed., The Curriculum inCanada in Historical Perspective, Canadian Society for the Study of Education Yearbook 1979,(Vancouver: Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia, 1979); 3. Donald Wilson, and David C.Jones, eds., Schooling and Society in Twentieth Century British Columbia (Calgary: Detselig, 1980); J.Donald Wilson, ed., An Imperfect Past: Education and Society in Canadian History (Vancouver: Centrefor the Study of Curriculum and Instruction, University of British Columbia, 1984); Kas Mazurek,“Interpreting Educational History--With a Commentary on the Social Context of Early Public Schooling,”in Nich Kach, Kas Mazurek, Robert S. Patterson, and Ivan DeFaveri, eds., Essays on Canadian Education(Calgary: Detselig Enterprises, 1986), 23-40; Nancy M. Sheehan, 3; Donald Wilson, and David C. Jones,eds., Schools in the West: Essays in Canadian Educational History (Calgary: Detselig Enterprises, 1986);and E. Brian Titley, ed., Canadian Education: Historical Themes and Contemporary Issues (Calgary:Detselig Enterprises, 1990). A plethora of new work is also emerging in graduate theses, and reported injournals.13 Preface to 3. Donald Wilson, Robert M. Stamp and Louis-Phillipe Audet, eds., Canadian Education: AHistory (Scarbourough: Prentice Hall, 1970), viii. See also J. Donald Wilson’s later remarks in his “SomeObservations on Recent Trends in Canadian Educational History,” in 3. Donald Wilson, ed., An Imperfect8Columbia education and society, drawing on work on imperialism, nationalism and nation-building, thesocial gospel and progressivism, the role of voluntary organizations, adult education, extra-curricularactivities, curriculum policy, education’s role in industrial devel