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Operationalization and prediction of conceptions of teaching in adult education Chan, Choon Hian 1994

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OPERATIONALIZATION AND PREDICTION OF CONCEPTIONS OF TEACHING IN ADULT EDUCATION by CHAN CHOON HIAN B.B.A., University of Singapore, Singapore M.B.S., Massey University, New Zealand A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL STUDIES We accept this dissertation as conforming  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1994  © CHAN CHOON HIAN, 1994  In presenting this thesis in  partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  (Signature)  Department of  EDUCATIONAL STUDIES  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  OCTOBER 10,  1994  ii  BS TRACT  The purposes of the study were:  (1) to operationalize  Pratt’s five conceptions of teaching (Engineering, Apprenticeship, Developmental, Nurturing and Social Reform), to predict conception of teaching scores,  (3)  (2)  to determine the  existence of dominant conceptions of teaching, and (4) to determine the extent to which personal,  socio—  cultural/educational and program variables predict dominant conceptions of teaching. A 75-item instrument, Conception of Teaching Scales (CTS) was developed to operationalize Pratt’s five conceptions of teaching.  A pilot study revealed that the instrument had good  face, content, and convergent validities as well as acceptable test-retest reliability and internal consistency. A sample of 471 Vancouver School Board and New Westminster School Board adult education instructors responded to a mailed questionnaire survey conducted in the Fall of 1993.  Responses to  the CTS were evaluated to determine whether Pratt’s five conceptions were operationalized successfully.  Factor analysis  was employed to determine whether the items in the CTS were representative of Pratt’s five conceptions of teaching.  Results  revealed that 63 out of 75 original items in the CTS successfully operationalized five conceptions of teaching, with Pratt’s Apprenticeship conception split into Apprenticeship-Practice and  iii  Apprenticeship-Modelling.  Further refinement streamlined this  number to a six—scale 50—item Revised Conception of Teaching Scales (CTS—R). Personal,  socio—cultural/educational and program variables  were used as predictors in multiple regressions to explain There was no single common  variance in six conception scores. predictor of conceptions.  On the average, the significant  predictors in the six regression equations accounted for 14.5% of The only prominent predictor  variance in the conception scores.  2 which accounted for most variance (R  =  17%)  in the Nurturing  conception was personality—nurturance measure. An instructor’s dominant conceptions were predicted by nine independent variables, namely, gender, ethnicity, personality— dominance, personality—nurturance, years of teaching adults, content upgrade,  living arrangement,  level of education and class  These variables were collapsed into three significant  size.  discriminant functions which correctly classified 34.7% of the 288 eligible cases into one of the six dominant conception groups. The study concluded that:  (1)  Pratt’s five conceptions of  teaching could be operationalized and that a Revised Conception of Teaching Scales  (CTS-R) was a valid and reliable instrument to  assess people’s conceptions of teaching,  (2)  conceptions of  teaching were independent concepts having their own existence, (3) most instructors held at least one single most dominant conception of teaching,  and (4)  dominant conceptions of teaching  were predicted by four personal variables  (gender, ethnicity,  iv  personality—dominance and personality—nurturance), cultural/educational variables (living arrangement,  four socio— level of  education, years of teaching adults and content upgrade effort) and one program variable (class size).  V  TABLE OP CONTENTS  ii  ABSTR_AC’T  TABLE OF CONTENTS  LIST OF TABLES  LIST OF FIGURES  .ICINOWLEDGEMENI’S  CHAPTER ONE  SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION  v  ix  xiii  xiv 1  Introduction  1  Adult Teaching  3  Statement of the Problem  6  Research Purposes  8  Selection of Independent Variables  12  Research Methodology  13  Structure of Dissertation  13  Summary  14  CHAPTER TWO  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  15  Introduction  15  Research on Adult Teaching Roles and Competencies Andragogy and Pedagogy Teaching Adults and Pre-Adults Educational and Philosophical Orientations of Teachers Teaching Styles Conceptions of Teaching  16 17 22 24 25 26 29  vi  Pratt’s Five Conceptions of Teaching  30  Sunuuary  39  CHAPTER THREE  AN OVERVIEW OF THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLES  40  Introduction  40  Determining Independent Variables  40  Independent Variables Personal Variables Socio-Cultural/Educational Variables Program Variables  44 44 58 74  Summary  81  CHAPTER FOUR  DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSTRUMENT  82  Introduction  82  Initial Development of Conception Items  82  Validity FaceandContent Validity Convergent Validity  85 85 86  Reliability Test—Retest Internal Consistency  94 94 97  Scale Intercorrelations  99 101  Suin]uary  CHAPTER FIVE  DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING  102  Introduction  102  Administration of the Questionnaire  102  Response Rates  105  Data Entry and Processing  107  Suninlary  107  vii  CHAPTER SIX  PROFILES OF THE RESPONDENTS  .  109  Introduction  109  Socio—Deiuographic Characteristics GenderandAge Living Arrangement Country of Birth Ethnicity Personality Visited and Lived Abroad Political Orientation  109 109 112 112 113 113 114 114  Educational Characteristics Formal Educational Qualification Adult Education Training Nonformal Educational Activities  115 115 117 117  Teaching Experience Years of Teaching Influence of Teaching Types of Programs Instructional Techniques Used Literature Read or Consulted Role Clarity/Ambiguity  119 119 119 121 122 123 125  Conception Scale Scores of VSB and NWSB Instructors  .  127 128  Summary  CHAPTER SEVEN  ...  OPERATIONALIZATION AND SCALE REFINEMENT  129  Introduction  129  Tests of Operationalization  129  Steps in Refining Conception of Teaching Scales Six Conceptions  (CTS)  ..l36 141  Parametric Characteristics of CTS-R  146  Determining Dominant Conceptions of Teaching  150  Si.inunary  155  CHAPTER EIGHT  PREDICTING CONCEPTIONS OF TEACHING  Introduction  156 156  viii Description of Independent Variables Used in the Analysis Personal Variables Socio—Cultural and Educational Variables Program Variables  156 157 157 161  Predicting Conception Scores Interpretation of Regression Results  162 169  Predicting Dominant Conceptions of Teaching  173  Profiles of Dominant Conceptions of Teaching  180  Relationship Between Course/Program Taught and Dominant Conceptions of Teaching  186  Summary  188  CHAPTER NINE  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS  190  Introduction  190  I”Iain Conclusions  190  Implications for Practice in Adult Education  195  Policy Implications of the Findings  197  Limitations of the Study  198  Future Research  202  REFERENCES  205  APPEND I CES A:  Letters of Transmittal and the Questionnaire  216  B:  Approval fromAgencies  233  C:  AdditionalTables  236  D:  Initial Data Coding Protocol  243  ix LIST OF TABLES  Broad Determinants of the Dominant Conception of Teaching  42  Table 2  Results from the Inductive Process  43  Table 3  Number of Items Representing the Aspects and Elements’ Relationships of the Conceptions of Teaching  84  List of Seventy-Five Conception of Teaching Scale Items  91  Test-Retest Means and Reliabilities of CTS Over a Two—Week Interval  96  Cronbach Alphas for Five Conception Scales Obtained from Two Groups of Subj ects  99  Intercorrelations of Five Conception Scale Scores  101  Procedure for Mailing Questionnaire to Vancouver School Board and New Westminster School Board Instructors  103  Number of Returns and Response Rates of Vancouver School Board (VSB) and New Westminster School Board (NWSB) Respondents  106  Socio—Deiuographic Characteristics of Vancouver School Board (VSB) and New Westminster School Board (NWSB) Instructors  110  Educational Characteristics of VSB and NWSB Instri.ictors  116  Table 1  Table 4  Table 5  Table 6  Table 7  Table 8  Table 9  Table 10  Table 11  x Participation in Non-Formal Educational 1ctivities  118  Table 13  NatureofTeachingExperience  120  Table 14  Types of Programs and Class Size  121  Table 15  Extent of Instructional Techniques Used  123  Table 16  Responses to Materials Read or Consulted  124  Table 17  Means and Standard Deviations of Responses to Role Clarity/Ambiguity Scale  126  Comparative Means and Standard Deviations of CTS Scores of VSB and NWSB Instructors  127  Scale Parameters and Correlation Matrix of Original Five Conception of Teaching Scales  131  Relative Contribution of Aspects to the Five Conceptions of Teaching  133  Table 21  ANOVAR Summary on Aspects and Conceptions  135  Table 22  Explanatory Value of the First Nine Unrotated CTS Factors  137  Refinement Criteria Applied for Deleting Scale Items  139  Means, Standard Deviations, Factor Loadings and Item-Scale Correlations of Refined Scale (CTS—R) Items  142  Scale Parameters and Correlation Matrix of Six Revised Conception of Teaching Scales  147  Table 12  Table 18  Table 19  Table 20  Table 23  Table 24  Table 25  xi Table 26  Table 27  Table 28  Table 29  Table 30  Table 31  Table 32  Table 33  Table 34  Table 35  Table 36  Table C.1  Scale Parameters for Original and Revised Conception of Teaching Scales  149  Classification of Dominant Conceptions of Teaching into Six Conception Groups Using Different Sigma Values  154  Independent Variables Used in the Regression Analysis  158  Correlations of Independent Variables and Conceptions of Teaching  163  Significant Predictors in Regression Functions (Instructional Techniques Included)  ..  .  166  Significant Predictors in Regression Functions (Instructional Techniques Excluded)  .  .  168  .  Nine Independent Variables Entered into the Discriminant Functions  175  Classification Suimuary of Predicted Dominant ConceptionGroups  177  Extent to which Nine Discriminating Variables Predict Dominant Conception Groups (After Rotation)  179  Group Raw Means and Standard Deviations of Nine Predictors of Dominant Conceptions of Teaching  182  Crosstabulation of Type of Course/Program Taught and Dominant Conceptions of Teaching  187  Means and Standard Deviations of 75 Conception of Teaching Scale Items  237  xii  Table C.2  Table C.3  Table D.l  Correlation Matrix of Professional Development Variables and Conception Scores  241  Correlation Matrix of Published Materials Read/Consulted and Conception Scores  242  Description of Independent Variables and their Coding Format  244  xiii LIST OF FIGURES  Figure 1  Figure 2  Relationship Between Personal, Socio Cultural/Educational and Program Characteristics and Conceptions of Teaching  Standardized Means for Six Dominant Conceptions Groups on Nine Discriminating Socio—Cultural/Educational and , Program Variables  10  181  xiv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This study would not have been completed without the help and support given to me by colleagues, friends and loved ones over the past four years.  I have many people to thank for their  help, criticism, encouragement and support. I wish to thank all the 471 anonymous adult education instructors from the Vancouver and New Westminster School Boards who returned their completed questionnaires.  I wish to express  my special thanks to the 19 UBC teaching assistants and 15 adult education students for taking the time and trouble to complete the pilot questionnaire twice. I wish to express my gratitude to my friends who took time to help in reviewing the questionnaire items and to give constructive comments and criticisms.  I wish to thank Roger  Boshier, John Collins, Dan Pratt and Ian Housego for their suggestions,  ideas and feedback during the course of preparing  this dissertation.  I am particularly grateful to Roger Boshier  and John Collins for the time and patience they devoted to reading my countless draft chapters of this dissertation. I also wish to express my gratitude to the management of Vancouver and New Westminster School Boards for granting me the approval to conduct this study among their instructors. their support, this study would not be realized.  Without  xv  Finally, I wish to thank my family Han Wei  —  -  my wife, Leck and son,  for their encouragement, support and love given to me.  They spent many hours helping me to prepare the mailing of letters.  Leck was instrumental in seeing the completion of this  dissertation by typing and checking the texts and figures in this dissertation.  I am also grateful to two friends, Franc Feng and  Doris Wong, for proof-reading the first draft and giving me invaluable advice and suggestions.  1  CHAPTER ONE  SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION  Introduction  Adult education and instruction occur in diverse socio— cultural and political settings.  Institutions or agencies which  offer adult and continuing education programs are equally diverse in their philosophies, missions, sizes, structures and program offerings.  They  Teachers of adults, too, are not homogeneous.  come from varied socio—cultural, educational and vocational backgrounds, and bring to educational settings varied sets of social and professional experiences, values and beliefs.  These  experiences, values and beliefs influence and shape the way teachers view and understand teaching.  Their views and  understandings of teaching differ and consequently, teachers have different assumptions and attitudes toward adult instruction and learning. The way in which teaching is conceptualized and interpreted may affect and influence a teacher’s behavior and teaching style. Conceptions of teaching are abstract, cognitive representations of how people think or understand the meaning of “teaching”. They are like personally—constructed windows for viewing what teaching is all about.  Conceptions of teaching represent  normative beliefs about the relationship between the means and  2  Although individuals often hold two or three  ends of teaching.  conceptions of teaching, one is usually more predominant (Pratt, 1992).  Conceptions of teaching are also assumed to be rooted in  teachers’ cultural, meaning (Pratt,  social, historical, and personal realms of  1992, p.  203).  As such, conceptions of teaching  held by teachers are presumed to be influenced,  and even  determined, by factors such as teachers’ personal characteristics, professional training, experiences, socio—cultural variables.  and other  The extent to which these variables  influence a teacher’s dominant conception of teaching has not been fully investigated. Over the past decades, adult education research and professional literature has focused primarily on adult learners, their characteristics, participation or nonparticipation in educational activities, and on how adults learn on their own (self—directed learning). been the focus.  Instruction and instructors have not  The instructor or teacher has been regarded as  “an adjunct to learning [and] consequently, the process of adult learning has been explored but rarely that of adult teaching” (Jarvis, 1983, p.  120).  Previous research on adult teaching has  been directed primarily toward determining instructors’ coiupetencies, teacher effectiveness, adults’ expectations of instructors and teaching styles of instructors.  These studies  were primarily behavioral in nature, and not concerned with how teachers “think” of their teaching.  While teachers of adults  play a significant role in promoting adult learning and adult education, by 1992, there was still little understanding  3  concerning how teachers of adults think or conceive of the noted that  Clark and Peterson (1986)  meaning of teaching.  teachers’ cognitive processes influence their teaching.  From  knowing how teaching is conceived by adult teachers, one may gain a better insight and understanding into how teachers view their roles, their assumptions concerning adult learning, and their treatment of content.  Adult Teaching  Teaching or instruction constitutes an important process in helping learners acquire knowledge and skills, and “remains at the heart of the educational process”  1983, p.  (Jarvis,  112).  It  is also a complex decision—making process in which a teacher has to plan and make critical decisions concerning the delivery of content, the use of instructional methods and evaluation of learning outcomes.  Although adult learners are often thought to  be self—directed, the teacher continues to occupy a significant role in adult learning and is considered the most important variable influencing the learning climate (Knowles,  1980).  Teaching as a concept is amorphous and has been defined in many different ways.  Barrow and Milburn (1990)  as a polymorphous or “many—shaped” word (p.  describe teaching  306).  Teaching is  often defined as a set of actions undertaken by people to bring about some learning outcomes  (Gage,  1978; Hyman,  is also regarded as a craft and art (Knowles,  1974).  1980; Tom,  Teaching 1984),  in which competencies, professional judgement, creativity, and  4  intuition are regarded as essential requirements. of definitions of teaching, Smith (1987) conceptualized in different ways: information,  (2)  In his review  found it has been  (1) teaching is imparting  teaching implies a learning outcome,  teaching is an intended activity, and (4)  (3)  teaching is normative  behavior. The plethora of definitions and meanings which people have concerning teaching thus influences the methodological approach in which research on adult teaching has been conducted. education,  In adult  inquiries into adult teaching have been directed from  three distinct approaches:  (1) prescriptive,  (3) phenoiuenographic (Larsson,  1983).  (2)  descriptive, and  The main idea behind the  prescriptive approach is to deduce the best systems for teaching based on some philosophical and psychological conceptions.  The  descriptive approach is based on describing what is happening in the classroom, data.  and using observations as the primary source of  These two approaches tend to regard teaching as a set of  observable behaviors, that is, what teachers do prior to and during teaching. A third approach stems from the interpretation of ideas, experience, thinking and situation in teaching.  The concern is  with how people conceive and understand a phenomenon such as teaching. describe,  It is primarily based on phenomenography which aims to analyze, and understand experiences.  It is research  directed towards relational, experiential and content—oriented description (Marton,  1981,  1986,  1988; Entwistle & Marton,  1984).  As a research method, phenomenography reveals how things look  5  from the perspective of the respondent (Pratt,  The tacit  1992).  assumption is that there are qualitatively different and distinctive ways of viewing aspects of the world.  Within this  research paradigm, researchers look for a second—order perspective, that is, how people describe their conceptions or understandings of the world.  The categories of description  constitute the most significant outcomes of phenomenographic Conceptions are abstractions.  research.  These abstractions can  be, and are, made in different ways in various provinces of meaning (Saljo,  1988).  Using a phenomenographic study which involved interviews with 253 adult educators from North America (Canada and the United States) (1992)  and Asia (China, Hong Kong and Singapore), Pratt  identified five conceptions of teaching held by teachers  of adults in various educational contexts.  (1) Engineering (teaching is delivering  of teaching are: content),  The five conceptions  (2) Apprenticeship (teaching is modelling values and  knowledge),  (3)  Developmental  intellectual development), personal agency) better society).  and (5)  (teaching is cultivating  (4) Nurturing (teaching is nurturing  Social Reform (teaching is seeking  Conceptions of teaching are assumed to be  composed of, and will “vary according to, three interdependent aspects: actions,  intentions, and beliefs regarding the five  elements within a general model of teaching” 205).  (Pratt,  The five elements are: the teacher (roles,  1992, p.  functions, and  responsibilities), content (what is to be learned),  learners  6  (nature of learners and learning),  ideal  (purposes of adult  education), and context (external factors which influence teaching).  Since teaching is a relational process, conceptions  of teaching reflect the relationships between the elements, example, the relationships between (1) learners and teacher, and (3)  for  learners and content,  teachers and content.  (2)  The beliefs  held by teachers determine the nature of these relationships. Teaching is also assumed to be influenced by the educational context  —  an organization’s missions and goals, and its  administrative policies,  rules and resources.  Statement of the Problem  Conceptions of teaching have been studied from a subjective, qualitative approach.  The present research aims to study  conceptions of teaching from a quantitative approach. Several questions lay at the center of this project:  (1)  If  instructors hold different conceptions of teaching, how could they be identified?  (2) What factors or variables explain why  instructors hold different conceptions of teaching?  (3) Among  the different conceptions of teaching held by instructors, why are one or two more dominant than others.  (4)  If a person has a  dominant conception of teaching, how can this be identified? What variables explain why people have different dominant conceptions of teaching?  (5)  7  The first research question seeks to assess an adult instructor’s conceptions of teaching. to assess conceptions of teaching,  An instrument was needed  and to provide a means by  which a teacher’s dominant conception(s) classified.  could be identified and  Such an instrument should provide insight into how  teaching is understood by adult instructors, and would gauge what a teacher might do before and during teaching.  From knowing how  teaching is conceived by teachers, educational planners and administrators could better understand how teachers assumed their roles, beliefs and assumptions about adult teaching and learning. The second question pertains to finding the personal, socio— cultural/educational and program variables that explain why one instructor scored high on one conception of teaching (such as Engineering)  and not on others.  The third question attempts to  investigate the claim made by Pratt (1992)  that most instructors  hold a dominant conception of teaching. The fourth and fifth questions seek to determine the extent to which personal and socio—cultural variables predict why an instructor holds a dominant conception of teaching.  Conceptions  of teaching are thought to be held differently by people within and across cultures  (Pratt,  1992).  Since conceptions of teaching  are shaped and influenced by people’s socio—cultural backgrounds, it would be of interest to determine what personal,  socio—  cultural/educational factors predict instructors’ dominant conceptions of teaching.  8  Research Purposes  The purposes of this study were: (1)  to operationalize the five conceptions of teaching as previously identified by Pratt (1992),  (2)  to predict conception of teaching scores,  (3)  to determine the existence of a single most dominant conception of teaching, and  (4)  to determine the extent to which personal, socio— cultural/educational and program variables predict dominant conceptions of teaching.  The first purpose involved developing an instrument, known as Conception of Teaching Scales (1992)  five conceptions.  were made.  (CTS) to operationalize Pratt’s  In developing the CTS, two assumptions  First, Pratt (1992) having used an equilateral  triangle to represent the three aspects within each conception of teaching  -  actions,  intentions and beliefs  were equally important.  -  implied that they  The study tested this conjecture.  The  second assumption was that teaching is thought of as a process involving relationships between learners and content, teacher and learners, and teacher and content. elements  The relationships among these  (referred to as relational elements) might be different  for each of the five conceptions of teaching.  Within each  conception, the relationships among the three elements varied in terms of their focus and centrality.  Scale items were  9  developed to reflect the nature of these elements in each conception of teaching. The second purpose endeavored to explain why instructors have different conception scores.  A guiding framework shown in  Figure 1 was developed to help predict Pratt’s five conceptions of teaching.  The conceptions of teaching, as dependent  variables, were presumed to be influenced and determined by three general categories of independent personal, socio— cultural/educational and program characteristics or variables. While the three categories of independent variables were assumed to be important,  some characteristics or variables in the more significant than others in  categories might turn out to be  explaining or predicting dominant conceptions of teaching if they exist. The context (or setting)  represented those “external  factors” which impinged on the individual in terms of shaping, reinforcing or modifying one’s existing dominant conceptions of teaching, and is represented by a bigger box encompassing the personal,  socio—cultural and program variables.  Although the  context in which an individual performs his or her task of teaching is often considered important (Pratt, Beder, Carrea & Rubenson,  1983),  operationalize this variable. investigated.  1992; Touchette,  it is difficult to  In this study, context was not  10  Figure 1.  Relationship between personal,  socio—cultural/  educational and program characteristics and conceptions of teaching.  Independent Variables  Dependent Variables  Context  Personal Characteristics (such as gender, age, ethnicity)  Pratt’s Five Conceptions of Teaching Engineering Apprenticeship Developmental Nurturing Social Reform -  -  —  -  Socio—cultural/ educational Characteristics (such as living arrangement, education)  Program Characteristics (such as class size, type of program)  -  11  The third purpose focused on determining whether or not there is a single most dominant conception of teaching held by an instructor.  Pratt (1992)  assumed that most instructors usually  have one dominant conception of teaching.  Hence, one of the  purposes of the study was to determine the presence or absence of dominant conceptions of teaching. Finally, the fourth purpose involved predicting dominant conceptions using three categories of inductively derived independent variables.  Discriminant analysis was employed to  determine which independent variables best predict dominant A procedure for identifying dominant  conceptions of teaching.  conception was developed and described in Chapter Seven. The significance of this study can be envisioned in two different ways.  First, by operationalizing conceptions of  teaching and identifying dominant conception, this study can help clarify teachers’ understanding of teaching, with regard to their actions, learning,  intentions and beliefs about the content, goals of outcomes of teaching, and roles and responsibilities as  a teacher (or instructor).  Second, this study is useful in  establishing how different conceptions of teaching are held by different instructors.  Such an understanding would have  implications for teaching evaluation and the role of culture and other psycho—social variables in shaping conceptions of teaching. More specifically, the study would be beneficial to adult educators and instructors by drawing attention to the fact there are diverse and alternative ways of understanding teaching, and that teaching should not be construed as either entirely  12  andragogical centered).  (learner—centered)  or pedagogical  (teacher—  Moreover, by highlighting the different conceptions  of teaching to the instructors and by identifying their dominant conceptions, they are better able to reflect on their teaching and to make changes that might improve their instruction of adults.  Selection of Independent Variables  The central question concerned the author’s ability to predict an individual’s dominant conception of teaching.  In  other words, what variables best predict or explain the possession of an Engineering, Apprenticeship or some other conceptions of teaching?  For example,  if Teacher A is primarily  committed to an Engineering conception while Teacher B appears wedded to Nurturing, what variables best predict their dominant conceptions? Chapter Three presents literature pertaining to these questions.  Even a casual examination reveals a paucity of theory  that addresses whether dominant conceptions of teaching exist. Instead of simply clumping variables that might predict conceptions of teaching, an inductive process was employed to identify independent variables. in an adult education program  —  Colleagues and graduate students in a variety of settings and with  differing personal and professional backgrounds  —  were asked to  identify “one crucial variable” that might explain why an  13  instructor holds a dominant conception (either Engineering, Apprenticeship, Developmental, Nurturing or Social Reform).  The  procedures employed to do this are described in Chapter Three.  Research Methodology  Adult education instructors from the Vancouver and New Westminster School Boards constituted the population for the study.  Both school boards have a diverse mix of instructors from  different professional, educational, ethnic and cultural backgrounds, adults.  and offer a wide range of courses and programs for  There were 1100 adult education instructors engaged by  the Vancouver School Board and 167 instructors by the New Westminster School Board during the time of this study.  A mail  survey was used to gather data from these instructors.  Structure of Dissertation  This dissertation is organized into nine chapters. One has introduced the background, framework of the research.  Chapter  and four purposes  Chapter Two presents a literature review  pertaining to research on teaching and Pratt’s five conceptions of teaching.  Chapter Three describes a procedure for identifying  the independent variables thought to predict conceptions of teaching.  It also includes a discussion on the rationale for  using these variables and their operational definitions. Chapter Four,  In  a detailed description of the development of the  14  Conception of Teachina Scales (CTS)  is given,  followed by a  description of the procedures used to assess the instrument’s validity and reliability. described in Chapter Five.  Data collection and processing are Chapter Six presents a socio  demographic description of the respondents.  This is followed by  Chapter Seven which describes procedures for refining the CTS. Analysis of the results using multiple regression and discriminant function procedures is reported in Chapter Eight. In the final chapter (Chapter Nine), the main conclusions and implications are elaborated and further research proposed.  Summary  This chapter has described a brief background of the study, and raised several questions which help to formulate the purposes of the research.  Four purposes of the research were:  operationalize Pratt’s five conceptions of teaching, predict conceptions of teaching scores,  (3)  (1) to (2)  to  to determine the  existence of dominant conceptions of teaching and (4) to determine the extent to which personal, socio—cultural/ educational and program variables predict dominant conceptions of teaching.  15  CHAPTER TWO  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  Introduction  The purpose of this chapter is to review literature pertaining to research on teaching in adult education.  Such a  review will provide useful knowledge about how teaching is understood in adult education.  In the field of adult and  continuing education, research on teaching has lagged behind similar research done in formal educational settings.  Numerous  books and articles on adult teaching have been published (Apps, 1991; Brookfield, 1980; Knox, 1960; Tom,  1990; Dickinson,  1980; Rogers,  1986;  1973; Hostler,  Seaman & Fellenz,  1982; Knowles, 1989; Staton,  1984), but these publications are, by and large,  oriented toward prescriptions for adult teaching, teaching techniques and strategies, and evaluation of teaching.  The  prescriptive literature on adult teaching is primarily concerned with how to make a good, successful or effective teacher and is largely based on:  (1)  informed professional opinion;  (2)  philosophical assumptions associated with humanistic psychology and progressive education; and (3)  a growing body of research and  theory on adult learning, development, and socialization (Beder & Darkenwald,  1982).  Theoretical work and empirical studies on  adult instruction, on the other hand, are limited.  16  In the formal educational system, research on teaching has flourished and expanded dramatically in the past decades (Powell & Beard, 1987; Wittrock,  1986).  In the review of literature on  research on teaching, Powell and Beard (1987) noted that many of the studies on teaching were conducted for many purposes, such  as, to increase the understanding of life in the classroom, to develop information with which to modify the behaviors of teachers, and to identify important teaching behaviors which might form the basis for teacher evaluation. publication of Dunkin and Biddle’s (1974)  Following  influential book, A  Study of Teachinc, process—product research on teaching was the dominant research agenda for many educational researchers interested in the behavioral aspects of teaching, and the relationship between teaching and learning.  The process—product  approach continues to provide the conceptual framework for research on teaching, despite its inherent weakness in assuming that there is a simple linear relationship between teaching and learning (Issler, 1983; Powell, 1977).  Research on Adult Teaching  A review of literature on adult education indicates three main directions or genres of research on adult instruction. first, occurring in the 1950s and early l960s, roles and competencies of adult educators.  The  focused on the  The task was to  identify dominant roles and skills of a “good” teacher of adults. The second direction (prominent in 1960s and 19705),  informed  17  largely by Knowles’ work on andragogy,  focused on specific  actions and attitudes teachers should take whenteaching adult learners.  Studies were conducted to assess and distinguish  andragogue and pedagogue teachers, their educational orientations and teaching behaviors (Beder & Darkenwald, 1982; Hadley, 1975; Holmes, 1980).  Other studies using the andragogy-pedagogy  continuum began to examine instructional styles of adult teachers (Conti, 1979,  1982, 1984, 1985).  Finally, the third research  direction, beginning in the early 1980s and continued into the l990s,  focused on ways in which teaching is conceived and  understood by adult teachers (Beno, 1993; Johnson, 1993; Larsson, 1983; Pratt, 1992).  In the next section, literature pertaining  to research on teaching from these directions is reviewed.  Roles and Conmetencies  The initial focus on adult teaching was directed toward examining and identifying the roles, skills and education of adult educators (both instructors and administrators).  Houle  (1956) classified groups of adult educators according to their levels in a pyramid of leadership.  There were three groups of  educators of adults or leaders in adult education.  The largest  group of adult educators which forms the base of the pyramid is represented by the volunteers.  They include individuals involved  in various community and civic organizations to advance popular or grassroots understanding of such special fields as citizenship, safety, ethnic relations, health and planned  18  parenthood.  The second and immediate group is represented by  people whose jobs include some adult educational functions.  At  the top of the pyramid are those who have a primary concern for adult education and basic career expectations in the field. These are people who are directly involved in the adult educational activities of public schools, community colleges, universities, libraries, museums, prisons, and other institutions. In an attempt to elevate the professional status of adult education, several writers in the field identified key roles for the adult educator/teacher.  Axford (1969) claimed that adult  education is one of the greatest professions in the contemporary world and contended that the adult educator performs a variety of roles.  An adult educator is a catalyst, program planner, need  analyzer, material resource, counselor—advisor, researcher, speaker, consultant, critic, change agent, referral source and organizer.  Teachers of adults, according to Knowles (1980),  perform two primary roles:  (1) to be content specialists and/or  (2) to be facilitators of the adult learning process.  Content  specialists believe their important function is to impart knowledge or deliver content.  Facilitators, on the other hand,  view themselves as “enablers” in the learning process.  Their  primary concern is to assist adult learners in becoming more responsible for their own learning. Brookfield (1989) for teachers of adults. artist,  suggested that there are three broad roles These roles are:  (1) teacher as an  (2) teacher as a facilitator, and (3) teacher as a  19  critical analyst.  Teacher as an artist, according to Brookfield  (1989), refers to a conception of the teaching role in which qualities of creativity, innovation, sensitivity are paramount.  improvisation and  The second role conception, that is,  teacher as a facilitator, was defined by Knowles (1980) discussed above.  and  The third role conception, teacher as critical  analyst, is based on the notion that a teacher’s tasks are “to suggest alternatives to current ways of thinking, perceiving and behaving, to point out contradiction, to draw attention to relationships of dependence, and to prompt a critical scrutiny of values and uncritically assimilated assumptions” 1989, p. 210).  (Brookfield,  Boshier (1985) observed that in any culture,  adult educator roles can be classified as planner or teacher. However, the primacy of these roles is dependent on the educational outcomes and contexts. Concern over the professional effectiveness of adult educators led to several inquiries into adult educators’ qualities and competencies. Chamberlain (1961)  investigated the  competencies of adult educators, and his primary focus was to identify and classify needed competencies.  The study involved 90  prominent adult educators who responded to an instrument in which they were asked to rate 45 different concepts, skills and values for their appropriateness to the practice of adult education. These 45 statements of competency were then rank—ordered according to the mean score of each statement.  The top rated  competency statements pertained to adult educators’ belief in the potential of learning among adults, an understanding of the  20  conditions necessary to bring about learning, and personal qualities of adult educators, such as being imaginative in program development, an effective communicator and group leader. Robinson (1962), Rossman and Bunning (1978), and Daniel and Rose (1982) continued to investigate what “experts” see as uniquely appropriate knowledge and skills for adult educators. Robinson (1962) reported that there were some differences as well as similarities in mean ratings of the 16 competency criteria for education of adult educators among four groups of 35 experts in adult education.  Competency criteria used in the study included  adult educators’ leadership qualities, knowledge of adult psychology, training in adult education, understanding of community development and others.  The Rossman and Bunning (1978)  study used a delphi technique to assess the views of 141 American and Canadian university professors of adult education on required skills and knowledge.  Higher rated skills and knowledge were  found to fall into six general categories, namely, the adult educator, the field of adult education, the adult learner, the adult education environment, programming and process. Rose (1982) took a different approach.  Daniel and  The skills and knowledge  statements were presented to both practitioners and professors of adult education to determine whether there were indeed differences in rankings of knowledge and skills between practitioners and professors of adult education.  Findings  revealed that the two groups tended to agree more on skill statements than on knowledge statements.  21  Instead of assessing competencies from the viewpoint of experts, some researchers investigated competencies from the standpoint of the practitioners (that is, adult instructors). Drawing from the literature pertaining to research on adult learning, Pankowski (1975) developed a catalog of 12 competencies which were considered essential for adult education teachers to assist adults in achieving instructional goals and objectives. The list of competencies include, among other things, knowledge, involvement of learners, selection of resources, planning, and use of appropriate instructional techniques. were by no means all-inclusive.  The 12 competencies  Applying a modified delphi  technique, Smith (1978) developed a list of 136 “necessary competencies” for adult basic education teachers.  The  competencies were categorized under four major headings; scope and goal of adult education, learner and (4)  (2) curriculum,  instructional process.  (1)  (3) adult  Ulmer (1980) described a  study in which adult basic education teachers were asked to indicate the characteristics of the successful teachers.  The  most frequent response centered on knowledge of the characteristics and life circumstances of adult learners.  The  second response in terms of frequency was “love of people”. Knowledge of subject matter was the third most frequent response. This was followed closely by individualized adult-centered instruction.  Other characteristics listed by respondents in the  following order were patience, sense of humor, ability to communicate and creativity.  22  The above studies generally emphasized the personal factors (qualities) of teachers, knowledge and understanding of adult learners and their procedures in teaching adults.  The primary  concern of the competency approach to studying adult teaching was to identify the attributes and skills which were deemed appropriate or necessary for developing and training effective teachers in adult education.  Andragogv and Pedacrocrv  Knowles’  (1980) attempt to draw a distinction between  pedagogy (as the art and science of teaching children) and andragogy (as the art and science of helping adults learn) aroused a lot of interest.  Andragogy is premised on four  assumptions about the characteristics of adult learners: self—concept  —  (1)  as a person matures in age, self—concept changes  from one of total dependence to one of increasing self— directedness;  (2) experience  —  experience of life increases with  age, and that these experiences may be used as resources of learning;  (3)  readiness to learn  —  an adult learner’s readiness  to learn is increasingly the product of the developmental tasks required for the performance of evolving social roles; and (4) orientation to learning  —  adults come to educational activities  largely because they are experiencing some inadequacy in coping with current life problems.  Pedagogy, on the other hand,  is  23  premised on conceptions that stress the transmittal of knowledge as the purpose of education.  Knowles (1980)  further argued that  the andragogical principles are especially appropriate for adult education. Brookfield (1986) observed that the concept of andragogy has since been interpreted in several ways.  To some, andragogy is an  empirical descriptor of adult learning styles, and to others, a conceptual anchor from which a set of appropriate adult teaching behaviors can be derived.  The concept of andragogy as a unified  adult learning theory has not received universal acceptance, although as pointed out by Sheridan (1989), it forever transformed the ways in which teachers of adults designed their classroom and perceived their students. Andragogy has been widely debated by both practitioners and academics.  Davenport and Davenport (1985) pointed out that there  is a developing data base on andragogy but still a need to demonstrate the explanatory and predictive powers of a fully developed theory.  Cross (1982) questioned whether andragogy  could be viewed as a unified theory of adult education and described Knowles’ claim as optimistic.  Some critics (Day &  Baskett, 1982; Jarvis, 1987) argued that andragogy is not a theory of adult learning, but an educational and humanistic ideology rooted in an inquiry-based learning and teaching paradigm.  Still others (Hartree, 1984) queried whether the  andragogical model is a model of learning or a model for teaching adults.  Despite the debate, research continued to use Knowles’  andragogical model to investigate adult learning, teaching  24  behavior of adult teachers, teachers’ educational orientations and teaching styles.  Several studies are briefly reviewed in the  following sections.  Teaching Adults and Pre-Adults  Proponents of andragogy (McKenzie, 1977; Rogers, 1976; Zahn, 1967) maintained adults should be taught differently from children.  These differences included strategies and techniques  of instruction.  Zahn (1967) claimed that adults are not  children, and techniques successful in teaching the young could not be transferred without change to teaching adults.  An  investigation carried out by Beder and Darkenwald (1982) suggested there were differences in teaching adults and pre— adults.  The researchers concluded that when teaching adults,  “teachers appear to emphasize responsive, learner—centered behaviors and de—emphasize controlling and structuring behaviors” (Beder & Darkenwald, p.  142).  In a separate study using factor  analysis on the same database, Darkenwald (1982)  reported  findings which supported the claim that teachers tend to emphasize learner—centered or responsive behaviors when teaching adults.  Using reported and actual (observed) teaching behaviors  of a group of university, community college and public school teachers, Gorham (1985)  found that there were differences in  teaching adults and pre—adults.  Teachers perceived adults to be  different from pre—adults and reported a less directive and structured approach when teaching adults.  25  Educational and PhilosoDhical Orientations of Teachers  Hadley (1975)  developed an Educational Orientation  questionnaire (EOO) to measure instructors’ attitude toward education along an andragogy—pedagogy continuum.  The instrument  incorporated six attitudinal dimensions of an adult educator’s role: purposes of education, nature of learners, characteristics of learning experience, management of the learning experience, evaluation, and relationships of educator to learners and among learners.  Andragogically oriented instructors were thought to  believe in collaboration with learners, and that learners are self-directed in their learning.  Pedagogically oriented  instructors, on the other hand, were assumed to believe in teacher and agency control over the knowledge and skills to be learned and over learning process (Holmes,  1980).  Although  instructors of adults are often classified as either andragogically oriented or pedagogically oriented, Holmes (1980) found that differences in educational orientation were continuous rather than dichotomous. Instead of assessing instructors’ andragogical—pedagogical orientations, Zinn (1983)  developed the Philosophy of Adult  Education Inventory (PAEI), to categorize an instructor’s personal philosophy of adult education with respect to five adult education philosophies: liberal, behaviorist, progressive, humanistic,  and radical.  Using Zinn’s PAEI, McKenzie (1985)  found differences in philosophical orientations among business  26  trainers, religious educators and graduate students in adult education.  Business trainers were more inclined to hold  progressive and behaviorist philosophies, while religious educators were more inclined to possess a humanistic philosophy. Graduate students in adult education were more inclined to hold a progressive philosophy.  Teaching Styles  The concept of teaching style was first introduced into the literature of adult education as a broad term to describe a particular teaching behavior in a specific educational setting. Although there is a great deal of research interest in the concept, there has been little agreement about what actually constitutes a teaching style (Conti, 1989).  Some regard teaching  style as external teacher characteristics that can be manipulated in relation to student behaviors. 1979; Cornett,  Other writers (Dunn and Dunn,  1983; Grow, 1991) even suggested that teaching  styles could be modified to respond to students’ learning styles. From another perspective, teaching style is viewed as a set of behavioral models which the teacher can apply in different learning situations (Ellis, 1979).  Another perspective  conceptualizes teaching style as defined by the internal qualities of the teacher which affect classroom behaviors (Conti, 1989).  Within this perspective, teaching style is viewed as a  range of behaviors in which the teacher can operate based on a certain value or belief system.  The andragogy—pedagogy dichotomy  27  provided a theoretical as well as a research framework to investigate types of teaching styles (teacher—centered and learner—centered), and to examine the relationship between teaching styles and learning outcomes. Conti (1985)  reported a  study wherein he claimed that a teacher’s style had a significant influence on the amount of the students’ academic gain, although the results were not consistent with the general adult education literature.  Students in classes with teachers who practised the  collaborative, learner—centered mode did not always have the highest degree of achievement.  Conti (1985) argued that the  influence of teaching style differed according to the type of classes in the program.  In classes preparing students to take  the General Educational Development (GED) test, the teachercentered approach was found to be the most effective.  This  finding seemed to contradict the conventional view in adult education literature that the collaborative mode is generally the most effective means for teaching adults.  However, in the  English as a Second Language (ESL) and the basic-level classes, the findings were consistent with the general adult education literature which suggested that the learner—centered approach led to most learning.  Conti (1985) then concluded that the  effectiveness of a teaching style is related to other factors. An instrument known as Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS) developed by Conti (1979) was designed to assess teaching styles.  The PALS has since been used in various studies to  investigate the teaching styles of adult basic education teachers (Dinges, 1981), hospital and community extension service  28  educators (Douglass, 1982), and instructors of technical, allied health and business programs (Girondi & Gaibraith, Instead of teaching styles, Apps (1973, 1989,  1992). 1991) claimed  that philosophical foundations are the basis of effective teaching.  By identifying and examining personal beliefs and  values, teachers of adults can improve their performance and change the way in which they view their roles as teachers.  Conti  (1989) argued that the philosophical beliefs “are translated into action in the classroom through the teacher’s individual teaching style”  (p. 4).  Hiemstra (1988)  showed how instructors’ personal  values and philosophy could be translated into practical action. He described a procedure in which personal philosophy could be translated into professional practice, comprising of educational aims, method and content.  Grow (1991) using a staged self-  directed learning model proposed that adult learners advance through four distinct stages of increasing self—direction, and teachers can help or hinder that progressive development.  Good  or effective teaching matches the learners’ stage of self— direction and helps them advance toward greater self—direction. Grow (1991) even suggested that teacher’s teaching styles should be varied according to the learning situations. Grow’s (1991)  Critical of  staged self—directed learning model, Tennant (1992)  questioned whether teachers of adults have the ability and willingness to vary their teaching styles according to adults’ learning situations.  29  ConcelDtions of Teaching  Instead of examining teaching as a behavioral phenomenon, research on conceptions of teaching focused on instructors’ ways of thinking about teaching.  The research focus is on how  teachers understand and interpret the meaning of teaching and how such meaning perspectives influence the thinking, udgement, and decision—making in teaching.  The practice of teaching is assumed  to be governed by a teacher’s conceptions and beliefs Peterson,  1986; Nespor,  1987; Shavelson,  1983).  (Clark &  Using  phenomenographic research, several studies on conceptions of teaching of adult instructors were conducted (Beno, Johnson,  1993; Larsson,  1983; Pratt,  1992)  A conception is defined as an abstract, representation of a phenomenon.  1993;  cognitive  A conception can be represented  in a variety of ways, with respect to foci and centralities.  The  structure of a conception may vary considerably from a relatively amorphous collection of ideas with no strong connections to one which is interrelated and possesses a large measure of internal consistency (Hewson & Hewson,  1989, p.  194).  Conceptions of  teaching are perspectives, ideas, views and meanings which teachers hold and attach to teaching.  Conceptions are nested  within the socio—psychological realms of meaning, and are conceived differently by people depending on their values, beliefs and intentions (Pratt,  1992, p.  203).  Conceptions of teaching should not be confused with teaching approaches or methods.  Conceptions of teaching are a composite  30  representation of actions, intentions, and beliefs related to teaching and learning.  They are rooted in one’s epistemology and  normative beliefs about role and responsibility in teaching.  As  such, they are relatively stable across teaching situations. Approaches or methods, on the other hand, are essentially concerned with how instructors go about conducting their Teaching approaches and methods can, and do, change  teaching.  according to circumstances.  However, approaches or methods are  most apparent in an instructor’s actions; conceptions are most apparent in how an instructor rationalizes and substantiates those actions.  Though conceptions of teaching and approaches are  not mutually exclusive, neither are they synonymous.  An  elaboration of Pratt’s work is presented in the next section.  Pratt’s Five Conceptions of Teaching  Using a modified phenomenographic approach, Pratt (1992) identified five dominant conceptions of teaching (namely, Engineering, Apprenticeship, Developmental, Nurturing and Social Reform).  In presenting and analyzing these five conceptions of  teaching, a general model of teaching comprised of five elements —  teacher, learner, content, context and “ideal”  —  was used to  illustrate the interrelationship of these elements within each conception.  For each conception, the interrelationships among  the elements are different, both in terms of centrality and focus.  Conceptions of teaching are assumed “to be composed of,  and will vary according to, three interdependent aspects, namely  31  actions,  intentions, and beliefs regarding the elements within  the general model”  (Pratt,  1992, p. 205).  The three aspects are  briefly described below.  Actions The Webster’s Dictionary (1988, p. process of doing something”.  8)  defines action as “the  Among the three aspects, actions  are the most concrete and accessible aspect of a person’s conception of teaching (Pratt,  1992)  Intentions Intentions are aims, purposes and goals.  Intentions  emphasize goal achievement, that is, what teachers of adults are trying to accomplish in the context of teaching (Pratt,  1992).  Intentions also include the agenda which the teachers may have for the adult learners.  Beliefs Beliefs,  according to Rokeach (1968),  are inferences made by  an individual about underlying states of expectancy. cannot be directly observed but must be inferred.  Beliefs  Thus beliefs  held by an individual are considered to be the most abstract aspect of a person’s conception(s)  of teaching.  Beliefs  are  “expressed as either normative or causal propositions held with  varying degrees of clarity, confidence, and centrality” (Pratt, 1992, p. 208).  32  The three aspects (actions, intentions, and beliefs) are assumed to be interdependent.  Each is also assumed to affect the  others in a reciprocal and dynamic manner (Pratt, 1992).  The  five dominant conceptions of teaching identified by Pratt (1992) are described below.  Engineering Conception The Engineering conception of teaching is characterized by the belief that teaching must be systematic and efficient, with strong emphasis on the efficient transmission of information or knowledge.  The conception is basically teacher—centered, and the  primary concern is on how content can be delivered to the learners.  The dominant elements are the teacher and the content.  Teaching expertise is primarily associated with accomplished performances, efficient coverage of content, more productive management of time, or the development of instructional materials (Pratt, 1992, p. 210).  Knowledge is assumed to be relatively  stable and external to the learner.  The teacher is assumed to be  a content specialist or expert, and expected to know what learners need.  It is the teacher’s primary task to transmit and  deliver knowledge to the students.  As a result, learners are  perceived in terms of the content and goals of instruction and often objectified as the “target audience”  (Pratt, 1992, p. 210).  The purpose of teaching is to provide a prescribed amount of knowledge or information to students within a given time period.  33  To Freire (1992), an Engineering conception would be analogous to the “banking concept of education”, in which teaching is seen as “depositing knowledge”. Teaching involves finding efficient means to achieve set desirable ends, predetermined by the instructor or the institution.  Teaching techniques are considered important and  should be applied effectively across learners, content and goals. In addition,  it is assumed that teachers can design learning  materials and procedures appropriate for all learners.  Thus, the  focus is on efficiently packaging and transmitting content to the learners. Learning, on the other hand, is assumed to occur in observable and predictive ways that can be made “more effective through systematically controlling the students’ learning environment”  (Pratt, 1992, p. 210).  to achieve maximum results.  Learning has to be organized  There is a substantial commitment on  the part of the teacher to achieve certainty and precision in specifying what their students need to learn, how they can efficiently learn it, and how best to measure that learning.  The  Engineering conception is often found in educators (for example, corporate trainers, training officers, vocational teachers) working in settings such as the military, private corporations, and government training bodies.  These organizations generally  specify the kind of content and skills to be learned or delivered. expert.  The instructor’s primary role is to be a content  34  Apprenticeship Conception Within the Apprenticeship conception the dominant elements, again, are the teacher and content. perceived to be inseparable.  These elements are, however,  The Apprenticeship conception is  characterized by a belief that there exists a body of established knowledge and wisdom within the teacher (an expert), and that such knowledge and wisdom is to be handed down from an expert to the novice.  The purpose of teaching is to introduce to learners  the ideas, values and methods of practice available.  Within this  conception, there is a sense of moral duty and obligation on the part of the teacher to ensure proper transfer of knowledge, wisdom and values to his/her students. Teachers are not just experts, but also “role models” for learners to emulate.  Pratt (1992) noted that learning is  believed to be contextual, that is, something that happens within the context of practice. The teaching—learning transaction takes place in a close mentor relationship between the teacher and student.  It is  represented by a expert—novice relationship in which the student learns from the teacher—mentor.  In the process, the learner  acquires the skills, knowledge and values of his/her teacher— mentor.  Such teacher—learner relationships are evident in most  professional training or internships especially in the fields of medicine, dentistry, legal practice, craft trades.  fine arts, and specialized  35  Develoimental ConceDtion The Developmental conception of teaching assumes that learners’ cognitive potential can be developed through teaching. The conception is essentially learner—centered and teacher is assumed to be responsive to the needs of the learners.  The  dominant elements are the learners (intellect) and the teacher whose role is to facilitate the learning.  Learners are assumed  to be self—directed, their experiences are a source of knowledge and learning, and they possess the intellectual potential to learn new ways of dealing with complex issues and problems. Knowledge is believed to be personally constructed, and learning is an on—going process. Teaching is understood in terms of helping learners develop new or different ways of knowing and learning.  Central to this  conception, according to Pratt (1992), is: a belief in the existence and potential emergence of increasingly complex forms of thought as individuals developed. People described a variety of paths (such as developmental stages, cognitive styles, and forms of reasoning), but in effect assumed a cognitive potential which could be developed through teaching. They espoused a view of knowledge and human potential that placed high regard on individual differences (p. 213). Learners are thought to be unique in their own ways, and are perceived to be “dynamic elements” with variations in their prior learning, experience, and intellectual potential.  It is assumed that people have prior knowledge  and experience, and the teacher’s responsibility is to stimulate or present new and different ways of knowing,  36  thinking and problem—solving.  Teachers see themselves as  acting as guides rather than experts.  The teacher attempts  to stimulate curiosity, raise questions and even encourage learners to challenge the content.  The focus is on the  learning process, with the content “as the vehicle by which teachers could help people learn how to learn and achieve higher levels of thinking”  (Pratt, p 214).  Developmental  conception of teaching is found in people who work in formal, higher and adult continuing education.  Nurturing Conception The Nurturing conception is also learner—centered, but the focus is on enhancement of the self—concept and personal relationships.  Within this conception, there is the emergence of  an ethical disposition that is “derived from a sense of caring and interpersonal regard for the welfare of another, rather than from a sense of duty or obligation (as with the Apprenticeship Conception)”  (Pratt, 1992, p. 214).  This conception emphasizes a  supportive teaching—learning climate as a means of bringing about self—esteem and confidence in learning. The dominant elements are the learners (self—concept) and the teacher.  Within this conception of teaching the emphasis is  on establishing a healthy interpersonal relationship between the teacher and learner.  Pratt (1992) noted that the relationship  between the teacher and learner is far from permissive.  The  teacher strives to set a healthy “balance between caring and challenging, supporting and directing”  (Pratt, 1992, p. 214).  37  The teaching process is guided by a genuine concern and desire to help people overcome the effects of previous (negative) experience that might have diminished their self-concept as learner, and dignity as a person.  It is believed that all  learning could be facilitated by a relationship based on mutual trust, rightful dignity and reciprocal respect.  There is a  strong belief that a conducive learning environment must be fostered to promote effective learning.  The role of a teacher is  to provide nurturing and caring support to the learners.  The  Nurturing conception is often found in teachers engaged in adult basic education and literacy training.  Social Reform Conception Social Reform conception is unique for its emphasis on an “ideal” or set of principles which are linked to a person’s vision of a better social order or society.  A person’s teaching  is informed and guided by this ideal vision.  Teaching is  understood in terms of the ideal to be accomplished (Pratt, 1992).  The ideal is based upon a particular system of beliefs  derived from some ethical or personal code, a religious belief, or a political ideology.  Pratt (1992) claimed that within this  conception, the process of teaching is “framed within a conviction that a certain ideal is appropriate for all and necessary for a better society”  (p. 216).  The conception is not  necessarily dominated by any single philosophical or  38  epistemological view.  Instead, there are varied and multiple  views of knowledge, learners, self and content, depending upon the individual’s particular ideal. With reference to the ideal, Pratt (1992)  further noted that  within Social Reform conception: the ideology was explicit and occupied center—stage; it had emerged from an ambiguous and covert position of influence to become a clear and foremost element in the person’s thinking about teaching (p. 217).  As a result, the focus of teaching shifted from micro to macro concerns: from finding better technologies of instruction, ways of knowing, and means of facilitating cognitive or personal development to issues of a moral or political nature. Actors and content were secondary to a broader agenda and there was a shift in emphasis from the individual to the collective. Their particular ideal was the basis for reasoning and a guide to judgement; it was the figure and all else the ground (Pratt, 1992, p. 217).  In the Social Reform conception, the ideal becomes the guiding basis for teaching and for developing the content to be learned.  Such a conception is evident in people involved in  religious instruction, political education and trade union training programs.  39  Summary  This chapter has described some of the major research directions of teaching in adult education.  Earlier studies in  adult instruction had focused primarily on roles, competencies, teaching orientations and styles. behavioral aspects of teaching.  The focus was on the Recent research literature  indicates a growing interest in finding ways in which teaching is understood in adult education.  Different studies have reported  different conceptions of teaching held by adult instructors. From interviews of 253 adult educators and instructors in Canada, China, Hong Kong, Singapore and the United States, Pratt (1992) identified five conceptions of teaching: Engineering, Apprenticeship, Developmental, Nurturing, and Social Reform.  One  of the purpose of this study was to operationalize Pratt’s five conceptions of teaching and to develop an instrument to assess instructors’ conceptions of teaching.  40  CHAPTER THREE  AN OVERVIEW OF THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLES  Introduction  This chapter describes a procedure for identifying the possible independent variables that predict Pratt’s dominant conceptions of teaching.  An inductive process, involving several  colleagues and a group of 27 graduate students in adult education, was employed to help the author identify possible predictors of dominant conceptions of teaching.  Determining Independent Variables  If one were to ask any teacher why s/he is committed to an Engineering, Developmental or other conception of teaching, one could expect a plethora of replies.  Some teachers would say they  were strongly influenced by a charismatic figure such as Malcolm Knowles.  Others would say they have an Engineering conception  because this is “what is expected at their place of work” or “we have always done it this way”.  Still others would say that their  conception of teaching is just an outgrowth of their “philosophy” of life, their attitude to politics, their “personal theories” or a result of childhood experiences.  41  As noted in Chapter Two, there is no shortage of literature on teaching behavior or style.  But conceptions of teaching are  deep—rooted cognitive structures and while there is some important literature on various subjectivist constructions of teaching (Larsson, 1983, 1988; Marton,  1981,  1988)  few of these  writers have been concerned about why teachers possess various conceptions.  They have been more concerned with the structure of  the conceptions and not with how people come to develop or acquire their conceptions.  Since there is limited literature on  how teachers acquire a dominant conception of teaching, the selection of independent variables as predictors of dominant conceptions has to be made based on what some practitioners consider as “crucial variables” in determining one’s dominant conception(s) of teaching. Thus, an inductive process was employed to identify independent variables that might predict dominant conception. The author first engaged three doctoral students and a Professor (all familiar with Pratt’s five conceptions and the subjectivist ontology on which they were based)  in a discussion wherein they  were invited to name one “crucial variable” that explained variance in dominant conceptions. Table 1 below.  The answers are summarized in  In this group there was a Canadian-Chilean  agrologist, a Tanzanian agriculturalist, a Canadian public employee and a Professor of Adult Education . The Canadian— 1 Chilean claimed that the socio-political background of the 1 Thanks are due to Alejandro Palacios, Malongo Miozi, Elizabeth Carriere and Roger Boshier.  42  teachers would most likely determine their dominant conceptions, the Tanzanian thought it would be teachers’ personal and social backgrounds, the Canadian public employee thought that the socio cultural background of the teachers would be the chief determinant of the dominant conception.  The professor considered  personality would be a key predictor of people’s dominant conceptions of teaching.  None claimed that their chosen  variables would explain all the variance in dominant conceptions, but these were deemed to be the chief determinants.  Table 1 Broad Determinants of the Dominant Conception of Teaching  Informant  Nominated Determinant  Canadian-Chilean Agrologist  Socio-political background  Tanzanian Agriculturalist Canadian Public Employee New Zealander Professor  Personal and social background Socio-cultural background  Personality  Next, two graduate classes of 27 people in the UBC adult education program listened to a lecture on the five conceptions of teaching and were then handed a 3 x 4 inch card each and  43  invited to “list one crucial variable that, in your view, explains why one person has one conception and another person holds or is committed to another conception”.  The results are  summarized in Table 2.  Table 2 Results from the Inductive Process  Category  Statements Made  Personal  “gender” “age” “personality” “tradition” “cultural origin” “religious upbringing” “community which they live in”  Socio—cultural/ educational  “having good experience as a student” “how we were taught” “how you were as a learner” “educational level” “own education (training)” “education” “experience in the world” “their own role models (educators)” “role models (teacher)” “a mentor with the same conception”  Program  “course content” “curriculum itself” “content what they are teaching” “nature of content” “setting” —  44  The cards were then laid on a table.  Descriptions on the  cards were examined, and the cards were next sorted into three categories.  The task of sorting was done by the author and  verified by his advisor.  The first set could be labelled  personal, the second set socio—cultural/educational, and the third set program variables. were vague, for example, knowledge or skills”,  Descriptions on the cards which  “values”, “upbringing”, “passing on  “childhood experiences”,  “own learning  styles”, and “familial variables” were not sorted into any of the above categories.  The variables listed in Table 3 were renamed  and grouped into three broad categories:  (1) personal,  (2)  socio—  cultural/educational, and (3) program.  Independent Variables  The independent variables identified for this study are discussed in the following format: (2) theoretical basis, and (3)  (1) rationale for inclusion,  operational definition.  The  protocol for coding the independent variables is shown in Appendix D.  Personal Variables  Adult education instructors come from different social and cultural backgrounds with varying degrees of experience and diverse interests.  Each teacher differs in terms of his or her  thinking, belief and judgement.  Because of their individual  45  characteristics, their behaviors and conceptions of teaching are different.  Numerous studies in formal educational  settings have  utilized biographical and personality characteristics of teachers in various domains of teaching and outcomes of teaching (Powell & Beard,  1987).  In thinking about personal variables that might predict an instructor’s dominant conception of teaching, the author accessed views of colleagues, other graduate students, and a limited amount of relevant literature that pertains to this question. For example, while one person suggested that women were more inclined to hold a Nurturing conception of teaching than men (who were often portrayed as being wedded to an Engineering conception), there was little research evidence that supported this presumed relationship.  One could also speculate about the  extent to which people who have more years of adult teaching experience would have a more Nurturing or Developmental conception than those with fewer years of adult teaching experience.  Other variables that might pertain to one’s dominant  conception include biographical characteristics such age, gender, personality, values and attitudes, and basic ability levels. Therefore, the question is:  What personal variables best predict  an individual’s conception of teaching?  The variables  age, ethnicity, country of birth and personality  -  —  gender,  as identified  in the above inductive process were considered and are described in the following sections.  46  Gender  Rationale for Inclusion Huyck and Hoyer (1982) noted that gender is an individual characteristic of universal significance, and every culture differentiates between males and females.  Lott  (1985) also noted  that there is ample evidence that gender is often a significant characteristic of participants in a situation and that it is a variable with predictable consequences.  Casual observation  suggests that women may be more committed to a Nurturing conception of teaching than men, although there does not appear to be any definitive or dependable research on the matter.  Theoretical Basis Gender is both a biological and social construct.  The  former refers to the distinction between male and female according to a person’s anatomical sex.  However, gender can also  be perceived as a social division frequently based on, but not necessarily coincidental with, anatomical sex.  It refers to the  social and psychological attributes by which human beings are categorized as “masculine”,  “feminine” or “androgynous”  (in which  the socio—psychological characteristics of both genders are intentionally or unintentionally combined).  Jarg and Jarg (1991)  stated that whereas “male” and “female” are terms reserved for biological differences between men and women and boys and girls, masculine and feminine are reserved for culturally—imposed behavioral and temperamental traits deemed socially appropriate  47  to the sexes.  More recently, critics have challenged these  interpretations, because:  (1) while sociologists distinguished  between sex and gender, they often treat the latter as an expression of the former, thereby giving biology a determining significance, and (2) they fail to provide the connection between the economic subordination of women and its expression through the family and personal life (Abercrombie, Hill & Turner, 1988). For some critics, it is the status of women in relation to economic production which ultimately determines male/female differences.  In this sense,  it can be argued that gender is  analogous to class relationship.  Operational Definition Gender, as used in this study, was operationally defined as “man” or “woman”.  Respondents were asked to indicate:  “Are you a  man or woman?”  Rationale for Inclusion The eventfulness of time expressed in terms of a person’s psychological and chronological age has been recognized as potentially important variable in research, because variation in age is a reflection of an individual’s sense of movement through life and experience (Lowenthal, Thurnher & Chiriboga,  1976).  The  significance of age in this study is that a person’s perspective of the world and his/her life situation changes with age and life  48  stages.  An individual’s age is a reflection of his/her life  experience and exposure to the realities of the world.  If  engagement in teaching is regarded as an important life event as well as a role within a social system, then the influence of age on conceptions of teaching is worthy of investigation.  A  question then arises: Is it possible that older people, having experienced several transitions in their lives, may be more committed to a Developmental conception than younger people who are more inclined towards holding an Engineering conception?  Theoretical Basis The age of a person can be expressed in chronological, biological or socio-psychological terms. approach,  age  (or aging)  From a biological  is the process of biological development  which takes place within the human body.  The functioning of the  hormones and the conditioning of the cells are two significant factors in human development.  From a sociological perspective,  age can be evaluated as a means of influencing behavior through the social system.  Social system defines social and economic  roles for individuals attaining certain ages, parents, and so on.  such as workers,  In addition, age is used as a social  indicator to locate individuals in the social system. From a functional age approach, the focus is on the physical, emotional and intellectual requirements throughout  49  the aging process.  Eurich (1981) observed that among the types  of criteria for functional age in adults are: susceptibility to particular diseases, capacity for physical effort, speed and coordination, level of performance on the job, problem solving and reasoning, mental health, morale, peer group identity, effectiveness in interpersonal relationships, and the capacity to process information (p. 20).  An individual’s ability to perform certain functions or to exhibit various character traits changes over the years.  Enrich  (1981) argued that regardless of one’s approach to age or aging, two concepts appear significant in human development, namely change and individuality.  Eurich (1981)  further suggested that  changes that have important consequences for human behavior are regarded as transitions. ways:  Transitions can be defined in three  (1) by time periods in the life span,  by events.  (2) by role, and (3)  Transitions defined by time periods are characterized  by divisions of life cycle into periods marked by chronological age, that is, a person proceeds through birth, infancy, early childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, middle age, old age, and death.  Aging defined by roles consists of learning new roles and  abandoning old roles.  Men and women assume a variety of age—  related roles that shape their lives and behaviors.  Transitions  defined by events are characterized by life events which determine and influence a person’s journey through life.  A  transitional event, according to Eurich (1981), “is any happening of consequence  —  including entering school, entering the job  market, getting married, becoming parents, and losing one’s  50  confidence”  (p. 10).  Events in the lifetime are “transformation  points”, some are vivid and dynamic, and some are “unlabeled” but equally powerful (Eurich, 1981).  Age therefore is a reflection  of an individual’s life experiences.  Operational Definition For the purpose of this study, chronological age (that is, the length of time a person has lived) was used.  This variable  was captured by an item requesting the respondent to indicate his/her age,  “What is your age?”  (in years).  Ethnicity  Rationale for Inclusion Ethnicity is an important variable in this study since it is directly related to socio-cultural backgrounds of individuals. Ethnicity has significant effect on individuals’ perspectives on many issues.  It is also reflected in individuals’ belief systems  and actions.  The relevance of ethnicity for this study lies  primarily in the socio-cultural heritage of typical values and ways of meeting human needs.  In addition, being in one ethnic  group or another may substantially affect an individual’s perceptions towards social phenomena.  Are teachers of Chinese  origin (known for their respect for authority) more “rooted” to an Engineering conception than teachers of Latin American origin  (known for their overt political beliefs) who might be committed to a Social Reform conception?  51  Theoretical Basis Ethnicity is defined as a shared (perceived or actual) racial, linguistic or national identity of a social group (Jarg & Jarg, 1991).  It is an imprecise term which has given rise to  some degree of conceptual confusion. other terms such as racial group.  It is often conflated with  Ethnicity can incorporate  several forms of collective identity including cultural, religious, national and sub—cultural forms.  Phinney and Rotheram  (1987) observed that there is a lack of consistency in the area with regard to the definitions of commonly-used terms.  They  presented a useful summary of a number of these terms.  Their  outline is summarized below: The term “ethnic group” refers to those who see themselves as being alike by virtue of some real or fictitious, common or “root” ancestry.  It normally includes patterns of values, social  customs, behavioral roles, language usage, and rules of social interactions shared by group members. The term “ethnic identity” is usually used to refer to one’s sense of belonging in an ethnic group, one’s acquisition of group patterns, as distinguished from ethnicity, which is the set of group patterns itself.  It includes one’s thinking, perceptions,  feelings, and behavior toward the group.  “Ethnic awareness”  refers to one’s understanding of one’s own and other ethnic groups.  It involves knowledge about ethnic groups, their  distinct attributes, characteristics, history, and cultures as well as the difference between oneself and others. “ethnic self—identification”  The term  (or subjective ethnicity)  refers to  52  a person’s consistent use of an ethnic label for himself or herself.  It is presumably a reflection of one’s ethnic identity.  Research in the area has focused almost exclusively on ethnic identity rather than on the importance of ethnicity in a variety of contexts.  Weinreich (1987) noted the lack of both  clarification of concepts in the area of ethnicity and their operationalization.  This latter task is difficult since  ethnicity appears to be a complex of processes by means of which people construct and reconstruct their own ethnic identity throughout life (Weinreich, 1987).  Operational Definition In the present study, ethnic self-identity was treated as the primary measure of ethnicity.  Respondents were asked to  indicate: “Which ethnic group do you belong to?”  This was an  open—ended question, to allow respondents to use their discretion in identifying their own ethnicity and to minimize the potential “sensitiveness” of the question.  Country of Birth  Rationale for Inclusion Country of birth was used as a “supplementary” variable to provide additional information concerning people’s ethnic and cultural backgrounds.  However, it may not necessarily reflect or  represent an individual’s ethnic group or ethnicity.  For  example, a person born in Canada may be from a Chinese origin.  53  Country of birth is therefore not a precise “measure” of ethnicity, but is generally useful to define one’s national identity (or citizenship).  A person’s upbringing and  socialization within his/her country of birth could have significant influence on how teaching is understood.  For  example, a person born in Singapore, brought up in an Confucian familial tradition, taught by authoritarian school teachers might conceive of teaching as Engineering conception.  In contrast, a  person born, raised and schooled in North merica might understand or interpret teaching as Developmental.  Theoretical Basis Country of birth is often associated with cultural upbringing and socialization rather than with ethnic identity. It is a means of defining a person’s nationality or root ancestry.  A country’s cultural and social influences can  profoundly determine how people acquired social habits, values, beliefs and attitudes.  These social values and beliefs help  inform and shape the way people conceive and interpret the meaning of teaching.  Different countries have their unique  cultures and educational systems.  Each culture regards teaching  and the role of teachers differently.  For example,  in many Asian  societies, teaching is a top—down process and the teacher’s role is to function as a content expert.  Teaching occurs in a highly  competitive and disciplined classroom environment.  54  Operational Definition Country of birth was operationalized by subjects’ response to an open—ended question: “Some writers feel that a person’s country of birth influences his/her teaching. you were born”.  Please write where  Countries of birth specified by respondents were  classified under six continental/geographical regions and coded as: Africa =  =  1, Asia  =  5, and South America  2, Europe =  =  3, North America  4, Oceania  =  6.  Personality  Rationale for Inclusion Getzels and Jackson (1963) claimed that personality of the teacher is a significant variable in the classroom.  They argued  that it is the most significant variable, and that the educational impact of a teacher “is surely not due solely to what s/he knows, or even to what s/he does, but in a very real sense to what s/he is”  (Getzels and Jackson, 1963, p. 506).  Personality also influences ways of thinking, making decisions and value judgements.  Pratt (1992) argued that to teach “means  different things depending upon one’s values, beliefs, and intentions”  (p. 203).  Hence, the dominant conception of teaching  held by an instructor or teacher is dependent, to a large extent, upon the degree to which his or her value system can find expression in his/her everyday life, which in turn is determined by an individual’s personality.  55  Theoretical Basis Personality, like gender, age and ethnicity, is an amorphous term.  It has a wide variety of definitions.  Aliport (1957)  listed some 50 meanings of the term personality.  Getzels and  Jackson (1963) managed to classify the plethora of definitions of personality according to three major categories: definitions,  in which personality is used to refer to the  totality of an individual’s behavior, definitions,  (1) behavioral  (2)  social—stimulus  in which personality is the response made by others  to the individual as a stimulus, and (3) depth definitions, in which personality is the dynamic organization within the individual that determines unique behavior. In personality assessment, according to Gordon (1967) an individual may be described by what s/he characteristically does in particular situations, that is, in terms of the traits that typify his or her behavior.  In addition, an individual may be  described in terms of his or her basic motivational patterns, or the values that s/he holds.  Gordon (1967)  further argued that  for understanding the individual, both types of measures are important. It was beyond the scope of this study to canvass the entire range of opinions concerning the meaning or measurement of personality.  There is a “British tradition”,  identified with the  work of Eysenck (1953), wherein it is claimed that personality consists of four factors (Neuroticism, Stability, Introversion and Extraversion)  in contrast to an “American tradition” led by  Cattell (1965) who claimed that personality is best explained as  56  sixteen personality factors.  However,  in the more recent  literature the discussion on personality has evolved around the five—factor and circumplex models of personality (Journal of Personality, 1992; McGrae and Costa, 1992).  The five-factor model  1990; Wiggins & Pincus,  (FFM) was developed in the factor-  analytic tradition of Eysenck and Cattell and measures an individual’s personality on five factors Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, (McCrae & Costa,  1990).  —  Neuroticism,  and Conscientiousness  The circumplex model, on other hand, was  developed within an explicit neo—Freudian framework, and measures personality on eight interpersonal variables  —  Assured—Dominant  (PA), Arrogant-Calculating (BC), Cold-Hearted (DE), Aloof Introverted (FG), Unassured—Submissive (HI), Unassuming—Ingenuous (JK), Warm-Agreeable (LM) (Wiggins,  1991).  and Gregarious-Extraverted (NO)  The variables are arranged in a circular  ordering around the underlying coordinates of dominance and nurturance.  Each variable is assumed to represent a different  “blend” of the two underlying coordinates.  Although the two  models were developed from different research contexts and traditions, they are regarded as complementary (Trapnell & Wiggins,  1990).  on the two models  The two personality scales developed were based -  the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI and  the Interpersonal Adiective Scale (IAS  respectively.  The former  is based on the FFM while the latter is based on the circumplex model. A decision had to be made to use one of them for assessing personality of the adult instructors.  Since the cost of  57  purchasing the NEO-FFI (short form version) was exorbitant, the IAS—R (short form version) was the only alternative available as it was made available free to the author.  The IAS-R has been  found to be reliable and valid for general application and is also an instrument of choice for many assessment situations in which testing time is a major consideration (Wiggins, Trapnell & Phillips, 1988, p. 528).  It takes an average of ten minutes to  complete the form.  Operational Definition A short form version of the IAS—R which consists of 64 selfreport single adjective items was used in this study to assess instructors’ personality.  A list of 64 single adjectives (see  Appendix A) was included in the survey questionnaire, and respondents were asked to rate the self—descriptive accuracy of each adjective (for example,  “kind”) on an eight-point Likert  scale ranging from “extremely inaccurate” to “extremely accurate”.  Responses to the IAS—R items produce scores on eight  interpersonal variables as described in the above section, but for the purpose of this study only the z-scores for the two personality domains  —  dominance and nurturance were used.  People  with high positive z—scores on the personality—dominance measure are more inclined to have a dominant personality, while people with high positive z—scores on the personality—nurturance measure are more inclined to have a nurturing personality. on nurturance and dominance are uncorrelated.  The z—scores  58  Socio-Cultural/Educational Variables  As discussed earlier, 27 members of two adult education classes were recruited to discuss the nature of variables that might predict the dominant conceptions of teachers. variables such as “education” “cultural origin”,  A number of  “experience”.  were suggested by the students and categorized as “socio— cultural/educational”.  The variables used in this study were  renamed and included: living arrangement, level of formal education,  formal training in adult education, influence of adult  education figure, literature on subject area read or consulted, adult education literature read or consulted, years of experience in teaching adults, political orientation, and instructional techniques used by instructors.  Living Arrangement  Rationale for Inclusion There appears to be no literature that pointed to the existence of a relationship between conceptions of teaching and living arrangements.  However, casual observation suggests that,  in some cultures, those who live with other people might have a more Developmental or Nurturing conception than those who do not. There are also questions concerning the extent to which those with children might have a more Developmental or Nurturing conception than those without.  59  Theoretical Basis The theoretical basis for living arrangement was not well developed but rather than become embroiled in the difficulties associated with studying marital status, a decision was made to focus on individuals’ living arrangements.  Operational Definition Respondents were asked: “Do you live with other people in your house, apartment or other place of residence?”  If the  response was “I live with other people”, respondents were further asked to indicate the number of adults (20 years and above) and/or children (19 years and under)  living with them.  Level of Formal Education  Rationale for Inclusion The “level of formal education” as a variable was assumed to influence an individual’s conceptions of teaching, both in terms of time period exposed to learning as well as to the actions and beliefs of his/her exemplary or memorable teachers.  Throughout  the period of an individual’s education, an individual is exposed to, and experienced different teachers, their varied teaching behaviors, attitudes and beliefs.  Some of the teachers are  labeled “good” while others are dubbed as “bad”.  The level of  education also influences the way people acquire their knowledge and skills, and the totality of their experiences in various  60  educational settings influences their conceptions of teaching. Is it possible that a person with a high school education is more inclined to possess an Engineering conception of teaching than a person who has a university education?  Theoretical Basis Education is a social and political construct. education, one acquires knowledge and skills.  Through  It is also a  socializing agent in which a person constructs or reconstructs his/her conceptions of the world, life and professional interest. Education influences a person’s attitude toward learning, and the process of learning.  In an educational institution, an  individual is predominantly a student-learner by definition.  His  or her significant learning experiences are informed and shaped by the teachers, contents, fellow learners and context. Theories of education have generated a range of perspectives concerning the impact of education on people.  One theory  suggests that education is a reproduction of political culture, while another perspective regards education as an investment in human capital.  It is beyond the scope of this study to examine  all theoretical arguments about education.  Rather this study  uses the level of education as a possible predictor of dominant conception because it is directly concerned with an individual’s socialization and learning experiences.  61  Operational Definition This variable was operationalized by asking respondents to check from a list the highest level of formal education held: “What is the highest formal educational qualification you hold?”  Formal Training in Adult Education  Rationale for Inclusion The relevance of adult education training is reflected in teachers’ perceptions of the purposes of adult education as well as their perceptions of adults as learners.  Training also  affects the way in which an individual sees his or her role as a teacher.  People who have undergone some formal adult education  training inevitably acquire knowledge about the principles of adult learning and teaching espoused by Carl Rogers, Knowles, and others.  Would a person with formal adult education training be  more wedded to a Developmental or Nurturing conception of teaching than a person without training who might, for example, hold an Engineering or Apprenticeship conception?  Theoretical Basis Training, like level of formal education, is a concept which is related to changing of behavior, perception, attitude and skills.  In the field of education, particularly in adult  education, a clear distinction is often made between the two terms, training and education.  To train a person is “to provide  a person with a know—how or the ability to perform certain  62  actions”  (Barrow & Milburn, 1990, P. 316).  Training can be  viewed as a socialization process, in which an individual’s attitudes can be altered or reinforced by the instructor and his/her fellow trainees.  Furthermore, it is assumed that a body  of knowledge about adult education exists that can be conveyed through training (Merriam, 1985).  This body of knowledge  concerns the history and philosophy of adult education, adult learning principles and patterns, instructional techniques for adult learners, and program planning in adult education. There is limited research which examines the relationship between training in adult education and conceptions of teaching. However, some studies have suggested that teachers with adult education training did not necessarily hold an andragogical orientation.  In one study, Beder and Carrea (1988)  found that  andragogical teacher-training had a positive and significant effect on student attendance, but there was no significant effect on student evaluation.  On the other hand, Douglass (1982)  found  that the amount of formal training specifically in adult education was the major influence on accepting a collaborative (learner—centered) approach in an adult education setting.  Thus,  the question is: Does formal training in adult education influence a person to hold a Developmental or Nurturing conception of teaching, since much of the adult education literature prescribed learner—centered or humanistic principles of teaching?  63  Operational Definition Respondents were asked whether or not they had formal training in adult education. in adult education?”  “Did you have any formal training  A hINou response was coded 1, and a “Yes”  was coded 2.  Influence of Dominant Adult Education Fiqure  Rationale for Inclusion Influence of dominant adult education figure was included as a variable to examine whether an individual’s conception(s) of teaching could be informed by his/her guru or role model in adult education.  It is assumed that a particular person, such as an  author, professor or former teacher in an elementary school, might have an influence on an individual’s conceptions of teaching.  Theoretical Basis People learn through observation and experience.  In other  words, individuals learn by observing what happens to other people and just by being told something as well as through direct experiences.  So, for example, much of what teachers have learned  about teaching may come from watching and reading “models”  —  teachers, philosophers, politicians, social reformers and so forth.  The view that a person can learn both through observation  and direct experience has been called “social learning theory” (Bandura,  1977).  There are many people who think that adult  64  teachers acquire their conceptions of teaching from “the way they were taught”.  If they were taught by someone with an Engineering  conception, there is a good chance they will teach like this themselves.  In the language of Lewin, Lippitt and White,  autocrats will breed autocrats, democrats will breed democrats. The influence of role models is central to the social learning viewpoint.  ODerational Definition A question was asked: Is there any one person in your opinion has significantly influenced the way you teach adults? “No” was coded 1, and “Yes” was coded 2.  A  If the response was a  “yes”, the respondent was asked to name that person, and to check whether the person named is primarily and secondarily an author, professor, instructor, social reformer, politician, journalist, philosopher, religious leader, trade union leader and so forth.  Literature Consulted in Subiect Area  Rationale for Inclusion Most instructors generally possess a body of knowledge which they wish to impart or share with their learners.  This body of  knowledge may be derived from instructors’ professional training and education or may be acquired through active engagement in reading or consulting books, journals and magazines in the subject areas they taught.  Are instructors committed to an  65  Engineering conception of teaching more likely to engage in subject matter or content knowledge compared to instructors committed to Social Reform?  Theoretical Basis The accumulation of subject matter (content) knowledge is an on—going process for most teachers.  Subject matter knowledge,  according to Wilson, Shulman and Richert (1987),  is made up of  both the substantive and syntactic structures of the discipline. The substantive structures include the ideas, facts, and concepts of the discipline; and the relationships among those ideas, facts, and concepts.  The syntactic structures involve knowledge  of the ways in which the discipline creates and evaluates new knowledge (Wilson, Shulman & Richert, 1987, p. 118). Teachers may acquire subject matter knowledge through a number of sources.  Subject matter knowledge can be acquired  through participation in formal or professional education and training or through other non—formal sources such as reading or consulting books, journals and magazines related to the subject areas of teaching.  Little is known about how a teacher’s subject  matter knowledge development can determine the holding of one conception of teaching and not others.  Operational Definition Three questions were asked pertaining to literature read or consulted by an instructor during the last year: year, have you read or consulted any books,  “During the last  [journals],  66  [magazines] in the subject area you usually teach?”. could be a “No”  (coded as 1) or “Yes”  A response  (coded as 2).  Books or Journals on Adult Education  Rationale for Inclusion Adult education literature contains a growing body of knowledge on how to teach adults.  Principles of adult teaching  are based on assumptions about adult learning.  Books and  journals on adult education are largely of North American origin, and generally reflect many of the thoughts of the gurus in the field, such as Edward Lindeman, Malcolm Knowles, Carl Rogers or Paulo Freire.  People who read or consulted books and/or journals  by these authors might be influenced by their philosophies, ideologies and assumptions of adult education.  Thus, the author  speculated that a person who read Knowles’ work might be wedded to a Nurturing conception, and another person who read Freire’s work might hold a Social Reform conception.  Theoretical Basis In the field of adult education, the literature has been dominated by North American writers.  Beder and Darkenwald (1982)  claimed that the prescriptive literature on adult teaching has come from informed professional opinion, philosophical assumptions based on humanistic and progressive education, and research and theory on adult learning, development and socialization.  Books and journal articles contain thoughts,  67  ideas, beliefs, and interpretations of authors in the field. People who read or consulted these materials may integrate these ideas and thoughts into their own conceptions of teaching as well as to reinforce or inform their professional development.  In the  absence of any concrete research evidence pertaining to this issue, the author merely assumed that people’s conceptions of teaching could be informed by the written materials they read or consulted.  ODerational Definition Respondents were asked: “During the last year, have you read or consulted any book or journal on adult education?” response was coded 1, and a “Yes” was coded 2.  A “No”  Respondents were  asked to write down the title of the book or journal on adult education read or consulted.  Years of Experience in TeachincT  Rationale for Inclusion Pratt (1992) observed that people’s conceptions of teaching are dynamic and shaped by experience that either confirms or challenges present thinking and beliefs (p. 218).  As such, do  “long—serving” teachers have different conception profiles than those who have just begun a teaching career in adult education? Experience at various periods in life may change or strengthen a teacher’s conceptions of teaching, as the teacher acquires new knowledge, attitudes, values and skills.  Is a teacher with more  68  than 10 years of teaching experience more likely to possess a Nurturing conception of teaching than a novice who may hold an Engineering conception?  Theoretical Basis Webster’s dictionary (Gove, 1981) meanings of the term “experience”.  lists two relevant  The first meaning is “direct  observation of or participation in events, an encountering, undergoing, or living through change”, the other is “knowledge, skill or practice derived from direct observation of or participation of events, practical wisdom resulting from what one has encountered, undergone, or lived through”  (p. 800).  Most of the studies reviewed make no distinction between these two facets of experience.  They assessed it simply by  determining whether or not an individual has previously worked as a teacher, or the time period spent on teaching in a given setting (Berliner, 1987).  In adult education there is some doubt  concerning the wisdom of hiring experienced or trained teachers because, in contrast to the more natural organic intellectual or “gifted amateur”, they will “talk down” to participants or exercise too much control (Boshier, 1985). However, despite these apprehensions there is little data that illuminates the extent to which full and part-time teachers will have different conceptions of teaching.  Nor is much known about the extent to which  “experienced”  (with many years of teaching service) teachers will  have different conceptions than less “experienced” teachers (with fewer years of experience).  69  Teaching experience is a subject which has attracted research attempting to show the relationship between teacher effectiveness and years of teaching experience (Carter & Doyle, 1987; Carter, Cusbing, Sabers, Stein & Berliner, 1988).  Berliner  (1987) observed that what distinguishes the experienced teachers (“experts”)  from the less experienced ones is the former’s  ability to learn from reflection on experience, and it is a result of this learning that experts become more discriminating in their perception and more resourceful in their action. Further, it has been known that level of teaching experience affects teachers’ concerns and their general roles in the classrooms (Fuller, 1969; Travers, Rabinowitz & Nemovicher, 1952).  Operational Definition Respondents were asked to indicate:  “How many years have you  been teaching adults at (a) VSB Career and Community Education Services and (b) elsewhere, both full-time and/or part-time?” The number of years was the number reported.  Countries Visited or Lived In  Rationale for Inclusion Boshier (1978)  followed a group of 19 year olds for six  years and found that those who went travelling (outside New Zealand) developed a broader perspective and had significantly lower Conservatism scale scores than those who stayed home. In  70  this context, it appears that teachers who have travelled widely, and developed an appreciation of other cultures, might have a more differentiated set of conceptions with a tendency toward a Developmental or Nurturing perspective.  This variable may not  have very potent effects when considered alone but, in association with other variables, could predict variance in Conception of Teaching (CTS)  scores.  Theoretical Basis There is no theoretically defensible way of categorizing countries in ways that would have high face validity. categories like “North iuerica”, “South America”,  Broad  “Asia” and  “Europe” are too crude for present purposes, and have the potential to alienate respondents.  Just about any pre—coded set  of categories has the potential to offend or alienate people who have visited off—the-beaten-track places like Nepal or the Falkiand Islands.  Hence, it was decided to present an open—ended  questions wherein respondents listed the countries visited and lived in.  Operational Definition To have “visited” a country, a person had to stay “for 3 or more weeks”.  To have “lived in” a country, a person had to live  “for 1 or more years”.  Respondents were asked:  the countries that you have visited (that is, weeks) or lived in (for 1 or more years)  “List here all  for 3 or more  in the last ten years”.  71  Responses to these questions were coded according to the numbers of countries visited and lived in.  For example, if a person  indicated that s/he had visited five countries, this was coded I5I  Political Orientation  Rationale for Inclusion An individual’s political orientation is a product of complex familial, social, cultural and historical socialization. A person is not born with a political orientation. Rather, political orientation is acquired through political participation and socialization.  In the literature of adult education, several  authors such as Freire (1992) have explicitly proposed certain principles or models of adult teaching and learning based on their own political perspectives.  Could a teacher with a left-  wing political orientation be holding a Social Reform conception, while a teacher with a right-wing democratic orientation held a Developmental conception?  Political orientation is included in  the study to determine whether or not teachers’ conceptions of teaching would be predicted by their political orientations.  Theoretical Basis Political orientation is difficult to define.  It is an  encompassing term consisting of belief, feeling, value and attitude toward government, social and political life (Plano, Riggs & Robin, 1973; Singh,  1987).  Some writers (Bogdanor, 1987)  72  argued that political orientation is a sumation of one’s life experiences with a political system.  From the perspective of  society, political socialization is one means by which political culture is maintained or changed.  Another viewpoint suggested  that an individual’s political orientation is largely acquired through important socializing agents, such as family and educational system (Conway & Feigert, 1976; Roberts & Edwards, 1991).  Yet other writers have expressed the view that an  individual’s political orientation is acquired and shaped by exposure to the mass media, organized groups, informal groups, or any other experience having political relevance (Plano, Riggs & Robins, 1973).  Regardless of the sources in which political  orientation is acquired, it is believed that an individual normally holds a “general” political orientation toward government and political life.  Operational Definition Since political orientation is difficult to assess and, moreover, the author did not want to present a “pre—coded” variable that appeared to embrace some political orientations (for example, Liberal) but not others (for example, Reform), respondents were asked to indicate their political orientation by responding to an open—ended question: describe your political orientation?”  “In general, how would you Responses were coded  either Left (coded 1), Center (coded 2), or Right (coded 3).  73  Instructional Techniques Used  Rationale for Inclusion Theoretically, there is no reason to assume that people who hold a particular conception will be more or less inclined to use any one adult education technique.  A person using the lecture  could easily hold either an Engineering or a Developmental conception. behavior.  Moreover, this was a study on conceptions, not However, there is probably some relationship between  teachers’ conceptions of teaching and what they are most inclined to do in the classroom.  It was prudent to include a question  that asked about the teacher’s most preferred techniques.  Theoretical Basis The author used Verner’s (1964) definition of technique, which distinguishes it from a method and device.  For Verner  (1964) a technique is “the variety of ways in which the learning task is managed so as to facilitate learning”  (p. 68).  It  includes things like lecture, role play, group discussion and drill.  Operational Definition Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which they used eight specified techniques, namely, lecture, case study, role play, small group discussion, large group discussion, demonstration, drill, and field trip.  For each instructional  technique, respondents were asked to response on a five—point  74  Likert—type scale ranging from “Always” (coded 1).  (coded 5) to “Never”  Each of the eight techniques was treated as a  separate variable.  Program Variables  The variables included under the “program” category included: type of program/course taught by an instructor, class size, and role clarity or ambiguity.  Types of Programs/Courses  Rationale for Inclusion The type of program influences the decision in which teaching is to be carried out.  The decisions a teacher makes  concerning content, interpretation, structure, instruction and learning outcome are directly determined by the program offered. Conti (1985), Girondi and Gaibraith (1992), and Pratt (1992) have observed that the kind of programs (for example, Adult Basic Education programs, technical, health—related and academic courses) have a direct bearing on teaching styles and teachers’ conceptions of teaching.  Girondi and Galbraith (1992)  found that  adult instructors in technical programs demonstrated a firmer tendency towards teacher—directed mode than did instructors in allied health and business programs.  Pratt (1992)  observed that  the Nurturing conception of teaching was evident among teachers involved in adult basic education, self—help groups, and literacy  75  programs.  The relevance of program/course taught in the study  lies in the assumption that different program instructors, because of their exposure to their own specialized training, interest and education might hold different conceptions of teaching.  For example, are business program teachers more  committed to an Engineering conception than ESL (English as Second Language) teachers who might be more committed to a Nurturing or Social Reform conception?  Theoretical Basis The term “program” according to Schroeder (1970) has been variously used to refer to:  (1) all the educative activities  available to adults of a community, effort of a given agency, the population,  (2) the total adult education  (3) activities designed for segments of  (4) social roles with which activities are  related, and (5) the nature of a specific activity. Kowalski (1988) noted that within the practice of adult education, the two most common uses of the term program relate to offerings within a given agency.  The first concept is the  comprehensive program, which, according to Kowalski (1988), is the “sum of the various courses, experiences, and the like which are planned within the functions related to designed learning” (p. 88).  The comprehensive program represents the macro aspect  of planning.  The second concept is the individual program..  It  is referred to as a separate part of the comprehensive program, and is specifically designed to meet an individual’s learning  76  need.  The task of planning individual programs is simplified by  the narrowness of the activity (Kowalski, 1988).  The individual  program represents the micro view of planning. The education of adults is a diverse and complex process affecting many people from all walks of life (Verduin, Miller and Greer, 1977).  This diversity is seen not only in the kinds of  programs, courses, and priorities in adult education, but also in the kinds of people who provide instruction for adults.  Many of  these programs are organized and mounted based on market demand, community necessity, or social relevance.  Adult education and  its many programs efforts can occur in various forms and institutions.  Verduin, Miller and Greer (1977)  identified eight  institutional forms in which adult education programs are offered, namely, sheltered workshops, community colleges, adult basic education centers, cooperative extension centers, adult vocational and technical schools, YMCA/YWCA centers, community education centers, and evening program centers.  The list is by  no means exhaustive, and educational programs for adults are as varied as the institutions which organize them.  The types of  programs planned and offered by the various agencies or institutions are determined by types of organization, their missions and goals, and the clientele served by the sponsoring agencies.  Adult education programs are thus planned within the  framework of particular organizational settings.  77  Operational Definition This variable was assessed by requesting the subject to respond to the following: “Please name the course/program you normally teach”.  This was an open question since the continuing  education programs offered by Vancouver School Board’s Career and Community Education Services and New Westminster School Board Continuing Education were diverse and numerous.  Initial coding  for the types of courses/programs taught by instructors is shown in Appendix D.  Class Size  Rationale for Inclusion Class size as a variable has been extensively used in research in many school and college/university settings to determine its effects on students’ achievements, learning outcomes and teaching methods.  However, in the field of adult  and continuing education, class—size has received less attention. Instead, studies were directed towards social classroom environment (Darkenwald & Valentine, 1986; Darkenwald, 1989; Langenbach & Aagaard, 1990).  In one study, class size was used  to predict attrition among adult learners (Ashar & Skenes, 1993) and was found to be a significant predictor.  Is it possible that  a teacher who normally has a big class is more wedded to an Engineering conception of teaching than a teacher with a small class who may be more inclined to a Nurturing conception?  78  Theoretical Basis The term “class size” refers to the number of students assigned to and enrolled in a specific class or instructional unit under the direction of a specific teacher (Ryan, 1989).  It  is frequently expressed as a ratio of the number of students to the number of teachers (that is, a crude index of school/college class size).  Class size may also be broadly defined as the  relative amount of instructional service, in terms of professional personnel, that is brought to bear upon the educational task (Vincent, 1989).  Class-size as a variable has  been extensively used in the field of research on teaching to determine its relationships with student achievement and teaching behaviors.  Studies on the relationship between class size and  students’ performance revealed contradictory findings which indicate that class—size may not have any significant effect on students’ performance.  How class size may influence a teacher’s  conceptions of teaching is still a conjecture.  A teacher who  normally teaches a big class may think of teaching as mere transmission of knowledge, that is, an Engineering conception. There appears to be no literature which addresses the relationship between class size and conceptions of teaching.  ODerational Definition Class size is operationalized by asking respondents the question:  “On the average, how many participants would normally  be in your class?”.  Coding was based on the number of  participants indicated by respondent.  79  Role Clarity  Rationale for Inclusion Adult teachers work within an organizational context in which teaching takes place.  The decisions a teacher makes  concerning the content, teaching method, attitude towards students and learning outcomes are shaped by his or her knowledge of the organizational expectations.  The organizational  expectations define the authority, rules and responsibilities of carrying out a job, and in this regard, role job clarity is an important variable in shaping a person’s conception of teaching. The dominance of any particular conception of teaching is influenced by the teacher’s perception of his or her level of ambiguity or clarity concerning authority, allocation of time, responsibility and expectation.  Are teachers with a high degree  of organizational clarity more committed to an Engineering conception than teachers with a low degree of clarity?  Theoretical Basis Organizational expectations define the tasks and means by which a job is being performed.  Expectations are expressed in  terms of what the organization wants (demands) their employees to do and how they are to be evaluated.  How much an individual  knows about what is expected of him/her in carrying out the role (or job)  is largely determined by administrative rules,  80  procedures and information.  The term “role clarity” refers to  the degree to which the existence or clarity of behavioral requirements is known by an individual carrying out the appropriate role (Rizzo, House & Lirtzman,  1970).  Operational Definition Organization expectation was assessed by adopting the role clarity/ambiguity scale developed by Rizzo, House & Lirtzman (1970).  Role clarity/ambiguity was measured by a four seven-  point Likert—type scale items, ranging from “very true” to “very false”.  In this study the scale descriptors were modified to  strongly agree, moderately agree, agree, not sure, disagree, moderately disagree and strongly disagree.  Scale score was  computed by averaging the responses to the four items.  A low  mean indicates a low degree of role clarity and high mean indicates a high degree of role clarity.  Respondents were asked  to circle their responses on the following items:  “As an  instructor employed by the Vancouver School Board Career and Community Education Services (or New Westminster School Board)”: (1)  I feel certain about how much authority I have.  (2)  I know that I have divided my time properly.  (3)  I know what my responsibilities are.  (4)  I know exactly what is expected of me.  81  Summary  This chapter has described how three categories of personal, socio—cultural/educational and program variables (independent variables) were inductively derived for this study.  The personal  variables were: gender, age, ethnicity, country of birth and personality.  Socio—cultural variables included instructor’s  teaching experience, living arrangement, highest formal educational attainment, training in adult education, participation in nonforiual adult education programs, literature read or consulted in the subject area, adult education literature read or consulted, instructional techniques used, and political orientation.  The program variables included type of  program/course taught, class size, and role clarity on the job. For each independent variable identified, its rationale for inclusion in the study, its theoretical concept and operational definition were described.  82  CHAPTER FOUR  DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSTRUMENT  Introduction  Readers would recall from Chapter One that one of the purposes of this study was to operationalize Pratt’s (1992) conceptions of teaching.  five  This chapter describes the development  of an instrument to operationalize Pratt’s (1992)  five  conceptions of teaching, namely Engineering, Apprenticeship, Developmental, Nurturing, and Social Reform.  The procedures for  pilot testing and establishing validity and reliability of the instrument are also described.  Initial Development of Conception Items  The conception scale items were derived from two sources. The initial source of scale items came from statements based on the transcripts from which Pratt derived the five conceptions of teaching.  Over time, additional items were developed based on  the author’s understanding of the conceptions of teaching as well as from discussion and feedback from fellow colleagues familiar with Pratt’s five conceptions of teaching. second source of CTS items.  This constituted the  At every stage of item development,  the author constantly sought the views and assistance of Pratt,  83  Boshier and others regarding the wording of the items.  Table 3  presents a blueprint on how items were developed, validated and subsequently selected and included for the final CTS.  A total of  155 items were initially developed to represent Pratt’s five conceptions.  The items were developed to operationalize both the  aspects (actions, intentions, and beliefs) and the relational elements (learner—content, learner—teacher and teacher—content). Recall from Chapter Two that Pratt (1992) also considered two other elements in the general teaching model used to describe each conception of teaching  —  context and ideals.  The context  refers to those external factors that influence teaching, and the ideals are related to teachers’ beliefs about the purposes of adult education.  The notion of context is complex and thus not  included in this study.  The ideal element was assumed to be  implicit in the belief aspect of each conception, although it was more explicit in the Social Reform conception than in other conceptions of teaching. For each conception at least ten items were developed to represent action, intention and belief aspects.  The initial 155  items included 52 action, 50 intention and 53 belief items. Notice that the items to represent the three relational elements of teaching were not proportionally distributed because each conception differs in the nature and focus of the relational elements.  For example,  in the Engineering conception, the  emphasis is more on the teacher—content and learner—content  84  Table 3 Nuitiber of Items Representing the Aspects and Elements’ Relationships of the Conceptions of Teaching  First 155 Items  Second 120 Items  Final 75 Items  Conception L—C  L-T  T-C Total  L-C  L-T  T-C Total  L-C  L-T  T-C Total  Engineering  —  3 2 5  5 5 5  3  2  10  15  9 8 6  1 1 2  3 1 1  1 3 2  5 5 5  23  4  5  6  15  1  8 9 7  2 2 1  3 3 3  1  24  5  —  5 5 2  1 2 3  4 3 5  10 10 10  3  1  4  8  3 1  2 2  3 5  8 8  12  6  12  30  7  5  12  24  Action  1  6  Intention Belief  3  4  4  2  3 3 4  10 10 10  1 3 2  5 2 1  3 3 3  Total  8  12  10  30  6  8  9  Action Intent ion Belief  5 2  4 8  3 —  12 10  2  8  1  11  4 2 2  4 7 4  Total  9  20  4  33  8  15  —  1  10 10 10  2  8 10 5  1  30  2  23  3  5  10 10 12  3  4 8 2  5  32  6  14  Action  Intention Belief Total  1 2 —  1 1  Apprenticeship  Developmental —  —  1  5 5 5  9  1  15  5  —  S  —  1  3  1  5 5 5  1  15  —  —  Nurturing Action Intention  Belief Total  2  10 10 7  2  27  3  —  —  — —  —  1  8 10 8  1  26  1  13  2  3  3  7 8 8  2  5 2  3  23  4  10  —  —  —  Social Reform  Intent ion  —  Belief  5  7 10 2  8  19  Action  Total  L—C  —  —  Learner—Content, L-T  =  —  —  Learner—Teacher, T—C  —  =  —  Teacher—Content.  1  S 5 5  1  15  —  —  85  relationships than on learner—teacher.  On the other hand, the  emphasis in the Nurturing conception was on the learner—teacher relationship. Validity  The basic issue facing any instrument developer is validity —  whether an instrument measures what it purports to measure.  In  other words, validity is “the extent to which inferences made on the basis of scores from an instrument are appropriate, meaningful, and useful”  (McI4illan & Schumacher, 1989, p.  The CTS was subjected to three types of validation  -  168).  face,  content and convergent.  Face and Content Validity  The purpose of face validation is to assess whether the scales or tests  are meaningful and clear to people.  Content  validation assesses the extent of “representativeness of the content  —  the substance, the matter, the topics  instrument”  —  of a measuring  (Kerlinger, 1973, p. 458).  Face and content validities were attested to by two professors (Pratt and Boshier) and five graduate students (three of them doctoral students)  in adult education.  Scale items were  meticulously examined to determine the extent to which they represented each conception of teaching.  The elements (namely  teacher, learner, content) were not equally represented in each of Pratt’s conceptions.  For example, the “teacher” is  86  significantly more pronounced in the Engineering conception than in the Developmental conception.  Hence, items were developed to  closely reflect or represent elements and their relationships in each conception.  For the three aspects within each conception,  the number of items reflecting the elements was not symmetrical, since elements and their relationships varied substantially in terms of focus and centrality.  In the Engineering conception,  for example, there were proportionally more items reflecting teacher—content and learner—content relationships, than in the Nurturing conception where the teacher—learner relationship was more crucial.  The next section describes the procedures for  testing the instrument’s convergent and discriminant validity.  Convergent Validity  Convergent validation was performed to determine whether people were able to agree or differentiate items belonging to the five categories of conceptions.  A high degree of agreement that  an item rightly belonged to a particular conception category would indicate high convergent validity. was performed in two stages.  Convergent validation  First, all 155 items were assessed  by a group of ten graduate students in adult education (who served as judges) to determine which items belonged to the five categories of conceptions.  This was to ensure that items had  some form of convergent validity and that people who were presumably knowledgeable of Pratt’s five conceptions of teaching were able to distinguish among items and to place them into the  87  appropriate conception category.  All ten graduate students had  taken a course which included a study of conceptions of teaching conducted by Pratt and presumably knew about the five conceptions.  The items were printed on colored cards: white for  action items, yellow for intention items, and blue for belief items.  The judges were each given a set of 155 cards, and told:  There are 155 cards. On each card, a statement is written to reflect an aspect of one of Pratt’s conceptions of teaching. Sort each card into the conception where it belongs. Put the sorted piles of cards into the envelopes marked according to the five conceptions of teaching. Do the easy ones first. REMEMBER all cards must be sorted into the five categories.  The same task was also performed by Pratt so as to determine the “correctness” of items in their respective categories of conceptions.  In other words, Pratt’s sorting of items into the  five categories became the benchmark for determining whether items sorted by the ten judges were correct.  It took 15 to 20  minutes for each judge to complete the sorting exercise. If 80 percent of the judges assigned an item to its correct conception category as identified by Pratt, it was retained for further validation. were discarded.  Items which failed to meet this criterion  There were 120 items which met the criterion.  As shown in Table 3, there were about 24 items for each  88  conception.  The distribution of the items also depicts a  consistent representation of element’s relationships for each conception. In stage two, the surviving 120 items were again subjected to a second validation a week later.  This procedure was  undertaken to ensure that there was stability over time in sorting items into five conception categories by the same group of judges.  The judges (nine of them, one was absent) were again  asked to repeat the same procedure as described in the above. set of 120 item cards was distributed to each judge.  A  The group  was again told:  There are 120 cards. On each card, a statement is written to reflect an aspect of one of Pratt’s conceptions of teaching. Sort each card into the conception where it belongs. Put the sorted piles of cards into the envelopes marked according to the five conceptions of teaching. Do the easy ones first. REMEMBER all cards must be sorted into the five categories.  It took ten to 15 minutes for each judge to complete the task of sorting the 120 items.  If seven out of nine or 78% of  the judges categorized the items into the correct conceptions as determined in the first validation, the items were retained for item selection. five categories.  All 120 items were successfully sorted into the  89  The items in each conception were then arranged into three piles by the author according to the three aspects intentions and beliefs  —  —  actions,  for final selection of items to  represent each conception scale. select items for the instrument:  Three criteria were used to (1) an item which had the  highest agreement among the judges that it belonged to a specific conception in the second stage of validation,  (2) an item which  clearly reflected an element’s relationship, and (3)  an item  which conveyed a simple and clear meaning and interpretation. From each pile of items,  15 items were selected, that is,  represent each aspect in each conception.  five to  Again, as depicted in  Table 3, there was a deliberate attempt to operationalize each conception by selecting items that represented the elements’ relationships.  For example, the Engineering conception had a  proportionally higher representation of teacher—content items. In the Nurturing conception, there were 13 out of 15 items representing teacher—learner relationship.  The purpose of this  task was to select scale items that represented Pratt’s five conceptions of teaching. The selected items were again reviewed by Pratt to assess whether the items were meaningful and appropriate to represent the five conceptions of teaching.  The final version of the  instrument consisted of 75 items, with an equal number of items for each conception of teaching (see Table 3).  90  For each conception scale, there were 15 items consisting of five action,  five intention and five belief items.  the 75 items in the CTS is shown in Table 4.  The list of  All the items were  grouped into three categories representing the three aspects action,  intention and belief.  —  In other words, there were 25  action, 25 intention and 25 belief items for all the five conceptions of teaching.  The three aspects were operationalised  as follows:  When teaching, my actions  (Action)  When teaching,  (Intention)  I intend to  As a teacher, I believe that  (Belief)  The 25 items under each aspect category were then arranged in a series of five.  For example,  items representing an action  aspect in the Engineering conception were numbered as 1, 16, and 21; 2,  7,  12,  6,  11,  for the Apprenticeship conception, the numbers were  17, and 22; for the Developmental conception the  numbers were 3, 8, the numbers were 4,  13, 9,  18, and 23; for the Nurturing conception, 14,  19, and 24; and for the Social Reform  conception, the numbers were 5,  10,  15,  20, and 25.  The same  numbering procedure was also used for the 25 intention and 25 belief items.  The layout of the final 75 items in the survey  questionnaire is shown in Appendix A.  9]. Table 4 List of Seventy-Five Conceition of TeachincT Scale Items  Item Label  ACTIONS  Description  -  AE1 AA2 AD3 AN4 AS5 AE6 AA7 AD8 AN9 AS1O AEll AA12 AD13 AN14 A515 AE16  AA17 AD18 AN19 AS2O AE21 AA22 AD23 AN24 AS25 INTENTIONS TEl TA2 TD3 TN4 TS5 TE6 TA7  WHEN TEACHING, MY ACTION IS TO: Tell learners what they are to learn. Model values and ways of working. Challenge people’s understanding of the content. Encourage expressions of feeling and emotions. Tell people what I believe in and why. Encourage people to accept the content as it is. Encourage learners to work along side with me. Encourage people to challenge each other’s thinking. Share my own feelings. Present an ideal vision for society. Clearly follow the syllabus and course objectives. Emphasize practice as a way of learning. Ask more questions than provide answers. Foster a climate of trust and caring among learners. Use content to teach about some higher ideal. Try to cover the required content within the allotted time. Guide learners toward professional standards. Encourage people to think critically about what they are learning. Provide emotional support when needed. Use my beliefs as guiding bases for teaching. Provide content and subject—matter expertise. Encourage people to learn by watching and practising. Encourage people to find problems as well as solve them. Treat learners as friends. Encourage people to take a stand based on their ideals. -  WHEN TEACHING, I INTEND TO:  Transmit a reasonably well-defined body of knowledge. Function as a role model Promote intellectual development in people. Preserve the dignity of every learner. Serve as a change agent for society. Efficiently and effectively direct learning. Promote learning through observation and application.  92 (Table 4 continued) TD8 TN9 TS1O  Foster new ways of thinking about familiar content. Nurture each person’s self—esteem. Motivate everyone to work toward a better society for all. Accurately and thoroughly present the content to be learned. Model desirable ways of working. Use the content as a means to develop enquiring minds. Be sensitive to the emotional needs of learners. Encourage people to take collective action to improve society. Work toward established goals or objectives. Represent the world of work. Develop people’s ability to think rationally. Help people meet their learning needs. Assess my success in teaching by the impact I have on society. Clarify or correct any misunderstandings of content. Move people toward the world of practice. Help people re-consider what they already know. Serve as a facilitator of people’s learning. Help people work toward an ideal society.  TAll TA12 TD13 TN14 TS15 TA16 TA17 TD18 TN19 TS2O TE21 TA22 TD23 TN24 TS25 BELIEFS BE1 BA2 BD3 BN4 BS5 BE6 BA7 BD8 BN9 BS1O BEll BA12 BD13  -  AS A TEACHER, I BELIEVE THAT: I know what learners need to know. The best place to learn is “on-the—job”. Learning is an active process of interpreting and integrating what is new with what we already know. Providing emotional support is the primary role for teachers. Individual growth without social improvement is not enough. An effective teacher must first and foremost be an authority on the content to be learned. Knowledge and practice cannot be separated. Education should develop autonomous thinkers. When considering learning, people’s emotions are as important as their thoughts. Learning should be related to the issues of today. Learning is enhanced when we have predetermined standards. Craft knowledge, that is, knowledge situated in its context of application, must be given a priority. The primary role of a teacher is to challenge people’s current ways of understanding and thinking.  93 (Table 4 continued)  BN14 BS15 BE16 BA17 BD18 BN19 BS2O BE21 BA22 BD23 BN24 BS25  An effective teacher need not necessarily be content expert. Education should work toward the transformation of society. Learning objectives should be clearly specified. A teacher’s primary role is to model what is to be learned. An effective teacher should be able to re-construct the content to be learned in a variety of ways. I should promote trust between learners and teacher. Society is imperfect and the primary role of a teacher is to make people aware of society’s imperfections. Content should be adequately covered and efficiently delivered. Practice, guided by an expert, makes perfect. Knowledge is personally constructed. Education should enhance people’s self—esteem. Learners must place society before self.  Note. Each item is assigned a code (for example, AE1). The first letter in the code denotes an aspect (A = Action, T = Intention, The second letter denotes a conception of and B = Belief). teaching (E = Engineering, A = Apprenticeship, D = Developmental, N = Nurturing, and S = Social Reform). The numeric value after the second letter refers to the serial number in the survey questionnaire.  A six-point Likert scale, ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree was used to elicit responses on the 75 items in the five conception scales (see Appendix A).  A six—point scale  was chosen to force respondents to make a decision concerning their agreement or disagreement on the items, so as to minimize the effect of mid-point tendency.  The responses on the six-point  scale were coded as: Strongly agree (6), Agree (5), Slightly agree (4), Slightly disagree (3), Disagree (2), and Strongly disagree (1).  94  A pilot study involving two groups of people was carried out in May 1993 to assess the reliabilities of the 75-item instrument, and to determine whether the items in their current form should be applied to a sample of adult education instructors in actual settings.  The procedures for testing the reliabilities  are described in the next section.  Reliability  Reliability refers to the “consistency of measurement, the extent to which the results are similar over different forms of the same measurement or occasions of data collections” (McMillan & Schumacher,  1989; P. 168).  Kerlinger (1973) defined  reliability as the “accuracy or precision of the measuring instrument”  (p. 443).  The purpose of reliability measures is to  minimize the influence of chance or other variables unrelated to the intent of the instrument. reliability tests were employed  In this pilot study, two types of -  test-retest and internal  consistency.  Test-Retest  Test—retest reliability is a measure of stability over time and provided by means and correlation coefficients from the same test or instrument of a group of individuals on two different occasions.  Test—retest reliability information of the CTS was  collected from two pilot groups of individuals  -  a group of 19  95  teaching assistants (TA group)  in the University of British  Columbia and a group of 20 adult education students (ADED group) enrolled in an introductory adult education course (ADED412) the Spring session of 1993.  in  The 19 teaching assistants for this  exercise were recruited mainly through personal contacts.  Most  of the teaching assistants (14 out of 19) were from the Faculty of Education, while three were from the Faculty of Arts, and one each from the Faculty of Science and Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration.  The number of students in the ADED  group was reduced from 20 to 15 as a result of attrition and absence between the first and second administrations of the CTS. The CTS was administered twice to each pilot group two weeks apart.  It took each person about ten minutes to complete all the  75 items in the CTS. completed.  However,  For the TA group all the items were fully in the ADED group, there were two CTS forms  which were not fully completed.  The two subjects were identified  and asked to complete the left-out items. The scale test—retest means and reliabilities for the two groups are shown in Table 5.  The reliabilities were computed by  correlating the scale scores of the five conception scales obtained from the two administrations of the CTS.  For the TA  group, test-retest reliabilities for the Engineering, Apprenticeship, Developmental, Nurturing and Social reform conceptions were .90, average of .88.  .88,  .82,  .90 and .88 respectively with an  The reliability coefficients were high,  indicating that the scale scores were stable. the test and retest were consistent.  The mean scores of  5.09 4.96 4.22  Developmental  Nurturing  Social Reform  19)  4.32  4.89  5.11  4.67  4.45  .88  .90  .82  .88  .90  Retest Coeff  (  TA =  3.83  5.03  4.98  4.34  4.21  Test Mi  3.92  4.90  4.99  4.50  4.12  .48  .56  .52  .71  .59  Retest Coeff M2  ADED ( = 15)  4.04  4.99  5.04  4.50  4.32  Test Mi  TA = Teaching Assistants. ADED = Students in an introductory adult education course. Coeff r = Reliability Coefficient (Pearson r).  4.62  Apprenticeship  Note.  4.41  Mi  Test  Engineering  Scale  Group  Test-Retest Means and Reliabilities of CTS Over a Two-Week Interval  Table 5  4.14  4.96  5.06  4.60  4.30  —1.18  1.19  —0.34  —1.86  026  .77  .82  .73  .79  .81  Retest t-value Coeff M2  Combined ( = 34)  97  The test-retest reliabilities for the ADED group were .59, .71,  .52,  .56 and .48 respectively for the five conceptions of  teaching with an average of .57.  Reliabilities for this group  were much lower compared to those obtained from the TA group. One possible explanation was that the ADED group might not be involved in adult teaching or might have limited adult teaching experience compared to the TA group.  However, when the  conception scores for the two groups were combined, the test— retest reliabilities were .81,  .79,  .73,  .82, and .77  respectively for the five conceptions with an average of .78.  As  shown in Table 5, the combined group scale means were the same at p<O.05 level.  The overall pilot test-retest reliabilities were  reasonably high, which suggested the five scale scores were stable.  Internal Consistency  Cronbach’s coefficient aiphas were computed to determine the internal consistency among the 15 items in each of five conception scales.  The Cronbach alpha is an estimate of inter—  item cohesiveness and based on the intercorrelations among the items in the scale.  A high alpha would indicate a high internal  consistency or intercorrelation of items in a scale.  To obtain a  better computation of Cronbach aiphas for the five conception scales, the responses from the two pilot study groups (TA and ADED) were combined.  The numbers of cases in the first and  second administrations of the CTS were 39 and 34 respectively.  98  Alphas computed from the combined group responses in the two administrations of the CTS are shown in Table 6.  From the  responses of the first administration of the CTS, the alphas were .84,  .77,  scales.  .66,  .76 and .89 respectively for the five conception  Alphas computed from the responses of the CTS in the  second administration  were .91,  .74,  .79,  .70 and .85  respectively for the five conception scales.  To obtain overall  aiphas for the five conception scales, the responses from the TA and ADED students in the first and second administrations of the CTS were combined, as though they had been completed by 73 different subjects.  The aiphas obtained were .88,  .76,  and .88 respectively for the five conception scales.  .72,  .74,  Alphas for  the Engineering and Social Reform conception scales were higher than alphas for the Apprenticeship, Developmental and Nurturing conception scales, two scales. .79,  indicating greater item cohesiveness in these  The average alpha for the five conception scales was  indicating that they had reasonably good internal  consistency.  A coefficient alpha above .80 suggests a good  degree of homogeneity of scale items, and a value above .60 represents an acceptable degree of homogeneity (Field, Nunnally,  1978).  1989;  99 Table 6 Cronbach Aiphas for Five Conception Scales Obtained from Two Groups of Subiects  Group Scale First administration (n = 39)  Second administration (n = 34)  Combined group (i = 73)  Engineering  .84  .91  .88  Apprenticeship  .77  .74  .76  Developmental  .66  .79  .72  Nurturing  .76  .70  .74  Social Reform  .89  .85  .88  Scale Intercorrelations  Again, using 73 pilot study cases as though they were responses from 73 different subjects,  intercorrelations among the  five conceptions scale scores were computed.  The purpose was to  determine how the scales were related to each other.  Table 7  gives the intercorrelations of the five conception scales.  There  was a significant positive correlation between Engineering and Apprenticeship scales  (r  =  .57, <.01), suggesting that there was  an overlap between Engineering and Apprenticeship conceptions.  100  However, the Engineering conception scale did not have any significant correlation with Developmental, Nurturing and Social Reform conception scales,  indicating that the Engineering  conception had no relationship with Developmental, Nurturing and Social Reform conceptions.  There were significant but low  correlations between Apprenticeship with Developmental  (  =  .26, p<.05), Nurturing  (  =  .38, <.O1)  (  =  .37, p<.O1)  conception scales,  and Social Reform  indicating that  Apprenticeship conception had some relationship with Developmental, Nurturing and Social Reform conceptions.  The  Developmental conception scale correlated positively with Nurturing  (r  =  .31, <.O5)  and Social Reform  (  =  but their correlation coefficients were not high.  .35, p<.05), The Nurturing  conception scale had a significant but moderate positive correlation with Social Reform  (r  =  .58, <.Ol),  indicating that  there was a moderate relationship between Nurturing and Social Reform conceptions.  The intercorrelations among the five  conception scales thus provided some evidence that Engineering and Apprenticeship conceptions might be related, and that these two conceptions appeared to be teacher—centered.  On the other  hand, the Developmental, Nurturing and Social Reform conceptions were related, and these conceptions appeared to be learner— centered.  101  Table 7 Intercorrelations of Five Conception Scale Scores  Conceptions  Eng  gineering  —  apprenticeship  App  —  Dev  Nur  .04  .01  .19  .26*  •37**  .38**  .31*  •35*  pyelopmental  —  turing  -  ial Reform  N  =  73  *<.O5  Soc  .  58** -  **p<.Ol.  Sunuuary  This chapter has described the procedures for developing scales that operationalized Pratt’s teaching.  (1992)  five conceptions of  Results from the pilot study groups revealed that the  instrument, known as Conceptions of Teaching Scales, had reasonably good face, content and convergent validities.  Test—  retest reliability coefficients (ranging from .73 to .82)  and  Cronbach aiphas (ranging from .72 to .88) were acceptable.  for the five scales  The CTS was thus considered a sufficiently  valid and reliable instrument to warrant its use in the main study.  102  CHAPTER FIVE  DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING  Introduction  This chapter describes procedures associated with the mail survey.  A two stage follow—up procedure which featured a second  mailing and a final reminder was employed to maximize the return rate.  This chapter also describes how data from returned  questionnaires were entered into the mainframe computer.  As  pointed out in Chapter One, two groups of adult and continuing education instructors contracted by the Vancouver School Board (VSB)  Career and Community Education Services and the New  Westminster School Board (NWSB)  Continuing Education were  identified as potential participants for this study.  Administration of the Questionnaire  Approvals to conduct the study were formally obtained from the University of British Colujithia Ethics Committee and Vancouver School Board in summer of 1993 and from New Westminster School Board in October 1993.  The NWSB instructors were included in the  study after the initial response rate from the VSB instructors was found to be low.  103  A mail survey was used to elicit responses from the two groups of instructors as this was considered the best way to reach the diverse mix of instructors in the Greater Vancouver Area.  Table 8 Procedure for Mailing Questionnaire to Vancouver School Board and New Westminster School Board Instructors  Vancouver School Board  New Westminster School Board  Procedure Date  No.  Date  No.  Initial mailing  Sep 9 and Sep 14  1100  Oct 16  167  First follow-up  Sep 30 and Oct 5  826  Nov 6  132  Second follow—up  Oct 29  600  Nov 21  130  As shown in Table 8, a three-staged procedure which included an initial mailing and two follow—ups was employed to increase return rate.  In the case of Vancouver School Board (VSB), the  mailing addresses of instructors were not given to the author, despite written and verbal requests made to the VSB by the author and his advisor.  The mailing list of instructors was considered  104  by the VSB as “private and confidential”.  An alternative  arrangement was subsequently made with the VSB to have the questionnaires mailed through its office.  Serial numbers  (running from 0001 to 1100) were assigned to all instructors on the VSB’s mailing list.  The same serial numbers were also  printed (in very small print) on top of the mailing label of the stamped return—addressed envelopes.  The purpose of serial  numbers was to identify each questionnaire to an instructor so that follow—ups could be carried out on nonrespondents. The initial mailing to 1100 VSB instructors included a covering letter, questionnaire, and a stamped return—addressed envelope.  The covering letter explained the purpose of the  study, the importance of each subject’s contribution, protection of confidential information and procedure for returning the completed questionnaire (Appendix A). Questionnaires were mailed out on the first and second weeks of September 1993.  The mailing procedure was monitored and  observed by the author who was present in the VSB’s mail—room to ensure proper handling and stamping of the forwarding envelopes. Three weeks later, a follow—up letter (with another questionnaire and a stamped return—addressed envelope included) was mailed to 826 nonrespondents.  The covering letter again  stressed the importance of the study and the importance of subject’s contribution.  The nonrespondents were identified by  checking out serial numbers on the return—addressed envelopes. Two weeks later, a second follow—up letter (without questionnaire and stamped return—addressed envelope included) was sent to 600  105  VSB instructors in their teaching centres to appeal to those who had not yet responded to complete the questionnaire.  The 600  letters were sent out through the VSB office to the various centres and were placed in the instructors’ mail boxes. In the case of New Westminster School Board, the mailing addresses of 167 instructors were given to the author.  The same  procedures for mailing the questionnaires to VSB instructors were used to mail questionnaires to NWSB instructors, except the mailing was handled by the author.  The questionnaires were  mailed to all 167 instructors on the second week of October 1993. Three weeks later, reminder letters  (with questionnaires  enclosed) were mailed to 132 nonrespondents.  A final reminder  was mailed to 130 instructors on November 21.  Response Rates  At the end of the survey period (December 1993),  a total of  471 fully usable questionnaires were received, 404 from Vancouver School Board instructors and 67 from New Westminster School Board instructors.  Fifteen blank questionnaires were received and  another 48 questionnaires were returned by Canada Post because of wrong addresses or persons identified on the mailing labels as no longer residing at the given addresses.  Seven questionnaires  received were found to be unusable for data analysis because they were either improperly or partially completed.  As shown in  106  Table 9,  36.7% of the VSB and 40.1% of NWSB instructors returned  usable questionnaires.  The overall response rate from the two  groups of instructors was 37.2%.  Table 9 Nuinbe of Rpliirns and Rnonse Rates of Vancouver hoo1  (VSB .  -  —  and Nw —  --  .,  aaL&.a_  vtl  School Board (NWSB —  Return  —  —  —  —  VSB  —  NWSB  Total  1100  169  1267  100.0  Did not reply  635  93  728  57.5  Total returns  465  76  541  42.5  Blank returns  14  1  15  1.2  6  1  7  0.5  41  7  48  3.8  404  67  471  37.2  36.7  40.1  37.2  No.  questionnaire mailed  Unusable or incomplete returns Returned because of wrong address Fully usable returns Response rate  Note.  (%)  Response rate is calculated by dividing the number of usable returns by the total number of mailed questionnaires.  107 Data Entry and Processing  The 471 fully usable questionnaires were coded using the coding protocol shown in Appendix D.  Data were first entered in  three separate IBC-PC database files using the DBase 3+ package. The first database file contained the responses to the 75 CTS items, the second contained the socio—demographic and educational data, and the third contained responses to the 64 personality items.  A professional data entry consultant was engaged to  perform the task of entering the data into database files.  Next,  the database files were “translated” and combined into a single SPSS/PC+ system file.  The SPSS/PC+ system file was written onto  a floppy disk as a SPSS export file, and imported into the University’s mainframe version of SPSS  (Version 4.0 on UNIXG)  which was used to perform the bulk of data analysis. All unanswered responses or blanks were assigned as missing values.  Checks on the data were made to detect errors arising  from coding and data entry.  Outliers or extreme values were  systematically identified by inspecting the frequency distributions and descriptive statistics of all the variables, and appropriate corrections made.  Summary  This chapter has described mail survey procedures which featured an initial mailing and two follow-ups.  A total of 1,267  questionnaires were mailed to 1,100 Vancouver School Board adult  108  education instructors and 167 New Westminster School Board instructors.  At the end of the survey period (December 31,  1993), 471 usable questionnaires were received which yielded a response rate of 37.2%.  Data was coded, entered, verified, and  converted into a single SPSS system file on the UNIXG computer system.  109  CHkPTER SIX  PROFILES OF THE RESPONDENTS  Introduction  The purpose of this chapter is to describe the main socio demographic and educational characteristics of the 404 Vancouver School Board (VSB) instructors.  and 67 New Westminster School Board (NWSB)  The VSB and NWSB instructors’ responses to the  Conception of Teaching Scales are compared to ascertain whether they have the same conception scores.  Socio-Demographic Characteristics  Gender and Age  As shown in Table 10, 275 196  (41.6%) were men.  (58.4%)  respondents were women and  The percentages of women’s and men’s  respondents were almost the same in both school boards.  The  respondents’ ages ranged from 19 to 89, with an average age of 41.2 years  (SD  =  11.0).  The average age of VSB instructors was  42.6 years; for NWSB instructors, it was 40.9 years.  110 Table 10 Socio—Demopraphic Characteristics of Vancouver School Board (VSB and New Westminster School Board (NWSB)  VSB = 404) Variables No.  Gender Woman Man  237 167  58.7 41.3  Age (in years) Less than 20 20 to 29 30 to 39 40 to 49 50 to 59 More than 60 Not specified  1 46 146 121 52 29 9  0.2 11.4 36.1 30.0 12.9 7.2 2.2  Living Arrangement Alone With adults only With children only With adults & children Not specified  73 175 14 128 14  Country of Birth by Geographical Regions Africa Asia Europe North America Oceania South America Not specified Country of Birth (recoded) Canadian—born Foreign—born Not specified  Instructors  NWSB ( = 67)  (j =471)  No.  No.  38 29  —  56.7 43.3  —  9 15 26 7 8 2  13.4 22.4 38.8 10.4 11.9 3.0  18.1 43.3 3.5 31.7 3.5  10 26  14.9 38.8  28 3  41.8 4.5  6 67 66 253 2 3 7  1.5 16.6 16.3 62.6 0.5 0.7 1.7  1 4 6 52 2  1.4 6.0 9.0 77.6 3.0  235 162 7  58.2 40.1 1.7  -  -  Total  275 196  58.4 41.6  1 55 161 147 59 37 11  0.2 11.7 34.2 31.2 12.5 7.9 2.3  83 201 14 156 17  17.6 42.7 3.0 33.1 3.7  1.5 15.1 15.3 64.5 0.8 0.6 2.1  60.7 37.4 1.9  —  —  2  3.0  7 71 72 305 4 3 9  51 14 2  76.1 20.9 3.0  286 176 9  111 (Table 10 continued)  Variables  (n  VSB = 404)  No.  NWSB ( = 67)  Total ( =471)  No.  No.  Ethnic Group Caucasian Anglo-Saxon Protestant Chinese English Italian French Ukrainian Scottish Irish German Oriental Jewish East Indian Celtic Filipino Other Not specified  70 53 45 19 11 11 7 7 9 8 7 8 5 7 5 20 112  17.3 13.1 11.1 4.7 2.7 2.7 1.7 1.7 2.2 2.0 1.7 2.0 1.2 1.7 1.2 5.0 27.7  3 24  Major Ethnic Group (recoded) European Asian & Other Not specified  221 71 112  54.7 17.6 27.7  Personality Dominance Nurturance Not specified  99 295 10  79 73 42 33 29 12 13 18 7 98  No. of Countries Visited (for 3 or more weeks) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Not specified  12 10 1 5 1  17.9 14.9 1.5 7.5 1.5  4.5 35.8  82 63 46 24 12 11 10 10 10 9 8 8 7 7 5 23 136  17.4 13.4 9.8 5.1 2.5 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.1 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.1 4.8 28.9  37 6 24  55.2 9.0 35.8  258 77 136  54.8 16.3 28.9  24.5 73.0 2.5  21 44 2  31.3 65.7 3.0  120 339 12  25.5 72.0 2.5  19.6 18.1 10.4 8.2 7.2 3.0 3.4 4.5 1.7 24.3  10 9 4 7 4 2 3 3 2 23  14.9 13.4 6.0 10.4 6.0 3.0 4.5 4.5 3.0 34.3  89 82 46 40 33 14 16 21 9 121  18.9 17.4 9.8 8.5 7.0 3.0 3.4 4.5 1.9 25.7  —  —  3 3 1 1 1  4.5 4.5 1.5 1.5 1.5  —  —  2  3.0  —  —  —  —  112 (Table 10 continued)  (fl  Variables  No. No. of Countries Lived in (for 1 or more years) 1 2 3 4 5 7 Not specified Political orientation Left Center Right Not interpretable Not specified  VSB = 404) %  NWSB ( = 67)  (j =471)  No.  %  No.  31.3 9.0 3.0  26.1 11.5 3.0 0.6 0.4 0.4 58.0 20.6 20.8 14.9 21.9 21.9  Total  102 48 12 3 2 2 235  25.2 11.9 3.0 0.7 0.5 0.5 58.2  21 6 2  38  56.7  123 54 14 3 2 2 273  83 75 62 93 91  20.5 18.6 15.5 23.0 22.5  14 23 8 10 12  20.9 34.3 11.9 14.9 17.9  97 98 70 103 103  —  —  —  —  —  —  Living Arranement  Eighteen percent of the respondents indicated that they lived alone while 42.7% of the respondents said that they lived with adults only.  Only 3.0% of respondents said they lived with  children while the rest (33.1%)  indicated that they lived with  both adults and children.  Country of Birth  Countries of birth of respondents were categorized into six continental/geographical regions, namely Africa, Asia, Europe,  113  North America, Oceania and South America. (64.5%) Canada.  indicated that they were born in North America, mostly in Instructors who were born in Europe and Asia accounted  for 15.3% and 15.1% respectively. recoded into two groups: born”  (coded 2).  Canada,  Host respondents  Countries of birth were  “Canadian—born”  (coded 1) and “foreign—  About 61% of the respondents were born in  37.4% were born in foreign countries, and 1.9% did not  specify any country of birth.  Ethnicity  As shown in Table 10, ethnic backgrounds.  instructors were from variety of  About 55% of the respondents, referred to as  “Europeans”, specified their ethnic group as Anglo—Saxon Protestant, Caucasian, English, Celtic or other European origin. People who specified they were Chinese, East Indian, Filipino and other Asian backgrounds made up 16.3% Other”).  (referred to as “Asian and  About one-third of the respondents did not specify  their ethnic groups.  Personality  Respondents were asked to complete a 64—item personality inventory (Interpersonal Adjective Scale Wiggins, Trapnell and Phillips  (1988).  -  IAS-R) developed by  As described in Chapter  Three, the instrument measured two personality domains dominance and nurturance.  —  Z—scores for the dominance and  114  nurturance were computed.  A high positive z—score on dominance  would indicate a “dominant personality”, while a high positive z score on nurturance would indicate a “nurturing personality”.  On  the other hand, a low z—score on dominance would indicate less dominant personality, and a low z—score on nurturance would indicate a low nurturing personality.  As shown in Table 10, 72%  of instructors had a predominantly nurturing personality, while 25.5% had a dominant personality.  Visited and Lived Abroad  Nearly 75% of the respondents had visited (for 3 or more weeks) at least one country in the last ten years. number of countries visited was 3.3.  The average  About 42% of the  instructors had resided in at least one country (1 or more years) in the last ten years.  The average number of countries lived in  was 1.6.  Political Orientation  Respondents were asked to describe their general political orientations.  The question was open—ended to allow respondents  to have free expression of their political orientations.  About  56% of the respondents answered the question pertaining to their political orientation.  The rest (43.8%)  either left the question  unanswered or wrote comments which were unclassifiable or incomprehensible.  Among the respondents who indicated clearly  115  their political orientations, 20.6% indicated that they were politically oriented towards the Left, and 14.9% towards the Right.  20.8% towards the Center,  The classification of respondents’  political orientations was reviewed and validated by a group of doctoral students from different ethnic and political backgrounds.  Since the concepts of Left, Center and Right meant  different things to different people,  it was necessary to  “standardize” each political orientation based on respondent’s ethnic background and country of birth.  For example, respondents  who specified that their political orientations were “environmentalist”,  “feminist”,  “green”,  “anarchist”, and “NDP” and were  born in Canada were classified as Left.  Respondents who  specified their political orientations as “Liberal”,  “Liberal  Party”, and “Middle of the road” were classified as Center. Respondents who specified their political orientations as “conservative”,  “capitalism”,  “Conservative Party supporter” and  “Reform Party” were classified as Right.  Educational Characteristics  Formal Educational Qualification  As shown in Table 11, the majority (76.9%)  of the  instructors had university educational qualifications, while less than 8% indicated that they had secondary education.  Instructors  who had post—secondary education or trade qualifications made up 15.3%.  116 Table 11 Educational Characteristics of VSB and NWSB Instructors  (  VSB = 404)  NWSB (fl = 67)  Total ( = 471)  No.  No.  Variables No.  %  %  Highest Education No formal education Grade 10 or 11 Grade 12 Post secondary Part of university degree University degree University degree and higher Not specified  1 3 25 62 75  0.2 0.7 6.2 15.3 18.6  1 6 10 11  1.5 9.0 14.9 16.4  1 4 31 72 86  0.2 0.8 6.6 15.3 18.3  130 107  32.2 26.5  20 19  29.8 28.4  150 126  31.8 26.8  1  0.2  1  0.2  241 155 8  59.6 38.4 2.0  30 36 1  44.8 53.8 1.4  271 191 9  57.5 40.6 1.9  15 7 6 24 133 56  6.2 2.9 2.5 10.0 55.2 23.2  3 1  10.0 3.3  5 11 10  16.7 36.7 33.3  18 8 6 29 144 66  6.6 3.0 2.3 10.7 53.1 24 • 3  Training in Adult Education With Without Not specified  Types of Adult Education = Training Full-time degree Part-time degree Full-time diploma Part-time diploma Certificate Other  Note.  apercentages calculated based on respondents who had formal training in adult education.  117  Adult Education Training  Nearly 58% of instructors reported that they had some formal adult education training.  The remaining 42% of the respondents  either did not have any formal adult education training or did not specify any training.  Among the 271 instructors who had  formal training in adult education, 53.1% acquired their training through some certificate programs. a full—time degree program.  Only 6.6% acquired it through  Respondents who acquired adult  education training through a part—time diploma program accounted for only 10.7%.  Non-Formal Educational Activities  Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they had participated in any non-formal programs about adult education during the last year.  The list of non—formal programs included a  short course, a meeting at a professional organization, an in— service course, a talk, an educational travel program and other. Table 12 shows the instructors’ extent of participation in these non—formal programs. About 31% of the respondents said that they took a short course,  16.8% attended a professional meeting,  conference,  42.7% attended a  20.0% participated an in—service training, and 22.3%  attended a talk in the last year.  Only 4.2% of the instructors  said they participated in “educational travel”.  118  Table 12 i  Particioation in Non-Formal  Variable  (  VSB = 404)  No.  Activities  (  NWSB = 67)  No.  %  (N  Total = 471)  No.  Short Course No Yes Not specified  157 129 118  38.9 31.9 29.2  32 16 19  47.8 23.9 28.3  189 145 137  40.1 30.8 29.1  Meeting No Yes Not specified  166 66 172  41.1 16.3 42.6  32 13 22  47.8 19.4 32.8  198 79 194  42.0 16.8 41.2  Conference No Yes Not specified  136 171 97  33.7 42.3 24.0  26 30 11  38.8 44.8 16.4  162 201 108  34.4 42.7 22.9  In—Service No Yes Not specified  164 80 160  40.6 19.8 39.6  30 14 23  44.8 20.9 34.3  194 94 183  41.2 20.0 38.8  Talk No Yes Not specified  153 86 165  37.9 21.3 40.8  31 19 17  46.3 28.4 25.4  184 105 182  39.1 22.3 38.6  Travel No Yes Not specified  188 18 198  46.5 4.5 49.0  35 2 30  52.2 3.0 44.8  223 20 228  47.3 4.2 48.4  Other No Yes Not specified  115 17 272  28.5 4.2 67.3  24 2 41  35.8 3.0 61.2  139 19 313  29.5 4.0 66.5  119  Teaching Experience  Years of Teaching  Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they had ever taught children, and the length of time (full-time or parttime) they taught children and adults.  About 50% of the  respondents indicated that they had ever taught children, and the average length of time spent teaching children was 5.5 years (SD =  4.8 years).  Nearly 90% of the instructors considered their  teaching of adults as a part-time activity.  The number of years  spent on teaching adults ranged from less than a year to more than 20 years, with an average of 5.5 years (SD  =  5 • 4 years).  Most instructors (76.5%) said they had one to nine years’ adult teaching experience (see Table 13).  Influence of Teaching  About 50% of the respondents indicated that their ways of teaching were not influenced by any “significant person”. Instructors who said that their ways of teaching were influenced by significant persons accounted for 47.1%, and the people who significantly influenced their teaching were primarily their instructors (22.3%) and professors (8.9%).  120 Table 13 Nature of Teaching Experience  VSB (fl = 404)  (n  NWSB = 67)  Total (j = 471)  Variable No.  No.  Taught children No Yes Not specified  203 198 3  50.2 49.0 0.8  Years teaching children Less than 1 year 1 to 4 years 5 to 9 years 10 to 14 years More than 15 Not specified  8 109 28 34 12 213  2.0 27.0 6.9 8.4 3.0 52.7  14 10 5 4 34  Adult teaching activity Full-time Part-time Not specified  21 367 16  5.2 90.8 4.0  Years of adult teaching Less than 1 year 1 to 4 years 5 to 9 years 10 to 14 years 15 to 19 years More than 20 years Not specified  9 225 89 32 15 17 17  Influence of teaching No Yes Not specified Person influenced teaching Author Professor Instructor Other Not specified  32 35  %  478 52.2  No.  235 233 3  49.9 49.5 0.6  20.9 14.9 7.5 6.0 50.7  8 123 38 39 16 247  1.7 26.1 8.1 8.3 3.4 52.4  8 53 6  11.9 79.1 9.0  29 420 22  8.2 89.2 4.7  2.2 55.7 22.0 7.9 3.7 4.2 4.2  2 31 15 3 2 8 6  3.0 48.3 22.4 4.5 3.0 11.9 9.0  11 256 104 35 17 25 23  2.3 54.4 22.1 7.4 3.6 5.3 4.9  196 193 15  48.5 47.8 3.7  35 29 3  52.2 43.3 4.5  231 222 18  49.0 47.1 3.9  12 33 94 54 211  3.0 8.2 23.3 13.3 52.2  2 9 11 7 38  2.9 13.4 16.4 10.4 56.7  14 42 105 61 249  3.0 8.9 22.3 12.9 52.9  —  —  —  —  121  Types of Programs  A wide range of adult and continuing education programs were offered by the VSB and NWSB.  About 18% of the instructors were  engaged in teaching computer—related courses, a Second Language (ESL), 7.9% in arts and crafts  11.3% in English as  10.8% in academic—related courses, and (see Table 14).  Table 14 Tvies of Programs and Class Size  Variable  (n  VSB = 404)  No. Type of Program Academic Arts & craft Beauty Business Communication Computer Cooking Health Eng. as 2nd lang. (ESL) Foreign language Music Recreation Secretarial/Office admin. Sewing Workshops Special Not specified Class Size Less than 10 10 to 19 20 to 29 More than 30 Not specified  %  (n  NWSB = 67)  No.  42 31 4 24 17 84 13 24 48 20 5 26 13 15 16 18 4  10.4 7.7 1.0 5.9 4.2 20.8 3.2 5.9 11.9 5.0 1.2 6.4 3.2 3.7 4.0 4.5 1.0  5 2 3 3 8 2  54 226 100 18 6  13.4 55.8 24.8 4.5 1.5  8 34 18 3 4  9 6 1 8 5 1  %  13.4 9.0 1.5 11.9 7.5 1.5  (Ii  Total = 471)  No.  %  7.5 3.0 4.5 4.5 11.9 3.0  51 37 5 32 22 85 13 29 53 24 5 31 15 18 19 26 6  10.8 7.9 1.1 6.8 4.7 18.0 2.8 6.2 11.3 5.1 1.1 6.6 3.2 3.8 4.0 5.5 1.3  11.9 50.7 26.9 4.5 6.0  62 260 118 21 10  13.2 55.2 25.1 4.5 2.0  —  —  5 5 4  7.5 7.5 6.0  —  —  122  The mean class size was 15.8  (SD  6.7).  =  About 80% of VSB  and NWSB programs/courses had 10 to 29 participants. class sizes of VSB and NWSB courses were 15.6 (SD  =  (SD  =  The average 6.3)  and 16.6  respectively.  8.5)  Instructional Techniques Used  Respondents were asked to rate how frequently they used various instructional techniques  (lecture, case study, role play,  small group discussion, large group discussion, demonstration, drill and field trip)  on a five-point scale in which “Always” was  “Often” was coded 4,  coded 5,  “Sometimes”  was coded 2, and “Never” was coded 1.  was coded 3,  “Seldom”  Table 15 presents the  means and standard deviations of the frequencies of various instructional techniques used.  A high mean value would indicate  that an instructional technique was more frequently used, and Results sunuuarized in Table 15,  vice versa.  indicate that  respondents frequently used demonstrations  (  (  3.24)  =  3.55)  and small group discussion  instruction.  (  =  1.75).  lectures  in their  (  =  The least frequently used  instructional techniques were case study  (  4.11),  Large group discussion was sometimes used  3.17) by the instructors.  trip  =  =  (  =  2.53)  and field  123  Table 15 Extent of Instructional Techniques Used  (  VSB = 404)  NWSB (13 = 67)  (Ii  Mean  Mean  SD  Total = 471)  Technique Mean  SD  Demonstration  4.13  0.94  4.00 1.03  4.11  0.95  Lecture  3.57  1.21  3.48 1.23  3.55  1.21  Small group discussion  3.25  1.25  3.19 1.23  3.24  1.24  Large group discussion  3.19  1.30  3.03 1.31  3.17  1.31  Role play  2.62  1.30  2.69 1.32  2.57  1.31  Drill  2.58  1.42  2.43 1.25  2.56  1.40  Case study  2.50  1.17  2.28 1.35  2.53  1.18  Field trip  1.74  0.99  1.78 1.11  1.75  1.01  SD  Note. Techniques rated on 5—point scale ranged from Always Often = 4, Sometimes = 3, Seldom = 2, and Never = 1. Missing data was coded 1.  =  5,  Literature Read or Consulted  Most of the respondents  (80.3%)  read or consulted a book on  the subject they taught in the year prior to the survey.  About  44% of the instructors claimed to have read or consulted a subject journal. 58.6%.  Respondents who read a magazine accounted for  Generally most respondents did not read or consult any  124  adult education book or journal in the last year.  Only 22.9% of  the respondents reported reading or consulting an adult education book, and 10.8% said they read or consulted an adult education journal during the last year (see Table 16).  Table 16 Resoonses to Materials Read or Consulted  VSB = 404) Material No.  %  NWSB ( = 67) No.  Subject Book No Yes Not specified  67 325 12  16.5 80.5 3.0  14 53  Subject Journal No Yes Not specified  203 177 24  50.2 43.8 6.0  32 30 5  Magazine No Yes Not specified  144 236 24  35.6 58.4 6.0  Adult Education Book No Yes Not specified  289 97 18  Adult Education Journal No Yes Not specified  336 44 24  %  20.9 79.1  Total ( = 471) No.  %  81 378 12  17.2 80.3 2.5  47.8 44.8 7.4  235 207 29  49.9 43.9 6.2  26 40 1  38.8 59.7 1.5  170 276 25  36.1 58.6 5.3  71.5 24.0 4.5  52 11 4  77.6 16.4 6.0  341 108 22  72.4 22.9 4.7  83.2 10.9 5.9  56 7 4  83.6 10.4 6.0  392 51 28  83.2 10.8 6.0  —  —  125  Role Clarity/Ambiquity  Recall from Chapter Three that this variable was assessed by a four—item instrument developed by Rizzo, House and Lirtzman (1970).  Respondents were asked to rate the four items on a  seven—point Likert—type scale ranging from strongly disagree (coded as 1)  to strongly agree (coded as 7).  The means and standard deviations of the scale scores are shown in Table 17.  A high mean score on the scale would indicate  high role clarity on the job, while a low mean score would indicate low role clarity. .79),  The mean scale score was 5.86  (SD  =  indicating that respondents generally had high role clarity  concerning their job.  T-test result yielded statistically  significant difference (t  =  -2.65, <.Ol)  in the scale scores of  VSB and NWSB instructors, although the difference in scores was small.  The NWSB instructors  (  =  6.09,  SD  =  0.61)  slightly higher role clarity than VSB instructors 0.81).  generally had  (4  =  5.82, SD  =  126  Table 17 Means and Standard Deviations of ResDonses to Role Clarity/Ambiguity Scale  VSB  NWSB = 67)  Total = 460)  393)  (  Mean  SD  Mean  SD  Mean  SD  I feel certain about how much authority I have  5.31  1.36  5.80  1.00  5.38  1.32  I feel that I have divided my on-the-job time properly  5.92  0.83  6.06  0.89  5.94  0.84  I know what my responsibilities are  6.15  0.75  6.36  0.54  6.18  0.73  I know exactly what is expected of me on the job  5.93  0.96  6.15  0.87  5.96  0.95  Scale scorea  5.82  0.81  6.09  0.61  5.85  0.79  (j  =  Scale Item  (  Note Scale items were rated on 7—point scale ranged from Strongly agree = 7, Agree = 6, Slightly agree = 5, Not sure = 4, Slightly disagree = 3, Disagree = 2, and Strongly disagree = 1. at_value = -2.65, p<.01.  127  Conception Scale Scores of VSB and NWSB Instructors  Conception scale scores were computed for both the VSB and NWSB instructors (see Table 18).  The mean conception scores of  the two groups were almost identical and T—tests revealed no significant differences in their conception scores.  In other  words, the VSB and NWSB instructors had the same mean conception scores.  Since both groups of instructors had the same mean  conception scores, they were combined into a single sample.  Table 18 Comparative Means and Standard Deviations of CTS Scores of VSB and NWSB Instructors  Scale  (n  VSB = 404)  NWSB  (n  =  67)  Mean  SD  Mean  SD  t-value  p  Engineering  4.76  .55  4.82  .49  —0.88  .38  Apprenticeship  4.78  .53  4.78  .48  —0.14  .89  Developmental  4.76  .50  4.79  .46  —0.52  .61  Nurturing  4.88  .56  4.87  .53  0.05  .96  Social Reform  3.93  .82  3.92  .72  0.13  .90  128  Summary  This chapter has presented a general socio—deiuographic and educational profiles of 471 instructors from VSB and NWSB. Nearly 59% of the respondents were women, and 41% were men. average age of the respondents was 41.2 years.  The  About 60% of the  respondents were born in Canada, and the remaining 40% were born in other foreign countries.  About 55% of the respondents said  they belonged to the “European” ancestry, and 16% said they belonged to “Asian and other” ancestry.  Nearly 60% of the  respondents claimed that they had university qualification. Nearly 58% of the respondents said that they had formal adult education training.  Both groups of instructors had similar  scores on the Conception of Teaching Scales (CTS), and were combined to form a single sample.  129  CHAPTER SEVEN  OPERATIONALIZATION AND SCALE REFINEMENT  Introduction  This chapter reports results of the operationalization of Pratt’s five Conceptions of Teaching.  Using correlation and  factor analyses, the original five Conception of Teaching Scales (CTS) were refined to yield pure scales that assessed Pratt’s conceptions of teaching.  The procedure used to determine and  identify an instructor’s dominant conceptions of teaching is also described.  Tests of Operationalization  Recall from Chapter Four that elaborate procedures were employed to generate items to operationalize Pratt’s five conceptions of teaching (Engineering, Apprenticeship, Developmental, Nurturing and Social Reform). developed to reflect both the three aspects and belief)  The items were (action,  intention  and the three relational elements of teaching  (learner—content, learner—teacher, and teacher—content). initial pool of 155 items was generated.  A  The list was reduced to  130  120 items that were inductively sorted into five categories of conceptions by Pratt and a group of 10 graduate students (serving as “judges”)  familiar with Pratt’s work.  Out of these 120 items,  75 items were eventually selected for the Conception of Teachinc Scales (CTS). This section reports the results of the responses to the CTS and assesses the extent to which the CTS represented the five conceptions of teaching as previously identified by Pratt (1992). Table 19 presents the means, standard deviations, and coefficient alphas of the five conception scales from 471 VSB and NSWB instructors.  (The means and standard deviations of the 75  items are shown in Table C. 1 in Appendix C). ranged from 3.93 to 4.88,  and the standard deviations ranged from  0.50 to 0.81 for the five conception scales. Social Reform was 3.93,  The scale means  The scale mean for  suggesting that overall there was a lower  degree of agreement with Social Reform items than with those on other four conceptions.  Cronbach aiphas for the five scales  ranged from .79 to .89, with an average of .83.  The high aiphas  indicate that the CTS generally had reasonably good internal consistency, that is, the items in the scales were highly intercorrelated.  131  Table 19 Scale Parameters and Correlation Matrix of Original Five Conception of Teaching Scales  Correlation Coefficients Scale Mean  SD  Alpha  Eng  flgineering  4.77  0.54  .84  —  pprenticeship  4.78  0.52  .81  .64**  elopmental  4.76  0.50  .79  .17**  .46**  jturing  4.88  0.55  .85  .11*  •47** .58**  2ial Reform  3.93  0.81  .89  .15**  •47** .50**  App  Dev  Nur  Soc  —  Note. Scale items ranged from Strongly Agree Disagree = 1. *p<.05 **p<.01  =  —  —  .56**  —  6 to Strongly  Engineering and Apprenticeship conceptions were significantly correlated (r  =  .64, p<.Ol).  Although Pratt’s  Apprenticeship was positively and significantly correlated with Developmental, Nurturing and Social Reform conceptions, their correlation coefficients were not as high. significantly correlated with Nurturing (r Social Reform  (  =  .50, p<.Ol).  Developmental was =  .58, p<.Ol)  and  There was a significant  correlation between Nurturing and Social Reform (r  =  .56, p<.01).  The mean of the scale intercorrelations was .41 which indicated that the five scales were fairly overlapped.  132  Pratt (1992) had noted that conceptions of teaching were assumed to be a dynamic and interdependent trilogy of Actions, Intentions and Beliefs (p. 206).  To determine the  interrelationships among the three aspects, correlation and ANOVAR analyses were performed.  the aspects were examined.  First, the scale parameters of  Table 20 presents results of the  scale characteristics of the three aspects for the five conceptions of teaching.  The aspects’ means ranged from 3.70 to  5.24, and their standard deviations ranged from 0.52 to 1.08. Cronbach alphas of all conception aspects ranged from .50 to .88, with an average of .69, which indicated that there were acceptable internal consistencies among aspects’ items.  Aiphas  for Social Reform aspects were higher than the alphas for aspects in the other four conceptions. The item (aspect) total correlation (ITC) determines the extent to which there is a relationship between the correlation of items in each aspect with the total  (mean)  conception score.  The ITCs of the three aspects for all the five conceptions ranged from .49 to .73, with an average of .62. Pratt (1992) diagranuuatically represented the three aspects -  action,  intentions and beliefs  important.  -  as though they were equally  The ITC5 test the proposition whether Pratt’s three  aspects operate equally in influencing teachers’ endorsement of the conceptions.  If the ITC5 are roughly equal then the three  aspects operate about equally (as in Engineering and Nurturing) or unequally  (as in Apprenticeship, Developmental and Social  133 Table 20 Relative Contribution of As,ects to the Five Concettions of Teaching  Correlation Coefficientb  Scale Parameters Scale Alpha  ITca  0.68 0.52 0.70  .62 .76 .66  .63 .64 .67  .56 .61  5.12 4.82 4.39  0.57 0.62 0.73  .61 .67 .69  .57 .64 .51  .57 .41  4.60 4.87 4.82  0.72 0.59 0.55  .64 .68 .50  .54 .61 .49  .52 .37  4.88 5.24 4.53  0.72 0.57 0.63  .72 .75 .57  .67 .71 .65  .62 .55  4.18 3.92 3.70  0.95 1.08 0.84  .88 .88 .73  .64 .73 .58  .63 .44  Mean  SD  4.57 5.19 4.56  Action  Intention  Belief  Engineering Action Intention Belief  —  —  .57  —  Apprenticeship Action Intention Belief  —  —  .51  —  Developmental Action Intention Belief  — —  .48  —  Nurturing Action Intention Belief  —  —  .59  —  Social Reform Action Intention Belief  —  —  .58  —  aITC refers to corrected item-total correlations with total conception scale scores. bAll correlation coefficients of aspects were significant (p<.0l).  134  Reform) where intention is more important than any other aspect. For example,  in the Social Reform conception, the ITC of  intention was .73, while ITC5 of action and belief were .64 and .58 respectively. Next, the intercorrelations between aspects in each conception were examined.  Intercorrelations among the aspects in  the five conceptions revealed that there were significant and positive correlations among the three aspects, although their correlations were not high.  For example,  intercorrelations  between the Developmental aspects were lower than in Nurturing. To demonstrate the extent of agreement about aspects and conceptions, an analysis of variance (ANOVAR) procedure was performed.  Table 21 reports an ANOVAR summary table  showed that aspects  (  =  88.5,  df  interaction significant.  =  264.5, df  =  2,934, p<.OOl), conceptions  4,1868, p<.OOl), and aspects by conceptions  =  (  (  which  =  343 7, df  =  8,3736, <.OO1) were statistically  The aspects however accounted for more variance  than the conceptions (about 3.5 times). was a greater agreement about aspects beliefs) than about conceptions.  In other words, there  (actions,  intentions, and  Results reported in Tables 20  and 21 thus provided evidence that the aspects and conceptions were interdependent, but the aspects were more meaningful to people than the conceptions.  135 Table 21 ANOVAR Summary on Aspects and Conceptions  Source  Suiu of Squares  DF  Subjects—Within  1,248.0  467  2.7  359.2  2  179.6  634.3  934  0.7  95.6  4  23.9  Conceptions—Within  504 • 8  1,868  0.3  ACS  829.7  8  103.7  1,127.4  3,736  0.3  Aspects  (A)  Aspects—Within  Conceptions(C)  ACS—Within  Note.  ACS  =  Mean Squares  Aspects x Conceptions x Subjects.  F Ratio  p  264.5  0.001  88.5  0.001  343.7  0.001  136  Steps in Refining Conception of Teaching Scales (CTS)  Although the results presented in the above section confirmed the successful operationalization of Pratt’s five conceptions of teaching in terms of the scales’ internal consistency and aspects’ significance, the “empirical validity” was not yet evaluated.  In other words, the instructors’  responses to the CTS items needed to be investigated to determine whether the responses were consistent or congruent with the theoretically—based construction of the scales.  More  specifically, to what extent did the conception scales represent Pratt’s five conceptions of teaching? Factor analysis was employed to establish whether the CTS items were representative of Pratt’s five conceptions of teaching.  A three—step procedure was carried out.  First, all 75  CTS item responses from 471 instructors were factored.  To  determine whether items were clustered into meaningful and coherent factors that echoed the conceptions.  Factor analyses  using principal—component and generalized least squares extractions with different rotation methods (varimax and quartimax) were all examined.  However the quartimax—rotation  with principal—component extraction was finally selected. Principal-components factoring yielded 18 factors with eigenvalues greater than one, and they accounted for 63.2% of total variance.  An examination of the scree plot revealed that  an “elbow” occurred or kinked at the ninth factor.  Table 22  137  displays the eigenvalue, variance and cumulative variance of the nine factors. variance.  The nine factors accounted for 48.9% of the total  The first six factors contained items which echoed the  scales as intuitively developed.  However, the Apprenticeship  conception broke into two factors; one containing items which defined apprenticeship as practice, and another defined apprenticeship as modelling.  Table 22 Explanatory Value of the First Nine Unrotated CTS Factors  Factors  Eigenvalue  Variance  Cumulative Variance  1  14.05  18.7  18.7  2  6.02  8.1  26.8  3  4.21  5.6  32.4  4  2.70  3.6  36.0  5  2.49  3.3  39.3  6  2.00  2.7  42.0  7  1.78  2.4  44.4  8  1.70  2.3  46.7  9  1.66  2.2  48.9  138  Factors seven, eight and nine contained clusters of items which were less interpretable.  Since the primary purpose of this  study was to operationalize Pratt’s conceptions of teaching, the task then was to consider and select clusters of items that appeared to represent Pratt’s conceptions. An inspection of the rotated nine—factor matrix revealed that 63 out of 75 CTS items (with significant factor loadings of ±.33) were successfully clustered into the six conceptions (factors), items, Reform,  including two versions of Apprenticeship.  14 belonged to Nurturing,  14 to Engineering,  Of the 63 12 to Social  12 to Apprenticeship and 11 to Developmental.  The 12  Apprenticeship items were loaded on Factors 4 and 6, which suggested that there were two forms of Apprenticeship conception. Sixty-three items (or 84%)  out of the original 75 CTS items  successfully defined their expected conceptions.  Pratt’s  conceptions of teaching were thus operationalized successfully. In step 2, the factor loadings and item—scale correlations of 75 scale items were examined to determine which items should be retained or deleted from the scales,  so that the items which  eventually remained in the scales were sharp and well—defined. In other words, the purpose of this step was to identify and select items that assessed conceptions of teaching faithful both to Pratt’s formulation and to factorial purity.  Four criteria  for deletion were developed after close examination of the factor loadings of all 75 items and their correlations with the original five conception scores. criteria:  (1)  Items were deleted according to four  if an item loaded too heavily on different  139  Table 23 Refinement Criteria Applied for Deleting Scale Items Deletion Criteria Item  Description LDC  Label  LMC  LFL  Engineering AE6  Encourage people to accept the content as it is.  AE1  Tell learners what they are to learn.  x  x  BEll  Learning is enhanced if we have predetermined standards.  x  x  BE1  I know what learners need to know.  x  x  BE6  An effective teacher must first and foremost be an authority on the content to be learned.  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  Apprenticeship AA7  Encourage learners to work alongside with me.  x  AA17  Guide learners toward professional standards.  x  TA7  Promote learning through observation and application.  TA17  Represent the world of work.  BA17  A teacher’s primary role is to model what is to be learned.  x  Developmental TD3  Promote intellectual development in people.  x  x  TDB  Foster new ways of thinking about familiar content.  x  x  LC  140 (Table 23 continued) TD13  Use the content as means to develop enquiring minds.  x  x  TD23  Help people to re-consider what they already know.  x  x  BD3  Learning is an active process of interpreting and integrating what is new with what we already know.  x  BD8  Education should develop autonomous thinkers.  x  BD18  An effective teacher should be able to re—construct the content to be learned in a variety of ways.  x  BD23  Knowledge is personally constructed.  x  x  Nurturing .AN9  Share my own feelings.  x  TN19  Help people meet their learning needs.  x  BN14  An effective teacher need not necessarily be content expert.  x  x  Social Reform AS5  Tell people what I believe in and why.  x  AS2O  Use my beliefs as guiding bases for teaching.  x  AS25  Encourage people to take a stand based on their ideals.  BS1O  Learning should be related to the issues of today.  Note.  x x  An “x” denotes a criterion applied to item deletion. LDC = Loaded on different conception(s). LMC = Loaded on multiple conceptions. LFL = Low factor loading (<.40). LC = Low item—scale correlation (<.40).  x  141  conceptions  (factors)  other than its own “home” conception,  if an item loaded on multiple conceptions own “home” conception, (<.40),  (3)  (factors)  (2)  including its  if an item had a low factor loading  if an item had low a correlation with its  and (4)  conception scale (r<.40).  Table 23 shows 25 items deleted either  on one or two of these criteria.  Eleven items were deleted  because they loaded on more than one conception and had low factor loadings.  Another ten items were deleted because they  loaded on different conceptions.  Two items were deleted because  they loaded on different conceptions and had low item—scale correlations.  The remaining two items were deleted because one  item loaded on more than one conception and the other had a low factor loading.  As a result of the deletion process, a total of  50 items were retained (see Table 24), and these items were clustered into six revised conception scales (abbreviated as CTS— R) which now included the two facets of Apprenticeship and Modelling. conceptions  -  Practice  The key characteristics of the six revised  (as represented by factors)  are described below.  Six Conceptions  Enineering  The Engineering factor consisted of 10 items, of which five were intention items, three were action items, and two were belief items.  These items emphasized content and transmission of  content from the teacher to learners.  142 Table 24 Means, Standard Deviations, Factor Loadings and Item—Scale Correlations of Refined Scale (CTS—R’)  Item Label  Description  Items  Item Scale Corr  Mean  SD  Fact Load  5.29  0.74  .79  .68  5.24  0.69  .70  .61  5.08  0.85  .62  .56  4.99  0.92  .62  .64  5.12  0.70  .59  .54  5.01  0.79  .56  .58  5.28  0.70  .53  .49  5.08  0.79  .53  .49  5.26  0.75  .51  .51  4.67  1.04  .49  .61  4.63  1.21  .62  .53  4.20  1.02  .60  .55  4.29  1.11  .54  .49  4.31  1.19  .46  .54  4.94  0.85  .40  .55  Engineering TEll TEl BE21  AE16  TE16 TE6 TE21 BE16 E21 AE11  Accurately and thoroughly present the content to be learned. Transmit a reasonably well— defined body of knowledge. Content should be adequately covered and efficiently delivered. Try to cover the required content within the allotted time. Work toward established goals or objectives. Efficiently and effectively direct learning. Clarify or correct any misunderstandings of content. Learning objectives should be clearly specified. Provide content and subject— matter expertise. Clearly follow the syllabus and course objectives.  Atrenticeship: Practice BA7 BA12  BA2 BA22 TA22  Knowledge and practice cannot be separated. Craft knowledge, that is, knowledge situated in its context of application must be given a priority. The best place to learn is the-job”. Practice, guided by an expert, makes perfect. Move people toward the world of practice  143 (Table 24 continued) Apprenticeship: Modelling AA22 AA12 TA12 AA2 TA2  Encourage people to learn by watching and practising. Emphasize practice as a way of learning. Model desirable ways of working. Model values and ways of working. Function as a role model.  5.24  0.82  .57  .61  5.41  0.79  .50  .55  4.99  0.78  .48  .61  5.08  0.79  .44  .44  4.84  0.94  .42  .59  4.61  1.15  .71  .61  4.68  1.11  .62  .50  4.92  1.02  .60  .54  4.70  0.96  .46  .48  4.20  1.12  .45  .57  3.87  1.38  .42  .53  4.95  0.83  .37  .52  5.02  0.95  .77  .73  5.20  0.88  .74  .69  4.89  1.01  .70  .68  5.24  0.78  .67  .67  5.46  0.71  .60  .53  5.39  0.67  .58  .62  4.78  1.15  .58  .63  4.67  0.96  .57  .66  Developmental AD8 AD3 AD18 TD18 BD13  AD13 AD23  Encourage people to challenge each other’s thinking. Challenge people’s understanding of the content. Encourage people to think critically about what they are learning. Develop people’s ability to think rationally. The primary role of a teacher is to challenge people’s current ways of understanding and thinking. Ask more questions than provide answers. Encourage people to find problems as well as solve them.  Nurturing TN14 TN9 AN19 ANl4 TN4 BN19 ?N4 BN9  Be sensitive to the emotional needs of learners. Nuture each person’s self esteem. Provide emotional support when needed. Foster a climate of trust and caring among learners. Preserve the dignity of every learner. I should promote trust between learners and teacher. Encourage expressions of feeling and emotions. When considering learning, people’s emotions are as important as their thoughts.  144 (Table 24 continued) BN24 BN4 TN24 AN24  Education should enhance people’s self—esteem. Providing emotional support is the primary role for teachers. Serve as a facilitator of people’s learning. Treat learners as friends.  5.19  0.78  .48  .57  3.56  1.21  .46  .57  5.23  0.75  .43  .51  5.03  1.03  .41  .49  3.83  1.30  .82  .81  4.40  1.21  .74  .77  3.88  1.22  .72  .75  3.53  1.35  .67  .69  3.97  1.34  .65  .70  3.41  1.37  .62  .68  4.03  1.20  .60  .66  4.13  1.14  .58  .68  4.07  1.35  .55  .70  2.96  1.34  .49  .53  2.96  1.26  .44  .48  Social Reform TS25 TS1O TS15 TS2O TS5 AS1O BS5  BS15 AS15 BS2O  BS25  Help people work toward an ideal society. Motivate everyone to work toward a better society for all. Encourage people to take collective action to improve society. Assess my success in teaching by the impact I have on society. Serve as a change agent for society. Present an ideal vision for society. Individual growth without social improvement is not enough. Education should work toward the transformation of society. Use content to teach about some higher ideal. Society is imperfect and the primary role of a teacher is to make people aware of society’s imperfections. Learners must place society before self.  145  Apprenticeship—Practice  The Apprenticeship-Practice factor contained five items (four belief and one intention items) pertaining to the first (new) Apprenticeship conception. on practice.  The items had a central focus  Thus, this conception of teaching was related to  the notion that learning was best achieved through practice, and that knowledge and practice were inseparable.  Consequently, this  factor was named Apprenticeship—Practice.  Apprenticeship-Modelling  The Apprenticeship-Modelling factor comprised of five items which pertained to the second Apprenticeship conception. were three intention and two action items.  There  The key focus of  these items were on “modelling”, whereby the role of the teacher was to function as a role model, to demonstrate desirable ways and values of working.  This factor was named Apprenticeship—  Modelling.  Developmental  The Developmental factor contained seven items related to the Developmental conception, of which five were action items and one item each for intention and belief aspects.  The items  146  focused on encouraging learners to challenge their current understanding and thinking, and to develop their intellectual ability to think rationally.  Nurturing  The Nurturing factor was made up of 12 nurturing items, with an equal number of action, each).  intention and belief items (four  These items were closely related to the key  characteristics of the Nurturing conception, which emphasized self—esteem, emotional support and dignity in learners and promotion of a climate of trust between teacher and learners.  Social Reform  The Social Reform factor comprised 11 items of which five were intention items, items.  four were belief items, and two action  The items related teaching to social improvement and  well-being.  Parametric Characteristics of CTS—R  In the previous section, the item selection procedures employed in the derivation of the CTS—R were meant to increase the fidelity of the  conceptions and precision of the scales.  The means, standard deviations, Cronbach alphas and the intercorrelation matrix of the six revised conception of teaching  147  scales (CTS—R) are shown in Table 25.  The means of the revised  scales ranged from 3.74 to 5.11 and standard deviations from 0.51 to 0.89.  Cronbach alphas for the revised Engineering,  Developmental, Nurturing and Social Reform scales averaged .82. Aiphas for the Apprenticeship-Practice and ApprenticeshipModelling scales were .65 and .74, respectively. Apprenticeship scale alpha was .75.  The combined  Most of the  intercorrelations of the CTS—R scores were significant, but low, with a mean of .33.  Table 25 Scale Parameters and Correlation Matrix of Six Revised Conception of Teaching Scales  Correlation coefficients Scale  Mean  SD  ngineering  5.10  0.51 .84  App-Practice  4.47  0.71 .65  .40**  Ap-Model1ing  5.11  0.58 .74  .48**  el opmental  4.56  0.65 .68  .10*  turing  4.97  0.57 .86  .20** .32** .50**  Social Reform  3.74  0.89 .89  .07  Alpha  Eng  App-P  App-M  .l7** .25**  Dev  Nur  —  .42**  —  •37** •35** .36** .48**  Note. Combined Apprenticeship scale alpha was .75. *p<.05 **<O1  Soc  —  148  The summaries presented in Table 26 indicate that the refinement procedures successfully increased the convergent and discriminant validity of the conception scales. validity (Campbell and Fiske,  1959)  Convergent  is the extent of convergence  among scale items and was assessed by the mean of the item intercorrelations in each conception scale.  The last column in  Table 26 shows that the mean item intercorrelations of CTS-R (ranging from .24 to .43, with a mean of .34) were higher than those in the original CTS  (ranging from .21 to .36, with a mean  of .28),  indicating increased convergence of items in the revised  scales.  Discriminant validity determined the extent to which  conception scales were intercorrelated and this was evaluated by the means of the scales’ intercorrelations computed for both the original and revised CTS.  In other words,  low scale  intercorrelations would indicate a high degree of discrimination among scales, while high scale intercorrelations would suggest low discrimination.  More specifically, the scale refinement  procedures had resulted in the reduction of overlaps among the conception scales.  As reported in Table 26, the mean of the  original conception scale intercorrelations was .41, and the mean of revised scale intercorrelations was .33,  indicating that the  scale refinement procedures had increased the ability of the scales to discriminate among the conceptions with increased precision.  With the exception of Pratt’s Apprenticeship and  Developmental scales (see Table 26), the Cronbach and standardized item alphas for the original and revised Engineering, Nurturing and Social Reform scales were about the  149 Table 26 Scale Parameters for Original and Revised ConceDtion  of  Teaching Scales  Mean  SD  No. Items  Engineering Apprenticeship Developmental Nurturing Social Reform  4.77 4.78 4.76 4.88 3.93  0.54 0.52 0.50 0.55 0.81  15 15 15 15 15  Overall mean  4.62  0.58  Scale  Alpha  Stda Item Alpha  .84 .81 .79 .85 .89  .85 .81 .79 .85 .89  .29 .23 .21 .30 .36  .84  .84  .28  .84 .75 .65 .74 .68 .86 .89  .84 .77 .66 .74 .69 .87 .89  .35 .25 .28 .36 .24 .36 .43  .78  .78  .34  Mean 1 Item Corr  Original Scale  Mean Inter—Scale CorrC  .41  =  Revised Scale Engineering App—Combined App—Practice App—Modelling Developmental Nurturing Social Reform  5.10 4.80 4.47 5.11 4.56 4.97 3.74  0.51 0.65 0.71 0.58 0.65 0.57 0.89  Overall mean  4.66  0.65  Mean Inter—Scale Corr  Note.  =  .33  aStandardised item aiphas. bMean inter—item correlations. CMean inter—scale correlations.  11 10 5 5 7 12 10  150  same indicating that there was little loss in reliability associated with the reduction of items in these scales.  The  aiphas for Engineering, Nurturing and Social Reform were .84, .85, and .89 respectively.  The loss in reliability associated  with item reduction in the Development (from 15 to seven items) and Apprenticeship scales (from 15 to 10 items) was not great, considering a total reduction of 13 items in these two scales (Apprenticeship and Developmental).  There were five items for  each form of revised Apprenticeship, and seven items for Developmental scales.  In the original CTS, there were 15 items  for each of the five conception scales.  Alpha for the original  Apprenticeship scale was .81, while alphas for the Apprenticeship-Practice and Apprenticeship-Modelling were .65 and .74 respectively.  The alpha for the original Developmental scale  was .79, and after the refinement the alpha for the revised scale was reduced to .68.  Determining Dominant Conceptions of Teaching  Pratt (1992) proposed that although no one held all five conceptions of teaching, most held two or three conceptions of teaching,  one of which was usually more dominant (p. 217).  One  of the purposes of this study was to test whether any such dominant conception existed. conception scale scores.  Each person had six refined  For each person, which conception was  more dominant than the others?  To answer this question, a  defensible statistical procedure for defining and identifying  151  dominant conceptions of teaching had to be formulated.  One  approach was simply to identify an individual’s highest scale score among the six conception scores as a dominant conception. This approach was considered inappropriate because of wide variations among individuals’ scale scores, that is, different individuals had different levels of high conception scores.  An  alternative approach was to identify a conception scale score which had a “distinct peak” in the conception profile.  This  approach required the employment of some sigma criterion to differentiate the conception scores and to single out the dominant peak for each person. The identification of dominant conceptions was carried out using a four—step procedure.  In Step 1, all the respondents’  mean conception scores were standardized to even out individual variations in the scale scores.  Next (Step 2), the standard  deviation (referred to as Sc) was computed from all subjects’ standardized conception scores.  In Step 3, each conception score  (expressed in sigma unit) was derived by subtracting each (standardized) conception score from the mean of the rest of the five (standardized) conception scores, and the result was then divided by S.  The formulas used to derive dominant conceptions  are shown below:  Dominant Engineering  {Ceng DCeng  -  Mean (Capp_p ,Capp_m, Cdev. Cnur, Csoc))  —  Sc  152 Dominant Apprenticeship-Practices  {Capp...p DCapp_p  -  Mean (Ceng, Capp_m, Cdev. Cnur, Csoc))  =  Sc  Dominant Apprenticeship-Modelling  {Capp_m DCapp..m  -  Mean(Ceng, Capp....p,  Cnur, Csoc))  =  Sc  Dominant Developmental  {Cdev DCdev  Mean(Cengi Capp....pi Capp..m, Cnur, C o)) 5  -  —  Sc  Dominant Nurturing  {Cnur DCnur  Mean(Ceng, Capp_p, Capp....m, Cdev, Csoc)  —  =  Sc  Dominant Social Reform  —  DCsoc  {Csoc  Mean (Ceng, Capp....pi Capp...m, Cdev, Cnur)  -  }  —  Sc  where DCeng....DCsoc  =  Six conception scores expressed in sigma  units, Ceng.....Csoc S  =  =  Six conception  (standardized)  scores,  Standard deviation of all six conception scores.  153  By applying the above formulas, all six conception scores were transformed into sigma units.  A decision had to be made to  determine which conception was dominant based on the derived sigma units.  Several weighted values for sigmas were evaluated.  When considering the criterion (that is, magnitude of sigma) for identifying a dominant conception of teaching held by a person, the extent of differentiation of a “peak” conception from the rest of other conceptions must be taken into account.  If sigma  was set too high, the peak of the conception profile would be more distinguishable, but it would also result in many “disqualified”  (unclassified) cases.  As reported in Table 27, if  sigma was set at 1.50, 263 out of 471 cases were not classified into any dominant conception group. 1.25,  120 cases were unclassified.  there were 30 unclassified cases.  If sigma was reduced to When sigma was set at 1.0, On the low end,  if sigma was  set at 0.8, the number of cases not classified was three. However, at 0.8 sigma the peak might be just a slip and thus not “dominant”.  A decision was finally made to select 1.0 sigma as  the criterion, so as to maintain a distinguishable peak in the conception profile and to minimize the number of unclassified cases.  Having decided on the criterion, the next procedure (Step  4) was to identify an individual’s dominant conception based on 1.0 sigma criterion.  154  Table 27 Classification of Dominant Conceptions of Teaching into Six Conception Groups Using Different Sigma Values  Sigma Value Group Label  Conception Group  0.8  1.0  1.25  No. cases categorized (N  1.5  =  471)  Engineering  1  69  67  57  34  App-Practice  2  80  76  66  34  App-Modelling  3  63  56  40  24  Developmental  4  91  87  71  44  Nurturing  5  77  69  51  28  Social Reform  6  88  86  66  44  Not classified  —  3  30  120  263  In Step 4, a conception was “declared” dominant if it had a sigma value equal or greater than 1.0. that 30 cases (6.4%)  failed to meet the 1.0 sigma criterion.  There were 297 subjects conception,  Frequency counts revealed  (63.1%) with at least one dominant  (that is, with a sigma exceeding 1.0), and 144  subjects (30.6%) with two dominant conceptions conceptions greater than 1 • 0 sigma).  (that is, with two  If a respondent had two  conceptions greater than 1.0 sigma, the highest among the two was  155  selected.  This was done to ensure that only the single most  dominant conception was considered.  Using the criteria described above, a total of 441 subjects had at least one dominant conception of teaching and were classified into six conception groups, as shown in Table 27.  For  each dominant conception group a number code (1 to 6) was assigned.  A person whose dominant conception was Engineering was  coded 1, dominant Apprenticeship—Practice was coded 2,  and so on.  The classification results were written into the datafile for further analysis.  Summary This chapter has presented results which show that the operationalization of Pratt’s conceptions of teaching was a success.  The CTS items were refined to sharpen scales that  assess conceptions of teaching.  Factor analysis produced six  revised conceptions of teaching scales  (CTS—R), with two forms of  Apprenticeship conception, namely Practice and Modelling.  A  statistical procedure was developed to identify dominant conceptions of teaching held by instructors.  Dominant  conceptions derived were categorized into six conception groups, applying the one sigma criterion.  156  CHAPTER EIGHT  PREDICTING CONCEPTIONS OF TEACHING  Introduction  This chapter presents results pertaining to (1) prediction of conception scores and (2) prediction of dominant conceptions of teaching. analyses. scores  The chapter consists of two main prediction  The first section reports prediction of conception  (with multiple regressions) using three categories  personal,  of  socio—cultural/educational and program variables as  predictors identified in Chapter Three.  In the second section,  discriminant analysis was employed to determine the extent to which the same three categories of independent variables predicted dominant conceptions of teaching held by instructors.  Description of Independent Variables Used in the Analysis  Recall from Chapter Three that a number of personal, socio— cultural,  and program variables were inductively derived and  identified as possible predictors of conceptions of teaching. All the independent variables in this study were obtained from  157  responses to questions asked in Part II of the survey questionnaire (see Appendix A).  The independent variables and  their codes used in this part of the analysis are sununarized in Table 28. Personal Variables  Personal variables included: gender, age, ethnicity, country of birth and personality (dominance and nurturance). coded: Woman  =  1 and Man  (number of years).  =  2.  Gender was  Age was coded as continuous data  For ethnicity, the range of ethnic groups  reported in Chapter Six was collapsed into two groups, namely, “European” and  “Asian and other”.  “Asian and other”  was coded 2.  “European”  was coded 1 and  For country of birth, people who  specified that they were born in Canada were labelled “Canadian— born”, and people whose country of birth was not Canada were labelled “Foreign—born”. born was coded 2.  Canadian—born was coded 1, and foreign—  For the personality variable, the z—scores  derived from the Revised Interpersonal Adiective Scales for dominance and nurturance were used (Wiggins,  (IAS-R)  1991).  Dominance and nurturance personality measures were treated as two separate independent variables.  Socio—cultural and Educational Variables  Socio—cultural and educational variables included:  four  dichotomous variables queried whether a respondent had ever taught children, visited any country (for three or more weeks),  158 Table 28 IndeDendent Variables Used in the Recression Analysis  Variable  Coding Format  Personal Gender  Woman  Age  Actual number of years  Ethnicity  European  Country of Birth  Canadian—born  1, Man  2  =  1, Asian and other  2  1, Foreign—born  2  Personality Dominance  Computed z—score  Nurturance  Computed s—score  Socio—Cultural/Educptjonpl Living Arrangement  Lived alone  —  1,  Ever Taught Children  No  =  2  Years Teaching Adults  Actual number of years  Level of Education  No formal education — 1 Completed Grade 10 or 11 = Grade 12 graduation 3 Post—secondary or trade qualification 4 Part of university degree 5 University degree or diploma only 6 University degree or diploma end additional qualification — 7  Professional Development  Actual score, ranged from 0 to 11  Content Upgrade  Actual score,  Countries Visited  No  Countries Lived  No  1, Yes  2  Political Orientation  No =1, Yes  2  Instructional Techniques  All eight instructional techniques were coded as:  1, Yes  =  1, Yes  =  Lived with other people  2  ranged from 0 to 3 2  Lecture Case Study  Never  —  1, Seldom  Role Play  Often  =  4, Always  —  2, Sometimes  —  5  Small Group Discussion Large Group Discussion Demonstration Drill Field Trip  Prooram Class Size  Actual number of participants in a course/program  Role Clarity  Mean scale score  Type of course/program was coded as a categorical data: Academic — 1, Arts and crafts — 2, Business and Computers — 3, Recreational — 4, English as Second Language 5, and other = 6.  3,  159  lived in any country (for one or more years) and had any political orientation. response was coded 2.  A “No” response was coded 1 and a “Yes” As described in Chapter Three, political  orientation was initially coded as: Left Right  =  3.  =  1, Center  =  2, and  However, 265 out of 471 respondents (56%) expressed a  political orientation, while 206 respondents (44%) either did not answer the question or their comments were unclassifiable, such as “No interest”, “Against my religion”, and “No comment”.  To  overcome the problem of numerous missing data from non—response to the question on political orientation, a decision was made to recode political orientation as a dichotomous variable, that is, without an expressed political orientation was coded 1, and With an expressed political orientation (either Left, Center, or Right) was coded 2. Other variables included years of teaching adults (actual number of years), highest level of formal education, professional development and content (subject matter) upgrade.  Professional  development and content upgrade scales were created when the intercorrelations of almost all individual items in the two scales with the conceptions were observed to be non—significant (see Tables C • 2 and C. 3 in Appendix C).  As the individual items  had no or little correlations with the conceptions (dependent variables), they would not likely to account for much variance in the conception scores.  Hence, it was decided that instead of  treating these items as separate independent variables, they could be collapsed into two unique independent variables: professional development and content upgrade.  160  “Professional development” pertained to formal and non— formal educational activities engaged in by each respondent. Items that made up the professional development scale were derived from responses to whether a respondent had formal training in adult education (Question 8), participated in nonformal educational activities (Question 9), read or consulted any adult education book and journal during the last year (Questions 13 and 14), and  whether a respondent’s way of teaching was  influenced by a significant person (Question 15).  There were 11  items in this scale, and the score for each respondent was calculated by summing over all “yes” responses to these items. All the 11 items had a common theme, that is, they pertained to professional training and development of instructors.  A high  score would indicate a high professional development activity, while a low sum score would indicate little professional development.  The scores on the scale ranged from 0 to 11, with a  mean of 2.79 and standard deviation of 2.10.  The Cronbach alpha  of this scale was .75. “Content upgrade”  pertained to efforts made by an  instructor to enhance his/her subject matter knowledge.  Items in  this scale were derived from responses to three questions pertaining to books, journals, and magazines read or consulted in subject area taught by a respondent during the last year prior to the survey.  The scale score was computed by summing over all the  “yes” responses to Questions 10, 11 and 12 in the survey questionnaire.  The scores ranged from 0 to 3.  A high sum score  indicated high content upgrade efforts by instructors, and vice  161  The mean and standard deviation of the content upgrade  versa.  scale were 1.83 and 0.98 respectively.  The Cronbach alpha for  content upgrade scale was .49. Eight instructional techniques (lecture, case study, role play, small group discussion, large group discussion, demonstration, drill, and field trip) were considered as eight independent variables and responses to these variables were coded as: Never  =  1, Seldom  =  2, Sometimes  =  3, Often  4, and Always  =  =  5.  Program Variables  The program variables included class size (that is, number of participants in the respondent’s course/program), type of course/program taught, and job clarity.  Class size was simply  the number of participants in each course/program.  The types of  programs/course normally taught by respondents were collapsed into six categories. crafts  =  The codes were: Academic  2, business and computers  as second language  =  5 and other  =  =  3,  =  1, arts and  recreational  =  4, English  6.  Role clarity was assessed by a four—item seven—point Likert— type scale developed by Rizzo, House and Lirtzman (1970).  The  scale measured the extent in which an instructor perceived his/her role as a teacher within an educational setting, with respect to job authority, allocation of time on the job, job responsibility and expectation on the job.  The seven-point  Likert scale for the four items ranged from strongly disagree  162  (coded 1) to strongly agree (coded 7).  A high score would  indicate high role clarity on the job, and a low mean score would indicate low role clarity.  The mean and standard deviation of  the scale were 5.85 and 0.79 respectively.  The Cronbach alpha  for the role clarity scale was .78.  Predicting Conception Scores  One purpose of this study was to predict conception of teaching scores (dependent variables).  The conception scores  were calculated from the Revised Conception of Teaching Scales (CTS-R) described in Chapter Seven.  Multiple regression was  employed to explain the variability of (conception score)  dependent variable  in terms of its relationships with independent  variables (all 25 personal, socio—cultural and program variables listed in Table 28). Prior to running the regression procedures, Pearson product— moment correlation analysis with pairwise deletion of missing cases was first employed to determine the zero—order relationships between conceptions and all the independent variables listed in Table 28.  As shown in Table 29, most of the  correlations between the conceptions and independent variables were statistically significant (p<.05 and p<.0l) but low (r<±.30).  The highest correlation  (  =  .41, p<.Ol) was between  Nurturing conception and nurturing personality.  This was no  surprise; people who scored high on Nurturing conception also scored high on personality—nurturance measure.  The low  163 Table 29 Correlations of Independent Variables and Conceptions of Teaching  Conception Variable Eng  App-P  App-N  Dcv  Nur  Soc  471 460 462 335 459 459  .07 .05 .05 .06 .l4** .18**  .01 .05 .l4** .21** —.00 .l2**  —.11* .l5** .01 —.00 .10* .29**  —.06 .11* .06 .01 .l3** .12*  —.24** .16** .04 .04 .08 •4]**  —.05 .08 .15** .30** —.00 .l5**  471 449 468 470 471 471 471 471 471 471 471 471 471 471 471 471 471  —.02 .18** —.00 —. 10* —.03 .03 .02 .08 —.04 .20** —.01 —.l6** —.l7** —.07 .l8** .08 —.11*  —.07 .l8** .04 —.13** —.02 —.02 .05 —.01 —.06 .04 .00 .02 —.03 —.01 .l4** .10* .04  .05 .20** .14** —.10* .11* .03 .04 .09 —.09 —.06 —.04 .08 .10* .08 .31** .12* .11*  .04 .11* •14** .15** .13** .13** .04 —.02 —.00 —.08 .05 .12* .10* .07 —.05 .06 .18**  .02 .17** .20** .06 .2l** .06 .06 .07 —.07 —.20** —.06 .23** .20** .l6** .18** .10* .18**  .02 .10* .17** .06 .l5** .00 .09* .01 —.09 —.09* .01 .l9** .l9** .l7** .01 —.02 .17**  461 460  —.02 .24**  —.05 .15**  .07 .24**  .l6** .07  Personal Gender Age Country of Birth Ethnicity Personality—Dominance Personality—Nurturance  Socio—Cultural/Educational Living Arrangement Years Teaching Adults Child Teaching Experience Level of Education Professional Development Content Upgrade Lived in Other Countries Visited Other Countries Political Orientation Lecture Case Study Role Play Small Group Discussion Large Group Discussion Demonstration Drill Field Trip  Proaram Class Size Role Clarity  **p<. 01  .08 .12*  .l8** .09  164  correlation coefficients between conceptions and most predictor variables suggested that conceptions of teaching might be independent “concepts” with little relationship to predictors employed here. Stepwise multiple regression was employed to allow the three categories of 25 independent variables to “compete”  with each  other to explain variance in each conception score.  Separate  multiple regression analyses were performed with six conception scores as dependent variables, and 25 personal, socio—cultural/ educational and program variables as predictors (independent variables).  One variable, type of program/course taught, which  was coded as categorical data was excluded from the regression analysis.  This variable was however used to investigate the  association between type of program/course taught and dominant conceptions of teaching in a latter section of this chapter. Stepwise regression allowed predictors that were significant to be entered into the regression function, but the least useful predictors might be removed after considering other more useful predictors which subsequently entered the regression equation. In the initial regression runs, residual plots between the observed and predicted scores on the six conceptions were inspected, and the plots did not reveal any evidence of violation to linearity and normality assumptions.  Outliers were identified  and evaluated to determine whether they had any impact on the regression solutions.  Regression runs were separately done with  and without outliers.  The outliers did not seriously affect the  regression solutions, and hence, subsequent regressions were  165  performed with the inclusion of outliers.  Pairwise deletion of  missing values was employed in the regression, and 319 out of 471 cases were processed. Initial regression runs included all 25 predictor variables. The main findings of the stepwise regressions for the six conceptions are summarized in Table 30.  Analysis was carried out  by examining the standardized beta weights and R -change for each 2 statistically significant (p<.05) variable in the equation. Standardized beta weight determines the relative importance of an independent variable in predicting the dependent variable, while holding the remaining variables constant.  Beta weights are  standardized units and therefore can be used to compare their relative effect on dependent variable.  The increment in the  proportion of variance contributed by a predictor associated with the dependent variable while holding other predictors constant, is determined by R -change. 2  The R 2 estimates the proportion of  variation in the dependent variable accounted for by the set of independent variables in the regression equation. The regression equations for each of the six conceptions included one or more instructional technique variables, which suggested that there were some relationships between conceptions of teaching and instructional techniques.  Adult education  instructors who scored high on Engineering conception were, among other variables, more likely to use lectures (Beta demonstrations (Beta (Beta  =  =  =  .21) and  .14), and less likely to use role plays  -.17) during teaching.  Instructors with high  Apprenticeship—Practice scores, claimed to use demonstrations  Note.  .09 .30  .48 .34  .44  Multiple R  .031  .019  .013 .012  .014  2 R change  .23  .18  .14  .12 .11  .12  Beta  .12  .095  .036  .016 .025  .063  2 R change  Dev  .19  .014  .12  .029  —.17  .31  .19  .13 .16  .25  Beta  App-M  Conception  2 R  .025  .032  .045  2 R change  .16  .18  .21  Beta  .043 .019  .057  .019  .026  2 R change  App-P  .21 .14  .24  .14  .16  Beta  Eng  All Independent Variables significant at p<.05.  Lecture Demonstration Field Trip Role Play Drill  Instructional Technicues  Class Size Role Clarity  Proram  Taught Children Years Teaching Adults Professional Development Content Upgrade Level of Education  Socio—Cultural/Educational  Age Ethnicity Personality—Nurturance  Personal  Variable  V  —.16 .15 .11  .14 .10 .19  .41  Beta  Nur  .46 .53  .039 .017 .012  .013  .024  .014 .092  2 R change  .21  .20 .13 —.11  —.11  .15  .12 .30  Beta  .29  .024 .021 .010  .018 .009 .036  .167  2 R change  Soc Ref  Significant Predictors in Regression Functions (Instructional Techniques Included  Table 30  I-.’  167  (Beta  =  .16)  and role plays (Beta  with low scores.  .12) more often than those  =  Demonstration technique (Beta  =  .31) was used  more by instructors who had high Apprenticeship-Modelling. Instructors who scored high on the Developmental conception tended to use more field trips (Beta (Beta  =  .15)  and field trips (Beta  .18).  =  Demonstrations  .11) were used more often by  =  instructors who had high Nurturing scores, but used less lectures (Beta  =  -.16).  Field trips (Beta  =  .20)  and role plays  (Beta  =  .13) were instructional techniques used more often by instructors who scored high on Social Reform conception. inclined to use less lectures (Beta  =  -.11)  However, they were and drills  (Beta  =  -  .11). Instructional techniques used by instructors are behavioral manifestations of teaching.  Recall that Pratt (1992) was  specifically concerned with the meanings people attach to teaching, and not with their behaviors.  Clearly, there is a  relationship between underlying conceptions and behaviors of teachers.  However,  it is not surprising to find that Engineering  oriented instructors use more lectures and demonstrations. However, to keep the focus on personal, program variables  socio—cultural and  (not behaviors), techniques were dropped as  predictors of conception scores.  Separate regression runs were  again performed without the instructional techniques.  The nmuber  of independent variable was reduced to 17 from the original 25 variables and with a mean R 2 loss from 19% to 14.5%. independent variables (<.05)  only the  that entered the regression  equations are shown in Table 31.  )j.  .41 .48 .29 .41 .33  .031  .020  .013  .012  .092  2 R change  .33  .18  .14  .12  .11  .30  Beta  Multiple R  .036  .024  .167  2 R change  .17  .025  .015  .19  .16  .41  Beta  .23  .041  .16  .12  .017  .015  .12  .13  .013  2 R change  .12  Beta  Soc Ref  .08  .20  .010  .020  .14  —.11  .014  .082  2 R change  .12  .29  Beta  Nur  .17  .015  .018  .032  .045  2 R change  Day  .11  .12  —.13  .18  .21  Beta  App-M  .11  .057  .021  .017  .013  2 R change  App-P  2 R  .24  .15  .13  .12  Beta  Eng  All Indpendent Variables significant at p<.05.  Role Clarity  Class Size  Proaram  Level of Education  Content Upgrade  Professional Development  Years Teaching Adults  Taught Children  Socio—Cultural/Educational  Personality—Nurturance  Personality—Dominance  Ethnicity  Gender  Personal  Variable  Conception  Significant Predictors in Regression Functions (Instructional Technigues Excluded  Table 31  03  169  Interpretation of Regression Results  Engineering  Compared to instructors with low Engineering scores, instructors who scored high on Engineering were inclined to have (in the magnitude order of beta weights), high job clarity (Beta =  .24), more years of adult teaching (Beta  nurturing personality (Beta .12).  =  .  =  .15), a more  13), and likely to be men (Beta  =  The proportion of variance in Engineering accounted for by  these variables was 11.0%.  Instructors who had more experience  in teaching adults, and knew their job expectations, were most inclined to endorse the Engineering conception.  A more critical  interpretation is that these instructors were experienced and nurturing men stuck in the routine of transmitting content.  Apprenticeship-Practice  The instructors who scored high on Apprenticeship-Practice were more inclined to be from Asian or other ancestry (Beta .21), have more years of adult teaching (Beta job clarity (Beta  =  =  =  .18), have high  .12), but have lower level of formal  educational qualification (Beta  =  scored low on this conception.  These variables accounted for  —.13), compared to those who  11.0% of variance in Apprenticeship-Practice.  Experienced  instructors with Asian and other backgrounds and knew their job expectations, were most inclined to endorse Apprenticeship—  170  Practice possibly because their traditional upbringing emphasized conformity and order.  The notion of practice could be considered  by the instructor as an effective way of learning that required self—discipline and obedience by learners.  ApDrenticeshiP-Model 1 mci  Persons with high Apprenticeship-Modelling scores were inclined to have a nurturing personality (Beta job clarity (Beta experience (Beta  .29), have high  .20), have more years of adult teaching  =  =  =  .  14), have taught children before (Beta  =  .12), but have lower level of formal educational qualification (Beta  =  -.11).  The five independent variables contributed 17.0%  of the total variance.  The results suggested that instructors  who had “pedagogic” experience, knew their job expectations, and had a nurturing personality perceived themselves as role models. In other words, experienced instructors who endorsed an Apprenticeship-Modelling possibly regard themselves as nurturing “parents” providing guidance to their learners.  Devel omenta 1  Individuals associated with high Developmental conception scores were inclined to have a bigger class size (Beta engage in more content upgrading (Beta educational qualifications (Beta nurturance (Beta  =  .12)  =  =  .  .16),  =  13), have higher formal  .12), and score high on both  and dominance personality (Beta  =  .12)  171  measures than those with low Developmental scores. these variables accounted for 8.0% of variance.  Together,  The results  revealed that instructors who scored high on Developmental conception had more education and realized the importance of improving subject—matter knowledge as a requisite to promote intellectual development among learners.  Instructors who  endorsed a Developmental conception were possibly more concerned with developing greater intellectual potential among the learners.  Nurturing  Instructors who scored high on nurturing conception were inclined to have a nurturing personality (Beta more professional development (Beta teaching children (Beta scores.  =  =  =  .41), engage in  .19), and have experience  .16) than those with low nurturing  Personality—nurturance alone accounted for the most  variance (17.0%), and the overall contribution to variance by all three independent variables in the equation was 23.0%.  The  result thus revealed that nurturing personality is a good predictor of Nurturing conception scores, and instructors who scored high on Nurturing conception score also happened to possess a nurturing personality.  In other words, nurturing  personality is associated with Nurturing conception.  172  Social Reform  Finally,  instructors who scored high on Social Reform were  more inclined to belong to Asian or other ethnic group (Beta .30), have a bigger average class size (Beta more professional development (Beta before (Beta .11)  =  =  =  =  .18), engage in  .14), have taught children  .12), and have a nurturing personality (Beta  than those with low Social Reform scores.  =  The five  independent variables in the Social Reform equation accounted for 17.0% of the total variance.  Instructors with Asian and other  backgrounds were possibly more dogmatic and clear about what society ought to be. The independent variables entered in each regression function did not explain much variance.  The amount of variance  explained ranged from a low of 8% for the Developmental to a high of 23% for the Nurturing, with mean R 2 of 14.5%.  A large amount  of variance (85.5%) went unexplained which suggested that the independent variables used in the analysis were not very predictive of the six conceptions with the exception of personality—nurturance measure.  Personality—nurturance emerged  in five out of six regressions (except Apprenticeship—Practice), and was the only variable that accounted for the most variance 2 (R  =  17%)  in Nurturing conception.  Two variables, role clarity  and years of teaching adults emerged in three regressions associated with Engineering, Apprenticeship-Practice and Apprenticeship-Modelling, but they did not contribute much (R 2 less than 5%)  to total variance in the three conception scores.  173  There was no single common variable among the 17 predictors which explained variance in all six conception scores.  One  interpretation is that conceptions of teaching have their own independent existence, and may not be associated with any of the independent variables employed in this study.  Predicting Dominant Conceptions of Teaching  Recall that one of the objectives of this study was to predict the dominant conceptions of teaching held by instructors. Multiple discriminant analysis was considered a suitable procedure to identify and determine variables that best predict instructors’ dominant conceptions.  All independent variables  (excluding instructional techniques) shown in Table 28 were eligible to enter the discriminant function equations to predict dominant conceptions of teaching (referred to as conception groups).  The six dominant conception groups described in Chapter  Seven were treated as dependent variables in the discriminant analysis. Stepwise discriminant analysis with Wilks’ lambda criterion of entry of predictors was employed.  The Wilks’ Lambda allowed a  variable at each step to enter the discriminant analysis if it minimized the overall lambda (or maximized F).  Independent  variables were processed at a tolerance level of .0001.  Of the  441 cases used in the discriminant analysis, 153 cases had data missing on at least one variable, and were deleted.  As a result  288 cases were processed and used in group classification.  174  However,  in calculating group means and standard deviations of  selected independent variables in the discriminant functions, 279 cases were used. Nine independent variables which met the Wilks’ lambda criterion of entry were selected.  As reported in Table 32, the  nine variables, by their order of entry into the discriminant analysis were level of formal education, ethnicity, gender, personality—dominance, years of teaching adults, personality— nurturance, living arrangement, class size, and content upgrade. The Wilks’ lambda indicated the discriminant power of each independent variable to categorize subjects into their dominant conception groups (dependent variable). In discriminant analysis, a function is a linear combination of discriminating (independent) variables and this function serves as the basis for assigning cases to groups (Norusis, 1990).  Information contained in multiple independent variables  is summarized into one or more indices or weighted scores (Norusis, 1990, p. 6).  In other words, by assigning appropriate  coefficient weights, scores of several independent variables may be transformed into one or more scores with the potential for distinguishing group membership  -  dependent variable (Boshier,  1977). This part of the analysis was designed to ascertain the extent to which the nine independent variables help to predict dominant conceptions of teaching.  Discriminant analysis yielded  five functions of which three were significant in terms of their contribution to total variance.  The three discriminant functions  175 Table 32 Nine IndeDendent Variables Entered into the Discriminant Functions  Wilks Lambda  Univariate F-Ratio  Level of Education  .90  6.00  Ethnicity  .84  4.06  Gender  .79  3.31  Personality-Dominance  .77  2.04  Years Teaching Adults  .74  1.64  Personality-Nurturance  .72  2.33  Living Arrangement  .70  1.30  Class Size  .68  1.11  Content Upgrade  .67  2.41  Variable  Note. All nine variables exceeded p<.01 for 5 degrees of freedom.  176  accounted for 92.5% of variance in conception groups (before rotation), and successfully classified 34.7% of 288 cases into their dominant conceptions (with prior probabilities adjusted). The classification si.nmnary presented in Table 33 indicates that three functions were more successful in grouping “correct” cases into dominant Nurturing, Developmental and ApprenticeshipPractice conceptions than dominant Social Reform, Engineering and Apprenticeship—Modelling conceptions. grouped 50.0%,  The functions correctly  41.2% and 41.1% of cases as belonging to dominant  Nurturing, Developmental and Apprenticeship—Practice groups respectively,  only 28.8%,  28.2% and 13.9% of the cases were  correctly grouped into Social Reform, Engineering and Apprenticeship—Modelling respectively.  Sixteen out of 56 cases  (or 28.6%) belonging to Social Reform group were incorrectly classified under Apprenticeship—Practice and another 25 cases were incorrectly classified into Nurturing, Developmental, Apprenticeship-Modelling and Engineering. Engineering cases Developmental, (15.4%)  (25.6%)  Ten of the 39  were incorrectly classified under  seven cases (17.9%) under Nurturing,  6 cases  under Apprenticeship-Modelling, and the rest of cases  under Apprenticeship-Practice and Social Reform groups.  Nine  out of 36 cases (25.0%) belonging to Apprenticeship—Modelling group were incorrectly classified under Engineering, 7 cases (19.4%) under Apprenticeship-Practice.  The lack of precision in  classifying cases into dominant Social Reform, Engineering and Apprenticeship-Modelling groups could be due to the independent variables selected to predict these dominant conceptions.  The  56  36  51  50  56  2 App—Practice  3 App-Modelling  4 Developmental  5 Nurturing  6 Social Reform  Note. Percent classified correctly  39  N=288  No Cases  1 Engineering  Actual Conception Group  =  34.7%.  2 3.6%  2 4.0%  5 9.8%  9 25.0%  1 1.8%  11 28.2%  1  3 5.4%  3 6.0%  0 0.0%  5 13.9%  3 5.4%  6 15.4%  3  10 17.9%  9 18.0%  21 41.2%  3 8.3%  6 10.7%  10 25.6%  4  Prior probabilities adjusted.  16 28.6%  9 18.0%  5 9.8%  7 19.4%  23 41.1%  4 10.3%  2  5  10 17.9%  25 50.0%  13 25.5%  6 16.7%  11 19.6%  7 17.9%  Predicted Conception Group  Classification Summary of Predicted Dominant Conception Groups  Table 33  15 28.8%  2 4.0%  7 13.7%  6 16.7%  12 21.4%  1 2.6%  6  -1  178  nine variables were appropriate in predicting dominant Nurturing, Developmental and Apprenticeship-Practice, but less potent in predicting dominant Social Reform, Engineering, and Apprenticeship-Model 1 ing. Table 34 lists the nine variables (after rotation), standardized discriminant coefficients, and the correlations of variables with the functions. function coefficient (SDFC)  The standardized discriminant  indicates the relative contribution  of each independent variable to the function, while the correlation with the discriminant function (CDF)  estimates the  correlation between the independent variable with the discriminant function.  The correlation of the dependent variable  (conception groups) with the linear combination of the independent variables is given as the canonical correlation. As shown in Table 34, Function 1 with a canonical correlation of .40 accounted for 44.6% of total variance in conception groups (before rotation). ethnicity (SDFC  =  -.62), years of teaching adults (SDFC  personality-dominance (SDFC .35).  Function 1 consisted of  =  .49)  =  -.55),  and living arrangement (SDFC  =  The four variables were related to cultural background and  experience of instructors.  Function 2 with a canonical  correlation of .34 accounted for 30.0% of variance in conception groups and comprised of two variables: level of education (SDFC .91)  and engagement in content upgrading (SDFC  variables were related to educational activity.  =  .  28).  The two  Finally,  Function 3 with a canonical correlation of .27 accounted for 18%  =  179 Table 34  Extent to which Nine Discriminating Variables Predict Dominant Conception Groups  (After Rotation)  Function  Variable  Function 1  Function 2  Function 3  SDFC  CDF  SDFC  SDFC  CDF  —.62*  —.62  —.12  —.04  .09  .11  Years Teaching Adults —55*  —.38  .05  —.03  —.20  —.11  Personality—Dominance  •49*  .45  —.01  —.06  .11  .09  Living Arrangement  •35*  .26  —.27  —.33  .07  .10  Level of Education  .03  —.08  .91*  .88  —.02  .04  Content Upgrade  .23  .31  .28*  .34  .16  .25  Gender  .01  —.13  .12  .01  .68*  .80  Personality—Nurturance .23  .11  .15  —.01  —.42*  —.62  —.01  —.23  —.07  •34*  .31  Ethnicity  Class Size Canonical Correlation  .03  CDF  .40  .34  .27  Percent of variance (Before rotation)  44.6%  30.0%  18.0%  Percent of variance (After rotation)  43.4%  35.6%  21.0%  Note.  SDFC = Standardized discriminant function coefficient. CDF = Correlation with discriininant function. *Variables ordered by size of coefficient within function.  180  of variance.  The variables in Function 3 were gender (SDFC  .66), personality—nurturance (SDFC =  .34).  =  -  .42)  =  and class size (SDFC  The three variables together were less interpretable,  but two variables, gender and personality—nurturance pertained to personal characteristics.  Profiles of Dominant Conceptions of Teaching  By standardizing the mean scores of the nine discriminating variables  (gender, ethnicity, personality—dominance, personality—  nurturance, years of teaching adults, content upgrade, arrangement,  level of education and class size)  living  in the  discriminant functions, separately for each conception group,  it  is possible to create a profile of instructors most inclined to have a dominant Engineering conception, a dominant Apprenticeship—Practice conception, and so on.  As shown in  Figure 2, the nine variables were plotted using standardized means instead of raw group means in order to provide uniform measures of distance for the variables in each profile.  However,  for descriptions of a profile in each conception group in the following section, group raw means were used (see Table 35).  Dominant Engineering Conception  In comparison with other instructors in other conception groups, the characteristics of instructors in the Engineering  181  Figure 2. Standardized means for six dominant conceptions groups on nine discriminating personal, socio—cultural/educational and program variables.  Gender (Predominantty Woman)  Gender (Predominantly Man)  App-P \OC  \  Ethnicity (Predominantly European)  Ethnicity (Predominantly Asian)  Personality-Dominance (Less Dominant)  Personality-Dominance (More Dominant)  Personal i ty-Nurturance (Less Nurturing)  Personal ity-Nurturance (More Nurturing)  Years Teaching Adults (Less Experience)  Years Teaching Adults (More Experience)  Content Upgrade (More Upgrading)  Content Upgrade (Less Upgrading)  Living Arrangement  Living Arrangement  (Lived Alone)  (Lived With Others)  Level of Education  Level of Education  (Less Education)  (More Education)  Class Size  Class Size  (Smaller Class Size)  -O.5  (Bigger Class Size)  —0.4  —0.3  —0.2  —0.1  0.1  0.2  0.3  0.4  0.5  3.74 1.89 1.89 5.19  Years Teaching Adults  Living Arrangement  Content upgrade  Level of Education  Class Size :  : :  :  1.00  Personality—Nurturance  Gender Ethnicity Personality—Dominance Personality—Nurturance Years Teaching Adults Living Arrangement Content Upgrade Level of Education  0.39  Personality—Dominance  14.86  1.08  6.97  1.14  0.89  0.32  2.67  1.05  0.97  0.28  0.49  SD  39)  15.20  5.43  1.61  1.71  6.50  0.95  —0.01  1.39  1.43  Mean  6.78  1.29  0.98  0.46  5.97  1.00  0.91  0.49  0.50  SD  App—P = 56)  16.80  5.03  1.71  1.86  5.57  1.33  0.43  1.20  1.31  Mean  5.92  1.20  1.02  0.36  5.29  0.71  0.83  0.41  0.47  SD  App—N — 36)  16.39  6.18  2.20  1.73  4.71  0.88  0.37  1.18  1.53  Mean  0ev  Woman 1, Nan = 2. European = 1, Asian and Others 2. Actual z-scores, ranged from 0.43 to —0.01. Actual s—scores, ranged from 1.37 to 0.88. Actual number of years. Lived alone = 1, Lived with other people 2. Number of occurrences, ranged from 0 to 3. No formal education — 1 to university degree and some other post—secondary qualification 7 Number of participants in a class.  —  Eng  Class Size  1.36  Ethnicity  Mean  (  Gender  Variable  Conceptions of Teaching  6.76  0.95  0.91  0.45  4.41  1.04  0.99  0.39  0.50  SD  51)  15.13  6.02  1.85  1.75  4.99  1.37  0.18  1.21  1.21  Mean  (  Nur  7.89  1.21  0.99  0.44  4.08  0.80  0.74  0.41  0.41  SD  50)  17.49  5.55  1.69  1.82  5.49  0.90  0.07  1.40  1.53  Mean  Soc  7.10  1.40  1.00  0.39  5.43  1.11  0.84  0.49  0.50  SD  56)  Group Raw Means and Standard Deviations of Nine Predictors of Dominant  Table 35  16.00  5.61  1.82  1.78  5.25  1.05  0.21  1.26  1.41  6.98  1.27  0.98  0.41  4.89  0.99  0.89  0.44  0.49  SD  Total = 288)  Mean  (Ii  183  group were as follows: 64% were women, 92% belonged to European ancestry, were inclined to have dominant personality  (  were less inclined to have a nurturing personality (II  =  =  0.39),  1.00),  had an average of 3.74 years of teaching adults, were more inclined to engage in content upgrading  (M  =  1.89), 89% of them  lived with other people, they had less education  (  =  5.19), and  had an average class size of 14.7 participants.  Dominant Apprenticeship—Practice  Instructors dominant on Apprenticeship-Practice had the following characteristics as compared to other instructors in other conception groups: 58% were men, 61% belonged to Asian and other backgrounds, were less inclined to have dominant personality (j  =  -0.01), were slightly less inclined to have  nurturing personality (L4  =  0.95), had an average of 6.50 years  teaching adults, were less inclined to engage in content upgrading  (M  =  less education  1.61), 29% of the instructors lived alone, had  (  =  5.43), and had an average class size of 15.2  participants in a class.  Dominant Apprenticeship-Modelling  Characteristics of instructors in the Apprenticeship Modelling group were (in comparison with other instructors in other conception groups)  as follows: 69% were women, 80% belonged  to European ancestry, they were more inclined to have both  184  dominant personality (M  =  and nurturing personality  0.43)  (  =  1.33), had an average of 5.57 years of teaching adults, were less likely to engage in content upgrading  ((4  1.71),  =  lived with other people, had less education  (  =  86% of them  5.03), and had  an average of 16.8 participants in a class.  Dominant Developmental  Compared to other instructors in other conception groups, instructors who possessed a dominant Developmental conception had the following characteristics:  53% were men,  82% belonged to  European ancestry, were more inclined to have dominant personality  (  =  0.37), less inclined to have nurturing  personality  (  =  0.88), had 4.71 years of teaching adults, were  more likely to engage in content upgrading lived alone, had more education  (  =  (  =  2.2),  27% of them  6.18), and had an average  class size of 16.4 participants.  Dominant Nurturing  In comparison with instructors in other conception groups, instructors who endorsed a dominant Nurturing conception were inclined to have the following characteristics: 79% were women, 79% belonged to European ancestry, were less inclined to have dominant personality personality  (  =  (  =  0.18), more inclined to have nurturing  1.57), had 4.99 years of teaching adults, were  185  more inclined to engage in content upgrading (M them lived alone, had more education  (  =  =  1.85), 25% of  6.02), and had an  average of 15.1 participants in a class.  Dominant Social Reform  Characteristics of instructors in the Social Reform group in comparison with other instructors in other groups were: 53% were men,  60% belonged to Asian and other ancestry, less inclined to  have a dominant personality  (  =  0.07), were slightly less  inclined to have nurturing personality  (  =  0.90), had an average  of 5.49 years of teaching adults, were less likely to engage in content upgrading  (  =  1.69), 82% of them lived with other  people, had slightly less education  (  =  5.55), and had an  average of 17.5 participants in a class. The profile represents typical “average” characteristics of instructors in each dominant conception group.  However, several  characteristics are common among some conceptions.  For example,  predominantly European women with nurturing personality were more inclined to hold dominant Nurturing and Apprenticeship-Modelling conceptions, possibly because of their feminine nature.  On the  other hand, men were more inclined to endorse dominant Developmental and Social Reform conceptions, possibly because of their challenging “maleness”.  Instructors who engaged in more  content upgrading were more inclined to endorse Developmental and Engineering conceptions as their dominant conceptions of teaching.  However, engagement in content upgrading could be  186  pursued for different purposes.  Engineering—oriented instructors  might engage in more content upgrading in order to enhance their expertise in the subject matter.  On the other hand,  instructors  with dominant Developmental conception might engage in more content upgrading in order to use the content as a means to develop enquiring minds among the learners.  Relationship Between Course/Program Taught and Dominant Conceptions of Teaching  To determine whether there was any association or dependence between the type of programs/courses taught by instructors and their dominant conceptions of teaching, a crosstabulation procedure was employed.  Table 36 summarizes the observed and  expected frequencies of subjects according to type of course/program taught and their dominant conceptions of teaching. The chi-square was significant (Chi-square  =  53.2, df  =  25,  p<.Ol) which suggested that there was dependence between the type of courses/programs taught and instructors’ dominant conceptions of teaching.  An examination of Table 36 revealed that  instructors who taught academic—related courses were more inclined to have a dominant Social Reform conception, while instructors who taught Business, Computer and related courses were inclined to possess a dominant Engineering Conception. Instructors who taught recreational—related courses were more likely to hold a dominant Apprenticeship-Practice conception of teaching.  ESL (English as Second Language)  instructors were  (0) (E) (0) (E)  ESL  Other 3 4.6  2 7.1  12 19.4  3 5.2  10 8.1  27 22.1  25.5  23  8 6.5  5 8.6  App-P  4 3.8  3 6.0  22 16.3  18.8  17  8 4.8  2 6.3  App-M  8 5.9  8 9.3  21 25.3  29.2  32  4 7.5  14 9.9  Dev  21  4 5.9  9 7.8  Nur  =  4 4.7  12 7.4  19 20.0  23.2  Note. Chi-square = 53.2, df = 25, p<.01. Number of missing cases (0) = Observed frequency. (E) = Expected frequency.  (0) (E)  22.5  (E)  Recreational  39  (0)  Business & Computers  6 5.8  (0) (E)  Arts & Crafts  5 7.6  (0) (E)  Eng  Academic  Type of Course/Program  30  Conception Group  8 5.9  12 9.2  27 25.0  28.9  16  8 7.4  15 9.8  Soc  30 (6.8%)  47 (10.7%)  128 (29.0%)  (33.6%)  148  38 (8.6%)  50 (11.3%)  Total  Crosstabulatjon of Tve of Course/Proram Taught and Dominant Conceptions of Teaching  Table 36  Ia OD  188  slightly more inclined towards a dominant Nurturing conception. The result indicated that there was some relationship between the type of course/program taught and instructors’ dominant conceptions of teaching, though it was difficult to establish why certain course instructors come to hold a particular dominant conception.  One explanation is that instructors would teach  courses that are closely aligned or consistent with their own dominant conceptions.  Summary  This chapter has described results pertaining to (1) prediction of conception scores, and (2) prediction of dominant conceptions of teaching.  Regression results indicated that the  25 independent variables were not particularly strong in predicting conception scores.  Personality—nurturance was the  only independent variable that accounted for the most (R 2 variability in Nurturing conception score.  =  17%)  On the average, 85.5%  of the variance of the six conception scores was unexplained. Discriminant analysis selected nine independent variables as predictors of dominant conceptions of teaching.  The nine  variable were: four personal variables (gender, ethnicity, personality—nurturance and personality—dominance), four socio— cultural/educational variables (living arrangement, level of education, years of teaching adults and content upgrade effort,  189  and one program variable (class size).  Crosstabulation procedure  yielded significant association between the type of course/program taught by instructors and their dominant conceptions.  190  CHAPTER NINE  SUMMARY,  CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS  Introduction  The purpose of this study was first, to operationalize Pratt’s  (1992)  five conceptions of teaching (Engineering,  Apprenticeship,  Developmental, Nurturing and Social Reform), and  second to predict conception scores.  A third purpose was to  establish whether instructors have a dominant conception of teaching.  The fourth purpose was to determine the personal,  socio—cultural and program characteristics which predict dominant conceptions of teaching held by adult instructors. chapter will  (1)  review findings and results,  conclusions from the results, in adult education, and  (5)  (4)  (3)  (2)  The final draw  offer suggestions for practice  review limitations of the current study,  suggest specific areas and research questions for future  research.  Main Conclusions  Based on the findings presented in Chapters Seven and Eight the following conclusions were made:  191  Construct Validation of Pratt’s Five Conceptions of Teaching  Pratt (1992)  presented his five conceptions of teaching as  abstract representational models of teaching which exist in the minds of people.  This study has provided a degree of construct  validation of Pratt’s conceptions of teaching.  Conceptions of  teaching appear to exist as measurable constructs in addition to abstract representations of teaching.  The study has helped make  Pratt’s conceptions of teaching more credible.  Moreover, they  can now be measured.  Operationalization of Pratt’s Five Conceptions of Teaching  As discussed in Chapter Four, a 75—item instrument, the Conception of Teaching Scales (CTS), was developed to represent Pratt’s five conceptions of teaching: Apprenticeship, Reform.  (3)  Developmental,  (1)  Engineering,  (2)  (4) Nurturing, and (5)  Social  Pilot tests on the validity and reliability of the  instrument yielded results that suggested the CTS was sufficiently valid and reliable for the main study.  Responses to  the CTS gathered from 471 Vancouver School Board and New Westminster School Board instructors were evaluated to determine whether Pratt’s operationalized.  (1992)  five conceptions of teaching were well  Factor analysis was employed to help evaluate  the outcome of the operationalization.  Sixty-three out of 75  items in the factorial study of original CTS did echo Pratt’s conceptions of teaching indicating that the operationalization of  192  Pratt’s conceptions of teaching was successful.  Further  refinement streamlined this nuniber to a 50—item revised scale (CTS-R).  The study concluded that Pratt’s conceptions of  teaching can be successfully operationalized and that the conceptions are measurable.  Instructors’ conceptions of teaching  can now be assessed by a valid and reliable 50—item instrument, known as the Revised Conception of Teaching Scales  (CTS-R.  Six Conceptions of Teaching  Research on conceptions of teaching has revealed different For example, Larsson (1983) had found two  conception types.  conceptions of teaching  —  teacher—centered and learner—centered  among a group of 29 Swedish adult education instructors. (1992)  —  Pratt  found five conceptions of teaching among 253 adult  educators in North America and Asia.  More recently, Beno (1993)  derived three conceptions of teaching (transmission, enablement and constructive)  from a group of 22 instructors involved in  workplace training.  These studies employed phenomenographic  methods to derive categories of conceptions of teaching held by various instructors. This study used quantitative approaches to determine instructors’ conceptions of teaching.  Factor analysis performed  on responses from 471 adult education instructors yielded six conceptions of teaching.  These were:  (1)  Engineering (teaching  is transmitting knowledge), Apprenticeship-Practice  (teaching is  inculcating correct practice), Apprenticeship-Modelling (teaching  193  is modelling desirable ways of learning),  Developmental  (teaching  is cultivating intellectual development), Nurturing (teaching is developing self-esteem) better society). two facets:  (1)  and Social Reform (teaching is seeking a  Pratt’s Apprenticeship conception comprised of Practice and (2) Modelling.  Apprenticeship-  Practice is characterized by teacher’s belief that learning is best achieved through practice, and that knowledge and practice are inseparable.  Apprenticeship—Modelling focuses on the teacher  as a role model and the task of teaching is to demonstrate ways and values of learning and working.  The study not only confirmed  the existence of Pratt’s five original conceptions of teaching, but bisected Apprenticeship conception into Practice and Modelling.  Predicting Conception Scores  One purpose of this study was to predict conception of teaching scores using 17 independent variables categorized into personal,  socio—cultural/educational and program variables.  separate regressions were performed.  Six  Results indicated that  there was no single common independent variable that accounted for variability in all six conception scores.  There were also no  significant cluster of variables that explained variance in all six conceptions.  Moreover, the amount of variance accounted for  in each of the six conceptions was small, an average of 14.5%. There was a significantly large amount of unexplained variance (85.5%).  Conceptions of teaching seem to exist as independent  194  entities.  One variable, personality—nurturance, appeared to be  the single best predictor of Nurturing conception score, that is, instructors who scored high on Nurturing conception were more likely to have a nurturing personality.  Conceptions of teaching  appeared to be unique and independent entities, largely unrelated to personal,  socio—cultural/educational and program variables.  They are not redundant exemplars of personal,  socio—cultural/  educational and program variables and have their own existence.  Existence of Dominant Conceptions of Teaching  Pratt (1992)  claimed that people usually held two or more  conceptions of teaching, but one is usually more dominant. of the purposes of this study was to test this claim.  One  The study  was able to identify dominant conceptions of teaching by applying a distance criterion of one sigma described in Chapter Seven. Nearly 97% of the 471 instructors did have one single most dominant conception of teaching.  This study thus confirmed the  claim made by Pratt (1992) that most adult instructors hold at least one dominant conception of teaching.  Predicting Dominant Conceptions of Teaching  Researchers  (Larsson,  1983; Pratt,  1992; Beno,  1993)  engaged  in research on conceptions of teaching were not particularly concerned about variables that explained why an instructor, for example, endorses an Engineering conception and not other  195  conceptions of teaching.  The study revealed that some variables  did predict dominant conceptions.  Of the nine variables that  predicted dominant conception groups,  four were personal  variables (gender, ethnicity, personality—dominance, and personality—nurturance), four were socio—cultural/educational variables  (level of formal education, years of teaching adults,  living arrangement, and content upgrade) (class size).  and one program variable  Although the nine variables emerged as significant  discriminators among dominant conceptions, the number of individual cases successfully classified into their conception groups were not high.  Only 34.7% of 288 eligible cases were  correctly classified.  The percentage though appears to be  greater than chance (that is,  16.7%), the claim that the nine  discriminators were potent predictors of dominant conceptions cannot be justified.  The nine personal,  socio—cultural/  educational and program variables were moderate but not strong predictors of dominant conceptions.  Implications for Practice in Adult Education  Literature on adult instruction tends to conceive of teaching as either teacher—centered (directive) or learner— centered (collaborative).  This study has demonstrated that adult  instructors do not necessarily conceive of teaching as two extreme forms.  Instead, teaching was conceived of in six  different ways by 471 instructors in the study.  Adult educators  should now take a broader perspective of adult instruction, and  196  question whether teaching should be conceived of as being teacher—centered or learner—centered. It is beyond the scope of this study to speculate about the extent to which instructors should allow their teaching to be informed or influenced by one, two,  or more of the conceptions.  Nevertheless, the questions remain concerning the merits of holding one or another conception.  Orthodox wisdom concerning  “andragogy” appears to favor the Nurturing or Developmental conception.  Pratt’s  (1992) work appears to favor a more  pluralistic approach. The CTS-R can be used as a self-diagnostic tool to help clarify an instructor’s understanding of teaching.  An  individual’s CTS—R scores can provide a source of reflection about teaching and learning.  An understanding of instructor’s  conceptions of teaching is useful in a number of ways. Conceptions of teaching are presented as concrete and visible maps for instructors to alter or improve their professional practice of teaching, by reflecting on how they deliver the content, how learning could be directed, and how knowledge could be acquired or imparted.  Instructors may then use their  reflections to alter the ways they teach adults and convey content.  197  Policy Implications of the Findings  This study suggests that teaching is a multifaceted phenomenon, and that instructors have mixed and varied ways of looking at and thinking about their teaching.  The implication is  that in evaluating teaching, adult education administrators and program coordinators should consider instructors’ conceptions of teaching in addition to instructors’ professional skills, knowledge and relationships with learners.  But, the CTS-R should  not be used by administrators as a screening device to help make hiring, tenure or promotion decisions of instructors.  The CTS—R  is an instrument designed to assess and clarify instructors’ conceptions of teaching. It is recommended that conceptions of teaching should be included and discussed in all training programs for would—be and experienced instructors engaged in adult education.  The CTS—R  scores of instructors can be used as discussion points for reflection about their teaching.  By analyzing and comparing  different conceptions of teaching and by reflecting on their own dominant conceptions, actions,  instructors are made more aware of their  intentions and beliefs of teaching.  Appropriate changes  to the goals and assumptions of learning and education can then be made by the instructors to enhance their teaching.  198  Limitations of the Study  Response Rate  This study was carried out among 1100 Vancouver School Board and 167 New Westminster School Board instructors. the instructors  (N  =  responded to the survey.  471)  interest may be raised:  Only 37.2% of Questions of  How representative is the sample?  Did  the sample reflect the varied personal and socio—cultural backgrounds of instructors from the two school boards?  It was  not possible to secure information from non—respondents.  Maybe  the 471 respondents who returned their questionnaires were more nurturing  (and thus likely to help out an anxious doctoral  student at the university)  and the data is skewed accordingly.  Another issue of potential interest concerns the way these instructors responded to a letter from a person with a Chinese name.  These issues are of interest but of no great relevance  because this was essentially an ex post facto study primarily involving relationships between independent and dependent variables.  It was not designed to map or otherwise make  generalizations about the extent to which the conceptions of teaching were distributed across the adult instructor population. It was the variable inter-relationships that mattered, not the magnitude of their presence in either the target (N population or those who eventually responded  (  =  =  1267)  471).  199  Missing Data  Another limitation was that missing data or values present especially among the independent variables significantly reduced the number of eligible cases for multivariate analyses.  For  example, about one—third of the respondents did not answer the question on ethnicity.  Several variables such as political  orientation and living arrangement were collapsed into dichotomous codes to minimize the number of cases with missing Despite efforts to reduce missing data, the number of  data.  cases finally used in the multiple regression and discriminant analyses were 319 and 288 respectively.  The substantial number  of missing data restricted data analysis on a reduced set of sample.  Coding of Independent Variables  During the process leading up to running the discriminant function equations eight out of 17 variables were dropped because they appeared to have little or no relationship to the dependent variable (conception groups).  However, of those remaining, some  had been recoded or collapsed because of the wide variation in responses made, particularly to the open—ended questions. “Ethnicity” was a good example.  The author spent many months  checking and consulting with others concerning ways to ask questions about ethnicity that would yield reliable and valid data but,  at the same time, not upset people and thus the face  200  validity of the questionnaire or the response rate. it was decided to ask an open-ended question group do you belong to?”  —  “Which ethnic  rather than pre—coded choices.  people made responses like “Canadian”, “Black”.  -  In the end,  “English”,  Many  “Oriental” and  In the end, the only defensible way to code this  variable was to collapse all those who appeared to have European backgrounds in one category, and all those who appeared to have Asian and other backgrounds in the other category. Because of the way people responded to the open—ended questions concerning ethnicity and political orientation, potentially powerful parametric variables ended up being reduced to rather crude dichotomous non—parametric variables.  In other  words, the ethnic diversity of Vancouver has been reduced to two categories  —  “European” and “Asian and other”.  normally matter much but,  This would not  in this study, was regrettable because  “ethnicity” appeared to be a variable with the potential to predict considerable amounts of variance in conception scores. For example, orthodox wisdom holds that Asians, particularly those informed by Confucian perspectives, are more Engineering oriented than say, Europeans nurtured in a western liberal/humanistic tradition. more precise,  Had it been possible to secure  finely partitioned measures of ethnicity and  political orientation, more amenable to parametric analysis than crude dichotomies,  it is possible that the predictive power of  the variables would be improved.  This improvement in predictive  power would likely be visible in both the individual regression equations used to explain variance in each of the conception  201  scores and in the discriminant functions used to predict dominant conceptions.  Selection of Independent Variables  As described in Chapter Two,  independent variables used in  the study were inductively derived from colleagues and students in the UBC adult education program.  Recall also that these  informants came from highly contrasting cultural settings (Tanzania, Chile, New Zealand,  and Canada), and various  additional processes were used to identify further independent variables.  A list of 26 independent variables were identified as  possible predictors of conceptions of teaching. As noted, the independent variables were largely unable to predict the dominant conceptions of teaching held by 471 instructors. not included?  Why?  Is it because some crucial predictors were  Is it because the right variables were included  but they were inadequately operationalized?  Is it because the  right variables were included and adequately operationalized but due to coding and other difficulties their predictive power was reduced, masked or entirely eliminated? The first question asked if the independent variables identified through the inductive process were indeed the crucial predictors of dominant conceptions of teaching.  At the time of  writing, nobody had mentioned any other crucial variables that might better predict dominant conceptions of teaching. are better variables, they are not known to the author.  If there  202  With regard to the second question concerning operationalization, considerable care was taken and effort devoted to construct validation.  It was concluded that defective  operationalization did not explain the apparent inability of the variables to explain variance or predict dominant conceptions. The third question, which largely concerns the coding of open-ended questions, particularly those on ethnicity and political orientation, has been dealt with above. this question is a partial “yes”.  The answer to  Had ethnicity and political  orientation been more finely coded, they would probably have explained more variance in conception scores.  Future Research  This study has successfully operationalized Pratt’s five conceptions of teaching.  The 50-item CTS-R is a valid and  reliable instrument for assessing people’s conceptions of teaching, and for determining dominant conceptions of teaching. While great care was devoted to developing and refining items that were self—report representations of Pratt’s five conceptions of teaching, the scale’s construct validity needs to be further examined and tested.  The initial stage of scale development paid  attention to operationalizing the three aspects Intentions, and Beliefs.  —  Actions,  A priori assumptions were made  regarding the elements (teacher, learner, and content)  and their  relationships to the conceptions, but these assumptions were not explicitly tested.  Future researchers might wish to investigate  203  the elements and their relationships to determine the conception structures.  Further research should validate conceptions of  teaching based on observation of instructor’s actual teaching, and evaluations by peer groups and learners. This research was designed to investigate personal,  socio—  cultural/educational and program variables that predict people’s dominant conceptions of teaching.  Nine significant variables  emerged in three discriminant functions as significant predictors of instructors’ dominant conceptions of teaching, and further research is needed to replicate and improve on the operationalization of these variables.  Some people have said  that conceptions of teaching resemble teaching styles,  and  researchers may want to investigate the relationships between instructors’ teaching styles and conceptions of teaching.  One  speculation is that conceptions of teaching, though are not behavioral models or methods, they are manifestations of instructors’ teaching styles.  Several questions may be raised:  Are instructors’ teaching styles outcomes of their own conceptions of teaching?  Can teaching styles predict  instructors’ conceptions of teaching? Are conceptions of teaching likely to remain stable or unchanged over a period of time?  Are instructors likely to adopt  different dominant conceptions of teaching in different situations or settings?  Researchers may want to investigate  whether instructors’ conceptions of teaching are likely to change with time in different educational and cultural contexts.  204  Adult instruction occurs in different organizational contexts  —  educational institutions, private and public  corporations, voluntary bodies, religious organizations and community centers, things.  Organizations have their own ways of doing  They have policies, rules and procedures which are an  integral part of an organization’s culture.  Although this study  has not directly addressed the relationships between organizational cultures (contexts)  and conceptions, many writers  have argued that organizational contexts influence the way people behave, act and think of teaching.  Individuals are socialized  into a culture of an organization they belonged.  A question  arises as to whether instructors’ conceptions of teaching are outcomes of organizational contexts.  Are instructors’  conceptions of teaching influenced or determined by an organizational context?  If so, how do organizational contexts  shape and influence instructors’ dominant conceptions of teaching?  Future researchers may wish to investigate the  relationship between organizational contexts and instructors’ conceptions of teaching in different educational settings. This study has provided useful insights about conceptions of teaching. measurable.  These conceptions have their own existence and are Instructors of adults can now use the CTS—R to  clarify their own understanding of teaching and to appreciate different ways of viewing teaching.  People who are involved in  adult instruction can now better understand the diverse and pluralistic nature of teaching.  205 REFERENCES  Abercrombje, N., Hill, S. & Turner, B. S. (1988). Dictionary of sociology. Middlesex: Penguin Books. Ailport, G. W. (1957). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York: Holt. Apps, J. W. (1973). 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Development of a valid and reliable instrument to identify a personal philosophy of adult education. Dissertation Abstracts International. 4.4.(06), 1667.  216  APPENDIX A  LETTERS OF TRANSMITTAL AND THE QUESTIONNAIRE  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA  217  Adult Education  Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education 5760 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1L2 Tel: (604) 822-5881 Fax: (604) 822-6679  Dear Instructor CONCEPTIONS OF TEACHING As a professional instructor, you know how important effective teachinç is in helping people to learn. Adult Education at the University of British Columbia is conducting a study to investigate how teaching professionals conceive their own teaching activities. We need about 20 minutes of your time to answer some questions about your beliefs, intentions and actions as you work with adult learners. The enclosed questionnaire explores people’s conceptions and experiences about teaching and also asks some additional background information to help explain why various instructors have different conceptions of teaching. Of course, we realize how busy you are, so in exchange for your participation we will be happy to send you a summary of how you and other VSB night school instructors regard teaching activities. Your participation is strictly voluntary and please note that we do not ask for your name, so there will be no reference to you or any individual teacher in the thesis or reports that arise from this research study. Because we hope to receive replies from virtually every VSB night school instructor, we trust we can count on your participation. If you would like a summary of these findings, please check the box below and return this letter together with your mailing address. Please use the enclosed postage-paid envelope to return your completed questionnaire. If you require more information, please contact me at 822-2946 or Professor Roger Boshier at 822-5822. You can also reach either of us by fax at 822-6679. We thank you for your assistance and your thoughtful answers.  Choon Hian Chan Doctoral Candidate  J  of Adult Education  Yes, please send me a summary of the study findings.  (Mailing Address) (City, Province)  (Postal Code)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  218  Adult Education Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education 5760 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1L2 Tel: (604) 822-5881 Fax: (604) 822-6679  Dear Instructor CONCEPTIONS OF TEACHING Three weeks ago, we mailed a questionnaire to you seeking your professional views of teaching as well as some background information about your teaching career. We are anticipating that virtually all VSB continuing education instructors will assist in helping us formulate a better understanding of how instructors conceive, their professional teaching activities. Thus, it is essential that we have your participation. If you have already completed and mailed the questionnaire, please accept our thanks for your assistance. However, if you have not completed the questionnaire, we would urge you to do so and return it using the postage-paid envelope within the next day or two. If you require any additional information, please contact me at UBC at 822-2946 (and ask for Chan) or Professor Roger Boshier at 822-5822. You can also reach either of us by fax at 822-6679. We thank you for your assistance and for sharing your professional activities.  Sincerely  Choon Hian Chan Doctoral Candidate  Education  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  219  Adult Education Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education 5760 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1L2 Tel: (604) 822-5881 Fax: (604) 822-6679  November 1, 1993 Dear Instructor,  CONCEPTIONS OF TEACHING We Need Your Help. Some weeks ago, we mailed you a questionnaire (followed by a reminder letter) that concerned your views about teaching. A stamped addressed envelope was enclosed to expedite your response and we offered to provide you with a summary of the results of this study. Many instructors who have returned the questionnaire have said they found it interesting and enjoyable.  We are forwarding this letter to you at your teaching centre because we do not have a mailing list and have no way to contactyou individually. Both the Vancouver School Board and the University of British Columbia ensure that this project preserves the anonymity of respondents and non-respondents. If you have already completed and returned the questionnaire, please accept our thanks. If not, could you do it now? Please return the completed questionnaire as soon as possible. Your views about teaching are extremely important to us.  If you require any additional information please contact me at UBC Tel. 8225822. You can also reach me by Fax at 22-6679. We thank you for your assistance and for sharing your perspectives on teaching.  Profess  of Adult Education  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  220  Adult Education Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education 5760 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1L2 Tel: (604) 822-5881 Fax: (604) 822-6679  Dear Instructor CONCEPTIONS OF TEACHING  As a professional instructor, you know how important effective teaching is in helping people to learn. Adult Education at the University of British Columbia is conducting a study to investigate how teaching professionals conceive their own teaching activities. We need about 20 minutes of your time to answer some questions about your beliefs, intentions and actions as you work with adult learners. The enclosed questionnaire explores people’s conceptions and experiences about teaching and also asks some additional background information to help explain why various instructors have different conceptions of teaching. Of course, we realize how busy you are, so in exchange for your participation we will be happy to send you a summary of how you and other continumg education instructors regard teaching activities. Your participation is strictly voluntary and please note that we do not ask for your name, so there will be no reference to you or any individual teacher in the thesis or reports that arise from this research study. Because we hope to receive replies from virtually every New Westminster School Board Continuing Education instructor, we trust we can count on your participation. If you would like a summary of these findings, please check the box below and return this letter together with your mailing address. Please use the enclosed postage-paid envelope to return your completed questionnaire. /  If you require more information, please contact me at (822-2946 or Professor Roger Boshier at 822-5822. You can also reach either of us ly fax at 822-6679. We thank you for your assistance and your thoughtfu answers. I  ian Chan Doctoral Candidate  J  oger Boshier fProfessor of Adult Education  Yes, please send me a summary of the study findings. (Mailing Address) (City, 1rovince)  (Postal Code)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  221  Adult Education Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education 5760 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1L2 Tel: (604) 822-5881 Fax: (604) 822-6679  Dear Instructor  CONCEPTIONS OF TEACHING Three weeks ago, we mailed a questionnaire to you seeking your professional views of teaching as well as some background information about your teachin career. We are anticipating that virtually all New Westminster School Boar continuing education instructors will assist in helping us formulate a better understanding of how instructors conceive their professional teaching activities. Thus, it is essential that we have your participation. If you have already completed and mailed the questionnaire, please accept our thanks for your assistance. However, it you have not completed the questionnaire, we would urge you to do so and return it using the postage-paid envelope within the next day or two. If you require any additional information, please contact me at UBC at 822-2946 (and ask for Chan) or Professor Roger Boshier at 822-5822. You can also reach either of us by fax at 822-6679. We thank you for your assistance and for sharing your professional activities.  Education  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  222  Adult Education Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education 5760 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1L2 Tel: (604) 822-5881 Fax: (604) 822-6679  November 24, 1993 Dear Instructor,  CONCEPTIONS OF TEACHING We Need Your Help. Some weeks ago, we mailed you a questionnaire (followed by a reminder letter) that concerned your views about teaching. A stamped addressed envelope was enclosed to expedite your response and we  offered to provide you with a summary of the results of this study. Many instructors who have returned the questionnaire have said they found it interesting and enjoyable. If you have already completed and returned the questionnaire, please accept our thanks. If not, could you do it now? Please return the completed questionnaire as soon as possible. Your views about teaching are extremely important to us. If you require any additional information, please contact me at UBC Tel, 8225822. You can also reach me by Fax at 822-6679. We thank you for your assistance and for sharing your perspectives on teaching.  Roger Boshier Professor of Adult Education  223 DADr  V  I  E  IV  S  T L  0 F  To what extent do the following statements reflect your views of your own teaching in terms of your actions, your intentions and your beliefs.  TEACHING  For each statement CIRCLE the one response that best represents your view. PLEASE ANWER ALL THE ITEMS,  ‘  ACTIONS When teaching, my actions: -  My actions: i  tell learners what they are to learn.  2  model values and ways of working.  My actions:  My actions: 3  challenge people’s understanding of the content. My actions:  4  encourage expressions of feeling and emotions. My actions:  a  tell people what I believe in and why. My actions:  a  encourage people to accept the content as it is. My actions:  i  encourage learners to work along side with me. My actions:  x  encourage people to challenge each other’s thinking. My actions:  9  share my own feelings. My actions:  10  present an ideal vision for society. My actions:  ii  clearly follow the Syllabus and course objectives. My actions:  12  emphasize practice as a way of learning. My actions:  13  ask more questions than provide answers. My actions:  14  foster a climate of trust and caring among learners. My actions:  is  use content to teach about some higher ideal. My actions:  ia  try to cover the required content within the allotted time. My actions:  17  guide learners toward professional standards.  Strongly L)isagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly iisagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disee  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly agree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disee  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly agree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  My actions: 18  encourage people to think critically about what they are learning.  i  provide emotional support when needed.  My actions: My actions: 20  use my beliefs as guiding bases for teaching. My actions:  21  provide content and subject-matter expertise. My actions:  22  encourage people to learn by watching and practising. My actions:  23  encourage people to fmd problems as well as solve them. My actions:  zt  treat learners as friends. My actions:  is  encourage people to take a stand based on their ideals.  CT  224  INTENTIONS When teaching, I intend to: -  2 3  4  S  ‘  ‘  I intend to:  transmit a reasonably well-defined body of knowledge.  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  I intend to:  function as a role model.  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  I intend to:  promote intellectual development in people.  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  I intend to:  preserve, the dignity of every learner.  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  I intend to:  serve as a change agent for society.  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  A  Strongly Agree  I intend to:  efficiently and effectively direct learning.  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  I intend to:  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  slightly Agree  A  Strongly Agree  nurture each person’s self-esteem.  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  motivate everyone to work toward a better society for all.  I intend to:  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  A  Strongly Agree  I intend to:  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  model desirable ways of working.  Strongly Disagree  Disaee  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  I intend to:  use the content as a means to develop enquiring minds.  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  I intend to:  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  A  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  A  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  A  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  promote learning through observation and application. I intend to:  s  foster new ways of thinking about familiar content.  I intend to: 9  10  is  accurately and thoroughly present the content to be learned.  I intend to: 12  13  14  be sensitive to the emotional needs of learners. I intend to:  is  encourage people to take collective action to improve society.  I intend to: i’  work toward estabLished goals or objectives. I intend to:  17  represent the world of work. I intend to:  is  develop people’s ability to think rationally.  19  help people meet their learning needs.  Iintendto: I intend to: .  assess my success in teaching by the impact I have on society. I intend to:  21  clarify or correct any misunderstandings of content. I intend to:  22  move people toward the world of practice. I intend to:  n  help people re-consider what they already know. I intend to:  serve as a facilitator of people’s learning. Iintendto: 25  help people work toward an ideal society.  —  Strongly Agree  225  BELIEFS As a teacher, I believe that: -  i  2  I believe that:  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  I believe that:  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  learning is an active process of interpreting and integrating what is new with what we already know.  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  ghtl,’ Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  I believe that: providing emotional support is the primary role for teachers.  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  I believe that  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  an effective teacher must first and foremost be an authority on the content to be learned.  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Ibelieve that  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  I believe that:  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  when considering learning, people’s emotions are as important as their thoughts.  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  I believe that  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  the primary role of a teacher is to challenge people’s current ways of understanding and thinking.  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  I believe that  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  I believe that  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  I believe that  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  an effective teacher should be able to re-construct the content to be learned in a variety of ways.  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  strongly Agree  I believe that  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  strongly Agree  content should be adequately covered and efficiently delivered.  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  slightly  Agree  Strongly Agree  I believe that  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  I believe that  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Agree  I know what learners need to know. the best place to learn is “on-the-job”.  I believe that: 3  4  s  individual growth without social improvement is not enough. Ibelievethat  7 s  knowledge and practice cannot be separated. education should develop autonomous thinkers.  I believe that:  o  ‘0  learning should be related to the issues of today. I believe that:  ii  learning is enhanced when we have predetermined standards.  I believe that  i craft knowledge, that is, knowledge situated in its context of application, must be given a priority. I believe that  13  14  is  16  an effective teacher need not necessarily be content expert. education should work toward the transformation of society. learning objectives should be clearly specified.  I believe that 17  a teacher’s pliulary role is to model what is to be learned. I believe that:  is  19 I should promote trust between learners and teacher. I believe that: 20  society is imperfect and the primary role of a teacher is to make people aware of society’s imperfections. I believe that  21  22  23  practice, guided by an expert, makes perfect. knowledge is personally constructed. I believe that  u  education should enhance people’s self-esteem. I believe that  25  learners must place society before self.  Agree  226  PART  SELF  II  This part of the questionnaire requires you to provide some information concerning yourself, your education, teaching experience, training and perception of your role as an instructor. Please check, circle or print.  PROFILE 1  Please name the course/program you normally teach? (Print).  2  On the average, how many participants would normally be in your class? (Print).  participants  Have you ever taught children? (Check). No  4  Yes  >  If yes, for how many years?  Full-time  years  Part-time  years  Full-time  years  Part-time  years  How many years have you been teaching adults at: (a) Vancouver School Board (VSB) Career & Community Education Services (b) Elsewhere  Full-time  years  Part-time  years  Where? (Print)  s During the last year, have you taught classes at place (or places) other than Vancouver School Board Career & Community Education Services? (Check). No  6  (‘  Yes  >  Where? (Print)  To what extent do you use the following instructional techniques: (Circle one response for each technique). Lecture  Always  Often  Sometimes  Seldom  Never  Case Study  Always  Often  Sometimes  Seldom  Never  Role play  Always  Often  Sometimes  Seldom  Never  Small group discussion  Always  Often  Sometimes  Seldom  Never  Large group discussion  Always  Often  Sometimes  Seldom  Never  Demonstration  Always  Often  Sometimes  Seldom  Never  Drill  Always  Often  Sometimes  Seldom  Never  Field trip  Always  Often  Sometimes  Seldom  Never  Other (Specify)  Always  Often  Sometimes  Seldom  Never  (‘T  227  7  What is the highest formal educational qualification you hold? (Check one). No formal education Completed Grade 10 or 11 (but not 12) Grade 12 graduation or overseas equivalent Post secondary or trade qualification only Part of university degree  S  University degree or diploma only  >  Type? leg. BA. BSc)  University degree or university diploma and some additional post-secondary qualification  —>  Type? (eg. MA. MBA)  Did you have any formal training in adult education? (Check). If yes. was it acquired through > Yes No  ? (Check one)  Full-time degree program Part-time degree program Full-time diploma program Part-time diploma program Certitjcate program Other (specify) During the last year. did you participate in any  to  nonformal  programs about adult education, such as  A short course  No  Yes  A meeting at a professional organization leg. PACE)  No  Yes  A professional conference/seminar/workshop  No  Yes  An in-service course  No  Atalk  No  Yes  An educational travel program  No  Yes  Other  No  Yes  (J  ? (Check).  Yes  During the last year. have you read or consulted any books, in the subject area you usually teach (eg. Marketing, Electricity. Real Estate, Fishing. Cooking)? (Check). No  Yes  >  If yes. name the inostfrequentlv read or consulted book. (Print) Title of Book  Authored by  ii  During the last year, have you read or consulted any journals leg. Management Review. Computer Science. Home Economics) in the subject area you usually teach? (Check). If yes. name the inostfrequenth’ read or consulted journal. (Print) Yes > No Title of Journal  (‘T  228  12  During the last year, have you read or consulted any magazines (eg. Fortune, Motoring, PC World) in the subject area you usually teach? (Check). > If yes, name the most frequenth’ read or consulted magazine. (Print) Yes (J No Title of Magazine  is  During the last year, have you read or consulted any book on adult education (concepts, theory, processes and so on)? (Check). Yes > If yes. name the book. (Print) No Title of Book  14  During the last year. have you read or consulted any journal on adult education (concepts, theory. processes. and so on)? (Check). Yes  No  >  If yes, name the journal. (Print) Title of Journal  is  Is there any one person who, in your opinion, has significantly influenced the way you teach adults? (Check). > Yes ( The person’s name is (Print): No  In your opinion, is this person: Primarily a: (Check one) Author/writer Professor Instructor Social reformer Politician Journalist Philosopher Religious leader Trade union leader Other (specify)  ED ED ED ED ED ED ED ED ED ED  rT  Secondarily a: (Check one) Author/writer Professor Instructor Social reformer Politician Journalist Philosopher Religious leader Trade union leader Other (specify)  ED ED ED ED ED ED ED ED ED ED  229  L 16  Questions 16 to 22 ask some questions about you, so we remind you that you are NOT identified by name on this questionnaire.  Are you a woman or man? (Check). Woman  cZ:)  Man  ED  ‘7  What is your age in years? (Print).  is  Do you live with other people in your house, apartment or other place of residence? (Check). I live alone ED I live with other people  years  —>  Of the people who live with you. how many are: (Write the number for each) (a) adults (20 years and above)? (b) children (19 years and under)?  ‘9  Some writers feel that a person’s country of birth influences his/her teaching. Please write where you were born (Print).  20  Which ethnic group do you belong to? (Print).  i  List here all the countries that you have visited (that is, stayed for 3 or more weeks) or lived in (for 1 or more years) in the last ten years. (Print). Visited (For 3 or more weeks)  Lived (For 1 or more years)  3  3_  4  4_  5  5  6  6  7  7  8  8 (‘T  230  22  In general. how would you describe your political orientation? (Print).  As an instructor employed by the Vancouver School Board Career and Community Education Services (Circle one response for each item). (a) I feel certain about how much authority I have, (b) I know that I have divided my on-the-job time properly. (c) I know what my responsibilities are. (d) I know exactly what is expected of me on the job.  strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Not Sure  Slightly Agree  Agree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Not Sure  Slightly Agree  Agree  strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slightly Disagree  Not Sure  Slightly Agree  Aeree  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Slihtlv Disagree  Not Sure  slightly Agree  Agree  —  -  -  —  -  -  —  Strongly Agree  Strongly Agree -  Strongly Agree  Strongly Agree  231  This final section will take about seven minutes to complete We are interested in the extent to which personality influences teaching Please remember that in exchange for your assistance, we will provide you with the results of this study We appreciate your help Please keep going and answer all the items below Below is a list of words that are used to describe people’s personal characteristics. Please rate how accurately each word describes you as a person. Judge how accurately each word describes you on the following scale: 1 Extremely Inaccurate  2 Very Inaccurate  3 Quite Inaccurate  4 Slightly Inaccurate  5  6  7  Slightly Accurate  Quite Accurate  Very Accurate  8 Extremely Accurate  For example, consider the word BOLD. How accurately does that word describe you as a person? If you think BOLD this is a quite accurate description of you, write the number “6” next to it: next “4” to it, if it is very number write the of you, description inaccurate If you think this word is a slightly inaccurate write the number “2” next to it, and so on. Please be sure to do all of them. If you are uncertain of the meaning of a word, consult the definitions provided on the next page. (01) Introverted (02) Undemanding  —  —  (05) Uncalculating  (44) Friendly  (24) Cunning  (45) Unneighbourly  (25) Meek  (03) Assertive (04) Unauthoritalive  (23) Unsparkling  —  —  —  (26) Uncharitable  —  (27) Unsly  —  (28) Unaggressive  (07) Kind  (29) Jovial  (08) Charitable  (30) Crafty  —  (31) Boastless  —  (32) Domineering  —  (33) Unargumentative  —  (34) Tender  —  —  (10) Uncunning  —  (11) Cold-hearted  —  (12) Ruthless  —  —  (13) Dissocial  (35) Unsympathetic  (14) Tender-hearted  (36) Timid  (15) Soft-hearted  (37) Unbold  —  (16) Cheerful  (38) Forceful  —  (17) Dominant  (39) Unwily  —  (40) Extraverted  —  (18) Antisocial (19) Iron-hearted (20) Enthusiastic (21) Self-assured  —  —  —  (41) Gentle-hearted (42) Persistent (43) Perky  (22) Cruel  (T  (47) Outgoing (48) Boastful (49) Bashful  (06) Accommodating  (09) Shy  (46) Self-confident  —  (50) Firm (51) Uncrafty (52) Unsociable (53) Hard-hearted (54) Wily (55) Calculating (56) Uncheery (57) Sly  —  —  —  (58) Neighbourly (59) Warmthless (60) Distant (61) Cocky (62) Sympathetic (63) Forceless (64) Tricky  232 1.  Introverted: feel more comfortable by yourself; are less interested in other people  34.  Tender: warm and loving with others  35.  Unsympathetic: not interested or concerned about others’ feelings or problems  2.  Undemanding: don’t demand or expect much from others  3.  Assertive: tend to be aggressive and outspoken with others  36.  Timid: tend to be fearful or uncomfortable around others  4.  Unauthoritative: don’t try to influence others; go with others’ opinions  37.  Unbold: not daring or courageous  38.  Forceful: tend to take charge or assert control  39.  Unwily: not tricky or crafty  40.  Extraverted: like being with others; outgoing & lively around others  5.  Uncalculating: don’t try to manipulate others or maximize your own gain  6.  Accommodating: obliging, tend to do favors for others  7.  Kind: thoughtftl and caring for others  41.  Gentle-hearted: warm or kind with others  8.  Charitable: generous, like to help others  42.  9.  Shy: lack self-confidence, tend to be uncomfortable around others  Persistent: don’t give up even when others think you are wrong  43.  Perky: lively, energetic around others  10.  Uncuaning: not crafty or sly, tend to be straightforward with others  44.  Friendly: open. accepting, warm around others  Coldhearted: ltave little warmth or feeling for others  45.  11.  Unneighbourly: unfriendly, aloof toward others, avoid contact with others  12.  Ruthless: pursue your own interests regardless of the effect on others  46.  Self-confident: sure of yourself around others, comfortable meeting people  13.  Dissocial: don’t care for the company of others  47.  Outgoing: enjoy meeting other people  14.  Tender-hearted: easily feel love, pity or sorrow for others  48.  Boastful: tend to brag  15.  Soft-hearted: tend to be easy-going or gentle with others  49.  Bashful: tend to shy away from public attention  16.  Cheerful: happy, usually in good spirits  50.  17.  Dominant: tend to lead others, like to command, take charge in a group  Firm: steadfast, do not give in easily. get others to do things your way  51.  Uncrafty: not tricky or sly when dealing with others  18.  Antisocial: dislike the company of others: behavior not affected by social rules  52.  Unsociable: don’t enjoy meeting people or being in the company of others  19.  Iron-hearted: tend to be stern or harsh with others  53.  Hard-hearted: unconcerned and unfeeling toward others  20.  Enthusiastic: enjoy active involvement with others  54.  Wily: crafty, cagey, or tricky  21.  Self-assured: confident, know yourself to usually be right  55.  22.  Cruel: able to cause pain and suffering to others: unfeeling  Calculating: tend to use or manipulate others to your own advantage  23.  Unsparkling: not lively or entertaining with others  56.  Uncheery: not lively or jolly around others  24.  Cunning: crafty, skillful at manipulating others, devious  57.  Sly: crafty, secretive, or cunning when dealing with others  25.  Meek: timid, have trouble being assertive or standing up to others  58.  Neighbourly: friendly, like to get involved with people around you  26.  Uncharitable: dislike helping others: tend to judge others harshly  59.  Warmthless: have no feeling of pleasure or affection for others  27.  Unsly: not tricky or cunning, tend to be genuine, sincere, trusting  60.  Distant: tend to be cold toward others: tend to stay away from others  28.  Unaggressive; tend to be mild mannered, not forceful around others  61.  Cocky: self-centered, conceited, think highly of your own abilities  29.  Jovial: cheerfnl, playful around others  62.  30.  Crafty: can nislead or manipulate others for your own purposes  Sympathetic: feel interested or sensitive to the feelings and problems of others  63.  Forceless: not forceful with others; timid or weak, find it hard to be assertive  64.  Tricky: can be deceiving toward others to get what you want: able to fool others  31.  Boastless: doit like to brag  32.  Domineering: tend to control or manipulate others  33.  Unargumentulive: tend to avoid arguments or fights  rT  233  APPENDIX B  APPROVAL FROM AGENCIES  The University of British Columbia Office of Research Services  234  Behavioural Sciences Screening Committee for Research Involving Human Subjects  Certificate of Approval PRINCIPAL INVES11GATOR  DEPARThiENT  Boshier, R.W.  AdmiWAdultlHigher Ed  NUMBER  B93-0275  INSTITU11ON(S) WHERE RESEARCH WILL BE CARRIED OUT  UBC Campus CO-IN VESTIGATORS:  Chan, C.H., Admin/Adult/Higher Ed SPONSORING AGENCIES  TITLE.  Operationalization and prediction of conceptions of teaching in adult education APPROVAL DATE  JUN111993  TERM LYEARI  AMENDED.  3  CERTIFICATION:  The protocol describing the above-named project has been reviewed by the Committee and the experimental procedures were found to be acceptable on ethical grounds for research involving human subjects.  Dr. I. Franks, Associate Chairs  D.Spratley Dr ..47 Director, Research Services  This Certificate of Approval is valid for three years provided there is no change in the experimental procedures  235  BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES OF SCHOOL DISTRICT NO.39 (VANCOUVER) 1595 WEST 10th AVENUE. VANCOUVER. BC. V6J 1 Z8 TELEPHONE (604)731-5248 FAX 736-8564  STUDENT ASSESSMENT AND RESEARCH  1993 June 18  Mr. Choon Hian Chan Department of Administrative, and Adult and Higher Education The University of British Columbia 5760 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1L2  Dear Mr. Chan: I am pleased to advise that your research proposal, “Operationalization and Prediction of Conceptions of Teaching in Adult Education, has been approved for implementation in Career and Community Education Services. Please contact Audrey Sandnes, Manager Continuing Education, (733-1893, local 306) regarding the distribution of the survey instru ment. To keep within Vancouver School Board guidelines, addresses of teachers will not be released. —  As a condition of Vancouver School Board approval, please plan to submit a copy of your master’s thesis to our office upon its completion. Best wishes for the success of your project. Sincerely yours,  Sharon Reid Supervisor of Educational Research /lb cc  Audrey Sandnes, Manager  —  Continuing Education  236  APPENDIX C  ADDITIONAL TABLES  237 Table C.1 Means and Standard Deviations of 75 Conceptions of Teaching Scale Items  Item  Description  Mean  (=  SD 471)  AE1  Tell learners what they are to learn.  4.77  1.25  AA2  Model values and ways of working.  5.08  0.79  AD3  Challenge people’s understanding of the content.  4.68  1.11  AN4  Encourage expressions of feeling and emotions.  4.78  1.15  AS5  Tell people what I believe in and why.  4.63  1.20  AE6  Encourage people to accept the content as it is.  3.19  1.33  AA7  Encourage learners to work alongside with me.  4.94  1.01  AD8  Encourage people to challenge each other’s thinking.  4.61  1.15  AN9  Share my own feelings.  4.46  1.24  ASlO  Present an ideal vision for society.  3.41  1.37  AE11  Clearly follow the syllabus and course objectives.  4.67  1.04  AA12  Emphasize practice as a way of learning.  5.41  0.79  AD13  Ask more questions than provide answers.  3.87  1.38  AN14  Foster a climate of trust and caring among learners.  5.24  0.78  AS15  Use content to teach about some higher ideal.  4.07  1.35  AE16  Try to cover the required content within the allotted time.  4.99  0.92  AA17  Guide learners toward professional standards.  4.92  1.04  238  (Table C.l continued) AD18  Encourage people to think critically about what they are learning.  4.92  1.02  AN19  Provide emotional support when needed.  4.89  1.01  AS2O  Use my beliefs as guiding bases for teaching.  4.30  1.29  AE21  Provide content and subject-matter expertise.  5.26  0.75  AA22  Encourage people to learn by watching and practising.  5.24  0.82  AD23  Encourage people to find problems as well as solve them.  4.95  0.83  AN24  Treat learners as friends.  5.03  1.03  AS25  Encourage people to take a stand based on their ideals.  4.39  1.17  TEl  Transmit a reasonably well-defined body of knowledge.  5.24  0.69  TA2  Function as a role model.  4.84  0.94  TD3  Promote intellectual development in people.  5.02  0.84  TN4  Preserve the dignity of every learner.  5.46  0.71  TS5  Serve as a change agent for society.  3.97  1.34  TE6  Efficiently and effectively direct learning.  5.01  0.79  TA7  Promote learning through observation and application.  5.24  0.73  TD8  Foster new ways of thinking about familiar content.  5.06  0.79  TN9  Nurture each person’s self—esteem.  5.20  0.88  TS1O  Motivate everyone to work toward a better society for all.  4.40  1.21  TEll  Accurately and thoroughly present the content to be learned.  5.29  0.74  TA12  Model desirable ways of working.  4.99  0.78  TD13  Use the content as a means to develop enquiring minds.  4.93  0.86  239  (Table C.l continued) TN14  Be sensitive to the emotional needs of learners.  5.02  0.95  TS15  Encourage people to take collective action to improve society.  3.88  1.22  TE16  Work toward established goals or obj ectives.  5.12  0.70  TA17  Represent the world of work.  4.06  1.28  TD18  Develop people’s ability to think rationally.  4.70  0.96  TN19  Help people meet their learning needs.  5.26  0.77  TS2O  Assess my success in teaching by the impact I have on society.  3.53  1.35  TE21  Clarify or correct any misunderstandings of content.  5.28  0.70  TA22  Move people toward the world of practice.  4.94  0.85  TD23  Help people re-consider what they already know.  4.62  1.02  TN24  Serve as a facilitator of people’s learning.  5.23  0.75  TS25  Help people work toward an ideal society.  3.83  1.30  BE1  I know what learners need to know.  4.15  1.23  BA2  The best place to learn is “on-thejob”.  4.29  1.11  BD3  Learning is an active process of interpreting and integrating what is new with what we already know.  5.28  0.70  BN4  Providing emotional support is the primary role for teachers.  3.56  1.21  BS5  Individual growth without social improvement is not enough.  4.03  1.20  BE6  An effective teacher must first and foremost be an authority on the content to be learned.  4.44  1.23  BA7  Knowledge and practice cannot be separated.  4.63  1.21  BD8  Education should develop autonomous thinkers.  4.63  1.16  240  (Table C.l continued) BN9  When considering learning, people’s emotions are as important as their thoughts.  4.67  0.96  BS1O  Learning should be related to the issues of today.  4.42  1.07  BEll  Learning is enhanced when we have predetermined standards.  4.02  1.22  BA12  Craft knowledge, that is, knowledge situated in its context of application, must be given a priority.  4.20  1.02  BD13  The primary role of a teacher is to challenge people’s current ways of understanding and thinking.  4.20  1.12  BN14  An effective teacher need not necessarily be content expert.  3.84  1.37  BS15  Education should work toward the transformation of society.  4.13  1.14  BE16  Learning objectives should be clearly specified.  5.08  0.79  BA17  A teacher’s primary role is to model what is to be learned.  4.50  0.99  BD18  An effective teacher should be able to re—construct the content to be learned in a variety of ways.  5.30  0.71  BN19  I should promote trust between learners and teacher.  5.39  0.67  BS2O  Society is imperfect and the primary role of a teacher is to make people aware of society’s imperfections.  2.96  1.34  BE21  Content should be adequately covered and efficiently delivered.  5.08  0.85  BA22  Practice, guided by an expert, makes perfect.  4.31  1.19  BD23  Knowledge is personally constructed.  4.64  0.96  BN24  Education should enhance people’s self—esteem.  5.19  0.78  BS25  Learners must place society before self.  2.96  1.26  —.01 —.07 —.03  Conference  In—Service  Talk  **Q<.O]  —.02  Personal Influence  5 Q<.O  -.08  Adult Education Journal  471  —.07  Adult Education Book  =  —.05  Other Activity  .11  —.04  Professional Meeting  Educational Travel  —.01  .09  Eng  Short Course  Formal Training in Adult Education  Variable  —.03  -08  —.05  —.03  .11  .11*  —.01  .06  .06  .08  .11*  —.07  .08  .13* .05  .11  .17**  .08  .15*  —.01  —.00  Dev  .05  .03  —.13* .02  .02  .16**  .01  .09  App-M  —.05  .00  .01  .11*  App-P  Conception  .16**  .05  .19**  .16*  .12  .08  .11*  .07  —.00  .13*  .05  .06  .12* .10  .15*  —.00  .05  Soc  .20**  .01  .09  Nur  Correlation Matrix of Professional Development Variables and Conceptions Scores  Table C.2  242  Table C.3 Correlation Matrix of Published Materials Read/Consulted and ConceDtion Scores  Conception Variable  Book Journal Magazine  =  471  Eng  App-P  App-M  Dev  Nur  Soc  .01  —.05  .07  .08  .11*  .00  —.02  —.06  —.01  .17**  .03  .02  .06  .02  .02  —.02  —.03  *.<.O5  **p<.0l  .06  243  APPENDIX D  INITIAL DATA CODING PROTOCOL  244  Table D.l DescriDtion of Independent Variables and thir Ccdina Fm-mat  Variable  Description  Code  ID  Case identification number  4-digit nuniber  DATE  Day. month return received  4-digit nuniber  AE1 TO BS25  75 Conceptions of teaching scale item  l=strongly 2=Disagree 3=Slightly 4=Slightly 5=Agree 6=Strongly  disagree disagree agree agree  PROGCODE  Type of program/course  l=Academic 2=Arts & Crafts 3=Beauty, styles 4=Business 5=Communications 6=Computer 7=Cooking 8=Health 9=ESL 1 O=Fore ign Languages ll=Music 12=Photo & Video 13=Recreation 14=Secretarial 15=Sewing 1 6=Workshop 17=Special  PARTS  Number of participants  2-digit number  TACHILD  Ever taught children  1=No  CHILDFT  Taught children fulltime (in years)  2-digit number  CHILDPT  Taught children parttime (in years)  2-digit number  2=Yes  245 (Table D.l continued)  Variable  Description  Code  VSBFT  Taught adults full-time at VSB (in years)  2-digit number  VSBPT  Taught adults part-time at VSB (in years)  2-digit number  WHEREFT  Taught adults elsewhere full-time (in years)  2-digit number  WHEREPT  Taught adults elsewhere part-time (in years)  2-digit number  NONVSB  Taught classes other than VSB  l=No  2=Yes  LECTURE ROLE SGD LGD DEMO DRILL FIELD OTHTECH  Instructional techniques Lecture Role play Small group discussion Large group discussion Demonstration Drill Field trip Other instructional technique  HIGHED  Highest formal education  l=No formal education 2=Grade 10 or 11 completion 3=Grade 12 completion 4=Post secondary 5=Part university 6=University degree 7=Other university qualification  TRAINAD  Formal adult education training  l=No  TRPROG  Type of adult education training program  6=Full-time degree 5=Part-time degree 4=Full-time diploma 3=Part-time diploma 2=Certificate l=Other  l=Never 2=Seldom 3=Sometimes 4=Often 5=Always  2=Yes  246  (Table D.l continued)  Variable  SHORT MEET CONF IN-SERICE TALK TRAVEL NOTHER  Code  Description  Non—formal Programs Short course Meeting of professional body Professional conference In-service course A talk Educational travel program Other  l=No  2=Yes  SUBJBK  Subject book read/consulted  l=No  2=Yes  SUBJNL  Subject journal read/consulted  l=No  2=Yes  MAC  Magazine read/consulted  l=No  2=Yes  AEDEBK  Adult education book read/consulted  l=No  2=Yes  ADEDJNL  Adult education journal read/consulted  l=No  2=Yes  PERSON  Person influenced teaching  l=No  2=Yes  PRIMARY SECRY  Person’s primary role Person’s secondary role  l=Author/writer 2=Professor 3=Instructor 4=Social reformer 5=Pol itician 6=Journal ist 7=Philosopher 8=Religious leader 9=Trade union leader lO=Other  GENDER  Respondent’s gender  l=Woman  ACE  Respondent’s age years)  (in  2=Man  2-digit number  247  (Table D.l continued)  Variable  Description  Code  PEOPLE  Living with other people  l=Alone 2=Other people  ADULTS  Number of adults  1-2 digit number  CHILD  Number of children  1-2 digit number  CCODE  Country of birth by geographical regions  l=Africa 2=Asia 3=Europe 4=North America 5=Oceania 6=South America  ETHCODE  Respondent’s ethnicity  1=European 2=Asian and other  VISITED  Number of countries visited Number of countries lived  1-2 digit number  LIVED  POLCODE  Political orientation  AUTHJOB DIVJOB RESPJOB EXPJOB  Role Clarity/Ambiguity Scale Items Job authority Job divided properly Job responsibilities Job expectations  Vl TO V64  64 IAS-R items  1-2 digit number  l=Left 2=Center 3 =Right 4=Unclassfiable  1=Strongly 2=Disagree 3=Slightly 4=Not sure 5=Slightly 6=Agree 7=Strongly  disagree disagree agree agree  1=Extremely inaccurate 2=Very inaccurate 3 =Quite inaccurate 4=Slightly inaccurate 5=S lightly accurate 6=Quite accurate 7=Very accurate 8=Extreiuely accurate  

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