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Deja vu : an overview of 20th century adult education in British Columbia as reported by the mainstream… Stamm, Raimund Robert 2000

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DEJA VU: AN OVERVIEW OF 20 CENTURY ADULT EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA AS REPORTED BY THE MAINSTREAM PRESS by RAIMUND ROBERT STAMM B.A., Simon Fraser University, 1993 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Educational Studies) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 2000 © Raimund Robert Stamm, 2000 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of fo£>Q C.<ArUa tOiA^- S ^ ^ l E X The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) II DEJA VU?: AN OVERVIEW OF 20 CENTURY ADULT EDUCATION AS REPORTED BY BRITISH COLUMBIA'S MAINSTREAM PRESS (Abstract) Problem: With a few notable exceptions, the history of adult education in British Columbia has received relatively little attention. What information there is, is often confined to somewhat narrow time frames, locations, or topics. A general overview of the history of adult education in British Columbia during the 20th century seems to be lacking. This study is a modest attempt to begin adding voice to this important but largely overlooked area. Conceptual Approach: The approach taken is one of historical review. The study, while to some degree quantitative, is much more interested in the qualitative aspects of the material examined. Newspapers, which the author suggests provide a unique historical record, serve as the sole source of data. Methodology: The B.C. Legislative Library Newspaper Index from 1900 -1999 is the source of documents for this study. A thorough reading of all newspaper articles (550+), cited as being related to adult education, was undertaken. Articles were grouped by decade and recorded. Within the decades certain themes were identified and also recorded. Two specific themes (lifelong learning and distance education) received special attention and were examined and recorded separately. Findings: There are a number of reoccurring themes that arise during the period examined. Many of these themes have a direct correlation to issues facing adult education today. These issues include, but are not limited to: • lifelong learning • distance education and related educational technology r • duplication of services • libraries and adult education • defining/purpose(s) adult education. Since these and other issues are part of the current discourse about adult education, it seems reasonable that lessons learned/not learned in the past not be forgotten. With the benefit of historical hindsight, which includes sources that are not confined to potentially narrow interests, adult educators may become better informed by considering these issues. iii Table of Contents Abstract ii Table of Contents iii Acknowledgements v INTRODUCTION It's Deja Vu All Over Again 1 More than Mere Lip Service 1 Defining and Finding the History 2 Newspapers as a Source of History 2 British Columbia Legislative Index and Adult Education 3 Gathering, Sorting, Defining the Material 5 20/20 Hindsight 7 Chapter One 1920s Mansbridge Comes to Town and Says it All 8 1930s B.C. Education Paid for with American Money 10 1940s Globalisation, World Trade, and Consumerism 15 Chapter Two 1950s The Decade before the Boom 20 1960s Adult Education is Bursting at the Seams 23 Facilities and Conflicting Demands 23 Retraining and Re-entering the Workforce 27 Increased Demands but Diminished Funding 28 Welfare, Unemployment, and Adult Education 29 Vocational Versus Liberal Education 31 Adults in the Classroom 32 Adult Education and Universities 34 Age and the Learner 35 Libraries, Labour, and Adult Education 36 1970s Adults in School Starting to Outnumber the Kids 36 Growth in Adult Education 36 Adults in Day School 38 12 Years of Free Education 41 Adults in Universities and Colleges 43 Seniors and other Mature Learners 43 Liberal, Vocational, or Back to Basics Education 45 Duplication of Services 46 Funding 49 Unemployment and Welfare 49 Illiteracy 50 iv 1980s Educational Enrichment or Education for Getting Rich 51 Day-Care 51 ElderHostel 51 Education for the Humanities 52 Education for Profit 52 Seniors, Mature Students, and Adult Learners in Day School 54 Part-Time University and Continuing Education 55 Unemployment and Education 56 Funding and Cut Backs 57 A Letter to the Editor 59 Duplication of Services 60 1990s Money and the Human Factor 61 Fees and Funding 61 The Growth of Adult Education 65 Industry Support for Adult Education 66 Adult (usually women) Learners and their Stories 67 ESL 69 Duplication of Services 69 Democracy and Literacy 70 History and Symmetry 70 Chapter Three Seven Decades of Life Long Learning 72 Chapter Four Distance Learning and Education Technology 80 Chapter Five Making Sense of it all 90 What Can be Concluded 90 More Than the Recurring Themes 92 Names to Note and Further Research 93 What's not Been Said 94 Back to the Beginning 94 References 95 Appendix 1 Chronological Listing of Adult Education Articles 108 Appendix 2 Brief notes on Selected Topics 142 Acknowledgements v As always, special thanks to my wife, friend, and literary critic, Sandra Head. Thank-you to Hendrik Hoekema, as fine an adult educator as one could ever hope to work with and learn from. Thank-you to Shauna Butterwick, thesis supervisor and professor extraordinare. And thank-you to the committee members and the entire Adult Education faculty. You made the entire process worthwhile. 1 Introduction It's Deja Vu AH Over Again While the field of adult education is not devoid of historical research, a search of the j literature shows that, with a few notable exceptions, its history in British Columbia seems to have received relatively scant attention. This situation should not be too surprising since, as educator and historian Michael Welton has noted, "the 20th-century has not been particularly hospitable to the historical consciousness" (Welton, 1987, p.l). As Welton points out, this kind of historical consciousness is essential because "history helps us determine what is new, it helps us filter peripheral issues: it adds important voice to contemporary discourse" (Welton, 1998 p. 35). It seems particularly timely, poised at the edge of the much touted "new millennium," to momentarily pause, step back, and examine the history of 20 th century adult education in British Columbia. A largely overlooked source, which reveals considerable insight into that history, is the mainstream press. And, what becomes immediately obvious, to use the vernacular of baseball great Yogi Berra, is that "It's Deja vu all over again." More than Mere Lip Service One of the basic tenants of adult education is that "since adult students come to the 'classroom' with considerable life experience, adult education should build on that experience" (Spencer, 1998, p. 11). In other words, learners enter a classroom with a history. In order to build on that history —or experience in a meaningful manner there should be some attempt to make sense of the foundations that that experience provides. Adult education also has a considerable "life experience." It too should make sense of its history, the lessons learned, and the foundations it has or has not established. Welton's earlier comments came at the end of the 20 th century. They emphasised his belief in the importance of historical awareness. His comments, however, are predated by those 2 of educational philosopher John Dewey. At the beginning of the 20 th century Dewey was already advocating the importance of historical understanding in all facets of education: "an education which acknowledges the full intellectual and social meaning of a vocation would include instruction in the historic background of present conditions" (Dewey, 1916, p. 318). Nestled neatly in mid 20 th century, between Dewey and Welton, is an education text by George Frasier entitled An Introduction to the Study of Education. It advised teachers entering the profession that "you probably will not have a course in the history of education in your preparation for teaching. Such a course is required in very few colleges that prepare teachers.... As a teacher you should know the history of education.. .only then will you understand your position as a builder of citizens" (Frasier, 1955, p. 12). Defining and Finding the History A 1998 textbook, Foundations of Adult Education in Canada (Selman G., Cooke, Selman M. , and Dampier) observed that lack of agreement as to a definition of adult education is a "standing joke" (ibid. 1998 p. 16). Over the past century, however, there does seem to be general agreement that adult education is inextricably intertwined with society in general. One source which combines the history of adult education in relationship to society is the press. Newspapers, particularly mainstream newspapers, provide an historical record of the society within which they function. Part of that historical record is adult education. Indeed, as a bit of a side note, it is interesting that adult education literature contains numerous references as to how the use of newspapers can aid in the practice of adult education. It seems appropriate, therefore, to study newspapers in order to aid in understanding adult education. Newspapers as a Source of History There is no implied or stated claim herein that newspapers provide the quintessential source for historical research on the subject of the history of adult education in British Columbia. Shifting newspaper ownership and control, as well as changes in editorial staff and publishing 3 policy, changes in reporting techniques, as well as other concerns must all be acknowledged when reading and analysing newspapers. Also, this research has revealed instances -later highlighted- where the reporting of the same event was, on occasion, markedly different in the newspapers being considered. Yet, whatever the limitations, newspapers have unique attributes. They provide an important and broadly representative source of information about day-to-day activities. This was the position taken by the British Columbia Federation of Labour during the 1981 Royal Commission on Newspapers: Although we recognise the newspapers report and reflect the interests of working people less favourably than they do the interests of the corporate sector, we still feel nothing rivals newspapers, even in their current imperfect form, in their ability to provide crucial information to the public... Unlike radio and television it can be capable of being returned to again and again, newspapers serve as a historical record of their communities. They present issues in a manner which within certain limits allows us to determine what is going on (B.C. Federation of Labour, 1981). Newspapers also provide a record of history as it occurs, not in retrospect. William Rayner, in the introduction to his book, Images of History: 20th Century British Columbia Through the Front Pages, summed it up this way: For 100 years and more, residents of British Columbia have taken their history from the pages of the newspaper... .the newspaper is still the province's best window into the past as well as the present...[newspapers] chronicle history day after day (Rayner, 1997). It is within these possibilities, limitations, and assumptions that newspapers are used, in this paper, as the mean of examining the history of adult education in British Columbia. British Columbia Legislative Index and Adult Education Throughout the 20 t h century the B C Legislative Library, through the office of the Speaker of the House, maintained a newspaper index that noted particular headings as a service to members of the legislative assembly. The index, with very rare exceptions, draws upon five newspapers: three of them are Victoria based, The Times and The Colonist (in the early 1980s they merged to become the Times Colonist); and the News Herald. The other two papers cited 4 are the Vancouver Sun and The Vancouver Province. One article is recorded in the short-lived Vancouver Express. ( The index, from 1900 to 1979, had a subject heading of "education of adults." From 1980 onward, the heading becomes "adult education." This change in heading may be significant to those sensitive to the terminology within academic adult education discourse. This change of heading does not seem to reflect a change in the kinds of articles cited. Under these two headings, the index records 578 articles. The legislative index points out that articles related to adult education might also be found under other headings. These include non-formal education, education, continuing education, mining schools and education, correspondence schools and courses, evening and continuation schools, universities and colleges, technical education. In the future these headings may provide valuable information regarding adult education in British Columbia, they are not, given the scope of such inclusion, explored in this paper. Also, the BC Legislative Index (hereafter referred to as the index) depends upon the individual interpretation of its staff to make decisions as to which articles fall within the broad banner of adult education. This is not an exact science. During the research stage it became apparent that occasionally there were articles that appeared in the newspapers that were not cited in the Index. For instance, a 1926 letter to the editor of the Province newspaper refers to an article related to adult education that the Province had carried a few days earlier. Yet this article does not appear in the Index. Conversely, there are occasions when articles cited in the Index do not appear in the newspaper. One explanation for this situation (aside from possible recording errors) is that newspapers may have had several editions in one day. It is possible articles were inserted or omitted as space permitted within those different editions. As well, while reading the articles cited, there were occasional chance occurrences of finding other uncited adult education related articles. Having said that, this research confined itself to articles cited by the Index. The 5 position held is that the Index, with all of its real and perceived imperfections, provides a reasonably unbiased and reasonably well-informed attempt to record newspaper articles dealing with adult education. As well, of the 578 articles that form the basis for this historical study, few were limited to one topic. For instance, one article might contain references to educational technologies, gender issues, and rural education. Therefore, some articles may be cited more than once under different categories. Gathering, Sorting, Defining the Material Many lower mainland libraries have both the Index and microfilm spools of the newspapers that were core to this research. However, it was the Simon Fraser University library that had the easiest access to that material and the reading/photocopy machines with which to access and record that material. As well, the SFU library had the lowest photocopy costs, accessible operating hours, and quickest response time for machine repairs. The Index is not accessible through one convenient source. The years 1900 to 1970 are available on one microfilm roll. Another roll records 1971 to 1979. The years 1981 to 1990 is on a separate roll. From 1990 onward the Index is accessible only online only by computer. Interestingly, 1980 is conspicuous in its absence. In order to aid future researchers who might want to pursue this area of study, a complete listing of all citations has been included as Appendix One in this thesis. Given the sheer, and somewhat unexpected, volume of material, the eye strain, and the tediousness of running hundreds of spools of microfilm through sometimes less than co-operative reading machines, the process of gathering and photocopying all of the article that appeared in the Legislative Index took several weeks. At one point, in the interests of time and sanity, a researcher was hired to photocopy approximately 100 articles that had been identified through the Index. 6 Not all articles cited in the Index are discussed in this paper. Such inclusion would far exceed the limitations of this undertaking. It might be argued that an examination limited to a few specific decades might provide more in-depth information about those limited decades. Such an approach, while valid for future research, would not enable one to gain an insight into the general flow of the history nor of some of the recurring themes that appear throughout the century. It is this general flow and examination of some major themes that is the intent of this paper. A l l available articles were read and analysed. A l l articles, until 1971, were transcribed, by use of voice recognition software into a Lotus database program. Technical difficulties presented themselves at that point and the remainder of articles, while analysed, were not transcribed. However, since the bulk of the articles cited in the Index appeared before 1971, the database, and the ability to search for specific words, simplified the analysis process. General themes were identified and noted. As well, a general sense of the flow of adult education throughout the decades also became apparent. These two separate yet connected approaches were melded together in the process of writing this thesis. The most surprising outcome in this research was the massive amount and diverse nature of the material uncovered. The issues raised in this paper are those that the author thought to be particularly interesting, reflective, and worthwhile to note. So, while the author of this thesis found (for instance) the recurring theme of duplication of services particularly interesting, another researcher might have found a different thread more interesting to examine. For instance, the relationship between UBC, adult education and the fishing industry, as witnessed by the half dozen or so articles between 1939 and 1967, could have been pursued within this paper. Often referred to as the education of Indians, the relationship between adult education and First Nations is also a topic that receives attention within several of the articles reviewed. However, 7 as themes neither is pursued. For those interested in these two topics the article headlines related to these areas are contained within Appendix Two. To reiterate, any attempt to fully address all stories cited and or raised would be well outside the parameters of this undertaking. It is hoped that future researchers will follow more specific threads, and in so doing weave a more complete and textured fabric to warp around the history of adult education in this province. 20/20 Hindsight The intent of this paper is not to apply contemporary sensibilities of parlance, social justice, post-modern paradigms or other related perceptions or points of view to past issues. Indeed, an examination of the history of adult education, as reflected in the mainstream press, against the social fabric of the day, also reflected in the mainstream press, may prove to provide a wealth of excellent topics for future researchers. As well, it should be noted that some language found in the newspaper excerpts would, by current standards, be considered sexist or exclusive. There has been no attempt to rewrite these excerpts in order to make them gender neutral. Having said that, it is interesting to note, for instance, the ebb and flow of how women are acknowledged and heard (or not acknowledged and heard) over the decades under consideration. 8 Chapter 1 1920's Mansbridge Comes to Town and Says it All The first articles related to adult education, as cited in the Index, are all from 1926. Of the five articles that appeared, four of them report on the visit and views of Dr. Albert Mansbridge, founder of the World Association of Adult Education [sic] (WEA) in 1919. The \ fifth article is the letter to the editor which has already been briefly referred to in Chapter One. Over 70 years ago, Mansbridge raised issues that are still part of the regular dialogue in adult education. He was visiting British Columbia as part of a North American tour. Emphasised throughout these articles is the importance of adult education as a tool of personal and social empowerment. Central to his comments is the relationship between democracy and adult education. This theme maintains a presence throughout several decades and then seemingly disappears from view. However, an issue that maintains a presence into the 1990s is adult education as a means of personal and social empowerment as opposed to mere acquisition of limited skills. One paper records this quotation by Mansbridge: "By education I do not mean the actual acquisition of knowledge nor do I mean the development of training, both of these are instruments of the educated man...." ("Education Proves Vital...,"1926). This theme will reappear again and again. Another issue he raised was in regards to private enterprise versus university control of adult education. As if predicting the future, Mansbridge warned that "adult education should be controlled by the universities [and recognised educational institutions] in order to save it from commercialisation" ("Adult Education is All Embracing," 1926). The article goes on to record that " [adult education belongs] in the hands of public authorities who have no axe to grind in connection with its maintenance and could do it far more efficiently and economically" (Ibid.). This issue will also arise and then disappear with some regularity over the ensuing decades. 9 In the 1920s, Mansbridge contended that many universities were awakening to the importance of adult education. Then, as now, not all shared his optimism. For instance, in 1926 a letter to the editor from H. Johnston, that makes no reference to Mansbridge or his recent visit to British Columbia, levels criticism at the provincial university [UBC] senate for their failure to "bring the university to the people" ("Urges University to Give More Support...," 1926). The theme of "bringing the university to the people" will reappear with some regularity over the decades. Some current discourse worries about the commodification, certification, and over specialisation of adult education at the end of the 20th century. The antecedents of this debate can be seen in 1926. For instance, a quotation that highlights Mansbridge's contention that adult education is a specialised field offers the following: "adult education has become as clear an area of the educational field as that occupied by elementary or university education, and demands at least as much attention" ("Study Focused on Adult Education," 1926). Predating more contemporary rhetoric around adult education and lifelong learning, Mansbridge also claimed that "Adult education is not, as it was formerly was understood, limited to people whose opportunities were restricted in childhood; it is open to everyone... it must no longer be considered in any sense as a provision for neglected education, but rather as a supplement for adequate education" ("Adult Education is All Embracing," 1926). This observation will occur with some regularity throughout the century. The relationship between libraries and adult education was brought forward in the 1920s. According to Mansbridge, "adult education is the development of the library to a position where it is being considered more seriously than formerly as an aid to the efforts of men and women who are continuing, renewing, or just beginning their education" ("Study Focused on Adult Education," 1926). Yet, in spite of Mansbridge's regard for libraries, over the ensuing decades 10 there would be a number of newspaper articles that report the claim that libraries are marginalized and snubbed by many in adult education. As well, libraries also occupied a position in another recurring theme that continued for the remainder of the century. That theme is the duplication of services by various proponents and providers of adult education. Newspapers carried numerous articles highlighting the competition and jealousy that existed between various adult education providers and service organisations. 1930's BC Education Paid for with American Money In the 1930s, as in the previous decade, there was a strong sense of adult education for personal and social empowerment. In the 51 articles cited in the Index for this decade, there are several about American funding, through the Carnegie Corporation, of fledgling adult education programs offered throughout the province under the auspices of UBC. However, the 1930's also sees the growth in formal adult education when, in 1936, UBC announces the r ".. .permanency of the temporary adult education work it has been conducting and the appointment of Robert England.. .as director" ("U.B.C. Continues Adult Education," 1936). Issues of duplication of services —already noted in the 1920s— received even more attention in the 1930s. For example, those responsible for rural UBC programs assured that "Every effort will be made to prevent interference and work already done.. ..the adult education programs should be able to work through such organisations as, 'Women's Institutes, farmers institutes, parent teacher associations, churches, service clubs, and boards of trade'" ("Adult Education Programme for B . C . , " 1935). Two years later an article reported on the departure of Robert England as Director of Extension at UBC. The journalist, in recounting England's activities, observed that, 11 He had to perform miracles of tact in reconciling hard-boiled businessmen, radical economic politicians, hostile layman, and apathetic educational heads. He had to walk on eggs to avoid offending official and semi official organizations that were making sporadic excursions into adult training. He had the almost impossible task of co-ordinating these agencies in persuading them to work in cooperation instead of jealous opposition ("Daily Tatler. 1937). As part of the discussion about duplication of services, the role of libraries in adult education, a theme that appeared in the 1926 articles, grows contentious. In general, the claims are that either libraries are central to adult education or they are being unjustifiably snubbed by adult education. The head of the Vancouver Public Library is quoted as saying, "Librarians are the largest single group working for adult education and should not be ignored [by British Columbia's Minster of Education]' ("Assistance Sought in Adult Education," 1937). Another article reports that, "John Ridington, of the University of British Columbia library claimed that professional education has closed their eyes too much to the part of libraries in any educational system" ("Adult Education in B.C.. .,"1936). Yet there are several articles and editorials that voice strong support for the work libraries do in the field of adult education. An editorial offers the following observation: "The library is one of the strongholds of adult education. It provides reading matter for the public, partly for entertainment.... The serious reader will find, in the library's lecture and reading lists, guides that will prove invaluable" ("School for the Adult,"1937). While in the 1920s newspapers recorded claims that adult education belonged in the public sector in order to prevent its commercialisation, in the 1930s the concern became more politically based. The Canadian Association of Adult Education (CAAE) and the Workers' Educational Association met in Vancouver with representatives of the BC Department of Education. As one paper reports, "[The WEA in seeking guidance for adult education programs] went to the universities where it could be assured of pure education, untinged by propaganda of 12 any kind" ("Adult Studies are Reviewed," 1937). By the 1940s, it will become apparent that labour is no longer optimistic about its relationship with the universities. The importance of lifelong learning in a changing world —a recurring theme that will be examined in Chapter Four— is mentioned in several articles during this decade. One example of this changing world, sounding very current, is found in the following: "The widening gap between scientific progress and social progress makes a [sic] commonplace to say that scientific thinking has outstripped social thinking. To bridge this gap is the task of adult education" ("University of British Columbia Extension Course," 1935). Variations of that quote were replaced by other concerns in the 1940s, however, the changing world as a theme resurfaced with great regularity for the remainder of the century. In the 1930s reference is made in two articles for less teacher centred classroom activities, greater respect for the adult learner, and a less rigid classroom structure. As one article notes, "too often the rules governing the classroom are those of one-way traffic with penalties for nonconformity" ("Values of Adult Training Stressed," 1937). Two months later another article included this following quotation from a provincial gathering of the Parent Teacher Federation (this gathering included adult educators): "it is my belief that education should be fun or else it fails" ("Weir Will End Exam Bogey," 1937). In what appears to be a part of a growing trend towards recognising some seemingly emerging theories about adult education, issues of age and learning ability were also reported in the 1930s. E.A. Corbett, Director of the Canadian Association of Adult Education, "repudiated the fallacy the middle-aged person cannot learn as easily as a child... .Given the capacity to learn a man of 40 or 50 can acquire knowledge more easily than a young person" ("Finds Adults Learn Quickly," 1937). This topic/debate reappears over the ensuing decades. Tension between vocational versus non-vocational training, arguably similar to Mansbridge's observation in 1920 regarding training versus knowledge, seems to continue in the 13 late 1930s. Specifically, in 1937 the WEA met with local trade and education representatives, including John England of UBC's Extension Department, to organise "a class or classes" in British Columbia. Mr. Drummond Wren, Toronto Secretary of the WEA, said the sole object of these classes was to give "[workers] the opportunity of acquiring a broad and liberal education" ("Movement is Started Here," 1937). He added "it is neither elementary education or vocational training. There are no examinations, certificates, degrees or diplomas. It is purely learning for its own sake" (Ibid.). In a similar vein, E. A. Corbett, a few weeks later, is quoted as claiming that, "Education, not to help men in trading, but to round out every person's life to the full, should result in the present movement of adult education in Canada" ("Plan Develops Latent Talent," 1937). However, in another paper the quotation seems to indicate that, in British Columbia, vocational training had received significant attention in the province. Corbett is cited as having said, "In British Columbia you certainly lead the rest of the Dominion in the amazing development of vocational training" ("Plan Classes for Workers," 1937). Yet another newspaper chose to report on Corbett's claim that education must help "those with leisure to meet the changing panorama of industrial life" ("Finds Adults Learn Quickly," 1937). Given the depression of the 1930s, one is not sure whether the aforementioned leisure is a euphemism for unemployment. However, whatever the case, it is surprising to note -at least based upon the Index— how rarely unemployment and adult education are directly linked during the 1930s. Indeed the connection between adult education and unemployment received far more attention in the latter half of the century. Of the few articles that do made the connection, two are found in 1937. One reports that the "Initial plans for a comprehensive scheme of adult education among the unemployed [was] discussed" in a meeting called by John Kyle, the Director of Technical Education for the province ("Adult Education Plans discussed," 1937). This undertaking was the result of a recent 14 federal/provincial cost sharing agreement in which the federal Department of Labour provided funding for provincial adult education. Another article that does imply that connection, at least within the body of the article, reports, "Some 4000 people are benefiting by the adult education project that the Community Self-Help Groups [organised by women's' groups] are carrying on in Vancouver" ("Self-help Project of Adult Education...," 1937). Without drawing unwarranted conclusions, this lack of connection between adult education and unemployment is particularly interesting to consider in light of one article that seems to imply an indifference to adult education on the part of the provincial government. The article claims that "Adult education [—again linked with libraries (my emphasis) —] in the Maritimes has caught on like a prairie fire." It then reports that the Director of the Canadian Association of Adult Education had recently spoken to members of the New Brunswick Legislature. The reporter, presumably emphasising his belief that the B.C. government has slight regard for adult education, offers the following observation: "imagine the British Columbia Legislature taking time off the little things of politics to listen to such an address!" ("Adult Education," 1937). In 1939, a few weeks after Canada entered World War Two, the first article related to adult education and the military appears in the Index. The article in part reports that, "During the last war the education authorities gave students who enlisted the advancement that would have come to them for the year they left school. Whether or not this will be done the minister was not prepared to say" ("Plan Courses for Soldiers," 1939). Other considerations included acquisition of necessary skills and vocational training to engage in military related actives. The connection between the military and adult education continued into the mid 1950s and then disappears. The issue of facilitating high school graduation for adults, however, continues well into the 1990s. 15 In the 1930s, the first article —at least as cited in the Index— that makes a connection between adult education and immigration appears in the mainstream press. In Victoria, it is reported there is a class offered for "the special purpose of providing foreign speaking 'New Canadians' with the means of learning the language of their adopted country" ("Adult Education," 1939). It is in the 1950s that this theme will resurface. Given the current interest around global influences on the economy it is interesting to note that this issue was raised in the 1930s. One article records the meeting between educational planners in which "special note was taken of desire shown by farmers, especially in Canada's western provinces, to learn something of the world forces affecting their business" ("Adult Studies are Reviewed," 1937). An earlier article, citing a number of related concerns in the same vein offers these comments from rural British Columbians: "Your education work may help us produce fatter beef, better crops, more eggs, but will it help to remove the real obstacles in the way of our making a decent living? Can all the agricultural science in the world make the consumer pay us a just price for our labour?" ("Teach us How to Keep on Living," 1935). 1940's Globalisation, World Trade, and Consumerism: The 90s in the 40s? There were 34 articles cited in the Index for this decade. The issue of age and adult education, addressed in the 1930s, again appears in the 1940s. As one journalist noted, reporting on the comments of the Director of the University of British Columbia's Department of Education, Gordon Shrum, "I was encouraged by his dictum that at 45 years of age, the average person still possesses 80 to 85 percent of the peak capacity for learning" ("One Woman's Day," 1943). Global issues previously noted in the 1930s again come to the fore in the 1940s. They will disappear and then reappear in the late decades of the 20th century. However, in the 1940s it is globalisation through military/political affairs, as well as economic activity, that is the focus of attention. 16 Adult education in the 1940s was already promoting a world government. The Canadian Association for Adult Education, meeting in British Columbia, "urged in a resolution establishment of an international government and of an international police force, such government selected directly by the people's themselves, rather than by the governments of the various nations." ("Educators Propose World Government," 1943). Adult education was not only looking to the international community in its quest to build unity, it was also looking at national unity as well. A radio broadcast from British Columbia's Minister of Education, Dr. Weir, included the following comments, "Is Canada still in the stage of political and national immaturity? Must Canada grow up before she can be educated? By this I mean — will adult education be the chief, indeed the vital, education of the future? Is not the answer to greater national unity to be found in a greater degree of adult education that may be fostered under Dominion — Provincial auspices" ("Adult Education is a Dominion-Wide Problem," 1940); As previously noted, in the 1930s there was a clear connection between the demands for adult education and issues of agriculture and the world market. In 1940s, while not agriculture specific, the issue surfaced again. As one teacher, addressing a Royal Commission on Education, observed, "There are numerous monopolies and cartels in Canada, as elsewhere, over charging and otherwise exploiting the general public, and they are able to continue operations as a result of power politics, propaganda and public ignorance of facts. We need adult education to enable our citizens to distinguish legitimate business from high-pressure rackets" (Education of Adults Big Need,"1946). The same article recorded a claim that adult education was a means to counter "the type of advertising that promises to make everyone smell sweet, relieve us of halitosis and B.O., whiten our teeth, make girls lips kissable and kiss proof at the same time, and offers to sell sex appeal by the ounce, yard or as required" (Ibid.).. 17 As one might expect in the 1940s, there are several articles that emphasise the relationship between adult education and the military. As in the previously cited article from 1939, completion of high school was one of the chief concerns of educational programs for the military in the 1940s. Articles of the day report that four years of vocational training would be accepted in lieu of matriculation in order to enter certain branches of the military or to be eligible for promotion. In the 1940s notion of increased awareness for the individual preferences of adult learners, an issue already raised in the 1930s, resurfaces. This time it is connected to military education. For example, one article reports on the co-operation between The Canadian Legion and the Canadian Association for Adult Education. It records that every soldier in the Vancouver area will receive a questionnaire. As result, "Professors will be able to find out his higher education likes and dislikes and plan classes in the coming Khaki College to suit them" ("Troops are Going Highbrow," 1940). While highlighting many of the reasons for engaging in adult education activities, the article includes the observation that this education will also help the soldier pass the time while in a blackout or convalescing. In the early 1940s there was a forward-looking sense to rehabilitation plans and programs that would be necessary at the end of the war. Adult education articles related to the war seem to lack the kind of overt propaganda that one might expect. There is certainly some nationalism promoted. For example, there is reference in more than one article to maintaining a "high standard of Canadianism [during and after the war]" ("Educational Services to be Expanded "1940). The greater emphasis, however, seemed to be on the importance of adult education in helping preserve democracy and building a "brotherhood of man." As one article, indicative of several others, reported "Through real education, said Dr. Weir, based on noble objectives and 18 unselfish ideals, a new era of brotherhood may be ushered in" ("Adult Education Vital to Democracy...," 1941). The same day another paper included Weir's comments that "to survive in this war-torn world, democracy must prove itself more adaptable, more progressive and more enlightened than ever before... .the disappearance of adult education has been one of the first symptoms of a general attack on all kinds of higher education wherever totalitarianism established its rule. Adult education has proved a powerful antidote to the evils of propaganda" (Ibid.). The relationship between adult education and democracy had been already raised in 1926. In the later half of the century the relationship will receive considerably less notice in the press. The 1920s and 1930s recorded claims that labour turned to universities for assistance in educational issues because they were free of commercialisation, propaganda or "axes to grind." In the 1940s, there was a different tone from labour. In 1943 there was talk of the establishment of a permanent labour college [WEA] in Vancouver. As the article points out, "There is room for such a college. Education today has come to mean more profoundly than ever before, education for democracy" ("A Labor College," 1943). A few years later, the Secretary of the Workers Educational Association in BC was quoted as saying, "most employers who tried to smash unions are the products of universities... unions remember that universities are slow to take up the fight against fascism" ('"Vitamins' Need to Boast Workers' Educational Courses," 1946). Labour, at least the WEA according to this article, would engage in educational activities without the university. A substitute for universities would be libraries that had fought for recognition and legitimisation of their role as adult education centres. They would serve as "the poor man's university" according to one library official (Ibid.). In the 1940s, the importance of libraries in the practice of adult education for veterans was reported in an article that recorded the outcome of something called the continuations 19 committee on education [sic]. It was reported that "an adult education council to rehabilitate returned soldiers was advocated. Trade union participation in the adult education council was urged by John Wigdor, member of the Boilermakers union. A motion that public and high school libraries be made available to the council for adult education was passed unanimously" ("Urge Recreation Leaders Have Teachers' Status," 1943). Tensions that existed among universities, labour, libraries, and other adult education providers were a continuation of tensions witnessed in previous decades. The completion of a nine-month study undertaken by the library commission in 1941, at the request from G. M. Weir, BC Minister of Education, did little to alleviate this tension. Three recommendations put forward called for the formation of a formal division of adult education within the Ministry of Education; the creation of an adult education council; the appointment of a qualified adult education specialist to serve as its director. ("Department Proposed to Teach Adults," 1942). Similar recommendations -also ultimately not acted upon— would be forthcoming for the next . five decades. 20 Chapter 2 1950's The Decade before the Boom The mere 21 articles cited in the Index for this decade offer few clues for the boom that would follow. However, in mid-decade and in mid-century, Roby Kidd, president of the Canadian Association of Adult Education outlined six needs for adult education. They were "a working relationship between groups that will not jeopardise their individual autonomy; an exchange service; improved standards and training for adult education workers; better program planning; more education through mass media; and more adequate financing" ("Adult Education Council in Offing," 1954). These issues of autonomy, exchanging of information, and improved program planning were evident in the first half of the century. They were previously referred to as the duplication of services and/or competing interests. These issues continue through the remainder of the century. The improved standards and training for adult education workers that Kidd alluded to were not entirely new notions. As previously witnessed, in the 1930s and 1940s there was some indication adult educators had to be more in-tune with the sensibilities of adults returning to the classroom. However, this issue grew in significance over the next few decades. As well, Kidd's call for education through mass media was not entirely new. Other voices had raised the same issue in the 1930s. Financing was an issue that had received relatively little attention up to the 1950s. In the latter half of the century it seemingly drove the discussion around adult education as much as questions of philosophy or utility. Yet, having said that, questions of philosophy and utility remained. Questions of philosophy and utility are evident in the continued tension between liberal education and vocational training. J.K. Friesen, Director of UBC's extension department, 21 argued, "We've gone overboard on technical education and neglected liberal studies" ("Adult Education Fights European Communism," 1954). One month later, in support of increased vocational training, Burnaby Schools Superintendent C.G. Brown advocated a state devised compulsory adult education system. According to Brown, "The trend of education must turn more directly toward vocational training. From high school only 12 percent go to professional training. More than 80 percent enter the occupations. The weight of training should be balanced accordingly" ("Compulsory Adult Education Forecast," 1953). In the following decade this issue would again receive attention. In 1957 an article described UBC's Extension Department "as good a symbol as any of adult education in the province" ("Helping B.C. to Improve,"1957). Beginning in 1936 with a staff of two, it now had a staff of 44 of whom 39 where full-time members. The extension department took pride in its "lectures and instruction on campus, field services which carry experts to points were their talents are needed, and other developments in bringing knowledge and instruction to receptive adults [and so making] a great contribution to life in this province" (Ibid.). In more current and pragmatic terms the article also claimed the Extension Department helped British Columbians "improve their earning abilities" (Ibid.). The relationship between leisure and education, raised in the 1930s, was cited as adding even greater responsibility to the Extension Department's activity. The article claimed that the Extension Department "with other agencies of adult education [could provide an antidote] to that poison which leaves men's minds 'to rust un-burnished" (Ibid.). There are several articles that report on groups of adult education stakeholders coming together to discuss a variety of issues, goals, and problems. One such article reported on "68 members of an informal [and it should be noted unnamed] clearinghouse for BC adult education organisations [holding] their first meeting since the group was formed in December" ("Adult Educationists Discuss Basic Aims," 1955). Provincial Archivist Willard Ireland is reported as 22 summing up the meeting with the observation that leadership and co-ordination are problems that must be addressed. This theme has been visited several times over previous decades; it will continue to be revisited over future decades. However, this apparent soul searching was not an issue for all those involved in adult education. An unnamed Dean of the University of British Columbia, addressing the Canadian Association of Adult Education, is quoted as saying, "We tend to spend too much time philosophising when the philosophy of adult education is relatively simple" ("Adult Education Too Highbrow," 1956). The article gives no insight as to what the Dean's philosophy was. As previously witnessed, since 1926 adult education has often been linked with democracy. In the 1950s adult education this trend continues. As one article reports, "when a gang of young adult uniformed Nazi imitators was broken up some years ago in the United States... [the states attorney recommend] a good dose of education" ("Education for Adults Worth Cost," 1953). John Friesen, then head of UBC's extension department, reported that in Europe, adult education was "the main weapon against communism and in the defence of democracy" ("Adult Education Fights European Communism," 1954). The theme of age and learning ability again surfaces in the 1950s. However, this time the age bar —previously set at 45— inexplicably seems to have been raised. According to Roby Kidd, "You can learn up to the age of 75 if you really wanted to... .We use age as an excuse and it's part of our culture to say people cannot learn after a certain age [according to Kidd all research projects since 1925 are to the contrary]" ('"You Can Learn up to Any Age," 1958). It is worth noting that the previous quotation displays one of the few occurrences where issues about adult education are given historical context. In the 1930s, reference was made to language classes for immigrants to Canada. This issue resurfaces in the 1950s. As one article reports, "the pressing need for adult education — especially amongst immigrants— was stressed Tuesday night by Dr. John K. Friesen [Director of 23 the department of university extension] at the monthly meeting of the Vancouver Co-ordinating Council on Citizenship" ("Adult Education Fills Big Need Says Director," 1954). The changing world and lifelong learning (themes examined in Chapter Five) are again discussed in the 1950s. Part of that discussion centres on the pressure existing facilities faced in light of the increasing numbers of adults attending some kind of adult education related activity. One article claims the annual education report for the British Columbia Legislature showed that "There were 277,070 children and youths enrolled as compared to 222,331 person registered in adult classes." ("B.C. Teachers Lack Qualifications...," 1959). Limited facilities, particularly in Victoria and Vancouver, will become one of the centrepieces around the reporting of adult education in the 1960s. 1960's Adult Education is Bursting at the Seams The Index's list of citations for adult education articles peaks in the 1960s. Given the volume of articles and the following quotation, it seems possible that the currently much touted information age is at least 40 years old. As early as 1961 a newspaper article reported that "there never was a time in human history when the desire for knowledge was as widespread and insistent as it is today" ("Challenge Seen For UBC Extension," 1961). However, in spite of the desire for knowledge it appears that adult education was not philosophically or physically prepared to meet the demand. Facilities and Conflicting Demands The Assistant Director of Adult Education for the Vancouver School Board was critical of the current education system. He referred to it as "our one shot theory of fill 'em up with education and throw them 'em out" ("School Retraining Urged by City Education Expert," 1961). He added "if our education lacks anything it lacks continuing facilities for those re-entering the system" (Ibid). The number of adults re-entering the system in the 1960s was enormous. It was reported night school enrolment had "soared to a new record" putting 24 Vancouver ahead of all other North American cities on a per capita basis ("City Tops Continent for Night Schools," 1961). In a report prepared by Vancouver adult educators, in preparation for what was, according to the article, the first national conference on adult education in Canada, it was noted that "we're tragically short of proper facilities for the education activities of adults" ("Adult School Policy for Nation Urged," 1961). The growth in adult education continued unabated. By 1965 it was reported that "there are more adults attending night school than students attending secondary schools" ("Adult Flocking Back to School," 1965). One year later it was reported that "there are now 100,000 taking [adult education] courses in B.C. -about 50 percent of them in Vancouver" ("New Approach Urged to Adult Education," 1966). By 1967 the growth of adult education was so extreme that, according to Canadian Adult Education Association Director Alan Thomas, "[it] will die of strangulation unless immediate plans are made for expansion" ("Expansion Vital," 1967). This lack of facilities reached crisis proportions in both Victoria and Vancouver. Newspapers in both cites carried scores of articles over the decade around the issue of facilities, their construction, and mandates. In the process, old themes of academic or liberal education versus vocational training came to the fore. As well, conflicting and competitive agendas among educational agencies and questions of duplication of service again emerged. For example, a proposed adult education centre in Victoria, undertaken by the Victoria School Board, was promoted as being a, "flexible, multipurpose, day and night facility ("Speedup Ordered in Planning on Adult Centre,"1963). The centre was to be a joint academic and vocational facility. However, the provincial government rejected this approach claiming "there would not be room for both the type of institution the board desires and a proposed provincial vocational institution" ("No Political Football Please!," 1963). The Minister of Education, in the same article, claimed the "priority must be given to the education of workers in 25 Canada" (Ibid.). A year later the debate continued with the local school board chairman claiming, "[the board] realizes the need for vocational training, but we also stand behind academic aspects of higher education" ('"Never Give Up' on Adult Centre," 1964). In 1966 the new and highly controversial adult education centre finally opened in Victoria with the promise that it "will not duplicate courses offered at the vocational school [not yet built by the province]... [however] it might slightly overlap courses offered in the first -year University program" ("New Day School For Adults Opening in Fall," 1966). In Vancouver the situation was somewhat the same. Space was at a premium. One article records that, "The Vancouver Vocational Institute, which is bursting at the seams, may expand into the Pacific National Exhibition... .Need for temporary classrooms has become urgent recently due to the influx from the Canadian Manpower Centre of new Canadians seeking basic English instruction, and unemployed persons seeking technical training.. ..while extra teachers can be hired to reduce class sizes, there aren't enough classrooms" ("Adult Classes May Move to Exhibition," 1967). The theme of competing agencies duplicating or overlapping services received considerable attention in Vancouver. One example of this includes a 1963 article in which concern is expressed over a proposed UBC continuing education centre. It was argued that the proposed centre would "duplicate services offered at King Edward Campus Adult Education Centre or night schools or proposed for the city's two-year college" ("Trustees Fear UBC Plan Confuses Public," 1963). As one school board trustee said "we cannot afford competition in education" (Ibid.). While the previous sentiment may have been voiced sincerely, competition continued. Reporting on the outcome of a recent conference attend by representatives from provincial institutions and organisations, it was noted "BC's post secondary educational institutions have opted for co-operation rather than competition" ("Educators Agree to Co-operate," 1966). That same year adult education in British Columbia was described as "a 26 patchwork of courses, schools, programs and systems; a confusing jumble of opportunities upon which too many adults have to stumble if they discover it at all" ("Blueprint for Advanced Learning..." 1966). The Canadian Association for Adult Education took the position that adult education is "an opportunistic, short-term sporadic enterprise exploited by the nation in times of crisis and left to private and desperate chance when emergency is passed" (Ibid.). The association, again harking back to a theme that had been raised in previous decades, urged that all levels of government, private and public educational authorities co-operate in developing a more comprehensive and completely articulated system of continuing education. This issue had been raised just five years earlier. At that time it was reported that Vancouver hosted Canada's first national conference on adult education to consider the formation of a national adult education policy. According to the article, "More than 250 delegates, representing some 60 national organisations, are expected to attend the meeting, sponsored by the Canadian Association for Adult Education and the Instuit d' Education des Adults" ("Adult School Policy for Nation Urged," 1961). An attempt to co-ordinate adult education activities and endeavours had already been advocated in earlier decades. In 1961 recommendations were again made. It was argued that a provincial director of adult education was needed in B.C. "to spearhead progress in the field" ("Adult School Chief Urged for B.C.," 1961). A group of educators [made up of 65 education specialists and school trustees] agreed (Ibid.). Seven years later the issue was revisited again when Frank Beinder, president of the BC School Trustees Association is reported as telling an adult education convention that, "it is urgent that the public education system be adjusted to include adult education" ("Adult Classes Move Slowly Says Director," 1968). These recommendations were ignored and this theme would reappear in the ensuing decades. 27 Retraining and Re-entering the Workforce Much of the growth in adult education in the 1960s was the result of a seeming crisis that in some ways is very similar to a perceived crisis in the closing decades of the 20 t h century. That crisis is the apparent lack of skilled labour. Contemporary claims bemoaning the lack of appropriate training and skilled labour seem similar to claims being made over 30 years ago. As an editorial of the day noted, "This province's shortage of skilled workers is demonstrably serious when special immigration teams must scour Europe to plug our labour gaps, and when the Department of Education in Victoria puts vocational schools on a crash, year-round operating program" ("Why Not in B.C.? ," 1965). In the mid 1960s, the Minster of Labour and Education, in attempting to address this skills shortage, announced that, "in order to keep pace with automation and technological advances.. .regional vocational schools will operate on a full twelve months per year basis. Their school day will be lengthened to seven hours and 20 minutes and the duration of the courses will be shortened" ("Trade Retraining This Fall," 1965). One paper records the comments of the B C Minster of Labour and Education when addressing a group of adults graduating from courses in business administration, data processing and electronics. He said, in words that seem as if they could have been uttered in more recent times, "I'm deeply concerned about our existing shortage of skilled, highly trained manpower, and deeply appreciative of the fact you have done something about it" ("Adult Enrolment up in School Courses," 1966). Here, at the beginning of the 21 s t century the new skills needed for the new possibilities and prosperity that computers [supposedly] offer are part of the discussions in education. In the 1960s, at least based upon newspaper accounts, it was not much different. It may not have been computers but, "no matter what the age of automation offers in general prosperity, the worker who is not educated faces as hopeless and dreary a life as the idle thousands of the great depression of the 1930's" ("Chicago Buys Our Plan," 1962). 28 Claims of skill shortages might be somewhat misleading and merely indicate some minimal increase in the need for training. For instance, in the 1960s it was reported that "specialisation has conquered another field of endeavour" ("Finishing School set for Janitors," 1963). The article reported that, "gone are the days with all a person needed to become a janitor was a strong back to shovel coal and a keen eye to sweep up." Being a janitor, the article continued, "requires a know-how of power cleaning equipment, a variety of industrial cleaning agents and the ability to apply efficient techniques to the work.. .People over 40 will be especially helped by the course in seeking building maintenance as an occupation, for older persons often are forgotten because they are unskilled or semi skilled" (Ibid.). The increased demand for skills in the 1960s has strong parallels to similar demands in later decades. This article raised issues that are as timely now as they were almost 40 years ago. Among these issues are "decreasing opportunities in the unskilled labour market, the massive assault upon the society by communications and media..." ("Adult Classes Move Slowly Says Director," 1968). The word "leisure" is worth noting as well. Possibly a euphemism for unemployment, it had previously been used in connection with diminished employment opportunities in 1930s and 1950s. Increased Demands but Diminished Funding In spite of the apparent lack of skilled workers, in the 1960s adult education faced diminishing funding opportunities. For instance, one article reported, The widely heralded, federally subsidised program to upgrade the education of the unemployed seems to have gone down the drain. In addition, with the program have gone the hopes of the people who gave up low-paying jobs, or the hopelessness of continued employment, to embark on the improvement program. They are now left high and dry. ("Cuts feared in Adult Education," 1967). Setting the tone for the latter half of the century, articles related to diminished funding from provincial and federal sources appear in the 1960s. One of them, typical of the day, noted that the 29 Vancouver school board is girding for battle with federal-provincial governments over cutbacks in aid for adult education The board was told Monday it must discontinue a basic English program for immigrants and cut in half basic vocational training for the unemployed" (Education Aid Cuts Protested," 1967). Canada Manpower spokesmen in Vancouver defended their efforts as part of "a new concept of selecting individuals for training and upgrading their skills rather than groups of unemployed" (Ibid.). A year earlier the Vancouver School Board recommended a reduction in school board fees because, as trustees were told by the night school principal, "fees are increasing at a rate that may soon prevent adults from completing high school through the night school system" ("Fee Reduction Recommended," 1966). The same year Gerald Fry, Director of adult education for the Coquitlam District, urged "adult education be subsidised" and stated that adults coming to Coquitlam would be able to complete upgrading classes for free ("Adults Flock to Schools,"1966). However, this view was not shared by all. Frank Livers, Superintendent of the Department of Education, argued that "Individuals have a large responsibility for their own lives... .Adults should pay a rather large share of the costs of his own further education" ("Hobbycrafts Era Over in Classes," 1967). Questions of funding occupy a considerable portion of the articles found in the 1960s. Welfare, Unemployment, and Adult Education One of the themes that ebbed in and out of the newspapers over the decades in the later part of the 20th century was the relationship between welfare, the unemployed, and adult education. In 1961, compulsory education, advocated in the 1950s, again appeared in the mainstream press. Two articles, reporting on the same event, recorded the heart of the controversy very differently. One reported that Alan Thomas of UBC's extension department advocated for unemployment insurance based on compulsory education for those collecting 3 0 benefits. He is recorded as stating, "With few exceptions, society is full of men who do not wish to work and must be bludgeoned into it by economic privation" ('"Compel Unemployed to Improve Brains,"'1961). The other article reported the story very differently. In it his comments were recorded as, "He pooh-poohed that idea that the world is full of men who don't want to work and 'must be bludgeoned into it by economic privation.' That applies to a very few he said" ('"Pay Unemployed to Attend School,'" 1961). Thomas advocated paying the unemployed to attend school. His position was that since the government already had various funding opportunities through "baby bonuses, old age pensions, Canada Councils, etc" it seemed reasonable that the same support be applied to adults wishing to continue their education. Several years later a regional planner, speaking at a BC conference of Adult Educators, put forward the idea of "Payment for successful completion of adult education course[s]" ("Pay for Graduates Urged," 1968). However, his idea was not directed towards the unemployed. His primary concern was in finding ways to motivate seniors (seemingly the first time this group has been specifically addressed) to escape from the "strange sense of isolation" many of them faced. At that same meeting Dr. Leonard Marsh of the University of British Columbia [no mention of what his role at UBC was] is reported as telling delegates that organised labour was not doing the education job that it had done in years gone by. According to the article, "He said one of the major jobs of adult educators was to get the disenfranchised people — those who don't take an interest in public affairs, who didn't go out to vote or study the issues" (Ibid.). The following year the issue of mandatory education activity for the unemployed or welfare recipients resurfaces with the announcement that the Chicago school and welfare authorities [sic] had "Taken up a plan pioneered in Vancouver for the general education of unemployed persons" ("Chicago Buys our Plan...," 1962). Sounding very much like polices that would be promoted in later decades, the "Chicago Plan" was to be mandatory for all those unemployed and on the welfare rolls who were deemed to be capable of benefiting from such a 31 program. The article went on to say that an "exact comparison" would be problematic since in Vancouver there was a different participant selection process as compared to Chicago. Those differences were not revealed. Compulsory education for welfare recipients was not part of an experience reported two years later. A 1964 article recounts the relationship between the local school in Grand Forks and the seemingly hopeless future of "Five jobless, near destitute Grand Forks women eking out a meagre existence on social welfare." The article recounts how through the actions of a local high school principal, the local school board, and volunteer teachers these five women, all struggling with correspondence courses, weere given access to two hour classes two nights a week. The result was that these women were able to complete the minimum requirements that would allow them to enter vocational school or employment related training. As the principal claimed, "If we could take only a few hundred people off the welfare rolls each year we could save hundreds of thousands of dollars" ("Adult Schooling Program Success," 1964). In the late 1960s British Columbia's social welfare department said it would, "pay adult education tuition fees for people on welfare" ("Adults Paid Tuition," 1968). For the remainder of the century this discussion of mandatory education or funded educational opportunities welfare recipients will resurface. Vocational Versus Liberal Education American funding of adult education in British Columbia was evident in the 1930s. In the 1960s it resurfaced. C. Scott Fletcher, President of the U.S. Fund for Adult Education, was at UBC to give the extension department a cheque for $150,000 in order to help it enlarge its adult education program. Fletcher is quoted as saying: For far too long in too many of our educational institutions we have been concerned with education to help people improve the vocational skills...In the future we need to place more emphasis on the education of specialists who are first and foremost liberally educated men and women, and thus well fitted for 32 positions of both private and public responsibility ("Training of Leaders Called Vital," 1961). Ironically, the following year, a provincial commission to study adult education funding in the province found that vocational night school courses garnered 65 percent of funding whereas academic courses received only 15-18 percent ("Academic Study Grants Said 'Unfair,'" 1962). A few years later Alan Thomas, Director of the CAAE, claimed the old liberal education vs. vocational education argument was dying out because lines between the two were fading. He suggested, "Many new courses may be considered part liberal, part vocational" ("Soaring Costs Predicated for Educating Adults," 1966). It is interesting to note that despite Thomas' comment, the earlier noted debate around the construction and occupation of seemingly dichotomous educational settings does suggest that the tension had not totally dissipated. Liberal education faced competition from another area in the 1960s. Arguably, the antecedents of this competition are seen in 1926 when the threat of commercialisation of adult education was raised by Mansbridge. In the mid 1960's one local [Victoria] private business school officials "reported that 25 percent of their total enrolment are regular school dropouts who are returning for business training" ("Business School Enrolment Heavy," 1965). Adults in the Classroom Much of the growth in adult education during the 1960s can be attributed to a trend witnessed in the 1940s and 50s. That trend was adults returning to school in order to complete their high school matriculation. Part of this increase was attributed to women re-entering the classroom. According to one article, women returning to education was possible because "automated housework [was] freeing large numbers of women to return to work and school." The article goes on to reassure the reader that this "trend" [was] not a threat to the welfare of their families" ("Gadgets Free Wife...," 1965). Indeed, several articles in the 1960s carried 3 3 encouraging stories about women who had returned to school. Often these articles also reported on local school boards allowing adults to enter regular day-classes in local schools provided there was sufficient room for them. Although there is no reference to andragogy within these articles, there is recognition of basic adult education precepts. Moreover, there is a general appreciation about having adults in the regular classroom. For instance, one article, indicative of several others, reports that "in deference to her 25 years [of age], Mrs. Macmillan [the focus of the article] is given grade 13 privileges. She does not get a detention for being late, doesn't have to be present for 9:00 a.m. roll call, and does not have to bring a note from her mother if she has been absent" ("Mother's Too Busy on Own Homework..." 1967). In another article a teacher is noted as saying that with an adult in the \ class, "a teacher cannot afford to give a poor lesson." In the same article another teacher observed that adult students, "create a good learning atmosphere" ('"My Mom Goes to Highschool...,'" 1968). However, there were problems reported. One article noted that the "over emphasis on adult education is depriving children of normal school facilities here [in Kamloops] ....Adults leave a mess in children's desks, including cigarette and cigar butts and lunch remains" ("Adult Groups Taking Over Schools," 1965). Another article noted a school trustee in Cowichan who received a call from, "a woman who objected to her taxes being used to educate married people" ("Mother's Too Busy on Own Homework...," 1967). In developing adult education centres, concessions were made for adults re-entering the classroom. For instance, one article reports that "high school students will be allowed to smoke, cut classes and study when they like at the new King Edward Adult Education Centre which opens in September... .The new style King Edward will be the second of its kind in Canada catering only to adults. There is a similar school in Lethbridge and many are established on the U.S. Pacific Coast" ("Smoking, Cuts OK," 1962). 34 However, while facilities were developed to meet the sensibilities and demands of adult learners, some teachers were not as understanding of adults, or andragogical principles, as one might expect. One article reporting on an adult education convention in Vancouver recounted the story of a teacher in Toronto who had been "Reprimanded last year for making an adult student stand outside the classroom for misbehaviour." According to the article "[the adult in question] was asking questions which [the teacher] felt disturbed the class." The lesson for adult educators at the convention was that "Adult education teachers must receive training in subject matter and instructional methods in order to do a good job" ("Teaching Adults 'Not always Easy,'" 1966). Adult Education and Universities While most of the articles in the 1960s seem to focus on regional school board undertakings and creation of new adult learning centres, university extension programs do receive attention. E.A. Corbett, at a convocation address at the UBC is reported as saying "If there are answers to the world's problems, they must be found among men and women of intellect. It is the function of universities to make those people available at every level of society" ("Challenge Seen for UBC Extension," 1961). One such person was Coolie Verner. At UBC in the early 1960s as a visiting professor, he raised the issue of rural illiteracy. While this issue had been part of newspaper reporting in previous decades, Verner contended that "We spend untold sums on technical agricultural programs without a thought to the ability of farmers to read, interpret and apply the knowledge in these publications" ("Rural Adult Education Plan Urged," 1960). By 1966, Verner, now a professor at UBC, was warning that "British Columbia may soon be faced with a growing, permanent peasant class unless adult literacy programs are improved" ('"Peasant Class' Forming in B.C.," 1966). In 1969, eight years after Verner's initial observations and almost 60 years since the first articles about rural education appeared in the mainstream press, several articles reported 35 on a recent survey that indicated British Columbia was suffering from major illiteracy problems among rural populations. The report, according to the newspaper, called for "new approaches and methods to bring adult education to rural populations most in need of assistance" ("Illiteracy in Rural B.C. Barred in Study...," 1969). This is precisely what the rhetoric was in the 1930s. In the 1960s, UBC received considerable pressure to help adults achieve a degree program through evening programs. While high school matriculation, one of the major demands of the 1960s, was achievable through part-time and evening study, a degree through UBC was not. The only exception to this seemed to be the MA Adult Education program through UBC. One graduate said the reason an MA in that department was achievable through evening programs was because "Dr. Coolie Verner, as an adult education expert, knew the problems of adult students and scheduled classes accordingly" ("UBC's 'Failure' in Adult Education," 1966). A few days later there was a response to the criticism. It was reported that "The president of the University of BC spurned a suggestion that UBC has a moral obligation to provide degrees through evening classes." According to university president Dr. Macdonald, citing financial limitations, "Our first obligation is to undergraduate, graduate, and professional training" (Evening Degrees not Moral Duty," 1966). It is reported that "20,000 adults took part in UBC extension programs in the 1965-1966 academic year" (20,000 Adults Utilise UBC Extension Courses," 1966). When Gordon Selman became the new director of the UBC Extension Department, he "predicated an increased demand for part-time study towards degrees" (More People Studying by Degrees," 1967). Age and the Learner Dr. Robert Havinghurst, professor of education and human development at the University of Chicago, was in Vancouver working on two projects at UBC. In the process of discussing research into adult learning, Dr. Havinghurst outlined the cyclical nature of education research and interest in gifted children. He observed that this interest was seen in the 1920s and then 36 again in the 1950s. He then made the claim that, "We now know that, except for things related to speed of response, all other mental abilities hold-up and people can go on learning indefinitely" ("Many Changes Forecast in World Living Habits," 1968). He makes no note of the cyclical nature around the issue of age and the adult learner as witnessed by similar reports from 1930s, 40s, and 50s. Libraries, Labour, and Adult Education Before leaving the 1960s, it is worth noting that two themes that had appeared with some regularity over the previous decades were largely ignored in the 1960s. These concerned the relationship between labour and adult education and the relationship between libraries and adult education. This latter theme will remerge with new vigour over the ensuing decades. However, the relationship between labour and adult education, such a high profile issue for many decades, seemingly fades into obscurity. 1970s Adults in School Starting to Outnumber the Kids While the number of articles cited In the Index for the 1970s number only half as many as those found in the previous decade, adult education, it seems, continues to grow. Receiving the bulk of attention in the 121 articles cited this decade are reports on the growth of adult education, the inclusion of adults in the regular school system, twelve years of free education, adults in universities and colleges, adult education and unemployment and welfare, vocational versus liberal education, and the duplication of services. Growth in Adult Education According to Dr. L.E. Devlin, Director of the Adult Education Division at University of Victoria, "Adult education is the fastest growing segment of education in Canada" ("Some 13,000 Adults go Back to School...," 1971). This trend, as witnessed in various newspaper accounts, is seen in universities, night schools, and even in public schools. A year later it was reported that "enrolment figures for University of Victoria adult education courses have 37 increased greatly [58%] over the last ten months...[to a] total of 1,306 adults" ("58 pet more enrol in Right Courses," 1972). Similarly, Victoria night schools were experiencing rapid growth with registration up 100 percent for non-degree programs offered by the continuing education division at the University of Victoria and Camosun colleges community service department ("Night Schools Boom," 1972). "A record registration of 950" was expected by Saanich school district continuing education department by the end of November ("Adults Flock to Night School," 1972). Towards the end of the decade it was reported that "Grown-ups will soon out-number young people in the public school system says a department of education study....Adult education courses now serve about 340,000 adults and the demands is increasing [as compared to] 500,000 students in the public school system" ("Back to School Movement Swelling," 1977). A year later it was again reported that "By the early 1980s there will be more adults in B.C. classrooms than youngsters. The growth of adult education programs over the last decade has been phenomenal" ("Cost Big Issue as More Adults Enter.., 1978). However, in spite of these growing numbers, one article expressed concern that "The wrong people are benefiting from adult education programs and those who should be reaping the rewards aren't,' an official [Ian Morrison for the Canadian Association for Adult Education] said Thursday" ("Adult Education Program Benefiting Wrong People," 1977). Morrison remarked that those who made use of adult education opportunities were those that had already had "the best educational opportunities when they were kids" (Ibid.). The more urgent need, from his point of view, was providing educational opportunities for the over 300,000 British Columbia residents who still had less than a grade eight education. Several newspapers report that the growth in adult education was in large part due to an ever increasing number of women returning to school. In the 1960s, as previously cited, this return was partially attributed to "automated housework." In the 1970s other reasons are offered. A women who apparently was herself a returning student wrote, "The UBC Campus is knee-38 deep in little old ladies brushing up their brains. They are called mature students and they are having a ball... .Women emerging from years of housewifery, women divorced, separated or widowed, women wanting to take up where they left off years ago, needing to exercise their minds or improve their employability, women of all needs and ages, are really made to feel welcome" ("Knee-deep in Old Ladies," 1978). That same year another article, highlighting the number of women returning to school, paid homage to Pat Thorn of UBC's Centre for Continuing Education. It was reported, that as a result of her leadership, enrolments leaped from 1,000 in 1968 to 7,000 in 1978. Ms. Thorn is reported as stating that "Women's need to be independently self-managing and self-supporting is greater now than at any time in history because of the radical transformation of marriage and family, with divorce so widespread and financial support for former or deserted wives no longer the norm" ("Third Career her Goal,"1978). Adults in Day School Stories about the growth of adult education in the 1960s often referred to the lack of facilities for adult learners. As part of that discussion there was reference made to the negative impact of adults in regular classrooms. In the 1970s "Adults will be encouraged to enrol as daytime students in Greater Victoria schools the board has decided" ("High School Mat's out for Adults," 1978). Several articles report on the movement to promote inclusion of adults into regular classrooms. One article in particular encapsulates three reasons for the urging and welcoming of adults into day schools. One reason is to "offset declining enrolment." Another reason is to "build support of public school system as adults will have first hand experience." And the third reason offered is that "They can bring a dimension to classroom discussion that younger students cannot" (Ibid.). Towards the end of the decade this initiative was still being promoted. Victoria School District trustee John Young is reported as saying that "The presence of adults in the classroom 39 has a very favourable effect on high school students, and local high-schools are an important community resource that should be better publicised" ("Adults Slow to Enrol in Area High Schools'" 1978). A week later another article reported a teacher's observation that "Contrary to what one might expect, having an adult in the classroom does not incite young students to fits of childishness, at least in the senior grades. With an adult in the classroom, students feel more mature, if anything" ("Kids Make it Easy for Adult in School," 1978). Just a month later another article repeated the same sentiments. The Greater Victoria School Board "Actively promotes a policy of encouraging and welcoming adults to enrol in secondary schools as regular day-time students, in order to assist them in obtaining regular secondary school graduation" (High School Doors Open for Returning Adults," 1978). According to Keith Bickmore, principal of the Esquimalt High School, "giving daytime educational programs to adults is another way to serve the community.. ..The adult students also have a positive effect on other students in class, and their first-hand experience in the classroom should dispel some of the more sordid myths about modern education" ("Goin' Back Adult Style," 1978). Another motivation for bringing adults into the regular classroom is to offset declining enrolment in the school system. Yet, in spite of the attempt to bring adults into the regular classroom, the actual number of adults taking advantage of this is quite small. As one article reports, "It may be some time before adults taking advantage of free educational opportunities make any dent in the Greater Victoria school district's declining enrolment" ("Adults Slow to Enrol in Area High Schools," 1978). Another article goes on to say that "Spectrum Community School, which has made the greatest effort in the district to promote enrolment of adults has "one" or "two" at the moment.. ..an undetermined number of adults attend occasional attend short courses or sit in on a class for a few weeks" (Ibid.). A week later another article offers that "Joane Leslie is one of the few adults in the greater Victoria School District who have gone back to high school " ("Kids Make it Easy for Adult Back in School," 1978). Several months later 40 "A policy to encourage adult enrolment in Greater Victoria appears to be having some effect.. .Esquimalt High now has a record 24 adult enrolled, more than twice as many as any other city high school" ("Goin' Back Adult Style," 1978). There is mention made of some of the unexpected issues, both psychological and physical, that arise from adults in the regular classroom. One article, reporting on a mother who attends the same school as her daughter, includes that "She reported that her daughter didn't mind her attending the same school as long as they had no classes together" (Ibid.). Another article, in what appears to be an apparent attempt at humour, raises the issue of the physical appropriateness of furnishings for adults in regular classrooms. The story tells of a 52 year old grandmother who, "Built in slightly larger proportions than your average Grade 12 student, had just taken up a comfortable position at her desk when the chair suddenly fell apart" ("Grandma Bounces Back into Classroom," 1978). Most of the articles cited in the Index that report on adults in the regular classroom came from Victoria based newspapers. One Vancouver paper that raised the issue reported that "This fall Vancouver school kids will be meeting the usual quota of new students. But among them will be students not normally seen in the average classroom before - students who will be 10, 20, maybe even 60 years older than the rest.... [in a] two year pilot project accommodating "over-age" students in two or three city secondary schools" ("New Faces in School Could be Older," 1977). While in Victoria adults in the classroom was seen as being beneficial, in Vancouver, school board trustee Bill Brown, head of the finance committee, seemed less optimistic: "I think the concept is desirable, but it could add a burden to the taxpayer... .just when we're beginning to feel the relief from declining enrolment" (ibid.). During the 1970s, as in previous decades, much of the emphasis in adult education was on the completion of high school, or at the very least, high school equivalency. There is 41 recognition that adults seeking to complete high school needed to be treated differently than regular K- 12 students. For instance, "A department of education spokesman said today cases of persons needing only a few courses for high school completion should be treated individually, and no direct policy had been formulated for them by the department" ("Adult Students not Streamed," 1971). As one means of working towards that end, the provincial government examined creating a system which would "Enable adults to obtain senior secondary school equivalency diploma by passing five standard tests to be drafted by the department" ("BC Bans the Strap," 1973). This completion was not contingent upon formal classroom participation. It was proposed that there were many adults "Who had not completed formal high school but who had mastered an equivalent amount of knowledge in "out of the classroom learning, perhaps on the job, perhaps by reading on their own" ("Tests by September," 1973). The option of taking the test was open only to adults 19 years of age and over who have been out of school for at least a year. This age caveat was placed to ensure that younger learners would not quit school and choose this route for high school completion. 12 Years of Free Education Another major theme of the 1970s that reveals itself in conjunction with the continued growth of adult education, high school completion, and the inclusion of adults is that "Twelve years of free education should be available to all citizens, at any age they wish to take it" ("Twelve Years of School Board Goal," 1971). This proposal was put forward at the fall convention of the BC School Trustee Association. Seemingly, school districts embraced this idea. In Saanich it was proposed that "If a student drops out of school and later finds his lack of education a handicap, he shouldn't be penalised for the earlier decision" (No Extra-fee Education Offered Adults Since '68," 1971). Three years later the issue again comes to the fore when "A proposal that any B. C. resident be entitled to return to school and receive free tuition for up to 13 years will be one of the 52 42 resolutions be debated during the four-day general meeting of the B. C. School Trustee's Association" ("Free Tuition Proposed for Drop-outs," 1974). The resolution, by the Greater Victoria School Board, offers a solution for school dropouts who wish to return to formal education. It was urged that "Tuition would be available whenever the would-be student wanted to avail himself of it" (ibid.). Age was no restriction in this offer. According to a Provincial Task Force: "Whether you take grade 12 at the age of 18 or 60 you should get it free but in order to make the education appropriate we must offer alternate settings with which the student can identify. It is difficult to ask a 40 year old woman, widowed, with the grade 3 education to fit into the public school system" (ibid.). Several years later, this issue was still in the news. A department of education study suggested that "Every citizen be allowed to upgrade to Grade 12 tuition free" ("Back-to-School Movement Swelling," 1977). Later that same year Michael Clague, executive director of Britannia Community Services, said all BC residents — including adults - "should receive 12 years of free education" ("Adult Education Benefiting 'Wrong People,"'1977). UBC's Roger Boshier took the notion a step further by not restricting the free education to high school completion by claiming that "The federal government should issue "educredits," which would entitle each citizen to a given number of education hours or unit" ("A Turn About in Learning," 1977). This approach seems to reflect concerns raised several years earlier by Gordon Selman who had noted "If it is possible for people to learn as needs develop throughout life, do we have to keep cramming as the much information as possible into 12 years of formal education? What should be the relationship between existing kinds of adult education and the newer style of the life long learning?" ("Self-Study Courses Urged by Educator," 1972). Adults in Universities and Colleges In the early half of the century there was an explicit understanding that universities were inextricably entwined with adult education. Seemingly lacking any awareness of this earlier 43 connection, in the 1970s the Director of Continuing Education at the University of Victoria is reported as saying that "Up until recently the purpose of university was twofold: for research and teaching students. A third emphasis has been added - the continuing education of adults" ("Sooke Adult Classes Prove Successful," 1971). In the 1970s, there was an effort to bring mature students into the university environment. However, this was not without some controversy. One area in particular was about part-time university programs. This issue had already been raised in the 1960s. Or, as one editorial pointed out, "Vancouver people have been short-changed over the years through a lack of opportunity to earn university degrees through part-time study" ("Vancouver's Elusive Part-time Degree," 1973). However, while both UBC and SFU began to expand part-time programming, "Many academics argue sincerely against an extensive evening program to part-time degrees studies on the basis that they undermine the quality of education at a university" (ibid.). Seniors and Other Mature Learners In the 1970s older adult learners began to receive serious attention. UBC summer session announced it "Will have free courses for senior citizens 65 years of age and over" ("Gramps as Undergrad," 1974). A few weeks later it was reported that "More than 300 senior citizens, including a 93 -year-old Coquitlam man, have signed up for free courses at the University of B.C., believed to be the first of their kind offered in North America" ("Free Courses at University Just right with Oldsters," 1974). Similarly, a recently inaugurated University of Victoria extension program for senior citizens was judged a big success by the University's Division of Continuing Education. Moreover, "The university is also considering plans to send professors to hospitals, rest homes and senior citizen centres... .What is especially appealing about this program is that people can come down to the lecture in their slippers, sit in comfortable chairs, and participate in an atmosphere relaxed coziness" ("Classes for Aged a Big 44 Success," 1975). This article seems to harken back to the 1960s article about the regional planner who advocated adult education at-home/extension program for seniors. In the 1970s Simon Fraser University offered people 60 or over "Who always wanted to go to university but never had the time" free university courses that could, if the learner wanted, be transferable to degree programs ("The Campus Calls for Our Eager Over-60's," 1976). There were also articles that warned the mature learner of potential dangers they might experience in returning to school. One such article, reprinted from the Los Angles Times, warned the reader of the subtle and not so subtle forms of "ageism" that older learners would confront on campus. In part, "This ageism would manifest itself in a variety of ways, including application forms that were geared for younger learners, lack of inclusion/opportunity in extracurricular activities, lack of support from instructor more concerned with research than teaching and the lack of part-time degree opportunities" ("Going Back: The Odds Against Older Students," 1977) In a response to the previous article, Crawford Killian, an instructor at Capilano College, wrote that in Canada many mature students face the same problems. However, he added, that in spite of these problems the growth in adult education in Canada is an encouraging trend. Interestingly, he gives no acknowledgement that this trend is decades old. He describes the typical mature student as "a woman who is old enough that her family does not need her constant attention" ("Mature Students: Conquering the Syndrome," 1977). It was previously noted that adults taking part in regular day school classes were seen as having a positive influence in those classes. The same observation was made regarding adults in colleges and universities. As the Killian article noted "the mature student's seriousness and enthusiasm are contagious, and affect more than her classmates." Furthermore, "teachers are also challenged to meet the demands of the mature students." And finally, "Adults don't need and won't tolerate the paternalism still widespread among teachers and administrators" (ibid.). 45 Another article, indicative of several human-interest stories that appeared over the decade, presents the two extremes that older students might find themselves experiencing at the end of their studies. One student, when asked if they would recommend that other mature students follow their example and head back to class after years away, replied that "I don't think I'd wish it on anybody else. There were bad times." Another replied that, in-spite of losing friendships [as a result of time devoted towards completion of her studies], "those years on campus have been a tremendous gift" ("Proving Their Own Credibility," 1977). Liberal, Vocational, or Back to Basics Education Though by no means nearly as clearly defined as in earlier decades, the old arguments about vocational versus a liberal education again emerged in the 1970s. The liberal argument, presented in one editorial, took the position that, "In practical terms, the public has been informed of the necessity of preparing for new jobs to counteract obsolescence and meet new opportunities. The same holds true for more generalised education not specifically aimed at employment opportunities but at a better understanding of our society and humanity's needs, aspirations and potentials" ("To Follow Knowledge," 1973). On the other hand, the Mayor of Victoria claimed that "Not enough money was being spent on technical education and too much on frills" ("88 Victoria Area Agencies Doing the Same job," 1975). Jindra Kulich, associate director of UBC's Centre for Continuing Education, seemed to have little interest in fiscal arguments or mere vocational training. Supporting a broad liberal education, he said the enormous number of full-time students "reflects an increasing interest not in education for its own sake but in learning about a changing society." He added that, "Unless five to ten per cent of the courses fail, you're not reaching enough people, " Moreover, he said that "If 98 per cent of your courses are successful you're not venturing out far enough" ("Time for Leisure - and Learning," 1976). 46 Michael Clague [executive director of Britannia Community Services Centre] also argued for a more general and liberal education. He noted that the call to "get back to basics" was a "blot on our educational consciousness." As he pointed out, "Those 300,000 BC residents who lack anything past a grade 8 education, and lack basic English skills, were educated at a time when they didn't have the frills there are today" ("Adult Education Program Benefiting 'Wrong People,'" 1977). However, a UBC Sociology professor seemed to call for a more traditional education when he complained that the Vancouver School Board had no set rules or guidelines for community education courses or the people that taught these courses. This professor believed that the board should not advertise particular courses that he felt were "flagrant political propaganda," or offered "bizarre teachings." These courses included "astrology, studies of unidentified flying objects, some women's studies, and courses on China and Cuba offered by political groups" ("After 70 Years, Board Sets Policy," 1977). Duplication of Services As in previous decades, the theme of the duplication of services is found throughout adult education articles of the 1970s. Dean Goard, President of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, expressed concern over the lack of co-operation, and the duplication of services and costs amongst various adult education organizations. He took a firm stand on the issue and announced that, "regardless of what national organisations will do, B.C. sections of three associations [Canadian Association for Adult Education, Association of Adult Education Directors, and the Canadian Vocational Association] will start merger negotiations" ("Same-Boat Units Duplicate," 1970). The aim of this merger is to end the "senseless duplication" that exists within adult education. The Association for Continuing Education, the merger proposed by Dean Goard, is announced two years later ("Threat Seen for Adult Education," 1972). 47 In the Saanich School District there was concern that its "Open door policy [allowing adults into the regular classroom] puts the board in direct competition with its own night school programs" ("No Extra-Fee Education Offered Adults Since '68," 1971). The duplication of services and competition for students can be seen in the reported tension that exists between regional colleges and local school boards which also serve the same areas. In an apparent attempt to find a solution, Leo Perra, one of twelve members of a task force on adult education in community colleges, said "There will be three types of continuing adult education programs....There may be school operations, college operations or joint school college operations." (Adult Education Fund Plan hit by Coquitlam Trustees," 1974). The paper reported the claim that the regional college approach was necessary to "devise a province wide system and would not impinge on the role of the schools in providing adult education courses" (ibid.). Part of this recurring theme of the duplication of services included the role of libraries in adult education. One article outlined how "Camosun College is seeking a meeting to explore the possibility of co-ordinating library and adult education services in the Capital region" ("Camosun Seeks Co-ordination," 1975). Another article, reporting on the same issue, informed readers that there are 88 agencies doing the same job in Greater Victoria" ("88 Victoria Area Agencies 'Doing the Same Job," 1975). The superintendent of the Greater Victoria School District proposed that "the component agencies recognise in principle that the concept of co-ordinating services for adults has merit" (ibid.). One year later, an article reported there were provincial committee discussions underway to create provincial advisory boards and interdepartmental committees to co-ordinate adult education. Sounding very much like articles from previous decades, the committee found that "Adult education in B .C . i s characterised by a lack of systematic co-ordination among the provinces public education institutions which provide continuing education programs" ("Adult 48 Education Suffers Low Priority in Province," 1976). The article further noted that "other public agencies such as libraries, museums and the departments of government such as a provincial secretary, labour, recreation, health and human resources and the federal department of manpower all involved in major adult education programs." Yet, in spite of this joint involvement, "there is relatively little communication among them with regard to roles in programs [and] this can lead to unnecessary interagency competition for similar client groups and for similar program ends" (ibid.). The following day another article informed readers that the education department's committee on continuing and community education will tour BC this fall. Committee chairman Ron Farris "hopes that those concerned about adult education will take the opportunity to comment on all aspects of our education system" ("Word's Spreading on Adult Learning," 1976). Concern was raised by a group of educationalists, mostly from Cariboo College, who "recommended establishment of a Crown agency or separate autonomous body to co-ordinate all continuing education in British Columbia. One local organisation, the Kamloops Community YM-YWCA, argued that "the provincial government should not do anything to threaten the role of voluntary agencies that provide adult education programs" ("Cheaper Adult Education Proposed,: 1976). The following year "A 22 member provincial committee on continuing and community education called for [among other things] appointment of a senior official in the education ministry to be responsible for adult programs and creation of a special advisory and co-ordinating bodies on adult studies" ("Increased Aid Eyed for Adult Education," 1977). A year later, Education Minister Pat McGeer, in the midst of controversy around the province's new Open University (explored further in Chapter Four), observed that "The task will be to co-operate and to collaborate, as may be possible, with existing agencies and institutions to end wasteful duplication of effort and resources" ("McGeer Answers his Critics...," 1978). A few weeks later the same paper reports that "A seven member committee, composed of 49 representatives of school boards, colleges, universities and other institutes will work with the education ministry in its planned overhaul of adult education programs" (Advisory Group Formed," 1978). Funding In the 1960s, as increased demand for education was reported, funding seemed to decrease. The same seems to hold true in the 1970s. Dr. Larry Devlin, of the University of Victoria, expressed fears that budget restrictions announced by the provincial government would force reduction of programs "as a person committed to adult education, I'm very disturbed at the government's attitude" ("56% non Adults Attend Non-credit Uvic Classes," 1975). While the 1970s might have experienced a "frantic demand" for adult education and while it experienced increased growth, "Adult education advocates say most university administrators and faculty deans do not consider their programs valid" ("Cost big Issues as More Adults Enter Classroom," 1978). Jindra Kulich of UBC's Centre for Continuing Education might have provoked that reaction. In an effort to engage reluctant adults in educational activities, he said, "It's impossible to get them out here, or even into a schoolroom, particularly if they were unhappy at school.. ..courses should be in beer parlours, or rented halls, or we should offer a ping pong course on East Hastings to attract them to other courses. But imagine what the government would do if the university gave a ping pong course" ("Time for Leisure - and Learning," 1976). Unemployment and Welfare The connection between education, unemployment, and welfare had been raised in the newspapers for several decades. In the 1970s this remains the case. Indeed, the antecedents of some current policies and attitudes around this connection were evident in the 1970s. For instance, the Saanich School District offered 2 free courses "designed to help adults seeking employment" ("100 Free Courses offered in Saanich," 1971). The Sooke School District offered 50 an adult basic training skills development project for adults on welfare of unemployed. It claimed that "Since the stated purpose was to upgrade the students to a level suitable for their vocational goals and hopefully move these students from the welfare and unemployment lists into producing members of society, it seems we've been fairly successful" ("Sooke Adult Class Proves Successful," 1971). Another program paid employers to provide job training. Offered through the then Canada Manpower, money was available in order to "pay between 40 and 85% of total wages of new employees if a company agrees to train him or her and pays the balance of the costs" ("$600,000 Wage Subsidy," 1976). In an excerpt that seems sounds similar to current positions, it was claimed by one college instructor that "In a time of high unemployment, politicians will find themselves confronting thousands of new workers who haven't just put themselves through school to collect welfare or unemployment insurance" ("Mature Students: Conquering the Syndrome," 1977). Illiteracy So important a topic in earlier decades, illiteracy received passing attention in the 1970s. Reporting on the subject was limited to one human-interest article. In it, an adult illiterate named Robert was described as "one of thousand of adults in the Vancouver Suburban area who daily go through the excruciating embarrassment of not begin able to read." The article informs readers of group classes at Douglas College as well as Vancouver Community College. The number of illiterates attending is low and ages of the learners range from 17 to 76: "One elderly student is in his 70s and has never attended school in his life" ("Robert Can't Read and He's Embarrassed," 1979) The 1980s Educational Enrichment or Education for Getting Rich In the 1980s there is a continued decline in the number of adult education articles cited in the Index. Only 47 articles, a third of the number that appear in the previous decade and only a fifth of the number that appeared in the 1960s, were found in this period. However, there was 51 little difference, with a few notable exceptions, in the content of the articles found in the 1980s in comparison to other decades . Day-care The one article that appears as a particularly noteworthy exception to the hundreds of articles that have served as the basis of this study was the call for day-care in order that adults with children might have easier access to educational opportunities. This call came from the principal of a Victoria senior secondary school. He is quoted as saying that "there are more than 100 adult students taking courses at the high school and that could increase if adults could drop their children at an adjacent day-care centre" (Day Care Centre Eyed at Vic. High," 1988). The only other article that seems to broach this subject is found in a 1943 headline cited in the Index. That headline reads, "Mrs. Jamesion Calls for Day Nurseries." However, while the article is cited, the text is not in the microfilm for that date. Another newspaper, presumably reporting on the same story noted that "Mrs. Laura Jamieson, who represents Vancouver Centre in the Legislature, made a strong plea, this week, for more attention to adult education" ("Adult Education," 1943). That article makes no reference to day-care. Elderhostel A form of adult education that emerges in the Index for the first time in the 1980s is the Elderhostel. Described as a "seniors travel and learn" program, it was offered in 20 countries. The program, according to one newspaper account, "enables people over the age of 60 to attend a variety of lectures while visiting new places and meting new people." The program was offered through Okanagan College in Penticton, Capilano College in North Vancouver, Shuswap Retirement Society in Salmon Arm, and Malaspina College in Nanaimo. According to the article "Only 20 to 30 percent of participants are Canadian" ("A Travel Idea Broadens Seniors' Minds," 1986). 52 Education for the Humanities A previously cited article from 1926 reported on Dr. Mansbridge and his success in bringing uneducated workers into university classes. In the 1970s, another previously cited article reported on Jihndra Kulich and his advocating for adult education classes in downtown beer parlours. In the 1980s these ideas melded into what was by all reports, a great success. Specifically, in the 1980s there are several articles about Humanities courses being offered by Simon Fraser University in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside. The site was the Carnegie Centre and it served as a drop in centre for the "unemployed and others down on their luck who might benefit from the mind enriching of a humanities course" ("An Offbeat Winner," 1984). The next day another newspaper reported that "11 of the 17 people who completed the course -including ex-cons, former junkies, and alcoholics are the days away from receiving graduation certificates" ("Skid Road Scrambles for Funds," 1984). Yet another newspaper picked up the story the following day: "Dostoevsky, Rousseau or even Carl Sagan are not the usual stuff of Vancouver's Skid Road... .[however these topics are part of subject matter for a] group of people trying to escape the intellectual vacuum of 'the skids'" ("Group Trying to Escape From Intellectual Vacuum," 1984). Education for Profit Three years after the series of articles that focused on the storefront operation offered at the Carnegie Centre, another article emphasised the notion that education equals profit. The article reports on three adult educators and their perceptions/reaction to adult education in the late 1980s. According to Wayne Decle, Program Co-ordinator for Vancouver Community College, "In short they [learners] are coming to make more money." In that same article Dr. Doug Ledgerwood, Director of Continuing Education in North and West Vancouver, is quoted as saying that "It is now an information society, where knowledge is the main commodity of 53 exchange, and people, here, are flocking to buy into a growth industry." Meanwhile, Hal Hoar, Senior Program Co-ordinator at Vancouver Community College in Business and Communications, is described as "one of the new breed of adult educators, steeled to the numbers and the new reality [presumably the growth/profit reality], determined to deliver quality goods" ("Grown-up School," 1987).Increased Enrolment The familiar refrain of the increased growth in adult education continues into the 1980s. However, there were two new issues raised within this theme. The first was that in spite of increased enrolment of older adults, there was a decrease in the number of young adults entering into some educational settings. As one paper reports there are more older and more part time student than ever before. Yet in spite of that increase, "B.C.'s three universities are reaching record student enrolments despite a percentage decline among students aged 18 to 24 years" ("Enrolment up Among Elders," 1981). It was reported that UBC president Doug Kenny blamed the government "for not emphasising intellectual development of youth." In response, Universities Minister Pat McGeer "disputed the findings and planned his own study" (ibid.). In other adult education settings, the number of participants was also up. For example, it was reported that "during the 1982 - 83 school year 162,000 people registered for night school classes offered by school boards in BC and 233,000 registered for night school at colleges [over 60 percent were completing grade 12, taking vocational training, or English language classes]....In Vancouver, night school enrolment has nearly quadrupled since 1970 to 45,000" ("Back to School - Nights That is," 1985). However, this increase in numbers did not necessarily indicate a wide spectrum of learners. The same article claimed "The research indicates that those who are already well-educated seek more education, or in some cases, require it as job skill upgrading. Those who are under-educated often value education the least" (ibid.). 54 In the 1970s, there had been speculation that increased demand for adult education would fill the gap created by declining enrolment of younger students throughout the province. And, in the early 1980s, there was talk of empty schools being taken over by colleges in order to meet the growth in adult education ("Esquimalt Campus out, Letter Wasn't Written," 1981). Seniors, Mature Students, and Adult Learners in Day School As one article reports, the 850 or so seniors that enrol every year in UBC's free summer program defy the stereotype of "granny knitting in the rocking chair" ("Senior Citizens go Back to School," 1982). This kind of reference, however, is rare. More the norm are articles that highlight the large numbers of diverse programs for seniors. The 850 seniors in the previous article were taking course as diverse as Genetic Engineering, Technological Change in the 19th Century, and the Rise of Solidarity in Poland. The University of Victoria offered a pilot program for senior citizens (60+). The program consisted of one week touring the Kootenays with educational activities in the form of workshops, lectures, and historical studies. ("Uvic in the Kootenays," 1983). The program must have been a success because a few months later another group of 22 students, all 60+, are reported as taking the same course ("Seniors Delighted with U Vic Course," 1983) Other seniors, albeit in small numbers, were engaged in regular university programming. As one paper reported: "In the past school year, 71 seniors took undergraduate courses at UBC. There were 136 students older than 61 years in SFU's fall semester, and 132 in the spring. The University of Victoria had a total senior citizen enrolment of 32 students" ("In Eleanor's Book you can Never be too old...," 1986). Ironically, while the previous decades had encouraged seniors to take part in on-going learning, by the 1980s, funding shortfalls were causing universities and colleges to cancel many of the programs designed for seniors. For instance, "after nine years of successful operation, 55 funding for UBC's summer program has been cut off because of the university's budget problems" ("Senior Citizens go Back to School," 1982). As in the previous decade, adults continued to be found in day school in the 1980s. For example, in one Victoria high school of just over 700 students there were 131 students ranging in age from 20 to 78. ("Schools fun After 51 Year Absence," 1989). It is worth noting that this article again repeated claims from the previous two decades: the presence of older students in the classroom has a positive effect on instructors and younger students. In the article these older learners are simply referred to as the adult population of the school. Indeed there seems to be little agreement, or even concern about how to define the older learner. For example, one article notes that 'mature students' "Is a vague term, applied to people in their twenties or their seventies" ("Stone Age Students are Best of all," 1984). Part-Time University, Continuing Education/Studies, and Colleges In the previous two decades there had already been concern about the lack of opportunity for part-time students to earn a university degree. In the 1980's a new and seemingly innovative idea was put forward. Universities, it was suggested, should open weekends to give the "public" a chance to earn degrees, according to Dr. William Gibson, the new chancellor of the University of Victoria. Gibson added that "it would lend equality of opportunity to university that has been lacking" ("U Vic Chief Urges Weekend Courses," 1985). In the late 1980s, continuing education —seemingly used synonymously with adult education— receives considerable attention. Excerpts from the following articles are indicative of these programs and their participants. In one article the reader is told of 52 year old Susie Loo who is back in school "completing her grade 9-10 math at Vancouver Community Colleges new King Edward Campus on East Broadway" ("Building Confidence Through Learning," 1983). Also back in school is 29 year old Denise Grey, a "victim of a chaotic adolescence" who quit school but has since completed her grade 12 through KEC and continues her studies because she 56 has developed a "love of Learning" (ibid.)- Another article offers information about Camosum College's continuing education and technology bridging programs for people who already have a trade ("This Course Adds Knowledge to Know-how," 1988). Yet another article tells of the Sooke school district adult learning centre described as "the only one of its kind on southern Vancouver Island and serves students from across the area. It started with 30 students in September and has ballooned to about 60 adults enrolled at any given time" ("Centre Helps Adults Tackle Reading, Writing, Math," 1988). Finally, The Victoria School District, through Spectrum Opportunity School, is offering adults the opportunity to achieve high school equivalency "for as little as $10 and four evenings a week" ("Educational Opportunity Still Offered...," 1989). Because of staffing limitations the school was limited to an enrolment of 170. The learners ranged in age from 15 to 55. Motivation for entering the program included meeting university/college entrance requirements, to improving job prospects or "just for the satisfaction of self-improvement" (ibid.). What is particularly interesting to note is that, based on the interviews and quotations in these and other articles, the vast majority of adult learners profiled were female. There were a few exceptions including "the logger who is a student" ("Port Renfrew's Faller-Scholar," 1985). Unemployment and Education In the 1980s there seemed to be far more women than men, at least as evidenced through the articles cited, engaged in adult education. The motivations behind that engagement, at least according to one study, are very different. For example, in a 1984 survey of adult education conducted by the federal Secretary of State, only 28 percent of courses taken by women enrolled in adult education programs were job related; 27 per cent were general interest or personal development courses; and 28 percent were hobby, craft or recreational programs. .In contrast, 57 per cent of the courses taken by men were job related; 18 per cent were personal development or general interest; and only 9 percent were hobby, craft or recreational courses ("Training on job 57 Women Aren't Getting a Break," 1985) The antecedents to "work experience placements," the hub of so many educational upgrading programs of the 1990s, can be found in the early 1980s. As one article reports, "Adults who successfully complete the career preparation program and include social studies [sic] 11 and English 12 in their study course qualify for grade 12 graduation. All career preparation programs included 100 to 120 hours of work experience" ("Adults offered Career Training," 1983). Compulsory work experience would become part of the legacy of educational upgrading programs for welfare recipients in the 1990s. Ironically, in the early part of the 1980s someone could not, even if one wanted to, enter into an educational upgrading activity while receiving welfare. One editorial summed it up this way: "One of the deepest frustrations of those employable, eager to work but jobless Canadians who are forced to receive welfare must be their seemingly hopeless Catch-22 situation: the knowledge that if they attempt to improve their skills by enrolling in job training programs, they imperil the support payments which they desperately need to survive... .no one on welfare will be compelled to enter job or training programs" The editorial claims that reversing this policy would be a "sensible and compassionate step" ("Toward a Just Society," 1985). Funding and Cutbacks Early in the decade a Provincial Government pilot project offered $300,000 worth of grants for adults enrolling in basic education programs. The money was to be used for tuition, books, and related supplies. Specifically the money was "for individuals not sponsored by other agencies" ("Educational Plan for Adults Given $300,000 Boost," 1981). The same article reported that "More than 40,000 men and women participated in adult basic education in B.C. last year." Still, according to the Education Minster, "50 percent of B.C. lacks a Grade 12 58 education" (ibid.)- Another paper announced additional funding in the form of a "multi million dollar adult occupational training agreement" ("Job Training Extended by Agreement," 1981). However, in spite of announcements of increased funding, the more common issue raised in the newspapers of the day was the decline in funding for adult education. For instance, the newly refurbished and relocated King Edward Campus which had 7000 registered students was facing program cuts "as the entire community college system struggles to provide next year's services on last year's funds" ("Back to School," 1983) Sounding very much like claims made more recently, Anne Ironside, Women's Programs Director for the University of British Columbia Centre for Continuing Education and president of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, expressed fear that the neediest students -older persons, immigrants, the disabled— were being neglected. In her view, under financing adult education was a mistake "especially in the midst of an economic crisis: when educational institutions should be easing the burden on the jobless." She also asserted that "Colleges kow-tow to the federal governments National Training Act, focusing on high technology training to solve Canada's manpower needs." Ironside also believed this would result in a generation of workers with narrowly based and inflexible skills. She further claimed that "If you teach people to learn, they will be much more self-sufficient" ("Back to School: A new Campus for Adult Students," 1983). Four months later Anne Ironside was back in the news when the UBC Centre for Continuing Education presented a brief to the Royal Commission on the Economy. The brief suggested that "Ottawa consider financing adult education, and that the right to adult education be enshrined in federal legislation." The brief went on to add that sixty percent of adult Canadians never take courses after leaving school ("Status of Arts, Education Pressed," 1983). Toward the end of the decade both federal and provincial governments were again accused of cutting back funding for necessary adult education programs. This time the cutback 59 was not necessarily the loss of dollars, rather it was the government's shifting of programs from storefront, and night school settings to more formal environments. One article reported there were some 5000 adult ESL students in the Vancouver and that much of the ESL activity took place in community based education programs. However, the provincial government was planing to shift those ESL courses from community based classroom settings to more formal and expensive colleges. As the author stated, "In the absence of any positive reason for the funding shift, I suggest that it is B.C.'s hidden agenda: English speaking immigrants with bucks in their pocket are welcome others need not apply" ("The Hidden ESL Agenda," 1988). A year later the government announced it was doubling the amount of money available to adult students upgrading their basic education. Advance Education Minster Stan Hagen said $1 million will be earmarked this year to help students cover costs of tuition, books and supplies while taking courses in academic upgrading and English as a second language" ("More for Adult Students," 1989). A Letter to Editor At least one person in British Columbia resisted the notion of providing financial support for adult education. As one letter, objecting to the eclectic courses offered by the VSB night school program, put it: "I believe public funds should be used exclusively to provide funds for our children from kindergarten to university entrance" ("Students Should pay full Cost of Extra Courses," 1985). Duplication of Services No decade would be complete without the perennial discussion of the duplication of services in adult education. Indeed the final article that raised the issue in the 1980s returned to the original 1926 assertion that "libraries are an ideal forum for adult education" ("Fear of College Domination," 1989). 60 The first article of the decade that revisited the duplication of services was one that announced the creation of an education centre jointly operated by Simon Fraser University, Capilano College, and British Columbia Institute of Technology that had recently opened in downtown Vancouver. Intended to serve people who either live or work in the downtown core the facility, it "helps avoid duplication and allows students to walk to classes from their jobs" ("City Core gets Education Centre," 1981). In Sooke, recent undertakings resulted in the duplication of existing services and in turn jeopardised a number of long established programs. As one article noted, "A report of programs, which started in 1962, shows peak enrolment of 1,539. Since then overall enrolment has declined, and the drop is attributed to the recent involvement of Camosun and the recreation commission in various programs" ("Sooke Board Considers Stopping Adult Education Courses," 1982). By the end of the decade fears that community colleges would dominate the delivery of basic literacy programs to BC's 360,000 functionality illiterate adults was voiced at a hearing of the Provincial Literacy Committee. The fear was that such a shift would come at the expense of "storefront, community based and home based" teaching programs. Libraries, according to community based literacy advocates, were "good neutral ground for learners" ("Fear of College Domination...," 1989). In the 1980s an increasing number of distance education programs also led to the formation of yet another consortium to co-ordinate "five distance education programs throughout B.C."("Consortium to Serve Most Students," 1984). The 1990s Money and the Human Factor There were 57 adult education articles listed in the Index for the 1990s. While many of the themes that have been present since the 1920s continue to appear in the 1990s they are at times buried beneath a welter of articles related to deficits, funding formulas, funding reduction, 61 fee increases and, paradoxically, fee reductions. There are stories about individual learners and their personal struggle and achievements as result of adult education. However, the passion and excitement around the promise and power of adult education as a social force, as witnessed in the first half of the century, was notably absent. Fees and Funding A full third of all articles from the 1990s focus on increased fees and/or declining funding for adult education. According to at least one of those articles, adult education is a victim of its own success. For example, early in the decade about 4,000 British Columbians wanted to take advantage of a federal job skills improvement program. They were unable to do so because, according to a spokesperson for Employment and Immigration, "[The program] proved to be immensely popular. We recognised that we were vastly running out of funds because of the response, so we had to curtail some of the activity" (UI Training Funds Squeeze Strands Nurse," 1991). Provincially, changes in funding policy shifted responsibility for adult education from the Ministry of Education to the Advanced Education Ministry. As a result, adults who had graduated but wanted to take high school classes for interest or upgrading were no longer able to do so. The Victoria School Board allowed 181 adult students to complete their existing program of studies but would not allow new entrants into such programs. Adults who have not graduated would be allowed to continue according to the article: "the future of adult education could be on shaky ground if the government makes good on plans to shift responsibility for the program to the advanced education ministry ("Axed High School Funding Threatens Adults," 1991). In September of the following year there was a report of adult learners being unable to enter classes as a result of the new fiscal policy. The story tells of adults who had wanted to return to high school in order to improve their grades and thus gain entry to community colleges. In order to meet a $2.5 million deficit, however, this service was no longer available for adults. 62 Adults who had previously graduated would now be required to pay for evening courses while adults who had not graduated would still be eligible for free courses in the evening. ("Revived Student-age Policy Proves Pricey,'" 1992). A few years later the federal government was again in the news because of further cuts to adult education. According to Donna Miller, Director of Continuing Education for the Sooke District, "Now, with Ottawa moving out of the training business, people on UI will have to take out a loan and pay for retraining" ("Last Hurrah for Free Second Chance," 1996). Miller was referring to Sooke's Second Chance program. Designed to improve academic and employment related skill, the program was cancelled as the result of federal government funding cuts. More funding cuts late in the decade threatened the "[approximately] full-time equivalent of 11,000 people in adult basic education programs in BC schools. According the article there are actually thousands more, but many take part-time courses. ("NDP Knocks a Rung out of the Education Ladder," 1997). Another article, indicative of several others reporting on the same story, stated that more than 18,000 adults aged 19 and over in BC were upgrading their education through school districts or colleges. Under the proposed changes they would be required pay tuition similar to what colleges charge ($600 to $1,400) for adult basic education. As well, supplemental funding to the districts for students who are aboriginal, had special needs or English as a Second Language would also end. Enrolment was to be reduced by 10 per cent. ("Adult Education on Provincial Hit List," 1997). Shortly before the impending cuts it was reported that: This Friday, the provincial government is slated to announce a proposed cut. The number of students who will be lost in this battle for their education is impossible to determine. There is the full-time equivalent of 11,000 students in adult ed. programs in B.C. Thousands more are registered in classes part-time. If this occurs, the cut will silently and swiftly destroy virtually all the system now accomplishes ("Unkindest Cuts Wound Adult Ed," 1997). 63 In the end, fees did not rise but funding for school district and college adult basic education was reduced by five per cent ("Adult Student Fees on Hold...," 1997). A month later it was reported that "More than a hundred students and instructors of adult basic education crowded into Vancouver Community College's city centre campus.. .to shout down [the] proposed five - percent funding cut to their programs" (Students Protest Proposed Cuts...," 1997). Cuts were also taking place on a municipal level. Most notable of these was in Langley where, "Citing an annual deficit of $30,000 the Langley school district announced the elimination of its community education program. Claiming that priority had to be given to the K-12 system, the district cancelled non-credit courses that over 10,000 area residents were engaged in" ("Langley Scraps Its Night School," 1997). Later in the same year it was reported that community education programs would remerge under the auspices of a private company formed by Jack Verkirk, the former supervisor of continuing education in Langley. Calling the decision of the Langley School District "Short-sighted economically and socially," Verkirk claimed that adult education was a public responsibility. Posing a rhetorical question he is quoted as asking: "Do adult taxpayers have the right to use those multimillion dollar facilities that sit empty at night, especially people without children who pay taxes but never use schools?" ("Adult Ed Goes Private in Langley," 1997). The same article also reported that the New Westminster School district was facing an estimated loss of $80,000 for the fiscal year and had also considered, and then rejected, the elimination of its community education programs then serving over 8,500 residents. Vancouver, serving over 80,000 students per year, also faced fiscal difficulties and eliminated one administrator in order to save money for its continuing education programs. In a related article, concern was voiced by several adult educators about the precedent that this privatisation of continuing education might set. According to the article, Education 64 Minister Paul Ramsey "Says he's not particularly perturbed that the Langley school board has axed adult education" ("Educators Fear Domino Effect," 1997). After articles about cuts to funding there were several that reported increased funding. For instance, in 1998 it was announced that "Tuition for College programs that help people finish high school will soon be free....About 21,000 students are enrolled in adult basic education programs in B.C. colleges. The average fee is $120 and the average student takes three courses, according to the Ministry of Advanced Education, Training and Technology" ("Government Promises Fee Break...," 1998). Another article reported that as a result of a commitment to abolish tuition fees for college adult basic education courses, "50,000 adults [are] trying to finish high school [this figure seems to include those doing so through school districts]. They can now do so for free in any of B.C.'s 18 colleges. B.C. is the first province to make adult basic education free" ("No more Fees for Adult Basic Ed," 1998). Yet another article on the same subject reported that 18,000 adult basic education students in the college system will benefit from the removal of tuition fees for high school completion courses in the colleges ("Province Drops Tuition Fees...," 1998). Funding for day-care while parents were in school received little attention in this or any other decade. Yet most stories about adult learners, particularly from the 1960s onward, either explicitly or implicitly suggested that the majority of adult students were women. One article reported on funding cuts from the Ministry of Education, Skills, and Training. It removed the $82 subsidy which had helped cover day-care for welfare recipients who were engaged in educational upgrading. As one letter to the editor put it: "How is a single mother on welfare supposed to make it from welfare to work? Is the government really saving money by preventing us from getting the skills and training needed to get a meaningful job?" ("Cut Lacks ' Compassion For Poor Student," 1997) 65 The Growth of Adult Education Thus far every decade has contained stories about rapid growth of adult education. The 1990s, in spite of increased fees and diminished funding, is no different. Yet having said that, the excitement and the frequency of reporting that seemed to be part of that growth —at least as reflected through the newspapers in previous decades— seems to be lacking. One early article reports "the demand for adult education is skyrocketing at a time when high school drop-out remain stubbornly high - in the 35 per cent range" ("Dropouts Line Up," 1992). In Victoria, at the S.J. Willis Alternative School, it was reported that there had been a "dramatic increase" in adult learners over recent years. Over 1,200 people were registered in "flexible" entry level classes available in either the morning or the evening. Senior level classes, Grade 11 and 12, are restricted to four intakes per year with regular classes. As the article notes, "There is a renewed emphasis across North America on Adult Learning" ("Graduation Joy for Moms," 1994). Like some many other adult educators over the preceding decades, Donna Miller of the Sooke School District, seemed to imply that the growth of adult education was a relatively new phenomenon. She claimed that "Adult education started at the fringes but people are coming to realise its necessary -in fact its vital to our economy- and there is no shame attached to it" ("Sooke Puts Extra Bite into Adult Education," 1998). In the last year of the decade readers are informed that record numbers of part-time students were enrolling in BC colleges and universities. Enrolment at BCIT was reportedly up by 43 percent (to 62,000 registrations) as compared to 1963. SFU enrolment was up 5.8 percent (to 26,000) over the previous year, and UBC had 20,000 students registering for 900 courses in the summer semester. According to the incoming chairwoman of the Deans and Directors of Continuing Education, "Learning is now part of our lifestyle" ("Thousand Flock to Learning...," 66 1999). Of course, as noted on several previous occasions, this claim has been made repeatedly over the decades. Industry Support for Adult Education Part of this increased demand for adult education in the 1990s can be attributed to the increased demands of business and industry. While not major in nature, in the 1990s there was an increase in reporting on employers providing training and upgrading for their employees. However, this issue had also already been raised in previous decades. For instance, in 1952 Ralph Purves, personnel manager for BC Electric, was reported as telling 70 "[B.C.] representatives of adult education" that "adult education is an important consideration for employers today since they must carry on where schools leave off ("Adult Education Aids Both Employers and Employees," 1952). Some 40 years later, in the 1990s, and in language that sounds similar, Grace McCarthy [former provincial cabinet minister] "challenged business and industry to pay for night school courses or correspondence courses for their employees to ensure B.C. retains its economic stability and competitive edge" ('Invest in Workers," 1992). As well, Kamloops School Superintendent Paul Grieve, echoing comments from 1952 ("Adult Education Aids Both Employers and Employees," 1952), said "the workplace has to be responsible for on-going training" ("Muscles, Brawn no Longer Needed," 1991). In Prince George (a relatively rare occurrence that so northern a community is cited) it was noted that new employees at a sawmill were unable to read and write at an acceptable level. The paper reported that "A local sawmill has even paid for 37 of its employees to upgrade their high school-level education during the weekends and the evenings" ("Making the Grade," 1994). Adult (Usually Women) Learners and their Stories While the previous two decades offered stories about the individual struggles and achievements of adult learners, the 1990s was also full of what can best be referred to as human interest stories. As with the two preceding decades, the focus was largely women who had 67 overcome obstacles and achieved some measure of educational upgrading. These hurdles include lack of money, lack of knowledge regarding available programs, lack of self-confidence and self esteem, and self consciousness of age. ("Dropouts getting second chance," 1993). As one participant of a North Vancouver program, exclusively directed towards women, wrote: Many of us had overcome adverse situations. We worked hard on self-management, dealing with anger, stress and conflicts. We discussed interpersonal issues, parenting, assertiveness and more. Those of us who had not achieved a Grade 12 diploma now had a second chance. Academic preparation is optional ("New Door Opens," 1994). Another article typical of this kind of story reported that "With no future in sight, in a dead-end job, an abusive relationship, and with two small children, [Danielle] Dill decided to go back to get her Grade 12" ("Single Mom Embraces Second Chance," 1997). Another article tells of a mother and son both taking courses at a Sooke Learning Centre ("Mom Joins Son in Classroom," 1994). A similar story appears three weeks later. Beginning with the claim that "Two Victoria women in their 40s say if they can finish Grade 12, anyone can" ("Graduation Joy For Moms," 1994), it also tells of a mother and son attending the same school. Other articles that echo similar stories include one about "Betty Carter [who] couldn't read a restaurant menu or a sign, but what sent her back to school was her desire to read a > children's book to her daughter" ("No More Fees for Adult Basic Ed," 1998). And the "indomitable spirit" of adult learners was the focus of an article that focused on the learners at the Invergarry Learning Centre in Surrey ("Adult Students Battle with Courage," 1996). It is interesting to note that while many of the articles that focus on individual struggles and achievements of women, resources for women, according to one article, seemed to be in decline. In mid decade a "Back to School Survival Guide for Women [was] published by the B.C. Network of Canadian Congress for Learning Opportunities for Women" ("Back-to-School Made Cool," 1995). Shauna Butterwick, one of developers of the guide, expressed concern over 68 diminishing services for women. In particular, she noted, "It was getting harder for them to find the counselling and information to make the right decisions about education" (ibid.). According to one article of the day, one of the best kept secrets at the University of Victoria was a "Hum Dip," or Humanities Diploma specifically designed for "older learners" attempting to enter the "intimidating world" of university. Fifty students were enrolled in the diploma program that allows participants six years to earn the eighteen credits required for the diploma ("Older Students Learn for Love," 1996). Another age related story informed readers that "Wright [a 67 year old grandfather] is the only grey head among the class of 11 to 18 year olds, and the only senior ever to enrol in the two-week summer band session at Lansdowne Junior Secondary" ("Grandfather Joins Kids in Class'" 1999). Other human interest stories tell of learners who had overcome physical and emotional difficulties in achieving their educational goals. For instance, "Mark Andrews, has made history in the Sooke school district. The affable, hard-working 33-year-old has become the first adult learner to earn his high school diploma through the district's special program for the deaf ("Graduate Overcomes Hearing Disability," 1998). A story appeared about Johnny Mack. As a young man he had endured a troubled life and a string of foster homes. A former drug addict who had lived on the street, he was now living a more promising life. "Phillips [Director of the S. J. Willis Education Centre in Victoria where Mack attended classes] has seen near-illiterate students turn themselves around and graduate and she's seen young mothers with children earn their degrees" ("Dreams: Lives Change Like Magic," 1998). A topic that received considerable attention in the 1980's —adults in the classroom-resurfaced in the early 1990s. As in the previous decades, the positive effects of having older students —in this case all female— in the classroom was again emphasised. ("Adults Return to School...," 1991). 69 ESL Over the decades ESL stories, as related to adult education, received limited attention. In the 1990s this continues to be the case. According to one article "more than 14,000 BC adults where taking some kind of formal ESL training in 1991... .a couple of years ago demand for seats in ESL courses was so great that near riots broke out" ("Investment in English," 1993). Another ESL story is quite unique. In Coquitlam, a group of parents protested adults being given ESL classes in a local elementary school. There was a fear that "Children were at risk of molestation" ("Parent Protest Postpones ESL Plans," 1997). The article went on to report that the Vancouver School Board had offered similar classes for at least ten years. The article made no mention of any problems during that time. Duplication of Services and Competition Articles about the duplication of services in adult education have been manifold over the decades. This trend continues in the 1990s. It was reported that in Victoria there was a lack of co-ordination between the senior levels of government and the "more than 280 private training enterprises, [as well as] Camsoun College, Open Learning Agency, the University of Victoria, Continuing Education programs in Sooke and Greater Victoria school districts and a number of non-profit agencies providing job skills and career preparation learning opportunities" ("Trying to Fathom What Learning has to do with Work," 1996). As a result of this lack of co-ordination adults were faced with a myriad of barriers, including the inability to access student loans, extensive waiting periods, and seemingly arbitrary termination of programs. A few months later the formation of Learning Works, an umbrella organisation that included organisations mentioned in the previous article, was announced. The intent was to "identify and eliminate some of the barriers to learners who were too often being shunted from one agency to another." As well, the article claimed "it should smooth out [the] duplication of 70 services, where perhaps three agencies try to offer the same program.. .instead of consolidating the learners" (New Program Offers One-Stop Learning," 1996). As if repeating speeches from pervious decades, Education Minister Paul Ramsey was quoted as saying that In an effort to create common adult credentials (as opposed to the two credentials currently available) throughout the province, a new adult basic education diploma was announced "Courses can be taken at school districts and colleges" ("New Diploma for all Adult Basic Grads," 1999). Democracy and Literacy The relationship between adult education and democracy, ignored for many years, re-entered the press albeit briefly. In an article that claimed that "40 per cent of the adult workforce in B.C. has a hard time with the every-day demand of reading, writing, and using numbers" the link is made between literacy and participation in a democracy. (Victoria Must Lead Fight Against Illiteracy...," 1997). It is interesting to note that this is the same minister who, a few months previously, had not been "particularly perturbed that the Langley school board ha[d] axed adult education" ("Educators Fear Domino Effect," 1997). History and Symmetry. In the 1990s there was one article that attempted to put some historical perspective on funding issues related to adult education in the province. In particular the article traced the history surrounding the removal of tuition fees for college based adult basic education courses. In part it recalls the "Torturous trail [commencing] in 1974" and the 100 or so hearings held in 63 locations across the province ("Free Adult Ed Program Long Time Coming," 1998). However, the final article on adult education that is cited in the Index seems ideally suited to close off this decade and the 20th century. It focuses on "The high-voltage teacher [Basil Kazako's] for Sooke School district's community adult learners program" (Teacher Offers New Approach...," 1999). Kazakos, in an beautiful kind of symmetry, at least as far as this 71 thesis is concerned, is quoted as saying "These students, if they are only 20 years old, they have history so I get them to focus first on personal history.. ..At least they can define their place in the stream of history" (ibid.). These newspaper articles also serve as a means to provide focus. Moreover, by becoming aware of the ebbs and flows these articles serve as a valuable resource with which chart the stream of history that flows through adult education. 72 Chapter 3 Seven Decades of Life Long Learning for a Changing World As has been witnessed by the previous chapters, there are myriad themes that have been part of the landscape of adult education over the decades. There are, however, two themes in particular that warrant special attention. The first is the importance of life long learning in light of a rapidly changing world. The second theme, Distance Learning and Educational technology, will be discussed in the subsequent chapter. Lifelong learning has occupied much of the educational discourse over the last two decades. Yet what is not noted in much of this discourse is that this was already a topic of discussion 60 years ago. Indeed the first newspaper article in British Columbia, as cited by the Index, is seen in 1935. This excerpt, written over 65 years ago, could easily be mistaken as coming from more current sources: "The widening gap between scientific progress and social progress makes it a commonplace to say that scientific thinking has outstripped social thinking. To bridge this gap is the task of adult education. It cannot be done in the schools, it is a continuous process which must be carried on throughout life" ("University of British Columbia Extension Course," 1935). The following year another newspaper offered the following: "Too many people make a mistake of assuming that education can be completed with graduation from some institution — a public school, a high school or university. Properly considered, education can never be completed. It is something that goes on while life lasts" ("Adult Education," 1936). Another paper, reporting the same story, recorded the following, "Adult education in all democratic countries has become an urgent matter... .universities are becoming increasingly aware of the complex character of the difficulties caused by the speed of social change" ("Education for Adults Grows in Importance," 1936). 73 Then, as now, this rapid social change also included technological changes to the workplace. And then, as now, the need for the constant upgrading of skills to keep pace with that technological change was also an issue. In 1937, reporting on the observations of the Director of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, one paper recorded that "another objective [of adult education is] to equip those who have leisure with the means to meet the changing panorama of industrial life. Industrial life is changing so rapidly that two-thirds of British workman are in jobs which did not exist in 1910, [Corbett] declared" ("Finds Adults Learn Quickly," 1937). Another newspaper, covering the same story, recorded Corbett's claim that "The changing panorama of life today is a reason for the movement of adult instruction.... In the past 15 years many jobs have change completely, and people have much more free time" ("Plan Develops Latent Talents," 1937). In the 1940s, the phrase "life long learning" disappears. What comes to the fore is the notion that the survival of the free world and democracy is challenged as a result of World War Two. The connection between adult education and post-war reconstruction —arguably another form of a rapidly changing world— comes to the fore. For instance, in 1945, the Colonist reports on a new adult education program in Saskatchewan. The intent of this program was, in part To see 500,000 adults in Saskatchewan, irrespective of nationality or educational background become active intelligent participants in the business of running their own public affairs, reshaping their environment and seeing the meeting of their own lives and actions against the background of the great world drama of our age... .the program seeks to liquidate social, scientific and political illiteracy; clarify thinking regarding the main issues confronting modern societies; to promote responsibility in co-operative citizens action, and encourage integrated and community life." (Saskatchewan Announces New Adult Education Program," 1945). In the 1950s learning for life and the changing world, more in line with current discourse rather than based on military action, again receives attention. For instance, in mid decade it was addressed by Dr. John Friesen, of UBC's Extension Department: 74 It is popular to be confused these days... .People should not let the big social problems get them down.. .Referring to the broad field covered by adult education, from farming and business problems to home making and recreation, Dr. Friesen said the aim is to increase each individual's capacity all through life to know, understand and do" ("Adult Education Boasts Abilities of 14,000 Here," 1954). Claiming that the expanding responsibilities of modern living would soon require that even college graduates would need to engage in life-long learning, Dr. Roby. Kidd, Director of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, claimed that Within the next 25 years, almost every husband will be back to school and least once — many of them for periods from 2 to 25 weeks every two to five years.. ..Dr. Kidd said he bases his prediction on the simple fact that today no college or professional training can prepare a man for all the new responsibilities to come his way as the advances in his chosen field ("Brush-up Courses Seen for Graduates," 1959). It is in the 1960s that the reporting on the importance of life long learning for a changing world grows in both the frequency and urgency in the mainstream press. In early 1961, professor Alan Thomas of UBC observed that "today no man can enter an occupation without discovering after about 10 years that he has to relearn his job" ("Educator Attacks Chant Probe Scope," 1961). Indeed in the 1960s, according to one source, the pace of change was so fast that "It may take 20 years to develop a 'modern generation' to keep pace with modern developments" ("Modern World has Arrived; People Have to Catch up," 1961). Those comments came from Dr. William [sic] Hallenbeck, visiting professor of adult education at UBC. He went on to tell a conference of B.C. directors of adult education and school trustees that "this is a dangerous gap. It can only be closed by adult education." He said a modern generation is "one which has learned to live with complexity, takes change for granted and accepts education as a continuing part of living... .my generation finishes life in a different world from that in which it began life. It has been estimated it will take until 1980 before we can grow a modern generation" (ibid.). Dr. Corbett, for many years head of the University of Alberta's extension department, told 400 graduates and their professors in the early 1960s that "the world now is confused and 75 frightened. People look for light. If there are answers to world problems, they must be found among men and women of intellect." Moreover, "it is a function of universities to make those people available at every level of society, he said" (Challenge Seen for UBC Extension..., " 1961). According to UBC President John McDonald, "educational institutions are challenged to meet this growing need to help equip adults for their changing role in citizenship for self-improvement and for continuing professional education" ("UBC Seeks Adult Centre as Project for Centennial," 1963). Two weeks later, the president of the Canadian Education Association, who was also the superintendent of Vancouver Schools, is noted as stating that "modern civilisation has become so complex and evolves so fast individuals effort yields diminishing returns" ("The Barren Spot in Education," 1963). He also noted, seemingly unaware of the rhetoric around life long learning from previous decades, that "we are gradually coming to realise education is properly a lifetime process" (ibid.). A few years later, a report, two years in the making, from the Canadian Association for Adult Education was presented to the Prime Minister. It claimed that "the time is past that education can be though of something to prepare young people for life... .Learning must now be accepted as a normal activity at every age." It also stated adult that education must be "aimed at equipping Canadians to deal better with a rapidly changing technological world." As well, the paper argued that "only through learning can an individual maintain his integrity in the face of massive and haphazard change" ("Blueprint for Advanced Learning Designed to Help All," 1966). This sentiment was repeated a few months later at a meeting of the Canadian Association of Adult Education held in Vancouver. The speaker, Dr. Howard McCluskey of the University of Michigan, an American authority on adult education, offered the following: "the educated 76 youth of today is the obsolete man of tomorrow....the world today is a 'learning" society' in which it is essential for adults to keep acquiring knowledge and skills" ("Education for Adults a 'Must,'"1966). That same year, repeating ideas already offered in the 1930s, Bert Wales, Director of Adult Education for the Vancouver School Board, claimed that "we must discard the old idea of education as a short early period of 'preparation for life' and accept the idea of learning as a normal activity at every age" ("New Approach to Adult Education,"1966). A few months later he noted that adults were being ignored as the world around them was changing: "you cannot leave your adult population high-and dry when the world around them has changed." He said adults must also be provided with the types of educational programs they need in order to meet changing conditions. ("Teaching Adults not Always Easy," 1966). A few years later Wales claimed that in order to help adults maintain dignity and self-respect in a changing world, it is the task of the adult educator to "create the learning environment that will motivate people of all ages and all levels of formal education to keep on developing themselves as they live their lives" ("Adult Classes Move Slowly Says Director," 1968). In language similar to that found in earlier and in later decades, another article offers that the rapidly changing world has resulted in a loss of skills and thus increased the need to retrain: "Time has outstripped so many and their particular vocations have been dissolved" ("Return to Class Exhilarating...But it can be Shaky Too," 1968). While the 1970s saw a decline in the overall number of articles related to adult education, the theme of a changing world and life long learning continued with language similar to that that had been used in the previous four decades. In a quotation that sounds very like one previously noted in the 1930s and the 1960s, Dr. D.L Devlin, Director of Continuing Education of the University of Victoria, is reported as saying that "the concept of education has changed. It is no longer being regarded as a block of formal childhood learning, but as a continuing process" ("Sooke Adult Classes Prove to Be Successful," 1971). He went on to say: "Continuing education is an absolute necessity from the technological point of the view. To keep up with rapid changes and discoveries, businessmen and professionals must constantly upgrade their knowledge" (ibid.). The following year the same paper carried an article that included the comment that "at one time formal education as a child lasted a life time. Now people have to be retrained every five years as technology advances to cope with changes in industry, life styles, and professions" ("Practical Approach to Learning Pushed," 1972). A year later the same paper printed an editorial that —again sounding like articles that spanned the previous forty years— spoke of a world of accelerated change. Yet again the claim was made that "Acquisition of knowledge and training is properly viewed as a lifetime occupation" ("To Follow Knowledge," 1973). In 1977, Dr. Roger Boshier, speculating on the future of education in British Columbia, cited the "rapid technological progress of a greedy society" as one of the factors in his advocating of "lifelong learning" ("A Turnabout in Learning," 1977). In October of the same year, readers were advised that "in today's constantly changing society...it is no longer possible to limit education to a fixed number of years..." ("Going Back: The Odds Against Older Students," 1977). In the 1980s the notion of life long learning, and the concerns about a changing world, for the most part, all but disappear from the mainstream press. One article does advise, presumably in a tongue and cheek manner, that "as we approach the 21st century keep your eye out for even more night school courses reflecting our changing society... [including] travelling to Mars on a shoestring budget" ("There's Something for all at Today's Night School," 1998). Most articles that discuss the reasons for adults entering into adult education report on individuals preparing for the future (particularly because of technology), undertaking educational upgrading, or 78 learning to survive. The phrase/concept of "lifelong learning" is not offered in the same manner that it has been for the previous 50 years. It is in the 1990s that the concepts of lifelong learning and a changing world clearly reenter the mainstream press. A 1991 article reports on the Year 2000 Education Initiative that came out of a 1980s Royal Commission on Education. The gist of the article is that students need help and encouragement to become life long learners and that there must be an understanding that "things have changed" ("Muscle, Brawn no Longer Needed - Educator," 1991). In 1994 an article announces a "life long learning" conference. A spokesperson for the conference claimed, that "with the global knowledge base expanding at an astounding rate, students need strategies to help them continue to learn, long after they have quit taking formal classes" ("Life-long Learning Focus of Conference," 1994). A few years later an article that recognises that lifelong learning is not a recent development notes "we've been saying for a long time that learning is a life long process, but its really here now" ("New Program Offers One Step Learning Centre," 1996). Of the adult education articles cited in the Index, the final article that makes reference to life long learning and the changing world inadvertently reinforces the claim of this study that there is a lack of historical consciousness surrounding adult education in British Columbia. The article claims that "we need to be open to changes taking place in our workplace and all around us....Life long learning is part of our life style now" ("Thousands Flock to Learning Lifestyle," 1999). Yet, as witnessed through the articles highlighted in this study, the same claim has been made on numerous occasions over previous decades. Moreover, the speaker seems to contend that educational technology will somehow be the panacea that will ensure success in this "new" commitment to learning. She says that "The future is in on-line courses and distance learning" (ibid.). But again the speaker fails to 79 recognise that educational technologies and distance education have been part of the educational scene in this province for decades. And, most importantly, there is failure'to recognize how similar the language is around each new educational technology that presents itself. 80 Chapter 4 Distance Learning and Educational Technology Over the decades, British Columbia's mainstream newspapers have chronicled the emergence and embracing of various educational technologies. Yet, what at one moment appeared to be the great hope for the successful delivery of adult education disappears from sight as some new form of technology, or perhaps novelty, usurps the latter's position. In subsequent decades little attention appears to be paid as to whether or not the promise of the previous educational technologies were fulfilled. Furthermore, over the years, issues of cost, accessibility, and utility of various technologies seem to come to the fore only to disappear and then re-emerge. When it comes to discussing the various educational technologies that have emerged, or re-emerged over the decades, there seems to some historical amnesia at work. As early as 1926, distance education was being offered as a viable means to access educational opportunities not otherwise readily available. And, as early as 1935, new educational technologies were being offered to, and in some case rejected by, learners unable to access traditional educational settings. Here, at the beginning of the 21st century, it would behove educational practitioners and theorists to consider whether the promises of 20th century educational technologies were fulfilled. In so doing, the experience gained from the past might be used to inform present and future embracing of educational technologies In 1926, a series of articles in the mainstream press discussed the growth and importance of adult education and, in particular, the importance of distance learning in adult education. Canada, one article noted, would greatly benefit from distance education —through correspondence courses— "owing to the great areas and the difficulties which students and would be students encounter in getting to the bigger towns to attend classes at universities" ("Adult Education, is All Embracing," 1926). 81 In 1935, articles begin to appear that highlight the use of radio as educational technology and the continued use of correspondence courses in allowing access to adult education courses. However, then as now, not all of those concerned embraced the latest educational technology. One article that raised issues that are still relevant today condemned the technology of the day because of the cost and lack of human contact. This article, reporting on the need for adult education in rural areas of the province, records that of those engaged in distance learning "nearly all want personal instruction in classes, not over the radio or by correspondence.. ..[as one man said] there is only one radio in the whole district and the people ain't got no money to buy batteries for it" ("Tell us How to Keep on Living," 1935). In 1936, new educational technology was offered in a effort to make adult education more accessible. For instance, the Minister of Education advocated taking "university work into the hinterland" and "motion pictures were [seen] as a means to that end" ("Extension of Adult Education Stressed...," 1936). Meanwhile, UBC was considering the relationship between "radio, workers, classes and other items" ("Education for Adults Grows in Importance," 1936). Another article reports that "Mr. England [UBC] experimented with almost every known device for adult instruction. He organised lectures and lecture series. He initiated visual education with slides and lectures" ("The Daily Tattler," 1937). Later that year another article noted that Dr. Gordon Shrum said UBC would try to "carry the benefits of higher education to the entire adult population of the province during the winter months.. .His department would utilise moving pictures" (Wider Adult Education Plan," 1937). By the 1940s, UBC, under the direction of Shrum, was extremely active in using the latest technologies of moving pictures, radio, and slides to aid in the delivery of adult education to rural communities. One article reports that 1000 film slides on a variety of topics, as well as 400 films, were loaned last year to 825 organisations in 425 towns and communities in the province. The total attendance where these films were shown amounted to 540,000 people. 82 Pamphlets by the thousands, phonograph records, radio broadcast, displays and demonstrations — all play their part in the overall picture.. .1 envisioned the advantages awaiting not only the people of this province, but everywhere, through the portal to learning, this open sesame to a happier, fuller and richer life"("One Woman's Day,", 1943). Aside from Dr. Roby Kidd of the Canadian Association for Adult Education and his call for more adult education through mass media ("Adult Education Council in Offing," 1954), interest in educational technology seems to disappear from the newspapers in 1950s. However, in the 1960s and 1970s educational technology explodes. One device that received attention in the press in the 1960s was the language laboratory. It was a series of tape recorders, earphones, and a centralised listening/instruction post for the instructor. Designed to help immigrants "remove their accents," it promised to reduce the number of instructors needed in a classroom; it promised to allow students to learn on their own much more easily; and it was said to "work miracles" ("Scientific 'enry 'iggins Removes Accents in Lab, 1963). A few years later tape recorders were again in the news. The Victoria School Board, in an effort to equip a new Institute of Adult Studies, undertook a funding drive to raise money for "modern teaching aids as overhead projectors and tape recorders" ("$75,000 Drive to Equip Adult Institute," 1966). That same year the press carried an article highlighting discussions of a Canadian Association for Adult Education conference held in Vancouver. One of the speakers, Col. Gabriel D. Ofiesh, Director of the centre for Educational Technology in the Catholic University of America, took part through a two-way telephone hook-up from his office in the United States. An advocate of educational technology, he was aided by Dr. McCluskey, an adult educator from the University of Michigan, who was attending the conference. As the paper reports, "a Vancouver accomplice even illustrated his [Ofiesh's] talk with slides" ("Education for Adults a 'Must,'" 1966). According to one account, Ofiesh stressed the value of programmed learning — learning by tapes and machines— in instructing adults. One difficulty noted was that there were 83 not yet enough programs and recordings available. Predating those who would look to computers with similar hopes and fears, Dr. McCluskey said the hope of some educators is that eventually they will be a tremendous storehouse of such programs on every phase of every subject, so that it may be drawn upon whenever needed. There is one danger in this, he said, in that programmed learners become dependent learners. A universal program might develop a herd of dependent people and restrict and destroy creativity" (ibid.). In 1967, Dr. Thomas, speaking to 35 delegates attending the B.C. Association of Adult education Directors convention, urged the delegates to make more use of "modern teaching techniques such as television in non-credit adult education courses" ("Expansion Vital," 1967). In 1968, television was further promoted as the ultimate educational tool. According to John Dalgleish, the Greater Victoria School Board's Director of Adult Education, students could engage in self-directed learning, class sizes could reach the hundreds, and learning would be accessible to all. Again promoting ideas that current computer advocates promote, the article reported that with educational television "it is possible one instructor could reach 200 or 300 interested students....It would be left to the viewing student to decide to what degree he wanted to immerse himself in the course" ("Schools in Camera Soon?," 1968). It is interesting to note that the same article pointed out that in researching the potential of television in the schools it was discovered that "students who were questioned said they preferred to watch television to movie film, although they don't know why" (ibid.). It is worth remembering that a mere decade previously films, not television, was seen as being the future of educational technology. In the 1970s television and distance education gained greater prominence. One paper reported that "royal commissions in Ontario and Alberta have proposed extensive use of television and other media to reach persons unable to attend conventional institutions" ("Dailly Wants to Try Out 'Open U' Idea," 1973). The same article also reported that "some form of multimedia post-secondary education must be started in B.C. for persons who can't make use of the existing system" (ibid.). The template that British Columbia was looking at was The British Open University. It is interesting to note that Professor Norman Mackenzie, the man who helped plan the British Open University, was moderate in his enthusiasm about the use of this technology in education. Mackenzie told 150 educationalists recently at a seminar at the University of B.C., television is the component he would subtract first from the Open University's delivery system if something had to go. He said the Open Universities 40,000 students, in credit courses which may but don't have to lead to a degree, spend only about 10 percent of their study time watching the university's telecasts. [He went on to note that] The rest of the time the teachers, housewives and others.. .work over correspondence texts and assignments, attended tutorials and discussion sessions at regional centres, and go to school on campuses rented while conventional universities are out for the summer (ibid.). One educational technology article that is particularly noteworthy deals with Camosun College and its first "foray" into educational television. The college produced a program for a televised class entitled the "ABCs of Typing." Evaluation of the program was positive and it was claimed that "significant benefits had been realised." Yet in spite of the enthusiasm the article went on to report that while 40 textbooks were sold, only four people, seeking credit for the course, registered and paid for the course. Of those, only one completed the course. The success was based on nothing more than "Informal discussions suggesting] that some of the viewers remained anonymous and unknown because they were not only too timid to venture to college to take a class but also were hesitant to phone their questions or comments." The article ended by saying that "no plans for more education television programs have been announced" ("Cut -rate Courses Coming for Aged," 1973). In the 1970s, while educational television was gaining greater popularity, newspapers reported the introduction of three seemingly unique pieces of educational technology. The first of these was called the Maynard System: 85 Suppose the course is time study. The student sits at a desk. On his right is a film projector which also transmits a lecture. At his left is a smaller screen. Before him is a plastic reading machine, and he turns the knob to bring successive questions related to the lecture and the film. He can stop the film at any point to get a precise picture of the worker's motion being studied ("New Training Plan Adapted to Student's Time and Pace," 1970). The manufactures claimed that the "minimum of gadgetry," the self-paced nature of the technology, and flexibility of the system would result in "continuing interest." Another piece of educational technology promised adults self-paced learning and a means to escape "the nagging fear of being embarrassed by your brighter fellow students" ("Capilano Educator Scores With Adult 'Learning Kits,'" 1971). Reported as a new concept in education which eliminated the "social pressures" of the traditional classroom, it was developed by a Capilano College educator. The particular kit described in the article was designed to "enable people [in this case housewives] to learn technological skills in the privacy of their own homes." The learning kit contained "material for experiments as well as a slide projector, tape recorder and text book." An electrical kit, specific to the course being taught was also provided to the learners. The electrical kit contained, "such items as small electric components, a circuit board and a multimeter for measuring various electrical circuits" (ibid.). The third piece of unique educational technology that was reported on in the early 1970s was the P.A. Woodward Mobile Instructional Resource Centre. A refurbished BC Hydro Bus it was described as "basically a self-contained electronic teaching device." It contained "about 1,400 learning programs aimed at keeping health field workers abreast of new developments" ("Bus Brings Know-how to B.C.," 1974). The bus travelled throughout the province and, "When the bus is in town [people in the medical field who have been advised the bus is coming] simply drop in at their convenience. [The operator] introducefs] them to the audio-visual equipment, and they select a program for their particular needs" (ibid.). It is interesting to note that no newspaper articles report any follow-up stories on the long term utility of these products. 86 Aside from the anomalous devices reported on, television and radio remained the mainstays of educational technology and distance education in the 1970s. A letter to the editor records the claim that "a number of people have recently suggested that they would like further education at university level by means of correspondence or through radio and television...These cries in the wilderness are now being heard" ("Tell Them Your Hopes And Dreams," 1975). It is worth remembering that in the 1930s there was a cry for less technology and more personal contact in distance education. Two years later, the BC Legislature tabled a report from the Committee on Continuing Education. The committee had suggested that "facilities such as radio, television, cable televisions, and libraries, would all be part of [a proposed] system designed to bring wider educational opportunities to all parts of the province" ("Long Distance College," 1977). The following day, Walter Hardwick, Deputy Minister of Education, is reported as contending that the delivery system must be secondary to the content. He went on to state adamantly "this is particularly true where learning has been turned over to technicians and the product has not been worth the money put into it" ("Gov't Decade Behind on Adult Education," 1977). Similar arguments are being made currently by those that are concerned about computer based training initiatives that seem to have pre-eminence over the content that is being delivered. Yet, in spite of Hardwick's contention, it seems systems not substance received primary attention. In 1978, provincial education officials were reported as saying that correspondence courses still have a place in the province but "it's the space age now, and to educate modern people you have to use modern means" ("Distance Learning Plan Unveiled; One Agency Needed," 1978). Pat Carney, who was responsible for examining the need for a Distance Learning Plan in the British Columbia, offered the following comments: "[Some people in B.C. seeking an education] find such a situation impossible for geographic, economic, personal and other reasons" (ibid.). Included in the list of modern means to aid in the delivery of distance 87 learning were libraries, courier services, broadcasting, cable television, telephones, and newspapers. Again, similar observations and solutions had been offered 40 years previous. Yet from the newspaper reporting there seems to be little if any recognition of the historical background of the issues being raised. That same year, several other articles (four of which appeared on the same day in one paper) focusing on distance education and educational technologies were published. Again, these articles discussed these issues as if they had only recently emerged. For instance, one article quoted the Director of Academic Programs for the North Island College speaking of distance education as "being on the horizon ("In Your Ear McGeer," 1978). Another article, on the same page, claimed that the "province had been going through a period of experimentation over the last few years as ways and means are sought to provide educational opportunities for those who cannot attend the established educational institutions" ("Sorting out New Terminology," 1978). Again, both of those articles fail to address the on-going nature of the issues. In the 1970s, the mainstream press published several articles about the Open University being proposed by the government of the day. Central to the university's success, according to its proponents, was its ability to utilise various technologies in the delivery of educational services. Many detractors of the concept of the Open University pointed to cost and potential inconvenience of the technology as reasons to not enter into the proposal. The cost factor, it was argued, was not only confined to the mailing cost of the materials but also included the expensive computers, the setting up and operation of the T V delivery system, as well as the very expensive filmed lectures ("In Your Ear McGeer," 1978). As the same article noted "one might consider what could be done with such funds as an alternative" (ibid.). Shortly after the Open Learning Institute opened, an article outlining its mission also raised the issue of educational technology versus educational content. It is reported that even 88 John Ellis, Principal of the Institute, was not blindly supportive of technology for its own sake. He claimed that "programs involving gazing at the instructors face for a whole hour will be something we don't want to associate with.. .It's easy to get a television channel but what do you put over it" ("Geography no Barrier to Open Learning," 1978). Other criticisms of the educational technology also included the following: "programs of entertainment watched by millions have to be pre-empted to provide lectures watched by a few hundred" (ibid.). The then Minister of Education, Pat MacGeer, in addressing the critics of the technology dependent Open Learning Institute (OLI) is reported as saying that "no one can deny the usefulness and effectiveness of face-to-face instruction, but this requires groups of learners who share a common aim and who live in geographic proximity.. .technology can become our servant, not our slave" ("McGeer Answers his Critics on Plans.. .,"1978). A few weeks later McGeer was quoted in another paper: A British Columbia government plan to transmit university, vocational and other adult education programs electronically to remote parts of the province could be the most exciting educational venture in 50, years....The Open Learning Institute will have my enthusiastic encouragement to explore the full range of possibilities available by television, radio, satellite, computer and even telephone ("Electronic University An Exciting Venture," 1978). His comments sound very similar to Gordon Shrum's comments 35 years prior. For all the promise around the OLI, it appears that technology had run ahead of content: "[In 1978 the OLI Principal on loan from SFU where he is a professor of education concedes] if we have the start of a degree program ready by 1980 we'll be doing well" (Schools Fear Studies Wasted," 1978). The article ends with this comment from Ellis: "First we must explore the possibilities of the cassette tape recorder. While we're not ruling out the possibility of satellite programs we plan to use the simplest techniques possible" (ibid.) In 1981, the press reported that the Knowledge Network (what OLI became associated with) would soon be on the air with 80 hours of programming spread out over the entire week. It 89 would offer university and college credit courses as well as a variety of school, business, hobby and trades related courses as well as general interest programming. The service was not available to everyone. "Only cable television subscribers with channel converter attachments are legally able to receive the new programming, although pirate dishes may pick up signals directly from the satellite" ("Knowledge Network Ready," 1981). Again the issue of accessibility harkens back to former newspaper articles and the expense of radios and batteries. Similar concerns are currently heard about the cost and accessibly of computers. In 1984, the formation of an educational consortium to co-ordinate distance education programs throughout the province was announced. A joint venture of the OLI, the Knowledge Network, and BC universities and colleges it claims that this consortium puts BC at the forefront of distance education in Canada. According to Jack Blaney, SFU vice-president and OLI board member, "Academic resistance to distance methods is diminishing as computers, audio visual techniques and improved resource facilities continue to improved [sic] the quality of the programs" ("Consortium to Serve the Most Students," 1984). In 1986, at least based upon the Index, stories about distance education seem to disappear. The final story that does appear is about an adult student pursuing a degree through the OLI distance education program. What is so ironic to note is that after years of articles about television, computers, and satellite dishes, the student, who is the focus of the article, depends upon none of these. She successfully, and according to the article, joyfully makes use of cassette recordings, text materials, and telephone contact with a tutor. The utility of text based distance education courses are cited 60 years before this article. Telephone support from a tutor dates back to 41 years, and the use of recordings can be found 43 years before this particular article is printed. Chapter 5 Making Sense of it all One might be tempted to draw a variety of conclusions based on this overview. This, however, would be premature. As was mentioned at the outset, the Index contains some 578 articles under the heading of adult education/education of adults. Limitations of space required that many of articles and the issues they raised/reported not be addressed. While the reader might note an absence of articles related to a specific area of interest that lack could be as much a result of no articles being written on the topic as it could be based upon the limitations of time, space, and relevance as, judged by this author, in writing on that subject. Having said that, Appendix Two does contain some brief notes on certain subjects, that while noteworthy, did not fit into the main thrust of this thesis As well, further research under the various headings (night school, vocational education, distance education, continuing education, etc.,) mentioned in the opening paragraphs as also being listed in the Index is clearly called for. Also called for is additional research using various community and regional newspapers that are not part of the Index's review. In so doing it is assumed that one would get a more comprehensive representation of adult education rather than what is perhaps largely a reflection of South-western British Columbia. Even then, as was stated earlier, newspapers are not to be taken as the sole storehouse of information on the topic. The information from newspapers should be integrated with existing research, particularly that of Gordon Selman. Additional research using archival and anecdotal information from educators, students, institutions, school-boards, various levels of government, storefront operations, labor organizations, cultural groups, immigrant groups, business and industry, in short from as many sources as possible, should continue to be gathered and considered. Only then will a richer and more complete understanding be possible. 91 What Can be Concluded Yet with all of those caveats in mind, this paper does do what it sets out to do. It does provide a very broad sense of the history of adult education in British Columbia during the 20 th century as reflected by the mainstream press. And, in so doing it does "add voice to contemporary discourse." Clearly one of the observations one can make based on this examination is that there are several recurring themes evident in the history of adult education in this province. Most notably, talk of "life long learning" a "changing world," the promise of "new educational technologies," and "on-line/distance learning" is nothing new. These topics were being raised in British Columbia over 70 years ago. As well, the duplication of services, the relationship between adult education and libraries, the tension between vocational versus liberal education, and the definitions of the purpose(s) of adult education have all received continued attention throughout the century. Some of the specifics might have changed over the decades but the similarities far outweigh the differences. And, perhaps more importantly, as this study has shown, in each decade the language used in these discussions seems to imply that it just "now" this issue has just now come to the fore. As this study has been at pains to point out, these are recurring themes that become evident only when one looks at the history of adult education over a broad period of time. Indeed, if one had restricted the examination to one particular decade one could easily be mislead into thinking that the topics raised had only recently come to light. It is only through an expansive view of the history of adult education that one can begin to discern the ebb and flow of what Kazacos called the stream of history. Furthermore, the corollary of that discernment is that one can bring an historical awareness to the current discourse. For example, and at the risk of belaboring two specific themes, when discussing the latest trends in educational technologies one might ask if (in light 92 of Maynard System, the Capilano Learning Kit, the health bus, the promise of motion picture libraries, and future of televisions in,the classrooms) it is worthwhile to consider and compare the cost and promise of previous educational technologies versus the actual outcomes and utility of those technologies. Similarly, with the benefit of an expansive and general view of the history of adult education, at least as early as 1935, one might re-think the current rhetoric around life long learning and a rapidly changing world. In particular one might consider why, if after 65 years of a "rapidly changing world" and the importance of "life long learning," these two concepts still seem to be treated as recent developments. More Than the Recurring Themes What also becomes evident after examining the articles in the Index is the steady decline in the excitement and promise of adult education as a means of major social change. In the 1920s, 1930, and 1940s, the passion and the excitement about-the possibilities of adult education reaches far beyond the narrow pragmatic concerns that will become common in the later half of the century. Yet at the same time there is different kind of excitement and promise about adult education in the later half of the century. While it is no longer based on large social change and interaction, there is a strong sense of individual/personal empowerment that comes to the fore. Moreover, it is interesting to note that this individual empowerment, more often than not, is reflected by stories about women returning to school. In partnership with this dynamic one can also see women move into more positions of recognized authority. In the early part of the century, men tended to be the spokespersons for a variety of adult education endeavors. (As a side note it is also interesting to note that some of these men spoke of adult education in language that was gender inclusive while others did not do so.) However, by the end of the century it is no longer uncommon for women to be in more recognized positions of authority. 93 Names to Note and Future Research It is interesting to note the names that came to fore within the articles under consideration. The newspapers are replete with many, though not all, of the names of individuals and organizations that appear in broad national stories of the field of adult education. However, these same newspaper articles also introduce the reader to lesser known, yet equally important, cast of characters. For instance, in the 1960s a great deal of press was dedicated to Victoria's attempt to build an adult education center. In particular, as has been previously noted, Jack Dalgleish, visionary and head of adult education in Victoria during this period, attempted to bring vocational and academic endeavors under one roof. He was referred to in at least 23 times in newspaper articles over a period of 8 years. Jack Batey, principal of the Victoria's Institute of Adult Studies, also receives attention in 16 articles during this period. The jurisdictional, philosophical, as well as monetary issues that come to the fore during this period could provide fascinating insight into the arena of conflicting agendas in adult education. Along the same lines, a more in-depth study of the discussion around the duplication of services would also provide fascinating insight into the planning and delivery of adult education services. Other names demanding greater attention include Mrs. Jamesion and her call for day-care in the 1940's, and also Donna Miller who seems to play a large part in the success of adult education in Sooke. There are a variety of other issues that might prove fertile ground for further research. One such area is the seemingly positive relationship between adult learners in regular day school classrooms. And, as an extension of that, why this trend was not continued. As well, it is interesting to note that adult education in Victoria seems to receive more detailed attention than does adult education in Vancouver. One is not sure if this is simply because those that do the referencing for the Index are, because of their location, more inclined to note articles from Victoria newspapers. Perhaps the stories are a reflection of a trend in Victoria toward more 94 interest, innovation, and excitement than adult education in Vancouver. Conversely, stories about rural education in BC's hinterlands are far more common in Vancouver based newspaper than they are in Victoria based papers. Why this is the case might provide greater insight into the history of adult education in British Columbia. What's Not Been Said? What is particularly noticeable in the articles that were examined as well as cited is the absence of references to many of the icons of the Canadian adult education movement. In particular, the Antigonish movement, which is often raised as begin one of the cornerstones of adult education in Canada, seems to receive no mention, by name, in the articles that were examined. Whether this is a reflection of a perhaps conservative press, an overemphasis on the importance of the movement, or an indication of bias in the large histories of adult education is unknown. Whatever the case, the name is notably absent. Back to the Beginning. I would suggest that because of a lack of historical consciousness, educational theory and practice at times is like a planet travelling in an erratic elliptical orbit. The circles and the ensuing spirals of this orbit expand and contract but at some point the orbit retraces or crosses over previously visited, though often forgotten territory. To return to Welton's words, "history helps us determine what is new, it helps us filter peripheral issues: it adds important voice to contemporary discourse" (Welton 1998 p. 35). It is hoped that this study, which looks to the past, will in some small way help bring added insight to contemporary as well as future discourse. 95 References $600,000 wage subsidy. (1976, December 21). The Times, p. 17. $75,000 drive to equip adult institute. (1966, July 25). The Times, p. 15. 20,000 adults utilize UBC extension courses. (1966, October 1). The Province, p. 29. 88 Victoria area agencies'doing same job'. (1975, November 7). The Colonist, p. 19. 56% non-adults attend non-credit Uvic classes. (1975, April 19). The Colonist, p. 13. 58 pet more enrol in right courses. (1972, February 8). The Times, p. 2. A labour college. (1943, December 1). The Province, p. 4. A travel idea that broadens seniors' minds. (1986, June 17). The Sun, p. CI. A turnabout in learning. (1977, February 10). The Province, p. 23. Academic study grants said 'unfair'. (1962, April 30). The Times, p. 17. Adult classes may move to exhibition. (1967, March 21). The Province, p. 36. Adult classes move slowly says director. (1968, May 11). The Times, p. 45. Adult ed goes private in Langley; educators fears domino effect. (1997, September 18). The Province, p. A12. Adult education aids both employers and employees. (1954, December 2). The Sun, p. 10. 3. Adult education boots abilities of 14,000 here. (1954, January 14). The Sun, p. 38. Adult education council in offing. (1954, September 30). The Colonist, p. 2. Adult education fights European communism. (1954, September 7). The Province, p. 10 Adult education fills big need says director. (1954, January 13). The Province, p. 8. Adult education in B.C. topic of conference here. (1936, September 9). The Colonist, p. Adult education is all embracing. (1926, March 17). Colonist, p. 1 Adult education is Dominion-wide problem. (1940, April 8). The Sun, p. 13. 96 Adult education on provincial hit list. (1997, February 14). The Times-Colonist, p. A6. Adult education plans discussed. (1937, August 6). The Province, p. 9. Adult education program benefiting 'wrong people'. (1977, June 3). The Sun, p. 17. Adult education programme for B.C. (1939, December 28). The Times, p. 3. Adult education too highbrow, says U.B.C. dean. (1956, June 13). The Province, p. 31. Adult education vital to democracy, Dr. Weir declares. (1941, September 11). The Sun, p. 16. Adult education. (1936, April 29). The Province, p. 6. Adult education. (1937, December 30). The Province, p. 4. Adult education. (1939, March 26). The Colonist, p. 1 mag. sect. Adult educationists discuss basic aims. (1955, May 3). The Colonist, p. 2. Adult enrolment up in school courses. (1966, June 24). The Colonist, p. 23. Adult groups taking over schools. (1965, April 29). The Times, p. 6. Adult school chief urged for B.C. (1961, April 4). The Sun, p. 17. Adult school policy for nation urged. (1961, October 28). The Sun, p. 25. Adult schooling program success. (1964, August 6). The Sun, p. 26. Adult student fees on hold - for now. (1997, February 27). The Times-Colonist, p. A l . Adult students battle with courage. (1996, May 15). Times Colonist, p. B4 Adult students face possibility of new fees. (1997, February 15). The Vancouver Sun, p. A5. Adult students not streamed. (1971, November 26). The Times, p. 38. Adult studies are reviewed. (1937, January 30). The Times, p. 12. Adults flock to night school. (1972, October 26). The Times, p. 22. Adults flock to schools. (1966, November 14). The Sun, p. 11. Adults flocking back to school. (1965, January 9). The Colonist, p. 17. 97 Adults offered career training. (1983, June 9). The Times-Colonist, p. C5. Adults paid tuition. (1968, May 12). The Colonist, p. 21. Adults return to school - and new challenges. (1991, September 25). The Times-Colonist, p. BI. Adults slow to enrol in area high schools. (1978, April 9). The Colonist, p. 15. Advisory group formed. (1978, April 29). The Sun, p. A l 1. After 70 years, board sets policy. (1977, April 5). The Sun, p. 10. An offbeat winner. (1984, July 11). The Province, p. 8. Assistance sought in adult education. (1937, August 31). The Province, p. 3. Axed high school funding threatens adults - McBain. (1991, October 31). The Times-Colonist, p. BI. B.C. Federation of Labour, (1981). Presentation of the B.C. Federation of Labour to the Royal Commission on Newspapers Vancouver: BCFL B.C. teachers lack qualifications. (1959, January 23). The Times, p. 15. Back to school - nights that is. (1985, January 8). The Sun, p. BI. Back to school: a new campus for adult students. (1983, June 14). The Sun, p. BI. Back-to-school made cool; survival guide for women. (1995, May 16). The Province, p. A6. Back-to-school movement swelling. (1977, March 4). The Times, p. 27. BC bans the strap. (1973, February 15). The Sun, p. 1. Blueprint for advanced learning designed to help all ages. (1966, April 2). The Sun, p. 8. Brush-up courses seen for graduates. (1959, May 23). The Sun, p. 7. Building confidence through learning. (1983, June 14). The Sun, p. BI. Bus brings know-how to B.C. (1974, February 27). The Sun, p. 84. Business school enrolment heavy. (1965, August 21). The Times, p. 19. 98 Camosun seeks co-ordination. (1975, August 23). The Times, p. 6. Capilano educator scores with adult 'learning kits'. (1971, October 29). The Sun, p. 15. Centre helps adults tackle reading, writing and math. (1988, December 16). The Times-Colonist, p. C8. Challenge seen for UBC extension. (1961, October 27). The Sun, p. 16. Cheaper adult education proposed. (1976, October 20). the Sun, p. 14. Chicago buys our plan. (1962, March 16). The Sun, p. 4. City core gets education centre. (1981, January 21). The Sun, p. B9. City tops continent for night schools; new courses urged. (1961, July 18). The Province, p. 3. Compel unemployed to improve brains. (1961, May 12). The Colonist, p. 1. Compulsory adult education forecast. (1953, October 31). The Sun, p. 12. Consortium to serve the most students. (1984, September 8). The Times-Colonist, p. A3. Cost big issue as more adults enter classrooms. (1978, April 4). The Province, p. 32. Cut lacks compassion for poor student. (1997, March 30). The Times-Colonist, p. C5. Cut-rate courses coming for aged. (1972, May 29). The Times, p. 21. Cuts feared in adult education. (1967, March 28). The Sun, p. 25. Daily Tatler. (1937, August 31). p.l Dailly wants to try out British 'open U' idea. (1973, March 28). The Province, p. 11. Day care centre eyed at Vic. High. (1988, May 26). The Times-Colonist, p. A12. Department proposed to teach adults. (1942, May 19). The Sun, p. 13. Dewey, John. (1916) Democracy and Education New York: Free Press Distance learning plan unveiled; one agency needed. (1978, February 28). The Sun, p. A15. 99 Dreams: lives changed like magic (1998, July 6). The Times-Colonist, p. A3. Dropouts getting second chance as adults. (1993, February 10). The Vancouver Sun, p.B4. Dropouts line up to return only to find classes full. (1992, November 12). The Times-Colonist, p. B2. Education aid cuts protested. (1967, July 11). The Sun, p. 23. Education for adults a must. (1966, September 17). The Province, p. 46. Education for adults grows in importance. (1936, September 29). The News Herald, p. 8. Education for adults worth cost. (1953, February ;8). The Colonist, p. 1. Education of adults big need. (1946, May 3). The Colonist, p. 3. Education plan for adults given $300,000 boost. (1981, September 29). The Times-Colonist, p. 3. Education proves vital world force. (1926, March 18). Colonist, p. 5 Educational opportunity still offered at right price. (1989, September 21). The Times-Colonist, p. B12. Educational services to be expanded. (1940, February 4). The Colonist, p. 2. Educator attacks Chant probe scope. (1961, January 20). The Sun, p. 12. Educator suggests B.C.-wide courses. (1973, May 9). The Times, p. 38. Educators agree to co-operate. (1966, November 26). The Sun, p. 16. Educators fear domino effect (1997, September, 18). The Province, p. A12 Educators propose world government. (1943, May 25). The Province, p. 11. Electronic university 'an exciting venture'. (1978, April 30). The Colonist, p. 9. Enrolment up among elders. (1981, June 19). The Times-Colonist, p. 3. 100 Esquimalt campus out, letter wasn't written. (1981, September 24). The Times-Colonist, p. 15. Evening degrees 'not moral duty'. (1966, June 1). The Sun, p. 2. Expansion vital. (1967, March 29). The Sun, p. 47. Extension of adult education stressed by Dr. Geo. M. Weir. (1936, April 28). The Province, p. 7. Fear of college domination voiced at literacy hearing. (1989, October 27). The Times-Colonist, p. A10. Fee reduction recommended. (1966, May 4). The Colonist, p. 11. Finds adults learn quickly. (1937, January 29). The Province, p. 11. Finishing school set for janitors. (1963, October 18). The Times, p. 11. Frasier, George Willard. (1955). An Introduction to the Study of Education. New York: Harper & Brothers Free adult ed program long time coming but worth the cost. (1998, May 27). The Times-Colonist, p. A l l . Free courses at university just right with the oldsters. (1974, June 29). The Province, p. 9. Free tuition proposed for drop outs. (1974, May 2). The Sun, p. 43. Gadgets free wife for job and it's good for family. (1965, November 2). The Province, p. 23. Geography no barrier to open learning. (1978, August 17). The Sun, p. A22. Going back: the odds against older students. (1977, October 20). The Sun, p. A6. Going'back adult-style. (1978, September 24). The Colonist, p. 17. Gov't 'decade behind' on adult education. (1977, March 5). Th 101 Government promises fee break to returning high-school students. (1998, May 14). The Times-Colonist, p. A7. Graduate overcomes Hearing disability. (1998, March 28). The Times-Colonist, p. A3. Graduation joy for moms in 40's. (1994, September 21). The Times-Colonist, p. BI. Gramps as undergrad. (1974, June 7). The Sun., p. 40. Grandfather joins kids in class. (1999, July 13). The Times-Colonist, p. CI. Grandma bounces back into the classroom. (1978, October 7). The Times, p. 17. Group trying to escape from intellectual vacuum. (1984, July 13). The Times-Colonist, p. D13. Grown-up school. (1987, September 22). The Province, p. 32. Helping B.C. to improve. (1957, December 19). The Times, p. 4. High school doors open for returning adults. (1978, June 13). The Colonist, p. 16. High school mat's out for adults. (1978, March 30). The Colonist, p. 13. Hobbycrafts era over in classes. (1967, October 15). The Colonist, p. 27. Illiteracy in rural B.C. bared in study, says MLA. (1969, March 8). The Sun, p. 12. In Eleanor's book, you can never be too old to learn. (1986, June 17). The Sun, p.Cl. In your ear, McGeer. (1978, March 30). The Sun, p. A6. Increased aid eyed for adult education. (1977, March 4). The Sun, p. 7. Invest in workers, McCarthy advises. (1992, March 24). The Vancouver Sun, p. C16. Investment in English study a sound idea. (1993, March 5). The Province, p. A27. Job training extended by agreement. (1981, September 26). The Sun, p. A14. Kids make it easy for adult in school. (1978, April 16). The Colonist, p. 21. Knee-deep in old ladies. (1978, April 27). The Sun, p. A6. Knowledge network ready. (1981, January 14). The Times-Colonist, p. 52. Langley scraps its night school. (1997, May 29). The Vancouver Sun, p. BI. 102 Last hurrah for free second chance place. (1996, April 4). The Times-Colonist, p. B2. Life-long learning focus of conference. (1994, February 17). The Vancouver Sun, p.B7. Long distance' college. (1977, March 4). The Colonist, p. 40. Making the grade. (1994, April 11). The Province, p. A24. Many changes forecast in world living habits. (1968, November 26). The Province, p. 35. Mature students: conquering the syndrome. (1977, November 15). The Sun, p. A6. McGeer answers his critics on plans for a TV university. (1978, April 12). The Sun, p. A13. Modern world has arrived; people have to catch up. (1961, April 5). The Colonist< p. 1. Mom joins son in classroom. (1994, September 7). The Times-Colonist, p. B8. More for adult students. (1989, May 19). The Province, p. 28. More people studying by degrees. (1967, January 11). The Colonist, p. 17. Mother's too busy on own home work to help children. (1967, October 25). The Times, p. 35. Movement is started here. (1937, January 30). The Colonist, p. 2. Mrs. Jamieson calls for day nurseries. (1943, February 2). The Times, p. 7. Muscles, brawn no longer needed - educator. (1991, November 10). The Times-Colonist, p. A15. My mom goes to high school' her children's novel boast. (1968, November 21). The Colonist, p. 36. NDP knocks a rung out of the education ladder. (1997, February 13). The Times-Colonist, p. A14. Never give up' on adult centre. (1964, May 27). The Times, p. 20. New approach proposed for adult education. (1961, May 13). The Province, p. 2. 103 New approach urged to adult education. (1966, April 2). The Province, p. 7. New day school for adults opening in the fall. (1966, April 18). The Times, p. 17. New diploma for all adult basic grads. (1999, May 30). The Times-Colonist, p. AIO. New door opens, thanks to minister. (1994, June 21). The Vancouver Sun, p.A3. New faces in schools could be older. (1977, July 12). The Sun, p. 29. New program offers one-step learning centre. (1996, May 15). The Times-Colonist, p. B4. New training plan adapted to student's time and pace. (1970, September 3). The Province, p. 23. Night life is booming in classrooms, that is. (1965, November 2). The Province, p. 13. Night schools boom. (1972, October 7). The Times, p. 25. No extra-fee education offered adults since '68. (1971, June 29). The Colonist, p. 23. No more fees for adult basic ed. (1998, May 14). The Province, p. A2. No political football please! (1963, November 18). The Times, p. 6. Older students learn for love of it in 'Hum Dip". (1996, November 3). The Times-Colonist, p. B9. One woman's day. (1943, December 9). The Times, p. 16. Parent protest postpones ESL plans. (1997, September 16). The Province, p. A4. Pay for graduates urged. (1968, May 12). The Colonist, p. 29. Pay unemployed to attend school. (1961, May 12). The Province, p. 3. Peasant class' forming in B.C. (1966, June 11). The Sun, p. 29. Peterson promises replies on adult education queries. (1967, August 15). The Sun, p. 9. Plan classes for workers. (1937, January 30). The Times, p. 4. Plan courses for soldiers. (1939, September 29). The Province, p. 5. Plan develops latent talents. (1937, January 29). The Sun, p. 2. 104 Port Renfrew's faller-scholar. (1985, February 24). The Times-Colonist, p. 2. Practical approach to learning pushed. (1972, August 9). the Times, p. 20. Province drops tuition fees for high school completion. (1998, May 14). The Vancouver Sun, p. A3. Proving their own credibility. (1977, September 17). The Province, P. 28. Rayner, William. (1997). Images of History: 20th Century British Columbia Through the Front Pages Victoria: Orca Press Return to class exhilarating ... but it can be shaky too. (1968, August 10). The Times, p. 14. Revived student-age policy proves pricey for upgrade-bound. (1992, September 9). The Times-Colonist, p. C l l . Robert can't read - and he's embarrassed. (1979, February 5). The Express, p. A l . Rural adult education plan urged. (1960, May 3). The Sun, p. 3. Same-boat units'duplicate'. (1970, June 10). The Sun, p. 17. Saskatchewan announces new adult education program. (1945, January 24). The Colonist, p. 3. School for the adult. (1937, September 24). The Province, p. 4. School retraining urged by city education expert. (1961, February 24). The Province, p. 3. Schools fear studies wasted. (1978, September 20). The Province, p. 38. Schools in camera soon? (1968, April 19). The Colonist, p. 13. Scientific 'enry' iggins removes accents in lab. (1963, January 25). The Sun, p. 12. Self study courses urged by educator. (1972, November 23). The Province, p. 26. Self-help project of adult education benefits 4000 underprivileged. (1937, July 13). The Sun, p. 6. 105 (Selman, Gordon, et al. (1998). Foundations of Adult Education in Canada 2nd ed. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Senior citizens go back to school. (1982, May 27). The Sun, p. A16. Seniors delighted with U Vic course. (1983, June 7). The Times-Colonist, p. C8. Single mom embraces second chance. (1997, October 9). The Times-Colonist, p.A6. Skid road scrambles for funds. (1984, July 12). The Sun, p. B3. Smoking, cuts OK. (1962, August 8). The Province, p. 3. Soaring costs predicted for educating adults. (1966, March 25). The Province, p. 40. Some 13,000 adults go back to school to upgrade skills, broaden knowledge. (1971, September 11). The Times, p. 25. Sooke adult class proves successful. (1971, September 11). The Times, p. 20. Sooke board considers stopping adult courses. (1982, January 15). The Times-Colonist, p. 3. Sooke puts extra bite into adult education. (1998, September 12). The Times-Colonist, p. C 3 . Sorting out the new terminology. (1978, March 30). The Sun, p. A6. Speedup ordered in planning on adult centre. (1963, May 3). The Times, p. 30. Spencer, B. (1998). The Purposes of Adult Education, Toronto:Thompson Status of arts, education pressed. (1983, September 9). The Sun, p. A3. Stone age students are best of all. (1984, August 21). The Province, p. 13. Students protest proposed cuts in funding for adult basic ed. (1997, March 13). The Vancouver Sun, p. B5. Students should pay full cost of'extra'courses. (1985, May 8). The Sun, p. A5. Study focused on adult education. (1926, March 16). Colonist, p. 13 Teach us how to keep on living. (1935, July 5). Sun, p. 18 106 Teacher offers new approach to learning. (1999, October 6). The Times-Colonist, p. BI. Teaching adults 'not always easy'. (1966, September 20). The Sun, p. 2. Tell them your hopes and dreams. (1975, February 12). The Sun, p. 6. Tests by September. (1973, May 9). The Colonist, p. 15. The barren spot in education. (1963, September 30). The Sun, p. 4. The campus calls to our eager over-60's. (1976, November 25). The Sun, p. 78. The daily Tatler. (1937, August 31). The Sun, p. 1. . The hidden ESL agenda. (1988, May 30). The Sun, p. B3. There's something for all at today's night school. (1989, September 15). The Sun, p. B5. Third career her goal. (1978, September 16). The Province, p. 12. This course adds knowledge to know-how. (1988, July 17). The Times-Colonist, p. A3. Thousands flock to learning lifestyle. (1999, May 23). The Province, p. AIO. Threat seen for adult education. (1972, April 22). The Province, p. 9. Time for leisure - and learning. (1976, January 24). The Sun, p. 40. To follow knowledge... (1973, March 23). The Times, p. 4. Toward a just society. (1985, September 23). The Times-Colonist, p. A4. Trade retraining this fall. (1965, May 19). The Times, p. 25. Training of leaders called vital. (1961, March 28). The Sun, p. 16. Training on job: women aren't getting a break. (1985, December 24). The Sun, p. D7. Troops are going highbrow. (1940, January 16). The Province, p. 22. Trustees fear UBC plan confuses public. (1963, August 6). The Province, p. 3. Trying to fathom what learning has to do with work. (1996, January 24). The Times-Colonist, p. A4. Twelve years of school board goal. (1971, June 25). The Colonist, p. 39. U Vic chief urges weekend courses. (1985, June 12). The Sun, p. A6. 107 U.B.C. continues adult education. (1936, April 28). The Sun, p. 5. UBC seeks adult centre as project for centennial. (1963, July 15). The Sun, p. 16. UBC's 'failure' in adult education. (1966, May 21). The Sun, p. 26. UI training funds squeeze strange nurse. (1990, May 10). The Sun, p. BI. University of British Columbia extension course. (1935, November 18). Sun, P. 18 Unkindest cuts wound adult ed. (1997, February 26). The Times-Colonist, p. A l l . Urge recreation leaders have teachers' status. (1943, November 19). The Province, p. 8. Urges university to give more support to adult education. (1926, October 17). Province, p. 8 (Mag.) Uvic in the Kootenays. (1983, February 27). The Times-Colonist, p. 2 (Mag. sec). Values of adult training stressed. (1937, February 1). The Province, p. 12. Vancouver's elusive part-time degree. (1973, August 6). The Province, p. 4. Victoria must lead the fight against illiteracy, Ramsey says. (1997, November 6). The Vancouver Sun, p.A3. Vitamins' needed to boost workers' education courses. (1946, November 18). The Sun, p. 9. Welton, M. (1987). Knowledge for the People, Reclaiming Our Past, Kindling Hope Toronto: OISE Welton, M. (1998). learning for Life, Educating for a Deliberative Democracy, Scott, Spencer, Thomas Ed. Toronto: Thompson Weir will end exam bogey. (1937, April 6). The Province, p. 1. Why not in BC? (1965, May 18). The Sun, p. 4. Wider adult education plan. (1937, September 22). The Times, p. 13. Word's spreading on adult learning. (1976, September 10). The Province, p. 11. You can learn up to any age. (1958, November 21). The Province, p. 11. Appendix 1 108 Chronological List of Adult Education Articles Found in B.C. Legislative Index Study focused on adult education. (1926, March 16). Colonist, p. 13 Adult education is all embracing. (1926, March 17). Colonist, p. 1 Education proves vital world force. (1926, March 18). Colonist, p. 5 Cancer Experts products of adult education. (1926, March 18). Times, p. 6 Urges university to give more support to adult education. (1926, October 17). Province, p. 8 (Mag.) Adult education survey. (1935, March 27). Sun, p. 4 Adult education program for B.C. (1935, April 20). Province, p. 6 (Mag) University to extend tuition. (1935, May 11). Colonist, p. 6 Expects grant for adult education. (1935, May 21). News Herald, p.l Adult education funds for B.C. (1935, May 21). Sun, p. 17 Pattullo, Weir in city: education grant rumoured. (1935, May 21). Province, p. 1 Teach us how to keep on living. (1935, July 5). Sun, p. 18 Five adult education lecture circuits in B.C. (1935, October 14), Sun, p. 3 Students protest lack of work. (1935, November 6). Sun, p. 3 University of British Columbia extension course. (1935, November 18). Sun, P. 18 Adult education is theme at institute. (1935, November 18). News Herald, p.8 Adult education scheme outlined. (1935, November 18). Province, p.3 Extension of adult education stressed by Dr. Geo. M. Weir. (1936, April 28). The Province, p. 7. Dept. of adult education for U.B.C. (1936, April 28). The News Herald, p. 8. Education of adults aim of this province. (1936, April 28). The News Herald, p. 2. U.B.C. continues adult education. (1936, April 28). The Sun, p. 5. Adult education is convention theme. (1936, April 29). The Province, p. 6. Adult education. (1936, April 29). The Province, p. 6. Adult education in B.C. topic of conference here. (1936, September 9). The Colonist, p. 3. Libraries and adult education. (1936, September 10). The Colonist, p. 4. Education of adults aided. (1936, September 28). The Times, p. 2. Education for adults grows in importance. (1936, September 29). The News Herald, p. 8. Educationists arrive Monday. (1937, January 22). The Sun, p. 9. Consolidation of adult education. (1937, January 24). The News Herald, p. 6. Educationists coming here. (1937, January 24). The Colonist, p. 3. To see Weir on adult education. (1937, January 28). The Times, p. 13. Finds adults learn quickly. (1937, January 29). The Province, p. 11. Plan develops latent talents. (1937, January 29). The Sun, p. 2. Adult studies are reviewed. (1937, January 30). The Times, p. 12. Movement is started here. (1937, January 30). The Colonist, p. 2. Plan classes for workers. (1937, January 30). The Times, p. 4. Values of adult training stressed. (1937, February 1). The Province, p. 12. Would re-examine Varsity methods. (1937, February 1). The News Herald, p. 2. Weir will end exam bogey. (1937, April 6). The Province, p. 1. Adult training plan is endorsed. (1937, April 13). The News Herald, p. 2. Self-help project of adult education benefits 4000 underprivileged. (1937, July 13). The Sun, p. 6. Adult education plans discussed. (1937, August 6). The Province, p. 9. 109 Experts map program for adult study. (1937, August 6). The News Herald, p. 7. Adult education project planned. (1937, August 7). The Sun, p. 8. Assistance sought in adult education. (1937, August 31). The Province, p. 3. The daily Tatler. (1937, August 31). The Sun, p. 1. Adult education. (1937, September 2). The Province, p. 4. Wider adult education plan. (1937, September 22). The Times, p. 13. Adult education survey planned. (1937, September 24). The Times, p. 3. School for the adult. (1937, September 24). The Province, p. 4. Why Stop Learning. (1937, October 6). The Times, p. 4. Adult education. (1937, December 30). The Province, p. 4. B.C. leading Canada in adult education. (1938, November 25). The Province, p. 6. Adult education. (1939, March 26). The Colonist, p. 1 mag. sect. Seek adult schools. (1939, August 8). The Province, p. 3. Study groups to be set up. (1939, September 26). The Colonist, p. 2. U.B.C. organizes fisherman class. (1939, September 26). The Sun, p. 5. Plan courses for soldiers. (1939, September 29). The Province, p. 5. Adult education program for B.C. (1939, December 28). The Times, p. 3. Troops are going highbrow. (1940, January 16). The Province, p. 22. Educational plan for troops lauded. (1940, February 3). The Province, p. 5. Educational services to be expanded. (1940, February 4). The Colonist, p. 2. Adult education is Dominion-wide problem. (1940, April 8). The Sun, p. 13. Extensive program planned for education week here. (1940, September 26). The Province, p. 6. Work of adult education plan gains in B.C. (1941, March 12). The Sun, p. 12. Adult education vital to democracy, Dr. Weir declares. (1941, September 11). The Province, p. 16. Education is vital part of war effort.' - Hon. G.M. Weir. (1941, September 11). The Sun, p. 16. Department proposed to teach adults. (1942, May 19). The Sun, p. 13. Education has postwar role. (1942, September 17). The Colonist, p. 8. Postwar plans need adult study. (1942, September 17). The Colonist, p. 8. Adult education lectures will commence. (1942, October 1). The Province, p. 9. Mrs. Jamieson calls for day nurseries. (1943, February 2). The Times, p. 7. Would use Japanese in industry. (1943, February 2). The Province, p. 7, Adult education. (1943, March 5). The Province, p. 4. Dr. Smith heads adult education. (1943, March 24). The News Herald, p. 3. Educators propose world government. (1943, May 25). The Province, p. 11. Sees need of better adult education. (1943, July 8). The Colonist, p. 8. Urge recreation leaders have teachers' status. (1943, November 19). The Province, p. 8. Adult education to cost $149,450,000. (1943, November 29). The Province, p. 1. Legion urges $149,000,000 for education. (1943, November 30). The Sun, p. 5. A labor college. (1943, December 1). The Province, p. 4. One woman's day. (1943, December 9). The Times, p. 16. Heads association of adult education. (1944, September 16). The Colonist, p. 2. Parent-teacher group declare adult education post-war need. (1944, October 23). The News Herald, p. 2. Thinks state should assist adult schools. (1944, November 6). The Province, p. 19. Education for all. (1945, January 8). The News Herald, p. 4. Saskatchewan announces new adult education program. (1945, January 24). The Colonist, p. 3. Education of adults big need. (1946, May 3). The Colonist, p. 3. Two UBC delegates to attend adult education parley. (1946, May 11). The News Herald, p. 10. Adult education to be extended. (1946, May 14). The Sun, p. 10. Expansion keynote of library meeting at Nanaimo. (1946, May 14). The Times, p. 3. Vitamins' needed to boost workers' education courses. (1946, November 18). The Sun, p. 9. U.B.C. educators honored. (1947, May 28). The Sun, p. 7. Adult educators elect city woman. (1947, June 23). The News Herald, p. 6. Adult education hits stride this week. (1950, September 24). The Colonist, p. 7. Education for adults worth cost. (1953, February ;8). The Colonist, p. 1. Compulsory adult education forecast. (1953, October 31). The Sun, p. 12. Adult education fills big need says director. (1954, January 13). The Province, p. 8. Adult education boots abilities of 14,000 here. (1954, January 14). The Sun, p. 38. Adult education fights European communism. (1954, September 7). The Province, p. 10 Adult education council in offing. (1954, September 30). The Colonist, p. 2. Adult education aids both employers and employees. (1954, December 2). The Sun, p. 10. Adult educationists discuss basic aims. (1955, May 3). The Colonist, p. 2. Army now putting mind over matter. (1956, May 15). The Colonist, p. 8. Adults set school mark. (1956, June 12). The Herald, p. 1. Adult education too highbrow, says U.B.C. dean. (1956, June 13). The Province, p. 31. Keeping science in balance. (1957, December 2). The Province, p. 4. Helping B.C. to improve. (1957, December 19). The Times, p. 4. You can learn up to any age. (1958, November 21). The Province, p. 11. B.C. teachers lack qualifications. (1959, January 23). The Times, p. 15. Brush-up courses seen for graduates. (1959, May 23). The Sun, p. 7. Adults go back to class. (1959, August 15). The Province, p. 7. Victoria, Vancouver take lead in night schools says educator. (1959, September 23). The Times, p. 2. New school for over-65s. (1959, November 18). The Times, p. 9. Stumbling readers cripple Canada, says UBC leader. (1959, November 26). The Sun, p. 29. Daily work, nightly teaching on 'frontier'. (1960, February 19). The Times, p. 17. Rural adult education plan urged. (1960, May 3). The Sun, p. 3. Pulling up academic socks. (1960, October 13). The Times, p. 4. Full-time adult education centre mooted for city. (1960, October 18). The Sun, p. 19. Early school quitters now provided with a second chance. (1960, November 24). The Province, p. 21. Growing old, wise helps, unemployed 'pupils' find. (1960, December 8). The Province, p. 30. Educator attacks ???probe scope. (1961, January 20). The Sun, p. 12. School retraining urged by city education expert. (1961, February 24). The Province, p. 3. First school-for-jobless class passes with ease. (1961, March 3). The Province, p. 3. Training of leaders called vital. (1961, March 28). The Sun, p. 16. Adult school chief urged for B.C. (1961, April 4). The Sun, p. 17. Director urged for education of B.C. adults. (1961, April 4). The Colonist, p. 3. Education of adults stressed. (1961, April 4). The Province, p. 3. Modern world has arrived; people have to catch up. (1961, April 5). The Colonist, p. 1. Adults education needs stressed by educator. (1961, April 5). The Province, p. 13. Education only begins in adulthood, says Adler. (1961, April 25). The Province, p. 3. Compel unemployed to improve brains. (1961, May 12). The Colonist, p. 1. Pay unemployed to attend school. (1961, May 12). The Province, p. 3. New approach proposed for adult education. (1961, May 13). The Province, p. 2. High school for adults. (1961, May 24). The Sun, p. 29. Chant calls for varied training. (1961, May 26). The Sun, p. 3. Social equality urged in job field. (1961, May 26). The Province, p. 3. City tops continent for night schools; new courses urged. (1961, July 18). The Province, p. 3. Adult education expansion seen. (1961, August 22). The Times, p. 20. Junior, senior high offered for adults. (1961, August 24). The Colonist, p. 5. Trustees seek aid for adult classes. (1961, October 2). The Province, p. 3. Adult attendance at high schools 'way up' - director. (1961, October 11). The Province, p. 3. Challenge seen for UBC extension. (1961, October 27). The Sun, p. 16. Adult school policy for nation urged. (1961, October 28). The Sun, p. 25. Unemployed Victorians take classes. (1961, November 11). The Colonist, p. 2. Vocational program'masterful'. (1961, November 14). The Times, p. 7. Special city class pays. (1961, November 24). The Colonist, p. 21. King Ed' to be school for adults. (1961, December 5). The Sun, p. 10. Adult education is local affair. (1961, December 19). The Colonist, p. 15. Ottawa 'Hiding behind' BNA Act, says Gelling. (1961, December 19). The Times, p. 13. New adult education group reflects change in thinking. (1962, January 21). The Colonist, p. 21. Advisory group set on education. (1962, January 23). The Times, p. 10. Cliff McKay. (1962, January 25). The Sun, p. 28. Chicago buys our plan. (1962, March 16). The Sun, p. 4. $150 rates for adults at school. (1962, March 20). The Province, p. 3. Adults to get own school. (1962, March 20). The Sun, p. 19. Academic study grants said 'unfair'. (1962, April 30). The Times, p. 17. Adults' day school called major need. (1962, May 8). The Times, p. 27. Advisory board set up. (1962, June 29). The Colonist, p. 18. Topics of the day. (1962, July 3). The Times, p. 11. Five years' schooling in 12 months. (1962, July 4). The Sun, p. 1. Smoking, cuts OK. (1962, August 8). The Province, p. 3. Extra 400 enrol at King Ed. (1962, October 3). The Sun, p. 19. Wider plan urged for adult education. (1962, October 3). The Province, p. 2. Adult study centre urged. (1962, November 14). The Sun, p. 1. 72 students quit city adult centre. (1962, December 4). The Sun, p. 12. Jobless make the grade - but back to school first. (1963, January 18). The Sun, p. 8. Scientific 'enry' iggins removes accents in lab. (1963, January 25). The Sun, p. 12. Adult education expanded. (1963, May 3). The Colonist, p. 7. Speedup ordered in planning on adult centre. (1963, May 3). The Times, p. 30. 11 named advisors for centre. (1963, May 29). The Times, p. 17. Expand school for adults. (1963, June 5). The Colonist, p. 11. Let drop-outs drop in nights for instruction. (1963, June 5). The Times, p. 30. Night school may become day school. (1963, June 20). The Times, p. 9. 3 years of high school in 1 year for adults. (1963, June 26). The Times, p. 34. Adult education offers grade 13. (1963, June 27). The Colonist, p. 20. B.C. businessmen will go to school. (1963, July 10). The Sun, p. 8. UBC seeks adult centre as project for centennial. (1963, July 15). The Sun, p. 16. UBC adult centre 'no college threat'. (1963, July 27). The Sun, p. 6. Trustees fear UBC plan confuses public. (1963, August 6). The Province, p. 3. Adults give up jobs to study on full-time basis at night. (1963, September 18). The Times, p. 36. Voice and deed of experience. (1963, September 24). The Times, p. 4. Aid pledged for centre. (1963, September 28). The Colonist, p. 32. The barren spot in education. (1963, September 30). The Sun, p. 4. Board chairman seeks Peterson's approval. (1963, October 11). The Times, p. 29. Two trade schools for city? (1963, October 15). The Times, p. 17. Over-40s to be trained in building maintenance. (1963, October 18). The Province, p. 3. Finishing school set for janitors. (1963, October 18). The Times, p. 11. Trustees to push for centre. (1963, October 19). The Times, p. 17. 5,000 adults back at school. (1963, October 22). The Times, p. 7. Flexible plan for new centre. (1963, November 6). The Times, p. 19. Victoria can't support two schools. (1963, November 13). The Times, p. 3. No political football please! (1963, November 18). The Times, p. 6. 150 jobless adults go back to school for brighter future. (1963, November 23). The Province, p. 39. Adult school plan probed by educators. (1963, November 30). The Times, p. 21. Night school exams stay for now at least. (1964, January 29). The Times, p. 6. School board prodded adult centre. (1964, February 13). The Times, p. 16. Night high school plan for north shore. (1964, February 14). The Sun, p. 23. Board may rent building to start adult education. (1964, February 18). The Times, p. 12. Adult centre not likely. (1964, February 20). The Colonist, p. 25 Quarters sought for adult classes. (1964, February 20). The Colonist, p. 6. Never give up' on adult centre. (1964, May 27). The Times, p. 20. Help poor learn authorities told. (1964, May 30). The Colonist, p. 8. Whole family pulling for 'old dog' - writes exam at 71. (1964, June 16). The Times, p. 15. Grade 13 in night school. (1964, June 20). The Colonist, p. 15. Adult schooling program success. (1964, August 6). The Sun, p. 26. Adult education programme. (1964, August 16). The Colonist, spec. sec. Adult education: our schools will have seventy-year old pupils. (1964, August 22). The Sun, p. 6. Course opens Sept. 21, 1964. (1964, September 2). The Province, p. 12. Education centre bulging. (1964, October 20). The Province, p. 31, Who should pay? (1964, October 25). The Colonist, p. 4. The cabbie couldn't read street signs. (1964, November 17). The Times, p. 17. Classes do 'half the job'. (1964, November 18). The Colonist, p. 23. Night course starts well. (1964, November 20). The Colonist, p. 25. Firms sponsor 3 year course on business. (1964, December 17). The Province, p. 39. Hydro to train own skilled linemen. (1964, December 17). The Province, p. 31. Adults flocking back to school. (1965, January 9). The Colonist, p. 17. Adult education era heralded by Peterson. (1965, February 16). The Province, p. 2. New graduates 'tribute' to centenary. (1965, February 16). The Times, p. 22. Adult groups taking over schools. (1965, April 29). The Times, p. 6. Trustees talk on schooling for adults. (1965, April 30). The Province, p. 6. City to get study centre. (1965, May 9). The Colonist, p. 7. Why not in BC? (1965, May 18). The Sun, p. 4. Trade retraining this fall. (1965, May 19). The Times, p. 25. Adult school enrolment shows jump. (1965, June 22). The Times, p. 16. Business school enrolment heavy. (1965, August 21). The Times, p. 19. Courses for adults 'selling like crazy'. (1965, August 21). The Times, p. 19. Some pay and like it. (1965, September 24). The Times, p. 4. Night school enrolment hits 5,200. (1965, October 19). The Times, p. 14. Social education theme of extension conference. (1965, November 1). The Province, p. 2. Gadgets free wife for job and it's good for family. (1965, November 2). The Province, p. 23. Night life is booming in classrooms, that is. (1965, November 2). The Province, p. 13. Metric' program urged for adults. (1965, November 16). The Sun, p. 18. Education for service. (1966, January 18). The Times, p. 4. Speed-up expected on school. (1966, January 18). The Times, p. 2. Fishing in ballroom. (1966, January 20). The Province, p. 19. UBC woos educators. (1966, March 10). The Sun, p. 10. Soaring costs predicted for educating adults. (1966, March 25). The Province, p. 40. Blueprint for advanced learning designed to help all ages. (1966, April 2). The Sun, p. 8. New approach urged to adult education. (1966, April 2). The Province, p. 7. Downtown branch of UBC urged for businessmen. (1966, April 15). The Sun, p. 33. New day school for adults opening in the fall. (1966, April 18). The Times, p. 17. Adult study name'has impact'. (1966, April 19). The Times, p. 14. School for adults. (1966, April 19). The Colonist, p. 19. Cut in high tuition fees proposed to school board. (1966, April 26). The Province, p. 11. Dropouts' 'drop-in' plan under way in Coquitlam. (1966, April 28). The Sun, p. 18. Annual fee of $250 set for adult studies centre. (1966, April 29). The Times, p. 21. Coquitlam. (1966, April 29). The Province, p. 15. Batey to head adult centre. (1966, April 30). The Colonist, p. 21. Adult schools and fees. (1966, May 2). The Times, p. 4. Fee reduction recommended. (1966, May 4). The Colonist, p. 11. Practical courses stressed at city's new adult centre. (1966, May 6). The Colonist, p. 28. City trustees keep fees firm for night schools. (1966, May 10). The Province, p. 34. UBC's 'failure' in adult education. (1966, May 21). The Sun, p. 26. Evening degrees 'not moral duty'. (1966, June 1). The Sun, p. 2. Peasant class' forming in B.C. (1966, June 11). The Sun, p. 29. Day and night courses now offered to adults. (1966, June 19). The Colonist, p. 6 mag. sec. Adult enrolment up in school courses. (1966, June 24). The Colonist, p. 23. Adult centre offering art program. (1966, June 25). The Colonist, p. 21. Back-to-school adults offered short course. (1966, July 12). The Province, p. 28. High school plan set for dropouts. (1966, July 12). The Sun, p. 11. Adult education ends in Sooke. (1966, July 20). The Colonist, p. 17. Adult school moves into campus site. (1966, July 23). The Times, p. 36. New institute first of kind in Canada. (1966, July 23). The Colonist, p. 17. $75,000 drive to equip adult institute. (1966, July 25). The Times, p. 15. Adult school program hailed as model scheme. (1966, August 18). The Province, p. 7. Night school program for adults. (1966, September 7). The Province, p. 7. Education for adults a must. (1966, September 17). The Province, p. 46. Full adult education drive urged on school trustees. (1966, September 20). The Sun, p. 25. Duncan night life expanding. (1966, September 20). The Times, p. 10. Teaching adults 'not always easy'. (1966, September 20). The Sun, p. 2. 20,000 adults utilize UBC extension courses. (1966, October 1). The Province, p. 29. $90M more for provinces Pearson's off at parley. (1966, October 24). The Times, p. 1. Adults flock to schools. (1966, November 14). The Sun, p. 11. Educators agree to co-operate. (1966, November 26). The Sun, p. 16. More people studying by degrees. (1967, January 11). The Colonist, p. 17. Educational facilities under fire. (1967, February 2). The Province, p. 6. Adult education grows quickly across province. (1967, February 16). The Times, p. 14. Schools in on March 8 for 18 silver threads. (1967, February 24). The Times, p. 19. Adult training centres reported taxed to limit. (1967, March 15). The Province, p. 21. Adult classes may move to exhibition. (1967, March 21). The Province, p. 36. Cuts feared in adult education. (1967, March 28). The Sun, p. 25. Expansion vital. (1967, March 29). The Sun, p. 47. Rent space to welfare agencies colleges told. (1967, May 18). The Sun, p. 2. Education priority scored. (1967, June 6). The Sun, p. 10. Sharp defends night school fees. (1967, June 13). The Sun, p. 27. Jack Wasserman. (1967, July 8). The Sun, p. 25. Education aid cuts protested. (1967, July 11). The Sun, p. 23. Vocational aid plan 'still going'. (1967, July 11). The Sun, p. 23. All premiers are buddies, says Bennett. (1967, August 4). The Province, p. 2. Adult classes called A-bomb of knowledge. (1967, August 9). The Province, p. 13. Peterson promises replies on adult education queries. (1967, August 15). The Sun, p. 9. No nagging permitted in human reclamation. (1967, August 17). The Times, p. 21. Bright story - and a problem. (1967, August 18). The Times, p. 4. School board questions PA's reply. (1967, August 30). The Sun, p. 5. Adult schools needed. (1967, October 14). The Times, p. 36. Hobbycrafts are over in classes. (1967, October 15). The Colonist, p. 27. Education for adults criticized. (1967, October 16). The Times, p. 6. Receptive if ideas considered. (1967, October 16). The Times, p. 6. Seminar throws light on many more problems. (1967, October 16). The Times, p. 6. To overcome barrier. (1967, October 20). The Times, p. 4. Mother's too busy on own home work to help children. (1967, October 25). The Times, p. 35. New math offered for adults. (1967, December 15). The Colonist,, p. 20. Deficit halved at adult school. (1968, March 19). The Times, p. 16. New courses put emphasis on summer fun. (1968, April 1). The Times, p. 21. Shop teachers hit adult use of high schools. (1968, April 11). The Times, p. 14. Schools in camera soon? (1968, April 19). The Colonist, p. 13. Peterson, Watson, to speak. (1968, May 8). The Times, p. 50. Adult classes move slowly says director. (1968, May 11). The Times, p. 45. Adult class needs new drive. (1968, May 12). The Colonist, p. 29. Adults paid tuition. (1968, May 12). The Colonist, p. 21. Pay for graduates urged. (1968, May 12). The Colonist, p. 29. Adult education plans first summer 'happening'. (1968, May 28). The Times, p. 35. Pat Charlie breezes by grades 2, 3. (1968, June 1). The Sun, p. 27. Public gives fun courses big response. (1968, July 12). The Times, p. 6. Prosperos encouraging adult study. (1968, July 13). The Times, p. 29. Move against fee hike goes down to defeat. (1968, July 23). The Province, p. 26. Return to class exhilarating ... but it can be shaky too. (1968, August 10). The Times, p. 14. Academic life can spark crises for older students. (1968, August 10). The Times, p. 14. All subjects considered for adults. (1968, August 30). The Times, p. 2. Adults allowed. (1968, September 11). The Times, p. 29. Branch must share in costs. (1968, September 11). The Times, p. 29. Evening courses more popular. (1968, October 22). The Times, p. 13. Complaint course popular; more classes. (1968, November 5). The Times, p. 6. Canadians teach Americans adult training techniques. (1968, November 14). The Sun, p. 20. Widows jam new courses on estates. (1968, November 15). The Times, p. 39. Enrolment swells in adult classes. (1968, November 19). The Times, p. 29. My mom goes to high school' her children's novel boast. (1968, November 21). The Colonist, p. 36. Arthur Mayse. (1968, November 23). The Times, p. 21. Many changes forecast in world living habits. (1968, November 26). The Province, p. 35. Adult students taking over? (1968, December 7). The Times, p. 25. 12 courses to launch 'learn-in'. (1968, December 11). The Times, p. 17. School board will launch midriff war. (1969, January 11). The Times, p. 25. 7,000 adults resume night school studies. (1969, January 13). The Times, p. 6. Boom in divorce cases attributed to backlog. (1969, January 29). The Province, p. 2 Whites must accept equality - educator. (1969, March 6). The Province, p. 33. Illiteracy in rural B.C. bared in study, says MLA. (1969, March 8). The Sun, p. 12. Illiteracy report ignored. (1969, March 8). The Colonist, p. 1. Adult education scheme urged for rural areas. (1969, March 10). The Province, p. 3 Second-chance schooling. (1969, March 11). The Times, p. 4. City plans fun courses for summer. (1969, June 12). The Times, p. 8. Night school enrolment reaches peak. (1969, June 12). The Province, p. 12. Enrolment reduced. (1969, June 26). The Times, p. 3. From judo to French conversation. (1969, July 8). The Times, p. 8. Teachers combine learning with safe driving course. (1969, July 10). The Province, p. 32. Making money. (1969, August 16). The Sun, p. 3. Langley offering teacher programs. (1969, September 22). The Sun, p. 2. Night classes expect enrolment of 18,000. (1969, October 10). The Province, p. 16. Ward clerk course set for January. (1969, December 17). The Times, p. 19. Adults learning to beat school. (1969, December 23). The Times, p. 7. Objectives seen. (1970, January 31). The Sun, p. 2. Same-boat units 'duplicate'. (1970, June 10). The Sun, p. 17. Chance for adults in summer, too. (1970, June 24). The Sun, p. 74. Adult education schedule mailed. (1970, August 21). The Times, p. 7. Adults offered 100 night courses. (1970, August 21). The Times, p. 2. New training plan adapted to student's time and pace. (1970, September 3). The Province, p. 23. Formal barriers down for Uvic adult education. (1970, September 17). The Times, p. 15. Strike delays class. (1971, January 20). The Province, p. 12. Chilliwack board bucks post secondary course. (1971, February 24). The Province, p. 22. Twelve years of school board goal. (1971, June 25). The Colonist, p. 39. School urged for grandad. (1971, June 26). The Sun, p. 13. No extra-fee education offered adults since '68. (1971, June 29). The Colonist, p. 23. No-fee adult education. (1971, August 18). The Times, p.33. 100 courses offered in Saanich. (1971, August 30). The Times, p. 2. Some 13,000 adults go back to school to upgrade skills, broaden knowledge. (1971, September 11). The Times, p. 25. Sooke adult class proves successful. (1971, September 11). The Times, p. 20. Capilano educator scores with adult 'learning kits'. (1971, October 29). The Sun, p. 15, Adult students not streamed. (1971, November 26). The Times, p. 38. Evenings out' spent at school. (1971, December 2). The Times, p. 26. 58 pot more enrol in right courses. (1972, February 8). The Times, p. 2. Threat seen for adult education. (1972, April 22). The Province, p. 9. College education for school boards? (1972, April 24). The Province, p. 4. New youth culture rejects work ethic. (1972, April 24). The Times, p. 20. Adult education has to be special. (1972, May 16). The Times, p. 34. Cut-rate courses coming for aged. (1972, May 29). The Times, p. 21. University courses offered at Duncan. (1972, June 14). The Times, p. 22. Adult education classes 'valuable to community'. (1972, July 6). The Times, p. 35. Practical approach to learning pushed. (1972, August 9). the Times, p. 20. Night schools boom. (1972, October 7). The Times, p. 25. Adults flock to night school. (1972, October 26). The Times, p. 22. Self study courses urged by educator. (1972, November 23). The Province, p. 26. BC bans the strap. (1973, February 15). The Sun, p. 1. To follow knowledge... (1973, March 23). The Times, p. 4. Dailly wants to try out British 'open U' idea. (1973, March 28). The Province, p. 11. Educator suggests B.C.-wide courses. (1973, May 9). The Times, p. 38. Tests by September. (1973, May 9). The Colonist, p. 15. Courtenay enrolments increase. (1973, June 28). The Colonist, p. 9. Vancouver's elusive part-time degree. (1973, August 6). The Province, p. 4. Education lack rapped. (1973, August 15). The Province, p. 27. Back to school time again. (1973, September 29). The Province, p. 22. Families gather to make friends. (1973, October 13). The Sun., p. 41. Civil education. (1973, December 11). The Province, p. 30. New varsity proposed. (1974, January 15). ???? p. 10. Bus brings know-how to B.C. (1974, February 27). The Sun, p. 84. Free tuition proposed for drop outs. (1974, May 2). The Sun, p. 43. Adult education fund plan hit by Coquitlam trustees. (1974, May 24). The Sun, p. 9. Gramps as undergrad. (1974, June 7). The Sun., p. 40. UBC offers free courses to our senior citizens. (1974, June 8). The Sun., p. 7. Free courses at university just right with the oldsters. (1974, June 29). The Province, p. 9. Night scholars find room. (1974, September 21). The Sun., p. 21. Tell them your hopes and dreams. (1975, February 12). The Sun, p. 6. Class for aged a big success. (1975, April 1). The Colonist, p. 9. 56% non adults attend non-credit Uvic classes. (1975, April 19). The Colonist, p. 13. Course expansion studied for BC prison inmates. (1975, May 15). The Times, p. 11. Facilities need gearing. (1975, August 9). The Colonist, p. 19. Camosun seeks co-ordination. (1975, August 23). The Times, p. 6. Board okays adult project. (1975, August 26). The Colonist, p. 15. 88 Victoria area agencies 'doing same job'. (1975, November 7). The Colonist, p. 19 Tutors planned for adults. (1976, January 14). The Sun, p. 80. Time for leisure - and learning. (1976, January 24). The Sun, p. 40. Devon courses for elderly. (1976, February 2). The Province, p. 6. New job beckons. (1976, June 2). The Province, p. 30. Education committee named. (1976, July 6). The Province, p. 30. Province offers 5 free courses. (1976, September 8). The Colonist, p. 6. Never too late. (1976, September 10). The Province, p. 26. Word's spreading on adult learning. (1976, September 10). The Province, p. 11. Media' college urged. (1976, September 15). The Province, p. 6. Open college suggested. (1976, September 15). The Times, p. 23. Adult education 'suffers low priority in province'. (1976, September 30). The Sun, p. 13. Cheaper adult education proposed. (1976, October 20). the Sun, p. 14. College 'dragging feet on adult education'. (1976, November 1). The Province, p. 25 Our ageing population may force school shake-up. (1976, November 12). The Province, p. 49. The campus calls to our eager over-60's. (1976, November 25). The Sun, p. 78. $600,000 wage subsidy. (1976, December 21). The Times, p. 17. Services set today for educationist. (1977, January 5). The Province, p. 12. A turnabout in learning. (1977, February 10). The Province, p. 23. Back-to-school movement swelling. (1977, March 4). The Times, p. 27. Increased aid eyed for adult education. (1977, March 4). The Sun, p. 7. Long distance'college. (1977, March 4). The Colonist, p. 40. Gov't 'decade behind' on adult education. (1977, March 5). The Sun, p. 14. After 70 years, board sets policy. (1977, April 5). The Sun, p. 10. Interesting language - it doesn't exist. (1977, April 20). The Sun, p. 5. Adult education program benefiting 'wrong people'. (1977, June 3). The Sun, p. 17. New faces in schools could be older. (1977, July 12). The Sun, p. 29. Learning to be young of heart. (1977, August 4). The Province, p. 21. Proving their own credibility. (1977, September 17). The Province, P. 28. Going back: the odds against older students. (1977, October 20). The Sun, p. A6. Mature students: conquering the syndrome. (1977, November 15). The Sun, p. A6. SFU offers 40 courses for 60-plus. (1977, November 25). The Province, p. 34. Learning as a hobby. (1978, February 3). The Sun, p. 21. Distance learning plan unveiled; one agency needed. (1978, February 28). The Sun, p. A15. Institute on rural education urged. ; (1978, February 28). The Province, p. 20. Why TV university won't work in B.C. (1978, March 7). The Sun, p. A6. Ivory tower elitists oppose open university. ; (1978, March 11). The Sun, p. A5. Long-distance education delivery plan criticized. (1978, March 13). The Sun, p. AIO. Class time wrong' for shift workers. (1978, March 13). The Sun, p. AIO. The golden rule days. (1978, March 23). The Province, p. 18. Distance education: the need is there. (1978, March 30). The Sun, p. A6. High school mat's out for adults. (1978, March 30). The Colonist, p. 13. In your ear, McGeer. (1978, March 30). The Sun, p. A6. Sorting out the new terminology. (1978, March 30). The Sun, p. A6. Cost big issue as more adults enter classrooms. (1978, April 4). The Province, p. 32. Adults slow to enrol in area high schools. (1978, April 9). The Colonist, p. 15. McGeer answers his critics on plans for a TV university. (1978, April 12). The Sun, p. A13. Kids make it easy for adult in school. (1978, April 16). The Colonist, p. 21. Knee-deep in old ladies. (1978, April 27). The Sun, p. A6. Advisory group formed. (1978, April 29). The Sun, p. A l l . Electronic university 'an exciting venture'. (1978, April 30). The Colonist, p. 9. Prison schooling scope to get close scrutiny. (1978, May 26). The Province, p. 21. B.C. opens another door to education. (1978, June 3). The Province, p. 4. Gov't names teaching coordinator. (1978, June 9). the Sun, p. A15. High school doors open for returning adults. (1978, June 13). The Colonist, p. 16. King Ed. campus - an ignored ghetto. (1978, July 13). The Province, p. 15. Geography no barrier to open learning. (1978, August 17). The Sun, p. A22. Rise up and do something. (1978, August 25). The Colonist, p. 4. Third career her goal. (1978, September 16). The Province, p. 12. Schools fear studies wasted. (1978, September 20). The Province, p. 38. No money wasted on duplication. (1978, September 22). The Province, p. 14. Going'back adult-style. (1978, September 24). The Colonist, p. 17. Grandma bounces back into the classroom. (1978, October 7). The Times, p. 17. Adults to get benefit from reading classes. (1978, October 17). The Colonist, p. 7. Robert can't read - and he's embarrassed. (1979, February 5). The Express, p. A l . Sci-fi, B.C., Russian on agenda. (1981, January 6). The Times-Colonist, p. 33. Some courses not filled. (1981, January 9). The Times-Colonist, p. 21. KNOW! Television that satisfies your urgent need to learn. (1981, January 11). The Times-Colonist, p. 7. Knowledge network ready. (1981, January 14). The Times-Colonist, p. 52. City core gets education centre. (1981, January 21). The Sun, p. B9. Student aid increased. (1981, March 27). The Times-Colonist, p. 39. Enrolment up among elders. (1981, June 19). The Times-Colonist, p. 3. Esquimalt campus out, letter wasn't written. (1981, September 24). The Times-Colonist, p. 15. Job training extended by agreement. (1981, September 26). The Sun, p. A14. Education plan for adults given $300,000 boost. (1981, September 29). The Times-Colonist, p. 3. Sooke board considers stopping adult courses. (1982, January 15). The Times-Colonist, p. 3. Senior citizens go back to school. (1982, May 27). The Sun, p. A16. Teachers, students still care: back to school after 14 years. (1982, October 2). The Sun, p. A12. They're barging into the future, sort of. (1982, November 12). The Sun, p. L4. Uvic in the Kootenays. (1983, February 27). The Times-Colonist, p. 2 (Mag. sec). Seniors delighted with U Vic course. (1983, June 7). The Times-Colonist, p. C8. Adults offered career training. (1983, June 9). The Times-Colonist, p. C5. Back to school: a new campus for adult students. (1983, June 14). The Sun, p. BI. Building confidence through learning. (1983, June 14). The Sun, p. BI. Status of arts, education pressed. (1983, September 9). The Sun, p. A3. An offbeat winner. (1984, July 11). The Province, p. 8. Skid road scrambles for funds. (1984, July 12). The Sun, p. B3. Group trying to escape from intellectual vacuum. (1984, July 13). The Times-Colonist, p. D13. Stone age students are best of all. (1984, August 21). The Province, p. 13. Consortium to serve the most students. (1984, September 8). The Times-Colonist, p. A3. Back to school - nights that is. (1985, January 8). The Sun, p. BI. Port Renfrew's faller-scholar. (1985, February 24). The Times-Colonist, p. 2. Students should pay full cost of 'extra' courses. (1985, May 8). The Sun, p. A5. U Vic chief urges weekend courses. (1985, June 12). The Sun, p. A6. Toward a just society. (1985, September 23). The Times-Colonist, p. A4. Training on job: women aren't getting a break. (1985, December 24). The Sun, p. D7. Going to school in the comfort of your home. (1986, April 12). The Sun, p. E9. In Eleanor's book, you can never be too old to learn. (1986, June 17). The Sun, p.Cl. A travel idea that broadens seniors' minds. (1986, June 17). The Sun, p. C l . Getting back to really basic education. (1986, November 4). The Province, p. 17. Grown-up school. (1987, September 22). The Province, p. 32. Day care centre eyed at Vic. High. (1988, May 26). The Times-Colonist, p. A12. The hidden ESL agenda. (1988, May 30). The Sun, p. B3. This course adds knowledge to know-how. (1988, July 17). The Times-Colonist, p. A3. Centre helps adults tackle reading, writing and math. (1988, December 16). The Times-Colonist, p. C8. School's fun after 51-year absence. (1989, March 14). The Times-Colonist, p. BI. Clients flooding in as SFU goes to town. (1989, May 5). The Sun, p. F10. More for adult students. (1989, May 19). The Province, p. 28. There's something for all at today's night school. (1989, September 15). The Sun, p. B5. Educational opportunity still offered at right price. (1989, September 21). The Times-Colonist, p. B12. Fear of college domination voiced at literacy hearing. (1989, October 27). The Times-Colonist, p. AIO. Learners helping learners. (1989, November 1). The Times-Colonist, p. A4. UI training funds squeeze strange nurse. (1990, May 10). The Sun, p. BL Job retraining suspension upsets nurses. (1990, May 14). The Sun, p. A2. Failed, but not forlorn. (1991, June 25). The Province, p. 23. Adults return to school - and new challenges. (1991, September 25). The Times-Colonist, p. BI. Adult reader on way. (1991, October 9). The Times-Colonist, p. BI. Axed high school funding threatens adults - McBain. (1991, October 31). The Times-Colonist, p. BI. Technology invades service industry workplace. (1991, November 10). The Times-Colonist, p. A15. Muscles, brawn no longer needed - educator. (1991, November 10). The Times-Colonist, p. A15. Invest in workers, McCarthy advises. (1992, March 24). The Vancouver Sun, p. C16. Revived student-age policy proves pricey for upgrade-bound. (1992, September 9). The Times-Colonist, p. C l l . Dropouts line up to return only to find classes full. (1992, November 12). The Times-Colonist, p. B2. Dropouts getting second chance as adults. (1993, February 10). The Vancouver Sun, p.B4. Investment in English study a sound idea. (1993, March 5). The Province, p. A27. Life-long learning focus of conference. (1994, February 17). The Vancouver Sun, p.B7. Returning learners' turnaround amazing, says program teacher. (1994, April 6). The Times-Colonist, p. C l l . Making the grade. (1994, April 11). The Province, p. A24. New door opens, thanks to minister. (1994, June 21). The Vancouver Sun, p.A3. Diagnostic centre open soon. (1994, August 17). The Times-Colonist, p.D12. Mom joins son in classroom. (1994, September 7). The Times-Colonist, p. B8. Graduation joy for moms in 40's. (1994, September 21). The Times-Colonist, p. BI. Back-to-school made cool; survival guide for women. (1995, May 16). The Province, p. A6. Urban First Nations Adult Education Centre in New Westminster. (1995, August 9). The Vancouver Sun, p. BI. Obstacles to native learning probed. (1995, September 22). The Times-Colonist, p. B5. Trying to fathom what learning has to do with work. (1996, January 24). The Times-Colonist, p. A4. Last hurrah for free second chance place. (1996, April 4). The Times-Colonist, p. B2. New program offers one-step learning centre. (1996, May 15). The Times-Colonist, p. B4. Adults students battle in with courage. (1996, September 17). The Times-Colonist, p. A2. Sihota launches plan for higher learning. (1996, September 17). The Times-Colonist, p. A4. Older students learn for love of it in 'Hum Dip". (1996, November 3). The Times-Colonist, p. B9. NDP knocks a rung out of the education ladder. (1997, February 13). The Times-Colonist, p. A14. Adult education on provincial hit list. (1997, February 14). The Times-Colonist, p. A6. Adult students face possibility of new fees. (1997, February 15). The Vancouver Sun, p. A5. Don't charge adults for high school. (1997, February 18). The Times-Colonist, p. A14. Unkindest cuts wound adult ed. (1997, February 26). The Times-Colonist, p. A l l . Adult student fees on hold - for now. (1997, February 27). The Times-Colonist, p. A l . Students protest proposed cuts in funding for adult basic ed. (1997, March 13). The Vancouver Sun, p. B5. Big Blue keeps current. (1997, March 25). The Times-Colonist, p. A9. Cut lacks compassion for poor student. (1997, March 30). The Times-Colonist, p. C5. Langley scraps its night school. (1997, May 29). The Vancouver Sun, p. BI. Parent protest postpones ESL plans. (1997, September 16). The Province, p. A4. Adult ed goes private in Langley; educators fears domino effect. (1997, September 18). The Province, p. A12. ESL protests show 'the darker side of human nature'. (1997, September 18). The Province, p. A39. Parents are happy with ESL rules. (1997, September 18). The Province, p. A l l . Single mom embraces second chance. (1997, October 9). The Times-Colonist, p.A6. Victoria must lead the fight against illiteracy, Ramsey says. (1997, November 6). The Vancouver Sun, p.A3. Web page offers advice on learning and earning. (1998, January 8). The Times-Colonist, p.A5. Graduate overcomes learning disability. (1998, March 28). The Times-Colonist, p. A3. Government promises fee break to returning high-school students. (1998, May 14). The Times-Colonist, p. A7. Province drops tuition fees for high school completion. (1998, May 14). The Vancouver Sun, p. A3. No more fees for adult basic ed. (1998, May 14). The Province, p. A2. Free adult ed program long time coming but worth the cost. (1998, May 27). The Times-Colonist, p. A l l . Dreams. (1998, July 6). The Times-Colonist, p. A3. Sooke puts extra bite into adult education. (1998, September 12). The Times-Colonist, p. C3. Sooke adult students return to class. (1998, September 26). The Times-Colonist, p. C l l . Sooke pupils will join high-tech giants. (1998, November 21). The Times-Colonist, p. B3. Thousands flock to learning lifestyle. (1999, May 23). The Province, p. A10. New diploma for all adult basic grads. (1999, May 30). The Times-Colonist, p. A10. Grandfather joins kids in class. (1999, July 13). The Times-Colonist, p. C l . Teacher offers new approach to learning. (1999, October 6). The Times-Colonist, p. BI. 122 Appendix 2 Headlines on Selected Topics Articles related to Fishermen No other resource profession receives the kind of attention that fishing does. Some of the articles listed below make passing reference to the subject while others are more in-depth. 20,000 adults utilize UBC extension courses Colleges Told: Rent Space to Welfare Agencies Fishing in ballroom One woman's day Receptive If Ideas Considered Study Groups To Be Setup: University Graduate will Start Educational Work Among Fishermen UBC Organizes Fisherman Classes Native Education This topic is currently of considerable interest. Some of the articles listed below make passing reference to the subject while others are more in-depth. 150 jobless adults go back to school for brighter future Adult Education Program: Duncan Nightlife Expanding Cut to $6,000: Deficit Halved At Adult School Editorial: (To Overcome Barriers). Education For Adults Criticized Indian Education: Objectives Seen Junior, Senior High Offered for Adults: first-time here. Many Changes Forecast in world living habits. Obstacles to native learning probed. One woman's day (column) Receptive If Ideas Considered i 

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