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Program planning in a museum setting : a case study analysis using two planning frameworks McMillan, Christina 2000

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P R O G R A M P L A N N I N G IN A M U S E U M S E T T I N G : A C A S E S T U D Y A N A L Y S I S U S I N G T W O P L A N N I N G F R A M E W O R K S by CHRISTINA M c M I L L A N B . A . Univers i ty of Vic tor ia , 1980 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S i n T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S (Department of Educa t iona l Studies, A d u l t Educat ion) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required s tandard T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRITISH' C O L U M B I A J u l y 2000 © C h r i s t i n a M c M i l l a n , 2000 U B C Special Collections - Thesis Authorisation Form In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date http://www.library.ubc.ca/spcoll/thesauth.html 2000-07-09 A B S T R A C T M a n y theories, models and approaches to program p lann ing have been proposed over the last fifty years i n a n effort to art iculate the process and provide a framework that w i l l inform practice. A s the field of adul t educat ion has evolved, it has become apparent that these efforts have not been adequate i n their efforts to assist planners wi th their day-to-day work. Th is has challenged the field to cont inue to strive toward the goal of gaining a real unders tanding of what actual ly occurs du r ing the p lann ing process. Th is s tudy was under taken i n response to this ongoing debate, as wel l as to contr ibute to the descriptive literature. A case s tudy analysis of the program p lann ing activities associated wi th one program i n a m u s e u m setting provided the data for this study. Th is research endeavoured to uncover the p lann ing process as it was unders tood by those involved. Sork 's program p lann ing framework was employed to analyse and translate p lann ing activities into adul t educat ion program p lann ing language. In addi t ion, the data were filtered through both Sork 's , and Cervero and Wilson 's program p lann ing frameworks to address the further purposes of the research. Specifically, these purposes were to examine whether the analytic framework of Cervero a n d W i l s o n i i accounted for p lann ing i n this case and if Sork 's analytic framework cou ld serve to assist i n unders tanding the p lann ing process as wel l as inform p lann ing practice. The research was guided by an interpretive perspective a n d qualitative methods w h i c h are consistent w i th this perspective. Th is recognizes that there is inter-relatedness and interdependence between the factors that influence and act on an activity. Interpretive inqui ry u s ing qualitative methods is therefore wel l sui ted to this s tudy w h i c h endeavoured to develop an unders tanding of how those involved i n p lann ing activities unders tand their work. A total of seven m u s e u m staff were interviewed. Of those seven, three were executive staff who provided contextual information and were involved i n dec is ion-making that influenced p lann ing activities. The remain ing four staff were directly involved i n p lann ing activities for the program that was being studied. In addi t ion, the external partner to the overall project was contacted electronically. A l l interviews were audio-taped, t ranscr ibed and analysed. The data confirmed that p lann ing for this par t icular case is si tuated w i th in the technical-rat ional t radi t ion. Sork 's framework proved to be a useful template for analys ing the p lann ing process. It also provided the means to explore how and to what degree planners conduct their work w i t h i n the social-poli t ical and ethical d imensions of h is i i i framework. The data showed that p lanners ' actions were influenced by both the social-pol i t ical and ethical d imensions , a l though this was often more intui t ive than conscious. In this par t icular setting, it is un l ike ly that Sork 's framework has ut i l i ty for direct ing p l ann ing activities wi thout a shift i n t h i n k i n g about the way that p lanners ' work shou ld be conducted. The data confirmed that planners d id undertake interest-based negotiations i n their work, demonstrat ing that Cervero and Wilson ' s analytic framework can account for some of the activities i n this p lann ing instance. It was not, however, readily apparent that planners were engaged i n negotiation of power relations i n this case. Th is s tudy provides a pre l iminary analysis of Sork 's framework for program planning . It suggests a need for further analysis of this framework across a variety of settings. In addi t ion, this s tudy indicates that while planners are engaged i n interest-based negotiation, this activity may not be the central activity of program planners i n a l l settings. F ina l ly , this s tudy highlights the fact that these two frameworks offer a more thorough and comprehensive means for unders tand ing the complex nature of program planning . iv T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Abstrac t Acknowledgements Table of Contents Chapter I Introduct ion Purpose Research Quest ions Significance of the S tudy 1 Chapter II 1 Review of Related Literature 1 Selected Program P lann ing Models 1 Sork 's Framework 2 Research on Program P lann ing i n A d u l t Educa t i on 2 E th ic s i n A d u l t Educa t ion 2 Chapter III 3 Methodology 3 Methodological Approach 3 Selection of Sett ing 4 Case Selection 4 Selection of Part ic ipants 4 D a t a Col lect ion 4 Interviews 4 Documen t Ana lys i s 4 Da ta Ana lys i s ••• 4 Chapter IV 4 Educa t ion at the Royal B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m 4 Recent Developments 5 The Royal B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m Today The C o l u m b i a B a s i n Liv ing Landscapes Project Chapter V Research F ind ings The Program P lann ing Process The Technica l D imens ion The Socia l -Pol i t ica l and E t h i c a l Dimens ions v: Chapter VI 90 D i s c u s s i o n and Conc lus ions 90 S u m m a r y of Methodology 91 Limi ta t ions of the S tudy 92 The Program P lann ing Frameworks 93 Conc lus ions 99 Implicat ions for Fur ther Research 101 References 103 Appendix A 107 Appendix B 109 Appendix C 143 Appendix D 152 Append ix E 154 Appendix F 156 Append ix G 169 v i A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S This s tudy is dedicated to the memory of Penny Rob inson who, despite the incredible challenge she faced, always found time to encourage rrie. A n d to V a u g h n , Wendy and Jo -Anne . V a u g h n took over where Penny left off and Wendy as always, was there wi th words of support . J o - A n n e gave me her strength of experience. I a m ever grateful to my committee, wi thout w h o m I'm not sure I wou ld have made it. Dr . Thomas J . Sork who inspi red my interest i n program p lann ing through his exemplary teaching and knowledge a n d patiently saw me through this process. Dr . J e a n B a r m a n who knew j u s t the right things to say at j u s t the right t imes. Her w i sdom was invaluable . A n d Dr . Kjell Rubenson who let me "just do it" but was always there to offer support a n d advice. A n d to the staff at the Royal B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m who welcomed me into their wor ld and shared their en thus iasm for their work wi th me. They are exceptional people. vii C H A P T E R I I N T R O D U C T I O N Program p lann ing is central to adul t educat ion practice. It is the activity that takes an idea from its incept ion and transforms that idea into a l iv ing program. It is a complex process that draws on a wide range of sk i l l s a n d knowledge, from the scientific or technical to the creative or artistic. It's scientific aspect is demonstrated by the fact that to varying degrees, practi t ioners take a systematic approach to their work u s i n g technical tools to achieve their goals. In fact, attempts to art iculate theories and models of program p lann ing have been si tuated i n a scientific or posit ivist ic paradigm for many years. Wi l son a n d Cervero (1997) note that program p lann ing theory "has attempted to improve program p lann ing practice by prescr ibing a scientifically-based procedural logic of complet ing certain tasks ... as a way of opt imally ordering and direct ing p lann ing activities" (p.85). Beg inn ing wi th Tyler 's (1949) Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction, the program p lann ing literature conveys a reliance on a systematic and generally l inear approach to its practice, commonly k n o w n as the technical -ra t ional approach. B u t program p lann ing is m u c h more than a series of steps to be applied i n every p lann ing s i tuat ion. It is undeniable that the technical tools associated wi th a scientific approach are an important component of the program p lann ing process. However, what most of the efforts to l inform practice have not adequately done is recognize the "art" of program p lanning . It involves sk i l l s that cannot be defined i n the way that technical tools can. It requires creativity and flexibility as it is an evolving process. It requires a sensitivity to the social nature of p l ann ing and a wil l ingness to analyse the decisions a n d actions taken i n any given s i tuat ion and cr i t ical ly reflect on those decisions and actions. M a n y theories, models and approaches to program p lann ing have been proposed over the last fifty years i n an effort to art iculate the process a n d provide a framework that w i l l inform practice. A s the field of adul t educat ion has grown and evolved, it has become increasingly apparent that these efforts are insufficient insofar as they assist p lanners wi th their dai ly activities (Sork & Caffarella, 1989; Cervero 8B Wi l son , 1994; Sork, i n press). Th is has challenged the field to cont inue to strive toward the goal of gaining a real unders tanding of what actual ly occurs dur ing the p lann ing process and to identify a n d articulate those less tangible aspects of good practice. The purpose of this s tudy is to develop a greater unders tand ing of planners ' work as it occurs i n real life and i n doing so, assess the potential of two program p lann ing frameworks to assist i n our unders tanding of and abil i ty to inform program p lann ing practice. A s noted earlier, few if any exist ing models of program p lann ing adequately explain what is actual ly occur r ing du r ing the p lann ing process or how practi t ioners go about their work. Nor do these models necessari ly 2 challenge program planners to reflect on why they are doing their work i n a certain way and whether the decisions they make are ethical ly sound . The dominant technical-rat ional approach to program p lann ing has failed for the most part to recognize the contextual nature of p lanning , but its value has been to provide a variety of "techniques" w h i c h can assist one level of the p l ann ing process. More recent work (Cervero & Wi l son , 1996; 1998) suggests that the mi l i eu i n w h i c h the planner operates is the most important aspect of the program p lann ing process, but does not sufficiently connect the contextual aspects of program p lann ing wi th the technical tools required to carry out the every-day activities associated wi th p lann ing programs. A s a result , the field lacks a comprehensive unders tanding of the process by w h i c h programs are actual ly p lanned, as the variety of theories, models and frameworks proposed over time have tended to emphasize certain aspects of the overall p l ann ing process to the exclus ion or under -va lu ing of others. This s tudy is an attempt to address that deficiency by gaining, i n a l imited way, insight into how p lann ing occurred i n one specific program and by analys ing that process u t i l i z ing two program p lann ing frameworks, attempt to ascertain the efficacy of those frameworks to account for and inform real-life practice. Th is s tudy was conducted i n a provincia l m u s e u m setting wi th its focus on the p lann ing activities of the publ ic programs department of the m u s e u m . M u s e u m s have a r i ch and longstanding history of publ ic 3 educat ional endeavours. It is rare, however, to f ind m u s e u m s defined i n terms of their educat ional activities. They are more commonly referred to as cu l tu ra l ins t i tu t ions wi th a pr imary focus ar t iculated i n a way that moves them outside the adul t educat ion venue. However, a premise of this s tudy is that a large port ion of the work that the m u s e u m does is very m u c h educat ional and covers a wide spect rum of both adul t a n d other educat ional activities. A s tudy of program p lann ing i n a m u s e u m setting provides a un ique opportuni ty to examine how planners engage i n their work i n this setting as wel l as how their approach to program p lann ing fits into the adul t educat ion framework. Th is s tudy also affords an opportuni ty to contribute descriptive analysis to the li terature both i n terms of adul t educat ion program p lann ing and m u s e u m planning . There is little debate that Tyler 's (1949) c u r r i c u l u m theory forms the foundat ion of the majority of program p lann ing models found i n the li terature today. Th i s approach is generally viewed as a technica l or c lass ica l approach w h i c h follows a set of pre-determined steps i n a l inear fashion. Recently, there have been attempts to move away from a purely technical approach to p lanning . Th is is i n response to recognit ion that while that approach to program p lann ing has been dominant i n the literature for many decades, it has become increasingly apparent that it does not adequately inform program p lann ing practice, nor is it ac tual ly ut i l ized by practi t ioners (Buskey a n d Sork, 1982; Sork 1997; Cervero 4 and Wi l son , 1994; 1996). It has also become increasingly apparent to the field that a model or theory of program p lann ing mus t encompass a large repertoire of approaches w h i c h enable the planner to respond to a constant ly evolving program wi th mul t ip le demands, and at the same time recognize the mi l i eu i n w h i c h he or she is work ing (Sork, 1997). Cervero and Wilson 's (1994; 1996; 1997) work is important to the field because i n its attempt to rectify the void left by the technical models of program planning , it has helped to contextualize the p l ann ing process and provided a new way of t h ink ing about how to organize and conduct p lann ing activities. Recognizing that planners ' work is s i tuated i n a complex wor ld of social interactions, Cervero and Wilson 's work has made it possible to take several steps forward from the purely technical approach to p lanning , and has offered a means of approaching program p lann ing activities i n a way that acknowledges the depth of the endeavour. Their p lann ing "theory" is useful i n that it does finally b r ing to the foreground the social-poli t ical nature of p lanning . Whi le other authors have raised the issue of context i n relation to program p lanning , Cervero and Wi l son go beyond merely not ing the importance of context by m a k i n g it the central issue associated wi th p lann ing activities. They suggest that planners shou ld be aware of the impact of power and interests w i th in a given p l ann ing s i tuat ion, and how those factors influence their decisions. They propose that the m a i n activity of p lann ing is negotiating power and 5 interests w i th in a democratic framework. However, while most of the efforts to produce a theory or model of program p lann ing to date are viewed as inadequate and incomplete, as they tend to be un id imens iona l and prescriptive, Cervero and Wilson 's theory, based on negotiating power and interests, may also be viewed as incomplete. Whi le i t provides a cr i t ica l perspective o n p l ann ing activities and may take us closer to a more comprehensive unders tanding of the complex nature of p lanning , it foregrounds the social-pol i t ical aspects of p lann ing to some degree at the expense of other, equally important aspects of the process, s u c h as the technical tools of p l ann ing and ethical questions program planners face i n the course of their work. Th is is not to suggest that this perspective is unimpor tant . It is quite the opposite, i n fact, as it has had the effect of chal lenging program planners to examine the contextual factors that influence the p l ann ing process. It has asked the field to recognize what Cervero and Wi l son ca l l the democratic nature of p lann ing and to reflect on how the social-pol i t ical context of a given p lann ing s i tuat ion impacts practice and the decisions that are made. Sork (1997) suggests that program p lann ing is a complex process that inc ludes technical elements as wel l as one that requires an unders tanding of the social-poli t ical nature of p lanning . He states that as each p lann ing s i tuat ion is different from the last, it is not feasible to propose one approach to p lann ing that w i l l fit a l l s i tuat ions. Instead, it 6 may be possible to use a framework for program p lann ing practice that acknowledges the un ique nature of each p l ann ing s i tua t ion a n d encourages flexibility i n the p lann ing process. Th is recent work suggests that i n order to move closer to a model of program p lann ing that has appl icat ion i n real-life practice, it is necessary to recognize that t ru ly effective program p lann ing is complex and mul t i -d imens iona l . H i s framework is based on the posi t ion that "...theories don't p l an programs, it is people wi th theories who do" (Sork, 1996, p.89). Th is requires that p lanners ground their work i n theory, unders tand ing their own phi losophica l approach and the reasons they choose the actions they do, as wel l as how the par t icular context they operate w i th in impacts on p lann ing decisions. For Sork, therefore, it is cr i t ica l to reflect on and unders tand a l l of the challenges involved i n the work of p l ann ing programs, as wel l as use a l l of tools available. He suggests that a mult i - layered, question-based approach to program p l ann ing br ings the field closer to having a workable framework for program p lann ing practice. A question-based approach highl ights the need for program planners to identify and reflect on the key quest ions associated wi th a specific program to reach the most appropriate program design (Sork, i n press ). These questions are asked wi th in a mul t i -d imens iona l framework that is intended to be flexible and responsive to the p lann ing process. W i t h i n th is framework, the technica l d imens ion lies at the surface 7 of the p l ann ing process and its features are those current ly most familiar to practi t ioners. The social-poli t ical d imens ion informs a l l aspects of p l ann ing and is the second d imension . The deepest level is that concerned wi th ethical considerat ions. Sork (1997) suggests that ethical aspects of p l ann ing shou ld be an integral part of the process, a n d may a l l too often be ignored or s imply forgotten. A framework that challenges practi t ioners to unders tand their own phi losophica l underp innings as wel l as to engage themselves i n an ongoing dialogue about the choices and decisions they make, grounded i n recognition that program p lann ing is a complex process, has the potential to inform real-life practice. S u c h a framework wou ld assist practi t ioners to make sense of the constant ly changing wor ld i n w h i c h they operate, and help them to respond to the ever-changing demands they face. This mul t i -d imens iona l framework provides a r i c h and thought-provoking approach to p lanning . It encourages the program planner to use the tools available to h i m or her; to ask questions about p lanning , a n d at the same time to engage i n a personal dialogue about those questions a n d the decisions flowing from them. It expects the program planner to be creative i n h is or her approach to p l ann ing a n d to recognize that the bus iness of p lann ing programs involves m u c h more than s imply complet ing a series of tasks. 8 Purpose This s tudy was under taken i n response to the ongoing debate regarding the adequacy of exist ing program p lann ing theories and frameworks to inform practice, as wel l as the lack of descriptive analysis of the work of program planners . The purpose of this research was to analyse, through case study, one instance of program p lann ing i n a m u s e u m setting, u s i n g the frameworks of both Sork, and Cervero and Wi l son to examine how wel l these frameworks can assist our unders tanding of the p lann ing process, and their u t i l i ty for informing practice. Th is s tudy set out to art iculate the program p lann ing process th rough descriptive analys is . It was hoped that th is work w o u l d contribute to the descriptive literature as wel l as address the questions set out below. Research Quest ions This s tudy proposes to analyse one example of program p lann ing i n a m u s e u m setting. The following questions w i l l be used to guide the analysis : • F r o m the perspective of those involved, how d id the p l ann ing process unfold i n this instance? • Does the analytic framework of Cervero and Wi l son account for the p lann ing process i n this instance? 9 • Does Sork 's analytic framework serve to assist our unders tand ing of the p l ann ing process and what is its u t i l i ty i n ass is t ing p l ann ing activities? Significance of the S tudy There is agreement i n the field that current theories and models of program p lann ing have not adequately assisted i n informing practice. There is also consensus that the literature is largely prescriptive and has failed to examine p l ann ing as it actual ly occurs . Th is s tudy w i l l enr ich the literature base of descriptive analysis . In addi t ion, it w i l l provide a pre l iminary assessment of the ut i l i ty of Sork 's question-based m u l t i -d imens iona l framework for program p lann ing and its abil i ty to inform practice a n d w i l l explore how Cervero and Wilson 's analyt ic framework of substantively democratic p lann ing applies to this par t icular instance of p lanning . 10 C H A P T E R II R E V I E W O F R E L A T E D L I T E R A T U R E Selected Program P lann ing Models In a recent work, Wi l son and Cervero (1997) provide a useful h is tor ica l review of the development of program p lann ing theory. They suggest that past and present program p lann ing theory represents a selective discourse that supports a "prevailing scientific logic for ra t ional action" (p.85). The pivotal work on w h i c h this technical-rat ional approach to program p lann ing is based is R a l p h Tyler 's (1949) Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. A s noted earlier, there is general agreement i n the field that the "Tyler Rationale" has become the dominant metaphor for program p lann ing i n adul t educat ion despite the fact that it was designed for school-based cu r r i cu lums (Sork, i n press; Wi l son and Cervero, 1997). Tyler 's work has provided a simple framework for m a k i n g c u r r i c u l u m decisions based on a set of questions, wi th an emphasis on goals and objectives, learner needs and evaluation. Th is p l ann ing approach proposes a set of questions designed to guide the p lann ing process and assumes a l inear, scientific process. Posner (1988) suggests that this theory of c u r r i c u l u m p lann ing assumes a "means-ends rationality," i n that i n order to make decisions about the p l ann ing process, one mus t know what the ul t imate goal or objective of the program is. He states that "planners ... mus t determine the dest inat ion before deciding on the 11 route they take..." (p.80). He further suggests that the Tyler Rationale assumes that c u r r i c u l u m development requires technical expertise as wel l as an objective approach to enable the program planner to operate wi thout being influenced by one's own values. Wi l son and Cervero (1997) argue that this scientifically-based ra t ional approach to program p lann ing cont inues to be the dominant discourse of adul t educat ion program p lann ing theory today. They state that as a result , only the technical or procedural activities associated wi th program p lann ing are viewed as legitimate (p.85). The technical-rat ional approach to program p lann ing as developed by Tyler has received c r i t i c i sm i n several areas. Those include the fact that it is of a prescriptive nature. It proposes four m a i n questions w h i c h Tyler suggests w i l l guide the p lann ing process but offers no ins ight into the ac tua l activities that enable p l ann ing to take place. It suggests a systematic step-by-step or l inear approach that does not address the fact that real-life practice is fraught wi th constant challenges to the decisions planners make as wel l as the need and wil l ingness to respond to the changing demands of the p lann ing s i tuat ion. In addi t ion, the technical -ra t ional approach to program p lann ing assumes that p l ann ing can be value-free. Cervero and Wilson 's recent work suggests that planners operate w i th in a social-poli t ical context where the negotiation of power and interests is a cr i t ica l activity. Sork (1997; i n press) explici t ly states that p lanners mus t be prepared to respond to ethical challenges w i t h i n a 12 social-pol i t ical context. Over time there have been numerous attempts to respond to these cr i t ic isms of the technical-rat ional approach. M a l c o l m Knowles is wel l k n o w n for h is learner-centred approach to program p lann ing and h is popular iza t ion of the term "andragogy." Four andragogical assumpt ions regarding adul t learning unde rp in his model of program p lanning . They are: adul ts become increasingly self-directed over time; personal experiences influence learning and experiential learning techniques are most effective; learning readiness is associated wi th real-life needs; and learning activities are viewed as a means to an end (Knowles, 1980). Knowles ' (1980) model of program p lann ing inc ludes assessing needs, defining purposes and objectives, designing and operating the program and program evaluation. These elements clearly reflect s imilari t ies to the Tyler ian or technical-rat ional approach to program planning. Knowles emphasized a learner-centred approach to program p lann ing that stresses learner par t ic ipat ion i n assessing needs, p l ann ing learning activities or experiences and i n self-evaluation. However, the p lann ing process itself falls firmly w i th in the technical-ra t ional t radi t ion. Wi l son and Cervero make a strong argument that Knowles d id little to advance program p lann ing beyond the technical-rat ional approach other than to foreground the learner. They state, "although Knowles int imates a sensit ivity to the si tuated nature of p lann ing practice ... he strongly promotes the procedural logic of technical-rat ional p lann ing by invok ing 13 the objectives-driven procedura l i sm of Tyler ian c u r r i c u l u m design" (1997, p.94). Perhaps then, h is most important cont r ibut ion to the field of program p lann ing is that it is learner-centred and brings to the foreground issues s u c h as ind iv idua l learning styles, psychological needs and an emphasis on experiential learning: those elements of Knowles ' theory of adul t learning that are si tuated w i th in a human i s t i c perspective. C y r i l Houle 's The Design of Education was first pub l i shed i n 1972, followed by a second edit ion pub l i shed i n 1996. Houle (1972; 1996) describes the development of the field of adul t educat ion and suggests that those who identify themselves as practi t ioners ho ld varied a n d sometimes opposing views of practice and what the field is . He states, "as yet, however, it cannot be sa id that most of the work i n the field is guided by any of these systems [of conceptual iz ing programs] or even by the desire to follow a systematic theory" (1996, p.5). H i s 1972 and 1996 works propose what he perceives as a way to address this deficiency. Houle (1996) confirms that h is framework for program design is grounded i n Tyler 's work, but also declares it to be essentially different from that and other models. Houle 's fundamental system of educat ional design is based on seven assumpt ions about the educat ional process. These deal w i t h learners; learning experiences; the nature of the educat ional endeavour, being both pract ical and cooperative; the social mi l i eu i n w h i c h p l ann ing 14 occurs; and issues related to the p lann ing and evaluat ion of educat ional activities (1996, p. 41-53). H i s final assumpt ion , "any design of educat ion can best be unders tood as a complex of interact ing elements, not as a sequence of events" (1996, p.49) i l lustrates what appears to be a departure from Tyler 's l inear approach to program planning . Interestingly, Houle separates the ac tua l business of p l ann ing from what he identifies as "categories of educat ional programs" (1996, p.54) stating that educat ional design is a two-part system. The program p lann ing process for Houle involves "fitting together a framework of interrelated components w h i c h compose the design of the activity" (p.60). Those components are identification of an activity; decis ion to proceed; identification and refinement of objectives; determinat ion of format; considra t ion of issues related to part icipants , market ing a n d f inancing; program product ion; and evaluation. Houle provides a thoughtful d i scuss ion of h is p lann ing components and cont inuous ly reminds the reader that the program planner mus t be ready and wi l l ing to reassess decisions throughout the p lann ing process. For a l l appearances, Houle 's emphasis on the complexity of program p lanning , the need to constant ly review decisions, and his insistence that p lann ing does not necessari ly proceed i n a step-by-step way, suggests that h is model of educat ion design does not fall w i th in the technical-rat ional t radi t ion. However, there is general agreement that Houle 's model falls f irmly wi th in that t radi t ion (Sork, 1997; Wi l son 8B Cervero, 1997). J a rv i s (1995) 15 states that despite the suggestion that it is possible to start w i th any component of the model and proceed i n any order, the model s t i l l suggests a systematic approach to p lann ing (p. 204). Wi l son and Cervero (1997) credit Houle wi th recognizing the need for flexibility and interact ion i n the p lann ing process. However, they also state, "Houle does not really challenge the technical ra t ional discourse ... Rather, h is cont r ibut ion introduces a sophist icated permutat ion of technical rat ionali ty ..." (p. 96). F ina l ly , Houle , l ike Tyler a n d Knowles , assumes that p l ann ing can occur wi thout being influenced by the planner 's values and belief systems. Whi le he does identify the highly contextual nature of the p lann ing s i tuat ion and makes reference to the recent work of Cervero and Wi l son , the model does not ul t imately move beyond the scientific paradigm to any significant degree. Edgar Boone is one of several authors who, i n the 1980's, began bu i ld ing on previous work. Boone (1985) identifies h is model of educat ional p lann ing as a conceptual model . A fundamental purpose of the educat ional endeavour for Boone is to change behaviour at the ind iv idua l level. Boone summarizes what he terms "programming" i n the following way: "programming provides a rat ional , cont inuous , systematic approach through w h i c h the adul t educat ion organization can focus its efforts i n responding to the educat ional needs of its pub l ic a n d its ongoing organizat ional renewal" (1985, p.42). H i s model assumes that 16 adul t educators shou ld develop a system of s imi la r beliefs about adul t educat ion a n d that there shou ld be agreement between a n d among those who p l an adul t educat ion programs regarding the ideal state for ind iv idua ls and society. Boone's "conceptual programming model" proposes three major elements to the p l ann ing process: p lanning; design and implementat ion; and evaluat ion and accountabi l i ty (p. 64-76). A t first glance it might be assumed that this is a rather s impl is t ic model of program p lanning . It is i n fact m u c h more complex t han these three elements suggest, as each of the elements contains a series of assumpt ions about p lann ing a n d education; several subprocesses and what Boone terms "processual tasks." Boone states that needs identification is "the most important facet of adul t education" (p. 113). Boone regularly refers to the purpose of adul t educat ion as behavioural change and cont inuous ly defines program p lann ing u s i n g the descriptors "rational", "systematic", a n d "sequential." T h i s model fits very neatly into the technical-rat ional t radi t ion of program planning . Whi le there have been numerous program p lann ing models proposed as adul t educat ion has evolved as a field of practice and research, these selected models testify to the under ly ing assumpt ions that cont inue to prevail today. Wi l son and Cervero (1997) state that "the apparent variety of p lann ing models through the 1980s is more figurative than real , for the theories vary only i n technical detail , not i n technica l 17 ra t ional logic" (p.96). They go on to suggest that despite c r i t i c i sm of this approach, and efforts to respond to these cr i t ic isms, the technical -ra t ional approach remains dominant . Sork (in press) agrees wi th Wi l son a n d Cervero, not ing that the 1980s produced a number of publ ica t ions that "continued the technical -ra t ional t radi t ion while incorporat ing some unique features to accommodate differences i n context" (p.3). He also notes that there have recently been more mater ia l attempts to challenge the dominance of the technical-rat ional approach to program planning . These approaches not only challenge this dominance, but also attempt to provide more than purely prescriptive advice about what program planners shou ld be doing. They seek to inform practice beyond a set of generic procedures that fit a l l s i tuat ions. Mos t notable of these is the work of Cervero a n d W i l s o n (1994; 1996; 1997). These authors first ar t iculated their approach to program p lann ing i n 1994. Their work represents the first real departure from the t radi t ional technical-rat ional approach to program planning . They state that the questions that are central to unders tanding a n d improving program p lann ing practice require an unders tanding of how planners actual ly conduct their work (1996, p.5). Their analyt ic framework stems from a premise that previous viewpoints do not adequately respond to or inform practice i n a complete and comprehensive way. In a review of c lass ical , natural is t ic and cr i t ical approaches to program p lanning , 18 Cervero and Wi l son note the contr ibut ions that each viewpoint has made to the field a n d argue that each viewpoint on its own fails to fully expla in planners ' work. Th is is reflected i n the following statement, "although these three viewpoints offer important insights into p l ann ing practice, they are necessari ly incomplete because people cannot act i n the real wor ld as the theories assume" (1994, p.27). The assert ion on w h i c h their analytic framework rests is that p lann ing is a social activity i n w h i c h social context a n d ins t i tu t ional constraints influence every aspect of the p lann ing process. The effect of this, for Cervero and Wi l son , is to redefine the role of the p lanner as that of negotiator. A s they state, "programs are constructed by people wi th mult iple interests work ing i n specific ins t i tu t ional contexts that profoundly affect their content and form" (1994, p.28). They argue that program p lann ing involves negotiating the power and interests inherent i n s u c h settings. For them, the "central problem of practice" for program planners becomes the negotiation of both pract ica l and pol i t ica l issues (1994, p.31). Cervero and Wi l son state that viewing p lann ing as a social activity provides answers to the quest ion that has eluded the field to date: that is, how do planners p lan programs? They argue that this is accompl ished by s i tuat ing p lann ing wi th in the social mi l i eu , defining it as a pol i t ica l activity involving power and interests, and alert ing planners to the fact that a l l decisions have an ethical component (1994, p.31-32). 19 They summarize their approach by stating, "planning practice is a social process of negotiating personal and organizat ional interests i n contexts of s t ructured power relations" (1994, p.253). A central tenet of this theory is that a l l p lanners m u s t have "an ideal interest i n nu r tu r ing a substantively democratic p l ann ing process" (1994, p.258). Accord ing to Cervero and Wi l son , this deals w i th the e thical quest ions faced by planners . They suggest that by focusing o n "ideal interests," planners can avoid being influenced by the interests of those who wield the most power. A substantively democratic process is accompl ished by ensur ing that a l l interests are represented. In a cr i t ica l review of Cervero and Wilson 's approach to program planning , Sork states that their work represents "an overdue appl ica t ion of that [social processes] perspective to program planning" (1997, p.82). Whi le Sork does not acknowledge Cervero and Wilson 's work as a theory, he does submi t that their "framework" provides a new and valuable alternative way of viewing the program p lann ing process (1997, p.82). He points out, however, that there is some r i sk i n accepting this approach to the exc lus ion of a l l others. He suggests that by viewing the central activity of p lann ing as negotiation, it is possible to become bl inded to "events and decisions that are not str ict ly t ied to negotiations but that have an important impact on the program" (1997, p.83). Another potential failing of Cervero and Wilson 's work that Sork points to is the fact that negotiation is referred to i n a general way and 20 there is little information provided that assists p lanners i n appreciat ing that there may be different types of negotiations as wel l as different approaches to that process (1997, p.84). He suggests, "a deeper unders tanding of p lann ing and a r icher range of ideas about how to effectively engage i n p lann ing cou ld result i f a more complex set of analyt ica l tools were provided that capture the complexity of negotiations" (1997, p.84). In relat ion to Cervero and Wilson 's treatment of the ethics of program p lanning , Sork (1997) raises the point that while Cervero and Wi l son support the not ion that planners mus t act ethically, they do not provide any guidelines to assist p lanners to do so. He suggests that planners need to be able to "morally justify" their decisions, but have been provided wi th no tools to do so (p.86). Tied into the issue of ethical practice is Cervero and Wilson 's posi t ion that p lann ing mus t be "substantively democratic". Sork (1997) notes that this concept is not new to adul t educat ion, and points out that "...a good deal of program p lann ing is neither substantively democratic nor occurs i n a substantively democratic context" (p.88). He concludes by stat ing that it is cr i t ica l to examine whether this concept shou ld be universa l ly applied to a l l p l ann ing si tuat ions and to seek answers about how it shou ld be applied. A s noted above, Cervero and Wi l son have challenged the field to begin examin ing program p lann ing i n a substant ia l ly different way than 21 it has to date. A l though this approach has been cri t icized for neglecting to at tend to the pract ical aspects of p lann ing or provide a complete explanat ion of what is actual ly occur r ing i n a given p lann ing s i tuat ion, it has succeeded i n advancing our unders tanding of what program planners really do. Sork 's Framework Sork (1997) suggests that what is placed i n the foreground of a model or theory of p lann ing ul t imately influences practice. He notes that Cervero and Wi l son argue that the technical aspects of p l ann ing have occupied the foreground for a lengthy period and that i n fact the social dynamics of p lann ing shou ld be placed i n the foreground (p. 82). He provides a caut ion, however, stating, "it is quite easy to fall into an intel lectual trap by regarding the competing ideas as mu tua l ly exclusive and therefore incompatible occupants of the foreground" (p.82). Sork 's question-based mul t i -d imens iona l framework suggests that the var ious d imensions of program p lann ing shou ld receive equal treatment, and that this is often not the case as certain d imensions of p l ann ing have tended to dominate at the expense of others. Over the years Sork has examined a number of issues related to the program p lann ing process. Th is previous work has cu lmina ted i n a framework that he envisions having broad appl icat ion to guide and unders tand p lanning . He proposes a question-based approach to program p lann ing that acknowledges the un ique nature of each p lann ing 22 si tuat ion. He states, "each p lann ing s i tuat ion is sufficiently un ique that it is impossible - a n d irresponsible - to suggest that a par t icular approach to p lann ing is applicable to a l l or most ... p l ann ing situations" (1997, p. 12). He suggests that the complexity of the p l ann ing process requires that pract i t ioners unders t and that they are operat ing w i t h i n a number of domains that influence their act ions and decisions. He presents a framework that is a mul t i -d imens iona l representation of three domains of p lann ing . Sork clearly states that it wou ld be a mistake to refer to this work i n any way other than as "a framework ... for t h ink ing about a n d engaging i n planning. . ." (in press, p.9). He notes that the character is t ics of h is framework are that it is "generic", "generative", and "derivative" (p.9). In presenting his approach to program planning , he notes that h is work is based o n cer ta in assumpt ions about wha t i t means to be a "capable planner." To h i m this means "developing unders tandings and ski l l s i n three closely related domains: the technical , the social-pol i t ical and the ethical" (p.6). Whi le Sork rejects the not ion that the technical aspects of p l ann ing mus t be discarded or are less important than other domains , he proposes a p l ann ing process i n w h i c h the framework itself generates the questions that w i l l guide a p lann ing activity. W h e n used to guide p lanning , this framework shou ld prompt those involved to pose questions they believe are impor tant to the par t icular p l ann ing s i tuat ion, a n d next 23 consider what techniques from among the vast number available might help answer each quest ion. W h e n used to analyse p lanning , the framework can serve to organize questions that are posed explici t ly or suggested impl ic i t ly by the decisions or actions of the planners (in press, p.9-10). Sork 's framework sets out s ix basic elements of p lanning . They are: analyse context a n d learner communi ty ; justify a n d focus p lann ing ; clarify intentions; prepare ins t ruc t ional p lan ; prepare administrat ive plan; a n d develop summative evaluat ion p l an (in press, p. 10). These elements of the p lann ing process are presented i n a nonl inear fashion and each element is viewed "as clusters of possible questions, decisions and actions" (in press, p. 10). Whi le on the surface Sork 's framework appears to be s imi la r to those derived from the technical-rat ional t radi t ion, it has moved beyond that perspective as it does not prescribe the questions that guide the p lann ing process. It i n fact challenges planners to identify those questions most relevant to the specific program being developed and i n doing so, stresses the need to attend to the un ique nature of each program. Sork provides the following explanat ion for the placement of the technical domain on the surface of the framework. It is taken for granted i n the literature that this domain is the p r imary concern of planners a n d there is no quest ion that being ski l l fu l i n these matters is an occupat ional expectation. B u t I describe it as on the "surface" quite deliberately to suggest that a preoccupat ion wi th this domain reflects an overemphasis on the craft of p lann ing to the neglect of its art istry (in press, p. 15). 24 The second d imens ion represents the social-pol i t ical domain . Th i s domain involves the social aspects of p lann ing and deals w i th those issues w h i c h Cervero and Wi l son have identified i n their work, namely power, interests and poli t ics. Sork summar izes by stating, "the social-pol i t ical domain is about how people engage wi th one another i n p lanning , what the consequences are and what responses are pol i t ical ly astute" (in press, p. 15). F ina l ly , at the deepest level lies the ethical domain . Sork notes, "it is possible to p lan programs wi thout ever addressing questions i n the ethical domain , but is impossible to p lan programs wi thout m a k i n g decisions and taking actions that have ethical implicat ions" (in press, p. 16). Few models of p lann ing address the ethical component of planners ' work. In this framework the ethical aspects of p l ann ing are as prominent as the technical and social-poli t ical aspects. Th is is because, i n Sork 's view, "it is only by cr i t ical ly reflecting on the ethics of p l ann ing that we can c l a im to be t ru ly capable planners" (in press, p. 16). B y presenting a mul t i -d imens iona l framework for program planning , Sork provides a v i sua l representation that reflects the complexity and depth of the p lann ing process. It may also have the effect of ass is t ing planners to appreciate that there are several domains that affect the questions asked and decisions made wi th in each element of this framework. The framework requires a shift i n t h i n k i n g i n a number of areas. Sork questions "how difficult it w i l l be to redirect the attention 25 of p lanners from applying techniques to posing questions" (in press, p. 16). Planners w i l l also have to be wi l l ing to acknowledge a n d respond to the social-pol i t ical context w i th in w h i c h their work is s i tuated a n d examine their own belief systems and under ly ing assumpt ions about their work. F ina l ly , p lanners w i l l be challenged to identify and respond to the ethical issues that w i l l inevitably arise i n the day-to-day activities of practice. Research on Program P lann ing i n A d u l t Educa t i on Whi le there have been numerous publ ica t ions about how to p lan programs over the years, there is little research available that adequately responds to practice issues. In a review of the program p lann ing literature between 1950 and 1983, Sork and B u s k e y (1986) note that most of the literature presents a normative approach to program p lann ing while only a few works offered descriptive models or accounts of the p l ann ing process. Sork and Caffarella reiterate this when they state, "... the li terature consists most ly of descript ions of how p lann ing shou ld be done rather than descriptions of how p lann ing is done" (1989, p.233). Sork and B u s k e y (1986) also note the apparent lack of at tention pa id by authors to others' work i n the field. They state "the models presented today are not m u c h different than those pub l i shed fifteen or twenty years ago. In a literature that has been developed for more than thirty years, it seems a reasonable expectation that authors wou ld b u i l d u p o n one another's work" (1986, p.91). They also found few models that 26 ar t iculated a theoretical foundation for those p lann ing models. In addi t ion, they were able to produce a "generic p lann ing model" from their review that consisted of nine steps. Wi l son and Cervero (1997) refer to this abil i ty to create a generic p lann ing model from the li terature as evidence of the dominance of the technical-rat ional approach to program planning . A s tudy conducted by Pennington a n d Green (1976) provides one example of work that attempted to identify how p lann ing is done as opposed to how it shou ld be done. Cervero and Wi l son (1994) note that what was revealed was that planners describe the p lann ing process i n language that stems from the technical-rat ional approach, but do not actual ly employ that approach i n their real-life practice. More recently, Cervero and Wi l son have focused their attention on s tudying specific p lann ing si tuat ions u s i n g their analytic framework to gain insight into the p lann ing activities of those cases. These analyses are both useful and thought-provoking i n that they facilitate a shift i n focus from a purely technical approach to one that begins to value other factors that influence planners ' actions. A s Sork and Caffarella (1989) note, "the literature ... describes an idealized process that may or may not fit w i th the realities of practice." (p.243) They argue for col laborat ion between practi t ioners and scholars so that "theory w i l l become more relevant to practi t ioners a n d the complexit ies of p lann ing as it occurs i n practice w i l l be unders tood a n d 27 appreciated by scholars" (p.243). E th i c s i n Program P lann ing A s Brocket t and Hiems t ra (1998) note, program p lann ing is not a "neutral" activity. Whi le there is little debate that program p lann ing is anyth ing but neutra l , there has been little real effort to d i scuss how practi t ioners shou ld address the issue. M u c h of the literature deal ing wi th the issue of ethics i n adul t educat ion centres a round the professionalization debate (Adelson, 1990; C u n n i n g h a m , 1992; M c D o n a l d 8B Wood, 1993; Sork 8B Welock, 1992; and Connel ly 8B Light, 1992). Other literature focuses on examples of the e thical d i lemmas that practi t ioners face i n their work (Sork, 1988; M c D o n a l d 8B Wood, 1993). Whi le there has been acknowledgement that the nature of adul t educat ion practice as a social activity is influenced by the values and belief systems of those involved i n a l l of its aspects, it has not been u n t i l relatively recently that the issue of ethics i n practice has become noted by some as a cr i t ica l component of a l l adul t educat ion endeavours. In 1988, Sork noted "a considerat ion of the ethics of practice is inescapable i f anyth ing approaching a complete unders tanding of practice is ever to be achieved" (p.393). Ea r ly theorists s u c h as Tyler (1949) a n d later Knowles (1970; 1980), acknowledge the influence of values when developing educat ional programs. However, few have attempted to actual ly incorporate ethics as a component of a theory or model of practice. It has been suggested that this may be at least part ly 28 due to a general a s sumpt ion that adul t educat ion practi t ioners are inherent ly good a n d commit ted to work ing for the benefit of those they serve. However, as Col l ins (1991) indicates i n h is c r i t ica l analysis of the state of program p lann ing i n adul t educat ion, par t icular ly i n Nor th Amer ica , there is a danger that adul t educat ion program p lann ing practice s imply serves to perpetuate the status quo. He states, E th i ca l judgments wi l l have to be made on a con t inu ing basis about the reasoning behind compromises that are made i n designing formal programmes ... A n absence of awareness of s u c h compromises , and their costs, and whose interests are really being served are reason for considerable concern (1991, p.72). H i s comments arise from a perspective that is cr i t ica l of "mains t ream approaches" to program planning , w h i c h he argues are too indiv idual i s t ic i n nature and fail to address the larger social issues (Collins, 1991). He states: Technocrat ic orientations to programme p lann ing keep learners bus i ly engaged and are amenable to management control , bu t they have failed to define an adul t educat ion endeavour w h i c h can contribute significantly to the overall competence of most adul ts as active par t ic ipants i n a genuinely democratic modern society (p.68). He goes so far as to suggest that adul t educators are aware that ethical practice is constrained by ins t i tu t ional as wel l as other influences, and , as a result , " ta lking about values i n any susta ined fashion is not regarded as relevant" (1991, p.79). In h is d i scuss ion about the k inds of ethical d i lemmas that program planners face, Sork (1988) also identifies factors that may interfere wi th or prevent practi t ioners from reflecting on the ethical questions their 29 work presents. He states, "Because p lann ing is carr ied out at m a n y levels, by many practi t ioners, i n many different settings, the process is diffused throughout the field" (p.36). He goes on to say, In the quest to get things done it is easy to make decisions wi thout consider ing their e thical content. One consequence of this act ion orientat ion is unreflective choice; decisions are made on the basis of t radi t ion, h u n c h , organizat ional press, or other factors rather than on a consistent, defensible phi losophica l posi t ion (1988, pp.36 - 37). B o t h Sork (1988; i n press) and Brocket t and Hiemst ra (1998), as wel l as others, propose that practi t ioners wou ld do wel l to reflect on their personal phi losophy about adul t educat ion and suggest that by having a well developed phi losophica l grounding, the practi t ioner w i l l be i n a better posi t ion to make decisions about h is or her practice as wel l as identify and deal w i th ethical d i lemmas that w i l l inevitably arise du r ing the course of their work. Aga in , the recent work of Cervero and Wi l son character iz ing program p lann ing as a "substantively democratic process" has helped to remind the field that p lann ing is a complex process that involves decisions that have an ethical component. Wi l son and Cervero (1996) use ethics to highlight the importance of unders tanding the power relat ionships inherent i n the p lann ing process. They suggest that planners need to unders tand what is important i n terms of the programs they construct . Unders tanding their own personal "ethical stance" enables planners to negotiate the power and interests at tached to the p lann ing s i tuat ion. They state that " . . . a l l p l ann ing practice takes an 30 ethical stance about whose interests matter and then relies on pol i t ica l sk i l l s to negotiate those interests" (Wilson and Cervero, 1996, p. 11). They suggest that ethical practice requires a belief system that "is not based solely on power" (p. 11) and mus t promote "substantive involvement" by a l l those who are affected by a program. Cervero and Wi l son describe the complex wor ld of the program planner. "Each planner is work ing wi th a complex array of interpersonal and ins t i tu t ional interests that ul t imately become expressed i n one final program" (1998, p. 140). They go on to state, "Program planners mus t work wi th situation-specific ins t i tu t ional a n d h u m a n interests, w h i c h are often i n conflict, are constant ly changing, may be invis ible , a n d may be at variance wi th the planner 's own values and intentions" (p. 140). A s stated earlier, Cervero and Wi l son have effectively highlighted the importance of ethics i n program p lann ing practice. A s they indicate, ".. .by drawing attention to the centrali ty of interests i n p lann ing it can identify the important types of judgments planners rout inely make i n shaping every educat ional program" (1998, p. 162). Sork (1996) has raised an important quest ion related to Cervero and Wilson 's treatment of ethical practice. He states that, "al though they urge planners to act ethically, there is little d i scuss ion of how one justifies decisions to manipula te people and c i rcumstances to pursue specific interests" and goes on to say "there is little d i scuss ion of the mora l jus t i f icat ion for actions that cou ld easily be viewed as manipula t ive 31 or antidemocratic" (p.86). Sork (1996) points to the importance of unders tanding why decisions are made and the impact those decisions have on others. He suggests that planners mus t be moral ly and ethically accountable for their actions (pp. 86 - 87) and that Cervero a n d W i l s o n may not have adequately addressed how this can be accompl ished. Brocket t and Hiems t ra (1998) see values as a fundamental component of program p lann ing and note that it is important for practi t ioners to unders tand why they do what they do, "values are at the heart of effective program planning . So, too, are values at the heart of ethical practice" (p. 125). They note that program p lann ing is subject to being influenced by a number of factors. Like Cervero and Wi l son , they highlight the fact that there are mul t ip le interests involved i n the process, and that those interests are inextr icably b o u n d to values. They note, "it is dr iven by values: values of the organization, values of the adul t educat ion practit ioner, values of the clientele, and values of society" (1998, p. 116). Aga in l ike Cervero and Wi l son , they recognize the importance of unders tanding the social pol i t ical context of the program p lann ing process. However, where Cervero and Wi l son see the program planner u s i n g his or her pol i t ica l savvy to promote the interests identified as the most important , Brocket t and Hiems t ra (1998) alert the reader to the potential for abuse of that power. A t page 123 they state, "program planners regularly make decisions that impact the lives of those served 32 by s u c h programs" and go on to say that as a result , there is an "opportunity for misuse of [that] power, whether s u c h misuse is intent ional or not" (1998, p. 123). A s noted earlier, Brocket t and Hiemst ra (1998) propose that by unders tanding their own values, beliefs and phi losophy, program planners w i l l have a foundation for m a k i n g ethical decisions. They also suggest that it is important to unders tand "the extent to w h i c h one is committed" to those values, beliefs and phi losophies (1998, p. 125). F ina l ly , they submi t that program planners shou ld quest ion their decisions i n order to ensure that those decisions are as ethical ly sound as possible. Sork (in press) clearly sets out h is posi t ion that to be a "capable" planner, it is cr i t ica l to unders tand the ethics of practice (p.6, p.8). H i s question-based mul t i -d imens iona l framework for program p lann ing attempts to provide some meaningful tools to enable practi t ioners to address the ethical content of their work. He acknowledges the usefulness of a personal phi losophy i n informing program planners ' work, but points out that the complex nature of program p lann ing requires more than s imply unders tanding one's own beliefs and values. He states, "a basic level of ethical responsibi l i ty requires that p lanners recognize the mora l commitments they are m a k i n g as they develop programs" (in press, p.8). He suggests that planners shou ld "cont inuously challenge themselves and others they work wi th to: 33 • Make explicit the mora l questions and issues embedded i n p lanning; • Confront the conflicting mora l posi t ions brought to the p l ann ing table by var ious stakeholders; • Engage others i n d i scuss ing mora l questions and issues i n a way that leads to some resolut ion or agreement; a n d • Develop convincing mora l just if icat ions for the decisions made a n d actions taken." (p.8-9) Sork 's (in press) framework has the effect of chal lenging program planners to recognize that the ethical questions at tached to their decisions and practice are equally important to possessing the unders tanding and sk i l l s associated wi th the technical a n d social-pol i t ical aspects of their activities. H i s framework also offers a d i scuss ion of ways i n w h i c h planners can th ink about framing questions i n order to focus the ethical impl icat ions of their decisions. F ina l ly , he suggests: Posing questions i n this domain forces these ethical commitments to a level of consciousness where they can be subjected to cr i t ica l reflection. It is only by cr i t ical ly reflecting on the ethics of p lann ing that we can c l a im to be t ru ly capable planners (1999, p. 15). Whi le the impact of p lanners ' values a n d beliefs is acknowledged throughout the literature as an important influence on p lann ing practice, what is apparent is the fact that this is as far as the issue of ethics has been advanced u n t i l relatively recently. Cervero and W i l s o n (1996; 1998) have brought the issue of ethical practice to the fore by l i n k i n g it to their analytic framework for "substantively democratic planning". However, they have been cri t icized for a lack of attention to p lanners ' needs to 34 just ify their decisions on a mora l basis , as wel l as for their failure to provide planners wi th any pract ical means to incorporate ethical content into the p lann ing process. Brocket t and Hiems t ra (1998) suggest that planners ask questions about the decisions they make i n relat ion to their "values, obligations and consequences" (p. 123). Sork (in press) goes further by offering a question-based framework to guide p lann ing that views ethics to be equally important as other aspects of p lanning . B y posing and answer ing questions ar i s ing from each component of the p l ann ing framework and framing those questions to reflect the mora l aspects of p lanning , this framework may have the effect of remind ing program planners that ethical dec is ion-making is a cr i t ica l component of the p l ann ing process, as wel l as ass is t ing planners to develop the sk i l l s and unders tanding necessary to address the challenges connected to ethical practice. Th is d i scuss ion reviewed some of the more prominent and often-referenced approaches to program p lann ing i n adul t educat ion. A s was noted, these approaches have largely been based i n the technical-ra t ional t radi t ion of program planning . Recent work by both Sork, and Cervero and Wi l son , propose that program p lann ing shou ld be viewed i n ways that reveal the complexities of the p lann ing process, a n d that offer a more thorough and comprehensive way of unders tanding a n d approaching p lann ing work. Th is s tudy w i l l attempt to assess the u t i l i ty of these new lenses i n this par t icular program p lann ing case. 35 Chapter III following describes the methodology employed i n this study. Chapter IV provides the contextual background for the s tudy followed by the findings of the s tudy i n Chapter V and s u m m a r y a n d conclus ions i n Chapter VI . 36 C H A P T E R III M E T H O D O L O G Y This s tudy was under taken to examine p lann ing activities i n a par t icular setting and program. In doing so, it was hoped that insight wou ld be gained about how p lann ing occurs i n this specific instance from the perspective of those involved; how the analytic framework of Cervero and Wi l son can account for the p lann ing process i n this par t icular instance; and how Sork 's analytic framework can serve to assist planners i n unders tanding the p l ann ing process and i n informing program p lann ing activities. It was ant icipated that this s tudy wou ld reveal how those involved i n the p lann ing of a specific educat ional program unders tand their role i n the p l ann ing process and how they actual ly go about their work. It was also ant icipated that the researcher wou ld gain ins ight into the social-poli t ical and ethical aspects of the p lann ing process, providing a n opportuni ty to examine the ut i l i ty and appl icabi l i ty of both Sork 's and Cervero and Wilson 's analytic frameworks for program p lann ing i n adul t educat ion. Th is chapter describes how the s tudy was conducted. It begins wi th an explanat ion of the methodological approach of the study, followed by a d i scuss ion of the selection of setting and par t ic ipants , da ta collection and analysis . 37 Methodological Approach The methodological approach employed i n this s tudy was a qualitative case s tudy approach. M e r r i a m (1998) notes that the under ly ing phi losophica l premise of qualitative research is "the view that reality is constructed by indiv iduals interact ing wi th their social worlds" (p.6). She goes on to state that "qualitative researchers are interested i n unders tand ing the mean ing people have constructed. . ." (p.6). Th is type of interpretive inqui ry recognizes that there is an inter-relatedness a n d interdependence between the factors that influence a n d act on an activity. A n attempt to unders tand how program p lann ing actual ly occurs is wel l sui ted to this type of inquiry . P lann ing is a complex process that is influenced by numerous contextual and other factors s u c h as p lanners ' values and beliefs. The use of interpretive inqui ry i n this s tudy endeavors to develop an unders tanding of how those involved i n p lann ing activities unders tand their work. A qualitative focus also recognizes that the researcher is the "pr imary ins t rument of data collection and analysis" (Merr iam, 1998, p. 11) and , as such , constructs meaning from the da ta that is affected by his or her own perspective. The central purpose of this approach is to draw out what is actual ly occur r ing i n a given s i tuat ion from the perspective of those involved, while at the same time recognizing and acknowledging that the researcher's own view of the wor ld wou ld influence the process. 38 M e r r i a m (1998) describes the strength of the case s tudy approach i n the following way: Case s tudy offers a means of investigating complex social un i t s consis t ing of mul t ip le variables of potential importance i n unders tanding the problem. It offers insights and i l luminates meanings that expand its readers' experiences (p.41). Case s tudy is recognized as being a methodological approach that is capable of addressing practice issues (Merriam, 1988; 1998; Y i n , 1994). M e r r i a m (1998) suggests that case studies have defining features and that "qualitative case studies can be characterized as being par t icular is t ic , descriptive and heurist ic" (p.29). Th is s tudy incorporates these characterist ics. It is par t icular is t ic i n that its focus is on the p lann ing activities associated wi th a specific event i n a par t icular setting. It is descriptive as it provides a r i ch th ick descr ipt ion of the p lann ing process. A n d its heur is t ic qual i ty lies i n its abil i ty to extend our knowledge about p l ann ing practice and encourage readers to begin looking at p lann ing practice i n different ways. Because case s tudy "allows an investigation to retain the holist ic and meaningful characterist ics of real-life events" (Yin, 1994, p.3), it is ideal for this s tudy i n w h i c h the focus is on discovering how p lann ing actual ly occurs i n this instance. Through case s tudy it is possible to examine the p lann ing process to uncover the significant factors that influence the process and how those factors interact w i th in a specific framework. 39 Select ion of Set t ing The setting for this s tudy was selected for a number of reasons. Firs t , examining program p lann ing i n a m u s e u m sett ing was thought to be a unique opportunity. Th i s a s sumpt ion was based on the researcher's observations that a l though a significant por t ion of the museum' s work relates to educat ional prograrnming, the p l ann ing activities associated w i t h these programs have received little i f any attention i n the adul t educat ion literature. It was hoped that a s tudy i n this sett ing w o u l d make a sma l l cont r ibut ion to our unders tanding of how a cu l t u r a l ins t i tu t ion goes about its educat ional p l ann ing work. In addi t ion, because it was apparent from pre l iminary d iscuss ions w i t h p l ann ing staff that they do not ta lk about their activities i n the language generally associated w i t h adult educat ion program planning, it was thought that it was possible that this was a unique opportuni ty to obta in data about the p lann ing process that was not influenced by t radi t ional ways of t a lk ing about program planning . A s the researcher's unders tand ing of program p lann ing is f irmly si tuated i n the adul t educat ion t radi t ion, this was viewed as a n opportuni ty to attempt to develop mean ing from descriptive mater ia l that falls outside of the adul t educat ion framework. Other pract ica l aspects of site selection were accessibi l i ty to the researcher from a geographic standpoint, and the enthusias t ic response that arose i n response to the researcher's request to conduct the s tudy at the site. 40 Case Selection The researcher in i t ia l ly met wi th the director and chief of programs of the publ ic programs department to explore opportunit ies for conduct ing research i n this setting. Several more informal meetings were held wi th the chief of programs i n w h i c h the var ious programs that the department h a d been a n d were current ly involved i n p lann ing a n d conduct ing were d iscussed. The L iv ing Landscapes project was selected because it was current and as a result it was thought that it wou ld provide an informat ion-r ich sample of program p lann ing i n the m u s e u m setting. The or iginal research p lan inc luded two instances of the L iv ing Landscapes project: the Thompson-Okanagan and the C o l u m b i a B a s i n . D u r i n g the in i t ia l stages of data collection it became apparent that few p lann ing staff had any significant involvement i n the first L iv ing Landscapes project i n the Thompson-Okanagan . As a result , a decis ion was made to l imi t the s tudy to the C o l u m b i a B a s i n project. In addi t ion to l imi t ing the s tudy to the C o l u m b i a B a s i n project, the case was further defined by the adul t educat ion focus of the research. As the researcher learned more about the C o l u m b i a B a s i n L iv ing Landscapes project and the programs associated wi th it, it was possible to define w h i c h project activities fell w i th in the adul t educat ion framework of the s tudy as wel l as w h i c h activities wou ld provide the richest data for developing an unders tanding of how p lann ing occurred. 41 This further defined the case and led to the decision to focus on the cu lmina t ing publ ic event w h i c h was conducted over several days, h a d the greatest staff involvement, was p lanned solely by the publ ic programs department and was believed to present the best opportuni ty for informing the research questions. Selection of Part ic ipants Part ic ipants were in i t ia l ly selected on the recommendat ions of the chief of programs. They were presented as those most int imately involved i n the p lann ing process. In the process of data collection, each part ic ipant was asked to name other potential part icipants . A s can be expected, the l is t expanded wi th each interview u n t i l it i nc luded representation from almost a l l of the museum's departments. A t that point, a decision was made to focus on those ind iv idua ls who had duties specifically related to the p lann ing of the publ ic event. The part ic ipants were those members of the publ ic programs department who were involved i n p lann ing the wrap-up event, the chief of programs and the director of publ ic programs. Par t ic ipants external to the publ ic programs department were the director of cura tor ia l services. Th is director was responsible for the incept ion of the L iv ing Landscapes project and has overall responsibi l i ty for the project. Whi le he d id not have a direct role i n program p lann ing activities, he provided r i c h contextual information about the project and was seen to be potential ly highly inf luent ial to the overall project. In addi t ion, both representatives 42 of the partners to the Thompson-Okanagan and the C o l u m b i a B a s i n projects were inc luded as part ic ipants . Fou r publ ic programs department staff were identified by the chief of programs. Of those four, one female and three males, one was a program producer, one an exhibits technic ian , one a temporary a n d travell ing exhibits coordinator and one a program technic ian. The researcher was invited to attend a publ ic programs department staff meeting and at that time in t roduced herself and out l ined the proposed research study. Prior to commencement of the research, a l l part icipants were provided wi th a letter of in t roduct ion and a consent form setting out the terms of their agreement to participate. The researcher under took to protect the confidentiality of par t ic ipants to as great an extent as possible, a l though concern about confidentiality was expressed by only one of the nine part icipants . Da ta Col lect ion This s tudy undertook to develop an unders tanding of how p lann ing occurs i n a par t icular setting for a par t icular program. A further purpose was to analyse the ut i l i ty of two specific frameworks i n helping planners to unders tand what is actual ly occur r ing i n the p lann ing process and wi th respect to Sork 's framework, whether it can assist p lanners ' work i n a pract ical way. To ensure that the meanings constructed from the research were plausible and accurately reflected the reality of the p l ann ing activities 43 involved i n this case, the data were t r iangulated by u s i n g mul t ip le sources. The tr iangulated design includes interviewing par t ic ipants i n the setting; observing part ic ipants at one department meeting; collecting documents related to the m u s e u m and the C o l u m b i a B a s i n L iv ing Landscapes project; and recording field notes after each interview. A further method employed to respond to the need for in ternal val idi ty of the research findings was accompl ished by providing each part ic ipant w i th a copy of h is or her interview transcript . Par t ic ipants were given the opportuni ty to clarify information a n d add their comments to the interview transcripts . Fur ther questions and requests for clarif ication were forwarded to specific par t ic ipants du r ing the data analysis phase i n an attempt to confirm the accuracy of the researcher's unders tanding as wel l as to elicit more detail about specific aspects of p lann ing activities. These methods also contribute to the rel iabil i ty of the results of the study. Member checking, t r iangulat ion of the data and clarif icat ion of researcher bias a l l contribute to a strong probabil i ty that the results are consistent w i th the data collected. M e r r i a m (1998) suggests that r i ch th ick descr ipt ion of the data contr ibutes to the external val idi ty of the study. She suggests that one method for addressing external val idi ty is by "providing enough descr ipt ion so that readers w i l l be able to determine how closely their s i tuat ions ma tch the research s i tuat ion, and hence, whether findings can 44 be transferred" (p.211). The story of the p lann ing of the C o l u m b i a B a s i n Liv ing Landscapes project is revealed through the par t ic ipants ' own words i n the following chapters. Interviews Interviews inc luded both semi-s t ructured and informal methods. A s M e r r i a m (1998) states: . . .usual ly , specific informat ion is desired from a l l the respondents, i n w h i c h case there is a highly s t ructured section to the interview. B u t the largest part of the interview is guided by a l is t of questions or issues to be explored, and neither the exact wording nor the order of the questions is determined ahead of time. Th is al lows the researcher to respond to the s i tuat ion at hand , to the emerging wor ld view of the respondent, and to new ideas on the topic (p.74). Interviews were guided by a l ist of general guidelines or issues that the researcher wished to address (see Appendix A). E a c h interview was considered to be an evolving process and while the general guidelines were used i n a l l interviews, spontaneous questions were generated i n the course of each interview. A t the outset of each interview the researcher briefly reviewed the purpose of the research study and obtained permiss ion from the part ic ipant to audiotape the interview. E a c h part ic ipant chose the setting for h i s or her interview. A l l interviews occurred on m u s e u m premises and averaged between 1.5 and 2 hours i n length. The researcher's perception was that a l l those involved wi l l ingly part icipated, freely shared their insights and perceptions, and gave as m u c h time as necessary to complete the interviews. A l l interviews were audiotaped and t ranscr ibed. Th is design allowed flexibility and adaptabil i ty. It was interactive 45 and allowed the researcher to gain insight into the par t ic ipants ' unders tanding of their roles, the mi l i eu i n w h i c h they conduct their work, their unders tanding of their p lann ing activities and the challenges they faced i n their practice. B o t h the researcher's unders tanding of the C o l u m b i a B a s i n L iv ing Landscapes project and of how p lann ing occurs i n this setting evolved over the course of the interview process. E a c h par t ic ipant provided his or her piece of the puzzle, resul t ing i n the emergence of the process involved i n p lann ing the C o l u m b i a B a s i n L iv ing Landscapes final publ ic event. The partner to the C o l u m b i a B a s i n Liv ing Landscapes project was the C o l u m b i a B a s i n Trust . The representative for the C o l u m b i a B a s i n Trus t was contacted electronically and asked to participate i n the study. After providing her wri t ten consent, she was asked to provide feedback to questions v ia electronic ma i l . These questions related to the role of the C o l u m b i a B a s i n Trus t i n the decis ion-making, p lann ing and coordinat ion of the wrap-up publ ic event as wel l as more general contextual information. Document Ana lys i s Documents provided important information and contr ibuted to the overall unders tanding of the p lann ing process and its context. The documents collected include: a field j o u r n a l used to make field notes after each interview and to reflect on the interviews and generate addi t ional questions; publ ic materials s u c h as the museum's bus iness p lan , meeting minutes , quarterly reports, project plans , pub l ic service announcements , evaluation p l an and p lann ing documents . Document collection involved a sk ing part icipants du r ing interviews to provide documents that they believed to be relevant to the L iv ing 46 Landscapes project i n general and the p lann ing associated wi th the C o l u m b i a B a s i n L iv ing Landscapes final publ ic event. Da ta Ana lys i s Whi le some data analysis occurred s imul taneous to data collection, this was l imited to researcher field notes and some in i t i a l d i scuss ion wi th the research supervisor. Concur ren t analysis d id not occur as the research design involved providing part ic ipants wi th an opportuni ty to comment on the t ranscr ipt of h is or her interview prior to analysis . A s noted earlier, a l l data were t ranscr ibed. D a t a were categorized us ing Sork 's framework w h i c h inc luded assessing the data from the technical , social-poli t ical and ethical d imensions of the p l ann ing framework. Da ta were also analysed through the lens provided by the work of Cervero and Wi l son to examine how the concept of negotiation of power and interests as a central activity of p lann ing fit into this p l ann ing instance. The use of these two frameworks informed the in i t i a l stages of the analysis . A s the process evolved, analysis took a more comprehensive form as a p lann ing process emerged from the discrete pieces of data. Document analysis provided wri t ten confirmation of findings related to contextual a n d pol i t ica l factors. D a t a analysis of this case challenged the researcher to develop an unders tanding of the program p lann ing process that was described i n language that differs significantly from tradi t ional adul t educat ion program p lann ing language. Careful considerat ion was given to the process of t ransla t ing program p lann ing activities into the language of discourse of this s tudy so as not to alter or lose the essential characterist ics of this p lann ing si tuat ion. The process of collecting and processing data stopped when it was felt that sources 47 had been exhausted and when the p lann ing process emerged. After the in i t i a l data analysis was complete, the researcher undertook a review of a l l interview transcripts . This enabled the researcher to further probe the program p lann ing process after developing an in i t i a l unders tanding of it, and to extract the more subtle aspects of p lann ing that fall w i th in the social-poli t ical and ethical domains . Th is s tudy is based on how part icipants describe and construct their realities. Da ta analysis provided some unique challenges as the p lann ing process was a shared activity requir ing that the pieces of the process be brought together to form a whole. In addi t ion, i n order to address the research questions, it was necessary to translate the data to reflect the language of the area of the study. Chapter IV offers a d i scuss ion of the contextual aspects of the study. A brief overview of the museum's educat ional focus followed by d i scuss ion of the Liv ing Landscapes project is provided. Chapter V presents the findings of the s tudy a n d is followed, i n Chapter VI w i t h the S u m m a r y and Conc lus ions of the study. 48 C H A P T E R IV E D U C A T I O N A T T H E R O Y A L BRIT ISH C O L U M B I A M U S E U M There have only been two real attempts to set out the evolution and development of the Royal B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m i n wri t ing. The first, entit led The Ring of Time: The Story of the Royal British Columbia Museum, was publ i shed i n 1985 by the Provincia l government. It represents a review of the M u s e u m and its activities from the time it moved to its present facilities i n 1968. The second book, White Bears and other Curiosities...the First 100 Years of the Royal British Columbia Museum, was produced by the Fr iends of the Royal B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m i n associat ion wi th government i n 1989. Th is book was wri t ten as part of a series of events and activities to celebrate the M us e um ' s 100th bir thday (Corley-Smith, 1989). M u c h of the information contained i n that pub l ica t ion is gleaned from arch iva l research a n d focuses o n those ind iv idua ls who were central to the M us e um ' s incept ion and survival ; the activities under taken by those individuals ; and the factors that inf luenced the evolution of the M u s e u m a n d its programs. It is evident that the Royal B C M u s e u m has a longstanding commitment to educat ional activities. The first paragraph of a peti t ion prepared i n support of creating a provincia l m u s e u m and presented to the Lieutenant-Governor of the Province i n 1886, sets out the or iginal objectives of the M u s e u m . It has long been felt desirable that a Provincia l M u s e u m shou ld be established i n order to preserve specimens of the na tu ra l products 49 and Indian Ant iqui t ies and Manufactures of the Province and to classify and exhibit the same for the information of the publ ic (In Cor ley-Smi th , 1989, p . l ) . It appears from this extract that there was clearly a commitment to informing the publ ic from the Museum ' s incept ion. However, very little information is available to demonstrate that educat ional activities designed for publ ic consumpt ion were under taken i n the M u s e u m ' s early years, beyond providing opportunit ies for viewing var ious artifacts a n d specimens that were collected and preserved for and by the m u s e u m . M u c h of the focus appears to have been on pub l i sh ing scientific papers as wel l as catalogues and guides to the Mu se u m ' s collections (Corley-Smi th , 1989). A tu rn ing point for the Mu se u m ' s educat ional activities appears to have come wi th the appointment of Dr . Clifford C a r l as Ac t ing Director i n 1939 and Director i n 1942. Cor ley-Smi th (1989) notes that C a r l wrote a paper entit led "Proposed Programme for the Provincia l M u s e u m " i n 1941 (p. 109). H i s proposal inc luded the t radi t ional approach to br inging the publ ic to the M u s e u m to view exhibits . In addi t ion, he proposed that, "the M u s e u m (be taken) to the publ ic i n the form of lectures, travell ing exhibits , etc." (In Cor ley-Smi th , 1989, p. 109). A Saturday morn ing school program was also commenced and by a l l accounts , was very successful. Oversight of the M u s e u m was moved from the Provincia l Secretary's Department to the Educa t ion Department i n 1942 (Corley-Smi th , 1989). 50 Fur ther evidence that C a r l viewed educat ion as a significant funct ion of the M u s e u m is demonstrated i n the in t roduct ion of h i s memo to the Educa t ion Minis te r i n 1944. Nor th A m e r i c a is foremost i n the recognition of the M u s e u m as a powerful educat ional and cu l tu ra l inst i tut ion. . . the possibi l i t ies are great and no time should be wasted i n m a k i n g it possible for this M u s e u m to take its proper place i n the life of the people of this province (In Cor ley-Smi th , 1989, p. 114). Cor ley-Smi th (1989) notes that the memo made a wide range of recommendat ions inc lud ing schools programs, adul t educat ion and motion-picture product ion. Recent Developments The current complex that houses the Royal B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m was bui l t as a Provincia l centenary project, but was not completed u n t i l 1968, one year after the centennial . The M u s e u m cont inued to offer a schools program w h i c h usua l ly involved a gallery or exhibit tour and c lassroom follow-up. This program cont inues today a n d is offered to adul ts as wel l . In addi t ion, the M u s e u m receives federal funding for its extension program w h i c h circulates exhibits throughout the Province i n an effort to reach as many people as possible. U n t i l quite recently the educat ional activities of the M u s e u m had been both developed and adminis tered by the Director of the M u s e u m . It was not u n t i l 1972 that a separate educat ion department was formed. That department then developed into a research and interpretation department and i n 1986 became the Pub l ic Programs B r a n c h a n d 51 remains so today. The Publ ic Programs B r a n c h operates wi th a surpr is ingly smal l staff, consider ing that it is involved to some degree i n a l l aspects of m u s e u m programs. Its program focus has moved away from permanent exhibits to special exhibits . These special exhibits are designed wi th several component parts. Along wi th the ac tua l exhibit housed at the M u s e u m , there may be a complementary schools program, presentations for the publ ic and publ ic events related to the exhibit . The M u s e u m has also identified outreach as a key goal and has developed programs designed to reach wider audiences s u c h as Safari Barkley Sound i n 1994, telecast throughout the wor ld . Programs have been developed i n cooperation wi th communi ty agencies i n var ious regions of the Province to provide educat ional opportunit ies for ind iv idua ls i n those communi t ies . Living Landscapes is an example of this type of program. F ina l ly , another example of the focus on creating opportunit ies for learning for a wider audience is the Virtual Fieldtrips program w h i c h the M u s e u m is current ly i n the process of developing. The M u s e u m uses volunteers extensively i n a number of capacities. The Docents Associa t ion was formed short ly after the new bui ld ings were occupied (Corley-Smith, 1985). Th is Associa t ion operates the schools programs. Another group formed at about the same time is the Fr iends of the Royal B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m , w h i c h is a non-profit society that has made significant contr ibut ions i n fund-rais ing and other activities. 52 The Royal B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m Today The Royal B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m is k n o w n as a Specia l Operat ing Agency of the Min i s t ry of S m a l l Bus iness , T o u r i s m and Cul tu re , and is governed by a Provincia l Statute, the Museum Act. The objects of the m u s e u m as set out i n section 3 of the Act are: 3(a) to secure and preserve specimens and other objects that i l lustrate the h u m a n history and na tu ra l his tory of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and (b) to increase and spread knowledge i n these fields by research, exhibits , publ icat ions and other means (Museum Act , R S B C Chap . 326, 1996, p . l ) . It has a Chief Executive Officer and a 15-member advisory board, appointed by the Minis ter . It's five-year strategic objectives for 2000-2004 are described as follows: O u r mi s s ion is to explore and preserve B r i t i s h Co lumbia ' s cu l tu ra l and na tu ra l heritage, to inspire cur iosi ty and wonder, and to share our story wi th the wor ld . O u r values are: accountability to publ ic concerns and expectations, stewardship of the collections entrusted to our care, objectivity i n presenting information, and excellence i n produce a n d service. O u r v i s ion includes reputat ion, communi ty relat ionships, technologies, and partnerships: W i t h a renewed commitment to research, educat ion, and publ ic involvement, the Royal B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m w i l l secure its place among the finest m u s e u m s i n Nor th Amer ica . The relat ionship between B r i t i s h Co lumbians and their M u s e u m w i l l deepen and diversify wi th new communi ty -based programs throughout the province. A t the same time, new technologies w i l l enhance the M us e um ' s exhibits a n d make our collections and research available to new, global audiences. A s the M u s e u m continues to evolve and grow, we w i l l seek out new par tnerships and new sources of revenue i n order to adapt, serve, a n d succeed both now and i n the future. O u r four strategic objectives are to: 53 Become More Relevant and Responsive throughout B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Innovate i n developing and disseminat ing knowledge through exhibits , programs, and technology. Increase Self-Sufficiency by becoming less f inancial ly dependent on government. Focus on Results by work ing together productively to achieve the objectives of our a n n u a l bus iness plans ( R B C M 1999-2000 Bus ines s P lan , M a r c h 1999, Appendix B). The M u s e u m is organized into five branches: cura tor ia l services, customer and corporate services, development office, friends of the Royal B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m , and publ ic programs. The functions of each of these branches is described i n detail i n the 1999 - 2000 Bus ines s P lan at tached as Appendix B . The functions of the Publ ic Programs b ranch are described i n the following way: The staff i n Publ ic Programs are specialists i n the development and delivery of educat ional programs and exhibits . They contr ibute to the Royal B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m objectives by: • developing and main ta in ing the exhibits • developing and delivering educat ional programs • developing and delivering local and regional event programming • developing seasonal exhibits • p roduc ing and main ta in ing the R B C M web site • pub l i sh ing R B C M books and pamphlets • p roduc ing graphic and audio-v isua l materials ( R B C M 1999-2000 Bus iness P lan , M a r c h 1999, Append ix B) The Royal B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m provides an interest ing venue for the s tudy of how program p lann ing takes place w i th in a real-life context. Its stated goals include the educat ion and growth of the 54 communi ty . It has the capacity to reach a diverse and subs tant ia l audience offering a variety of programs related to the environment, na tu ra l his tory and cul ture. Program p lann ing is a central activity for this agency, and as a consequence, provides a real opportuni ty to examine the program p lann ing process i n practice. T H E C O L U M B I A BASIN LIVING L A N D S C A P E S P R O J E C T The Liv ing Landscapes project was conceived by the director of cura tor ia l services at the Royal B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m and is l i nked to both the museum's legislated mandate and its business p lan . In the museum's 1999-2000 Bus iness P lan , the context for the 2000-2004 strategic p lan objectives is described: D u r i n g M a y and J u n e of 1998, we held ten publ ic consul ta t ion meetings i n seven communi t ies across the Province. These meetings confirmed the spiri t of our 1995-1999 strategic objectives, bu t suggested increased emphas is on providing value to B r i t i s h Co lumbians throughout the province (Appendix B). In d i scuss ing the museum's v is ion , the p l an states: W i t h a renewed commitment to research, educat ion and publ ic involvement, the Royal B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m w i l l secure its place among the finest m u s e u m s i n Nor th Amer ica . . .The relat ionship between B r i t i s h Co lumbians and their M u s e u m w i l l deepen and diversify wi th new communi ty-based programs through the province (Appendix B). Fur ther statements reference the Liv ing Landscapes project as one of the museum's stated goals for meeting the strategic objectives. The first instance of the L iv ing Landscapes project was conducted i n the Thompson-Okanagan region of the province as a pilot project. The 55 focus of this s tudy is the more recent project i n the C o l u m b i a B a s i n . L imi t i ng the s tudy i n this way was a result of a number of factors. Firs t , most publ ic program staff were not involved to any great extent i n the Thompson-Okanagan project. Th is l imited role by publ ic programs staff i n the Thompson-Okanagan project led to a conc lus ion that the Thompson-Okanagan Liv ing Landscapes project wou ld not adequately reveal how the publ ic programs department goes about its p lann ing activities. The purpose of this research study was to attempt to gain insight and unders tanding of how programs are p lanned i n a real-life setting. Secondly, the research was conducted immediately after the cu lmina t ing publ ic event that was the subject of the s tudy and presented an opportuni ty to obtain fresh and und i lu t ed data. In addi t ion, the Thompson-Okanagan project was a pilot project for L iv ing Landscapes and the C o l u m b i a B a s i n project was thought to reflect a process that h a d benefited from the experience gained from the first project. However, to establ ish the context of the s tudy it is useful to review the researcher's unders tanding of the Liv ing Landscapes project as a whole. A s noted earlier, the project flows from an acknowledgement that the provincia l m u s e u m had identified a need to become more visible throughout the province - an acknowledgement that the m u s e u m belonged to the entire province. Numerous comments by staff demonstrated consensus that a need existed to reach beyond the 56 immediate geographic location of the m u s e u m to fulfill its mandate. Th is conc lus ion was gleaned through comments such as, The idea for a regional-based project is to find a way to involve the province not j u s t i n programming but i n the research that we're doing here as wel l . Wha t we looked at as a provinc ia l m u s e u m , wi th a bu i ld ing s tuck on the south corner of Vancouver Island, we're so far away from the rest of the province, was how were we going to get into the province i n a meaningful way . . .And again, this idea was developing this mosaic of the whole province (R4, p. 1). The project concept is further explained i n the following comment. A n d the project sort of developed from a perceived need after some earlier d i scuss ion throughout B C that there needed to be more from the Roya l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m than j u s t a travell ing exhibit here and there or a speaker's tour (R4, p . l ) . The conceptual framework for L iv ing Landscapes is based on the project being a collaborative venture, as wel l as a stated belief that knowledge about a communi ty can most appropriately be d rawn from wi th in the communi ty itself. The title of the project, Living Landscapes, the Columbia Basin, Past, Present and Future, h in ts at the foundat ion for the project and was described i n the following way. So what I wanted to do is look at relat ionships between h u m a n history and na tu ra l history and what is holding them together, and what i n the past tells u s about the present and therefore what can the past and the present tell u s about the future? (R7, p.3). The focus on communi ty input is demonstrated by the comment , . . . i t started wi th a good conceptual base w h i c h was h u m a n s and the environment, change over time a n d the fact that people i n a par t icular area know more about their own back ya rd than we do (R7, p.3). One of the aspects the communi ty said to u s long ago was *we don't want y o u tel l ing u s wha t to do. We don't want y o u tel l ing u s 57 how to keep our collections. We don't want y o u tel l ing u s what to research. We certainly don't want y o u tel l ing u s how to do programs. ' A n d we took that to heart... (R4, p.2). The Roya l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m a n d the C o l u m b i a B a s i n Trus t entered into a par tnership to implement the Liv ing Landscapes project i n the C o l u m b i a B a s i n over a two year period. Th is was both a f inancial and administrat ive partnership. The 1998 /99 Project P lan sets out shared goals a n d objectives for L iv ing Landscapes i n that region (Appendix C). A n advisory committee was established du r ing the in i t i a l stages of project development wi th representatives from agencies i n the C o l u m b i a B a s i n that were connected i n various ways to the h u m a n and na tu ra l his tory of the region. Th is advisory committee, w i th a cha i r each from the m u s e u m and the C o l u m b i a B a s i n Trust , oversaw the project while three subcommittees took responsibi l i ty for research on h u m a n and na tu ra l history; publ ic educat ional programs; and electronic learning w h i c h focused on website development. The m u s e u m provided staff resources for each subcommittee whose role wou ld be to coordinate the work a n d act as a resource to the committee. The publ ic programs department of the m u s e u m provided support to the publ ic educat ion committee. Requests for proposals for research and other types of projects were forwarded to interested parties i n the region. Of the 148 proposals received a n d reviewed, 31 projects were ul t imately approved, i n c l u d i n g those of m u s e u m researchers. In addi t ion, an evaluat ion p l an was 58 developed by an independent party to be used to "guide the project to an effective conclus ion" (Quarterly Report #1, J a n - M a r 1999, Appendix D). Staff reported that projects were selected us ing cr i ter ia that inc luded ba lanc ing representation from research, educat ion and technology, as wel l as the geography of the region. A more extensive descr ipt ion of the program goals, the funded projects a n d the overall design of the project can be found i n Appendix C (Project P l an 1998/99) . A s noted earlier, the role of the publ ic programs department wi th respect to the overall project was to coordinate and support educat ional projects through the educat ion subcommittee. The Royal B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m representative on that committee was the chief of publ ic programs. Whi le certain projects w i th an educat ional focus were funded as part of the program, it was not u n t i l early 1999, over one year into the project, that the publ ic programs department became involved. It was noted that no funds had been allocated to publ ic events, as there was an expectation that proposals to p l an and conduct publ ic events wou ld be received. W h e n no s u c h projects were proposed, it fell to publ ic programs staff who would be responsible for developing a number of pub l i c events to showcase the work being done. The following comments were made about how staff became involved. W h e n we called for publ ic proposals, some of our intent was that somebody might come forward and say they wou ld l ike to have a publ ic event. It didn' t happen. So we h a d to find other funding (R6, p.5). 59 . . . i t came down to u s at the last minute. . .so no money was set aside for the publ ic programming aspect ( R l , p . l ) . A t that time, publ ic programs staff put together a brief p lan that was based on information from the advisory committee a n d on an evaluat ion p l an completed by a private consul t ing agency i n 1998. They identified the following goals: "to enr ich people's lives through an improved unders tanding of the h u m a n and na tu ra l his tory of the C o l u m b i a B a s i n " and "to develop and encourage the use of educat ional materials suitable for school a n d college c u r r i c u l a addressing the Bas in ' s ecology, history ( including Abor ig ina l history), economy and its social and cu l tu ra l life." It proposed "teacher t ra ining, large and sma l l publ ic events a n d selective direct promotion" (Appendix E). After committee review, a new proposal was drafted on M a r c h 22, 1999. Its two m a i n components were a series of regional publ ic events and a travell ing exhibit that wou ld circulate i n the C o l u m b i a B a s i n . The p lan proposed dates for the publ ic events, l i n k i n g them to special events already scheduled i n the selected communi t ies , the contr ibut ions the various parties wou ld make to these events, advertising, f inancial commitments , t ransportat ion, budget breakdowns and the duties of a local coordinator for each event (Proposal for 1999 Publ ic Programming, Appendix F). A final event was to be held i n conjunct ion wi th a L iv ing Landscapes sympos ium and took place i n Fort Steele as a two-day conference on October 9 t h and 10 t h , w i th displays and chi ldren 's activities offered October 7 t h th rough 10 t h , 1999. It is the p lann ing of this event 60 that is the focus of this s tudy (Public Service Announcement , Appendix G). Chapter V discusses the findings of this s tudy based on the cu lmina t ing or wrap-up publ ic event of the C o l u m b i a B a s i n Liv ing Landscapes project. Defining the program p lann ing process i n language that fits w i th the theoretical basis of this s tudy made it possible to address the questions posed by the study. 61 C H A P T E R V R E S E A R C H FINDINGS The Program P lann ing Process Ta lk ing about this program i n the context of adul t educat ion program p lann ing presents some challenges. Firs t , the m u s e u m itself is a un ique setting i n that while it can be considered an educat ional ins t i tu t ion i n most every sense, it's language of discourse is not that most commonly associated wi th adul t or other educat ional settings. Th is is l ikely related to a broader definition of the role and functions of the m u s e u m , based i n both history and tradi t ion. In addi t ion, those activities commonly identified as elements of program p lann ing practice are dis t r ibuted throughout various departments of the m u s e u m . A s a result , it is difficult to examine the work of the publ ic programs department i n isolat ion from other departments, even though the publ ic programs department is responsible for developing and implement ing programs. The work of the publ ic programs department does not, therefore, fit nicely into a generic framework of program planning . The recent work of Cervero and Wi l son confirms that most p lann ing does not occur i n isolat ion and is , i n fact always influenced by the social-pol i t ical mi l i eu i n w h i c h it occurs . Individual members of the publ ic programs department have discrete roles and a l though there appears to be flexibility i n these roles, there is not a single ind iv idua l who has overall responsibi l i ty for the p lann ing of this event, w h i c h is not seen to be 62 u n u s u a l i n itself. F ina l ly , while the staff are given autonomy to complete the tasks necessary to meet program goals, these goals are not defined by them. A s noted earlier, Sork 's (in press) program p lann ing framework was used to art iculate the program p lann ing process i n this case. Sork (in press) sets out the basic elements of program p lann ing w i t h i n a m u l t i -layered framework i n the following way. Figure 1. Basic Elements of Program Planning Develop Summative Evaluation Plan Prepare Administrative \ \ X X \ - X x .;• x Plan Analyze Context & Learner Community Formative Evaluation Prepare Instructional Plan Adapted from Sork, 1997, p. 11. (reprinted with permission) 63 Figure 2. Three Domains of Program Planning Ethical Adapted from Sork. 1997. p. 15. (reprinted with permission) It is important to note that Sork presents th i s framework "as descriptive categories that c a n be used to cluster related p l a n n i n g questions, decisions a n d act ions," a n d that these quest ions should be asked i n the context of the mul t i - layered and complex na ture of the p l ann ing process (in press, p. 14). He indicates that p l a n n i n g i s nonl inear and it is possible to move between a n d among the var ious elements as wel l as to cont inuously evaluate program p l ann ing activit ies (in press, p. 11). The Technical D i m e n s i o n Analyse P l a n n i n g Context and Learner C o m m u n i t y Sork (in press) suggests that the context i n w h i c h p lann ing occurs is complex a n d dynamic a n d includes a variety of inf luencing factors. He also notes that the p l a n n i n g context conta ins "frame factors" that have the effect of l im i t i ng p lanners ' actions. He states that frame factors are 64 "most often based on policies, procedures, power relations a n d tradit ions that are thought to be non-negotiable.. ." (in press, p. 11). Frame factors that form the context of a p lann ing s i tuat ion can include the organizat ional mandate, structure, his tory and tradit ions, power relat ionships, accountabi l i ty factors, economic factors, as wel l as a variety of other influences wi th in the organization (Sork, 1994, unpub l i shed handout). Sork defines the learner communi ty as "the subgroup of a l l adul t learners that the program is designed for or wi th" (in press, p. 11). He explains that unders tanding the learner communi ty can provide important information to the planner and influence p l ann ing activities. The context of the p lann ing activities associated wi th the C o l u m b i a B a s i n wrap-up event is a cu l tu ra l ins t i tu t ion wi th a legislated mandate that includes publ ic educat ion about the na tu ra l and h u m a n history of the province. It inc ludes a business p l an to advance a n d extend the relat ionship between the m u s e u m and the people of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A further objective is to increase publ ic access to information through new technologies. The Liv ing Landscapes project is considered to be a means of meeting these objectives. The p lann ing of the wrap-up event occurred w i th in this broad context. There was a clear unders tanding of roles a n d responsibil i t ies of the various parties, i nc lud ing the parameters of the p lann ing process, such as what decisions belonged to whom. While the C o l u m b i a B a s i n 65 Liv ing Landscapes project was a jo in t ly sponsored venture, the m u s e u m had pr imary responsibi l i ty for administrat ive functions and for the publ ic event. The publ ic event p lan was approved by the project advisory committee, but the publ ic programs department was charged wi th implement ing the p lan . The C o l u m b i a B a s i n partner describes the relat ionship. I was only involved i n the development of the publ ic event p lan along wi th the advisory committee: the detailed event p lann ing was under taken by m u s e u m staff (R8, p.2). In this case, the learner communi ty inc luded both ch i ld ren and adults . The subgroups consisted of researchers, both professional and non-professional, college and univers i ty students, school-aged students, teachers, local museums , special interest groups, aboriginal groups and the general publ ic . A n interest i n the na tu ra l and h u m a n his tory of the C o l u m b i a B a s i n area served as a common characterist ic and to some extent geography played a role, a l though this was more applicable to the smaller communi ty events than the wrap-up event. Jus t i fy and Focus P lann ing A s Sork notes, "to justify and focus p lann ing is to unders tand -indiv idual ly and collectively - why it is important to devote resources to the design of a program and what the general character of the program w i l l be" (in press, p. 12). There are a number of methods that can be used to justify and focus p lanning , i nc lud ing but not l imi ted to needs assessment, market analysis , t rend analysis , and interest inventories. 66 Jus t i f ica t ion for the wrap-up event was to a significant degree accompl ished wel l before the publ ic programs department was assigned their work. The wrap-up event was a jo in t decis ion of the m u s e u m and the partner through the advisory committee. The activities and projects selected for the event arose through a consultative process a n d the publ ic programs department developed a publ ic programs proposal for publ ic events, i nc lud ing the wrap-up event, w h i c h went through a committee approval process. . . .but most of the details.. .we would have a pretty good idea of what k inds of things they wanted through prior meetings.. .other people on staff...had been to a l l of the p lann ing meetings, so there was a reasonably good idea of what that committee was looking at i n terms of publ ic programming, so we pul led together a detailed proposal based on what we thought they wou ld l ike, bu t we were always ready to change it any time. So we had a pretty good idea i n J a n u a r y w h i c h way we shou ld go and what they wanted. We knew that publ ic programs shou ld cover the whole bas in , we knew we wanted local researchers involved and we knew we wanted our staff involved and we had a pretty good idea about what our commitments i n terms of staff and money wou ld be and so then we, having done s imi lar projects i n the past, we h a d a reasonably good idea how to b u i l d a framework for that. So...I drafted it u p wi th the help of a l l of my colleagues and then we h a d it ratified as a framework, as a proposal , ratified by our staff, our committee, and then we took it to the steering committee (R5, p.4). . . .wel l , what we do is present proposals [to the advisory committee] about the publ ic events and get their feedback and if necessary, adjust things accordingly. Mos t of them are pretty happy wi th the format that we use.. .(R6, p.8). F u n d s were not in i t ia l ly allocated to the wrap-up event a n d staff time and resources were allocated separately from the or iginal funding. . . . i n the process of setting u p the larger project, they didn' t actual ly identify a set of funds for ac tua l publ ic events. W h e n we 67 called for publ ic proposals, some of our intent was that somebody might come forward and say we wou ld l ike to have a publ ic event. It didn' t happen ... so we had to find other funding (R6, p.5). After the in i t i a l d i scuss ions about what the publ ic events might look l ike, there is a period when there is little to no involvement of the publ ic programs department. For most communi t ies , at least the one's we've done so far, they don't have any idea what they can do wi th this yet, so they have to do a lot of ta lk ing, not so m u c h about how we're going to do it, bu t what it is we're going to do...(R4, p.8). Then when it comes to a wrap-up, this is really what happened most of the time, is that the programs tended to be at the end. . .you have a wrap-up sympos ium where y o u do a big sp lash a round a l l of the things that happened and then that's the end of the region. So the programs are at the front end i n early d iscuss ions and then there's a hesi tat ion period of months if not a year . . .and then the d i scuss ion has to come a round to what makes sense i n terms of delivery (R4, p. 10). In effect, program planners had little need to justify the wrap-up event beyond pu t t ing forward a proposal for the activities to be offered at the event itself. A s noted earlier, consul tat ions had been conducted throughout the province and led to a strategic and bus iness p l an that had as stated purposes par tner ing wi th communi t ies , shar ing information a n d an increased presence i n those communi t ies . These early consul ta t ions just if ied the project, the publ ic events related to the project and the resources assigned to it. In addi t ion, the following comment of the partner verifies that publ ic programs staff h a d little to no role i n just i fying the event and that the programs and activities were a means of also meeting the partner's stated goals. 68 ...the publ ic programming i n Liv ing Landscapes was designed to ensure that people were made aware of the information developed through the projects. Publ ic programming also makes people aware of what the Trus t and the M u s e u m are doing and serve to ensure that we are meeting our mandates i n a publ ic manner (R8, p.2). A s imi la r view was taken by the m u s e u m . W h e n we do the program i n the region, it's really focused a round educat ing the publ ic about what Liv ing Landscapes is . It's really j u s t l ike a PR project that says, 'okay, we're going to come to town, we're going to have a big event, we're going to have some fun doing this ' . . .but really its pr ime purpose is to say l o o k at L iv ing Landscapes i n your region. Here's where y o u can find more information about your region' (R4, p.2). In a s imi lar way, efforts focusing p lann ing required less attention than they might i n c i rcumstances where there are competing interests or where there was not already a large f inancial commitment to the project or a clear direct ion that the agency was taking. Whi le publ ic programs staff indicated that they were responsible for developing a budget for the events, it is clear that there is a level of t rust i n the experience and knowledge that staff have about what is required to conduct an event such as this , and that as a result , the need for just i f icat ion i n terms of resources is m i n i m a l . B o t h publ ic program staff and executive staff confirmed this. A n d our role, u p here, as far as I see it, is to enable the staff to do these programs and for us , that's either locat ing money or locat ing sponsors, m a k i n g decisions about time frames...(R4, p.9). . . .and their style is that they give.. .a whole lot of autonomy to the staff, and I t h ink that's a really important thing, because it al lows staff to take ownership of whatever we're given. We k n o w that we're t rusted to do a certain thing. . . (R5, p. 10). We certainly had their t rust i n our abili t ies and that is a big deal, 69 because it j u s t allows us to roar away and know that we're on the r ight t rack because we've already done our homework, and got everyone's assent to it (R5, p. 10). Clarify Intentions The most commonly used means of defining the outcomes or intentions of a program is through objectives. Sork (in press) states that objectives is bo th an "enduring and dis turbing" commonal i ty found i n the program p lann ing literature. He suggests that there are a number of ways to approach the issue of clarifying the intentions of a program inc lud ing purposes, content, benefits or a combinat ion of approaches. He states, " in analyzing and engaging i n p lanning , we shou ld focus on unders tanding how intentions are clarified and what approaches seem best sui ted to the par t iculars of context" (in press, p. 13). The publ ic programming proposal submi ts that publ ic events and exhibits w i l l contribute to the following goals of the program. Specifically, those goals are: E n r i c h i n g people's lives through an improved unders tanding of the h u m a n and na tu ra l history of the C o l u m b i a B a s i n and To develop and encourage the use of educat ional materials suitable for school and college c u r r i c u l a addressing the Bas in ' s ecology, his tory ( including Abor ig ina l history), economy and social and cu l tu ra l life (Appendix F). The intentions of the program were made explicit from the outset and are directly l inked to the organizat ional context of the M u s e u m and its partner i n this project, the C o l u m b i a B a s i n Trust . 70 Prepare Inst ruct ional P l an While the term ins t ruc t iona l p l an is self-explanatory, it is impor tan t to note that as Sork (in press) states, "every program has a n impl ic i t or explicit ins t ruc t iona l p l an that enacts the intentions of those who develop it" (p. 13). He observes that, the ins t ruc t iona l p lan is the heart of the program.. . i t is the place where phi losophy, learning theory, unders tanding of group dynamics , availabil i ty of technology, unders tanding of motivat ion and so on interact to influence how ins t ruc t ion is v isual ized (in press, p. 13). The ins t ruc t ional p lan for the wrap-up event can be seen to be both impl ic i t a n d explicit . It is impl ic i t to the degree that experience and tradit ions direct p lanners ' actions. W h e n asked how p lann ing takes place, one response was "it's i n their heads and they j u s t ca l l on their experiences" (R6, p.7). The process was described s imi lar ly by another staff member. Cer ta in ly whenever we do these k inds of things, we've done so m a n y of them, that we automatical ly come u p w i t h a parad igm or model to work from. A n d then what we try to do is adapt our work outside the box if it seems appropriate (R5, p.5). For example, exhibi t product ion and display relies on the extensive experience of the exhibits technic ian as wel l as others. A n d [we] have had free reign for a l l t ravell ing exhibits for 15 years and we have never dropped the ba l l . So they allow us freedom to p u l l a n exhibi t together...just do i t ( R l , p.7). Recent work on communi ty programs resulted i n a system of exhibi t 71 displays that were considered appropriate for use i n this event. A n d we modeled it on Festa Italiana, and other road shows we did. . .so, we came u p wi th a modular system, a travell ing display panel system, that we cou ld showcase anybody's mater ia l on. . . i t has the R B C M qual i ty attached to i t . . . i t has a f inished qual i ty that looked very professional ( R l , p . l ) . In addi t ion, contractual agreements required publ ic event par t ic ipat ion by researchers. Publ ic programming staff d id not have a specific role wi th respect to detailed ind iv idua l ins t ruc t ional plans , but h a d overall responsibi l i ty for the organization of the var ious activities associated wi th the event. They provided guidance and assistance to tailor research presentations to make them accessible to the publ ic and also reviewed c u r r i c u l u m proposals for elementary school events. Staffs most significant involvement was wi th respect to setting u p displays , ass is t ing wi th ins t ruc t iona l p lans related to elementary school level presentations, and the organization and coordinat ion of the sympos ium. Prepare Adminis t ra t ive P lan The administrat ive aspects of the p lann ing process are often not given as m u c h value as other aspects of program planning . A s Sork (in press) points out, programs wou ld not be possible wi thout someone at tending to the administrat ive details necessary to implement those programs. Adminis t ra t ive activities encompass a wide range of responsibil i t ies s u c h as budget development, marke t ing /pub l i c i ty p lans , securing space, technology, equipment, instructors , schedul ing, refreshments and so on. The administrat ive p lan can have a significant 72 impact on the outcomes of a program, par t icular ly i n the area of par t ic ipant satisfaction. The most substant ia l area of involvement for the publ ic programs department was wi th respect to the administrat ive duties associated wi th the wrap-up event. Complete responsibi l i ty for the organization and coordinat ion of the event rested wi th publ ic programs. Whi le regional coordinators d id assist wi th various aspects related to locations, size of venues and other logist ical issues, dec is ion-making regarding administrat ive matters rested wi th the publ ic programs staff. The complexit ies of the process were described i n the following ways: ...we h a d to liaise wi th [contractors] and to get them on board to show them what k i n d of projects, publ ic events we h a d planned, to get their input , f ind out what they wanted, to find out what they needed, to let them know about staff, expenses, a l l that k i n d of stuff (R5, p.3). It's a t remendous amount of work. . . i t was a bit of a juggl ing act looking at where people were located.. .real t remendous amount of information to manage. Fort Steele par t icular ly because it was a cu lmina t ing event and this is where [we] were involved full-time contact ing people; f inding out where the event was they were par t ic ipat ing i n ; organizing the information of who was offered accommodat ion and would need further f inancial support to participate i n the event; what the content was of their project; what they needed for space; what they needed for support materials . This was a t remendous amount of work to br ing together but that's where their talents are. (R6, p. 11). Publ ic programs staff also managed the majority of the cont r ibut ion agreements entered into wi th communi ty researchers. Th i s meant managing the f inancial aspects of the agreements, as wel l as 73 main ta in ing contact to assess progress and finally, to ensure compliance wi th the agreement through par t ic ipat ion i n publ ic events. Develop Summat ive Eva lua t ion P lan A summative evaluation, as Sork (in press) suggests, "focuses on determining the wor th or value of a fully formed program" (p. 13). A s noted earlier, a summative evaluation p lan was developed i n the early stages of the L iv ing Landscapes project, bu t d id not appear to have a direct impact on how p lann ing staff went about their work. The following comment reflects this: The p r inc ipa l people work ing on the Liv ing Landscapes project were also involved i n the development of the evaluat ion p lan so we a l l were aware of its existence. D i d we use it? I wou ld have to say no, not directly as a guid ing document i n the p lann ing of the Ft. Steele event. The document tends to reflect the guid ing pr inciples that we work to on an ongoing basis . W h e n it gets to the hectic phase of put t ing these events together, the documenta t ion gets put aside for the nuts and bolts part of the work. Consequent ly some elements of the objectives may not be achieved (R6, p . l ) . P l ann ing staff indicated that they thought an evaluation wou ld be conducted by an independent agency, but that they were unsure of its status. In addi t ion, publ ic programs staff indicated that they wou ld be conduct ing their own form of summative evaluat ion to assess their effectiveness as wel l as to guide p lann ing for the next L iv ing Landscapes region. It was apparent that publ ic programs staff had begun to evaluate the p lann ing process through comments such as: The only change I wou ld make is that we start way earl ier . . .and we would get a n overall v is ion of a l l events, how the contractors are going to participate i n them, how do we want that basical ly to happen, a n d how m u c h money we have...it 's j u s t for efficiency's 74 sake to be coordinated and organized so we're not r u n n i n g everything at the last minute (R3, p. 14). F ina l ly , the role of p lann ing staff for the C o l u m b i a B a s i n L iv ing Landscapes project was described i n the following way. This is how the project w i l l be la id out. The content is fully u p to y o u people. A n d so the p lan is that we're work ing together to do the research for two years on this basis. . . we're going to find a f inancial partner to work wi th us , and we're going to al low our team to come i n , the old S W A T team, and do the publ ic programming aspect ( R l , p. 16). Th is quotat ion i l lustrates the fact that p lann ing was focused on the activities associated wi th the administrat ive aspects of Sork 's framework. Whi le there was some involvement by planners i n earlier consul ta t ions wi th the communi ty partner, the real work was that of organizing and coordinat ing the event. P lann ing Quest ions Sork (in press) states, "when used to analyze p lanning , the framework can serve to organize questions that are posed explici t ly or suggested impl ic i t ly by the decisions or actions of planners" (p. 10). He goes on, at page 10 to suggest that these questions can provide information about the issues that "foreground" p lanning . Whi le program p lann ing staff d id not identify specific p l ann ing questions when descr ibing their work, it c an be impl ied from the data that this type of activity d id form part of the p lann ing process. The following brief d i scuss ion sets out some examples of the p lann ing questions that can be inferred from decisions and actions related to the L iv ing Landscapes 75 project and the wrap-up event. In addi t ion, the summative evaluat ion p l an for the C o l u m b i a B a s i n Liv ing Landscapes project identified a number of p lann ing questions, a l though it was not readily apparent that these questions guided p lann ing staff i n their work. It is possible to glean some sense of the impl ied p lann ing questions associated wi th the broader context. These wou ld include: • How can the outreach mandate be met? • How shou ld research dollars be spent given the mandate? • How can support be obtained through outside sources? • How can the exist ing research base be enhanced? • How can this work a n d information be made accessible to the pub l ic? P lann ing questions about the learner communi ty are more transparent. A number of staff identified subgroups of the learner communi ty that were represented at the pub l i c event, bu t also identified subgroups s u c h as Fi rs t Nations communi t ies they believed to be under-represented. It is l ikely that this w i l l become a p lann ing quest ion for the next L iv ing Landscapes project. W i t h respect to the context of the wrap-up event, the p l ann ing questions suggested by the data cou ld include: • W h a t are the organization's expectations a n d what are the expectations of the partner? • What is the purpose of this event? • W h a t factors, i nc lud ing the researchers, w i l l impac t o n or influence 76 the p lann ing of this event? A s noted earlier, executive decisions h a d the effect of jus t i fy ing the wrap-up event. In a s imi lar way, p lann ing staff had little need to focus p lann ing as the decis ion to ho ld a publ ic event was made at the organization's executive level and by the steering committee for the L iv ing Landscapes project. The questions associated wi th these decisions wou ld relate to publ ic accountabil i ty; shar ing of knowledge and resources; f inancial considerations; and div is ion of responsibil i t ies. In clarifying the intentions of the pub l i c event, staff h a d a clear unders tanding of the goals of the entire Liv ing Landscapes project. A n impl ied quest ion for staff i n p lann ing the publ ic event might be: • How does this event fit into the goals of the C o l u m b i a B a s i n Liv ing Landscapes project and how do we achieve this? Quest ions associated wi th the formulat ion of the ins t ruc t iona l p lan cou ld include the following: • W h a t do we need to do to ensure that researcher presentations are at an appropriate level for the publ ic? • Wha t ins t ruc t iona l approaches are most suitable for the proposed audience? • How wi l l the event be organized? • How w i l l we address the needs of the var ious age groups as wel l as the var ious levels of sophist icat ion? • How w i l l we handle presentation proposals that we don't t h ink w i l l 77 work well? A s noted earlier, publ ic programs staff bore responsibi l i ty for the p l ann ing and organizat ion of the wrap-up event. Examples of p l ann ing questions impl ied i n formulat ing the administrat ive p l a n include: • W h a t is our budget? • W h o w i l l organize space, presenters, travel, accommodat ion, etc? • W h o has responsibi l i ty for communica t ing w i t h presenters? • W h o w i l l enforce contracts? Aga in , p l ann ing staff relied on experience i n p l ann ing and conduct ing s imi la r events. A s a result, any d i scuss ion about the impl ied p lann ing questions associated w i t h this event shou ld recognize that this reflects the researcher's impressions and interpretat ion of p lanners comments, decisions and actions. The Socia l -Pol i t ica l and E t h i c a l Dimens ions Cervero and Wi l son , and Sork inter al ia , consider the social-pol i t ica l and ethical aspects of program p lann ing to be h ighly inf luent ia l to the p l ann ing mi l i eu . A s W i l s o n and Cervero (1996) state, ". . .without knowing who counts and why, wi thout bo th a sense of "how to" and a v i s ion of "what for," even faithful following of the prescr ibed process w i l l have little consequences" (p.6). Whi le it is probable that m a n y programs are p lanned successfully wi thout explicit ly address ing the pol i t ica l and ethical d imensions of the p lann ing si tuat ion, what is being proposed here 78 is that by being aware of and answering the how and why questions, program planners can be more effective i n their work. Wi l son and Cervero (1996) put this into perspective when ta lk ing about t radi t ional p lann ing approaches. Tradi t ional p lann ing theory tells practi t ioners to s imply follow the steps, as i f the constraints and opportunit ies of the social and organizat ional context do not matter. The problem wi th this prescr ipt ion is that program p lann ing always occurs i n organizations i n w h i c h p lanners ' actions are shaped by resource competi t ion and l imitat ions, shifting al l iances and demands, ins t i tu t ional policies, and power relations (p.7). They also note that while many tradi t ional models of program p lann ing recognize the s i tuat ional nature of p lanning , they fail to offer any significant means of addressing those issues. Sork (in press) agrees that Cervero and Wi l son have been effective i n br inging about a change i n focus from the purely technical aspects of p lann ing to the dynamics of p lann ing (p. 15). He indicates that the complex nature of program p lann ing is demonstrated i n recent case study work by Cervero and Wi l son a n d others (in press, p.7-8). Sork also points out that "substantively democratic p lanning" as proposed by Cervero and Wi l son i n their work, requires planners who are capable of "creating and sustaining" such a s i tuat ion. It follows, therefore, that i n this analytic framework it is cr i t ica l that planners be highly ski l led i n negotiation as wel l as t radi t ional program p lann ing activities. 79 Examina t ion of this instance of p lann ing confirms that p lann ing activities are very m u c h influenced by the organizat ional context. The museum's stated goals of communi ty outreach arose time and again i n d iscuss ions wi th the study's part icipants . Several examples of what was said about the mandate of the M u s e u m were provided i n the d i scuss ion of the p lann ing context. These comments provide strong evidence that the context of the wrap-up event was unders tood by a l l those who were involved. What is interesting is the strong commitment to this objective from the top down. Organizat ional dec is ion-making also played a large part i n the activities of the publ ic programs department. Decis ions about what programs w i l l be offered are generally made at the executive level and publ ic programs staff are then given the task of put t ing the program together and adminis ter ing it. E a c h member of the M u s e u m executive controls some aspect of var ious pieces of the M u s e u m . So then we said, l iere ' s the direct ion we need to go... (R4, p.5). I mean, y o u know, the order may come from somewhere else, this is what we're going to be doing, but we want y o u guys to organize it, get it a l l ready, get it out there, and do a l l that stuff ( R l , p.7). The organizat ional structure i n this case is s u c h that the p l ann ing activities of the publ ic programs department are more focused on certain aspects of program p lann ing than others. Executive level decisions led to a l imited role for p lann ing staff w i th respect to elements related to 80 jus t i fying and focusing p lanning , clarifying intentions and identifying the learner communi ty . It is not suggested that this shou ld necessari ly be viewed i n a negative way, as it s imply provides more information about the organizat ional context - the history and tradit ions of the organization, its organizat ional framework, its priorities, and so on. It also highlights the frame factors referred to by Sork (in press). Th is case demonstrates an impl ic i t unders tanding of the l imitat ions or constraints of p lanners ' actions. It also indicates that power relat ionships w i th in the organization are an important frame factor that do not appear to be negotiable. It is also worth not ing that the way people spoke about organizat ional relat ionships d id not suggest there was any perceived need to challenge the current structure. Wi thout exception, par t ic ipants identified the Museum ' s goals of outreach a n d par tnerships , and d id so i n a positive way. Wi l son and Cervero (1996) propose "four central concepts that can account for the wor ld that planners experience: power, interests, negotiations, and responsibil i ty" (p.9). They explain the effect of these concepts: [they] show us what to pay attention to i n p l ann ing practice. We argue that p lanners ' work is always carr ied out i n contexts that are marked by power relat ionships that w i l l enable or cons t ra in responsible p lanning . Because people's interests are causal ly related to the k inds of educat ional programs that are constructed, negotiation is the characterist ic activity of program p lann ing practice. The central responsibi l i ty of p lanners ' practice, then, is to work out whose interests w i l l be represented i n the p l ann ing 81 process. Th is characterist ic p lann ing activity - negotiating interests w i th in organizat ional power relat ionships - always has two outcomes: planners "construct" educat ional programs, and through their practices, they "reconstruct," either ma in ta in ing or transforming, the power relat ionships and interest that make p lann ing possible (1996, p.9). Th is s tudy confirms that power relat ionships exist w i th in this organization. Th is is not i n itself unexpected or u n u s u a l . The excerpts of var ious staff throughout the foregoing section indicate that planners have a clear v is ion of whose interests shou ld be represented i n the p l ann ing process: that is , the organization's interests. In addi t ion, the M u s e u m is i n the process of cul t ivat ing a v is ion of shar ing and cooperation through outreach projects s u c h as the Liv ing Landscapes project. The commitment to this v is ion is i l lus t ra ted by the following comments . Y o u have to mean it when y o u say it's a par tnership and it really is a partnership. . . (R3, p. 11). We always try to involve local organizations and ins t i tu t ions i n a big way. It's a par tnership, rather than us going i n and dictat ing what 's going to happen (R2, p . l ) . So i n partnering, we give them equal foot ing. . . (Rl , p . l ) . Dec i s ion-making is handed over to a communi ty advisory committee. The M u s e u m offers its guidance, expertise, support and resources, i nc lud ing f inancial support and main ta ins overall administrat ive control . Whi le not explici t ly expressed by either executive or p l ann ing staff of the M u s e u m , there is evidence to suggest that negotiation of interests was integral to the p lann ing of this program. Negotiation occurred from 82 the early stages of consul ta t ion for the entire C o l u m b i a B a s i n L iv ing Landscapes project to the p lann ing of the wrap-up event. Ea r ly consul ta t ions between communi ty members and the Museum ' s executive staff confirms that interest-based negotiations were under taken to facilitate a commitment to the project. Th is is demonstrated i n the following comment. Part of the first meeting [involved] a lot of consensus bu i ld ing . A n d that was part of the process; going into the communi ty a n d meeting wi th people, detai l ing out to the larger group what our objectives are and then doing some consensus bu i ld ing as far as what the goals and objectives of the project are (R7, p.9). The interests of the M u s e u m were clearly unders tood by p lann ing staff and this resulted i n what appeared to be a strong commitment to ensur ing that the v is ion of par tner ing and the shar ing of knowledge a n d resources was realized. In ta lk ing about staff involvement i n facil i tating communi ty buy- in , one member of the p lann ing staff provided the following comment. You've got to be a sales person. A sales person believing i n what they do and owning it ( R l , p.32). Staff also ta lked about the value of u s ing established contacts i n the communi ty as another means of fostering positive responses to the project. As noted earlier, program p lann ing activities were not expressed i n terms of negotiating power and interests. Nor wou ld this necessari ly be an expected outcome of d iscuss ions about p lann ing activities i n this setting. Th is may be because first, p l ann ing work is not si tuated w i t h i n 83 a n adul t educat ion framework and secondly, as Cervero a n d W i l s o n have suggested, planners have not t radi t ional ly unders tood or approached their work from this perspective. However, it is evident that this was occurr ing, par t icular ly i n the broader context of the entire L i v i n Landscapes project. It is more difficult i n analyzing the work of p lann ing staff for the wrap-up event to extract information about how or whether they were involved i n negotiating power and interests. The comments made by staff support the suggestion that to differing degrees, program p lann ing staff d id enter into negotiations i n the course of their p l ann ing work, both wi th the funded researchers and to a lesser degree wi th executive staff of the m u s e u m . It is wor th not ing again that p l ann ing staff had no difficulties identifying whose interests mattered - the M u s e u m and the communi ty partners. S u c h a strong commitment to these interests is seen to l ikely have influenced the focus of negotiations toward ensur ing that the museum's identified goals were met. In descr ibing the p lann ing of the wrap-up event, publ ic programs staff identified a number of means by w h i c h they were able to ensure par t ic ipat ion i n the publ ic event. Several references were made to the use and benefit of the contr ibut ion agreements entered into for funded projects. They indicated that the "terms and condit ions" of these agreements were viewed as a way to ma in ta in a certain level of control 84 and as a means, w h e n necessary, to ensure researcher par t ic ipat ion i n publ ic events. Th i s is i l lus t ra ted i n the following comment . Also , the agreement gave us the mora l or legal r ight to ins is t on certain things (R5, p. 12). F i n a n c i a l support was also acknowledged as a way of involving the communi ty , a l though this is l ikely more cr i t ica l to the p l ann ing of the smaller communi ty-based events than the wrap-up event. A n d its amazing i n the sma l l communi t ies w h e n we offer $1500 or $3000 of assistance. A n d you're not buying , bu t you're offering to fund a project that they couldn' t possibly fund on their own. A n d they see the merits of the program ( R l , p. 10). Wha t is noteworthy is the contrast between this case and those cases set out by Cervero and Wi l son , as wel l as others, w h i c h supports their posi t ion that the negotiation of power and interests is central to program p lann ing practice. Those cases indicated that significant power imbalances led planners to attempt to act u p o n or influence the power relat ionships to achieve their goals. Th is case does not provide evidence to suggest that s u c h subs tant ia l power imbalances existed, or that planners felt a need to act on the power relat ionships as described i n Cervero and Wilson ' s case studies. Fur ther research is required to examine what factors might be responsible for s u c h a contrast i n descriptions of how p lann ing takes place. Another important frame factor that falls w i t h i n the social-pol i t ical domain, a l luded to earlier i n this section, is how publ ic program staff view the work they do. In other words, how they unders tand their role i n 85 relat ion to the ac tual program. Cent ra l to this unders tanding is the fact that p l ann ing programs is not d iscussed i n terms of program p lann ing language. Nor was there any evidence to suggest that a knowledge or unders tanding of program p lann ing theory was requisite to the success of their work. Publ ic Program staff referred to their work as program product ion as opposed to p lanning . Fur ther case s tudy research i n the area of m u s e u m program p lann ing may help to determine if this type of dis t inct ions is important i n unders tanding how program planners go about their work i n this type of setting. Th i s may again s imply relate to the organizat ional context and tradit ions embedded i n exhibit product ion, as wel l as the dec is ion-making structure of the organizat ion. One publ ic programs staff member described how he reflects on his work by examining, W h y it's happened, how it's happened and the reaction to why it's happened is j u s t as important an issue . . .you know, why are we doing this? To connect w i th people and make ourselves relevant and accessible ( R l , p.26). Th is suggests that to some degree, or for some staff, unders tand ing the "why" of their work is important . A s noted earlier, publ ic programs staff viewed themselves as having a facilitative role on behalf of the m u s e u m wi th the communi ty , represented by the partner, the advisory committees and the researchers. Negotiation of interests, and to a lesser degree power relat ionships, were methods used as a means of achieving desired outcomes, and confi rm that Cervero and Wilson 's approach to program p lann ing has u t i l i ty for 86 unders tanding this par t icular case. It is also important to note that other factors influenced the outcomes of s u c h negotiations, i nc lud ing time constraints and a general view that it was not the role of p l ann ing staff to ul t imately enforce contracts. Interestingly, i n this par t icular case the focus of p lanners ' negotiations was on obtaining researcher par t ic ipat ion rather than on what the program wou ld ul t imately look l ike. Nor does it appear that they were negotiating their own interests but instead, those of the M u s e u m . In addi t ion, while planners had an interest i n ensur ing that the program was wel l p lanned, they d id not appear to have a significant stake i n who part icipated or how they part icipated i n the wrap-up event, as is demonstrated i n the following comment. Wel l , there was one that I didn' t t h ink wou ld t u rn out very wel l [we] ta lked to the researchers and they were fairly adamant about i t . . .and so we said wel l okay, give it a try (R2, p.27). In terms of the ethical component of this case, pub l ic programs staff d id not themselves identify any ethical challenges but d id provide examples of pract ical challenges that they faced. On ly one planner suggested that a sk ing "why" questions was important . However, the general impress ion derived from conversations wi th a l l of the par t ic ipants was that there is an ethical foundation impl ic i t i n their work. F r o m the top down, ind iv idua ls expressed a strong commitment to the work of the organization a n d a sense of mora l responsibi l i ty as wel l as pride i n their work. 87 In a d i scuss ion about the ethical aspects of the L iv ing Landscapes project and specific ethical challenges faced by p lann ing staff, it is important to first acknowledge that the decision to undertake the L iv ing Landscapes project is itself one that suggests an ethical judgment . It is a decision framed by the need for publ ic accountabil i ty, both f inancial ly and geographically. A s an ins t i tu t ion that receives publ ic funding, it is reasonable to expect that decisions are influenced i n this way. W i t h respect to the issue of ethics i n program p lann ing practice i n this case, again staff d id not d iscuss the challenges they faced i n terms of ethical judgements . A s noted earlier, it appeared from their attitude toward their work that ethical judgments were an impl ic i t component of their practice. One way that challenges were met was through enforcement of the cont r ibut ion agreements entered into by the parties. However, it is evident that there were l imi ts to the degree to w h i c h p lann ing staff were wi l l ing to enforce those agreements. One member of the publ ic programs department indicated that at a certain point, a conflict w i th a project researcher wou ld be deferred to a higher level. I'm going to do what my job is and make sure they know what their opportunit ies are... A n d if they're really going to resist it any further, wel l then I'll go [higher up] and say this person is not wi l l ing to participate and he can either say he wants to pursue it or not. A n d I wou ld be inc l ined to j u s t let it go... (R3, p. 15). Some staff indicated that time constraints i n this p lann ing s i tuat ion affected their decisions about how m u c h time and effort they would devote to deal ing wi th a par t icular conflict. 88 A n d h a d we more time, maybe we would have pu r sued it because ... they signed a contract (R3, p. 17). The data suggest that the C o m m u n i t y Advisory Committee faced more subs tant ia l challenges than publ ic programs staff a l though the issues the committee faced were associated wi th the overall project rather than the wrap-up event. M u s e u m staff involved at this level were consistent i n how they described the ways i n w h i c h these challenges were approached. Th is approach was concil iatory i n nature and allowed for a l l parties to be heard and acknowledged. In the case of a potential conflict between two Fi rs t Nations communi t ies , after the process described above took place, the Advisory Committee acknowledged that the Liv ing Landscapes project was not the appropriate venue for the issues that had been raised. Staff reported that this was an effective means of deal ing wi th this potential conflict. E t h i c a l dec is ion-making is seen to be an integral component of the program p lann ing work i n this case. This supports the significance given to the ethics of practice i n both Sork 's , and Cervero and Wilson 's frameworks for program planning. 89 C H A P T E R VI D ISCUSSION A N D S U M M A R Y This s tudy set out to examine a case of real-life p lann ing i n a m u s e u m setting. Its purpose was to contribute to our unders tand ing of how p lann ing actual ly occurs i n one unique instance. A further purpose was to analyze this case u s i n g Sork 's recently developed framework w h i c h is a question-based, mul t i -d imens iona l approach to program planning . In u s i n g this framework for analysis the researcher hoped to gain insight into the p lann ing process of the publ ic programs department of the m u s e u m , the site i n w h i c h the s tudy was conducted; determine what impl ica t ions this case had for Cervero and Wilson 's work i n w h i c h they suggest that the central activity for program planners is negotiating power and interests w i th in the social-poli t ical s tructure of the organization; and to examine the ut i l i ty of Sork 's framework for unders tanding and informing real-life p lann ing practice. The conclus ions d rawn from this s tudy indicate that p l ann ing activities i n this case are si tuated w i th in the technical-rat ional t radi t ion of program planning . The role of the publ ic programs department i n p lann ing educat ional programs is l imited by the context of the organization w h i c h resulted i n well-defined roles for dec is ion-making and p lann ing responsibil i t ies. Decis ions regarding how to p lan a n d organize the programs offered by the m u s e u m are grounded i n experience, as wel l as the history and tradit ions of the organization. 90 S u m m a r y of the Methodology The perspective used i n this s tudy was interpretive. The intent of this approach was to gain unders tanding of the meanings that planners gave to their p lann ing work for a specific program wi th in a specific context. The s tudy employed qualitative methods w h i c h are consistent w i th an interpretive perspective. These methods inc luded attendance at a staff meeting for both observation and in t roduct ion of the research study, semi-s t ructured in-depth interviews u s i n g general topic guidelines and a n informal conversat ional approach, follow-up through electronic communica t ion , electronic communica t ion to obtain information from the "partner" to the project, and documents to corroborate the data from interviews. Da ta were reported through direct quotations. The s tudy was l imited i n that it examined one publ ic event from a larger project. S tudy part icipants were l imi ted to those ind iv idua ls thought to have a direct role i n the p lann ing of the event, a n d those who could provide r i c h contextual information for the overall project as wel l as the cu lmina t ing event. Planners d id not have backgrounds i n adul t educat ion and most had a long history wi th the organization, often having h a d other roles w i th in the organization before jo in ing the publ ic programs department. Th is sample is l ikely representative of s imi la r cu l tu ra l organizations where planners do not ta lk about their p l ann ing work i n t radi t ional adul t educat ion program p lann ing language. A form 91 of t rans la t ion of the stories told by part ic ipants was under taken i n order to al low the researcher to ga in a n unders tanding a n d appreciat ion of the p l ann ing process w i t h i n a n adul t educat ion framework. Except ing the partner to the project who was contacted electronically, a l l par t ic ipants were interviewed. Interviews were audiotaped and t ranscr ibed. Da ta were analysed and organized u s i n g Sork 's framework for program planning . U s i n g this framework, data were informally categorized into key groupings and were further filtered through the three dimensions of program p lann ing proposed by Sork, as wel l as the analytic framework of Cervero and Wi l son . Documents were used to further organize and reach unders tanding of the data. Limi ta t ions of the S tudy Th i s s tudy focuses solely on the cu lmina t ing pub l i c event of the C o l u m b i a B a s i n L iv ing Landscapes project. A s a result , it is l ikely that this s tudy may be l imi ted i n its generalizability. To ensure that the meanings constructed from the data were credible by accurately reflecting the p l ann ing activities i n th is case, the data were t r iangulated us ing observation, interviews, col lect ion of documents, and recording of field notes. Par t ic ipants were provided w i t h a copy of the interview transcript and invited to provide comments and clarification. The researcher re turned to specific par t ic ipants to further check her unders tanding of the data. Tr iangula t ion of the data was also employed to address rel iabil i ty of the results of the study. 92 R i c h , th ick descript ion of the data and the organizat ional context of the s tudy was used to address the need for external val idi ty or transferability. Th is shou ld al low others to judge whether there is a fit to other s imi la r settings. B y u t i l i z ing the techniques that are unders tood to contribute to the t rustworthiness of qualitative case s tudy research, it is hoped that readers w i l l agree that the meanings constructed from the s tudy are plausible , therefore generating confidence i n the findings of the research. The Program P l ann ing Frameworks The work of the publ ic programs department is not s i tuated i n adul t educat ion program p lann ing theory. A n y d i scuss ion about whether or how a program p lann ing framework or theory might inform their practice mus t recognize this condi t ion from the outset. Program const ruct ion appears to be based on the history and tradit ions of the cu l tu ra l ins t i tu t ion and people's experience wi th what works best appears to guide practice. Th i s i s not su rpr i s ing i n itself. S c h o n (1987) describes this type of practice s i tuat ion i n the following way. A professional's knowing- in-ac t ion is embedded i n the socially and ins t i tu t ional ly s t ructured context shared by a communi ty of practi t ioners. Knowing-in-pract ice is exercised i n the ins t i tu t ional settings par t icular to the professional, organized i n terms of i ts characterist ic un i t s of activity and its familiar types of practice si tuat ions, and constrained or facilitated by its common body of professional knowledge and its appreciative system (p.33). The power relat ionships of the organization establ ish the role of the publ ic programs department and to some degree have the effect of 93 l imi t ing the work of the department to "producing" programs a n d exhibits that are directed by executive decisions. Cervero and Wi l son might suggest that planners need to learn to negotiate for more control i n the process that leads to decisions about what programs w i l l be produced and why. What is important to th ink about i n this instance as wel l as others wi th s imi lar organizat ional s tructures is how well the organization functions as it is and how applicable negotiating power and interests is to the p lann ing activities of the organization. Th is case demonstrates an overall satisfaction wi th the roles var ious people play, based on a strong commitment to the organizat ional goals as wel l as t rust i n the decisions and abilities of colleagues. In addi t ion, publ ic programs staff indicated that they have a subs tant ia l amount of autonomy wi th in their defined roles and that they derive satisfaction from that. These characterist ics of the p lann ing context of the organizat ion make it chal lenging to talk about how a program p lann ing framework can inform practice i n this setting. One of the stated purposes of this s tudy was to examine whether Sork 's question-based mul t i -d imens iona l framework for program p lann ing has ut i l i ty for unders tanding and ass is t ing real-life practice. It should be noted that it is possible that researcher bias w i l l have influenced such a d i scuss ion i n that the foundation on w h i c h this s tudy is based is a belief that program p lann ing work shou ld be grounded i n an unders tanding of program p lann ing 94 theory, learning theory and self-reflection that wou ld inc lude a personal phi losophy of adul t educat ion. Given this l imita t ion, it is possible to argue that Sork 's framework can have ut i l i ty i n this setting. In fact, it is possible to suggest that anyth ing that makes people th ink about what they are doing, how they are doing it and why they are doing it, w i l l have a beneficial impact on their work. A s noted earlier, many authors agree that planners shou ld be aware of the context i n w h i c h they conduct their work. Cervero and Wi l son have provided strong evidence through their work that context has a significant impact on the types of programs that get p lanned as wel l as how they are planned. In addi t ion, the literature suggests that i n order to make decisions that are ethically responsible, indeed to be able to meet ethical challenges at a l l , p lanners need to unders tand their own personal phi losophy about the wor ld a round them and the work that they do. Whi le Sork 's framework proved to be valuable as a means of analys ing the program p lann ing process, it l ikely has less u t i l i ty i n assis t ing planners ' work i n this par t icular setting wi thout a significant shift i n how planners unders tand and approach their work. Th i s represents a challenge to the tradit ions of the work associated wi th the organization's cu l tu ra l and pol i t ical context. Th is is based on the researcher's unders tanding that planners approach their work i n a way that reflects the organizat ional context and past experience. 95 In addi t ion, the organizat ional s t ructure that separates the dec is ion-making work from the implementat ion work, w h i c h is not u n u s u a l i n itself, appears to have h a d a significant impact i n defining roles. The focus on shared ownership also shaped the way planners viewed their role. P l ann ing staff demonstrated h igh en thus i a sm for their work bu t d id not appear to require a significant personal stake or ownership of the project i tself i n order to do their work and take pride i n it. Whi le publ ic programs staff indicated that they felt they were given ownership of the publ ic programming aspects of the project, it is important to d i s t inguish this from ownership of the project itself. Th i s may be a dis t inct characterist ic of this par t icular program or of this type of work environment, bu t is an important observation, especially i n relat ion to the work of Cervero and Wi l son . Thei r work suggests that an in t r ins ic aspect of p rogram p lann ing is interest-based negotiation and that a central activity for p lanners is determining whose interests matter. In this par t icular p l ann ing instance it was clear that staff h a d identified whose interests mattered. Negotiation was more obvious at the in i t i a l p l ann ing stage for the L iv ing Landscapes project and d id not involve p l ann ing staff to any significant degree, i f at a l l . More subtle forms of negotiation d id occur i n the program p lann ing activities for the wrap-up event and were strongly tied to the perceived interests of the organization. 96 The dai ly demands of the work of the publ ic programs department may impact on a wil l ingness to examine and uti l ize different approaches to p lann ing work. A n y shift i n t h ink ing requires time to reflect on the ways i n w h i c h work is done now, and how a new way of doing things would impact the work. In addi t ion, there needs to be a belief that these efforts wou ld result i n a benefit to the ind iv idua l as wel l as the organization. In this par t icular case, reposi t ioning the work of the publ ic programs department to reflect an approach grounded i n adul t educat ion program p lann ing theory and language wou ld be a subs tant ia l shift given that there are long-standing tradit ions associated wi th doing this type of work. A program p lann ing approach wou ld l ikely require an overall organizat ional shift i n t h ink ing about the way work is conducted. In assessing whether Sork 's framework has the potential to serve as a meaningful template for unders tanding the p l ann ing work of the publ ic programs department and whether it has ut i l i ty i n relat ion to future work, it is useful to review the p lann ing process briefly. Firs t , i n relation to the C o l u m b i a B a s i n wrap-up event, as has been noted i n an earlier section, some elements associated wi th the p l ann ing process were addressed prior to involvement by the publ ic programs department. Planners appear to accept the context i n w h i c h they work. A strong organizat ional commitment to the Liv ing Landscapes project was established prior to the publ ic programming for a l l publ ic events. Jus t i f ica t ion for the program had therefore already been establ ished 97 through executive decis ion-making. The focusing of activities associated wi th the publ ic event relate directly to stakeholders s u c h as the execut ive/managers and the advisory committee, as wel l as researchers. The ins t ruc t iona l p lan work was l imited to framing the event i n terms of the delivery methods for the various funded projects and was bui l t on past experience wi th s imi lar types of events. A summative evaluat ion p l an was developed wel l before the involvement of the publ ic programs department and was focused on evaluat ing the overall effectiveness of the entire project i n achieving its stated goals w h i c h were directly related to the museum's business p lan . In effect, there was reduced pressure to demonstrate success for the event itself. P lann ing staff provided l imi ted examples of formative evaluation activities over the communi ty events leading to the publ ic event as wel l as a p lan to conduct an informal summative evaluat ion of their work. The p lann ing activities associated wi th the publ ic event are si tuated w i th in the technical d imens ion of Sork 's framework. A l though the language used to d iscuss the p lann ing work was not generally that found i n the program p lann ing literature, it is grounded i n the technical -ra t ional t radi t ion of program p lanning . There i s some subtle evidence that planners act on and w i th in the social-poli t ical and ethical d imensions of p lanning . There may be a number of reasons that cou ld account for the fact that these aspects of the p l ann ing mi l i eu were not readily apparent. Th is cou ld relate to the wel l defined roles and 98 unders tanding of the socia l -pol i t ica l context of the agency. It may also relate to job satisfaction. Other factors may inc lude the language of discourse of the organization as wel l as the epistomological basis for p lanners ' work. It is wor th not ing that several staff worked i n other areas of the m u s e u m prior to jo in ing the publ ic programs department. Whi le p lann ing staff d id not frame the challenges they faced i n terms of ethical decis ion-making, examples were provided that reflected that this was occurr ing. There was also a strong impress ion given by staff that impl ied a mora l commitment to the work that they do. Conc lus ions Sork 's mul t i -d imens iona l program p lann ing framework proved to be a useful tool for analys ing the p lann ing process. It provided the means to translate the p lann ing process, w h i c h was not ar t iculated by planners i n the language most commonly associated wi th adul t educat ion program p lann ing activities. It also enabled the researcher to develop an unders tanding of the stories that were being told w i th in the context of the study. In addi t ion, the framework facilitated the development of an unders tanding of how the organization as a whole goes about p lann ing its programs as wel l as what the role of planners i n the publ ic programs department were i n relation to the organization. Whi le there is clearly a social-poli t ical d imens ion operating i n the setting of this case, this was most explicit ly revealed i n relat ion to the organizat ional context, unders tand ing of roles a n d a clear apprecia t ion 99 for whose interests were important . Th is s tudy d id not reveal if or how planners act on organizat ional power relations. It d id reveal, however, that planners engaged i n the negotiation of organizat ional interests. There was both an impl ied and explicit e thical d imens ion to p lanners ' practice, a l though it should be noted that planners d id not art iculate decisions or actions that fall w i th in the ethical d imens ion as such . The literature confirms that while many theorists and authors ta lk about the need to conduct p l ann ing i n an ethically responsible way, there is little or no guidance provided to program planners about how to do this . The literature also suggests that ethical issues are often s imply ignored or acted on i n an intuit ive way by planners. In this study, in tu i t ion appeared to play a significant role when planners were faced wi th difficult and chal lenging si tuations. In summary , Sork 's program p lann ing framework served as a useful template for analys ing the p lann ing of the wrap-up event of the C o l u m b i a B a s i n L i v i n g Landscapes project. It assisted the researcher i n unders tanding the program p lann ing process i n this par t icular organization, and for this specific program. It also enabled the researcher to attempt to explore how and to what degree planners conduct their work wi th in the social-poli t ical and ethical domains . It is less l ikely that Sork 's framework has ut i l i ty i n direct ing p lann ing activities i n this setting wi thout a shift i n t h ink ing at both organizat ional and ind iv idua l levels. It does, however, have the potential 100 to inform the practice of the publ ic programs department i f only to underscore the depth and complexity of the work that they do. F ina l ly , this s tudy confirmed that planners d id under take interest-based negotiations i n their work and that Cervero and Wilson 's analyt ic framework can account for some of the activities associated wi th the p lann ing of the wrap-up event. It was not readily evident that planners were engaged i n the negotiation of power relations to enable them to influence the program i n any way, i n this par t icular case. In addi t ion, it is not possible to conclude from this case s tudy that negotiation of power and interests is a central activity for program planners i n par t icular instance. This speaks to a need for further research w h i c h is d iscussed i n the following section. Implicat ions for Fur ther Research There are obviously numerous l imita t ions to this s tudy that indicate that further research is required. Firs t , the m u s e u m presents a un ique setting for s tudying program planning . It does not operate w i th in the context of adul t educat ion theory and practice and has its own history a n d tradi t ions w h i c h guide its approach to the p l ann ing of educat ional programs. It is perhaps not the best choice of site to examine the ut i l i ty of new approaches to program planning . It does, however, raise interesting questions for further research. Fur ther research about the way that museums p lan and conduct programs w i l l lead to an increased unders tanding of how adul t educat ion theory fits 101 into that wor ld . It may also provide opportunit ies for m u s e u m s to examine their current program p lann ing practices through a different lens that may ul t imately benefit their work. There is a clear need for further descriptive research i n the area of program p lann ing practice. Th is s tudy suggests that substantively democratic p lann ing as proposed by Cervero and Wi l son does not account entirely for the program p lann ing process i n a l l settings a n d highlights the need for further research i n s imi la r settings to assess this issue more thoroughly. Fur ther research focusing on the social-poli t ical context of p lann ing shou ld be under taken, but not, it is proposed, to the exclus ion of other things that might be occur r ing i n the p lann ing process. F ina l ly , Sork 's framework proved useful as a tool for analysis of this p l ann ing case. The nature of the case w i th in its organizat ional framework prevented any conclus ions about how informative this framework cou ld be for real-life p lann ing practice. There is a need for a more thorough analysis of Sork 's framework across a variety of p lann ing settings. On ly then w i l l it be possible to state wi th any certainty that this new framework is as comprehensive and useful as it appears to be. 102 R E F E R E N C E S Adelson , Y . C . "Ethics i n Professional Practice: Some Issues for the C o n t i n u i n g Professional Educator ." In R . A . Cervero and J . F . Azzaretto (eds.), Visions for the Future of Continuing Professional Education. 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What Really Matters in Adult Education Program Planning: Lessons in Negotiating Power and Interests (New Direct ions for A d u l t and C o n t i n u i n g Educa t ion , no.69). S a n Francisco: Jossey-Bass , 1996. Wi l son , A . L . and Cervero, R . M . "The Song Remains the Same: The Selective Tradi t ion of Technica l Rat ional i ty i n A d u l t Educa t i on Program P lann ing Theory." International Journal of Lifelong Education, 1997, 16(2), 84-108. Y i n , K . Case Study Research: Design and Methods (2nd ed.). T h o u s a n d Oaks , C A : S A G E , 1994. 106 APPENDIX A INTERVIEW GUIDELINES First Run of Program Introductory Remark I would like to learn as much as I can about the program. Would you tell me about it. Key Issues/Prompts • Idea development • Who was involved • Roles • Financial issues • Planning and conducting • Key players & roles • Process • Participants • Stakeholders • Evaluation • Critical Moments • Changes • Documentation 107 INTERVIEW GUIDELINES Second Version of Program Introductory Remark Would you tell me about the planning for the second version of the program. Key Issues/Prompts • Decision to run second program • Who was involved • Roles • Planning • Changes (how is this different from first run) • Financial Issues • Expected participants • Stakeholders • Critical Moments • Documentation 108 A P P E N D I X B ROYAL BRITISH COLUMBIA MUSEUM 1999 - 2000 Business Plan March 1999 109 Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS S T R A T E G I C O V E R V I E W 1 STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES - 2000-2004 l MEASUREABLE GOALS 2 RESOURCES 3 PLANNING PROCESS 3 P L A N N I N G F R A M E W O R K S 5 FIVE-YEAR STRATEGIC PLAN GOALS 5 MINISTRY STRATEGIC GOALS 5 T H E R B C M O R G A N I Z A T I O N 7 GOVERNANCE 7 MANAGEMENT 7 VOLUNTEERS 7 CURATORIAL SERVICES 8 CUSTOMER AND CORPORATE SERVICES 8 DEVELOPMENT OFFICE 9 FRIENDS OF THE R B C M 9 PUBLIC PROGRAMS 9 1999-2000 O B J E C T I V E S 11 OVERVIEW 11 GENERAL STRATEGIES 12 1 COMPLETE THE LIVING LANDSCAPES PROJECT IN THE COLUMBIA BASIN REGION 13 2 PRODUCE THE NUU-CHAH-NULTH NATIONS EXHIBIT 15 3 COMPLETE THE FIRST PHASE OF THE FIVE-YEAR PROJECT TO REVITALIZE THE PERMANENT EXHIBITS 17 4 ACHIEVE EARNED REVENUE OF $3,487,000 19 5 ACHIEVE FRIENDS AND FUND-RAISING REVENUE OF $925,000 21 6 INITIATE NEW BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS 23 7 IMPLEMENT PROCEDURES FOR PLANNING, MEASURING, AND COMMUNICATING PERFORMANCE 24 8 IMPLEMENT TIME-TRACKING PROCEDURES 26 F I N A N C I A L P R O J E C T I O N S 29 1999-2000 M E A S U R E M E N T S - 31 T H E MEASUREMENT PROCESS 31 TYPES OF MEASUREMENTS 31 MEASUREMENT DATA SOURCES 31 STRATEGIC PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS 32 IMPLEMENTATION MEASUREMENTS 33 CUSTOMER AND FRIENDS MEASUREMENTS 35 FINANCIAL- MEASUREMENTS 36 110 Royal British Columbia Museum 1999-2000 Business Plan Strategic Overview STRATEGIC OVERVIEW Strategic Objectives - 2000-2004 During May and June of 1998, we held ten public consultation meetings in seven communities across the province. These meetings confirmed the spirit of our 1995-1999 strategic objectives, but suggested increased emphasis on providing value to British Columbians throughout the province. In addition, financial prudence has motivated us to increase staff focus on business plan objectives. On the basis of our experience in achieving our previous strategic objectives and our most recent public consultations, we have developed new mission, values, and vision and identified four strategic objectives for 2000-2004. Our mission is to explore and preserve British Columbia's cultural and natural heritage, to inspire curiosity and wonder, and to share our story with the world. Our values are: accountability to public concerns and expectations, stewardship of the collections entrusted to our care, respect for diversity, objectivity in presenting information, and excellence in product and service. Our vision includes our reputation, community relationships, technologies, and partnerships: With a renewed commitment to research, education, and public involvement, the Royal British Columbia Museum will secure its place among the finest museums in North America. The relationship between British Columbians and their Museum will deepen and diversify with new community-based programs throughout the province. At the same time, new technologies will enhance the Museum's exhibits and make our collections and research available to a new, global audience. As the Museum continues to evolve and grow, we wil l seek out new Dartnerships and new sources of revenue in order to adapt, serve, and succeed both now and in the future. Royal British Columbia Museum 1999-2000 Business Plan Strategic Overview Our four strategic objectives are to: • Become More Relevant and Responsive throughout British Columbia. • Innovate in developing and disseminating knowledge through exhibits, programs, and technology. • Increase Self-Sufficiency by becoming less financially dependent on government. • Focus on Results by working together productively to achieve the objectives of our annual business plans. Measureable Goals In order to achieve our strategic objectives in the next five years, we have developed five specific goals that will create an even more relevant museum by the year 2004. Most of the goals are related to more than one strategic objective, but each one is focused primarily on achieving one of the strategic objectives. The goal for achieving the strategic objective to Become More Relevant and Responsive throughout British Columbia is: Goal 1: Extend Living Landscapes to include interior, central, and northern British Columbia. The goal for achieving the strategic objective to Innovate is: Goal 2: Revitalize the exhibits. The goal for achieving the strategic objective to Increase Self-Sufficiency is: Goal 3: Diversify revenue sources. The goals for achieving the strategic objective to Focus on Results are: Goal 4: Implement a comprehensive program of performance planning, communication, and measurement. Goal 5: Increase the collection and knowledge in limited, highly-relevant areas. Royal British Columbia Museum 1999-2000 Business Plan Strategic Overview Resources In 1999-2000 we must manage with an additional decrease in government funding. Our strategic objective to Focus on Results will help us to meet this challenge. Planning Process Five-Year Strategic Plan and funding agreement During 1998-1999 we finalized our new Five-Year Strategic Plan after an extensive public consultation process. In conjunction with the five-year planning process, we worked with our Special Operating Agency (SOA) Advisory Board and Treasury Board staff to develop a new funding agreement. 1999-2000 business plan This draft business plan was developed by the executive team during a series of workshops held between August 20, 1998 and September 21, 1998, and submitted to Treasury Board and Cabinet for approval in January, 1999. The executive team consists of: • B i l l Barkley, Chief Executive Officer • Grant Hughes, Director of Curatorial Services • Pauline Rafferty, Director of Customer and Corporate Services • Karen Van Sacker, Director of the Development Office • Barbara Taylor, Director of Operations, Friends of the R B C M • Brent Cooke, Director of Public Programs 113 Royal British Columbia Museum 1999-2000 Business Plan Planning Frameworks PLANNING FRAMEWORKS In developing this plan for 1999-2000, we worked within two frameworks: • the goals in our new Five-Year Strategic Plan; and • the current goals of the Ministry of Small Business, Tourism and Culture. Five-Year Strategic Plan Goals The goals in our Five-Year Strategic Plan — 2000-2004 provide a valuable planning framework. Each year, we develop annual objectives to achieve our goals to: 1. Extend Living Landscapes to include interior, central, and northern B C . 2. Revitalize the exhibits. 3. Diversify revenue sources. 4. Implement a comprehensive program of performance planning, communication, and measurement. 5. Increase the collection and knowledge in limited, highly-relevant areas. Ministry Strategic Goals The Royal British Columbia Museum directly supports the strategic goals of the Ministry of Small Business, Tourism and Culture. We support the Ministry goal of Protecting and Creating Jobs by: • serving as a major draw for tourists to Victoria, which results in jobs in other tourism businesses; • funding more than twenty projects in the Living Landscapes regions through $330,000 in project support; and • providing year-round employment to 100 people, seasonal employment to an additional 20 people during the peak summer season, co-op work terms for university students, and work-term experience for high school students. We support the Ministry goal of Strengthening Communities by: • managing the active participation and support of over 450 volunteers, 350 in Victoria and 100 in regional communities; • engaging the support and involvement of 23,000 Friends members; • partnering with other agencies in hosting exhibits, delivering programs, and developing new facilities such as the National Geographic Imax Theatre; and • managing Living Landscapes projects that augment local data and knowledge about natural and human history in selected regions of B C . 114 Royal British Columbia Museum 1999-2000 Business Plan Planning Frameworks We support the Ministry goal of Protecting BC's Unique Environment by: • partnering with other agencies in the Living Landscapes projects to perform research and develop educational programs and exhibits on ecological values and endangered species; • providing access to a comprehensive collection that provides historical and contemporary information about B C species and the habitats in which they live; and • hosting eco tours that develop an appreciation for BC's environment. We support the Ministry goal of Ensuring Access to Government Programs and Services for All British Columbians by: • supporting 4,800,000 annual accesses to the R B C M web site; • developing educational programs and exhibits relating to the Living Landscapes regions; • providing services to a total of 1,200,000 clients annually; • providing access to exhibits and programs to over 20,000 Friends members throughout BC; and • expanding electronic delivery of educational programs throughout the province. We support the Ministry goal of Providing Cost-Effective Program Delivery and Targeting Maximum Revenues by: • focusing organization resources on working together productively; • developing expertise and experience in fund raising; and • seeking increased capability for revenue-generation and donorship within the SOA governance framework. 115 Royal British Columbia Museum 1999-2000 Business Plan The RBCM Organization The RBCM Organization Governance The R B C M is a Special Operating Agency (SOA) of the Ministry of Small Business, Tourism and Culture. SOA designation allows us to operate at increased arm's length from government and permits us increased flexibility in the management of our financial affairs and revenue generation, thereby enhancing our financial performance and program delivery. Treasury Board has delegated authorities directly to our Chief Executive Officer and our 15-member Advisory Board. The Board members are appointed by the Minister to represent R B C M stakeholders across the province. They assist us to achieve our strategic objectives by overseeing our business direction, maintaining our provincial perspective, reviewing and approving our annual business plans, reviewing quarterly and annual R B C M reports, and recommending policy changes to R B C M management. Management We are organized into five functional branches, each managed by a Director: • Curatorial Services • Customer and Corporate Services • Development Office • Friends of the R B C M • Public Programs Each branch has specific functional responsibilities, although many of the functions for which one branch is responsible also require contribution from staff in other branches. Volunteers Each branch also invests considerable time in supporting approximately 450 volunteers, who provide thirty-eight thousand hours to support the effective operation of the branches. 116 Royal British Columbia Museum 1999-2000 Business Plan The RBCM Organization Curatorial Services The staff in Curatorial Services are specialists in managing collections and performing research in natural history, human history, and ethnology. They contribute to the R B C M objectives by: • ensuring that objects in the collection are safe, secure, documented, and preserved • acquiring and deaccessioning objects in the collection • providing access to the collection • providing objects to researchers and institutions • selling photoprints of First Nations images • administering the repatriation of First Nations objects • performing research relating to Living Landscapes, and a limited amount of other research • contributing information and knowledge to program and exhibit development • leading eco tours • administering records management Customer and Corporate Services The staff in Customer and Corporate Services are specialists in marketing and operating the museum as a cultural attraction, and deliver a complete spectrum of organization support services. They contribute to the R B C M objectives by: • collecting revenue for the museum and National Geographic Imax Theatre • providing information to visitors • selling Friends memberships • booking group tours, school programs, and guided tours • developing, marketing, and administering eco tours • renting galleries • administering the National Geographic Imax Theatre • marketing special exhibits and museum programs • managing media relations • managing personnel services • managing corporate finances • administering contracts, including the cafe contract • managing government relations • managing facilities • providing systems services • managing security 117 Royal British Columbia Museum 1999-2000 Business Plan The RBCM Organization Development Office The Development Office implements fund raising for the R B C M by: • managing campaigns for annual giving, major gifts, and capital fund raising • managing fund-raising events • managing R B C M relationships with donors, potential donors, and campaign volunteers • managing the Royal BC Museum Foundation Friends of the RBCM The Society of the Friends of the R B C M engages the public, especially the Victoria community, in supporting the R B C M . The Friends staff contribute to the R B C M objectives by: • participating in R B C M projects and committees • contributing substantial funding support to R B C M projects • providing financial and volunteer support for R B C M fund raising • increasing and managing the Friends membership • publishing the bi-monthly Discovery newsletter • managing relationships with the Friends Board of Directors • managing the Museum Shop, the National Geographic Gift Shop, and the special exhibit gift shops • managing the personnel and finances of the Friends organization • providing the fund-raising focus for the R B C M Public Programs The staff in Public Programs are specialists in the development and delivery of educational programs and exhibits. They contribute to the R B C M objectives by: • developing and maintaining the exhibits • developing and delivering educational programs • developing and delivering local and regional event programming • developing seasonal exhibits • producing and maintaining the R B C M web site • publishing R B C M books and pamphlets • producing graphic and audio-visual materials 118 Royal British Columbia Museum 1999-2000 Business Plan 1999-2000 Objectives 1999-2000 OBJECTIVES Overview Within the context of our five goals for 2000-2004, we have established eight objectives for the 1999-2000 fiscal year. 1999-2000 Objectives 2000-2004 Goals 1 Complete the Living Landscapes project in the Co lumbia Basin region. Goa l 1: Extend Living Landscapes to include interior, central, and northern B C . 2 Complete the first phase of the five-year project to revitalize the permanent exhibits. Goa l 2: Revitalize the exhibits. 3 Produce the Nuu-chah-nulth Nations exhibit. Goa l 2: Revitalize the exhibits. 4 Achieve earned revenue of $3,487,000. Goa l 3: Diversify revenue sources. 5 Achieve Friends and fund-raising revenue of $925,000. Goa l 3: Diversify revenue sources. 6 Initiate new business development projects. Goa l 3: Diversify revenue sources. 7 Implement procedures for planning, measur ing, and communicating management and staff performance. Goa l 4: Implement a comprehensive program of performance planning, communication, and measurement. 8 Implement time-tracking procedures. Goa l 5: Increase the collection and knowledge in limited, highly-relevant areas. 119 Royal British Columbia Museum 1999-2000 Business Plan 1999-2000 Objectives General Strategies > Branch integration Success in all of the objectives depends on collaboration among staff in Curatorial Services, Customer and Corporate Services, Development Office, Friends, and Public Programs. > Focus on results It will be challenging to achieve our 1999-2000 objectives in the context of current financial realities and intense competition for customers and donors. Our success depends on increasing the percentage of time staff spend on the 1999-2000 objectives. The sixth and seventh objectives address this challenge directly. > Accountability and measurement Each objective has measurable targets. The responsible executives wil l assign specific responsibilities to staff across the organization. These responsibilities will be explicitly documented in detailed project and branch plans, and explicitly assigned and measured in individual staff work plans. > Develop the governance framework Our status as a Special Operating Agency has enabled us to become a more credible partner in developing comprehensive research, revenue, and fund-raising initiatives. Our strategy for further success is to continue to expand management flexibility within the SOA framework. 120 Royal British Columbia Museum -1997-1998 Business Plan 1999-2000 Objectives 1 Complete the Living Landscapes project in the Columbia Basin region. Objective The goal of Living Landscapes is to improve understanding of the human and natural history of British Columbia through partnerships and participation at the community level. We began this program in the Thompson-Okanagan region (1994-1996). We are currently working in the Columbia Basin (1997-1999), while supporting ongoing projects in the Thompson-Okanagan. Our objective this year is to complete the project in the Columbia Basin region and select the next region to be studied. Measurable targets This objective requires the participation of staff from all five branches, and has the following measurable targets for the 1999-2000 fiscal year: a. Determine the next Living Landscapes region by June 30 ,1999 . G . Hughes b. Develop a marketing program for Living Landscapes by June 30,1999. P. Rafferty c. Complete the development of a five-year fund-raising plan to support Living Landscapes by June 30,1999 and secure financing partners for the next region. K. Van Sacker d. Complete all Columbia Basin research projects by August 31, 1999. G . Hughes e. Develop Columbia Basin educational materials by November 30,1999. B. Cooke f. Develop the Columbia Basin web site by December 31, 1999. P. Rafferty 9- Complete the evaluation of the Columbia Basin project with partners and participants by March 31, 2000. G . Hughes 12I Royal British Columbia Museum 1999-2000 Business Plan 1999-2000 Objectives Strategies for success Success in achieving this objective relies heavily upon the general success strategies of branch integration and focusing on results. In addition, success depends on our attention to partnership development, marketing, and fund raising. > Developing partnerships Our major partners are currently the Columbia Basin Trust and Okanagan University College. As Living Landscapes grows, we wil l seek additional partners and supporters to ensure its continued success. As we approach the completion of the Columbia Basin projects, we will determine the next region to be studied through a public consultation process. Although the exact boundaries of future regions are not yet defined, a possible list of remaining regions is: • Central British Columbia • Northern British Columbia • Lower Mainland • Island Communities > Market the programs Marketing programs are required to create awareness of our Living Landscapes research and program plans throughout the province, and to support our fund-raising campaigns. > Fund raising We will develop an integrated fund-raising campaign to acquire support for new Living Landscapes regions and to establish endowments to support projects in existing Living Landscapes regions. 122 Royal British Columbia Museum -1997-1998 Business Plan 1999-2000 Objectives 2 Produce the Nuu-chah-nulth Nations exhibit. Objective The Nuu-chah-nulth Nations exhibit marks the first time that an exhibit of cultural material from the powerful Nuu-chah-nulth whaling nations will be available outside British Columbia. The exhibit is being developed with the support of the Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council and in collaboration with Nuu-chah-nulth chiefly families who are historically associated with the cultural objects in the exhibit. The exhibit features objects from the Nuu-chah-nulth collection of the R B C M , from other museums in Canada and the United States, and from private collections. The majority of these objects have never before been exhibited in any museum. The 500 square-metre exhibit of approximately 125 objects includes spectacular painted curtains, dramatic masks, fascinating model-sized and full-sized canoes, intricate basketry, beautiful rattles, and many other objects. It covers 200 years of history, from the Nuu-chah-nulth's contact with Captain Cook in 1778 to the late twentieth century. The exhibit wi l l open at the R B C M in 1999, and wil l be marketed to a limited number of international museums for 12-week bookings beginning in the spring of 2000. Measurable targets This objective requires the participation of staff from all five branches, and has five measurable targets leading up to the exhibit opening on July 5, 1999. a. Complete the comprehensive marketing campaign for the Nuu-chah-nulth Nations exhibit that began in 1998-1999 by June 30,1999. P. Rafferty b. Complete the sponsorship campaign for the Nuu-chah-nulth Nations exhibit that began in 1998-1999 by June 30 ,1999 . K. Van Sacker c. Develop the exhibit components and companion book for the Nuu-chah-nulth Nations exhibit by April 30, 1999. B. Cooke G . Hughes d. Install the exhibit and publish the companion book for the Nuu-chah-nulth Nations exhibit by July 3, 1999. B. Cooke G. Hughes e. Establish a special gift shop for the Nuu-chah-nulth Nations exhibit by July 3, 1999. B. Taylor 123 Royal British Columbia Museum 1999-2000 Business Plan 1999-2000 Objectives Strategies for success Success in achieving this objective relies heavily upon the general success strategies of branch integration and focusing on results. In addition, success depends on our attention to marketing and fund raising. > Obtain support and funding We have been working in partnership with fourteen Nuu-chah-nulth organizations in developing this exhibit. We are also soliciting donations and sponsorships to fund the project. > Sell the exhibit We have undertaken this project because our business case analysis indicated that we wil l be able to sell the exhibit to at least five other museums. Since our goal is to achieve sales to ten or more institutions, we will be executing a sales campaign. 124 Royal British Columbia Museum -1997-1998 Business Plan 1999-2000 Objectives 3 Complete the first phase of the five-year project to revitalize the permanent exhibits. Objective Our exhibits building opened its doors in 1968 to reveal two floors full of innovative and state-of-the-art permanent exhibits presenting British Columbia's human and natural history. The last new permanent exhibit, Open Ocean, was unveiled in 1987, and there have been no additions since that year. In 1998, despite the R B C M ' s ongoing popularity as a destination site, the exhibits are dated and even, in some cases, misleading. We can no longer claim that the permanent exhibits are completely representative of British Columbia. The exhibit revitalization began in 1998-1999 with an extensive public consultation process and the development of a Conceptual Exhibit Plan. In 1999-2000, based on the Conceptual Exhibit Plan, we will develop a Detailed Exhibit Plan and Detailed Research and Collections Plan. Since this five-year project will be financed by fund raising, we will also develop a capital campaign plan in 1999-2000. Measurable targets The objective requires the participation of staff from all five branches, and has five measurable targets for 1999-2000: a. Develop a capital campaign plan based on the Conceptual Exhibit Plan and the Living Landscapes Plan by June 3 0 , 1 9 9 9 . K. Van Sacker b. Develop Detailed 5-Year Exhibit Plan based on the Conceptual Exhibit Plan by June 30, 1999. B. Cooke G . Hughes c. Develop Detailed 5-Year Research and Col lect ions Development Plan based on the Conceptual Exhibit Plan by October 3 1 , 1 9 9 9 . B. Cooke G. Hughes d. Develop marketing program for exhibit revitalization by October 31 , 1999. P. Rafferty e. Initiate the first project in the Detailed 5-Year Exhibit Plan by February 29, 2000 to the extent made possible by increased fees and fund raising. B. Cooke 125 Royal British Columbia Museum 1999-2000 Business Plan 1999-2000 Objectives Strategies for success Success in achieving this objective relies heavily upon the general success strategies of branch integration and focusing on results. It is critical that Research and Collections staff be a part of the development of the Conceptual Exhibit Plan, and that the projects in the Detailed Research and Collections Development Plan be focused on achieving the Conceptual Exhibit Plan. In addition, success depends on our attention to marketing and fund raising. > Market the exhibit plans Marketing programs are required to create awareness of our exhibit plans throughout the province and to support the fund-raising campaigns. > Fund raising We will solicit donations and sponsorships throughout British Columbia to fund our exhibit revitalization project. 126 Royal British Columbia Museum -1997-1998 Business Plan 1999-2000 Objectives 4 Achieve earned revenue of $3,487,000. Objective Fiscal 1998-1999 year was a record year for earned revenue because of the opening of the National Geographic Imax Theatre and the Leonardo da Vinci exhibit. We have set ourselves the ambitious objective of maintaining this level of earned revenue for 1999-2000. Measurable targets Achievement of this objective includes, but is not limited to, the following earned revenue and customer targets: a. Maintain gallery admissions revenue at $3,000,000. P. Rafferty b. Moderately increase gallery rental revenue from $100,000 to $105,000. P. Rafferty c. Increase National Geographic Imax Theatre revenue from $81,000 to $158,800 based on the National Geographic business plan. P. Rafferty d. Maintain eco tour revenue at $20,000. G . Hughes P. Rafferty e. Increase participation in the National Geographic Imax Theatre from 250,000 to 430,000 customers. P. Rafferty f. Maintain the number of group tour visitors at 96,000. P. Rafferty 127 Royal British Columbia Museum 1999-2000 Business Plan 1999-2000 Objectives Strategies for success We wi l l achieve this objective by establishing continuity in special exhibits and strengthening the synergy with the National Geographic Imax Theatre. > Establish continuity in special exhibits For special exhibits, we can implement a special exhibit surcharge. The continuity of these exhibits can therefore have a positive effect on earned revenue. The Leonardo da Vinci exhibit will be followed by the Nuu-chah-nulth Nations exhibit, which will in turn be followed by another special exhibit. > Strengthen synergy with National Geographic Imax Theatre We wil l work with Destination Cinemas Inc. so that at any time at least one of the Imax films is strongly related to an R B C M exhibit theme. This should encourage National Geographic Imax Theatre patrons to also visit the museum. > Enhance self-sufficiency with "in-kind" donations The process of developing new exhibits and other revenue-generating programs depends upon funding from the Friends and fund raising. However, in order to generate revenue, the development effort must be followed with effective marketing campaigns. For these marketing campaigns, we rely heavily on "in-kind" donations from organizations that produce, publish, broadcast, or carry advertisements. 128 Royal British Columbia Museum -1997-1998 Business Plan 1999-2000 Objectives 5 Achieve Friends and fund-raising revenue of $925,000. Objective In 1998-1999, we significantly exceeded our fund-raising objective. While we believe that our fund-raising strategies were very effective, we must also acknowledge that much of the success was due to the fortuitous timing of the Leonardo da Vinci exhibit during the off-season. Our overall objective in 1999-2000 is to achieve $625,000 from the Friends and $300,000 in cash donations to support the Nuu-chah-nulth Nations exhibit. As indicated previously, we will also be initiating capital and sponsorship campaigns in support of the Living Landscapes and Exhibit Revitalization objectives. However, we have no firm revenue targets for 1999-2000. Measurable targets The targets for 1999-2000 are: a. Obtain Friends contribution of $625,000 resulting from membership, gift shop revenue, and annual giving. B. Taylor b. Achieve cash donations for the Nuu-chah-nulth Nations exhibit of $300,000 and additional "in-kind" donations. K. Van Sacker B. Cooke G. Hughes c. Maintain the number of gift shop customers at 120,000. B. Taylor d. Maintain Friends membership at 23,000. B. Taylor 129 Royal British Columbia Museum 1999-2000 Business Plan 1999-2000 Objectives Strategies for success In order to be successful, we must pursue funding from many sources and develop partnerships. > Pursue funding from many sources Our project-based fund-raising strategies were very successful in 1998-1999. We wil l continue to pursue funding from many sources through carefully designed campaigns. > Develop partnerships The local business community provided significant support for the Leonardo da Vinci exhibit because of the potential for stimulating additional tourist visits during the off-season. While the timing of this event cannot necessarily be repeated on a regular basis in the future, we will endeavour to find other linkages with BC businesses that can provide us with mutual benefits. 130 Royal British Columbia Museum -1997-1998 Business Plan 1999-2000 Objectives 6 Initiate new business development projects. Objective To ensure future success in achieving earned revenue objectives, we will initiate the development of an Imax film with a BC theme in partnership with BC Film. In addition, we wil l be optimizing the use of the prime office space in the Fannin Building. We wil l develop a business case and plan for moving collections from the upper floors of the Fannin Building and subletting the space as office space to the private sector. In partnership with Tourism Victoria and the Victoria business community, we wil l also develop a plan to host a major international exhibit from October, 2000 to March, 2001. Measurable targets There are three targets for this objective: a. Develop the conceptual planning for an Imax film with a B C theme in partnership with B C Film by March 31, 2000. B. Barkley b. Develop a business case and plan for the Fannin Building by September 30 ,1999 . P. Rafferty c. Develop a plan to host a major international exhibit from October, 2000 to March, 2001 by September 30, 1999. B. Cooke 131 Royal British Columbia Museum 1999-2000 Business Plan 1999-2000 Objectives 7 Implement procedures for planning, measuring, and communicating management and staff performance. Objective description In 1998-1999 we increased our ability to integrate our efforts and focus on common themes in research and programs. In order to successfully achieve our objectives in 1999-2000 and beyond, it is critical that we continue to strengthen the focus of our organization. Continual vigilance and support from management and staff are required to improve our effectiveness in working productively in an integrated fashion. We wi l l continue to increase the focus of our efforts on integrated projects such as Living Landscapes, the Nuu-chah-nulth Nations exhibit, and exhibit revitalization. Achieving this objective in 1999-2000 will require preliminary work in 1998-1999. During the remainder of 1998-1999, we wil l develop procedures for performance planning, measuring, and communicating; provide training to supervisors and staff; and coach supervisors and staff. To energize and guide the project, we wil l appoint a project leader who can also provide training and coaching. Measurable targets In 1999-2000, managers, supervisors, and staff will implement procedures for measuring and communicating results in staff work plans. a. Having established procedures in 1998-1999 for planning, measuring, and communicating management and staff performance, implement these procedures in work plans for 1999-2000 by March 31, 1999. B. Barkley B. Cooke G . Hughes P. Rafferty B. Taylor K. Van Sacker b. Using the procedures for measuring management and staff performance, determine the baseline level of performance for assessing improvements in subsequent years by September 30, 1999. B. Barkley B. Cooke G . Hughes P. Rafferty B. Taylor K. Van Sacker 132 Royal British Columbia Museum -1997-1998 Business Plan 1999-2000 Objectives Strategy for success Success in achieving this objective relies heavily upon developing performance management procedures and skills during 1998-1999. > Develop procedures and skills in 1998-1999 Achieving this objective for 1999-2000 will require preliminary work in 1998-1999. During the remainder of 1998-1999, we will develop procedures for performance planning and measurement, provide training to supervisors, and coach supervisors and staff. To energize and guide the project, we will appoint a project leader who can also provide training and coaching to managers, supervisors, and staff. 133 Royal British Columbia Museum 1999-2000 Business Plan 1999-2000 Objectives 8 Implement time-tracking procedures. Objective description We cannot achieve our goal of increasing the collection and knowledge in limited, highly-relevant areas without changing the way we plan and develop collections, research, programs, and exhibits. Most critically, staff in Public Programs and Curatorial Services must work together in an integrated fashion to make decisions about collections and research that can be utilized in programs and exhibits. In addition, staff from Marketing, Financial Services, Development Office, and Friends must be involved to ensure that the collections and research are consistent with the strategic objectives to Become More Relevant and Responsive and to Increase Self-Sufficiency. We wil l measure and significantly improve the percentage of time spent by all staff on the development of the collection and knowledge for Living Landscapes and other limited areas identified in the annual business plans. In order to achieve this, we must implement time-tracking procedures for 1999-2000. Measurable targets In 1999-2000, managers, supervisors, and staff will implement procedures for tracking time. c. Having established procedures in 1998-1999 for tracking time, implement these procedures by March 31, 1999. B. Barkley B. Cooke G . Hughes P. Rafferty B. Taylor K. Van Sacker d. Using the procedures for measuring time, establish the baseline level of time spent on increasing the collection and knowledge in limited, highly-relevant areas by September 30 ,1999 . B. Barkley B. Cooke G . Hughes P. Rafferty B. Taylor K. Van Sacker 134 Royal British Columbia Museum -1997-1998 Business Plan 1999-2000 Objectives Strategy for success Success in achieving this objective relies heavily upon developing performance management procedures and skills during 1998-1999. > Develop procedures and skills in 1998-1999 Achieving this objective for 1999-2000 will require preliminary work in 1998-1999. During the remainder of 1998-1999, we will develop procedures for performance planning and measurement, provide training to supervisors, and coach supervisors and staff. To energize and guide the project, we will appoint a project leader who can also provide training and coaching to managers, supervisors, and staff. 135 Royal British Columbia Museum 1999-2000 Business Plan Financial Projections FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS Funding Required: Salaries and Benefits Security Building Occupancy Building Projects Systems Telecommunications Postal Museum Marketing Nuu-Chah-Nulth Living Landscapes Exhibit Revitalization Signage CEO/Board Fundraising Office Costs Customer & Corparate Services Revenue Operations Support Services Non-Systems Amortization Cos ts Curatorial Services Public Programs Fund ing Required Fund ing Avai lab le: Gov't Allocation Carry-over for Nuu-Chah-Nulth Transfer from S B T C Revenues: Admissions Other Nuu Chah Nulth Cash Sponsorship Living Landscapes Recovery Friends Funding Fundraising Cash Fee increases Total Funding Avai lable RBCM 1999/00 Budget Summary Assuming 3% Reduction 5.876.000 1.020.000 4.485.000 Covers Rent only including Newcombe Renos 75,000 Wet Collection/TradesAA/arehouse 427.000 Includes $224,000 Systems Amortization Cos ts 175.000 58.000 130.000 1.412.000 269.000 357.000 50.000 30.000 200.000 245.000 228,000 39,000 216,000 Research and Collections Preservation 285,000 Public, School and Regional Programs 15,577,000 10,470.000 A s s u m e s 3% Reduction 300.000 290.000 Base Adjustment for increase in B O C ' s 2,779.000 Net of fee increase-Includes Nuu-Chah-Nulth Special Fee 487,000 300.000 105.000 Contribution from Columbia Basin Trust 500.000 125.000 221,000 15,577,000 136 Royal British Columbia Museum 1999-2000 Business Plan CO c Q> E £ 3 CO a o o o o CM i Ol O) cn UJ ul CC 3 < UJ o o o CM • o> o> (/> 0) a> o o CD E CD i_ 3 (0 (0 a) E a> •a 00 CD 00 > u m oo 00 " 3 O 00 O 0 0 c CD G O CD * - ' i _ CD S £ o £ 2 co co CD 00 00 CD Z i > CD •5 0 0 o fa CD S I E 1 h . 2 § 3 0 0 O C 0 0 ' > c CD "> IS CD O • - SI t 2 CO £ O o > CD > . 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CO CO cr 'co 'co 1 c 13 CO CD cd o CD x : CO c o to c o T3 T J c TJ CO O o CD O > O £ o " x: o O CO < <& CN CM CO APPENDIX C Living Landscapes1 Columbia Basin Past, Present and Future Project Plan 1998/1999 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Living Landscapes has developed in partnership between the Columbia Basin Trust (the Trust) and the Royal British Columbia Museum (RBCM) and with the support of an Advisory Committee. Twenty projects have been selected that support the goals and objectives of both partners. These projects study the past and present links between people and the environment in the Columbia Basin and will contribute to educational programs and a world wide web site. An evaluation plan has been developed to guide the project to an effective conclusion. In order to completely attain the goals of Living Landscapes, additional components will have to be developed to complete the scope of the desired research and public education. The RBCM and the Trust will be addressing these issues as part of the implementation of Living Landscapes. 2. INTRODUCTION The Columbia Basin Trust and the Royal British Columbia Museum have established a partnership to implement Living Landscapes in the Columbia Basin. The purpose of Living Landscapes is to improve the understanding of the human and natural history of the Columbia Basin, a goal shared by both organizations. The general presentation of Living Landscapes will be similar to an encyclopedia of information that has been produced by individuals and agencies active in studying and presenting topics relating to the human and natural history of the Basin. The topics can be organized on a timeline such as: • the past before human habitation, beginning with the earliest geological origins of the Basin, through to the effects of the ice age after the arrival of aboriginal people and prior to contact with settlers of European origin after the arrival of settlers to the period of dam construction • the present from the Columbia River Treaty to now • the future The Trust and the RBCM are contributing staff and project funding-io support this initiative. 1 Living Landscapes is an Official Mark of the Royal British Columbia Museum 143 3. AREAS OF EXCELLENCE Living Landscapes builds towards fulfilling the stated objectives of the Trust and the RBCM while focusing on areas of excellence. Specific goals and objectives are: • Trust Goal 7 (To enhance Basin heritage and culture) objective (a) "develop and encourage the use of educational materials suitable for school and college curricula. The materials should address the Basin's ecology, history (including aboriginal history), economy and its social and cultural life." • Trust Goal 8 (Promote learning and make information on the Basin easily accessible) objective (b) "assemble and catalogue existing social, environmental and economic information on the Basin, establish a process for updating and adding to it, and make it available electronically and at one or more locations in the Basin." • Royal British Columbia Museum objective to improve people's understanding of the human and natural history of the Columbia Basin. Each component of Living Landscapes will be viewed as part of three areas of excellence - research, education and electronic learning. This contributes to the concept of "centres for excellence and learning" as noted in Trust Goal 8 (a) to coordinate education and research related to the Trust's mandate. A Living Landscapes Advisory Committee was established through invitation to agencies with a broad interest in the human and natural history of the Columbia Basin. The Advisory Committee has subcommittees specializing in the three areas of excellence for Living Landscapes: 1) research on human and natural history 2) public educational programs 3) electronic learning, focusing primarily on the World Wide Web The RBCM provided staff resources to each subcommittee in order to coordinate the process of completing the recommendations. Agnes Koch and Grant Hughes co-chair the committee and bring recommendations from the committee to the Trust and RBCM for decision. A member of the Trust's Advisory Committee attended each meeting. In order to be as inclusive as possible, potential Living Landscapes projects were recruited through a formal Request for Proposal. The funding available for research, public programs and electronic learning totals $330,000. All applicants were provided with a written package including an application form, the goals and objectives of the Trust and the RBCM as they related to Living Landscapes, and a description of how the projects would be reviewed by the Advisory Committee. There were 148 proposals received with a total of over $3.8 million requested. 4. ADVISORY COMMITTEE 5. PROJECT RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION June 1998 Living Landscapes: Columbia Basin Past, Present and Future Project Plan 1998/1999 144 The Advisory subcommittees assessed each project based on: • Should this project be done? This was based upon the degree to which the project met the Trust and Museum goals. • Can this be done? Assessed based upon the technical merit of the project. • Are the people able to do it? Reviewed based upon the knowledge, ability and experience of the team proposing the project. • Qualitative assessment as to suitability, general interest and excitement. This included a review of community involvement and evidence of letters of support. The subcommittees then brought their recommendations to the Advisory Committee as a whole. A final list of highly rated projects was developed which totalled over $450,000. The information from the Advisory Committee was developed by staff to form a recommendation to the Spending Committee of the Trust and the Executive of the RBCM. Funding modules were developed to allow for some choice of the highly rated projects to conform to the $330,000 available. The Spending Committee and the Executive then formalized approval for the projects noted below. 6. PROJECT OVERVIEWS The following sections provide an overview of the projects that have been funded for Living Landscapes. 6.1 Topics Dealing with the Past 6.1.1 After arrival of aboriginal people and prior to contact with settlers of European origin • The Ktunaxa Kinbasket Ethnobotany project will result in the gathering and storing of valuable cultural information on traditional use of plants by the Ktunaxa and Kinbasket citizens in their traditional territory in the East and West Kootenays. Living Landscapes is providing partial funding to continue this study which is now in its second year. • Archaeological Investigations at the Salmon Beds seeks to develop an increased understanding of human utilization of the Central Rocky Mountain ecosystems over the past 2000 to 3000 years through archaeological studies at the Salmon Beds, a key area for the past aboriginal utilization of salmon. 6.1.2 After arrival of settlers of European origin to period of dam construction • The BC Lake and Steamer Days project will gather and make accessible information about men and women who served as officers, crew, shipyard and shoreworkers for the CPR's BC Lake and River Service, Great Northern Railway and other transportation companies around the turn of the century. • An Inventory of Underwater Heritage Sites will survey the underwater archaeological resources of stemwheelers, steamtugs, barges and train wrecks, some of which are well preserved and unique. The wrecks represent the largest intact group of steam era craft in Western Canada. • Ghostriding: The Making of a Legend will produce a humorous historical script on the identity of the man who discovered coal mining in the Elk Valley that will provide an opportunity for schools to develop their own play while learning about the roots of their community. June 1998 Living Landscapes: Columbia Basin Past, Present and Future Project Plan 1998/1999 145 • The Kyowakai Society Nikkei Internment Memorial Centre Study Guide project will produce a study guide to assist educators in preparation for their school tours to the Nikkei Internment Memorial Centre in New Denver. • Historic Roots of Racism in East Kootenay (1860-1910) will be researched to gather existing information that relates to the historic immigrant community in East Kootenay and the relationship of that community to the wider Canadian community. • Educational programs relating to Doukhobor History and Culture will be implemented through professional development workshops for teachers, publication of books and a tabletop game, and research for an historical collections of childhood experiences. • History of Agriculture in the East Kootenay will add historical information with respect to the important role that agriculture has played in the social and economic development of the East Kootenays. The information will then form the basis of an exhibit on display at Fort Steele. • Collective Unravellings will document the human and natural history of the North End of Kootenay Lake through a collection of oral history tapes which would be made available to the public through schools, libraries and archives in the Columbia Basin. 6.2 Topics Dealing with the Present • The Kokanee Teacher Resource project will create an educational kit based on compilation of existing material to be used in the Project Wild program run by the Habitat Conservation Fund. • Ecological Values of the East Kootenay from wet interior forest to dry grasslands will be described in a brochure that will be distributed to public, tourist and educational institutions of the region. • From Bulrush to Bunchgrass will focus on wetland and grassland ecosystems to educate the public of the significance of the plant communities, how they are impacted by human use and what can be done to conserve and maintain them. • Old Growth Forest Study Unit project will update the study unit written in 1995 and produce 24 detailed lesson plans, maps, a poster, supplemental information, teacher's notes and photocopy masters for each lesson. • The Herpetological Research project will develop a video and web site application showing species of reptiles and amphibians that are being studied in the region. • The East Kootenay Northern Leopard Frog project will involve surveys for the species using community members in Cranbrook, Invermere and Golden. • The Columbia Basin Endangered Species project will compile information on rare and endangered species of the Columbia Basin and made widely available to the public, government agencies, educators and decision-makers. • Dragon/lies of the Columbia Basin will be studied in a two-year project to determine the present status, precise location of occurrences, and habitat associations of the dragonflies of selected areas of the Columbia Basin. • The Pend Oreille Butterfly Study will survey species to determine their distribution and abundance along the south-facing slopes of the Pend Oreille River valley. June 1998 Living Landscapes: Columbia Basin Past, Present and Future Project Plan 1998/1999 146 • An Osprey Survey will be conducted between Balfour and Trail to map active nests, observe breeding success, and to comment on the Canada Goose usage of Osprey nests and the possible impact on breeding success. • The Monitoring of Forest Birds by migrant counts will be conducted by a community-based network of participants who will gather important information on land bird populations in the region. • Salmon of the Mountains will result in the publication of an illustrated book to document kokanee biology, issues and problems. 6.3 Topics Providing the Foundation for the Columbia Basin Living Landscapes Website • A Heritage Directory will provide a web-based directory of heritage institutions in the Columbia Basin; a searchable web-based directory of archival materials and museum collections and HTML links to other relevant databases such as the British Columbia Archival Union List. • A Heritage Publications project will result in a web-based list with some annotation of historical publications on Columbia Basin from small and little known presses. • An Environmental Compendium of the Columbia Basin will provide a bibliographic guide to the research done on the ecology of the Basin, focussing on the forest, grassland and aquatic ecosystems. • Selected executive summaries of Socio-economic Research done on the Columbia Basin and documented previously in a database will provide valuable information to researchers and others who previously have had limited access to the information documented in the original studies and the database. 7. SYNERGIES BETWEEN PROJECTS AND THE ROYAL BRITISH COLUMBIA MUSEUM In general, the RBCM will focus its collections improvement and research activities on Living Landscapes to contribute as much as possible to the projects that have been supported. We are working to make records about the objects we have from the Columbia Basin available electronically for research and educational purposes. We will send staff into the Basin on research projects in cooperation with other agencies to the extent that our travel budget will allow. In addition, we will dedicate our efforts for project fund raising to support projects that add value to Living Landscapes. Specifically, we are able to contribute to the: • Columbia Basin Endangered Species project by providing information about endangered species records in our collection • Pend Oreille Butterfly Study by serving as the repository of representative voucher collections and to provide information about our collections June 1998 Living Landscapes: Columbia Basin Past, Present and Future Project Plan 1998/1999 147 • East Kootenay Northern Leopard Frog project by providing RBCM herpetological information as available • Herpetological Research project, including RBCM information as available • Web site development through planning and technical advice, plus making the RBCM's collection information available for direct link to the Living Landscapes web site • Dragonflies of the Columbia Basin where Rob Cannings will participate in joint fieldwork and analysis and the RBCM will be the repository for reference specimens The RBCM is also active in the following Columbia Basin projects in addition to those funded in the RFP process: • Kootenay Small Mammals, where Dave Nagorsen will continue to work with Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks to identify rare or endangered mammals of the region • Land Molluscs of the Creston Valley will be surveyed by Phil Lambert and volunteers at the Creston Valley Wildlife Management area and a molluscs display and nocturnal school program will result • Conservation of St. Mary's Church objects will be assessed by Val Thorp, Chief of Conservation, who will visit St. Mary's Reserve and provide requested assistance with the conservation of significant objects in the church • Southern Columbia Basin Paleoecology Study. If supported by the National Geographic Society, Richard Hebda and other researchers will conduct sediment analysis of Elizabeth Lake and Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area in order to document early climate, species and fire occurrence in the region • Historical researchers on a training program will develop community profiles for selected towns that were affected by the Columbia River Treaty and prepare HTML pages that can go on the web site with the support of the local community 8. STEPS REQUIRED There are three major aspects that need to be addressed in order to provide for a more complete Living Landscapes project. First of all, we must strive to have the significance of the work underway be clearly stated to the average person. Secondly, we must identify gaps in our understanding of the Columbia Basin and take steps to fill these gaps. Thirdly, we must develop a plan to carry the knowledge gained to the general public, using a combination of direct program delivery and the world wide web. 8.1 Demonstrate the Significance of the Living Landscapes Projects to the Average Person in the Columbia Basin June 1998 Living Landscapes: Columbia Basin Past, Present and Future Project Plan 1998/1999 • 148 Each project that was recommended by the Advisory Committee was seen to be a valuable addition to the broad community. However, steps must be taken to ensure that the information being developed is useful. Specifically, the information should address general questions such as: why is this information significant? what do the results mean to me or my family? and what impact can the results have on how we see the future of the Basin? This strategy should be worked on by the RBCM curatorial staff who are working with the individual project proponents to ensure that the relevance of the research being undertaken is communicated to the public. 8.2 Fill Gaps in Areas of Study Living Landscapes looks at the relationship between the past and the present in order to develop a common foundation of information for planning the future. By examining the projects supported so far there appears to by three significant gaps. 1) The geological history, paleontology, ice age and early deglaciation periods prior to human habitation. A project summarizing the development of the physiography of the Columbia Basin would capture the basics of how the region came to be. 2) Historical research to document the natural history of the valley bottoms currently flooded would provide a natural history perspective of these habitats. 3) A contemporary view of the people of the Columbia Basin: who they are, where they live, where they work would provide a linkage to the historical perspective of the human history research projects. In order to fill these gaps, the RBCM will use existing staff as available to develop project proposals for these themes. The RBCM and the Trust may then jointly apply for sponsorship or the RBCM will offer to work with agencies in the Columbia Basin to develop the information required. 8.3 Deliver Living Landscapes Learning The Trust and the RBCM have developed three program delivery goals to ensure that the results of Living Landscapes are made widely available. 8.3.1 Goal #1 (Increase teachers' knowledge) To increase Columbia Basin knowledge deliverers' understanding of the human and natural history of the Columbia Basin. Target Audience Columbia Basin knowledge deliverers: • Teachers • Scout and Guide leaders • Librarians • Community centre leaders • Other people that deliver educational programs June 1998 Living Landscapes: Columbia Basin Past, Present and Future Project Plan 1998/1999 149 8.3.2 Goal #2 (Increase teachers use of educational materials) To develop and encourage the use of educational materials suitable for primary schools addressing the Basin's ecology, history, (including Aboriginal history), economy and its social and cultural life. The educational materials will be organized as lesson plans and ready for use by teachers, community centre leaders, leaders of young people's organizations and parents. Target Audience Columbia Basin knowledge deliverers who have a direct impact on the five to thirteen year old age group, including: • Teachers • Scout and Guide leaders • Librarians • Community centre leaders • Others 8.3.3 Goal #3 (Provide for electronic learning through a world wide web site) To ensure that all existing social, environmental and economic information is up to date and electronically available in all college, university and public libraries in the Columbia Basin. Target Audiences 1) Columbia Basin information providers including: • Colleges and Universities • Researchers • Museums • First Nations • Oral historians 2) Secondary, college and university students 3) The general public Secondary Audiences In addition to the target audiences, it is anticipated that other groups, although not directly targeted by the program, will benefit from the program. These groups include: • Decision makers • Naturalist clubs • Historical societies In order to ensure that these goals are completed, a Public Program Plan will be developed that uses the project deliverables in professional development days for teachers and in public events, possibly a symposium in April 1999 associated with the Columbia Basin Trust Symposium and a Living Landscapes Conference in October 1999. This Public Program Plan will be developed by the RBCM and the Trust with input from the Advisory Committee. Funding requirements will be identified for next fiscal year and fund raising applications will be made this year as required. June 1998 Living Landscapes: Columbia Basin Past, Present and Future Project Plan 1998/1999 150 9. CONCLUSION Living Landscapes has developed in partnership between the Trust and the RBCM. Projects have been selected that support the goals and objectives of both partners. Twenty projects cover a range of human and natural history topics which will contribute to educational programs and a world wide web site. Some gaps exist in subjects and delivery mechanisms. In order to close the gaps, additional components will have to be developed to complete the research and public education goals of Living Landscapes. 10. ATTACHMENTS 10.1 Deliverables 10.2 Schedule for Completion 10.3 Budget See attached Excel spreadsheet. June 1998 Living Landscapes: Columbia Basin Past, Present and Future Project Plan 1998/1999 151 APPENDIX D Living Landscapes Quarterly Report #1 (January- March 1999) Executive Summary The Royal British Columbia Museum and the Columbia Basin Trust have signed a Memorandum of Agreement which requires quarterly reporting on the progress of Living Landscapes. The purpose of the report is to summarize aspects of the program delineated in the MOA. Thirty-one projects have been selected that support the goals and objectives of both partners. These projects study the past and present links between people and the environment in the Columbia Basin and will contribute to educational programs and a world wide web site. An evaluation plan has been developed to guide the project to an effective conclusion. Report of Progress 1.1 Commitment The RBCM has provided $150,000 for Living Landscapes programs and 50% of the funding for: 1) costs associated with the Advisory Committee; 2) agreed advertising costs; and 3) a Living Landscapes coordinator up to the date of selection of the research, education and web site projects. The RBCM has also funded the Living Landscapes Thompson-Okanagan coordinator to maintain the central World Wide Web site in Kelowna. This site is linked to the Columbia Basin Trust web site. In addition the RBCM has supported RBCM staff travel required to participate in project planning or adjudication and staff salaries for all aspects of Living Landscapes. The Trust has provided $180,000 for Living Landscapes and 50% of the funding for: 1) costs associated with an Advisory Committee; 2) agreed advertising costs; and 3) a Living Landscapes coordinator up to the date of selection of the research, education and web site projects. In addition the Trust supports all Trust staff salary and travel expenses. 1.2 Advisory Committee An Advisory Committee has been formed and has met four times to the end of March 1999. In addition, an inaugural meeting was held in January 1998 to gain public feedback on the goals and priorities for Living Landscapes. The Advisory Committee brings advice from the sector or organization that they represent on the best way to implement the Living Landscapes program in the Columbia Basin. This has included developing specific objectives for each area of excellence, recruiting and evaluating proposals, and recommending projects for funding. 1.3 Goal Development It was agreed that the areas of excellence (research, education and electronic communication) will form the envelopes for project development and funding. Specific goals were reached in a facilitated planning session. These include: 152 • To increase teachers' knowledge of the human and natural history of the Columbia Basin. • To increase teachers' use of educational materials addressing the Basin's ecology, history, (including Aboriginal history), economy and its social and cultural life. • To provide for electronic learning through a world wide web site. In each of these goals additional audiences have been identified including the general public, community centres, scout and guide groups, college students and community decision makers. However, the primary target audience is teachers who can implement learning about the human and natural history of the Columbia Basin in a structured environment that meets the learning objectives of the school system. 1.4 Project Selection and Implementation The Advisory Committee reviewed 148 project applications that were developed under a request for proposal process. The Advisory Committee recommended the projects which were funded by the RBCM Executive and Trust Spending Committee. RBCM curators also initiated related research projects. A total of 31 project are summarized in Attachment 1 to this report. Administration of the research and public programming projects is being conducted by the RBCM. Development of the electronic learning projects (web site) is being managed by the Trust. 1.5 Plans for the next Quarter (April - June 1999). During the next quarter the majority of deliverables from the projects should be received. In addition, a public program plan will be finalized and implemented to carry this compiled information to teachers, students and the general public. All hardware and systems support for developing the web site should be in place. 1.6 Plans for July- December 1999. During the summer the content of the web site should be developed. In the fall, there are plans for a Living Landscapes conference and festival to bring together all participants, students, teachers and the general public to learn about the human and natural history of the Columbia Basin. Prepared by Grant W. Hughes Director, Curatorial Services Branch Royal British Columbia Museum Agnes Koch Manager, Spending Program Columbia Basin Trust 153 APPENDIX E Living Landscapes Kootanevs Public Program Plan Program goals as per the Evaluation Plan that will be fulfilled in part or in whole by the Public Program Plan: Goal # 1- To enrich people's lives through an improved understanding of the human and natural history of the Columbia Basin. Goal # 2 - To develop and encourage the use of educational materials suitable for school and college curricula addressing the Basin's ecology, history (including Aboriginal history), economy and its social and cultural life. Target Audience Columbia Basin knowledge deliverers who have a direct impact on the five to thirteen age group including: Teachers Scout and Guide Leaders Librarians Community Leaders Other audiences which will benefit from the program are: Secondary, College and University students, the general public, decision makers, naturalist clubs, historical societies. Strategy The public programs will be used to inform the principle and ancillary audiences about the Living Landscapes project and it's outputs through teacher training activities, large and small public events and selective direct promotion. The principal events will be a weekend event in the spring of 1999 in the west Kootaney region (that will) and a fall event in the east Kootaney region to coincide with the Columbia Basin Trust symposium. Spring 1999 Event The theme of this event will be "What's Happening In My Back Yard" (?) This will be a Friday, Saturday, Sunday event positioned to coincide with The Sun Fest held in Castlegar on June 4th, 5th, and 6th 1999. Activities will be developed for students to attend on Friday and public family activities for the Saturday and Sunday . Project in the Castlegar area that would be approached to participate in the activities are: • project 133 - Herpetological Research, • project 50 - B.C. Lake and Steamer Days, • project 93 - Columbia Connections Curriculum, 154 • project 119 - Kyowakai Society Nikki Internment, • project 65 - West Kootenay Early Childhood Group, • project 85 - Inventory of Underwater Heritage Sites, • project 90 - Osprey Survey. The web site developers will also attend with demonstrations of the work completed on the web site and LL Thompson / Okanogan. The R B C M will provide demonstrations of the Dragonfly, Community Profiles and Mammal research projects currently being done in the region. Columbia Basin Trust will provide a display. This event requires: - research of an appropriate facility to house the event. - development of potential local participants (library, museums interp centers). - hire a regional coordinator to facilitate the management of the event. - development of an exhibit describing the LL Project. - development of a budget. Fall 1999 Event This will be a Friday, Saturday, Sunday event that will be part of the public forum of the Columbia Basin Trust symposium. If possible, it will coincide with a Friday Teacher Development day. Other Small Public presentations Existing public events in the region that projects based close to the events can do public presentations at will be researched . Select Special Promotions To communicate with the libraries of the region so that they are aware and familiar with the Living Landscapes projects, we will develop an Notes subject to the P P advisory group review 155 R o y a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m APPENDIX F P u b l i c P r o g r a m P r o d u c t i o n M a r c h 2 2 , 1999 LIVING LANDSCAPES - C O L U M B I A BASIN Proposal for 1999 Public Programming 1.0 INTRODUCTION F i v e s p e c i a l r e g i o n a l events a n d a separate s m a l l t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t a l l featuring Living Landscapes i n the C o l u m b i a B a s i n are proposed f o r the project 's p u b l i c p r o g r a m m i n g needs for the p e r i o d between A p r i l and m i d - O c t o b e r , 1999. T h e t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t w o u l d be c i r c u l a t e d starting at the e n d o f A p r i l , w h i l e the s p e c i a l events w o u l d o c c u r b e t w e e n M a y and October, 1 9 9 9 . T h e events w o u l d feature Living Landscapes p r o j e c t researchers and R o y a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M u s e u m ( R B C M ) curators p r o v i d i n g w e l l - a d v e r t i s e d p u b l i c d i s p l a y s , d e m o n s t r a t i o n s and student p r o g r a m s about their studies i n t o C o l u m b i a B a s i n h u m a n a n d natural history. W e suggest that these events s h o u l d be tied into e x i s t i n g l o c a l or regional f e s t i v a l s or celebrations i n the C o l u m b i a B a s i n w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e i n order to m a x i m i z e attendance a n d m e d i a i m p a c t . T h e events and exhibit are p r o p o s e d as partial f u l f i l l m e n t o f the Living Landscapes - C o l u m b i a B a s i n P u b l i c P r o g r a m P l a n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , they w o u l d c o n t r i b u t e to reaching G o a l #1: • " T o e n r i c h p e o p l e ' s l i v e s t h r o u g h an i m p r o v e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the h u m a n a n d n a t u r a l history of the C o l u m b i a B a s i n . " A s p e c t s o f the events and e x h i b i t w o u l d also contribute to the f u l f i l l m e n t o f G o a l #2: 156 • " T o d e v e l o p a n d encourage the use o f e d u c a t i o n a l materials s u i t a b l e f o r s c h o o l a n d c o l l e g e c u r r i c u l a a d d r e s s i n g the B a s i n ' s e c o l o g y , h i s t o r y ( i n c l u d i n g A b o r i g i n a l h i s t o r y ) , e c o n o m y and its s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l l i f e . " 2.0 SPECIAL REGIONAL EVENTS T h e f i v e s p e c i a l p u b l i c events are p r o p o s e d f o r separate C o l u m b i a b a s i n c o m m u n i t i e s at i n t e r v a l s f r o m to M a y to O c t o b e r , 1999. T h e events w o u l d be spread as e v e n l y as p o s s i b l e over the entire B a s i n r e g i o n . E a c h event w o u l d be p r o d u c e d b y the Living Landscapes P u b l i c P r o g r a m s C o m m i t t e e i n partnership w i t h the R B C M a n d w i t h the assistance o f h i r e d l o c a l c o o r d i n a t o r s i n e a c h c o m m u n i t y h o s t i n g an event. F u n d i n g f o r these events is to c o m e f r o m outside the current Living Landscapes budget. 3.1 Suggested Special Regional Events Event #1 Golden S u g g e s t e d A f f i l i a t i o n : G o l d e n F e s t i v a l o f B i r d s and B e a r s M a y 9 - 1 5 , 1 9 9 9 Event #2 Kimberley S u g g e s t e d A f f i l i a t i o n : K i m b e r l e y C o u n t r y F a i r S e p t e m b e r 2 5 - 2 6 , 1999 Event #3 Nelson S u g g e s t e d A f f i l i a t i o n : N e l s o n Streetfest J u l y 2 3 - 2 6 , 1999 Event #4 Revelstoke S u g g e s t e d A f f i l i a t i o n : R a i l w a y D a y s A u g u s t 2 7 - 2 9 , 1 9 9 9 157 Event #5 Creston O c t o b e r 15-17, 1999 E v e n t to be p r o d u c e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the Living Landscapes S y m p o s i u m to take p l a c e i n C r e s t o n . 2.2 Description of Typical Special Event E a c h event w o u l d be p r o d u c e d i n " e x p o s i t i o n " format to i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g features s p o t l i g h t i n g Living Landscapes project research: • d i s p l a y s , both staffed a n d unstaffed (with h a n d s - o n c o m p o n e n t s w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e ) • demonstrations • a c t i v i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n • a u d i o - v i s u a l c o m p o n e n t s i n c l u d i n g Worldwide Web S i t e access • student group v i s i t s w i t h o r g a n i z e d programs ( a v a i l a b l e f o r at least one s c h o o l day d u r i n g each event). P r o j e c t researchers based i n the C o l u m b i a B a s i n as w e l l as R B C M researchers w o u l d be o n hand to staff their respective exhibits a n d to p r o v i d e demonstrations where appropriate. T h e participation o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l m e m b e r s o f the Living Landscapes A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e is also e x p e c t e d . E a c h event w o u l d be s c h e d u l e d to r u n f o r 3 consecutive days. I d e a l l y one o f these 3 days w o u l d be a F r i d a y i n order to a c c o m m o d a t e s c h e d u l e d student v i s i t s f r o m r e g i o n a l s c h o o l s . 2.3 RBCM Contribution T h e R B C M w o u l d p r o v i d e : • s e r v i c e s o f the R B C M D e v e l o p m e n t O f f i c e to seek f i n a n c i a l support f o r 1999 s p e c i a l events. • a m i n i m u m o f 3 curators w i t h r e g i o n a l l y s p e c i f i c d i s p l a y s f o r each event • one e x h i b i t t e c h n i c i a n to manage transportation, i n s t a l l a t i o n and s t r i k i n g o f event d i s p l a y . 158 • services o f one p r o g r a m p r o d u c e r w h o w o u l d h a n d l e o v e r a l l c o o r d i n a t i o n f o r a l l r e g i o n a l s p e c i a l events. • a m a x i m u m o f 14 s h o w c a s e s and 8 3-three-part d o u b l e - s i d e d d i s p l a y panels a n d a s e l e c t i o n o f a u d i o - v i s u a l e q u i p m e n t f o r the use of r e g i o n a l Living Landscapes researchers and R B C M curators at each event. • o v e r a l l c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a d v e r t i s i n g and m a r k e t i n g f o r a l l 5 events. 2.4 Living Landscapes Regional Researchers' Contribution R e g i o n a l researchers w o u l d p r o v i d e : • e x h i b i t s ( u s i n g their o w n and/or R B C M d i s p l a y furniture) w i t h s p e c i m e n s a n d i m a g e s • p u b l i c presentations a n d other programs for adults and c h i l d r e n at e a c h event • l i a i s o n w i t h the m e d i a ( e . g . articles i n the p r i n t m e d i a , interviews w i t h a l l m e d i a before a n d d u r i n g the events) 2.5 Advertising T h e m a r k e t i n g g o a l is to ensure that each s p e c i a l event receives as m u c h p a i d a n d free press e x p o s u r e as p o s s i b l e i n a l l types o f l o c a l and r e g i o n a l m e d i a . M a x i m u m attention w o u l d be g i v e n to coverage i n the l o c a l and r e g i o n a l m e d i a . It w o u l d i n c l u d e : • p a i d ads i n the p r i n t a n d e l e c t r o n i c m e d i a • p r o d u c t i o n o f free p u b l i c service announcements • preparation a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n of s p e c i a l m e d i a p a c k a g e s c o n t a i n i n g p h o t o s , research n e w s , r e s e a r c h e r b i o g r a p h i e s , quotes, i n t e r v i e w opportunities e t c . • b u l k d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r o v i n c e - w i d e press releases T h e e m p h a s i s w o u l d be o n h i g h l i g h t i n g the l o c a l researchers, research l o c a t i o n s and f i n d i n g s . E a c h i n d i v i d u a l c o m m u n i t y event w o u l d see d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e and research h i g h l i g h t e d . A d v e r t i s i n g , l o g o s and c o p y format w o u l d be l i n k e d through a l l events. 159 3.0 LIVING LANDSCAPES TRAVELLING EXHIBIT 3.1 Exhibit Description T h i s t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t is i n t e n d e d to p r o m o t e the Living Landscapes project t h r o u g h o u t the C o l u m b i a B a s i n r e g i o n . It w o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e to project researchers starting at the e n d o f A p r i l a n d continuing t h r o u g h the O c t o b e r 15-16 s y m p o s i u m (and p r o p o s e d s p e c i a l event) scheduled f o r C r e s t o n . It w o u l d c o n s i s t o f a portable d i s p l a y s y s t e m featuring text a n d images c o n c e r n i n g the B a s i n ' s Living Landscapes project (see i l l u s t r a t i o n ) . It w o u l d be suitable f o r e x h i b i t i o n at r e g i o n a l s p e c i a l events and/or s h o p p i n g m a l l e n v i r o n m e n t s . T h e unit w o u l d c o m e e q u i p p e d with a large "Living Landscapes" title board and a set o f 4 standard text and i m a g e panels p r o v i d i n g an o v e r a l l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the C o l u m b i a B a s i n Living Landscapes project. U p to 4 a d d i t i o n a l panels w o u l d be left blank f o r r e g i o n a l researchers to add t h e i r o w n text and g r a p h i c s w h e n using the d i s p l a y s y s t e m as a setting f o r their o w n project e x h i b i t s . T h e l o c a t i o n s o f the panels o n the s y s t e m are i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e so they c a n e a s i l y be rearranged to a c c o m m o d a t e the s p e c i f i c needs o f i n d i v i d u a l researchers. P a n e l s w i t h the standard m e s s a g e w o u l d be prepared b y the R B C M w i t h a l l c o p y a n d images b e i n g r e v i e w e d b y the Living Landscapes P u b l i c Programs C o m m i t t e e . The display s y s t e m f r a m e w o r k and title b o a r d (made o f particle b o a r d a n d lightweight w o o d ) are already c o n s t r u c t e d . T h e u n i t c o u l d be used i n t w o w a y s : Staffed Display: • R e s e a r c h e r s c o u l d take the d i s p l a y u n i t to local s p e c i a l events to serve as the c o r e o f their o w n s p e c i a l staffed p u b l i c program or d e m o n s t r a t i o n h i g h l i g h t i n g their research. Unstaffed Display: • R e g i o n a l coordinators c o u l d c i r c u l a t e the exhibit to h i g h - t r a f f i c l o c a t i o n s ( s u c h as s h o p p i n g m a l l s or p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s ) i n their area w h e r e it c o u l d be set u p to p r o m o t e the Living Landscapes project i n a p a s s i v e manner. ( L o c a l r e s e a r c h e r s ' d i s p l a y m a t e r i a l c o u l d be added to this as w e l l . ) 160 3.2 R B C M Contribution T h e R B C M w o u l d p r o v i d e : • s e r v i c e s o f R B C M D e v e l o p m e n t O f f i c e to seek f i n a n c i a l support f o r t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t d e v e l o p m e n t a n d c i r c u l a t i o n • p r o g r a m p r o d u c e r to h a n d l e o v e r a l l c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t m o v e m e n t s • staff t i m e a n d expertise to prepare d i s p l a y system standard c o p y p a n e l s , f u r n i t u r e a n d s h i p p i n g containers f o r travel . 3.3 Living Landscapes Regional Researchers' Contribution R e g i o n a l researchers w o u l d p r o v i d e : • s p e c i a l text and i m a g e s d e p i c t i n g t h e i r C o l u m b i a B a s i n research to be i n c l u d e d o n the d i s p l a y s y s t e m w h e n it i s e x h i b i t e d i n their r e g i o n s . • demonstrations/presentations ( i n a d d i t i o n to s p e c i a l events) i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the d i s p l a y unit at appropriate l o c a t i o n s yet to be d e t e r m i n e d . 3.3 Exhibit Coordination and Transportation O v e r a l l c o o r d i n a t i o n o f the t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t w o u l d be h a n d l e d b y the R B C M t h r o u g h the r e g i o n a l s p e c i a l event c o o r d i n a t o r s i n host c o m m u n i t i e s a n d b y other Living Landscapes C o m m i t t e e m e m b e r s . 161 4.0 BUDGET AND FUNDING 4.1 Proposed Budget 4.1.1 Special Regional Events Event #1 Local Coordinator Advertising/Marketing R B C M Staff & Exhibit Transportation Exhibit Costs Miscellaneous Costs 4000 2000 5300 1500 3000 $15,800 Event #2 Local Coordinator Advertising/Marketing R B C M Staff and ExhibitTransportation Exhibit Costs Miscellaneous Costs 4000 2000 5300 1500 3000 $15,800 Event #3 Local Coordinator Advertising/Marketing R B C M Staff & Exhibit Transportation Exhibit Costs Miscellaneous Costs 4000 2000 5300 1500 3000 $15,800 Event #4 Local Coordinator Advertising/Marketing R B C M Staff & Exhibit Transportation Exhibit Costs Miscellaneous Costs 4000 2000 5300 1500 3000 $15,800 162 Event #5 West Kootenays (Creston) This event to be connected with the planned October 15-17 Living Landscapes Symposium. Local Coordinator 4000 Advertising/Marketing 2000 R B C M Staff & exhibit Transportation 5300 Exhibit Costs 1500 Miscellaneous Costs 3000 $15,800 Event Coordination (All Events) R B C M program producer travel costs: Attendance at 2 regional event planning meetings: Airfare (600 x 2) 1200 Car rental (2 days x 2) 150 Per diems (120/day x 4) 480 Attendance at 2 Special Events: Airfare (600 x 2) 1200 Per diems (120/day x 10) 1200 $4230 Special Regional Events Subtotal $83,230 4.1.2 Travelling Living Landscapes Exhibit Design/Fabrication Costs 4 Panels with vinyl lettering 800 4 panels (blank) 80 2 Reinforced canvas shipping containers 1000 Coordinator Costs 2000 Transportation Costs (for shipping display system) 2100 Travelling Exhibit Subtotal $5980 Total Proposed 1999 Living Landscapes Public Programming Budget $89,210 163 4.2 FUNDING SOURCES AND LOGISTIC SUPPORT T h e intent i s to see the f i v e p r o p o s e d r e g i o n a l special events a n d the separate t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t funded e n t i r e l y o u t s i d e the current Living Landscapes budget. It i s anticipated that a p o r t i o n o f the required funds c a n be p r o v i d e d by corporate sponsorship(s) f a c i l i t a t e d t h r o u g h the R B C M D e v e l o p m e n t O f f i c e . S u p p o r t o f the f i v e events and the t r a v e l l i n g exhibit w o u l d p r o v i d e attractive o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r C o l u m b i a B a s i n corporations to i m p r o v e their l o c a l p r o f i l e s . It is h o p e d that a d d i t i o n a l support , i f r e q u i r e d , can be s e c u r e d t h r o u g h r e g i o n a l g r a n t i n g a g e n c i e s . R e g i o n a l Living Landscapes researchers w o u l d contribute t h r o u g h their p r o j e c t - s u p p o r t e d time and p r o f e s s i o n a l expertise. T h e R B C M w o u l d c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t staff t i m e resources coupled w i t h l o a n e d e x h i b i t f u r n i t u r e , a u d i o - v i s u a l e q u i p m e n t a n d other p r o g r a m m i n g m a t e r i a l s . 164 APPENDIX 1 DETAILED TYPICAL BUDGET FOR E A C H EVENT Local Coordinator T o assist and l i a i s e w i t h L L C o m m i t t e e / R B C M i n a l l aspects o f the event Advertising / Marketing P o s t e r P a i d ads i n print and e l e c t r o n i c m e d i a Transportation F o r one event t e c h n i c i a n ( R B C M staff) i n c l u d i n g : T r u c k rental a n d f u e l ( f o r shipment of s p e c i m e n s and e x h i b i t f u r n i t u r e f r o m V i c t o r i a ) Ferry P e r d i e m s (for f i v e d a y s ) F o r 3 curators ( R B C M staff) A i r f a r e ( $ 6 0 0 x 3) C a r R e n t a l Per d i e m s (for f i v e d a y s ) $ 6 0 0 x 3 Display Material Costs H a r d w a r e , Paper, P h o t o s , M o u n t s , P a c k i n g M a t e r i a l , Props etc. $ 4 0 0 0 $ 5 0 0 $ 1 5 0 0 $ 6 0 0 $ 3 0 0 $ 6 0 0 $ 1 8 0 0 $ 2 0 0 $ 1 8 0 0 $ 1 5 0 0 Miscellaneous Costs V e n u e R e n t a l , P h o t o c o p y i n g , Insurance etc. T o t a l : $ 3 0 0 0 $ 1 5 , 8 0 0 165 APPENDIX 2 LIVING LANDSCAPES TRAVELLING EXHIBIT - DETAILED BUDGET BREAKDOWN (Note: D i s p l a y s y s t e m f r a m e w o r k a n d Living Landscapes title b o a r d a l r e a d y exist .) D i s p l a y P a n e l s D e s i g n , p r o d u c t i o n and v i n y l p r i n t i n g o f 4 panels $ 8 0 0 P r o d u c t i o n o f 4 a d d i t i o n a l b l a n k panels $ 8 0 P r o d u c t i o n o f 2 s h i p p i n g cases $ 1 0 0 0 R e g i o n a l C o o r d i n a t o r C o s t s (80 hours @ $25 hr) $ 2 0 0 0 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n C o s t s ( C o m m e r c i a l C a r r i e r ) ( A p r i l to N o v e m b e r , 1999 - 14 e x h i b i t movements) $ 2 1 0 0 Living Landscapes Travelling Exhibit Total $5980 166 APPENDIX 3 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF LOCAL COORDINATORS' DUTIES • l i a i s e w i t h R B C M p u b l i c p r o g r a m producer to c o o r d i n a t e s p e c i a l r e g i o n a l events • l i a i s e w i t h l o c a l m e d i a r e g a r d i n g e d i t o r i a l , p u b l i c s e r v i c e a n d p a i d ad c o v e r a g e o f e a c h event; c o o r d i n a t e l o c a l researcher l i a i s o n w i t h m e d i a • w o r k w i t h R B C M p r o g r a m p r o d u c e r to coordinate preparations, d i s p l a y s a n d p r o g r a m a c t i v i t i e s o f a l l r e g i o n a l Living Landscapes researchers a n d R B C M curators p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n each event • c o o r d i n a t e l i a i s o n w i t h l o c a l s c h o o l s y s t e m for o r g a n i z e d s c h e d u l e d s c h o o l v i s i t s f o r at least one day o f e a c h event (where a p p l i c a b l e ) • c o o r d i n a t e l o c a l m o v e m e n t s o f the Living Landscapes T r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t S p e c i a l N o t e : L o c a l c o o r d i n a t o r must have reasonable access to fax/ phone a n d v o i c e message f a c i l i t i e s . E - m a i l access w o u l d be an asset. 167 168 The Columbia Bas in Past. Present and Future APPENDIX G S e p t e m b e r 2 9 , 1 9 9 9 Public Invited to Important Conference On Columbia Basin's History, Biology V I C T O R I A — T h e R o y a l B . C . M u s e u m a n d C o l u m b i a B a s i n T r u s t w i n d u p t w o yea rs o f r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e C o l u m b i a B a s i n ' s h u m a n a n d n a t u r a l h i s t o r y w i t h a t w o - d a y c o n f e r e n c e at F o r t S tee le H e r i t a g e T o w n o n T h a n k s g i v i n g w e e k e n d . A b o u t 2 0 s c i e n t i s t s , h i s t o r i a n s a n d e d u c a t o r s w i l l p r e s e n t t he i r f i n d i n g s o n t o p i c s r a n g i n g f r o m e n d a n g e r e d spec ies o f p l a n t s a n d a n i m a l s to the r e g i o n ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y a n d the o r i g i n s o f r a c i s m . T h e s e s s i o n s w i l l b e h e l d i n F o r t S tee le 's I n t e r n a t i o n a l H o t e l f r o m 8 :45 a . m . t o 4 : 4 5 p . m . S a t u r d a y , O c t . 9 a n d 8 : 3 0 a . m . to 12 n o o n o n S u n d a y , O c t . 10 . L i v i n g L a n d s c a p e s , a p a r t n e r s h i p b e t w e e n the T r u s t a n d R B C M tha t w a s l a u n c h e d i n 1 9 9 7 , has y i e l d e d the m o s t e x t e n s i v e c o l l e c t i o n o f s c i en t i f i c a n d h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h , p l u s p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s p r o g r a m s , that has e v e r b e e n p r o d u c e d i n the B a s i n . T h e w o r k a l s o h a s b e e n s u p p o r t e d b y W e s t K o o t e n a y P o w e r , a r e g i o n a l s p o n s o r . " T h i s h a s p r o v e n a n o u t s t a n d i n g c o l l a b o r a t i o n , " s a i d J o s h S m i e n k , c h a i r o f t h e C o l u m b i a B a s i n T r u s t . " T h e r e s u l t i n g r e s e a r c h a n d p u b l i c awareness g i v e s r e s i d e n t s o f t he B a s i n i m p o r t a n t i n s i g h t s i n t o the r e g i o n ' s p a s t , p r e s e n t a n d fu tu re . T h e T r u s t w i l l b e b u i l d i n g o n th is fine w o r k as i t fu l f i l l s i ts m a n d a t e . " " W e a re e s p e c i a l l y p r o u d tha t w e w i l l b e gues ts o f F o r t S tee le H e r i t a g e T o w n f o r th is c o n f e r e n c e . T h i s h i s t o r i c si te is a p e r f e c t s e t t i n g f o r the l e a r n i n g a n d r e f l e c t i o n tha t w i l l o c c u r d u r i n g the t w o d a y s o f the c o n f e r e n c e . " B i l l B a r k l e y , c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r o f t he R o y a l B . C . M u s e u m , s a i d L i v i n g L a n d s c a p e s i n t he C o l u m b i a B a s i n is a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r R B C M to s t r e n g t h e n i ts r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s i n e v e r y c o r n e r o f the p r o v i n c e . It m e a n s tha t t he m u s e u m is a b l e t o s h o w c a s e its expe r t i se a n d c o l l e c t i o n s i n e x t r a o r d i n a r y w a y s . 169 A joint project of the Hovul BC Museum and the Columbia Basin Trust I n a d d i t i o n t o t he c o n f e r e n c e ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n s , s p e c i a l R B C M d i s p l a y s o n l o c a l h i s t o r y , p l a n t s a n d w i l d l i f e as w e l l as c h i l d r e n s ' ac t i v i t i es w i l l b e o f f e r e d 9 :30 a . m . t o 5 :30 p . m . T h u r s d a y t h r o u g h S u n d a y i n C o v e n t r y ' s O p e r a H o u s e at the F o r t S tee le S i t e . A d m i s s i o n t o the c o n f e r e n c e a n d R B C M d i s p l a y s is f ree w i t h a d m i s s i o n to F o r t S tee le H e r i t a g e T o w n . O n S u n d a y , O c t . 10 , v i s i t o r s a re i n v i t e d t o take i n F o r t S tee le ' s 1 8 t h a n n u a l T h a n k s g i v i n g c e l e b r a t i o n , w h i c h i n c l u d e s o l d - t i m e fiddle m u s i c , l i v i n g h i s t o r y s t reet d r a m a s a n d the a l w a y s - p o p u l a r p o t a t o h a r v e s t a n d r o a s t . A t u r key d i n n e r b u f f e t is a v a i l a b l e i n t he I n t e r n a t i o n a l r es tau ran t w i t h s i t t i ngs at 2 , 4 a n d 6 p . m . F o r i n f o r m a t i o n o n a l l e v e n t s o r d i n n e r r e s e r v a t i o n s , c a l l (250) 4 1 7 - 6 0 0 0 . I n f o r m a t i o n : C h r i s H i g g i n s , M e d i a R e l a t i o n s R o y a l B C M u s e u m (250) 3 8 7 - 2 1 0 1 , F a x (250) 3 8 7 - 5 6 7 4 C A H i g g i n s @ , R B M L 0 1 . r b c m . g o v . b c . c a N o e l R a t c h F o r t S tee le H e r i t a g e T o w n (250) 4 1 7 - 6 0 0 6 , F a x (250) 4 8 9 - 2 6 2 4 N o e l . R a t c h @ , g e m s 6 . g o v . b c . c a E l i a h F a r r e l l C o l u m b i a B a s i n T r u s t 1 - 8 0 0 - 5 0 5 - 8 9 9 8 e f a r r e l l @ c b t . o r g 170 

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