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Secondary school teachers’ conceptions of critical thinking in British Columbia and Japan : a comparative… Howe, Edward Ronald 2000

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S E C O N D A R Y S C H O O L T E A C H E R S ' CONCEPTIONS O F CRITICAL T H I N K I N G IN BRITISH C O L U M B I A A N D J A P A N : A Comparative Study by  EDWARD RONALD HOWE B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1988 B . E d . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1992 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREEOF MASTER OF ARTS in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Department of Educational Studies) W e accept this thesis as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A October, 2000 © E d w a r d R o n a l d H o w e , 2000  In  presenting  degree freely  at  the  available  copying  of  department publication  this  University for  this or of  thesis  this  partial  fulfilment  of  British  Columbia,  reference  thesis by  in  for  his thesis  and  scholarly  or for  her  Department  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  Columbia  I  I further  purposes  gain  the  shall  requirements  agree  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  permission.  The University of British Vancouver, Canada  study.  of  be  It not  that  the  Library  by  understood be  an  advanced  shall  permission for  granted  is  for  allowed  the that  without  make  it  extensive  head  of  copying my  my or  written  ABSTRACT Critical thinking has received much attention among educators, yet remains largely undeveloped in traditional teacher-centred classrooms. Critical thinking is used in at least three major contexts: (1) the media and general public, (2) teacher pedagogy, and (3) academic discourse. Critical thinking must be better understood by individuals within all three levels. The purposes of this study were (1) to obtain an overall sense of what secondary school teachers believed critical thinking to entail; (2) to compare and contrast B.C. and Japanese secondary teachers' conceptions of critical thinking; (3) to investigate the nature of B.C. and Japanese secondary teachers' conceptions of critical thinking with respect to gender, age, teaching experience and subject taught; and (4) to determine whether critical thinking is a significant part of B.C. and Japanese teaching and the curriculum at the secondary level. Over 150 secondary teachers from B.C. and Japan were asked to (1) sort through 50 potential definers denoting possible attributes of critical thinking; (2) rank the 10 most significant to critical thinking; and (3) answer a questionnaire about the nature of critical thinking. The quantitative data, effectively reduced through factor analysis, yielded a five factor solution: Scientific Judgements,  Relevance,  Reasoning,  and Intellectual  Cognitive  Engagement.  conceptualized critical thinking through Cognitive while Japanese teachers favoured Conscientious Engagement.  Strategizing,  Conscientious  B . C . teachers Strategizing  Judgements  and  and  Relevance,  Intellectual  From a synthesis of quantitative and qualitative data from teachers  surveyed as well as expert opinion, critical thinking was found to be a process in which an individual is actively engaged in analyzing, reasoning, questioning, and creatively searching for alternatives in an effort to solve a problem or to  make a decision or judgement. Teachers indicated that critical thinking was not rote memorization, demonstrating factual knowledge, comprehension or application. It was more than following a given algorithm or set of procedures. While over half the teachers surveyed indicated critical thinking was part of the curriculum and their teaching, many were unable to articulate how to teach it effectively. There were significant differences in teachers' conceptions of critical thinking. Culture accounted for more differences than gender, age, teaching experience, subject area, or the teaching of critical thinking. Using discriminant analysis, 27 definers distinguished between B.C. and Japanese teachers. While B.C. teachers tended to choose "Decision making," "Problem solving," "Divergent thinking," "Metacognitive skills," "Higher order thinking," "Deductive reasoning," and "Identifying/removing bias," Japanese teachers tended to chose "Fairness," "Adequacy," "Objective," "Consistency," "Completeness," Precision," and "Specificity." Over 96 percent of the teachers were correctly classified by culture. Further research is necessary on how to teach critical thinking across the curriculum and successfully integrate it with B.C. and Japanese educational reforms in areas such as curriculum development and teacher training. Critical thinking is a Western expression, yet the concept is not confined to the West. The author proposes the use of a new term for critical thinking with less emphasis on "critical" and more emphasis on "thinking"—kangaeru chikara or "powerful thinking" better encompasses the nature of critical thinking as it is conceived by B.C. and Japan's teachers. Teacher training must incorporate powerful thinking and teachers must model critical thinking, for any effort to reform the structure or organization of education ultimately depends on the effectiveness of the teacher.  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  LIST O F T A B L E S  vii  LIST O F F I G U R E S  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ix  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION T O T H E STUDY The Problem: Critical T h i n k i n g Misconceptions Background to the Study Rationale and Conceptual Framework Research Methodology and Data Analysis Purposes Organization of the Chapters  1 2 3 4 7 8 9  C H A P T E R 2 E D U C A T I O N IN BRITISH C O L U M B I A A N D J A P A N Education i n British C o l u m b i a Historical Perspective Higher Education Teacher Education Education i n Japan Historical Perspective Comparative Perspective Higher Education Teacher Education Comparisons Between B . C . and Japanese Teachers Educational Reforms i n B . C . and Japan Teacher Education Reforms i n B . C . and Japan Summary  10 10 10 11 12 14 15 16 18 22 25 28 30 30  CHAPTER 3 CRITICAL THINKING The Components of Critical T h i n k i n g Learning Critical T h i n k i n g Distortions of Critical T h i n k i n g i n the M e d i a Critical T h i n k i n g Research  32 32 34 36 38  iv  CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH M E T H O D O L O G Y Sample Schools Teachers Instrument Development Critical Thinking Cards Translation of Critical Thinking Definers Procedures P/iase 1—Pilot Study Phase 2—Instrument Design Phase 3—Survey of B.C. Teachers Phase 4—Survey of Japanese Teachers Data Preparation and Analysis Summary  39 39 40 45 46 46 46 47 47 48 48 49 49 50  CHAPTER 5RESULTS-CHARACTERISTICS Gender Age Teaching Experience Subject Areas Summary  52 52 54 54 55 56  OFRESPONDENTS  CHAPTER 6 RESULTS-CRITICAL THINKING Definers of Critical T h i n k i n g Differences Between B . C . and Japanese Teachers Differences Based on the Total N u m b e r of Definers Chosen Differences Based on Gender Differences Based on Age Differences Based on Career Experience Relationships Based on Critical T h i n k i n g i n the Curriculum Relationships Based on Critical T h i n k i n g i n Teaching Distinguishing B . C . from Japanese Teachers Ranking Selected Definers of Critical T h i n k i n g The Structure of Critical T h i n k i n g Elements of Critical T h i n k i n g and the Factoring Procedure Factors of Critical T h i n k i n g Factor 1: Scientific Reasoning Factor 2: Cognitive Strategizing Factor 3: Conscientious Judgements Factor 4: Relevance Factor 5: Intellectual Engagement Scale Scoring  V  57 57 61 63 64 64 64 65 65 66 68 70 71 71 71 73 73 73 74 74  Relationships Between Critical T h i n k i n g Scale Scores and Socio-demographic Characteristics of B.C. and Japanese Teachers Culture Gender!AgelTeaching Experience Critical Thinking in the Curriculum and the Teaching of Critical Thinking Total Number of Critical Thinking Definers Chosen Subject Areas Summary  75 76 77 77 79 79 79  CHAPTER 7 DISCUSSION Teachers' Conceptions of Critical T h i n k i n g H o w Critical T h i n k i n g is Taught Comparative Perspective Implications of the Study  81 81 83 84 89  CHAPTER 8 SUMMARY A N D CONCLUSIONS Critical Analysis of the Methodology Critical Analysis of the Results Levels of Critical T h i n k i n g Comparative Education Perspective Recommendations and Implications for Future Studies  91 91 94 94 95 97  REFERENCES  101  A P P E N D I X A : Teacher Questionnaire (English Version)  108  A P P E N D I X B: Teacher Questionnaire (Japanese Version)  110  A P P E N D I X C : Critical T h i n k i n g Definers Spreadsheet  112  A P P E N D I X D : Rotated Component Matrix of 50 Critical T h i n k i n g Definers  113  vi  LIST O F T A B L E S Table 1 Descriptions of B . C . and Japanese Schools Selected  39  Table 2. C o d i n g of Critical T h i n k i n g Card Sort  49  Table 3. Characteristics of Selected Teachers i n B . C . and Japanese H i g h Schools  53  Table 4. Differences in Fifty Definers of Critical T h i n k i n g between Teachers i n B . C . and Japanese H i g h Schools  58  Table 5. Correlations Between Fifty Definers of Critical T h i n k i n g and Seven Characteristics of Teacher Demographics  62  Table 6. Critical T h i n k i n g Definers that Significantly Distinguished Between B . C . and Japanese Teachers  66  Table 7. Accuracy of Discriminant Function Distinguishing B . C . and Japanese Teachers  67  Table 8. Critical T h i n k i n g Factor Loadings  72  Table 9. Relationships Between Critical T h i n k i n g Scale Scores and Socio-demographic Characteristics of B . C . and Japanese Teachers  75  Table 10. Critical T h i n k i n g as Part of the Prescribed Curriculum  78  Table 11. Critical T h i n k i n g Taught i n the Classroom  78  vii  LIST OF F I G U R E S Figure 1. M a p of Japan  41  Figure 2. M a p of British C o l u m b i a  41  Figure 3. M a p of T h e Lower M a i n l a n d (Greater Vancouver)  42  Figure 4. M a p of Kanto Region (Greater Tokyo)  42  Figure 5. Example of a Critical T h i n k i n g Card  46  Figure 6. Distribution of Respondents on the Single Canonical Discriminant Function of Significant Critical T h i n k i n g Definers  68  Figure 7. Percentage of Critical T h i n k i n g Definers Endorsed, then Subsequently Ranked i n the T o p T e n  69  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the many people who have helped to make this thesis possible. M y research supervisor, Roger Boshier as well as m y other committee members: John Collins, Ishu Ishiyama, and Hans Schuetze helped guide me through the process of designing appropriate research tools and in the analysis of data. A special thank you to my wife, E m m y who helped immensely with translation and who showed a great deal of patience throughout my graduate work. Also, my Japanese liaison, Touji Tanaka from Tsukuba University was very kind and helpful. H e enabled me to determine how suitable my research question was from a Japanese educator's perspective. In addition, Dr. Tanaka took time from his own research to contact each Principal from the Japanese high schools and to arrange for my subsequent visits to each high school. O n my initial visit to Tsukuba, Dr. Tanaka's graduate student, Tomomi Netsu was generous with his time and he was instrumental in the process of the translations of the critical thinking definers. Reiko Louie, a Japanese teacher here in B.C. was also a great help in the double-translation—a process that can be very time-consuming. O n my visit to Tsukuba's technical high school, another one of Dr. Tanaka's graduate students, Yoshihei Okabe must be thanked for spending an entire afternoon as chauffeur and guide to Tsukuba. Thank you to my father-inlaw, Fumikazu O h k i for obtaining numerous Japanese books and Monbusho documents as well as serving as an educational consultant and contact to various Japanese individuals and institutions. Thank you to Susan Carpenter and Maria Trache and especially to John Collins in helping me with the data analysis. Finally, thank you to all my colleagues (both university graduate students and teachers) who have given their time to provide insight into the meaning of critical thinking. ix  1  CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY Like many other regions in the world, British Columbia is undergoing major changes in education. Educational reforms reflect international trends in education, advancements in communication technology and globalization of the economy. It is important, however, not to lose sight of the ultimate goal of these reforms—to improve student learning. In particular, educators are interested in teaching strategies that will improve student learning within the context of an ever-shrinking world. It was with this in mind that the Critical Cooperative  Thinking  was formed in 1994 as a project involving school districts, the  Ministry of Education, and other educators across the province. Its purpose was to support learning and assessment resources and long-term, field-based professional development in the area of critical thinking. Similarly, in the U K , the Oxford Centre for Comparative  Studies was formed in 1990. Its mandate was  to make contributions to two important questions in the study of comparative education: (1) What lessons can be learnt from cross-national studies of issues in education? and (2) What problems of comparative methods do such studies have to address? Its first published paper raised the question... "what are the specific lessons that the British could learn from the Japanese education system..." (Phillips, 1990, p. 159). M u c h literature in this field has drastically oversimplified the Japanese educational system. It is the opinion of many researchers in comparative education that there is much work to be done in this field. In 1990, the Alberta Department of Education set up a committee to investigate the curriculum, values and lessons from other countries, principally Japan and Germany. Their report, International  Comparisons  in  Education,  stated that there are no definitive measures that compare Alberta directly with  2 i n t e r n a t i o n a l systems. C a n a d i a n c o m p a r i s o n s are f l a w e d d u e to a l a c k of e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h a n d therefore o p e n to c o n t r o v e r s y . T h e r e p o r t  recommended  s e v e r a l e d u c a t i o n practices f r o m the c o m p a r i s o n c o u n t r i e s , transferable  to  A l b e r t a , regardless o f societal differences. These practices i n c l u d e d teacher t r a i n i n g a n d s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( A l b e r t a D e p t . of E d u c a t i o n , 1992, p p . 1-3). I n T o k y o , J a p a n , the N a t i o n a l Institute for E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h ( N I E R ) made similar recommendations including nationwide and international c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s o n a c h i e v e m e n t w i t h a focus o n l e a r n i n g m o t i v e s , a t t i t u d e s a n d t h o u g h t processes of i n d i v i d u a l s . T h e N I E R m a d e s e v e r a l  recommendations  to the Japanese g o v e r n m e n t i n c l u d i n g : a n e m p h a s i s o n i n d i v i d u a l i t y , cultivation of creativity, t h i n k i n g ability a n d p o w e r of expression, h u m a n i z a t i o n of the e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a n d c o p i n g w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n ( N I E R , 1986a, 1986b). S i m i l a r l y , i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n has m a n d a t e d that b y the y e a r 2000, a l l c u r r i c u l a w o u l d e m p h a s i z e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and critical t h i n k i n g , literacy and communication, team w o r k and information t e c h n o l o g y ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1993).  The Problem: Critical T h i n k i n g Misconceptions It w o u l d a p p e a r that " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " is a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f e d u c a t i o n a l reforms i n J a p a n a n d N o r t h A m e r i c a ( M o n b u s h o , 1992, 1995; N o r r i s , 1988; S c h l e c h t y , 1997). I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d e l s e w h e r e , there is m u c h t a l k a m o n g educators, p o l i t i c i a n s a n d the m e d i a . H o w e v e r , m u c h is i d l e r h e t o r i c , as " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " has b e c o m e the latest " b u z z w o r d " i n e d u c a t i o n . E v e r y o n e seems to agree o n its i m p o r t a n c e , yet f e w articulate e x a c t l y w h a t they m e a n b y " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . " H e r e are e x a m p l e s f r o m recent n e w s p a p e r s :  3 Y o u n e e d to be able to t h i n k v e r y c r i t i c a l l y a n d be h i g h l y literate to use the Internet effectively, says T e r r y C l a r k , the h e a d o f V a n c o u v e r P u b l i c L i b r a r y ' s c h i l d r e n ' s d i v i s i o n (Vancouver Sun, O c t o b e r 20, 1998, p . A l ) . K i t K r i e g e r , p r e s i d e n t of the B . C . Teachers F e d e r a t i o n , suggests that i n s t e a d o f a s k i n g " w h a t d i d y o u d o i n s c h o o l t o d a y , " ask y o u r c h i l d w h a t q u e s t i o n s w e r e r a i s e d i n h i s o r h e r m i n d t o d a y . T h a t w a s the q u e s t i o n a s k e d b y the p a r e n t s of N o b e l p h y s i c i s t H a n s Bette w h e n he w a s a s t u d e n t . It d e v e l o p e d c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g rather t h a n a b s o r p t i v e l e a r n i n g (Vancouver Sun, J a n u a r y 15, 1999, p . B 7 ) .  T e d M c C a i n a n d B i l l H e n d e r s o n , t w o i n n o v a t i v e B . C . teachers a w a r d e d the P r i m e M i n i s t e r ' s A w a r d for T e a c h i n g excellence e s p o u s e t h e i r v i e w s o n the importance of teaching "critical t h i n k i n g " : M c C a i n a n d H e n d e r s o n s a y a l t h o u g h their s t u d e n t s l e a v e h i g h s c h o o l w i t h h i g h l y m a r k e t a b l e , c u t t i n g - e d g e s k i l l s , the t e c h n i c a l lessons are the least i m p o r t a n t t h i n g t h e y take f r o m the c l a s s r o o m . T h e focus o f their t e a c h i n g is p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , t h i n k i n g c r i t i c a l l y a n d w o r k i n g as a t e a m (Vancouver Sun, J u n e 23, 1998, p . B 4 ) . " C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " is n o l o n g e r relegated to the pages o f s c h o l a r l y j o u r n a l s n o r is it m e r e l y the h o t t o p i c o f e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h e r s . R a t h e r " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " is n o w i n the p u b l i c ' s v o c a b u l a r y , h o w e v e r its m e a n i n g r e m a i n s v a g u e a n d convoluted.  B a c k g r o u n d to the S t u d y C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g has r e c e i v e d m u c h a t t e n t i o n a m o n g e d u c a t o r s , yet r e m a i n s l a r g e l y u n d e v e l o p e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l teacher-centred s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m s . A t present, there is m u c h research i n p r o g r e s s o n the m e a n i n g , t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y , a n d m e t h o d s of t e a c h i n g c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . H o w e v e r , there is s t i l l debate a b o u t w h a t is m e a n t b y " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . " W h i l e e s p o u s e d b y e d u c a t o r s a n d e m p l o y e r s b o t h i n B . C . a n d J a p a n , there has b e e n little e x a m i n a t i o n o f the  4  w a y c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is u n d e r s t o o d w i t h i n these t w o e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m s . P r i o r to this s t u d y , b a s e d o n searches of e d u c a t i o n a l databases i n c l u d i n g E R I C a n d the w o r l d w i d e w e b , there w a s n o data w h i c h c o m p a r e d c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n B . C . a n d J a p a n . I n o r d e r to foster c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g b y students, teachers m u s t first c r i t i q u e present e d u c a t i o n a l practices a n d the beliefs u n d e r l y i n g t h e m . T o u n d e r s t a n d the n a t u r e o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , e d u c a t o r s m u s t be a s k e d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t the n a t u r e of k n o w l e d g e , l e a r n i n g a n d the process of t h i n k i n g .  Rationale and Conceptual  Framework  C o m p a r a t i v e E d u c a t i o n is n o t yet a c o h e s i v e d i s c i p l i n e b u t is rather a n eclectic m i x o f a p p r o a c h e s w i t h i n a b r o a d e r f i e l d . T h e s p e c t r u m of a p p r o a c h e s r a n g e f r o m c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i s m to p o s i t i v i s m . M a n y c o m p a r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n researchers' c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k s l i e s o m e w h e r e w i t h i n these b o u n d a r i e s , for t h e y are n o t n e c e s s a r i l y m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e concepts. H o w e v e r , a t t e m p t s to f o r m u l a t e m e t h o d s that d r a w o n b o t h e n d s of the s p e c t r u m h a v e l a r g e l y n o t b e e n successful. N o t e w o r t h y e x c e p t i o n s m a y i n c l u d e the case s t u d y , m o r p h o g e n e t i c a p p r o a c h a n d H o l m e s ' p r o b l e m s o l v i n g a p p r o a c h ( E p s t e i n , 1988). W h i l e this s t u d y is d e c i d e d l y p o s i t i v i s t i n n a t u r e , the a u t h o r r e c o g n i z e s the i m p o r t a n c e o f c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i s m a n d p o s i t i v i s m to c o m p a r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n , as ' c o m p a r i s o n ' has different m e a n i n g s for p o s i t i v i s t s a n d r e l a t i v i s t s . C u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i s m uses c o m p a r i s o n to g a i n a m u t u a l respect for differences w h i l e g u a r d i n g against e t h n o c e n t r i s m . F o r the r e l a t i v i s t ' c o m p a r i s o n ' is n o t a g e n e r a l i z i n g process b u t is i n s t e a d a m e t h o d to d i s c o v e r c u l t u r a l absolutes. H e r s k o v i t s , B o a s , a n d B e n e d i c t w e r e a m o n g the first researchers to use c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i s m , b e l i e v i n g a l l assessments w e r e m a d e r e l a t i v e to s t a n d a r d s d e r i v e d f r o m c u l t u r e ( E p s t e i n , 1988). C u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i s m d e n i e s that m e a n i n g f u l  5 c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n s are p o s s i b l e as a l l e d u c a t i o n a l p h e n o m e n a are e m b e d d e d i n c u l t u r e s that are u n i q u e . T h u s , c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i s t s w o u l d s e e m at o d d s w i t h those w h o e m b r a c e the roots of c o m p a r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n a n d w h o are largely positivists. P o s i t i v i s m has b e e n c o m p a r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n ' s m a i n s t r e a m t r a d i t i o n since M a r c - A n t i o n e J u l l i e n set the stage i n the e a r l y 19th c e n t u r y . S i r M i c h a e l S a d l e r , also s a w the p r a c t i c a l v a l u e of s t u d y i n g f o r e i g n e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m s i n o r d e r to m a k e i m p r o v e m e n t s at h o m e . F o r o v e r o n e h u n d r e d a n d e i g h t y y e a r s , p o s i t i v i s t s c h o l a r s h a v e e x a m i n e d i n v a r i a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s t r a n s c e n d i n g the b o u n d a r i e s o f p a r t i c u l a r societies. F r o m c o m p a r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n ' s ' f o u n d i n g fathers' J u l l i e n a n d S a d l e r , to t h e i r m o d e r n c o n t e m p o r a r i e s N o a h a n d E c k s t e i n , p o s i t i v i s m has prevailed. A l t h o u g h there are g r a v e p r o b l e m s i n h e r e n t i n e v e r y effort to s t u d y e d u c a t i o n a n d society c o m p a r a t i v e l y , a n d severe a d d i t i o n a l p r o b l e m s r a i s e d b y attempts to a p p l y s o c i a l science t e c h n i q u e s to c o m p a r a t i v e w o r k , the p r o m i s e b o t h o f the g e n e r a l f i e l d of c o m p a r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n a n d the specific m e t h o d s a d v o c a t e d h e r e r e m a i n s great. T h e p o t e n t i a l of the f i e l d , as w e h a v e a r g u e d , lies first i n the p r o m i s e of e x t e n d i n g the g e n e r a l i t y of p r o p o s i t i o n s b e y o n d the confines of a s i n g l e society; s e c o n d , i n the p r o v i s i o n o f a n arena w h e r e p r o p o s i t i o n s , testable o n l y i n a c r o s s - n a t i o n a l context, c a n be i n v e s t i g a t e d ; t h i r d as a f i e l d for i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y w o r k ; a n d f i n a l l y , as a n i n s t r u m e n t for p l a n n e r s a n d p o l i c y m a k e r s ( N o a h & E c k s t e i n , 1998, p p . 28-29). F r o m a p o s i t i v i s t p e r s p e c t i v e , c r o s s - n a t i o n a l data c a n be u s e d to test a n d verify propositions about relationships between teaching practices a n d learning o u t c o m e s . T h u s , i n c o m p a r i n g B . C . a n d Japanese teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , a p o s i t i v i s t a p p r o a c h w a s u s e d i n o r d e r to seek m e a n i n g that t r a n s c e n d e d the t w o c u l t u r e s . T h e r a t i o n a l e for d o i n g a s t u d y of this n a t u r e is p e r h a p s n o t i m m e d i a t e l y o b v i o u s . S o m e e d u c a t o r s i n i t i a l l y m a y feel the t w o e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s ( a n d  c u l t u r e s for that matter) are so d i s s i m i l a r that little c a n be g a i n e d f r o m one s t u d y i n g the other i n a n y d e t a i l . H o w e v e r , m u c h c a n be l e a r n e d f r o m crossc u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n s ( C u m m i n g s & A l t b a c h , 1997; E l l i n g t o n , 1992; E p s t e i n , 1988; H a r a d a , 1993; H o w a r t h , 1991; K o b a y a s h i , 1990; N e w Y o r k State E d u c a t i o n D e p t . , 1992; R o h l e n & L e T e n d r e , 1996; S h i m a h a r a & S a k a i , 1995; S c h r i e w e r , 1988; S t e v e n s o n & S t i g l e r , 1992). H o w e v e r , c o m p a r i s o n s h a v e l e d to a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c c o m p e t i t i v e a g e n d a , a n d w h a t T h o m a s R o h l e n , a u t h o r o f the w e l l k n o w n s t u d y : Japan's High Schools, calls "the r i s i n g t i d e o f n a i v e e n t h u s i a s m for e d u c a t i o n ' s benefits a m o n g e c o n o m i s t s , scientists, b u s i n e s s p e o p l e , (and) elected o f f i c i a l s " ( R o h l e n , 1995, p . 104). R o h l e n reflects further o n the W e s t e r n p e r c e p t i o n s o f Japanese e d u c a t i o n a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n b y s t a t i n g : O u r defensiveness, for w h a t e v e r reason, has l e d to d i s t o r t i o n s i n the p u b l i c i m a g e o f e d u c a t i o n i n East A s i a . P o r t r a i t s e m p h a s i z i n g " e x a m h e l l s , " a u t h o r i t a r i a n teachers, s t u d e n t m a l a i s e , l a c k o f c r e a t i v i t y , a n d excessive c o n f o r m i t y are c o m m o n . These p o r t r a i t s raise d o u b t s that there is a n y t h i n g to be l e a r n e d f r o m s c h o o l s y s t e m s w i t h s u c h a s e e m i n g l y a l i e n character. Success at s u c h a p r i c e , w e s a y to o u r s e l v e s , is a c t u a l l y n o success at a l l . I c a n n o t agree. I t h i n k I s p e a k for m o s t of m y c o l l e a g u e s w h o s t u d y A s i a n e d u c a t i o n i n a s s e r t i n g that there is m u c h to l e a r n . W e f i n d m a n y faults w i t h A s i a n s y s t e m s o f e d u c a t i o n a n d d o n o t a l w a y s agree o n w h a t is m o s t i m p o r t a n t to t h e i r success. H o w e v e r , these differences m a k e for l i v e l y debate, n o t d i s m i s s a l of the t o p i c . W e seek to u n d e r s t a n d first a n d o n l y t h e n to d r a w p r a c t i c a l lessons (1995, p . 104). O n a p e r s o n a l note, as a s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l teacher w i t h e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h i n g i n b o t h B . C . a n d J a p a n , I h a v e a great interest i n c o m p a r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n . A f t e r s p e n d i n g t w o years t e a c h i n g at s e v e r a l j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s i n T o k y o , I w a s i m p r e s s e d b y the o r g a n i z a t i o n , teacher a c c u l t u r a t i o n a n d ethos of Japanese s c h o o l s . A t the s a m e t i m e , I also n o t e d deficiencies i n t e a c h i n g strategies a n d i n i t i a l teacher t r a i n i n g . It o c c u r r e d to m e that m u c h c o u l d be g a i n e d f r o m c o m p a r i n g different e d u c a t i o n  7 systems a n d b o r r o w i n g ideas f r o m a b r o a d . Y o u c o u l d say that I w a s e n l i g h t e n e d f r o m m y e x p e r i e n c e overseas a n d r e b o r n as a c o m p a r a t i v e educator! I n c r e a s i n g l y , Japanese e d u c a t o r s are c o m i n g to C a n a d a a n d the U . S . to l e a r n a b o u t W e s t e r n e d u c a t i o n a l systems. O v e r 3000 teachers are sent a b r o a d e v e r y y e a r ( K o b a y a s h i , 1993, p . 11). Since 1993, o v e r 600 C a n a d i a n s p e r y e a r h a v e t a k e n p a r t i n the J a p a n E x c h a n g e a n d T e a c h i n g (JET) P r o g r a m ( M o n b u s h o , 1996, p . 51). T h e y are d o i n g so because of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n , g l o b a l i z a t i o n of the e c o n o m y , a n d i n c r e a s e d t r a d e a n d t o u r i s m . A n d b y their presence, great f o r w a r d strides h a v e b e e n m a d e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a n d the e x c h a n g e o f ideas. B o t h B . C . a n d J a p a n s t a n d to benefit f r o m this c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s thesis s h o u l d be o f interest to c o m p a r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n researchers, e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y m a k e r s , teacher e d u c a t o r s , a n d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l teachers. Researchers, e d u c a t o r s a n d c l a s s r o o m teachers c a n g a i n i n s i g h t s i n t o the n a t u r e of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . T h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l lessons l e a r n e d c a n b e u s e d to i m p r o v e teacher e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y c u r r i c u l u m a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g s h o u l d c h a n g e i n o r d e r to e n h a n c e s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g .  Research M e t h o d o l o g y and Data A n a l y s i s T h e task of this thesis w a s to c o m p a r e a n d contrast B . C . a n d Japanese h i g h s c h o o l teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g across the d i m e n s i o n s o f c u l t u r e , subject taught, e x p e r i e n c e , age a n d g e n d e r . I n o r d e r to facilitate this c o m p a r i s o n , a t w o p a r t s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t w a s d e s i g n e d (see A p p e n d i x A for the E n g l i s h v e r s i o n a n d A p p e n d i x B for the Japanese v e r s i o n ) . A f t e r a p i l o t s t u d y a n d d o u b l e - t r a n s l a t i o n , definers o r d e s c r i p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ( w o r d s a n d  8 phrases d e n o t i n g c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ) w e r e p r i n t e d o n 50 i n d e x c a r d s ( i n E n g l i s h o n one s i d e a n d Japanese o n the other). Teachers (n=159) f r o m f o u r Japanese a n d s i x B . C . p u b l i c h i g h s c h o o l s w e r e a s k e d to sort the c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g c a r d s , c h o o s i n g o n l y r e l e v a n t ones. F r o m these, t h e y w e r e r e q u i r e d to r a n k the ten m o s t significant. T h e results of this card-sort p r o c e d u r e w e r e r e c o r d e d i n a spreadsheet (see A p p e n d i x C ) . T h u s , q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a w a s c o l l e c t e d f r o m the c a r d sort p r o c e d u r e a n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n a d d i t i o n to q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a f r o m o p e n - e n d e d questions. C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , w h i l e v a l u e d b y m o s t teachers, r e m a i n s a c o n c e p t that is not w e l l u n d e r s t o o d . I n p a r t i c u l a r , teachers h a v e d i f f i c u l t y e x p r e s s i n g h o w c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g c a n be taught. It is h o p e d that this s t u d y w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to the f i e l d of c o m p a r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n a n d k n o w l e d g e of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g — a t o p i c of great interest to e d u c a t o r s i n B . C . a n d J a p a n .  Purposes T h e p u r p o s e s of this s t u d y w e r e : (1) T o o b t a i n a n o v e r a l l sense of w h a t s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l teachers b e l i e v e d c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g to e n t a i l . (2) T o c o m p a r e a n d contrast B . C . a n d Japanese s e c o n d a r y teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of critical thinking. (3) T o i n v e s t i g a t e the n a t u r e of B . C . a n d Japanese s e c o n d a r y teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w i t h respect to g e n d e r , age, t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a n d subject taught. (4) T o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of B . C . a n d Japanese t e a c h i n g a n d the c u r r i c u l u m at the s e c o n d a r y l e v e l .  9 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the C h a p t e r s I n the f o l l o w i n g chapters, the n a t u r e of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n B . C . ' s a n d Japan's s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s is a n a l y z e d a n d c o m p a r e d . C h a p t e r 2 p r o v i d e s a n o v e r v i e w of e d u c a t i o n i n B . C . a n d J a p a n . C h a p t e r 3 deals w i t h the c o n c e p t of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . C h a p t e r 4 details the research m e t h o d o l o g y , w h i l e C h a p t e r s 5 a n d 6 r e p o r t the results of the s t u d y . C h a p t e r 7 discusses teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a n d offers a c o m p a r a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . F i n a l l y , C h a p t e r 8 serves as a c o n c l u s i o n a n d s u m m a r y of the research f i n d i n g s .  CHAPTER 2  10  E D U C A T I O N I N BRITISH C O L U M B I A A N D J A P A N T h r o u g h o u t time, civilizations have asked questions a n d sought answers i n a search for k n o w l e d g e . E d u c a t i o n h a s a l w a y s b e e n a n essential p a r t o f a n y society. T o better u n d e r s t a n d c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n B . C . a n d J a p a n , first it is necessary to u n d e r s t a n d the b r o a d e r context o f e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n the t w o r e g i o n s .  Education i n British Columbia B . C . c o n t i n u e s to b e a p i o n e e r i n p r o g r e s s i v e r e f o r m s t o e d u c a t i o n . A t the d a w n o f the i n f o r m a t i o n age, B . C . is p o i s e d to b e c o m e a w o r l d l e a d e r i n the role of teachers a n d the effective u s e o f i n f o r m a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y , h o w e v e r further i m p r o v e m e n t s i n e d u c a t i o n are necessary for B . C . to p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s for the c h a l l e n g e s f a c i n g t h e m . I n p a r t i c u l a r , teacher e d u c a t i o n m u s t c h a n g e i n o r d e r to reflect the c h a n g i n g n e e d s o f society.  Historical  Perspective  E d u c a t i o n i n British C o l u m b i a has e v o l v e d from the one-roomed r u r a l s c h o o l s o f the late 1800s to the present c o m p l e x s y s t e m . D u r i n g the 1990s, n e a r l y h a l f the 75 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w e r e i n the process o f a m a l g a m a t i o n a n d c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . D u e to a h u g e increase i n p o p u l a t i o n , B . C . ' s s c h o o l s w e r e o v e r c r o w d e d a n d u n d e r - f u n d e d ( B C T F , 1998). T h e r e w a s a n e x p l o s i o n o f E . S . L . students, e s p e c i a l l y i n the L o w e r M a i n l a n d . These factors h a v e c o m b i n e d to p r o d u c e a d i f f i c u l t a n d c h a n g i n g e n v i r o n m e n t for e d u c a t i o n i n B . C . . I n a d d i t i o n , there h a v e b e e n s w e e p i n g changes to the c u r r i c u l u m i n o r d e r to reflect the n e e d for c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . I n 1988, the E i g h t h B . C . R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n E d u c a t i o n r e p o r t e d o n the state o f e d u c a t i o n i n B . C . . A s a result, m a n y r e f o r m s t o o k p l a c e  11 i n c l u d i n g c r i t e r i o n referenced assessment, peer e v a l u a t i o n a n d a focus o n s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d a p p r o a c h e s to l e a r n i n g . C u r r e n t l y , the c u r r i c u l u m is d i v i d e d i n t o three p r o g r a m s : p r i m a r y ( K - 3 ) , i n t e r m e d i a t e (4-7), a n d s e c o n d a r y (8-12). C u r r i c u l a r d e c i s i o n s are m a d e b y the B . C . M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n w h i l e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for teacher t r a i n i n g a n d c e r t i f i c a t i o n is left to the B . C . C o l l e g e of Teachers ( B C C T ) . T h e B C C T is c o m p r i s e d of fifteen teachers, t w o cabinet appointees, t w o M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n appointees a n d one representative from the D e a n s o f the F a c u l t i e s of E d u c a t i o n . P r i o r to 1988, there w a s l i t t l e a c c o u n t a b i l i t y a n d f e w s t a n d a r d s for teachers. Since the B C C T w a s e s t a b l i s h e d h o w e v e r , teacher q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a n d teacher e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s h a v e i m p r o v e d . U n t i l the m i d - 1 9 6 0 s , h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w a s p r o v i d e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y b y its u n i v e r s i t i e s . D u r i n g the 1960s, h o w e v e r , as the d e m a n d for greater v a r i e t y i n p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n rose s h a r p l y a n d e n r o l l m e n t e x p a n d e d , s y s t e m s of p u b l i c l y o p e r a t e d p o s t - s e c o n d a r y n o n - u n i v e r s i t y i n s t i t u t i o n s b e g a n to d e v e l o p . E n r o l l m e n t s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g the 1950s a n d 1960s w i t h the e x p a n s i o n o f the e c o n o m y . M o r e a n d m o r e p e o p l e w e r e o b t a i n i n g h i g h s c h o o l d i p l o m a s . I n the late 1960s a n d the 1970s m a n y m o r e w e r e g o i n g o n to c o l l e g e a n d u n i v e r s i t y . " H u m a n c a p i t a l " w a s c o n s i d e r e d o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e to the g r o w t h o f the e c o n o m y . H o w e v e r , d u r i n g the e a r l y 1980s, the e c o n o m y s l o w e d d o w n a n d u n e m p l o y m e n t rose. I n the 1990s, the g o v e r n m e n t r e c o m m e n d e d a closer fit b e t w e e n the e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m a n d the l a b o u r m a r k e t , yet u n e m p l o y m e n t a n d u n d e r e m p l o y m e n t r e m a i n e d ( L i v i n g s t o n e , 1996).  Higher  Education  V i r t u a l l y a l l C a n a d i a n p o s t s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the u n i v e r s i t i e s , offer b o t h f u l l a n d p a r t - t i m e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . O v e r the past 20 years,  12 w i t h the e m p h a s i s o n l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g , there has b e e n a m a r k e d increase i n the n u m b e r o f s t u d e n t s f r o m o u t s i d e the u s u a l 1 8 - t o - 2 4 - y e a r - o l d age g r o u p ; i n 1990, 24 percent of u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s w e r e o v e r the age of 24 c o m p a r e d w i t h a l m o s t 18 percent i n 1970-71 (Statistics C a n a d a , 1996). C u r r e n t l y , m o r e t h a n 55 percent o f a l l u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s are w o m e n , a n d m o r e w o m e n r e c e i v e u n i v e r s i t y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t h a n m e n . S i m i l a r l y , o v e r 53 p e r c e n t o f f u l l - t i m e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , a n d n e a r l y 63 p e r c e n t o f p a r t - t i m e college s t u d e n t s are w o m e n . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n is a f a s t - g r o w i n g sector. I n 1990, for e x a m p l e , 3.4 m i l l i o n a d u l t s o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 percent o f C a n a d i a n s w e r e t a k i n g p a r t - t i m e courses (Statistics C a n a d a , 1996). C a n a d i a n post-secondary institutions have developed comprehensive, d i v e r s i f i e d s y s t e m s o f e d u c a t i o n , d e s i g n e d to be u n i v e r s a l l y accessible, r e s p o n d i n g to the d i v e r s e n e e d s o f its residents.  Teacher  Education  T e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i n B . C . has p r o g r e s s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y since the N o r m a l schools of the e a r l y p a r t of this c e n t u r y . E v e n as r e c e n t l y as the 1960s it w a s p o s s i b l e to teach i n B . C . ' s p u b l i c s c h o o l s w i t h little o r n o f o r m a l teacher t r a i n i n g . T h i s has c h a n g e d a great d e a l i n the last decade. T e a c h i n g has g r a d u a l l y b e e n g a i n i n g status as a l e g i t i m a t e p r o f e s s i o n l i k e m e d i c i n e o r l a w . S i n c e 1988, teacher e d u c a t i o n a n d c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n B . C . has b e e n r e g u l a t e d b y the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o l l e g e of Teachers. A l l teachers since 1988 m u s t h a v e o b t a i n e d the e q u i v a l e n t of at least five years of u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g i n a n a p p r o v e d p o s t - s e c o n d a r y p r o g r a m l e a d i n g to a B a c h e l o r of E d u c a t i o n degree. U p o n c o m p l e t i o n o f either the e l e m e n t a r y o r s e c o n d a r y p r o g r a m , g r a d u a t e s m u s t t h e n a p p l y to the T e a c h e r s ' Q u a l i f i c a t i o n S e r v i c e a n d the B C C T i n o r d e r to h a v e their a c a d e m i c c r e d e n t i a l s assessed. T h e B . C . P r o f e s s i o n a l T e a c h i n g C e r t i f i c a t e i s s u e d is v a l i d i n d e f i n i t e l y  13 for as l o n g as the i n d i v i d u a l c o n t i n u e s to r e m a i n a m e m b e r o f the C o l l e g e i n good standing. T h e T w o Y e a r E l e m e n t a r y T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( U . B . C . ) is o p e n to a p p l i c a n t s w h o h a v e c o m p l e t e d a m i n i m u m of 90 credits i n A r t s , Science o r H u m a n K i n e t i c s , i n c l u d i n g r e l e v a n t p r e a d m i s s i o n s t u d i e s . T h e T w e l v e - M o n t h E l e m e n t a r y T e a c h e r P r o g r a m , the P i l o t M i d d l e S c h o o l T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m , a n d the S e c o n d a r y T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m are o p e n to a p p l i c a n t s w h o h a v e c o m p l e t e d a f o u r y e a r B a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e w h i c h i n c l u d e s r e l e v a n t p r e - a d m i s s i o n s t u d i e s . A d m i s s i o n to teacher e d u c a t i o n is l i m i t e d b y the a v a i l a b l e spaces i n e a c h p r o g r a m a n d e m p l o y m e n t p r o s p e c t s . Because of the c o m p e t i t i o n for a d m i s s i o n , s t u d e n t s are often r e q u i r e d to h a v e a g r a d e p o i n t average w e l l a b o v e the 65 p e r c e n t m i n i m u m . Initially, candidates develop a foundation of teaching t h r o u g h courses d e s i g n e d to p r o v i d e a b a l a n c e of g e n e r a l a n d s p e c i a l i z e d k n o w l e d g e a b o u t curriculum and instruction, including pedagogical knowledge, educational psychology a n d special education. In addition, students have a t w o w e e k p r a c t i c u m for o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d o r i e n t a t i o n to the s c h o o l i n w h i c h t h e y w i l l be d o i n g the e x t e n d e d p r a c t i c u m . A f t e r the first semester of s t u d y , s t u d e n t s enter a 13 w e e k e x t e n d e d p r a c t i c u m c o n s i s t i n g of a 20-30 percent t e a c h i n g a s s i g n m e n t , w h i c h is g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d to 80 percent for the f i n a l 4 w e e k s . B y the t i m e they s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p l e t e the e x t e n d e d p r a c t i c u m , s t u d e n t s s h o u l d h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d that t h e y c a n p l a n , i m p l e m e n t a n d e v a l u a t e i n s t r u c t i o n at a s t a n d a r d e x p e c t e d of a b e g i n n i n g teacher. A f t e r the p r a c t i c u m , s t u d e n t s r e t u r n to c a m p u s for one semester to e n g a g e i n s t u d i e s d e s i g n e d to p u t t h e i r t e a c h i n g experiences i n a b r o a d e r context. S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s t i y (S.F.U.), T h e U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , T r i n i t y  14 W e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y as w e l l as other B . C . U n i v e r s i t y - C o l l e g e s a l l offer p r o g r a m s for teacher p r e p a r a t i o n . H o w e v e r , teacher e d u c a t i o n at B . C . ' s other i n s t i t u t i o n s v a r i e s s o m e w h a t f r o m U . B . C . ' s m o d e l . S . F . U . has s t u d e n t s take t w o p r a c t i c a . O n e is a f o u r - w e e k p r a c t i c u m , d o n e at the b e g i n n i n g o f the p r o g r a m , before a n y s i g n i f i c a n t c o u r s e w o r k has b e e n c o m p l e t e d . T h e other is a t e n w e e k i n t e n s i v e p r a c t i c u m that d e m a n d s that the s t u d e n t m u s t teach a f u l l c o u r s e l o a d o v e r at least a s i x w e e k p e r i o d . S . F . U . ' s p r o g r a m attempts to p l a c e m o r e e m p h a s i s o n a v a r i e t y of p r a c t i c u m experiences a n d o n the b e g i n n i n g teacher as a reflective p r a c t i t i o n e r . T h e r e is d e c i d e d l y less e m p h a s i s o n p e d a g o g i c a l t h e o r y a n d teacher education courses. B a s e d o n this w r i t e r ' s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n U . B . C . ' s p r o g r a m (1989) a n d role as a s p o n s o r teacher (school associate) i n S . F . U . ' s p r o g r a m (1996, 1998), U . B . C . ' s p r o g r a m offers a g o o d b a l a n c e of p e d a g o g i c a l a n d p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g . H a v i n g the e x t e n d e d p r a c t i c u m i n the s a m e s c h o o l as the i n i t i a l t w o w e e k p r a c t i c u m after the course w o r k offers greater c o n t i n u i t y . A l s o , b y g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g the t e a c h i n g l o a d , the s t u d e n t teacher c a n concentrate o n d a i l y l e s s o n p l a n n i n g a n d the l o n g e r o u t l o o k o f u n i t p l a n n i n g . I n this w r i t e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e , the S . F . U . p r o g r a m does n o t p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s for the r i g o r o u s t e a c h i n g l o a d of the ten w e e k p r a c t i c u m . A l s o , b y h a v i n g t w o p r a c t i c a i n different s c h o o l s w i t h different s c h o o l associates, the p r a c t i c a are a d i s c o n t i n u o u s a n d stressful e x p e r i e n c e as a result. N e i t h e r p r o g r a m is i d e a l , i n c o m p a r i s o n to J a p a n ' s teacher education.  Education in Japan In the 1980s a n d 1990s Japanese i n s t i t u t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n u n d e r w e n t s i g n i f i c a n t changes. J a p a n ' s r e v i s e d m o d e l of e d u c a t i o n has m u c h to offer. I n  15 p a r t i c u l a r , the e n c u l t u r a t i o n o f b e g i n n i n g teachers s h o w s great p r o m i s e . H o w e v e r , m a n y r e f o r m s w e r e n o t sufficient to a d d r e s s t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m s f a c i n g J a p a n ' s s t u d e n t s . Recent calls for e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m , d r i v e n b y s l o w e c o n o m i c g r o w t h a n d s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e s to i n d u s t r y , further i l l u s t r a t e the n e e d for c o m p r e h e n s i v e c h a n g e s t o J a p a n ' s r i g i d a u t h o r i t a r i a n e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m .  Historical  Perspective  Japanese c u l t u r e a n d t r a d i t i o n h a v e p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n s h a p i n g the e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m . Since the M e i j i r e s t o r a t i o n i n 1868, J a p a n h a s i n c r e a s i n g l y l o o k e d b e y o n d h e r shores for ideas a n d m o r e efficient w a y s o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h i n g s . T h e Japanese are r e m a r k a b l e i n the w a y they h a v e b e e n able t o take g o o d ideas f r o m a b r o a d , p e r f e c t i n g a n d a d a p t i n g t h e m for their o w n p u r p o s e s , w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r c u l t u r e a n d t r a d i t i o n s . E d u c a t i o n is a p r i m e e x a m p l e of this. B y learning Western methods of p r o d u c t i o n a n d adapting the W e s t e r n m o d e l of c a p i t a l i s m to s u i t t h e i r c u l t u r e , J a p a n e v o l v e d f r o m a f e u d a l state to a m o d e r n i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n i n a short p e r i o d o f t i m e . E m p e r o r M e i j i u n d e r s t o o d that i n o r d e r f o r J a p a n to b e c o m p e t i t i v e i n the p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l w o r l d , the c o u n t r y w o u l d h a v e to l e a r n to b e " m o d e r n . " H e sent s c h o l a r s to E u r o p e , N o r t h A m e r i c a a n d A s i a to s t u d y the e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m s o f other c o u n t r i e s . J a p a n o p e n e d its d o o r s to the rest o f the w o r l d for the first t i m e i n the h i s t o r y o f the n a t i o n . T h i s p r o v e d to be the s i n g l e m o s t i m p o r t a n t factor i n f l u e n c i n g Japanese e d u c a t i o n . A f t e r W o r l d W a r II, d u r i n g the o c c u p a t i o n , Japanese e d u c a t i o n w a s m o d e l e d o n the A m e r i c a n 6 - 3 - 3 - 4 s y s t e m . I n 1947, the F u n d a m e n t a l L a w o f E d u c a t i o n a n d the S c h o o l E d u c a t i o n L a w w e r e enacted. U n d e r these l a w s a f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m w a s e s t a b l i s h e d o n the p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y . I n 1948, a n e w s y s t e m o f u p p e r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s w a s e s t a b l i s h e d .  16 U n i v e r s i t i e s started u n d e r the n e w s y s t e m i n 1949, a n d j u n i o r colleges i n the f o l l o w i n g year. H o w e v e r , c u r r i c u l u m a n d i n s t r u c t i o n i n Japanese p u b l i c s c h o o l s , u n d e r w e n t little c h a n g e as a result ( B e a u c h a m p & V a r d m a n , 1994; O k a n o & T s u c h i y a , 1999; R o h l e n , 1983; S h i e l d s , 1993; T a k a k u r a & M u r a t a , 1998). Japanese s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n is s t i l l c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a d i d a c t i c t e a c h i n g , rote m e m o r y s t y l e o f l e a r n i n g v e r y s i m i l a r to the A m e r i c a n a n d B r i t i s h p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f the late 1800's—the v e r y s y s t e m it w a s m o d e l e d after ( R o h l e n & L e T e n d r e , 1996, p . 317). T h i s s i t u a t i o n is about to c h a n g e h o w e v e r , as Japanese e d u c a t i o n is p o i s e d to u n d e r g o a major p a r a d i g m shift f r o m rote l e a r n i n g to c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ( T a k a k u r a & M u r a t a , 1998). R e c e n t l y , the Japanese M i n i s t r y of Science a n d E d u c a t i o n ( i n J a p a n e s e - Monbusho)  i n i t i a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t a n d far  r e a c h i n g r e f o r m s to e n s u r e their s t u d e n t s h a v e the necessary t h i n k i n g s k i l l s to b e successful i n the g l o b a l e c o n o m y o f the 21st c e n t u r y .  Comparative  Perspective  N o r t h A m e r i c a n e d u c a t i o n is often c o m p a r e d w i t h that o f E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s , b u t J a p a n is a better c o m p a r i s o n . F i r s t , b o t h J a p a n a n d C a n a d a h a v e r e a c h e d the " u n i v e r s a l " stage o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a n d the " m a s s " stage o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . I n 1995, the t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t rate i n s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l w a s e s t i m a t e d to b e 85.2 percent i n C a n a d a a n d 95.8 percent i n J a p a n , w h i l e the total e n r o l l m e n t rate i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n w a s e s t i m a t e d at 68 p e r c e n t i n C a n a d a a n d 45.2 percent i n J a p a n (Statistics C a n a d a , 1996; M o n b u s h o , 1996, p . 18). I n contrast, m a n y E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s s t i l l h a v e l o w e r e n r o l l m e n t rates i n s e c o n d a r y a n d post s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . S e c o n d , b o t h J a p a n a n d C a n a d a h a v e c o m p r e h e n s i v e public elementary a n d junior h i g h schools offering a broad-based liberal e d u c a t i o n , i n contrast w i t h E u r o p e ' s selective s y s t e m . D e s p i t e these s i m i l a r i t i e s ,  17 J a p a n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n a l n a t i o n a l s y s t e m is a s t r i k i n g contrast to the p l u r a l i s t i c C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c i a l s y s t e m . J a p a n offers a clear e x a m p l e of i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i n k a g e s b e t w e e n s c h o o l s a n d w o r k p l a c e s . Japanese s c h o o l - w o r k l i n k a g e s are r e g u l a t e d b y the P u b l i c E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r i t y Office (a n a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t agency) a n d are b a s e d o n l o n g - t e r m " s e m i f o r m a l contacts" b e t w e e n s c h o o l s a n d e m p l o y i n g f i r m s ( O k a n o , 1993; R o s e n b a u m & K a r i y a , 1989). I n J a p a n , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for e n g e n d e r i n g the h e a l t h y d e v e l o p m e n t of y o u n g p e o p l e is s h a r e d b y f a m i l y , s c h o o l , a n d the w o r k p l a c e . H i g h s c h o o l s a n d colleges take a n active r o l e i n f i n d i n g e m p l o y m e n t for t h e i r g r a d u a t e s . " I n g e n e r a l , the i n t e r l o c k i n g , o v e r l a p p i n g , m u t u a l l y r e i n f o r c i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s h a r e d b y the f a m i l y , s c h o o l , a n d c o m p a n y for the d e v e l o p m e n t o f the i n d i v i d u a l is a n i m p o r t a n t factor b e h i n d the success o f Japanese e d u c a t i o n " ( W h i t e , 1987, p . 73). J a p a n ' s h i g h s c h o o l s p r o v i d e a b r o a d a c a d e m i c f o u n d a t i o n a n d the o p p o r t u n i t y for s t u d e n t s to be selective i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f career p a t h . U p o n g r a d u a t i o n f r o m j u n i o r h i g h (grade 9), s t u d e n t s take v a r i o u s h i g h s c h o o l entrance e x a m s to d e t e r m i n e w h i c h h i g h s c h o o l t h e y w i l l a t t e n d . H i g h s c h o o l entrance e x a m s t h e n sort e a c h age c o h o r t i n t o w h a t a m o u n t s to a n eight- to tentier h i g h s c h o o l r a n k i n g s y s t e m ( R o h l e n , 1983, p . 308). F u t u r e o c c u p a t i o n a l a n d status l e v e l s (elite, m a n a g e r i a l , b l u e - c o l l a r , a n d so forth) are c l o s e l y e q u a t e d to this r a n k i n g . F u r t h e r , at the p o i n t o f h i g h s c h o o l entrance the entire age c o h o r t is d i v i d e d i n t o three l a r g e l y i m m u t a b l e c l a s s i f i c a t o r y d i s t i n c t i o n s : those l e a v i n g s c h o o l , those e n t e r i n g v o c a t i o n a l r a n k s , a n d those g o i n g o n to a c a d e m i c h i g h schools. T h e r a t i o o f s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g a c a d e m i c (general) h i g h s c h o o l s has b e e n s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g f r o m 60 p e r c e n t i n 1970 to o v e r 74 p e r c e n t c u r r e n t l y . T h e other s t u d e n t s a t t e n d s p e c i a l i z e d v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s i n A g r i c u l t u r e , I n d u s t r y , C o m m e r c e , F i s h e r y , H o m e E c o n o m i c s , N u r s i n g a n d others. S i n c e 1994, the  18 M o n b u s h o has i n t r o d u c e d c o m p r e h e n s i v e s c h o o l s . N o w , there is a t r e n d t o w a r d a l l h i g h s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g a m o r e l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e choices for s t u d e n t s ( T a k a k u r a & M u r a t a , 1998, p . 29). I n J a p a n , o v e r 95 p e r c e n t o f a l l s t u d e n t s are a d v a n c i n g to h i g h s c h o o l a n d n e a r l y as m a n y are g r a d u a t i n g , s i g n i f y i n g the n e a r d e m i s e of the h i g h s c h o o l degree as a m a r k of d i s t i n c t i o n . T h e t y p e of h i g h s c h o o l a n d the status of o n e ' s u n i v e r s i t y w e r e c r u c i a l m e a s u r e s . H i g h s c h o o l s i n J a p a n r e l y o n e x a m c o m p e t i t i o n for p r o v i d i n g d i s c i p l i n e a n d f o u n d a t i o n s of l e a r n i n g , w h i l e l e a v i n g to u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d the w o r k p l a c e s the f i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s for d e c i d i n g w h a t a d d i t i o n a l s k i l l s a n d specific t r a i n i n g are needed.  Higher  Education  W h i l e p a r t s o f the Japanese e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m are c o n s i d e r e d b y m a n y to be the best i n the w o r l d , h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n is c o n s i d e r e d b y b o t h the Japanese a n d others to be s e r i o u s l y i n a d e q u a t e b y i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s . T h e R e p o r t o f the U n i v e r s i t y C o u n c i l i n 1991 r e c o m m e n d e d v a s t i m p r o v e m e n t s i n the q u a l i t y o f t e a c h i n g a n d research, i n o r d e r to b r i n g Japanese u n i v e r s i t i e s to the i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c a d e m i c l e v e l ( T a k a k u r a & M u r a t a , 1998, p . 33). T h e d e m a n d for excellence, so p r e v a l e n t f r o m k i n d e r g a r t e n t h r o u g h s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l , s t o p s at the u n i v e r s i t y d o o r s t e p . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the p r e s e n t s y s t e m o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n is n o t p r o v i d i n g k n o w l e d g e , s k i l l s , a n d the c r e a t i v i t y n e e d e d to enable J a p a n to c o m p e t e g l o b a l l y i n the " i n f o r m a t i o n a g e " o r to s u c c e e d i n its l o n g - r a n g e c o m m i t m e n t to restructure its m a n u f a c t u r i n g base ( H a i d u c e k , 1991, p . 40). A salient e x a m p l e is f o u n d i n a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p a r i s o n of N o b e l P r i z e s ( N a t u r a l Science, 1901-1995) a w a r d e d . W h i l e the U . S . w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f o v e r 260 m i l l i o n p r o d u c e d 175 N o b e l P r i z e s , C a n a d a ' s p o p u l a t i o n of 30 m i l l i o n p r o d u c e d s e v e n  19 N o b e l P r i z e s a n d yet J a p a n ' s p o p u l a t i o n of 125 m i l l i o n has p r o d u c e d o n l y five N o b e l P r i z e s ( U e d a , 1997, p . 11,109). A m o r e recent e x a m p l e is the Japanese g o v e r n m e n t ' s i n a b i l i t y to d e a l w i t h the e c o n o m i c r e c e s s i o n of the 1990s. F i n a n c i a l experts i n other G - 7 c o u n t r i e s r e p e a t e d l y t r i e d to a d v i s e the Japanese g o v e r n m e n t o f d a n g e r s i n t h e i r fiscal m a n a g e m e n t p o l i c i e s b u t to n o a v a i l . A t least the M o n b u s h o r e c o g n i z e s the deficiencies i n Japanese h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a n d , as a result, is a g g r e s s i v e l y p u r s u i n g r e f o r m s , i n c l u d i n g i m p o r t i n g A m e r i c a n institutions of h i g h e r education. Several A m e r i c a n colleges a n d universities i n c l u d i n g M I T , H a r v a r d a n d U C L A have opened branches i n Japan. T h r o u g h s u c h a t t e m p t s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , m a n y Japanese see this as a m e a n s b y w h i c h t h e y w i l l be able to c o m p e t e i n the g l o b a l e c o n o m y a n d be f u l l y accepted b y the rest of the w o r l d . I n t e r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n has b e e n r e c o g n i z e d b y the M o n b u s h o as a n i m p o r t a n t area o f r e f o r m . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n J a p a n has f u n c t i o n e d as a s e l e c t i o n process u s e d to m a i n t a i n a n elitist h i e r a r c h i c a l structure. T h r o u g h strict e n t r a n c e quotas a n d use o f c o m p e t i t i v e e n t r a n c e e x a m i n a t i o n s , a d m i s s i o n to the t o p u n i v e r s i t i e s w a s l i m i t e d . N a t i o n w i d e , i n 1980 a b o u t 40 p e r c e n t o f a l l g r a d u a t e s w e r e a d v a n c i n g to h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , b u t f r o m the p u b l i c a c a d e m i c h i g h s c h o o l s the rate w a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 percent ( R o h l e n , 1983, p . 85). U n i v e r s i t y e n r o l l m e n t s i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y d u r i n g the 1960s a n d 1970s a n d c o n t i n u e d i n the 1980s a n d e a r l y 1990s w i t h i n c r e a s e d c o m p e t i t i o n for e n t r a n c e to the m o s t p r e s t i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g to the M o n b u s h o (1996), h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n e n r o l l m e n t for h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s i n c r e a s e d f r o m a m e r e 10.2 p e r c e n t of the age c o h o r t i n 1960, a n d 18.7 percent i n 1970, to a s u b s t a n t i a l 33.5 p e r c e n t i n 1980. A l t h o u g h o v e r 80 p e r c e n t of h i g h s c h o o l f r e s h m e n a i m e d at h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n there w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t space for a l l a p p l i c a n t s ( R o h l e n , 1983, p . 82). H o w e v e r ,  20 private universities a n d special t r a i n i n g schools have absorbed increased n u m b e r s of u p p e r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s w i s h i n g to c o n t i n u e t h e i r s t u d i e s a n d since the p o p u l a t i o n " b u l g e " of the 1992 c o h o r t o f g r a d u a t e s , there has b e e n n o n e e d for further q u a n t i t a t i v e e x p a n s i o n s i n u n i v e r s i t i e s ( T a k a k u r a & M u r a t a , 1998, p . 33). F o r i n d i v i d u a l s n o t g o i n g to college it has m e a n t b e g i n n i n g w o r k w i t h a major d i s a d v a n t a g e because t h e y l a c k e d the necessary c r e d e n t i a l s . U n t i l v e r y recently, g o i n g b a c k to s c h o o l w a s n o t a n o p t i o n a n d r a r e l y h a v e the m o s t talented h i g h school graduates gained p r o m o t i o n above u n i v e r s i t y educated e m p l o y e e s . H o w e v e r , i n d i v i d u a l s fortunate e n o u g h to be a d m i t t e d i n t o the best n a t i o n a l u n i v e r s i t i e s s u c h as T o k y o U n i v e r s i t y or the e x c e p t i o n a l p r i v a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s s u c h as W a s e d a , w e r e a s s u r e d a p r o m i s i n g career i n g o v e r n m e n t o r business. I n recent years the M o n b u s h o has a t t e m p t e d to c h a n g e the elitist structure of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , to r e f o r m the e x a m - b a s e d a d m i s s i o n s to u n i v e r s i t i e s , a n d to e l i m i n a t e g o v e r n m e n t a n d b u s i n e s s l i n k s to the m o s t p r e s t i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s ( T a k a k u r a & M u r a t a , 1998, p . 30). H o w e v e r , the c r i t i c a l d e t e r m i n i n g factor for Japanese p o s t - s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s is s t i l l the u n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n c e e x a m i n a t i o n s rather t h a n w h a t is s t u d i e d d u r i n g the u n d e r g r a d u a t e degree. Japanese p e o p l e f o n d l y r e m i n i s c e a b o u t the f r e e d o m f r o m s t u d y , w o r k a n d a d u l t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d as carefree u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . W h i l e N o r t h A m e r i c a n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n d e m a n d s h a r d w o r k a n d intense s t u d y , Japanese h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n is w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d a n d accepted as a p l a c e of rest a n d r e l a x a t i o n before f a c i n g the r i g o u r s o f the w o r k p l a c e . W h i l e J a p a n ' s u n d e r g r a d u a t e p r o g r a m s are less t h a n satisfactory, they are r e l a t i v e l y c o m p e t e n t i n c o m p a r i s o n to g r a d u a t e p r o g r a m s w h i c h h a v e b e e n u n d e r d e v e l o p e d a n d w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d as a n area w h e r e d r a s t i c i m p r o v e m e n t s  21 m u s t be m a d e . O n M a y 1995, o n l y 68 p e r c e n t of J a p a n ' s u n i v e r s i t i e s h a d a g r a d u a t e s c h o o l a n d o n l y 49 p e r c e n t offered d o c t o r a l courses ( M o n b u s h o , 1996, p . 29). W h i l e the n u m b e r of u n i v e r s i t i e s h a v i n g a g r a d u a t e s c h o o l i n e d u c a t i o n i n c r e a s e d f r o m o n l y three i n 1985 to m o r e t h a n 43 i n 1995, a c c o r d i n g to the M o n b u s h o , d e m a n d s s t i l l exist for b o t h q u a l i t a t i v e a n d  quantitative  i m p r o v e m e n t s at g r a d u a t e s c h o o l s ( M o n b u s h o , 1996, p . 31; S h i m a h a r a , 1995b, p . 180). C u r r e n t r e f o r m p r o p o s a l s seek to m a k e g r a d u a t e s t u d y i n m a n y fields m o r e accessible, b u t s y s t e m a t i c strategies for a c h i e v i n g this g o a l h a v e n o t b e e n d e v e l o p e d ( H a w l e y , 1990, p . 47). T h i s r e m a i n s a p r o b l e m for J a p a n ' s u n i v e r s i t i e s , h o w e v e r there is s o m e e v i d e n c e of u n i v e r s i t i e s b e c o m i n g m o r e f l e x i b l e i n admissions and accommodating lifelong learning. D e s p i t e these deficiencies i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , the n e e d s o f Japanese society are for m o r e v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g a n d less u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s . T h e b a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e is d e v a l u e d as m o r e a n d m o r e receive it, yet the d e m a n d g r o w s for m o r e t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s . B u t J a p a n has e n t e r e d a n age of m a s s h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , a n d the t r e n d is d i f f i c u l t to reverse. J a p a n ' s p r i v a t e sector has r e s p o n d e d to the d e m a n d for m o r e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . T h e r e s u l t is a n a b u n d a n c e o f i n s t i t u t i o n s b u t a l o w e r q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n . M a n y Japanese p o s t s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s f u n c t i o n o u t s i d e the m a i n s t r e a m . A case i n p o i n t is the f u n c t i o n of colleges i n J a p a n a n d the i m b a l a n c e o f m a l e to female s t u d e n t s i n u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d colleges ( F u j i m u r a F a n s e l o w , 1993, p p . 163-165). O n l y recently has p r o g r e s s t o w a r d f u l l e q u a l i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n for w o m e n i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n b e e n r e a l i z e d ( T a k a k u r a & M u r a t a , 1998, p . 34). H o w e v e r , m a n y females a t t e n d a j u n i o r college. M o s t c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s w i l l n o t g o o n to u n i v e r s i t y . J u n i o r colleges i n J a p a n d o n o t serve the s a m e r o l e as colleges i n C a n a d a o r the U . S . . U n i v e r s i t y transfer is n o t a n o p t i o n  22 n o r is it a g o a l for college g r a d u a t e s w h o enter the w o r k force d i r e c t l y as secretaries a n d j u n i o r e m p l o y e e s . " T w o o u t of e v e r y three females are h e a d e d for j u n i o r colleges, w h e r e a s n i n e o f e v e r y ten m a l e s are a i m i n g at f o u r - y e a r u n i v e r s i t i e s . . . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 p e r c e n t of those s t u d e n t s g o i n g o n p a s t h i g h s c h o o l attend j u n i o r colleges, yet 90 p e r c e n t  o f t h e m are female... T h e percentage  of w o m e n i n f o u r - y e a r u n i v e r s i t i e s i n c r e a s e d f r o m 8 p e r c e n t i n 1960 to 18 percent i n 1980" ( R o h l e n , 1983, p . 85). C u r r e n t l y , 91.8 percent o f s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n Japan's j u n i o r colleges are female w h i l e o n l y 31.2 p e r c e n t o f u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s are females ( T a k a k u r a & M u r a t a , 1998, p . 32). A l t h o u g h the r a t i o o f females e n r o l l e d i n u n i v e r s i t y has i n c r e a s e d , c l e a r l y , as r e c o g n i z e d b y the M o n b u s h o , there is a n e e d for further r e f o r m s to Japan's h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n .  Teacher  Education  Japanese teacher e d u c a t i o n is r e g u l a t e d b y n a t i o n a l l a w s e s t a b l i s h e d b y the c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t . T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t statute r e g u l a t i n g the Japanese n a t i o n a l s y s t e m o f teacher e d u c a t i o n is the L a w for C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f E d u c a t i o n a l P e r s o n n e l , p a s s e d i n 1849 a n d m o s t r e c e n t l y r e v i s e d i n 1988. T h i s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h other l a w s , set f o r t h the basic characteristics of Japanese teacher e d u c a t i o n . These m a y be b r i e f l y s u m m a r i z e d as f o l l o w s :  1. C e r t i f i c a t i o n Monbusho.  and  teacher  t r a i n i n g is t h e  primary  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  the  2. T h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n is a d v i s e d b y the C o u n c i l o f T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n , w h i c h is c o m p o s e d o f e x p e r t s i n teacher e d u c a t i o n . F o r m a j o r p o l i c y i s s u e s p u b l i c h e a r i n g s are h e l d . 3. E a c h o f the 47 p r e f e c t u r e s h a v e b o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n w h i c h i s s u e t e a c h i n g certificates v a l i d for t e a c h i n g i n a l l prefectures.  23 4. N e w teachers are r e c r u i t e d b y the p r e f e c t u r a l b o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n a n n u a l l y from q u a l i f i e d teachers a n d teachers i n t r a i n i n g t h r o u g h competitive s c r e e n i n g tests. 5. F i r s t y e a r t e a c h e r s h a v e a o n e y e a r p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d b e f o r e b e c o m i n g permanent employees. D u r i n g this time they m u s t receive significant i n service training. 6. T h e p l a n n i n g o f a l l i n i t i a l a n d i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g is the p r e f e c t u r a l b o a r d of education's responsibility. 7. U n i v e r s i t i e s a n d c o l l e g e s w h e r e t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g o c c u r s m u s t f i r s t a u t h o r i z e d b y the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n as i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g . ( K o b a y a s h i , 1993, p p . 5-6)  be  T e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i n J a p a n takes the f o r m o f a u n i t e d p a t t e r n . T h e c u r r i c u l u m for p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n at e a c h u n i v e r s i t y a n d c o l l e g e is d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n the f r a m e w o r k o f the L a w for C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f E d u c a t i o n a l P e r s o n n e l . Since e d u c a t i o n is u n i v e r s a l l y v a l u e d b y Japanese society, teachers are h i g h l y r e g a r d e d , a n d w e l l p a i d . H a l f the s a l a r y of e d u c a t i o n a l p e r s o n n e l is p a i d b y the c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t . T h i s m a k e s it p o s s i b l e for l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s to a s s i g n the necessary n u m b e r o f teachers w i t h o u t b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d b y the l o c a l f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n . I n this w a y , J a p a n has a c h i e v e d its m a n d a t e for e q u a l e d u c a t i o n a l opportunity. I n o r d e r to b e c o m e a teacher, o n e m u s t o b t a i n a teacher's certificate b y c o m p l e t i n g the subjects i n a u n i v e r s i t y p r o g r a m for teacher e d u c a t i o n . T h e m o s t c o m m o n w a y to b e c o m e a certified teacher is to c o m p l e t e the teacher t r a i n i n g c u r r i c u l a at a M o n b u s h o a u t h o r i z e d j u n i o r c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y . A t p r e s e n t there are o v e r 800 i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r i n g teacher t r a i n i n g t h r o u g h o u t J a p a n ( S h i m a h a r a & S a k a i , 1995). A d v a n c e d , 1st class, a n d 2 n d class certificates are a w a r d e d for c o m p l e t i o n of M a s t e r ' s degrees, four y e a r B a c h e l o r ' s degrees a n d 2-3 year A s s o c i a t e degrees r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n o r d e r to teach e l e m e n t a r y o r l o w e r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l a 2 n d class certificate is r e q u i r e d . T h e r e is n o 2 n d class certificate  24 for u p p e r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l teachers. T o teach i n u p p e r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s a 1st class certificate is r e q u i r e d . A s a result of recent reforms to teacher e d u c a t i o n , teachers h o l d i n g a 2 n d class m u s t m a k e a n effort to o b t a i n a 1st class certificate b y t a k i n g 45 u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t s u p o n c o m p l e t i o n o f five y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g . T h e n u m b e r of c r e d i t s c a n be r e d u c e d a c c o r d i n g to the n u m b e r of y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . C u r r e n t l y , d u e to the i n c r e a s i n g c o m p e t i t i o n for t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s , m o s t n e w teachers o b t a i n a four year B a c h e l o r ' s degree a n d 1st class certificate, yet o n l y one-fourth of a l l graduates receive teaching appointments (Shimahara & S a k a i , 1995). C o n s e q u e n t l y , there is a t r e n d for teachers to a t t a i n h i g h e r degrees. A c c o r d i n g to T a k a k u r a a n d M u r a t a (1998) m o r e t h a n 90 p e r c e n t o f teachers f r o m p r i m a r y s c h o o l to u p p e r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l h a v e g r a d u a t e d f r o m i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n ( u n i v e r s i t y o r j u n i o r college). H o w e v e r , Japanese p r e - s e r v i c e teachers take c o n s i d e r a b l y fewer courses for c e r t i f i c a t i o n c o m p a r e d to B . C . ' s teachers. U n t i l the recent r e f o r m s i n teacher e d u c a t i o n , m o s t p r o s p e c t i v e h i g h s c h o o l teachers i n J a p a n t o o k a p p r o x i m a t e l y 32-40 c r e d i t s i n t h e i r subject area, a n d m e r e l y 11-13 credits i n p e d a g o g i c a l studies ( H a w l e y , 1990, p . 38). S h i m a h a r a and Sakai add: T h e f l a w o f p o s t w a r teacher p r e p a r a t i o n w a s e v i d e n t e s p e c i a l l y i n the c e r t i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s at the s e c o n d a r y l e v e l that w e r e i n force u n t i l 1990: m e r e l y 14 c r e d i t s of p r o f e s s i o n a l s t u d i e s , i n c l u d i n g t w o c r e d i t s i n s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g , e q u i v a l e n t to t w o w e e k s o f c l i n i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . S t u d e n t s s e e k i n g teacher c e r t i f i c a t i o n at i n s t i t u t i o n s w h o s e p r i m a r y m i s s i o n w a s n o t teacher e d u c a t i o n t e n d e d to meet o n l y the m i n i m u m r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h e s e w e r e the s t u d e n t s w h o , o f late, f i l l e d t w o - t h i r d s of the l o w e r s e c o n d a r y p o s i t i o n s a n d n i n e tenths o f the u p p e r s e c o n d a r y p o s i t i o n s i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m (1995, p . 234). H o w e v e r , s i n c e 1990 m o d e s t i m p r o v e m e n t s h a v e b e e n m a d e i n the n u m b e r of p r o f e s s i o n a l c r e d i t s necessary for c e r t i f i c a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , a n u p p e r s e c o n d a r y teacher m u s t n o w o b t a i n 40 credits i n t h e i r subject area a n d n i n e t e e n c r e d i t s i n  25 p r o f e s s i o n a l subjects i n c l u d i n g : essence a n d goals of e d u c a t i o n ; t e a c h i n g methods; educational guidance and counseling; and a teaching practicum ( T a k a k u r a & M u r a t a , 1998, p . 86-89). T h i s p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g is s t i l l m u c h less t h a n the 60 c r e d i t s of a four y e a r B a c h e l o r ' s degree a n d the e q u i v a l e n t o f t w o f u l l a c a d e m i c years (30 credits) of m e t h o d s courses a n d p e d a g o g i c a l s t u d i e s r e q u i r e d of e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s at B . C . ' s u n i v e r s i t i e s . A l s o , the p r a c t i c u m for b o t h Japanese a n d B . C . s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e s to be a n area w h e r e i m p r o v e m e n t s are necessary.  Comparisons Between B . C . and Japanese Teachers W h i l e Japanese teachers are e x p e c t e d to a d d r e s s a l l aspects o f s t u d e n t s ' life at s c h o o l , B . C . teachers t e n d to be p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h the d e v e l o p m e n t of c o g n i t i v e c o m p e t e n c e . T h e r o l e of teachers is different i n e a c h e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m a n d c u l t u r e . I n N o r t h A m e r i c a , t e a c h i n g is c o n s i d e r e d to be a n i d i o s y n c r a t i c p r o f e s s i o n a n d the c o m m o n l o r e is that teachers can't be t a u g h t h o w to teach because t h e y are b o r n n o t m a d e ( R o h l e n & L e T e n d r e , 1996; cf. S t e v e n s o n & S t i g l e r , 1992). A c c o r d i n g to T a k a k u r a a n d M u r a t a (1998), the v i e w of ' t e a c h i n g as a p r o f e s s i o n ' is a r e l a t i v e l y n e w c o n c e p t i n J a p a n . R a t h e r , t e a c h i n g is a craft that c a n be perfected t h r o u g h practice a n d l e a r n e d t h r o u g h the s h a r e d w i s d o m o f e x p e r i e n c e d teachers. S t i g l e r , F e r n a n d e z a n d Y o s h i d a p r o v i d e a n excellent metaphor: If m u s i c w e r e u s e d as a n a n a l o g y , the Japanese c o n c e p t i o n o f the i d e a l teacher w o u l d be l i k e that o f the concert p i a n i s t : the great p i a n i s t is n o t e x p e c t e d to w r i t e the concerto b u t o n l y to p e r f o r m it w e l l . T h e A m e r i c a n teacher, b y a n a l o g y , is e x p e c t e d n o t o n l y to teach b u t also to w r i t e the score. A n i n n o v a t i v e teacher i n the U n i t e d States is o n e w h o o r g a n i z e s h e r o w n c u r r i c u l u m , m a k e s h e r o w n m a t e r i a l s , a n d i m p l e m e n t s h e r lessons w i t h i n d e p e n d e n t i n i t i a t i v e . I n J a p a n , the i n n o v a t i v e teacher is o n e w h o s k i l l f u l l y teaches the l e s s o n that is p r e s c r i b e d b y the text (1996, p . 216).  26 I n Japanese s c h o o l s , b e g i n n e r s l e a r n a great d e a l f r o m e x p e r i e n c e d teachers t h r o u g h i n f o r m a l contact o r zatsudan  as w e l l as p r o g r a m s o f i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g .  T h i s is often a o n e - w a y p e d a g o g i c a l e x c h a n g e h o w e v e r , w i t h l i t t l e to be offered f r o m the n e o p h y t e to the s e a s o n e d v e t e r a n m e n t o r teacher. T h e r e f o r e , it is d i f f i c u l t for n e w t e a c h i n g strategies to be d i s s e m i n a t e d f r o m u n i v e r s i t i e s t h r o u g h s t u d e n t teachers a n d e v e n t u a l l y to b e c o m e accepted b y the m a i n s t r e a m , since it is a s s u m e d the m o r e e x p e r i e n c e d teachers m u s t p a s s d o w n a l l the lessons to be l e a r n e d . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f r e q u e n t l y just the o p p o s i t e is true. E x p e r i e n c e d teachers l e a r n a great d e a l f r o m their s t u d e n t teachers—it is w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d as one o f the best f o r m s of p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , since teachers d o n o t h a v e m a n y o p p o r t u n i t i e s for c o l l a b o r a t i o n a n d peer c o n s u l t a t i o n . M a n y recent d e v e l o p m e n t s s u c h as c r i t e r i o n referenced assessment h a v e o n l y b e c o m e a p a r t of the r e p e r t o i r e of e x p e r i e n c e d teachers t h r o u g h i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s t u d e n t s . Teachers i n b o t h B . C . a n d J a p a n t e n d to v i e w l e a r n i n g to teach as a n a p p r e n t i c e s h i p w h e r e p r a c t i c a l k n o w l e d g e l e a r n e d w h i l e t e a c h i n g takes precedent over theory learned i n university. T h e Japanese i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g of teachers serves as a m o d e l for the e n c u l t u r a t i o n of b e g i n n i n g teachers a n d has b e e n r e c o g n i z e d as a l e s s o n to be l e a r n e d f r o m the Japanese e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m ( R o h l e n & L e T e n d r e , 1996; S h i m a h a r a & S a k a i , 1995; S t e v e n s o n & S t i g l e r , 1992). I n J a p a n , a l l n e w l y a p p o i n t e d teachers u n d e r g o 20 d a y s of i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g at t h e i r p r e f e c t u r a l l e v e l i n - s e r v i c e center p r i o r to t a k i n g their p o s i t i o n s . N e w teachers are p r o v i d e d w i t h the e q u i v a l e n t of 125 d a y s of p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t d u r i n g t h e i r first y e a r u n d e r the tutelage of one o r m o r e s e n i o r teachers. F i r s t y e a r teachers i n J a p a n n o w r e c e i v e o n e y e a r of m e n t o r i n g f r o m a s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d master teacher ( H a w l e y , 1990, p . 42; T a k a k u r a & M u r a t a , 1998, p . 91). "It consists of s u p e r v i s e d  27 t e a c h i n g b y s e n i o r teachers i n s c h o o l s t w o d a y s p e r w e e k for 30 w e e k s , s t u d y i n l o c a l e d u c a t i o n centres o n e d a y p e r w e e k for 30 w e e k s , a n d r e s i d e n t i a l t r a i n i n g for 4 n i g h t s " ( K o b a y a s h i , 1993, p.10). P r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t e a c h i n g is further e n h a n c e d b y l o c a l e d u c a t i o n centres p r o v i d i n g o n g o i n g i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g a n d " h a n d s o n " e x p e r i e n c e s for s e c o n d a r y s p e c i a l i s t s a n d e l e m e n t a r y generalists a l i k e . M u c h l i k e the rest o f Japanese p r o f e s s i o n s , m o s t o f the t r a i n i n g o c c u r s i n the w o r k p l a c e . P r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g of teachers i n c l u d e s a g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l courses i n p e d a g o g i c a l t h e o r y , e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y , t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s as w e l l as s p e c i a l i z e d subjects. H o w e v e r , the teacher e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y courses that h a v e little relevance to the c l a s s r o o m a n d a p r a c t i c u m that consists o f a v e r y s h o r t stay of o n l y a f e w w e e k s i n a s c h o o l . M a n y p r e v i o u s g r a d u a t e s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s teacher e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s l a m e n t s i m i l a r w e a k n e s s e s , b u t there is a n i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n ; w h i l e p r e - s e r v i c e teacher e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s i n B . C . m a y be s u p e r i o r to the Japanese p r o g r a m s , Japanese p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i n service t r a i n i n g for the b e g i n n i n g teacher far surpass B . C . ' s " s i n k o r s w i m " first year teaching experiences. D u r i n g a t w o y e a r stay i n J a p a n (1990-1992), the w r i t e r w a s a n assistant E n g l i s h teacher i n l o w e r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n the T o k y o area a n d o b s e r v e d i n service a n d p r e - s e r v i c e teachers of E n g l i s h classes. O n o n e o c c a s i o n , i n the w r i t e r ' s g r a d e 9 E n g l i s h class, a s t u d e n t teacher w a s o b s e r v e d at the s a m e t i m e h e w a s b e i n g e v a l u a t e d b y h i s f a c u l t y a d v i s o r . T h e s t u d e n t teacher t a u g h t the same lesson, i n e x a c t l y the same w a y , u s i n g the s a m e style as h i s s p o n s o r teacher. I n fact, the entire l e s s o n h a d b e e n rehearsed p r e v i o u s l y for the benefit o f the s t u d e n t teacher a n d the f a c u l t y a d v i s o r . T h e " p e r f o r m a n c e " h o w e v e r , w a s a b y s m a l . T h e s t u d e n t teacher a p p e a r e d to be v e r y a n x i o u s a n d u n c o m f o r t a b l e i n  28 h i s role as a teacher. H e refused to face the students. Instead he t a l k e d to the b o a r d w h i l e m o v i n g a r o u n d n e r v o u s l y . D e s p i t e the fact that the m a t e r i a l w a s n o t n e w to the s t u d e n t s a n d the entire l e s s o n w a s a r e p e t i t i o n , this w a s the first ( a n d last) t i m e this s t u d e n t teacher t a u g h t this class. T h e w r i t e r later l e a r n e d that m o s t s p o n s o r teachers w o u l d rather n o t h a v e a s t u d e n t teacher at a l l , a n d that this one class w a s d o n e m e r e l y as a s h o w to appease the f a c u l t y a d v i s o r . J a p a n ' s teachers r e c o g n i z e that the u n i v e r s i t y d o e s little to p r e p a r e s t u d e n t teachers for the p r o f e s s i o n of t e a c h i n g a n d teachers d o little to c h a n g e the status q u o . T h i s is f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d i n S t e v e n s o n a n d S t i g l e r ' s The Learning  Gap:  T h e r e a l t r a i n i n g of A s i a n teachers o c c u r s i n t h e i r on-the-job e x p e r i e n c e after g r a d u a t i o n f r o m college... g r a d u a t e s o f teacher t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s are s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d n o v i c e s w h o n e e d the g u i d a n c e a n d s u p p o r t of their e x p e r i e n c e d colleagues... the s y s t e m of teacher t r a i n i n g is m u c h l i k e a n a p p r e n t i c e s h i p ( S t e v e n s o n & Stigler, 1992, p . 159). T h i s is i n contrast to the e x p e r i e n c e of B . C . ' s teachers, w h o c o m p l a i n that m o s t o f w h a t t h e y k n o w h a d to be l e a r n e d b y t h e m s e l v e s , a l o n e , i n i s o l a t i o n , w h i l e o n the job. T h e r e is a s e r i o u s d e f i c i e n c y i n B . C . ' s p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n since there is l i t t l e p r o v i s i o n for m e n t o r s h i p a n d i n s u f f i c i e n t t i m e to reflect o n t e a c h i n g practices. T e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n is l i m i t e d to p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g w i t h a l a c k of e m p h a s i s o n i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . T h i s s i t u a t i o n is less t h a n i d e a l .  Educational Reforms i n B.C. and Japan W h i l e W e s t e r n c o u n t r i e s are a t t e m p t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m s to p r o m o t e n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s a n d a c e n t r a l i z e d u n i f o r m s y s t e m , J a p a n is a t t e m p t i n g to d e c e n t r a l i z e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a n d to m a k e it m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e r a t h e r t h a n m o r e f o c u s e d . " C o m p a r a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , Japanese a n d A m e r i c a n s c h o o l reforms are n o w e v o l v i n g i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s . J a p a n is s l o w l y d i v e r s i f y i n g its s c h o o l s  29 w h i l e the U n i t e d States is t r y i n g to p r o m o t e n e w n a t i o n a l a c a d e m i c  standards"  ( S h i m a h a r a , 1995a; T a k a k u r a , 1993). I n J a p a n , w h e r e the c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t p l a y s a d e c i s i v e r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g p o l i c y , t w o d i v e r s e t r e n d s i n teacher e d u c a t i o n h a v e e m e r g e d . O n the o n e h a n d , the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of teachers has i m p r o v e d d u e to the i n c r e a s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s for p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , a n d o n the other h a n d , l i b e r a l i z a t i o n has t a k e n p l a c e t h r o u g h the a d d i t i o n of p r o g r a m s i n n o n t e a c h i n g areas. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s r e f o r m s to teacher e d u c a t i o n h a v e b e e n p r e d o m i n a t e l y i n f l u e n c e d b y the f a c u l t y of e d u c a t i o n at e a c h of the u n i v e r s i t i e s . D e s p i t e m u c h p r o g r e s s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l teacher t r a i n i n g , c r i t i c i s m of faculties o f e d u c a t i o n has r e m a i n e d q u i t e s t r o n g ( G o o d s o n , 1995). U n i v e r s i t y s c h o o l s o f e d u c a t i o n h a v e t e n d e d to d i s t a n c e t h e m s e l v e s f r o m the concerns o f c l a s s r o o m teachers, a n d the research a g e n d a has n o t often p r o d u c e d k n o w l e d g e u s e f u l to the p r a c t i t i o n e r . A l s o , there are n o p e r m a n e n t , d u r a b l e m o d e l s of teacher t r a i n i n g ( B a r m a n , S u t h e r l a n d , & W i l s o n , 1995, p . 313). T h e C a r n e g i e R e p o r t , A Nation Teachers for the 21st Century Tomorrow's Schools  Teachers  Prepared:  (1986), the r e p o r t of the H o l m e s G r o u p ,  (1986), a n d J o h n G o o d l a d ' s , Teachers of Our  Nation's  (1990), a l l c o n c l u d e that s c h o o l s / c o l l e g e s / f a c u l t i e s o f e d u c a t i o n n e e d  reform. P e r k i n s (1992) m a k e s c o n v i n c i n g a r g u m e n t s for r e f o r m s to p r e - s e r v i c e a n d in-service teacher e d u c a t i o n . H e suggests J a p a n ' s e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m offers a m o d e l for the p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t of teachers a n d the p r o m o t i o n o f p o t e n t t e a c h i n g practices. T h e k e y elements of J a p a n ' s m o d e l i n c l u d e : t i m e to t h i n k , a s h a r e d c u l t u r e of the craft of t e a c h i n g , a n d a n a p p r e n t i c e s h i p m o d e l of teacher d e v e l o p m e n t . Japanese teachers s p e n d less h o u r s p e r d a y a c t u a l l y t e a c h i n g classes t h a n t h e i r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n c o u n t e r p a r t s . M o r e t i m e is d e v o t e d to t h i n k i n g  30 a n d r e f l e c t i n g a b o u t their t e a c h i n g . " T h e y p l a n lessons, share p l a n s w i t h o n e another, get c r i t i q u e s , attend w o r k s h o p s , o b s e r v e other teachers t e a c h i n g , w a t c h v i d e o t a p e s o f t e a c h i n g practices... T h r o u g h o r g a n i z e d t i m e a n d c o m m i t m e n t , teachers c a n l e a r n to teach m u c h better t h a n n a t i v e i n g e n u i t y a l o n e c o u l d a l l o w " ( P e r k i n s , 1992, p . 225). R a t h e r t h a n w o r k i n g i n i s o l a t i o n , J a p a n ' s teachers r e c o g n i z e the p o w e r of c o l l a b o r a t i o n . T h i s is e v e n e v i d e n t i n the v e r y p h y s i c a l structure o f the s c h o o l s . F o r e x a m p l e , the staff r o o m is a r r a n g e d w i t h teachers of each g r a d e l e v e l seated at d e s k s g r o u p e d together, i n o r d e r to p r o m o t e d a i l y exchanges. T h i s is w h e r e a l l the teachers p l a n their lessons d u r i n g s e v e r a l h o u r s of the w o r k i n g d a y w h e n t h e y are n o t i n front of the c l a s s r o o m . T h i s is i n direct contrast to teachers i n B . C . , w h o d o m o s t o f t h e i r l e s s o n p l a n n i n g at h o m e o r i n the i s o l a t i o n o f t h e i r o w n c l a s s r o o m .  Teacher Education Reforms i n B . C . and Japan Several educational reforms i n v o l v i n g cost-saving a n d efficiency m e a s u r e s are b e i n g c o n t e m p l a t e d b y the B . C . M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . These i n c l u d e : y e a r r o u n d s c h o o l i n g , efficiency s c h e d u l i n g (for e x a m p l e , the e x t e n d e d s c h o o l d a y ) , a n d different timetables (Semester S y s t e m , C o p e r n i c a n , Q u a r t e r S y s t e m ) . N o n e of these " r e f o r m s " i n t h e i r c u r r e n t v e i n a d d r e s s the u n d e r l y i n g p r o b l e m s of the e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m n o r d o t h e y i m p r o v e s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g o r teacher t r a i n i n g . M o n e y s a v e d is n o t l i k e l y to go b a c k i n t o the e d u c a t i o n of y o u n g people.  31 Summary M a n y of J a p a n ' s practices are c o m p l e m e n t a r y o r s i m i l a r to c u r r e n t s u g g e s t e d r e f o r m s to B . C . ' s e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m . Y e t , the B . C . a n d Japanese m o d e l s are far f r o m perfect. I m p r o v e m e n t s m u s t be m a d e to the teacher e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s of J a p a n ' s u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d to the p e d a g o g i c a l t r a i n i n g o f p r e - s e r v i c e teachers. T h i s fact is w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d b y e d u c a t o r s i n J a p a n . " W e m u s t p a y m o r e a t t e n t i o n to s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g t h r o u g h w h i c h a sense of m i s s i o n as a teacher m i g h t arise. If the t r a n s i t i o n f r o m p r e - s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n is n o t a t t e n d e d to, the effects of teacher i m p r o v e m e n t s i n e d u c a t i o n m a y h a v e little i n f l u e n c e o n the q u a l i t y of t e a c h i n g i n J a p a n ( M i z o u e & I n o u e , 1993, p . 28). T h r o u g h further i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s , the Japanese teacher e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s c a n be i m p r o v e d . M u c h c a n be l e a r n e d f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s teacher e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s . L i k e w i s e , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s t r a i n i n g of teachers c a n be i m p r o v e d b y s t u d y i n g J a p a n ' s a p p r e n t i c e s h i p m o d e l of i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T e a c h e r s m u s t be g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t i e s to l e a r n f r o m o n e a n o t h e r a n d to benefit f r o m the a c c u m u l a t e d w i s d o m of g e n e r a t i o n s o f s k i l l e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s . I n a d d i t i o n , teachers m u s t b e g i v e n a d e q u a t e t i m e for c o l l a b o r a t i o n , p l a n n i n g a n d reflection. The reforms of education i n b o t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and J a p a n r e q u i r e a r e t h i n k i n g o f the p r o f e s s i o n of t e a c h i n g . C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is a n essential e l e m e n t of these r e f o r m s , for a n y effort to r e f o r m the s t r u c t u r e o r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n u l t i m a t e l y d e p e n d s o n the effectiveness of the teacher.  CHAPTER 3  32  CRITICAL THINKING T h e t e a c h i n g o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g at a l l l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n has s t r o n g s u p p o r t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , the U K a n d e l s e w h e r e ( D a n i e l s , 1998, p . l ) . " T h e f i e l d o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is m o r e v i b r a n t t h a n ever. T h e r e is m u c h r e s e a r c h i n p r o g r e s s o n the m e a n i n g of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , o n the t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s to a w i d e r a n g e o f subject areas, a n d o n m e t h o d s of t e a c h i n g c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " ( N o r r i s , 1985, p . 40).  The Components of Critical Thinking T h e r e is debate a b o u t w h a t is m e a n t b y the t e r m " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . " I n the past, a t t e m p t s to define c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g e n c o m p a s s e d its f o r m a n d f u n c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g s k i l l s a n d strategies as w e l l as l e v e l s of c o m p l e x i t y i n v o l v e d . O f t e n c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is l i n k e d to c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g , p r o b l e m s o l v i n g a n d d e c i s i o n m a k i n g as w e l l as i n d u c t i v e a n d d e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g . H o w e v e r , t e r m s s u c h as c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g , p r o b l e m s o l v i n g a n d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g refer to the c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g m a y o c c u r ( D a n i e l s , 1998, p . l ) . C o n v e r s e l y , s o m e e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h e r s a r g u e that c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is i n d u c t i v e , e n c o m p a s s i n g d i v e r g e n t a n d creative t h i n k i n g s k i l l s . O t h e r s c o n t e n d it is p r i m a r i l y d e d u c t i v e , c o n v e r g e n t a n d logical i n nature. T h e r e are c e r t a i n elements that m a y o r m a y n o t be i n c l u d e d i n a d e f i n i t i o n . O n e e l e m e n t is c o n c e r n e d w i t h w h e t h e r c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is c o n v e r g e n t o r d i v e r g e n t . A n o t h e r describes w h a t the c r i t i c a l t h i n k e r does. A t h i r d e l e m e n t focuses o n the attitude o r d i s p o s i t i o n o f the t h i n k e r . Y o u d o n ' t u s u a l l y f i n d a l l three elements i n e v e r y d e f i n i t i o n ( F r e n c h & R h o d e r , 1992, p . 184). D a n i e l s (1998) characterizes c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g as a n o r m a t i v e concept. A c r i t i c a l t h i n k e r is s o m e o n e w h o is t h i n k i n g w e l l . T o t h i n k w e l l i n a n y area o f h u m a n  33 practice one m u s t m a k e j u d g m e n t s u s i n g r e l e v a n t c r i t e r i a a n d s t a n d a r d s . M c P e c k (1990), N o r r i s , S i e g e l a n d P a u l h a v e t r o u b l e a g r e e i n g o n a c o m m o n c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g p a r a d i g m . P a u l characterizes c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g as... a u n i q u e k i n d o f p u r p o s e f u l t h i n k i n g i n w h i c h the t h i n k e r systematically a n d habitually imposes criteria a n d intellectual s t a n d a r d s u p o n the t h i n k i n g ; t a k i n g charge o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i n k i n g ; g u i d i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i n k i n g a c c o r d i n g to the s t a n d a r d s w h i l e assessing the effectiveness of the t h i n k i n g a c c o r d i n g to the p u r p o s e , the c r i t e r i a , a n d the s t a n d a r d s (1993, p . 21). N e v e r t h e l e s s , N o r r i s a r g u e s that m a n y q u e s t i o n s associated w i t h c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , w h i c h p h i l o s o p h e r s h a v e a t t e m p t e d to a n s w e r , i n v o l v e e m p i r i c a l issues. S i n c e these c o n c e r n the n a t u r e of h u m a n m e n t a l a b i l i t i e s , h y p o t h e s e s s h o u l d be tested e m p i r i c a l l y b y researchers i f there are n o p h i l o s o p h e r s i n c l i n e d to t a c k l e the problem. W h a t t h e n is c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ? H o w is c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g different f r o m creative t h i n k i n g , p r o b l e m s o l v i n g a n d other f o r m s o f t h i n k i n g ? B l o d g e t t M c D e a v i t t ' s (1995) s u r v e y of a d u l t e d u c a t o r s f o u n d that c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is p e r c e i v e d as a process a n d a b r o a d concept, w i t h t w o g e n e r a l c o m p o n e n t s : reflective a n d a n a l y t i c a l . R e s p o n d e n t s d i s c u s s e d the reflective n a t u r e o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g as " l o o k i n g at the b i g g e r s c h e m e of t h i n g s , " " t h i n k i n g a b o u t other a l t e r n a t i v e s , " a n d "it's the i d e a that it's n o t i n i s o l a t i o n . " R e s p o n d e n t s d i s c u s s e d the a n a l y t i c a l c o m p o n e n t i n t e r m s of the " a b i l i t y to d o v e r y c o m p l e x r e a s o n i n g (and) to t h i n k about t h i n g s f r o m different p e r s p e c t i v e s . " A c o m m o n e l e m e n t f r e q u e n t l y i n c l u d e d i n m o s t c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g l i t e r a t u r e is r e a s o n i n g . R e a s o n i n g i n v o l v e s "the p r o d u c t i o n a n d e v a l u a t i o n of a r g u m e n t s , the m a k i n g of inferences a n d the d r a w i n g of c o n c l u s i o n s , the g e n e r a t i o n a n d t e s t i n g of h y p o t h e s e s . It r e q u i r e s b o t h d e d u c t i o n a n d i n d u c t i o n , b o t h a n a l y s i s a n d synthesis, a n d b o t h c r i t i c a l i t y a n d c r e a t i v i t y " ( N i c k e r s o n , 1986, p p . 1-2). C r e a t i v i t y r e q u i r e s c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g since... " b o t h c r i t i c a l  f i l t e r i n g a n d c r i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e to the c r e a t i v i t y of a c r e a t i v e p r o d u c t . A c c o r d i n g l y , it is s o m e w h a t m i s l e a d i n g to p o s i t t w o c o m p l e t e l y separate styles of t h o u g h t c r i t i c a l a n d creative—because the f o r m e r is n e c e s s a r i l y a p a r t of the latter" ( N i c k e r s o n , P e r k i n s & S m i t h , 1985, p . 89). I n a d d i t i o n , P a u l (1993) suggests c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g differs f r o m p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . It does n o t i n v o l v e s e q u e n t i a l steps b u t a g r o u p of s k i l l s a n d strategies c h o s e n a n d u s e d as n e e d e d . A w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g u s e d i n this thesis is e s s e n t i a l l y d e e p e r t h i n k i n g o r h i g h e r o r d e r thinking.  Learning Critical T h i n k i n g A n a n a l y s i s of teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g m u s t be p l a c e d w i t h i n the larger f r a m e w o r k of c o g n i t i v e a n d e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y . P i a g e t , K h o l b e r g , S e l m e n , B l o o m , V y g o t s k y a n d G u i l f o r d e a c h p r o p o s e d different d e v e l o p m e n t a l m o d e l s d e s c r i b i n g the stages o f l e a r n i n g . A l l theories of c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t are g r o u n d e d i n the p r i n c i p l e s that p e o p l e d e v e l o p at different rates, d e v e l o p m e n t is r e l a t i v e l y o r d e r l y a n d d e v e l o p m e n t takes p l a c e g r a d u a l l y . P i a g e t ' s c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t t h e o r y c o n t a i n s f o u r stages: (1) s e n s o r i m o t o r ; (2) p r e - o p e r a t i o n a l ; (3) concrete o p e r a t i o n a l a n d (4) f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n a l . T h e f o u r t h a n d f i n a l stage i n Piaget's t h e o r y is c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y the use of p r o p o s i t i o n a l t h i n k i n g , c o m b i n a t o r i a l a n a l y s i s , a n d abstract r e a s o n i n g . A c c o r d i n g to Piaget, m o s t c h i l d r e n b e t w e e n the ages of e l e v e n a n d fifteen are c a p a b l e of r e a c h i n g the f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n a l stage (Inhelder & Piaget, 1958). H o w e v e r , K u h n (1979) c o n t e n d s that m a n y a d u l t s w i l l n e v e r r e a c h the f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n a l stage. If this is true, t h e n c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g m a y n o t be attained b y e v e r y o n e , as P i a g e t ' s f i n a l stage reflects h i g h e r o r d e r c o g n i t i v e processes. K h o l b e r g ' s stages of m o r a l j u d g e m e n t a n d S e l m a n ' s stages of s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e t a k i n g b o t h p a r a l l e l P i a g e t ' s c o g n i t i v e stages ( M u u s s , 1988). T h e concrete  35 o p e r a t i o n s i n P i a g e t ' s m o d e l c o r r e s p o n d to K o h l b e r g ' s p r e c o n v e n t i o n a l l e v e l of m o r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . S i m i l a r l y , the shift f r o m c h i l d h o o d to a d o l e s c e n c e i n v o l v e s a d r a m a t i c shift f r o m concrete to abstract t h o u g h t processes a n d i n m o r a l j u d g e m e n t s . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n these theories is s u c h that the a t t a i n m e n t o f P i a g e t ' s c o g n i t i v e stages is a necessary p r e c o n d i t i o n for the a t t a i n m e n t o f the c o r r e s p o n d i n g level of K h o l b e r g ' s m o r a l judgement and Selmen's societal perspective-taking. T h u s , the m a s t e r y o f h i g h e r o r d e r t h i n k i n g s k i l l s does n o t g u a r a n t e e the i n d i v i d u a l has a t t a i n e d the s a m e l e v e l of m o r a l r e a s o n i n g ( M u u s s , 1988). B l o o m ' s (1956) t a x o n o m y of e d u c a t i o n a l objectives f r o m the c o g n i t i v e d o m a i n consists o f s i x l e v e l s (listed i n o r d e r of c o m p l e x i t y ) : (1) k n o w l e d g e ; (2) c o m p r e h e n s i o n ; (3) a p p l i c a t i o n ; (4) a n a l y s i s ; (5) s y n t h e s i s ; a n d (6) e v a l u a t i o n . T h e h i g h e r o r d e r t h i n k i n g s k i l l s of a n a l y s i s , s y n t h e s i s a n d e v a l u a t i o n are n o t attainable u n t i l the o t h e r l o w e r o r d e r s k i l l s h a v e b e e n w e l l d e v e l o p e d . T h e r e f o r e , c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g m a y n o t be a r e a l i s t i c l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e u n t i l s t u d e n t s h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d the l o w e r o r d e r s k i l l s o f k n o w l e d g e , c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d a p p l i c a t i o n . M o r e o v e r , y o u n g e r s t u d e n t s a n d m e n t a l l y c h a l l e n g e d i n d i v i d u a l s m a y n o t b e c a p a b l e of c r i t i c a l thinking. W h e r e a s P i a g e t c h a r a c t e r i z e d a c h i l d ' s l e a r n i n g as a little scientist c o n s t r u c t i n g a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the w o r l d l a r g e l y alone, V y g o t s k y (1978) p r o p o s e d a z o n e of p r o x i m a l d e v e l o p m e n t d e p e n d i n g p r i m a r i l y o n a c h i l d ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h other p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e z o n e of p r o x i m a l d e v e l o p m e n t is a p h a s e i n w h i c h a c h i l d c a n m a s t e r a task g i v e n a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t . T h u s , c h i l d r e n c a n r e a c h their f u l l l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l a n d m o s t c a n d e m o n s t r a t e c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g p r o v i d e d t h e y are g i v e n the necessary s c a f f o l d i n g . G u i l f o r d ' s (1966) S t r u c t u r e of Intellect (SI) t h e o r y suggests i n t e l l i g e n c e is c o m p r i s e d o f o p e r a t i o n s , contents, a n d p r o d u c t s . T h e r e are five k i n d s of o p e r a t i o n s  (cognition, m e m o r y , divergent p r o d u c t i o n , convergent p r o d u c t i o n and evaluation), six k i n d s of p r o d u c t s (units, classes, r e l a t i o n s , s y s t e m s , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s ) , a n d five k i n d s of contents ( v i s u a l , a u d i t o r y , s y m b o l i c , s e m a n t i c , a n d b e h a v i o u r a l ) . T h u s , there are t h e o r e t i c a l l y 150 different c o m p o n e n t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . R e a s o n i n g a n d p r o b l e m s o l v i n g s k i l l s ( c o n v e r g e n t a n d d i v e r g e n t o p e r a t i o n s ) c a n be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o 30 d i s t i n c t a b i l i t i e s . A l t h o u g h c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w a s n o t m e n t i o n e d b y G u i l f o r d d i r e c t l y , it l i k e l y constitutes a s y n t h e s i s of m a n y of these t h i n k i n g abilities. C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g c a n n o t be l e a r n e d i n i s o l a t i o n . P e r h a p s it c a n n o t be t a u g h t e x p l i c i t l y . H o w e v e r , it c a n be i n t e g r a t e d i n a l l subject areas a n d r e l a t e d to the ideas students a l r e a d y h a v e . A b r o a d , h o l i s t i c , a n d g l o b a l a p p r o a c h to t e a c h i n g c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is necessary. " C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g often r e q u i r e s i m a g i n i n g p o s s i b l e consequences, g e n e r a t i n g o r i g i n a l a p p r o a c h e s , or i d e n t i f y i n g a l t e r n a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e s . T h u s v i r t u a l l y a n y f o r m of h u m a n p r a c t i c e c a n i n v o l v e c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " ( D a n i e l s , 1998, p . 1). F u r t h e r m o r e , c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g m a y h a v e different c o n n o t a t i o n s w i t h i n the contexts of v a r i o u s n a t i o n s a n d yet there is l i k e l y c o m m o n elements to be s h a r e d . W h i l e different e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m s t e n d to s u p p o r t different e p i s t e m o l o g i e s , a l l h a v e the s a m e u l t i m a t e g o a l — t o p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s for life b e y o n d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . A c o m m o n d e f i n i t i o n of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g m a y n o t b e s h a r e d b y a l l . O n e m u s t a c c o u n t for the c u l t u r a l a n d c o n t e x t u a l aspects o f t h i n k i n g as w e l l . H o w e v e r , a b r o a d e r d e f i n i t i o n of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s h o u l d be r e l e v a n t a n d understood b y educators i n b o t h British C o l u m b i a a n d Japan.  Distortions of Critical Thinking in the Media T h e t e r m " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " is n o t w e l l u n d e r s t o o d . It m a y h a v e b e c o m e a " b u z z w o r d " i n e d u c a t i o n u s e d w i t h o u t m u c h t h o u g h t to its m e a n i n g b y m a n y  37 educators, p o l i t i c i a n s a n d the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . D e v e l o p i n g " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s " is seen b y s o m e as a p a n a c e a to the ills o f B . C . ' s e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m as i l l u s t r a t e d b y the f o l l o w i n g q u o t e s f r o m the Vancouver  Sun  newspaper:  F r o m D i l b e r t b y Scott A d a m s : C h a r a c t e r 1: "I teach m y k i d s that these t h i n g s are r i g h t a n d these t h i n g s are w r o n g . P e r i o d . E n d o f S t o r y . C h a r a c t e r 2: " W o u l d n ' t that teach t h e m to b e l i e v e a n y t h i n g t h e y ' r e t o l d without a p p l y i n g any critical t h i n k i n g ? " C h a r a c t e r 1: "I d o n ' t t h i n k about that." C h a r a c t e r 2: " D u h . " (1997 U n i t e d F e a t u r e S y n d i c a t e , Inc.) F r o m J a n u a r y 25, 1999 Vancouver Sun, p . A 1 0 : T h e a p p l i c a t i o n of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , a n a l y t i c a l a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s is r e q u i r e d for successful c o m p l e t i o n o f courses... t h e r e b y f u l f i l l i n g a n i m p o r t a n t tenet o f a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n — e d u c a t i o n for l i v i n g a n d e d u c a t i o n for m a k i n g a l i v i n g . (John P i e r c e , D e a n o f A r t s , S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ) F r o m J u n e 22, 1999 Vancouver Sun, p . A l l : The well-educated person can analyze problems i n a critical manner, c o n d u c t research, m a k e creative c o n n e c t i o n s of d a t a a n d w h e n necessary, c o m m u n i c a t e a n d w o r k effectively w i t h others to f i n d s o l u t i o n s . A t least that is w h a t e d u c a t o r s tell us. ( G a r y B a u s l a u g h , former college educator and administrator) F r o m S e p t e m b e r 4, 1998 Vancouver Sun:, p . E 7 : K i d s t o d a y are l i k e l y to h a v e three or f o u r job changes i n the future, u n l i k e t h e i r p a r e n t s , so t h e y n e e d s k i l l s a r o u n d p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a n d critical t h i n k i n g . (Dorothy Fowler, principal, Burnaby Central Secondary School) F r o m S e p t e m b e r 4, 1998 Vancouver Sun, p . E 3 : T h e m i n i s t r y has b e e n u p d a t i n g its courses since 1995. B y 2000 a l l curricula w i l l emphasize p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and critical t h i n k i n g , literacy and c o m m u n i c a t i o n , team w o r k , a n d information technology. (Lori Culbert)  38 Critical T h i n k i n g Research C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is a t o p i c of great i m p o r t a n c e to b o t h J a p a n ' s a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s e d u c a t i o n systems. A l t h o u g h there is m u c h interest, little d a t a is a v a i l a b l e , since f e w c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n d o n e . T h i s is p e r h a p s d u e to a r e c o g n i t i o n a n d a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s associated w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l comparative research i n education. In A l t b a c h ' s w o r d s , " C o m p a r a t i v e a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n is a f i e l d w i t h o u t a clear research a g e n d a , w i t h o u t w i d e l y accepted p a r a d i g m s for research, w i t h o u t a g r e e d m e t h o d o l o g i e s , a n d w i t h o u t a clear h i e r a r c h y . . . ( N e v e r t h e l e s s ) , . . . c o m p a r a t i v e e d u c a t o r s are i n a p o s i t i o n to benefit from a g r o w i n g international consciousness i n education i n m a n y countries" ( A l t b a c h & T a n , 1995, p . x v i i i ) . F u r t h e r research is necessary o n c o m p a r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g i e s a n d o n s u c h t o p i c s for c o m p a r i s o n as c u r r e n t t e a c h i n g strategies, i n d e p e n d e n t o r s t u d e n t c e n t r e d l e a r n i n g , c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a n d the role of the teacher. T h i s w i l l h e l p to i m p r o v e s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , it w i l l p r o v i d e a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d a p p r e c i a t i o n of learning. E d u c a t o r s c a n n o t c o n t i n u e to f u n c t i o n as n a t i o n a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s . F e w can stick to the o l d style of t h i n k i n g a n d b e h a v i n g as t h e y once d i d . . . A s it is i r r e l e v a n t for a n y society to i m p o r t a r e a d y - m a d e m o d e l o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n , so it is for a n y to i m p o r t o r to e x p o r t a n e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m . I n n o v a t i o n i n teacher e d u c a t i o n c a n b e m o s t d i f f i c u l t . G l o b a l i s m as a p a r a d i g m is s t i l l v a g u e i n s h a p e a n d characteristic. H o w e v e r , the recent d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t s y s t e m theories s h o w that the w o r l d is m o v i n g v e r y s l o w l y b u t s t e a d i l y t o w a r d a n e w s y s t e m . I n a g l o b a l age, the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n s h o u l d be r e f o r m e d , a n d the w a y s of e d u c a t i n g a n d t r a i n i n g teachers also n e e d to be t r a n s f o r m e d . C o m p a r a t i v e g l o b a l i s m m a y w o r k as a strategy for i n n o v a t i o n i n teacher e d u c a t i o n ( O c h o a & S u z u k i , 1993, p . 74). C l e a r l y , c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is a f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e p t i n e d u c a t i o n that r e q u i r e s further research. T h e s e i d e a s are essential elements to the c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k for this s t u d y .  39  CHAPTER 4  RESEARCH M E T H O D O L O G Y This study was designed to compare and contrast British Columbia and Japanese high school teachers' conceptions of critical thinking across the dimensions of culture, subject area, experience, age and gender. To facilitate this comparison, a two part survey instrument was designed (see Appendix A for the English version and Appendix B for the Japanese version). Here is a description of the schools and teachers selected; the instrument development; the procedures used and the data preparation.  Sample The sample consisted of 159 teachers from ten high schools in B . C . and Japan. Six schools were selected from the Lower Mainland of B . C . and four schools were chosen from the Kanto region of Japan. Of the 71 B . C . teachers surveyed there were 38 men and 33 women. Of the 88 Japanese teachers surveyed there were 75 men and 13 women. Table 1 summarizes the nature of the schools.  Table 1 Descriptions of B.C. and Japanese Schools Selected School  Category  Average annual household income*  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Queen Elizabeth Enver Creek Princess Margaret Fleetwood Park North Surrey Elgin Park  comprehensive comprehensive comprehensive comprehensive comprehensive comp rehensi ve  7. 8. 9. 10.  Komaba Otsuka Tsukuba Sakado  elite academic general academic vocational comprehensive  2  Number of Teachers  2  Teachers Surveyed  42,600 55,700 40,200 60,500 55,400 87,300  1610 1320 1464 1241 1128 1113  89 72 80 72 69 61  10 27 12 12 8 2  5,940,000 7,060,000 7,340,000 7,700,000  491 724 565 478  46 44 60 42  18 28 17 25  $ $ $ $ $ $ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥  Student Enrollment  Notes: 1 Based on 1996 Canada Census and 1999 Japanese Ward Offices data for each school's catchment area. As Komaba's students come from all over Tokyo, the number is an average for Greater Tokyo. Enrollments and staffing as of September 2000.  40 A l t h o u g h the t w o n a t i o n a l s a m p l e s are w e l l b a l a n c e d i n t e r m s o f s c h o o l s c h o s e n a n d teachers s u r v e y e d , it is necessary to a c k n o w l e d g e the differences i n e t h n i c i t y , r e l i g i o n a n d S E S . J a p a n is a far greater h o m o g e n e o u s s o c i e t y t h a n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e r e are f e w e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s a n d a s s i m i l a t i o n is the n o r m for the m a r g i n a l g r o u p s s u c h as Japanese b o r n K o r e a n s . B . C . ' s e t h n i c p l u r a l i s m a n d m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m is i n stark contrast to J a p a n ' s r a c i a l h o m o g e n e i t y a n d i n t o l e r a n c e for others. W h i l e there are s o m e C h r i s t i a n s , J e w s a n d o t h e r r e l i g i o n s i n J a p a n , Japanese are p r e d o m i n a n t l y B u d d h i s t a n d S h i n t o . H o w e v e r , t h e y r e a d i l y accept other r e l i g i o n s i n h a r m o n y w i t h B u d d h i s t beliefs. I n fact B u d d h i s m a n d S h i n t o are n o t p r a c t i c e d w i t h r e l i g i o u s f a n a t i c i s m b u t rather are i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o e v e r y d a y life as c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s . A n o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y of Japanese d o n o t b e l o n g to a n y c h u r c h n o r d o t h e y p r a c t i c e a n y r e l i g i o u s c e r e m o n i e s other that those that are a p a r t of t h e i r c u l t u r e r e l a t i n g to b i r t h , d e a t h a n d s e a s o n a l festivals. B . C . is p r e d o m i n a n t l y C h r i s t i a n , h o w e v e r there is greater r e l i g i o u s d i v e r s i t y t h a n i n J a p a n . I n p a r t i c u l a r , T h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d has s i g n i f i c a n t i m m i g r a n t p o p u l a t i o n s o f S i k h s , M u s l i m s , B u d d h i s t s , a n d other r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s . M o s t p e o p l e w i t h i n Japanese s o c i e t y c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s m i d d l e class. T h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n this s t u d y w e r e n o different. T h e teachers s u r v e y e d i n B . C . a n d J a p a n w e r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y m i d d l e class as w e r e m o s t of the p a r e n t s a n d s t u d e n t s f r o m the s c h o o l s s u r v e y e d (see T a b l e 1). W h i l e there w e r e s o m e differences i n S E S a m o n g the s c h o o l s , this w a s n o t a major factor i n d e t e r m i n i n g the representativeness  of the s t u d y .  Schools T h e h i g h s c h o o l s a n d teachers i n v o l v e d i n this s t u d y w e r e selected o n the basis of g e o g r a p h i c , a c a d e m i c a n d other c o m p a r a t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . H i g h  schools o f s i m i l a r c o m p o s i t i o n (size, s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r p o p u l a t i o n , g r a d e levels, s o c i o e c o n o m i c status, age of teachers, a n d subjects offered) w e r e c h o s e n . S p e c i a l schools a p p e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y to a c a d e m i c a l l y o r v o c a t i o n a l l y i n c l i n e d s t u d e n t s w e r e o n l y i n c l u d e d f r o m J a p a n since these are a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f the Japanese s c h o o l s y s t e m , w h i l e they are r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n B . C . ' s s c h o o l s y s t e m . A serious a t t e m p t w a s m a d e to choose schools that w e r e c o m p a r a b l e a n d representative of e a c h s y s t e m . T h e c o l l e c t i v e d a t a f r o m a l l the teachers i n e a c h r e g i o n represents a n " a v e r a g e s c h o o l " i n n e a r l y a l l respects. A l l the schools c h o s e n w e r e l o c a t e d i n c o m m u n i t i e s close to major u r b a n centres. Y e t they w e r e neither "inner-city" nor " c o u n t r y " schools. G e o g r a p h i c a l l y a n d systemically, i n c o m p a r i n g schools, one consideration t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t w a s the l o c a t i o n of e a c h s c h o o l w i t h i n their s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a n d r e g i o n (see F i g u r e s 1-4).  Figure 1. M a p of Japan  1  Figure 2. M a p of British C o l u m b i a  2  !  Tokyo-A Bilingual Atlas (p. 148), 1991, New York: Kodansha. Copyright 1991 by Kodansha.  2  Canada Map, 1997, Victoria: Davenport Maps Ltd.. Copyright 1997 by Davenport Maps Ltd.. Adapted with permission.  42  F i g u r e 3. M a p o f T h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d ( G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r )  3  Japan Secondary Schools 1. K o m a b a 2. O t s u k a  I  3. T s u k u b a %iM^  A  4. S a k a d o  F i g u r e 4. M a p of K a n t o R e g i o n (Greater T o k y o )  J  4  3 .C. Map, 1997, Victoria: Davenport Maps Ltd. Copyright 1997 by Davenport Maps Ltd. Tokyo-A Bilingual Atlas (pp. 6-7), 1991, New York: Kodansha. Copyright 1991 by Kodansha. Adapted with permission. B  4  43 T w o of the Japanese s c h o o l s selected w e r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n T o k y o ( K o m a b a and Otsuka). The Ibaraki (Tsukuba H i g h School of Technology) a n d Saitama (Sakado) s c h o o l s w e r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n the prefectures of I b a r a k i a n d S a i t a m a . A l l f o u r s c h o o l s w e r e w i t h i n the K a n t o r e g i o n of J a p a n . T h e s i x B . C . s c h o o l s c h o s e n (Queen Elizabeth, E n v e r Creek, Princess Margaret, Fleetwood Park, N o r t h Surrey a n d E l g i n P a r k ) w e r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o f S u r r e y , a m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h i n the L o w e r M a i n l a n d of B . C . I n this respect, S u r r e y ' s p u b l i c h i g h s c h o o l s are c o m p a r a b l e to I b a r a k i - k e n ' s a n d S a i t a m a - k e n ' s p u b l i c h i g h s c h o o l s . H o w e v e r , the c o m p a r i s o n is c o m p l i c a t e d since I b a r a k i a n d S a i t a m a are prefectures ( m u c h like a province i n Canada) w i t h m a n y private h i g h schools a n d national h i g h schools i n a d d i t i o n to the p r e f e c t u r a l p u b l i c h i g h s c h o o l s . T w o s c h o o l s ( K o m a b a and Otsuka) chosen were from municipalities ( M e g u r o - K u and B u n k y o - K u r e s p e c t i v e l y ) w i t h i n the c i t y of G r e a t e r T o k y o itself. J a p a n ' s h i g h s c h o o l s offer s t u d e n t s m a n y choices; f r o m s c h o o l s w i t h a s p e c i a l focus s u c h as v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g o r a c a d e m i c s to c o m p r e h e n s i v e h i g h s c h o o l s that a p p e a l to a w i d e r a n g e of s t u d e n t s w i t h v a r i o u s b a c k g r o u n d s a n d goals after g r a d u a t i o n . F o r this reason, the four Japanese p u b l i c h i g h schools selected w e r e (1) a c a d e m i c ( K o m a b a ) ; (2) a c a d e m i c / g e n e r a l ( O t s u k a ) ; (3) v o c a t i o n a l ( T s u k u b a H i g h S c h o o l of T e c h n o l o g y ) ; a n d (4) c o m p r e h e n s i v e (Sakado), r e s p e c t i v e l y i n o r d e r to facilitate a c o m p a r i s o n w i t h B . C . ' s c o m p r e h e n s i v e p u b l i c h i g h s c h o o l s w h i c h are the n o r m . I n J a p a n , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 p e r c e n t of s t u d e n t s a t t e n d p u b l i c h i g h s c h o o l s o f w h i c h o v e r 70 p e r c e n t are a c a d e m i c / g e n e r a l . T h e p r o p o r t i o n of v o c a t i o n a l h i g h s c h o o l s has b e e n s t e a d i l y d e c r e a s i n g to the present l e v e l of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25 p e r c e n t ( T a k a k u r a & M u r a t a , 1998, p . 29). I n 1994, as a result o f the e d u c a t i o n a l reforms to the the h i g h s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , S a k a d o H i g h S c h o o l c h a n g e d f r o m a v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s p e c i a l i z i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r e to a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s c h o o l , o f f e r i n g o t h e r  44  courses l e a d i n g to different p a t h s u p o n g r a d u a t i o n . A l t h o u g h the t r e n d i n J a p a n is for h i g h s c h o o l s to b e c o m e c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n n a t u r e , these are f e w i n n u m b e r since it w a s o n l y i n 1994 that the c h a n g e to c o m p r e h e n s i v e s c h o o l s b e g a n to be implemented. I n a d d i t i o n , the n a t u r e of i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n e a c h e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m r e q u i r e d c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n of s u i t a b l e s c h o o l s a n d p a r t i c i p a n t s . M o s t h i g h s c h o o l s i n B . C . e n r o l l e d l o c a l students f r o m grades 8 t h r o u g h 12 a n d d i d n o t r e q u i r e entrance e x a m s . H e n c e , t h e y w e r e o p e n to a l l s t u d e n t s w h o r e s i d e d w i t h i n the c a t c h m e n t area of the s c h o o l . O n the other h a n d , a l l Japanese h i g h s c h o o l s e n r o l l students f r o m grades 10 t h r o u g h 12 a n d r e q u i r e entrance e x a m s a n d , as s u c h , m a y choose the m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e students. T h e r e f o r e , it w a s n o t u n c o m m o n for h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s to t r a v e l a great d i s t a n c e to a t t e n d the best s c h o o l s . F o r this r e a s o n , a g a i n a c a d e m i c , v o c a t i o n a l a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e Japanese h i g h s c h o o l s , e n r o l l i n g l o c a l s t u d e n t s w e r e c h o s e n i n o r d e r to facilitate the c o m p a r i s o n . I n the selection of h i g h s c h o o l s i n B . C . , a n attempt w a s m a d e to c h o o s e h i g h s c h o o l s that w e r e c l o s e l y m a t c h e d i n terms of g r a d e l e v e l s offered. F o r e x a m p l e , Q u e e n E l i z a b e t h S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l i n S u r r e y has t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n a s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l (grades 11-12) b u t at the t i m e o f the s t u d y w a s i n t r a n s i t i o n to a f u l l s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l (grades 8-12). T h e teachers at this s c h o o l h a d b e e n t e a c h i n g students b e t w e e n the ages of 15 to 18 years. T h i s w a s c o m p a r a b l e to the age of Japanese h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w h i c h w e r e f r o m " k o u k o - n o i c h i - n e n s e i " to " s a n n e n s e i " (grades 10-12 a n d ages 15 to 18 years). A l l s c h o o l s c h o s e n h a d a n average p o p u l a t i o n o f staff a n d s t u d e n t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s c h o o l systems.  45 Teachers Teachers w e r e d e l i b e r a t e l y c h o s e n f r o m a v a r i e t y o f subject b a c k g r o u n d s , ages a n d e x p e r i e n c e . D u e to the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s a m p l e sizes for e a c h g r o u p (Japanese n=88 a n d B . C . n=71), it w a s necessary to select sufficient n u m b e r s of l a n g u a g e arts teachers, science teachers a n d other subject specialists as w e l l as a range o f ages a n d e x p e r i e n c e of teachers. T h u s , p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n the v a r i a b l e s o f subject area, age, t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a n d the teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g c o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d a n d a n a l y z e d across the t w o c u l t u r e s . Teachers w e r e a p p r o a c h e d i n p e r s o n i n the staff r o o m o r i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m once the P r i n c i p a l a n d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t g a v e a p p r o v a l to d o so. E a c h teacher's subject area a n d t h e i r a p p r o x i m a t e age a n d e x p e r i e n c e w a s k n o w n . It w a s easier to o b t a i n data f r o m Japanese p a r t i c i p a n t s since their p r i n c i p a l s exercise m u c h m o r e p o w e r t h a n W e s t e r n c o u n t e r p a r t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , w h e n Japanese teachers w e r e a s k e d to p a r t i c i p a t e b y their p r i n c i p a l m o s t w e r e " w i l l i n g " to d o so. I n contrast, the B . C . teachers' p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates w e r e l o w e r since t h e y d i d n o t feel o b l i g e d to c o m p l e t e the s u r v e y . Since data c o l l e c t i o n f r o m the Japanese s c h o o l s w a s m o r e efficient, o n l y f o u r s c h o o l s w e r e v i s i t e d , w h e r e a s s i x s c h o o l s w e r e s u r v e y e d i n B . C . i n o r d e r to o b t a i n a c o m p a r a b l y s i z e d s a m p l e . I r o n i c a l l y , it w a s m o r e difficult to o b t a i n d a t a f r o m teachers i n the researcher's o w n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t t h a n f r o m the Japanese s c h o o l teachers! N o n e t h e l e s s , of the 159 teachers c h o s e n , o n l y one teacher d i d n o t agree to c o m p l e t e the s u r v e y . F i n a l l y , it s h o u l d be n o t e d that the researcher is n o t o n e of the teachers i n the s a m p l e .  46  Instrument Development Critical Thinking Cards A list of d e s c r i p t o r s o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ( w o r d s / p h r a s e s ) w a s d e r i v e d p r i m a r i l y f r o m the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w (see i n p a r t i c u l a r , M c P e c k , 1990; N i c k e r s o n , 1986; N i c k e r s o n , P e r k i n s a n d S m i t h , 1985; N o r r i s , 1985; P a u l , 1993) b u t also f r o m B . C . a n d Japanese teachers. These d e s c r i p t o r s w e r e t h e n p r i n t e d o n i n d e x cards (see F i g u r e 5) i n a large b o l d - f a c e d font (first i n E n g l i s h a n d later i n Japanese o n the other s i d e ) .  Analysis Figure 5. Example of a Critical T h i n k i n g Card A c a r d sort p r o c e d u r e w a s c h o s e n since it w a s v i s u a l a n d tactile. T h i s m e t h o d o f o b t a i n i n g d a t a a l l o w e d p a r t i c i p a n t s to m a n i p u l a t e the d e s c r i p t o r s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g — h e l p i n g to facilitate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n a m a n n e r m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e to e a c h p a r t i c i p a n t . O n e l a n g u a g e arts teacher a c t u a l l y s p r e a d a l l the cards o u t o n a table a n d p r e c e d e d to a n a l y z e t h e m s t r u c t u r a l l y a n d l i n g u i s t i c a l l y ! O t h e r s p r e f e r r e d to cycle t h r o u g h the i n d e x cards l i k e a d e c k of p l a y i n g cards, e l i m i n a t i n g d e f i n e r s as t h e y s h u f f l e d the d e c k .  Translation  of Critical  Thinking Definers  E a c h c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g definer w a s d o u b l e - t r a n s l a t e d for a c h e c k of a c c u r a c y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y . T h i s w a s a c c o m p l i s h e d b y c o n s u l t i n g t w o Japanese i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h b a c k g r o u n d s i n e d u c a t i o n . T h e first i n d i v i d u a l (a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t i n e d u c a t i o n at T s u k u b a U n i v e r s i t y , Japan) t r a n s l a t e d the E n g l i s h w o r d s i n t o  47 Japanese. T h e n , the s e c o n d i n d i v i d u a l (a certified teacher i n J a p a n a n d a Japanese teacher c u r r e n t l y i n B . C . ) t r a n s l a t e d these Japanese w o r d s b a c k i n t o E n g l i s h . A l l the definers f r o m this n e w list w e r e e x a c t l y the same as the o r i g i n a l definers o r w e r e close e n o u g h that a n a t i v e s p e a k e r c o u l d e a s i l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r m e a n i n g .  Procedures T h e research r e p o r t e d here i n v o l v e d four p h a s e s s p r e a d o v e r a p e r i o d o f t w o years.  Phase 1—Pilot Study F i r s t , a p i l o t s u r v e y w a s c o n d u c t e d i n o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e the s u i t a b i l i t y o f the research q u e s t i o n to e d u c a t i o n i n B . C . a n d J a p a n . D u r i n g the s u m m e r o f 1997, s e v e r a l Japanese h i g h s c h o o l s i n the K a n t o r e g i o n ( i n the v i c i n i t y o f T o k y o ) w e r e v i s i t e d . Teachers f r o m a v a r i e t y o f b a c k g r o u n d s , i n c l u d i n g E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e specialists, g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n e d u c a t i o n , a n d u n i v e r s i t y professors i n e d u c a t i o n a l s t u d i e s , w e r e c o n t a c t e d t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l references. Teachers w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d w i t h the a i d o f a n interpreter, a b o u t their c o n c e p t i o n s o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . T h e y w e r e a s k e d , " W h a t is ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ' ? " I n a d d i t i o n , lessons w e r e o b s e r v e d . T h e n i n the fall o f 1997, s e v e r a l h i g h s c h o o l s i n B . C . ' s L o w e r M a i n l a n d ( i n the v i c i n i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ) w e r e v i s i t e d . D u r i n g these v i s i t s to h i g h schools i n B . C . a n d J a p a n , a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e n t y teachers w e r e e a c h a s k e d to p r o v i d e w o r d s o r phrases d e s c r i b i n g " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . " A list o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g d e s c r i p t o r s w a s t h u s g e n e r a t e d f r o m the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1993; F r e n c h a n d Pdioder, 1992; H a l a d y n a , 1997; M c P e c k , 1990; N i c k e r s o n , 1986; N i c k e r s o n , P e r k i n s a n d S m i t h 1985; N o r r i s , 1985, 1988; P a u l , 1993; V e r u i n , 1996) a n d f r o m the i n p u t o f teachers.  48 Phase 2—Instrument  Design  N e x t , a list o f 50 definers d e s c r i b i n g the m o s t c o m m o n teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w a s d e r i v e d f r o m the p i l o t s u r v e y . These definers w e r e t h e n t r a n s l a t e d i n t o Japanese a n d E n g l i s h w i t h a d o u b l e t r a n s l a t i o n for a c h e c k o f r e l i a b i l i t y . E a c h definer w a s t h e n w r i t t e n o n a n i n d e x c a r d ( E n g l i s h o n o n e s i d e a n d Japanese o n the other; see A p p e n d i x C for a c o m p l e t e list). I n a d d i t i o n , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e w a s d e s i g n e d i n c l u d i n g b a s i c d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n (gender, age, subject area, a n d years o f t e a c h i n g experience) as w e l l as o p e n - e n d e d questions c o n c e r n i n g teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g (see A p p e n d i x A for the E n g l i s h v e r s i o n a n d A p p e n d i x B for the Japanese t r a n s l a t i o n o f the teacher q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) .  Phase 3—Survey of B.C. Teachers F r o m late J u n e 1998 t h r o u g h D e c e m b e r 1998, 71 teachers f r o m s i x S u r r e y schools i n B . C . w e r e selected o n a v o l u n t a r y basis to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s t u d y . T h e y w e r e a p p r o a c h e d i n d i v i d u a l l y a n d w e r e a s k e d to (1) classify the c a r d s as relevant to c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g o r n o t r e l e v a n t to c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a n d t h e n (2) to choose the t e n m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t c a r d s a n d r a n k t h e m 1-10. T h e researcher w a s present d u r i n g the c a r d sort p r o c e d u r e a n d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e b u t o n l y to clarify the procedures. H o w e v e r , generally, n o additional intervention or explanation w a s r e q u i r e d . A n y q u e s t i o n s a b o u t the c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g definers w e r e n o t a n s w e r e d w i t h a n y e x p l a n a t i o n . R a t h e r , the response w a s i n v a r i a b l y , " I f y o u are u n s u r e about the m e a n i n g o f a w o r d , p l a c e it i n the 'other' p i l e . O n l y p l a c e w o r d s that y o u are sure relate to c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , i n the c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g p i l e . " E a c h p a r t i c i p a n t ' s c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g definers c h o s e n w e r e t a l l i e d i n a spreadsheet o f a l l 50 c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g cards a n d t h e n the r a n k i n g w a s n o t e d (see A p p e n d i x C ) .  49 Phase 4—Survey of Japanese Teachers I n M a r c h 1999, the q u e s t i o n n a i r e / c a r d sort w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d to 88 s e c o n d a r y teachers at the f o u r h i g h s c h o o l s i n the K a n t o r e g i o n o f J a p a n . Japanese p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e c h o s e n i n m u c h the same w a y as t h e i r B . C . c o u n t e r p a r t s , w i t h the assistance of D r . T a n a k a f r o m T s u k u b a U n i v e r s i t y i n J a p a n . T h e w r i t e r ' s b i l i n g u a l a n d b i c u l t u r a l s k i l l s p r o v e d h e l p f u l as w e l l as the p e r s o n a l contacts m a d e d u r i n g p r e v i o u s v i s i t s to J a p a n .  Data Preparation and Analysis O n c e the d a t a w a s c o l l e c t e d , the Japanese q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e p h o t o c o p i e d a n d t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h . T h e a n s w e r s to the o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s w e r e r e a d , s u m m a r i z e d a n d t h e n c o d e d as to their r e l e v a n c e to c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . T h e n the q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a f r o m the c a r d sort a n d the d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n w a s entered i n t o SPSS. E a c h p a r t i c i p a n t w a s c o d e d b y s c h o o l , n u m b e r a n d c o u n t r y of o r i g i n . If a r e s p o n d e n t chose a c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g definer it w a s r e c o r d e d as a " 1 " a n d i f they d i d n o t choose a definer it w a s r e c o r d e d as a " 0 " . I n a d d i t i o n , the t o p ten definers c h o s e n a n d r a n k e d w e r e c o d e d as s h o w n i n T a b l e 2. Table 2 Coding of Critical T h i n k i n g (CT) Definers Card Sort Ranking  CT definer not chosen CT definer chosen but not ranked #10 #9 #8 #7 #6 #5 #4 #3 #2 #1  Code  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11  Note: In order to facilitate the data analysis, the ranking of the top ten definers were coded such that a definer ranked #1 was entered into SPSS as an '11'. Thus, definers that were considered less important were given sequentially smaller numerical values.  Separate fields w e r e u s e d for g e n d e r , age, t e a c h i n g subject, n u m b e r o f years t e a c h i n g a n d the r e s p o n s e s to "Is c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g p a r t o f the c u r r i c u l u m for y o u r subject area?" a n d "Is c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g t a u g h t i n y o u r c l a s s r o o m ? " N e x t , the c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g d a t a w a s t r a n s f o r m e d a n d n e w v a r i a b l e s w e r e i n t r o d u c e d so that there w a s a c o p y of the data that s h o w e d a l l definers c h o s e n as r e l e v a n t to c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g as " 1 " a n d those n o t c h o s e n as " 0 . " I n other w o r d s , i f a n o n - z e r o n u m b e r w a s i n a c e l l for c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g definers it w a s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a " 1 " m e a n i n g " c h o s e n . " F i n a l l y , u s i n g the S P S S d a t a file the v a r i a b l e s age a n d t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e w e r e g r o u p e d i n t o decades a n d five y e a r i n t e r v a l s r e s p e c t i v e l y i n o r d e r to facilitate the a n a l y s i s . T h e r a t i o n a l e for this is that n o v i c e teachers l i k e l y h a v e different i d e a s t h a n v e t e r a n teachers. F r o m the w r i t e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e a n d i n d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h those s u r v e y e d , teachers go t h r o u g h a series of phases: (1) a c c u l t u r a t i o n (1-4 years); (2) g r o w t h as a n e w p r o f e s s i o n a l (5-9 years); (3) e s t a b l i s h i n g r o u t i n e s a n d f i r m t e a c h i n g p h i l o s o p h y (10-14 years); a n d (4) either m a i n t a i n i n g the status q u o o r e m b r a c i n g n e w t e a c h i n g strategies (15+ years). T h u s , it s e e m e d n a t u r a l to i n v e s t i g a t e age a n d t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e w i t h these g r o u p i n g s i n a d d i t i o n to the characteristics of g e n d e r a n d subject areas.  Summary T h e s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d of 159 teachers f r o m s i x B . C . h i g h s c h o o l s a n d four Japanese h i g h s c h o o l s . Teachers w e r e c h o s e n f r o m a v a r i e t y of subject b a c k g r o u n d s , ages a n d e x p e r i e n c e . T h e research i n v o l v e d f o u r p h a s e s s p r e a d o v e r a p e r i o d of t w o years. F i r s t , a p i l o t s u r v e y w a s c o n d u c t e d i n o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e the s u i t a b i l i t y o f the research q u e s t i o n to e d u c a t i o n i n B . C . a n d J a p a n . N e x t , a list of 50 definers d e s c r i b i n g the m o s t c o m m o n teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w a s d e r i v e d f r o m the p i l o t s u r v e y a n d l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w .  Each  51 c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g d e f i n e r w a s t h e n d o u b l e - t r a n s l a t e d for a c h e c k o f a c c u r a c y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y . F r o m late J u n e 1998 t h r o u g h D e c e m b e r 1998, 71 teachers f r o m s i x S u r r e y s c h o o l s i n B . C . w e r e selected o n a v o l u n t a r y basis to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s t u d y . I n M a r c h 1999, the q u e s t i o n n a i r e / c a r d sort w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d to 88 s e c o n d a r y teachers at the f o u r h i g h s c h o o l s i n the K a n t o r e g i o n o f J a p a n . T h e n a t u r e o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w a s e x a m i n e d as teachers i n t e r p r e t e d it. T h e d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m the c a r d s o r t / q u e s t i o n n a i r e w a s u s e d to i n v e s t i g a t e the o v e r a l l sense o f w h a t s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l teachers b e l i e v e d c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g to e n t a i l a n d to c o m p a r e B . C . a n d Japanese teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . F i n a l l y , the questions p o s e d w e r e — d o teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g v a r y as a f u n c t i o n of subject area, g e n d e r , age a n d t e a c h i n g experience?  CHAPTER 5  52  RESULTS-CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS B . C . a n d J a p a n w e r e c h o s e n for this c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y for s e v e r a l reasons: (1) b o t h h a v e r e a c h e d the stages of u n i v e r s a l s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a n d m a s s h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n ; (2) e d u c a t o r s i n e a c h r e g i o n h a v e b e g u n to a n a l y z e the n a t u r e of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ; (3) there is c o n s i d e r a b l e interest i n r e f o r m s to teacher e d u c a t i o n i n b o t h r e g i o n s ; a n d (4) as t h e y are b o t h o n the P a c i f i c R i m a n d share commonalities (varied climates a n d geography a n d economies r e l y i n g o n exports t h r o u g h s h i p p i n g ) , t h e y are i d e a l for a c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y . B . C . w a s c h o s e n i n s t e a d o f C a n a d a since p r o v i n c e s h a v e different e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m s w h i l e J a p a n has a h i g h l y u n i f o r m e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m . I n a d d i t i o n to teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , the d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n c l u d e d g e n d e r , age, years of t e a c h i n g experience a n d t e a c h i n g subject, as w e l l as other i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g teachers' v a l u e s . S o m e of the d a t a (see A p p e n d i x A S u r v e y q u e s t i o n s 5-7) m a y be u s e d i n further s t u d i e s a n d is n o t d i s c u s s e d at l e n g t h i n this thesis. T a b l e 3 s u m m a r i z e s the characteristics o f the B . C . a n d Japanese teachers s u r v e y e d .  Gender A s s h o w n i n T a b l e 3, of the 159 teachers s u r v e y e d , the n u m b e r o f m e n (n=113) w a s greater t h a n the n u m b e r of w o m e n (n=46). W h i l e the n u m b e r o f B . C . m e n (n=38) a n d w o m e n (n=33) teachers s u r v e y e d w e r e n e a r l y e q u a l , 85 percent o f Japanese teachers s u r v e y e d w e r e m e n . H o w e v e r , these d e m o g r a p h i c s are characteristic o f h i g h s c h o o l s — e s p e c i a l l y i n J a p a n . A t the t i m e of the s t u d y , o n l y 24 p e r c e n t o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l teachers i n J a p a n w e r e female w h i l e i n B . C . the n u m b e r w a s 41.4 percent ( M o n b u s h o , 1997; B C T F , 1998).  Table 3 Characteristics of Selected Teachers i n B . C . and Japanese H i g h Schools %  n  Gender Women  Total 46  n  n  0/ 10  B.C.  28.9  33  46.0  Men  113  71.1  38  54.0  Total  159  100.0  71  44.7  0/ /o  Japan  1  2  13  15.0  75  85.0  88  55.3  t value  t-prob  4.65  0.000  2.17  0.032  3.33  0.001  1  2  Age 20-29 years old  22  13.8  15  21.1  7  8.0  30-39 years old  51  32.1  22  30.0  29  33.0  40-49 years old  49  30.8  18  25.4  31  35.2  50+ years old  37  23.3  16  22.5  21  23.9  Mean  S.D.  Mean  S.D.  Mean  S.D.  41.40  9.55  39.59  10.10  42.85  8.92  n  %  n  %  n  %  Total  Teaching experience < 5 years  27  17.0  20  28.2  7  8.0  5-9 years  19  11.9  13  18.3  6  6.8  10-14 years  26  16.0  8 • 11.3  18  20.5  15-19 years  32  20.1  9  12.7  23  26.1  20-24 years  19  11.9  6  8.5  13  14.8  25-29 years  18  11.3  10  14.1  8  9.1  30-34 years  14  8.8  5  7.0  9  10.2  4  2.5  0  0.0  4  4.5  Mean  S.D.  Mean  S.D.  Mean  S.D.  15.93  9.90  13.11  10.30  18.20  9.01  35 or more years  Total  Subject Areas  n  %  n  %  n  %  Language Arts  24  15.1  13  18.3  11  12.5  Math  23  14.5  13  18.3  10  11.4  Science 3  32  20.1  19  26.8  13  14.8  Social Studies  19  11.9  9  12.7  10  11.4  8  5.0  3  4.2  5  5.7  Fine Art Foreign Languages  15  9.4  5  7.0  10  11.4  Other 3  38  23.9  9  12.7  29  33.0  1  Percent by column.  Denotes a percent of the total sample. 3 Denotes pairs of groups significantly different in terms of the number of teachers in Science and Other subject areas using a Multiple Range Test at the .050 level. 2  54  Age B o t h B . C . a n d J a p a n ' s t e a c h i n g p o p u l a t i o n s are a g i n g . W i t h n e w , y o u n g e r teachers r e p l a c i n g those r e t i r i n g , it is n o t s u r p r i s i n g that 45.9 p e r c e n t o f the teachers s u r v e y e d w e r e i n t h e i r t w e n t i e s a n d thirties w h i l e 23.3 p e r c e n t w e r e i n their fifties a n d sixties (see T a b l e 3). T h e m e a n age of s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l teachers i n this s t u d y w a s 42.85 years o l d for J a p a n a n d 39.59 years o l d for B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . These statistics c o m p a r e w e l l w i t h the latest data a v a i l a b l e f r o m the M o n b u s h o a n d B . C . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n g i v i n g the average ages as 41.6 a n d 43.0 ( i n c l u d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ) r e s p e c t i v e l y ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n , 1998; M o n b u s h o , 1997). Japanese teachers are p r o p o r t i o n a l l y o l d e r t h a n B . C . t e a c h e r s — b o t h i n this s a m p l e a n d i n the t e a c h i n g p o p u l a t i o n as a w h o l e .  Teaching Experience Japanese teachers h a d m o r e career e x p e r i e n c e (x=18.2 years) t h a n B . C . teachers (x=13.1 years). T h i s five y e a r difference w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (t=3.33, p<.001). W h i l e t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a n d age w e r e r e l a t e d , s o m e teachers started t e a c h i n g d i r e c t l y after u n i v e r s i t y ( e s p e c i a l l y i n Japan), w h i l e m a n y others b e g a n t e a c h i n g careers m u c h later i n life. T a b l e 3 c o m p a r e s B . C . a n d Japanese teachers' career e x p e r i e n c e , their m e a n ages a n d r e s p e c t i v e age ranges. Irrespective o f c u l t u r e , o v e r h a l f the teachers s u r v e y e d w e r e i n t h e i r t h i r t i e s , yet this age g r o u p m a y h a v e a w i d e range of t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . If s o m e o n e w e r e to enter t e a c h i n g d i r e c t l y after c o m p l e t i n g s c h o o l , w i t h o u t a n y b r e a k i n t h e i r studies, t h e y w o u l d h a v e ten years of t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e b y the t i m e t h e y w e r e i n their e a r l y thirties. H o w e v e r , o n l y 24 percent of the B . C . teachers w e r e veterans, h a v i n g 10-19 years o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e c o m p a r e d to 41 percent of Japanese teachers. A t a n y g i v e n age, Japanese teachers w e r e l i k e l y to h a v e m o r e  55 career e x p e r i e n c e t h a n B . C . teachers. T h i s is because Japanese teachers t e n d to b e g i n u n i v e r s i t y at age 18 a n d t h e n g o straight i n t o t e a c h i n g u p o n g r a d u a t i o n . B y the t i m e a teacher is i n their m i d - t h i r t i e s t h e y h a v e at least t e n y e a r s o f career experience.  Subject Areas  Teachers i n L a n g u a g e A r t s (24), M a t h (23), Science (32), S o c i a l S t u d i e s (19), F i n e A r t s (8) a n d F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e (15) r e p r e s e n t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 75 percent of the r e s p o n d e n t s . A n u m b e r of subject areas less f r e q u e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d w e r e p l a c e d i n t o the c a t e g o r y " O t h e r " i n T a b l e 3. These i n c l u d e d s e v e n B . C . subjects: B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n (3); C o m p u t e r Science (3); I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n (5); S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n (3); C o u n s e l i n g (1); C a r e e r E d u c a t i o n (1); L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e (1) a n d s i x Japanese subjects: A g r i c u l t u r e (6); H o m e E c o n o m i c s (4); T e c h n o l o g y E d u c a t i o n (5); A r c h i t e c t u r e (2); M e t a l w o r k (1); N u r s i n g (2). T h e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f Japanese subject areas is d u e to the selective n a t u r e of Japanese a c a d e m i c a n d v o c a t i o n a l h i g h s c h o o l s , w h i l e the d i v e r s i t y of B . C . subject areas is the r e s u l t of B . C . ' s comprehensive h i g h schools. O v e r a l l , there w e r e n o major differences b e t w e e n the t w o c u l t u r e s i n the n u m b e r s o f teachers r e p r e s e n t i n g the v a r i o u s subject areas. H o w e v e r , there w e r e p r o p o r t i o n a l l y m o r e B . C . " S c i e n c e " teachers  (26.8 percent) t h a n Japanese  " S c i e n c e " teachers (14.8 percent). A l s o , p r o p o r t i o n a l l y m o r e Japanese  teachers  (33.0 percent) w e r e i n the " O t h e r " category t h a n B . C . teachers (12.7 percent).  56 Summary J a p a n ' s h i g h s c h o o l teachers w e r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y m e n , w h i l e i n B . C . there were o n l y slightly more m e n than w o m e n teaching h i g h school. In general, Japanese teachers are o l d e r a n d m o r e e x p e r i e n c e d t h a n their B . C . c o u n t e r p a r t s . T h e teachers i n this s a m p l e reflected these characteristics of g e n d e r , age a n d e x p e r i e n c e . T h e Japanese teachers s u r v e y e d r e p r e s e n t e d a s o m e w h a t greater d i v e r s i t y a n d s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f subject areas c o m p a r e d to the B . C . teachers, as e v i d e n c e d b y the greater n u m b e r of p e o p l e t e a c h i n g " O t h e r " subjects s u c h as " A g r i c u l t u r e , " " A r c h i t e c t u r e " a n d " T e c h n o l o g y E d u c a t i o n . " A l s o , there w e r e p r o p o r t i o n a l l y m o r e " S c i e n c e " teachers s u r v e y e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  57  CHAPTER 6  RESULTS-CRITICAL THINKING T h e p u r p o s e s of this s t u d y w e r e (1) to o b t a i n a n o v e r a l l sense o f w h a t s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l teachers b e l i e v e d c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g to e n t a i l ; (2) to c o m p a r e a n d contrast B . C . a n d Japanese s e c o n d a r y teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ; (3) to i n v e s t i g a t e the n a t u r e o f B . C . a n d Japanese s e c o n d a r y teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w i t h respect to gender, age, t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a n d subject taught; a n d (4) to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of B . C . a n d Japanese t e a c h i n g a n d the c u r r i c u l u m at the s e c o n d a r y l e v e l . I n o r d e r to a c h i e v e these g o a l s , 159 B . C . a n d Japanese teachers w e r e s u r v e y e d u s i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t i n g o f d e m o g r a p h i c a n d o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s as w e l l as a c a r d sort p r o c e d u r e . F i f t y definers of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , d e r i v e d f r o m the literature r e v i e w a n d f r o m teachers i n the p i l o t s t u d y w e r e d o u b l e - t r a n s l a t e d a n d t h e n p r i n t e d o n i n d e x c a r d s ( i n E n g l i s h o n o n e s i d e a n d Japanese o n the other). Teachers w e r e a s k e d to i n d i c a t e w h i c h definers w e r e r e l e v a n t to c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g .  Definers of Critical T h i n k i n g T a b l e 4 s h o w s the extent to w h i c h teachers i n B . C . a n d J a p a n e n d o r s e d each of the definers of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , s o r t e d i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r . C h o s e n b y 75 percent of the teachers, " A n a l y s i s " w a s the m o s t f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d . T h e t o p five definers: " A n a l y s i s , " " R e a s o n i n g , " " D r a w i n g inferences," " P r o b l e m s o l v i n g " a n d " A n a l y t i c a l s k i l l s " w e r e e a c h selected b y o v e r t w o - t h i r d s o f the teachers. R o u n d i n g o u t the t o p ten w e r e five definers c h o s e n b y o v e r 60 p e r c e n t of the teachers: " I n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g , " " C r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g , " " C l a r i f y i n g i d e a s , " " L o g i c a l " a n d " T h o u g h t f u l j u d g e m e n t s . " It w a s n o t s u r p r i s i n g that these definers  Table 4 Differences i n Fifty Definers of Critical T h i n k i n g between Teachers i n B . C . and Japanese H i g h Schools Definers of Critical Thinking  Mean SD Total  Mean SD B. C.  Mean SD Japan  t value  58  P" prob  Analysis Reasoning Drawing inferences Problem solving Analytical skills  .75 .72 .71 .70 .70  .43 .45 .45 .46 .46  .83 .85 .79 .90 .85  .38 .36 .41 .30 .36  .69 .63 .65 .53 .59  .46 .49 .48 .50 .49  -2.02 -3.16  .05 .00  -5.43 -3.61  .00 .00  Inductive reasoning Creative thinking Clarifying ideas Logical Thoughtful judgements  .64 .64 .64 .62 .62  .48 .48 .48 .49 .49  .73 .62 .61 .59 .62  .45 .49 .49 .50 .49  .56 .66 .67 .66 .61  .50 .48 .47 .48 .49  -2.22  .03  Evaluating assumptions Objective Intellectual challenges Independent thinking Hypothesize  .62 .60 .60 .60 .59  .49 .49 .49 .60 .49  .75 .42 .56 .65 .70  .44 .50 .50 .48 .46  .52 .75 .63 .57 .50  .50 .44 .49 .50 .50  -2.95 4.42  .00 .00  -2.64  .01  Higher order thinking Rational thinking Drawing conclusions Deductive reasoning Constructive skepticism  .59 .58 .58 .58 .58  .49 .50 .49 .50 .50  .77 .64 .75 .76 .66  .42 .49 .44 .43 .48  .44 .53 .45 .43 .51  .50 .50 .50 .50 .50  -4.46  .00  -3.86 -4.39  .00 .00  Investigate Open-minded Synthesis Identifying/removing bias Decision making  .55 .53 .50 .47 .45  .50 .50 .50 .50 .50  .68 .55 .68 .65 .70  .47 .50 .47 .48 .46  .45 .51 .36 .32 .25  .50 .50 .48 .47 .44  -2.85  .01  -4.09 -4.29 -6.38  .00 .00 .00  Discovery learning Divergent thinking Convergent thinking Evaluation Taking ownership  .44 .42 .41 .40 .38  .50 .50 .49 .49 .49  .39 .63 .46 .46 .30  .49 .49 .50 .50 .46  .47 .25 .36 .34 .45  .50 .44 .48 .48 .50  -5.25  .00  2.06  .04  Self-directed Depth Consistency Metacognitive skills Active participation  .35 .35 .35 .34 .34  .48 .48 .48 .48 .48  .27 .38 .18 .52 .34  .45 .49 .39 .50 .48  .41 .33 .48 .20 .34  .49 .47 .50 .40 .48  4.05 -4.54  .00 .00  Socratic questioning Relevance Specificity Significance Clarity  .33 .32 .31 .31 .31  .47 .47 .46 .46 .47  .41 .45 .21 .41 .37  .50 .50 .41 .50 .49  .26 .22 .39 .23 .27  .44 .41 .49 .42 .45  -1.98 -3.24 2:41 -2.49  .05 .00 .02 .01  Student-centred Fairness Accuracy Responsible Subjective  .28 .28 .28 .26 .25  .45 .45 .45 .44 .44  .31 .07 .21 .17 .21  .47 .26 .41 .38 .41  .25 .45 .33 .33 .28  .44 .50 .47 .47 .45  5.86  .01  2.32  .02  Precision Adequacy Cooperative learning Disciplined Completeness  .24 .18 .16 .13 .13  .43 .39 .37 .33 .34  .18 .01 .21 .18 .04  .39 .12 .41 .39 .20  .28 .32 .13 .08 .20  .45 .47 .33 .27 .41  5.33  .00  3.07  .00  22.72  1.02  24.69 8.74  21.14  1.73  -2.25  .03  Total Words Endorsed  Note: Data is derived from critical thinking definers chosen from a deck of 50 critical thinking cards. (n=158)  59 w e r e c h o s e n m o r e f r e q u e n t l y since t h e y d e s c r i b e the the sorts o f h i g h e r o r d e r c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s a n d processes teachers associate w i t h t h i n k i n g c r i t i c a l l y . " A n a l y s i s " w a s c h o s e n m o s t often because p e r h a p s it best e n c o m p a s s e s the n a t u r e o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n the c l a s s r o o m . A n a l y s i s m e a n s to e x a m i n e s o m e t h i n g c a r e f u l l y , to b r e a k it i n t o its c o n s t i t u e n t e l e m e n t s a n d to m a k e t h o u g h t f u l j u d g e m e n t s i n o r d e r to c o m e to s o m e c o n c l u s i o n ( B l o o m , E n g l e h a r t , F u r s t , H i l l , & K r a t h w o h l , 1956). A n a l y s i s is u s e d i n n e a r l y a l l subject areas. M a t h teachers e n c o u r a g e t h e i r s t u d e n t s to a n a l y z e a g e o m e t r y p r o b l e m for p o s s i b l e p a t h s to a s o l u t i o n . Science teachers h a v e s t u d e n t s a n a l y z e d a t a i n s e a r c h for a p a t t e r n o r r e l a t i o n s h i p . L a n g u a g e teachers ask s t u d e n t s to a n a l y z e a piece of literature a n d to s u m m a r i z e w h a t t h e y ' v e r e a d i n a p r e c i s . E v e n fine arts teachers use a f o r m of a n a l y s i s w h e n t h e y ask s t u d e n t s to c r i t i q u e a major p i e c e o f a r t w o r k o r p e r f o r m a n c e . A n o t h e r r e a s o n that " A n a l y s i s " m a y h a v e b e e n so p o p u l a r is that it is m e n t i o n e d as a n i m p o r t a n t c o m p o n e n t o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n m o s t b o o k s o n t e a c h i n g p e d a g o g y . I n a d d i t i o n , teachers are w e l l v e r s e d i n B l o o m ' s t a x o n o m y w h i c h i n c l u d e s a n a l y s i s as a h i g h e r o r d e r c o g n i t i v e s k i l l . " R e a s o n i n g " is a n o t h e r w o r d f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e o n c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . Teachers chose this w o r d because it is f a m i l i a r a n d e n c o m p a s s e s m u c h of the s a m e aspects of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g that a n a l y s i s does. " I n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g " w a s m o r e p o p u l a r t h a n " D e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g . " O t h e r w o r d s i n the top ten also reflected this t r e n d t o w a r d c o n s t r u c t i v i s m . " D r a w i n g i n f e r e n c e s " a n d " C r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g " b o t h s u p p o r t a m o r e i n d u c t i v e , s e l f - d i s c o v e r y a p p r o a c h to l e a r n i n g . T h u s , it w o u l d a p p e a r m o s t teachers i n this s t u d y e m b r a c e d the m o d e r n c o n c e p t of the "teacher as f a c i l i t a t o r " as o p p o s e d to the "teacher as transmitter of k n o w l e d g e . " M a n y of the definers m o s t f r e q u e n t l y selected b y teachers w e r e l i n k e d .  60 " T h o u g h t f u l j u d g e m e n t s " c o u l d b e d e e m e d a p a r t of " A n a l y s i s " a n d " L o g i c a l " is a part of "Reasoning." " P r o b l e m s o l v i n g " encompasses a w i d e range of critical t h i n k i n g s k i l l s i n c l u d i n g " C l a r i f y i n g i d e a s . " A l l these concepts m a y be a p a r t of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n s o m e context o f l e a r n i n g . F o u r t e e n definers w e r e c h o s e n b y fewer t h a n o n e - t h i r d o f the teachers surveyed: "Completeness," "Disciplined," "Cooperative learning," "Adequacy," "Precision," "Subjective," "Responsible," " A c c u r a c y , " "Fairness," "Studentcentred," " C l a r i t y , " "Significance," "Specificity" a n d "Relevance." A l t h o u g h most of these concepts a p p e a r i n the c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g literature, t h e y w e r e n o t p o p u l a r choices a m o n g the teachers s u r v e y e d . P e r h a p s t h e y d o n o t d e s c r i b e w h a t c l a s s r o o m teachers b e l i e v e are the essential c o m p o n e n t s of t h i n k i n g c r i t i c a l l y . W h i l e t h e y a l l d e s c r i b e p o s i t i v e s t u d e n t attributes o r f a v o u r a b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e s u n d e r w h i c h l e a r n i n g c a n o c c u r , their m e a n i n g is l a r g e l y e m b e d d e d i n b e h a v i o u r a l objectives r a t h e r t h a n c o g n i t i v e processes o r l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s . " C o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g , " w a s f o u n d to be of little r e l e v a n c e to c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g — a l t h o u g h a p o p u l a r t e a c h i n g style i n b o t h B . C . a n d J a p a n it w a s o n l y e n d o r s e d b y s i x t e e n percent of teachers. T h i s s e r v e d as a r e l i a b i l i t y check. It suggests that teachers d i d n o t s i m p l y choose p o p u l a r " b u z z w o r d s " o r v o c a b u l a r y that w e r e m o s t f a m i l i a r to t h e m . " C o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g " w a s i n c l u d e d as a distracter a n d is n o t t y p i c a l l y referred to i n c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g literature. S o m e w o r d s c o m m o n l y referred to i n the l i t e r a t u r e are n o t p a r t of m o s t teachers' v o c a b u l a r y . T h i s is e s p e c i a l l y t r u e o f the o l d e r m o r e e x p e r i e n c e d teachers a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r of J a p a n ' s teachers. F o r e x a m p l e , " M e t a c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s " a n d " S o c r a t i c q u e s t i o n i n g " w e r e o n l y selected b y a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d of the teachers, h o w e v e r these strategies are often u s e d i n b o t h the h u m a n i t i e s a n d sciences w i t h o u t teachers b e i n g a w a r e of the f o r m a l w o r d s u s e d to describe t h e m .  61 I n the o p e n - e n d e d s e c t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , s e v e r a l teachers c o m m e n t e d o n the use o f q u e s t i o n i n g a n d c o n c e p t - m a p p i n g as tools to foster c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , yet t h e y d i d n o t select " S o c r a t i c q u e s t i o n i n g " or " M e t a c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s " w h i c h describe e a c h of these t e a c h i n g strategies respectfully.  D i f f e r e n c e s B e t w e e n B . C . a n d Japanese T e a c h e r s W h i l e m a n y s i m i l a r i t i e s e x i s t e d b e t w e e n the c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g definers selected b y Japanese a n d B . C . teachers, there w e r e statistically s i g n i f i c a n t differences for 27 of the 50 definers (see T a b l e 5 u n d e r C u l t u r e ) . F o u r t e e n definers w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y different at the p<.001 l e v e l : " P r o b l e m s o l v i n g , " " A n a l y t i c a l skills," "Objective," " H i g h e r order thinking," " D r a w i n g conclusions," "Deductive reasoning," "Synthesis," " I d e n t i f y i n g / r e m o v i n g bias," "Decision making," "Divergent thinking," "Consistency," "Metacognitive skills," " F a i r n e s s " a n d " A d e q u a c y . " A n u m b e r of these definers s h o w e d a m a r k e d contrast: " D e c i s i o n m a k i n g " w a s c h o s e n b y 70 percent of the B . C . teachers b u t o n l y 25 p e r c e n t of the Japanese teachers; " D i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g " w a s c h o s e n b y 63 percent a n d 25 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . M o r e o v e r , B . C . teachers w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to have chosen " P r o b l e m solving," "Analytical skills," " H i g h e r order thinking," " D r a w i n g conclusions," "Deductive reasoning," "Synthesis," "Identifying/ r e m o v i n g b i a s , " a n d " M e t a c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s . " Japanese teachers o n the other h a n d , w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to h a v e selected " O b j e c t i v e , " " C o n s i s t e n c y , " " F a i r n e s s " a n d " A d e q u a c y . " W h i l e " F a i r n e s s " w a s selected b y 45 percent of the Japanese teachers, o n l y s e v e n p e r c e n t of the B . C . teachers e n d o r s e d it. These definers d e s c r i b e b e h a v i o u r a n d m o r a l i t y — c o n c e p t s that are e m p h a s i z e d i n J a p a n ' s s c h o o l s . T h u s , w h i l e B . C . teachers m a y h a v e r e l a t e d c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g m o r e to the c o g n i t i v e d o m a i n , Japanese teachers t e n d e d to f a v o u r the affective d o m a i n .  62 Table 5 Correlations Between Fifty Definers of Critical T h i n k i n g and Seven Characteristics of Teacher Demographics Correlations: Culture Definers of Critical Thinking  Gender  Age  Teaching Experience  CTin Curriculum  CT Taught  CT Total  Accuracy Active participation Adequacy Analysis Analytical skills  -.13 .00 -.39** .16 .28**  .08 -.22* .01 -.11 -.05  .12 -.14 .00 -.10 -.08  .12 -.16 -.02 -.15 -.15  -.06 .03 -.13 -.02 .11  .02 .05 -.71 .07 .13  .35** .37** .39** .45** .46**  Clarifying ideas Clarity Completeness Consistency Constructive skepticism  -.07 .10 -.24* -.31** .15  -.01 -.02 .04 .06 -.04  .00 .01 .05 .04 -.17  -.05 -.07 .05 .07 -.22*  .08 .05 -.09 -.11 .05  .13 .10 -.02 -.15 .13  .51** .47** .33** .30** .44**  Convergent thinking Cooperative learning Creative thinking Decision making Deductive reasoning  . 10 .12 -.04 .45** .33**  -.01 -.06 -.10 -.20 -.01  .05 -.16 .05 -.20 -.05  .04 -.16 .01 -.26* -.12  -.02 -.01 .05 .14 .06  .09 .06 -.05 .16 .26*  .45** .42** .41** .44** .44**  Depth Disciplined Discovery learning Divergent thinking Drawing conclusions  .05 .16 -.08 .39 .29  -.11 -.09 -.02 -.07 -.14  -.09 -.07 -.09 -.09 .00  -.13 -.09 -.10 -.13 -.05  -.08 .10 .08 .11 .15  .04 .09 -.02 .18 .07  .51** .27** .44** 38** .54**  Drawing inferences Evaluating assumptions Evaluation Fairness Higher order thinking  .15 .23 .13* -.42** .34**  -.16 -.12 -.19 .09 -.22*  .06 -.18 -.16 -.07 -.23*  .03 -.23* -.19 -.04 -.30*  .03 .10 .00 -.08 .10  .00 .19 .00 -.21* .17  .52** .47** .38** .26** .43**  Hypothesize Identifying/removing bias Independent thinking Inductive reasoning Intellectual challenges  .21* .33** .08 .18 -.07  -.05 -.21* -.15 .07 -.01  -.08 -.16 -.04 .02 -.04  -.15 -.22* -.04 .01 -.05  .05 .09 .14 .06 -.02  .17 .11 .10 .12 -.07  .63** .53** .42** .48** .42**  Investigate Logical Metacognitive skills Objective Open-minded  .22* -.07 .34** -.33** .04  -.21* .02 -.18 .11 -.10  -.15 .03 -.20 .07 -.03  -.22* -.01 -.27* .09 -.07  .11 -.16 .18 -.13 .00  .15 -.06 .27** -.20 .00  .50** .39** .43** .26* .39**  Precision Problem solving Rational thinking Reasoning Relevance  -.12 .40** .10 .24* .25*  .13 -.09 -.10 -.12 -.16  .14 -.16 -.03 -.06 -.11  .08 -.22* -.09 -.08 -.15  -.09 .16 -.02 .04 .16  .00 .15 .07 .24* .15  .46** .42** .52** .49** .47**  Responsible Self-directed Significance Socratic questioning Specificity  -.18 -.15 .20 .16 -.19  .06 .06 -.08 .06 .07  .03 -.12 -.14 .00 -.13  .01 -.13 -.20 -.05 -.14  .03 .02 .07 .04 -.08  -.04 -.01 .22* .15 -.08  .34** .30** .47** .50** .49**  Student-centred Subjective Synthesis Taking ownership Thoughtful judgements  .07 -.08 .31** -.16 .01  -.04 .05 .00 -.07 -.08  -.19 -.1 .00 -.13 -.02  -.22* -.06 -.04 -.14 -.06  .13 -.02 .10 .03 .10  -.02 -.02 .34** .01 .06  .37** .37** .50** .31** .46**  *p<.01 **<.001  63 These sorts of contrasts b e t w e e n E a s t e r n a n d W e s t e r n t h i n k i n g are w e l l d o c u m e n t e d ( C u m m i n g s & A l t b a c h , 1997; L e w i s , 1995; G a r d n e r , 1989; R e i d , 1999; R o h l e n & L e T e n d r e , 1996; S h i e l d s , 1993; S h i m a h a r a & S a k a i , 1995; S t e r n , 1995; S t e v e n s o n & L e e , 1995; S t e v e n s o n & S t i g l e r , 1992). T h e d a t a i n this s t u d y reflected this to s o m e degree (see C h a p t e r 7 for a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n ) . S i x definers s i g n i f i c a n t l y differentiated the t w o c u l t u r e s at the p<.01 l e v e l . B . C . teachers w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to chose " R e a s o n i n g , " " E v a l u a t i n g a s s u m p t i o n s , " " H y p o t h e s i z e , " "Investigate," a n d " R e l e v a n c e " w h i l e Japanese teachers w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to h a v e selected " C o m p l e t e n e s s . " It w o u l d a p p e a r that B . C . teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g c o r r e l a t e d w i t h c o g n i t i v e processes w h i l e Japanese teachers c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g c o r r e l a t e d w i t h m o r e concrete l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e h a v i o u r a l objectives. I n a d d i t i o n , s e v e n other definers s h o w e d s i g n i f i c a n t differences b a s e d o n a t-test: " A n a l y s i s , " " I n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g , " " T a k i n g o w n e r s h i p , " " S o c r a t i c q u e s t i o n i n g , " " S p e c i f i c i t y , " " S i g n i f i c a n c e " a n d " R e s p o n s i b l e . " B . C . teachers w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to h a v e c h o s e n " A n a l y s i s , " " I n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g , " a n d " S o c r a t i c q u e s t i o n i n g . " Japanese teachers w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to h a v e selected " T a k i n g o w n e r s h i p , " " S p e c i f i c i t y " a n d " R e s p o n s i b l e . " These results further i l l u s t r a t e differences i n the n a t u r e of E a s t e r n a n d W e s t e r n t h o u g h t w i t h i n the context of Japanese a n d B . C . h i g h s c h o o l teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g .  Differences Based on the Total Number of Definers Chosen A s s h o w n i n T a b l e 4, the difference i n the n u m b e r of definers c h o s e n b y B . C . a n d Japanese teachers is s m a l l b u t statistically s i g n i f i c a n t , as the m e a n n u m b e r of definers c h o s e n w a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25 for the B . C . teachers a n d 21 for the Japanese teachers (t=-2.25, p<.03). M o r e t h a n a f e w teachers chose o n l y ten  64  w o r d s w h i l e o n e chose a l l 50. It is q u i t e l i k e l y that these i n d i v i d u a l s either m i s u n d e r s t o o d the i n s t r u c t i o n s ( c o n f u s i n g the r a n k i n g of the t o p ten w o r d s w i t h the s o r t i n g p r o c e d u r e s u c h that o n l y 10 cards w e r e chosen) o r d e l i b e r a t e l y chose a n easier w a y to c o m p l e t e the task. S o m e teachers t o o k o n l y 10 m i n u t e s to c o m p l e t e the s u r v e y w h i l e others l a b o u r e d for as l o n g as h a l f - a n - h o u r . Therefore, the q u a l i t y o f a n s w e r s f r o m teachers' responses to the o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s w a s t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n a d d i t i o n to the q u a n t i t a t i v e results f r o m the card-sort p r o c e d u r e .  Differences Based on Gender A s s h o w n i n T a b l e 5, o n l y f o u r definers of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to g e n d e r . " H i g h e r o r d e r t h i n k i n g , " " I n v e s t i g a t e , " "Identifying/removing bias" and "Active participation" were significantly different (p<.01) f r o m the other definers. W o m e n w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to choose each of these.  Differences Based on Age " H i g h e r o r d e r t h i n k i n g " w a s the o n l y definer s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d (p<.01) to age (see T a b l e 5). Y o u n g e r teachers t e n d e d to choose this w o r d m o r e f r e q u e n t l y t h a n their o l d e r c o l l e a g u e s . T h i s is l i k e l y d u e to the recent i n t r o d u c t i o n o f " H i g h e r o r d e r t h i n k i n g " to teacher e d u c a t i o n . T h i s t e r m w a s n o t u s e d c o m m o n l y u n t i l the 1980s.  Differences Based on Career Experience A s s h o w n i n T a b l e 5, n i n e definers w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to career e x p e r i e n c e . T h r e e w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y different at the p<.001 l e v e l : " D e c i s i o n  65 m a k i n g , " " H i g h e r o r d e r t h i n k i n g " a n d " M e t a c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s . " S i x definers w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y different at the p<.01 l e v e l : " C o n s t r u c t i v e s k e p t i c i s m , " " E v a l u a t i n g assumptions," " I d e n t i f y i n g / r e m o v i n g bias," "Investigate," " P r o b l e m s o l v i n g " a n d " S t u d e n t - c e n t r e d . " A l l of these definers w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to be c h o s e n b y teachers w i t h less career experience. T h i s is p r o b a b l y d u e to less e x p e r i e n c e d teachers b e i n g recent g r a d u a t e s of teacher e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s w h e r e t e a c h i n g strategies e m p l o y i n g these concepts are e m p h a s i z e d .  R e l a t i o n s h i p s B a s e d o n C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g i n the C u r r i c u l u m I n a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n , teachers w e r e a s k e d to c o m p l e t e s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e q u i r i n g t h e m to reflect o n w h e t h e r c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w a s p a r t of their s c h o o l s c u r r i c u l u m o r p a r t of their c l a s s r o o m ' s a g e n d a (see A p p e n d i x A , Q u e s t i o n s 9-11). T h e r e w a s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the definers c h o s e n b y teachers a n d t h e i r response to the q u e s t i o n , "Is c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m i n y o u r subject area?"  Relationships Based on Critical T h i n k i n g i n Teaching A s s h o w n i n T a b l e 5, s i x definers w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to teachers' response to the q u e s t i o n , " D o y o u teach c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ? " T e a c h e r s w h o chose "Deductive Reasoning," "Metacognitive Skills," "Reasoning," "Significance" and " S y n t h e s i s " w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to a n s w e r " y e s " to the q u e s t i o n , w h i l e teachers w h o chose " F a i r n e s s " t e n d e d to a n s w e r " n o . " W h i l e " M e t a c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s " a n d " S y n t h e s i s " w e r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.001), " D e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g , " " F a i r n e s s , " " R e a s o n i n g " a n d " S i g n i f i c a n c e " w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y different at the p<.01 l e v e l .  66 Distinguishing B . C . from Japanese Teachers T a b l e 6 s h o w s the 27 statistically s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.001) d e f i n e r s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g that d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n B . C . a n d Japanese teachers, l i s t e d i n o r d e r of their d i s c r i m i n a t i n g p o w e r . T h e first definer to enter the e q u a t i o n w a s " D e c i s i o n m a k i n g " followed b y "Fairness."  Table 6 Critical T h i n k i n g Definers that Significantly Distinguished Between B . C . and Japanese Teachers Critical  Thinking  Definer  Decision making Fairness Higher order thinking Adequacy Synthesis Reasoning Clarifying ideas Identifying/removing bias Objective Intellectual challenges Analytical skills Completeness Disciplined Consistency Accuracy Active participation Discovery learning Problem solving Convergent thinking Student-centred Specificity Cooperative learning Socratic questioning Metacognitive skills Deductive reasoning Analysis Evaluation  Wilks' La .79 .61 .54 .48 .44 .42 .39 .38 .36 .34 .33 .32 .30 .28 .28 .27 .26 .25 .24 .24 .24 .24 .23 .23 .23 .22 .22  67  T h e s e 27 definers of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g c o r r e c t l y classified 96.9 p e r c e n t o f the teachers s u r v e y e d as B . C . o r Japanese. T a b l e 7 s h o w s the extent to w h i c h the single canonical discriminant function successfully determined  which  r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e f r o m B . C . a n d w h i c h w e r e f r o m J a p a n . T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s p o n d e n t s is s h o w n i n F i g u r e 6. T h e r e is a clear p a t t e r n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . W h i l e B . C . teachers t e n d e d to choose " D e c i s i o n m a k i n g / ' " P r o b l e m s o l v i n g , " "Divergent thinking," "Metacognitive skills," " H i g h e r order thinking," " D e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g , " a n d " I d e n t i f y i n g / r e m o v i n g b i a s , " Japanese teachers t e n d e d to chose " F a i r n e s s , " " A d e q u a c y , " " O b j e c t i v e , " " C o n s i s t e n c y , " "Completeness," Precision," and "Specificity." The canonical discriminant f u n c t i o n is a v a r i a b l e l i k e a n u n r o t a t e d factor. F i g u r e 6 s h o w s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of B . C . a n d Japanese teachers a l o n g this u n i - d i m e n s i o n a l v a r i a b l e , c a l l e d the i n d e x of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a b o u t c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . T h e n u m b e r s a l o n g the x-axis are e s s e n t i a l l y z-scores a l o n g this d i m e n s i o n of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n w h i c h the centre o f a l l the teachers is z e r o a n d each u n i t is one s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n a w a y f r o m zero. O n a v e r a g e B . C . teachers h a d a n i n d e x of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n C b = 2.07 w h i l e Japanese teachers h a d Cj = -1.67. T h u s , B . C . a n d Japanese teachers w e r e 3.74 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s apart o n this d i m e n s i o n of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g .  Table 7 Accuracy of Discriminant Function Distinguishing B . C . and Japanese Teachers Predicted G r o u p M e m b e r s h i p B.C.  Actual Group Membership Japan Total  B.C.  Count % of Teachers f r o m :  70.0 98.6  1.0 1.4  71.0 100.0  Japan  Count % of Teachers f r o m :  4.0 4.5  84.0 95.5  88.0 100.0  71.0 100.0  88.0 100.0  159.0 100.0  Total  Count % of Teachers f r o m :  68  Legend: 1 2  j=Japanese teachers b=B.C. teachers  Class centroids:  Cj = 1.67 Cb= 2.07  Frequency  j  b J J b b b JJ j j jj b b b b bbbb b jj j j jjj b b bb bbbbbb b J jj j j jbb bb bbbbbb b J J JJJJJJJJJJJ j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j bjbb bbbbbbbbbbbbb b jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjbbjbjbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb b  -4.0  Fairness Adequacy Objective Consistency Completeness Precision Specificity  -2.0Q  0  2.0Cb  4.0  Decision making Problem solving Divergent thinking Metacognitive skills Higher order thinking Deductive reasoning Identifying/removing bias  Figure 6. Distribution of Respondents on the Single Canonical Discriminant Function of Significant Critical T h i n k i n g Definers  Ranking Selected Definers of Critical T h i n k i n g I n a d d i t i o n to s e l e c t i n g or n o t s e l e c t i n g definers, teachers w e r e a s k e d to choose the t e n that w e r e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t to c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . A b r o a d e r scope to their v i e w s c a n be o b t a i n e d b y i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r a n k i n g of the t o p ten definers (see F i g u r e 7). W h i l e " F a i r n e s s " w a s r a n k e d i n the t o p ten b y 22.7 p e r c e n t of Japanese teachers, it w a s r a n k e d b y o n l y 1.4 percent of B . C . teachers. O t h e r definers w e r e c h o s e n m u c h m o r e f r e q u e n t l y b y J a p a n ' s teachers. F o r e x a m p l e , " O b j e c t i v e " w a s c h o s e n b y 75 percent a n d r a n k e d i n the top ten b y 59.1 percent of Japanese teachers w h e r e a s o n l y 42 percent of the B . C . teachers chose it a n d 9.9  69  Percentage of Definers Endorsed  Percentage of Definers Ranked in the Top Ten  Japan]  1(75/40) 1(72/37) 1(71/38) 1(70/48) 1(70/44)  Reasoning' Drawing inferences Analytical skills Problem solving Clarifying ideas  1(64/30) 1(64/40) 1(64/22) 1(62/24) 1(62/30) 1(62/30) 1(60/30) 1(60/29) • (60/37) (59/30) 59/23) (58/30) (58/27) (58/21) (58/26) (55/21) (53/29) 1(50/24)  Creative thinking' Inductive reasoning' Logical Evaluating assumptions Thoughtful judgements Independent thinking Intellectual challenges Objective Higher order thinking Hypothesize' Constructive skepticism Deductive reasoning Drawing conclusions Rational thinking Investigate' Open-minded Synthesis Identifying/removing  bias  (47/15) (45/16) ^•1(44/22) (42/16) (41/9) (40/14) (38/14)  Decision making Discovery learning Divergent thinking Convergent thinking Evaluation Taking ownership Consistency Depth Self-directed Active  participation  Metacognitive skills Socratic questioning Relevance Clarity Significance Specificity Accuracy Fairness Student-centred Responsible Subjective Precision Adequacy Cooperative learning Completeness Disciplined  (35/9) (35/10) (34/14) (34/14) 1(33/8) (32/8) (31/6) (31/6) 31/7) (28/5) 1(28/13) 1(28/11) 1(26/8) 1(25/8) (24/5) J(1 8/4) 1(16/4) 1(13/3) 1(13/4  F i g u r e 7. Percentage o f C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g D e f i n e r s E n d o r s e d , then S u b s e q u e n t l y R a n k e d i n the T o p T e n  70 percent r a n k e d it i n the t o p ten. Japanese teachers (36 percent) p l a c e d m o r e i m p o r t a n c e o n " I n d e p e n d e n t t h i n k i n g " t h a n d i d B . C . teachers (21 percent). M o r e o v e r , 11 p e r c e n t o f the Japanese teachers r a n k e d it as t h e i r n u m b e r one selection, i n contrast to the B . C . teachers w h e r e o n l y three p e r c e n t g a v e it the t o p r a n k . T h i s is c o u n t e r to the s t e r e o t y p i c a T n o t i o n s of Japanese v a l u i n g the g r o u p o v e r the i n d i v i d u a l a n d W e s t e r n v i e w s of c r e a t i n g i n d e p e n d e n c e at the e x p e n s e of a l l else. O t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g c o m p a r i s o n s c a n be f o u n d w i t h " C r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g , " "Problem solving," "Reasoning," and "Thoughtful judgements." W h i l e nearly the s a m e p e r c e n t a g e of teachers f r o m B . C . a n d J a p a n chose " T h o u g h t f u l j u d g e m e n t s , " 30 o f the 88 Japanese teachers (34 percent) r a n k e d it a n d 4 chose it as the n u m b e r one m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t definer. I n contrast, o n l y 18 o f the 71 B . C . teachers (25 percent) r a n k e d it a n d it w a s n o t c h o s e n as n u m b e r o n e . T h i s serves to i l l u s t r a t e a n i m p o r t a n t characteristic o f the data—Japan's teachers w e r e m o r e selective i n t h e i r choices. B . C . ' s teachers t e n d e d to chose m o r e d e f i n e r s (see T a b l e 4, ' T o t a l W o r d s E n d o r s e d ' ) . T h u s , the r a n k i n g is h e l p f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h i c h definers are m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t to teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g .  T h e S t r u c t u r e of C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g W h i l e p e r f o r m i n g the a n a l y s i s , there a p p e a r e d to be c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p i n responses as e v i d e n c e d b y the l a r g e n u m b e r of definers c h o s e n b y m a n y teachers (see T a b l e 4). H e n c e , a teacher c l a i m i n g that " A n a l y s i s " is p a r t of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w a s also l i k e l y to e n d o r s e " A n a l y t i c a l s k i l l s " a n d t w e n t y o r m o r e other definers o n average. Therefore, it w a s d e c i d e d to r e d u c e the d a t a i n t o m o r e m a n a g e a b l e , a n d p o s s i b l y m o r e m e a n i n g f u l categories. F a c t o r a n a l y s i s , u s i n g SPSS w a s d e t e r m i n e d to be the m o s t efficient m e a n s to a c h i e v e t h i s .  71 Elements of Critical T h i n k i n g and the Factoring Procedure T h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x o f 50 c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g definers for the 158 r e s p o n d e n t s for w h o m data w a s a v a i l a b l e , y i e l d e d 15 factors w i t h e i g e n v a l u e s greater t h a n o n e , a c c o u n t i n g for 65.6 percent o f the c o m m o n factor v a r i a n c e (see A p p e n d i x D ) . T h i s m a t r i x w a s subjected to a p r i n c i p a l c o m p o n e n t a n a l y s i s w i t h e q u a m a x a n d v a r i m a x r o t a t i o n s w i t h four, five a n d s i x o f the largest factors. A five factor s o l u t i o n w i t h e q u a m a x r o t a t i o n y i e l d e d the m o s t i n t e r p r e t a b l e factor structure a n d a c c o u n t e d for 40.9 percent o f the c o m m o n factor v a r i a n c e (see T a b l e 8).  Factors of Critical T h i n k i n g T h e five factors w e r e l a b e l e d : (1) Scientific Strategizing, Engagement.  (3) Conscientious  Judgements,  Reasoning,  (4) Relevance  (2)  a n d (5)  Cognitive Intellectual  F o r c l a r i t y , T a b l e 8 s h o w s o n l y l o a d i n g s .40 a n d greater.  Factor 1: Scientific  Reasoning  F a c t o r 1, Scientific  Reasoning,  a c c o u n t e d for 10.2 p e r c e n t o f the c o m m o n  factor v a r i a n c e . It c o n s i s t e d o f the f o l l o w i n g e i g h t definers o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g : D r a w i n g inferences (.68), H y p o t h e s i z e (.65), C o n v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g (.59), I n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g (.59), C r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g (.50), P r o b l e m s o l v i n g (.46), D r a w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s (.46) a n d D e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g (.41). These definers i n c o r p o r a t e a scientific q u a l i t y e x e m p l i f y i n g a ' s l e u t h - l i k e ' s e a r c h for d e e p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  72 Table 8 C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g Factor L o a d i n g s Factor 1 Scientific Critical Thinking Definers Reasoning Drawing inferences Hypothesize Convergent thinking Inductive reasoning Creative thinking Problem solving Drawing conclusions Metacognitive skills Constructive skepticism Socratic questioning Identifying/removing bias Rational thinking Higher order thinking Evaluating assumptions Open-minded Deductive reasoning  Factor 2 Factor 3 Cognitive Conscientious Strategizing Judgements  .68 .65 .59 .59 .50 .46 .46  .41  Factor 5 Intellectual Engagement  .47 .44 .70 .64 .61 .59 .55 .54 .46 .40 .44  Accuracy Consistency Objective Adequacy Specificity Precision Fairness Logical Responsible  .68 .61 .60 .58 .54 .54 .51 .49 .45  Clarity Relevance Decision making Significance Completeness Synthesis  .61 .53 .52 .51 .50 .41  Active participation Taking ownership Discovery learning Student-centred Intellectual challenges Self-directed Subjective Independent thinking Cooperative learning percent of variance explained: 10.2 % percent cumulative variance: 10.2 % all percents after rotation  Factor 4 Relevance  8.6 % 18.8 %  8.3 % 27.1 %  .42  .62 .56 .56 .54 .54 .45 .44 .43 .43  7.4 % 34.5 %  6.5 % 41.0 %  73 Factor 2: Cognitive Strategizing, F a c t o r 2, Cognitive Strategizing, a c c o u n t e d for 8.6 p e r c e n t of the c o m m o n factor v a r i a n c e . It c o n s i s t e d o f the f o l l o w i n g n i n e definers o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g : M e t a c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s (.70), C o n s t r u c t i v e s k e p t i c i s m (.64), S o c r a t i c q u e s t i o n i n g (.61), I d e n t i f y i n g / r e m o v i n g b i a s (.59), R a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g (.55), H i g h e r o r d e r t h i n k i n g (.54), E v a l u a t i n g a s s u m p t i o n s (.46), D e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g (.44) a n d O p e n m i n d e d (.40). T h e s e definers represent h i g h e r o r d e r c o g n i t i v e strategies that e n c o u r a g e p r o b i n g q u e s t i o n s a n d c r i t i c a l responses.  Factor 3: Conscientious  Judgements  F a c t o r 3, Conscientious Judgements, a c c o u n t e d for 8.3 p e r c e n t o f the c o m m o n factor v a r i a n c e . It c o n s i s t e d o f the f o l l o w i n g n i n e definers of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g : A c c u r a c y (.68), C o n s i s t e n c y (.61), O b j e c t i v e (.60), A d e q u a c y (.58), Specificity (.54), P r e c i s i o n (.54), F a i r n e s s (.51), L o g i c a l (.49) a n d R e s p o n s i b l e (.45). These definers e m b o d y e t h i c a l , m o r a l a n d c o n s c i e n t i o u s j u d g e m e n t s m a d e i n a disciplined a n d systematic manner.  Factor 4: Relevance F a c t o r 4, Relevance, a c c o u n t e d for 7.4 p e r c e n t of the c o m m o n factor v a r i a n c e . It c o n s i s t e d o f the f o l l o w i n g e i g h t definers of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g : C l a r i t y (.61), R e l e v a n c e (.53), D e c i s i o n m a k i n g (.52), S i g n i f i c a n c e (.51), C o m p l e t e n e s s (.51), D r a w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s (.44), C o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g (.42) a n d S y n t h e s i s (.41). These definers reflect the clear, c o n c i s e a n d u n a m b i g u o u s n a t u r e of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . A l s o , there is a l i n k b e t w e e n the c o g n i t i v e a n d affective d o m a i n s i n the definers of F a c t o r 4. F o r e x a m p l e , D r a w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s a n d S y n t h e s i s m a y h a v e concrete l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s m a n i f e s t e d i n C o m p l e t e n e s s a n d C l a r i t y .  74  Factor 5: Intellectual Engagement F a c t o r 5, Intellectual Engagement, a c c o u n t e d for 6.5 p e r c e n t o f the c o m m o n factor v a r i a n c e . It c o n s i s t e d o f the f o l l o w i n g t e n d e f i n e r s o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g : A c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n (.62), D i s c o v e r y l e a r n i n g (.56), S t u d e n t - c e n t r e d (.54), I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a l l e n g e s (.54), C r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g (.48), S e l f - d i r e c t e d (.45), Subjective(.44), I n d e p e n d e n t t h i n k i n g (.43), T a k i n g o w n e r s h i p (.56) a n d C o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g (.43). These definers share a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t a p p r o a c h to c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g — i n t e l l e c t u a l e n g a g e m e n t o c c u r s w h e n a n i n d i v i d u a l is a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s a n d i n t r i n s i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d .  Scale S c o r i n g R e c a l l that r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e a s k e d to either e n d o r s e o r reject c a r d s p u r p o r t i n g to d e s c r i b e attributes o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . T h u s , i f a d e f i n e r w a s c h o s e n it w a s c o d e d " 1 " ; a rejected definer w a s c o d e d " 0 " . I n i t i a l l y , m e a n scale scores w e r e d e r i v e d b y s u m m i n g o v e r responses to the definers c o m p r i s i n g e a c h factor a n d d i v i d i n g b y the n u m b e r o f definers w i t h i n e a c h e q u a m a x factor. H o w e v e r , the results also s h o w e d that the t o t a l n u m b e r o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g definers c h o s e n b y each teacher w a s s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.001) across a l l five factors. I n o r d e r to correct for this artifact, n o r m a l i z e d scale scores w e r e d e r i v e d b y t a k i n g the scale scores d i v i d e d b y the t o t a l n u m b e r o f definers c h o s e n . T h u s , n o r m a l i z e d scale scores r a n g e d f r o m z e r o to o n e . L a r g e r scores i n d i c a t e d a greater c o r r e l a t i o n to c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . W h i l e m e a n s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s w e r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e for a l l the data, a c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x p r o v i d e d the m o s t concise w a y to s u m m a r i z e the results. T a b l e 9 s h o w s the r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n n o r m a l i z e d scale scores associated w i t h the five c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g factors a n d selected s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c characteristics o f B . C . a n d Japanese teachers.  75  Table 9 Relationships Between Critical T h i n k i n g Scale Scores and Socio-demographic Characteristics of B.C. and Japanese Teachers Correlation  (r=Pearson)  C u l t u r e (Japan=0, Gender  B.C.=1)  (Woman=0,  Man=l)  Scientific Reasoning  Cognitive Strategizing  .15  .28**  Conscientious Judgements  Relevance  Intellectual Engagement  -.51**  .37**  -.26*  -.03  -.12  .18  -.05  .05  Age  .12  -.19  .15  -.03  -.03  Teaching experience  .13  -.21*  .18  -.10  .01  Critical Thinking i n curriculum  .04  -.05  -.08  -.02  .05  Critical Thinking i n classroom  -.05  .02  -.14  -.07  .14  N u m b e r of C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g definers chosen  -.01  .02  -.06  .26  .34*  Subject A r e a  (r=Eta)  .18  Mean .25  SD .10  Math  .18  .07  Science  .21  .08  Social Studies  .24  .11  Fine A r t  .21  .15  Foreign Languages  .20  .11  Other  .16  .09  Language Arts  N o t e : M i n i m u m p a i r w i s e N o f cases = 158  2-tailed s i g n i f i c a n c e : * p < .01  N o r m a l i z e d Scale Scores u s e d f o r a l l five factors.  .28**  -.02  .20  .19  * * p < .001  Relationships Between Critical T h i n k i n g Scale Scores and Socio-demographic Characteristics of B.C. and Japanese Teachers O f the 159 teachers s u r v e y e d , 158 p r o v i d e d data for the factor a n a l y s i s a n d the n o r m a l i z e d scale scores r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 9. O n e Japanese teacher refused to c o m p l e t e the c a r d sort p r o c e d u r e as he felt it w a s a m b i g u o u s , yet h i s c o m m e n t s a n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e q u a l i t a t i v e i n s i g h t s so he w a s i n c l u d e d i n the rest of the a n a l y s i s . P e a r s o n coefficients w e r e u s e d to s h o w c o r r e l a t i o n s  76 b e t w e e n C u l t u r e , G e n d e r , A g e , T e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g i n the c u r r i c u l u m , C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g t a u g h t i n the c l a s s r o o m , N u m b e r of C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g d e f i n e r s c h o s e n a n d the n o r m a l i z e d scale scores f r o m the five factors. L a r g e r a b s o l u t e v a l u e s i n T a b l e 9 i n d i c a t e s t r o n g e r c o r r e l a t i o n s . S i n c e teachers f r o m J a p a n a n d B . C . w e r e c o d e d w i t h " 0 " a n d "1" r e s p e c t i v e l y , p o s i t i v e coefficients i n the first r o w of T a b l e 9 reflect factors that w e r e e n d o r s e d m o r e b y B . C . teachers w h i l e n e g a t i v e coefficients reflect factors that w e r e e n d o r s e d m o r e b y Japanese teachers. L i k e w i s e , since w o m e n a n d m e n w e r e c o d e d w i t h " 0 " a n d " 1 " r e s p e c t i v e l y , p o s i t i v e coefficients i n the s e c o n d r o w of T a b l e 9 reflect factors e n d o r s e d m o r e b y m e n w h i l e n e g a t i v e coefficients reflect factors e n d o r s e d m o r e b y w o m e n . T h e characteristics of T e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a n d A g e w e r e e n t e r e d d i r e c t l y i n t o S P S S as w h o l e n u m b e r integers, therefore n e g a t i v e coefficients i n the T e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a n d A g e r o w s of T a b l e 9 i n d i c a t e n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s (less e x p e r i e n c e or y o u n g e r ) . T h e q u e s t i o n s "Is C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m i n y o u r subject area?" a n d " D o y o u teach C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g i n y o u r c l a s s r o o m ? " w e r e c o d e d " 0 , " " 1 , " a n d " 2 " for the responses " N o , " " M a y b e , " a n d " Y e s , " r e s p e c t i v e l y . F i n a l l y , since the characteristic of Subject area does n o t enable a P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n , a n E t a coefficient w a s u s e d i n s t e a d . A s c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e m o s t s u c c i n c t i n r e p o r t i n g the results, m e a n s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s w e r e o n l y i n c l u d e d i n the o n e case s h o w i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t difference b e t w e e n subject areas.  Culture T h e r e w a s a clear d i s t i n c t i o n a n d s i g n i f i c a n t difference b e t w e e n B . C . a n d Japanese teachers o n f o u r factors. W h i l e Cognitive a n d Relevance Conscientious  Strategizing  (r = .28, p<.001)  (r = .37, p<.001) w e r e of greater s i g n i f i c a n c e to the B . C . teachers, Judgements  ( r = -.51, p<.001) w a s far m o r e so for the Japanese  77 teachers. I n a d d i t i o n , b u t to a lesser extent Intellectual Engagement (r = -.26, p<.01) w a s a l s o f o u n d to be m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t to the Japanese teachers.  Gender/Age/Teaching  Experience  T h e r e w e r e n o s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g b a s e d o n t h e i r g e n d e r or age (see T a b l e 9). H o w e v e r , teachers w i t h less e x p e r i e n c e s u p p o r t e d Cognitive Strategizing  (r = -.21, p<.01)  s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e t h a n e x p e r i e n c e d teachers. O l d e r m o r e e x p e r i e n c e d teachers m a y h a v e different v i e w s t h a n t h e i r y o u n g e r c o l l e a g u e s , r e f l e c t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n teacher e d u c a t i o n o v e r the past three decades. " C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " is a r e l a t i v e l y n e w c o n c e p t , h o w e v e r the u n d e r l y i n g ideas o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g are not. T h u s , w h i l e less e x p e r i e n c e d teachers w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to e n d o r s e Cognitive Strategizing  a n d w e r e m o r e f a m i l i a r w i t h the n e w e r t e r m i n o l o g y (for e x a m p l e :  M e t a c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s ) , t a k i n g a l l five factors i n t o a c c o u n t there a p p e a r s to be m o r e s o l i d a r i t y a m o n g teachers as a c o l l e c t i v e g r o u p t h a n age o r e x p e r i e n c e c a n dictate.  Critical Thinking in the Curriculum  and the Teaching of Critical  Thinking  T h e r e s p o n s e to q u e s t i o n s "Is c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g p a r t o f the c u r r i c u l u m i n y o u r subject a r e a ? " a n d "Is c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g t a u g h t i n y o u r c l a s s r o o m ? " p r o v i d e d a t a to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f B . C . a n d Japanese t e a c h i n g a n d the c u r r i c u l u m at the s e c o n d a r y l e v e l (see T a b l e s 10-11). W h i l e 62 p e r c e n t of the B . C . teachers i n d i c a t e d c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w a s p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m a n d o v e r 70 p e r c e n t c l a i m e d to teach it i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m , 24 p e r c e n t of the r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e u n s u r e . T h e r e w a s e v e n m o r e i n d e c i s i o n o n the p a r t o f J a p a n ' s teachers. W h i l e 41 p e r c e n t of the Japanese teachers i n d i c a t e d that c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w a s p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m o n l y 34 p e r c e n t c l a i m e d to t e a c h it a n d 38  78  percent w e r e u n s u r e . T h e r e w a s n o s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n teachers w h o i n d i c a t e d that c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w a s a p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m for t h e i r subject area a n d a n y of the n o r m a l i z e d scale scores for the five factors (see T a b l e 9). M o r e o v e r , there w a s n o s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t e a c h i n g c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n the c l a s s r o o m a n d a n y of the n o r m a l i z e d scale scores for the five factors.  Table 10 Critical T h i n k i n g as Part of the Prescribed Curriculum  Critical Thinking part o f the c u r r i c u l u m  B.C.  Japan  Total  no  Count % of Teachers f r o m :  10.0 28.4  25.0 14.1  35.0 22.0  unsure  Count % of Teachers f r o m :  17.0 23.9  27.0 30.7  44.0 27.7  yes  Count % of Teachers f r o m :  44.0 62.0  36.0 40.9  80.0 50.3  Count % of Teachers f r o m :  71.0 100.0  88.0 100.0  159.0 100.0  B.C.  Japan  Total  % of Teachers f r o m :  4.0 5.7  25.0 28.5  29.0  unsure  Count % of Teachers f r o m :  17.0 24.0  33.0 37.6  50.0 31.5  yes  Count  % of Teachers f r o m :  50.0 70.5  30.0 34.2  80.0 50.4  Count % of Teachers f r o m :  71.0 100.0  88.0 100.0  159.0 100.0  Total  Table 11 Critical T h i n k i n g Taught i n the Classroom  Critical Thinking no taught i n the classroom  Total  Count  18.3  79 Total Number of Critical Thinking Definers Chosen E v e n after t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t the t o t a l n u m b e r of definers selected b y e a c h teacher u s i n g the n o r m a l i z e d scale scores, there s t i l l r e m a i n e d o n e factor that c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the n u m b e r of definers c h o s e n . T e a c h e r s w h o chose a greater n u m b e r of definers t e n d e d to score h i g h e r o n Relevance  (r = .28,  p<0.001). O n e p o s s i b i l i t y is that this is m e r e l y a n a n o m a l y . A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n is those teachers that v a l u e d Relevance  h a p p e n e d to s p e n d m o r e  t i m e o n the c a r d sort p r o c e d u r e a n d t h u s w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to chose a greater n u m b e r of d e f i n e r s .  Subject Areas I n c o m p a r i n g the d a t a across subject areas taught, i n t e r e s t i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d contrasts w e r e f o u n d (see T a b l e 9). Cognitive  Strategizing  w a s the o n l y scale  score to s h o w a n y s i g n i f i c a n t differences (r = .34, p<.01) b e t w e e n teachers o f v a r i o u s subjects. L a n g u a g e A r t s teachers s c o r e d h i g h e s t , f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y b y S o c i a l S t u d i e s teachers w h i l e O t h e r teachers s c o r e d l o w e s t . P e r h a p s this is d u e to the d i v e r s e n a t u r e of the O t h e r g r o u p a n d t h e i r p r e d o m i n a n t l y v o c a t i o n a l n a t u r e . M o r e o v e r , t e r m s s u c h as S o c r a t i c q u e s t i o n i n g w h i l e c o m m o n to h u m a n i t i e s teachers w e r e l i k e l y u n f a m i l i a r to m a n y o f the O t h e r teachers.  Summary B . C . a n d Japanese s e c o n d a r y teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w e r e c o m p a r e d a n d c o n t r a s t e d . T h e r e w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t differences b e t w e e n B . C . a n d Japanese teachers for 27 of the 50 c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g definers. T h e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s s u c c e s s f u l l y classified 96.9 percent of teachers as either B . C . or Japanese. B . C . teachers t e n d e d to v i e w c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g t h r o u g h definers s u c h as " D e c i s i o n  80 making," "Problem solving," "Divergent thinking," "Metacognitive skills," "Higher order thinking," "Deductive reasoning," and "Identifying/removing b i a s " w h i l e t h e y f a v o u r e d the factors of Cognitive  Strategizing  and  Relevance.  O n the other h a n d , Japanese teachers c h a r a c t e r i z e d c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g t h r o u g h definers s u c h as " F a i r n e s s , " " A d e q u a c y , " " O b j e c t i v e , " " C o n s i s t e n c y , " "Completeness," "Precision," and "Specificity" w h i l e they favoured Conscientious  Judgements  a n d Intellectual  Engagement.  There were no  s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g b a s e d o n their g e n d e r o r age. Y e t , l a n g u a g e arts teachers, s o c i a l s t u d i e s teachers, a n d teachers w i t h less e x p e r i e n c e , t e n d e d to s u p p o r t Cognitive  Strategizing  more  t h a n their other c o l l e a g u e s . C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w o u l d a p p e a r to be a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of B . C . a n d Japanese t e a c h i n g a n d the c u r r i c u l u m at the s e c o n d a r y l e v e l . H o w e v e r , c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n its present context is m u c h m o r e p e r v a s i v e i n the c l a s s r o o m s of the B . C . teachers s t u d i e d . . . o r p e r h a p s it is just better u n d e r s t o o d . W h i l e the results of the d a t a a n a l y s i s h a v e a n s w e r e d the o r i g i n a l p u r p o s e s of the s t u d y , s o m e q u e s t i o n s r e m a i n . W h a t are teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n t h e i r o w n w o r d s ? H o w c a n c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g best be taught? A r e there further q u a l i t a t i v e differences b e t w e e n B . C . a n d J a p a n that n e e d to be i n v e s t i g a t e d ? W h a t are the i m p l i c a t i o n s of this s t u d y ?  CHAPTER 7  81  DISCUSSION T h e results of this s t u d y are r e l e v a n t to B . C . a n d J a p a n since b o t h e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m s w e r e u n d e r g o i n g s i g n i f i c a n t r e f o r m s to teacher e d u c a t i o n w i t h a focus o n c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . W h i l e o v e r h a l f the teachers s u r v e y e d i n d i c a t e d that t h e y t a u g h t c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , m a n y h a d d i f f i c u l t y e x p r e s s i n g e x a c t l y h o w to teach it effectively. Teachers a d m i t t e d that t h e y h a d to t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y just to c o m p l e t e the s u r v e y ! T h e m o s t d i f f i c u l t p a r t of the c a r d sort p r o c e d u r e w a s r a n k i n g the t o p 10 w o r d s . T h i s task r e q u i r e d teachers to reflect o n the m e a n i n g of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , t e a c h i n g p h i l o s o p h y a n d practice. I n a d d i t i o n , o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s " W h a t is c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ? " a n d " H o w is c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g t a u g h t ? " p o s e d a r e a l c h a l l e n g e , b e c a u s e a l t h o u g h teachers v a l u e c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , t h e y h a v e n o t h a d to t h i n k a b o u t it n o r h a v e t h e y d i s c u s s e d it w i t h t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s . Instead, c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is a tacit c o n c e p t a n d a n i m p l i c i t p a r t o f their t e a c h i n g p h i l o s o p h y r a r e l y a r t i c u l a t e d . A s a result, s o m e teachers w e r e u n a b l e to c o m p l e t e a l l the q u e s t i o n s o r g a v e u p b e c a u s e it r e q u i r e d too m u c h t i m e a n d t h o u g h t . H o w e v e r , s e v e r a l teachers s a i d t h e y benefited f r o m t a k i n g p a r t i n the s u r v e y since it r e q u i r e d t h e m to t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y a n d to reflect o n their t e a c h i n g practice.  Teachers' Conceptions of Critical T h i n k i n g W h e r e a s the p r e c e d i n g chapter f o c u s e d o n q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a a n a l y s i s , the q u a l i t a t i v e aspects w e r e m e r e l y w o v e n i n t o the a n a l y s i s . H e r e m o r e a t t e n t i o n is g i v e n to teachers r e s p o n s e s to the o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s . T h u s , w h a t f o l l o w s are salient e x a m p l e s of teacher's d e f i n i t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g :  C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is the a b i l i t y to d e d u c t i v e l y r e a s o n , b r e a k d o w n a problem into workable components and formulate an answer. ( B . C . , Q u e e n E l i z a b e t h , science teacher) C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is p r o b l e m s o l v i n g ; a n i n d e p t h t h i n k i n g t h a t goes b e y o n d a face v a l u e r e s p o n s e ; i n v e s t i g a t i n g for s p e c i f i c s to support one's thoughts and opinions/judgements. (B.C., N o r t h S u r r e y , l a n g u a g e arts teacher) C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is m a k i n g l i n k s to " w h a t y o u k n o w a l r e a d y " to " n e w i d e a s " p r e s e n t e d . ( B . C . , E l g i n P a r k , science teacher) C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is to get s t u d e n t s to c o n s i d e r t h i n g s f r o m v a r i o u s a n g l e s a n d to let t h e m g o t h r o u g h t h e i r o w n t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s . (Japan, K o m a b a , s o c i a l s t u d i e s teacher) C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is to t h i n k d e e p l y a b o u t s o m e t h i n g , t h e n to a n a l y z e i t a n d f i n a l l y to m a k e j u d g e m e n t s o r c o m e to a c o n c l u s i o n . (Japan, T s u k u b a , E n g l i s h teacher)  W h i l e these teachers w e r e able to a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e w h a t t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w a s , others w e r e u n s u r e of the m e a n i n g . S o m e Japanese teachers c o n f u s e d "hihanteki shikou ( c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ) " w i t h "dokuritsushita shikousei ( i n d e p e n d e n t t h i n k i n g ) " o r "ikiru chikara  (life-long  l e a r n i n g ) . " M o r e t h a n a f e w i n d i v i d u a l s s i m p l y w r o t e "I d o n ' t k n o w " i n r e s p o n s e to the q u e s t i o n , " W h a t is c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ? " w h i l e s o m e t o o k it too l i t e r a l l y . I n J a p a n , the w o r d " c r i t i c a l " has a n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n a n d i n the t r a n s l a t i o n c a n be m i s c o n c e i v e d s u c h that the m e a n i n g is q u i t e l i t e r a l l y "to q u e s t i o n a u t h o r i t y " o r "to n o t accept t h i n g s as t h e y a p p e a r " as i n s o m e o n e w h o c r i t i c a l of the g o v e r n m e n t . O n e E n g l i s h teacher f r o m K o m a b a s u g g e s t e d that " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " is a p r o b l e m a t i c w o r d a n d therefore a n e w Japanese t e r m is n e e d e d to d e s c r i b e the concept.  83 H o w Critical T h i n k i n g is Taught C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is v a l u e d b y B . C . a n d Japan's s e c o n d a r y teachers, h o w e v e r it has v a r i o u s m e a n i n g s a n d h o w it is to be t a u g h t is n o t w e l l u n d e r s t o o d . C a n c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g b e taught? S o m e teachers felt c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g c a n best be fostered o u t s i d e the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m . A c c o r d i n g to o n e teacher f r o m B . C . , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g can't be taught... it c a n ( h o w e v e r ) be d e m o n s t r a t e d a n d d e v e l o p e d a l l t h r o u g h life, w i t h e a r l y lessons (home, e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l ) b e i n g m o s t i m p o r t a n t . " O t h e r s felt c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w a s of p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e to s c h o o l i n g a n d m u s t be taught. I n the w o r d s of one Japanese teacher, " i t is the basic f o u n d a t i o n for h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . " A s s u m i n g t h e n , that c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g (at least as these teachers p e r c e i v e it) is t a k i n g p l a c e i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m s — h o w is it b e i n g i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the B . C . a n d Japanese c o u r s e c u r r i c u l a ? W h a t f o l l o w s are responses to the q u e s t i o n , " H o w d o y o u teach c r i t i c a l thinking?":  S t u d e n t s n e e d to u n d e r s t a n d w h a t c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is b e f o r e t h e y c a n engage i n the process. ( B . C . , E n v e r C r e e k , s o c i a l s t u d i e s teacher) P u r s u e the " w h y " b e h i n d the ' r o t e ' a n s w e r s . ( B . C . , F l e e t w o o d P a r k , b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n teacher) S t u d e n t s m a k e u p t h e i r o w n labs... ( B . C . , N o r t h S u r r e y , s c i e n c e teacher) A s s i g n i n g o p e n - e n d e d case s t u d i e s / p r o b l e m s / i s s u e s for s t u d e n t s to discuss, debate, a n d evaluate. (B.C., Princess M a r g a r e t , science teacher) H a v e students w r i t e d o w n their o w n ideas a n d then present t h e m to the class. E x p r e s s a n o p i n i o n a b o u t the o t h e r s ' i d e a s , d i s c u s s t h e m together a n d t h e n w r i t e a s u m m a r y . (Japan, O t s u k a , m a t h teacher)  84  I let the s t u d e n t s d i s c o v e r p r o b l e m s , let t h e m t h i n k a b o u t h o w to s o l v e the p r o b l e m s a n d t h e n let t h e m g o a b o u t d o i n g it o n t h e i r o w n . (Japan, S a k a d o , h o m e e c o n o m i c s teacher) A f t e r I h e l p t h e m to u n d e r s t a n d the content o f the text, I let t h e m state t h e i r o w n o p i n i o n . (Japan, O t s u k a , E n g l i s h teacher) F r o m h i s t o r i c a l references, f i n d v a r i o u s a s p e c t s to c o m p a r e a n d evaluate w i t h existing theories a n d d a i l y / m o d e r n p h e n o m e n a . (Japan, O t s u k a , s o c i a l studies teacher)  Just as there are m a n y different t e a c h i n g styles there are m a n y different contexts i n w h i c h c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g m a y take p l a c e . N u m e r o u s b o o k s a v a i l a b l e w i t h titles s u c h as " T e a c h i n g C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g , " " T e a c h i n g S t u d e n t s to T h i n k C r i t i c a l l y , " a n d " C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g A c r o s s the C u r r i c u l u m " p u r p o r t to g u i d e the w a y for n o v i c e teachers. H o w e v e r , these m a t e r i a l s r e m a i n i n the d o m a i n of m o s t l y the a c a d e m i c s w h o p u b l i s h a n d r e a d E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g j o u r n a l s f o u n d i n u n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s . W h i l e , m a n y teachers d o n o t use w o r d s s u c h as " M e t a c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s " o r " S o c r a t i c q u e s t i o n i n g " to d e s c r i b e c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , t h e y i m p l i c i t l y use these t e c h n i q u e s i n their c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g as e v i d e n c e d b y their responses to the o p e n - e n d e d  questions.  Comparative Perspective A r e there s i g n i f i c a n t differences b e t w e e n B . C . a n d Japanese s e c o n d a r y teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ? T h e s i m p l e a n s w e r to this q u e s t i o n is " y e s " b u t to leave it u n e x p l o r e d w o u l d be to m i s s i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g s . A s teachers u n d e r s t a n d c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w i t h i n their o w n c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k s a n d c u l t u r a l contexts, there are b o u n d to be differences b e t w e e n B . C . a n d Japanese teachers. H o w e v e r , there are far too m a n y s i m i l a r i t i e s to be i g n o r e d . W h i l e factor a n a l y s i s is a p o w e r f u l t o o l i n data r e d u c t i o n , it relies o n differences b u t n o t b e t w e e n c u l t u r e s . C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g definers that w e r e c h o s e n b y n e a r l y a l l  85 teachers w o u l d l i k e l y n o t be l o a d e d i n t o a n y one factor. O f the fifty definers, five w e r e d o u b l e l o a d e d a n d ten l o a d e d b e l o w .40 a n d t h u s w e r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n the scale s c o r i n g (see A p p e n d i x D ) . R e c a l l that 75 percent o f the teachers chose " A n a l y s i s " a n d 72 p e r c e n t chose " R e a s o n i n g , " yet these definers of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w e r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n a n y of the five factor s o l u t i o n s as t h e y d i d n o t l o a d a b o v e .40 i n a n y one factor. M o r e o v e r , s o m e of the differences b e t w e e n B . C . a n d Japanese teachers c a n be a t t r i b u t e d to p r o b l e m s i n h e r e n t i n the t r a n s l a t i o n of the w o r d " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " i n a d d i t i o n to c u l t u r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . O n c e these are t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t h o w e v e r , the results c a n be better u n d e r s t o o d . W h i l e B . C . teachers t e n d e d to relate c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g to the c o g n i t i v e d o m a i n , Japanese teachers t e n d e d to f a v o u r the affective d o m a i n . T h i s contrast b e t w e e n E a s t e r n a n d W e s t e r n t h i n k i n g is w e l l d o c u m e n t e d ( C u m m i n g s & A l t b a c h , 1997; L e w i s , 1995; G a r d n e r , 1989; N a k a n e , 1970; R e i d , 1999; R o h l e n & L e T e n d r e , 1996; S h i e l d s , 1993; S h i m a h a r a & S a k a i , 1995; S t e r n , 1995; S t e v e n s o n & L e e , 1995; S t e v e n s o n & Stigler, 1992). G a r d n e r (1989) describes a " k e y i n the l o c k " s t o r y that further i l l u s t r a t e s contrasts i n E a s t e r n a n d W e s t e r n w a y s . W h e n t r a v e l i n g i n S o u t h East A s i a , G a r d n e r a n d h i s w i f e w e r e a b o u t to enter their h o t e l r o o m w h e n t h e i r t w o y e a r o l d s o n i n s i s t e d o n t a k i n g the k e y to o p e n the l o c k . R a t h e r t h a n g u i d e the c h i l d ' s h a n d , s h o w i n g h i m h o w to o p e n the d o o r , t h e y let the c h i l d d i s c o v e r for h i m s e l f t h r o u g h the process o f t r i a l a n d e r r o r h o w it is d o n e . A C h i n e s e o b s e r v e r q u e s t i o n e d w h y t h e y d o n ' t s i m p l y s h o w the c h i l d h o w to o p e n the d o o r b y g u i d i n g h i s h a n d a n d t h u s a v o i d i n g a n y " m i s t a k e s . " A s there is o n l y one " r i g h t " w a y of d o i n g t h i n g s , the E a s t e r n p h i l o s o p h y is to h a v e a n e x p e r t teach the " r i g h t " w a y a n d t h u s a v o i d the c o m m o n m i s t a k e s m a d e b y a n e o p h y t e . O n c e this is d e m o n s t r a t e d it m u s t be p r a c t i c e d o v e r a n d o v e r m a n y t i m e s u n t i l it is l e a r n e d . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , " m i s t a k e s " w e r e n o t  86 e n c o u r a g e d i n Japanese c l a s s r o o m s . S t u d e n t s d i d n ' t q u e s t i o n t h e i r teachers. T h e r e w a s k n o w l e d g e to b e t r a n s m i t t e d f r o m teacher to s t u d e n t w i t h little r o o m for debate. P e r h a p s these stereotypes are b e i n g c h a l l e n g e d as J a p a n b e g i n s to e m b r a c e a c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a p p r o a c h to l e a r n i n g . W h i l e Japanese m a y b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d as g r o u p o r i e n t e d , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s are m o r e i n d e p e n d e n t . Japanese i n d i v i d u a l s d o w h a t is best for the g r o u p i n o r d e r to k e e p h a r m o n y w i t h others w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g a sense o f h o n o u r a n d m o r a l i t y . E q u a l i t y , p a t i e n c e , persistence, p r i d e , h u m i l i t y , u n i t y , a n d c o m m u n i t y s p i r i t m a y best d e s c r i b e J a p a n ' s teachers. T h e Japanese s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m e m p h a s i z e s i n a d d i t i o n to c o u r s e content, s o c i a l i z a t i o n , m o r a l i t y a n d b e h a v i o u r , rather t h a n c o g n i t i v e abilities. O n the other h a n d , B . C . teachers c o u l d best b e d e s c r i b e d as d i v e r s e , self-reliant, i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , o r i g i n a l a n d opinionated. The B.C. school curriculum emphasizes creativity, independent t h i n k i n g a n d c o g n i t i v e processes. Japanese s t u d e n t s are t a u g h t lessons s u c h as " d o n o t s a y t h i n g s to u p s e t others," " d o n ' t v o i c e y o u r o p i n i o n , " " t h e n e e d s o f the f e w d o n o t o u t w e i g h the needs o f the m a n y , " "the n a i l that s t i c k s o u t gets h a m m e r e d d o w n " a n d " p r a c t i c e , practice, practice... p r a c t i c e m a k e s y o u master." I n contrast, B . C . s t u d e n t s are t a u g h t to state a n o p i n i o n , b e c r i t i c a l , t h i n k for oneself a n d b e oneself. W h i l e o r i g i n a l i t y is celebrated a n d e n c o u r a g e d b y B . C . ' s teachers, the s a m e c a n ' t b e s a i d for J a p a n ' s teachers. T h u s , " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " w i l l h a v e different c o n n o t a t i o n s w i t h i n the c u l t u r a l context o f the t w o r e g i o n s . T h e r e w a s less a g r e e m e n t (or p e r h a p s m o r e c o n f u s i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the t e r m " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " ) a m o n g Japanese teachers. H o w e v e r , B . C . ' s teachers w e r e n o t a l l o f o n e m i n d either. W h i l e s o m e m a y v a l u e Relevance m o r e t h a n Cognitive Strategizing others m a y feel s t r o n g l y a b o u t s o m e o t h e r d i m e n s i o n o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . Y e t , these are n o t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e c o n c e p t s a n d the r e l a t i v e  87 p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e m i n a n y o n e ' s d e f i n i t i o n are l i k e l y to c h a n g e d e p e n d i n g o n the context o f the l e a r n i n g . P e r h a p s this c a n best be i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h a m e t a p h o r . E a c h i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n c e p t i o n of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g m a y be t h o u g h t of as a five d i m e n s i o n a l c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " a m o e b a " free to m o v e a b o u t w i t h i n the d o m a i n of Scientific Relevance  Reasoning,  Conscientious  a n d Intellectual  Judgements,  Cognitive  Strategizing,  Engagement.  A l t h o u g h there w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t differences b e t w e e n B . C . a n d J a p a n ' s s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , the s i m i l a r i t i e s w e r e m e a n i n g f u l . L o o k i n g b e y o n d the s e m a n t i c s of the w o r d s u s e d to d e s c r i b e c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a n d r e s e a r c h i n g d e e p e r i n t o the u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t , the c o m m o n aspects h a v e b e e n u n c o v e r e d . T h e results i n d i c a t e that the g e n e r a l n o t i o n of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is s u p p o r t e d b y m o s t of the teachers s u r v e y e d . T h i s s u p p o r t c r o s s e d the b o u n d a r i e s of g e n d e r , age, t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , subject area, a n d m o s t i m p o r t a n t l y w h e r e the teachers w e r e f r o m . W h i l e the p r e c i s e m e a n i n g o f " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " is different for e a c h i n d i v i d u a l , there w e r e c o m m o n e l e m e n t s to e a c h teacher's c o n c e p t i o n a n d h o w it w a s s u p p o r t e d i n their c l a s s r o o m . F o r m a n y of the teachers s u r v e y e d , t w o o r m o r e o f the five factors—Scientific Conscientious  Judgements,  Relevance  Reasoning,  a n d Intellectual  Cognitive Engagement  Strategizing, were  endorsed. A s the thesis p r o g r e s s e d , m y o w n c o n c e p t i o n of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g e v o l v e d f r o m a v a g u e n o t i o n of h i g h e r o r d e r t h i n k i n g s u c h as a n a l y s i s , s y n t h e s i s , a n d e v a l u a t i o n to a c o m p l e x p h i l o s o p h y of t h o u g h t . M y d e f i n i t i o n o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g b e c a m e a f u s i o n of e x p e r t o p i n i o n s f r o m the l i t e r a t u r e , teacher c o n c e p t i o n s f r o m this s t u d y a n d reflections f r o m p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g consists of m a n y d i m e n s i o n s as w e l l as strategies to be u s e d  88 d e p e n d i n g o n the context of the s i t u a t i o n . T h e F o u n d a t i o n for C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g (2000) w e b site lists n o fewer t h a n 35 affective a n d c o g n i t i v e strategies d e s c r i b i n g the t e a c h i n g of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g to h i g h s c h o o l students:  A . Affective Strategies • • • • • • • • •  S-l S-2 S-3 S-4 S-5 S-6 S-7 S-8 S-9  thinking independently developing insight into egocentricity or sociocentricity exercising fairmindedness exploring thoughts underlying feelings and feelings underlying thoughts developing intellectual humility and suspending judgment developing intellectual courage developing intellectual good faith or integrity developing intellectual perseverance developing confidence in reason  B. Cognitive Strategies - Macro-Abilities S-10 S-ll S-l2 S-13 S-14 S-15 S-16 S-l7 S-l8 S-l9 S-20 S-21 S-22 S-23 S-24 S-25 S-26  refining generalizations and avoiding oversimplifications comparing analogous situations: transferring insights to new contexts developing one's perspective: creating or exploring beliefs, arguments, or theories clarifying issues, conclusions, or beliefs clarifying and analyzing the meanings of words or phrases developing one's perspective: creating or exploring beliefs, arguments, or theories evaluating the credibility of sources of information questioning deeply: raising and pursuing root or significant questions analyzing or evaluating arguments, interpretations, beliefs, or theories generating or assessing solutions analyzing or evaluating actions or policies reading critically: clarifying or critiquing texts listening critically: the art of silent dialogue making interdisciplinary connections practicing Socratic discussion: clarifying /questioning beliefs, theories, or perspectives reasoning dialogically: comparing perspectives, interpretations, or theories reasoning dialectically: evaluating perspectives, interpretations, or theories  C. Cognitive Strategies - Micro-Skills • • • • • • • • •  S-27 S-28 S-29 S-30 S-31 S-32 S-33 S-34 S-35  comparing and contrasting ideals with actual practice thinking precisely about thinking: using critical vocabulary noting significant similarities and differences examining or evaluating assumptions distinguishing relevant from irrelevant facts making plausible inferences, predictions, or interpretations giving reasons and evaluating evidence and alleged facts recognizing contradictions exploring implications and consequences  89 T h e B . C . a n d Japanese teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g reflected m a n y of the e x p e r t s ' s u g g e s t e d strategies. F o r e x a m p l e , Japanese teachers s u p p o r t e d F a i r n e s s a n d C o m p l e t e n e s s (see F i g u r e 6) r o u g h l y c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the affective strategies S-3 e x e r c i s i n g f a i r m i n d e d n e s s a n d S-8 d e v e l o p i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l p e r s e v e r a n c e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . O n the other h a n d , B . C . teachers e n d o r s e d D e c i s i o n m a k i n g a n d D e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g (see F i g u r e 6) r o u g h l y c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the c o g n i t i v e strategies S-19 g e n e r a t i n g o r assessing s o l u t i o n s a n d S-25 r e a s o n i n g d i a l o g i c a l l y : c o m p a r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , o r theories. M y o w n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is t h u s a s y n t h e s i s of research f r o m experts i n the f i e l d o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a n d d a t a f r o m teachers s u r v e y e d . I v i e w c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g as a process i n w h i c h a n i n d i v i d u a l is a c t i v e l y e n g a g e d i n a n a l y z i n g , r e a s o n i n g , q u e s t i o n i n g , a n d c r e a t i v e l y s e a r c h i n g for a l t e r n a t i v e s i n a n effort to s o l v e a p r o b l e m o r to m a k e a d e c i s i o n o r j u d g e m e n t . I n s u m m a r y , c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g m a y best be d e s c r i b e d as p o w e r f u l t h i n k i n g .  I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the S t u d y T h e r e is i n c r e a s i n g s u p p o r t for d e v e l o p i n g c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g f r o m e d u c a t o r s a n d the p u b l i c i n b o t h B . C . a n d J a p a n . T h e teachers i n this s t u d y i n d i c a t e d c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is of great i m p o r t a n c e . A l t h o u g h there w e r e m a n y o p i n i o n s o n h o w c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g c a n best be taught, m o s t teachers s u p p o r t e d the n o t i o n c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g c a n be f o s t e r e d — p r o v i d e d s t u d e n t s are g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t i e s to ask q u e s t i o n s , to a n a l y z e p r o b l e m s , to use r e a s o n i n g a n d to t h i n k c r e a t i v e l y i n o r d e r to m a k e j u d g e m e n t s . These are n o t m e r e l y e n r i c h m e n t activities b u t rather t h e y s h o u l d be a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of a l l c u r r i c u l a as they are i m p o r t a n t " l i f e - s k i l l s , " necessary i n the w o r k - p l a c e a n d e l s e w h e r e . W h i l e a f e w teachers felt h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w e r e i n c a p a b l e of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , m o s t  90 i n d i c a t e d that t h e y e x p e c t e d students to g r a d u a t e f r o m h i g h s c h o o l w i t h the a b i l i t y to t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y . W h i l e this s t u d y a n a l y z e d teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , m o r e research is necessary to e x p l o r e s o m e o f the i m p l i c a t i o n s . If c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is to be i m p l e m e n t e d across the c u r r i c u l u m i n B . C or J a p a n ' s h i g h s c h o o l s , h o w c a n it best be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the r e f o r m s c u r r e n t l y t a k i n g p l a c e i n e a c h e d u c a t i o n system? S p e c i f i c a l l y , h o w c a n teachers i n c o r p o r a t e c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n t o t h e i r lessons? A l s o , h o w c a n c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g b e c o m e better u n d e r s t o o d — e s p e c i a l l y b y J a p a n ' s teachers? C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is a W e s t e r n e x p r e s s i o n , yet the c o n c e p t is n o t c o n f i n e d to the W e s t . T h u s , it is necessary to f i n d a c o m p a r a b l e Japanese p h r a s e to r e p l a c e hihanteki  shikou  w i t h a n e x p r e s s i o n that w i l l be better u n d e r s t o o d ,  w i t h less e m p h a s i s o n " c r i t i c a l " a n d m o r e e m p h a s i s o n " t h i n k i n g . " W h a t w o u l d be a m o r e s u i t a b l e Japanese t e r m for c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ? A s u g g e s t i o n w h i c h w a s w e l l r e c e i v e d b y the Japanese educators i n the s t u d y , is to a d o p t a n e w Japanese p h r a s e for c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , kangaeru a n d chikara  chikara—kangaeru,  the v e r b "to t h i n k "  m e a n i n g " p o w e r o r a b i l i t y . " P e r h a p s kangaeru  chikara better  e n c o m p a s s e s the n a t u r e of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g as it is c o n c e i v e d b y B . C . a n d Japan's teachers.  CHAPTER 8  91  S U M M A R Y A N D CONCLUSIONS British C o l u m b i a and Japan have been undergoing significant educational r e f o r m s i n efforts to i m p r o v e s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f the e m e r g i n g g l o b a l v i l l a g e . C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g as a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of these r e f o r m s has r e c e i v e d m u c h a t t e n t i o n f r o m e d u c a t o r s , yet it r e m a i n s l a r g e l y u n d e v e l o p e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l teacher-centered c l a s s r o o m s . W h i l e " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " is h i g h l y v a l u e d b y e d u c a t o r s i n B . C . a n d J a p a n , there m u s t be further research i n t o the w a y it is u n d e r s t o o d a n d h o w it c a n best be t a u g h t w i t h i n these t w o e d u c a t i o n systems.  C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f the M e t h o d o l o g y T h e p u r p o s e s of this s t u d y w e r e (1) to o b t a i n a n o v e r a l l sense of w h a t s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l teachers b e l i e v e d c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g to e n t a i l ; (2) to c o m p a r e a n d contrast B . C . a n d Japanese s e c o n d a r y teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ; (3) to i n v e s t i g a t e the n a t u r e of B . C . a n d Japanese s e c o n d a r y teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w i t h respect to g e n d e r , age, t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a n d subject taught; a n d (4) to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of B . C . a n d Japanese t e a c h i n g a n d the c u r r i c u l u m at the s e c o n d a r y l e v e l . I n o r d e r to a c h i e v e these objectives, 159 teachers f r o m ten h i g h s c h o o l s w e r e selected f r o m a v a r i e t y o f subject b a c k g r o u n d s , ages a n d experience to c o m p l e t e a c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g c a r d sort a n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e . R e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n the characteristics of gender, age, t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , subject area, a n d the teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w e r e i n v e s t i g a t e d a n d a n a l y z e d across the t w o c u l t u r e s . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s i n c l u d e d (1) the l a y o u t o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; (2) the s e l e c t i o n of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g definers; (3) the a s s u m p t i o n that 50 definers  92 c o u l d a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n c e p t of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ; a n d (4) the s e l e c t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d s c h o o l s . I n o r d e r to c r i t i c a l l y a n a l y z e the m e t h o d o l o g y o f this s t u d y , e a c h o f these p o t e n t i a l l i a b i l i t i e s m u s t be c a r e f u l l y e x a m i n e d a n d s u g g e s t i o n s m a d e for i m p r o v e m e n t s . A l i m i t a t i o n a n d p o t e n t i a l s h o r t c o m i n g of the i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d i n c l u d e s the l a y o u t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see A p p e n d i x A , a n d note that the i n s t r u c t i o n s 1-3 for s o r t i n g a n d r a n k i n g w e r e o r i g i n a l l y o n p a g e o n e of a l e g a l - s i z e d p a p e r ) . P o s s i b l y , s o m e r e s p o n d e n t s d i d n ' t r e a d the i n s t r u c t i o n s c a r e f u l l y , s k i p p e d the s o r t i n g a n d chose o n l y ten definers w h i c h t h e y r a n k e d o n the first p a g e o f the questionnaire. Future studies e m p l o y i n g a sorting of cards a n d questionnaire s h o u l d c l e a r l y differentiate b e t w e e n the tasks of s o r t i n g a n d r a n k i n g . O n e s u g g e s t i o n is to p l a c e the i n s t r u c t i o n s for the s o r t i n g o n the first p a g e a n d the r a n k i n g o n the f o l l o w i n g p a g e (as s h o w n i n A p p e n d i x A ) . T h u s , r e s p o n d e n t s w o u l d be m o r e i n c l i n e d to d o the s o r t i n g before t u r n i n g the p a g e to b e g i n the ranking procedure. A n o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n r e l a t i n g to i m p r o v e m e n t s i n i n s t r u m e n t d e s i g n is the s e l e c t i o n o f the definers to be w r i t t e n o n the i n d e x cards. M o s t of the definers came f r o m W e s t e r n literature o n c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . T h i s b i a s c o u l d affect the results. I n the future, l i t e r a t u r e f r o m b o t h c u l t u r e s s h o u l d be c o n s u l t e d a n d carefully e x a m i n e d before a p i l o t s t u d y is d o n e . I n o r d e r to a v o i d c u l t u r a l b i a s , s o m e definers s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y s c r u t i n i z e d for p o t e n t i a l m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s a n d r e m o v e d o r r e p l a c e d i f necessary. A case i n p o i n t , u p o n c o m p l e t i o n o f the factor a n a l y s i s , the five factors h a d to be n a m e d . T o r e d u c e the 50 definers to o n l y five s u c c i n c t a n d m e a n i n g f u l factors w a s a difficult task. T h e c h o i c e o f w o r d s w a s at t i m e s a c o m p r o m i s e . W h e n the five factors w e r e d o u b l e t r a n s l a t e d for a c c u r a c y , F a c t o r 4, Relevance w a s n o t w e l l u n d e r s t o o d b y the Japanese g r a d u a t e  93 s t u d e n t a s k e d to assist i n this matter (a different i n d i v i d u a l t h a n the g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t u s e d i n the o r i g i n a l t r a n s l a t i o n o f the 50 definers). H e i n d i c a t e d that this factor n e e d e d a different n a m e i n Japanese. H e p r e f e r r e d to use " C l a r i t y " w h i c h w a s a n o t h e r d e f i n e r that c h a r a c t e r i z e d F a c t o r 4. F i n a l l y , i f there w e r e t r a n s l a t i o n i n a c c u r a c i e s o r a m b i v a l e n t t r a n s l a t i o n s this c o u l d h a v e affected the d a t a to s o m e extent. W h i l e care w a s t a k e n to h a v e the c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g d e f i n e r s d o u b l e t r a n s l a t e d b y f l u e n t l y b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t o r s , further p r o c e d u r e s m u s t to p u t i n t o practice i n o r d e r to ensure v a l i d i t y a n d c u l t u r a l s u i t a b i l i t y . P e r h a p s c o n s u l t i n g more than t w o i n d i v i d u a l s from each region w o u l d help solve this p r o b l e m . R e l a t e d to this l a n g u a g e issue is a c r i t i c i s m h e a r d at a p r e s e n t a t i o n g i v e n at the C o m p a r a t i v e a n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n S o c i e t y C o n f e r e n c e h e l d i n S a n A n t o n i o , T e x a s i n M a r c h 2000. A Japanese c o l l e a g u e c o m m e n t e d that i n d i v i d u a l s w o u l d h a v e different c o n c e p t i o n s of e a c h of the 50 definers as w e l l as " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , " i r r e s p e c t i v e of their c u l t u r e . B u t i f this p e r s p e c t i v e is t a k e n too l i t e r a l l y , h o w are c o m p a r a t i v e e d u c a t o r s to c o n t i n u e i n t e r n a t i o n a l crossc u l t u r a l research? N a t u r a l l y , l a n g u a g e a n d c u l t u r e are e m b e d d e d i n a n y i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y . H o w else c a n a c o n c e p t be i n v e s t i g a t e d a n d c o m p a r e d across t w o or m o r e c u l t u r e s ? F i n a l l y , a n a d d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m is that e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y c o u l d h a v e b e e n c o m p r o m i s e d i n the s e l e c t i o n of s c h o o l s . S c h o o l s w e r e selected w i t h the h e l p of p e r s o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s . E a c h of the B . C . s c h o o l s w e r e i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t of the researcher. A l l the s c h o o l s selected i n J a p a n h a d ties to a researcher at T s u k u b a University.  94 Critical Analysis of the Results T h e r e w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t differences b e t w e e n B . C . a n d Japanese teachers for 27 of the 50 c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g definers. T h e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s s u c c e s s f u l l y classified 96.9 p e r c e n t of teachers as either B . C . o r Japanese. T h e results of scale s c o r i n g the factor a n a l y s i s s h o w e d that B . C . teachers v i e w e d c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g m o r e as Cognitive Conscientious  Strategizing  Judgements  a n d Relevance  a n d Intellectual  w h i l e J a p a n e s e teachers f a v o u r e d Engagement.  T h e r e w e r e n o s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g b a s e d o n t h e i r g e n d e r o r age. Y e t , l a n g u a g e arts teachers, s o c i a l s t u d i e s teachers a n d teachers w i t h less e x p e r i e n c e t e n d e d to s u p p o r t Strategizing  Cognitive  m o r e t h a n t h e i r o t h e r c o l l e a g u e s . C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w o u l d a p p e a r to  be a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of B . C . a n d Japanese t e a c h i n g a n d the c u r r i c u l u m at the s e c o n d a r y l e v e l . H o w e v e r , c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n its p r e s e n t c o n t e x t seems m o r e p e r v a s i v e i n B . C . ' s c l a s s r o o m s . " C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " is m o r e p o p u l a r i n B . C . b u t is m i s u n d e r s t o o d b y teachers o n b o t h sides of the Pacific. Is " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " a s k i l l or is it a n abstract concept? A c c o r d i n g to the teachers s u r v e y e d , c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is a p r o c e s s i n w h i c h a n i n d i v i d u a l is a c t i v e l y e n g a g e d i n a n a l y z i n g , r e a s o n i n g , q u e s t i o n i n g , a n d c r e a t i v e l y s e a r c h i n g for alternatives i n a n effort to s o l v e a p r o b l e m o r to m a k e a d e c i s i o n o r j u d g e m e n t . C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g c a n ' t be l e a r n e d i n i s o l a t i o n . It can't be t a u g h t e x p l i c i t l y b u t rather m u s t be i n t e g r a t e d i n a l l subject areas a n d r e l a t e d to the ideas s t u d e n t s a l r e a d y h a v e .  Levels of Critical T h i n k i n g C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is a n abstract c o n c e p t u s e d i n at least three major contexts or l e v e l s of d i s c o u r s e : (1) the m e d i a a n d g e n e r a l p u b l i c , (2) teacher p e d a g o g y , a n d  95  (3) academic discourse. It is essential that critical thinking be better understood by individuals within all three levels, for "critical thinking" is on the verge of becoming diluted in meaning much like "internationalization" or "globalization." "Critical thinking" is not well understood. It may have become merely another "buzzword" in education and may have been used without  much thought to its true meaning by many educators, politicians and the general public. Developing "critical thinking skills" is seen by some as a panacea to the ills of our education system. While some teachers were able to adequately describe their conception of critical thinking, others were unsure of the meaning. Finally, the word "critical" has a negative connotation and in the translation can be misconceived and therefore the new Japanese term kangaeru  chikara  should  be used to describe the concept of critical thinking.  Comparative Education Perspective During the pre-conference seminar of The Second Asia-Pacific International Symposium of Teacher Education held at Waseda University, Tokyo in March 2000, a debate ensued over "critical" comparative education. It was suggested that "critical" comparative education methodologies are necessary in order to apply the wealth of knowledge available through international comparative research. It was posited that "critical" comparative education had two dimensions: scientific and value-based judgements. Yet, to compare without judgements or without drawing any conclusions is not "critical" comparative education. Another individual characterized comparative education as necessarily prescriptive as well as descriptive. "Critical pedagogy" was used to describe the nature of "critical" comparative education. Phrases such as "logicalabstract thinking," "child-centred learning through problem solving," "learning  96 b y d o i n g / ' "the a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y p r o b l e m s a n d to l e a r n for oneself" w e r e u s e d to describe " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . " T h e Japanese e d u c a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n o f Hansei  or the  c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n o n m o r a l issues w a s c i t e d as a n o t e w o r t h y e x a m p l e . T h e i d e a l teacher w a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as s o m e o n e w h o fostered c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n students. A l s o , it w a s s u g g e s t e d c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w o u l d h a v e the effect o f m a k i n g s t u d e n t s m o r e h u m a n i s t i c . T h e m e a n i n g of the w o r d " c r i t i c a l " w a s s o m e t h i n g that o c c u p i e d o v e r 20 m i n u t e s of d i s c u s s i o n f r o m s o m e o f the w o r l d ' s l e a d i n g researchers i n c o m p a r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n a n d yet n o c o n s e n s u s o n the m e a n i n g o f "critical" was reached. M a n y p h e n o m e n a can't be d e s c r i b e d b y l a n g u a g e alone. L a n g u a g e s h a v e e v o l v e d d i f f e r e n t l y i n v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s . E u r o p e a n l a n g u a g e s a l w a y s h a v e the i n d i v i d u a l c e n t r e d i n the d i a l o g u e w h i l e Japanese l a n g u a g e is b a s e d o n space rather t h a n f o r m . F o r e x a m p l e , the sentence, "I a m c o l d . " is just samui (adjective, m e a n i n g " c o l d " ) . " I " is r a r e l y a r t i c u l a t e d i n Japanese as it is u n d e r s t o o d w i t h i n the context o f the s i t u a t i o n . I n a n y l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n there are subtle n u a n c e s that are often n o t c o n v e y e d o r the m e a n i n g c a n be a l t e r e d . A n i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t that w a s often c o n f u s e d w i t h c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , Ikiru  chikara  or " l i f e - l o n g l e a r n i n g " is c e n t r a l to B . C . a n d J a p a n ' s e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m s as kangaeru  chikara  o r c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is essential to s o l v i n g the p r o b l e m s f a c i n g  o u r w o r l d . T o e m b r a c e these n e w p a r a d i g m s i n l e a r n i n g s i g n i f i c a n t r e f o r m s m u s t take p l a c e i n the f o r m a n d f u n c t i o n of s c h o o l s as w e l l as the n a t u r e o f the c u r r i c u l u m . S c h o o l m u s t be a p l a c e w h e r e s t u d e n t s c a n e x p l o r e o p t i o n s a n d m a k e choices. T h e teacher m u s t act as a facilitator rather t h a n a d i s s e m i n a t o r o f factual k n o w l e d g e .  97 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a n d I m p l i c a t i o n s for F u t u r e S t u d i e s B o t h B . C . a n d Japanese e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m s s h o u l d foster c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g w h i l e s u p p o r t i n g m e n t o r s h i p , c o l l a b o r a t i o n a n d peer c o n s u l t a t i o n a m o n g teachers. S p e c i f i c a l l y , w h a t B . C . n e e d s is a p r o p o s a l that w i l l i m p r o v e s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g as w e l l as the p r e - s e r v i c e a n d i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g o f teachers. P a r t of the s o l u t i o n lies i n J a p a n ' s a p p r e n t i c e s h i p m o d e l of teacher e d u c a t i o n a n d the p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s c h o o l ( P D S ) as p r o p o s e d b y the H o l m e s G r o u p o f research u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the U . S . , d e d i c a t e d to the r e f o r m o f t e a c h i n g a n d teacher e d u c a t i o n . T h e P D S e m b o d i e s m u c h of the s p i r i t of c o l l a b o r a t i o n a n d m e n t o r s h i p o f the Japanese m o d e l w h i l e p r o v i d i n g a l i n k b e t w e e n the research of u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d the p r a c t i c e of t e a c h i n g i n s c h o o l s . T h e p o t e n t i a l o f the P D S has r e c e n t l y e m e r g e d as one of the m o s t e x c i t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s for s y s t e m a t i c e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m (Petrie, 1995; L e v i n e , 1992). T h e goals of the P D S s c h o o l c o u l d be r e a l i z e d , w i t h the f o l l o w i n g changes m a d e to B . C . ' s p r e s e n t s c h o o l s y s t e m :  1) 2) 3) 4) 5)  R e d e f i n e the r o l e of the teacher as facilitator a n d co-learner. C h a n g e the s t r u c t u r e of the t i m e t a b l e to i n c o r p o r a t e t i m e for r e f l e c t i o n , sharing and continued professional development. A d o p t 6 / 8 b l o c k s as F . T . E . for S e c o n d a r y a n d 4 / 5 d a y s for E l e m e n t a r y . H i r e m o r e " n e w " teachers (student teachers) at 0.50 F . T . E . (3 o r 4 b l o c k s ) as l e a r n i n g p r a c t i t i o n e r s for 1 y e a r terms. P a y s t u d e n t teachers at 50 percent of C a t e g o r y 5 ( P r o f e s s i o n a l Certificate, 0 years experience).  6)  Offer a one y e a r sabbatical for teachers e v e r y 5 years for p r o f e s s i o n a l  7)  development. Support education decision-making b y a professional association or c o l l e g e o f teachers.  T h e m o n e y s a v e d f r o m h i r i n g b e g i n n i n g teachers as a p p r e n t i c e s w o u l d m o r e t h a n c o m p e n s a t e for the r e d u c e d a s s i g n m e n t s a n d s u b s e q u e n t s a l a r y shortfalls of e x p e r i e n c e d teachers. A l s o , m o r e t i m e w o u l d be a v a i l a b l e for r e f l e c t i o n a n d c o l l a b o r a t i o n m u c h l i k e Japanese s c h o o l s .  98 I n contrast, J a p a n ' s e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m c o u l d be r e f o r m e d i n the f o l l o w i n g ways:  1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)  R e d e f i n e the r o l e of the teacher as facilitator a n d co-learner. Decrease class sizes (see #4 b e l o w ) . Implement a more comprehensive extended teaching practicum. H i r e m o r e " n e w " teachers to r e d u c e the i n c r e a s i n g stress o f teachers. C o n t i n u e i n c r e a s i n g the electives offered i n h i g h s c h o o l . C h a n g e the e x a m i n a t i o n s y s t e m to r e d u c e the stress o n s t u d e n t s .  7) 8)  Offer a s a b b a t i c a l for teachers e v e r y 5 years for p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . S u p p o r t e d u c a t i o n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b y a p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n or c o l l e g e of teachers.  I n o r d e r to facilitate these r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s for changes to B . C a n d Japanese e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m s , resources m a y n e e d to be r e d i r e c t e d to e n h a n c e teacher training, professional development and teaching conditions. Teachers are i n the b u s i n e s s of e d u c a t i n g s t u d e n t s b u t there is a r o l e for e v e r y o n e to p l a y . Teachers, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , parents, b u s i n e s s p e o p l e , g o v e r n m e n t s a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s m u s t w o r k together, c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y i n o r d e r to e v o k e e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e . F i r s t a n d foremost, teachers m u s t l e a r n h o w to t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y for t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s is a necessary f o u n d a t i o n for c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m . A d m i n i s t r a t o r s c a n e n s u r e that there is l o n g - t e r m i n s e r v i c e for teachers i n l e a r n i n g a n d t e a c h i n g c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . P a r e n t s c a n p r o v i d e a h o m e e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h the i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c i p l i n e of t h e i r c h i l d r e n is f o s t e r e d — w h e r e d e c i s i o n s are q u e s t i o n e d a n d p r o b l e m s are reflected o n together. B u s i n e s s p e o p l e c a n h e l p b y p u s h i n g g o v e r n m e n t s for e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m . Since c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is e s s e n t i a l to effective g r o u p p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , p r o g r e s s i v e b u s i n e s s p e o p l e s h o u l d n e t w o r k w i t h e d u c a t o r s a n d c i v i c leaders i n o r d e r to create a p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s of the i m p o r t a n c e of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . T h e M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n o r M o n b u s h o s h o u l d f u n d further research i n t o h o w to foster c r i t i c a l  99 t h i n k i n g e s p e c i a l l y i n h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d teachers i n t r a i n i n g . Professors s h o u l d e m p h a s i z e c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n their classes b y r o u t i n e l y f o s t e r i n g r e a s o n i n g a n d e n s u r i n g that their s t u d e n t s r e g u l a r l y assess their o w n w o r k u s i n g intellectual standards. C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is n o t l i k e l y to b e c o m e v a l u e d i n e d u c a t i o n u n l e s s it is v a l u e d b y s o c i e t y at large. T h e r e is m u c h a p a t h y to o v e r c o m e . M o r e o v e r , s o m e societies m a y n o t v a l u e c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g d u e to c u l t u r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . J a p a n has just b e g u n to e m b r a c e c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g yet other n a t i o n s m a y n o t yet be r e a d y . F o r teachers to foster c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g t h e y m u s t first b e c o m e c o m m i t t e d to t h i n k i n g c r i t i c a l l y a n d r e f l e c t i v e l y a b o u t t h e i r o w n l i v e s a n d the l i v e s of those a r o u n d t h e m . Teachers m u s t r e g u l a r l y m o d e l for s t u d e n t s w h a t it is to r e f l e c t i v e l y e x a m i n e , c r i t i c a l l y assess, a n d effectively i m p r o v e life.  T h i n k i n g is p r e - e m i n e n t l y a n art; k n o w l e d g e a n d p r o p o s i t i o n s w h i c h are the p r o d u c t s of t h i n k i n g , are w o r k s of art, as m u c h so as s t a t u a r y a n d s y m p h o n i e s . E v e r y successive stage o f t h i n k i n g is a c o n c l u s i o n i n w h i c h the m e a n i n g of w h a t has p r o d u c e d it is c o n d e n s e d ; a n d it is n o s o o n e r stated t h a n it is a l i g h t r a d i a t i n g to other t h i n g s - u n l e s s it be a f o g w h i c h obscures t h e m ( D e w e y , 1929/1958, p . 378). W h i l e o v e r h a l f the teachers s u r v e y e d i n d i c a t e d t h e y t a u g h t c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , m a n y h a d s o m e d i f f i c u l t y e x p r e s s i n g e x a c t l y h o w to t e a c h it effectively. I n o r d e r to foster c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g b y s t u d e n t s , teachers m u s t first c r i t i q u e p r e s e n t e d u c a t i o n a l practices a n d the beliefs u n d e r l y i n g t h e m . T o u n d e r s t a n d the n a t u r e of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , e d u c a t o r s m u s t be a s k e d f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n s a b o u t the n a t u r e o f k n o w l e d g e , l e a r n i n g a n d the process of t h i n k i n g . T h r o u g h further i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s , e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m s c a n b e i m p r o v e d . Teachers m u s t be g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t i e s to l e a r n f r o m o n e a n o t h e r a n d to benefit f r o m the a c c u m u l a t e d w i s d o m o f generations of s k i l l e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s . I n a d d i t i o n , teachers  100 m u s t be g i v e n a d e q u a t e t i m e for c o l l a b o r a t i o n , p l a n n i n g a n d r e f l e c t i o n . T h e reforms o f e d u c a t i o n i n b o t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d J a p a n r e q u i r e a r e t h i n k i n g of the p r o f e s s i o n o f t e a c h i n g , for a n y effort to r e f o r m the s t r u c t u r e o r o r g a n i z a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n u l t i m a t e l y d e p e n d s o n the effectiveness of the teacher. W h i l e this s t u d y a n a l y z e d teachers' c o n c e p t i o n s o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , s o m e q u e s t i o n s r e m a i n to be a n s w e r e d . If c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is to b e i m p l e m e n t e d across the c u r r i c u l u m i n B . C a n d Japan's h i g h s c h o o l s , h o w c a n it best be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the r e f o r m s c u r r e n t l y t a k i n g p l a c e i n e a c h e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m ? S p e c i f i c a l l y , h o w can teachers i n c o r p o r a t e c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n t o their lessons? A l s o , h o w c a n c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g b e c o m e better u n d e r s t o o d — e s p e c i a l l y b y J a p a n ' s  teachers?  C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g is a f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e p t i n e d u c a t i o n that r e q u i r e s m o r e s t u d y . F u r t h e r c o m p a r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n research is necessary o n m e t h o d o l o g i e s , t e a c h i n g strategies, c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a n d the r o l e of the teacher. T h i s w i l l h e l p to i m p r o v e student learning a n d w i l l p r o v i d e a cross-cultural a n d international u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d a p p r e c i a t i o n of l e a r n i n g necessary for " l i f e - s k i l l s " i n the 21st c e n t u r y m u c h l i k e l i t e r a c y a n d n u m e r a c y for the 20th c e n t u r y .  101  REFERENCES A l b e r t a C h a m b e r R e s o u r c e s , A l b e r t a D e p t . of E d u c a t i o n . (1992). 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Tokyo: Gakken. U e d a , A . (Ed.). (1997). Japan, 1997 An International K o h o Center.  Comparison.  Tokyo: Keizai  V e r u i n , J. (1996) Helping Students Develop Investigative, Problem Solving, and Thinking Skills in a Cooperative Setting—A Handbook for Teachers, Administrators and Curriculum Workers. Springfield Illinois: Charles C . Thomas. V y g o t s k y , L . S. (1978). Mind  in Society: The development  of higher  mental  processes. C a m b r i d g e M A : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . W h i t e , M . (1987). The Japanese educational challenge: children. N e w Y o r k : T h e Free Press.  A commitment  to  109 3. Choose the ten most significant cards and rank them 1-10. Write them in the space below: 1. 6. 2. 3.  7. 8.  4.  9.  5.  10.  Part 2 Questionnaire 1. What is your gender?  [ ] Man  2. What is your age?  IlWoman years  3. What is your main subject area (please check one box only): ] ] ] ]  Language Arts Math Science Social Studies  [ [ [ [  ] ] ] ]  Business Education Computer Science Foreign Languages Industrial Education  ] Fine Art (Art, Music & Drama)  ] Other (please specify) 4.  How many years teaching experience do you have?  5.  Identify the 5 most significant learning outcomes attained by your students:  6.  Upon successful completion of high school students should be able to:  7.  What 5 words best describe an outstanding student?  8.  What is the meaning of "critical thinking"?  9.  Is critical thinking part of the prescribed curriculum for your subject? [  10.  1 Yes  I 1 No  years  [ ] Unsure  Is critical thinking taught in your classroom? [  1 Yes  [  1 No  [ ] Unsure  If you answered "Yes" to question 10, then please answer question 11. 11.  How do you teach critical thinking? (use a separate page if necessary)  in  6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  /t- h 2 1  [  [  ]  ] A  2 3 ] ] =l>rizL-^  ] Kmm& ]  ]  (i  ]  4  5  [  ] liU  [  ] IHN*.  [  ]  tofrb&U  10. fffit^JWJS^J * » f t t © ^ 7 7 T H t A T l \ S t ^  [  ] li^  [  ] uux.  ( l O T m ^ ^ L / i ^ l i l 1 t)SA.TT$Uo )  11. £ 0 ) £ 5  lCftfc2|9Jfl«lll#*Uix.TU*-r^.  [  ] to#e>ftu  112  APPENDIX C Critical T h i n k i n g Definers Spreadsheet English Word  Japanese Word  Accuracy IE** Active participation Adequacy Analysis Analytical skills Clarifying ideas Clarity Completeness Consistency Constructive skepticism mmttotxmmm Convergent thinking Cooperative learning Creative thinking Decision making Deductive reasoning Depth as* Disciplined Discovery learning Divergent thinking Drawing conclusions Drawing inferences iist*5i#ai-i+* Evaluating assumptions Evaluation Fairness Higher order thinking Hypothesize Identifying/removing bias Independent thinking Inductive reasoning Intellectual challenges Investigate Logical Metacognitive skills Objective Open-minded Precision Problem solving Rational thinking Reasoning Relevance Responsible Self-directed Significance Socratic questioning Specificity Student-centred Subjective Synthesis Taking ownership (*) Thoughtful judgements  LT<tb*.-5  113  APPENDIX D Rotated Component Matrix of 50 Critical T h i n k i n g Definers Critical Thinking Factor Loadings Critical Thinking Definers  1  2  3  4  5  drawing inferences hypothesize convergent thinking inductive reasoning creative thinking problem solving drawing conclusions analysis divergent thinking reasoning analytical skills clarifying ideas  .68 .65 .59 .59 .50 .46 .46 .40 .39 .38 .36 .34  .16 .29 .13 .30 .10 .09 .19 .24 .37 .16 .31 .21  .11 .14 .05 .02 .01 -.15 .03 .22 -.38 .12 .04 .24  .05 .15 .16 .06 -.19 .37 .44 .11 .18 .34 .23 .20  .14 .15 .03 .02 .47 .09 .05 .04 .16 .08 .05 .18  metacognitive skills constructive skepticism socratic questioning identifying/removing bias rational thinking higher order thinking evaluating assumptions deductive reasoning open-minded  .03 .14 .19 .15 .19 .23 .27 .41 .05  .70 .64 .61 .59 .55 .54 .46 .44 .40  -.20 .08 -.02 .06 .28 -.06 -.10 .00 .40  .18 -.06 .18 .29 .05 .02 .26 .23 .00  .13 .12 .08 .04 .08 .14 .10 -.20 .05  accuracy consistency objective adequacy specificity precision fairness logical responsible depth  .06 .02 .13 .06 .20 .12 -.22 .31 -.23 .04  -.08 .08 -.03 -.10 -.03 .04 .00 .06 .13 .35  .68 .61 .60 .57 .54 .54 .51 .49 .45 .35  .31 -.01 -.17 .19 .31 .34 .07 .12 .17 .19  -.08 .04 .12 .27 .15 .08 .31 -.10 .33 .25  clarity relevance decision making significance completeness synthesis investigate disciplined evaluation  .12 .22 .19 .16 -.12 .32 .30 -.02 .10  .08 .12 .25 .13 -.13 .30 .24 .05 .15  .35 .09 -.24 .17 .26 .16 .05 .12 .12  .61 .53 .52 .51 .51 .41 .32 .31 .29  -.06 .07 .16 .11 .30 -.11 .19 .15 .18  active participation taking ownership discovery learning student-centred intellectual challenges self-directed subjective independent thinking cooperative learning thoughtful judgements  .03 -.23 .34 .13 .19 -.11 .08 .18 -.02 .18  -.04 .12 .07 -.01 .22 .07 .01 .16 .16 .33  .04 .21 .08 -.04 .05 .23 .08 .00 -.05 .24  .21 .08 -.06 .21 -.09 .05 .25 .14 .42 -.09  .62 .56 .56 .54 .54 .45 .44 .43 .43 .39  Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Equamax with Kaiser Normalization. Rotation converged in 14 iterations.  

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