UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Implementation of adult special education policy in BC : a case study Demarinis, Mary Penney 1999

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata


831-ubc_1999-0497.pdf [ 6.03MB ]
JSON: 831-1.0055468.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055468-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055468-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055468-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055468-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055468-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055468-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

IMPLEMENTATION OF ADULT SPECIAL EDUCATION POLICY IN BC: A CASE STUDY by MARY PENNEY DEMARINIS B.A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y  of V i c t o r i a ,  1986  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE. DEGREE OF MASTER  OF ARTS in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department  of E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s , Education  Adult  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  July  1999  © Mary Penney D e M a r i n i s ,  1999  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  thesis  in  partial  fulfilment  of  University  of  British  Columbia,  I agree  freely available for copying  of  department publication  this or of  reference  thesis by  this  his  for  and study. scholarly  or  thesis for  her  Department The University of British Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  Columbia  purposes  requirements that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  permission.  I further  the  It  gain shall not  be is  that  the  Library  permission  granted  by  understood be  for  an  advanced  shall make for  the that  allowed without  it  extensive  head  of  my  copying  or  my  written  ABSTRACT This is a study of an implementation process, which means it is a study of the gray area somewhere between policy and program. The policy created in 1983 opened the door of the college to non-traditional learners. Sweeping changes in the social discourse of disability supported the development of the 1983 policy. A review of the literature revealed four factors that were likely to influence the process: the policy, the implementing agency, external influences and power, politics and negotiation. The purpose of the study was to compare a framework, established from the literature, to a framework that evolved from the research. The project concluded that the four factors were adequate to describe the situation however, the preconceived framework was inadequate to describe the relationship among the factors for this site. Data collected from documents and interviews revealed that some factors have a stronger influence on the process than others. In this case, power, politics and negotiation and the implementing agency are strong considerations, while the policy and external factors play a weaker role. The result was a reconstructed framework that portrayed the implementation process for this site.  ii  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  Abstract Table of Contents List of Figures Acknowledgments Dedication CHAPTER ONE:  PURPOSE OF T H E S T U D Y Background Personal Statement Purpose and Research Questions General Approach The Case Implementation Developing the Concepts Using a Conceptual Framework The Conceptual Framework Significance o f the Research Definitions Conclusions  CHAPTER TWO:  METHODOLOGY Research Design The Researcher's Role Site Selection Selection of Study Participants Data Gathering Strategies Data Management Data Analysis Strategies Criteria of Soundness Limitations of the Study Conclusions  iii  CHAPTER THREE:  CHAPTER FOUR:  C H A P T E R FIVE:  SETTING T H E STAGE Adults With Disabilities: Shifting Paradigms  32  Before 1981: Social Policy and Disability Issues  35  The Development of Adult Special Education  36  The Integration of A S E in Community Colleges  39  Access to Education and the Labour Market  42  Summary  44  P R E S E N T A T I O N OF T H E  CASE  The Policy and Subsequent Reviews  46  External Influences  50  The Implementing Agency  62  Power, Politics and Negotiation  74  Summary  77  RECONSTRUCTING THE  CASE  Revisiting the Original Framework  C H A P T E R SIX:  80  The Revised Framework  81  Power, Politics and Negotiation  84  The Implementing Agency  86  The Policy  91  External Influences  93  Summary  95  S U M M A R Y , C O N C L U S I O N S A N D IMPLICATIONS Summary  96  Reviewing the Research Questions  99  Conclusions  100  Implications  102  Recommendations  103  Final Words  104 106  REFERENCES APPENDICES: Appendix A :  Ethics Review  Appendix B:  Chronological listing of reports used in the document review  iv  13 o  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure one:  Conceptual Framework of Factors that Influence Implementation  Figure Two:  Provision of Adult Special Education Programs  Figure Three:  Thematic Representation of Response to Initiatives  Figure Four:  The Revised Framework  v  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  There are many people who supported and guided me in my research journey, all of whom I wish to thank. Most of all I would like to thank my family. M y husband, Carmen, whose support and respect for my goals have meant everything to me. M y children, Jessica and Domenic, who grew with me during this process, and my parents whose support for me seems to have no end. M y supervisor, Dr. Judith Ottoson, whose guidance helped me complete a project I am proud to call my own. I thank her for being my supervisor, a mentor, and a learned scholar throughout this project. M y thesis committee: Dr. Kjell Rubenson whose expertise in the subject was insightful and beneficial; Dr. Pat Mirenda whose response was always meaningful and inspiring; Dr. Hans Schuetze, the external examiner, whose contribution created a better document. I have learned from all of you and it was my pleasure to work with each of you. T o my friends whose continued support unfolded in many different ways. T o Sandra Lowe and Arlene Sullivan who read and reread portions of the thesis. T o Chris Spencer who always cared enough to ask about the research and to Christine Roskelley who never wavered in her belief of my abilities. T o all of you, and many others, I am truly grateful for your assistance through this research process.  vi  DEDICATION  T o my husband and best friend Carmen, whose love and support made the project possible.  vii  1  CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION A s many who have walked before me, I enter my thesis to explore a social problem. The broad social issue that I am considering is accessible education for adults with developmental disabilities in British Columbia. Specifically, I am interested in how the policy that supports Adult Special Education ( A S E ) became educational programs in a Community College.  BACKGROUND The B . C . Ministry of Education published the policy in March o f 1983. The Ministerial  Policy on the Provision of Adult Special Education Programs in the Public Education System of British Columbia is a statement on the provision of Adult Special Education programs in the public education system. This document calls for fair and equitable access to education for individuals with disabilities, and provides direction for appropriate programs in Community Colleges. Throughout the last 15 years, consumer groups and Ministry representatives have reviewed the policy, and the resulting programs, and voiced their concerns. After each review, the Ministry made recommendations for change, but consumers and their advocates have not been satisfied. The most prominent difficulty reported has been in implementation, or transforming the ideals o f the policy into quality, relevant programs. When manipulated in practice, some of the policy intent is sacrificed by influences that mold and shape application. This study explores the operation inside one Community College as it translates the ideals of the Adult Special Education policy into programs. Through my readings, I have come to understand that the study of implementation is a study o f change (Younis & Davidson, 1990).  2 T o implement change it is essential that the many players involved understand the complex process involved. PERSONAL STATEMENT M y interest in this topic started out as a curiosity, and blossomed into an unquenchable thirst for understanding social justice. I was initially curious about the way each community college translated the A S E policy for their context. M y interest in social justice occurred as I learned more and more about the process of policy implementation and the factors that influence the process. I work as a case manager for adults with disabilities in transition. Often, I find myself in the position of recommending community college programs for individuals who would like to enhance their education and skills. I assist these individuals to access programs and supports at various Colleges. I've found that the term accessible education has different definitions at different sites. N o two sites have the same application procedure, nor do they have the same number and type of courses available. The supports and services available at the sites varies, as does the willingness and ability of staff to assist applicants. How the province wide policy became different experiences in different sites intrigued me. In the process of satisfying my curiosity, I uncovered the link between policy development, accessible education and social justice. The link is the implementation process. Policy relates to educational programs, and to employment opportunities. Access to employment has a direct impact on quality of life issues.  Poorly implemented policies affect the ability of  individuals with disabilities to access quality educational programs. Opportunities for self development and employment opportunities increase with successfully implemented educational policies.  3 I have worked and lived through a historic social era where the expectation for people with disabilities has changed. Disability has historically been regarded as a medical issue, and an individual problem. Individuals with disabilities were dependent on medical professionals to either make them well, or rehabilitate them. Nested in this discourse is the idea that to be disabled is to be less than whole, to be somehow not right. Fortunately, the perception of disability is in transition. Slowly, the hegemony of disability is moving away from the problem-oriented nature of disability. Emerging is an understanding that the production of disability is located in the interaction between people and the environment in which they are situated; disability is not caused by the functional, physical or psychological limitation of the impaired individual, but by the failure of society to remove its disabling barriers and social restrictions. Post-modernist, feminist, and other radical humanist authors draw attention to the metanarratives surrounding disability. These meta-narratives support the idea that adult special education is grafted onto a structure that is invested in maintaining the power distribution in society. I refer clients to appropriate education and training supports in the very structures that marginalize them. The 1983 Ministry policy is a positive progression to recognizing the rights of individuals with developmental disabilities, but those rights are fragile. Programs for these people are often considered marginal, fringe benefits, or indulgences for times of economic prosperity. However, higher education and disability are an important arena for social change. Education can be a vehicle for empowerment to deconstruct the image of the disabled. Ironically, the structures that offer A S E have the potential to both oppress and empower. M y challenge is to make sense of this duality and make recommendations for significant social progress.  4  PURPOSE OF THE STUDY AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS The objective of this study was to investigate the link between public policy and accessible education. The specific purpose of this study was to understand the many factors that affect the implementation of public policy in one institution. The policy was translated into programs that become accessible for adults with disabilities. The process that changes ideals to programs was under investigation. The policy I investigated provided for more than 40 adult special education programs in British Columbia. M y research, however, focused on the process within one community college. In the end, it is one story about implementation in one context. The following questions motivated this research: 1.  How does a policy become a program in a community college?  2.  What are the factors that influence the implementation of the Adult Special Education program?  3.  What are some of the trade offs that a college must consider when implementing this policy?  4.  Does the community college have fidelity to the concept in the policy or to the context within which it is provided?  GENERAL APPROACH Succinctly, this research is a qualitative case study that compares results o f the case study against a predetermined conceptual framework. According to Y i n (1989), a qualitative case study design is an empirical inquiry: •that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real life context; •when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident;  5 • i n which multiple sources of evidence are used (p. 23). In this study, I investigated implementation (contemporary phenomenon) in a community college (real life context). The college had multiple layers o f people involved with implementation, both within and external to the college, blurring the boundaries between the phenomenon and the context. Documents and in-depth interviews provided the data (multiple sources o f evidence). These elements combined to satisfy the conditions o f case study design. One of the challenges of the case study design is to define and describe the  case  sufficiently enough to optimize the potential for learning. Stake (1994) indicated that the concept of case remains subject to debate. T o reduce the risk and improve the integrity of the design, it is the intent o f this next section to define and describe the case. Considerable time is invested in this introductory chapter to acquaint the reader with the specific parameters of the unit under investigation. THE CASE Y i n (1989) described several components o f the case study research design that are important to consider. The unit of analysis, or the case, is defined and described in this preliminary chapter to provide the reader with an understanding of the  case and to set the stage  for the conceptual framework. Case studies on certain types o f individuals define the unit o f analysis as the individuals. A  case can also be an event or entity that is more difficult to define. Case studies can also be  about "decisions, about problems, about the implementation process and about organizational change" ( Y i n , 1989, p. 31). In this case study the implementation process is the case. In order to provide clarity regarding the  case the following section defines implementation and describes  different theoretical views about the implementation process.  6 IMPLEMENTATION The first step in understanding different theories of the implementation process is to review multiple understanding of the term implementation. For Pressmen and Wildavsky (1973), implementation is a process of interaction; for Ottoson and Green (1987), it is that vague area between idea development and program outcomes. Pal (1997) described it as building links in long chains of decisions. Elmore (1985) stated that implementation is a "logically ordered sequence of questions that policymakers can ask ... that will provide prescriptions for actions" (p. 18).  Sabatier and Mazmanian (1981) defined implementation as the translation of statutory  objectives into the policy decisions of implementing agencies. Based on these definitions I understand that implementation is the "maze" that links theory to practice, or policy to program. I have chosen the metaphor of a maze to indicate that the process is neither linear nor prescribed. The path is multidirectional and depends on the interaction of people who chose a method that brings an idea to life. Not only does implementation have different definitions, but Younis and Davidson (1990) also indicate that the student of implementation faces an enormous variety of frameworks and models, any of which could be inherently faulty. They may be impossible to apply to every situation or they may simply state what ought to happen in an ideal world (Younis & Davidson, 1990). Most theories can fall into one o f the following three approaches: (a) prescription for success - the top-bottom approach; (b) a radical change - the bottom-top approach; and (c) implementation as evolution - the policy/action continuum (Younis & Davidson, 1990). These three approaches require further review. Top-bottom approaches assume that careful and explicit procedures will eliminate implementation problems. These approaches have also been called policy centered (Barrett &  7 Fudge, 1981), forward mapping (Elmore, 1985), and programmed implementation (Berman, 1980). Although each of the top-bottom methods considers different factors that affect implementation they all indicate that consistent, detailed, and specific objectives maximize the outcomes for the policy. The bottom-top approach focuses on the delivery point of services and allows the policy to evolve. This has also been called backward mapping (Elmore, 1985) and adaptive implementation (Berman, 1980). With this approach, the person closest to the issues solves the problem and the organizational context shapes the policy content. In the theory/practice continuum approach, the issues of consensus, commitment, negotiation, and power become important. Bargaining takes place with groups trying to minimize their disadvantage and maximize their influence, resulting in sacrifice of some objectives so that others may be achieved (Younis & Davidson, 1990). Majone and Wildavsky (1984) indicated that, during the implementation process, when the amount or type of resource is varied, the outputs are also varied. Policy ideas and policy outcomes change with each piece of the puzzle informing the other (Majone & Wildavsky, 1984). Since the early 1970's, the top-bottom approaches have dominated the literature, assuming that policy makers can and do control the factors that affect implementation. Elmore (1982) declared this the "noble lie of conventional public administration" (p. 20). It is recognized that a prescription for policy implementation will not be effective in every situation. The introduction of concepts such as bottom-top and theory/practice continuum implementation have complemented the field. One strategy has not been proven to be better than the other; however, to maximize the outcomes, many factors must be considered. The intent of discussing implementation in this introductory chapter is to define the case.  8 DEVELOPING THE CONCEPTS Not only is implementation a difficult word to understand and define, but a variety of factors influence the process. These factors are the basis o f the conceptual framework used in this study. The following section returns to the literature to examine the many different factors that affect implementation. Factors Affecting Implementation This section will examine the literature describing the factors that affect implementation. The writings o f five authors identify the salient issues for my study and demonstrate the variety of factors that may be considered. Chase (1979) identified three general sources o f influence when implementing public policy. They are (a) the operational demands implied by a particular program concept, (b) the nature and availability o f the resources required to run the program, and (c) the program managers need to share his authority with or retain the support o f other bureaucratic and political actors while assembling the necessary resources and managing the program. Chase (1979) provided an easy to use checklist approach to factors that affect implementation. However, he omitted a discussion about external influences that may affect public policy. Berman (1980) identified five broad parameters in two types of policy situations: (a) scope of change, (b) certainty o f technology or theory, (c) conflict over policy goals and meaning, (d) structure o f institutional setting, and (e) stability o f the environment. A l l five need to be considered simultaneously. They determine i f the policy is programmed or adaptive. Berman's (1980) discussion regarding scope o f change is illuminating but he neglected the impact of power and politics.  9 Ham and Hill (1984) identified four issues in the process of implementation: (a) the nature of the policy, (b) the implementation structure, (c) outside interference, and (d) control over implementing actors. These authors succinctly present many of the same issues considered by Chase (1979).  Yet, as with some others, issues of power and politics did not play a primary  role. Hogwood and Gunn (1984) listed ten elements to consider when implementing policy. They are (a) external constraints, (b) time, (c) resources, (d) combinations of resources, (e) directives, (f) authority, (g) objectives, (h) sequence o f tasks, (i) communication, and (j) compliance. These authors focused on the internal politics of the implementing agency and explicitly discussed the place of political influence. Ottoson and Green (1987) described the various economic, political, and human factors that influence a policy as it becomes action. These authors identified four general areas of concern: (a) the policy; (b) the implementing agency; (c) the political milieu; and (d) the environment. In synthesizing this information, I compiled a list o f all the factors, cross referenced them with each o f the others and found the common factors. The work of Ottoson and Green (1987) was the most inclusive and provided the most appropriate framework. define and describe the four categories in my conceptual framework. authors were  I used this as a base to Categories common to all  policy, implementing agency, external influences and power, politics and  negotiation. These factors form a "system of variables" (Fullan, 1991, p. 67) that interact to determine the success or failure o f the implementation process.  10  USING A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Before presenting the framework, I am compelled to acknowledge existing debate in qualitative inquiry about the use of a conceptual framework.  Qualitative data analysis is  primarily an inductive process of organizing the data into categories and identifying patterns (McMillan & Schmacher, 1993). Inductive analysis indicates that patterns, themes and categories of analysis emerge out of the data rather than being imposed (Patton, 1990). Sensitizing concepts (Patton, 1990) or predetermined categories (McMillan & Schmacher, 1993) are concepts or categories that the researcher brings to the data. While most qualitative researchers agree that the data tells its own story, the use of predetermined concepts provides the research with a general sense of reference. Y i n (1989) declared pattern matching logic, which compares an empirically based pattern with a predicted, one of the most desirable strategies for case study analysis. This is precisely the intent of this research. The predetermined categories of (a) policy, (b) implementing agency, (c) external influences, and (d) power, politics and negotiation form the conceptual framework and guide data collection and data analysis.  THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK T o Miles and Huberman (1994) a conceptual framework specifies what will be studied, and what relationships will be explored. The framework applied in this study specifies four factors as outlined above. The framework also indicates there is a relationship between the factors and the implementation process. Arrows linking all the factors with each other and with the implementation process indicate this relationship. In this conceptual framework all factors are of equal importance and the arrows indicate that each factor influences the implementation process to the same degree. Figure 1 displays the conceptual framework.  11  as  3  O  c  .i  b  .B c o o  1  oo  =  C  0>  o  CB  o cO  a. co 'Hi o "3 o •a  H  CD O CO  cn  cu —  cu  o  § s.  a "2 O " s 13 > 1 3  &te  .5  1 3  CU  0)  to 53  </>  Cu 3  O  ca  V-  CO t—, <rt  eft  CU  c  c D  nfl  =S  CU CO  £  h—( '§.  CO  CU  O  £  •I—>  o  oo o  4-—1  CO  'o cu CO  CU  .•= c ^! ca  r->  CO  CU  0)  2 S  CD  O OH  O 0) f«  CO  on o  C L  cu C  g -o  o o cu  C  g  E e  O  c  o  00  OP l a  cu  s  o.  c  S  C  "cO  00 >> _C  CU  CU  •socio •role < •timin •publi •medi; •inves  Exter  c  cu 00  cono "parti cipat ofth pol supp atten on  O  c  cu  o  cu  -4—>  c3  cu O  cC3 oC  O c <u -> o •S 3 T3  ca u* CU  Eo Eo o  3 CO  CU  o Cu  3  ca  cn cn  C cu  o -2 cu  i- on ca o _  4-1  _  °  ca  Cu CO  -o  < C CU  5  cn !-! c Ou 2 oo ca. o a.  cu o c cu 3  c CO  o o 13 CU  2  a. cu o c o o  E  cu -a •> cu . - o u.  cu 00  & cu  c  o  CO -E2  _o  O  O  «4-.  1 Cu cu " .O O  CU  — oo cu a; ica C o u ^>>^ u^ oo o o . g . -s cu o ~ o g  H  cu  -e " 2 X " eft  Cu  CU  cu cu E  00  5 « CO  tfa o 13 O 3 .3  eft  w* Cu «J  cu °  P2  o cu  12 Below is a list of words or ideas that describes each concept. They have been generated from all five sources of literature on implementation.  The Policy This refers to the program concept, theory, scope of change or policy goals and objectives. It includes such considerations as the people to be served, the services to be delivered, and the resources provided. This includes reviews sponsored by the government as well as any initiatives promoted by the ministry.  The Implementing Agency This refers to the internal workings of the agency designated to implement the policy. Some of the issues are the technical capacity of the agency, supplies, staff, and space available. Also included here are the internal policies and directives specific to the context.  The External Factors The socioeconomic climate, the roles of participating agencies and the timing of the policy are important external considerations. Public support, media attention, and the investment of special interest groups factor into the implementation process.  Power, Politics and Negotiation This important category is difficult to grasp, but includes such things as hierarchy of decision making and communication. Commitment to the program and leadership are important features. The positions o f authority, and control of resources are significant issues when considering the process of negotiation in implementation. Personal agendas, political agendas and personalities combine to create the political milieu when implementing a policy. This preceding discussion has presented the conceptual framework. The factors that influence the implementation process are defined and described, and a relationship between the  13 factors is established. This conceptual framework is intended as a guide, or an overview to understand the implementation process, or the unit under investigation. The amount of influence each of the factors exerts on the implementation process is of specific interest for this case study. Fullan (1991) stated that there is a greater degree of change anticipated when more factors support, than work against implementation. It is also assumed that success of implementing the policy is dependent on a greater number of factors supporting implementation (Fullan, 1991). The intent of this research is not to determine if the policy has been successfully implemented but rather to determine which factors and to what degree these factors support implementation.  SIGNIFICANCE O F T H E R E S E A R C H  This type of research is significant for a variety of reasons.  A s a research method, this  case study contributes uniquely to an understanding of the phenomena of implementation. Education for people with developmental disabilities is a complex issue. A qualitative approach allows the complexities of accessible education to emerge. This research design contributes new knowledge to the field of instruction for people with developmental disabilities. This is a new look at the continuously identified problem of implementation, and I join many researchers who use a case study design to investigate a social issue from a new perspective. In addition, this research offers a Canadian perspective on the issue.  With this study, I will add my voice to the debate that surrounds implementation. Hubbard and Ottoson (1997) indicate that a policy that is mutually adapted can preserve both the concept of theory and the context of practice. The task of displaying the factors of implementation is the first step of change. This becomes the stepping stone for further research.  14 Besides being a launch pad for further research and to contribute to the knowledge base for the field, my intent for this research is practice oriented. M y ultimate goal is to advocate for improved access to higher education for people with developmental disabilities. Understanding the issues that influence implementation provides information for planning effective interventions. Finally, I believe that critically looking at the way the program is implemented explores the social construction of disability. This thesis is a small step challenging the marginalization of individuals with developmental disabilities. DEFINITIONS The language used to describe people with developmental disabilities has changed throughout the years and includes a variety of descriptors. Some of the common terms used to describe someone with a developmental disability include mentally retarded, slow learner, individual with a mental handicap, and an individual who is mentally challenged. I have chosen to use the terms developmental disability and intellectual disability in this thesis and these two terms are interchangeable. These terms have evolved in society and reflect a movement the recognizes individual first and their disability second. It also reflects the movement away from terms that tend to label individuals. Society may be making changes but the official word used to describe someone with a developmental disability is still mental retardation. The most widely used definition has been stated by the American Association on Mental Retardation (A.A.M.R.). Mental retardation refers to significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behaviour and manifesting during the developmental period.  15 •  General intellectual functioning is defined as the results obtained by  assessment with one or more of the individually administered general intelligence tests developed for the purpose of assessing intellectual functioning. •  Significantly subaverage intellectual functioning is defined as approximately  IQ 70 or below. (+ 5 factor) •  Adaptive Behaviour is defined as the effectiveness or degree with which  individuals meet the standards of personal independence and social responsibility expected for age and cultural group. •  Developmental period is defined as the period of time between birth and the  18th birthday. ( A . A . M . R . , 1980) This definition was amended in 1992 by the A . A . M . R . to read: Mental Retardation refers to substantial limitations in present functioning. It is characterized by significant subaverage intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with related limitation is two or more of the following applicable skill areas: communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safely, functional academics, leisure, ad work.  Mental  Retardation manifests before age 18. It is noteworthy to draw attention to the fact that the current definition of mental retardation is less concerned with a fixed number or score on intelligence tests. It is equally interesting to note that services for people with developmental disabilities still use the score on IQ test as eligibility criteria. Even though the definition is evolving, the IQ score remains important.  16 There are two words used in the policy that require definitions for this thesis. The Ministry policy(1983) defines both of these terms. They are as follows:  Disabled Adults - persons who possess physical, neurological, mental and/or emotional problems which significantly limit and/or interfere with their education. Such a person may be learning disabled, mentally disabled, physically disable, visually impaired and/or hearing impaired.  Adult Special Education - those access/supports services and programs which enable disabled adults to be integrated into existing institutional programming and/or to achieve a greater degree of independence.  This definition of adult special education includes both the services and the programs offered to individuals with disabilities. For the purpose of this research this term needs further clarification. A s I have outlined in the proceeding pages, individuals with developmental disabilities are funneled into segregated programs.  Below I offer my definition of what  constitutes a segregated program.  Segregated programs - programs offered to individuals with an IQ less that 70 and include 6 different types of programs which are: vocational training, career awareness, lifeskills training, community awareness, functional literacy and individual planning. This concludes the definitions that are important for this research. This preliminary chapter has provided information on several aspects of this thesis. The conclusion synthesizes the information and sets the stage for chapter two.  17 CONCLUSION This introductory chapter acquaints the reader with many of the key concepts of this research project. This is a case study of an implementation process. It is a study into the process of implementing public policy, a policy that promoted accessible education for people with developmental disabilities in one British Columbia community college. This chapter also presents and describes the concepts that guide both the data gathering and the data analysis stage. In addition to the explanation of the concepts the reader is introduced to the conceptual framework.  The remaining chapters detail the research methodology and results.  Chapter two provides information about the research design, explains the appropriateness of the methodology, and validates the site selection. Chapter three begins by inviting the reader into the issues that surround accessible education. A brief historical review paints a picture that enables the reader to understand the social context that led up to the creation of the social policy for accessible education. Chapter four is the main attraction, using narrative accounts to describe the findings. Chapter five verifies and validates these findings and challenges the conceptual framework. The final chapter presents the conclusions and recommendations. Keeping to this outline, a discussion of the methodology follows.  18  CHAPTER TWO METHODOLOGY Chapter two presents a discussion of the research design, the researcher role, selection of the site and study participants. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the criteria of soundness and limitations of the study.  T H E RESEARCH DESIGN A preliminary discussion of the qualitative case study design is contained in chapter one. The purpose o f this section is to further explore the remaining components o f the research design. Y i n (1989) indicates that five components of the case study research design are especially important. They are as follows: the questions the study poses, the unit of analysis used in the study, the propositions, the logical linking of data to the propositions, and the criteria for inferring the findings. The first component discussed is the questions. In this study, the questions explore the process of implementation in one site. The questions are exploratory in nature, and promote the use of qualitative design stressing the importance of context, setting, and subject's frame of reference (Marshall & Rossman, 1995, p. 46). The questions in this research can only be answered by a qualitative case study design. The second component of case study is the unit of analysis. This was discussed in chapter one and does not require further examination. The third component of case study design is the study propositions. Propositions are formal statements or assertions of the truths that surround the problem or case. Each proposition directs attention to something that should be examined within the scope of the study. For instance, this study is concerned with community colleges and accessible education, therefore one of the propositions is that the study should be  19 carried out in an institution with an active Adult Special Education department.  I have already  noted that implementation is a complex process involving many different layers of decision making therefore, another proposition states that people holding different positions o f authority need to be consulted. The implementation literature indicates that historical and external forces outside the institution are influential therefore, a propositional statement declares historical and external forces important and essential to the study.  The final proposition declares the intent of  the 1983 policy to be sound. Since access to education for people with developmental disabilities is not in debate, the policy ideal is endorsed. The fourth component of the case study research design is the logical linking of data to the propositions. A s stated above, the propositions are truths that are almost too blatant to be stated but nonetheless need to be stated.  The data must then be logically linked to these basic  assumptions. In this study, data are linked to the propositions from a variety of sources, taking into account historical and external factors, assuming that the intent of the policy is sound, and indicating the multiplicity o f factors that affect implementation o f a policy. The fifth and final component of the case study design is the criteria for inferring the findings. The  Y i n (1989) states that this is one of the least developed components in case studies.  a priori framework, described in Chapter one, establishes the criteria that will be used to  infer the findings, making this one of the better developed components of this research. THE RESEARCHER'S ROLE In qualitative research, the researcher must understand that the process is shaped by his or her own personal history, biography, gender, social class, race, and ethnicity (Denzin & Lincoln, 1994). In order to account for this, the researcher must identify personal values, assumptions and biases at the outset of the study (Creswell, 1994).  20 I am an able bodied female raised in a positivist manner complete with a functionalist view of reality. I have been inspired in my graduate studies by numerous theoretical viewpoints. With the assistance of critical theory and feminist literature I have gained a sensitivity to the dominant culture, the systems that maintain it, and the individuals who are on the outside. The individuals who are consumers of the programs created by the policy in this study, I believe, are marginalized individuals. M y history, advocating for people with developmental disabilities, began by accident. I lived in small town Ontario, where a large care facility for individuals with developmental disabilities was located. It was one of the largest employers of the city and always needed summer students to assist in the recreation programs. Throughout my high school years, I spent the summers providing occupational and recreational programs to residents. Through this experience I began to recognize that these individuals, although different, were still able. These experiences in the institutions also firmly rooted a bias. Institutional living in these large care facilities did not provide quality of life for the residents. Institutional living created and magnified disability. Later in my professional experience, I advocated for individuals who were moving out of the institutions and into the community. At that time, the community, for the most part, was afraid of the residents, and residents were afraid of the community. There was a belief that community living for the residents would improve their standard of living, but initially this was quite difficult. The institution, although not perfect, had taken care of every basic need. In the community, former residents needed to address their own needs. Individuals and their advocates worked hard to find landlords that would be ethical and fair.  Doctors and dentists were being  asked to provide service to a population that was unfamiliar. Advocates and support people were  asked to find employers who would expect quality work from an employee with a disability and who were fair enough not to expect an individual with a disability to work for free. There had been promises of support, but the movement from institution to community was happening quickly and often before adequate support was in place. Being an advocate meant to fight for an individual to exercise his or her rights. This was especially difficult when the individual trying to exercise their rights was among the most marginalized in our society. This story is told to reveal my own bias which, according to Patton (1990), is both the greatest strength and the fundamental weakness of qualitative inquiry. It is through these critical eyes that I view adult special education in community college. I recognize that individuals must have the right to compete in a world that values higher education and success, and yet I am uncertain if access to education will balance the scale for individuals who are marginalized.  SITE SELECTION There are 14 colleges in British Columbia that offer Adult Special Education. In order to satisfy the study propositions, the selected site needed to have a current program and a history with the policy that could be traced back to the policy inception. The only other limitation of the site selection was accessibility. Accessibility in this instance has two meanings. First, the site needed to be geographically accessible to the researcher. Secondly, personnel at the site had to agree to participate voluntarily. A s prescribed by an ethical review (Appendix one) the selected site was invited to participate by using a letter of initial contact (Appendix one, Item 35). A n internal committee at the site had to approve the proposal and grant permission to conduct the research. T o protect confidentiality of the site, no correspondence from the site is included in this research.  22  SELECTION OF STUDY PARTICIPANTS T o gain a complete picture of the struggle to implement public policy, an array of individuals need to be consulted. Implementation in community colleges involves multiple organizations with many levels of administration, each level making decisions about the resources they control. Within the colleges, these levels include the instructors in the program, the Dean of the department, faculty in the department, and the President of the College. Community organizations that offer support to individuals with disabilities also have a vested interest in the program. In addition, the Government has a stake in the implementation of the public policy. Each study participant was first approached by letter (Appendix one, Item 16). They participated voluntarily and signed a consent form to indicate their interest (Appendix one, item 37). I intended to interview no less than eight but no more than twelve individuals affiliated with A S E policy implementation in one site.  DATA GATHERING STRATEGIES Y i n (1989) indicates that a valid case study relies on data from a variety of sources. This study will gather data from documents and interviews.  Documents The term document refers to a wide range of written and physical material. Hitchcok and Hughes (1995) distinguished between official/public, non-official/private and visual/aural. For the purposes of this study, both official and non-official documents were consulted. Data were extracted from official/ public documents such as ministerial guidelines and reviews o f such guidelines published by the ministry. N o n official/private documents used in data collection included external reports published by interest groups or advocacy groups. In addition,  23 documents were consulted that are specific to the internal operation of the college such as: archival records that showed the number of consumers served over a period of time and organizational records such as budgets and organizational charts. Questions addressed during this phase of data collection revolved around the authenticity and credibility of the documents. Hitchcok and Hughes (1995) stated that documents are socially constructed texts and that context and content must be taken into account. There are two kinds of analysis used to grasp the meaning and significance of documents. The first is to understand the surface or literal meaning, and the second is to look beyond the literal and search for meaning in the text. Each document lead to other documents that needed to be considered. The data mined from these documents was used to gain an understanding of several factors outlined in the conceptual framework. A review of ministerial policies and reports outlined the intentions and objectives of the policy. The policy history was traced through ministerial publications and through reports published by special interest groups. Internal documents provided the context for the A S E program in the college. External reports captivated the role that advocacy groups, community organizations and special interest groups have in implementation. In summary, the documents were used to investigate three factors as outlined in the framework.  Throughout the data collection and analysis, careful attention was taken to  emphasize any data that did not fit the extant theory. Data from the documents provided the first opportunity to challenge the framework. The review of the documents laid the foundation for probing deeper into the implementation process in the interviews.  24  Interviews Qualitative interviews gather rich, meaningful information which bring out the activities and experiences of the participants (Patton, 1990). There were two types of interviews used in this study. The first was a pilot inquiry and the second was in-depth interviews. The pilot investigation was used to refine the data collection plans. Y i n (1989) indicated that a pilot is used to help develop relevant lines of questions and may even provide some conceptual clarification. One difficulty for me, as a novice interviewer, was allowing the interview to unfold without holding rigidly to the structure of the guide. The pilot inquiry was used to familiarize myself with the flow of the questions, thus allowing me to break free of the interview mold and probe the issues as they were raised by the study participant. The pilot was the opportune time to test my interview skills and explore areas that needed development. One individual who was asked to participate in the pilot test was a former faculty member at the chosen site. She is no longer on faculty, but is still advocating on behalf of individuals with disabilities. The second individual who was asked to participate in the pilot study has a long history of advocating for people with disabilities and was previous involved with the site as an instructor. They were both accessible and participated voluntarily. Another benefit of conducting a pilot inquiry is the ability to explore analysis strategies. The data gathered from the pilot inquiry was used specifically for the purpose of developing the questions and to test the analysis strategies, and were not included in the final analysis. In-depth interviews allow for a deeper level of discussion and allow participants to describe the implementation factors from their own perspective. These interviews were openended, intended to generate facts as well as the respondents opinions about events (Yin, 1989).  A s stated earlier, the documents provided preliminary information about the implementing agency, the policy and the external influences. The interviews explored questions generated from the documents but focused on the fourth factor o f power, politics and negotiation. The interviews each lasted about one hour, and all interviews were conducted over a four month time period. The interviews were tape recorded and subsequently transcribed. Each person was interviewed separately, in their own context and at a time o f their own choosing. The study participants received a copy o f the transcription after the first level o f analysis was complete, to verify the meaning o f the interview content. The interviews were conducted with the use of an interview guide (Appendix One , Item 32). The interview guide was based on the conceptual framework discussed in chapter one, but also reflected questions generated from the document review and the pilot test. In conclusion, the data generated from this study were based on two data collection methods and came from a variety o f sources. Initially, documents, both internally and externally significant were consulted to provide the information about the implementing organization, external factors that affect implementation, and ministerial involvement in policy development. Secondly, interviews were used to elaborate on information gained from the documents, and to provide contextually embedded data on the implementation process. DATA MANAGEMENT Y i n (1989) claimed that there two distinct elements o f data in a case study design. The evidence supplied by the documents, the pilot test and the interviews form one data component. The other component is made up of the investigator's reports and notes. T o organize this much data it was necessary to have some management strategies. Kirby and M c K e n n a (1989) advocated the use of files for organizing the data. The files for this study were document  26 summary, process, identity, tape, transcripts, and analysis. These files refer to actual physical files containing hard copies of the data; wherever possible the same files exist on computer disk. Miles and Huberman (1994) offered a document summary form for synthesizing the information contained in the document. They suggest that the document summary forms can be coded during analysis. This strategy was used in management of the data generated from the document review. These summaries were held together in the document summary file. The tape recordings and the transcripts from the two pilots interviews were held together in one separate file. Several files were needed to house the data generated from the interviews. Each interviewee needed a face sheet which identified who they were, the date of the interview, location of the interview, and their number. This information was stored in the identity file. Each interview was tape-recorded, identified and stored in the tape file. Each tape was transcribed and transcriptions were stored together in the transcription file. The process file contained interview guides and interview schedules. A l l of these files together created the evidentiary base (Yin, 1989). The second source of data was the research notes. These notes were organized and categorized like the notes from other sources. Miles and Huberman (1994) recommended a contact summary form be completed after each interview. This strategy was used in this study and these notes exist in both a computer file and in a hard copy file.  DATA ANALYSIS STRATEGIES One of the principal tasks of qualitative data analysis is organizing and making sense o f data (Hitchcok & Hughes 1995).  M c M i l l a n and Schmacher (1993) indicated that an inductive  research paradigm provides a rich understanding of the phenomenon investigated. This is precisely the intent of this study. The conceptual framework provides the predicted pattern, and  27 the analysis of the data provided the empirically based pattern. The intent of the data analysis is to challenge the framework based on the patterns generated from the data. In order to find these patterns, the raw data was coded in the preliminary analysis. "Codes are tags or labels for assigning units of meaning to the descriptive or inferential information compiled during a study" (Miles and Huberman, 1994 p. 56 ). Words, sentences, or paragraphs can be used to chunk the data and define the code. Patton (1990) refers to this as indigenous concepts, meaning that terms are created by the data. Secondary analysis involved pattern coding. Miles and Huberman (1994) indicated that this is the process of grouping the codes into smaller sets, themes, or constructs. The conceptual framework (Figure 1) was used to begin the pooling of words or statements into themes with emphasis placed on units of meaning that did not fit the framework. A list of themes that did not fit the framework would imply that the framework required modification. I started this study with a conceptual model and an understanding of the factors that shape implementation, so there is a danger that the data was shaped to fit the  a priori design. In  order to protect against the possibility of the data being shaped to fit the framework, the procedure of triangulation was implemented at the second level of analysis.  Triangulation is  the process of using multiple perceptions to clarify meaning (Stake, 1994). Two of the study participants, one person that participated in the pilot interview and one person from the in-depth interviews, verified the second level of analysis. Their task was to validate the themes to ensure they accurately reflected the data and did not simply reflect the framework. The individuals involved in the triangulation effort did not have access to the conceptual framework, and were only asked to verify that the codes were adequately represented in the themes.  28 At this point the analysis of the data finished. Once the patterns were established they could be compared to the conceptual framework to determine how the framework needed to be changed to suit the selected site.  CRITERIA OF SOUNDNESS H o w well has this study been put together? Have I presented a sound argument to convince the reader that my conclusions are based on a quality design? For Lincoln and Guba (1985) it is important to establish the "truth value" (p. 290).  For Marshall and Rossman (1995)  the term is "soundness," and for Patton (1990), "design quality." In case study research, the issues are validity and reliability. Each discipline uses different words that describes the threats to the research design. Y i n (1989) and Kidder (1981) indicated there are four relevant tests that determine the quality of case study design. The purpose o f this section is to describe each test and indicate the tactics used to deal with each threat within this study. Construct Validity refers to the development of an operational set of measures for the concepts being studied (Yin, 1989). Case study design has been criticized for using subjective judgments to collect data. Kidder (1981) summarized three tactics that would establish construct validity. They are (1) the use o f multiple sources o f evidence, (2) establishing a chain o f evidence and (3) having key informants review draft case study reports. This study used multiple sources of evidence to establish a chain of evidence. Due to the constraint of time, key informants were not invited to review the draft copies of the report; however, this research was read by a university committee and publicly defended. This helped to reduce the threats to construct validity. In case study design, internal validity refers to the ability of the researcher to make inferences based on the data (Yin, 1989). The researcher infers a result based on the data  29 collected. Are these inferences correct? Are there rival explanations for the results? In this study, codes were assigned to words and phrases in the transcripts. These codes were then pooled and brought together in themes. Care was taken to ensure the themes are sufficiently and authentically represented in the framework. The framework was challenged when the a prior factors did not sufficiently and authentically represent the themes. Codes and patterns were created by using the language of the participants to reduce the influence that the researcher's own values and judgments interfered with interpretation. The transcripts were returned to the participants to verify intent. Codes were assigned to words or phrases and these codes were then pooled into themes. The themes were triangulated with two participants to further strengthen the concept of internal validity. The results were pulled from the data deductively, with a constant awareness that the framework might require revision to accurately reflect the emerging themes. These strategies addressed the issue of internal validity. External validity refers to ability of the study to infer findings beyond the immediate case study. The inability to generalize results is a major criticism of case study design; however, this is not the intent of case study (Yin, 1989). Research done from the case study perspective is not trying to generalize the results to another case but tries to generalize the results to a broader theory. In this research, the patterns were matched to an extant framework created by the researcher. There was no intent to generalize the result to another case. However, the ground work was laid for further research to replicate the logic in other case studies. The goal of reliability is to minimize the error and biases in a study. If an additional researcher followed the same procedures described in the research and found the exact same result in the same case the study would be reliable (Yin, 1989). T o enhance the reliability of qualitative research, a researcher must make explicit six design aspects: researcher role,  30 information selection, social context, data collection and analyses strategies, and analytical premises (MacMillan & Schmacher, 1993). A l l of these aspects have been disclosed within this study. Could another researcher find the same results? Each researcher enters the study with a unique way of knowing.  This research builds the argument for a conceptual framework and  then seeks to challenge that framework with the data. Another researcher should be able to replicate this study and find the same results but researcher biases cannot ever be totally ameliorated. In summary, this research uses several tactics to preserve the integrity of the study. Within the context of this study the four threats to quality of design are addressed. Evidence is collected from several different sources to promote construct validity.  Internal validity is  strengthened by the use of participants' language to establish the codes and patterns, and by triangulating the results with two participants. The results of the study will be compared to an extant conceptual framework to promote external validity. Finally, reliability is promoted by disclosing the procedures used in this study in sufficient detail to maximize the chance that the same results would be generated by another researcher. LIMITATIONS O F T H E STUDY The first limitation in this study is the fact that I am researching education for people with disabilities as an able-bodied individual. I am on the outside looking in. M y interest in doing this research is as an advocate, and as such I have a limited understanding of the programs. The struggle to provide something meaningful as a result of this study influenced my decision to focus on implementation of the program. The second limitation on the study is the fact that I have a vested interest in the continuation of the programs. Not only do I think they have the right to exist, I am looking  31 towards the day when I will be employed in such a program. H o w will this impact on my interactions with the documents and the interviewees? I have an ethical obligation to disclose this fact and deal with it in the context o f the study. T o compensate for this bias I chose a site that is not one that I have targeted for employment. I enter this research as a student with a need to fulfill the requirements of a masters degree. I have not been commissioned by the government, nor has the community college asked for my review. This fact has influenced the design and the intended impact of the study. The parties that have the ability to bring about change do not have a vested interest in this research. M y efforts have focused on the use of case study methods to support or deny the framework created from the literature. CONCLUSION The purpose of this chapter is to acquaint the reader with the research methodology. The issue of accessible education has been introduced and an argument for the use of case study as a research methodology has been laid out. The thesis now takes a pleasant departure and begins the story of the case study. This is a story about B . C . , about human rights, and about access to higher education. It is also a story about the complex process of implementing educational policy in the province. A review of the literature is an investigation into the social context prior to the policy being developed and uncovers the existing theories about implementation. It is my pleasure to provide chapter three that sets the stage for the 1983 policy.  32  CHAPTER THREE SETTING THE STAGE The story about this case begins by examining relevant fields o f literature to define, limit and provide a rationale for the study. The case, introduced in chapter one, is about the implementation process. This process is complex and involves a variety o f influences. A comprehensive review of disability issues sets the stage for this research. T o start, the review focused on the changing views of adults with disabilities in society. Second, the history of social policy and disability issues provide context for the policy. The third body of literature discusses the development of Adult Special Education (ASE) in B . C . The fourth field of inquiry looks at the integration o f A S E into Community Colleges. Finally, the literature examines the link between education and quality of life. Together, this literature provides the reader with information about the multitude o f issues involved in accessible education. It also serves as an entry point to examine the data and identifies the area of need to justify the study.  ADULTS WITH DISABILITIES: SHIFTING PARADIGMS The social construction of disability has changed throughout time. Historically, in our society, individuals with disabilities have been pitied, cared for, controlled and even extinguished. They have not had the same rights as other citizens, nor have they had the potential to exercise their rights but, thankfully these attitudes are changing. This section explores the changing social discourse for people with disabilities and specifically for people with developmental disabilities. From classical times the presence of a disability was evidence o f a deficit to what it meant to be human. Stainton (1994) noted that both Plato and Aristotle outlined complex eugenics programs to eliminate people with disabilities. The arrival o f  33 Christianity introduced the idea that people were afflicted with disabilities by the "Grace of G o d " (Stainton, 1994, p. 123), and that it was the moral responsibility o f the state to take care of the innocent. These two themes, control (represented by the eugenics arguments), and Christian paternalism, represent two key themes in the history of disability. Canada practiced its own form o f control by adopting a paternalistic attitude, and segregating people with intellectual disabilities from the public by confining them to large institutions (Roeher Institute, 1995). Care for them was trusted to the medical profession who measured intelligence and deficits (Roeher Institute, 1995). In British Columbia, individuals whose IQ fell below 70 were able to chose among three such facilities. Several significant events have helped to move the attitude of society away from either control or paternalism, to a perspective based on human rights. The atrocities of World War II brought to light the horror associated with eugenics philosophies. Not only did this war change attitudes about genetic control, but it also caused significant changes in the attitudes towards people with disabilities. While the war was raging, people with disabilities moved into workplaces because of the limited labour resources, thus proving their value and contribution as citizens (Ochocka, Roth, Lord, & MacGillivary, 1994).  When the war was over, veterans who  fought bravely to defend Canada returned with physical and psychiatric disabilities, thus creating a push for rehabilitation (Ochocka et al., 1994). A rights-based ideology was beginning to surface. For individuals with developmental disabilities, the change was not as dramatic. While the attitude of the outside world was changing concerning individuals with non-intellectual disabilities, people with mental disabilities were still segregated in large care facilities. Slowly,  34 this too would change. In the latter part of the 1950's, the institutions faced a constant parade of scandal about abuse and neglect (Stainton, 1994). B y the late 1960's and early 1970's there was a growing realization that better supports could minimize the degree of social handicap people experienced through having an intellectual disability. The principle of normalization began the movement towards community integration (Wolfensberger, 1972 in Ochocka et al., 1994). Depriving people o f their rights because of their disabilities was unjust. (Roeher Institute, 1995). In 1972, there was an international declaration by the United Nations for the rights of the mentally retarded person. In Canada, a variety o f parliamentary acts shifted the paradigm from the domain of health, to an issue o f citizenship. In the late 1970's, the government of Canada and provincial Associations for Community Living signed historic agreements that would eventually close the large care facilities. These facilities had been homes for thousands of individuals with developmental disabilities. This social movement was called deinstitutionalization (Roeher Institute, 1995). Along with this movement, Canada showed leadership by providing legislation that entrenched the rights of individuals with disabilities in the constitution. In 1977, Parliament passed the Canadian Human Rights Act. This federal statute established a comprehensive scheme for dealing with instances of discrimination in federal public and private sectors. The act prohibits "discriminatory practices on the basis of race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family status, physical and mental disability, and conviction for which a pardon has been granted" (Holmes, 1994, p. 1). The contexts in which the A c t provides protection are employment, housing, and the provision o f goods, services or facilities that are customarily available to the public. Community colleges are bound by this statute.  35  The shift from a paternalistic social system to a rights-based society has been slow and difficult. World War II, the deinstitutionalization movement, and the constitutional guarantee of Human Rights have all helped to shift the social paradigms. This section has explored the way in which society has viewed individuals with disabilities, but it is also equally important to understand the way in which Canada creates social policy for people with disabilities. The story is continued by exploring the issue of social policy before 1981. That year was a pivotal point in the discussion of disability issues because the United Nations declared International Year of the Disabled. The intent of this literature review is to provide details before this halcyon event. The time after 1981 is captured in Chapter 4. BEFORE 1981: SOCIAL POLICY AND DISABILITY ISSUES Policy is a proposed solution from policy makers to an identified problem. Elmore (1985) indicated that policy makers frame solutions using resources they control. Crichton and Jongbloed (1997) divided the historical development of disability policy into three stages: 1. that in which persons with mental illnesses or intellectual impairments were institutionalized as deviant and as a threat to law and order; 2. that in which medical/vocational/social rehabilitation programs were developed to assist deserving citizens; and 3. that in which the removal of barriers in the social and political environment were considered necessary to enable people with disabilities to realized their full potential (p. 3). The policy that sanctioned institutionalization of individuals was a product of the medical rehabilitation phase of social thought. During the 1970's, the social climate changed and a new policy supported independent living and self determination or deinstitutionalization  36  (Young, 1997). This moved the development of disability policy into stage three, where policy development considered the removal of barriers to enable people with disabilities to realize their potential. The policy reviewed in this research is also a product o f stage three. Accessible education is intended to remove barriers and assist individuals with disabilities realize their potential. The shift from phase two to phase three led to new concerns about identifying numbers. In order for people with disabilities to attain equal citizenship, the size of the problem had to be measured (Crichton & Jongbloed, 1997). The first count of persons with disabilities was in 1983-84, by Statistics Canada. In 1986, Statistics Canada implemented the Health and Activity Limitation Survey ( H A L S ) which identified 3.3 million Canadians who classified themselves as disabled. B y 1991 the number had grown to 4.2 million or 15.5% of the population (Young, 1997). Without a doubt, the study uncovered the magnitude of the "problem." The policy that established Adult Special Education in Community Colleges was a solution to the problem of limited access to education for people with disabilities.  Policies that  reduce the barriers to education increase the ability of individuals to participate in society.  This  review will now shift focus from people with disabilities to the societal pressures that led to the development of the policy for accessible education.  THE DEVELOPMENT OF ASE Adult Special Education was an initiative that enabled disabled adults to integrate into existing institutional programs. The first B C programs were established in 1980, at select colleges, in anticipation of the International Declaration on the Year of the Disabled Person. These programs were pilot programs to test the concept. When that proved successful, the opportunity for A S E grants was available to all community college in British Columbia. The  37 policy, started in 1981, was not complete nor released until 1983. During that time, the pilot projects were running and representatives of the Ministry of Education were meeting with A S E educators to create and refine the policy. Some of the original programs were run in conjunction with the large care facilities in the province and were a response to the deinstitutionalization movement. Upon the release o f the policy, community colleges were expected to create new programs if adequate programs did not exist to address the needs o f disabled adults. The Ministry showed its commitment to this initiative by providing funding for all persons with disabilities. This meant that the needs of people with physical, psychiatric, and developmental disabilities were met with the same funding. To accommodate the multiplicity of these needs most colleges established two distinct departments, one responsible for programs and the other responsible for supports. Colleges began to offer assistance for persons with physical disabilities to access regular courses. Currently, the support they provide is specific to each person but includes things such as personal care assistants, note takers, translators, interpreters, and access to Braille services. This support assists students with disabilities to attend regular classes. However, for individuals with developmental disabilities, this is not the case. Accessible education for someone with a developmental disability means access to segregated programs with an emphasis on vocational training. Cassidy (1983) indicated that the A S E initiative provided for over 40 programs and services in these two areas. This included all segregated programs and support services that allow a person with a disability to enter programs available at community colleges. Figure 2 visually displays the types of funding offered for the programs and supports.  38 POLICY  PROGRAMS  Integrated  Segregated  SUPPORTS -notetakers -interpreters -financial -translators -personal care aid  Figure 2: Provision of Adult Special Education Programs O f the 14 community colleges in B . C . that offer Adult Special Education, most of them have a component of segregated education for individuals with developmental disabilities. The system has evolved to the point where accessible education is in segregated classrooms in an integrated site. Students and their advocates are calling for a further evolution, integrated classrooms at integrated sites. Tighe and Danelesko (1994) examined the integration of six adults with developmental disabilities into Community College level courses. They concluded that integration opportunities should be examined closely to be sure the opportunities are for social and or instrumental interaction and not merely opportunities for physical proximity. The emphasis on integrated environments is based on the assumption that one or more of the following outcomes will occur: •  increased social interaction between people with developmental disabilities and their non-disabled classmates or colleagues, leading to increased social acceptance of people with disabilities;  •  positive peer modeling;  •  increased self esteem on the part of individuals with disabilities in that they are involved in a socially valued activity; and/or  39  •  increased opportunity for employment or for making valued contributions (Uditsky & Kappel, 1988; Tighe & Danelesko, 1994).  I believe that the issue is really about choice. If Community Colleges deny the opportunity for individuals to access the education of their choice, then social justice is not served. The government believes demand for improved access to education is increasing (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Advanced Education, Training and Technology, 1991). T o meet these demands, government has increased funding. Between 1985 and 1991, government funding for accessible education increased by over 600%, and the number of full time spaces in A S E programs increased by 179% (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Skills, Training and Labour, 1995). What is the participation rate of adults with developmental disabilities in post-secondary education? Relatively little literature exists pertaining to the inclusion of people with an intellectual disability in post-secondary education and training (Hill, 1992; Ticoll, 1995). Postsecondary education for people with developmental disabilities means participation at community colleges, since they do not meet the entrance requirements for Universities. The statistics that are available would indicate that there has been a trend toward increased participation over the past decade, but people with disabilities at post-secondary institutions are underrepresented (Ticoll, 1995). This statistic is a reflection of the situation for all people with disabilities. Individuals with developmental disabilities participate at the lowest rate of all the disability categories (Ticoll, 1995).  T H E INTEGRATION OF ASE IN COMMUNITY COLLEGES Colleges in all provinces and territories in Canada were established in the 1960's and 1970's, largely through initiatives taken by provincial governments. Rubenson (1987) stated that  40 in 1964, the Economic Council of Canada stressed the vital need for creating and maintaining an adequate supply of professional, technical, and other highly skilled manpower as a basis for future growth of the Canadian economy. "Increased investment in human resources to improve knowledge and skills was proclaimed as the most essential ingredient for attaining the goal of faster and better sustained productivity and growth" (Rubenson, 1987, p. 78). Education became a central factor in what Rubenson (1987) and others, termed the Human Capital Theory. The human capital approach was one of the major factors which influenced the organization of the community college system (Rubenson, 1987). Each college grew from the socio-cultural context in which it was situated. Dennison and Levin (1988) summarized the common principles held by these new Canadian institutions: 1.  The community college is a flexible social organization that can adapt to new student clienteles, structural changes in program delivery, technological changes in the workplace, and demand for new instructional techniques.  2.  The community college provides increased access to educational opportunity for a broad cross section of people in its region.  3.  The community college maintains a comprehensive curriculum, the latter to include both educational and training components.  4.  The community college emphasizes commitment to teaching and concern for quality of instruction and student service.  5.  The community college maintains the general community orientation which reflects its governance and its program mix (p. 5).  Since the inception o f community colleges in Canada there has been the progressive inclusion of marginal learner groups as part of the regular college body (Boehm & Hart, 1992).  41 A s early as 1977, community colleges in the lower mainland of British Columbia provided programs for persons with mental handicaps. This coincided with the initial movement of deinstitutionalization.  In 1981, a contract with the Ministry of Social Services provided a  program for adults with mental handicaps (Boehm & Hart, 1992). The purpose of this program was to provide preparation for placement in a work or vocational setting and offer basic consumer training to enable participation in community life. With the arrival of the 1983 policy, there was a move to provide accessible education to all individuals with disabilities. B y the end of 1983, 14 of the 15 colleges in B . C . had the capacity to coordinate educational opportunities for disabled adults (Cassidy, 1983). The level of service at each College differed, but each college offered one or more of the following kinds of services and programs: adult basic education, vocational and career training, support services, and continuing education programs (Cassidy, 1983). In 1987, in response to numerous expressions of concern from the government of the time, access to higher education came under review. The report, Access to Advanced  Education  and Job Training in British Columbia (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Advanced Education and Job Training, Provincial Access Committee, 1988), revealed that British Columbia was well behind the other provinces in full-time enrollments and for degrees awarded relative to its population (Dennison, 1995).  Problems of access were particularly evident for  certain groups, namely First Nations groups and people with disabilities. The recommendations of the report were clear. British Columbia was to encourage more creative options to "provide expanded access, enhanced mobility and better delivery of its services" (Dennison, 1995). This theme is continued in a report published by the Advanced Educational Council of British Columbia in 1992. One of the recommendations of Access for Equity and  Opportunity  (Province of British Columbia, Advanced Education Council of B C , 1992)  was for "attention be  given to regional inequities and to places for disabled, special-needs, and multicultural communities" (p. 17). Additional reports and government initiatives continued to stress the importance of keeping the door of the community college open to non-traditional learners. Time has not changed the fact that citizens of British Columbia have the same kinds of needs and desires that motivated the development of the college system more than 20 years ago. Progress has been made in the original objective of bringing education to people who have historically been denied (Beinder, 1986) and the progress continues.  ACCESS TO EDUCATION AND T H E LABOUR M A R K E T Is Adult Special Education important? One of the basic propositions of this research states that the philosophy of the policy is not debated. People with developmental disabilities have the right to access education. The question asked here is probing more for an answer to why is adult special education important. A n answer to this question begins with it an understanding of the trends in the labour market. In trying to understand the link between accessible education and the labour market, this literature goes beyond 1981. For most of this chapter, literature prior to the pivotal year of 1981 has been reviewed. Like implementation, the relationship that advanced education has with the labour market is complex. For this reason, more current literature is reviewed. Nevertheless, the literature builds the argument for the importance of adult special education, the link to the labour market and ultimately to quality of life. This is the information age, where yesterday's skills are no longer in demand. Society is being asked to speed up, work more efficiently, and have access to more information.  43 Information equates to knowledge thus increasing the importance of education in today's society. In a recent study commissioned by the Canadian Labour Force Development Board (1994) it was noted that access to post-secondary education and labour force participation are becoming increasingly linked to the current economic environment (Ticoll, 1995).  Persons with some post-secondary education filled 75% of the new jobs created in Canada between 1981 and 1986 (Government of Canada, Canadian Labour Fource Development Board, 1995). Although our educational index is rising, growth is predicted in jobs that require little education (Kiernan & Stark, 1986). Having post-secondary education simply gives an individual a competitive edge when entering the labour force, but does not necessarily indicate that a high level of skill is required to do the job. What does all this mean for individuals with disabilities? It means that access to postsecondary education is important, i f only to increase their level of participation in the labour force (Ticoll, 1995). Kiernan and Stark (1986) suggest that, with a few exceptions, jobs in the growth industries are accessible to adults with intellectual disabilities therefore, there is a need to emphasize vocational training rather than the acquisition of academic skills. This issue is debated in the literature. The reports from the government, which reflect the voices of students accessing the services, indicate that this is precisely one of the difficulties with the current system. The programs currently available for individuals with developmental disabilities have an exclusive focus on vocational training and do not provide opportunities for mainstream integration (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Advanced Education, Training and Technology, 1991). The Roeher Institute published a report in 1995 titled Speaking of Equity, which claims that:  Because of this exclusion, many people with disabilities are denied the opportunity to develop the basic skills that are recognized as essential for full participation as citizens (p. 11).  Post-secondary education increases the ability of all people to participate in the labour market and this has a direct impact on quality of life. People with disabilities are demanding the opportunity to control their lives, and thus affect their contribution to society. The participation rate is up and government is responding with increased funding. The subtle yet significant change for the future is one of choice. Accessible education links them with the job market which provides opportunities that ultimately improve their quality of life, and their contribution to society. People with developmental disabilities go to college to get a job but most importantly to "be somebody".  SUMMARY The literature review began by first identifying the predominate way society has treated individuals with disabilities. There has been a positive change as we have evolved from the paternalistic attitude of caring for individuals, to recognizing their rights as citizens of society. People with disabilities are now expected to be contributing members of society and thus have access to all the privileges open to any Canadian. This includes the right to access higher education. The policy reviewed advocates for accessible education for people with disabilities. Education plays a prominent role in entering the work force and as such becomes increasingly important. Participation rates of people with disabilities in post-secondary education are increasing the demand for more and higher quality programs. Chapter 3 has focused on the literature to develop the argument for this study and Chapter 4 will continue to unfold the story and present the findings.  45  CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION OF THE CASE The purpose of this chapter is to present a descriptive account of the data gathered in this case study research project. The data are collected and organized according to the conceptual framework. At this point, it is important to remind the reader that the case is the implementation process, and the conceptual framework is organized around four factors that influence implementation. These four factors are presented in Figure 1, Chapter one. Data were supplied by a review of 73 documents and transcriptions of ten interviews. Appendix two is a chronological listing of the documents and events that provided data for external influences including: international, national and provincial events and reports. The interviews were conducted with people inside the implementing agency and in the community. They include: the president of the college, dean of the division, faculty of the department, two technicians in the program, one person who provides support to the programs, one ministry representative, one representative from a community agency that supports graduates of the program, and two people who were faculty at the time that the policy was introduced. The data from both sources was interwoven in the text and organized using the conceptual framework. First, the policy and any subsequent reviews are presented. Next, a description of the developments external to the college that influence implementation of policy is discussed. The developments are discussed from a historical perspective and traced through to the current condition. Then, a description of 12 characteristics specific to this college is presented, followed by a discussion of the power dynamics, the politics involved and the process of negotiation. This chapter concludes with a review of the factors that influence implementation and provides an introduction for a reconstruction of the same data.  46 T H E POLICY AND SUBSEQUENT REVIEWS This section is a descriptive analysis of the policy, entitled Ministerial  Policy on the  Provision of Adult Special Education in the Public Education System in British  Columbia  (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Education, 1983). This section also reports reviews of the policy that have occurred since 1983. Four government reports, and information gathered in the interview process provided data for this section. The policy, dated March 1983, emerged in a social climate that dictated the province make education accessible: ...at that time there were a number of ministry policies that were introduced for equity groups in the province...the ministry was putting special emphasis on trying to get more programs for people who did not traditionally enter the college (8).  1  The Ministry  2  used the term A S E to refer to accessible education, and combined both  programs and supports within the term. The policy states that The Ministry of Education views Adult Special Education as an integral part o f the total educational enterprise within public education institutions. It is the policy of the Ministry of Education that those disabled adults whose needs can be met by a public educational institution will have reasonable access to appropriate learning opportunities (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Education, 1983).  The resources that the government provided included funds and coordination capabilities. The policy stated that The Ministry shall provide administrative support and financial allocation, subject to the Legislature approving funds, in such a manner as to ensure institutions can  ' the number in brackets indicates an interview code The Ministry of Advanced Education, Training and Technology (MAETT) is the Ministry responsible for post-secondary education. Each time the political parties in government change there are subtle changes to the ministry name and portfolios. The ministry responsible for post-secondary education can also be Ministry of Skills Training and Labour (MSTL) or Ministry of Education, Skills and Training (MoEST). For the purpose of this study the name of the government Ministry cited in the report is the one reflected in this document writing. The two names used to describe the portfolio are 1) Ministry of Advanced Education, Training and Technology (MAETT) and 2) Ministry of Skills, Training and Labour (MSTL). Throughout the chapter these two names are used interchangeably and refer to the Ministry responsible for post-secondary education. 2  47 fulfill the responsibilities outlined in this statement (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Education, 1983).  The responsibility for the administration and delivery of A S E services and programs rested with individual institutions. Each institution was encouraged to provide adults with adequate counselling, support services, access into existing programs and specially designed programs where necessary and appropriate (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Education, 1983). The desired outcome of this policy directive was improved access to postsecondary education for people with disabilities: "...basically all it said was that this population has a right to be in the public system and there is a responsibility to accommodate them" (5). Although not all institutions in the province were involved in A S E in the early 1980's, the policy was significant for all institutions: "For those institutions that were farther ahead, it enshrined on paper what they were trying to accomplish... For those coming on board after that, it really defined a vision" (5). The policy was not reviewed until July 1991 in a report titled A Framework for  Report of the Review of Special Education  Equity:  in BC's College System (Province of British  Columbia, Ministry of Advanced Education, Training and Technology, 1991). The review reaffirmed the government's commitment to adults with disabilities and recognized that there have been substantial gains in Adult Special Education: "...the 1982 policy, with minor changes, continues to be one of which the province can be proud" (Province of British Columbia, Ministry o f Advanced Education, Training and Technology, 1991, p. i). The report identified that students with disabilities made up only 5% of the college population yet 13% of the population in B C had a disability. The report concluded that many students were not gaining access and that demand for accessible post-secondary education for  48 adults with disabilities would rise. According to the report, the demand will increase due to the following factors: 1.  the K - 12 system was providing increasingly comprehensive and high quality education for students with disabilities, creating greater expectations for equal access to post secondary education;  2.  individuals with disabilities were increasingly being encouraged to remain in their home communities rather than relocating for service;  3.  consumers were becoming increasingly aware of their rights, and expected access to programs and services that were of high quality and provided a comprehensive range of opportunities.  4.  projected labour market shortages were drawing attention to the productive potential of this group of citizens (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Advanced Education, Training and Technology, 1991).  The review highlighted implementation as a problem, but also recognized that the issue of implementation was complex and required a global view of the interconnectedness of many issues in the lives of people with disabilities (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Advanced Education, Training and Technology, 1991). The review identified five areas of concern, as described below: 1.  Accessibility - this goal is met inconsistently through the province. There are financial, attitudinal, procedural and physical barriers to accessing education in B . C .  2.  Programs and courses - students in some regions face many difficulties which includes inadequate range and number o f options, exclusive focus on vocational oriented programs, inadequate integration, rigid course scheduling and inconsistent program accountability for defining and meeting student learning outcomes.  49 3.  Supports to students - students do not have adequate access to services such as assessment or counselling, specialized personnel such as interpreters, physical care attendants and equipment  4.  Coordination - there are ongoing problems between the post-secondary system and other organizations resulting in gaps and duplication of service, inefficient resource utilization, and service fragmentation.  5.  Supports to personnel - Adult Special Education personnel are frequently hired without comprehensive expertise and are not offered enough appropriate training opportunities (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Advanced Education, Training and Technology, 1991).  T o deal with these issues, the report offered 45 recommendations for improving accessible education in the province of British Columbia. Implementation of these recommendations was to be a collaborative effort between the Ministry, educators, institutional administrators, students and their advocates. The Ministry took on the responsibility of developing guidelines which would assist and encourage institutions to offer learning opportunities to disabled adults. They called these guidelines the Best Practices Guidelines (BPG): "The primary intent of the B P G was to act as a self monitoring tool for post secondary institutions, programs and services" (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Advanced Education, Training and Technology, 1995, p. 5). In 1995 the application of Best Practices Guidelines was reviewed and it was found that application of the document was varied. Even though the Ministry funded the project twice and they distributed it to all the colleges and said here is an example of best practices in A S E there is nothing in place to ensure the colleges do follow the guidelines  (2).  50  The Ministry concluded that a more professional, user friendly tool was required (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Advanced Education, Training and Technology, 1995). In 1995, a background paper published by the Ministry o f Skills, Training and Labour reviewed the policy and again reflected problems with implementation. This was an examination of the issues surrounding post-secondary access for adults with disabilities in B C and related legal issues. The paper confirmed that the "Human Rights Act is the primary statute concerning access to post-secondary education for students with disabilities" (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Skills, Training and Labour, 1995, p. 16). The report provided a comprehensive view of the complexity of the issues surrounding A S E . In addition, a list of government initiatives hinted at some of the external pressures placed on the community colleges to provide accessible education. This concludes the documents available to understand the policy. This review will now shift focus and examine some of the issues that make up the external influences for implementation.  EXTERNAL INFLUENCES For students with disabilities, access to education is affected by labor market trends, adequate financial resources, support services and a plethora of other issues. Obvious obstacles such as lack of ramps and assistive devices have a direct impact, while issues like available housing, accessible transportation, and finances have an indirect influence. T o gain a stronger insight into the complexities of accessible education, I explored indirect and direct influences external to the institution. International, national, provincial and regional reports between 1981 and 1998 were reviewed to accentuate the issues. In order to provide the greatest degree of clarity, the data were divided into three sections: international, national, and provincial influences.  51  International Influences The year 1981 was a logical year to start the analysis of the issues that surrounded the lives of people with disabilities. This was the year the United Nations declared the International Year of the Disabled. The goal of this year was to heighten awareness of issues for individuals with disabilities throughout the globe (Government of Canada, Canadian Organizing Committee, 1982). The International Year claimed success in raising public attitudes towards citizens with disabilities. There was also recognition that simply raising the profile of disabled persons was insufficient. In 1983, the United Nations declared an International Decade for the Disabled, in order to bring about further change. In 1983, the United Nations released a strategy for improving the status o f people with disabilities in the world. This strategy was called The World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons. This action made an international commitment to the full inclusion of people with disabilities in society: The purpose of the World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons is to promote effective measures for prevention of disability, rehabilitation and the realization of the goals of full participation of disabled person in social life and development, and of equality (United Nations, 1983).  Changes were happening on an international level but there were also influential occurrences closer to home. In 1990, The Americans with Disabilities Act ( A D A ) was released in the United States. "The A D A mandate is broad and sweeping - to protect the civil rights of the nation's 49 million people with disabilities in virtually every aspect of public life" (West, 1996, p. X V ) . This was legislation that affected all aspects of the lives o f people with disabilities however, a study done on employment figures for people with disabilities indicated that the employment status remained unchanged after the implementation of the A D A (West, 1996). The study also showed that there was a dramatic increase in the level of education achieved by  52  people with disabilities (West, 1996). Although this is good news, the increase in education has not translated into an improved standard of living. This lack of conversion suggests that people with disabilities may face a unique array of dis-incentives and barriers to employment that will not be surmounted by anti-discrimination measures or increased education (West, 1996, p.xviii). The A D A is significant because Canada has been influenced by the development of this Act. A s one of the interview participants points out "Canada is a reactor to social policy in the United States" (4). A look at international influences would be incomplete without Rick Hansen's M a n in Motion world tour. Rick Hansen, a Canadian, wheeled his wheelchair around the world to raise awareness of the lives with people with disabilities and specifically spinal cord injuries. Although reluctant to surrender Rick to the international spotlight, his efforts had far reaching impact. Rick and his team started out on the tour from Vancouver in March, 1985, and wheeled 24,901.55 miles through 34 countries in nineteen months: We were leaving Asia...the tour had been a major success...because the people could see us giving it everything and asking them for nothing but a willingness to listen and become aware o f the problems, daily battles and potential of people who, in so many parts of the world, had been ignored or pushed aside (Hansen & Taylor, 1987, p. 162).  Such international influences did not have a direct affect on Adult Special Education in community colleges, but they support the idea of changing paradigms in society. The shift in the way society views individuals with disabilities has a trickle-down affect on accessible education. It is important to recognize that the world view supported this change. The next section will look at the national influences that helped to shape accessible education.  53  National Influences In response to the declaration by the United Nations, a host of activities across this country were held to raise the profile o f Canadians with disabilities. In 1981, a total o f 81 events or activities took place specifically designed to promote disability in Canada (Government o f Canada, Canadian Organizing Committee, 1982). The most memorable include the 1981 Canadian Games for the Disabled, the designation o f September 13th as The Terry Fox Run Day, and the release of a stamp commemorating Fox's Marathon of Hope that raised funds for cancer research. Closed captioning television was pioneered, and physical accessibility became an issue for businesses. A variety of television shows and film series raised Canadian consciousness about the issues o f disability (Government of Canada, Canadian Organizing Committee, 1982). The House of Commons Special Committee on the Disabled and Handicapped released its landmark report titled Obstacles (Government of Canada, Special Committee on the Disabled and the Handicapped, 1981). This report made 130 recommendations for improving federal government legislation, policies, and programs for disabled people. A l l members o f the special committee agreed that participation, responsibility and self-help were principles that should be embraced by all Canadians (Government of Canada, Special Committee on the Disabled and the Handicapped, 1981). The Secretary o f State tabled the government's response to recommendations arising from the International Year O f Disabled Persons. This report, titled Surmounting  Obstacles  (Government of Canada, Secretary o f State, 1983) boasted o f acting upon two-thirds o f the original recommendations. The most significant development was the entrenchment o f rights for disabled people in the Canadian Human Rights Act in March o f 1983. The Canadian Human Rights Act "was amended to prohibit discrimination on the basis of disability, whether mental or  54 physical, in all areas covered by the A c t " (Government o f Canada, Ministry Responsible for the Status of Disabled Persons, 1987 p. 1). The Act applied to employment, provision of goods, services, facilities and accommodation in federal jurisdiction. The Canadian Human Rights Act gave the federal government the authority to legislate on disability issues only in areas o f federal jurisdiction. In 1985, Section 15 was added to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, becoming the cornerstone for people with disabilities: Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination based on...mental or physical disability. (Government of Canada, Department of Justice, 1985) In addition to this landmark event, the Standing Committee on Justice and Legal Affairs released a report titled Equality for All (1985). This report endorsed the recommendations made in Obstacles (1981) and urged the government to take action. Not only did it examine equality of rights, but it was concerned also with equality o f results. This report raised the issue that jurisdictional difficulties cause bureaucratic delays. B y 1986, such bureaucratic delay was referred to as "systemic discrimination" and was recognized as the foremost barrier to improving the lives of individuals with disabilities (Government of Canada, Minister of Justice and Attorney General, 1986). Challenge: Putting our House in Order (Government of Canada, The Standing Committee on Communication and Culture, 1985) is a report that challenged the federal government to provide equality for the disabled by establishing employment target numbers within the Federal civil service. In Accepting the Challenge (Government of Canada, The Standing Committee on Human Rights and the Status of the Disabled, 1986), the government initiated employment equity which included the federal government, federally regulated private  55  sector and crown corporations, and private companies that held contracts with the federal government. The Government plays a leadership role in encouraging new employment opportunities for disabled persons throughout the economy by establishing specific numerical targets and implementing special assistance measures for employment within the federal Public Service. (Government o f Canada, Standing Committee on Human Rights and the Status o f the Disabled, 1986, p. 5). At a conference by the National Educational Association o f Disabled Students in 1990 systemic discrimination was once again cited as the prevailing barrier. In 1990 a report titled, A Consensus for Action (The Government of Canada, The Standing Committee on Human Rights and the Status o f Disabled Persons, 1990) indicated that the range of issues identified in Obstacles (1981) remained unchanged. The government o f Canada maintained that there had been change, but the community seethed with frustration because o f the lack of action. The report claimed that ...if decision makers are to be persuaded to act, the most convincing argument will be that the economic benefits of moving towards greater economic integration outweigh the economic costs o f maintaining the present system (Government o f Canada, The Standing Committee on Human Rights and the Status of Disabled Persons, 1990, p. 16). Profitable  Choices for Everyone (Government o f Canada, The Standing Committee on  Human Rights and the Status of Disabled Persons, 1993) indicated that there were myths surrounding the cost o f change. The report indicated that there are rising costs, both human and economic, from the failure to provide policies that promote inclusion o f people with disabilities in the job market (Government o f Canada, The Standing Committee on Human Rights and the Status o f Disabled Persons, 1993). B y 1996, it was clear that there was growing frustration with rhetoric. The community o f people with disabilities forcefully told the Federal government to treat their concerns seriously (Scott, 1996). The government responded with a task force on disability issues, which published  56 Equal Citizenship for Canadians with Disabilities:  The Will to Act (Scott, 1996). One of the  most significant recommendations o f the report was the Canadians with Disabilities Act.  Canadian human rights legislation has not addressed a number of issues o f systemic discrimination... A n additional legislative measure is needed to prevent many of the problems being experienced today, from continuing over the coming years. It is time for the Government of Canada to introduce a Canadians with Disabilities Act (Scott, 1996, p. 27-28).  A Canadians with Disabilities Act would provide for the appointment of a Minister or Secretary of State with responsibility for disability issues. The Act could establish an independent office with the power to monitor compliance with the Act, report to the public and advocate within government on behalf of the disability community.  The legislation would also  require the government to consult regularly with the disability community and to conduct specific studies (Scott, 1996). The Canadian Human Rights Commission published a report in 1997 titled  Celebrating  our Progress, Facing our Future (Government of Canada, Canadian Human Rights Commission, 1997) indicating a gap between rights that had been won and people's everyday lives. This report indicated that a comprehensive response to the task force of 1996 was required. In 1998, a discussion paper titled In Unison: A Canadian Approach to  Disability  Issues (Government of Canada, Federal, Provincial, and Territorial Ministers responsible for Social Services, 1998) claimed to have a new approach to disability issues because it recognized the interrelatedness of four areas: employment, citizenship, disability supports and income. This was the response to the 1996 report calling for the Canadians With Disabilities Act. This section began in 1981 and traced the federal influences regarding issues that affected the lives of people with disabilities. Over the past 18 years, there have been a number of reports that indicated the direction for the government to remain loyal to the  57 ideals of inclusion. Several pieces of legislation have secured the right to citizenship in this country for people with disabilities, such as Section 15 of the Charter. The Government introduced the Employment Equity Act to address employment opportunities for disabled Canadians. One interview participant felt that the current status of issues for people with disabilities has not changed: "The potential social union and the federal document on equality and citizenship for people with disabilities, they are not saying anything different than was said in 1981" (1). The federal government has advocated for results from the provincial governments for the recommendations which fall to their jurisdiction. Education is under provincial jurisdiction but Federal initiatives directly affect the provincial government. The effect is both philosophical and financial. This analysis will now focus on the same time frame for provincial influences on accessible education.  Provincial Influences In British Columbia, the International Year of the Disabled Committee spent $2.5 million on individuals and groups that submitted projects for improving opportunities and services for disabled persons (Government of Canada, Canadian Organizing Committee, 1982). The Ministry of Education provided envelope funding to community colleges to deliver education to individuals with disabilities. B y 1983, the Ministry declared Adult Special Education a priority program and allocated the funding as part of the base budgets of the institutions (Cassidy, 1983). A t the same time, the Ministry o f Social Services was deinstitutionalizing people with mental handicaps: "There was the whole movement of moving people with handicaps into the mainstream so we weren't pushing that, it was pushing us." (4).  The policy for accessible  education was influenced by the deinstitutionalization movement and the International Year of  58 the Disabled: "The provincial government was being challenged by the federal government about the things they had done in response to the International Year of Disabled Persons." (10) The mid 1980's brought economic changes to the province and in response to economic pressures the A S E programs came under threat: "Community colleges threatened to cut back programs which gave people with disabilities access to higher education" ( B C C P D & B C E A D S , 1993, p. 3). In response to those budget decisions the community responded: "There was a big backlash to that. A lot of letters were written...There was major public outcry" (10).  In  response to the community outcry, the government allocated new funds: "So what they did was implement a new grant in 1984 which was called transition planning. They did that to pacify people in the community"  (10).  In 1987, the Minister of Advanced Education established a Provincial Access Committee. The mandate of the committee was to review the current state of participation in, and accessibility to, the various forms of advanced education and job training. The report titled Access to Advanced Education and Job Training in British Columbia contained many recommendations for improving the post-secondary system in B C . Six of the most noteworthy recommendations are as follows: (1) (2)  priority be given to the use of open learning systems ( O L A ) ; cooperative arrangements be made whereby more degree programs would be delivered by colleges and universities through O L A ;  (3)  there be further exploration of a new university in the north of the province;  (4)  colleges be allowed to grant associate degrees;  (5)  a council on admissions, credit transfer, and articulation be created to facilitate mobility of students in the system; and  (6)  in densely populated regions outside the Lower Mainland, colleges should offer degree programs through a university-college arrangement.  The clear message of this report was that B C should encourage a cooperative arrangement within its post-secondary system in order to provide expanded access and enhanced  59 mobility. Better use o f the current system was assumed to be the key to the accommodation o f more students, especially those for whom access was restricted (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Advanced Education and job Training, Provincial Access Committee, 1988). This 1988 access report received a positive reaction throughout the province.  The report  was a precursor for the development of The University of Northern B C and for the development of the university-college system. Action was taken to improve the problem of illiteracy and to develop strategies to better serve the needs of First Nations people. However, the issue of access is still in debate. Some argue that recommendations from the report improved access, while others argue that "access is still difficult for several disadvantaged segments of the population" (Dennison, 1995, p. 25). In 1992, the Ministry of Social Services conducted a community consultation on training and support services for adults with mental handicaps. This consultation found that individuals wanted more funding to access generic programs and more program spaces in special programs (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Social Services, 1992). A t a provincial level, the B C Coalition for People with Disabilities ( B C C P D ) and the B C Educational Association of Disabled Students ( B C E A D S ) released, Proposal for Change: Legislation for Post Secondary for People with Disabilities  Education  ( B C C P D & B C E A D S , 1993). The report suggested that the existing  legislation was inadequate to protect the interest of disabled persons concerning access to higher learning. The lack of an established enforcement strategy by government has created the environment we have today where people with disabilities claim that programs and services are insufficient to meet their needs, uncoordinated and all too often seen as expensive and expendable extras ( B C C P D & B C E A D S , 1993, p. 6). This report was a strong call for legislation that would ensure the disability communities' right to equal access to post secondary education.  60 The ultimate intention of this report therefore is to provide a model and rational for the Government of B C to create legislation to ensure access to post-secondary education for people with disabilities ( B C C P D & B C E A D S , 1993, p. 4). In 1994, a regional report titled Review Of Programs And Services For Persons With Disabilities  In The Lower Mainland  (Persons with Disabilities Employment Advisory  Committee, 1994) indicated that there are programs for people with disabilities that teach skills that are out of date and or out of touch with the labour market. These tend to be segregated programs that are perceived as "safe" places for people with disabilities to go, and they are not geared to preparing people for competitive employment (p. 13). In 1995, the province of B C initiated a strategy to coordinate disability issues through the Office of Disability Issues. The strategy's purpose was to ensure that people with disabilities could participate as full partners in the development of public priorities and policies. It was expected that over time, this partnership would enhance the province's ability to address those substantive policy and program issues which are so critical for enabling people with disabilities to enjoy their rights as citizens of Canada (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Education, Skills and Training, 1997, p.l).  The strategy was introduced as a pilot project and has claimed success. The final evaluation on the strategy indicated that there had been progress between government and people with disabilities. In the future, the strategy will place greater emphasis on the access issues confronting people with disabilities in the province. "Currently the strategy is primarily about process and partnerships. In the future, the strategy must be seen as leading toward concrete outcomes." (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Education, Skills and Training, 1997, p.5) In 1996, the provincial ministry responsible for advanced education and training released Charting A New Course (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Education, Skills and Training, 1996). This is the strategic plan for the future of British Columbia's college, institute  61 and agency system. Four goals provided a framework to guide the planning process and a reference against which to judge the plan's success. One of the goals is access.  The report  made a commitment "to improve the availability o f educational opportunities for the increasing number of British Columbians who seek post-secondary educational training" (Province o f British Columbia, Ministry of Education, Skills and Training, 1996, p. 3). This is the province's most current document that provides direction to community colleges: "...the government has a strategic plan called Charting a New Course. Every year we write how we've achieve objectives that are in Charting a New Course.'" (8) Figure 3 provides a greater degree of clarity about the response of the disability community to initiatives by the government to improve the standard of living for individuals with disabilities in Canada. These initiatives are the external influences aimed at changing the access to services for people with disabilities. This time line reflects the external influences throughout the last 18 years thematically.  Jurisdictional difficulties Optimism for change  81  83  Bureaucratic process "new Obstacle"  85  87  Economic Integration becomes the focus  Systemic , Discrimination /  89  Litigation Fear  ~i—r 91  93  Services are disappearing  Frustration with the rhetoric, lack of adequate laws  7 95  97  99  Figure 3. Thematic representation of Response to Initiatives The external influences had impact on all colleges within the province. The intent of this research is to describe the process within one site in B . C . The previous section has indicated the pressures that existed and the next section looks inside the implementing agency to examine the internal implementation process.  62 THE IMPLEMENTING AGENCY A s in previous sections, the data that describe the implementing agency originates from documents and interviews. Through this research, I identified 12 characteristics that describe the culture of the implementing agency or college. Evidence generated from either the interviews, or documents demonstrates each of these characteristics. The 12 characteristics are as follows: (1) college focus, (2) purpose of the community college, (3) reputation, (4) internal policies, (5) future direction, (6) accountability, (7) program location, (8) staff values, (9) change process, (10) staff and labour relations, (11) program goal, and (12) use of advisory committees. Some characteristics indirectly influence the application of Adult Special Education, while others have the potential to influence the programs, but the degree o f influence depends on the relationship o f people within the institution. Some characteristics have a direct impact on the application of A S E programs. For example, the characteristics that indirectly influence the application of the programs include the following: college focus, purpose of the community college, reputation, internal policies and future direction. Characteristics that have the potential to influence the program include: program location, staff values, the change process, and staff. Characteristics that have a direct influence on the application of A S E programs include: staff, program goals, and the use of advisory committees. In order to understand the characteristics, and their influence on the implementation process a more detailed description o f each characteristic follows. College Focus The College and Institutes Act (1975) provides for the development of post-secondary institutions in the province. Each college has a blending of programs that, when combined, contribute to the focus of the college. This college was founded on an 11 point statement of philosophy. One of those statements included an "open door" policy.  63 This offers adult citizens of all ages the opportunity to participate in postsecondary education in one form or another. This policy also provides satisfying incentive and opportunity to persons who may have left school early (Annual Report, 1972).  Recently, the college undertook a self-study that confirmed the original value statements and recommended that the college promote the learner-centredness inherent in the college mission and in its strategic directions (Institutional Self Study, 1997) Included in the original statement of values for this site is an intent to provide a multipurpose curriculum. This site has "managed probably a little more successfully than some others to retain a fairly comprehensive approach..." (3). A lot of faculty now are starting to realize that we are going to remain a community college, and we are a comprehensive college...new envelope moneys or special initiatives from the government go into the applied areas (8).  Purpose of Community College As noted above, this site is considered a comprehensive college, which means it has a blending o f both academic and applied programs. A n academic program refers to a general arts subject such as English, math or science. A n applied program refers to a program that teaches specific skills such as, auto mechanics or chef training. Adult Special Education programs fit with the applied programs where specific vocational skills are taught. Throughout the history of the college, struggles to retain this blended focus occurred. There was a shift in the late 1980's and early 1990's in B C for community colleges to become degree granting. A l l o f the colleges wanted to be degree granting and there was really pressure around being academic and academically rigorous. There was pressure...to eliminate some of the programs that didn't seem as suitable to an academic environment (5).  64 The shift referred to above created the university-college system in B C . Although the College in this study was interested in becoming a degree granting institution it was not one of those selected. It remained a community college complete with a comprehensive curriculum. One interview participant believed that the struggle was related to the value and purpose of education in society rather than the complement of programs.  There are some tensions about the purpose and value of education. We are at the moment, going in one swing which suggests that education should primarily have some vocational outcome (3). Regardless of whether the tension is around the complement of programs or the purpose and value of education, the result is the same. There are different views of the value of education and the purpose of the educational institution. Reputation This site has a long history of involvement with the field of adult special education. "They felt proud to be one of the leaders in this environment, having one of the strongest applied programs in the province." (1) This reputation attracts like-minded staff who then strengthen the reputation by their commitment. One of the things that attracted me was the commitment to access programs... [this site] probably more than any institution in the province, has a commitment to providing for students with disabilities and students that have very low levels of education (8).  Not only has the reputation attracted like-minded staff but it has also attracted a large number of students. "We have more students with disabilities trying to get into this college than elsewhere..." (3). B y 1994, A S E was noted in the College's master educational plan as one of the many fields that gave this site its distinctive character.  65 Internal Polices A n internal A S E Committee created a policy in 1992, which echoed the direction established by the Ministry in 1983. There was a long period of time between the Ministry policy and the development of internal policies, and it was internal controversy that forced policy development for this site. The controversy occurred in the early 1990's and was around the threatened closure of a program in the A S E division. A n external consultant was called in to review the program and the surrounding controversy, and indicated that lack of specific internal policies contributed to the college difficulties. The consultant found that the college had a positive mission statement, but needed to define its role in the provision of programs and services to persons with disabilities, while "maintaining equitable access" (Internal Report, 1991, p. 10). The mission statement clearly indicated that the function of the community college was to move marginalized groups of people into the centre of the college. "Operationally, this can only be implemented through a network of partnerships, commitments, clearly articulated policy and assigned responsibilities"(Internal Report, 1991, p. 10). Motivation for the policy came from the controversy, and from staff involved in the controversy. The staff involved with policy committee in 1992 highlighted both the elusiveness, and the potential of policy: ...a policy can be rescinded or changed at the stroke of a pencil. I just felt that it was important that the college discuss the issues and when there was problems we could bring out the policy as a framework for discussion (10). Since 1992 the policy has been approved, evaluated, and updated. It maintains the vision of 1983 and has specific functions within the institution. For some interview participants the internal policy is a statement of philosophy as well as a framework for problem solving: "This policy of ours is not really binding... it's more o f a philosophical statement" (8). Others, thought the internal policies were used for problem solving rather than providing vision for the college:  66 "if you have an incident you have to go back to policy for clarification more so than driving the program area or setting the vision" (2). Future Direction Responses to the future direction of the college were varied. "The inertia will keep things going" (3).  "I think the challenge will increasingly be to satisfy the kids and parents that  have been mainstreamed and want a mainstream option" (5). I also think that slowly creeping in is the recognition of the importance o f diversity. The recognition that community colleges and post-secondary environments are changing and that we no longer are in a position to offer only academic programs... (2).  Accountability Accountability in this site refers to the reporting mechanism that the college has to the Ministry. Historically, the college has demonstrated accountability by using follow up studies on graduates. These studies focus on such things as job placement results by program, completion rates, student satisfaction with the college experience, and relationship between college training and job requirements (Dennison, 1995). This type of reporting mechanism was found to have poor response rates, and high response bias making the government cautious about definitive conclusions. The economic and political climate of the 1990's has prompted the government to search for a more sophisticated and reflective indicator of the effects of college education. One such attempt to establish an accountability framework was outlined in a report titled  Reporting on Effectiveness in Colleges and Institutes: A Proposed Accountability Framework for the British Columbia Public System (Government of Canada, Canadian Comprehensive Auditing Foundation, 1993). The report indicates that college accountability could be found by answering seven questions. The seven questions are as follows: (1) Does the college have an adequate mission statement, and are these clearly communicated to its community?  67 (2) Does the institution offer programs and other services that best meet the needs o f its community? (3) Does the institution attract and keep an appropriate number and mix o f students? (4) D o students achieve appropriate outcomes? (5) Does the institution obtain, organize, and administer resources so that student outcomes are achieved at a reasonable cost? (6) Is the institution maintaining and building its intellectual and physical resources, including the quality of its employees, curriculum, and physical plant? (7) Does the institution have systems that produce information that enables management to answer the above questions? (Government of Canada, Canadian Comprehensive Auditing Foundation, 1993) A response to this report indicates that these questions are very relevant but impossible to answer. Institutions are lacking the systems asked for in question 7, and without those their ability to respond to the other questions is limited. In 1993, a report titled Criteria  and Indicators of Quality and Excellence  in  Canadian  Colleges and Universities was distributed at the conference of the Learned Societies. This report suggested that colleges should focus on two dimensions of excellence, the external environment (economic, social and political factors) and the internal environment (the general climate of morale within the college and the governing structure). The authors of this report developed criteria (as domains), and indicators (as measures) of excellence for students, faculty and administrators, programs, and services in the community college (Nadeau, Donald, Konrad, Lavigne, & Laveault, 1993). The response from the college community has been supportive for this initiative. The generation of performance indicators is generally seen as a challenging project (Dennison, 1995). This site has felt the change in accountability measures initiated from the government. "There has been considerable movement in the ministry to change the funding formula to include some kind of performance indicator... We can expect that KPI, key performance indicators will become much more a part of our reality" (3). This new type of accountability has  68 created three different responses within the college. For some, the new accountability measures have little impact. For others, the changes have meant that the Ministry is binding the hands of the program people so tightly they are unable to respond to community need. Still others believe that the college is somewhere in between those two viewpoints. Each viewpoint is presented and supported by the interviews. The following statements from interview participants capture the idea that the institution has a high degree of autonomy: "There is not a direct line of accountability from the Ministry to the college." (1)  "The only measure they use right now is bums in seats." (2)  "The main  performance indicator that is used is the enrollments which amalgamate together into what is called F T E ' s . " (3) O n the other hand, some interview participants felt that the Ministry was very involved in all aspects of the college and required very tight accountability procedures. ...the external issue ...at a board level and C E O level is that the Ministry is micromanaging. The Ministry's got too much in the door and is expecting too much of the college in terms of outputs and not able to make a lot of decisions for themselves that they could before (8). We are being told more and more what to do in less time. We are seeing increasingly what is called envelope funding which means we are given funds by the provincial government to do what it wants us to do. Y o u can only use the funds for that and nothing else (3). For others interviewed, there was a middle ground: "Legislatively, the colleges are not autonomous...on the other hand they have a fair amount of latitude in terms of what they do in certain basic parameters" (5). A s evidenced by the interviews, participants thought differently about the way in which the college is accountable to the Ministry.  69 Program Location P r o g r a m l o c a t i o n refers to the d i v i s i o n w i t h i n the c o l l e g e w h e r e the p r o g r a m is h o u s e d .  P l a c e m e n t o f the A S E p r o g r a m c a n be an important consideration f o r the institution.  W h e n the p r o g r a m f i n a l l y got f u n d e d f r o m the c o l l e g e , w e h a d a n a g r e e m e n t that w e w o u l d fight t o p u t t h e p r o g r a m w h e r e i t b e l o n g e d c u r r i c u l a r w i s e a n d n o t h a v e it l u m p e d i n s e r v i c e s . F i r s t , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , y o u w a n t t o p u t programs in a p r o g r a m department a n d not w i t h a service. S e c o n d l y , we felt the m o r e i n t e g r a t e d w e h a d e v e r y t h i n g at t h e c o l l e g e t h e l e s s l i k e l y it w a s t o disappear w i t h a stroke o f a p e n o n the budget sheets  (10).  A l t h o u g h i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y it m a k e s s e n s e t o k e e p p r o g r a m s w i t h t h e  s a m e o u t c o m e s together there was a difficulty i n this reasoning:  "...we e n d e d u p f r a g m e n t i n g t h e  p o w e r f o r d e c i s i o n m a k i n g o n d i s a b i l i t y i s s u e s a t t h e c o l l e g e " (10).  programs were housed with other skill training programs.  O r i g i n a l l y , the A S E  R e c e n t l y , the college restructured a n d  g r o u p e d the A S E programs together w i t h A S E supports a n d student services. T h e r e have v a r i e d  responses to the move:  T h e p e r c e i v e d strength o f w h e r e w e are n o w  is that all o f o u r r e s o u r c e s f o r all t h e  A S E p r o g r a m s are under the s a m e umbrella.  O n e c o u l d m a k e the a r g u m e n t that  l o g i c a l l y there w o u l d b e m o r e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . T h e r e a l i t y is that t h e r e isn't  (2). ...as a r e s u l t o f m o v i n g I d o n ' t b e l i e v e t h a t a n y s p e c i f i c c h a n g e s t h a t h a v e o c c u r r e d , ...there h a v e b e e n s o m e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a n g e s t h a t w e h a v e f o u n d m u c h e a s i e r to create as a result o f the m o v e m e n t  (3).  T h e r e are d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n as to the v a l u e o f the d i v i s i o n i n w h i c h t h e A S E  p r o g r a m s are housed.  Staff Values S t a f f values have a direct i m p a c t o n students w i t h disabilities. O f specific c o n c e r n here  are s t a f f v a l u e s r e g a r d i n g t h e r i g h t s o f s t u d e n t s w i t h d e v e l o p m e n t a l d i s a b i l i t i e s . S o m e s t a f f at  the i n s t i t u t i o n d o not b e l i e v e that i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h disabilities, e s p e c i a l l y d e v e l o p m e n t a l  70 disabilities belong at the college: " A few years ago [someone] went on record saying that "these" people should not be in the division" (10).  If the dean of the division holds this type of belief,  implementation of A S E programs is difficult. "That division was in serious trouble when the director of the program supported the program but the dean did not. There were some political, internal problems within the college because of the attitude" (10). Other interview participants felt that A S E was important in the college, but there were some built in biases among administration, faculty and staff. In some cases it is an underlying philosophical belief that people like that, meaning people with disabilities, shouldn't necessarily be here because this is more of an academic institution (2).  However, this attitude is residual, "sort of a carry over from 20 years ago" (2) and is slowly changing.  The President is promoting the change by publicly advocating for improved access  for under-educated and marginalized adults (Presidents Forum, 1999). Change Process There are different areas to consider when speaking about change within the college. Changes within the program such as the objectives of a course, admissions procedures or equipment are far less complex than change that affects funding allocation. If the change does not require extra funding resources, the process remains internal: "If that meant to make change within the program then that is largely the responsibility of the faculty" (3). Legislatively, there is a formal process that introduces programs that require new financial resources within the college. When there is a need identified faculty would write a letter o f intent. The letter of intent goes through a 14 point proposal. It has to go through and be approved by the faculty in that department. Then it goes to E d Council. If E d Council approve, it goes to Ministry...and they approve it or don't. Then you wait for the money to come in. It's a long process (8).  71  There does not seem to be a hard and fast rule about what is considered a minor change or a major change, and reporting of the changes may depend on the relationship the site has with the Ministry. There are those in the Ministry who thought that, given the guidelines from the Ministry, anything that is a significant shift in an existing program has to come through for Ministry approval. What's significant shift is open to debate.... Sometimes you are better just to make the change and ask later (5).  Regardless of the process, considerable time is required. "Change in an organization like this takes time. It needs to happen slowly for all the components to adjust and change" (9).  Staff A n d L a b o u r Relations Staff is a generic term used here to describe different positions at the college. There are distinct levels of staff, each maintaining varying degrees of responsibility to, and involvement with the A S E programs. There are technicians who are responsible for the every day administration, ensuring that students set and reach goals within the program. Technicians have a staff supervisor who is responsible for administrative duties such as scheduling, and performance reviews, in addition to program instruction. Faculty, another level of staff, are responsible for intake, curriculum design and student planning. Faculty also have other administrative duties within the college, but are not responsible for performance reviews of the technicians. The Dean of the division is the next level of staff involved with the A S E programs. The technicians and the faculty are accountable to the Dean. The Dean is not involved in the day to day operation, but is ultimately responsible for the programs. The Dean is kept informed of progress by faculty, and the staff supervisor. The Dean is accountable to the educational councils, vice presidents, president and college board.  72  Each staff position is supported by a collective organization or organized union. Within this college the technicians, and the staff supervisor are represented by the B C Government employees union. The faculty are represented by the faculty association. Staff within each of these collective bodies must work together to instruct, and support students in the programs. Labour relations refers to the relationship between people in different collective bodies as they fulfill the teaching requirements. Staff and labour relations are two interrelated characteristics that define this institution. The program can be influenced by the philosophical viewpoint, the prior employment history, and the training of staff at each level. The program can also be influenced by the personalities of staff, and the relationship they have with each other. Historically, this program area has had difficult labour relations: " B i g problems in that department... Personnel difficulties in that department over the last couple of years" (8). The personnel difficulties have resulted in arbitration decisions. Over a set of negotiations a few years ago between B C G E U and the faculty association, it was mutually agreed that it was inappropriate for one union body to report to another union body" (2). The unions did agree on a model but it did not result in good relations and, in fact, made the issue more complicated: "It doesn't work. It's partly because of the design and partly because of the nature of the previous individual doing the job" (2).  The department has since been working  on a new model for reporting. Just recently the roles have been clearer as to what we do and what the faculty does, but there is still some muddy stuff in between there. Lately we have been more union involved to see what our rights are (7).  The relationship between the technicians, the faculty, and the dean was one of the strongest characteristics described in this site. It was difficult to have a discussion about the  73 department and not speak about the issues of staff and faculty relations. Although the relationships between staff and faculty had a high degree of influence on the program, staff and labour relations had a broader impact as well. The relationship that the dean had with the president and ministry representatives is also an important consideration in the implementation process. The personality of all those involved, within all the levels of the college are significant to the implementation process. Program Goal A question about A S E program goals elicited varied responses. Some participants thought that the program was specifically to teach skills to an individual. Others indicated that the program achieved its goal when a student was competitively employed as a direct result of the program: "Our goal right now is just get the students out so they are employable" (6).  "The  goal is to give people skills so that they can get a job" (7). The goal is "to train people with disabilities in entry-level work-related skills and to seek competitive employment in specific areas" (9). "The measure of our success is people finding jobs as a direct result of the program" (2). Over time, the goal of the program has shifted from training to employment. "Before, when I first started the focus was just graduate the students. N o w they want to know did the student graduate, d i d they get a job and how long have they kept it for" (6). T h e Use of Advisory Committees At certain times the A S E programs have had a strong relationship with the community. The link between the community and the college is through advisory committees. They are "made up of employers, and people who would refer to the program, with an emphasis on employers" (2). The purpose of an advisory committee is "to seek ongoing feedback from employers for ways that the program could be made more effective in terms of training people to  74 move to employment" (2). Initially the committee met "on a quarterly basis to get that feedback. It was a valuable concept... When it became an advisory committee over all of A S E we would go into the advisory committee and we would present what we did, we would never ask the advisory committee for advice... (2). When that group came together there was some confusion among the members on what their role was. We discussed at some length what the role of the committee should be...It was also increasingly obvious that there were differences of opinion about what the programs should be doing. In my view, some of those differences of opinion were not very helpful (3).  The value of the advisory committee was lost when the committee was asked to provide advice to a wide range of programs rather than very specific programs. At that time the college decided to discontinue the use of the committees. When the reorganization happened we decided we would not continue with the advisory committee...Last semester we were talking about resurrecting the advisory committees...To be quite frank, the whole notion of advisory committees is quite difficult because people are under the illusion that the College can actually change a lot of things when we actually have no power at all to do so (3).  Currently the college is discussing the use and structure of advisory committees, but the decision to use and maintain advisory committees rests within the institution.  POWER, POLITICS, AND NEGOTIATION Power, politics and negotiation are the rudiment elements of implementation and yet the most elusive to capture. Power, politics and negotiation exist at every junction in the planning and delivery of A S E . They have existed historically and are alive in the current environment. This research indicated that there are several areas where power, politics and negotiation are evident. First and foremost, political maneuvering occurs within the institution itself. Secondly, the relationship the institution has with the Ministry requires negotiation and political dealings.  75 Both of these areas have significant influence on the process of implementation. Less significant, but still a factor is the relationship the college has with the community. Previously, evidence for the factors has been supplied by documents and interviews. Evidence for power politics and negotiation is supplied specifically from the interviews.  Within the Implementing Agency Politics are important within the implementing agency. Negotiations affect the nature of the program, where it is housed, and the amount of available funding. Since its inception this program has rigorously attempted to bargain and maintain its foothold in the institution. Fortunately, early staff made a difference. I was one of the few people who had actually worked in the college so I knew the college structure and I made sure that A S E was in a department, entrenched in a department rather than tacked onto something else (10). The people involved when the programs were just beginning needed to fight to get their programs recognized within their institutions. The following, encapsulates the idea of fighting to maximize the intended benefit of the A S E directives;  Fighting to get the program means using every creative strategy you can think of the get something accomplished. Sometimes it is confronting people, sometimes it is rallying; sometimes it is having students present issues, write letters, phone calls; and sometimes it is just being quiet and knowing the right time to move. Fighting is a big word that means effective strategy planning (10). Negotiating the division which a program rests is not the only area where politics are evident within the college. Ultimate authority for the program rests with the Ministry, but this power is disseminated to the college through various positions. Positions of authority are important to the every day running of the program. "The President is key, the Dean is key and the Board is important" (1) because "your ideas need to be sold to the proper people who can get the money"  76 (9). In essence, it is critical to understand who has authority and how to negotiate within the college structure in order to produce change.  Relationship with the Ministry A college uses public money to run its programs and is in turn responsible to the Ministry.  The Ministry approves the budget, and asks the institution to account for the money  spent. This is a area that power politics and negotiation can be seen. The College and Institute Act which establishes Colleges and regulates them makes it very clear that the Minister has the power, if he or she chooses, to determine what textbooks are used in a course, but it's not a power that is exercised (3).  For legal purposes, the college is viewed as an extension of the Ministry. This dictates a relationship of authority for the colleges.  There have in fact been Supreme Court challenges around particular issues that have ruled that the colleges for legal purposes are agents of the Crown...the colleges don't like to see themselves in that way and the Ministry doesn't have the resources to dictate at that level (5). The Ministry understands that the money supplied for A S E may have conflicting demands placed upon it when it reaches the institution.  I think that's one of the reason's that the grant for A S E is not rolled into the base funding. When you get your budget letter it has this line for A S E . A lot of faculty get really nervous... I think the Ministry does it to the track the money a little tighter (5).  Relationship with the Community These programs have a large repertoire of invested stakeholders. This is an unusual instance for an institutional program. The community has a relationship and an investment in both the quality and quantity of the programs; "We're sitting here with a more emotional relationship to the program than someone is sitting looking at Biology 100" (1).  77 This link to the community is an area that demonstrates power, politics and negotiation. If the programs were affected by funding decisions, the community exercised its power to advocate and lobby. I would see in the last three or four years you have seen some cuts in the programs for people with disabilities. Politically it's a difficulty. If you cut these programs there is community reaction. It isn't just the students, it's the advocates, the parents, the community groups. That wouldn't happen in an academic program (8). The community has previously come together a number of times to challenge the institution with regards to the A S E programs. More recently, the community has maintained involvement, but has not challenged the institution. "The program has become institutionalized in the institution. The programs were created by the community, but have taken a life of their own. The community gets on with other things and only maintains a relationship with the programs" (1).  SUMMARY This chapter offers a descriptive account of the data that define the factors affecting implementation of Adult Special Education policy. The data is organized around four factors determined from the literature. They are: (1) policy, (2) external factors, (3) implementing agency, and (4) power, politics and negotiation. The influences on the implementation process fall within one of these broad factors. The policy created in 1983 responded to the changing social discourse on disability. Meeting the needs of disabled adults in public educational institutions through reasonable access and appropriate leaning opportunities was the goal of the policy.  The resources provided  included funds, and coordination capabilities. Responsibility for implementation of the policy rested with the individual institutions.  The Ministry believed in the policy goals, but recognized  there were difficulties in implementation. In response to these struggles, the Ministry developed  78 guidelines to impose a top-down strategy for implementation, but this proved to be ineffective. The government today maintains a commitment to education for marginalized groups of Canadians, and is moving towards tighter controls on the college in terms of measurable outcomes. External influences have two roles in the implementation process of A S E policy. First, interest groups effectively lobby government to create, monitor, and evaluate A S E policy. Second, interest groups work towards changing the social discourse on disability. They do this by insisting the Government of Canada, and the Government of B C recognize their human rights. Several initiatives, such as changes to the Human Rights Act and Employment Equity have improved the ability of people with disabilities to exercise their fundamental rights as citizens of Canada. The community of people with disabilities, and their supporters force the government, and subsequently other citizens to view their abilities and treat them fairly and equitably. A s well as examining the external influences involved with accessible education this research uncovered 12 characteristics that defined the implementing agency. These characteristics exist at different levels within the college and have varied degrees of influence on the implementation process. Power, politics and negotiation are important considerations when trying to understand the process of implementation in the community college. This factor is prevalent in several places in the implementation process. The interviews gave a glimpse of the power, politics and negotiation that occurs within the college, in the dealings with the Ministry and finally in the link that the college has with the community. The intent of this research was to uncover factors that affect implementation. The data was gathered and organized around predetermined concepts established from the literature and  79 exhibited in Figure 1. Particular attention was paid to themes that did not fit the a priori categories, however, all of the data fit the established categories. The data found in this research both confirmed and challenged the original framework. The original four factors were sufficient to describe the data, confirming the predetermined categories. However, the relationship between the four factors has been significantly challenged. Chapter 4 has described the data and validated the factors. Chapter 5 will reconstruct the data to illustrate the relationship between the factors. The result is a revised framework to illustrate the implementation process for this site.  80  C H A P T E R FIVE R E C O N S T R U C T I N G T H E CASE Chapter 4 detailed the findings and laid the ground work to understand that a discussion of implementation is a discussion of relationships among factors. The policy, external factors, and an implementing agency influence the implementation process. The relationship between these three factors is influenced by, and dependent upon power, politics and negotiation. The connection among the factors creates a maze through which policy must travel to become a program. T o better understand the implementation maze in this site, a framework generated from the literature guided data collection and data analysis. The intent of this chapter is to reconstruct that framework, based on the data, to adequately portray the implementation process for this site. Before attempting to reconstruct the framework it is important to revisit Figure 1 to understand it's strengths and weaknesses. The reconstructed framework is presented after this discussion. Concluding this chapter is an in-depth discussion about the revised framework. REVISITING T H E ORIGINAL F R A M E W O R K Figure 1 defined four factors linked through the implementation process. The data from this research were consistent with the findings from the literature, and confirmed the factors identified in the original framework. The predetermined categories were sufficient to encapsulate the data generated in this study. Although the four factors were confirmed, the presumed relationship in Figure 1 was not sufficient. It was insufficient for four reasons. First, Figure 1 implied that all factors are of equal importance in the implementation process. This did not prove to be true for this site. Some factors had a stronger influence in the implementation process than others. Second, Figure  81 1 implied that power, politics and negotiation was a separate factor to consider. This research suggested that power, politics and negotiation could not be removed as a single factor. They are pervasive throughout the whole process. The implementation process is nested within power, politics, and negotiation.  Third, Figure 1 inadequately explained the implementing agency.  This research was able to identify 12 characteristics that shape the college culture, or implementing agency, which was a highlight of the research. Finally, the data did not support the relationship between the factors as demonstrated in the original framework. The research suggested a different relationship among the factors. T H E REVISED F R A M E W O R K Merriam (1998) indicated that case studies can illustrate, support or challenge theoretical assumptions. This research has done both. The data illustrated the predetermined categories, but challenged the relationship between the factors. Figure 4 is a more applicable representation of the implementation process in this site.  82  CU  4 •—»  c c  Out C01mes  CD ca >  s  o  CB  C  o  Z  -emp] oy men  o  o o  J?  ti. . . CU >• CU  cn CU  o o  B  -1 cu  o 00 CA CU  s  c  .2  ca  "••5  o  o  £ .a u  o  es -= «£ Cu  S3  o  PH eS  t>0  C 3 O  c  -3 c  o o  3  < «  (J cu  B CU  o  13  •£ «  «2 « ° E  o  2  Cu CU  H H 3 3E S3 — oo § C s  §5  O > 'o •o o 1 3  cB  cn  O  PH  2 to CU  co  cn  c £ 2 «5 .2 3  > £ S §> E fi  u  o  PH  83  Not only did the data change the connection among the factors, it indicated the strength of each influence. Some had a strong influence on the implementation process, while others had a weaker influence. Succinctly, there are four elements that explain the implementation process in this site. First, Figure 4 indicates that the process of implementation is nested within power politics and negotiation. The entire process is surrounded by the interplay of this factor. Second, the implementing agency, or College, is a prominent factor in implementation. The association among characteristics within the context has a strong influence on the process. Third, the relationship between the implementing agency and the policy is a strong connection. The policy enables the government to funnel resources to the College, and in return expects accountability from the College. The transfer of fiscal dollars to the college, and college accountably strongly influences the implementation process. The fourth and finally element to consider in Figure 4 is the external influences. This study found that they are significant to policy development, but not to the implementing agency. The next section describes the revised framework in more detail. The section begins with a discussion of the power, politics and negotiation. This discussion lays the foundation to understand the process for this site. Following this discussion, the implementing agency is described. The characteristics are broken down into different levels to describe the college and exemplify characteristics that impact on the process. Next, the policy and its influence on implementation is described. Concluding the chapter is a discussion about the external influences and their role in the implementation process.  84  POWER, POLITICS AND NEGOTIATION  Power, politics and negotiation can be analyzed based on the relationship outside the agency as well as inside the agency. Elmore (1976), referred to this as interorganizational and intraorganizational levels. Interorganizational elements refer to the power, politics and negotiation that occurs within the college, while intraorganizational levels include the relationship that the college has with the Ministry, and with the community.  Ottoson and Green (1987) indicate that the primary variables to consider when analyzing power, politics and negotiation are: form, strength, use, and distribution.  Specific to this  analysis is strength. I have already claimed that the entire implementation process is nested within power, politics and negotiation, making it impossible to extract as a separate factor. However, the strength of the connection can be determined.  In Figure 4, power politics and negotiation are demonstrated by the large box surrounding all of the factors. Creation of the policy, allocation of resources, and shape of the program are dependent upon this factor. Little is decided or implemented without the interference of power, politics, and negotiation. They are at work at the interorganizational and intraorganizational level.  The interorganizational elements are demonstrated by different levels nested within the implementing agency box which is examined in more detail later in this chapter. The discussion here is to highlight the strength of power, politics and negotiations within the organization. In Figure 4, the implementing agency is larger than the other factors, implying a greater degree of importance. The college is a solid structure virtually unaffected by external influences. The  85 context of the implementing agency has a strong influence on the implementation process, and ultimately program creation.  Power, politics and negotiation are evident at the intraorganizational level as well. The connection between the implementing agency and the policy is a strong influence. This is demonstrated by thick black lines that link the college to the policy. The top arrow is accountability, a pivotal characteristic linking the implementing agency to the policy. The bottom arrow is funding, linking the policy to the implementing agency. Power, politics, and negotiation are a strong factor to consider at this junction.  The external influences have a weak relationship to the implementing process. External sources focus their influence on the policy, which is demonstrated in Figure 4 by a thin black line connecting the external influence to the policy. Power, politics and negotiation bind the implementation process together both within the college, and among the different factors.  The  dynamics within the agency, as well as the dynamics between the agency and the policy, are strong considerations. A weaker link is the relationship between the external factors and the policy. Some authors describe the influence of power, politics and negotiation while others omit a discussion of this factor, most likely because of its elusiveness and its complexity. Cervero and Wilson (1994) argue that literature about planning and implementation has a history of focusing on the technical skills, omitting the relationships of power. They suggest that "planning programs is a social activity in which people negotiate personal and organizational interests" (Cervero & Wilson, 1994 p. 4). The data from this research was consistent with this argument.  86 THE IMPLEMENTING  AGENCY  The 12 characteristics that describe this implementing agency are: college focus, college purpose, reputation, internal policies, future direction, accountability, program location, staff values, change process, staff, program goal, and the use o f advisory committees. These are consistent with the findings o f other implementation research. For Ottoson and Green (1987) technical capacity, organizational structure, and employees characterize the implementing agency. Chase (1979) refers to sufficient space, qualified staff, and adequate supplies and technical equipment. Hogwood and Gunn (1984) consider time, money and "the right people in the right mix" (p. 32) issues in the implementing agency. The college, or implementing agency, has a strong impact on the implementation of this policy. The interrelationships of the 12 characteristics translate policy ideals into program goals and activities. Each characteristic uncovered in the research had a different relationship with the implementation process and existed in one of three levels within the college. The characteristics are divided into macro, meso and micro levels each encapsulating several characteristics. Below is a discussion o f the different levels and the characteristics that exist in each one. M a c r o Characteristics The macro category includes college characteristics that are static. They exist in the broad context, do not change quickly or easily, and have an indirect influence on the A S E programs. Macro characteristics are beyond the control o f staff or faculty and include: the college focus, the college purpose, the reputation, the internal policies, and the future direction. The College focus and purpose are two interrelated characteristics needing to be described together. The College in this study was founded on an open door policy responding to the needs o f the community. In order to meet the needs o f the community the college has maintained a comprehensive approach, which means that a variety of courses complement the  87 curriculum base. Both applied programs and academic programs are available. Applied programs focus on teaching skills that are directly transferable to employment. Examples are upholstery, auto mechanics, or electronics assembly. A n outcome measure for this type of program is employment, utilizing skills received in the training program. Examples of academic programs are chemistry, English, and math. The outcome measure for these programs is continued education. The purpose of this college is to meet the needs of the community by maintaining a comprehensive curriculum. The focus of the college program is to link learners to employment or further education through training at the college. The college purpose and the focus of the program have allowed A S E to blend into the overall structure of the college. The college has a long history of involvement with Adult Special Education. They also have a strong reputation with non-traditional learners. The college earned this reputation by offering quality programs and supports for students with disabilities. The reputation is unlikely to change rapidly and is beyond the control of staff. The reputation is a positive macro element in the implementation process. The internal policies on disability at this college contain strong statements of inclusion. The policies are predominately used as reference when issues arise, but they are a solid component of the context. A s such, they are an influential macro characteristic. It took a long time for this site to develop them, but the College continues to maintain and update its policy ideals. The future of the college is dictated by government directives. This is considered a macro level characteristic because it is a broad issue. Staff at the program level do not dictate the future of the program. Funding decisions, and directives from the funding bodies, suggest significant changes and provide vision to the program. Currently, the B C government has made  88 a commitment to continued funding for A S E . Funding is required to secure a future for the programs. A college that includes A S E in the master plan creates an environment which makes implementation of A S E programs easier. The above five characteristics are strong influences for the implementation process. The college focus, the purpose, the college reputation, the internal policies, and the future direction embrace the idea of A S E . Receptive macro elements create an accepting environment for the implementation of A S E . Meso Characteristics Meso characteristics are more dynamic and directly related to the A S E programs. They are closer to the application of the programs, but do not necessary affect the day to day operation. People in positions of authority have the ability to influence the implementation process at this level. The characteristics in this level are: program location, staff values, change process, and staff. A n important consideration for this site is the division within which the program is located. Historically, the program was housed with other applied programs. This means that programs with employment as the outcome measures were together. Now, the program has moved, and rests within the services division. This means that an applied program is housed in the same division that is responsible for supporting students with disabilities. The division is responsible for coordinating services such as interpreters, notetakers, Braille services and other such supports. The perceived strength of combining the program with services is a united voice on behalf of disability issues at the college.  The difficulty in the move is the marginalization of  the program, and the risk of fiscal restraint. When housed together with similar programs, cutbacks affect all programs equally. When the A S E program is housed together with supports for disabled students, cutbacks mean reduction in support for students entering regular programs,  89 and reduction in the number of students accessing special education programs. Staff, meaning the Dean and Faculty members, influence the placement and it has an indirect impact on the A S E programs. The values and beliefs o f staff are a fundamental area o f influence in accessible education. Staff who believe in the rights o f all individuals to access education will assist program development. Staff who have difficulty believing non traditional learners have a right to access post-secondary education make implementation difficult. The implementation process is especially influenced by the values and beliefs of people in positions of authority. When the Dean, the President, and Faculty members throughout the College believe in the goal of accessible education, the policy intent is maximized. The policy can be compromised by these fundamental differences in opinion. These differences influence the process, but are not easy to ascertain. The change process in the college is a meso characteristic. There are different change agents depending on the scope of change involved. The Dean and Faculty can make some program changes such as program goals or learning outcomes. Other changes, requiring additional funding, must be passed at the Departmental Educational Council ( D E C ) . The D E C is made up of representatives within the division. Still other changes, such as introducing a new program that would require new funding, must be passed at the College Educational Council ( C E C ) . The C E C consists of representatives of all the different divisions within the college. The magnitude of the change dictates the complexity of the change process. The ability, or inability to make change to the program has a direct relationship to the program. Meso level staff include the Faculty, the Dean, the President, and the Board. These positions have more authority to create and change curriculum. The relationship among these different staff members could significantly shape the application of policy. It is at this level that  90 the implementation link is demonstrated. Figure 4 shows two thick arrows linking the meso level with the policy. Staff at this level make implementation decisions that affect application of programs. The last element of the meso level is accountability. In the previous discussion about power, politics and negotiation, accountability was described as an implementation link. It is elaborated here in order to understand that the link is directly with the meso level within the college and with neither the macro level nor the micro level. The Dean, the President and some Faculty members are charged with the responsibility of program accountability. Staff responsible for classroom instruction, the technicians, are removed from the demands of government. Generally, technicians are informed of the accountability measures, but are not responsible for reporting results. This duty is relegated to the staff levels above the technicians. The relationship between the government and the college is the strongest at this level. Conflicting pressures at any one of the elements in this level would lead to a serious of decisions that influence the implementation process. Historically, staff at the meso level have been very involved in program development. Over time, the program matured and became entrenched in the college system. Major changes to the program would start at the meso level and trickle down to the micro level.  Micro Characteristics The meso level characteristics are responsible for program development, while micro level characteristics have the strongest link to program application. The micro characteristics change easily and have a day to day impact on the A S E programs. These include program goals, staff, and the use o f advisory committees. The program goals are a micro characteristic because they mold and shape application and have a direct relationship with program delivery. When the program was introduced, the  goal was to teach a skill set. Over time, funding bodies have insisted the College invest in employment as an outcome measure. The goal continues to be to teach a skill set, with the added pressure o f ensuring that the skills are current and students are graduating with sufficient opportunity for employment in their field. Goals can change with the input o f staff at this level and they have a direct impact on the structure of the program. Staff at this level refers to the technicians, who are responsible for classroom instruction. The way in which technicians interpret goals and support students directly influence the outcome measures. The relationship between the staff at this level and the staff at the meso level is critical. A t this site, in the A S E department, the staff relationships have been difficult, resulting in difficult labour relations. More importantly, the difficult labour relations have the potential to affect student learning and program growth. Advisory committees are invited to suggest improvements to the classroom curriculum. These committees advise the instructors, and the Faculty about labour market changes. In this way, instructors are able to keep their program current, and relevant to the job market. Within the confines of the current budget, instructors are able to make minor changes to the programs, improving the quality of the program for the students. Currently, the advisory committee is not of the A S E department due, in part, to the difficult labour relations.  When the college decides  to use the committee the influence is directly felt at the micro level. THE POLICY The policy in this research is noble, inclusive and promoting change, but also vague and lacking in explicit direction for implementers. The strength of the policy is its inherent vision: a society with equal access to education. The weakness is the ambiguity, making it difficult to implement and easy to compromise. This policy is a proposed solution to an identified social problem. The social problem was the lack of accessible education programs for adults with  92 disabilities. The policy is a gentle suggestion for community colleges to open their doors to nontraditional learners. The policy was created in response to societal pressure and legislation, contains a general goal, and provides financial resources to assist in implementation. These conditions are consistent with various policy definitions from the literature. For Ottoson and Green (1987) the policy is: the goals and objectives, the magnitude o f change proposed, and available resources. Hogwood and Gunn (1984) indicate that the policy has to have a valid theory, adequate time and sufficient resources. "Social policy doesn't make things happen. Things make social policy happen" (4). This quotation is a good starting place from which to understand the evolution o f the policy for accessible education. The idea for this policy began in a grass roots movement in the community, but needed government clout to create province wide change. A relationship between Ministry representatives and Faculty throughout the province created the 1983 policy. "There was a group that would meet twice a year to work on the policies that eventually became passed" (10). This relationship involved reciprocity, each side benefiting from their involvement. The Ministry representatives provided leadership by establishing an ideal, and providing money for the colleges to create programs. The Faculty helped the Ministry representatives understand the issues for disabled students that, in turn, allowed the Ministry to provide better vision. The policy for accessible education evolved through this synergetic relationship. The relationship between staff and the policy has since changed. Funding and accountability are the two key links in the current relationship. Policy ideals no longer have a direct impact on program delivery, but are translated into funding decisions within the Ministry: It is not a policy driven Ministry...The field would look more towards the language the Ministry uses in the funding letter and they would look at funding decisions. They would look at the response to the institution when they try to  93 make changes related to special education. That would be how the Ministry is perceived as communicating policy (5).  Funding decisions transform the deeply nested policy into programs. This allows the exchange of money or resources to the college which then translates these into programs and supports for students with disabilities.  The Ministry responsible for post-secondary education  remains committed to access and equity and continues to provide financial support for the continuation of the programs: Between 1985 and 1991, the budget for support services for students with disabilities increased by over 600%...and the number of full-time spaces increased by 179%... (Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Skills, Training and Labour, 1995).  While funding decisions affect the relationship from the Ministry to the college, accountability affects the relationship in the opposite direction.  A s indicated in Chapter four,  accountability is an area of tension. Differing views on how people interpret accountability prevail. Some participants believed that the Ministry operates at an arm's length, requiring very little accountability. Others reported that the new accountability measures were binding the programs too tightly. Still, others indicated that more accountability measures helped the college achieve quality programming.  Without a doubt, the relationship between the Ministry  and the college is changing and becoming more involved: We are not currently held accountable in terms of the number of graduates, but there has been considerable movement in the Ministry to change the funding formula to include...key performance indicators, that will become much more a part of our reality (3).  EXTERNAL INFLUENCES There was a plethora of external influences examined in this research, spanning the period 1981 to the present. The external factors in this site include international, federal, and  94 provincial reports and events. These external influences did two things. First, specific reports and events focused on improving access to education. Second, initiatives advocated for broader changes such as, access to fundamental human rights, and the eradication o f systemic discrimination. External influences for this site are legislation, government initiatives, special interest groups, media coverage of individuals fulfilling ambassador roles, and significant events. Different authors of implementation research distinctly define external influences. For some, timing, the participating agencies, and the intended beneficiaries are external influences (Ottoson & Green, 1987). Chase (1979) referred to elected officials, special interest groups and the press as external influences.  Others have indicated that the socioeconomic conditions,  public support and media attention are external influences (Sabitier & Mazmanian, 1981). The external factors found in this research are consistent with findings in the literature, but are developed specifically for this site. Not only did the research confirm the factors, but also uncovered the magnitude and direction of the influence. As shown in Figure 4, the external factors influence policy by exerting pressure on the government agency. For example, the B C Coalition for People with Disabilities is active in a number of ways. They form committees to study, and inform the government regarding issues such as poverty, physical access, and education and training. The external influences changed, and continue to change the social discourse on disability. The discourse guides policy development and ultimately the social construction of disability in society. The community of citizens that actively promote inclusion have advocated for more than 18 years. Changing the way society constructs disability, and promoting equal access to education has been a slow and arduous journey. This type of sweeping change takes time and progresses through a series of small steps.  95 In conclusion, the implementation process feels the pressure of the external influences in the government agency. This type of influence takes a great deal of time and is incremental in its effect. In the revised framework this is a thin arrow weakly linking the government agency with the external influences. SUMMARY The information in this chapter accomplishes two goals. First, it critically examines the original framework and lays the groundwork to reconstruct the framework according to the data. Second, it presents and describes the reconstructed framework. challenged the original framework.  The data confirmed and  The four factors described in original framework were  confirmed. They remain, the policy, external influences, the implementing agency, and power politics and negotiation, but the data challenged the relationship between the four factors. Power, politics and negotiation were a pervasive factor throughout the process of implementation and could not exist as a separate entity. The data provided 12 characteristics that defined and described the implementing agency. The policy itself no longer provides vision to the programs but is translated into funding decisions that indicate the commitment of the government, and dictate the programs offered. The data show that external influences were important considerations for the government agency. The final chapter in this thesis concludes the research, discusses the implications, and offers some recommendations for practice.  96  CHAPTER SIX SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS  The final chapter in this thesis summarizes, and concludes the research. It also discusses implications, and makes recommendations derived from the study. In addition, it contains a number of suggestions for future research.  SUMMARY The intent of this summary is to pull together a whole series of ideas and paint a clear picture of this research project. The project outlined on the previous pages is a study o f a process and a policy. The process was implementation, the area somewhere between creation of policy and application of programs. The policy was titled Provision of Adult Special Education Programs in the public education system in British Columbia, which provided both programs and supports for accessible education in community colleges. Not only has this research investigated a process and a policy, but it emphasized the issues of accessible education for adults with disabilities. Thinking of this research simply as an implementation study undermines the importance of bringing these non-traditional learners to the foreground. This research began because I was curious about accessible education. Understanding the implementation process is the first step in advocating for improved programming. This is a qualitative inquiry, using a case study methodology. It is one story about implementation in one context. Four factors that effect implementation were established from the literature and displayed in Figure 1, Chapter one. The four factors were: policy, external influences, implementing agency, and power, politics and negotiation. The intent of this research was to compare the results of the case study against this predetermined conceptual framework.  97  The results confirmed and challenged the preconceived framework. The data confirmed the factors, but suggested that the relationship among the factors was inadequately portrayed. It was inadequate because not all four factors influence the process equally, as was suggested in Figure 1. Some factors played a more prominent role than others in the implementation process. It was also inadequate because power, politics and negotiation was not a separate factor as illustrated in Figure 1. Power, politics and negotiation permeated through the entire planning process and were a part of all the other factors. A new framework was designed based on the data and recognizing these inadequacies. The revised framework illustrated in Figure 4 adequately portrayed the findings and illustrated the relationship among the four factors. The primary factor to consider in the implementation process is power, politics and negotiation. This factor surrounds decisions affecting application of the policy, especially at specific junctions. There are two such junctions, or implementation links, for this site. The first link is within the implementing agency, between the micro and meso level staff. Application of policy depends upon the relationship between staff at these two levels. The second link is between the meso level staff and the policy. Negotiating adequate resources from the government, and college accountability are two influential factors to consider at this junction. Power, politics and negotiation are influential throughout the implementation process but especially evident at these implementation links. The secondary factor to consider in the implementation process is the implementing agency. The 12 interorganizational characteristics found in this study mold and shape application of policy, although some characteristics have a stronger relationship to the implementation process than others. For instance, macro level characteristics such as the college reputation and purpose are static and have a weaker influence on program application, while meso characteristics such as staff values and program location have a stronger influence. Micro  98 level characteristics, such as program goals and staff, also have a strong influence on the process. The characteristics of the implementing agency, at all levels blend to enable, or prohibit implementation o f policy. In this site, the characteristics create a positive environment, enabling application of the A S E policy. Slightly removed from the implementation process is the original policy. The policy, nested within a government agency, was translated into funding decisions. The funding decisions indicated a commitment to the ideals of the policy, making resources available to create programs for non-traditional learners. The government maintains a presence in the process through accountability, which is the link between the policy and the implementing agency. External factors have a weak influence in the implementation process at this site.  There  is a relationship between the policy and external influences, but not between external influences and the implementing agency. External influences apply pressure to the government to create policy that enables people with disabilities to exercise their rights. This type o f pressure is necessary to maintain and improve access to education and to maintain and create equal opportunity for quality of life.  Incrementally, external influences help to develop policies that  alter and, hopefully, advance the social construction of disability. Policies of inclusion, such as the policy in this research project, create opportunity for disadvantaged individuals. The questions motivating this research sought to understand the implementation process in one community college. The goal of every thesis is to choose a methodology that will answer the initial questions. Case study was the methodology chosen in this research, and it is appropriate at this time to review the questions to determine i f they were adequately answered.  99  REVIEWING T H E RESEARCH QUESTIONS T h i s r e s e a r c h b e g a n as a c u r i o s i t y . W h y w e r e the A S E p r o g r a m s d i f f e r e n t at d i f f e r e n t  colleges?  U l t i m a t e l y this one question e x p a n d e d into four exploratory questions inquiring into  t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s i n a s e l e c t e d site. E a c h q u e s t i o n f r a m e d d i f f e r e n t i s s u e s , b u t e a c h  s o u g h t u n d e r s t a n d i n g . E a c h q u e s t i o n , as w e l l as the a n s w e r , is r e v i e w e d i n this s e c t i o n .  T h e first q u e s t i o n a s k e d h o w a p o l i c y b e c a m e a p r o g r a m w i t h i n a c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e .  T h i s r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d that i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n d i n t r a o r g a i n z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s h e l p e d  policy become program.  P o l i c y b e c a m e A S E p r o g r a m s t h r o u g h the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n process,  w h i c h is a j o u r n e y t h r o u g h a m a z e o f d e c i s i o n s . D e c i s i o n s w e r e a f f e c t e d b y a variety o f factors.  T h e s e d e c i s i o n s a r e u n i q u e f o r e a c h site, b u t t h i s r e s e a r c h e x p o s e d t h e p r o c e s s w i t h i n t h i s site.  T h i s q u e s t i o n w a s s u f f i c i e n t l y a n s w e r e d i n the c o n t e x t o f this study.  T h e s e c o n d q u e s t i o n a s k e d a b o u t the factors that i n f l u e n c e d the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n process.  T h e literature e s t a b l i s h e d f o u r factors a n d a r e l a t i o n s h i p that e x i s t e d a m o n g the factors.  This  research c o n f i r m e d these factors but c h a l l e n g e d the established relationship. A revised  f r a m e w o r k d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r t h i s site a n d p r o v i d e d the a n s w e r to this r e s e a r c h  question.  T h e t h i r d q u e s t i o n that i n s p i r e d this research c o n s i d e r e d the trade-offs that t h e c o l l e g e  must consider w h e n implementing policy.  b a s e d o n p r e v a i l i n g factors.  the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the policy.  T r a d e - o f f s refer to the d e c i s i o n s that p e o p l e  make,  T h e trade-offs c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n the structure have direct i m p a c t o n  Further research c o u l d e x p a n d o n the issue o f trade-offs f o r this  site. T h i s r e s e a r c h g l i m p s e d s o m e o f t h e c o n f l i c t i n g p r e s s u r e s , b u t n o t a l l t h e t r a d e - o f f s w e r e  evident i n this research.  The  final  question asked whether the c o m m u n i t y college has  p o l i c y or to the context.  fidelity  to the c o n c e p t in the  T h e i m p l e m e n t i n g a g e n c y is the m o s t p r e v a l e n t f a c t o r i n t h e  100 implementation process, and requires fidelity to itself. This is not to say that the college does not embrace the concept of the policy, only that the decisions within the structure maintained the internal integrity of the implementing agency. The research design complemented the research questions, resulting in satisfactory answers to the original queries. The research determined the process, uncovered the factors, and determined fidelity to the context. The research provided a summary of the trade offs considered in this site, but further research could expand on this area.  CONCLUSIONS This research culminates in conclusions that add to the literature available for this field of inquiry. Conclusions are from two areas: content and process. Those from the content are listed elsewhere in this thesis, but are briefly outlined again. Other conclusions draw upon the process of research. Each of these areas is presented below.  Content Conclusions The following content conclusions include discoveries specific to this site: 1.  Power, politics, and negotiation are pervasive in the process. Negotiations within the implementing agency strongly influence application of policy.  2. The implementing structure is a strong factor in the implementation process. 3.  External influences do not have a direct bearing on the process within the implementing agency.  4.  The College maintains Adult Special Education because the Ministry provides funding and requires accountability.  5.  The original policy nested deeply within the government agency does not provide guiding vision for program development to the implementing agency.  101 6.  Macro characteristics of the College create an accepting environment for Adult Special Education.  7.  Staff at different levels in the college have direct impact on the process. Staff at the meso level are invested in program development. They have a direct relationship with the Ministry and understand the funding constraints.  8.  Staff at the micro level are invested in the day-to-day instruction of the program and meeting the needs of the students. The relationship between the two levels is critical in offering quality, relevant programs for non-traditional learners.  Process Conclusions Process conclusions are from the execution of the research. They include considerations regarding the use of case study methodology and the investigation of social policy. Case study is an opportunity to understand a previously identified problem in new light. It is "interactive communication, first between a single researcher with the case, later with the reader" (Stake, 1994, p. 136). The findings of this research allow the reader to absorb the complexity and the interrelationships of the factors that influence implementation in this site. Meaning evolved from the data supplied by the experiences of people involved with adult special education. This research methodology would expect nothing less. Qualitative inquiry would assume that "meaning is embedded in people's experiences and mediated through the investigators own perceptions" (Merriam, 1988, p. 19). Qualitative case study is a valuable methodology to examine the phenomenon of implementation. A n equally important conclusion to note, is that the implementation process at this site is unique and can not be replicated at another. The work of previous implementation authors is critical in laying a foundation from which to build. This research confirmed the factors  102 established from the literature, and offers a solid base to understand implementation.  This  research adds to that literature base and reveals the idiosyncrasies of this site. The final conclusion relates to the impact o f public policy. Elmore (1985) suggests that successful implementation consist o f trading multiple objectives against one another to achieve desired outcomes. The results of this research indicate that trade-offs are prevalent in the process. This has allowed the site to uphold a strong reputation for accessible education. Although this research promotes understanding, success o f the policy is yet to be determined.  IMPLICATIONS The results of this study have implications for instructors in adult special education, policy makers, and future researchers.  Implications for Staff Within the Implementing Agency For staff in Adult Special Education, this research helps to explain the many areas where pressure exists and sacrifices are considered. A s well as this increased understanding, advocates of A S E programs need to recognize that the A S E programs are connected to the community. The programs are not simply about the content of the class, but about much more.  Adult  Special Education is about getting skills that lead to a job, improved quality of life, and participation in society. Instructors in the College need to recognize the purpose and value of the class instruction.  Implications for Policy Makers Findings o f this study demonstrate that one o f the major influences on the implementation o f public policy is the implementing agency. This is relevant and may raise the awareness o f policy makers to the many areas o f decision that could jeopardize the programs. Berman (1980) indicates that policy makers should dispense with the image that implementation must be uniform for all policy situations.  In this situation the policy makers have allowed a  103 high degree of adaptability for the context. Many individuals involved in this research have indicated that this high degree of adaptability may limit program development and outcome. The policy has ceased to be inspiring: "the program has become institutionalized in the institution" (1).  Policy makers would do well to review the policy, take stock of the influences, and adjust  the policy to intersect with the programs to a greater degree. Implications for F u r t h e r Research This study of implementation confirms the work of previous authors by identifying the complexity of the issue. It also recognized that the four major factors are comprehensive in being able to compartmentalize the influences. The value of this research is the understanding that the relationship of the factors is never stagnant. Further studies can continue to explore this issue because the implementation map will be quite different for each community college in the province. Besides studying implementation, future research is wise to look more critically at the programs to challenge implementation difficulties. This research has set the stage for an evaluative study of province-wide A S E policy. RECOMMENDATIONS The wording of the government policy is very general and attempts to meet the needs of all students regardless of the nature of their disability. This was once a reasonable situation, but there have been changes in the field. T o prepare for the 21st century, two policies for access to education would be better. A policy that provided for services and a policy that gave direction to programs. One interview participant shared the idea of division of responsibility.  "I think  there is a division...the service people do service and the program people do program. ...Yet we are all there to service the continuum of opportunity for students" (10). This policy adapted to the implementing context, so to alleviate the implementation difficulties look more towards the internal polices and processes of the college. The internal  104 policy in this site calls for an Adult Special Education policy committee to monitor and evaluate the application o f disability policy. The future and status o f the A S E policy committee in this site remain unclear and this institution would show more fidelity to their policy by resurrecting this committee to monitor application. FINAL WORDS On the surface this thesis is a story about implementation of public policy in a community college. It is also about the academic process that contributes to the knowledge base for people involved in the instruction and support for people with disabilities. Still, more importantly, it is about the social construction o f disability, social justice, and the rights of individuals to access education. The intent o f this research has been to touch each of these areas and allow the reader to carry away their own significant selection. The World Health Organization (1980) defined disability as any restriction or lack of ability (resulting from an impairment) to perform any activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. A handicap, on the other hand, is a disadvantage for a given individual, resulting from an impairment or a disability, that limits or prevents the fulfillment of a role that is normal. A n individual with a disability suffers from a handicap only when it imposed by societal values. This research concludes that accessible education is essential to the continuum of services for individuals with disabilities as society becomes enlightened about the degree o f handicap imposed on people with disabilities. A s mentioned above, this research was not just about implementation. It was also about one researcher submitting a thesis in partial fulfillment of a graduate degree. A t times the process has been a monumental struggle, but it has also provided some transformative learning situations. Cranton (1994) indicated that learning occurs when, through critical self reflection, an individual revises old assumptions or develops new assumptions, beliefs or ways o f seeing the  world (p.4). This academic process has transformed the way I see myself and the way I work. Not only did my confidence grow as a researcher, but 1 gained a deeper understanding of the interrelationship between public policy and the lives of individuals with disabilities. Critically looking at some of my personal values and practices allowed me to progress both as a person and a practitioner, and for this I will be forever grateful.  106  REFERENCES American Association on Mental Retardation. (1983). Mental retardation: definition, classification and systems support. Washington: Author. Barrett, S. & Fudge, C . (1981). Policy and action. London: Methuen. Beinder, F. (1986). College development in British Columbia: Reflections of a layman. Vancouver: Vancouver Community College. Berman, P. (1980). Thinking about programmed and adaptive implementation: Matching strategies to situations. In H. Ingram, and D. Mann (Eds.), Why policies succeed or fail. California: Sage Publications. Boehm, B., & Hart, C . (1992). Training with a vocational outcome for adults with intellectual handicaps. Presentation at the annual conference of the association of Canadian Community Colleges, Vancouver, B C . B C C P D & B C E A D S . (1993). A proposal for change: Legislation for post-secondary education for people with disabilities. Victoria: Ministry of Advanced Education, Training and Technology. Cassidy, F. (1983). Adult Special Education in B . C . : Toward a lifelong learning approach for persons with mental handicaps. B . C . Journal of Special Education. 7 (4), 301-306. Chase, G . (1979). Implementing a human services program: How hard will it be?. Public Policy, 27 (4), 386-435. Cranton, P. (1994). Transformative learning. San Francisco: Jossey Bass Publishers. Creswell, J. W. (1994). A qualitative procedure. In J. Creswell (Ed.), Research design: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.  107 Crichton, A . , & Jongbloed, L. (1997). Disability and social policy in Canada. North York, Toronto: Captus. Dennison, J. (1995). Challenge and opportunity: Canada's community colleges at the crossroads. Vancouver: U B C Press. Dennison, J., & Levin, J. (1988). Canada's community colleges in the nineteen eighties: Responsiveness and renewal. Ottawa: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Denzin, N., & Lincoln, Y . (1994). Handbook o f qualitative research. California: Sage Publications. Elmore, R. (1982). Backward mapping: Implementation research and policy decisions. In W. William's (Ed.), Studying Implementation: Methodological and Administrative Issues. Chatham: Chatham House Elmore, R. (1985). Forward and backward mapping: Reversible logic in the analysis o f public policy. In K. Hanf & T. Toonen (Eds.), Policy implementation in federal and unitary systems. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Fullan, M . G . (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press. Government of Canada, Canadian Comprehensive Auditing Foundation. (1993). Reporting on effectiveness in colleges and institutes: A proposed accountability framework for the British Columbia public system. Ottawa: Author. Government o f Canada, Canadian Human Rights Commission. (1997). Celebrating our progress, facing our future: Annual report. Ottawa: Author. Government o f Canada, Canadian Labour Force Development Board. (1994). People with disabilities making transitions: Research report 3. Ottawa: Author.  108  Government of Canada, Canadian Organizing Committee. (1982). Directions. Ottawa: Author. Government of Canada, Department o f Justice. (1985). Canadian charter o f rights and freedoms. Ottawa: Queen's Printer. Government of Canada, Federal, Provincial, and Territorial Ministers Responsible for Social Services. (1998). In Unison: A Canadian approach to disability issues . Ottawa: Author. Government of Canada, Minister of Justice and Attorney General. (1986). Toward equity. Ottawa: Author. Government of Canada, Ministry Responsible for the Status of Disabled Persons. (1987). Obstacles 1987 report update. Ottawa: Author. Government of Canada, Secretary o f State. (1983). Surmounting obstacles. Ottawa: Author. Government of Canada, Special Committee on the Disabled and the Handicapped (1981). Obstacles. Ottawa: Author. Government of Canada, The Standing Committee on Communication and Culture. (1985). Challenge: Putting our house in order. Ottawa: Author. Government of Canada, The Standing Committee on Human Rights and the Status o f the Disabled (1986). Accepting the challenge. Ottawa: Author. Government of Canada, The Standing Committee on Human Rights and the Status o f Disabled Persons. (1990). A consensus for action: The economic integration o f disabled persons. Ottawa: Author.  109 Government o f Canada, The Standing Committee on Human Rights and the Status o f Disabled Persons. (1993). Profitable choices for everyone. Ottawa: Author. Government of Canada, The Standing Committee on Justice and Legal Affairs (1985). Equity for all. Ottawa: Author. Ham, C , & H i l l , M . (1984). The policy process in the modern capitalist state. Sussex: Wheatsheaf. Hansen, R., & Taylor J. (1987). Rick Hansen: M a n in motion. Vancouver: Douglas and Mclntyre Publishers. H i l l , J. L. (1992). Accessibility: Students with disabilities in universities in Canada. Canadian journal of higher education, 22 (1), 48-83. Hitchcok, G . , & Hughes, D. (1995). Research and teachers (2nd edition). N e w York: Routledge. Hogwood, B. W . , & Gunn, L. A . (1984). Policy analysis for the real world. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Holmes, N. (1994). The Canadian human rights act: Processing complaints o f discrimination background paper. Ottawa: Library o f Parliament. Hubbard, L., & Ottoson, J. (1997). When a bottom-up innovation meets itself as a topdown policy. Science communication. 19 (1), 41-55. Kidder, L. (1981). Selltz, Wrightsman and Cook's research methods in social relations. New York: Holt Rienhart and Winston. Kiernan, W . E . , & Stark, J . A . (1986). Current and future directions in the employment of adults with developmental disabilities. In W . E . Keirnan & J. A . Stark (Eds.), Pathways to employment for adults with developmental disabilities. Baltimore, M . D . : Paul H. Brookes.  110 Kirby, S., & McKenna, K. (1989). Experience research social change: Methods from the margins. Toronto: Garamond Press. Lincoln, Y . S . , & Guba, E . G . (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, C A : Sage Publications Inc. Majone, G , & Wildavsky, A . (1984). Implementation as evolution. In J. L. Pressman & A . Wildavsky (Eds.). Implementation: H o w great expectations in Washington are dashed in Oakland (3rd, ed.). Berkeley, California: University o f California Marshall, C . & Rossman, G . (1995). Designing qualitative research (2nd ed). London: Sage Publications. M c M i l l a n , J . , & Schumacher, S. (1993). Research in education. N e w York: Harper Collins College. Merriam, S.B. (1988). Case study research in education: A qualitative approach. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Merriam, S.B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Miles, M . B . , & Huberman, M . (1994). A n expanded sourcebook: Qualitative Data analysis. London: Sage. Nadeau, G . , Donald, J., Konrad, A . , Lavigne, J., & Laveault, D. (1993). Criteria and indicators o f quality and excellence in Canadian colleges and universities. Ottawa: Report Published at the Conference of the Learned Societies, May-June. Ochock, J . , Roth, D., Lord, J., & MacGillivary, H. (1994). Workplaces that work. Kitchener, Ontario: Centre for Research and Education. Ottoson, J . , & Green, L. (1987). Reconciling concept and context: Theory o f implementation. Advances in health education and promotion, 2, 353-382.  Ill  Pal, L. A . (1997). Beyond policy analysis: Public issue management in turbulent times. Scarborough: International Thomson. Patton, M . Q . (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. California: Sage. Persons with Disabilities Employment Advisory Committee. (1994). Review of programs and services for persons with disabilities in the lower mainland. Vancouver: Interfacts Consulting Inc. Porter, G . & Richler, D. (1991). Changing special education practices: Law, advocacy & innovation. In G . Porter & D. Richler (Eds.), Changing Canadian schools. North York, Ont.: The Roeher Institute. Pressman, T . L . , & Wildavsky, A . (1973). Implementation. Berkeley: University o f California. Province o f British Columbia, Advanced Educational Council o f B C (1992). Access for equity and opportunity. Victoria: Author. Province o f British Columbia, Ministry of Advanced Education and Job Training, Provincial Access Committee. (1988). Access to advanced education and job training in British Columbia. Victoria: Author. Province o f British Columbia, Ministry of Advanced Education, Training and Technology. (1991). A framework for equity: Report of the review o f special education in B C ' s college system. Victoria: Author. Province o f British Columbia, Ministry o f Advanced Education, Training and Technology. (1995). Perspectives: Best practices guidelines. Victoria: Author. Province o f British Columbia, Ministry o f Education. (1983). Ministerial policy on the provision o f A S E programs in the public education system. Victoria: Author.  112 Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Education, Skills and Training. (1996). Charting a new course: A strategic plan for the future of British Columbia's college, institute and agency system. Victoria: Author. Province o f British Columbia, Ministry of Education, Skills and Training. (1997). O n track: Final evaluation of the provincial strategy to coordinate disability issues in B C . Victoria: Author. Province o f British Columbia, Ministry o f Skills, Training and Labour. (1995). Background paper: Post-secondary access for students with disabilities. Victoria: Author. Province o f British Columbia, Ministry o f Social Services. (1992). Common themes and future directions. Victoria: Author Roeher Institute. (1995). Speaking of equality: Making literacy programs accessible to people with an intellectual disability - A guide for program managers and coordinators. North York, Ont.: Author. Rubenson, K. (1987). Adult education: The economic context. In F. Cassidy & R. Farris (Eds.), Choosing our future: Adult education and public policy in Canada. Toronto: OISE. Sabatier, P.A., & Mazmanian, D . A . (1981). The implementation of public policy: A framework for analysis. In D. A . Mazamanian & P.A. Sabatier (Eds.), Effective policy implementation. Lexington, M A : Lexington Books. Scott, A . , (1996). Equal citizenship for Canadians with disabilities: The will to act. Ottawa: Queens Printer. Stainton, T. (1994). Autonomy and social policy. England: Avebury. Stake, R., (1994). Case Studies. In N. K. Denzin & Y . S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook o f qualitative research. California: Sage.  113 Ticoll, M . (1995). Inclusion of individuals with disabilities in post-secondary education: A review of the literature. North York, Ont.: The Roeher Institute. Tighe, R., & Danelesko, E. (1994). Integrating adults with developmental delay into existing post-secondary education options: A pilot study. Exceptional education Canada 4 (1), 29-42. Uditsky, B. & Kappel, B. (1988). Integrated post-secondary education, Entourage 3 (3). United Nations. (1983). World programme of action concerning disabled persons. Ottawa: Author. West, J. (1996). Implementing the Americans with disabilities act. Cambridge, Mass: Blackwell Publishers. Wolfensberger, W. (1972). The principle of normalization in human services. Downsview Ontario: National Institute on Mental Retardation. World Health Organization. (1980). Regional Office for Europe. Copenhagen: Author. Y i n , R. (1989). Case study research: Design and methods. Newbury, C A : Sage Publications. Young, W. (1997). Disability: Socio-economic aspects and proposals for reform. Ottawa: Library of Parliament. Younis, T., & Davidson, I. (1990). The study of implementation. In T. Younis (Ed.), Implementation in public policy. Great Britain: Dartmouth.  I  Appendix A l i £ 12. Summary of Methodology and Procedures. Note: If your study Involves deception, you must also complete page 7, the 'Deception Form'.  I have chosen to use a case study design to investigate policy manipulation from inception to application. Case study design was chosen because the phenomenon being investigated is complex and requires that the investigator be immersed in the .ulture of the site. The proposed site is accessible to the researcher and has had an Adult Special Education department since 1983, the year the policy was published. The literature review has identified four relevant concepts for the study: policy, implementing agency, external influences, and power, politics and negotiation. This conceptual framework will inform the data analysis stage of this study. The data is generated from two data gathering strategies: document review and in-depth interviews. Documents from three sources will be consulted: 1. policies and reviews published by the Ministry of Advanced Education, Training and Technology, 2. reviews or reports published by special interest groups, and 3. documents significant to the internal workings of the college. The data mined from these documents will explore three of the factors determined in the framework. The review of the documents lays the foundation for probing deeper into the implementation process in the interviews. The interviews will be piloted with the assistance of two individuals involved in instruction in adult special education. This pilot inquiry is used to firm up the questions needed for the in-depth interviews. Data generated from the pilot inquiry will not be included in the analysis. In-depth interviews allow for a deeper level of discussion and allow participants to describe the implementation factors from their own perspective. The interviews will explore questions generated from the document review and focus on the implementation factors of power, politics and negotiation within the college. Interview questions will be based on the interview guide, item 32. This study will use two levels of data analysis. First level analysis involves coding by using words, sentences or paragraphs to attach meaning. Secondary analysis will invlove pattern coding. The analysis is deductive using an a prior framework generated from the implementation literature. The framework will be used to begin the pooling of words or statements into themes with emphasis placed on units of meaning that do not fit the framework. A list of themes that do not fit the framework will imply the framework requires modification.  Description of Population 13. How many subjects will be used? 8-12  How many in the control group? n/a  14. Who is being recruited, and what are the criteria for their selection?  implementation in community colleges involves multiple organizations and many levels of administration, each level making decisions about the resources they control. For this reason individuals holding the following positions will be invited to participate in the study: 1. board member of the college 2. president of the college 3. dean of the faculty 4. administrator of :he A S E department 5. faculty in the A S E department 6. instructors in the A S E department 7. community organization -elated to the program 8. ministry representatives and 9. someone who has a historical perspective of the policy. ' 5. What subjects will be excluded from participation?  This study will be confined to the specified community college.  5. How are the subjects being recruited? If the initial contact is by letter or if a recruitment notice is to be posted, attach a copy. Note that U B C policy iiscourages initial contact by telephone. However, surveys which use random digit dialing may be allowed. If your study involves such contact, you must jlso complete page 8, the 'Telephone Contact form.  The Community College selected to participate will be contacted by letter, see attached item 16. After institution consent is :onfirmed, individuals selected to participate in the interviews will be contacted by letter, see attached item 37.  7. If a control group is involved, and their selection and/or recruitment differs from the above, provide details:  lot applicable  2/8  Appendix A  //^  Project Details  18. Where will the project be conducted (room or area)? at the Community College 19. Who will actually conduct the study and what are their qualifications?  Student Investigator - M.A. Candidate  20. Will the group of subjects have any problems giving informed consent on their own behalf? Consider physical or mental condition, age, language, and other barriers.  All of the participants in this study will be able to give informed consent.  21. If the subjects are not competent to give fully informed consent, who wiH consent of their behatf? n/a 22. What is known about therisksand benefits of the proposed research? Do you have additional opinions on this issue?  There are no known risks to this research. I believe that the benefits include an understanding of the process of implementing public policy within an agency. The ultimate goal is to discuss the link between accessible education and public policy. Understanding implementation factors is critical to maximize the intended outcome of any public policy.  23. What discomfort or incapacity are the subjects likely to endure as a result of the experimental procedures?  none  24. If monetary compensation is to be offered to the subjects, provide details of amounts and payment schedules,  not applicable  25. How much time will a subject have to dedicate to the project?  total of 2 hours  26. How much time will a member of the control group, if any, have to dedicate to the project?  not applicable 3/8  Data 27. Who will have access to the data?  Appendix A U-~^  The student researcher and the thesis committee  28. How will the confidentiality of the data be maintained?  The name of the site will be changed, identifying data will be omitted, and a system of coding will ensure privacy of the site. Individuals involved in the interviews will be assigned codes and any indentifying information will be kept in the personal files of the researcher. Any identifying data generated from the interviews will be omitted from the analysis.  29. What are the plans for the future use of the raw data beyond that described in this protocol? How and when will the data be destroyed?  There are no future plans for the raw data. Data will be maintained and secured in the investigator's data base and will be destroyed six months after the defense of this graduate degree.  50. Will any data which identifies individuals be available to persons or agencies outside the University?  Vo  \ \ . Are there any plans for feedback to the subject?  interview participants will be provided with a transcript of their interview, complete with the first level of analysis. Participants will be asked to verify that their thoughts and words are accurately understood and reflected in the coding. They vill also receive a summary of the findings and a followup thank you note.  •2. Will your project use:  I I Questionnaires (Submit a copy): Interviews (Submit a sample of questions); I I Observations (Submit a brief description); I I Tests (Submit a brief descriptionV  m  Appendix A'" j/f 33. Funding Irrformation Agency / Source of Funds: unfunded • Internal Q External Funds Administered by: • UBC • VHHSC • UBC or Hospital Account Number: Status: • Awarded O Pending Peer Review: Q Start Date (YY-MM-DD): Y  e  s  SPH •  BCWH •  BCCH •  BCCA  Q No Finish Date (YY-MM-DD):  Informed Consent 34. Who will consent? £<] Subject C7J Parent or Guardian. (Written parental consent is always required for research in the schools and an opportunity must be presented either verbally or in writing to the students to refuse to participate or withdraw. A copy of what is written or said to the students should be provided for review by the Committee.) Cj Agency Officials. 35. In the case of projects carried out at other institutions, the Committee requires written proof that agency consent has been received. Please specify below: • I Research Carried Out at a Hospital - Approval of hospital research or ethics committee. O Research Carried Out at a School - Approval of school board and/or principal. Exact requirements depend on individual school boards. Check with Faculty of Education committee members for details. :  ^  I Research Carried Out in a Provincial Hearth Agency - Approval of Deputy Minister. Other - Specify: community colleges  Questionnaires (Completed by Subjects) 36. Questionnaires should contain an introductory paragraph or covering letter which includes the following information. Please check each item in the 'oliowing list before submission of this form to insure that the instruction contains all necessary items. Z] UBC Letterhead. I Title of Project I Identification of the Investigators, Including a phone number. A Brief Summary that Indicates the purpose of the project I The Benefits to be derived. I A Full Description of the Procedures to be carried out in which the subjects are involved. Z2 A Statement of the Subject's Right to Refuse to Participate or Withdraw at anytimewithout jeopardizing further treatment medical care or class standing, as applicable. Note: This statement must also appear on explanatory letters involving questionnaires. ~~2 The Amount of Time required of the subject. Z3 The Statement that if the questionnaire is completed it will be assumed that consent has been given. This is sufficient if the research is limited to questionnaires; any other procedures or interviews require a consent form signed by the subject Z] An Explanation of how to return the questionnaire. ~~2 Assurance that the Identity of the subject will be kept confidential and a description of how this will be accomplished; e.g. "Don't put your name on the questionnaire". For Surveys circulated by mail, a copy of the explanatory letter as well as a copy of the questionnaire.  5/8  Appendix A Consent Forms 37. UBC policy requires written consent in all cases other than those limited to questionnaires which are completed by the subject. (See item #36 for consent requirements.) Please check each item in the fallowing list before submission of this form to ensure that the written consent form attached contains all necessary items. If your research involves initial contact by telephone, you do not need to fill out this section. ^  UBC Letterhead.  S  TrUe of the Project.  £2 Identification of investigators, including a telephone number. Research for a graduate thesis should be identified as such and the name and telephone number of the faculty advisor included. ^] Brief but complete description in lay language of the purpose of the project and of all procedures to be carried out in which the subjects are involved. Indicate if the project involves a new or non-traditional procedure whose efficacy has not been proven in controlled studies. [3 Assurance that the identity of the subject will be kept confidential and description of how this will be accomplished, i.e. describe how records in the principal investigator's possession will be coded, kept in a locked filing cabinet, or under password if kept on a computer hard drive. [X] Statement of the total amount oftimethat will be required of a subject. •  Details of monetary compensation, if any, to be offered to subjects.  §3 An offer to answer any inquiries conceming the procedures to ensure that they are fully understood by the subject and to provide debriefing, if appropriate. '3 A statement that if they have any concerns about their rights or treatment as research subjects, they may contact Dr. Richard Spratley, Director of the UBC Office of Research Services and Administration, at 822-8598. 3  A statement of the subject'srightto refuse to participate or withdraw at any time and a statement that withdrawal or refusal to participate will not jeopardize further treatment, medical care or influence class standing, as applicable. Note: This statement must also appear on letters of initial contact. For research done in the schools, indicate what happens to children whose parents do not consent The procedure may be part of classroom work but the collection of data may be purely for research.  3  A statement acknowledging that the subject has received a copy of the consent form including all attachments for the subject's own records.  3  A place for signature of subject consenting to participate in the research project, investigation, or study and a place for the date of the signature.  ~Z] Parental consent forms must contain a statement of choice providing an option for refusal to participate, e.g. 1 consent /1 do not consent to my child's participation in this study." Also, verbal assent must be obtained from the child, once the parent has consented. X ] If there is more than one page, number the pages of the consent, e.g. page 1 of 3,2 of 3, 3 of 3. Attachments 18. Check items attached to this submission, if applicable. Incomplete submissions will not be reviewed. 3  Letter of Initial Contact. (Item 16)  Zj Advertisement for Volunteer Subjects. (Item 16) 3 Subject Consent Form. (Item 37) Z] Control Group Consent Form. (If diferent from above) I] Parent / Guardian Consent Form. (If differenct from above) 3 Agency Consent. (Item 35) 3 Questionnaires, Tests, Interviews, etc. (Item 32) Z] Explanatory Letter with Qestionnaire. (Item 36) U Deception Form, including a copy of transcript of written or verbal debriefing. Z Telephone Contact Form. ~i Other - Specify:  678  f^o  Appendix A DECEPTION FORM If your study involves deception, complete items 1to3. if not, sloptothe next page. 1. Deception undermines informed consent Indicate (a) why you befieve deception is necessary to achieve your research objectives, and (b) why vou" believe mat me benefits of the research outweigh the cost to the subjects.  2. Explain why you believe there wi be no permanent damage as a result of the deception.  3. Describe how you will debrief subjects at the end of the study.  7/8  Appendix A TELEPHONE CONTACT  FORM  If your study involves telephone contact, complete items 1 to 4. If not, you are at the end of the forms. 1. Telephone contact makes it impossible for a signed record of consent to be kept. Indicate why you believe that such contact is necessary to achieve research objectives: 1  vouT  ! 2. Include a copy of the proposed 'front end' script of your telephone interview. Please check each item on the following list before submission of request for j review to ensure that the front end covers as much as possible of the normal consent procedures Identification of fieldwork agency, if applicable. Identification of researcher. D  Basic purpose of project.  0  Nature of questions to be asked, especially if sensitive questions are to be asked.  1 I Guarantee of anonymity and confidentiality. I I Indication of right of refusal to answer any question. I I An offer to answer any questions before proceeding, (see below, item 3) I I A specific inquiry about willingness to proceed. 3. Indicate how interviewers will be trained to answer respondents' questions. Investigators should prepare and submit 'scripted replies', which may cover, but are not necessarily limited to: (a) The means by which respondent was selected. (b) An indication of the estimated time to be required for the interview. (c) The means by which guarantees of anonymity and confidentiality will be achieved. (d) An offer to provide the name and telephone number of a person who can verify the authenticity of the research project. This person shall not be the Research Administration Officer or any person in the Office of Research Services and Administration. (Note: Investigators should be prepared, should potential respondents request it, to provide the name of a person outside the research group, as required by section 9 of the SSHRC guidelines.)  4. Sensitive Subject Matter: Respondents should be forewarned of such questions. It is not always practical to do so as part of the interview's front end. Warnings can be placed later in the interview and can take a naturalistic form as long as their content specificially refers to the sensitive matter. Indicate how you propose to deal with sensitive items, if any, in your interview.  LVS  Appendix A Item 16  ON UBC LETTERHEAD  Date  Letter of Initial Contact name address city, province postal code Dear (name): M y name is Mary Penney-DeMarinis and I am currently a masters student at U B C in the Adult Education program. I am in the final stages of my program and have started the journey into my thesis entitled: I M P L E M E N T A T I O N O F A D U L T S P E C I A L E D U C A T I O N P O L I C Y IN B.C.: A C A S E S T U D Y . This letter is an invitation to you to participate in my study. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that affect implementation o f the policy that created Adult special education at community colleges. This study is significant because an understanding of implementation factors is critical in maximizing the intended outcome of any public policy. This college has been selected because of it's demonstrated commitment to offer quality programs to adults facing multiple barriers. Within any institution, practitioners struggle to bridge the gap between theory (public policy) and practice (programs). One of the sources of data in this study is in-depth interviews. Eight to twelve individuals representing different positions within the college will be invited to participate. Those positions include instructors in the program, faculty in the department, administrators of the department, dean of the faculty, president of the college, and a board member of the college. Individuals or agencies external to the College with a vested interest in the program will also be asked to participate. Y o u have been invited to participate because o f your position at this college.  1 of 2  Appendix A Item 32  Interview guide: Sample questions  1.  What is the goal o f the A S E program?  2.  Where does the program fit into the overall structure of the program?  3.  The program has changed departments over the years, what effect has this had on the program?  4.  One option was threatened with closure in 1989/90. What is your understanding o f this time frame?  5.  What happened that allowed the program to continue?  6.  There has been an A S E advisory committee. What role do they play in the program?  7.  Are you familiar with the 1983 policy that called for accessible education in the public education system? How do you think this directive manifested itself in this College?  8.  Does the College depend on the ministry to provide vision for programs? If so what sort of vision are you receiving from the ministry currently with regards to accessible education?  9.  How do ideas or strategies that promote and support accessible education become policy at this College?  10. What is the purpose of the A S E policy task force? 11. What effect does the current social climate of B C have on the program? 12. H o w do changes in the labour market affect the B O E program? 13. What would it take to change the program? 14. Why does this college continue to offer these programs?  thank you for your time- Is there anyone else you think I should talk to about this program?  Appendix A Item 35  ON UBC LETTERHEAD  Date Agency Consent name address city, province postal code  Dear (name): M y name is Mary Penney-DeMarinis and I am currently a masters student at U B C in the Adult Education program. I am in the final stages o f my program and have started the journey into my thesis titled : I M P L E M E N T A T I O N O F A D U L T S P E C I A L E D U C A T I O N P O L I C Y IN B . C . : A C A S E S T U D Y . This letter is to request permission to use This College as the site in my study. Your college has been selected because of it's demonstrated commitment to offer quality programs to adults facing multiple barriers. The policy o f interest was published in March 1983, by the B. C . Ministry of Education and is titled " M I N I S T E R I A L P O L I C Y O N T H E P R O V I S I O N O F A D U L T S P E C I A L E D U C A T I O N P R O G R A M S IN T H E P U B L I C E D U C A T I O N S Y S T E M O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A " . The purpose of this study is to explore the many factors that affect implementation of this policy. A n understanding of implementation factors is critical in maximizing the intended outcome of any public policy. Within any institution, practitioners struggle to bridge the gap between theory (public policy) and practice (programs). Understanding the implementation process would be of interest to your College in the ongoing effort to maximize best practices. The primary source of data will be from relevant documents internal and external to the college. Internal documents consist of program policies, program directives, college annual reports, archival records, and department circulars. Access to these documents would be from the college library and from the adult special education department. External documents of interest are ministerial guidelines, ministerial reviews of the program and special interest group reports. These will be accessed through the ministry.  I of 2  Appendix A Item 37  ON UBC LETTERHEAD Date  SUBJECT CONSENT F O R M IMPLEMENTATION OF ADULT SPECIAL EDUCATION P O L I C Y I N B.C.: A C A S E S T U D Y  PROJECT TITLE:  PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Dr. Judith Ottoson Associate Professor of Adult Education University of British Columbia  STUDENT INVESTIGATOR:  Mary Penney-DeMarinis M . A . Candidate (Adult Education) University of British Columbia  Purpose and Procedure: The purpose of this study is to discover the factors that affect the implementation of the 1983 policy titled "Ministerial Policy on the Provision of Adult Special Education Programs in the Public Education System of British Columbia". Understanding the factors that influence the implementation process is imperative in order to maximize the intended outcome. Y o u are one of a select sample of participants to be interviewed. The interview will be conducted at your convenience and last approximately 1 to 1.5 hours.  Y o u will be asked  to discuss your involvement with A S E programs, your understanding of the policy, and how programs come to life in your college. Participation in this study will require approximately 2 hours of your time. This will include: scheduling the interview, participating in the interview, and reviewing transcripts for accuracy and intent. Codes will be used to assure individual confidentiality. Only the student interviewer will have access to these codes. Individual data from interviews will not be available to others, only a summary of the results will be provided. A l l data collected will be combined and analyzed to describe Adult Special Education programs, as well as analyze specific elements of the programs. Results of this study will be submitted as a thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Arts degree in Adult Education. 1 of 2  Appendix B Chronology of External Events affecting social discourse of disability late 70's  Deinstitutionalization movement  1979  College and Institutes Act  1981  International year of Disabled Persons  1981  Obstacles report by the Special Committee On The Disabled And Handicapped  1982  Obstacles: progress report by the Special Committee On The Disabled And Handicapped  1982  Continuing Response f the Government of Canada to the Obstacles Report by Secretary of State  1982  Directions by The Canadian Organizing Committee for 1981  1983  INTERNATIONAL DECADE OF THE DISABLED proclaimed by United Nations  1983  Surmounting Obstacles by Secretary of State  1983  Provincial policy on Accessible Education  1985  World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons by United Nations  1985  Section 15 Charter of Rights and Freedoms  1985  Challenge: Putting our house in order by Special Committee On The Disabled And Handicapped  1985  Equity for All by Standing Committee on Justice and legal affairs.  1986  Toward Equity by Minister of Justice and Attorney General  1986  Accepting the Challenge Government Response to the Standing Committee on Justice and Legal Affairs  1986  Employment Equity Act  1987  Obstacles 1987 Report Update by Minister Responsible for the Status of the Disabled  1988  Access to Advanced Education and Job Training in British Columbia by The Provincial Access Committee  1989  The House of Commons established the Standing Committee on Human Rights and the Status of Disabled Persons.  1990  Americans with Disabilities Act  Appendix B  Access: A two Way Street International Conference sponsored by the National Educational Association of Disable Students. Accessibility Survey of BC Post Secondary Institutions by BC Educational Association of Disabled students A Consensus for Action by the Standing Committee on Human Rights and Status of Disabled Persons. Unanswered Questions The governments Response to A consensus for Action Profiles by National Educational Association of Disabled Students A Framework for Equity: A Review of Special Education in BC's College System by Ministry of Advanced Education, Technology and Training. The Prime Minister announced the establishment of a National Strategy for the Integration of Persons with Disabilities Profitable Choices for everyone by The standing committee on human Rights and the Status of Disabled Persons A World Congress on Disability, Independence '92 took place in Vancouver Pathway to integration by Federal, Provincial, Territorial review of services affecting Canadians with disabilities Common Themes and Future Directions by Ministry of Social Services Building Bridges by United Way of Lower Mainland A Proposal for Change: Legislation for Post Secondary Education far persons with disabilities by BC coalition for persons with disabilities and BC educational association for students with disabilities College and Institute Amendment Act Working Together by Canadian Paraplegic Association Review of programs and service for person with disabilities in the lower mainland by ORW and Employment Advisory Committee The Grand Design: Achieving the Open House Vision by "Standing Committee of human rights and the Status of Disabled Person tabled Strategy to coordinate disability issues in BC by office for disability issues Perspectives: Best Practices Guidelines by MAETT  Appendix B Background Paper: Post Secondary Access for Students with Disabilities by MSTL Empowering People and Communities by Canadian Labour Force Development Board End of the National Strategy on the Integration of persons with disabilities Government response to the Grand Design was tabled. Equal Citizenship for Canadians with Disabilities: The will to Act. Federal Task Force on Disability Issues. Charting A New Course. The provincial government strategic plan for post Secondary education Celebrating our progress. Facing our future by Canadian Human Rights Commission On Track: Final Evaluation of the Strategy to Co-ordinate disability issues in BC by MOEST Labour Market development co-management planning conference HRDC and MOEST Canada BC Agreement Employment Assistance for persons with disabilities by HRDC and MAETT In Unison: A Canadian Approach to Disability Issues by Federal, Provincial and Territorial ministers responsible for Social Services  


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items