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Metaphorical representations of adult literacy in eight Canadian newspapers 1990-1999 May, Carole 2000

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METAPHORICAL REPRESENTATIONS OF ADULT LITERACY IN EIGHT CANADIAN NEWSPAPERS 1990-1999 Carole May (B.A., English; P.D.A.D.) A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL STUDIES (ADULT EDUCATION) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 2000 © Carole May, 200O UBC Special Collections - Thesis Authorisation Form http://www.library.ubc.ca/spcoll/thesauth.html In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, Canada 1 of 1 A B S T R A C T Metaphors and assumptions which underlie them occur in everyday language use, including that found in newspaper articles. Conceptions constructed by these metaphors frame how social issues are thought about and acted upon. Adult literacy is such an issue. These representations influence how readers view literacy, and, in turn, may impel policy and practice. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how articles were distributed over the 1990s in eight Canadian newspapers, what metaphors predominated, which endured, along with metaphorical representations, interpreted and constructed. Using a conceptual approach within the qualitative paradigm, the method was a blend of discourse analysis and critical linguistics, using the metaphor as the unit of study. Ideas from discourse research, metaphor studies, critical linguistics, critical literacy and conceptual analysis shaped the theoretical framework. Sources for research materials were the University of British Columbia Library, in particular its microform section and its online services, the University of Victoria Library, the Vancouver Public Library, the World Wide Web, and databases. Eight Canadian newspapers provided articles relating to adult literacy. The 284 articles collected in the sample were read for instances of metaphor. Access and Excel assisted in seeing the data; the findings were distilled from resulting tables. A culminating diagram depicted the metaphorical representations of adult literacy and guided discussion. Results showed most articles were published in 1990 and 1995 in conjunction with the release dates of literacy reports and surveys. In addition, metaphorical representations, clustered under the framework of a noun as a person, place, or thing, depicted adult literacy as a complex and often contradictory conception comprised of text personified, eight distinct, contrasting places, and two ii concrete and twelve abstract things. As a place, literacy is represented as a nation, region, sanctuary, divide, found world, lost world, dark territory and null space. As a concrete entity, literacy is organic, a commodity, a product, or a barrier. Literacy as an abstract entity is depicted as science, a deficit, burden, medical entity, spatial entity, journey or quest, crusade or cause, aspiration or liberation, advertising campaign, condition or disability, battle or competition, or theatrical event. Five stereotypes represented the illiterate: the child, the prisoner, the other, the heroic victim and the good citizen. Finally, most metaphors endured over the ten years with literacy as science being the most prevalent and sustained. The study makes six recommendations. First, newspapers should research and publish significant findings of how they construct conceptions such as adult literacy for their readers. Next, discourse and conceptual analysis should be more widely used by adult education researchers. Thirdly, research stemming from discourse and conceptual analysis should be reviewed by adult educators when they are discussing educational program planning or curricular and policy decisions. Fourthly, adult literacy theorists and practitioners should continue to expand their knowledge of conceptions of literacy by using investigative processes including qualitative research that moves beyond functionalist views. Also, adult educators should examine significant educational conceptions and their representations in the media and compare these to the conceptions discussed in academic literature. The last recommendation is that the representations of adult literacy and the illiterate in this study should be compared with the views of adult literacy practitioners and their students. iii T A B L E O F CONTENTS Page List of Tables viii List of Figures ix ABSTRACT ii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xi DEDICATION xii CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW OF THE THESIS 1 Introduction 1 Headlines 4 Purpose 4 The Domain: Theoretical Considerations 5 The Problem 6 Significance of the Study 7 Methodology 7 Framework of the Thesis 8 CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 9 Introduction 9 Newspapers 9 Defining Literacy 11 Conceptual Analysis 12 Discourse Analysis 16 Metaphor as Analytic Device 19 Metaphor and Literacy 22 Summary 23 iv Page CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 24 Approach 24 The Research Questions 25 Design Summary 25 Newspaper Selection: Background 26 Data Collection 26 Sampling 28 Procedures 29 Coding: First Phase 29 Coding: Phase Two 30 Analysis 30 Clustering 30 Literacy as a Noun 33 Methods and Credibility 34 Summary of Methods 34 CHAPTER 4 LITERACY AS PERSON AND AS PLACE 36 Introduction 36 Article Distribution 36 "Literacy Moments" 39 Metaphorical Representations and Figure 3 42 Literacy as Person 43 Literacy as Place 45 Summary 54 v Page CHAPTER 5 LITERACY AS THING 55 Introduction 55 Metaphors of Literacy: Concrete 55 Organic Entity 55 Commodity/Product 56 Barrier Metaphor 56 Metaphors of Literacy: Abstract 60 Journey/Quest and Crusade/Cause Metaphors 60 Ad Campaign and Commodity/Product Metaphors 66 Metaphors and Naturalized Language 69 High-Frequency Metaphors 71 Literacy as Science 71 Literacy as Battle or Competition 75 Literacy as Spatial Entity 79 The Medical Metaphor 82 Summary 87 CHAPTER 6 THE ILLITERATE 88 Introduction 88 Stereotypes 88 Child 90 Prisoner 91 Other/Outsider 97 Heroic Victim 100 Good Citizen 104 Good Citizen and Financial Success 110 Stereotype and Economic Cost 110 Summary 116 vi Page CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS 117 Introduction 117 The Study 117 Fmdings 118 Article Distribution 118 Funding and Economics 118 Metaphor 119 Implications 122 Recommendations 125 REFERENCES 127 List of Appendices x vii LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1 Newspapers / Ownership / Article Availability 27 Table 2 Data Collection 28 Table 3 Types of Metaphor 32 Table 4 Article Distribution 37 Table 5 Illiteracy as Barrier 57 Table 6 Journey/Quest and Crusade/Cause Metaphors 62 Table 7 Literacy as Ad Campaign 67 Table 8 Literacy as Science Metaphor (M24) 72 Table 9 Literacy as Battle / Competition Metaphor (Ml) 76 Table 10 The Medical Metaphor (M6) 83 Table 11 Illiterate/Outsider 99 Table 12 Disability Table 103 Table 13 Literacy as Success 105 Table 14 Citizenship / Community Metaphor 108 Table 15 Illiteracy and Economic Cost 111 viii LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1 Oval Grid Design for Data Recording 31 Figure 2 Summary of Methods 35 Figure 3 Metaphorical Representations 38 Figure 4 Literacy as International Competition 46 Figure 5 Illiterate as Resister 94 ix LIST OF APPENDICES Page Appendix A Newspaper Article Inventory 145 Appendix B Types Of Metaphor 159 Appendix C Place Metaphors 162 Appendix D Literacy As Commodity/Product 166 Appendix E Literacy As Science Metaphor 168 Appendix F Literacy As Battle/Competition Metaphor 181 Appendix G Literacy As Spatial Entity Metaphor 186 Appendix H The Medical Metaphor 190 Appendix I Representation Of The "Illiterate" 192 Appendix J Illiterate/Illiteracy As Threat 195 Appendix K Personal Impact 197 Appendix L Illiteracy As Victimization / Isolation: Heroic Victim 199 Appendix M Literacy As Good Life 201 Appendix N Literacy As Social Work 202 Appendix O Enduring Metaphors 204 x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to express appreciation to the Department of Educational Studies at the University of British Columbia for having helped make my graduate experience rewarding and enriching. Thank you to Dr. Roger Boshier, my thesis advisor and a professor in the Adult Education Department at U.B.C. and to members of my thesis committee Dr. Dan Pratt and Dr. Kjell Rubenson, professors in the Adult Education, and Dr. John Collins, professor in the EDST Department. In addition, I am deeply grateful to Dr. Michael Welton, a visiting scholar at U.B.C. during the first year of my study, Dr. Allison Tom, an ethnographer in the EDST Department at U . B . C , Dr. Tom Sork and Dr. Shauna Butterwick, professors in the Adult Education Department at U.B.C. Each provided unique inspiration. During twenty-seven years of employment as an instructor, four community colleges have provided me with opportunities to teach adults, design programs, write curricula, and train tutors. Administrators, college instructors, and support staff with whom I have worked have contributed important learning experiences. Many remarkable students have taught me a great deal and provided so much to my personal and professional development. I am grateful for their kindness, frankness, humour and delight. Finally, I thank Daniel, my husband, and Chris, my son, for their encouragement. Their support deepened my conviction and the adventure. xi DEDICATION This thesis is dedicated to the memory of my parents and Baba. xii 1 CHAPTER ONE OVERVIEW OF THE THESIS Introduction It is a cold winter day, and a young girl is on her way to see an old woman. The wind is fierce as she pulls her corduroy jacket up against her. Not far away, the dull yellow kitchen door is visible. She begins to run. Before reaching the yard, she is thinking of the wood stove just inside and feels the warmth it throws back into the little kitchen. "Hello, Baba!" she calls, stepping inside the door and clacking her boots to rid them of snowballs. A mixed smell of garlic, fresh bread, and baby chicks fills the room, waking the senses almost to smothering. The wood stove crackles against the entry wall, radiating certainty from immobility. There is a shuffle in the small room off the kitchen and the incessant peeping of newborn chicks. She hurries to shed her jacket and runs to meet Baba. But out from the room, once a pantry now a hatchery, comes a long-skirted, babooshkaed, bent figure. "Hallo", Baba greets and then begins to talk quickly in Ukrainian. The girl strains to understand what is being said and closes her eyes, paying attention to the words. Baba is telling her troubles all at once- the old rooster is such a pest, but who wants to kill him now? The water pipes freeze up too many times and who will come out to an old woman's house to fix things? A bang with a stick - and that is all there is to it. The girl interrupts.. .Baba sends her to feed the cats in her living room. She feels safe and useful feeding the five, nameless cats as the wind shouts from outside the yard. It pushes hard against the little house, trying to move it from its foundation. The girl 2 makes a shape on the window pane by melting the frost with the warmth of her finger. Through the peephole, she sees snow swirling. Icicles hang from the low, sloping roof. Baba's house is safe and warm and full of what she knows. Spring melts winter and soon summer sky spills into the yard. Again, she finds herself hurrying across the field on the way to Baba's house and spots her feeding chickens in the yard. The feed rises and falls in yellow, grainy waves, as a small puff is carried off by the breeze. In warm weather, Baba is always busy, but makes time for someone who wants to help. " Hello!" the girl shouts across the weedy space; Baba waves back. From a stream of Ukrainian, the girl must separate curses and complaints from commands. Today she must wash the floors - hot work over worn, cracked linoleum. But she talks and sings to the cats as she works. They watch her. Baba makes a treat after all the work is done. She cannot read directions on packages. The cold drink is always too watery or too sugary, but good. Sometimes she can find a bun from the sack of day-olds she gets from the bakery. Some days it is a dry, stale cookie that takes work to eat. Even the chickens know Baba never throws anything away. The girl and Baba eat together while waiting for the newspaper to arrive. The newspaper is useful to Baba and never wasted. She uses layers in the bottom of the wood box, over plants in the garden, on the shed shelves, for wrapping fish. She is proud of her newspaper subscription and spends hours searching the pictures. "Who's this?" she asks. She cuts out a picture and pins it to the wall. She laughs when the girl asks why she has chosen this picture and gives a little pinch as if to say, "Don't ask me so many questions!" They laugh together looking at her collection. Today it is a woman in a stylish hat who is about to step into an enormous car. And pinned next 3 to it, there is a picture of workers, digging up a city street. The girl is older now. The little shed in Baba's yard fades in the last of the summer sun. The garden dries and curls into little patches; the grass stiffens and yellows. The wind turns elsewhere. In the yard lies the broken couch on which Baba slept because she was afraid of climbing stairs to her bedroom. The old house and the chicken shed are gone. As she walks along in the drying grasses of the small field, she spots a figure in the yard. She came to see Baba there, and bring the newspaper. But the figure lies dying on the white sheets of the town hospital and vanishes. Baba was fascinated by newspapers that she could not read. She would not have known newspapers were writing about people like her, the "illiterate" in society. A master discourse of stereotype, stigma, and myth is created in newspaper articles around the conception of "illiterate". These constructions prefer the hegemonic practice of employing discourse to ensure positions remain unchallenged and to disengage readers from becoming active. There is little agreement about the conception of adult literacy. Different ideological stances shape various perspectives on it and definitions are diffuse. Moreover, today, the expression "literacy" has become a substitute for competence in commonly-used phrases like "computer literacy", "digital literacy", "financial literacy", "media literacy", "cultural literacy", "health literacy" and so forth. Often discussions in newspaper articles which purport to elaborate on the "literacy" of adults are actually focusing on their "illiteracy", thus conflating the two terms. This study uses "literacy", except where it is necessary to make a distinction. 4 Adult literacy representations analyzed in this thesis are derived from an examination and interpretation of metaphoric language used in the text of eight Canadian newspaper articles from 1990-1999. The metaphor is a powerful element in language use and in the newspapers' framing of conceptions of literacy. Its "exploratory or heuristic role" can be used as a "probe for connections that may improve understanding or spark theoretical interest" (Scheffler, 1991, pp. 58-59).Theorists maintain language and power are elaborately connected, and nowhere can these linkages be better studied than in discourse surrounding literacy in newspapers. Headlines Consider headlines gleaned from four Canadian news sources : "Elimination of illiteracy essential for mankind: Pope John Paul II" (The Calgary Herald, September 6, 1986, A13); "Prince (Charles) laments literacy decline" (The Calgary Herald, December 20,1989, D10); "The Great One's Gift (Fundraising deal)" (Strategy, December 2,1991, A4); "Reading problems cause illness and early death, conference told" (The Toronto Star, November 15,1989, A29). A pope, a prince, and a famous hockey player are said to hold literacy as a central concern in their lives, and great harm happens when individuals cannot read. The issue is portrayed in extremes significant to the rich and powerful. Startling headlines reveal metaphorical choices and ideological positions. Purpose Therefore, having regard to the foregoing, the purposes of this study were 1. to discover how articles about adult literacy were distributed from 1990-1999 in eight Canadian newspapers. 2. to see which metaphors of literacy predominated. 5 3. to find which metaphors of literacy endured from 1990-1999. 4. to describe how literacy was depicted through metaphors used in the text. 5. to examine how the illiterate was represented. The Domain: Theoretical Considerations Many ideas from political theory, linguistics, sociolinguistics, philosophy, anthropology, critical social theory, reading theory, composition theory, cultural studies, and history cross into adult literacy, an eclectic field. Ideological perspective and purposes of literacy often align. Conceptions of literacy, along with their definitions, reveal ideologies. Historically, most definitions have been linked with utility. The functionalist view was instrumental and conserving, while being posited as progressive and crucial to society's needs. The emancipatory pedagogy espoused by Freire (1970,1985,1987,1998) and others considered literacy as a social construct whereby persons shaped and knew their worlds through a dialectic of language and lifeworld. The meaning of literacy continues to shift over time. It was a mechanism whereby individuals learned the dominant culture because the values, beliefs, and moral lessons were sometimes embedded in texts. It was thought of as a tool used by individuals to gain better employment or to move from one social class to another. Literacy became consigned to authoritative purposes, and the dominant literacy was sometimes in conflict with individuals and their communities. Such a consignment continues today. For example, the term "higher level literacy" is employed to mean critical thinking, problem-solving, basic knowledge of computer use, and computational skills. Critical language study emerged to examine connections between language and power. While some may 6 agree with the need to examine literacy through the lens of critical study, others might suggest that it is the purposes to which it has been conscripted that are of greater interest. Examination of discourse as a function of power in relation to its social structures and conventions (Foucault, 1979, 1981, 1995), its "orders of discourse" (Foucault, 1971), along with critical linguistics as language studied in conjunction with political structures and ideology, "the power behind discourse", (Fairclough, 1989, 1995) are of importance to an analysis of the discourse of literacy. It entails locating individuals as agents of their own literacy (Giroux, 1988). Newspaper advertising discourse is constructed, using metaphor as a conceptual tool (Cook, 1992). News discourse weaves "facts" through ideology, language, and control of the text. (Hartley, 1982; Fairclough, 1995). Theories of metaphor, taken largely from the philosophy of language and particularly the work of Black (1968,1978, 1979, 1981,1990) aid analysis. The Problem Conceptions of literacy are diverse. Graff (1986) contends, "Literacy is profoundly misunderstood" (p. 62). Assumptions may be accepted as correct, while their philosophical underpinnings remain unexamined. Conceptual metaphors, as one example, can become naturalized by their usage in the production of texts such as newspapers. The news media may make text seem transparent, thus excluding opposing ideologies and multiple interpretations. Things become as people say they are, and perspectives begin to take on an "epistemological imperialism" (Palys, 1997, p.399). One group maintains its discourse over another. Conceptions can drive human actions, including those that decide and form policy. It is important, therefore, to take note of how 7 important social issues are being formulated in the text of newspapers, what conceptions or representations are being molded, to what purposes they are being put, and who is being served by them. Significance of the Study The ontological position of this study contends that society constructs literacy as an aspect of the social world. This process can be 'traced' or 'read' through texts. (Mason, 1998). Newspapers are social artifacts, and examining some of their statements can increase awareness of assumptions underpinning important, expensive educational issues. Methodology The study used a conceptual approach in the qualitative paradigm. The research questions sought to describe and interpret representations of adult literacy within the context of newspaper text. The last decade of the twentieth century seemed an appropriate one to choose since so many national and international literacy activities had been promoted during this period. Articles about adult literacy 1990-1999 were chosen from The Vancouver Sun, The Calgary Herald, The Winnipeg Free Press, The Toronto Star, The Globe and Mail, The Ottawa Citizen, The Montreal Gazette, and The Halifax Chronicle Herald. Although major daily newspapers in Canada were primarily owned by only two publishers, Thomson, and Southam Inc., a few independents remained. Representation from all three groups was included. Articles from the 1990s were readily available in microform, while some newspapers from 1995-1999 were available from an electronic database. 359 articles were collected, and a sample of 284 articles resulted. Metaphors were recorded with text 8 examples. Clustering and categorizing revealed 144 metaphor types (Appendix B). Resulting tables consisted of the metaphor type, the date of publication, the article number (1-284), the newspaper that published the article, and the text example containing the metaphor. It became evident which metaphors had the highest frequency of occurrence and had endured over the 1990s (Appendix O). The explication of bow literacy was portrayed was guided by interpretation of metaphoric depictions. Finally, the keeping of a daily journal of activities and personal reflections helped the writer monitor and map directions for the thesis. Framework of the Thesis Chapter 1: introduction to the thesis; rationale for the study; metaphor and discourse as conceptual tools; the study's significance; outline of methodology; research questions. Chapter 2: theoretical framework; related literature Chapter 3: design of the study; methodology; data selection; procedures; rationale for adopting the approach. Chapter 4: discussion of literacy represented as a person and place; findings. Chapter 5: metaphorical representations of /literacy as a thing; findings. Chapter 6: the adult illiterate represented by metaphors; findings; discussion. Chapter 7: conclusion; implications for adult literacy theory and practice; recommendations. CHAPTER TWO THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Introduction This chapter introduces theories adapted for the purposes of this study. It considers the importance of newspapers, how the formulation of definitions is problematic, and the application of conceptual tools, including conceptual analysis, discourse analysis and metaphor. Newspapers Newspapers are inexpensive to purchase and easy to access; thus, "sixty-two per cent of all adults read newspapers daily" (Prozes, 1994, p. 107). Today, they are also being read from personalized sites on The Net, the "Daily Me" (Jones, 1999, p.4). The electronic media and the press mold readers' world views in profound and basic ways (Canadian Dimension, November/December 1996, p.4). How a newspaper reports an issue and which attributes of it are emphasized influence the manner in which the public views it. (Ghanem, 1997). In a sense, newspapers are "symbol-handlers" which "routinely organize discourse" in media frames. (Ghanem, 1997, p.7). The language of newspapers often borrows from advertising discourse. On September 10,1990, The Globe and Mail published an article entitled, "Business, charities join in ad campaign against illiteracy" (p. A7). The article stated: "A coalition of Canadian business leaders and charitable groups has launched a multi-million dollar advertising campaign in an effort to increase awareness of the costs of illiteracy". In this case, literacy was a product to be developed and shaped through an ad campaign. It uses a "tickle" technique in which a reasoned advertisement provides motives for a purchase 10 yet at the same time appeals to mood, emotion, and humour (Cook, 1992, p. 10). Newspapers can sell a product to consumers by implying reasons for purchase without using direct appeal.0 Because literacy is intangible, it becomes necessary to invent a packaging idea to make it visible and attractive. One method to create in the consumer / reader a mood receptive to "soft sell" is first, to designate community as the recipient of "good works" in the name of the product called literacy; next, to say the economy is to be "boosted" through literacy training; finally, to claim competition in global markets rests on "higher literacy levels". However, before this appeal is made, readers must be constructed. In other words, they must understand "community", "economy", and "globalization" and respect their significance (Kitis and Milapides, 1997). Newspapers must, then, depend on a shared knowledge for their interpretation and "assume a great deal of cultural knowledge in the receiver" (Cook, 1992, p. 149). The Globe and Mail September 10 article shapes, frames, and amplifies conceptions of community, economy, and globalization as part of "tackling literacy". Media structures an issue "through the use of selection, emphasis, exclusion, and elaboration" while frames "call attention to some aspects of reality while obscuring other elements" (Ghanem, 1997, p.6). While focus rests on issues within the economy, the role of technological research and development, other issues, for example, unemployment, lack of good training, power relations in systems, demand for credentialization, and inequalities due to class, ethnicity or gender can be obscured. John Fiske writes in Media Matters (1994), "Postmodern media no longer provide 'secondary representations of reality; they affect and produce the reality they mediate" (quoted in Storey, 1998, p. 149). The product "literacy" can be made by mass communication techniques and orders of newspaper discourse. Newspapers employ "synthetic personalization" (Fairclough, 1989,1995). Consumers feel the message or invitation is aimed at individuals, despite the fact they may be aware the product is targeted for mass consumption. In this appeal, the text has expressions which soothe, convince, and invite; connotations are positive because the newspapers assume "shared cultural knowledge" when addressing their audience. Readers of newspaper articles are encouraged to feel as if their individual help is what is required; they can "touch" the lives of others with their "gift of literacy". By utilizing specific words, the newspapers are able to prove their solidarity with the various speech communities they are addressing (Fairclough, 1989; Gee, 1990). In literacy campaigns, "help", "better", "support", and "raise", for example, are words viewed as simple or "unfancy", which speak to the heart of working-class Canada. Through the discourse come associated values (Hartley, 1982). Those who value plain talk might view themselves as open and direct. Simulating a persona or a stereotype may help to underscore the values and ideology the newspapers reinforce. Defining Literacy An obvious but problematic approach, and one often taken in understanding conceptions of literacy, is to gather or create definitions. These abound in the literature with more than 150 (both those used officially and unofficially) developed since 1880 (Quigley ,1997, pp. 12-13). They are categorized as absolute standard (grades and measures-based) or relativist (context, environment, and personally-based) (p. 13). The enormous array of definitions may contribute confusion rather than clarity to the field. 12 Moreover, definitions have different ideological bases. First, it may not be possible to achieve acceptable definitions of literacy when there are many different cultural and social contexts with a range of purposes and a variety of individual or private goals (Kazemek, 1990 p.56). The meaning of literacy shifts over time, place, and circumstances (Graff, 1979,1987). In a sense, literacy definitions have become "cultural Rorschachs" (Brodkey, 1991, p. 161). One of the most striking features of language is that a single term or word can be used in a " variety of related but different ways" (Black 1968, p. 162). Furthermore, questions of concept are not easily handled by simply providing definitions "for the whole point of asking such questions is the definition of these words is unclear" (Wilson, 1996, p. 10). Another problem linked to literacy definitions is that purposes are often first established and then concepts or properties are formulated around them (Wilson, 1986, p.30). Many functionalist definitions have been shaped in this way. For example, the purpose of standards-based definitions is to set and measure standards. Definitions can become odd mixtures of what "is" and what "ought" to be. The programmatic definition is used generously in education and is based on prescriptive and descriptive elements (Soltis, 1978). Most literacy definitions contain such normative elements. They appear to be grounded in the purposes of literacy - what literacy ought to do for people - rather than on conceptions of it - what literacy is. Conceptual Analysis Much of what is done in education is built upon a complex discourse, so learning to analyze it and its uses become an important goal. Through the techniques of conceptual analysis, an examination of any concept in education will uncover "ideas people hold but never fully and clearly articulate" (Soltis, 1978, p.67) for "if the word is only as good as the 13 idea behind it, educators should ask more frequently just what this educational term means. To what assumptions, values, theories, procedures, and strategies for teaching do these words commit us?" (p.90). Furthermore, analyses of concepts "lead to a chain of inquiry in which each link is frequently another provocative question rather than a conclusive answer" (p.2). To illustrate, tracing a line of thinking about a conception, functional literacy, for example, can help sketch the "chain of inquiry". Functional literacy implies reading and writing applied to tasks which adults come across in their everyday lives at work, at home, or in the community. Behind this is the idea that literacy is a cognitive tool employed by people in order to "function". As such, literacy can be measured and standards of literacy can be devised. In North America, functionalist views were resurrected in the last quarter of the last century. Due to sagging American SAT scores, many argued for a national curriculum which would invoke literacy standards and ensure an equal education for all, thus eliminating the need for adult literacy education (Copperman, 1978). These advocates suggested the development of "higher literacy, the ability to apply primary academic skills to the cultural and intellectual record of society" (p.23). Literacy was seen as part of education or training where it was to be "developed by engaging students in the use of written tests and in writing" (Sticht ,1988, p.61). Through the development of a national 'grapholect', literacy could be standardized so that a whole nation of people could acquire commonly-shared knowledge, cultural awareness or "cultural literacy", and thus equal opportunity (Hirsch, 1987). Many tended to agree with this position "because the welfare of our citizens rests on their ability to read and write" (Newman & Beverstock, 1990, p.28). 14 Functionalism was then connected to economics. UNESCO was the first high-profile organization to connect literacy as reading and writing to economic development. (Malicky & Norman, 1995). This instrumental view was and continues to be used often by government and business. Literacy became a function of economic and employment-driven agendas, measured as a set of skills matching requirements fixed by societal institutions. For a number of years, the Canadian government, for example, favoured grade equivalent as the measure of adult literacy. Citizens with less than five years of formal schooling were considered "basically illiterate", and as economic shifts came about, perspectives on basic adult programming changed. By 1990, Statistics Canada and UNESCO defined a literate person as one who had nine years of schooling. Those persons with more than five years of schooling, but having less than nine years, were deemed "functionally illiterate". By 1995, grade level references were removed, and skill goals were inserted. The International Adult Literacy Survey (1995) measured how adults used written information in their daily lives in society. This functional viewpoint has led to opinions of "workplace literacy" in which literacy is seen primarily as a vehicle for economic advancement" (Bowen, 1999, p.315). On November 7,1997, The Montreal Gazette quoted Senator Joyce Fairbairn, the Federal Government's special literacy adviser, "Literacy is no longer simply defined as the ability to read and write, but, more accurately, as having the necessary abilities to adapt to changes in the workplace" (p.AlO). Critics of such instrumental perspectives decry the centring preoccupation and emphasis of employment at the heart of adult literacy studies and work. Workplace literacy emerged from the practices of "New Vocationalism" of the 1970s and 1980s: "They evince a profound distrust of interpretation and other critical functions in relation to language, and 15 proclaim mastery and competence as their goals" (Godzich, 1994, p. 14). In this new conception of literacy, "capitalist instrumentality", workers must master "elite literacies" (Lankshear, 1998, pp. 7,9). Literacy was emergent from the needs of sponsors because when economic transformations take place, sponsors [employers] fight for position (Brandt, 1998). Opponents to this functionalist view voiced concern over the importance given by funding agencies to connections between employment and adult literacy programs (Malicky & Norman, 1994). Such a purported causal relationship would lead to unrealistic expectations on all sides, from worker to employer. Fingeret (1990) argues: It is claimed the lowest level jobs are in the process of shifting and literacy is necessary, not for social mobility, but for basic, entry level employment. This push is not about 'empowerment' of people who are poor and disenfranchised; it is about maintaining the present distribution of wealth and power not only in America but across the planet. The purpose of literacy in this scenario is to enable adults to fit into the existing niches in the workplace (p.36). Making the connection between adult literacy and employment has diminished the potential of people to enrich their world perspectives. Various opposing views then emerged: 1. The functionalist views position literacy as a mechanistic coding/decoding set of skills within individuals. This tears away the historical, social and cultural contexts of participants (Mitchell ,1991, p. xviii). 2. The "discourse typically revolves around 'functional skills' and 'job literacy', as if illiterate adults had no personal, emotional, imaginative, social, and cultural lives, as if they were little more than functionaries within the world of corporate capitalism" (Kazemek,1990, p.56). 3. The basic connection today "between literacy and productivity, rather than between literacy and human empowerment" stems from the rush to global economic competition and the urgent discourse surrounding it (Lewis, 1997, p.392). 4. Functional literacy must be seen as a culturally dependent and context specific phenomenon. Literacy, conceived of as a form of cultural capital, became accessible to some but not to others (Heath, 1986; Fairclough, 1989, pp. 63-64). 5. The cultural awareness of language "distinguishes between the attainment of reading and 16 vvriting skills and the acquisition of literacy" and does not provide a simple mechanical view (Pattison, 1982, p. 7). 6. Some wish to incorporate measurement into a functional perspective of adult literacy without using grade-level standards. They believe " what is needed is a definition of the ability levels required for different social contexts and individual life goals and the abilities of the adult population relative to these norms" (Venezky, Wagner, Ciliberti, 1990, p. 73) because "literacy scales that declare, ex cathedra, the number of illiterates in America, are meaningless" (p. 72). 7. Functional not emancipatory literacy is associated with formal education and social institutions (Beder and Valentine, 1990). Literacy education becomes a "symbolic activity wherein learners' internalized, and perhaps socially enforced, feelings of inadequacy are officially expunged" (p.79). 8. Literacy is a function of the school or institutionalized learning. Many officials view "literacy as going back to school"... "a purely educational conception" (Darville, 1988, p.22). 9. Government must intervene in our "literacy crisis" because "literacy has become both a . cause and a national scandal (Kozol, 1985 as quoted in Dubin & Kuhlman, 1992, p. vi). The chain of inquiry suggested by the term "functional" in literacy shows that the concept has diverse definitions and thinking connected with it. Discourse Analysis Discourse analysts aim "to make explicit the implicit norms and rules for the production of language" (Mills, 1997, p. 140) Chiefly, it does not concern itself with how social relations influence production of speech or written texts, nor does it closely examine power relations between participants and possible interpretations that emerge. Discourse is not just texts or signs but "practices that systematically form the objects of which they speak" (Foucault, 1972, p.46). A discourse produces something; it has effects upon factors of power, truth, and knowledge (Mills, 1997,16-22). Discourse analysis is "an attempt to reveal discursive practices in their complexity and density; to show that to speak is to do something - something other than to express what one thinks" (Foucault, 1995, 17 p. 209). Adding a statement to a discourse is to "perform a complicated and costly gesture" (Foucault, 1995, p. 209). Such practices link to power relations, and the orders of discourse which have become embedded within social practices and its institutions and organized the production of "truth" (Foucault, 1981). Discourse can also refer to language describing a group of texts which appear within a frame: "'newspaper discourse', 'religious discourse', 'classroom discourse', 'advertising discourse'" (Cook, 1992 quoted in Mills, 1997, p. 159). News discourse, of particular interest to this study, is a specific "example of Tanguage-in-use' of socially structured meaning". A sort of "news culture" is created through and within the discourse (Hartley, 1982, p. 7). In other words, news becomes "largely what the powerful 'press barons' say it is"(1982, p.9). Media texts do not mirror reality; instead, they "constitute versions of reality in ways which depend on the social positions and interests and objectives of those who produce them" (Fairclough, 1995, pp. 103-104). The news uses discursive strategies in a number of ways to persuade readers: 1. disguising value-judgments as facts (Kitis & Milapides, 1997, p.577) 2. blurring voice so "borders between authorial and reported speech ... fuse" (p.579) 3. constant usage of assertions, with their amplified significance in headlines (p.26) 4. informing from a certain perspective (p.559); 5. repetition, selectivity, and emphasis (p.560) News is a consumer product in which control has little or nothing to do with the consumer. This view is what sells and what is important:" 'News' is consumed faster than it is produced, the trivial is raised to ephemeral significance, and the significant is reduced to lasting triviality" (Smith, 1995, p.587). 18 The news is a political tool. The constant "doses" of the "news" most people receive daily "are a significant factor in social control" (Fairclough, 1989, p.30), practised through consent. This discourse leads to a "simulated egalitarianism", whereby the news removes the surface markers of authority and power (p. 37). It seems to speak to people all personally; voices are melded; positions of power are deliberately obfuscated since "the power of the press may now be in disguising power" (p. 52). Language is used to dominate and control others. Assumptions arise out of "sociolinguistic conventions" becoming ideologies in which "relations and power differences are taken for granted" and where ideology is manufactured through consent (Fairclough, 1989, pp. 2-4). Discourses do not simply reflect social relations; they construct and comprise them (Fairclough ,1992, as quoted in Mills, 1997, p. 149). Discourses also provide "identity kits" to speakers (Gee, 1991, p. 3). Knowing literacy as a discourse means to identify oneself as belonging to a socially meaningful group or 'social network'. Because "discourses are ways of behaving, interacting, valuing, thinking, believing, speaking and often reading and writing accepted as instantiations of particular roles by specific groups of people", the news appeals to readers' "identity kits" in its discourse on literacy (Gee, 1991, p. xix). Critical discourse analysis includes scrutinizing language and power relations and involves examining various textual features. For the purposes of this study, the language element, metaphor, seemed the most salient to investigate. First, as a pervasive language element in newspaper articles, it would be a ready source to sample. More importantly, metaphor is in itself an intriguing language trope because it presents and then re-presents conceptions. It is " a means of extending knowledge and understanding" (Ashton, 1997, p. 19 196). No other single language feature seems to have this characteristic nor this potential. Finally, metaphor has been a source of interest to language philosophers, literary theorists, linguists, and discourse analysts, and a source of inspiration for writers of all types through the ages. As such, it is of interest to adult literacy study, theory, and practice. Metaphor as Analytic Device Metaphor has marked a respectable place in various scholarly circles. This study notes the complexity and richness of the discussion surrounding various theories. The significance of metaphor is undisputed and many significant purposes are ascribed to it. Some theorists suggest metaphors have a systemacity to them - metaphors are understood by applying associated systems to them or by considering what "associated commonplaces" may be attached to them (Black, 1978,1979,1981,1990; Kitis & Milapides, 1997; Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; Richards, 1981). Metaphors have a transforming function to them (Black, 1968,1978,1979,1981). They shift attitudes and provide insights which might not have been available without the metaphor's intervention. Theorists vary in their descriptions of what a metaphor is. Some call it a "trope"; others call it a "language feature", "a language element" or "language device". Philosophers of language are interested in how metaphors are interpreted or understood by listeners or readers, while linguists ponder the linguistic features, workings, and meanings of metaphors. Metaphors are important to expression, conceptual frameworks, and in various ontological representations of the world. The richness of metaphor has been carefully explored: 1. Metaphor's "creation, use, and interpretation are almost impenetrable mysteries. As if to spite semantic theorists, they are also linguistic commonplaces, present in every kind of discourse" (Cohen, 1998, p.6). It is the vehicle used for coming to an understanding of the world; at the same time, it is used for constructing that world. The world seen as something 20 is the creation of metaphors (Cohen, 1998). Listeners and readers are receptive to metaphors; they "solicit a complicity in the person to whom they are directed" (Cohen, 1997, p.239). 2. Language works by figures and tropes. All language is "ineradicably metaphorical" (Eagleton, 1996, p. 126). 3. The metaphor is an intricate constituent of everyday language, thought, and action (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, p.3). 4. The metaphor can be conceived of as a tool or instrument which powerfully influences thinking and language. It is a "cognitive instrument, indispensable for perceiving connections that, once perceived are truly present" (Black, 1990, p. 74). 5. The power of the metaphor is "its ability to help us structure our experiences and worlds" (Kazemek, 1999, p. 606). 6. It is evident in ontological descriptions. The metaphor is a "shorthand encapsulation" of how speakers and writers perceive reality (Brookfield, 1993, p.73). 7. The metaphor is powerful not only in structuring thinking, but also in hiding features of the phenomenon applied to it while highlighting other aspects (Goatly, 1997, p. 99). 8. A metaphor is seen as a unique language element because it appears to say one thing but mean another (Black, 1990; Goatly, 1997). 9. The metaphor is a " a semantic hybrid" (Scheffler, 1979, p. 99), a "means of representing one aspect of experience in terms of another" (Fairclough, 1989, p. 119). 10. A metaphor is an "important analogy between two things" without saying explicitly what the analogy is; thus, it extends an invitation to a listener or reader to search for the analogy (Scheffler, 1991, p.46). 11. The metaphor is a language element that contains contradiction, "saying one thing is the same or similar to another when they are actually different" (Gee, 1990, p. 77). 12. It is a mode of thought which transcends the text. Somehow the meaning of metaphor goes beyond the literal (Hughes, 1986, p.48). 13. The metaphor is said to work by exchange or comparison, where "one sign is substituted for another because it is somehow similar to it" (Eagleton, 1996, p. 86) and "one thing is thought of (or viewed) as another thing" (Black, 1990, p.91). 14. Somehow some new meaning is formulated through the metaphor. It" creates a new reality from which the original appears to be unreal" (Wallace Stevens, 1970, quoted in Black, 1990, p. 70). 21 15. The metaphor violates rules because there is no standard response to it determined by cultural or linguistic conventions (Black, 1990, p.55). 16. It summons the reader or the listener. People "search for deeper meanings, and, the more profound the metaphors, the longer the search is likely to last" (Ashton, 1997, p. 201). 17. When the reader or listener accepts the invitation to explore, the metaphor can serve a heuristic function (Scheffler, 1979, p. 129). 18. It works in context and becomes "an interpretive process of search and discovery" (Scheffler, 1991, p.60). As a listener, reader, or writer interprets, he or she finds metaphors can express "significant and surprising truths" (Scheffler, 1991, p.45). They can clarify distinctions and regulate vision, as in the case of the "authoritative metaphor" (Voth, 1998). 19. The metaphor can appeal to the emotional part of people rather than the cognitive, and this influence is what can make this trope so effective in advertising (Kitis and Milapides, 1997, p.562). 20. How a metaphor works is not clearly understood. The process is "messy, ambiguous, and context-specific" (Bruner, 1996, p. 5). 21. It may be utilized to impart emotion and may fulfill "the desire to communicate how one feels and why one feels that way" (Cohen, 1997, p. 239). 22. Language users may gain insight or vision from the metaphor (Black, 1990; Bruner, 1962; Cohen, 1997; Johnson, 1981; Scheffler, 1991) and sometimes the metaphor can "embody insight expressible in no other fashion" (Black, 1990, p. 66). People may see familiar things in new ways, seeing the focus through the frame (Black, 1978). They may gain understanding of the world through the metaphor as it is interpreted. 23. A metaphor may be politically useful. Employing particular metaphors frames a way of seeing and doing. Different metaphors can, therefore, be applied to various situations in order to influence the understanding of issues (Fairclough, 1989,1995). Metaphors are particularly useful in the discourse of newspapers. Authoritative metaphors can be applied to news reports (Fairclough, 1995). In some news reports, adults may be seen as children while the government or authority in the report may be portrayed as the parent. Thus, the metaphorical application of discourse may "correspond to different interests and perspectives and may have different ideological loadings" (Fairclough, 1995, p. 94). At the same time, through the use of a particular metaphor certain aspects of a story or 22 issue may be emphasized while others are not mentioned, constructing "a representation of experience on the basis of selective perception and selective ignoring of aspects in the world" (Goatly, 1997, p.3). Moreover, it is the connotation rather than the denotation evoked by the metaphor that makes it a useful trope. In advertising, metaphor is effective at "creating a fusion which will imbue the characterless product with desirable qualities" (Cook, 1992, p. 105). Metaphor and Literacy Particular metaphors connected to adult literacy have been adapted for different purposes. Three commonly applied metaphors recur. In "literacy as adaptation", it is emphasized for its usefulness in survival, having pragmatic values. "Functional literacy" is an example of this (Scribner, 1988, p. 73). "Literacy as power" provides access to important aspects of society: employment, citizenship, and community where "not to be literate is a state of victimization" (p. 75). The third metaphor is "literacy as a state of grace". This metaphor has its roots in religion and ancient texts. Literacy became salvation through the reading of the scripts. Gradually, the metaphor came to include its power, transcending politics and economics, and, as a state of grace, meant participation in a rich intellectual life (p. 77). Each metaphor entails particular values that remain unexamined (p. 78). Other different metaphors are found in the literature of adult literacy studies: 1. Three metaphors of literacy are "high culture", linked to access to status and accomplishment, sometimes viewed as literacy as "authority" in which canonical texts, cognitive development, and knowledge are connected. A second metaphor, technological achievement, entails literacy that influenced the development of scientific and analytic thinking. The third is individual achievement or the state in which a person is, or is not, in the possession of literacy simply by dint of his or her own individual efforts (Dubin & Kuhlman, 1992). 2. Some metaphors of adult literacy pertain a harmful conception. "Knowledge as food" or 23 "the nutritionist's view of knowledge" are metaphors in which "illiterates are undernourished" where "the word must be brought to them to save them from 'hunger' or 'thirst' " (Freire, 1998, p.482).This perspective frames illiterates as helpless individuals who must rely on others more powerful and knowledgeable than they. Another metaphor is illiteracy seen as a "poison herb, intoxicating and debilitating persons" (p. 482). Illiteracy can make people drunk with their own ignorance. These metaphors cast illiteracy as the villain or the "disease while literacy is the angel of mercy or the remedy to societal systemic injustice. 3. Four influential "classic" metaphors were interpreted and categorized from adult literacy campaign materials (Ilsley, 1989, quoted in Quigley, 1997, p.37). The first, the "school metaphor", depicts illiterates as clinging school children who desperately need the help and guidance from the literate authority. The second is literacy cast in the discourse of medicine. Once again illiteracy must be cured because it is called a disease or plague. Illiterates are in dire need of the medicine, literacy. The use of this same metaphor is cited at a conference of high-level government officials responsible for literacy policy-making: "Some participants used a medical metaphor for this, speaking of the 'prevention of illiteracy in children'" (Darville, 1988, p. 15). The third is a military metaphor: illiteracy is a war; people are the soldiers battling against it; it is the enemy. Literacy is the cause. The fourth is the "banking metaphor". Humanity as capital and education as investment frame this idea. In this metaphor, the nation is placed at financial risk and "will go poor through the bankruptcy of knowledge" (Freire, 1970; Quigley, 1998, p.37). The agents of education deposit or invest bits of precious knowledge into students, this ensuring strong cultural capital in the future. 4. Several newspaper reports over four years were reviewed to find metaphors in newspaper language (Horsman, 1990). Illiteracy as unemployment was prominent in 1984. Causal connections were made between being illiterate and having no job. In 1985, the metaphor of illiteracy as disease took hold. By 1987, illiteracy was connected with the national economy. Literacy became a strong factor in the thinking around employment, growth, and development of the country. 5. Two other metaphors are distinct. Adult literacy education is seen as consumerism wherein adults become consumers of goals and knowledge that have been circumscribed by others in authority. A second is literacy as story telling defined as a social act, underscoring the importance of narrative in the spiritual, intellectual and emotional life of a person. The significance of context is emphasized in the storytelling metaphor (Kazemek, 1991). Summary The metaphor is a predominant language feature, widely used to frame conceptions of adult literacy in newspapers. Together with conceptual and discourse analysis, metaphor became the content of the conceptual approach in this study. From this, methodology emerged. 24 CHAPTER THREE M E T H O D O L O G Y Approach The epistemological position for this study was constructivist/ interpretivist. Knowledge is not static or immutable. It is constructed or developed by individuals through their experiences and interactions with others, with text, and with cultural objects through practices surrounding them (Denzin, 1992; Fairclough, 1989,1995; Foucault, 1972; Gee, 1990; Mason, 1998; Smith, 1989). Therefore, the qualitative research paradigm is one with a philosophical and ontological fit for the study. Nelson, Miller, and Moore (1998) suggest, "Constructivist or interpretivist better captures epistemological concerns whereas qualitative might be better confined to discussion of methods" (p. 377), but Denzin (1998) points out, there are "different ways of being qualitative" (p. 414). The study's conceptual approach used a social artifact - newspapers-and an iterative process to investigate an important phenomenon in adult education (Boshier, 1994; Mason, 1998; Palys, 1997). Moving back and forth, from text to analysis and back again, seemed most appropriate to the needs of the study. An emergent research design, guided by the research questions, served the study well. Although this type of design is often discussed in relation to participant-observation, action research, and other ethnographic approaches (Cocklin 1996; Marshall and Rossman 1995; Tom, 1996), it was reasonable to expect it would also be appropriate to a conceptual approach using document/discourse analysis. It provided flexibility of project design. Findings were less likely to be biased by pre-judging what 25 representations would be seen and which interpretations constructed. An emergent design allowed for responsiveness and creativity needed for text analysis and interpretation (Tom, 1996) because there are no agreed upon methods of analyzing texts in qualitative research that can equal the many recognized techniques of statistical analysis (Kvale, 1996). The Research Questions With the articles gathered for the sample , the metaphors collected and interpreted from the newspaper articles, the research questions were as follows: 1. How were articles about adult literacy distributed over the decade of the 1990s in eight Canadian newspapers? 2. What metaphors predominated? 3. Which metaphors endured? 4. How was adult literacy represented through metaphors? 5. How was the illiterate represented? Design Summary The study design employed a qualitative method and a conceptual approach using discourse analysis with metaphor as a hermeneutic. The design would lead to constructed interpretations and explanations, with no claims to generalizability. When it comes to text interpretation, no truth claims can be made. As Denzin (1998) observes, "There is nothing outside the text; a thing is only understood through its interpretations" (p. 405). Qualitative research produces "social explanations to intellectual puzzles" (Mason, 1998, p.6). The intellectual puzzle involved interpreting newspapers' 26 metaphors used to construct conceptions of literacy. Newspaper Selection: Background Brandt (1998) suggests sponsors are historically "any agents, local or distant, concrete or abstract, who enable, support, teach, model, as well as recruit, regulate, suppress, or withhold literacy- and gain advantage by it in some way" (p. 166). It is of interest that Southam Inc. was known for its concern regarding adult literacy. In 1987, it hired the services of experts and ran its own survey, "Broken Words". Articles flowed from this survey onto the pages of its newspapers. The Calgary Herald reported on October 2,1993 that Southam newspapers "have been loyal supporters of the Gzowksi tournaments [Invitational golf tournaments for the cause of adult literacy]" (p.B2). Southam was a "sponsor of literacy". The selection of newspapers for the sample involved an effort to represent more than Southam. It included Thomson (which published 68 daily newspapers in the United States and Canada, including the Globe and Mail), and the independents. The availability of newspaper indexes/ databases (Table 1) was also a factor in choosing newspapers for the study. Data Collection Data collection began with searching online, using the database, CBCA (Canadian Business and Current Affairs). After each entry was read, only those referring to adult literacy as it involved text, and the reading and writing of text, were selected. Articles were collected from microform then compiled, but not arranged in any particular order. At this stage of data 27 Table 1 Newspapers / Ownership / Article Availability Newspapers used in sample with their ownership and availability on database at time of study Newspaper Ownership Database Montreal Gazette Hollinger Inc CBCA (1990-1999) I* Canadian Newsdiscs (1995-1999) F** Ottawa Citizen Hollinger Inc. CBCA (1990-1999) I* Canadian Newsdiscs (1995-1999) F** Vancouver Sun Hollinger Inc. CBCA (1990-1999) I* Canadian Newsdiscs (1995-1999) F** Globe and Mail Thomson CBCA (1990-1999) I* Canadian Newsdiscs (1995-1999) F** Winnipeg Free Press Thomson CBCA (1990-1999) I* Canadian Newsdiscs (1995-1999) F** Toronto Star Torstar CBCA (1990-1999) I* Canadian Newsdiscs (1995-1999) F** Chronicle-Herald Independent CBCA (1990-1999) (not available) Canadian Newsdiscs (1995-1999) F** Note. I* == indexed only and F** = fulltext available. collection there were few articles for 1999 in the sample. Revisiting the database in August 1999 and January 2000 provided approximately seven more articles for the year 1999. The Canadian Newdiscs database supplied another 20 articles for 1999 and 40 more articles for 1995-1998, after duplications were removed (Table 2). 28 Table 2 Data Collection Determination Of Sample Sample A Sample 284 Articles (articles analyzed; articles in the newspaper database) Sample B Duplicate Articles 21 Articles (same articles run in other papers or collected twice) Sample C Rejected Articles 54 Articles (articles having to do with youth literacy or computer literacy; articles with no mention of adult literacy or illiteracy.) Note. Table 2 shows the numbers of articles collected, the numbers of duplicates and rejections, and the final numbers collected for the sample. Sample B articles were difficult to detect as duplicates because different titles did not necessarily mean articles were different. Non-probabilistic sampling was used since no formal representativeness was intended in the findings. The sampling procedure seemed to be a "purposive sampling" that Palys (1997) describes as "intentionally sought because they meet some criterion for inclusion in the study" (p. 137). Furthermore, using a conceptual approach required an openness to data; analysis would emerge from the data, a "grounded theorizing" (Glaser and Strauss, 1967) would develop. Rather than select from the sample of 284 articles, it seemed more important to include the total population for analysis. First, it was possible to analyze all articles because the sample seemed manageable. Secondly, had articles been selected randomly, the data might have been viewed as part of a statistical rather than as a discourse analysis within a qualitative paradigm. Total articles collected 359 Articles Sampling 29 Procedures Qualitative researchers must deal with a dilemma lying at the heart of their work: they must first "see" the data. The initial task then was to make the data visible: If they look too narrowly, they will see little and may learn nothing from the environment they study ^  having limited their results to the questions they posed. If, on the other hand, they do not attempt to limit their focus, they may see too much and still learn nothing, becoming swamped by an ocean of details (Boorstrom, 1994, p. 52). Next, metaphor was selected because it was an important trope to use in interpreting and conceptualizing (Ashton, 1997; Black, 1968,1978,1979,1981,1990; Cohen, 1997; Fairclough, 1989; Goatly, 1997; Goodman, 1981; Johnson, 1981; Kitis & Milapides, 1997; Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). Since there is no formula or recipe in finding or explicating metaphors, it became a process of search and discovery, requiring "interpretation and investigation in context" (Scheffler, 1991, p. 60).This process included reading and re-reading text examples many times, keeping focus on locating metaphor within them. Finding, understanding, and interpreting metaphors, then, entailed using subjective insight, background study, interaction with the text, and invention. Using "associated commonplaces" made some metaphors (Black, 1990,1979,1978) easy to find. Others "naturalized" into ordinary language and having become inactive or "dead" (Black, 1979,1978) were more difficult to recognize. Coding: First Phase Each article was selected and read for its metaphors by using the phrase: x as y. For example, if the writer was talking about adult illiteracy as something requiring an army, a fight, weaponry or otherwise, the metaphor was illiteracy (x) as a battle (y). After having interpreted the text as metaphor in this manner, another puzzle was how to code and record 30 all metaphors discovered. An oval grid (Figure 1) was helpful because its design was open and allowed a number of metaphors and text examples to be recorded on a single sheet. Next, metaphor was typed and coded from the oval grid using a system of abbreviations: Metaphor Type One was M l , Metaphor Type 2 was M2, and so forth (Appendix B). For example, literacy as battle was M l , illiteracy as sport was M2, literacy as commodity or product was M3, and so forth. One hundred and forty-four different types of metaphors were coded Coding: Phase Two The data, coded and ready to be analyzed, was compiled in an inventory. To ensure rigour in the analysis, it was important to enumerate (Palys, 1997, p.302; Mason, 1998, p. 155). Some metaphor types occurred only once or twice. Multiple instances of metaphor types were clustered. Analysis. The frequency of occurrence of metaphors (Table 3) was examined and the "top ten" highest frequency from the inventory were extracted. Ten tables were developed containing those metaphors, illustrative text examples , dates of publication, and corresponding article numbers. All less frequently occurring metaphors with counts of over 20 were listed in another 40 tables. It seemed text examples, chronology, and frequency would be useful criteria to use in judging the "power" of metaphors in the sample. Clustering. The metaphors, collected, coded and inventoried, would need to match the research questions conceptually (Mason, 1998; Palys, 1997, p. 299-301). The inventory 31 Figure 1 Oval Grid: Design for Data Recording, sample page from 331 pages. 32 Table 3 Types of Metaphor Frequently Occurring Metaphor Types From Article Sample Metaphor Instances 1 Literacy As Science M24) 179 2 Literacy As Battle (Ml) 110 3 Literacy As Spatial Entity (M12) 105 4 Literacy As Place (Merged) 86 5 Literacy As Person (P6 Personified As Text) 59 6 Literacy As Barrier (M55) 52 7 Literacy As Condition (M30) 52 8 Literacy As Medical Entity (M6) 51 9 Personal Impact (Merged) 50 10 Literacy As Economic Cost (M23) 44 11 Literacy As Commodity / Product (M3) 40 12 Literacy As Crusade / Social Cause (Merged) 37 13 Literacy As Social Work (Ml 13 + Merge) 36 14 Illiteracy As Threat / Menace (M26) 36 15 Literacy As Ad Campaign (M44) 33 16 Literacy As Journey / Quest (Ml 1) 30 17 Literacy As Success (Merged) 29 18 Literacy As Isolation (M70) 29 19 Literacy As Aspiration / Liberation (Merged) 27 20 Literacy As Organic Entity (Ml7) 21 21 Literacy As Citizenship (M50) 21 22 Literacy As Sport / Fitness (M2) 20 23 Literacy As Theatrical Event (Merged) 19 24 Illiteracy As Deficit / Burden 17 25 Literacy As Good Life (M67) 16 26 Illiteracy As Disability 13 tables of high-frequency metaphors addressed research questions 1-3. And metaphors having to do with people were categorized under research question 5. Clearly, some 33 metaphors referred specifically to a person, the " illiterate" or the literate, while others spoke distinctly of the conditions under which these persons lived. Literacy as a Noun Clustering metaphors (Table 3) in order to be able to answer the fourth research question needed a method of conceptualizing literacy. As a conceptual tool, the grammatical device, literacy as a noun, was used. In a rudimentary way, a noun is understood to be the name of a person, place, or thing. Thus, some metaphors personified literacy, and others represented literacy as a place or thing. Under literacy as a person, personification metaphors represented literacy as if it were a living entity or a person. To illustrate, in one expression, "illiteracy hurts economy", illiteracy is depicted as a person who is violent and harmful to an important aspect of modern society - the economy. In another example, "shun the printed word", literacy is depicted as text. In ordinary speech, when people refer to the act of shunning, they are normally referring to one person's behaviour toward another, not to books or printed materials. In "shun the printed word", the writer personified literacy and text. Consideration of literacy as a thing required some clear understanding of what "thing" meant. On things, Black (1968) observed: To call cities, persons, virtues, colours, all 'real things' makes a rough kind of sense. For some of these can be perceived, measured, described or independently identified, and all of them, it seems have properties that can be discovered independently of the labels by which they are introduced into discourse (p. 52). Thus, for the sake of efficiency and "rough sense", literacy could be thought of as a thing - as an abstract or concrete entity. Some metaphors were interpreted and then classified as abstract nouns while others were seen as concrete. 34 Methods and Credibility Metaphors were clustered according to types, using the research questions. Although the study is primarily a qualitative one, having a conceptual approach, a quantitative summarizing strategy (Table 3) helped the seeing of data (Palys, 1997, p.337). The two research traditions can benefit from selective borrowing from either side of the "qualitative-quantitative research divide" (Mason, 1998, p. 171; Palys 1997; Sudweeks & Simoff, 1999) where "each side can 'borrow' techniques or specific practices from the other posing no problem of consequence" (Smith, J. K., 1989, p. 170). Figure 2 provides a diagrammatic view of the summary of methods. Qualitative methods, an emergent design, and quantifiable data, led to the findings. Summary of Methods 1. Method one: Collection of articles and, then metaphors and coding them, a form of content document analysis 2. Method two: Applying codes in a numerical inventory, borrowing from the quantitative tradition 3. Method three: Clustering, using bracketing, the "reduction of the phenomenon into its essential elements" allowing "the researcher to come to grips with the basic features of the phenomenon being studied" (Denzin, 1989, p.31) 4. Method four: Merging and cross-tabulating clusters, using research questions as guides 5. Method five: Historical summary of article publication and collection of Literacy Moments - historical summary of events mentioned in newspaper articles 6. Method six: Reflective journal writing Figure 2 Summary of Methods 35 interpretations representations i n categories clusters of categories IE features categories JLZ choices features sampling frame theory 36 CHAPTER FOUR LITERACY AS PERSON AND AS PLACE Introduction The methodology and data collection now complete, this chapter focuses on findings as they relate to the publication of articles, metaphorical representations overall, and literacy as noun, that is as person and place in particular. The first section discusses article distribution over ten years of publishing by newspapers (Table 4) and "literacy moments", a chronology of significant events reported over the decade. Relationships were interpreted between the events, the numbers of literacy articles, and the newspapers publishing them. In the second part of the chapter, Figure 3, metaphorical representations, is shown and broadly discussed. The chapter ends with a discussion of a component of Figure 3- literacy as a person and place. Article Distribution The Soufham Newspapers [Hollinger Inc.] which included The Montreal Gazette, The Ottawa Citizen, The Calgary Herald, and The Vancouver Sun published 61.6 per cent of the articles in the sample. Using their survey of 1987 as the starting point, Soufham declared its concern with adult literacy. Over the 1990s, it provided a steady flow of literacy articles for its readers. The Montreal Gazette alone published 25 per cent of the sample. Together, the two Thomson Newspapers, The Globe and Mail and The Winnipeg Free Press, published 20 per cent. As shown by the distribution of articles by newspaper and year in Table 4,1990 proved to be the most plentiful year for literacy article publication, having 23.9 per cent. 1995 was relatively strong with 13.3 per cent, while 1994 showed only 3.16 per cent. 37 Table 4 Article Distribution Distribution of Literacy Articles in Sample by Newspaper and Year |Year G M M G C H VS OC TS HC WFP Total 1999 3 5 3 3 3 2 0 0 19 1998 3 11 4 1 2 3 0 0 24 1997 1 6 7 6 6 0 0 0 26 1996 1 11 7 2 6 1 1 1 30 1995 4 5 9 3 5 7 3 2 38 1994 0 2 3 0 n/a 1 2 1 9 1993 2 9 3 3 n/a 3 1 1 22 1992 5 5 2 6 n/a 3 1 4 26 1991 5 5 1 5 n/a 0 2 4 22 1990 19 12 8 6 n/a 13 9 1 68 Total 43 71 47 35 22 33 19 14 284 Note. Abbreviations: G M = Globe and Mail, MG= Montreal Gazette, CH= Calgary Herald, VS = Vancouver Sun, OC = Ottawa Citizen, TS = Toronto Star, HC= Halifax Chronicle-Herald, WFP= Winnipeg Free Press. n/a = not available Figure 3: Metaphorical Representations 38 a person What is adult literacy and illiteracy ? concrete a thing high frequency abstract " science deficit/burden ^  * medical entity * spatial entity journey/quest crusade/cause aspiration/liberation ad campaign * condition disability * battle/competition theatrical event How is the "illiterate" represented? 39 "Literacy Moments" 1986 First Peter Gzowski Invitational Golf Tournament at Briers golf course, Lake Simcoe, Ontario 1987 Southam Newspapers (for NIE - Newspapers in Education group) Southam Literacy Study, "Broken Words", contracted to Creative Research Group 1988 "Business task force on literacy estimated that literacy problems cost employers $4 billion a year and the country $10 billion"(Ca/gary Herald, June 6,1996, A10) 1988 National Secretariat for Literacy established by the federal government as a means to disseminate information on literacy 1989 Read Canada inaugurated by Frontier College 1989 Statistics Canada follow-up to Southam Newspapers Survey; Stats Can survey-"Survey of Literacy Skills Used in Daily Activities" (LSUDA) 1990 International Literacy Year 1990 Conference Board of Canada workplace study, author Robert Des Laurier 1990 A B C Canada, a Canadian literacy foundation, started as part of International Literacy Year 1990 Canada Post issues first literacy stamp 1991 Statistics Canada Survey- literacy and income 1991 Workplace literacy study by B. C. Council of Forest Industries and IWA Canada (literacy survey of workers at eight B. C. sawmills) 1992 Federal report on Canadian reading habits prepared for the Federal Government by Ekos Research Associates 1993 A study by the National Anti-Poverty Organization (NAPO) - Literacy and Poverty- A view from the Inside 1994 Statistics Canada survey/report on workplace literacy, Susan Crompton 1994 Workplace literacy training programs are started in Canada 1995 Statistics Canada: Literacy, Economy and Society: Results of the First International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) 1995 Word-on-the Street festivals held in Toronto and Vancouver; over next two years festivals also started in Calgary, Ottawa and Halifax (Toronto in 1992) 1996 Statistics Canada report based on 1995 IALS to provide a more detailed picture of Canadian literacy 1996 Statistics Canada study on literacy and seniors, author Stan Jones, and a report "Reading the Future" by same author 1996 Statistics Canada report- "The Marginally Literate Workforce" 1997 Conference Board of Canada study on workplace literacy 1997 Statistics Canada report- additional follow-up to 1995 IALS 1998 Canadian Council on Social Development, a response to the IALS: "At Risk: a Socio-Economic Analysis of Health and Literacy Among Seniors", authors: Gail Fawcett and Paul Roberts 1999 Oxfam Education Now report 1999 Family Literacy Day declared - January 27,1999 40 These Canadian events 1986-1999 were reported in the article sample 1990-1999. Of literacy moments, 34.6 per cent were surveys or reports from Statistics Canada, 30.7 per cent were surveys or reports from special interest groups, 30.7 per cent marked inaugural events, and 3.8 per cent were high-profile charity events. A shift in the character of events may have signaled a change in attitude and policy towards literacy. In 1990, literacy found a putative world focus through an International Literacy Year, and workplace literacy emerged. Businesses started to associate economic loss and employer cost with illiteracy. By 1995, six studies were done by government, unions, and the National Anti-Poverty Organization (NAPO) which suggested links between employment and literacy. The focus was moving from the individual to work and capital. In 1996, workplace issues continued to be of interest, but concern about literacy in connection with health, safety, and senior citizens emerged. Topics shifted from personal development to personal safety. After 1996, attention moved from the individual to worksite and employment and began to centre on the family as a literacy unit. A special event was to mark and celebrate its importance-Family Literacy Day, January 27, 1999, and every January 27 thereafter. Thus, from 1990 to 1999, literacy as a study and national issue appeared to move into all aspects of the lifeworld. Government, business, special interest groups, newspapers, and celebrities had become "sponsors of literacy" (Brandt, 1998). Table 4 was juxtaposed with Literacy Moments. Major literacy events coincided with a flurry of published articles. In 1990, International Literacy Year, 23.9 per cent of the total articles appeared on the pages of the newspapers. And 23.9 per cent of articles was published in 1995/1996 when the IALS was in full swing and a Statistics Canada 41 report based on the IALS was publicized. Moreover, 47.8 per cent of the sample was printed when two important surveys were released by the federal government. Statistics Canada and independent surveys or reports announcing increased funding, statistics regarding literacy levels, and costs of illiteracy to employers, the Canadian economy, and tax-payers were all impelling sources for newspaper articles. During specific years, such as 1994, when there were fewer Statistics Canada and independent surveys, fewer adult literacy articles were published. According to the sample, 1999 had the second lowest number of articles. Coincidentally, no major report had been done by Statistics Canada since 1996's "The Marginally Literate Workforce". Conceptions of literacy and particular issues related to it were being framed by the inclusion of topics in these articles and the exclusion of others. Through emphasis on funding issues and surveys of reading and writing skills, and by the ascription of numerical levels to adults' language competence, literacy was being convincingly measured in dollars or numbers at home, in the workplace, or in the community. The numbers of literacy articles published and public funding for adult basic programs were also scrutinized. Only 3.1 per cent of the articles mentioned funding cuts or grant losses to adult literacy. 15.8 per cent of the sample announced new monies, grants, projects, the construction of libraries and centres, revitalization of literacy training programs or the implementation of new ones, awards given to citizen volunteers or corporations, and fund-raisers, featuring Canadian celebrities. Although adult basic education funding may have diminished (Collins, 1995; Quigley, 1997), the sample articles reported increased funding and awards rather than dwindling budgets or program cutbacks. An agenda was being set concerning literacy. Metaphorical Representations and Figure 3 As discussed in Chapter Two, metaphors provide more than language ornamentation (Beardsley, 1981; Black, 1968,1981, 1979; Goodman, 1981; Lakoff & Johnson, 1981,1980; Richards, 1981; Scheffler, 1991 Searle, 1979) and are deeply embedded both in thinking and language of everyday use. Moreover, metaphors can extend knowledge and understanding with "the power to express insights which transcend words themselves" (Ashton, 1997, p.200). Examining metaphors can "tell us about the world" (Black, 1970, p. 70). Literacy has wide-ranging and manifold metaphorical representations in the newspapers. Newspapers construct representations of literacy through metaphor while at the same time, they create ideologies (Gee, 1990, Street, 1995). The "world" of literacy i seen in Figure 3 which diagrams how metaphors construct various ways of seeing it. Clusters of metaphors (Figure 3) were sorted into the sub-categories of person, place, or thing. Twelve widely-varying metaphor types represented literacy as abstract entity and four depicted it as concrete entity. Although the picture formed by Figure 3 (and Appendix B) could not be viewed as unified or coherent with a simple exactness of strictly adhering parts, it did provide a kaleidoscopic view into the complexity of metaphor and its usage as a tool for thinking or "seeing-as" (Schon, 1979). It also underscored the contained chaos conceptions can come to resemble in various contexts - described by different speakers with various intentions, living in separate and particular times and places. Literacy is not a clearly understood nor broadly agreed upon conception. Different perspectives are linked to different ideologies. For example, if one holds to a scientific tradition or an epistemology which entails truth and knowledge waiting to be 43 discovered, then metaphors naming literacy as measurable or medical entities seem fitting. If one looks from a constructivist standpoint where knowledge is believed to be constructed from human experience in relationship to others, then metaphors that represent human experience are likely to be used - journey/quest, aspiration/liberation, crusade/cause. Metaphors such as deficit/burden, condition, ad campaign, battle/competition or disability might seem appropriate from an instrumentalist position. The metaphors of Figure 3 and their related positions mark how literacy can be perceived by readers. Although newspapers do not directly say which position is being put forward, the metaphorical representation suggests more than what the words say literally. Literacy as Person When text is personified, the metaphor frames text and literacy as if they were human beings. Literacy is represented as something people cannot know. Text becomes alienated from readers, a human-like outside object which may trick or deceive. Examples from newspaper articles such as "the words were there but they wouldn't come out", literacy "has crept up on people who have coped", "always the danger of encountering", and "unable to meet reading demands" depict text as an undesirable, dangerous, demanding, and sneaky visitor. Another expression, "written material encountered in everyday life", was used several times in the sample. It represents text as if it were a person happened across. Yet readers know that text is not "encountered". People anticipate it through the orders of discourse framed by a social situation (Fairclough, 1989; Foucault, 1995). By linking "encountered" with text, readers are being asked to view it differently. 44 Other text expressions of personification suggested literacy was a friend and constant companion, reliable in times of trouble or stress. Here literacy as text is a person who can "touch aspects of lives", one to whom readers can "devote" themselves. The text person, literacy, is a dependable friend. This view has readers placing their faith in text, a position revealing an ideology of text as trustworthy authority. Several text examples revealed a personification of literacy as benign entity. It portrayed a gentle, mystical birth through such expressions as "watching the magic of literacy come alive", "the printed word comes to life", and "workplace literacy is in its infancy". Literacy as person in these metaphors is an image of a kindly individual, born into others' lives in order to be devoted, constant, and caring towards them. This is a guardian angel, touching lives and standing by in good times and bad. One expression told newspaper readers, "I owe everything to words"; another said, " I devote myself to my 'friends' [texts], they talk of what you wish". Text is not portrayed as something or someone to fear as in the previous examples. Rather, it can keep people from harm, render them whole, and magically guard and protect them. Such personification of text shows an ideology that esteems tradition and respects the place of text. It refers to times when books were revered as holy scriptures, held by priests set apart from others by their ability to read and translate the sacred scripts (Graff, 1987; Oxenham, 1980). Paradoxically, text, like the holy guardian, preserves as it disallows change. Personification, then, is an ontological metaphor, picturing the world in human terms. As such, it is "closely connected with traditional forms of myth, as it exploits the common tendency to ascribe (mythological) personality or agentive power to inanimate entities" (Kitis & Milapides, 1997, p. 567). In newspapers, metaphorical relationships 45 between people and texts are partly structured by personification. Text can be a menacing, startling person who ambushes when least expected, or it can be a benevolent, protective friend who is willing to support like holy words or beneficent spirits in times of need. It can also make statements which can represent nationality. Personification in the newspaper articles shows nations competing in a great literacy race. "Canada ranks near the top", "France... participated in the survey but withdrew its results", and "Sweden is so far ahead of the others" are text examples. Each nation is animated for readers. It is not clear if readers are to include every Canadian, French, or Swedish citizen. The statements may refer only to those willing to compete in the contest. However, the vagueness of who competed and who did not and whether these "contestants" can be said to represent their entire nations help diminish individualism, agency, and literacy. Personification can blur distinctions (Fairclough, 1989,1995). Literacy as Place In the sample, literacy as place (Figure 3 and Appendix C) has attributes of regionalism: national-international, inter-provincial, rural-urban, and inner city-residential. Literacy is located in a nation (Figure 4), personified as intelligent being. Text expressions such as "high rate [of illiteracy] in Ireland" and "literacy skills in France are far worse than those in several other countries" are examples of literacy represented as a national attribute. Literacy can be measured and is visible. If newspapers say Canada has "weak literacy skills" or France does "more poorly than other nations", they are not addressing anyone in particular. Here, vagueness may obscure agency and conceal responsibility. 46 Figure 4 Literacy as International Competition Montreal Gazette (p.AlO), Friday, November 7, 1997 (Article # 82) At least among En^h-speatog countties; 5-g 1-1-a i Id fi-n-al te ;n g-Id b-O* in in ut m er tu-;ed •ar ' '-7 K I M B O L A N ••; Southam Newspapers VANCOUVER -&Iost Canadians can read and write, but more than 40*>er cent don't have the literacy skills need-ed to function effectively at work or at home, says an international adult liter-acy survey to be made public today. Canada still ranks near the top of the 12 countries participating in the inter-national survey, and ranks first among the EnglIsh^£eakiQS=cpun^ies, .ih-cluding thetJnited StateSrBntairi, Aus-tralia arid New Zealand. "In general terms, we rank well, and in terms of our English-speaking col-leagues we are in a leading position." said Senator Joyce Fairbairn, the fed-eral government's special adviser on literacy. The study was to be made public at a Vancouver literacy conference orga-nized by the Organization for Econom-ic Co-operation and Development and was conducted in Canada by Statistics Canada. It surveyed 5,660 Canadians. Fairbairn said that while Canadians . are doing well in terms of tackling illit-eracy, we can't overlook the fact that about 7 million people here still strug-gle with the written word. . In an interview from Ottawa, Fair : - bairn said improved literacy skills are necessary if Canada is going to keep pace with a rapidly changing work-, force that expects more and more ex-^•«rtise from workers. She said the study also makes it clear that literacy is no longer simply de-. -fined as the ability to read and write, ; but, more accurately, as having the nec-essary abilities to adapt to changes in -the workplace. . "The definition of literacy, which is never an absolute because it moves, has moved very, very fast because of technology," Fairbairn said. People with lower literacy skills in Canada are more than twice as likely as those with mid-range to high litera-cy skills to be unemployed, the study showed. As well, those in prisons gen-• erally have lower literacy skills, it said. Al l of the participating countries had at least ajquarter of the population over-all, we're v.- • ,-t--.--.vA struggling with rcadjrtgarjd writing. "Low literacy skills are found in a significant proportion of the general adult population in all the countries surveyed," the study says. "At least 25. per cent of the adults in tneskcoun-tries <all to reach the third of the five levelstof literacy proficiency."'; : Canadians ranked better in the "prose" section of-the survey than they did in "quantitative" literacy skills - meaning we can read novels •and newspapers better than we can balance our chequebook or calculate the interest on a loan. " Canada ranked fourth behind Swe-den, the Netherlands and Switzerland in the number of adults employed in high-skill white-collar jobs. Younger Canadians, aged 16 to 25, ' had higher literacy levels than did Canadians aged 46 to 55, where more . than 50 per cent ranked in the bottom . two literacy-skill levels. Data for the study were collected in 1994 and '95 arid the first results made public two years ago. VANCOUVER SUN Top court Canadian Press OTTAWA - The Supremo Court of Canada will not hear the appeal of three people sentenced to jail terms fol-lowing the armed standoff between aboriginals and police at Gustafsen Lake,B.C. . The high court handed down its deci-sion yesterday in the case of Jones William Ignace. Shelagh Anne T~ ,1.1:.. I ^ m n c D i t ^ i a . n n n l / w a t Gustafsen Lake appeal defence to be put before a jury. Tho Incident erupted In I ho summer or ItlUn whon it group of nhorlnInnls and their supporters claimed a piece of private ranch-land in British Colum-. bia's rugged Cariboo country, 450 kilo-metres northeast of Vancouver. The following standoff involved about 400 police and several armoured personnel carriers. It cost taxpayers $5.5 million. rWnifp two maior exchances of cun-when an Ontario court judge ordered SkyDome and the Jnys to pay Versa NOI-VICOK Ltd. cliimnuon. . Also, the Supreme Court declined to hear an appeal from the owner or a Calgary skydiving school that the province doesn't have jurisdiction to hold an inquiry into' the deatfrif a parachutist. -James Mercier. majority owner or Calgary SkyDive Centre Inc., had ar-cued in the lower courts that only the 47 National pride is invoked. "Canada ranks near the top" implies the top is superior and the bottom is inferior. Sweden's being "so far ahead of the others" invites images of the competitor, Sweden, at the peak of its condition, crossing the finish line, leaving less capable nations / persons behind. National stereotypes prevail and provincial divisions are invited. "Western provinces... scoring higher" and " westerners are more literate than easterners" indicate a Canadian East-West dichotomy which can be framed by tests. Regions in Canada are portrayed as inferior to one another due to their low literacy skills measured on national literacy surveys. "Newfoundland's illiteracy rates, considered the worst in Canada", "Atlantic Canada has higher illiteracy rates" and "about 38 per cent of Nova Scotians have literacy needs of some sort" imply the Canadian Maritimes are inferior to other provinces. Specific words such as "worst", "38 per cent", and "needs" place some provinces in less flattering light. Newfoundland is singled out as "the worst". Examples such as "Quebec has one of the highest [rates of functional illiteracy] in the country", "Quebec scored lowest" [five examples], and "Quebecers finish last" provide a representation of anti-French sentiment. Canada's long-standing debate about language issues and French-Canadian sovereignty can be associated with these metaphors. French speakers, readers, and writers, it is implied, are inferior to the rest of Canada, and it can be proven by their scores and the fact Quebec has finished "last". The French / English dichotomy may be cloaked by the metaphor, but the metaphor invites negative comparisons and interpretations in the literacy/language race. Ideology and dominant language become linked. Other place metaphors invite division between the literate and the working classes. 48 When considering text expressions such as " 285,000 functionally illiterate workers in Western Canada", "40 per cent of the adult workforce in B.C. [British Columbia] has a hard time with the everyday demands of reading, writing, and using numbers", and "blue-collar factory town", readers may believe most of the Canadian workforce is undesirable, non-competitive, and low on the literacy "scales". These constructions communicate an urgency and a prejudice. Many Canadian workers are deficient in their "basic skills", urgently require literacy training, and are in opposition to competitiveness. There are towns and cities full of such people - workers who must be retrained and must feel the need to do so. Perhaps "blue-collar factory town" portrays such a place where individuals are inferior to literate others. Here the newspaper assumes readers know what "blue-collar" and "factory town" mean. They invoke a stereotype and suggest all residents of this "blue-collar" town think alike. Another regional comparison, rural/urban, implied a literacy dichotomy. Newspapers report literacy is higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Isolation creates illiteracy in outlying communities. This depiction invokes stereotypical images of the "country bumpkin" with no access to the tools of literacy. Rural residents are static, helpless, secluded, having few bookstores or libraries. A deeper implication is that literacy is gained through social institutes. The more provisioned a community is in regards to its literacy "stores", the more "literate" it will be. Literacy divisions are traced within cities. "By census and grade level, a 'map' of Montreal island residents' literacy was drawn", "40 per cent of Downtown Eastside residents are considered functionally illiterate" and "literacy is intimately tied to the situation of street kids" show inner city residents, the homeless, and street kids as being 49 low literates, thus the undesirables. Causal relationships are invited between poverty and illiteracy. There was a deeper and more disturbing implication in some articles - inner city residents were to be blamed for illiteracy. In newspapers, metaphors may misrepresent the issue, asserting certain regions are to "blame" for their own problems, rather than reveal the marginalization and problems systems have created in the regions. There are links between inequalities in literacy and inequities in income or employment status; in fact, literacy may be a defining factor of social class (Willms, 1997, p.22). Some studies do observe higher literacy levels exist in Western Canada compared with Maritime Canada and Quebec (Morrison & Rubenson, 1992, p. 10). However, these distinctions are distributed among ethnic groups and social classes (Bennett, 1991) and such distribution is not random (Lewis, 1997). The problem of illiteracy stems from the marginalization of entire communities through their exclusion from significant economic, social, and political institutions so that "some communities are enclaves of illiteracy" (Lewis, 1997, p.404). Illiteracy is represented in the newspapers as a terrifying, lost world. Metaphors of light and shadow predominate. Some text examples are "sort of like in a shadow", "darkness and ignominy of illiteracy"," much of the world seems cold and alienating", and " come out of the fog into a warm place". The literate and the illiterate are mythologized as creatures living in goodness/light or evil/darkness. Without the world of words, the light, people are forced to live in the darkness of nether regions like imprisoned souls of Tartarus. They may not achieve freedom unless it is bestowed upon them from the outside, by utmost authority, the gods. Freedom and light can only come through the acquisition of basic literacy. The illiterate remain in "darkness 50 and ignominy", forgotten or ignored by the rest of the society. Newspapers frame the complex existence of this individual in oversimplified ways. Metaphors describe the experience of illiteracy as a form of oppression. Acquiring literacy is presented as the only way the illiterate can wake up from a place of powerlessness and isolation. However, oppression in this sense is understood to come from the state of being illietate. It is not examined in a Freiran sense wherein individuals are oppressed and alienated by the "thought-language" of the "director society" and in turn develop a "culture of silence" (Freire, 1998, pp.477-478). Prison images emerge. "I wouldn't want to see a child going through life like that - hiding in a Closet", "emerge from their world of agonizing inability", "beyond the reach of the rest of the world", "like being in a strange land", "to help free them from the prisons inside their heads" and " like being chained... in a prison" conjure images of suffering through the isolation and imprisonment of illiteracy. Persons are "trapped" by their "inability" and are imagined as outcasts of society. They begin to "fall" through "the system". One place metaphor", "fell through the cracks" appeared twelve times in the text examples. It may work well precisely because it is vague in meaning, yet appears explanatory to readers. It is a metaphor of "null space". Although the idea of individuals falling might be intolerable, "falling through systems" seems somehow acceptable. Serious flaws in society's systems are made acceptable by exchanging agency and responsibility for this nonsense utterance. The "naming and framing" of the metaphor invites people to nullify explanation by saying nothing. What is neither a clear statement nor a value-judgement poses as a statement of fact. 51 If illiteracy is represented as a dark and cold world through metaphors of place, then literacy is depicted as its opposite It is a sanctuary, a discovered world that is a natural and pleasant place to be. Here it is a place and thing at the same time because literacy is the key that opens up the door to itself. Below is a sampling of literacy as place expressions, taken from Appendix C. Literacy as a Key / Access Metaphors "opens new worlds" "helps disabled join the world of literacy".. "access the world of words " has opened up a new world to him" "helps unlock the world of books" "opening^ the world to his imagination" "the world of print was closed to them" "people struggling to join the literate world' "rich world of reading ... gave him Literacy as World Metaphors " opens new worlds" .. "helps disabled jointhe world of literacy" "access the world of words" "has opened up a new world to him" "helps unlock the world of books" "opening the world to his imagination" "the world of print was closed to them" "people struggling to join thejiterate world" "rich world of reading ... gave him ..." the resources" " wonderful world of words" "free world of literacy" "bright new world" The conception of literacy as a key or an access to a better "place" is established by the repetition of the word "open". Openness can have various connotations. "Being open" is thought of as a positive or desirable psychological trait in another person. The "open free world" of literacy suggests a place where persons are not closed off by any mental constraints, where new attitudes can be developed without society's harsh judgment. It is a means of escape from the tortures and humiliation of illiteracy, a place imagined in idealistic and glowing terms. Individuals who acquire literacy are promised it will provide the tool missing in their lives, one promising to "unlock", "give resources", and permit them to "join" a previously "closed" world. Moreover, literacy is at the same time a means of entry and the "place" to be accessed. Literacy is both the subject and object of desire in this view. People struggle for 52 it so they can live it; they use it to get it. It becomes literacy as "world design" providing the key whereby literacy becomes accessible (Gras, 1973, p.3). And most importantly, literacy holds great assurances: "rich", "resources", "free", "wonderful" and "bright" connote this "place" the non-literate seeks. The "struggle" for literacy is depicted as the search for magic words that will open the door of the cave, and literacy becomes the cavern of treasures. Literacy is also represented as a club (Smith, F., 1988).Those without membership in this exclusive literacy club find "the world of print is closed to them". To gain membership some must "struggle to join". Books here are held under lock and key until a member learns how to "unlock" them. Once inside the club, the member feels the satisfaction of belonging; inside, there is a "bright new world". To be a member of a discourse community, one must be within it (Gee, 1990), and literacy as a discourse community implies exclusivity. This suggests elitism, but it also signifies an identity. There is the illusion of gain; obligations of membership commence thereafter. Metaphors of literacy as a place : A sanctuary, a natural world "to find refuge in literacy as she has done" "a phone call away" "in the field of literacy" "regional field workers" "the field of literacy" "bright new world" The place called literacy is the natural world presented as a site where there are fields and happy workers. "Being in the field" implies study / research in a transparent, friendly, natural environment unlike a classroom laboratory. Fields are a welcome sight; they give relief from enclosing architecture. Openness to the "feel" of a field invites exploration, wandering, and discovery. Naturally, this field is found in a "bright new 53 world" where the implication of light is associated with goodness and literacy. It provides unaffected pleasures, healthful air, helpful mentors, sunlit spaces, and well-being. This place is a zone of comfort, a "refuge", and a place of sanctuary accessible to the literate person a "phone call away". The final metaphor of place is one that suggests a site at the intersection of literacy and illiteracy, commonly referred to as "the divide". Text examples, "a large part of the gap, then reflects only the weight of history", "built another bridge across the literacy gap", "an educational impasse", "functionally illiteracy blocks them from climbing back up into the mainstream", "drew a line between those who can read and write and those who cannot", "the divide between the literate and the illiterate has never been wider", "bridge native literacy gap", and "the gap is narrowing" refer to this place. Literacy stands on one side of the gap and illiteracy on the other. Newspapers sometimes connect the "the gap" to workplace literacy .The examples "has never been wider" and "the gap is narrowing" suggest the divide may be a dynamic entity, having elasticity. It widens when an employer's expectations, supported by studies of workplace literacy, demand "higher literacy skills". If tests disclose workers are at the "functional level of literacy," the gap separates employers' expectations and workers' literacy performance. Furthermore, "the gap" might be the startling difference between what signified literacy in everyday life in Canada 150 years ago and what discloses it in the 1990s. The "mark" of literacy has changed from a signature in 1851 to test results in the present (Graff, 1979, p.326). Markers of literacy change over time in order to serve different 54 purposes. The "gap" metaphor continues to be a useful one, then, because it can narrow or widen as pleases the purpose. Metaphors may exclude a positive discussion of gap as difference. Discontinuities may be viewed as unattractive or undesirable. Literacy is put forward as the acceptable condition, yet non-literacy may be the "natural" circumstances of people most of the time (Oxenham, 1980). Newspapers, however, often represent literacy as a constant state of being. Individuals are expected to repair gaps, "build bridges", and "climb back up into the mainstream" by perpetually and assiduously working to cross the "divide". Such emphasis might actually help perpetuate undesirable illiteracy because it depicts individuals situated within a dichotomy or oppositional. Conceptual metaphors such as this one can become an important ideological tool for business and education. It can "re-inscribe the 'great divide' theory of literacy, in which the teacher, 'the literate' are endowed with more cultural, psychological, and critical understanding that students, the 'illiterate'" (Branch, 1998, p. 208). Authoritative control can be framed and perpetuated. Summary Most literacy articles were published in 1990 and 1995, the years of major studies. There were 26 literacy moments traced in the sample. Metaphors representing adult literacy were wide-ranging and various. Literacy as person saw text personified to depict literacy as friend and supporter. As a place, literacy was full of regionalisms, but was also a sanctuary, club and natural, pleasant place. In contrast, it was seen as a lost world of suffering and marginalization, and as a divide or gap that separates people. 55 CHAPTER FIVE LITERACY AS THING Introduction Although metaphors represented literacy as personified text and as various contrasting places, more depicted it as concrete or abstract things which required an entire chapter be devoted to such a discussion. Chapter five is divided into four major sections. The first discusses the concrete metaphors of literacy as organic entity, commodity/product and barrier. The second section reviews the abstract metaphors of journey/quest, crusade/cause, ad campaign, and commodity/product. The third examines metaphors and naturalized language, and the final section discusses the high-frequency metaphors of literacy as science, battle/competition, spatial and medical entities. Figure 3 shows all of the metaphorical representations. Asterisks mark the high frequency metaphors, those occurring more than 40 times in the sample. Metaphors of Literacy: Concrete Organic Entity Metaphors in the newspapers suggest literacy is an organic entity which is "alive", "grows", and reproduces. It is comprised of two sets of concepts: living organism and appetite. Text examples such as "literacy is growing in Canada", "illiteracy impedes growth"," voice alarm at... illiteracy growth"," stigma attached to illiteracy", "the heart of one of this country's chronic problems"," stop the spread of illiteracy"," functional literacy slows down ... and impedes" and " [illiteracy] moves very, very fast", depict literacy as existing independent of people. It lives, moves, grows, changes, and spreads. For example, illiteracy can "move very, very fast" suggests people may not be able to stop it. It is portrayed as if it were on a crash course of some sort, and its point of impact will be devastating to society. Autonomous literacy as thing has the attributes of agency, mind, and willfulness. In its metaphorical manifestations, literacy is out of control and is not vital to needs and purposes in the contexts of human lives. Metaphors invite the reader to view literacy as performer and people as spectators. They watch the "spread", feel the "stigma", and witness the destruction. In the second set of concepts, the expressions "eating up book after book", "a taste for reading", "reading silently ... gobbles up the volume", "devours magazines, poetry", "thirsting for more", "reads voraciously", and "intoxicated by" are text expressions which construct literacy as an organic entity, as appetite. This "nutritionist concept of knowledge" sees the learner as "undernourished", "starving for letters" and "thirsty for words", passive and alienated. (Freire, 1985, pp. 45-46). The "empty vessel" is a learner-being without agency who consumes text without challenging, acting, or thinking (p. 100). Commodity/Product As shown in Figure 3, commodity/product is the next concrete metaphor. It is discussed later with advertising campaign since the two metaphors intersect and interrelate. Barrier Metaphor Another important concrete metaphor is barrier (Table 5). It endures over the decade of the 90s. Barriers in these metaphors are obstacles, stigmas, riddles, mysteries, problems, or puzzles. Table 5 Illiteracy as Barrier Text Examples of Barrier Metaphor Type From Article Sample Date Article Barrier Type Barrier Words 09/11/98 30 mystery "unravel the debilitating effects of poor literacy skills" 19/10/98 129 mystery " to decode this sophisticated cryptography" 24/07/98 276 mystery " plain labels... more of a mystery" 12/03/91 50 mystery " demystify literacy" 15/12/90 255 mystery "solved" "decipher words"" guesses"" getting a clue" 27/09/99 181 obstacle " in danger of being unworthy of the 21st century" 03/12/98 49 obstacle " illiteracy appears to be an important obstacle" 17/09/98 220 obstacle " overcoming social or economic barriers caused by..." 09/09/98 219 obstacle " his literacy deficiencies held him back" 12/01/97 178 obstacle " these tasks present terrible obstacles" 24/12/96 266 obstacle " illiteracy barrier rises in..."" a wall built with words" 11/12/96 159 obstacle " biggest barrier for people with disabilities" " major barrier" 24/07/95 182 obstacle " this hurdle"" labyrinth of shelves" 06/05/95 111 obstacle " literacy stumbling block" 19/04/95 235 obstacle " weakness at reading and writing is starting to screw up their lives" 19/04/95 235 obstacle " if you can't read and write, the information highway is forever closed to you" 09/09/93 36 obstacle "find ways around it" 27/01/93 60 obstacle " obstacles to literacy faced by poorer..." 05/11/92 246 obstacle " illiteracy impedes growth" 17/09/92 256 obstacle " illiteracy is hindering companies in bringing in new technology" 08/09/92 207 obstacle " barred from better employment by his Grade 5 reading capacity" 24/10/90 150 obstacle " impairing the ability of many Canadian companies to compete" 27/09/90 102 obstacle " illiterate employees were... obstacle to running their businesses" 07/09/90 197 obstacle " functional illiteracy blocks them from climbing back..." 58 table 5 continued Date Article Barrier Type Barrier Words 29/04/90 133 obstacle " main barrier to that goal" 04/04/90 131 obstacle " the greatest block to international understanding and co-operation" 09/02/90 90 obstacle " hampered by obstacles urban literacy advocates never face"" more barriers in a rural community" "overcome those physical barriers" "psychological barriers"" barriers etched in northern life" 06/05/97 123 problem " lasting solution to the literacy problem" 13/12/95 221 problem " part of the solution" 09/09/93 263 problem " a comprehensive approach to solutions" 08/09/92 207 problem " one solution he suggests" 01/08/92 152 problem " can be solved" 14/03/92 272 problem " the only solution..." 01/11/91 167 problem " solution lies in..." 10/09/90 15 problem " solve the problem" 28/09/96 105 puzzle "as a jigsaw with piece missing" [design of literacy stampj 11/12/91 13 puzzle "the puzzle of Atlantic Canada's illiteracy problem" "chicken and egg riddle" 11/01/99 19 riddle " which is the chicken and which is the egg" 30/01/93 65 riddle " poverty and illiteracy are scrambled together in a chicken-and-egg relationship" 14/06/99 203 stigma " the stigma" "been labelled" 27/01/99 130 stigma " a stigma attached..." 24/12/96 266 stigma "there is a stigma..." 08/09/96 73 stigma "stigma attached to illiteracy" 08/09/93 205 stigma " not to stigmatize" 25/04/93 104 stigma " a strong social stigma" 08/09/92 207 stigma " stigma attached to an adult's inability to read and write properly" 17/04/92 92 stigma " a stigma attached to admitting..." 08/02/92 142 stigma "combat myths and stigma..." 24/10/90 101 stigma " high sensitivity about illiteracy" 01/06/90 97 stigma " a stigma"" a stereotype" 07/05/90 195 stigma "branded" 59 Text expressions such as "unworthy", "social or economic barriers", "hurdle", "labyrinth", "weakness", closed "information highway", an impediment to "growth", "hindrance" to companies, "barred from better employment", "impairment", "blocks", and "barrier" were all used to portray having something standing in one's way. They also refer to objects which are set in place to separate persons and/or objects. What constitutes "the barrier" is not named explicitly in these expressions, but the reader is left with a feeling low literates would be prevented from completing actions, finding work, earning a good living, being accepted by the rest of society and so forth due to their illiteracy. The existence of such barriers is not substantiated. For instance, the assertion that not having a driver's licence prevented someone's getting a job is not explained. Overall, the newspapers hinted at obstacles and suggested they were problems. Furthermore, illiteracy is said to have a "stigma attached to it", but there is no clear explanation of what a stigma is. Questions unanswered in the articles are as follows: 1. Is it the feeling of being separated out and not being welcomed by society? 2. Has stigmatizing of the illiterate become naturalized in literacy discourse? 3. If news reports prompt the conception of "stigma" and associate it with illiteracy, have readers assumed this association is accurate? 4. Does society stigmatize illiterates as newspaper articles suggest? Barrier is characterized by words and expressions such as "mystery", "puzzle", and "riddle". The effects of illiteracy need to be "unraveled". Reading and writing need to be "decoded". It becomes a "jigsaw with a piece missing" and a "chicken and egg riddle". As a mystery, there is a crime such as the illiterate's victimization or stigmatization. There is a plot with clues. But newspaper depictions claim it remains inexplicable, even when 60 readers consider the richness of resources within the country, the availability of public schooling, and adult literacy education. Newspapers also appear to have co-opted the discourse of espionage. Imagining reading and writing as a puzzling code, a jumble of lines and squiggles which can be read only by those who know how to decode it, necessitates "deciphering". Imbued with intrigue, literacy becomes an object of "secrets" and "clues". One article in the sample is titled, "Watching the magic of literacy come alive". Sentences, words, and the alphabet become objects of study for which the magical technique is sought. The illiterate is reduced in this view. Authorities must "solve" his or her puzzle of illiteracy. But the literacy as barrier or obstacle metaphor is misleading. It is doubtful illiterates are barricaded from the rest of society. Such a metaphor is an oversimplification, suggesting "low-literate students are trying to enter the Fortress of Knowledge and that citizens need only knock down the 'barriers' for them to flood in" (Quigley, 1997, p. 169). Metaphors of Literacy: Abstract Journey/Quest and Crusade/Cause Metaphors Pilgrimages and journeys in myths and legends are filled with the sagas of heroes, saints, leaders, and warriors on foot who quest for victory, honour, truth, or holy artifacts. Literacy as journey/quest and crusade/cause are linked and shown by the text examples in Table 6. Non-literate travelers must feel the stones of the road beneath their feet. The way is rugged and full of frustration, mixed with longing. For example, one description of a new reader as he read out loud suggested "he stumbles slightly". Furthermore, although the journey is long, the metaphors suggest travelers "move" one "step" at a time, and 61 "progress" toward achieving their destination. In crusade metaphors, it was a "sponsor", not the illiterate who was generally sketched as the crusader. These literacy crusaders were depicted as full of "devotion", tireless in their service to the "cause" of literacy. Illiterates were said to "confess" their inability to read or write and became "inspired" by the dedicated people who helped them along their "way". "Progress" was observed from the omniscient point of view. Sometimes it was seen as "slow", at other times "good" or "rapid". Most reported there "was still a long way to go". During the 1990s, literacy became a "cause celebre". Celebrities golfed, sang, gave readings and performances, put on plays, made public announcements and "infomercials", organized festivals, and generally "spread the message" as one reporter noted in 1991. Perhaps the most famous event of all for literacy in Canada during the decade were the Peter Gzowski Invitational Golf Tournaments held every year to raise money and public awareness. News media personalities from radio broadcasters to television anchors were invited to attend along with newspaper publishers and editors, singers, song writers, actors, artists, writers, corporate sponsors, and other "note-worthies". There could be an "official PetroCanada poet laureate" in attendance. Literacy workers and students did not often participate in the foursomes of the golf greens, but they were invited by literacy coalitions and committees to volunteer to help organize the event and to serve in whatever capacity the event and its major organizers needed. The press was invited to participate as well - there to report on the speeches, readings, parties, comments, and fun. 62 Table 6 Journey/Quest and Crusade/Cause Metaphors Words From Text of Newspaper Articles 1990-1999 Journey/Quest Crusade/Cause way sponsor journey promote completed cause step support path crusade road movement moving inspired journeyed spread long ( confess seeking devotion progress dedication Canada was happy watching the festivities. The tone of the writing in all of the articles which reported this event over the 1990s was consistently optimistic, light, and enthusiastic. Gone were the dejected adjectives describing the dreary "world of the illiterate". In its place stood glittering descriptions. The Montreal Gazette, April 6, 1990, reported "the highlight of the tournament - after the songs, laughter, photo opportunities and misplaced drives into Frame Lake - will be the presentation of a cheque for $100,000, donated by Southam Inc. (publishers of The Gazette)" (p. C8). Peter Gzowski is quoted, "I thought it would be a good idea to have a little benefit golf tournament for some friends. It would let me say thank you to some people and give me an excuse to say 63 no to a whole bunch of other things. And it would be fun. So I started to look around for a cause." He goes on to say that the promotion of literacy "was not at all fashionable at that time" (p.C8). The Calgary Herald, September 7,1990, called Gzowski, " a leader in the national effort" (p. Fl). May 9,1992, The Toronto Star provided the headline, " Peter Gzowski and pals hit the greens for literacy" (p. G7), while The Globe and Mail, June 5, 1992 wrote, "Tearing up the turf for a good cause " (p. C 8). On August, 20,1992, The Vancouver Sun ran an article headlined, "Charity: Two CBC-radio titans join forces to help those who can't read" (p. CI). The Calgary Herald, October 2,1993, described Mr. Gzowski's decision to leave the golf tournament in his words as " it's reached the limits of what I can cope with"; an official from the newspaper and Southam Inc. commented, "I think Peter's done a very wonderful thing". Other Canadian celebrities have also been linked to the "cause" of literacy. Knowlton Nash, quoted in The Vancouver Sun July 14, 1990, concluded, "Literacy is the cement out of which the fundamental building blocks of progress are made" (p.D22). Christopher Plummer who was to give a one-man show to raise funds for Ottawa-area literacy groups and programs said," I owe everything to words... The show will say this piece of literature helped me, moved me, stirred me, made me laugh and stayed with me to enrich my life" (The Globe and Mail, September 21,1990, p. C 4). A photograph of Robertson Davies was featured on page M10 of The Toronto Star, September 8,1990. The photo shows him looking into the camera somberly, seated with his arms crossed in a casual, yet confident manner. The ear piece of his reading glasses is poised at the corner of his mouth. Beside the photo in large font appear the words," A chat about literacy". Another photograph is exemplary. 64 Run both by the Montreal Gazette and The Winnipeg Free Press on October 16, 1990 was a photograph of Canada's Mila Mulroney, wife of then Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, standing to the left of First Lady Barbara Bush, wife of then President George Bush. The headline states, "Barbara Bush urges war on illiteracy" (p. B l and p. 15). Mrs. Bush, smiling in a fashionable jacket with a string of pearls at her neck, looks just slightly past the camera; Mrs. Mulroney, hands raised together at shoulder-height as if in frenzied applause, holds a joyful, giddy smile. She gazes adoringly at Mrs. Bush whose words are stirring and inspirational. She too wears an expensive suit adorned with a whiff of high-priced jewelry. Other prominent women "take up the cause". On September 26,1996, The Calgary Herald reported the words of Senator Joyce Fairbairn: "Literacy, she says, "is my cause". The newspaper explains she looks forward to working with the new National Literacy Secretariat with enthusiasm. The photograph is a head and shoulders close up. Her lips are parted as if she is speaking words at the moment the reader is reading them. She looks intense and serious about the topic. She takes official note of "Word on the Street" festivals and calls them "a great rollicking success" (p. J4). These festivals began in Toronto in 1992 and in Vancouver in 1995. On September 26,1992, The Toronto Star provided the itinerary of events for Toronto's first Word on the Street celebration; it was called a "literacy theme park" with "fun beginning at 11:00 a.m. through to 6 p.m.(pp. K10 - KI 1). Seven years later on September 25, The Vancouver Sun described the festival as one filled with "charming events" that have "something for everyone reflecting the universality of words" with "readings by authors Evelyn Lau, William Deverell and Susan Musgrave" and "cooking demonstrations" and 65 "lots of entertainment for kids" (p. Al) . Attention was moved from the "plight of the illiterate" to the circus atmosphere of literacy where family fun, being on the streets, books, and writers were positioned together. Becoming literate was like going to the carnival. It was just plain fun. Corporate sponsors also became part of the celebration. Southam Inc. and PetroCan had been two steady contributors. On September 28,1996, The Toronto Star reported on Canada Post's contributions: Literacy has been Canada Post's cause of choice since 1989, and it issued its first literacy stamp the following year. It supports literacy through its Santa letter-writing program, its Flight for Freedom awards and its sponsorship of an Atlantic provinces literacy conference. It has also established workplace literacy programs and provides Priority Courier services to deliver books to literacy centres (p. K2). A headline in The Calgary Herald, September 8,1994, announced, "Syncrude honored for tackling illiteracy" (p. D6): the company was to receive the Corporate Canada Literacy Award. Other corporations such as Imperial Oil, Coles Book Stores, Christie Brown, Air Canada, and others were mentioned in the articles. It became obvious that many in corporate Canada fostered literacy as its favoured social cause. It had become good business in more ways than one. Other metaphors suggested literacy could be bought and sold. Distinctions between informing readers and persuading them of particular points of view concerning adult literacy are not clear. The language of advertising and the language of reporting intersect. Sometimes this close association confuses readers and "the fact that the features of the two writing forms partially overlap and partially complement each other... suggests their goals might be the same" (Schaffer, 1998, p.315). Thus the lines 66 between what is advertising and what is news begin to blur. Furthermore, advertising becomes pervasive so that it" is everywhere but nowhere" (Cook, 1992,p. 12). Ad Campaign and Commodity/Product Metaphors Instances of literacy as advertising campaign (Table 7) and commodity/ product (Appendix D) are clustered around a presumption of consumers' need to see literacy "packaged" and made desirable. "Soft sell" comes through what Illich calls "the needs discourse" (quoted in Cayley, 1992, p. 26) in which "nonmaterial needs are transformed into demands for commodities" (Illich, 1971, p. 2). A "consumption community" may be created by doing so (Fairclough, 1989, p. 209). To make advertising transform literacy into a sought-after product, newspapers and advocates must use language that makes positive connections between the two. First, linkages are made between literacy and powerful ideologies .By connecting the word "promotion" to "literacy", for example, the conception of literacy can be shaped by positive values associated with a raise in salary, rank, or circumstance. Moreover, promotion brings with it the idea of aiding someone's development. It is associated with positive relations amongst people, equity amongst classes of people, human rights, and peace. Advertising and authority are also brought together when selling literacy as product. Official communication blended with the discourse of advertising (Fairclough, 1989, 1995) may appeal to the individual using "simulated personalization" and works ideologically by building images which create the consumer (Fairclough, 1989, pp. 128, 203). Government releases to the press can employ techniques from advertising to sell or 67 Table 7 Literacy as Ad Campaign Text Examples of Ad Campaign Metaphor Type from Article Sample Date Article # Text Expressions 27/07/96 26 "fund raiser for literacy" 10/03/97 27 " to promote literacy"" to accent Freedom to read week" 16/10/90 38 " promoter of literacy projects" 04/06/94 62 " readings help promote literacy" 08/09/96 73 " promote literacy" "promoting English-language writing" 21/03/98 84 " promoting reading and increasing availability" "boosting the number" 09/02/90 90 " promote community literacy" 17/04/90 92 " promoting literacy classes" 18/05/90 94 " to promote literacy" 10/09/90 99 "will promote.." 21/09/90 100 " promote literacy" 27/09/90 102 "campaign developed by"[ advertising group]" sell the ... on the concept" 28/09/96 105 " to promote private sector involvement" "donations of free advertising" "raise desperately needed funds"" massive public awareness" 17/05/96 117 "a major contributor... Superior Propane... 'fill for literacy week'" 07/09/90 138 "raise awareness of literacy" "fund raising"" a multi-media campaign with Canadian Advertising Foundation"" award winning ads" 09/05/92 151 " literacy campaign"" netted"" corporate sponsors" "netted" "have raised" "hustling" 12/11/90 169 " promotion" "brilliant scheme" 09/04/97 171 " fund raisers" "promote" "support literacy movement" 16/08/95 176 " promotion" "will feature"" host the awards" "sponsor" 09/05/95 183 " aimed at promoting literacy" 21/09/98 192 " promote" "better paid jobs as inspectors" "sweetened the pot" 08/09/93 205 " promoting literacy"" what International Literacy Day is all about" 12/06/99 213 " has been promoting literacy" 03/05/95 240 " cookbook... will help raise money" 05/06/92 247 " raised a total of..."" sponsorships"" tax deductible" "dollars into the coffers" 28/09/99 250 " a publishing theme park"" major sponsors" "one of the hits" "most events free" 18/05/91 252 " launching a literacy product with the help of sponsors" 08/02/91 253 " last year's campaign to promote... literacy" 11/05/91 254 " the campaign against illiteracy" 27/11/90 258 " promote literacy" "mounting public awareness campaigns" 68 table 7 continued Date Article # Text Expressions 23/06/93 265 " promote literacy"" a national initiative... created to recognize.." 20/08/92 270 " the dough they raise..." "two CBC-radio titans" "raised" "tickets" "fun-a-thon for charity" "host" 16/02/90 278 " part of a world-wide literacy campaign" "promote" particular points of view, enact change as the goal, and sometimes turn what is undesirable into what is desirable or vice versa. However, what is beneficial, who is to decide, and who is to benefit remain important questions which are seldom discussed in the newspapers or developed through their metaphorical representations. Literacy is often depicted as entirely the obligation and possession of the individual. Expressions such as "possess reading skills that limit" and "possess marginal reading skills" situate literacy within the individual who becomes wholly and solely responsible for the acquisition, ownership, development, and maintenance of it as a commodity (Street, 1984). Situating it within individuals means responsibility is, by extension, theirs. Authorities can then "blame the victim" for his or her own difficulties. This conception does not acknowledge the importance of initiation into various orders of discourse multiple literacies evince (Courts; 1991, Freire, 1985; Gee, 1990; Lankshear, 1998; Rose, 1989; Smith, F., 1988). Individuals acquire a variety of literacies in various social contexts, in particular relationships, and for specific purposes. Literacy involves more than personal reading and writing skill acquisition. Those lucky enough to have the opportunity to acquire, practice, and engage the dominant code ("school-based literacy") are advantaged over those who do not (Courts, 1991; Gee, 1990, p.66, Rose, 1989). Not "possessing literacy" may not be due to ineffectiveness or lack of initiative on the part of 69 individuals as some of the commodity metaphors suggest. Instead, it may be "the product of accumulated social inequalities rather than individual failure to master complex skills" (Stromquist, 1992, p.43). Metaphors and Naturalized Language The transcendent and transforming power of metaphors goes beyond the literal meaning of their words and changes not only understanding of something, but also feelings connected with it (Leabhart, 1996). If newspapers represent literacy as battle, readers may talk, think, and act as if literacy were indeed a war (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). Metaphors become naturalized into language by their "innocent use", but they are " transporters... whose itinerary, though arbitrary, has come to seem so familiar, so natural, we feel - instinctively - at home" (Leabhart, 1996, p. 49). Metaphors used in such a manner are "dead metaphors" which have become part of "naturalized " speech.(Searle, 1979). They "speak oxymoronically" and "have become dead through continual use, but their continued use is a clue they satisfy some semantic need" (Searle, 1979, p.83). The "semantic need" Searle is referring to may be ideological in character. Naturalized, commonsense manners of speech encode beliefs. Roland Barthes, quoted in Eagleton (1996) suggests, "Ideology seeks to convert culture into Nature, and the 'natural' sign is one of its weapons" (p. 117). Representations may become "naturalized conventions" (Fairclough,1989, p. 139). Language is " a creature of change and history", a paradoxical entity (Gee, 1990, p. 77). When people inherit a language, they also acquire a form that does not fit exactly with meaning. Foucault (1995) affirms it is not meanings of the words that change but "their relation to other propositions, their conditions of use and reinvestment, the field of 70 experience, of possible verifications, of problems to be resolved, to which they can be referred" (p. 103). Convention, practice, and tradition may not accommodate change. Another view of the "natural" in language comes from post-colonial theory. It suggests representations of other people and cultures emerged from discursive patterns adopted by dominant cultures and codes. Because points of view persisted over time, they became familiar and accepted (Mills, 1997). "Othering" connects to naturalized speech "construed not as a deliberate conspiracy but as unconscious prejudice carried in the fabric of everyday commonsense discourses " (Riggins, 1997, p. 17). Conceptions of the "illiterate", for example, are often constructed around "othering": the individual is "outside", watching, never fully participating because literacy functions to exclude (Purcell-Gates, 1997). Naturalized metaphorical language may be seen in terms of "highlighting and hiding" (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, p. 10). Understanding one thing in terms of another may hide other aspects or may conceal inconsistencies. Consider literacy as sport or fitness (M2) and some of its text expressions: "the bar of basic education in society continues to rise", "tackling illiteracy", and "literacy skills are like muscles. They need a regular workout to stay fit and improve". Readers are invited to imagine athletes in a contest with illiteracy. Disabled or non-competitive persons might not be included in stereotypical thinking of the athlete. But literacy skills are not like muscles, or bars on a high jump. Illiteracy is not an opponent to be tackled. Highlighted positives such as grace, speed, strength, and competition hide negative ambiguity in terms like motivation, competition, rules, and games. They obscure conceptions of co-operation, mental engagement, differences in capability, and so on. And if thinking becomes regulated by 71 "seeing-as" (Schon, 1979), literacy equals physical fitness. High-Frequency Metaphors The most frequently occurring metaphors are important for two reasons. First, because they have endured (Appendix O), readers are persistently offered perspectives which circumscribe the picture and restrict the view. Secondly, they have become naturalized into the everyday language of adult educators, consumers of newspapers, policy-makers, parents, literacy workers, theorists, and ordinary citizens. Three metaphors predominated: literacy as science (M24,179 instances), literacy as battle (Ml , 110 instances) and literacy as spatial entity (M12,105 instances) The high-frequency metaphors have become a natural, commonsense way of representing conceptions of literacy. Literacy as Science This metaphor was the most frequently occurring. Common terms used in science become associated with literacy (Table 8). Key categories were measurable entity, percentage, rate, measured position, scientific tool, and scientific discourse. The view that literacy is something which science can measure is evinced over and over again by many expressions as "per cent", "scored", "testing", "levels", "million", and "billion" and so forth. Science with its quantifiable evidence is used as authority. Newspapers seem fond of using alarming statistics in their depiction of literacy. It is suggested "4.5 million Canadians" have literacy problems and "by the year 2000 one billion people won't be able to read or write". These figures imply numbers are staggering, yet countable. The 72 Table 8 Literacy as Science Metaphor (M24) Text Examples from Sample with Key Terms that Classify Literacy as Science Date Article # Classification Text Sample 13/05/99 284 measurable entity "as few as two per cent of the 4.5 million Canadians who have problems in reading and writing" 09/11/98 180 measurable entity "one in five Quebecers are functionally illiterate" 09/09/93 35 measurable entity measured position "no comparable historical data on adult literacy" "five levels" "21-23 per cent have trouble with tasks" "bottom category" "least literate classification" 16/02/90 278 measurable entity "estimated 2 million Canadian adults" "by the year 2000 one billion people won't be able to read or write" 19/10/98 129 percentage "10 per cent increase in literacy as measured by scores on a standard test" 06/11/97 233 percentage "40 per cent of the adult workforce in BC has a hard time with the everyday demands of reading, writing and using numbers" 07/12/95 260 percentage measured position "17 percent of those who scored at the lowest literacy level" 04/06/95 112 percentage "eight to 10 per cent has learning difficulties" " 22 per cent 27/07/96 26 scientific discourse "no objectively measured results" "raw data to explore competence of local educators" "accountability" "regular national skills testing" 19/02/94 4 scientific discourse "decipher" "benchmarks" "tabulated" "literacy ruler" "tracking international trends" "face validity" "assessment" use of "scare quotations" is popular in newspapers and may be a "form of ideological struggle in discourse" (Fairclough, 1989, p. 90). Furthermore, the statistical reports given in the newspaper articles invite negative thinking. They depict literacy's dismal low test scores, deficits in respondents, and an overall decrease in competence of readers and writers. Literacy is represented as numbers falling on a scale. However, mitigating factors 73 such as life experiences, schooled knowledge, orders of discourse, language practices, self-identity, emotional states, and usage within diverse contexts are ignored in this positivist metaphor. Using statistical measurements for literacy or for portraying who "the illiterate" is problematic. Many adult literacy statistical studies use census figures as their database, despite the fact census numbers are unreliable. Statistics "are single-minded abstractions from complex and changing realities, and thus to a degree inevitably misrepresent the situations they purport to describe" (Hunter & Harmon, 1988, p.379). Sometimes "measures are created in the eyes of the researchers and policy makers" (Quigley, 1997, p.43). Thus, statistical measures of literacy are questionable. However, since conceptions of literacy are wide ranging, science can be employed to reign it in statistically. This perspective gives it shape and structure, while at the same time, it provides control over the way it is viewed and managed by the media, government, and their agents. Literacy as a scientific enterprise depletes human agency and potency. If literacy measured by science provides the only genuine form of knowledge (Briton, 1996, p. 84), it claims authority . Citizens are expected to provide data for measurement by participation in surveys, questionnaires, and tests. Science can measure competence equally at school, work, or home, inviting surveillance (Foucault, 1995). Education-as-science claims authority. This conceptual framework, once reified into process, is based on unequal power relationships that freeze the ordinary person or worker within the frame of "deficit position". Expanding definitions of literacy, generally arrived at by surveys or tests, enlarge the reported numbers of illiterates. Additional, 74 refined definitions cast a wider net drawing in the "newly illiterate" (Horsman, 1990). For example, adults who know little about using a computer are "computer illiterate", despite being multi-lingual and literate in a variety of communities and cultural practices. After reframing, readers might view this group as resisters rather than "illiterates", who have made deliberate choices about their learning paths (Giroux, 1983; Quigley, 1990). Science, literacy as measurement, has entered the workplace. Employers are demanding workers with "higher literacy levels", a term that emerged in the late 1990s. Education has become an investment in human capital (Lewis, 1997). Externally-imposed demands rather than organically-based needs of the individual propel literacy "needs", and people can be viewed as "workplace deficient" throughout their lives (Rose, 1989). Recurrent and life-long education may now shelter capitalist agendas, "reintroduced as theories and ideologies in the discussion of how to organize education" (Gustavsson, 1997^  p. 239).The employer is positioned as the one who decides workers' deficiencies over their lifetimes. Learners, set in a deficit position in relation to employment or individual competence, are consequently alienated from personal and instrumental knowledge. They may not be able to "get at the facts" because these are difficult to identify and refute (Freire, 1985). When literacy as science and workplace literacy converge, employees can expect to be tested, re-tested, classified, and measured. When found "deficient", they undergo training and volunteer time outside of work to "upskill". Quantification and focus on measurable error parallels a model of mind wherein "numbers seduce us into thinking we know more than we do" (Rose, 1989, p.200,208). Surveys may make claims to understanding who the illiterate is. Frequently, however, 75 little is known about people in studied in a statistical survey. For example, the National Literacy Survey (NALS) of 1993 carried out in the U. S. allows "the popular and political perspectives to impute motives, attitudes, even lifestyles to the group described" (Quigley, 1997, p. 47). In this way, data adds to authoritative voice. Arnowitz (1995), quoted in Briton (1996), argues "modern scientific rationality is the privileged discourse and all others are relegated to the margins" (p. 84). Data helps construct the ideology. In other words, measurement can provide data for different purposes because "different kinds of data move different audiences" (Darville,1988, p.23). If literacy is cast in the conception of a problem, there begins a search for solutions. Through a process of "naming and framing", particular aspects of a problem are selected for attention. The problem-setting itself may set a generative metaphor into motion (Schon, 1979) and "it is this process of transfer which gradually builds up conceptual networks" (Ashton, 1997, p. 203). Therefore, difficulty may have to more do "withproblem setting than with problem solving" (Schon, 1979, p.255). If literacy as a problem, for example, is framed with scare statistics, the apprehensive search for solutions might look to the rationality of science. Literacy as Battle or Competition Lakoff and Johnson (1980) discuss argument as war and maintain this metaphor structures how people act, the language choices they make, and their understanding of what it is they think they are doing when they argue. The metaphor is "one people live by in this culture" (p.4). The metaphor literacy as battle (Table 9 and Appendix F) appeared 108 times. 76 Table 9 Literacy as Battle / Competition Metaphor (Ml) Occurrence of Sub-Categories and Keywords in Metaphor One (Ml) 1990-1999 Sub-Category 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 battle 6 5 4 11 9 3 8 7 8 22 competition 4 2 1 1 7 1 0 0 3 2 challenge 0 0 1 1 2 0 1 0 1 2 Totals 10 7 6 13 17 4 9 7 11 26 Kev words 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 fight 0 2 1 2 0 1 0 1 4 8 war 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 3 battle 1 1 0 1 5 1 1 1 0 5 Totals 3 3 1 2 5 1 1 1 5 16 Note. Table 9 provides a summary view of M l . The three sub-categories of the metaphor were battle, competition, and challenge. Words within the text examples recurring most regularly were "fight", "war", and "battle". A complete listing of M l is found as Appendix F. Three sub-categories occurring frequently within the metaphor, were battle, competition, and challenge. In 1990 literacy was most often depicted as battle while competition and challenge were not popular. Expressions such as "attack illiteracy", "fight illiteracy", "battle to increase literacy", "conquering illiteracy", and "war on illiteracy" helped shape the problem as an enemy that needed to be attacked and vanquished. The battle was said to be global as one headline reported, "A war has been declared on illiteracy throughout the world". Soldiers were "passionate battlers for literacy", workers "in the campaign" and "active fighters against illiteracy". People were "recruited" into the fight and asked to "seriously attack the problem of illiteracy". There were "struggles", "campaigns", "conquests", "task forces", "beatings", and summons to "wipe out illiteracy". Nineteen ninety was International Literacy Year and Canadians had to be alerted to an international focus. They were given a picture of literacy painted by numbers and 77 asked to volunteer in the fight. Statistics provided by Statistics Canada were shocking enough for ordinary Canadians to get excited about. "An estimated 24 per cent of Canadian adults" had desperate trouble in their lives because they could not read or write at acceptable levels. The Montreal Gazette ran an article on January 12,1990, "Learning ABCs like busting out of jail" in which it reported: "The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization estimated one billion adults-almost a fifth of the world's population - are illiterate" (p. B5).On February 17,1990, The Toronto Star, ran a long article about adult literacy. The writer stated," One in five adult Canadians is functionally illiterate - not recent immigrants but people like Bev Colley who have been processed through schools" (p. M14). Nineteen ninety-five marked the International Adult Literacy Survey and its hallmark competition amongst nations. The literacy as battle metaphor did not occur as frequently. Instead, newspapers used language of competition: "challenges", "getting an edge", "beating another nation"," ahead" and "behind". The new battle was designated a contest or a race. Literacy was seconded to the discourse of globalization and corporatism. Canadians were invited to accept the challenge, to invest their time and energy in the international competition, and to outdo other nations in the "literacy game". The language of competition referred to unemployment rates, workplace literacy, and employer demands. Over the decade, then, the war metaphor remained, strongest in 1990 with a full call to battle and then shifting to focus on competition in 1995 and 1999. The sub-category of battle is dispersed throughout the sample and persists, but the meaning of the word "battle" shifted from a call to fight the enemy "illiteracy" in 1990 to a call to 78 become competitive internationally. Tiles (1998) offers the following insights into the war metaphor: Once citizens think of drugs as something against which to wage war, they are naturally led to think there is an enemy, someone or something to be defeated and possibly annihilated. Casualties on both sides are an accepted price of war; readers are disposed to think this will be a violent affair in which people may be hurt, but they will be sacrificed in a good, just, even righteous cause. This is the formative and generative power of metaphors, the war metaphor generates a tolerance for violence and generally aggressive, adversarial response to problems, (p. 517). The "good, just, righteous cause" Tiles refers to may be viewed as the right to literacy. Some claim universal literacy is a goal of great importance. The argument is that literacy is found amongst well-employed, better-off citizens of the world, while illiteracy resides amongst the poor, undereducated, under- and unemployed. The struggle toward universal literacy will allow people freedom to make informed choices, forestall national crises, and raise the standard of living for many. Some thinkers like Graff (1979) argue otherwise. Although it may be important to help individuals, it does not ensure improvement in their economic futures. To suggest otherwise is to perpetuate "the literacy myfh"( Graff, 1979). There will be casualties on either side of the conflict Tiles (1998) suggests. In imagining a war on illiteracy, it is not known who will be the casualties, what might be sacrificed, and who is innocent or the perpetrator. The language of war is impelling. The rhetoric of nationalism, patriotism, and citizenship are invoked by it. By so doing, literacy can act as a unifying movement for people together in a cause. Levi-Strauss (1973) contends "the fight against illiteracy is therefore connected with an increase in governmental authority over citizens" (quoted in Brodkey, 1991, 79 p. 164). Quigley (1997) argues literacy in "the political perspective is ultimately to sustain and reproduce the classes, the socioeconomics, and the politics of a world defined by, legitimated by and controlled by the white dominant culture" (p. 60). Literacy as war metaphor also relies to some degree on myth for it succeeds when it combines images of war and illiteracy as shared cultural knowledge. In his discussion of how literacy myths are generated for the "popular perspective", Quigley (1997) describes a literacy ad campaign launched in 1984 in the United States by the Advertising Council. The council did not canvass literacy theorists, researchers, teachers, or learners for their views and knowledge; instead, the group worked from popular myths, using outdated images to evince pathos and alarm in the audience. The campaign was considered a success. Telling the story of illiteracy became a matter of carefully constructing images out of the old fabric of myth and selling the creation as a "new" reality. The news can act like myth for "myth reassures by telling tales that explain baffling or frightening phenomena and provide acceptable answers; myth does not necessarily reflect an objective reality, but builds a world of its own" (Bird & Dardenne, 1988, p. 70). The meaning of myth comes through telling it over and over again to keep it alive. It refers back to itself in retellings, and thus archetypal stories resonate for the audience. New versions build on the old, and constancy and continuity are retained. Literacy as Spatial Entity Appendix G shows 105 instances of literacy as a spatial thing. They are termed "orientational" metaphors because of their spatial characteristics (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, p.l4).These refer to recognition of the body's orientation and how it relates 80 physically to surroundings. Some have been adapted by language users to refer to non-experiential meanings. For example, "up" is seen as a positive orientation, whereas "down" is seen as negative . "Above" can be seen as a more desirable "position" than "below". A metaphor is categorized by how literacy may be related to space. The most commonly used word was "high". Text examples are "high level of Oilliteracy", "highest rate of adult illiteracy", "higher skills", "higher levels of literacy", "higher literacy demands", and "highly literate". In "high level of illiteracy" and "highest rate of adult illiteracy" the term is meant to alarm the reader. Extremes in terms of "high" can be harmful as in a "high temperature", "high risk", or "high speed chase". The second sense of "high" as in the text examples "higher skills", "higher levels of literacy", or "higher literacy demands" is the implication of something desirable, better than ordinary. Citizens speak of Canada's "high" court, "high" society, and "high" rates of interest. The last sense of "high" comes through the text sample "highly literate." In this case, there is elitism suggested; a person who is "highly literate" can be distinguished from those who are not. Supposedly, this is a necessary and useful distinction to make. "Highly literate" might be distinguished from " educated". University professors and "professionals" may be "highly literate", but university students and tradesmen are "lower". The word "high" is often paired with "level". If literacy is conceived of in terms of levels of measurement, then assumptions about what counts as literacy and how much is needed follow. Finding levels and calling them high or low, acceptable or unacceptable gives the sense something is clear and agreed upon. Literacy is a constrained, measured conception understood because it can be measured. It can be measured because it can be understood. 81 Similarly, "low" appears frequently. For instance, there were expressions such as "lowest functioning category", "skills so low", "the lowest literacy level", "literacy skills at the low end", "scored lowest", and "low literacy". Typically, "low" refers to something not wanted, and having "low literacy" implies a person is less well-developed, and thus, less desirable. Expressions such as "levels of literacy continue to climb"," literacy levels are falling", "declining literacy", "literacy levels pose problems", and " the levels of literacy in general were in a kind of 'free fall' ", all present "levels" in the subject position. Having agency, levels can climb, fall, rise, and pose problems. This gives a sense of detached agency to "levels" as if they were autonomous, intelligent entities, making choices about when to rise and fall. By representing levels as the subject and imbuing them with the power to act, human agency is obscured. Literacy and illiteracy "levels" are thus beyond control. They are ornery, unpredictable creatures, difficult to rein in and know. As such, people can only stand by and observe what levels do. Finally, "bottom" and "top", "up" and "down" were paired opposites used in connection with literacy as spatial entity. "Literacy skills at the low end", "Western provinces on top", "Quebecers at the bottom of the heap", "bottom literacy scores", "going down", "on top", "from the bottom up", and "lifts up" are some of the examples collected. "Top" and "up" are ordinarily associated with what is desirable and encouraged, while "bottom" and "down" are linked to negative values. People say "being on top of the world", "on top" of a situation, a "top" competitor, or a song or CD "on top of the charts". On the other hand, "down" denotes the loser, and "bottom" can connote even more intense, negative value. An act or thing on the "bottom" is associated with 82 moral or physical disgust as in the commonly -used expressions of "scraping the bottom of the barrel", "bottom feeders", "at the bottom of the heap" and so forth. The conception of "up" and "down" parallels feelings of happiness and ecstasy at one "end", and sadness or misery at the other. It also designates winners / losers, desirable / undesirable, positive / negative and so forth and speaks of what counts as being valuable in the society and what does not. In summary, literacy as a spatial metaphor is represented through its relationship to conceptions of space. Associated with space are value-judgments that come through language practices and cultural constructions. There is an "internal systematicity to each spatialization metaphor" whereby a "coherent system rather than a number of isolated and random cases are found" (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, p. 17). These coherent systems come out of cultural and physical experiences: they may be said to form "experiential gestalts" (Johnson, 1981, pp. 30-31). Spatial metaphors might work in the same sense. Restricting the view of literacy to orientations in space can create the illusion of control. Readers can easily imagine the bottom and top of literacy scales even though they do not exactly know what they are or where to find them. "To be on top" in the Western world is considered significant and advantageous in the dominant consumerist culture. Literacy, as conceived of by and through these same cultural and language practices, becomes competition where only the "strongest survive". The Medical Metaphor The medical metaphor, M6, (Table 10 and Appendix H) pervades the discourse in education, particularly as it relates to reading skills, learning difficulties, and adult 83 Table 10 The Medical Metaphor (M6) Occurrences of Medical Metaphor (M6) Categorized as Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis Diagnosis Treatment Prognosis Total 1999 0 0 1 1 1998 3 2 3 8 1997 1 2 2 5 1996 4 2 3 9 1995 5 2 1 8 1994 0 1 0 1 1993 2 1 0 3 1992 0 1 0 1 1991 2 3 1 6 1990 5 5 2 12 Total 22 19 13 54 Note. The medical metaphor is divided into diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis to parallel conventional medical protocol. literacy. Education has been attracted to "clinical sounding labels", medical terms and authority-like professionals the medical metaphor evokes. (Smith, F., 1988, p. 50). In similar ways to literacy as science, the literacy as medicine metaphor solicits association with measurement, problem-solving, and authoritative voice. The medical is a generative metaphor (Schon, 1979) that developed entailments deeply imbedded in educators' speech habits and the language of their views. Through the metaphor, readers, listeners and speakers begin to carry over "frames or perspectives from one domain of 84 experience to another", a special sort of "seeing-as" (Schon, 1979, p.254). Diagnosis is the element in the medical metaphor most writers preferred - 41 per cent of the total instances (Table 10). Text expressions provide a basis for discussion: 1. "weak or insufficient reading abilities" 2. "to be detected and treated" 3. "diagnosed as dyslexic" 4. "tend to run in families" 5. "weak literacy skills" 6. "we've got the diagnosis" 7. "literacy woes plague" 8. "assess" 9. "consult" Literacy viewed from within the medical metaphor represents a process: doctors "assess", "consult", and "detect; experts are retained and "consulted"; patients are "assessed", advised, and treated; and the problem is "detected". Like a patient in poor health, literacy skills can be "weak", or reading abilities are found to be "insufficient", somewhat like deficiencies in the body. The medical metaphor sets into mind the orders of medical discourse. These circumscribe roles within a social context and define power relations between participants (Fairclough, 1989). The "diagnostician" is the expert, the authority in control; the adult learner is the 'patient'. Here the processes of educational assessment and medical diagnosis are parallel. "Assessments" or "tests" are part of a diagnostic process. The adult is given the results of tests performed by the expert who must translate what the adult needs, using the tests as 85 the medium. The popular medical-sounding terms "aphasia", "dyslexia", and "adult attention deficit syndrome" are used to describe newly "discovered" needs. "Treatment protocols" often follow the same orders of discourse. It is commonly accepted "illiterates" require treatment as if they suffered from illness or deficiency. Following are text examples of "treatment" expressions (Appendix H) in the medical metaphors: 1. "the cure for literacy" 2. "boost the amount of reading" 3. "early intervention initiatives" 4. "illiteracy must be eliminated" 5. "got a shot in the arm" 6. "remedy a defect... a plague" 7. " remedies" 8. "takes a surgeon's touch" 9. "compulsory screening test" 10. "illiteracy seems more amenable to treatment" The sickness metaphor constructs learners as patients who "must continue to receive 'transfusions'" administered by teachers in order to make them well (Freire & Macedo, 1987, p. 4). A literacy program provided with extra funding is said to have received a "shot in the arm". The injection/transfusion theme recurs throughout the sample. Literacy is seen variously: "Immunization" is required against the plague of illiteracy; educational programs or literacy councils need "injections" of funds; learners must have their literacy "boosted". 86 Another conception of "treatment" stems from the test /assessment tradition "to measure is to initiate a cure" (Cohen, quoted in Rose, 1989, p. 200). Testing proliferates in literacy practice and theory. Smith, F. (1995) observes: "Since 1910 no fewer than 148 standardized reading and achievement tests for elementary students have been published in the United States, and only 34 of them have gone out of print. Presumably, more than a hundred are still in circulation and use, their numbers constantly increasing" (p. 586). Many adult literacy practitioners, groups, coalitions, and administrators have adopted the same standardized test-giving procedures still used in public school systems. The third sub-category, prognosis, provided these text expressions: 1. "literacy is vital to survive in today's world" 2. "the debilitating effects of poor literacy skills" 3. "noticed an important and welcome side effect" 4. "brain synapses suddenly working" 5. "lack of basic literacy carves a chunk out of... self-esteem" 6. "the good news is that illiteracy is not a terminal disease" 7. "federal government pledged to eradicate illiteracy" 8. "no quick fix" 9. "illiteracy harder to overcome" 10. "should gain strength" In example 3, the implication is side effects can be positive, lucky by all accounts, perhaps "happy accidents". The article appeared June 9,1998 in The Montreal Gazette and marked the occasion of the first Cree teachers' graduation from a new aboriginal literacy program offered through McGill University. Increased interest in the Cree language, stirred 87 by the course and its graduates, was characterized as a "welcome side effect". Side effects in medical discursive practice tend to be seen as secondary effects, usually related to the taking of prescription drugs, often undesirable, and harmful to the patient. Disease metaphors have ideological significance because "they tend to take dominant interests to be the interests of society as a whole and construe expressions of non-dominant interests as undermining (the health of) society per se" (Fairclough ,1989, p. 120). The "health" of society is put at risk because of the "debilitating effects" of illiteracy. This is underscored by statements in example 1 and 7 above. Medical discourses are framed in such a way that the superior knowledge of medical science is enacted through the roles established and the power relationships developing within it and from it (Foucault, 1995; Fairclough, 1989). If illiteracy is a disease or plague threatening public health, medical science must eliminate it, using the proper means at its disposal: tests, consultations, diagnoses, and treatments of various sorts. In short, by these text expressions, all manner of scientific medical expertise is urgently required. Remedies for plagues must be found to escape suffering which will sweep over the citizenry and exact terrible tolls. "Early intervention initiatives" are needed The comfort of certainty is enfolded in the medical metaphor. Summary Chapter 5 discussed concrete and abstract metaphors with special attention to the high-frequency metaphors. These metaphors, with person and place representations from Chapter 4, have answered what literacy is as depicted in the text of the newspaper articles. The final research question asks how the "illiterate" is represented by the metaphors. 88 CHAPTER SIX T H E I L L I T E R A T E Introduction This chapter considers the remaining research question by first discussing how-newspapers construct the illiterate. Then it provides five stereotypes depicted through newspapers in the 1990s. Metaphorical representations, stereotypes and myths of adult illiterates are difficult to distinguish from one another through the articles. Stereotypes can be contained by a metaphor, and metaphors can contain stereotypes. The distinctions between conceptions are erased at times. Stereotypes Because a stereotype is a "partial and inadequate way of viewing the world" (Lippman, 1922, quoted in Murphy, 1998, p. 166), the view of "the illiterate" is incomplete. Another difficulty is that most portrayals of the "illiterate" use negative attributes to distinguish him or her. Cultural stereotypes may derive from expectations about behaviour and appearance. However, an "illiterate" can be a person of any race, ethnicity, gender, class, occupation, and so forth. Therefore, readers cannot form any particular stereotype based on group characteristics. "Illiterate" stereotypes have not been constructed in the same manner as cultural ones but reinforced through repeated representations in the media and storytelling. Fifty-eight out of 284 articles, 20.4 per cent, were centred on "the illiterate" (Appendix I). These articles were structured as open interviews. The person had been asked to describe the experience of illiteracy, paying particular attention to what he or she found difficult to manage in life because of low literacy skills. The individual was 89 described briefly by age, a brief retelling of work history, and school experiences. The "illiterate's" family life or neighbourhood was emphasized. In most cases, a photograph of the "illiterate" was published at the top of each article or within the text. Usually, the person featured was male. Generally, he was pictured, seated with reading materials in his hands. His expression was fixed and intense as he stared at the print in front of him. Sometimes, a friendly-looking helper was seated next to him. Usually, the helper was a female who looked at the book or papers spread in front of the duo, but she was caught by the camera saying something. "The illiterate" was not speaking. The photograph showed both individuals casually dressed. At other times, "the illiterate" was standing against a wall of books or a literacy training centre. His arms would be crossed in front of him as he looked shyly past the camera. All in all, these articles are testimonies, complete with identity photographs. Testimonies may work in a number of ways. First, "episodic stories prompt the audience to seek individual determinants of social problems... and to ignore societal constraints. In other words, the subtext of such personalized portrayals may be that success or failure ultimately resides in the individual" (Murphy ,1998, p. 178). The person becomes culpable for a personal lack of literacy. Readers have learned the "narrative code of objective reporting" and respond to its form (Bird & Dardenne, 1988, p. 78). Moreover, the inter-textuality of news reporting can encode myth and social values. Media texts do not "merely 'mirror realities' as is sometimes naively assumed; they constitute versions of reality in ways which depend on the social positions, interests, and objectives of those who produce them" (Fairclough, 1995, p. 103-104).Newspapers and their "journalists play a role in 'affirming and 90 maintaining the social order'" (Barkin, 1984, as quoted in Bird & Dardenne, 1988, p. 79). The stereotype of the illiterate as an individual who has failed to grasp the written code and "secondary discourse" of literacy (Gee, 1990,1991) is perpetuated through the presentation style of the personal testimony. Stereotypes also function through personal testimonies because of the "in/group and out/group" phenomenon (Wolfe and Spencer, 1996). The illiterate group may be seen to threaten the status quo because members have not been admitted to the dominant "literacy" culture. Findings support the contention that conceptions of literacy are constructed intertextually out of persistent stereotypes (Fairclough, 1995; Quigley, 1997). Five important stereotypes follow which have been interpreted from text expressions in the sample. Child Ilsley (1989) and Ilsley and Stahl (1994) studied media imagery and examined text that accompanied literacy campaigns. There, three metaphors emerged, the first of which was the "school metaphor" (quoted in Quigley, 1997, p. 37). In newspapers, the same metaphor occurred through the stereotype of "the illiterate", reduced to the inferior status of child. As a headline, on March 14,1992, The Vancouver Sun, stated: "Better late than never, adults are learning their ABCs" (p. A14). The child-like qualities of the illiterate are indicated through many text example adjectives. First, the illiterate is said to be fearful. Expressions such as "nervous as hell", "afraid she can't read street signs", and "fearful o f show the world is frightening to someone who cannot read or write. Fear invites readers to come to the assistance of the 91 "helpless child ". Expressions such as "they need help as they look for work", "need a shoulder", "need support", and "need continual bolstering" portray just how needy these individuals are. They are shown to be dependent on others to help them fill in forms, obtain jobs, read materials, and get around in cities and towns. They are stereotyped as "unable to cope" without the intervention of a literate person, similar to a supervising parent. They become inferior and helpless by design of the metaphors, and the in/group or "the mature literate community" (Quigley, 1997, p. 37) is designated to be their protectors. Prisoner The second stereotype, prisoner, has three senses to it. The first is the feeling of being trapped. Individuals are prisoners because they are ensnared by illiteracy. Expressions such as "trapped in a situation of low-paid jobs requiring low levels of literacy" and "like being ... chained in prison" help structure the idea that not being able to read and write is similar to being kept in a prison. One article dealing with literacy and convicts stated literacy would "free them from the prisons inside their heads". These persons were depicted as being constrained both mentally and physically. The stereotype or metaphor of illiteracy as prison and illiterate as prisoner do not overtly include the discourse of the justice system including descriptions of crimes, charges, verdicts, trials and so forth. To do so could lead to blame, and the illiterate could be said to be at fault. "Blaming the victim", in this case, would obscure the pathos of the innocent individual hounded by his own incapacities and caught in an imprisoning, unfortunate state of affairs. 92 However, the second sense of "prisoner" did involve the implicit idea of criminality. Text examples such as "condemn themselves to a life of marginal employment", "lack of education is a low-income life sentence", "undetected as an illiterate", "proclaims illiteracy public enemy Number One [sic]", and "illiteracy a fundamental violation of human rights" all employ the discourse of criminality. People speak of condemning a person who is guilty of a crime. They mete out judgements that include life sentences, ask the police force to detect crime, rank criminals according to how serious their crimes are, and categorize how dangerous they are perceived to be. A public enemy is one to be scorned, one to be fearful of. Illiteracy is said to be a "violation of human rights"; thus, individuals who have not become literate can be viewed as those with no regard for thier own rights, and correspondingly, perhaps the rights of others. Associating criminality with illiteracy has historical roots in Canada. The connection goes back to the mid-nineteenth century where poverty, criminality, and lack of formal education were consolidated (Graff, 1979). Mass education was recommended as an attempt to sever the link: Literacy became the vehicle for the efficient training of the population and the maintenance of hegemony. Morality without literacy was more than ever seen as impossible; literacy alone, however, was potentially dangerous. Thus the nineteenth -century educational consensus was rooted in the moral bases of literacy; the reduction of crime and disorder ranked high among its functions of socialization. The development and acceptance of this view of education constitutes yet another aspect of the 'literacy myth', its expectations permeating thinking about criminality today. (Graff, 1979, p. 236) In his historical account, Graff (1979) exposes "the literacy myth", in particular, illiteracy related to criminality. He concludes most of the time the judicial system charged criminals with by-law violations, being drunk, disruptive in public or vagrant, 93 which were frequently associated with poor districts (pp. 261-267). The practice of linking illiteracy and crime is still enacted in many news reports (Mitchell, 1991). A newspaper article described a young man charged with drug possession: "Not so implicit in Barnicle's [the writer] scenario is the assumption illiteracy is the root cause of the young man's 'frustration and lawlessness'. The young man's inability to read and write led him to a life of crime, to teenage parenthood, and to this courtroom lobby where he is being illegal possession [sic]" (Mitchell, 1991, p.xvii). Criminality became associated with illiteracy and ignorance. The stereotype of the illiterate as criminal is reinvented through the discourse of newspapers. However, newspapers do not discuss how persons with limited education suffer from many social disadvantages - poverty, unemployment, racial or ethnic discrimination, and social isolation. Inadequate education will probably be only one manifestation of their deprivation (Hunter & Harmon, 1988, p.390). The final sense of the word "prisoner" introduces resistance.Text examples such as "refusing to read becomes the only dignified course" and "don't see their lack of reading skills as a problem" say that in this case, individuals may be rebels, nonconformists, who outwardly defy authority. The Winnipeg Free Press ran an article on November 1,1991 titled," Illiterates refuse to admit scope of problem (Figure 5), study says"(p. A4). By refusing to take training or do anything about "literacy" difficulties, illiterates are construed as a group threat. Text examples (Appendix J) show illiteracy as menacing to democracy while the illiterates are shown as criminals who challenge authority and the social order: 94 Figure 5 Illiterate as Resister Winnipeg Free Press (p.A4), November 1, 1991 (Article #167) scope o By Hefen Branswell Canadian Press. ' OTTAWA — A^ new study on liter-acy suggests some Uliterat^ or barely literate Canadian adults don't see Thftir l n r f t i n f r**A*"z skills as a prob-lem. ' •< And that attitude means poor read ersmay faceseriousproblemsadapt-mg to workplace change in the years ahead, say some people who work in the field of literacy. _ 'UiejSttBsucs Canada survey—en-titled Adult Literacy in Canada — says only six of 10 adult Canadians read wait-enough in 1989 to .meet day-to-day needs. • The survey says 16 per cent of adults aged-16 to 69 couldn't read well enough to dearwith most; written material encountered iri daflyiffe.~ Another 22 per cent could manage simple reading tasks, if the informa-tion was familiar and clearly written. The study is based on interviews ' with about 9,500 adults from across the country. ' When asked to assess' skills, 94 per cent said they could read enough to meet their daily needs. And they probably can — for now, said. Arthur Olson, a professor of reading and language arts at the Uni-versity of Victoria. But given the rapidly changing-ne-,rcture of work, those daily needs are . likely to become more complex, he suggested. Those, with poor reading skills may'find themselves left be-, hind. "The problem js . . . people may have three or four different careers in their working life," Olson said. "It would seem to me that a lot higher level of literacy is demanded if indeed they are going to be able to take advantage of those careers." Source: Sta.isu 3 Canada (CP) hide, said Laine. And he predicted it will become harder still. "I think what we'll start to see more and more is a dichotomy — the read-University o f Western .Ontario in ers , , , and good proDlem^PJYgrs b_£ „ People with poof literacy skills have a' harder time adapting to change than good readers, said Colin Laine, an education professor at the London, who' has done research on identifying people with literacy prob-lems." "In the past. 10, IS years, the work-place has changed dramatically. There's far more electronic equip-ment — with manuals, with inst tions to follow—and that ha* brought out the fact that a lot of people cannot cope. It's become harder for people who are illiterate and barely literate to coming better and those who haven't (got those skills) being left behind.** Olson and Laine said the solution lies in on-the-job literacy programs for people who need them. "To me, the real answer lies in the "workplace with partnerships be-tween community colleges, schools, universities and business and unions," Laine said. "Get the colleges into the work-place." 95 1. "harms ... democracy, social progress...international peace and security" 2. "their trouble will cost all of us something in the end" 3. "threatening" 4. "horrified" 5. "poor literacy and crime are linked" 6. "linked to major social problems" 7. " imperil prosperity" 8. "threaten the strength of economies and social cohesion" The text examples above declare the persons and the issue ominous. Example 1 states directly there is a threat to democracy at a global level. National security is at risk. The safety of ordinary citizens is threatened because "poor literacy and crime are linked". Literacy is associated with criminality and becomes a controlling social ideology. Several articles noted that only about four to seven per cent of those requiring the training (as defined by the IALS and Statistics Canada) took advantage of literacy courses. In a number of articles, writers characterize this lack of participation derisively. They suggested "low literates" did not know what was good for them. They chided saying time, money, and energy were expended to launch programs, write curricula, and hire staff to teach and administer the training. Despite Statistics Canada studies and reports of the "massive numbers" of illiterates, relatively few were coming forward to take part. Several writers expressed frustration and blamed the illiterates, claiming they were apathetic, idle, and ungrateful. Thus, these reports frame the illiterate as some kind of stubborn trouble-maker who will not go along with the rest of society. 96 Resistance theorists acknowledge the lack of participation by some learners in mainstream education schemes, but do not ascribe laziness or apathy to the non-participation. Some individuals view dominant educational practices as oppressive and hegemonic, set in place to serve the needs and reproduce the values of the elite (Giroux, 1983; Quigley, 1990). Resisters are individuals who choose non-participation. They are not simply "rebellious". They see social systems serving people inequitably. Recognizing how hegemonic practices infringe upon their beliefs and values, resisters refuse to sanction them by taking part or co-operating. Some keep silent, but theirs is a silence unlike that of the oppressed in Freire's (1970,1985) "culture of silence". Resisters choose it as a means of control rather repression. Unlike those persons living under dangerous and repressive regimes, these individuals have not internalized the dominant culture and kept silent as an outcome of their oppression (Freire, 1970,1985). For resisters, silence is a tool, a counter-hegemonic, used against solidarity (Giroux, 1983). The price of resistance may too great for illiterates, however. Individuals can be "cut off from what Bourdieu and Passeron (1977) calls [sic] cultural capital" (Donald, 1988, p.225). They become prisoners by way of their own non-conformity. Non-participation will mean isolation from specific cultural practices and removal of opportunity to share in the secondary orders of discourse with access to and practice in "secondary institutions" such as schools, workplaces, stores, government offices, businesses, or churches (Gee, 1990,1991, pp. 7-10). This learned, secondary discourse becomes a metadiscourse, a "powerful literacy", which enables the individual to critique other discourses, particularly the dominant one (Gee, 1990). Some illiterates resist, 97 become distanced from social opportunity, and deepen their isolation: " a large part of social suffering stems from the poverty of people's relationship to the educational system, which not only shapes social destinies but also the image they have of their destiny" (Bourdieu, 1998, p. 43). Therefore, in this final sense of prisoner, refusing to participate by acts of resistance may be construed as a form of self-imposed exile from the dominant culture, a means which entraps individuals and imprisons them by exclusion. Other / Outsider The illiterate as other or outsider comes from colonial discourse with its historical beginnings in the discursive practices of travel writers, novelists, poets, and scholars who visited countries, exotic and mysterious in the minds of nineteenth century Western European readers. Residents were objects of knowledge in "newly-discovered" countries. Their reality was represented as strange and frightening, very different from European. This discourse, with its value-laden statements of "fact", produced "knowledge" and constructed truth claims through repeated practices which became part of naturalized speech and "common knowledge". Generalizations and stereotypes paraded as understanding when other cultures were a conglomerate "Other" rather than separate communities (Mills, 1997,107-110). Modern post-colonial theories elaborated the conceptions of self and "the other" (Brodkey, 1991; Fairclough, 1989; Foucault, 1979; Gee, 1990; Horsman,, 1990; Lecompte, 1993;1990; Mills, 1997). Literacy discourse has tended to use "othering" when speaking or writing about the "illiterate" (Gee, 1990; Horsman, 1990; Oxenham, 1980; Street, 1995; Quigley, 1997). Definitions of literacy are cast according to literate "self and illiterate "other", 98 circumscribing political and cultural realities around a dominant culture (Brodkey, 1991, p. 161). Illiterates are described as "those situated outside... designated as the Other, alien and troubled, lawless and frustrated, and marked by an inherent failure to learn to read and write, and an inability to use language appropriately" (Mitchell, 1991, p. xviii). The newspapers abound with such examples (Table 11). The adjectives "lost", "inferior", "incompetent", "isolated", and "forsaken" portray the illiterate as someone outside of the standards others have set. Illiterate individuals are aimless travelers, wandering about in a "lost state", tourists in their own country, unable to find their way without someone's assistance because they are unable to read available maps. Moreover, low literates are "in a real sense immigrants to the literate world with as much to learn about the culture of literacy as about the language of print" (Purcell-Gates, 1997, p. 181). Text examples imply incompetence. Illiterates are those who "bluff' their way through life, graduate from educational institutions but cannot read, cannot "speak or think coherently", make bad parents, and cannot cope with "everyday work and home situations". Given these statements, it is not surprising to find A B C Canada's poll (Table 11), showed most Canadians think of illiteracy as a social problem, "primarily the fault of the individual". In newspapers, personal testimonies of illiterate stereotypes are presented as "confessional discourse" (Mills, 1997, p. 80) wherein individuals publicly admit "sins" against society, express regret for not having finished school, and lament not having paid more attention to teachers and parents. In short, they apologize for failing to make the right choices (Horsman, 1990, p. 123-124). Not only does this testimony implicate them 99 Table 11 Illiterate/Outsider Text Examples of Illiterate/Outsider Metaphor Type from Article Sample Attribute Text Example 1. lost "This is what it is like being an illiterate. You're a tourist in Beijing..." 2. lost " in a lost state" 3. lost " if you don't [read and write], you're lost" 4. inferior " they treat you like dirt" 5. inferior "break down the equation that illiterate means stupid" 6. inferior " newspapers [shorter with pictures] for illiterates, like a comic book" 7. incompetent "spend their entire lives bluffing their way through" 8. incompetent " barely able to read the words on his diploma" 9. incompetent " deeper cause of pervasive illiteracy and the inability to speak and think coherently... is what is happening in the home" 10. incompetent "cannot read well enough to cope with everyday work and home situations" 11. incompetent "Canadians consider illiteracy as a social problem that is primarily the fault of the individual according to a poll A B C Canada" 12. isolated "illiterate people are often very isolated" 13. isolated " the isolation illiteracy creates" 14. isolated "felt terribly alone" 15. forsaken " people will think about literacy and recognize how lucky we are" 16. forsaken " when I... see a wino, a bum... what I see out there is someone who can't read or write" 17. forsaken " experience the world as outsiders" 18. forsaken " stigma attached to being... functionally illiterate" Note. These text expressions depict the illiterate as "the Other". by admission of what they failed to do, but it also places them in a deficit position. The Other can be "characterized as being less than human" (Horsman, 1990, p. 124). Stigmas 100 develop: "ignorance, mental backwardness, and social incapacity" all become associated with the illiterate (Street, 1995, p. 23).Sometimes statements are constructed as if they are facts when they are really value judgements (Austin, 1975). Many newspapers in the sample make value judgments about illiterates and then deny "the statements". This form of rumour-mongering may help validate stereotypes. Heroic Victim The "heroic victim"(Appendix L), "injured by an unjust society and the tragic vicissitudes, yet struggling on" (Quigley, 1997, p. 52), is a common stereotype in the newspapers. It may be an extension of the metaphor wherein the literate was endowed with "special virtues" and literacy was a "state of grace" (Scribner, 1988, pp. 76-77). Text of the personal testimonies shows the heroic victim has five qualities: courageous, ashamed, disabled, victimized, and vulnerable. The first attribute, courage, is the most pervasive. "Will have to find the courage", "have enough nerve to come in for help", "mustered up a bundle of courage", and "tremendous courage to come forward and say... "are examples. Courage" implies moral strength. Illiterates have had to face up to their obligations by turning themselves over to a training program or a literacy centre. In addition, they have to admit their inadequacies with the dominant code. By casting literacy with courage, writers are ascribing a morality to the conception. Those who come for training are doing their duty, confronting their fear, overcoming it, and facing their obligations to society. The second quality has to do with a personal feeling of shame. The heroic victim, though ashamed, is advised to "come out of the closet". Other examples point out how the illiterate tried to "hide his illiteracy", felt "humiliated", was "branded" and 101 "tormented". He lived his life "in fear" someone would find out and would go "to great lengths to hide it". One writer proclaimed this was a "hidden problem in Canada". In all of these depictions, the illiterate is a tolerated outcast. He can survive as long as no one discovers his "dreadful secret". In personal testimonies, illiterates are made to lay bare their emotions, talking of tears shed, jobs lost, promotions passed by, and frustrations ever present. They admit fears for their futures and those of their family members. Overall, they regret many decisions. However, in all of the testimonies, illiterates are represented as hopeful. Despite their setbacks and humiliations in life, they view the world optimistically and bear no grudges against society. Somehow, they feel relieved they will no longer have to conceal their "secret shame". The third attribute has to do with being disabled. Illiteracy is a "handicap" or "hidden disability" and becomes the focus of attention. Dahl (1993) suggests "a review of cultural forms of expression provides evidence of the metaphoric role of disability which is deeply ingrained in social values" (p.l). At times it invokes malevolence or sentimentality. Difference as disability is stressed. One newspaper writer states illiteracy is a "handicap you can hide". Concealing from public view the infirm, insane and others deemed to upset reason has historical roots. Disabled people were not invited to participate in the activities of ordinary people in their everyday lives, but instead were confined or imprisoned. If illiterates experience their illiteracy as disability, then, they must keep it out of the public eye and feel humiliated by it. Although this disability has no outward signs (nothing which will make it visible to others) at times, through a demonstration of its absence, it is exposed. These are situations that must be avoided, and illiterates must hide from them. 102 Disability is also associated with learning (Table 12)."Reading handicap", "have some type of learning disability", "undiagnosed learning disability", and "whose disability is the written word" associate reading, learning, and disability. In this context, disability needs to be "diagnosed" and the learner/patient "treated". This can only occur if illiterates come forward to remedy their disability, positioning responsibility for illiteracy on the person. Here disability can be eradicated by voluntary action or participation in a course of action set by literate others. Should illiterates, however, continue to attempt to hide disability, they may be viewed as impostors, pretending literacy. They become dissemblers through using "tricks" and "coping strategies" to cover up illiteracy. Other articles point out illiterates' amazing and clever coping devices. They spend their lives "bluffing" their way through and develop "little tricks to avoid reading or writing situations". Generally speaking, they live life as "fakes". The fourth attribute has to do with victimization. Illiterates as victims (Appendix L) of fear become entrapped because they do not want "to be found out". Disgraced, they hide illiteracy from bosses, other workers, and family members. They feel "profoundly marginalized in the world", victims of society's demands for greater credentialization and "higher literacy skills". Text expressions such as "the information highway is forever closed to you", "the illiterate underclass", and illiteracy as "a ticket to social segregation and economic oblivion" reveal a connection between class, dominant forms of literacy, and access to opportunity. Because they have little knowledge of the orders of discourse and the 103 Table 12 Disability Table Text Examples of Disability Metaphor Type from Article Sample Date Article Thing Text Example 1 09/09/93 36 disability " hiding handicap" 2 12/11/90 40 disability " reading handicap" 3 25/04/93 46 disability " society doesn't view illiteracy as one of the more popular handicaps" "handicap you can hide" 4 11/01/90 71 disability " most people who are illiterate... have some type of learning diability" 5 14/04/90 91 disability " like being disabled" 6 24/05/90 96 disability " a kind of hidden disability" 7 24/10/90 150 disability " to let their disability show" 8 13/09/99 175 disability " illiteracy is a handicap" 9 17/02/90 194 disability " undiagnosed learning disabilities" 10 30/01/91 217 disability " not being able to read is a handicap" 11 15/01/97 230 disability " I thought about this handicap" 12 13/04/92 231 disability " the damaging and limiting effect of illiteracy" 13 24/12/96 266 disability " whose disability is the written word" dominant code, they remain in low employment with little hope of promotion or advanced training. Finally, the heroic victim is vulnerable. Some text examples are "most vulnerable", "vulnerable to lay off and displacement", and "it really paints a picture of how vulnerable they are". "Vulnerable" had two senses in the articles. The first is associated with the illiterates' feelings about themselves and the second relates to their susceptibility to certain forces in society, like employment trends, for example. The first sense of vulnerable has to do with exposure and weakness. Illiterates are people who "bear" invisible wounds because of inability to read and write. They have been, harmed and discriminated against. When they decide to take training, they become 104 open to derision and humiliation. Some articles talked of the need to "handle illiterates with care" and the "need to be sensitive" in dealing with them. The second sense of the word "vulnerable", as in "vulnerable to lay off and displacement", represents illiterates as individuals who apparently feel society's influences in different ways than literate persons do. They are depicted as being more sensitive to changes in economic trends, job requirements, and re-training demands. Unprepared to deal with changes, they must be protected from the vagaries of employment currents. An implication is that taking literacy training increases illiterates' chances of being hired and becoming competitive in current job markets. The heroic victim stereotype works to portray the illiterate as having five characteristics; these can help readers to "distinguish" who the illiterate is and to decide how he or she might be helped. Good Citizen The model citizen in the ideal world will partake in the Good Life when he or she becomes literate. He or she will be seen as successful (Table 13) in the society, experiencing a sense of "community" through a new-found solidarity with the literate group. This individual can expect to help and be helped by others and will "feel good about himself or herself, at last, having the control in life he or she has lacked. The metaphor of literacy as the Good Life (Appendix M) in the world of the Good Citizen depicts a joyful, entertaining, and fulfilling experience. Expressions such as "it can mean beautiful moments: reading to a grandchild, discovering great literature", "the joy of reading", "share the passion with someone who is illiterate" all help to frame 105 Table 13 Literacy as Success Text Examples: Success as Benefits, Financial Gain, Victory, Achievement Control Power Date Article # Success As Success Words 1 11/01/99 19 achievement "strong link between high literacy scores and jobs"" a link with ..the literacy habit" 2 27/09/99 181 benefits " benefits bestowed on me by my ability to read, write or communicate" 3 24/07/98 276 benefits " will make life a lot easier" 4 15/01/96 262 control power " can help seniors take control of their lives" 5 07/12/95 234 control power " giving people power over their own lives" 6 02/08/91 274 control power " learning to talk and write about their own lives" 7 26/11/90 146 control power " more control over their lives" 8 23/07/90 137 control power "if you know how to read and write, you have power" 9 26/05/90 196 control power " rich world of reading... gave him the resources" 10 25/09/99 140 financial " literacy... is the true global currency, not the Internet"" the universality of words" 11 19/10/98 129 financial " literacy can make you rich" 12 21/09/98 192 financial "the investment has paid off handsomely" 13 07/05/97 172 financial " worth big bucks" 14 05/05/97 122 financial "literacy skills boost earning power" 15 05/05/97 122 financial " 1994 high'document literacy skills earned $43,495" 16 13/09/96 155 financial " literacy is vital to economic growth" 17 07/12/95 234 financial " economic advantage"" more adaptable workforce" 18 07/12/95 234 financial "economic advantage" 19 03/03/95 261 financial "work at learning how to read so well that some day you can earn a very good living" 20 14/04/90 91 financial " thus enriching their lives" 21 24/07/99 206 victory achievement " to overcome illiteracy" 22 08/11/97 162 victory achievement " new literacy includes a wide range of information-processing skills" 106 table 13 continued Date Article # Success As Success Words 23 06/05/97 123 victory " the link between..."" Canada's achievement lifeline the 21st century" 24 09/06/96 198 victory " rise from the ashes of abuse and achievement neglect" 25 27/01/93 103 victory " great inroads to increasing achievement literacy" 26 11/12/92 59 victory "imagine the work they did to achievement overcome this" 27 02/08/91 274 victory " proof of triumph" achievement 28 16/02/90 278 victory now that the person has learned to achievement write" nothin can stop him" 29 05/01/90 88 victory " people who have overcome achievement literacy" literacy as an exhilarating, jubilant experience. Implied is that if people do not learn to read, their lives will be less joyous, less passionate than those of the literate. Besides, being literate is fun. There are many activities in which to participate: "literacy street fairs[s]", "celebration of literacy"," International Literacy Day", "the hustle and bustle of literacy" and much more. The Good Life also includes contentment. Text expressions such as "sitting in your cozy chair with your own reading light", "manage conflict and diversity", "make life a lot easier", and "the chance to live a fulfilled life" all indicate emotional restoration. The Good Citizen is also promised success. Success is conceived of as benefits, financial gains, victory or achievement, and control or power. Many of the markers of literacy as success appear to change over the decade of the 90s. First, the text samples in 1990,1991,1992, and 1993 discuss individual achievement. There is talk of power and control over lives, and expressions such as "triumph" and "overcome" imply individuals 107 associated with personal achievements. By 1995, however, success begins to be tied to economic issues: "earn a very good living", "earning power", and "economic growth" are examples. In 1997,1998,1999, the expressions shift to economics as related to work in a global economy. Examples such as "investment", "high literacy scores and jobs", and "true global currency" present broader implications: workplace literacy and education as human capital and investment are linked. Key ideas repeated in the representation of literacy as citizenship and community (Table 14) are "participate fully in society" and "seeking to become full participating citizens via literacy". The Good Citizen, then, is one who not only participates but also does it to the full extent, largely due to his or her newly- achieved literacy. However, in none of the articles in the sample was "participation" explicated. Readers were to understand participation as meaning more freedoms, perhaps even more rights for the individual. Several articles stated explicitly illiterates were considered "second-class citizens" who had been cheated out of their rights to participate in a democratic society. Three articles talked of literacy as a universal human right. However, the argument advocating universal right to literacy is not fully developed in any of the articles. Good citizenship comes through doing good deeds or charitable acts in the name of literacy. Examples 2, 5,13,15, and 16 speak of rewards, praise, and awards given to individuals, small businesses, and corporations who have been benefactors to literacy through donations of time, effort, and money. The words "democracy", "social progress"; "citizens"; "community"; 108 Table 14 Citizenship / Community Metaphor Text Examples of Citizenship/Community Metaphor Type from Article Sample # Date Article # Citizenship/ Citizenship/Community Words Community 1 13/09/99 175 citizenship " participate fully in society, hold down a decent job, enjoy a cultural life" 2 06/09/99 283 citizenship " the award recognizes" 3 09/12/98 193 citizenship " manage conflict and respect diversity"" harms the cause of democracy, social progress... international peace and security" 4 09/11/98 30 citizenship " seeking to become full participating citizens via literacy" 5 24/07/98 276 citizenship " praises the Bank of Nova Scotia for making its branches literacy friendly" "plain language mortgage contract"" plain language leasing contract" -corporate citizenship 6 06/11/97 233 citizenship " literacy... is a key to democratic participation"" critically assess information, then and only then, can they make informed choices- the kind of choices our democratic system relies on" 7 15/01/96 262 citizenship " interviewed"" matched for interest" "paired with"" meet regulary" - a process of literacy socialization 8 18/11/95 244 citizenship " we can make literacy a reality for more citizens" 9 08/09/95 245 citizenship " we can all help one another, whether as individual tutors or as businesses improving literacy in the workplace or service providers to become a member of the network" 10 08/09/94 109 citizenship " won the country's highest honor [sic] for workplace literacy programs" 11 06/11/92 267 citizenship " award"" rewards a company for leadership" 12 08/09/95 115 community " just a phone call away" 13 13/10/97 124 community " family literacy"" can share" 109 table 14 continued # Date Article # Citizenship / Community Citizenship /Community Words 14 11/12/96 159 community " helps disabled join world of literacy" 15 17/05/96 117 ^ community " link the callers with..." 16 07/12/95 234 community " stronger literacy middle class" 17 14/03/92 272 community " unless adult literacy is promoted... many other... towns will have few employable workers" 18 26/09/92 145 community " offer membership" "all readers will be interested" 19 26/09/92 145 community " community-based literacy programs" 20 26/05/90 196 community " another link between the literary community and the literacy community" 21 04/04/90 131 community " literacy can no longer be viewed as a luxury"" an exclusive right of certain privileged" 22 16/02/90 278 community bonds form e.g." help kids ... with homework" read to them "leadership", and "democratic" all promote citizenship. "Community" becomes the overarching term for the network set in place to promote literacy on local agendas as well as position it on the hidden agenda serving corporate and authoritative needs. This depiction of citizenship becomes a "monolithic cultural literacy" (. Giroux, 1991, p. xiii) wherein the dominant code becomes "good" for everyone. Moreover, the implication that increased literacy "levels" in the general population links directly to economic improvements is repudiated by literacy researchers (Graff, 1987, p.378; Heath, 1986, p. 16). The Good Citizen also entails a literacy as social work metaphor (Appendix N "JSocial work" discourse appeared in many of the articles. Expressions such as "cause", 110 "support", "field workers", "needs", "charity", "safety-net programs", "survival", "assistance" and so forth evince a social service system. The illiterate is seen as "needy"; the "social worker", or one who works for social causes, is seen as the person who rescues him or her by providing assistance. It is a dependent relationship in which the reliant individual is framed by his or her needs through someone else. First, these lexical choices reveal a particular ideology of authoritative or parental supervision needed for social control (Van Dijk, 1988, as quoted in Kitis & Milapides, 1997, p.567). Ideology has to do with positioning subjects. Who is positioned as subject in a media text becomes what is important for the reader to remember (Fairclough,1989). Newspaper articles place the "social worker" in the subject position, having control and agency. The "illiterate" or Good Citizen is passive and accepting of the provisions being made. But he or she is without agency. Secondly, through this language of need comes a portrait of disparity- one powerful, the other powerless; one assessing need, the other needy which naturalizes "ways of organizing particular types of interaction" (Fairclough, 1995, p. 14). In this case, the "illiterate" will understand what is expected of him or her when interactions between individuals take place. Thus, the "illiterate" will become familiar with the order of social work discourse and will behave accordingly. Good Citizen and Financial Success Stereotype And Economic Cost Linked to the economy, citizens are obligated to become literate. There are significant and enduring claims that connect "functional illiteracy" to economic costs for Canadians (Table 15). One example is sustained over many years: I l l Table 15 Illiteracy and Economic Cost Text Examples of Illiteracy Linked to Economic Cost in Articles 1990-1999 Date Article # Tvne Text Examples 1 09/09/93 35 economic cost " literacy's strong connection to economic status" 2 06/11/98 128 economic harm " illiteracy hurts economy" 3 06/05/95 111 economic harm " accidents and mistakes happen..." 5 17/04/93 160 economic harm " construction sites are dangerous places but even more so with inadequate language and literacy skills" 6 23/06/92 144 economic harm " low quality of French in the workplace is hurting the province's economy" 7 17/10/91 251 economic harm "damage is being caused or opportunities are being missed" 8 02/08/91 274 economic harm " too dangerous signing things you can't read" 9 12/11/90 169 economic harm " illiteracy hurts our business" 11 24/10/90 150 economic harm " illiteracy hurts 70 per cent" 12 13/05/99 284 economic loss " functional illiteracy costs Canada $4-billion each year" 13 26/09/98 127 economic loss " not just a national cost, it's also a human tragedy" 14 28/09/96 105 economic loss " 5 cents a stamp seems like a small price to pay" 16 17/09/96 256 economic loss "costing Canada dearly"" lost productivity could reach $4billion"" illiteracy had... slowed down work"" cost of illiteracy to society is estimated at $10 billion a year" 17 13/09/96 155 economic loss " may cost Canada dearly in jobs, economic growth, and international competitiveness" 18 06/06/96 118 economic loss " literacy problems cost employers $ 4 billion a year and the country $10 billion" 19 18/11/95 244 economic loss illiteracy as "direct cost to business of $4 billion a year..." 21 20/08/95 269 economic loss " cost Canadians an estimated $10 billion a year in lost earnings, indust rial accidents and prison expenses" 112 table 15 continued Date Article # Type Text Examples 22 04/06/95 112 23 25/04/93 46 24 17/05/90 134 25 11/12/92 59 26 06/11/92 267 27 08/02/92 142 28 24/01/92 248 29 11/12/91 13 30 22/11/91 17 31 27/11/90 258 38 19/02/98 39 19/02/98 173 80 economic loss economic loss economic loss economic loss economic loss economic loss economic loss economic loss economic loss economic loss 32 27/09/90 102 economic loss 33 10/06/90 136 economic loss 34 01/06/90 97 economic loss 35 13/01/90 89 economic loss 36 11/01/90 71 economic loss 37 09/01/90 237 economic loss economic threat economic threat " costs our economy billions of dollars per year"" businesses lose $10 billion per year" " don't realize the cost of keeping illiterate adults on unemployment" " losses can be traced to illiteracy" "cost business about $4 billion a year" " the cost in economic terms was estimated in 1988 at $4.2 billion a year in training expenses, industrial accidents and lost productivity" "the cost of inadequate literacy skills in the workplace... about $4.2 billion a year" " cost is $4 billion annually" " illiteracy costs the Canadian economy $10 billion a year..." "cost businesses $4 billion a year"" " illiteracy does not go on the plus side of the ledger when investment decisions are made" " future economic growth and viability of... country on the international global markets" " a $ 10 billion annual drain on the Canadian economy" . " illiteracy costs buiness $4 billion a year" "about $10.7 billion"" loss in society" " human costs"" economic losses" " illiteracy in the workplace costs Canadian businesses billions of dollars a year because of retraining, lost productivity and work-related accidents" " a loss of potential that our society can ill afford" " this is a recipe for economic and social disaster" " fall behind because they do not read well" "ability to read well is vital to getting a job" 113 table 15 continued Date Article # Type Text Examples 40 08/11/97 162 economic threat " need for improved literacy is critical in B.C. where employment has shifted sharply from the old resource-based economy to a knowledge-based service sector" 41 08/11/97 162 economic threat "condemn themselves to a life of marginal employment" 42 08/11/97 162 economic threat " millions... consigned to low-wage jobs or unemployment" 43 11/12/91 13 economic threat "perils of even confronting the subject"" scares investment away" 44 11/12/91 13 economic threat "perils of even confronting the subject"" scares investment away" 45 22/11/91 17 economic threat " scaring off potential investors" 46 01/06/90 97 economic threat " linked to poverty, education" 47 24/03/90 277 economic threat " illiteracy tied to poverty, immigration" 1. May 17, 1990 both The Calgary Herald (p. C6) and The Montreal Gazette (p.B7) ran the same news report stating, "Illiteracy cost business about $4 billion a year, while the burden to Canadian society was about $10 billion a year". 2. June 1,1990, The Globe and Mail issued the following: "According to a 1988 study by the Canadian Business Task Force on Literacy, the annual cost of illiteracy to society -including not only direct training costs but such effects as industrial accidents and criminal corrections- is about $10.7 billion" (p. A8). 3. December 7,1991, The Vancouver Sun (p. B8) and on December 11, 1991, The Calgary Herald (p. A5) ran similar stories that cited the 1990 Conference Board of Canada report: "Illiteracy cost businesses $4 billion a year in lost productivity. The Globe and Mail stated on January 24,1992, "Illiteracy costs the Canadian economy $10 billion a year" (p. A6). 4. The Calgary Herald again reported the same figure from the same study in an article published February 8,1992 (p. Gl). 5. September 17,1992, The Globe and Mail published a column titled, "Illiteracy has a high price" in which the writer observed "the cost of illiteracy to society is estimated at $10-billion a year. The price-tag [sic] to business in lost productivity could reach $4-billion a year" (p. B6). 114 6. The Vancouver Sun published another report on November 6, 1992 which observed: " The cost of inadequate workplace literacy skills amounts to about $4.2 billion a year in lost productivity, direct training costs and industrial accidents" (p. A9). 7. December 11, 1992, The Montreal Gazette stated, "The cost in economic terms was estimated in 1988 at $4.2 billion a year in training expenses, industrial accidents and lost productivity" (p. B3). 8. June 4, 1995, recounted in a Calgary Herald news report, a corporate executive wanted the business community to know "literacy is an economic issue... There is ample evidence illiteracy in Canada costs our economy billions of dollars a year and sentences people to a lifetime of unfortunate struggle" (pp. F l - F2). After these words, the article reported the cost of $10 billion "through lost production, health and safety problems, low self-esteem and lack of initiative among workers" (p. F2). 9. The Calgary Herald reported the same $4 billion cost figure in an article on November 18,1995, p. B5. 10. June 6, 1996, The Calgary Herald (p. A10) and The Winnipeg Free Press (p:B12) ran the same news piece, "literacy problems cost employers $4 billion a year and the country $10 billion", which referred to the 1988 business task force report. 11. The Calgary Herald ran a report on September 26,1998, declaring "literacy problems cost Canadian employers $4 billion per year and the country $10 billion, according to the Business Task on Literacy [sic]", (p. J4) 12. The Globe and Mail published another news piece that stated, "Functional illiteracy costs Canada $4-billion each year in reduced productivity " (May 13,1999, p. A6). Thus, eleven years after the initial workplace report, nine years after the first news report was issued on the results, and for the decade of the 1990s, functional illiteracy has been explicitly linked to economic loss by Canadian employers, tax-payers, and newspapers. A second important representation is as economic threat, couched in terms of blame. Example 6 in Table 15 points out people with low literacy skills "fall behind because they do not read well" and example 8 claims they "condemn themselves to a life 115 of marginal employment". The text examples construct a picture of the society's greatest economic need as one based on the changing demands of literacy. The third significant aspect is workplace literacy (Table 15). It is being touted as the remedy to functional illiteracy's drain on employers' dollars. The ideological shift from individuals to cultural capital is clear - "economic criteria now form the basis of adult illiteracy policy in the United States. Illiteracy is framed as a problem of workplaces, not of people and communities... 'Workplace literacy' has superseded 'adult literacy' " (Lewis, 1997, p.412). The agenda of neo-liberalism (Bourdieu, 1998; Gustavsson, 1997; Lankshear, 1998) with its talk of looming globalization can be interpreted in text examples as "a knowledge-based service sector", "lost productivity", "the cost of keeping adults on unemployment", "international competitiveness", "investment potential", "international global markets", and "illiteracy tied to poverty and immigration". All of these suggest the burden the "illiterate underclass" has become. However, a strong connection between socioeconomic shifts and literacy is doubtful. (Bowen, 1999; Brodkey, 1991; Heath, 1986; Resnick andResnick, 1988).But two possible motivations for the linkage are ideologically driven. First, the surge of interest in workplace literacy is "the solution to the 'bottom half problem in the labor force" (Lewis, 1997, p. 405). Secondly, the media has a role in impressing on readers and audiences the inevitability of globalization and neo-liberalism. This "symbolic inculcation" happens over time through a particular discourse, "a kind of symbolic drip-feed to which the press and television news contribute very strongly" (Bourdieu, 1998, p.29-30). Workplace literacy has been "drip-fed" to readers over several years, so they come to accept its significance. 116 Finally, the functionalist conception of literacy is based on the premise that literacy training and employment are directly linked. Many individuals did not reach their full employment potential because they were simply not "literate enough". Thus, literacy training is said to increase chances of employment. Somehow after completion, individuals will be able to find work. Literacy is "generally related to higher income and expanded social opportunities, citizens often assume literacy is, in itself, responsible for these advantages. This tendency to attribute enormous power to literacy and, as a result, minimize the effect of other factors is widespread" (Bowen, 1999, p. 319). However, "merely teaching men to read and write does not work miracles if there are not enough jobs for men able to work; teaching more men to read and write will not create them" (Freire, 1998b, p. 483). Although literacy can provide benefits, it cannot create work for the newly literate nor furnish equality in society. Nonetheless, newspaper articles persist in making connections between literacy and economic issues. Summary A master discourse of stereotype, stigma, and myth is created in the conception of "illiterate". The stereotypes of illiterate as child, prisoner, the Other, Heroic Victim, and the future Good Citizen linger throughout the decade of the 1990s, and illiteracy is linked to economic cost. These views of the adult illiterate are reproduced over and over again, the biases reinforced, and the conceptions reinstated. 117 CHAPTER SEVEN CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction This chapter is organized into four sections: a summary of the study, a summary of findings, implications, and recommendations. It also affirms the five research questions of the study have been answered. The Study This qualitative study employed a conceptual approach and an emergent design, using discourse analysis with metaphor as a hermeneutic. The text examples of eight Canadian newspapers of the 1990s depicted conceptions of adult literacy through metaphors. Interpretations and explanations emerged by clustering, analyzing, and constructing metaphors of literacy, using theories from conceptual and discourse analysis, literacy studies, and critical linguistics. The research questions were answered by the results showing: 1. the distribution of literacy articles 2. which metaphors endured over the ten years 3. high frequency metaphors 4. literacy according to metaphorical representations of person, place, or thing (with twelve abstract metaphors and two concrete) 5. the "illiterate" depicted by five stereotypes. 118 Findings Article Distribution The article distribution over the 1990s showed Southam newspapers [Holinger Inc.] published 61.6 per cent; therefore, it was a sponsor of literacy over the decade. The two Thomson papers published 20 per cent of the articles. Statistics Canada studies and other independent surveys appeared to be the impetus for publication of literacy articles. For example, the 1990 and 1995 sample contained 47.2 per cent of the articles while 3.16 per cent were published in 1994 when there were no major reports. From 1990-1999, literacy as a study and national issue seemed to move from personal needs, to workplace, and then to the family. The lifeworlds of people at work, home, and in the community became sites of literacy study. Funding and Economics Funding issues were mostly downplayed, despite dwindling funds available to adult literacy education. However, announcements from the federal or provincial governments having to do with new funding for programs or training centres were highlighted. Statistical reports shaped how literacy was reported in the newspapers. Issues of the economy, global competition, and employment became connected to the discussion wherein illiteracy was often cited as a contributing factor in Canada's weakening economy and job picture. 119 Metaphor The findings showed literacy to be a person through personifications of text, a place, and a thing with twelve abstract and two concrete metaphors (Figure 3). With at least 40 occurrences each, the abstract literacy as a thing metaphors were high frequency - they were literacy as science, condition, battle/competition, spatial entity, and medical entity. High frequency metaphors endured over the 1990s (Appendix O). Some, like literacy as science (measurement), were naturalized into language and framed thoughts and actions toward it. These enduring and naturalized metaphors sustained particular perspectives of what literacy is, who the illiterate is, and what it is like to be illiterate in the modern world. They became " metaphors we live by" (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). A predominating metaphor, literacy as science, placed literacy outside of the control of the individual, removed agency, and made the subject (the person) of literacy into the object or measure of science. At the same time, knowledge about literacy gained through science was seen as the only genuine knowledge - authoritative and certain. The individual in unequal power relationships was cast in a deficit position. Literacy as battle / competition represented the worker recruited into fighting for workplace literacy, making business and industry more globally competitive. Literacy was also constructed as an entity, a thing with spatial existence - something measurable, possessed, or attained like a commodity. Metaphors encoded ideology. The medical metaphor lingered over the decade. The discourse of medicine was adopted into education so diagnosis, treatment protocols, and prognosis formed elements in the conception. Roles were assigned in the orders of medical discourse, and power 120 relationships clearly emerged. The learner was the patient while the teacher, social worker, and educational experts were the "specialists" who diagnosed learning problems and prescribed treatments. The high frequency concrete metaphors were literacy as commodity / product, and illiteracy as barrier. Literacy as commodity and product intertwined with literacy as ad campaign. These metaphors employed the discourse of advertising to sell literacy and to vilify illiteracy. Literacy was often depicted as a personal possession. An individual, in this scenario, was viewed as being solely responsible for acquiring the commodity called literacy and was fully at fault for failing to acquire it. Illiteracy as barrier was seen through its representations of different senses of what could constitute a barrier: obstacles (undefined), stigmas, riddles, mysteries, problems, or puzzles. Personification of literacy [as text] depicted it as outside the person. Conceptual frameworks placed persons as human capital whereby education became an investment, thus revealing an ideology of corporatism and neo-liberalism. Literacy as place was situated in various sites. First, a regionalism was emphasized: literacy was a national attribute, measurable on a national scale and in competition with other nations' literacy scales. It was also depicted through a Canadian regionalism in which Atlantic Canada and Quebec were described as being inferior to western provinces like Alberta and British Columbia. Other "regionalisms" such as employment/unemployment, competitive/non-competitive, urban/rural areas were portrayed through metaphors. Superiority and inferiority were attributed to the individuals captured by these frames and stereotypical thinking was invoked. 121 Illiteracy was drawn as a lost world, terrifying, cold and marginalizing. It was depicted as a place of shadows and darkness. Literacy's world, in contrast, was represented as a natural, pleasant place where warmth and happiness abounded. Illiteracy was described by its metaphors as a nightmare world, a place of suffering. On the other hand, literacy was a sanctuary, a club wherein the literate felt solidarity with others. The "divide" or "gap" was the metaphorical intersection where the literate and illiterate were seen standing on either side of an imagined chasm, unable to communicate with one another or understand one another's point of view. Acquiring literacy, in these metaphorical representations, changed one's world from dark to light, from suffering to joy, and from distress to happiness. Literacy was said to "open up new worlds". Five stereotypes of the adult illiterate emerged in personal testimony articles -20.4 per cent of the sample. The illiterate is the child, the prisoner, the Other, the Heroic Victim (Quigley, 1997), and the Good Citizen. Complexity, multiple literacies, and sociocultural variations are pushed aside in favour of simple, monolithic views of people and their experiences. Certain metaphorical expressions such as "fallen through the cracks" are used to explain the null space of the illiterate world and at the same time, to furnish an explanation of some sort. Although such metaphors are vague and largely nonsensical, they are used repeatedly in the text of the articles. Three themes, "community", "economy", and "globalization", recurred, starting with community from 1990-1996, shifting to economic issues and to globalization from 1995-1999. These economic themes were also connected at the personal, local, and national levels. In other words, illiteracy bore costs to the person (financial and emotional), to the local community, and to the nation itself. Literacy furnished success 122 and fulfilment, while illiteracy removed opportunity and "full participation" in society, a phrase often used, but not defined. Implications Few of the newspaper articles took into account sociocultural contexts or considered multiple literacies, connections to ideology, orders of discourse, or any other ideas which might have opened up the view. Such omissions can be damaging i f public policy is being set by powerful and authoritative metaphors that might be outdated and inappropriate. The discursive practices, seen here as metaphorical representation, served to alienate literacy from its social context and from its role as social exchange. High-frequency metaphors occurring within the sample disclose adult literacy continued to be seen through the lens of science (and measurement), as a war (with its attendant "associated commonplaces"), a spatial entity, a barrier, a medical model, and an economic cost. This dominant positivist paradigm may have constrained practices, styles of teaching, and educational discussions of literacy. Moreover, i f "what is covered in the media affects what the public thinks about" (Ghanem, 1997, as quoted in McCombs, Shaw, and Weaver, 1997, p.3), then the public may not be thinking about adult literacy very much at all. Two hundred and eighty-four articles were published over ten years - a mean of 28.4 articles per year or approximately two articles per month. The metaphors the newspapers presented over the decade may have constrained and constricted public views to such an extent the topic became lackluster. Literacy studies and educational practices may have suffered as a consequence. 123 A confounding array of metaphors was used to describe adult literacy and "the illiterate". The metaphors presented here conflicted, contradicted, or undermined each other. Economic cost and literacy are linked repeatedly, despite a specious connection. Such an association may be counter-productive since "illiteracy will get its full due as a priority only when it is disentangled from economics" (Lewis ,1997, p.415). Newspapers were regularly motivated to publish literacy articles that coincided with Statistics Canada releases. Statistical reports and surveys dominated the content of the newspaper articles about literacy, thereby reinforcing the suggestion it was a measurable entity. Newspaper reports, a "mediated text" (Fairclough, 1989,1995), framed conceptions according to surveys. Controversy was constructed around competition between and among regions in which more than literacy was at issue.Moreover, newspapers did not express concern with how their articles affect the feelings of people living in communities cited as "low level" literacy groups or people cited as "low literate", "functionally illiterate". "illiterate", or "functionally literate". Fagan (1996) studied literacy within a small, tightly-knit fishing community on the coast of Newfoundland and found: Media reports have considerable impact on the people's self-concept and on their satisfaction with and quality of life. In terms of self-concept, the use of the results of literacy surveys were [sic] most damning. Constantly they heard or saw that almost 50 percent of them (the citizens of the province) were illiterate. They saw posters with slogans such as 'illiteracy is not a sin, but it sure is hell!' They had difficulty reconciling this image from the media/publicity with the positive self-image and comfortable way of life they had established, (p. 9) Literacy constructed by newspaper metaphors may accustom adults to thinking about it in terms of workplace, employment or promotional prospects, and community 124 practices, including participation and citizenship, to the exclusion of alternate conceptions. The result may be similar to Freire's description of literacy as domestication instead of as an integral component of people's experiences, lifeworlds, and expression. An often stated "basic principle of adult education is to lead adult learners in the direction of becoming independent and self-directed" (Malicky & Norman, 1995, p. 82). However, in the newspaper texts the five stereotypes functioning as representations of the adult "illiterate" overrode this directive. There were no counter-stereotypes provided. Further, many of the sociocultural conceptions of literacy as discussed in Chapter 2 were also absent. This absence implies stereotypical depictions may serve undisclosed purposes. Adult illiterates living comfortably in their own worlds was not a possibility provided by the metaphors nor the stereotypes. There were no suggestions like "there are ways of knowing other than print. There are many kinds of 'literacies', and hence many worlds in which people can find comfort" (Lewis, 1997, p.389). Not recognizing the variety of literacies is a form of appropriation-" an act of dispossession 'through which one may relinquish a prior self and deepen one's understanding of oneself and others by virtue of the meaning inscribed in the text'" (Ricoeur as quoted in Kitis &Milapides, 1997, p.584). The experience of adult illiterates in most personal testimony articles was devalued and described negatively. This was a persistent view despite the idea "adults derive their self-identity from their experience... Adults are what they have done" (Knowles, 1980, p. 50). Personal knowledge was disdained. 125 Literacy remained a confused conception. Definitions were wide-ranging, depending on perceived purposes. Ideologies were often camouflaged by the rhetoric of "good works". If distinctions are obscured, adult literacy educators and policy-makers may not give emphasis to the implications of choosing a conception clearly. Literacy, narrowly defined by scientism, placed the poorest individuals in society in a lifelong deficit position. Terms such as "functional illiterate" may have become naturalized into the discourse of literacy and may have been systemically disadvantaging those who, ironically, should be advantaged by it (Horsman, 1990). The commodification of literacy, promoted through the discourse of advertising and the hegemony of the market economy, may have robbed individuals of alternate conceptions. Wilson (1986) notes "literacy is a transcendental, transcultural, time-free source of richness and pleasure: a cast human heritage, not a skill to be exploited" (p.31). Some metaphors are "authoritative" and can be seen as regulating vision (Voth, 1998, p. 130). The dominating metaphors may be the high frequency, enduring ones and may be regulating vision in ways not noticed. Knowing which metaphors carry authority, adult educators may be prepared to challenge governing views in practices and teaching. Recommendations Methods in this study may be generalizable. The blended approach using metaphor, discourse analysis, and critical linguistics may serve to interpret constructions and representations underpinning the language of important issues in adult education. Comparative research investigating the conceptions presented by adult literacy theorists, and those framed by the language of everyday use in the newspapers, is important and should continue to be encouraged and supported. 126 Therefore, the recommendations are as follows: Newspapers should research how they construct conceptions such as adult literacy for their readers and should publish significant findings. Discourse and conceptual analysis should be more widely used by adult education researchers. Research stemming from discourse and conceptual analysis should be reviewed by adult educators when they are discussing educational program planning or curricular and policy decisions. Adult literacy theorists and practitioners should continue to expand their knowledge of conceptions of literacy by using investigative processes including qualitative research that moves beyond functionalist views. Adult educators should examine significant educational conceptions and their representations in the media and compare these to the conceptions discussed in academic literature. The representations of adult literacy and the illiterate in this study should be compared with the views of adult literacy practitioners and their students. 127 REFERENCES Ashton, E. (1997). Extending the scope of metaphor: An examination of definitions old and new and their significance for education. 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American Behavioral Scientist. 40 (2), 177-186. 145 APPENDIX A NEWSPAPER ARTICLE INVENTORY Inventory of All Newspaper Articles In Sample 1990-1999 # Newspaper Date Section Page Title 1 Montreal Gazette 23/09/90 B 7 ifyoucan'read,canyoiirunacountry? 2 Montreal Gazette 12/11/90 A 3 makethingseasierforilliteratescom muicatorsurged 3 Montreal Gazette 10/04/97 C 2 victimsofviolencemayfaceilliterac y 4 Montreal Gazette 03/12/90 A 13 indiancityofernakulamwinsbattlea gainstilliteracy 5 Montreal Gazette 12/04/90 D 7 brokenarmisn'tstopping65yearold' seducation 6 Montreal Gazette 06/12/90 C 8 gzowskigettingreadytoteeoffinaid ofhisfavoritecause 7 Montreal Gazette 15/06/90 A 3 learningtoreadrevealsanewworld 8 Montreal Gazette 25/12/93 A 2 byteachingthemtoread,tutorturnsp eople'sli 9 Montrea Gazette 06/02/95 A 10 illiteratenewfoundlanderscracking thebooks 10 Montreal Gazette 25/06/91 A 1 illiterateworkersposebigproblem 11 Calgary Herald 03/12/98 E 3 men'shealth:literacylinkedtoprosta tecancer 12 Montreal Gazette 12/03/91 E 6 radioquebecwillusetvtofightilliter acy 13 Montreal Gazette 05/01/91 B 1 onethirdofcanadianscan'tdraftlette r:survey 14 Calgary Herald 17/07/97 A 2 grantkeepsaliveliteracyprogramfo rdisabled 15 Montreal Gazette 08/09/91 B 2 'progectlove'helpsliteracyprogram s 16 Montreal Gazette 01/11/91 B 1 mostilliteratesnoteventryingtolear n,studyfinds 17 Montreal Gazette 30/04/92 A 2 councilpredictsmillionmoreillitert esin'90s 18 Montreal Gazette 11/07/92 B 6 weeneedanuwaytospeloldconventi onshinderliteracy,ed 19 Montreal Gazette 08/09/92 A 5 growingupilliterateinthepoint'drea mer'waskickedout 20 Montreal Gazette 08/09/92 A 1 imiversitysmdentsfailmgwritingte sts 146 appendix A continued # Newspaper Date Section Page Title 21 Montreal Gazette 11/12/92 B 3 watchingthemagicofliteracycome alive 22 Montreal Gazette 27/01/93 A 1 studylinksiliteracywithhungerpan gs,poor,crowdedhom 23 Montreal Gazette 25/09/93 B 6 nowonderwehaveilliteracyprinted messageoftenobscure 24 Montreal Gazette 04/06/94 C 12 urbanwanderers'readingshelporo moteliteracy 25 Montreal Gazette 04/09/94 A 3 we'lldoubleliteracygrantstogroups :ministerliberale 26 Montreal Gazette 03/01/96 B 1 literacyonwheelsdonkey-drawncarthelpsspurinteresti 27 Montreal Gazette 30/01/93 B 5 poor.largelyilliteratetowngetsalibr ary 28 Montreal Gazette 31/03/93 B 2 parentsandtheartofreading 29 Calgary Herald 11/02/97 B 1 viscountbennetthangsinbalance 30 Montreal Gazette 08/05/95 E 1 leamingtousewords 31 Montreal Gazette 16/02/90 A 3 newdawsondollegecentreserves24 literacyprograms 32 Montreal Gazette 12/01/90 B 5 learaingabs'slikebustingoutofj ail 33 Montreal Gazette 11/01/90 A 6 newlyliteratemontrealerspraisehel pers 34 Montreal Gazette 09/09/95 A 17 newbrunswickwinsawardforlitera cy 35 Montreal Gazette 08/09/96 C 4 learningtoreadisbigstep 36 Montreal Gazette 09/09/96 A 3 coalitiondernandsactiontofightillit eracy 37 Montreal Gazette 17/09/96 B 3 countingonilliteracy 38 Toronto Star 04/01/90 D 17 forbabiesborninnorthyork 39 Vancouver Sun 14/03/92 A 14 survival as mine jobs dry up 40 Toronto Star 28/01/90 B 1 Illiteracyoftenroadblockbetter-payingjob 41 Chronicle Herald 19/01/94 B 1 literacytestsgetdowntobasics 147 appendix A continued # Newspaper Date Section Page Title 42 Vancouver Sun 06/01/90 C 19 declarewaronilliteracy.provincial groupurges 43 Vancouver Sun 13/01/90 A 17 schooldropouttacklesilliteracy 44 Vancouver Sun 31/05/90 A 19 onein3 canadiansfoundtohavereadi ngproblem 45 Vancouver Sun 14/07/90 D 22 makingcanadiansrealizeliteracyre alb/matters 46 Vancouver Sun 18/09/90 A 5 literacydaymarkscentre'sclosing 47 Vancouver Sun 20/10/90 H 10 literacyprogramscalledpoliticalpr ocess 48 Vancouver Sun 16/10/91 D 1 illiteracystudyshowsmilldilenima: newsurvey56 49 Vancouver Sun 17/10/91 D 1 economythreatenedbylowliteracy; newleaders 50 Vancouver Sun 07/12/91 B 8 atlanticcanada'sfrustratingbattle 51 Chronicle Herald 23/10/90 B 5 literacy ,numeracysaidmoreimport ant 52 Chronicle Herald 10/09/90 A 7 mythsaboutliteracyandilliteracy 53 Montreal Gazette 15/06/98 A 5 nevertoolatetograduate:longafterl eavingschool 54 Chronicle Herald 22/11/91 A 1 illiteracydetersinvestorsacoa 55 Chronicle Herald 13/04/92 A 3 adultreadingprogrambeginsinyar mouth 56 Globe and Mail 11/01/99 A 2 iteracynotamatteroflanguage 57 Globe and Mail 20/05/90 E 6 declineinreadingathreattocivilized culture 58 Globe and Mail 30/05/90 A 17 backtobasics?itwouldhelpifalotm orepeoplecared 59 Globe and Mail 24/07/95 A 9 ahealthyinterestinreading 60 Globe and Mail 04/09/95 A 7 equippedtomakeherownway 61 Globe and Mail 07/12/95 A 14 weakliteracyskillsimperilprosperit y 62 Globe and Mail 13/12/95 A 17 frenchofficialstakeaxetounflaterri ngreport 148 appendix A continued # Newspaper Date Section Page Title 63 Globe and Mail 27/07/96 D 6 there'ssomethingrottenwithstateof ourliteracy 64 Globe and Mail 10/03/97 A 2 takingaliteraryplungeforagoodcau se 65 Globe and Mail 05/01/98 A 13 abertaliteracyprogramannounced 66 Globe and Mail 16/02/98 A 7 adultlitercygets$500,000 67 Globe and Mail 09/11/98 C 12 frontiercollegestillastandout 68 Montreal Gazette 05/06/96 A 1 whyliteracydoesn'tgetintoeconom y 69 Toronto Star 10/09/99 A 1 obituariesstanheathchampionedlit eracy 70 Montreal Gazette 21/02/96 A 1 literacyskillscanpredictalzheimer' s,studysays 71 Montreal Gazette 12/09/93 B 2 reinventingamerica?illiteracymig htbethebiggerproblem, 72 Montreal Gazette 09/09/93 A 11 nearlyhalfofamericansarebarelylit erate: study 73 Montreal Gazette 09/09/93 A 3 hidinghandicap:illiterateadultscan fooleveryonebuttheirk 74 Montreal Gazette 28/08/93 I 12 aliterarylionroarstodefenceofreadi ng 75 Montreal Gazette 16/10/90 B 1 barbarabushurgeswaronilliteracy 76 Calgary Herald 23/07/90 A 3 maybenotbeingabletoreadisn'tsob adaftera 77 Calgary Herald 07/12/90 F 1 abcanadaharnesseswildfireoflitera cyactivity 78 Toronto Star 12/02/95 M 11 spreadingtheword;twoyoungmetro menarehelpingtobattl 79 Vancouver Sun 25/09/99 A 1 thewordisoutonthestreetforeclecti cvancouverfestivalifift 80 Calgary Herald 23/12/91 B 1 literacylevelsposingproblem 81 Calgary Herald 08/02/92 G 1 waronilliteracynowmoreopen 82 Winnipeg Free Press 25/04/92 A 3 mphaditbackwardsxanadaanation ofreaders,statisticssho 83 Calgary Herald 23/06/92 B 9 educatorsvoicealarmatquebecillite racygrowth 84 Tor. Star 26/09/92 K 10 thewordonthestreet 149 appendix A continued # Newspaper Date Section Page Title 85 Toronto Star 26/11/90 B 1 literacy:movingontothenextchapte r 86 Toronto Star 08/09/90 M 10 achataboutliteracy 87 Calgary Herald 13/09/96 A 12 childrenaremoreliteratethanmany oftheirelders 88 Ottawa Citizen 06/06/96 D 8 literacysurvey: onethirdofworkerss truggletoread: studytiel 89 Toronto Star 24/10/90 E 1 illiteracyhurts70 per cent offirms 90 Toronto Star 09/05/92 G 7 petergzowskiandpalshitthegreensf orliteracy 91 Toronto Star 01/08/92 A 1 literacytestsurgedatuoft 92 Ottawa Citizen 07/09/96 C 5 moreandmorementuratoliteracypr ograms 93 Toronto Star 18/09/93 F 1 usliteratsareloosinggrammerwarz 94 Ottawa Citizen 13/09/96 A 10 literacycrucial :thefederalfinanced epartmentstillhasn'tgra 95 Montreal Gazette 14/09/96 A 3 cutdropoutratetoraiseliteracy:advo cate 96 Toronto Star 09/08/93 A 1 givejobapplicantsliteracytests,bos sestold 97 Montreal Gazette 13/09/96 A 9 quebecersfinishlastinliteracy 98 Montreal Gazette 29/10/96 B 3 it'swrongtosaythattaxingbookstax esliteracy 99 Montreal Gazette 31/10/96 E 2 jump-startingliteracy 100 Montreal Gazette 07/12/95 A 23 literacysurveyshowsmanycanadia nsill-preparedforthe 101 Toronto Star 19/02/98 D 4 literacymostfundamentalskill 102 Montreal Gazette 08/09/97 A 1 illiteracynottackled,groupssay 104 Montreal Gazette 20/01/98 B 4 girlsbattleilliteracy 105 Montreal Gazette 21/03/98 A 5 quebectospend'millions'onlibrarie s 106 Montreal Gazette 23/05/98 B 6 internetcaptivatesreluctantreaders 150 appendix A continued # Newspaper Date Section Page Title 107 Montreal Gazette 09/05/98 A 5 firstoftheirclass 108 Montreal Gazette 20/08/98 A 7 toomany'dumb'j obs 109 Globe and Mail 05/01/90 A 12 cityj oinsunactiononilliteracy 110 Globe and Mail 13/01/90 A 12 grantsofferedtobusinessesforempl oyeeliteracytraini 111 Globe and Mail 09/02/90 A 12 illiteracyhardertoovercomeinrural areas 112 Globe and Mail 14/12/90 C 17 lovingwords 113 Globe and Mail 17/12/90 A 15 prisonerspinhopesofanimprovedli feonconquestofillit 114 Ottawa Citizen 23/04/95 A 9 literacycrusader'svie w: showho wre adingenhanceswhatev 115 Globe and Mail 18/05/90 A 8 pioneerofadulteducationpromoted literacyforpoor 116 Globe and Mail 18/05/90 A 8 spellingoutproblemswithliteracy 117 Globe and Mail 24/05/90 C 6 helernedtoreadat30,wroteabookat 35 118 Globe and Mail 01/06/90 A 8 million'atrisk'ofilliteracy,studysay s 119 Globe and Mail 23/06/90 C 7 stampingoutilliteracy 120 Globe and Mail 10/09/90 A 7 business,charitiesjoininadcampaig nagainstilliterac 121 Globe and Mail 21/09/90 C 4 plummerbacksliteracycampaign 122 Globe and Mail 24/10/90 B 5 illiteracyanissuefor70 per cent offirms 123 Globe and Mail 27/09/90 B 6 awordyinvestment 124 Calgary Herald 27/01/93 A 3 poverty spawns'maj orproblem' 126 Toronto Star 28/09/96 K 2 missingpuzzlepieceonstampwillhe lpsolveliteracyproble 127 Calgary Herald 02/10/93 B 2 gzowskileavinglegacy 128 Ottawa Citizen 07/12/95 A 7 toomuchtverodesliteracy,statistics canadastudyfmds;couc 151 appendix A continued # Newspaper Date Section Page Title 129 Calgary Herald 10/07/94 B 2 readingisfallingpreytoinstantsocie ty 130 Calgary Herald 08/09/94 D 6 syncrudehonoredfortacklingilliter acy 131 Calgary Herald 17/12/94 B 1 finalchapter 132 Calgary Herald 06/05/95 B 14 readthis-somepeoplecan't 133 Calgary Herald 04/05/95 F 1 learningcentreappealsforfunds 134 Calgary Herald 22/06/95 A 18 greyreadsriotactonfour-letter'literacy' 135 Globe and Mail 24/10/90 B 5 staffquestionnairerevealedextento filliteracy 136 Calgary Herald 08/09/95 B 3 needhelpreading?callfree,newhotl ine 137 Calgary Herald 07/12/95 A 4 readingproblemsplaguecanada,rep ortreveals 138 Calgary Herald 17/05/96 B 5 illiteracyisshamefulsecretformany 139 Calgary Herald 06/06/96 A 10 weakliteracyskillsboostchancesofl ayoff 140 Calgary Herald 28/08/96 A 13 clintonunveilsliteracyprogram 141 Calgary Herald 13/09/96 A 1 halfofadultcanadianshavetroubler eading 142 Calgary Herald 13/09/96 A 12 1. 6millionseniorcitizensstrugglew ithreading 143 Calgary Herald 05/05/97 B 3 literacyskillsboostearningpower 144 Calgary Herald 06/05/97 B 3 illiteracycalledrisktonation'sprogr ess 145 Calgary Herald 13/10/97 B 5 wicksbringshisreadingmessagetoc algary 146 Vancouver Sun 15/11/97 A 19 surveyshowsu. s. workerslackmath andcomprehensionskill 148 Calgary Herald 26/09/98 J 4 literacybecomessenatorfairbairn's cause 149 Calgary Herald 06/11/98 B 6 illiteracyhurtseconomy:mla 150 Montreal 19/10/98 B 3 readingisenrichinginmorewaystha Gazette none 152 appendix A continued # Newspaper Date Section Page Title 151 Montreal Gazette 27/01/99 E 6 dirtyliterarysecret 152 Calgary Herald 04/04/90 B 3 literacyy earpartofl Oyearunproj ect 153 Calgary Herald 11/12/90 A 15 nativestudiesplanned 154 Calgary Herald 29/12/90 C 7 wordonliteracypromisint 155 Calgary Herald 17/05/90 C 6 onemillioncanadianslackj oblitera cyskills 156 Calgary Herald 26/05/90 E 6 writerslaudofliteracy 157 Calgary Herald 10/05/90 B 32 illiterateunderclasslooms,confere ncetold 158 Ottawa Citizen 14/09/96 B 6 therealfaceofliteracystatistics 159 Ottawa Citizen 11/12/96 C 6 programhelpsdisabledjoinworldof literacy 160 Toronto Star 17/04/93 E 1 breakingbarriers 161 Ottawa Citizen 21/09/96 B 7 throwingsomecandlelightonthepro blemofseniorsandtheir 162 Vancouver Sun 08/11/97 A 6 Millions of Canadians face low-wage, sporadic work 163 Toronto Star 08/09/90 M 3 littleprogressincampaignforliterac y 164 Winnipeg Free Press 08/01/92 A 6 misunderstanding 165 Winnipeg Free Press 17/11/91 A 6 readingandwriting 166 Winnipeg Free Press 15/11/91 A 6 theliteracymuddle 167 Winnipeg Free Press 01/11/91 A 4 illiteratesrefusetoadmitscopeofpro blem,studysays 168 Winnipeg Free Press 03/05/91 A 35 illiteracygetsreadinginnewplay 170 Toronto Star 23/03/99 A 18 foreignaiddebtrobsmillionsofaned ucation 171 Ottawa Citizen 09/12/97 A 5 gzowskiwearshiswineonhissleevei ncelebrationofliteracy 172 Ottawa 07/05/97 A 13 makingliteracypayforemployers Citizen 153 appendix A continued # Newspaper Date Section Page Title 173 Ottawa Citizen 19/02/98 B 4 networkskeytotacklingliteracypro blemsxutsinfundsfora 174 Toronto Star 07/12/95 A 11 canadaat'minimum'inliteracystudy 175 Montreal Gazette 13/09/99 B 2 literacyisnofrill 176 Toronto Star 16/08/95 D 1 literacyfestivalcanada-wide 177 Toronto Star 07/12/95 A 42 canuckliteracylevelsalarming 178 Montreal Gazette 12/01/97 D 8 mphaditbackwards: canadaanation ofreaders,statistics 179 Winnipeg Free Press 03/05/92 A 6 thefactsonreading 180 Montreal Gazette 09/11/98 A 9 illiteratevoterslobbyforbreakatball obox 181 Calgary Herald 27/09/99 A 12 it'sunderstandingwhatyoureadthat' simportant 182 Toronto Star 24/07/95 A 13 attempttoreachilliteratepeopleano ngoingchallenge 183 Toronto Star 09/05/95 A 6 boardpansbookonliteracy 184 Toronto Star 06/10/94 C 1 beatingthemeanstreets 185 Ottawa Citizen 08/09/95 B 3 computerageraisesstakesinliteracy battle 186 Montreal Gazette 31/01/99 A 8 betterjobwithliteracyneeded 187 Ottawa Citizen 17/09/99 F 3 crasadersforliteracy:groups,indivi dualshonouredfordedic 188 Toronto Star 06/12/98 A 86 55,000tobetestedonreading, writin g 189 Ottawa Citizen 06/09/97 C 1 canadaputsteenstotestonlanguage 190 Ottawa Citizen 10/12/97 B 8 son'toffernewsacrificestosleeping godsofliteracy 192 Ottawa Citizen 21/09/98 B 3 transpodrivesforliteracyroctranspo winsliteracyawardforh 193 Montreal Gazette 09/12/98 B 1 povertydoomsabillion: unicef 194 Toronto 17/01/90 M 1 icanread 154 appendix A continued # Newspaper Date Section Page Title 195 Toronto Star 07/05/90 A 5 beingilleratewas'nightmare,'saysm anoncelabelledasr 196 Toronto Star 26/05/90 M 24 literacy.atoolforliving 197 Toronto Star 07/09/90 A 29 canada'sshamefulreportcardonlite racy 198 Winnipeg Free Press 09/06/96 B 5 modestparabledetailsrisefromabus e,neglect 199 Ottawa Citizen 08/09/97 D 4 here't localliterac heroesbillconrod,ofOttawa, has won a 200 Winnipeg Free Press 07/12/95 B 2 literacystudytargetstheenemyit'sth etv 201 Winnipeg Free Press 11/08/95 B 1 literacycentreinperil 202 Winnipeg Free Press 30/12/94 A 2 tutoringunlocksdoors 203 Calgary Herald 14/06/99 C 1 ceosucceedsdespiteilliteracy 204 Ottawa Citizen 22/09/99 C 3 froundationhonoursstalwartwarrio rsinbattleforliteracy 205 Winnipeg Free Press 08/09/93 D 5 achievingreadingskillimproveslife ,career 206 Montreal Gazette 24/07/99 D 17 23 per cent illiterateonemeraldisle 207 Winnipeg Free Press 08/09/92 brightnewworld 208 Calgary Herald 03/07/99 W 8 morecompaniesteachworkersbasi cskills 209 Chronicle Herald 04/09/90 A 7 canadanotyetaliteratesociety 210 Chronicle Herald 14/06/90 A 3 literacywoes[;agie,oc,acsmatove;e ader 211 Chronicle Herald 10/05/90 B 5 newresourcesmayhelpbridgenativ eliteracygap 212 Chronicle Herald 10/05/90 B 4 authorfearsgst'seffectonliteracy 214 Chronicle Herald 23/04/90 C 5 pilotprojectsuccessful 216 Chronicle Herald 09/11/91 A 8 surveyofliteracyneedsannounced 217 Chronicle Herald 30/01/90 C 1 longroadtoliteracy 155 appendix A continued # Newspaper Date Section Page Title 218 Ottawa Citizen 22/12/95 C 3 renfrewvolunteersgothedistancein award-literacyprogram 219 Calgary Herald 09/09/98 B 5 truckerfindsbooksuplifting 220 Montreal Gazette 17/09/98 A 6 literacygroupfightsforsurvival: ex-hasmerit,needssupport 221 Ottawa Citizen 13/12/95 A 10 literacyleadeship 222 Chronicle Herald 22/09/95 B 3 atalossforwords 223 Montreal Gazette 23/01/97 F 4 alearningdisc.computertoolisdesig nedforadultliteracy 224 Chronicle Herald 07/10/95 A 15 literacynotsupremeingrantgame 225 Chronicle Herald 07/12/95 A 15 highcanadianliteracyscoresnotwh olestory 226 Chronicle Herald 24/10/96 C 3 ottawadrops'literacy'tax 227 Chronicle Herald 29/01/94 A 4 provincepledges$2milliontocomb atadultilliteracy 228 Calgary Herald 09/09/97 B 5 literacypraisedastoolforlife 229 Calgary Herald 11/05/95 B 3 workerstaughttoread 230 Vancouver Sun 15/01/97 A 2 tutor'sgiftofliteracyopensnewworl d 231 Chronicle Herald 13/12/93 A 3 provincialliteracycoalitionforms 232 Vancouver Sun 01/04/97 B 4 volunteertutorstakingoverastruste escutoffliteracyfunding 233 Vancouver Sun 06/11/97 A 3 victoriamustleadthefightagainstill iteracy,ramseysays 234 Ottawa Citizen 07/12/97 A 14 literacylackingleadership;canada's problemisthatnooneisi 235 Calgary Herald 19/12/95 B 1 volunteertutorshelptobattleillitera cy 237 Toronto Star 09/01/90 D 4 citytohelpfightadultilliteracy 238 Vancouver Sun 06/09/99 B 1 deltaprogramleadsinliteracy 239 Vancouver 16/01/97 A 15 tobeliterate,understandyourasiant Sun emperatures 156 appendix A continued # Newspaper Date Section Page Title 240 Montreal Gazette 03/05/95 F 3 cwkbookraisesfundsforliteracy 241 Vancouver Sun 13/12/96 A 3 westerners'moreliterate'thaneaster ners 242 Globe and Mail 23/03/93 B 22 numbercrunchwhatworkersarelear ning 243 Globe and Mail 26/01/93 A 2 indealingwithilliteracy,takepovert yintoaccound 244 Calgary Herald 18/11/95 B 5 ministerbooststechnologyinliterac ybattle 245 Toronto Star 08/12/95 B 2 programshelpteachadultsjoyofrea dingtomorrowisinterna 246 Globe and Mail 05/11/92 B 4 illiteracyimpedesgrowth 247 Globe and Mail 05/06/92 C 8 tearinguptheturfForagoodcause 248 Globe and Mail 24/01/92 A 16 andrewnikiforuklooksatasmallne wsletterpushingforbigc 249 Globe and Mail 19/12/91 A 9 ontarioaidsprogramforworkerliter acy 250 Globe and Mail 28/09/99 C 4 spreadingtheword 251 Globe and Mail 17/10/91 A 1 workplacestudygiveslowmarksfor reading, writing 252 Globe and Mail 18/05/91 C 6 bringontheworldofbooks 253 Globe and Mail 08/02/91 A 12 brianfawcettthinkstownhousedesi gndi scouragesliteracy 254 Globe and Mail 11/05/91 C 5 illiteracycampaignhostscableconf erence 255 Globe and Mail 15/12/90 D 5 onliteracy 256 Globe and Mail 17/09/92 B 6 illiteracy has a high price 257 Globe and Mail 24/09/92 A 30 familyliteracyprogramsencourage parentsandchildren 258 Globe and Mail 27/11/90 A 5 illiteracymisreadbypublic 259 Vancouver Sun 07/12/95 B 114 readingdifficultfor4outofl Ocanadi anadults 260 Vancouver 07/12/95 B 14 'turnofTtv,hauloutbooks'isliteratea Sun dvice 157 appendix A continued # Newspaper Date Section Page Title 261 Vancouver Sun 03/03/95 A 20 seej aneread,seedickread, watchthe mrakeinthebucks 262 Calgary Herald 15/01/96 B 1 learningtoreadopensnewdoorsfors eniors 263 Vancouver Sun 09/09/93 A 11 americansscorelowinpracticalliter acytest 264 Vancouver Sun 21/08/93 D 15 u. s. literacyandlibrariessufferunder deficitreduction 265 Vancouver Sun 23/06/93 B 5 vancouverlibrarianwinsliteracyaw ard 266 Vancouver Sun 24/12/96 C 8 illiteracybarrierrisesincomputeriz edworld 267 Vancouver Sun 06/11/92 A 9 contributorsrecognizedinnewprog ram 268 Vancouver Sun 03/10/92 B 7 literacycrusadercomesbacktowrite 269 Vancouver Sun 20/08/92 C 5 streetkidscan'treadtosavethemselv es 270 Vancouver Sun 20/08/92 C 1 twocbc-radiotitansjoinforcestohelpthosew hocan'tread 271 Calgary Herald 03/06/95 G 1 easymethodsimprovereading 272 Vancouver Sun 14/03/92 A 14 betterlatethannever.adultsarelearn ingtheirabcs 273 Vancouver Sun 26/09/91 C 1 cbc'sgzowskilinkshisnamewithdri veforliteracy 274 Vancouver Sun 02/08/91 B 4 worksiteliteracyprogramcatchesot tawa'seye 275 Montreal Gazette 17/10/97 F 3 educationretoolingneeded:think-tank 276 Toronto Star 24/07/98 E 4 no title 277 Montreal Gazette 24/03/90 A 3 illiteracytiedtopoverty,immigratio n,studyconcludes 278 Montreal Gazette 16/02/90 A 3 readingandwritingskillsdisclosean ewworldtothenewlylit 279 Montreal Gazette 20/01/98 B 4 illiteracygoesbeyondsex 280 Montreal Gazette 18/04/96 A 3 cuttingclasses:studentsdecrymcsc plantoaxeadult-281 Vancouver Sun 24/04/98 A 16 quebec:churchdiscouragedreading ,ministersays 158 appendix A continued # Newspaper Date Section Page Title 282 Montreal Gazette 30/09/99 A 4 illiteracyisnowalkinthepark 283 Vancouver Sun 06/09/99 B 1 deltaprogramleadsinliteracy 284 Globe and Mail 13/05/99 A 6 literacyconferenceseeksmorestude ntsandfunding 159 APPENDIX B TYPES OF METAPHOR Inventory Of 113 Metaphor Types Identified From Article Sample Code Metaphor Type m 1 literacy as battle /military /war /illiteracy as enemy m2 literacy as sport m3 literacy as commodity m4 literacy as science / scientism m5 literacy as self-discovery / transformation / emancipation / new vision m6 literacy as medical metaphor ml literacy as construction site m8 literacy as crisis / disaster m9 literacy as charity m 10 literacy as partnership m i l literacy as j ourney ml2 literacy as spatial entity m 13 literacy as picture / photography ml4 illiteracy as beast / as evil m 15 literacy as light /energy ml6 illiteracy as suffering / disgrace / humiliation / shame / dependence ml7 literacy/reading as organic entity m 18 literacy as story ml9 literacy as control / power / individualism m20 literacy as religion / religious crusade m21 illiteracy/literacy as a blow m22 literacy as fate / destiny m23 illiteracy/literacy as cost/as economics/as economic loss/economic harm m24 illiteracy/literacy as measurable entity m25 illiteracy/literacy as speed m26 illiteracy as threat / menace / trouble / fire / bad report card m27 literacy as a state of grace m2 8 literacy as j ustice m29 literacy/education as access / gateway m30 literacy/illiteracy as condition / attribute / needy m31 literacy as competition / contest / race m32 literacy as regional / geographical m33 literacy as aesthetic m34 literacy as trend m35 literacy as electric current / shock / process m36 literacy as chain / connection m37 literacy as virtue m38 literacy as foundation m39 literacy as decoration m40 literacy as harbinger 160 appendix B continued Code Metaphor Tvpe m41 literacy as possession m42 literacy as physical fitness m43 literacy as ship m44 literacy as ad campaign m45 literacy as legacy / covenant m46 illiterate as defenseless victim / helpless m47 illiteracy as cloth m48 illiteracy as mystery / puzzle / riddle / math problem m49 illiteracy as illness/ disease / sickness m50 literacy as citizenship m51 literacy as survival / rescue / salvation (not religious) m52 literacy as immunization m53 illiteracy as disability m54 illiteracy as secret / fear m55 illiteracy as obstacle / barrier m56 illiterate as capitalist m57 illiteracy as challenge / contest m58 illiteracy as confinement / imprisonment / stagnation / trap m59 literacy as wish / dream / hope / desire m60 literacy as elitism / club / class m61 illiteracy as social cause /as fashion / as trend m62 literacy as magic m63 illiterate as pariah / as misfit / as stereotype m64 illiteracy as visible entity m65 illiteracy as criminal state m66 literacy as catch / as fish m67 literacy as contentment / fulfillment / joy / celebration / fun and m68 literacy as opportunity / chance m69 literacy as game/ performance / theatre m70 illiteracy as isolation / as separation / as division /gap m71 illiteracy as state of being asleep / as nightmare m72 literacy as human right m73 illiteracy as misfortune m74 literacy as question m75 literacy as birth m76 literacy as victory / achievement / success / as "ticket" to society/currency m77 literacy as exorcism m78 illiteracy as hunger / appetite m79 illiteracy as incompetence m80 illiteracy/literacy as commonsense m81 literacy as trifle / as absurdity m82 illiteracy as resistance 161 appendix B continued Code Metaphor Type m83 illiteracy as deficit / lack / deficiency m84 literacy as food / as drink / as nutrition / as candy m85 illiterates as derelicts m86 illiteracy as confusion m87 literacy as tool m88 illiteracy as stigma / as mark m89 literacy as creation (people are made literate) m90 literacy as wealth; illiteracy as poverty m91 literacy as investment m92 literacy as battery / as motor m93 literacy as lure m94 literacy as structure / system / as broadcasting m95 literacy as quest m96 literacy as accounting / as balancing books (could merge with m23) m97 literacy as pattern / as design / as arrangement m98 illiteracy as deceit / as fakery m99 literacy as addiction mlOO illiteracy as rupture mlOl illiteracy as burden / as weight ml02 illiteracy as erosion ml03 literacy as culture ml04 literacy as gift ml05 literacy as correctness / as good grammar / as standard English ml06 literacy as book promotion ml07 illiterate as courageous / brave ml08 literacy as everything ml09 illiterate as lost traveler mllO literacy as sexed m i l l literacy as endeavour mll2 illiteracy as blindness mll3 literacy as social work 162 APPENDIX C P L A C E METAPHORS Text Examples Of Place Metaphor Type From Article Sample # Date Article # Place Place Words 1 19/04/95 235 comer " finds himself in a corner because of the way the world has changed" 2 17/04/93 160 dangerous " construction sites are dangerous place places..but even more so with inadequate language and literacy skills" 3 15/06/96 16 dark place a " sort of like in a shadow" lost world 4 14/07/90 8 dark place lost " darkness and ignominy of illiteracy" world 5 11/01/99 19 divide " a large part of the gap, then, reflects only the weight of history" 6 26/05/90 135 divide " the divide between the literate and the illiterate has never been wider" 7 11/07/92 56 divide " an educational impasse" 8 01/06/90 97 divide "drew a line between those who can read and write and those who cannot" 9 26/05/90 135 divide "the divide between the literate and the illiterate has never been wider" 10 08/09/97 199 divide " built another bridge across the literacy gap" 11 10/05/90 211 divide "bridge native literacy gap" 12 24/03/90 277 divide "the gap... is narrrowing" 13 11/01/99 19 divide "As you work your way down the age scale... literacy gap narrows" 14 26/01/93 243 divide "the gulf between rich and poor" 15 16/10/93 191 found world "opens up a new world of..." 16 08/09/90 147 found world " the world of print is closed to them" 17 11/12/96 159 found world " helps disabled join world of literacy" 18 24/07/95 182 found world " free world of literacy" 19 09/11/98 30 found world "unable to access to the[sic]world of words" 20 03/04/90 42 found world " people struggling to join the literate world" 21 15/06/90 45 found world "reveals a new world" 22 25/06/91 48 found world "increasingly technological world" 23 08/09/92 57 found world " reading has opened up a new world for him" 24 14/04/90 91 found world "opening the world to his imagination" 25 08/09/92 207 found world "bright new world" 163 appendix C continued # Date Article # Place Place Words 26 22/09/95 222 found world " wonderful world of words" 27 29/06/94 227 found world "opened up a whole new world to them" 28 15/01/97 230 found world "opens new world" 29 18/05/91 252 found world "help unlock the.,. world of books" 30 16/02/90 278 found world " a new world to the..." 31 04/04/90 131 global "960 million adults...are illiterate" [ most in Third World] 32 03/10/92 268 inner cities " 40 per cent of Downtown Eastside residents are considered functionally illiterate" 33 20/08/95 269 inner cities " literacy is intimately tied to the situation of street kids" 34 11/12/92 59 inner space " until I filled up that space, my life wasn't complete" 35 03/05/91 168 lost world " like being in a strange land" 36 24/07/95 182 lost world " emerge from their world of agonizing inability" 37 12/01/97 178 lost world "much of the world seems cold and alienating" 38 05/11/92 246 lost world "beyond the reach of the rest of the world" 39 30/09/99 282 lost world " I wouldn't want to see a child going through life like that-hiding in a closet" 40 08/09/96 73 lost world " before, it was a nightmare" 41 07/05/90 195 lost world " a living nightmare" 42 14/03/92 272 lost world " if you don't read and write, you're lost" 43 17/02/90 194 lost world a "come out of the fog into a warm found world place" "strangers to words and stories" 44 07/12/95 24 national "France... participated in the survey withdrew its results.." 45 03/12/95 25 national " literacy skills in France are far worse than those in several other countries" "France censored the results which is tantamount to refusing to acknowledge the truth" 46 07/12/95 70 national " why Sweden is so far ahead of the others..." [six more examples] 47 07/11/97 125 national "Canada ranks near the top" 164 appendix C continued # Date Article # Place Place Words 48 17/09/94 110 national "five million Canadians cannot read or use numbers well enough" [fifteen examples like this one] 49 24/07/99 206 national " high rate [of illiteracy] in Ireland" 50 09/09/93 263 national " nearly half of U.S. 191-million citizens are not proficient enough in English..." [ three more examples of this] 51 20/10/90 10 natural world " in the field"" over the same ground" "ranging" 52 08/09/92 58 natural world "those who work in the field" 53 01/11/91 167 natural world "in the field of literacy" 54 09/11/91 216 natural world "regional field workers" 56 25/04/93 46 null space a " slip through the cracks and go lost world undetected as an illiterate" 57 08/05/95 68 null space, a " has fallen through the cracks at lost world school..." 58 04/06/95 112 null space, a " people who might otherwise fall lost world through the cracks" 59 17/05/96 117 null space, a "they fell through the cracks" lost world 60 17/02/90 215 null space, a "have slipped through the cracks of the lost world country's educational system" 61 22/09/95 222 null space, a "fell through the cracks" lost world 62 09/01/90 237 null space, a "fell through the cracks" lost world 63 15/12/90 255 null space, a "some... fall through the cracks" lost world 64 08/09/95 115 place nearby "just a phone call away" 65 16/10/90 38 prison " to help free them [convicts] from the prisons inside their heads" 66 14/04/90 91 prison "like being... chained in prison" 67 14/04/90 91 prison " like being... chained in prison" 68 22/11/91 17 regional " Atlantic Canada has higher illiteracy rates.." 69 21/09/96 161 regional literacy mostly urban because rural isolation" bookstores.rarity" "libraries... mostly in big cities" 70 13/09/96 241 regional "westerners [Canadian] are more literate than easterners [Canadian]" 165 appendix C continued # Date Article # Place Place Words 71 24/03/90 277 regional by census and grade level a "map"' of Montreal island residents' literacy was drawn 72 06/02/95 47 regional " Newfoundland's illiteracy rates, considered the worst in Canada" 73 17/09/96 75 regional " Quebec has one of the highest [rates of functional illiteracy] in the country" 74 13/09/96 76 regional " Quebecers finish last in literacy" 75 13/01/90 89 regional "one in four Ontario adults is functionally illiterate" 76 28/08/96 119 regional "blue-collar factory town" 77 13/09/96 120 regional "western provinces... scoring higher" 78 17/05/90 134 regional "285,000 functionally illiterate workers in Western Canada" 79 14/09/96 156 regional "Quebec scored lowest" [ five more examples of this] 80 09/11/91 216 regional "about 38 per cent of Nova Scotians have literacy needs of some sort" [three more examples of this] 81 09/09/98 219 regional "one in three adult Albertans have [sic] trouble reading..." [ three more examples of this] 82 06/11/97 233 regional " 40 per cent of the adult workforce in B.C. has a hard time with the everyday demands of reading, writing and using numbers" [three more B.C. examples] 83 07/09/90 197 river "functional illiteracy blocks them from climbing back up into the mainstream" [ four more examples of this] 84 10/04/97 41 sanctuary " a safe learning environment" 85 08/05/95 68 sanctuary " to provide a safe place for women..." 86 09/06/96 198 sanctuary " to find refuge in literacy as she has done" 166 APPENDIX D LITERACY AS COMMODITY/PRODUCT Text Examples Of Commodity/Product Metaphor Type From Article Sample # Date Article # Commodity Product Commodity /Product Words 1 10/04/97 190 commodity " Gzowski Invitational Golf Tournament for Literacy" "corporate business support" 2 11/02/97 67 commodity " a high-quality provider of upgrading programs" 3 15/01/97 230 commodity " tutor's gift of literacy opens new world" 4 11/12/96 159 commodity " education kits"" provide training" 5 07/09/96 153 commodity " they have nothing to peddle in today's market" 6 08/09/95 115 commodity " just a phone call away" 7 22/06/95 113 commodity "the kit was developed" 8 26/09/92 145 commodity " sales" "will feature"" offer membership"" educational products"" promoting"" a new line of books" brochures" "advertising" "bargains" "selection" 9 08/02/92 142 commodity " a kit to assist..." 10 18/05/91 252 commodity " launching a literacy product"" sponsored hv " 11 24/10/90 101 commodity oy... "skills shortage"" a precise head count" 12 23/10/90 14 commodity "market"" tied up to free trade agreement" " access to markets" 13 16/10/90 38 commodity " promoter of literacy projects" "to make cons literate" 14 08/09/90 163 commodity "the gift of literacy" 15 23/04/90 214 commodity " once the project is completed, the school can buy the computers at a cut rate and.." 16 17/04/90 92 commodity " limited literacy" 17 17/02/90 194 commodity " Give the Gift of Literacy Foundation" 18 05/01/90 88 commodity " illiteracy is a loss of potential our society can ill afford" 19 04/01/90 1 commodity "literacy kits" 20 06/11/98 128 possession " possess reading skills that limit their ability" 21 14/09/96 158 possession "literacy: use it or lose it" 22 13/09/96 148 possession " they're going to lose these skills..." 23 13/09/96 155 possession " literacy skills continue to be lost or gained" 24 01/06/96 149 possession " possess marginal reading skills" 25 07/12/95 200 possession " use it or lose it..." 26 07/12/95 24 possession "possible to lose literacy" 167 appendix D continued # Date Article # Commodity Product Commodity /Product Words 27 14/04/90 91 possession "literacy can be lost" 28 12/06/99 213 product "literacy is the cement in the building blocks of all kinds of progress" 29 09/11/98 30 product " minimum threshold" 30 19/10/98 129 product " some people get their literacy outside of school" 31 08/09/97 199 product " solid reading and writing skills" 32 14/09/96 156 product "the key to..." 33 13/09/96 148 product "access to schooling is the key to better literacy skills" 34 22/09/95 222 product " literacy... an important key to unlocking the imagination" 35 20/05/95 20 product " shoring up the civilized ramparts against the slide to barbarism" 36 30/12/94 202 product "sharpening the key [sic] that springs the gate to her future" 37 10/07/94 108 product "paints a black picture of literacy" 38 08/02/92 142 product " if the foundation, the infamous thee Rs has crumbled..." 39 10/09/90 99 product " literacy... so multifaceted" 40 07/09/90 138 product "building block that underpins the economy" 168 APPENDIX E LITERACY AS SCIENCE METAPHOR Text Examples Of Science Metaphor Type From Article Sample # Date Article# Science 1 09/09/97 228 instrument 2 08/09/96 73 instrument 3 02/08/91 274 instrument 4 26/05/90 196 instrument 5 30/09/99 282 measurable Science Word 13/09/99 24/07/99 175 206 8 13/05/99 284 23/03/99 170 10 27/01/99 130 11 09/12/98 193 12 09/11/98 180 13 06/11/98 128 14 09/09/98 219 entity measurable entity measurable entity measurable entity measurable entity measurable entity measurable entity measurable entity measurable entity measurable entity "tool for life" "literacy has become a tool for me " treacherous tools that can trap" " a valuable tool for personal problem-solving" " nearly 3 million Canadians live like this every day" [like a foreigner in your own country] " one million illiterate Quebecers" " 23 per cent of the adult population.." "21 per cent in the U.S." "44 per cent of nation's illiterates between 40-65" refers to Ireland] " as few as two per cent of the 4.5 million Canadians who have problems in reading and writing..." " almost 1 billion people-primarily female-are functionally illiterate" " half the population has some difficulty reading" "one billion people... will enter the 21st century...unable to read..write..to master other skills" " one in five Quebecers are functionally illiterate" " about one-third still have extreme difficulties" " one in three adult Albertans has trouble reading well enough"" one in seven is at the lowest literacy level" 169 appendix E continued # Date Article# Science Science Word 15 20/08/98 87 measurable entity " more than 2.5 million workers have literacy skills that exceed their job demands" 16 19/02/98 173 measurable entity " nearly half of all Canadians have trouble reading" 17 19/02/98 80 measurable entity "16 Cdns. inlOO are unable to read..." 18 16/01/97 239 measurable entity " three out of five..."" one in six" 19 13/09/96 148 measurable entity " survey of 5,660 Canadians"" one in five... serious difficulty"" more than half... over 65 tested in lowest category" 20 13/09/96 120 measurable entity " one in five Canadians..."" almost half... had difficulty" 21 28/08/96 119 measurable entity " national reading scores lagging" 22 17/05/96 117 measurable entity " estimated 480,000 Albertans who are functionally illiterate" 23 07/12/95 225 measurable entity " four out of every 10 adults tested could not read well enough . . ."" scores" "levels" 24 07/12/95 116 measurable entity " roughly four out of every ten adults tested could not read well enough to process basic information" 25 07/12/95 24 measurable entity "survey measured three types of literacy" 26 07/12/95 174 measurable entity " four in 10 Canadian adults can't deal with..."" suitable mimmum" 27 07/12/95 259 measurable entity " one in three Canadians . . ."" four out of 10 Canadian adults have trouble reading"" about five million Canadian adults" 28 07/12/95 200 measurable entity " 4 of every 10 Canadian adults..." 29 18/11/95 244 measurable entity " one out of every five adults..." 30 30/12/94 202 measurable entity " one in three ... considered functionally illiterate" [says Corrections Canada] 170 appendix E continued # Date Articled Science Science Word 31 02/10/93 106 measurable entity " more than five million Canadian cannot read or write or do so with difficulty" 32 09/09/93 263 measurable entity " the usual gauge of illiteracy" "scores were so low" 33 30/01/93 65 measurable entity " illiteracy and undereducation are disproportionally high" 34 06/11/92 267 measurable entity " almost seven million Canadians require some literacy training" "... two million can't read" 35 08/02/92 142 measurable entity "five million Canadian adults are functionally illiterate" 36 12/03/91 50 measurable entity "a quarter of Canadians are functionally illiterate" "grim statistics" 37 15/12/90 255 measurable entity " one in 14 Canadian adults can't read" 38 26/11/90 146 measurable entity "5 million adult Canadians whose... can't participate fully" "2.9 million can't read" 39 27/09/90 102 measurable entity " cost to business of illiteracy has been quantified"" one in four adult Cdns is functionally illiterate" [ based on 1986 Southam Literacy Study] 40 08/09/90 163 measurable entity " five million adult Canadians were illiterates" 41 08/09/90 147 measurable entity " number one type" " in the number two sense of the word" "number three" 42 07/09/90 197 measurable entity " one in five [adult] Canadians cannot read this sentence" 43 01/06/90 97 measurable entity " 4 million at risk" 44 26/05/90 135 measurable entity " 5 million functionally illiterate Canadians" 45 24/05/90 96 measurable entity "4 million or so adult illiterates in Canada" 46 17/05/90 134 measurable entity " at least a million Canadians do not have the basic literacy skills they need" 171 appendix E continued # Date Article# Science Science Word 47 14/04/90 91 48 04/04/90 131 49 24/03/90 277 50 17/02/90 194 51 16/02/90 278 52 16/02/90 69 53 12/01/90 70 54 05/01/90 88 55 09/09/96 74 56 09/09/93 35 57 08/11/97 162 measurable entity measurable entity measurable entity measurable entity measurable entity measurable entity measurable entity measurable entity measurable entity rate measurable entity measured position percentage measurable entity percentage " almost one billion adults.."" one in five Cdn. adults are said to be functionally illiterate" " 960 million adults are illiterate" " literate person... has nine years of schooling" " one in five adult Canadians ... functionally illiterate" "estimated 2 million Canadian adults"" by the year 2000 one billion people won't be able to read or write" " the illiteracy rate among francophones is three times as high" " UNESCO estimated that nearly one billion adults -almost a fifth of the world's pop. are illiterate"" one in four adults... functionally illiterate" " "250,000 people in Metro Toronto are illiterate" " high rate of illiteracy" "800 million illiterate people in developing countries and 220 million in industrialized countries" " no comparable historical data on adult literacy"" five levels"" 21-23 percent of America's 191 million adults"" 25 to 28 per cent have trouble with tasks.." "bottom category" "least literate classification" " 7 million Canadians about 40 per cent... don't have the skills to function effectively at work or at home" [OECD survey ]" a man with high literacy skills can expect to earn $1.7 million (pre-tax income) over a working life, compared with $1.1 million for" 172 appendix E continued # Date Article# Science Science Word 59 08/09/97 81 60 61 13/09/96 07/12/95 62 20/08/95 63 27/01/93 121 234 269 60 64 65 14/03/92 01/11/91 272 54 66 01/11/91 167 67 17/10/91 251 measurable " nearly 1.3 million the number of entity people who experience great percentage difficulty in reading and writing"" national rate 18-25 per cent" " gone from 19 per cent in 1989 to 21.1 per cent... 28 per cent" measurable "1.6 million senior citizens who entity can barely function" "53 per percentage cent... over 62 are in the lowest functioning category" measurable " one in four Canadian adults entity wasn't able to handle..."" only 62 percentage per cent of Canadians are fully literate" measurable " one in three in B.C."" 10 per entity cent of the people ... can't read" percentage measurable " one in four..cannot read well entity enough to cope" "interviewed 105 percentage poor and functionally illiterate"" less than 2 per cent who need i t . " measurable " 650,000 B.Cns. who are entity functionally illiterate"" 56 per percentage cent of sawmill workers... are functionally illiterate" measurable " more than a million... fewer than entity one in 10" "24 per cent did not percentage have the math"" surveys have revealed even higher levels of literacy"" 5 million Canadians"" only9 percent " measurable " only six of 10 adult Canadians entity read well enough in 1989 to meet percentage day-to-day needs"" 94 per cent said... could read enough to meet..." measurable " more than half the employees in entity B.C. sawmills cannot read well percentage enough"" 56 per cent ..." 173 appendix E continued # Date Article# Science 68 17/02/90 215 measurable entity percentage 70 13/01/90 89 measurable 71 08/09/91 53 entity percentage measurable 72 03/12/98 49 entity rate measured 73 05/01/98 28 position measured 74 75 22/09/99 03/07/99 204 208 position percentage percentage 76 19/10/98 129 percentage 77 26/09/98 127 percentage 78 17/09/98 220 percentage 79 24/07/98 276 percentage 80 21/03/98 84 percentage 81 07/11/97 82 percentage 82 06/11/97 233 percentage Science Word " Four to five million Canadian adults are functionally illiterate and women account for 70 per cent ..." " one in four Ontario adults is functionally illiterate"" 83 per cent in Canada" " over 1 billion adults are still illiterate"" female literacy rates" "lowest literacy levels" " reading level will be assessed..." " 40 per cent of Canadians" "36 per cent of applicants lack the reading and math skills they need to do the job" "10 per cent increase in literacy as measured by scores on a standard test" " 40 per cent of adults have varying degrees of difficulty with reading" " province has the second highest number of..."" only 2 per cent"... " 22 per cent of Canadian consumers have very low reading..." "19 per cent of Quebecers age 16 to 69 have weak or insufficient reading abilities" " 40 per cent don't have the literacy skills needed to function effectively" " 40 per cent of the adult workforce in B.C. has a hard time with the everyday demands of reading, writing and using numbers"" 48 per cent of Cdns. don't have reading needed in the modern workplace" 174 appendix E continued # Date Article# Science Science Word 84 13/10/97 124 percentage "an estimated 24 to 25 per cent of Canadians" 85 01/04/97 232 percentage " about 40 per cent..." 86 15/01/97 230 percentage " astounding percentage of adults in our society who lack..." 87 24/12/96 266 percentage " 44 per cent..."" two-thirds ... on welfare hid low literacy skills" 88 28/09/96 105 percentage " 42 per cent of Canadians have some difficulty with reading" [based on 1995 Statistics Canada survey] 89 17/09/96 75 percentage "28 per cent of the Quebecers tested had trouble understanding..."" one of the highest [rate of functional illiteracy] in the country" 90 13/09/96 241 percentage " Westerners more literate than Easterners"" 22 per cent... had serious reading difficulty" "score the worst" 91 15/01/96 262 percentage " in Calgary 36 per cent of adults 55 to 69 years old have a problem reading"" in Canada...two million..." 92 03/01/96 64 percentage " World Bank figures in 1995 put the illiteracy rate in sub-Saharan Africa at 51 per cent"" sixty per cent are thought to be illiterate" 93 07/12/95 107 percentage "20 per cent of adults in some of the world's richest countries have only basic reading and writing skills" 94 07/12/95 79 percentage " 20 per cent of Cdns.." "42 per cent..." 95 22/09/95 222 percentage "39 per cent of Nova Scotians have trouble reading and 4 per cent can't read at all" 96 08/09/95 185 percentage "16 per cent . . ."" 22 per cent were very limited" 97 04/06/95 112 percentage "eight to 10 per cent has learning difficulties" "22 percent " 175 appendix E continued # Date Article# Science Science Word 98 08/05/95 68 percentage "2 per cent of the population... extreme difficulty with reading and writing" 99 17/09/94 110 percentage " 1991 study shows 30 per cent of adult..."" five million Canadians cannot read or use numbers well enough to meet the daily demands of today's society" 100 04/06/94 62 percentage " In Quebec, 28 per cent of adults are functionally illiterate"" many of them have reading skills well below grade 5" 101 29/01/94 227 percentage " 4 per cent of Nova Scotians... unable to read" 102 16/10/93 191 percentage " about 25 per cent of Nova Scotians are functionally illiterate" 103 25/09/93 61 percentage "50 percent of the U.S. population is illiterate" 104 25/04/93 46 percentage " 28 per cent of Quebecers are illiterate which the government defines as having less than a Grade 8 reading level" 105 17/04/93 160 percentage " 30 per cent..."" 4 per cent 106 23/03/93 242 percentage " 1 per cent of employees..." 107 27/01/93 103 percentage " 25 per cent of Canadians ... functionally illiterate" 108 26/01/93 243 percentage " grade levels are inadequate measurement" "28.5 per cent o Canadians functionally illiterate" 16 percent of Canadian adults.." 109 11/12/92 59 percentage "38 per cent of Canadian adults that Statistics Canada estimates..." 110 05/11/92 246 percentage "8 percent of Canadians are totally illiterate" 111 03/10/92 268 percentage "40 percent of Downtown Eastside residents are considered functionally illiterate" 112 17/09/92 256 percentage " nearly 40 per cent ... had difficulty reading and doing basic math tasks" 176 appendix E continued Date Article# Science 113 08/01/92 164 percentage 114 11/12/91 13 percentage 115 11/12/91 13 percentage 116 17/11/91 165 percentage 117 15/11/91 166 percentage 118 09/11/91 216 percentage 119 26/09/91 273 percentage 120 11/05/91 254 percentage 121 30/01/91 217 percentage 122 24/10/90 150 percentage 123 24/10/90 101 percentage 124 16/10/90 38 percentage 125 07/09/90 138 percentage 126 04/09/90 209 percentage 127 23/07/90 137 percentage 128 10/06/90 136 percentage Science Word "38 percent of adult Canadians had varying degrees of difficulty" "44 percent ...""24 percent "44 percent of Newfoundlanders"" 24 per cent of Maritimers" "22 per cent could read..." " 7 per cent could not read at all" " 40 per cent of Canadians could not read well enough" "illiteracy rate" "about 38 percent of Nova Scotians have literacy needs of some sort..." "38 per cent of Canadians have difficulty with the written word" "38 per cent of Canadians..." " 43 per cent of Noca Scotians have difficulty.." "15 per cent " 70 per cent surveyed" out of 626 companies say they have problems " slowed down the introduction of technology" "impedes training" "70 per cent of companies ... say they face illiteracy problems"" 10.7 per cent of their workforce is affected" " 75 per cent are functionally illiterate" "2.9 million or 16 per cent of Canada's adults" " no area of the country can claim to serve more than five per cent of potential adult literacy learners" "38 per cent of adult Canadians..." "38 per cent of adult Canadians have..." 177 appendix E continued # Date Article# Science Science Word 129 10/05/90 212 percentage "25 per cent of the adult population is functionally illiterate" 130 29/04/90 133 percentage "2.8 inhabitants ... or only 27 per cent can read and write"" literacy rate" 131 17/04/90 92 percentage "70 percent of the system's.."" 40 per cent below grade 6" 132 06/04/90 44 percentage " an appalling 44 per cent of the pople are functionally illiterate"" level of literacy" 133 03/04/90 42 percentage " we have 96 per cent effective literacy in our target group" 134 09/02/90 90 percentage " an estimated 24 per cent of Canadian adults" 135 11/01/90 71 percentage " about 28 per cent of Quebec's 6 million people... classified are illiterates" 24 percent ofCdns. are illiterate"" fall into one of two categories" 136 09/01/90 237 percentage " 20 per cent ... cannot read or write"" 250,000 functionally illiterate" [ in Metro Toronto alone] 137 06/05/97 123 percentage measured position " 22 per cent at level one.."" 26 per cent... at level two" "32 per cent ... at level three" "20 per cent .. at levels four and five" 138 07/12/95 260 percentage measured position "17 per cent of those who scored at the lowest literacy level." 139 23/12/91 141 percentage measured position " fewer than three per cent of adults who need help... are getting it" "30 percent of adult Calgarians"" shocked to learn they are reading at a grade 5 level" "71 per cent of adult population... acceptable level" 140 14/09/96 156 percentage scale "Quebec scored lowest" "literacy scale" "higher percentage" 178 , appendix E continued # Date Article# Science Science Word 141 08/09/92 58 percentage "44 percent failed"" apparent scientific decline in writing skills" "results discourse are assessed for both organization and style" "Sask. which has the highest literacy rate [ in W.Can]" "higher than the national average but still a good deal lower" "38 percent of adult Cdns". 142 13/09/99 175 rate " highest rate of illiteracy" 143 24/07/99 206 rate " highest illiteracy rates" 144 06/11/98 128 rate " high rates of illiteracy" 145 06/11/97 233 rate " improve adult literacy rates" 146 14/09/96 156 rate " increasing literacy"" reducing... dropout rate" 147 13/09/96 241 rate " troubling literacy rate" 148 08/09/95 185 rate " the illiteracy rate is not going to go down" 149 09/09/93 36 rate " "limited reading skills"" worst literacy rates are in..." 150 26/01/93 243 rate " illiteracy rates as the outcome" 151 05/11/92 246 rate " the functional illiteracy rate" 152 03/10/92 268 rate "the rate..." 153 11/12/91 13 rate " high illiteracy rates" 154 15/11/91 166 rate " illiteracy rate" 155 18/05/91 252 rate " to make changes in the literacy rate in Canada" 156 29/04/90 133 rate " literacy rate in India... has more than doubled" 157 13/01/90 89 rate " illiteracy rates"" increase the literacy rate" 158 06/02/95 47 rate "Newfoundland's illiteracy rates percentage considered the worst in Canada"" about40 percent " 159 06/12/98 188 rate " 80 per cent of Canadians measured over 65 had literacy position skills... lowest levels" 160 09/11/98 30 rate " thirty-five per cent of adult measured Canadians have reached level position three" "lowest level of literacy" 179 appendix E continued # Date Article# Science Science Word 161 13/09/96 76 162 26/09/91 273 163 11/01/99 19 164 20/01/98 83 165 11/12/96 159 166 27/07/96 26 167 13/12/95 25 168 07/12/95 24 169 03/03/95 261 170 19/02/94 4 171 31/05/90 7 172 26/05/90 196 173 04/01/90 1 scale percentage science/scientis m scientific discourse scientific discourse scientific discourse scientific discourse scientific discourse scientific discourse scientific discourse scientific discourse scientific discourse scientific discourse scientific discourse " on a literacy scale of 1 to 5, a higher percentage of Quebecers fell into the lowest category" "28 per cent of Quebecers" " to have people understand the complexity of what is literacy" " researchers probed" "specific test of literacy used" "analyst"" a study published by Statistics Canada"" 66 per cent surveyed..." " more likely to be detected and treated"" diagnosed..." " according to a recent Statistics Canada report..." " no objectively measured results" "raw data to explore competence of local educators" "accountability" "regular national skills testing" " criteria" "low literacy skills" "lowest of five proficiency levels" "tested" "below a suitable minimum"" comparable figure" "chief statistician" " statistics... show a quarter of American adults or 43 million people are functionally illiterate" " decipher" "benchmarks"" tabulated"" literacy ruler"" tracking international trends" "face validity"" assessment" " tests" "statistics"" charts" "surveys" "respondents" "forms" "most extensive study ever done" " achieved whole or partial healing as a direct result of reading books he prescribes" "correlates" "percentage"" stimulation" 180 appendix E continued # Date Article# Science Science Word 174 29/10/96 77 175 01/08/92 152 176 05/06/96 31 177 05/01/91 51 178 12/04/90 43 179 12/11/90 40 scientific discourse percentage scientific discourse percentage scientific discourse rates tool percentage tool measured position tool percentage " 1989 test of Literacy Skills Used in Daily Acitivities (LSUDA) and the 1995 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS)... found roughly... 16 per cent were functionally illiterate" " results would be measured"" pass a literacy test"" 50 per cent of students..." " data collected during a major international survey on literacy"" a survey of 4,500 Canadians"" high rates of literacy" " literacy survey"" Statistics Canada study on literacy" "38 per cent of Canadians"" findings underpin"" scoring"" 62 per cent who were able to write the letter" " a cross -Canada survey of literacy levels" "survey conducted"" compared with 38 per cent "" varying degrees of difficulty" APPENDIX F LITERACY AS BATTLE/COMPETITION METAPHOR Text Examples Of The Battle/Competition Metaphor Type From Article Sample # Date Article # Battle Battle Competition Words Competition 1 22/09/99 204 battle "stalwart warriors in battle for literacy" "devote themselves to the cause" "in the field"" the battle for literacy" 2 17/09/99 187 battle "they/re working in the trenches... and don't get recognition" 3 24/07/99 206 battle "to overcome illiteracy" 4 11/06/99 203 battle "triumphed over adversity" 5 13/05/99 284 battle "recruiting more students.." 6 27/01/99 130 battle "can combat illiteracy" "camouflaging illiteracy" 7 17/09/98 220 battle "fights for survival" "confronting difficulties" 8 09/09/98 219 battle "his struggle to keep it to himself 9 21/03/98 84 battle "aims to fight illiteracy" "combat illiteracy" "also blasted" "to join forces" 10 19/02/98 80 battle " agencies that recruit reading tutors" 11 20/01/98 83 battle " girls battle illiteracy" 12 07/11/97 82 battle " people struggle with the written word" 13 06/11/97 233 battle "combat., before they turn into literacy problems in adulthood" "early intervention initiatives" 14 06/11/97 233 battle "lead the fight against illiteracy" "combat illiteracy in the adult population" "combat reading problems" 15 08/09/97 199 battle "a lifelong battle to master..." "struggle academically" 16 24/12/96 266 battle " continued wrestling with the written word" 17 24/10/96 226 battle "continue the fight" "target it to those who are in the front lines of promoting literacy" "hailed as a victory" 18 13/09/96 241 battle "continue to struggle with." 19 13/09/96 155 battle "pre-emptive strike against a campaign" "combat literacy" 182 appendix F continued # Date Article # Battle Competition Battle Competition Words 20 09/09/96 74 battle "demands action to fight illiteracy"" combatting the problem"" a coalition of pro-literacy groups" 21 08/09/96 73 battle " has been battling illiteracy" 22 28/08/96 119 battle "proposed a $2.75 billion literacy campaign" "citizens army" 23 15/06/96 16 battle " a struggle" 24 17/05/96 117 battle "an army of volunteers ready" 25 15/01/96 262 battle "not alone in her struggle" 26 03/01/96 64 battle " part of a campaign to combat illiteracy" "campaign against illiteracy" 27 13/12/95 221 battle " a designated government champion for literacy" "specifically targeted literacy" 28 07/12/95 234 battle "struggling with..."" struggles" 29 18/11/95 244 battle "in literacy battle" 30 08/09/95 185 battle "in literacy battle" "literacy battle is far from being won" 31 20/05/95 20 battle " shoring up the civilized ramparts against the slide to barbarism" 32 19/04/95 235 battle "help to battle illiteracy" 33 03/03/95 261 battle "to combat illiteracy in America" 34 06/02/95 47 battle " helping attack Newfoundland's rates..." 35 30/12/94 202 battle " secured a foothold", "Frontier College is dispatching troops" "the legion of volunteers" 36 10/07/94 108 battle "to fight a rear guard action" 37 29/01/94 227 battle " to combat adult literacy " "the assault on adult literacy" "overcome their... difficulties" 38 08/09/93 205 battle "toughest struggle" "literacy alliance" "to beat illiteracy" 39 21/08/93 264 battle " amass assault on .." 40 25/04/93 46 battle " casualties of the system" 41 31/03/93 66 battle " the real battleground may not be the school alone" 42 27/01/93 103 battle "war on literacy campaign launched in 1988" 43 27/01/93 103 battle "great inroads to increasing literacy" 183 appendix F continued # Date Article # Battle Competition Battle Competition Words 44 27/01/93 60 battle "five-year war on illiteracy"" people who grew up poor began losing the literacy battle early" 45 26/01/93 243 battle "illiteracy would be vanquished" 46 06/11/92 267 battle " in the fight for literacy" "dedicated to the cause of literacy" 47 06/11/92 267 battle " the battle to wipe out illiteracy" 48 24/09/92 257 battle "recruited" "in the field" 49 20/08/92 270 battle "titans join forces" "using their might" 50 11/07/92 56 battle "proclaims illiteracy public enemy Number One" 51 14/03/92 2 battle "to tackle the town's literacy problem" 52 08/02/92 142 battle "war on illiteracy" "combat myths and stigma" 53 11/12/91 13 battle "fighting illiteracy" 54 17/10/91 12 battle "struggle to make sense" 55 16/10/91 11 battle "submit to voluntary literacy tests" "in-built resistance" 56 18/05/91 252 battle "fight for literacy"" fight to combat illiteracy" 57 11/05/91 254 battle " the campaign against illiteracy" 58 03/05/91 168 battle "overcoming their illiteracy" 59 12/03/91 50 battle "it's a war we can't afford to lose" "attack illiteracy" "a tough and protracted campaign" "to fight illiteracy" 60 30/01/91 217 battle "it's a struggle"" to master basic skills" 61 12/11/90 169 battle "fight against illiteracy" 62 12/11/90 40 battle "fighting illiteracy" 63 16/10/90 38 battle " "war on illiteracy" "to fight illiteracy among convicts" 64 22/09/90 138 battle "the literacy struggle" "battle to increase literacy" 65 08/09/90 163 battle "overcoming widespread illiteracy" "wiping out illiteracy" "fight against illiteracy" "to combat illiteracy" "little progress in campaign for literacy" 66 23/06/90 98 battle "help kick adult illiteracy" 67 10/06/90 136 battle "seriously attack the problem of illiteracy" "the campaign against illiteracy" "a task force" 184 appendix F continued # Date Article # Battle Competition Battle Competition Words 68 10/05/90 212 battle " a war has been declared on illiteracy throughout the world" 69 07/05/90 195 battle "fighting for other people who cannot read or write" 70 29/04/90 133 battle "conquering illiteracy" "recruits people" 71 17/04/90 92 battle " conquest of illiteracy" 72 14/04/90 91 battle " active fighters against illiteracy" 73 06/04/90 44 battle " anit-illiteracy battle" "began battling illiteracy"" to recruit the Morningside army... in the battle against illiteracy" 74 04/04/90 131 battle "task force on literacy"" the struggle to overcome illiteracy" 75 03/04/90 42 battle "the district collector mapped his strategy, recruited his troops" "declared war on literacy" 76 17/02/90 194 battle "struggling to master" 77 28/01/90 3 battle " struggle hard" "kicking herself "people hit..." 78 13/01/90 89 battle "to fight illiteracy in the workplace" 79 12/01/90 70 battle " passionate battler for literacy" "to fight illiteracy in Canada" "beating illiteracy" 80 09/01/90 237 battle " help fight adult illiteracy" "gain strength"" a struggle" 81 04/01/90 1 battle "medical officer" "targeted" "get into homes and observe" (surveillance) 82 22/12/95 218 battle challenge "literacy workers have to battle distance isolation" "the challenges" 83 09/02/90 90 battle challenge " struggles of learning" "the challenge of reducing that number" 84 09/04/97 171 challenge " issued a challenge" 85 13/09/96 155 challenge "height of the challenge" 86 24/07/95 182 challenge " attempt to reach illiterate people an ongoing challenge" 87 09/09/93 36 challenge " real challenge for literacy workers..." 88 01/11/91 54 challenge " to meet the literacy demands of today's society" 89 01/06/90 97 challenge "who present the newest challenge..." 90 27/09/99 181 competition " the hustle and bustle of literacy" 185 appendix F continued # Date Article # Battle Competition Battle Competition Words 91 06/09/99 238 competition " award in the literacy leadership category" 92 06/09/99 283 competition " leads in literacy"" been chosen as the ... winner" "leadership category" 93 11/01/99 19 competition " wasn't exactly a world beater.." 94 19/10/98 129 competition someone reads to keep up with someone else [ reading as competition like the writer's 5-year old as example] 95 19/02/98 80 competition fall behind" 96 07/11/97 82 competition " we're No. 1"" we are in a leading position" 97 13/09/96 76 competition " Quebecers finish last in literacy" 98 13/12/95 25 competition "the rules were..." "any country could pull out"" literacy skills in France are far worse than those in several oter countries"" elimination of..." 99 07/12/95 259 competition " compared with those of people in other industrialized countries"" Sweden at the highest level" 100 07/12/95 234 competition " getting an edge"" beating another nation in the economic sweepstakes" 101 07/12/95 79 competition " why Sweden is so far ahead of the other nations" 102 07/12/95 225 competition " Canadians scored big time in a massive international literacy test" 103 19/04/95 235 competition " shaky literacy skills have caught up with them" 104 06/02/95 47 competition " highest unemployment rates" "get their courage up" 105 29/01/94 227 competition " wouldn't allow her to keep up" 106 22/11/91 17 competition " Atlantic Canada has higher illiteracy rate than national average" "unemployment is linked to literacy rates" 107 01/11/91 167 competition " those with poor reading skills may find themselves left behind" 108 18/05/91 252 competition " frontrunner in the area of literacy" 109 04/09/90 209 competition "among the best literacy statistics collected" 110 09/01/90 237 competition "they're catching up now" 186 APPENDIX G LITERACY AS SPATIAL ENTITY METAPHOR Text Examples Of Spatial Metaphor Type From Article Sample # Date Article # Spatial Spatial Words 1 08/09/97 199 across " built another bridge across the literacy gap" 2 08/09/95 115 away "learning to read is now just a phone call away" 3 22/09/95 222 behind "right behind me" "a gap" 4 11/12/91 13 below "below the national average" "high illiteracy rates" 5 17/02/90 215 by "those bordering on illiteracy" 6 28/08/93 37 xicai deep "to have read deeply" 7 07/12/95 24 down "literacy skills were falling rapidly" 8 20/05/95 20 down "signs of the decline of serious book reading are sufficiently alarming" 9 21/08/93 264 down "declining literacy" 10 08/09/92 58 down "apparent decline in writing skills" 11 01/08/92 152 down "literacy levels are falling" "in the middle" 12 20/10/90 10 down "went over the same ground" "in the field" 13 24/07/95 182 down " labyrinth of shelves" "they can emerge up from the shadows into the free world of literacy" 14 08/02/91 253 down "declining literacy" "rise of aliteracy (sic)" 15 24/10/90 114 up extent "the extent of literacy" 16 05/05/97 122 high "high literacy skills" "higher literacy" 17 23/04/95 93 high "highly literate" 18 16/02/90 69 high "the illiteracy rate among francophones is three times as high" 19 07/12/95 260 high "highly literate"" bottom end" "low skills" low 20 07/12/95 200 high "scored high"" lower literacy levels" low level 21 22/09/99 204 high "high level of illiteracy" level 22 07/05/97 172 higher "higher literacy levels" "higher skills" 23 14/09/96 158 higher " higher than formal education would suggest" 24 20/08/95 269 higher " higher levels of literacy" 25 13/09/96 120 higher "higher" "lower" "higher literacy demands" lower "lowest level" "lower literacy skill demands" 187 appendix G continued # Date Article # Spatial Spatial Words 26 06/06/96 118 higher "marginal reading and writing abilities" lower "much higher than working people" "lower level" 27 08/09/95 185 higher "higher level" "not going to go down" down 28 24/07/99 206 highest " highest illiteracy rates" "higher than we thought" "high rate in." 29 17/09/98 220 highest " second highest.." 30 17/09/96 75 highest " one of the highest [rates] in the country" 31 07/12/95 259 highest "highest level"" high and low ends of the lowest literacy scale" 32 13/09/99 175 highest "highest rate of adult illiteracy" "raise up Quebec's literacy level" 33 09/04/97 171 in " in the literacy field" 34 15/01/97 230 in " tutor's gift of literacy opens new world" 35 09/06/96 198 in " to find refuge in literacy as she has done" 36 11/12/92 59 into "an initiation into the secret world of words" 37 23/01/97 223 level "level of literacy" 38 11/08/95 201 level " level" "down" 39 10/07/94 108 level "reaching the level of literacy" 40 17/04/93 160 level "skill level" 41 17/09/92 256 level " level of innumeracy" 42 24/10/90 150 level "the general level of literacy" 43 08/09/92 207 level "achieve a certain literacy level" "must raise up their literacy level" "bright new world" 44 06/12/98 188 level "lowest level" low 45 24/07/98 276 levels "consumers of all reading levels" 46 05/01/98 28 levels "levels of reading" 47 17/10/97 275 levels "literacy levels" 48 22/12/95 218 levels " reading levels" 49 13/04/92 18 levels "different reading levels" 50 08/01/92 164 levels "skill levels" 51 23/12/91 141 levels "literacy levels pose problems" 52 15/11/91 166 levels "four levels of reading skill" 53 01/11/91 167 levels "higher level of literacy" 54 30/01/91 217 levels " literacy levels improve" 55 01/06/90 97 levels "four levels of literacy skills" 56 26/05/90 196 levels "three levels of literacy" 57 10/05/90 211 levels " affects them at different levels" 58 14/04/90 91 levels "three levels of literacy" 188 appendix G continued # Date Article # Spatial Spatial Words 59 29/10/96 77 levels "the levels of literacy in general were in a down kind of'freefair " "literacy skills at the low end" 60 01/11/91 54 levels "even higher levels of literacy" "highest highest reading levels" "math skills were lowest" 61 09/11/98 30 levels "lowest level of literacy" lowest 62 08/11/97 162 levels "higher levels of literacy are needed now1 higher 63 13/09/96 241 levels "grouped into five general levels" "higher high low levels" "low literacy levels" "lower skill levels" 64 07/12/95 177 levels "literacy levels" "high end or low end" "top low high three literacy levels" "second tier" "higher literacy levels" 65 17/05/96 117 low "low literacy skills" 66 07/12/95 234 low " skills so low" 67 07/12/95 107 low "lower literacy" 68 18/11/95 244 low "low basic skills" 69 26/01/93 243 low "low literacy skills" 70 24/04/92 143 low "illiteracy low" 71 09/01/90 237 low "low reading skills" 72 07/11/97 82 low "lower literacy levels" "low literacy skills" high "midrange to high literacy skills" 73 24/10/90 101 low "low literacy" "higher levels" high 74 16/01/97 239 low "at the other end"" slightly lower literacy levels skills" 75 06/05/97 123 low "low literacy rate"" at levels..." levels 76 07/12/95 174 low "top three " "fell into" "bottom two skill high levels" "marginal" "top of the scale" 77 09/09/93 263 low high "scores were so low" "level increased" levels "higher literacy skills" 78 13/09/96 155 lower " literacy demands are lower" 79 06/11/97 233 lowest "at lowest end" 80 13/09/96 121 lowest "lowest functioning category" 81 06/06/96 149 lowest "literacy tends to be lowest" "lower than avergage" 82 09/05/92 151 lowest "from the bottom up by local literacy organizers" 83 09/09/98 219 lowest "at the lowest literacy level" levels 189 appendix G continued # Date Article # Spatial Spatial Words 84 06/11/98 128 lowest "at the lowest literacy level" levels 85 14/09/96 156 lowest "scored lowest" "literacy levels" levels 86 13/09/96 148 lowest "second lowest functioning of the five levels levels" 87 07/12/95 79 middle "ranked in the middle of the group" "highest high low two literacy rates" " bottom two of five levels" 88 03/01/96 64 on " literacy on wheels" 89 17/02/90 194 out " "come out of the fog into a warm place" 90 12/03/91 50 up sides "the dimensions of the problem" 91 03/10/92 268 through " nobody can know how horrible it is unless they went through it" 92 08/09/92 57 through "reading has opened up a new world for in him" 93 16/10/91 11 through "simply opening the doors for consultants to in come in to do the story" 94 13/12/95 25 up "generally literacy in France continues to n'cp" 95 17/10/95 224 up riac "upgrade literacy training" 96 02/10/93 106 up " raising the profile" 97 23/06/93 266 up "level of literacy continues to climb" "two lowest levels" 98 05/11/92 246 up "above that"" last" "top" 99 26/11/90 146 up "raise the profile" 100 26/05/90 135 up "endless" "lifts up" 101 08/02/92 142 up "upgrading" "we fell into it" down 102 08/09/97 81 up "illiteracy on the rise here"" higher levels" higher 103 13/09/96 76 up "western provinces on top" "Quebecers at down the bottom of the heap" "Quebec hasn't climbed out" 04 07/12/95 225 up "top" "bottom" "lower literacy levels" "low down skills" "highest scores" 105 11/12/96 159 up in "help me get up to the level"" access to through literacy program" 190 APPENDIX H THE MEDICAL METAPHOR Text Examples of Medical Metaphor Type From Article Sample # Date Article # Medical Medical Words And Phrases 1 19/10/98 129 diagnosis " the degree of a person's literacy" 2 21/03/98 84 diagnosis "weak or insufficient reading abilities" 3 20/01/98 83 diagnosis " to be detected and treated"" how to diagnose" "diagnosed as dyslexic" 4 13/10/97 124 diagnosis " tend to run in families" 5 29/10/96 77 diagnosis " the blight of illiteracy has indeed spread" 6 13/09/96 121 diagnosis "weak literacy skills" 7 06/06/96 118 diagnosis " weak literacy skills" "boost chances"" are vulnerable" 8 06/06/96 149 diagnosis " weak skills" 9 07/12/95 79 diagnosis " weak reading skills" 10 07/12/95 116 diagnosis " reading problems plague Canada" 11 08/09/95 115 diagnosis "need" "acute"" at risk" 12 19/04/95 235 diagnosis "weakness" "shaky literacy skills" 13 09/09/93 35 diagnosis " illiteracy widespread" 14 08/09/93 205 diagnosis " weak literacy skills" 15 18/05/91 252 diagnosis "chronic problems" "the heart of..." 16 08/09/90 163 diagnosis " they see the scale of this particular pathology" 17 14/06/90 210 diagnosis " literacy woes plague" 18 11/04/90 132 diagnosis " illiteracy plaguing Indian people" 19 28/01/90 3 diagnosis "consult"" designed for specific needs"" assess" 20 07/12/95 234 diagnosis " we've got the diagnosis" "prescribed treatment treatment" "diagnosed the problem" 21 30/01/91 217 diagnosis "system for helping them shows stress and treatment strain" "chronic funding uncertainty" "compulsory screening test" 22 10/09/90 15 diagnosis " cure-all for poverty" "get rid of illiteracy" treatment "case-by-case basis" 23 17/09/99 187 prognosis " literacy is vital to survive in today's world 24 09/11/98 30 prognosis " the debilitating effects of poor literacy skills" 25 09/06/98 86 prognosis " noticed an important and welcome side-effect of... literacy program" 26 20/01/98 83 prognosis " Alana attributes this to biology, brain synapses suddenly working..." 27 08/09/97 199 prognosis " lack of basic literacy carves a chunk out of... self-esteem" 191 appendix H continued # Date Article # Medical Medical Words And Phrases 28 06/05/97 123 prognosis " literacy is Canada's lifeline to..." 29 09/09/96 74 prognosis " federal government pledged to eradicate illiteracy" 30 08/09/96 73 prognosis " the good news is that illiteracy is not a terminal disease" 31 07/09/96 153 prognosis " no quick fix" 32 22/12/95 218 prognosis " a problem for seniors who take prescription medications" 33 12/03/91 50 prognosis " illiteracy won't be eradicated by the Radio-Quebec series" 34 09/02/90 90 prognosis " illiteracy harder to overcome" 35 09/01/90 237 prognosis "should gain strength" 36 06/12/98 188 treatment " the cure for literacy" 37 21/03/98 84 treatment "boost the amount of reading" 38 06/11/97 233 treatment " early intervention initiatives" 39 08/09/97 81 treatment " to prevent illiteracy"" illiteracy must be eliminated" 40 11/12/96 159 treatment "got a shot in the arm"" helps boost literacy skills" 41 21/02/96 33 treatment "boosting these skills" 42 18/11/95 244 treatment " boost their literacy skills" 43 29/01/94 227 treatment " ..a$2-millionboost" 44 31/03/93 66 treatment " remedy a defect... or a plague" 45 01/08/92 152 treatment " remedies" 46 02/08/91 274 treatment " takes a surgeon's touch" 47 18/05/91 252 treatment " boost rates of literacy" 48 08/09/90 163 treatment "illiteracy seems more amenable to treatment" 49 10/06/90 136 treatment " can remain immune to that kind of social unrest which flows..." 50 26/05/90 196 treatment "achieved whole or part healing as a direct result of reading books he prescribes" 51 17/02/90 194 treatment " raise funds for its treatment" 192 APPENDIX I REPRESENTATION OF T H E "ILLITERATE" Text Examples Of Representation Of Illiterate From Article Sample # Date Article # The "Illiterate" "Illiterate" Words 1. 25/09/93 61 " refusing to read becomes the only dignified course" 2. 08/09/96 73 ashamed "are deeply ashamed of their inability to read and write" 3. 19/02/98 173 courageous " will have to find the courage" 4. 07/09/96 153 courageous "have enough nerve to come in for help" 5. 18/04/96 280 courageous " mustered up a bundle of courage" 6. 20/08/95 269 courageous " tremendous courage to come forward and say.." 7. 20/08/95 269 courageous " tremendous courage to come forward and say..." 8. 08/11/97 162 criminal "condemn themselves to a life of marginal employment" 9. 17/10/97 275 criminal " lack of education is a low-income life sentence" 10. 25/04/93 46 criminal " undetected as an illiterate" 11. 11/07/92 56 criminal "proclaims illiteracy public enemy Number One [sic]" 12. 12/03/91 50 criminal "illiteracy a fundamental violation of human rights" 13. 14/04/90 91 criminal trapped "like being... chained in prison" 14. 07/09/96 153 dependent " are realizing they need help as they look for work" "need a shoulder" "need support" "need continual bolstering" 15. 12/01/90 70 derelict "when I... see a wino, a bum... what I see out there is someone who can't read or write" 16. 24/12/96 266 disabled "whose disability is the written word" 17. 30/09/99 282 fearful " nervous as hell"" learning to read was facing my biggest fear" 18. 13/09/96 241 historical victim "part of the blame lies with history" 19. 27/01/93 60 incompetent " one in four... cannot read well enough to cope with everyday work and home situations" 20. 27/11/90 258 incompetent "Canadians consider illiteracy a social problem that is primarily the fault of the individual according to a poll... ABC Canada" 193 appendix I continued # Date Article # The "Illiterate" "Illiterate" Words 21. 27/06/99 130 incompetent pretender "spend their entire lives bluffing their way through" 22. 17/09/94 110 incompetent pretender " barely able to read the words on his diploma" 23. 13/04/92 231 inferior " treat you like dirt" 24. 17/02/90 194 inferior "break down the equation that illiterate means stupid" [ less intelligent] 25. 13/01/90 236 inferior " newspapers [shorter with more pictures] be for illiterates" "like a comic book" 26. 01/11/91 167 inflexible "harder time adapting" "may face serious problems adapting to workplace change" 27. 17/10/91 251 ingenious "often develop extraordinary skills to compensate for their shortcomings in reading" 28. 10/09/90 15 ingenious "appreciate the qualities that people with limited literacy skills actually possess" "poor people...flexible and adaptable" 29. 09/09/93 36 ingenious vulnerable "often surprisingly enterprising" "resourceful" "it really paints a pictur< of how vulnerable they are" 30. 09/09/96 74 isolated " illiterate people are often very isolated" 31. 08/05/95 68 isolated "the isolation illiteracy creates" 32. 25/06/91 48 isolated "felt terribly alone" 33. 30/09/99 282 lost traveller " This is what it is like being an illiterate. You're a tourist in Beijing... 34. 11/08/95 201 lost traveller " in a lost state" 35. 14/03/92 272 lost traveller "if you don't [read and write], you're lost" 36. 27/01/93 60 malnourished "If Johnny can't read, perhaps it's because of hunger pangs in his belly" 37. 11/12/92 59 malnourished " his hunger to read and write" 38. 07/09/90 197 pariah "experience the world as outsiders" 39. 15/06/90 45 pariah " stigma attached to being... functionally illiterate" 40. 09/06/96 198 phoenix "rise from the ashes of abuse and neglect" 194 appendix I continued # Date Article # The "Illiterate" "Illiterate" Words 41. 31/03/93 66 poor parent "deeper cause of pervasive illiteracy and the inability to speak and think coherently ... is what is happening... ir the home" 42. 24/12/96 266 pretender " little tricks to avoid..." 43 19/04/95 235 pretender "continue to bluff it" 44. 05/06/92 247 pretender " bluffed her way into a library job" 45. 14/04/90 91 pretender "to fake it" 46. 01/11/91 167 resister "don't see their lack of reading skills as a problem" 47. 08/09/93 205 stereotype " images of grizzled mountain folk or vagabond cowboys signing their names with an x" 48. 08/11/97 163 trapped " trapped in a situation of low-paid jobs requiring low levels of literacy" 49. 08/09/95 245 unlucky " people will think about literacy and recognize how lucky we are" 50. 09/11/98 30 vulnerable "most vulnerable" 51. 14/09/96 158 vulnerable "more vulnerable" 52. 06/06/96 149 vulnerable " vulnerable to lay off and displacement" 195 APPENDIX J ILLITERATE/ILLITERACY AS THREAT Text Examples Of Threat Metaphor Type From Article Sample # Date Article # The Threat Is? Threat Words 1 09/11/98 30 crisis "a fundamental crisis in the delivery of education" 2 19/02/94 4 crisis "Movement for Canadian Literacy sees a literacy crisis in the country" 3 09/09/93 35 crisis " the sheer magnitude of illiteracy" 4 08/09/92 58 crisis "we seem to be in the midst of a literacy crisis" 5 14/03/92 272 crisis "find themselves in a crisis situation" 6 09/12/98 193 life threat " consequences of illiteracy... even potentially life..." 7 24/07/98 276 life threat "medication-over-the-counter drug screw-ups, as example" 8 20/01/98 83 life threat "this is a ticking time bomb that is going to catch up with them" 9 24/12/96 266 life threat "the stress level" " it caught up to me" 10 22/12/95 218 life threat "a problem for seniors who take prescription medications" 11 08/09/95 185 life threat "it scares me..." 12 08/09/90 147 life threat "that is a very dangerous kind of illiteracy" 13 14/04/90 91 life threat "overcomes the pitfalls" "hazards for today's illiterate" 14 09/12/98 193 social threat "harms the cause of democracy, social progress... international peace and security" 15 06/11/98 128 social threat "pose significant problems" 16 19/02/98 80 social threat "their trouble will cost all of us something in the end" 17 17/09/96 75 social threat "one of the frightening implications of new information on literacy" 18 27/07/96 26 social threat "illiteracy would not loom so large" 19 07/12/95 24 social threat "imperil prosperity"" threaten the strength of economies and social cohesion" 20 20/08/95 269 social threat "the trouble we're in when it comes to the printed word" 21 09/09/93 36 social threat "threatening" "horrified" 22 08/09/93 205 social threat "illiteracy is a loaded word" 196 appendix J continued # Date Article # The Threat Is? Threat Words 23 25/04/93 46 social threat "numbers are staggering and frightening" "alarming level of illiteracy" 24 08/09/92 58 social threat "the fear of writing..." 25 02/08/91 274 social threat "same treacherous tools as that can trap employees into admissions of illiteracy that work against them" 26 25/06/91 48 social threat "real cause would have been illiteracy" 27 27/11/90 258 social threat " "84 per cent consider it a very serious problem and give it as much importance as protecting the environment" 28 16/10/90 38 social threat "high rate of incarceration in the U.S. is due in large part to illiteracy" 29 16/10/90 38 social threat "poor literacy and crime are linked" 30 08/09/90 163 social threat "linked to other major social problems" 31 08/09/90 163 social threat "linked to other major social problems" "massive and appalling numbers" 32 07/09/90 197 social threat "tallies up worse" "has scored worrisome results" 33 07/09/90 138 social threat "a wildfire of literacy activity" "shocking figures" 34 13/06/90 98 social threat "stamping out illiteracy" 35 03/04/90 42 social threat "formal education that intimidates..." 36 17/02/90 194 social threat "emerging as a major social problem" 197 APPENDIX K PERSONAL IMPACT Text Examples Of Personal Impact Metaphor Type From Article Sample # Date Article # Personal Impact 1 21/09/96 161 dependence 2 26/11/90 146 dependence 3 11/12/91 13 disgrace 4 24/07/98 276 humiliation 5 24/09/92 257 humiliation 6 23/07/90 137 humiliation 7 07/05/90 195 humiliation 8 17/04/90 92 humiliation 9 26/01/93 243 humiliation dependence 10 30/01/91 217 humiliation dependence 11 09/11/98 180 humiliation dependence fear 12 07/09/96 153 regret shame 13 10/06/90 136 secret 14 17/05/90 134 secret 15 30/09/99 282 secret fear 16 14/06/99 203 secret fear 17 13/05/99 284 secret fear 18 09/09/98 219 secret fear 19 24/07/98 276 secret fear 20 19/02/98 173 secret fear 21 24/12/96 266 secret fear 22 07/09/96 153 secret fear 23 17/05/96 117 secret fear Personal Impact Words "depended upon.." "difficulty of trying to read without electricity" " relying on others to do difficult tasks" " a disgrace so many people..." "example of young man's buying a gift of nail polish remover thinking it was perfume" " made her stumble through passages from books" " isolation and anger and humiliation" " was retarded"" humiliated"" branded" "flunked me" " an embarrassment the literacy course has eliminated" " dependent on state aid" " always asking for help"" excuses" "it's degrading" "they have to declare in front of..." "intimidating" ..." having to ask for help" "I should have stayed in school..." "clouding their lives" " a hidden problem in Canada" " a hidden problem" "I wouldn't want to see a child going through life like that -hiding in a closet" "hid a painful secret"" hid behind" "has been confronting his inability to read" " kept his secret firmly hidden"" is secret was out"" didn't want people to know" "many illiterate people think it's a shameful secret" "hid my problem very well" "the shame was still with me" "nowhere to hide" "a secret... shielded for many years" "live in almost constant fear"" have turned in desperation" 198 appendix K continued # Date Article # Personal Impact Personal Impact Words 24 08/09/95 115 secret fear "hidden it from family and friends... their secret" 25 20/08/95 269 secret fear "can no longer hide fact they can't read" 26 24/07/95 182 secret fear "they have never learned my secret" 27 30/12/94 202 secret fear " tried to...hide his illiteracy" "was found r>nt" 28 10/07/94 108 secret fear OUT " literacy... is... arcane" 29 03/10/92 268 secret fear " hiding the fact" 30 08/09/92 207 secret fear " go to great lengths to hide it" 31 08/02/92 142 secret fear "war on illiteracy now more open" [ implies a previous secret] 32 25/06/91 48 secret fear " has successfully hidden the fact" 33 17/04/90 92 secret fear " hard to hide" 34 14/04/90 91 secret fear " life as an illiterate without being discovered" 35 17/02/90 194 secret fear " now learners have come out of the closet" 36 27/01/99 130 secret "dirty literary secret"" bluffing their way shame through" "camouflaging her illieracy" "go to their graves with this secret" "a problem people hide: illiteracy" 37 17/05/96 117 secret " shameful secret" shame 38 09/09/93 36 secret " they can hide it from the boss"" cover shame up" 39 24/07/99 206 shame "I was ashamed..." 40 22/09/95 222 shame "one of those shameful things" 41 08/05/95 68 shame " she feels so much shame..." 42 15/01/96 262 shame "you feel bad when you don't know how" dependence 43 14/06/99 203 suffering "torment took route" 44 20/01/98 83 suffering "describe ordeals" "illiteracy struggles" 45 06/05/95 111 suffering " literacy woes" 46 13/04/92 231 suffering " dedicated to improving the plight of people with reading difficulties" 47 16/10/91 11 suffering " not suffer professionally" 48 14/07/90 8 suffering "redemptive power of literacy"" current malaise.." 49 14/06/90 210 suffering " literacy woes" 50 09/01/90 237 suffering " can be a torment" APPENDIX L ILLITERACY AS VICTIMIZATION / ISOLATION: HEROIC VICTIM Text Examples Of Victimization Metaphor Type From Article Sample # Date Article # Victimization Victimization Words 1 27/01/99 130 class " everyone wants to pigeonhole illiteracy" 2 29/01/94 227 class " classified as unable to read" 3 01/11/91 167 class " a dichotomy- readers and those who haven't got..." 4 10/06/90 136 class " illiterate underclass" 5 01/06/90 97 class " drew a line between those who can read and write and those who cannot" 6 07/05/90 195 class " a second-rate citizen" 7 27/09/99 181 isolation " in danger of being unworthy of the 21st century" 8 24/07/99 206 isolation " like a second-class citizen" 9 08/09/97 199 isolation " built another bridge across the literacy gap" 10 01/04/97 232 isolation " people who can't get anywhere without basic reading and writing skills" 11 12/01/97 178 isolation " world...cold and alienating" "remain isolated" " excluding themselves" 12 22/12/95 218 personal " afraid she can't read street signs " "prevents people from leaving familiar places" 13 07/12/95 234 personal " self-imposed isolation" 14 08/09/95 115 personal " people often feel they're the only person with this problem" 15 02/08/91 274 personal " locked in a strange isolation" 16 25/06/91 48 personal "felt terribly alone" 17 27/09/99 181 social " in danger of being unworthy of the 21st century" 18 06/06/96 149 social " to be cut off from a huge range of personal and professional opportunities" 19 22/09/95 222 social " there are still a whole lot of people without access to the world that empowers them" 20 24/07/95 182 social " a growing invisible minority" 21 08/05/95 68 social " the isolation illiteracy creates" 22 19/04/95 235 social " profoundly marginalized in our world"" information highway is forever closed to you" 200 appendix L continued # Date Article # Victimization Victimization Words 23 25/04/93 104 social " can undermine the precious bonds between the generations" 24 03/05/91 168 social " like being in a strange land" 25 07/09/90 197 social " experience the world as outsiders" 26 26/05/90 196 social " unable to participate in our society 27 26/05/90 135 social " a ticket to social segregation and economic oblivion" 28 10/05/90 211 social " bridge native [sic] literacy gap" 29 09/09/96 74 social personal " illiterate people are often very isolated" 201 APPENDIX M LITERACY AS GOOD LIFE Text Examples of Good Life Metaphor Type From Article Sample # Date Article # The Good The Good Life Words Life 1 08/09/93 205 celebration " what International Literacy Day is all about" 2 26/05/90 135 celebration " celebration of literacy" 3 16/08/95 176 celebration fun entertainment " celebration of literacy and the 'printed word' "performances" "events"" new feature" 4 28/09/99 250 celebration fun entertainment " a publishing theme park" "literacy street fair" "major sponsors" 5 25/09/99 149 contentment " holding a book in your hands ... so tactile" " the feel of the page" "sitting in your own cozy chair with your own reading light" 6 09/12/98 193 contentment " manage conflict and respect diversity" 7 06/02/95 47 contentment " I'll be content with myself 8 24/07/98 276 contentment fulfillment " will make life a lot easier" 9 17/09/98 220 fulfillment " how improving literacy skills enhanced their lives" 10 12/01/97 178 fulfillment " the chance to live a fulfilled life" 11 10/07/94 108 fulfillment there is "no connection with 'the satisfaction of literacy'" [one needs it] 12 27/09/99 181 fun entertainment " the hustle and bustle of literacy" 13 26/09/92 145 fun entertainment " literacy theme park"" play word games"" win prizes" 14 05/06/92 247 fun entertainment celebration " Canadian literary event"" a major attraction" "kickoff concert" "star-studded" 15 13/09/99 175 joy " It can mean beautiful moments: reading to a grandchild, discovering great literature" 16 08/09/95 245 joy " help teach adults the joy of reading" 17 26/05/90 196 joy " share the passion with someone who is illiterate" 202 Appendix N Literacy As Social Work Text Examples of Social Work Metaphor Type From Article Sample # Date Article # Social Work Social Work Words 1 02/10/93 106 assistance " in aid of..." 2 06/04/90 44 assistance " in aid of literacy programs" 3 12/02/95 139 assistance " status as charitable"" staged a awareness benefit concert" "helping out" "donations" 4 10/04/97 190 awareness " Gzowski Invitational Golf Tournament for Literacy" 5 26/09/91 273 awareness " a charity golf tournament for assistance literacy" 6 26/09/91 273 awareness " a charity golf tournament for assistance literacy" "raised more than $million for literacy" 7 21/09/90 100 awareness " to raise money for ..." "fund-raising assistance event" 8 19/02/94 4 needs of others " the needs" of illiterates 9 09/11/91 216 needs of others " communities' literacy needs" 10 07/09/96 153 rescue " they confess a profound inadequacy" 11 20/08/95 269 rescue " can't read to save themselves" 12 26/09/98 127 social cause " 'Literacy', she says,' is my cause.'" 13 28/09/96 105 social cause " in supporting the cause..." 14 23/06/93 265 social cause " a national initiative that was created to recognize..." 15 06/11/92 267 social cause " dedicated to the cause of literacy" 16 27/11/90 258 social cause " give it as much importance as protecting the environment" 17 06/04/90 44 social cause " I started to look around for a cause"" pleasant way to raise money" "unbelievable enterprise" 18 14/09/96 158 social justice "provides equal opportunity to all citizens" 19 04/09/95 23 social justice " giving rural women a sense of power through literacy..." 20 10/09/90 15 social justice " perpetrating a great injustice"" people are entitled to read and write" 21 22/09/95 222 social work " need every bit of support" discourse "organizers"" improving themselves" "need it" 22 19/04/95 235 social work " prepared to face it and say, 'I need discourse help.'" 203 appendix N continued # Date Article # Social Work Social Work Words 23 26/01/93 243 social work discourse "dependent on state aid" 24 09/11/91 216 social work discourse "regional field workers"" examine the needs" "regional meetiings" "literacy coalition"" only 3 per cent getting the help" 25 30/01/91 217 social work discourse "needs" "can't function"" those who need it the most" "approved students" 26 09/09/98 219 survival " devised strategies" "panic" "cope" 27 11/12/96 159 survival " a survival guide for adults learning English" 28 04/04/90 131 survival " it's a matter of survival" 29 12/01/90 70 survival " straightened himself out by learning to read and write" 30 17/09/90 187 survival needs of others " literacy is vital to survive in today's world"" more and more critical" 31 22/06/95 113 survival needs of others " the kit was developed" [ as a first aid kit but for literacy] 32 27/01/93 60 survival rescue " literacy programs designed with other safety-net programs" 33 09/12/98 193 survival needs of others " vital" "lag is acute" 34 01/04/97 232 survival needs of others " people who can't get anywhere without basic reading and writing skills" 35 08/02/92 142 survival rescue " a kit to assist" 36 09/01/90 237 survival rescue " a kit to help people" 204 Appendix O Enduring Metaphors Top ten high frequency metaphors enduring 1990-1999 with article numbers listed in order of date of publication Metaphor 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 M24 282, 193, 162, 266, 25,10 202, 61, 59, 141, 255, Science 204, 188, 82, 159, 7, 110, 35, 267, 13, 146, 175, 49, 233, 77, 79, 62, 36 246, 165, 40, 206, 180, 124, 105, 116, 4, 263, 268, 166, 101, 208, 30, 228, 75, 259, 227 46, 256, 216, 150, 284, 128, 81, 156, 260, 160, 58, 167, 38, 170, 28, 123, 241, 174, 242, 152, 54, 102, 130, 129, 232, 121, 234, 65, 272, 251, 146, 19 127, 239, 120, 177, 60, 142, 273, 163, 220, 230 148, 200, 103, 164 53, 138, 219, 76, 225, 243 274, 197, 87, 74, 24, 252, 209, 276, 73, 244, 254, 137, 83, 19, 222, 50, 136, 84, 26, 185, 217, 97, 80, 149, 269, 51 7, 173 31, 117, 262, 64 112, 68, 111, 261, 47 196, 135, 96, 134, 212, 133, 92,914 3, 44, 131, 42, 277, 194, 215, 278, 69,90, 89, 70, 71, 237, 88,1 205 appendix O continued Metaphor 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 Ml 181, 129, 82, 266, 218, Battle 204, 220, 233, 226, 122, 187, 219, 199, 76, 25, 238, 84, 171 155, 259, 283, 80,83 241, 234, 206, 74, 79, 203, 73, 225, 284, 119, 244, 130, 16, 185, 19 117, 262, 64 182 20, 235, 261, 47 M12 Spatial Entity 204, 188, 162, 175, 206 30, 128, 220, 219, 276, 28 82, 233, 275, 81, 199, 172, 123 122, 171 223, 239, 230 159, 77, 75, 156, 158, 241, 76, 155, 120, 121, 148, 198, 118, 149, 117, 64 218, 25, 234, 24, 259, 174, 177, 200, 107, 160, 79, 225, 244, 222, 185, 115, 269, 201, 182, 20,93 202, 108, 227 108 1993 1992 1991 1990 36, 267, 13, 169, 205, 257, 17, 40, 264, 270, 16, 38, 46, 56, 7, 138, 66, 2, 54, 163, 103,' 142 1 209, 60, 2, 98, 243 11, 136, 252, 97, 254, 212, 168, 195, 50, 133, 217 92, 91, 44, 131, 42, 194, 90, 3,89,70 237,1 106, 59, 141, 146, 263, 46, 13, 150, 37, 268, 166, 114, 264, 256, 167, 101, 266, 207, 54, 10, 160, 57, 11, 97, 243 58, 50, 135, 152, 2,53, 196, 151, 217 211, 143, 91, 18, 215, 142, 194, 164 69, 237 206 appendix O continued Metaphor 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 Place 282, 30, 125, 159, 24, 110, 191, 59, 17, 255, Merged 206 219 233, 161, 70, 2,27 263, 246, 216, 10, 199, 75, 25, 46, 268, 167, 38, 41, 156, 222, 160, 207, 48, 147, 230, 241, 115, 243, 57, 252, 197, 178 120, 269, 58, 168 8,45, 76, 182, 56, 97, 73, 112, 272 135, 119, 68, 196, 16, 235, 134, 198 47 211, 195, 91, 131, 42, 277, 194, 215, 278, 89, 237 Person 130, 128, 82, 120, 174, 108, 263, 59, 54, 146, as Text 206 219, 124, 266, 200, 202, 205, 268, 167, 40, 85 189, 158, 107, 62 66, 145, 12, 160, 230 120, 116, 103, 58, 53, 100, 73 79, 60, 56, 253 163, 177, 243 143, 45, 185, 142, 97, 20, 164 7,91, 68,93 194 M55 181, 49, 123, 266, 221, 108 263, 246, 13, 255, Barrier 203, 30, 178 159, 182, 36, 256, 167, 150, 130, 129, 105, H I , 205, 207, 50 101, 19 220, 73 235 104, 152, 102, 219, 65, 92, 15, 276 60 272, 197, 142 97, 195, 133, 131, 90 207 appendix O continued Metaphor 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 M30 204, 180, Condition 206, 129, 284 84,83 239 266, 77, 156, 155, 121, 241, 149, 118, 262, 64 259, 244, 185, 201, 235 62 154, 35, 205 267, 231 17, 167, 252, 254, 168, 217 1990 146, 38, 197, 209, 97, 35, 95, 70 M6 187 188, 233, 159, 218, 227 35, 152 274, 15, Medical 30, 124, 77, 116, 205, 252, 163, Entity 129, 81, 121, 79, 66 50, 210, 86, 199, 74, 234, 217 146, 84,83 123 73, 244, 196, 153, 115, 132, 149, 235, 194, 118, 237 90, 33 3,237 Personal 282, 180, 232, 266, 222, 202, 36, 268, 13, 146, Impact 206, 219, 178 161, 115, 108 93 257, 11, 137, 203, 276, 153, 269, 207, 48, 8, 284, 173, 117, 182, 231, 217 210, 130 83 262 68, 142 136,13 111 4,195, 92, 91, 194, 237 M23 284 128, 162 105, 244, None 35, 59, 13, 258, Economic 127, 256, 269, 46, 267, 17, 169, Cost 173, 155, 112, 160 144, 251, 150, 80 118 111 142, 274 102, 248 136, 97, 134, 277, 89,71 237,88 

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