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A comparative study of visual elements in traditional art images and computer graphics Johnson, Mia 1993

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A comparative study of visual elementsin traditional art images and computer graphicsbyMIA JOHNSONB.Ed., Simon Fraser University, 1971Diploma, Emily Carr College of Art and Design, 1980A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF EDUCATIONDepartment of Visual and Performing ArtsWe accept this thesis as conformingThe University of British ColumbiaSeptember 1993© Mia Johnson, 1993In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature) 'tor\Department of  \)^Ac , k 7),2_The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate /qcevtaCoey 30, kG193DE-6 (2/88)ABSTRACTThis study examines visual elements in two-dimensionalart imagery, and compares and contrasts traditional artimages with computer graphics. The formalist model ofaesthetic response is used as a lens to examine "elements"and "principles" in what has been called the "language ofart". Formalist orientations to art education and computergraphics are analyzed through a literature search, a domainanalysis, and ethnographic data.This study employs qualitative research methodology.Data is presented in a comparative taxonomy of elements andprinciples in art education and computer graphics, and acomponential analysis of the visual structure of two-dimensional images.The findings demonstrate that formalist terms andconcepts are not explicit enough to describe computergraphics. The formalist tradition in art education must beexpanded to include new terminology and concepts aboutmaking and responding to art.iiTABLE OF CONTENTSPAGEAbstract ^ iiTable of contents ^ IiiList of tables xList of figures ^ xiAcknowledgments xiiCHAPTERI. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY ^General statement ^Background to the problem ^Qualifications for developing this research:112A personal ground ^ 5Purpose of the study 7Research questions ^ 8Design and methodology 9Procedures ^ 9Data analysis and presentation ^ 11Limitations of the design ^ 11II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ^ 13Introduction ^ 13Formalist orientations to art education ^ 15Introduction ^ 15The history of formalism in arteducation 16The elements and principles of design ^ 18Formalist orientations in computer graphics ^ 20Introduction ^ 20The history of computer art ^ 21Design in computer art 24Issues in computer and traditional art ^ 27Introduction ^ 27Assumptions about art and artists ^ 27Assumptions about computergraphics ^ 29Similarities between art and computergraphics ^ 31Differences between art and computergraphics 34Computer graphics and art education ^ 37Summary ^ 40III. DESIGN OF STUDY ^ 43Introduction to research design ^ 43Domain analysis ^ 44Introduction 44ivProcedure ^ 45Findings 56Summary ^ 51Focused observations ^ 51Procedures 52Findings ^ 56Summary 58Taxonomic analysis ^ 59Introduction 59Comparative taxonomy of sensoryelements ^ 59Procedures 59Findings ^ 64Summary 71Comparative taxonomy of formalprinciples ^ 73Procedures 73Findings ^ 76Summary 80Interviews ^ 81Introduction ^ 81Informants 81Stimuli ^ 84Interview questions and procedures ^ 88Procedure for the analysis ofinterview data ^ 90IV. INTERPRETATION OF INTERVIEW DATA ^ 92Introduction ^ 92Similarities 92Artmaking as a cognitive process ^ 92Elements and principles of design ^ 94Artviewing as a cognitive process ^ 95Simulation ^ 97Summary of similarities ^ 99Differences ^ 100Evidence of "human touch" intraditional art ^ 100Evidence of electronic mechanicsin computer graphics 102Art as a "lived-through" experience ^ 103Correctibility of computer images ^ 105Summary of differences ^ 106Art as a "language" ^ 107Reading art like a book ^ 107Reading perceptual cues 109Reading art as a process ^ 111viReading art historical references ^ 112Art as a visual game ^ 115Summary ^ 116Space ^ 117Two-dimensional ^ 117Three-dimensional 120Summary of space ^ 124Sensory elements 125Summary of elements ^ 134Formal principles ^ 137Summary of formal principles ^ 145V. COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS ^ 148Introduction ^ 148Design vocabulary 149Elements and principles ^ 161Image-related issues 170VI. IMPLICATIONS FOR ART EDUCATION^ 174Introduction ^ 174Implications for studio practice ^ 175Implications for aesthetic response 177Implications for art criticism^ 182Implications for art history 184viiConclusion: A personal note ^ 186REFERENCES ^ 188APPENDIX A: Literature used in domainanalysis ^ 193APPENDIX B-1: Sample of terminologyin texts ^ 194B-2: Sample of terminology inglossaries and lists ^ 196B-3: Sample of terminology found inindexes ^ 198APPENDIX C-1: Domain analysis of sensoryelements in art education ^ 200C-2: Domain analysis of sensoryelements in computer graphics ^ 206APPENDIX D-1: Domain analysis of formalprinciples in art education ^ 213D-2: Domain analysis of formalprinciples in computer graphics ^ 216APPENDIX E: Comparative taxonomy ofsensory elements ^ 219APPENDIX F: Comparative taxonomy of formalprinciples ^ 232APPENDIX G: Stimuli ^ 237APPENDIX H: Description of stimuli ^ 241viiiAPPENDIX I: Interview questions ^ 247APPENDIX J: Subject contact letter ^ 250APPENDIX K: Subject consent form 251APPENDIX L: Sample interview transcript ^ 252ixLIST OF TABLESTABLEPAGE1 Sample of comparative taxonomy of sensoryelements ^ 622 Sample of comparative taxonomy of formalprinciples ^ 753 Profile of informant expertise ^ 834 Design vocabulary:^Elements 1505 Design vocabulary:^Characteristics andproperties 1526 Design vocabulary:^Imagery ^ 1557 Design vocabulary:^Procedures andtechniques 158xLIST OF FIGURESPAGEFIGURE1 Sample of domain analysis of elements inart education ^ 542 Sample of domain analysis of elements incomputer graphics ^ 553^Sample description of stimulus ^ 86xiACKNOWLEDGMENTSI would like to thank my advisor, Dr. Ron MacGregor,for his dedication and interest in this study, and for hismany interventions and suggestions.I would like to thank my committee members, Dr. AnnaKindler and Dr. Marvin Westrom, for their helpfulsuggestions at critical stages.This study would not have been possible without theassistance of Kevin Arthur and Gary Sim, who acted asconsultants for computer graphics. I would also like toacknowledge the anonymous contributions of the eightsubjects in this study, who volunteered their valuable timeand expertise so I may benefit from their knowledge.xi iCHAPTER IINTRODUCTION TO THE STUDYGeneral statementThe expanding capacities of electronic technology haveaffected almost every aspect of life in the last decade ofthe 20th Century. This has forced revision of some ways ofthinking, and created opportunities for expansion of others.One of the consequences of considering electronic technologyas an active contributor to art production and art criticismhas been the need to expand the formalist tradition in arteducation. Formalist terms and concepts, originallyconceived to describe or account for the visual structuresin traditional art forms such as painting and sculpture, aresometimes not applicable nor explicit enough to describethese new families of visual images.While much recent work in the field has focused onsociocultural issues in art education, issues of visualstructure have been equally in need of attention. In anattempt to redress the balance between the study ofsociocultural issues and formal elements that underpin arteducation, this study proposes the investigation of astructural model for art criticism and aesthetics, expanded1and enhanced by consideration of technologies for computergraphics.Background to the problemArt educators talking about visual images and objectsare likely to draw upon paradigms based on formalist artcriticism and aesthetics. They do so because thoseparadigms are common in the literature, and generally formthe bulk of courses in criticism taught at the undergraduatelevel. Formalist terminology and concepts are well-established and tacitly understood. As Feldman points out,"Formalism exercises a profound influence on artinstruction, in schools, as well as college and universityart departments" (Feldman, 1992, p. 122).Traditional art terms and inquiry practices areconsidered useful for developing mental structures or"lenses" (Broudy, 1972) for understanding all kinds of artand the built environment (Greer, 1993). However, the fitis often uncomfortable and sometimes impossible, even tonon-representational forms of art. For example, Hobbsquestions, "How does one explain away the absence of theprinciple of 'dominance and subordination' in the prolixlinear patterns of a Pollock, or the 'balancing of unequal2but equivalent oppositions' in the coldly redundant stripesof a Riley or the steel boxes of a Judd?" (Hobbs, 1993, p.105).Formalist art philosophy continues to be entrenched insuch contemporary philosophies as the Getty Foundation'spopular Discipline-Based Art Education, commonly known asDBAE (Apple, 1988). However, art educator Nancy Johnsonadmonishes that the field should not necessarily accept anyinherited paradigm as clear or fixed. From an overview ofthe history of design, she concludes that "parts of theconcept of design are continually in the process of dying,being re-born, transformed or modified" (Johnson, 1992, p.152). Thus, while many art educators have turned theirattention to sociological and cultural issues, a number ofart educators are focusing on the reevaluation of formalistart education as an appropriate paradigm for an increasinglytechnological world (Feldman, 1992; Pearse, 1992; Hobbs,1993).A number of studies and articles have in turn focusedspecifically on the impact of computer technology ontraditional art education (Varro, 1992; Freedman, 1991).In general, the electronic age and associated technologiesfor generating and responding to visual images and objects,3such as computer graphics, have created not only a newvocabulary but new ways of conceptualizing information aboutvisual structure that permit the description and analysis offine art images and objects in ways that do not fit thetraditional modes of description. The languages of newermedia provide understanding about image and objectcharacteristics that may be useful, even crucial, to a morecomprehensive mode of response than is possible using theelements and principles of design, or formal modes of artcriticism (Freedman & Relan, 1992).However, as Johnson points out, "Art educators proposingan increase in the conceptual content of art instructionneed to resolve the unexplored issues which surround designas a basic art concept" (1992, p.152). She notes that arteducators have taken inconsistent but persistent positionson the concept of design. For example, it is unclearwhether principles of art are rules of composition or laws,and whether there are three, five, or six elements of art(1992). Lauer concurs, "It seems that no two designers willever agree on the same list of design elements andprinciples - or on which are which " (1979, p. v).4Qualifications for developing this research:A personal groundAs an art reviewer for the past 13 years, I haveoccasionally been called upon to review two-dimensionalcomputer art. This has posed two dilemmas for me. Theseimages are static, yet at the same time digital andelectronic. In what context should I describe computer art:in the context of other digital, electronic art such asvideo art and animation, which, however, employ movement andthe dynamics of time and change; or in the context oftraditional two-dimensional art such as painting anddrawing, which, while static, results from analog and hand-crafted techniques? If I choose to review these examples ofcomputer art in the context of traditional art, how does mychoice then affect the theories and the language by which Ireview traditional art?As a professional artist between 1972 - 1986, I wasunavoidably influenced by the recognition of photography asa visual language in the art world during these years.While photography is not "made-by-hand" in the same directway that traditional paintings and drawings are created,much photography was based on traditional elements andprinciples of design such as composition within the format5and elements placed to create eye movements between them. Iobserved photography gradually changing art: legitimizing adocumentary bias, underscoring notions about field of viewand depth of field, and affecting the way traditional artimages were scaled, framed or cropped. I observed languageoriginally unique to photography slip sideways into thepublic and educational domains. Terms and concepts like"selection", "focal point", and "image development" becamean accepted part of traditional art discussions andteaching, and were applied to traditional art images.I perceive that students today are being influenced bythe emergence of computer graphics as a visual language inmuch the same way that artists of the 70's and 80's wereinfluenced by photography. As computer graphics becomes asaccessible to the average child or home user as photographynow is, there is a definite need to consider how imagescreated by computer graphics might affect traditionaltheories of art - and vice versa.It would seem useful to research and analyze the termsand concepts used by art educators to teach, criticize anddiscuss visual images, and to research and analyze thoseemployed by traditional artists as well as by computerartists and educators, in order to explore the possibility6of expanding the formalist framework for discussing artimages in art education. "By changing the parameters of thediscussion," Glasser notes, "research generalizations andconcepts alter people's understanding of the situation,highlight new issues, change the facets of the problem, helpto re-order their priorities, extend the range ofalternatives they consider, and allay certain uncertaintiesand anxieties" (Glasser et al, 1983, p. 427).Purpose of the studyThe purpose of this study is to describe the state of"what is" by examining and comparing expert theory andpractice. The investigation will have five facets:1. To examine formal elements and principles of designin art;2. To examine terms and concepts in one area ofvisualization technology: that of computer graphics;3. To show how terms and concepts in computer graphicshave expanded mental frameworks of understanding anddiscourse about visual images;4. To find out how vocabulary and conceptual categoriesunderlying computer graphics might be integrated with formalart criticism methods of analysis and description, to7provide a more adequate description and analysis of thevisual structure of images and objects;5. To show how the integration of certain vocabulary,concepts and methods used by computer artists might aid arteducators, by providing an expanded - or at least atransitional - framework for responding to, or discussing,visual structure in art.Research questions1. What are the terms and concepts currently employedin the literature of formalist aesthetics and art criticismthat lend themselves directly to description and analysis ofthe visual structure of images and objects?2. What are the terms and concepts currently employedby artists and art educators to describe and analyze thevisual structure of images and objects?3. What are the terms and concepts employed in theliterature of computer graphics and computer graphicsprograms that lend themselves directly to description andanalysis of the visual structure of images and objects?4. What are the terms and concepts currently employedby computer artists and computer graphics educators todescribe and analyze the visual structure of images and8objects?5. How may existing formalist notions be enhanced orredefined by the analysis of responses to questions 1-4?Design and methodolgyThis study was conducted in three stages: a conceptualanalysis of terms found in literature and the constructionof a comparative taxonomy; interpretation of data frominterviews with professionals in art, art education,computer graphics, and computer graphics education; and thecomponential analysis of conceptual categories fordescribing and analyzing the visual structure of images andobjects.Procedures 1. A domain analysis of visual elements and principlesin traditional art images and computer graphics wasdeveloped. The domain analysis identified terms andconcepts related to describing and analyzing the visualstructure of images and objects in both fields, throughliterature searches of texts, journals, computer programmanuals, and art education curriculum materials.2. A comparative taxonomy of visual elements andprinciples in traditional art images and computer graphics9was developed.3. Four stimuli were chosen. Each one exemplifieddifferent elements and principles of design, as well as theterms and concepts used by computer graphic artists andeducators.4. Eight informants were identified: 2 computergraphics artists, 2 computer graphics educators, 2traditional artists, and 2 art educators. In order toobtain samples that were information-rich, purposefulsampling strategies were used, with network selection andreputational-case selection.5. Semi-structured interviews with the eight informantswere conducted, in order to contextualize the information inthe taxonomies. Informants were shown the stimuli and askedto describe and explain the visual structure of each imagein their own terms. Prompts were used when necessary todirect attention to particular areas or to unifyingelements. Informants were also asked to comment onconnections between the way computer artists and traditionalartists (or computer graphics educators and art educators)might talk about the same images.6. Interview data was analyzed for the use of all termsand concepts that described the visual structure of images.107. A componential analysis was developed in threeparts: differences and similarities between designvocabularies, concepts about the elements and principles ofart, and issues in computer art and traditional art.Data analysis and presentationThis study used inductive data analysis in order tofacilitate discovery of terms and concepts in the fields;to gauge the applicability of the data; and to categorizeand order the data.The data is presented as:1. A domain analysis of art education and computergraphics literature;2. Comparative taxonomies of terms and concepts used todescribe traditional art images and computer images;2. An analysis of terms and concepts found in theinterview data;3. A componential analysis of design vocabulary,elements and principles, and conceptual issues.Limitations of the designThis study specifically focused on images which could bedescribed as "art images", "illustrations" or "pictures",rather than on graphics or text. It was also concerned with11computer visualization techniques for producing computer artonly, not on scientific visualization.This study focused on the formal qualities of visualimages, rather than on their expressive or sociologicalqualities.The study sought to examine the visual structure ofcompleted images, rather than the computer procedures ortraditional studio processes used to create them.12CHAPTER IIREVIEW OF THE LITERATUREIntroductionIt is often pointed out by computer critics that much ofwhat is considered computer art today will one day, due toits imitative nature, be seen only in the context of earlierart traditions, while art made with the computer in thefuture will be nothing we can yet imagine. Commenting onthe significance of traditional art to computer graphics,technology educator Mihai Nadin points out, It is not that,in the age of information processing, tradition ortradition-rooted forms of human practice cease; they arecomplemented by new forms, some impractical or evenimpossible in previous paradigms of thinking and creating.Two lines - one of continuity that establishes itself asan implicit reference and another of uncompromisingrevolution/radical change - could represent the topologyof the space of artistic or scientific exploration" (Nadin,1989, p. 43).Conversely, commenting on the significance of thecomputer to traditional art, Edward Pope remarks, "Since thecomputer has an unparalleled capacity to generate,13transform, store, replicate and disseminate imagery, thenthere is little doubt that the computer will [continue to]figure preeminently in the image making that goes on in oursociety" (Pope, 1988, p. 328).This literature review seeks to address the impact ofcomputer art today on traditional, formalist response toart; first, by examining formalist orientations to arteducation, then by examining the incorporation of formalistapproaches in computer art. This evaluation of formalistorientations in the two different fields of image-making isan important step towards establishing grounds for acomparative taxonomy of visual elements found in images inboth fields.This literature review will also examine recent issuesin the theories and assumptions underlying both traditionalart and computer art of the late 1990's. Issues will beparticularly relevant to the componential analysis and theassessment of implications for art educators at the end ofthis study. "When considering a new medium, and certainlythe computer is a new one and can hardly be talked about inhistorical terms, theory is implicitly an issue, sincechange is invoked" (Pope, p. 323).14Formalist orientations to art educationIntroductionArt educator Vincent Lanier has noted that aestheticsis distinguished from other areas of artistic study in thatit focuses on viewers of art (1986). Formalism can beunderstood as one of many aesthetic models which a viewermight adopt or be taught. It is a way to view and appraiseart images. Formalism "postulates an idea of permanent orresidual aesthetic value", thus creating a "search for valuewithin objects" (Crozier & Greenhalgh, 1992, p. 83-4). Inother words, the form or appearance of art images isbelieved to generate aesthetic response in the viewer. Thisoccurs through what has been described as "a kind oflanguage, within which symbolic and formal conventions areorganized into coherent constructs similar to a grammar"(Ackerman, 1966, p. 395). For example, such various partsof an image as line, shape or pattern might be perceived asinteracting with each other and creating such overalleffects as a sense of balance, harmony or rhythm.Identifiable parts of an image are often described assensory elements, while their interactions and relationshipsare described as formal principles. In the Western world,formalist theory treats art images as self-contained designs15which generate their own aesthetic.The history of formalism in art educationCrozier and Greenhalgh believe that Clive Bell's bookArt, published in London in 1914, can be credited withmapping out much of the territory of the aesthetic concernsof formalist theory. From Bell, they note, art critics andeducators have inherited the idea of "pure form", or anobject-oriented aesthetic (Crozier & Greenhalgh, 1992, p.84). As a confirmed formalist, Bell positioned theaesthetic element inside the object, rather than in itscontext.Art education in North America has not always beenconcerned with aesthetic response. In the past threedecades, American art educator Ralph Smith has beeninfluential in moving the concerns of American art educationaway from early industrial and technical orientations, and,later, social and child-centered orientations, towards anaesthetic study. In 1966 he wrote, "Any work of art in anymedium can be examined and evaluated with respect to thefollowing factors: (a) the sensuous materials, (b) themanipulation (technique), (c) the formal design"; as wellas its "expressiveness or significance", its "interest" toperception, and any "extra-aesthetic functions it happens to16serve" (Smith, 1966, P. 37). "The important point," hecontinued, "is that discriminations among the sensoryqualities can be made and assertions about them can withinreasonable limits be verified. Educationally, moreover,such discriminations can be learned".Harold Broudy, known in art education as the "father ofaesthetic scanning", proposed the concept of scanning duringthe 1970s as a way of learning sensory discrimination."Aesthetic scanning, as discussed by Broudy (1972), consistsof an examination of the sensory, formal, expressive, andtechnical aspects of an art object... For example, theabilities to discriminate among design elements, tocategorize visual and tactile characteristics, to seeunderlying structure, and to perceive principles of designare cited as parts of aesthetic perception and aestheticstudy" (Hamblen, 1987, p. 82).Formalism is a rationalistic tradition, with a belief ina world that is separate and external to the viewer.Beverley Jones, an educator with particular interests in artand computers, places formalism in the context of objectiverealism, which refers to a set of conventions and constructsinvented by humans. In the objective realist's view,"reality is structured in such a way that it can be modeled17by a set of theoretical models. That is, the world consistsof entities, the properties of those entities and therelations holding among those entities" (Jones, 1989, p.34).The elements and principles of designThe impact of the formalist tradition on art educationliterature is manifested in the many programs and textbookswhich delineate specific properties of artistic entities.The delineation of elements and principles was firstpopularized by an American art educator named Arthur WesleyDow (Chapman, 1992), and quickly became a formularizedmethod for teaching aesthetic response in the schools. Arteducator Dorothy Malcolm describes design as "the act ofarranging things to create a single effect. In design, theelements are the things we work with; the principles arewhat we do with them" (Malcolm, 1972, p. 7). She specifiesthe following design elements: space, line, shape, color,value, and texture; and the following design principles:balance, movement, repetition, emphasis, contrast and unity.She applies these terms to a wide range of two- and three-dimensional art mediums that includes graphic mediums,painting, sculpture, assemblage, printmaking, textiles, andceramics.18In a popular art education text, Lauer (1979) notesthat while it is customary in art appreciation to presentthe elements of design first, in a studio course theprinciples of organization are more fundamental and have ahigher priority for practicing students than do particularelements. He focuses on principles of unity, emphasis andfocal point, balance, scale and proportion, and on theelements of line, form, texture, illusion of space, illusionof motion, rhythm, and color. He demonstrates the use ofthese elements and principles with examples of graphicmediums, painting, photography, architecture, assemblage,and sculpture.Elements and principles are often described in arteducation literature as the "language of art". Ocvirk,Bone, Stinson and Wigg (1982) describe all works of art as"unique form experiences" we learn to "read" through their"formal roots". The authors believe these roots whichcompose the language of art give art a "core ofuniversality" (p. 33). The formal roots or "visual signs"are line, shape, value, texture and color. Two principlesof organization are manipulated to give art its form:harmony (involving rhythm/repetition) and variety (involvingcontrast/elaboration). Both harmony and variety employ19balance, movement, proportion, dominance, economy and spaceto produce unity. The authors also apply these terms to awide range of 2D and 3D mediums, including graphic mediums,painting, sculpture, assemblage, printmaking, textiles andceramics.Two ideas are conveyed in these texts by Malcolm, Lauer,and Ocvirk: first, that there are a finite number ofelements and principles, and second, that formalism can orshould be applicable to all art images regardless of theirmedium, function, or intent.Formalist orientations in computer graphicsIntroductionWhether or not computer art eventually changes itsentire nature, direction, and contextual referents, it iscurrently, like photography, what Galassi would call "alegitimate child of the western pictorial tradition" (Jones,1989, p. 31). Computer art to date has been firmlyentrenched in the formalist tradition. As Jones points out,"Artists create self-conscious art", and computer art hasbeen no exception. "Appropriations of stylistic conventionsor earlier art forms, especially modernist formalism, Op artand Renaissance perspective, are evident throughout the20early history of computer graphics" (p. 36). Nadin (1989)believes that in the process of appropriating the newtechnology, "traditional artists, technologists andscientists have acted to preserve modes of expression theybelieve in, like, or have tried to explain" (Nadin, 1989,p.44). For example, even "visualization of highlydiversified spaces, 3D (virtual space) explorations andcolor explorations are still treated according to theaesthetics of white paper or canvas" (p.44).Many artists and educators, like computer educatorStephen Wilson, believe that history will show that theforms of computer art currently most familiar, such ascomputer graphics, are actually conservative art forms."They are attempts to assimilate the new technologies toestablished art traditions" (Wilson, 1991, p. 434).The history of computer art Early computer art was much more explicitly concernedwith formal elements than 3D computer visualization of thepast five years has been. Jones points out how manyexamples of early computer art in the Western world bearresemblance to the work of modern formalists, by emphasizingpurely formal relations of elements and principles ofdesign. "Many works of early computer art may be considered21to express a concern for the relations of pure form,possibly ideal forms, generated with a concern for beautyand based in numerical relations... early computer art [maybe analyzed in terms of] its appropriation of aestheticstructures and conventions" (Jones, p. 33).Computer graphics of the fifties and sixties wereprimarily geometric and planar. They were based mainly onideas drawn from the European Constructivist tradition -that of system, precision, geometry and structure - and,as Wright pointed out, the rigors of computer programminglent themselves easily to this approach (Wright, 1989).In the 1960s, three-dimensional wireframe graphics weredeveloped, with consequent development of hidden linealgorithms, solid modeling, and lighting, texturing andmapping effects. Programs for three-dimensional modeling,which incorporate phenomena of biology and physics throughroutines such as fractals or ray-tracing, derive from ascientific tradition which seeks to invent algorithms forclose imitation of the appearance of the external, "real"world. As Jones puts it, "A belief that symbolicrepresentations may form an objective, one-to-one, value-free correspondence to reality is the basis for scientificrealism. The symbols utilized may be mathematical or22graphic" (p. 35).Algorithms are often described in computer literature interms of a graphic "language". Algorithms are mathematicalroutines or procedures embedded in programs that cause (orenable) image effects, such as reflections or textures. Inessence, by bundling up a number of commands that otherwisewould have to be "keyed in" or entered separately, manyimaging algorithms can provide useful electronic shortcutsto certain sensory appearances. Scientific realism is aform of objective realism. Algorithms for visualappearances in 3D graphics replace elements and principlesin the computer art image, but are similarly based on visualresponse. Thus, while the referents of computer art in thepast 25 years have shifted from constructivist geometry tobioscience, computer art continues to be concerned with whatart educators would call the sensory aspects of image-making.Many computer critics believe that, in this century atleast, "developments in software algorithmic theory willcontinue to expand the repertoire of ideas requiringartistic exploration, such as fractals and object-orientedgraphics" (Wilson, 1991, p. 435). Whether or not such artcould continue to be subsumed to formalist theory, or23whether or not it should be, remains to be seen.Design in computer art Computer educators Kerlow and Rosebush (1986) describethe incorporation of computer technology into the fields ofdesign and fine arts, and explore the functions andlimitations of computers in the creation of images andobjects. They agree that while early computer-generated artwas predominantly two-dimensional, with a focus on geometricpatterns, interpolation, and randomness, the development ofinteractive paint and illustration systems and three-dimensional techniques has focused attention on thesimulation of reality.They clearly explain differences between the visuallanguage of three-dimensional graphics, which treats objectsas virtual entities in a continuous environment, and thepixel representation form of discrete picture areas, such asthose produced by Paint programs. While the former produces"seemingly tangible" imagery that may be similar to realistpainting or photography, the latter, pixel matrices, have along tradition in the graphic arts, including needlepoint,halftones, and weaving.Friedhoff and Benzon (1989) suggest that to createthree-dimensional objects within the computer requires the24invention of entirely new kinds of visual schemata, sincevisual and structural qualities of objects have to bedefined mathematically. "In computer graphics", they write,"these mathematical techniques are usually called algorithmsbut they correspond, in many ways, to the art historian'sschemata. As with schemata, a successful algorithm becomespart of an ever-expanding vocabulary among computergraphicists and profoundly influences both the conceptionand appearance of their images" (Friedhoff and Benzon, p.84).The purpose of Friedhoff and Benzon's book is todemonstrate how, since the central issue in 3D computergraphics today is naturalism or verisimilitude, computergraphic techniques and algorithms are influenced by theanalytic structures of the visual system. Visual structureis in turn concerned with perceptual or sensory qualitiessuch as three-dimensional modeling, shading, texture,pattern, variant color, and expanded palettes. Images tendto be described in this context, creating new algorithms anda recognizable visual language.Many critics are concerned that commercial software forcomputer graphics, with their recognizable algorithms,provide the artist with what can only be a predictable range25of image appearances. Batty (1987) advocates that for anartist to be in full control of an image, the artist mustwrite the original program as well as make design decisions,and do both at the same time.^Batty demonstrates howconventional ideas about writing procedures and algorithmscan be complemented at the same time with a wide range ofdesign principles. These include the unifying ideas ofhierarchical structure, iteration, randomness andconstraint, the creative possibilities of temporal priority,and recursion, which will be discussed in the domainanalysis of this study. They are supported with a varietyof visual ideas involving points, lines, patterns, texture,2D and 3D shapes, scale, edging, nesting, transformations,color mixing, color balance, and shading.The message conveyed in these three computer arteducation texts is that formal and sensory aspects of image-making continue to be prominent, even in computer artcreated with original programming. Perhaps, as Franke(1985) suggests, "conventions of cultural reality embeddedin hardware, software, and mental constructs of humanparticipants may inhibit or preclude development of [new]models" of usage and application (p. 165).26Issues in computer art and traditional artIntroductionDespite the impact of formalist paradigms on the historyof computer graphics, it may be argued that computer art hasnot achieved an equitable status with what some maydifferentiate as "fine art". The question, Is computer artart? actually begs two others: what are the similaritiesand differences between "art" and "computer art", and whatunderlying assumptions confound these questions? Anexamination of prevalent attitudes and assumptions towardsboth traditional art and computer art is followed by aliterature review of similarities and differences.Assumptions about art and artists One enduring (and perhaps endearing) myth is thatartists are primarily concerned with intuition andspontaneity. For example, Franke writes, "Those practicingcomputer graphics are more at home with an exact science ofart than artists who confine themselves to intuition andspontaneity (emphasis mine, Franke, 1985, p. 163). Tosupport his claim that the "extreme rationality" of"sterile" computer calculations has alienated many artists,Hickman states, "Ever since the Romantic literary movementof the nineteenth century which challenged the rationalism27of eighteenth-century Neoclassicism, creativity haspopularly been associated with the intuitive" (Hickman,1991, p. 50).Since many 20th century art educators have promotedartmaking as an intuitive, open-ended, spontaneous activity,it is small wonder these kinds of assumptions continue to bemade by those outside the field. One legacy of thisattitude in art education itself has been studio trainingwhich prioritizes experimentation with techniques andmaterials, rather than cognitive development. This bias hascreated a belief that in making computer art, as opposed totraditional art, "the act of artistic creativity shifts fromthe manual to those areas which have been described ascerebral", and that "the usual training by academics, whichis confined to manual skills, is made superfluous by thefacilitation of artistic production brought about bycomputers" (emphasis mine, Franke, p. 163).Timothy Binkley, a prominent computer art educator,takes a more realistic view of artmaking. He points outthat "the thinking activity is absolutely essential in orderto construct a picture: the artist figures it out usingmanual tools, but without the mental process nothinghappens". The role of the computer in art can thus be seen28as more of an active creative partner than a passive medium(Binkley, 1989, p. 17).Another enduring myth is that artists work on the"edge", testing the limits of the status quo in art.However, artists using traditional elements and principlesof design^and students being taught to use them to makeart - are also simulating traditional forms of art.Gombrich's Art and illusion  (1961) identified many of thecodes and signifiers that artists employ to ensurecontinuity of communication, or the "readability" of theimage.Assumptions about computer graphics Many practitioners regard the name "computer art" asunfortunate, since it implies that the content of the art isthe computer. It is true that computers are bound to media,"but to no particular one, and hence work done with them canproject all the different appearances of media currently inuse" (Binkley, 1989, p. 19). Alan Kay, a computer theorist,points out that the computer is not merely a medium but ametamedium: "with the computer you can create media"(Hickman, 1991, p. 49).The concept of the computer as metamedium in turn oftencreates the impression that the computer is some kind of29tool. Artists in particular appear prone to viewing thecomputer this way because they are accustomed to usingintermediary devices, physically and materially oriented, todo particular things. However, the computer per se does nothave the capability to be a tool. The computer organizesand activates tools in the forms of programs with specificcapabilities. In other words, the computer is used to applyprograms, like tools, to an idea. Each program, however,has limited capabilities. "Although a computer language isgenerative (allowing infinite possibilities), a computerprogram generally is not. For example, most paint programsonly allow a fixed number of operations to be performed"(Hickman, 1991, p. 50).The speed of execution and the fact that traditionalmanual skills are no longer a precondition for engaging inart further encourages the impression that making images onthe computer is "cheap and easy" (Franke, 1985, p. 153).But, as Wright points out, the process of modeling andrendering can be arduous and demanding, both in terms of themental effort and the basic knowledge required. In summary,it may be said that "[computer] art does not reflect howpowerful technology is, but how powerfully it serves theartist's artistic means" (Nadin, 1989, p. 47).30Similarities between art and computer graphicsThe first and most significant similarity betweentraditional art and computer graphics of this century hasbeen the emphasis on formalist theory and response. WhenLucas (1986) studied evolving aesthetic criteria forcomputer-generated art, he found that "traditional criteriaremain an integral part of the aesthetic evaluation of thisart form" (Jones, 1989, p. 31). The traditional criteriawere formalist elements and principles. For example, fiveout of eight experts surveyed by Lucas agreed that "visualbasics of harmony, symmetry and balance were applicable" (p.31).A second similarity is that both traditional art andcomputer art in hardcopy form are static objects whichdemand a certain kind of reception by the viewer. Popedescribes how formalism, with its notion of art as a passiveobject to be scanned, and computer graphics, with itsemphasis on output to a third party, share a bias towards acertain kind of triangulation: the artist, the art, and theviewer. "Within a theory of art must be included someexplanation of how three essential agents of the artexperience interact, that is, an implicit definition of theinterrelationship, or mutual roles, of artists, artifact,31and audience." In formalist theory, he continues,"Interaction has conventionally been restricted to aphysically passive role for the audience, a role markedprincipally by a mental activity and visual contemplation"(Pope, 1988, p. 326).A third similarity between traditional art and computergraphics is commitment to experimentation, particularly of aconceptual kind. If the computer is attractive to thevisual arts, it may be for its "inherent imaging capacity"(Pope, 1988, p. 323); that is, its ability to simulate themind. The computer provides the means to implement a majorart premise, that of experimentation, for which traditionalmedia have provided relatively limited opportunities. Popewrites, "In many instances, the traditional media discouragebroad experimentation due to technical limitations. Forinstance, in just the area of color theory and practice,media such as paint or colored paper result in as much ormore time spent in mixing, cutting, drying, and othermanipulative aspects than in simply observing and studyingcolor phenomena" (p. 33). In terms of capacities forconceptual development, it would appear the computer and artare well married.In addition to similarities concerning issues of visual32structure, there is concern in both fields for socioculturalaspects of art. Formerly, only programmers in technicalinstitutes had access to computer graphics systems, renewing"the danger of being limited to elitist circles which hasthreatened modern art from another direction" (Franke, p.163). The emergence of personal, portable computers hascreated an entirely new situation. Pope writes, "The impactof this concept, portability, is clear when one reflectsback upon the effect that easel painting and tube paints hadon the development of the history of painting" (p. 329).Commercially available programs and user-friendly interfacesallow easy access to computational forms of artisticeffects; in many cases, easier access than can be achievedthrough traditional means. Some educators therefore fearthat commercially available computer graphics systems willresult "in a destruction of the prestige, the aurasurrounding art... as well as the concept of art as anobject of representation and as the symbol of a privilegedclass" (Adrian, 1986, in Franke, p. 165). Despite theseprotests, and at the same time as art educators areconcerned with the democratization of art and its impact ontraditional notions of value in art, computer critics expecta reevaluation of norms that have carried over from33mainstream art. "The digital medium is one of instantreplication and perfect fidelity; therefore, the notion ofthe original, the aura of uniqueness, and the attraction ofownership will have to undergo reinterpretation and change"(Nadin, p. 46).Differences between art and computer graphicsUsing the medium of paint as an example, Binkley (1989)explored differences between traditional and computer art.The paradigmatic difference he sees between computers andmedia is that the former usually process information indigital form while the latter store it in analog form. In atraditional painting, the paint as an analog medium is the"repository of pictorial information" (p. 17), while therepository of computer art is the conceptual code of adigital format. Paint is literal and material; it does notexist in another form. Digital art is immaterial; it canbe output in many forms.Binkley also described traditional painting as a "locusdefined by a set of manual tools and images". The artist'shand - via the tool - is responsible for every single markmade in an image. In computer art, using algorithms or pre-written mathematical procedures, the computer carries out or34completes many visual effects such as simulations of textureor area fills. "Some of the thinking burden carried by theartist using a constructive algorithm is shifted to thecomputer," Binkley writes. "Here we see clearly that whatthe computer does is quite unlike what a medium does. Thecomputer 'thinks' - it calculates. Media cannot do thissince they are physical and passive; the computer can sinceit is conceptual and active" (p.17).Another significant difference is often noticed bycritics who claim that computer art doesn't look like art.They refer, quite literally, to the surface appearance ofdigital images. Wright points out that although currentprograms provide almost all the graphic techniques one couldthink of, such as washes or graduated shapes, an electronicimage has a synthetic and transitory character. It isalmost immediately apparent that a computer image is nothand-crafted, since surfaces tend to be uniform andflawless. To aggravate the situation, many high-resolutioncomputer images are so graphically slick that they carry anassurance of image rightness even beyond what they portray.Many have an "insistent, even authoritarian, accuracy thatis overwhelming... It is as though the corporate power ofthe media had joined up with the methodological rigor of the35mathematicians and scientists to create some final,definitive and coercive depiction of the visual world"(Wright, p. 51).Despite an increased use of fractals and chaosalgorithms to introduce a stochastic or random element intocomputer art, computer art is still almost flawless andsometimes surprisingly passive for what is often called adynamic graphic form. "As opposed to works of art that lookbetter the more we look at them, electronic art seems toexhaust itself at the first encounter" (Nadin, 1989, p. 43).This may be a result of a kind of digital democracy. In thecomputer, all the materials assume the same status and canbe freely mixed and matched. "Each element of the image canbe processed equivalently with no respect for its semanticor perhaps even formal qualities" (Wright, p. 50). Thisdowngrade into what Wright calls "visual fodder" affects theway we view computer art, resulting in a serious loss ofsignification (p.50).The value of the artmaking process continues to lie inthe experience of the artist. It continues to be importantthat the artist personally and directly made the artifact.Not only is visible evidence of the human hand valued, but acertain degree of order is expected. While computer art is36often criticized for appearing too orderly, it actuallyseeks to do the opposite and this forms the lastparadigmatic difference.Max Bense, a pioneer of simulated aesthetic design, seesthe artistic process "as a kind of anti-process of naturalphenomena, along the line that nature tends to bring forthchaos, while art permits the emergence of unlikelyconditions of order" (in Franke, p. 156). While traditionalart strives to bring order out of chaos, computer art seeksto introduce chaos into order. In computer graphics, thephenomenon of chance, which usually appears as adisturbance, turns out to be a generative principle. "Aschance destroys order it creates more complex structures andachieves the unexpected, the unforeseen" (p. 162).Computer graphics and art educationIn 1991, artist and art educator Craig Hickman sadlystated that "it has taken over a hundred years for thehistory of photography to be recognized and taught in arthistory courses, and it might take as long for thecomputer's contribution to be acknowledged" (Hickman, 1991,p. 51).The language of computer graphics is a major barrier to37the acceptance of digital images as art. Language allows usto both form and examine concepts. If we can't speak thelanguage, we can't begin to enter into theoreticaldiscussion. "Artists who work with computers may studyprogramming and physics, and use an expanded vocabulary(i.e. paint programs, frame grabbers, and digitizers). Itis difficult to find computer-generated art in mostestablished art museums and galleries. We don't yet knowhow to think about it, look at it, talk about it, orcategorize it" (Ettinger, 1988, p. 55). Linda Ettinger, aprominent computer art educator, points out that "[art]educators often lack an adequate vocabulary and a sense ofdisciplinary background necessary to begin to study thecomputer as an artistic medium" (p. 56), although it is seenby many art educators as a perfect fit for teaching designelements. This occurs, she suggests, because "...theunderlying structure of the computer screen is parallel totraditional atomistic approaches to teaching the artelements as presented during the past fifty years in manyart and design texts" (p. 56).Nadin sees the opposite problem occurring in the fieldof computer graphics. Computer artists meet and "talk aboutpixels, megabytes, and call-up color tables," he notes.38"This language is necessary if we want to understand how wedo what we do, but not what we do and why we do it" (Nadin,p. 48) Nadin claims that a theoretical foundation isrelevant, despite a tendency on the part of critics,especially those in the United States, to focus onprogramming and technical discussions when writing aboutcomputer graphics. "A professional critic could hardlysurvive without well-established conceptions, withoutcertain schemas of judgment which he applies to specificsituations in forming his point of view. Such criteriausually derive from a background knowledge of art historyand comprise insights deriving from the established state ofart" (Franke, 1985, p. 153).Ettinger concurs: "Along with teaching people to usecomputers comes the responsibility to direct a focus oncritical study of the values underlying information-basedtechnology, and simultaneously of the values underlying ourfield [that of art education] (Ettinger, p. 53).Weitz (1962) described the attempt to define a theory ofart as "a fool's errand", because the dynamics of art changeaccording to time and place. "Art.. .has no set of necessaryand sufficient properties". If this is true, it may bechange or transition itself that is most worth studying.39There is no question that traditional theories of art areconfronted with significant paradigm changes as the impactof technology gathers momentum in the last decade of thiscentury. However, without a comparative study of thelanguages of technology and art, it is difficult, if notimpossible, to explicitly assess the course and extent oftheoretical change.SummaryThough couched within a formalist tradition, employingelements similar to those of traditional art, and organizedin a rational and objective manner, art made with computergraphics has aspects that are unlike or opposite toformalist theory.In traditional art, the medium itself is a literal,contained, analog repository of information. In computerart, the conceptual code is digital and it can be output tohardcopy in many forms. While an artist's hand must guideevery mark made with traditional media, many marks incomputer images are "created" by the computer. Traditionalimages appear more hand-crafted than computer images,despite stochastic elements recently introduced in computersoftware. Traditional art and computer art proceed from40different intentions: the first to create order andorganization, and the latter to generate the unforeseen andunexpected.Formalist images are self-referencing; recent 3Dcomputer graphics are world-referencing. The mostsignificant difference may be Malcolm's statement that, intraditional art, "Elements are the things we work with;principles are what we do with them" (1972, p. 7). Incomputer graphics, principles are the things that are workedwith, via procedures and algorithms, and the elements arewhat is done with them, via selections.Other differences expand formalist notions rather thanoppose them. The ideas of interactivity andtransformability in computer graphics expand the notion ofpermanent or residual value. Techniques for replication anddissemination challenge the formalist notion of uniqueness,as do commercial programs. Perceptions of underlyingstructure and discriminations among sensory elements informalist response are challenged by computer techniques forhidden element algorithms, cutting and pasting, and imagemanipulation.While many art educators subsume computer graphics toformalist theory, whether appropriate or not, practitioners41and critics in computer graphics eschew computer art theoryin favor of technical discussions. Ignorance of terminologyin both fields is a barrier to articulating common theory.42CHAPTER IIIDESIGN OF STUDYIntroduction to research designSpradley (1980) identifies five research stages ofethnographic studies which seek to examine the role andmeaning of language within cultural domains. These stagesare: domain analysis, focused observations, taxonomicanalysis, selected observations, and componential analysis.A cultural domain is an intangible, often implicit areaof knowledge, such as the knowledge of the visual analysisof art images. Domain analysis involves the identificationof basic conceptual areas. In the visual analysis of artimages, these may be areas of knowledge that includeconcepts of "line", "shape", or "balance". Further researchprovides verification and elaboration of basic concepts.Enriched detail is added in the form of focusedobservations, such as "broken" line, "two-dimensional"shapes, or "symmetrical" balance.Language representing conceptual areas can then bestructured into taxonomies or inclusive lists, andcomparative taxonomies of similarities and differences (say,between cultures) can be developed. For example, the use of43the term "broken" line in response to an area of atraditional art image might refer to a line which has gaps,or is not continuous, while "broken" line in response to anarea of computer art may refer to a line which is angularrather than straight. In the cultural domain of traditionalart, the latter may be termed "zigzag".Interviews with people who are immersed in a cultureallow selected observations to be made about areas whichrequire further analysis. Interviews can clarify thecontextual use of language, and reveal situationalapplications.A componential analysis can then be performed of eachconceptual area. In a componential analysis, data from thetaxonomic analysis can be compared and contrasted withinterview data to form a profile of similarities anddifferences between cultural domains.Domain analysisIntroductionA domain analysis was made of terminology found in bothart education and computer graphics literature. Theanalysis focused on terminology, verbs, and concepts used todescribe or identify visual structure. Particular attention44was paid to vocabulary that described the elements andprinciples of art, and the visual structure of computergraphics rather than the procedures.Procedure Art education literature and computer program manualsused in this study (Appendix A) were selected on the basisof frequent and popular use. References recommended by artand computer graphics educators were explored, together withreferences frequently cited in the literature search. Thesuggested texts and program manuals were found to providesuccinct summaries of concepts, and clear definitions ofterms.As the domain analysis developed, terminology in bothfields was cross-referenced. For example, once theliterature of art education was explored for terminologyused to describe an element such as "line", the literatureof computer graphics was similarly explored for concepts todo with the idea of "line". Terminology and descriptivelanguage was variously found in text (Appendix B-1), listedin glossaries (Appendix B-2), and isolated in indexes(Appendix B-3) of both textbooks and program manuals.45Findings In the art education and design sources examined, manyreferences were made to formalist theory, the elements andprinciples of design, and terminology describing the visualstructure of imagery. The search was terminated as thenumber of terms and concepts became finite.As noted in the literature review, there appear to be afinite number of elements and principles. However, manydiscrepancies were noted in the categorization ofcharacteristics, as Nancy Johnson (1992) had predicted. Forexample, Malcolm (1972) categorized repetition as a designprinciple on its own, which occurs when common elements arerepeated regularly or irregularly to create rhythm (p. 93).Lauer (1979) classified repetition as one form of the designprinciple "unity", and described it as a "device" used torelate parts of the design to each other (p. 8). Heclassified rhythm as a design principle on its own, andrelated it to the movement of the viewer's eyes in terms ofspeed and smoothness (p. 141). Ocvirk et al. (1975) equatedrepetition and rhythm, which they describe as "agents forcreating order out of forces that are in opposition" (p.27). They stated that repetition is an essential ingredientof "harmony", which, with "unity", is one of their two major46design principles. Neither Malcolm nor Lauer list "harmony"as a principle or element.Contradictions occurred not only in classifications ofdesign principles but elements as well. For example, Lauerdescribes pattern as an irregular kind of texture, and thusan element (p. 208). Malcolm refers to pattern onlybriefly, as a result of a "system of repeating elements" (p.96). Both Chapman (1992) and Ocvirk et al. categorized"pattern" as a principle rather than an element. Ocvirk etal. defined pattern in terms of value, or the "total effectof the relationships of light and dark within the pictorialfield".The number of elements and principles referred to in arteducation literature appeared stable or finite, despitedifferences in definitions and classifications. However,different terminology for characterizing elements andprinciples was noted in newer textbooks. For example, whilein 1972 Malcolm used such geometric terms as "cubic" and"volumetric" to describe characteristics of three-dimensional shape and the term "perspective" to describe 3Dspace, in 1992 Chapman used terms more relevant to physicsto describe shape and space, such as "solid", "ambiguous","void", "scale", and "orientation". Chapman's terms would47suggest the incorporation of different modes of thinkingabout shape and space after twenty years.Chapman (1992), like Ocvirk et al. (1982), continued touse associative and expressive terms to characterizeelements, such as "dynamic", "active", "passive", "bold","subtle" and "intense". This anthropomorphic approach todescribing elements and principles was also noted in otherart and design texts, and may be part of an older traditionof responding to art.Two striking differences were noted between arteducation and computer graphics terms and texts. First,where formalist descriptions often related feelings orreactions, computer graphics terminology provided morespecific detail about objective procedures and perceptualstructures. For example, Ocvirk et al. described pattern ashaving "intrinsic meaning", or "supporting the emotionalcharacteristics of a mood". The texts and manuals ofcomputer graphics described details of selected patterns(including pen, brush, and area fill patterns), bitmaps,created patterns, and fractals, as well as procedures forduplication, replication and recursion in an objectivemanner, without conveying emotions. Terminology foraesthetic response, such as "bold" or "dynamic", was not48apparent in computer graphics. Second, art education textsrelied heavily on examples of visual images rather than onwords to define terms. Conversely, computer graphics textswere heavily oriented towards text.It was difficult to formulate equations betweenformalist elements and principles and computer graphicelements and principles for two reasons. First, the milieuin which computer art takes place is very different fromthat of traditional art. In order to identify a computergraphics term such as "region" as a type of art education"shape", it was necessary to assess possible comparisonsbetween the environments in which the terms operated. Incomputer graphics, the elements and principles appear to be"bound" to different types of space. In computer graphics,at least three kinds of "space" appear to exist, and thechoice of space determines both the procedures and theeffects that may be achieved or selected. Further, thesespaces may be combined through "windowing", "layering", or"importing". It became apparent that ideas about space weregoing to require careful analysis and interpretation insubsequent stages of the study.Second, it was soon determined that each formalistconcept had more than one meaning and often more than one49design term. A concept like "shape", for example, had four(and possibly more) very different meanings in traditionalart, such as a section of a matrix design compared to anillusionistic projection. In the literature of computergraphics, seven or more different design terms for "shape"were found, including "region", "wireframe", and "solidobject", with at least three distinct conceptualdifferences.Sometimes the similarities between concepts (despitedifferences in vocabulary) were significant. For example,"contour line" in art education and "silhouette line" incomputer graphics both refer to an exterior outline of ashape. Sometimes there was no existing correlation. Forexample, there does not appear to be an equivalent incomputer graphics for the idea of "color field", and intraditional art there do not appear to be a two-dimensionalart equivalents for the computer graphic ideas of solidobject properties or procedural modeling.However, despite the immensity of the proposed task, itappeared at this stage of the study that an extensive domainof knowledge about the visual structure of images wasreadily available and that it would be possible to makecomparisons between the two fields.50SummaryBoth the literature of art education and computergraphics were dense with terms for describing the visualstructure of images. Art education descriptions tended tobe more expressive than objective. Computer graphics textsand manuals tended to describe appearances in terms of theprocedures used to create them. Newer texts incorporatednewer terms, in both fields. A great variety of conceptsabout elements of art appears to exist in art education, anda great variety of procedures exist for working withelements in computer graphics. In conclusion, it wouldappear that focused observations of elements and principlesin the two fields will be fruitful in portraying concepts ofvisual structure more explicitly.Focused observationsBy virtue of their traditional identity as formalistfeatures, the elements and principles of art were used inthis study as a structuring framework for listingterminology found in the domain analysis. The elements ofart were: line, shape, space, form, pattern, texture, colorand tone. Comparable elements were then examined in theliterature on computer graphics. No articulated framework51of "elements and principles" appears to exist in computergraphics theory. However, the structure of elements incomputer graphics was soon determined as depending on one ofthree forms of graphics: pixel-based systems (Paintprograms); 2D object-based systems; or 3D graphics.Therefore, terms such as "line", "shape", "texture" and"tone" were investigated on three domain levels in computergraphics.The principles of art were balance, emphasis/focalpoint, variety, unity/harmony and repetition. The sameconcepts were examined in computer graphics. In additional,concepts about the formal image or image as a whole, such asconcrete/abstract or discrete/continuous, were explored inboth fields. These terms were also derived from theliterature in Appendix A.Procedures All terminology referring to the elements and principlesof art in both art education texts and computer graphicstexts was listed. Four separate lists were created:elements in art education, elements in computer graphics,principles in art education, and principles in computergraphics. All similarities and differences between computerterminology and art terminology were therefore listed. In52addition, terminology was listed for computer conceptswithout an equivalent in traditional art, and vice versa.Elements and principles requiring further explication orareas which were unclear from the literature searches weremarked in italics for further investigation (Figures 1 and2) .A pattern of analysis developed during the focusedobservations of basic concepts. It became apparent thateach basic term such as "line" had one or more meanings orconcepts; different ways of formulating dimension ormeasure; several genres or types; different kinds ofsurfaces; different orientations or directions; differentterms for describing light and dark values; and differenttypes of depth devices. For each element and principle,focused observations were therefore grouped into sub-categories under the headings concepts; measure; type;surface, structure, or edges; orientation, location ordirection; value; and depth.All focused observations were included in the finaldomain analysis (Appendices C and D).53FIGURE 1Sample of domain analysis:Sensory elements in art educationlineconcepts- a mark- a continuous mark, path of movement- a path, mass or edge where length is dominantmeasure- length- widthtype- straight- curved- angular- contour- interior, cross-contour- exterior, outlines- continuous- broken- connecting- repeated- rhythmic- simple/consistent (thickness and valueremain the same along the length)- complex- geometric- organic- precise- irregulardirection- horizontal- vertical- diagonal54FIGURE 2Sample of domain analysis:Sensory elements in computer graphicslineconcepts- in Draw mode, a linear location with nothickness between available pixels (amathematical model rather than an actual graphicelement on the screen)- in Paint mode, a continuum of adjacent pixels(2D lines with x,y coordinates)- in 3D graphics, vectors (3D lines with x,y,zcoordinates between width, height and depth)measure- length- width- locationtype- straight: horizontal, vertical, diagonal- curved: arcs (have a start, end, and radius);semi-circles; or curves (wander)- "jagged" diagonal curved lines, often as aresult of output resolution- silhouette (designate outline)- contour (designate the height of areas, as incontour maps)- hatch patterns (dots, dashes, etc.)- connecting (vectors)direction- horizontal- vertical- diagonal- slope (degree of grade or orientation ofline on a plane)55Findings At this point in the study, the focus was on gatheringas much information as possible about concepts of visualstructure. The search was directed at terminologydescribing the elements and principles of design in arteducation, and terminology in computer graphics thatembodied concepts similar to "sensory elements" and "formalprinciples". No comparable articulated aesthetic frameworkwas found in the analysis of textbooks or manuals forcomputer graphics, though comparable sensory elements werereadily found in computer graphics.In fact, a greater quantity and a more specificdelineation of terminology was found in computer graphicsfor the elements of "line", "shape", and "space". Theamount and degree of complexity of data on "texture","pattern", "color" and "tone" was roughly equivalent.Although there is computer graphics output (such asarchitecture, sculpture, or garment design) which is acounterpart to the physical, dimensional idea of "form" inart education, this concept was not explored further as theemphasis in this study is on two-dimensional output.Information on "texture", "pattern", and "color" in arteducation was largely theoretical or abstract, while the56same information in computer graphics was technical andconcrete. For example, the element of "texture" in arteducation was described as a "surface quality" which canappear "even", "uneven", or "smooth". In computer graphics,"uneven" surface quality was described was "block-pixed","bump-mapped", "texture-mapped", or as evidence of"manipulated intensity values". "Smooth" texture wassubcategorized in computer graphics as a "blend", a"graduated fill", "polygonal shading" or "continuousshading".Art education literature described areas of "pattern"with abstract words like "distorted", "variant", or"localized", while computer graphics literature made suchconcrete distinctions as "pen patterns" or "area fillpatterns". Art education literature favored what could bedescribed as "expressive" language. For example,qualitative descriptors such as "receding", "advancing","cool" or "warm" were frequently used to describe theelement of color in art education. Quantitative descriptorssuch as "pixel format resolution" or "24 bit color" wereused to describe color in computer graphics.In comparison with the design elements, formalprinciples were not readily apparent in computer graphics.57There was an abundance of data on the idea of the formalimage as a whole and the hierarchy of its assemblage.However, traditional concepts of art education such as"balance", "emphasis", "unity", and "repetition" were muchmore difficult to discover in computer graphics. Theytended to be embedded in such specific procedures as"regularity" (for balance), "windowing" (for emphasis), "lowcolor variety" (for unity), and "recursion" (forrepetition).Significant additions to the idea of the image as awhole were computer graphic concepts of "resolution","lighting", and "field of view," which can uniformly affectthe whole image in ways not traditionally accounted for inart education analysis.SummaryA focus on practices in computer graphics rather thanprinciples was the most significant difference betweencomputer graphics and formalist aesthetics. Terminology incomputer graphics was concrete and often quantitative. Anaesthetic framework comparable to a formalist model did notappear to exist in computer graphics. Formal principleswere embedded in procedures, rather than discussed in termsof effects or aesthetic response.58Taxonomic analysisIntroductionA taxonomic analysis of terms and descriptions found inthe domain analysis was developed in two parts: a taxonomyof terms used to describe sensory elements in both fieldsand a taxonomy of formal principles in both fields(Appendices E and F). The taxonomy of sensory elements wasorganized according to traditional individual elements ofart; that is, identifiable areas or parts of two-dimensional images such as "line" or "texture". It includesconcepts about traditional aspects of two-dimensional image-making such as two- or three-dimensional space. Thetaxonomy of formal principles lists concepts about the imageas a whole, such as "formal balance" or "emphasis".1. Comparative taxonomy of sensory elementsProcedure Five columns have been used to structure the taxonomy ofsensory elements (Table 1). Major terms for elements suchas "line" are placed in the left-hand column of the taxonomyand highlighted. Major terms are broken down intoconceptual areas in the second column for art education andin the fourth column for computer graphics. For example, inthe second column, art education concepts about "line" are59analyzed as concept, type, measure, depth devices,structure, presence, and character. Similar concepts about"line" in computer graphics are analyzed in the fourthcolumn as concept, type, properties (rather than measure),depth cues (rather than depth devices), structure, presence,and regularity (rather than character) in the fourth column.The subdivision into conceptual areas thus revealssimilarities in terms, such as "type - type" or "structure -structure", as well as differences in terms, such as"measure - properties", "depth devices - depth cues", or"character - regularity".Focused observations and definitions for eachconceptual area are placed in the third and fifth columns.The focused observations allow an examination of furtherdifferences and similarities between the fields oftraditional two-dimensional art and computer graphics. Forexamine, "line" (column 1) in terms of the conceptual area"measure" (column 2) in the field of art education revealsthree additional sub-categories: "direction", "weight", and"value" (column 3). However, "line" evaluated in terms of"properties" (column 4) under computer graphics educationreveals different terminology for similar concepts:"orientation", "intensity", and "value" (column 5).60The sub-categories are broken down one more step withinthe third and fifth columns, with definitions whereapplicable. For example, while "direction" in traditionalart was defined simply as horizontal, vertical, or diagonal,its counterpart in computer graphics, "orientation", wasdefined as horizontal (x), vertical (y), a 2D diagonal lineor slope (degree of grade on a plane, x+y), or a 3D vector(x,y,z).61TABLE 1Sample of comparative taxonomy:Sensory elementsELEMENTS^ART EDUCATION^ COMPUTER GRAPHICSLINE concepts - a mark- a pointconcepts - a pixel- a dot-per-inch (in hardcopy)a path, mass or edge wherelength is dominant- a continuum of adjacent pixels- a rowa cmtinuous mark - 2D segments with x,y coordinates (go betweenwidth and height or between local coordinates)- 3D vectors with x,y,z coordinates (gobetween width, height and depth)a invisible linear location (a mathematical modelrather than an actual graphic element on screen)types - freehand- geometric- or ictypes follow grid patterns on screen and in hard copystraight- horizontal- vertical- diagonalstraight- horizontal (x)- vertical (y)- diagonal/slope (x+y)curved- geometric- freehandcurved- arcs (have a start, end and radius)- semi-circles- curves (Bezier, quadratic and Fournier areequations that describe the mathematics ofthe curves between the defining points)- freehand in Paint modecontinuous continuousjagged diagonal and curved lines (a result of outputresolution in 3D graphics)contour lines/ cross-contourlines (exterior outlines)silhouette lines (designate the outline)cross-contour (designate surfacechanges)contour lines (designate height of areas)connecting - 2D lines/segments- 3D vectors62The idea of a parallel taxonomy for terminology used todescribe visual imagery in both fields was initiallydeveloped in order to analytically compare differences andsimilarities in vocabulary and concepts. However, thetaxonomy also provides a unique visual assessment of complexsemantic areas in both fields. In many cases, thecounterparts can be seen to match one-on-one in terms ofquantity or variation. For example, the traditional idea ofline as a path, mass or edge where length is dominant wascomparable to the idea of line as a continuum of adjacentpixels in computer graphics. In other cases, there is asignificant difference in the complexity of concepts andthus a greater number of definitions. For example, thetraditional idea of "line" as a "continuous mark" had threecounterparts in computer graphics: a) 2D segments with x,ycoordinates that go between width and height or localcoordinates; b) 3D vectors with x,y,and z coordinates thatgo between width, height, and depth; and c) invisiblelinear locations or mathematical models, rather than anactual graphic element on screen. All conceptual uses ofterms were listed for both art education and computergraphics, whether or not they had a counterpart. If nocomparison could be made, a blank space was left.63Findings The greatest area of confusion in the literature search,the domain analysis, and the development of a taxonomy wasin regard to the elements of shape and space. This resultedfrom, first, contradictory uses of the terms "two-dimensional space", "three-dimensional space", "two-dimensional shape", "three-dimensional shape", and "form" inart education literature, and second, the existence of threeunique and distinct kinds of "space" in computer graphics.Different mathematically-defined operating environments incomputer graphics dictate specific kinds of operations forcreating individual elements such as line or shape. Theseoperations in turn create different kinds of visualevidence.In the domain analysis of art education literature, theterm "two-dimensional space" was used to describe a two-dimensional working surface, as well as the kinds of spatialactivities that occurred there - including illusionisticsimulations. The term "three-dimensional space" was used todescribe both an illusionistic artistic environment which issimulated on a two-dimensional surface, as well as todescribe an actual, physical space in the real world.Focused observations revealed further discrepancies in64definitions. For example, "two-dimensional shapes" weredescribed in several cases as "plastic" if their contourswere biomorphic, even when the shapes were flat planes, andin other cases as "plastic" only if they were three-dimensional simulations.The term "three-dimensional shape" was often usedinterchangeably with the term "form", and applied to actualthree-dimensional objects such as sculptures. In othercases, the term "three-dimensional shape" referred to anillusionistic simulation on a two-dimensional surface.Similarly, "form" was used to describe both real-worldobjects and illusions of them on a two-dimensional surface.There was less confusion about these terms in computergraphics literature, since computer graphics take place inthree distinct operating or spatial environments. Bothpixel-based shapes, and shapes created or selected in 2Dobject-based programs, are two-dimensional. They do nothave true volume. Pixel-based "paint" programs allow theuser to create lines and shapes spontaneously, in a freehandmanner, by "drawing" with an input device such as a "mouse".A trail of bits of color called "pixels" lights up on thescreen to mark the evidence of the user's hand movement.The screen is a rectangular "bitmap" or matrix of invisible65lines, and the movement of the mouse actually lights uppixels to the right or below the invisible lines. Thus apixel-based shape is a flat region of lit up pixels on thescreen. It is duplicated by means of a flat group of dotsof ink when it is printed out in "hardcopy". In both cases,the shape is composed of bits, like an area of a mosaic intraditional art.2D object-based systems, known as "draw" modes ratherthan "paint" modes, also allow the user to create picturesusing the invisible screen matrix. The process isspontaneous, but in a different way. Points are connectedwith lines to create "polygons", or sequences of connectedlines. The flat, planar polygons can be "filled" with coloror texture, by lighting up pixels within them. Along withmany other procedures which are dependent on thecapabilities of different programs, these two-dimensionalshapes may be "layered", "resized", or "transformed". Sincethe shapes rely on geometric configurations, many basicshapes in traditional design, such as circles, squares, orrectangles, are pre-created. They are kept in a file forthe user to select as needed. Most programs also offer"procedures" for altering both selected and created shapes.Many recent software programs combine the capabilities66of "paint" and "draw" modes, and the user can work back andforth between layers called "windows" to switch modes whendesired.3D graphics, on the other hand, are to date procedurallyless spontaneous than "Paint" or "Draw" programs. In three-dimensional space, objects behave and are treated more likereal-life forms. They have volume as well as area, and someprograms allow the user to assign them other physicalcharacteristics like weight or inertia. Objects are ingeometric relationship to others in a three-dimensionalspace which is like a "void". Although the screen as wellas hardcopy show a flat view of the objects, because thescreen and hardcopy are flat, the objects are true three-dimensionals which can infinitely recede and which havecalculable volume. In this sense, three-dimensional shapesin computer graphics are like real-life "forms", althoughthe term "object" is used in computer graphics rather than"form".In addition to finding a way to sort out confusing andcontradictory descriptions of "space", "shape", and "form"in art education, this study sought to develop a taxonomicstructure that permitted comparison with terms in computergraphics. While the terminology of art education provided a67conceptual framework for organizing language, the structureof the three kinds of space in computer graphics provided aphysical framework for the taxonomy that is unlike typicalsequences of art education texts.Many art education textbook chapters follow a similarsequence in developing concepts about the elements andprinciples of design. A typical structural order beginswith "line" in the first chapter or lesson, followed by"shape", "pattern", "texture", "form", "space", "color" and"tone". Both the domain analysis and focused observationsin this study followed this sequence because it was sopervasive. However, it soon became apparent that theframework of the comparative taxonomy was to be determinedto a large extent by the dictates of different mathematicalmethods for creating computer graphics. For example, theanalysis of vocabulary used to describe and conceptualize anindividual element such as "line" in computer graphicsquickly became confusing and meaningless without prioridentification of the kind of mathematical environment inwhich an element such as that line was created. Differentnotions about creating images in space result from thecapabilities and constraints of the three mathematicalenvironments - pixel-based systems, 2D systems, and 3D68systems - and thus constrain the kinds of "line", "shape","pattern" or "texture" activities that can be performed ineach. This in turn constrains the kinds of visual evidenceof lines, shapes, patterns and textures in the hardcopy oroutput of computer graphic images.Therefore, the comparative taxonomy of elements in arteducation and computer graphics in this study (see AppendixE) begins with three concepts about "two-dimensional space",followed by three concepts about "two-dimensional shape".Next, the concept of "three-dimensional space" on a two-dimensional surface is followed with two concepts about"three-dimensional shape" on a two-dimensional surface. Theconcept of "form" in art education was defined as a 2 1/2Dor actual 3D object with mass, such as a sculpture ormobile. The art education concept of "form" was not given ataxonomic counterpart in computer graphics, since the term"form" in computer graphics does not exist in the same sensethat it does in traditional three-dimensional art such assculpture.The concept of "line" is thus the sixth element listedin the comparative taxonomy of this study. By this point, areferent such as "x" or "vector" in the third or fifthcolumn of "line" had previously been defined under the69elements "two-dimensional shape" or "three-dimensionalspace". The development of the taxonomy as constrained bydifferent computer graphics environments also afforded amore detailed, specific, and complex analysis of theconceptual area of "line"."Line", as the sixth listed element, is followed by acomparison of concepts about "pattern", "texture", "color",and "tone", in that order. A visual assessment of thetaxonomic categories for "pattern" reveals an extensivedescription of procedures for different pattern effects incomputer graphics, while art education descriptions areconceptually very general. Effects of patterns in arteducation and computer graphics are both local and global.The term "texture" in traditional art has more extensiveapplications than in computer graphics. These include"natural", "invented", and "illusory". Since texture incomputer graphics is illusory only, the descriptions oftexture surface in the taxonomy focus on illusory effects intraditional art. As an "illusory" type, texture is local inboth traditional art and computer graphics; that is, itappears to be used for areas of shape or space. Thesignificant difference is that texture is a surface qualityin traditional art and a choice of rendering in computer70graphics.Concepts about color are equally well-articulated in arteducation and computer graphics. Texts in both fieldscarried detailed color theory and distinctions between suchproperties as "intensities", "hue", and "value". Arteducation theory also incorporated expressive vocabulary forcolor depth and temperature, such as "receding" or "cool",for which there do not appear to be counterparts in computergraphics. However, it should be noted that some computerprograms provide capabilities for color tables based on suchvariables as natural and artificial light effects orweather.Different procedures for tone are explicitly defined incomputer graphics. They include several kinds of shading,color mapping, and different shadow effects. Theseprocedures give precise and uniform tonal effects to imagessince they are applied by the computer during the renderingprocess rather than by hand.SummaryIn summary, procedures peculiar to computer graphicsdetermined the taxonomic structure of sensory elements to anunexpected degree. However, this results in an analysis ofart education concepts in a way that is not readily apparent71in the literature. For example, art education literatureoften applies the same term, such as "line" or "shape", to awide variety of styles, methods, and mediums. Thecomparative taxonomy affords a reevaluation of thispractice.Ideas about "shape", which became particularlyimportant, are not seen in an abstract form nor were theynebulous. "Shape" is not only defined as two-dimensional orthree-dimensional per se, but is evaluated in terms of itstype, position, area or structure, surface, and edges indifferent kinds of two and three-dimensional space.^Thus"two-dimensional shape" can be seen as having quite adifferent set of intentions depending on the kind of spacein which it is created. For example, the computer graphicconcept that shapes are intensities of color selected in abitmap in pixel-based graphics afforded a comparison withthe concept of shape in traditional art as a composition ofindividual stitches, tiles or sections in two-dimensionalmatrix-based art such as needlepoint, mosaics, or weaving.This concept is quite different from the concept of shape asa flat plane which may be overlapped. In the latterconcept, descriptions of manipulation and convergence andthe idea of a non-conscious format further underscore72significant differences between these two types of two-dimensional art. In both computer graphics and traditionalart, ideas about space appear to be a guiding principle forstructuring and creating other elements, rather than anindividual element of the picture.The elements of pattern, texture and tone in computergraphics are created through specific computer-drivenprocedures (such as the various kinds of mapping) whichensure a uniformity to flat surfaces and a perceptually-correct perspective to three-dimensional objects. The sameelements in traditional art may have variant or unevencharacteristics as they are handcrafted.2. Comparative taxonomy of formal principlesProcedures The taxonomy of formal principles (Table 2) wasdeveloped following the five-column structure of thetaxonomy of sensory elements. Eight major conceptual areaswere explored: the concept of the formal image as a whole,formal balance, informal balance, variety/contrast,unity/harmony, emphasis, lighting, and format. These eightconceptual areas are subdivided according to differentdefinitions or applications of the major terms. For73example, "formal image" is analyzed in terms of "concept","content", "structure", and "procedures". The third andfifth columns break down these sub-categories one stepfurther, with definitions where applicable. For example,the conceptual area of the principle "emphasis" is analyzedin terms of "concept", "type", and "structure". "Concept"is in turn defined as "focal point(s)", "center ofinterest", or "weight" of the picture. "Types" of emphasisare "degree of emphasis", "restraint in emphasis", and"absence of focal points". "Structure" is described interms of "isolation of elements" or "placement of elements".74TABLE 2Sample of comparative taxonomy:formal principlesPRINCIPLES^ART EDUCATION^ COMPUTER GRAPHICFORMALIMAGEconcept image viewed as a whole concept - hardcopy image- screen or cyberspace imagematrix forms digital medium in Paint snd 2D object-orientedsystemsanalog forms continuous medium in 3D graphicsconcrete - concrete in hardcopy only- dynamic m screenimage is stable only hardcopy is stableone original three originals- digital data- multiple screen originals coexist inpixel-based, 2D or 3D graphics- hardcopy graphicsprintmaking multiples hardcopy multiplescontent content is created in a discreteenvironment called a formatcontent - 2D bitmap content is created in a discrete(matrix) environment- 2D object-oriented content is created in adiscrete (coordinate) environment- 3D graphics content is createdin a continuous environmentcontents are passive contents are passive only in hardcopycontents are bound to form contents are bound to hardcopyartworks contain signifiers (the"language" of alt)contain signifiers (evidence of selections andprocedures, such as "sweeping" or a particalprocedure)several formal principles may operatesimultaneouslyformal principles are applied hierarchicallystructure formalist images are composed ofparts called "elements" of aitsttucture pictures ("universals") are hierarchical asw-Yriblagesof parts or elements called "primitives"elements of art can be further brokendown (ie. motif + repetition =pattern)primitives are often incorporated into procedures orsubroutines75Findings It should be noted that while this study sought to focuson the results of image-making rather than on the proceduresused in making images, evidence of procedures was oftencited in descriptions of the visual structure of images.Procedures therefore played an important part in expandingthe notion of signifiers in formal images. Traditionally,art has been seen as containing signifiers in terms of anabstract language of elements. A comparative study with theidea of signifiers in computer graphics affords an expandedidea of signifiers, which may include evidence of specifictechniques, selections and procedures as much as abstractlanguage.The delineation of the formal image as the first conceptin the taxonomy allows an examination of the kinds ofconceptual and practical environments in which image-makingtakes place. In other words, the context for elements ofart, including the kind of space used, is made specific andconcrete. For example, the content of traditional 2D artimages is seen as created in a discrete environment called aformat; with passive contents bound to this format; withthe possibility of several formal principles operatingsimultaneously in the organization of that content in the76format; and as having content signifiers. By contrast, toquote from the taxonomy of formal principles (Table 2),content in computer art is created in a discrete orcontinuous environment; passive only in hardcopy, withcontents bound to the hardcopy only; with formal principleshaving a hierarchy in the creation of the image; and asshowing evidence of selections and procedures.Although space has traditionally been viewed as anelement of art rather than as a principle, certainsimilarities were noticed between notions of space and theenvironment of the formal image. For example, traditionalart was often referred to as an analog medium in theliterature review and domain analysis. This distinction,while noted in articles by Hickman (1991), Nadin (1989), andPope (1988), was particularly important in the work ofBinkley (1989, 1990). However, the content of matrix-basedtraditional art images is actually discrete, if not, in asense, digitized. The notion of "one original" has alsobeen an important idea in formalist art theory. However,concepts of printmaking multiples, computer hardcopy, andthe replicability of matrix-based imagery beg the definitionof "one original". It would be useful to develop a theoryof art in which notions of space and the ideas of77"originals" or "multiples" are seen as guiding principlesfor the kinds of aesthetic responses which are generated.A comparative study of the principles of formal andinformal balance, variety/contrast, unity/harmony, andemphasis revealed some conceptual similarities between themeanings of these principles in computer graphics andtraditional art. However, while these specific vocabularyterms were frequently cited in art education literature,they were seldom used in computer graphics.^Generally theterminology was different: symmetry - global regularity;radial balance - rotation; allover pattern - continuouspattern; asymmetry - broken symmetries; clarity of image -graphic form variables; surface - image. In many cases,the sub-categories had no counterparts. For example, therewere no counterparts to the traditional art educationconcepts of approximate symmetry, dominance, subordinance,visual unity, proximity of figure to ground, relationship offormat to contents, continuation, conceptual unity, ornotions of emphasis such as "focal point", "weight" of thepicture, or the "isolation of elements".Often a concept in computer graphic imagery was morelocal than global, and thus could be seen as an elementrather than a principle. For example, while "asymmetry" was78often cited as a traditional art principle used to structurecontent in relationship to the format, "broken symmetry" incomputer graphics applied to the transformation of specificregions, polygons or objects, or to the randomness of localdetail.Conversely, two concepts which were viewed as incidentalcharacteristics of specific elements in art education (whenthey were mentioned at all) were significant unifyingstructures in computer graphics. First, the concept of"resolution" in computer graphics is very important. Thecomputer art image is affected uniformly by the resolutionof the output, both in terms of the kind of printer and interms of the density of color and dots-per-inch. With dotmatrix printers, the computer graphic output is always aneven, grid-like series of dots, regardless of content. Dyesublimation printers produce images with continuous tones inone layer of ink. Conversely, in traditional hand-made art,the density of the media - whether pigment, ink or fibrevaries across the surface. The term "resolution" intraditional art texts, when it was applied, referred to theidea of the image as either "successful" or as "finished",rather than to a sense of unity through a balanceddistribution of pigment.79Second, the concept of lighting in computer graphicsplays an important part in unifying three-dimensionalgraphics. Several kinds of reflective techniques, ray-tracing, and techniques for transparency or self-illumination can be applied to images. The overall lightingeffect can also be altered by colored spotlights in the sameway that glazes are applied to oil paintings.SummaryThe terminology of art education provided thestructuring framework for a comparative taxonomy of theprinciples of art. There does not appear to be anarticulated theory of comparable principles for computergraphics. Terminology in computer graphics regardingsymmetry, balance and pattern tended to be locally specific,rather than global. Well-articulated global concepts incomputer graphics such as resolution and lighting were notwell-developed in art education literature. However,concepts about the structure and procedures of the formalimage as a whole were markedly similar and well-developed.Thus computer graphics appears to be structurally similarbut theoretically deficient in terms of art educationprinciples.80InterviewsIntroductionFollowing the taxonomic analysis of terms, interviewswere conducted with eight informants who can be consideredexperts in the analysis of visual images. The interviewswere used to clarify terms and concepts found in theliterature of art education and computer graphics, and toidentify terms in colloquial use. A second purpose of theinterviews was the opportunity to clarify concepts in thecontext of an ethnographic situation.Four stimuli were used in order to provide a concretebase for observations. Informants were shown four artimages in the form of two-dimensional reproductions(Appendix G). They were asked to describe each image intheir own terms, and to compare and contrast images. Theywere also asked to comment on connections between the waycomputer artists and traditional artists (or computergraphics educators and art educators) might talk about thesame images.Informants Informants were selected on the basis of their verbalfluency and ability to articulate concepts about visualimages. All informants were well-established professionals81in two or more areas of traditional or computer art. Theseareas included art education, studio art practice, knowledgeof art history, computer art practice, and computer arteducation (Table 3).The purpose of the selected observations was to gatherinterview data on visual analysis from informants with arange of expertise in these areas. The informants wereselected to create a balance of expertise. Informants areidentified throughout the study by numbers 1-8 rather thaninitials.82TABLE 3Profile of informant expertiseart educator^studio artist^art historian computer artist^computer art(level) (specialty) (specialty)^educator (level)12564837secondary, univer. * textiles yessecondary * painting yescollege photography yes *college painting, drawing * yespainting, drawing * yes Paint and Drawgraphic design yes Paint and Draw * publicdrawing/crafts yes 2D and 3D * secondarycollege *sculpture yes Paint, Draw,2D,3D* Designates area of specialization83Stimuli The stimuli were reproductions of two-dimensionalimages. They were color lasercopied from art and computertextbooks and mounted on 8 1/2" x 11" white card both forhandling reasons and for a uniformity of scale. A pixel-based image and a three-dimensional graphic were used asexamples of computer graphics. An oil painting and apainting which showed characteristics of both drawing andpainting were used as examples of traditional art. Theimages were selected on the basis of clarity of image andwere representational rather than abstract, to ensure a baseof understanding among subjects. They were also chosen fortheir appropriateness as examples of different kinds ofvisual structure, rather than on a value basis of "good" or"exemplary" art.Each image was characterizable in formalist terms toaccommodate artists and art educators, and characterizablein technological terms to accommodate computer graphicsartists and educators. Each image demonstrated differentconcepts of sensory elements, including line, shape, space,pattern, color, texture and tone. Each image alsoexemplified concepts of the image as a whole, or formalprinciples, including unity, repetition, emphasis, balance,84scale or proportion, lighting, uniformity of surface, andfield of view (Figure 3).In choosing the stimuli, an attempt was made torepresent as many concepts as possible about each elementand each principle. For example, the element "line" wasrepresented in the first image with uneven contour or jaggedsilhouette lines; vertical, horizontal and diagonal lines;and negative or reversed lines. The second image had brokeninterior lines with no contour or silhouette lines. Thethird image had continuous, bold, irregular contour lines,and positive and negative lines. The fourth image haddelicate contour or silhouette lines, repeated lines, andperspective or diagonal lines. "Repetition" was exemplifiedin the first image with a regular, repeated pattern. Thesecond image had an irregular, decreasing repeated pattern.The third image had repeated shapes and motifs. The fourthimage had repeated lines and technical styles.Complete descriptions of all sensory elements andformal principles exemplified in the four stimuli werewritten following the taxonomic analysis and in advance ofthe interviews (Appendix H).85FIGURE 3Sample description of stimulusStimulus 1: Untitled, Pixel graphic.Tosiyasu L. Kunii, Tokyo Univerity.Elements of artline^- uneven contour/silhouette, jagged- vertical, horizontal, diagonal- negative/reversedshape^- two-dimensional- geometric, organic- solid, outlinespace^- two-dimensional- matrix, bitmap- positive and negativepattern^- localized (dress)- allover/invariant (dress)color^- limited palette- analogous- cooltexture^- illusory- even/uniform/invariant (pixel pattern)- localized (figure)tone^- flat- contrastSample description of Stimulus 1Principles of art unity^- format to content- unified palette- proximity of figure to ground: separatedrepetition - regular pattern (on dress)emphasis - isolation of element (pattern on dress)- outline/ silhouette linebalance^- horizontalscale/proportion - actuallighting - diffuse reflectionuniformity of surface - low resolution "jaggies"- contrast (pixel texture against solid)field of view - almost enclosed (cropped feet)87Interview questions and procedures Interviews were conducted in informal surroundingsaccording to the choice of each informant. Most interviewstook place in the informant's workspace. Meetings beganwith a casual discussion of our personal interest in thevisual arts at this time, followed with a brief descriptionof the purpose of this study, which was to analyze terms andconcepts used to describe the structure or appearance ofvisual images, rather than emotional or narrative response.They were informed that they were considered experts in thisability, and I was interested in their ways of describing animage.The four art images were used as stimuli to discusselements and principles of art, and also as catalysts fordiscussion about different aspects of traditional andcomputer art. Each interview lasted 30-55 minutes.Interview questions and prompts were prepared inadvance of the eight interviews. There were five maininterview questions for each image, with prompts specific toeach image (Appendix I). To begin, informants were simplyasked to tell me about each picture. Their attention wasthen directed to different areas of each picture, such asforeground shapes, edges, or background areas, and they were88asked to describe the different parts of each image. Thesecond question thus focused on sensory elements and thelanguage used to describe sensory elements.Third, informants were asked to describe the image as awhole, in terms of "composition" or "arrangement". Promptswere used to direct their attention when necessary to suchformal principles as color scheme, balance, or lighting. Inresponse to the first three questions, the informants provedextremely loquacious and provided detailed observationsabout sensory elements and formal principles with verylittle prompting. Therefore the prompts were not needed asmuch as expected.Fourth, informants were asked whether they thought eachimage was "successful" on the basis of its visual structure.They were asked to clarify their reasons and encouraged tocompare and contrast images for "successful" visualstructure. This question elicited further comparison of theelements and principles of design, information aboutprocedures in computer graphics and traditional art, andcomments relevant to many of the issues raised in theliterature search.Informants were then asked to comment on anyconnections between the way people in both fields might talk89about visual images. In many interviews, this questionelicited more specific terminology and clarification ofconcepts in both art education and computer graphics, andalso provided further data on concepts and issues revealedin the literature search regarding similarities anddifferences between traditional two-dimensional art andcomputer graphics.Procedure for the analysis of interview dataThe eight interviews were taped and transcribedverbatim in single space formatting (Appendix L). All termsused to describe visual structure were highlighted.Highlighted terminology included nouns, verbs, adjectivesand adverbs that referred to evidence of procedures ortechniques, as well as to evidence of elements andprinciples.The following sample from the interview with informant3 reveals terminology used to describe "resolution" incomputer imagery. Words describing the visual evidence orsignifiers of resolution and the procedures used forresolution are highlighted. They include nouns, verbs,adjectives and adverbs. Quotes in this study are identifiedby the informant's number followed by the transcript pagenumber.90I would say that the resolution of this image ismuch higher than the earlier one. The edges arevery crisp, and clear, continuous, smooth. Theanti-aliasinq would be set quite high to prevent lagged edges, if it was computer-rendered. (3.5)91CHAPTER IVINTERPRETATION OF INTERVIEW DATAIntroductionSix theme-groupings emerged from the analysis ofinterview data. These were similarities between traditional2D art and computer graphic output; differences; the ideaof art images as a "language" which can be "read"; themesto do with the idea of space, both two-dimensional andthree-dimensional; descriptions of classic "sensory"elements; and descriptions of formal principles or unifyingdevices. Chapter IV is structured according to thesegroupings.SimilaritiesFour themes emerged in terms of similarities betweentraditional art and computer art: artmaking as a cognitiveprocess; the elements and principles of design; artviewingas a cognitive process; and simulation.Artmaking as a cognitive process.Five informants commented on the similarities betweentraditional artmaking and computer artmaking as a cognitiveprocess. This was often described in terms of "thought".92Three informants also commented on artmaking "thought"processes in terms of communication with a viewer.It's the final image that is the real thought.It's the thought that someone makes and putsout, and it's the thought you get when youlook at it. They may be two different things,but we shouldn't place so much attentionon how they get there. That's what so excitingabout computers, you can make them do anythingyou want to. It's your thoughts that are incontrol, not the computer. (8.12)Informants with strong backgrounds in computer graphicsstudio practice emphasized the role of the computer as anintermediary for thought, rather than a determinant of theappearance of the outcome.Dimensions are all approached in a mathematicalway in a computer, obviously, but geometry isjust a description, you telling the computerwhat to do, and you're the one who makes thedecision about how the space is working. (8.10)There was a clear understanding that the computer is anintermediary for original human thought processes, even whenthe artmaking process is at its most intense.It absorbs you. You go off into computerland.But it's not computerland, it's your own mind.(8.11)Several informants identified the computer withtraditional artists' tools, and discussed the way the93computer can be used as an aid in developing ideas. ^Thedifference between traditional image developmentand computer image development was described in terms of thenumbers of concrete images generated, rather than questionsof quality or appearance.You do numerous "runs" of images, to kind of tuneit, so you can get it right. Because you don'talways know what you're going to get. You mightset up some lights, some materials, whatever, soyou do it, tweak it, do it again. You end up withas many as twenty or thirty different images. (3.6)Elements and principles of designInformants who taught computer graphics were onoccasion ambivalent about the language they used. Sometimesthey described teaching the same elements as art educators.At other times, they used terms that were distinctly derivedfrom computer graphics. While the design vocabulary ofcomputer graphics often appeared to differ from that oftraditional art, informant responses indicated thatconceptually their ideas about elements and principles ofdesign were the same.Whether you're using a conte or paintbrush ora ball-point pen or a computer image, the elementsand principles of art and design are the same. Youknow, we talk in texture, line, color, lighting,tone, movement, 2D, 3D, juxtaposition. I couldgo on ad infinitum, and things don't change. And94nor should the approach. (2.11)Differences between the media were described inpractical rather than theoretical terms.If I were using a computer and I would start todiscuss an image, I would be using a similarlanguage as I am using here, except that Iwould be talking about nodes and angles andpixels... but I would still be talking aboutpositive and negative space, I would still betalking about depth of field and composition...(4.11)One informant described computer artists as workingsolely with visual feedback.I think a lot of people who work on computershave no language; they just do it. Now theymight run into trouble when they have todescribe it to someone later on! But generally,they don't talk about their images the way fineartists might, or the way art critics would talkabout paintings. (8.10)However, several informants commented on the difficultythey had in focusing on the elements and principles of art,rather than the techniques, when viewing a piece of computerart.In almost all the computer images I've seen, forme, technique overrides the image. I'm always,"How the hell did they do that?" (5.10)Artviewing as a cognitive process At some point in every interview and in response to95most stimuli, informants used simple math terms to describeor locate an image.(Stimulus 2)The lines are radiating. I see very distinctivelyone, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight,nine, ten, eleven, twelve lines. (2.3)Perhaps because all eight informants had a strongbackground in studio practice, artviewing as a cognitiveprocess entailed frequent discussion and conjecture abouttechniques and processes.(Stimulus 2)To me it looks like they would have had somekind of photographic or original things as areference. But I know that the computer cando things. Like for instance the vine lookslike it's made out of molten gold, rather thanactual wood. But clearly, it has a photographic-looking base.^(8.5)Informants also used techniques and processes, often interms of their own experiences with techniques andprocesses, as cues for identifying the medium in whichimages were created when viewing an image.(Stimulus 2)Because of the fading of the color and thereceding, I doubt if an artist would have paintedit. And again, that losing of the color into thekind of the gray throughout, is so masterfullydone... I don't think anyone could paint that well.(6.4)96As in the following example, techniques were frequentlyrelated to discussions of structural elements, such asrepetition or negative and positive space.(Stimulus 2)You can see the same flower or the same leavesin the same arrangement, heading off. You knowthat the whole structure, if it was a 3Dstructure of branches and flowers, had just beencopied back again and again. (3.4)SimulationSeven informants mentioned the similarity betweentraditional art and computer art in terms of the computer'sability to simulate traditional effects.I don't think there's any difference at all.Even in applications... in Paint programs, youcan apply that brush now in multiple ways. Youcan make your paint look like you're applying itwith a palette knife, on the computer. (7.10)Effects of different areas in computer images wereoften compared to art historical intentions in traditionalart. It was pointed out that computer artists may not beaware that what they are doing is an art historicaltechnique, even though their intentions are the same.For instance, in Photoshop, you can takea photograph, put it through a filter, andturn it into a Pointillist painting. Now itmay not be called a Pointillist filter, it'lljust be called an "art effects" filter or97something. And somebody new to the computermight only ever know it as the Art EffectsFilter #7, and not ever realize that this isa painting style. (8.10)Informants frequently identified areas of images interms of both computer techniques and art historicaltechniques.(Stimulus 4)Only when you look really closely... The table isa whole series of colored dots... it's eitherPointillism or it's just a computer image, likea paint package. Like somebody sprayed a seriesof multiple colors of paint and tried to simulateanother kind of art, possibly. (3.11)In this sense, computer techniques and art historicalreferences were often seen as being equivalent to elementsof art. Frequently, informants summed up the appearance ofan image or area with an art historical term or reference.(Stimulus 4)I just go a little bit up, and now here's Leger,these red and brown tube structures and crosses.(2.8)In one case, a informant summed up a procedure incomputer graphics with the name of the computer artist whopopularized it.(Stimulus 2)This Ned Green effect, you can't do that as apainter, it would take forever. For a computerartist, who just has to make one plane, one98field, all he has to do is reduce it and adda little distance cueing. (8.6)Summary of similarities Informants described making art on the computer and bytraditional means as a cognitive process. Any differenceswere practical: first, different terminology was used forthe same concepts, and the capability of the artist togenerate multiple variations on themes was perceived aseasier on the computer. Educators in both computer graphicsand traditional art fields taught the same elements andprinciples, with differences only in the "tools" theyrecommended for creating images. However, computer artistswere alleged to be less articulate about describing images,and computer images themselves may less articulately conveya "language" of art. This may be because computerprinciples are "hidden", leaving the elements visible onlyas techniques.Artviewing, on the other hand, was less a reflection oncognitive process than a discussion of techniques andprocesses. Techniques were equated with compositionaleffects. Recent computer art was perceived as beingconcerned with simulating traditional art effects and arthistorical styles. These referents were more obvious to99informants than the sensory elements of art.DifferencesTwo differences between traditional and computerart were described: the evidence of "human touch", andevidence of the conceptual processes of making art.Evidence of "human touch" in traditional art Evidence of the human touch in traditional art wasoften cited as an important difference between traditionalart and computer art. The "human touch" was described interms of spontaneity, tradition, physicality, anddiscontinuities or errors.One informant described the edges of a traditionalpainting (stimulus 3) in detail, and equated "spontaneity"with evidence of mixing, layering, and visible paintstrokes.There's no sense of creating a hard edge. Allof these edges and all of the quality of paint onthe canvas is right there, so that you feel the edgeof the brush stroke, you see the mixing of thecolor, the yellows around the shape of the horse.You see the way the color has been butted upagainst the background border edges, one colorpainted directly on top of another. It's veryspontaneous, you get a sense of the artist'shand in it.^(1.5)100The difference was perceived as a property as well as ahistorical tradition of man-made art.Since cave drawings there's always been thatidea, the undulation of gesture of the hand, mind,mark-making... which is totally different fromwhat you get in computer graphics. (5.10)While traditional art was perceived as being the resultof physical manipulation, computer art was perceived asanalytic rather than physical. The physical differencesbetween the mediums created an impression of distinctionsbetween what was possible in terms in aesthetic response.I've never seen a really tough computer image.You know, one that's raw, that's alive, with apassion. It's very analytic. Your whole frameof mind is sitting in front of a television setand a keyboard. It's not physical. Most artis very physical. It involves a lot of armmovement, sensuous materials, fluidity of paint,even the smell of pastels is a very sensuousthing.^(5.9)I asked informants to identify and characterize evidenceof the "human touch" in traditional art. Human touch wascharacterized in terms of "messiness", "errors""irregularities", discontinuities and "mistakes"....this controlled messiness, which is so difficultto do with the computer... a good example would be[the paintings of] Francis Bacon. They're loose,and yet there's an incredible amount of control.101That mess, dripping, texture... you know, with acomputer you can get texture but it's always amultiplication of that texture. (4.6)...some of the little details that you get. It'svery difficult to tell the computer to make amistake on an edge, or blurred. (8.7)Evidence of electronic mechanics in computer graphics Informants frequently referred to computer graphicsas "mechanical", particularly in response to stimulus 2. Iasked informants to clarify what they meant by "mechanical".One informant cited similarity in repeated form and severalinformants described the "smoothness" of imagery. Unnaturalcomplexity of detail was also mentioned twice.The almost artificial plastic look of the flowersare so smoothly rendered. Plus the incrediblecomplexity of the whole image. (3.11)Informants also cited unnatural depth of field andarbitrary depiction of objects in space as evidence ofmechanical means.The other thing is, in painting and inphotography, there tends to be what's in focus andwhat's out of focus. Here everything is in focus.Which is very scary. You don't tend to see theworld this way. Ever. Where everything in ourdepth of field is focused. Up to where itdisappears into the atmosphere. (6.4)102Stimulus 2 was a catalyst for thoughts about what makesan image convincing. An image was considered to beconvincing if it appeared unique or individualistic, withsome degree of abnormality.There's a real difference in my mind between aprogram image and an artistic image. In thesecond image, information is fed into anothermind, that of a computer, and you arrange it,but you do not need to have the manual abilitiesnor the artistic knowledge to make a prettyconvincing image. One that looks professional.But in fact what you get is something without thelife, the wit, the abnormalities.^(5.9)Throughout the interviews, informants frequentlyreferred to computer graphics as "too perfect". I askedseveral informants to clarify this description, usingstimulus 2 as a catalyst....there aren't enough glitches in it. I wouldlike to have seen at least one petal a little biteaten away by a bug. You know what I mean? Ormaybe one of the petals dying a bit? (6.12)Art as a "lived-through" experience Several informants placed computer graphics near thebeginning of a kind of scale of consciousness about what artis. At the beginning, many stated, artists are learningtechniques and making illustrations.For most people, when you start doing art, your103reinforcements is that "it looks so real". That'sthe first feedback you get. So most people beginas illustrative artists. Trying to be as truthfulto reality as possible. (5.7)Art was perceived as "lived-through" if the artistpersonally worked through an understanding of the processesof "playing with", "confronting", or "manifesting" images,rather than copying them from the real world. In describingstimulus 3, one informant commented,Call it "magic" or call it mystery... the subjectmatter has not stood in front of this artist. Hehad to make this work from the very beginning ofthat image. He could not rely on a still life oron a tangible world to arrive at this image.... itis a lived-through experience rather than arendering of an image. (4.9)In response to the two traditional art images (stimuli3 and 4), informants frequently described evidence ofartists "playing" with elements of art. Images were alsofrequently discussed with art historical reference torecognized "ways of playing" with images, which referred tothe particular perceptions and styles of different artists.There appeared to be a high awareness of different levels ofmaking, comprehending, and responding to art, and thedifferent standards applied to different levels.Computer artists were perceived as not understandingenough of the second level of making art.104I'd say it's the kind of image that computergraphic artists make. Because they have nounderstanding whatsoever of visual art. (6.5)The inability to "play" or incorporate originalperceptions was perceived, in response to other computer artinformants had seen, as a result of a lack of personalcommitment and struggle necessary to make computer artThe medium itself... you circumvent nearly allthe struggles, the questions.., it's like cookingwith pre-packaged stuff. All you have to do isadd water and you're going to get something. Butit's not going to be the same as if you wentthrough the process of learning. (5.11)Correctibility of computer images By affording image corrections and manipulations thatdon't show any trace of changes, the computer producesimages that appear pristine and "perfect". However, threeinformants who use a computer to make art pointed out theadvantages in terms of challenge and time.I think that's one of the things about thecomputer: it lets you correct things so easily.It really does become a tool, that is fast,and makes it feasible to try anythingdifficult.^(8.13)Computers were perceived as a device which enables anartist to fulfill his or her original intentions, and evento experiment beyond the original intentions. They were105also perceived as a device which enabled a greater quantityof work to be done in the same time period.If I had had a computer when I was in art school,I would have done everything I did in art schooland a lot more. (8.15)Summary of differences Uneven technique and even an occasional mistake inapplying elements of art, such as a mistake in a sequence ofmotifs in a border design, were not only tolerated but givenhigh value and significance in traditional art. Computergraphics also contain "man-made" errors, such asdiscontinuities in composition or use of space, but theseerrors were less well-regarded. Artists who "played" withpaint and ideas were valued the most.Computer graphics which simulate realism are perceivedas intending to embody the fine detail of natural or life-like appearances, and are criticized on the basis of "notgoing far enough" in terms of natural flaws in real life.On the other hand, arbitrary use of space and compositionaltechniques means that they are not accepted as depictions ofreal life either, as photographs often are. This is an areaof computer graphics which is seriously in need of its ownset of theoretical foundations.106While traditional artworks were not criticized by theinformants according to the criteria of computer graphics,computer graphics were criticized according to the standardsof traditional art. Yet the technology of the medium makesit impossible to generate the kinds of features which aremost highly valued in traditional art.Art as a languageThe third theme that emerged from an analysis of theinterview data was the idea that art images could be "read".Art was "read" in five contexts: as an object like a book,with specific directional approaches; in terms ofperceptual cues; in terms of process or techniques; interms of art historical references; and as a visual "game".Reading art like a bookAll eight informants made references to the order inwhich they "read" an art image. One informant mentioned aleft-to-right reading order. As a determinant for readingthe Stimulus 1, he described the line on the right asemphasizing the order.[The line] gives her a direction. It's havingan effect in a forceful way. Either she's lookingtowards it, or it's forcing something towardsher... It could be a door that she's going through.107It makes a whole left to right reading direction.She's also facing towards the line. (8.2)Another informant also mentioned this line in terms ofreading the figure image as part of the whole.If the line wasn't there, it would really read asan isolated image, almost as an island. This linebrings this negative space, like the black is notso isolated. There's an attempt at making theformat. You know, the composition depends alwayson the format of the piece, reading it from thecorner, or from the center. (4.3)All informants turned stimulus 2 upside-down duringtheir analysis, and many experimented with turning otherimages upside-down as well. I asked informants why they didthis. In many cases, particularly in response to the figureof the woman in stimulus 1 and the flowers in stimulus 2,the responses were based on real-world cues.[Stimulus 2]Because you have a growth pattern that seemsto stem from one corner, I would be morecomfortable having it this way, upside-down.Because in terms of actual space, the growthgoes up. Well, it works this way too [on itsside.]^(5.6)Several informants discussed stimuli 1 and 3 in termsof their graphic appeal, and felt that the appeal was thesame regardless of which direction these images were turned.Comparisons were made with logos or emblems, signs, banners,108and flags.[Stimulus 3]Because it's like a banner... it's like a flag,or it has that real kind of graphic punch youget with flat colors.^[5.6]Turning the image upside-down seemed to afford a senseof objectivity; an opportunity to evaluate elements ofdesign and compositions differently. It also seemed toremove real-world associations in a way that was satisfyingto informants.[Stimulus 1]Now, just seeing it [upside-down] as an abstractimage I like it. It doesn't matter that there'sno face when the image is upside-down. Thehorizontality of these repeated lines on thetexture of legs or stockings, arms or face, aren'tas strong... And I lose the fabric association.(6.3)Twice informants remarked that, in design terms, artshould work "any way".[Stimulus 4]Art works any way. Good art. Good art you canturn any way and it'll work. (7.12)Reading perceptual cues Informants frequently looked for cues to identify bothcontent and depth.(Stimulus 1)109The white line that's supposed to infer chinbottom, between the face and the neck, itdoesn't work as a shadow, and it doesn't helppush the neck back from the face. (6.3)"Reading" an image was also described in terms oftiming or pacing.In some places he tends to slow down the eyewhere he works with detail, then he gives itsome sort of quiet area where there is lessdescriptive form. (4.11)For the most part, informants relied on familiartraditions in art to provide cues for depth and space. Theyexpected these cues to be done "correctly", following"formulas" or "institutions".Yes, [depth is created by] the contrast. That'sthe old academic school for illusionism: imagesthat possess contrast will appear that they'recoming forward. The reduction of contrast willcreate the illusion of space. And this is exactlythe formula I'm seeing here. (4.5)It gives the illusion of space and depth, butit's not visually correct. An artist whounderstands this would do it correctly, usingRenaissance perspective. So it's not evenworking within the institution. (5.3)Several informants commented on the fact that they tendto "read" more than they "see" in a picture. This wasdescribed in terms of "imagining", "filling in", and"knowing". It appears that images, as well as parts of110images, serve as cues for both memory and associations withreal-world experience.That's one thing with high resolution [images.]You often imagine more detail than is really readthere. The photo goes halfway, then the braingoes the rest of the way. (8.5)Reading art as a process To a lesser extent than expected, images were "read" interms of technical process. While there were frequentdiscussions and conjectures about the technical processesthat might have been used to create images, technicalprocesses did not play a large part in describing theappearance of an image. In response to stimulus 3, oneinformant used evidence of brushwork as a cue that it waspainted.This image has irregularity. I can read hishandwriting. I call it handwriting, but Imean his brushwork. (4.6)In response to stimulus 2, another informant referredto a technical process in computer graphics in terms of itsimpact on the viewer's attention.In terms of the output, the flower, thespiraling one, is a much higher resolution,and therefore will get a person's interest ina way that a basic bitmap like the first one111never will.^(8.5)"Computer language" appeared to have signifiers of itsown. Informants identified features peculiar to computergraphics....this particular one, compared to whatcomputer things can do, is very primitive. Allthe non-gestural indications of computer language,visual language, are very rough and raw andvery crude in this drawing. (5.2)However, five informants identified the pixel graphicof stimulus 1 as a needlepoint or weaving. Three of theseinformants were computer artists or computer art educators.It would appear that there are different kinds of signifiersor indicators of computer graphic techniques and processes,and not all types are recognizable to everyone who works incomputer graphics.Reading art historical references Most of the informants appeared familiar with differentkinds of art historical references, although they did notalways apply them correctly. Art historical references tookon a general, synoptic kind of quality in some statements;that is, a name was used to sum up a whole body oftechniques and ideas about making and responding to art,like a kind of shorthand code.112There are various art forms around that, from avery simple contour line, to very realistic, andImpressionistic, to a Pointillist representationof a table, through to the Cubist representationof a Cubist bust in the corner. (1.6)Parts of images were often identified directly withstyles or artists, particularly in stimulus 4.That [lattice work] comes out of Mondrian,that geometric kind of style. (8.9)I see Picasso in the two-nosed woman... avery Guernica image. I see Piet Mondrianin the bright, bright primary colors... (2.8)One informant described knowledge of art historicalsignifiers as a kind of vocabulary that is passed betweenartists and thus to the viewer.An artist like David Hockney looks at Picassoand says, "I share that vision. I want tocelebrate that vision". So what he's doing inworks like this - and many of his other works -even when he does photography, he does Cubistphotography. He shares that vision, usingsomething Picasso never did, as far as I know.He never did do photography. But if he did, itwould look like David Hockney. So what'shappened is that there's a certain vocabularythat's come through in the 20th Century. (5.7)The same informant pointed out that, "Knowing arthistory, I can read his little games, his puns, and I lovethem". Other informants described this kind of literacy as113"art about art" and "statements about making art". Theyreferred to a kind of knowledge about styles that can be"read".Although informants were not asked at any time toidentify art historical referents or artists, fourinformants recognized the work of George Littlechild, thepainter of stimulus 3; one informant recognized the work ofNed Green, the computer artist of stimulus 2; and sixinformants identified referents to Picasso and toPointillism in stimulus 4. Three informants identifiedstimulus 4 as the work of David Hockney. In several cases,this knowledge determined the way the images were read.So, knowing that it's David Hockney, andknowing his interest in Cubism and the breakingdown of space, I can see what he's doing. (5.6)Knowledge of art historical referents appeared toenrich the viewing experience for most informants.I find it just a lot of fun, because these areall classic styles in art history. There'sCubism, there's pointillism, there's the theater.I see this shadow of the modern office chairas the evolution of furniture and design. Andthe bowl with flowers in it is sort of a classic,almost a cliché in painting. (8.9)114Art as a visual game The verb "play", in various tenses, was used more thanany other verb to describe the intentions of the artists whocreated stimuli 3 and 4. There was a consensus of beliefthat these artists intended to engage the viewer, and tocommunicate with the viewer on different levels.Yes, I think [stimulus 4] is a successfulimage. Because it creates a context for theviewer to again get involved with the image.It has linked the visual elements togetherin a way that causes you to be involved in asearch-and-find kind of way, an intellectualgame with the image, as well as an appreciationof the way the elements are put together interms of a design. (1.8)The "play" of the artists was in almost all casesperceived as conceptual. Their intentions were describedwith phrases like "playing with perspective in a jokingmanner", "playing with issues", "trying to make a point","bending and molding laws of art". The viewer's responsewas also described in conceptual terms, such as "figuringout how thing relate to each other", "studying what itrepresents", and "pondering" the themes.115SummaryInformants did not tend to "read" images in terms ofelements and principles of art, although composition andelements were described as guiding the movement of the eye.Images were examined from the standpoint of how they mightreflect visual aspects of the natural physical world. Theywere also read for artistic traditions such as the use ofperspective or contrast for depth cues, and according to arthistorical referents. Most of all, informants "read" imagesas a kind of mental puzzle, as "shared" knowledge, or as a"game" to be played with the artist. Thus informants tendedto "read" images conceptually, based on their knowledge ofart, as much as perceptually, or based on immediate visualevidence.116SpaceSince the domain analysis revealed an emphasis ondifferent kinds of "space" in images, particular attentionwas paid to comments and concepts about space during theinterviews. In addition, informants were often prompted toclarify types of space and the use of space in differentstimuli.Two-dimensional spaceIn descriptions of stimulus 1, informants freelyequated traditional matrix-based art forms such asneedlepoint with pixel-based computer graphics.I assume it's a computer-generated image,although it could just as easily have been animage that was produced by stitchery orneedlework, given the grid pattern thatdeveloped on it. (1.1)A informant who identified stimulus 1 as "some kind ofsewn image", rather than a computer graphic, usedterminology from computer graphics to describe the imageregardless.It would be a fairly low-resolution image,because the colors seem to be in fairly largechunks, simulating a sewn image. (3.2)The terms "flat", "overlap", and "positive" and"negative" were used more than any other terms to describe117two-dimensional compositions.There seemed to be a consensus that parts of imagescould overlap in space if they were "co-planar", or on thesame picture plane, without any artistic indication of depthor thickness. However, this concept frequently was inconflict with real-world knowledge, particularly in responseto stimulus 3.The only depth is by overlap. The imposedhead or face image over the horse figureagainst that yellow field. Why the horse is infront of this particular border may be toclarify that the horse is standing on theearth. But I can't see any reason for it tobe overlapped. Unless that's the reason. (6.7)Most images were considered to be two-dimensional or"overlapped" if artistic devices were more obvious thanreal-world references.(Stimulus 4)We're not dealing with an illusion of spacethere, we're only reminded of the geometricdesign of the parallelogram.., but there's nodepth of field here. (4.10)The terms negative and positive space were used by fiveinformants to describe areas of design in all images butstimulus 3. Three of the informants discussed negative andpositive space in terms of "ambiguity" or "integration".118The negative image is important, becausewithout it you can't have a positive.., it'sambiguous, as to the positive and negative.For example, between the horse legs is anegative space, but the color, the space hasbeen treated equally important in terms ofcolor, color-mixing, and intensity. (2.6)Informants indicated that it was important for anartist to preserve the sense of flatness by emphasizing akind of equality among elements in two-dimensional images.Areas which shifted in terms of space stood out.(Stimulus 3)It's a 2D image with a slight hint of the 3Din the image of the face on top of the horse.(2 6)When this occurred, three informants checked theinformation against other areas in order to verify whetherthe image was indeed flat or 3D.(Stimulus 1)[The image is] almost 3D the way the whiteoutline goes around the object. It almostseems raised, to me. But it's basically aflat image. There's no sort of three-dimensional contours or textures relationshipsthere, it's all sort of a flat image (3.2)Several informants felt quite strongly aboutdefinitions of space and the kinds of images to which theyapplied. One informant had difficulty with the term "space"119applied to a two-dimensional traditional art image, althoughthe same informant talked about space in response to a two-dimensional hardcopy of a three-dimensional computergraphic.(Stimulus 3)You're talking about a flat painting, or apicture of a flat painting in my hand, andasking me about space in it... and I see nospace. It's like a collage, or mosaic ofimages, just sort of glued one on top ofeach other, flat.^(3.8)There was a definite impression that collage work,needlework, and mosaics are flat or two-dimensional, and aretherefore synonymous with two-dimensional space.Identification of two-dimensional space therefore seemeddependent to a large extent on identifying specific mediums.Three-dimensional space One informant remarked that the term space "conjures upan idea of three dimensions and illusionism, rather thanthings that are stacked and layered in a two-dimensionalway" (3.8). However, in describing three-dimensional space,several informants referred to the idea of multiple "planes"or "grounds".(Stimulus 4)120This is three-dimensional. There's obviouslyseveral planes. There's the plane where hisfeet are resting, there's the plane where thetable top is, and there seems to be this planebehind him, defined by this yellow stripe, whichgives the impression that there might be anotherplane there.^(8.6)Informants perceived images as receding or advancingspatially through the planes.Because of the graduated depth, and everythingseems to recede spatially in a very regular way.Very ordered way. (6.4)Informants also used words like "centered", "from theedges", or "to the middle of the picture" to connect theidea of planes to the idea of the format, and compositionwithin the format.It seems like the images that are forward, orthe foreground, are collected on the edges of thisparticular piece. (4.4)The idea of illusionism did not appear to beantithetical to the idea of planes or grounds for informantswith strong backgrounds in traditional art.So this is a very illusionistic image. I doget the sense of a foreground, the middleground, the background. (4.3)However, two informants with expertise in computer artdistinguished between the idea of planes and the notion of a121"void".In a void, there's nothing there unless youput something there. It's not like a drawingprogram where you draw on a plane. (7.3)The idea of the "void" was described in terms ofworking with "objects," and compared to the idea of physicalforms in the real world.When you work in the void, you work withobjects. You can describe it as assemblingthese things, like assembling the universe;all these planets and things live in the voidand make up the universe as we know it.Same thing.^(7.3)In order to ascertain whether or not an image wasthree-dimensional, informants examined the stimuli forspecific depth cues. All informants appeared to haveextensive knowledge of different kinds of techniques forcreating space or illusions of space. Three-dimensionalspace was described both in terms of simulation ortechniques for illusionism, as well as real-world depth, andinformants were specific in delineating techniques.No, there's no attempt to simulate 3D, or create3D, either by doing a sculpture, or a montage,or making the face recede, or using perspective.Everything's right here in one frame, on topof each other but not further back. (3.7)The idea of physical distance played an important part122in determining three-dimensionality. I asked informantswhat clues they would use to determine a sense of distance."Scaling" and "size" were cited most frequently.The reduction of size: the flowers in theforeground are larger, and as we move towardsthat depth of field the size of these objectsis being reduced. (2.4)"Aerial perspective" and "depth of field" were alsocited as important indicators of depth which are peculiar tothree-dimensional images. Informants did not tend toidentify perspective in terms of one-point, two-point, orthree-point perspective. "Perspective" or "perspectivalviews" were used as terms synonymous with the viewpoint ofthe viewer, rather than applied to structural views ofobjects or images.Five informants used their own bodies as referents fordepth; one perceived both depth and height in relation tohis own body in response to stimulus 3.My vanishing point of course is in the verycenter. My horizon line would go directlythrough the equator of the picture, if you will.So I'm standing here, and I'm looking straightthrough. I'm standing on the ground, and I'mnot looking up or looking down. (2.5)Six informants found combinations of three-dimensionaland two-dimensional space disconcerting. In response to123stimulus 4, informants identified mixtures of two-dimensional, three-dimensional and orthographic spatialaspects as "puzzling", "irritating", "confused", and"unlikely". For this reason, three informants perceived itas a "puzzle", a "whimsy", or a "game".It would almost be a whimsy, in a sense. It'svery.., almost surrealistic in the way things arevisually and spatially jumbled, or not oriented.(2 7)Another took a harder view.Whoever did this, they're all over the place.Visually, it just doesn't work. (7.9)Summary of space Two-dimensionalInformants equated the matrix-based art forms of pixelgraphics and needlework, and freely mixed terminology usedto describe both mediums. Negative and positive space andoverlapping shapes were perceived as co-planar, or as beingintegrated on the picture plane. Informants expectedartwork in specific mediums such as fabric art or collage tobe two-dimensional. They also expected two-dimensional artto be consistently two-dimensional, and were confused ifelements of illusionism were incorporated. Therefore,equality among elements in two-dimensional art was most124important.While informants were definite in their views abouttwo - dimensionality, there was some confusion in relating theterm "two-dimensional" to the term "space".Three-dimensionalThree-dimensional space was equated with the idea ofmultiple planes or grounds, and with the idea of a "void".Informants cited extensive knowledge of techniques forcreating space, such as perspective systems, reduction ofscale, depth of field, and aerial perspective."Perspective" was equated with "viewpoint" (rather thansystems such as three-point perspective), and informantsused their own bodies as a referent. Again, informants werepuzzled if three-dimensional space was not consistent.Sensory elements of artTwo-dimensional shapeWhile the term "two-dimensional" was frequently andvoluntarily applied to the term "space" by all informants,the term "two-dimensional" was applied to "shape" by onlyone informant.125If I were to take a petal off a flower, forexample, I'd be taking away 2D triangularshapes.^(2.3)Generally, shapes were referred to as "spaces","areas", "regions" or "images".The dress was filled in, in a crude computerishmanner. There's no time taken to scale thepattern, or tweak it so it curves around andmake it look three-dimensional. In otherwords, it's totally two-dimensional. It justlooks like a space filled in. (8.1)Three-dimensional shape Only one informant made frequent reference to three-dimensional shapes, but referred to them as "basic" shapes.He also included two-dimensional shapes in his descriptionsof basic shapes.It's very basic shapes. In other words, thecylindrical shapes are very, very clearlydefined, the circle, the triangular shapes,the cube shapes - so you have all your basicshapes.^(2.1)Generally, informants referred to three-dimensionalshapes as "objects", or by name, such as "flower" or"chair".126LineLines created by continuums of adjacent pixels instimulus 1 were compared to "stitches" by three informants.Pixels in computer graphics were differentiated fromstitches in needlework or weaving by their "regularity",flatness, and spacing.^The weight of the lines did notappear to be a factor in differentiating between them, sinceit was perceived that computers were capable of generatinglines of different widths.An "inconsistency" of line, which was described asvariations of pressure or color in line, was highly valued.All eight informants expressed positive responses to linesthat were "gestural" or which had "gradients". Fourinformants commented on the gradient properties of thevertical line on the right side of stimulus 1. It was saidby one informant to "fluctuate with tonality", although ainformant who had expertise with computers described it incomputer terms:There's a dithered line, that's a gradientline, on this side... it's "ping-ponged", sothat it starts off, and when it gets to themiddle it goes back on itself. So it startsout blue, goes to the red, then goes from redback to the blue again. (7.1)Contour lines in stimulus 3, which evidenced variations127that were not systematic or computer-generated, weredescribed at length and in detail by three informants.There's more to line.., every line is different.One line is a sheer color. The next line issupported with a red line on the inside. Hereit's supported with an orange, he's mixed someof his orange with it... If you just go around,if you start looking at this structure, this isa line he's working on not in a systematicmanner.^(4.8)All informants appeared aware that there were differentkinds of line and styles of line.He's got a watercolor feel, where you get thatblobby line that fades off with the touch ofthe brush - the blue and orange. He's gota very unique Pointillist kind of style in thetable... and he has a very simple line drawinghere of the chair. (8.8)Informants expressed dislike for lines that wereperceived as "mechanical", "electronic", or "computer-esque", but were unable to give specific rationales or todifferentiate between graphic and computer mediums in anyway that supported the dislike.All informants were aware of "implied" lines and theirimportance in both guiding eye movement through thecomposition and creating illusions.128Pattern"Pattern" was defined in terms of "a multiplication",as "re-ccurring", and as "repeatable". Pattern appeared tobe most noticeable when it was global, as in the alloverrepeated flowers of stimulus 2. Five informants wereconcerned with interpreting the global patterns of stimulus2, or "figuring it out". One returned repeatedly to thisimage throughout the interview until he said he "got it".Informants rarely mentioned local pattern voluntarily.Most informants did not use the word "pattern" to describepatterned areas in stimulus 1 and 4, even when prompted tonotice and describe these areas in detail.Texture Six informants distinguished between texture inoriginal art and the appearance of texture in reproducedart.(Stimulus 3)Well, assuming that it's actually texture andnot something simulating texture - which is hardto tell because this is not the original - itlooks almost like finger-painted on, or with avery solid-ended brush. (3.6)Three informants evidenced fine visual acuity whendescribing parts of images less than a centimeter inreproduction size.129(Stimulus 3)The second thing I notice is that these littlecircles in the squares look like three-dimensionalmetallic objects with shiny paint on them. Likethumb tacks, or blobs of paint? They have littlehighlights on their edges. Which gives the illusionthey're sitting out from the surface. Theyprobably actually are. (8.6)Texture was described in terms of an "activity", a"quality", and an "illusion". Texture was also equated bythree informants with a kind of "pattern".It ranges from a very, very, very soft focusin the center, to an almost bark-like texturepattern of the intertwined branches, to thesmooth edges of the petals of the flowers,and the pattern texture on the leaves. (1.2)ColorIn the initial descriptions of images before prompting,only the two art educators used such color terms as"analogous", "complementaries", "primaries", and"secondaries".All informants were prompted to describe color in termsof "palette" or "scheme" and "color theory". Fourinformants were unsure of the meaning of the term "palette"itself.One informant used the term "palette" to describe acolor scheme in stimulus 1 - "so that we have a palette that130ranges in analogous colors from yellows through greens"(1.1) - and used the same word to describe color in terms ofthe artist's intention in stimulus two - "the palette seemsto deal with color in both naturalistic and more imaginativeforms" (1.2). Therefore "palette" appeared to have twodifferent meanings. Most informants responded to promptsregarding the palette used in images by identifying localcolors of specific areas, which created a third meaning.One informant objected to the use of terms like scheme andpalette altogether.Not a color scheme. I hate that word, anyways.I often run across that word used to talk aboutcolor, and by a dictionary it's in use, but"scheme" by definition does not have any relationto the way people use color. "Scheme" would bemore like a design intention. (6.8)"Color" was generally perceived as a kind of artisticvehicle for generating response. Color was frequentlyidentified with "excitement", "vibrancy" and "fun". It wasalso used frequently as a cue that signaled edges or achange of shapes, as well as a depth cue.(Stimulus 1)The depth is that the color in this figure iscolorful, and the background is no color, exceptfor this line on the side. So this appears tobe a figure that is flat, against a field. Soit's a figure on a ground. (6.2)131"Cool" and "warm" colors were also used as depth cuesby two informants.(Stimulus 3)Because of the use of the color, the warmcolors, the cool colors on the face, the cheeksdo appear to be three-dimensional. (8.7)Two informants in computer graphics emphasized colorprocessing in the reproduced images.Printing only has four colors that it canrepresent... when they do printing, they doit like Pointillism. So when you look at itup close, you can see the dot pattern - butwhen you get far away it's like Pointillism,it blends. Your eye is made to do theblending.^(7.2)These informants emphasized that the human eye is neverlimited to seeing "color schemes" or even compartments oflocal color, since any color is made up of many colors.There's way more... there's about a millioncolors in that, if you really look at the secondone. Whereas in the first one there's maybe ten.I'm talking about shades of a certain color.That's the way you see in any given time. Youmight see in millions of colors. (8.5)Therefore identification of color depended on thedegree to which a color is pure or made up of differentcolor dots.Irregardless of how they were made, if you dida color analysis of the range of colors in both132of them, they're both there. There's just asmuch color in here, it's just that the appliquéof the third one is flat color, larger areas. (7.8)ToneTone was frequently described in terms of "focus". Itwas also perceived as a result of lighting, and as a cue fordepth.(Stimulus 1)Someone's taken the time to make a tone. Fromthe neck to the head, for instance, there's atone under the neck to give the illusion thatshe may actually have a chin protruding outwards.One shoulder is in shadow, and there does seemto be a shade going up one side of the body, likethere's a light source over here. (8.1)Tone was also identified in terms of color contrast,which again was used as a depth cue. In two-dimensionalimages, contrast was perceived to create flat layers thatenabled the perception of shapes. In three-dimensionalimagery, color contrast was related to the integration ofspatial "grounds".133Summary of elementsShapeThe term "shape" itself was rarely used. Two-dimensional shapes were called "spaces", "areas" or"regions" in all four stimuli. Three-dimensional shapeswere referred to as "objects" or "forms" or by their names,such as "flower" or "chair". In both cases, the term"dimensional" was not used in relation to shapes.Line Lines created by continuums of pixels were compared to"stitches", and differentiated by their regularity,flatness, and spacing. "Inconsistency" in terms of"jaggedness" was not a factor in differentiating, butvariations of hand pressure were. Other than in terms ofhand-pressure, informants were unable to rationalize adislike for mechanical, electronic lines. Informantsperceived implied lines if they were part of globalpatterns, or if they contributed to illusions of depth.PatternPattern was most noticeable, and termed "pattern", whenit was global. The term pattern was most frequently used indescriptions of stimulus 2, which had a radiating, recedingglobal pattern. Informants described local pattern in terms134of repeated elements, but did not tend to use the actualword "pattern".Texture Informants distinguished between texture as a physicalsurface and as an illusion. The term texture was mostfrequently used in descriptions of stimulus 3, an oilpainting. Texture was perceived as an "activity" or"quality". Informants were particularly aware of nuances inthe physical surfaces of pictures, such as "impasto". Theword texture was also used to describe or replace "pattern".ColorMost informants did not understand or relate to coloras a "scheme" or "palette" in the formalist sense of"analogous" or "complementary" schemes. Color was generallydescribed in terms of local color, and used as a cue todiscern edges of shapes. Color was identified globally with"excitement", "vibrancy", and "fun". It was pointed outthat since any one color "contains" all other colors in bothvisual perception and in four-color printing, the perceptionof color is a matter of degree on a continuum, rather than acategorization.Tone Tone was frequently described in terms of "focus". It135was perceived to be a result of global lighting, and as adepth cue. In two-dimensional images, changes in toneenabled the perception of shapes. In three-dimensionalimages, tonal contrasts were related to the integration orthe contrast of different planes. Thus tone was perceivedas a global element, as was pattern.136Formal principlesFormal balance The four informants who referred to "balance" used theterm in the context of "symmetry". By "symmetry" they meantthe centering of space and objects. The idea of centeringwas related to the picture plane.In terms of the image on the ground that I'mlooking at, it's organized in almost a totallysymmetrical way, in that it's centered in thepicture plane. (1.2)Seven informants did not respond to prompts regardingthe asymmetrical positioning of the vertical line on theright in Stimulus 1.It's pretty straight forward. She looks asthough she's right in the center, verysymmetrical. Very composed. It's anti-Baroque.Classically oriented. It's a formal positioningof things. (5.2)Informal balance One informant disagreed, and found the asymmetricalline to be an important compositional element.The line really does make a lot of difference.Otherwise the pattern-like quality of the formwould be entirely isolated from the format. (4.3)"Asymmetry" generally was perceived in terms ofdeliberate manipulations to make images "irregular" by three137informants. "Asymmetrical" images were also considered as"balanced" by two of these informants.(Stimulus 2)I'd say it was asymmetrical... it's a typeof spiral, but there's a lot of work put inthere to make it look asymmetrical. And yetbalanced at the same time. (8.5)UnityAnother informant discussed the "unity" of stimulus 2on the basis of its continuously reducing depth of field.Four informants attributed unity to the radiating globalpattern.The vines are like the flowers. They're weavingin and out of the foreground. I see more of acircular pattern, a serpentine pattern, whereasthe flowers are definitely part of this giantradiation.^(2.4)Concepts about composition and unity were thereforestrongly related to global patterns within the format,especially in response to stimulus 2.VarietyVariety between elements was perceived by allinformants to be a purposeful manipulation by the artist tokeep the viewer's interest. Variety was discussed in termsof perceptual interest as well as conceptual, although the138emphasis was on the conceptual.(Stimulus 2)The elements work together, in order to createenough diversity, to keep you interested, tokeep your eye moving through the space... togive a hint of something more happening thanfirst appears, that keeps your mind workingthrough, and tries to work through what isreally going on with it. (1.3)Clarity of image Clarity of image was the most prevalent themeidentified in the interview data. Informants were concernedthat the techniques, styles, and mediums in all imagery beconsistent, and that the composition be symmetrical. Fiveinformants found stimulus 4 "cluttered", "too busy", and a"mish-mash of styles and surfaces". One informant had "theurge to run to my paper cutter and cut this up into at leastsix different areas" (2.10). Another informant was visiblydistressed.I'm objecting to the mish-mash of styles andsurfaces. Like, what is this yellow thing?What is that? The elements of this picturedrive me nuts. It's like one of those picturesof, "Do you make these mistakes in your art?"(6.10)Informants were concerned that lighting be uniform, notinconsistent; that edges of shapes were defined; and that139expected evidence, such as the detail on leaves in stimulus2, be consistent with the detail on flowers.RepetitionIn stimulus 2, repetition was seen in terms of thereplication of a single piece of imagery, rather than aseries of alike or similar elements.They look like they've been done on a computer.The way the shapes, once they've been done once,can repeat endlessly off. (3.4)Informants described this kind of repetition in termsof "images copied", "recursion", and "duplication".Particularly in response to stimuli 3 and 4, the word"repetition" was used to describe different elements thatshared a feature which made them more alike than dissimilar.Proximity of elements The "success" of an image was evaluated by oneinformant in terms of continuity of eye movement in theformat. He believed that an implied diagonal line created asense of proximity of elements in stimulus 4.It's successful because of its structure, itscomposition, its color. There's a diagonalline that starts in the lower left by thehorse's foot, going up through the head to thetop right. Good structure, good composition.(7.4)140Emphasis Individual elements were rarely described in terms ofemphasis. Terms such as "focal point" and "isolation" ofelements were not used. "Emphasis" in stimulus 1 wasequated with the symmetry of the image; in stimulus 2 withthe "pervasive" and "merged" pattern of the vines andflowers, as well as the composition of what was described byfour informants as the "vortex".In stimulus 3, emphasis was equated with the narrativeaspects of what was described as a "circus" theme by fourinformants; and in stimulus 4 with the conceptual "game"between the artist and the viewer. Therefore, formalprinciples such as balance and emphasis as well as cognitivethemes like "carnival atmosphere" or "art historical game"were perceived to be emphasized, rather than specificelements within compositions.LightingLighting was perceived as something that should becontinuous throughout an image; that is, as a global,unifying device that should affect all parts of an imageequally. Evidence of inconsistent lighting was described as"cosmic", "false", "indeterminate", and "confusing".Three informants referred to traditional painting as141something that doesn't have lighting, it "just is". Otherinformants perceived the concept of "lighting" as somethingthat an artist does on purpose, and discussed it on thestrength of its "naturalness". Lighting in both traditionalart images and computer art was compared to natural lighteffects.(Stimulus 2)There are some things that are missing herethat are in reality. And I would say that thatis the lack of a light source, overall. Ifthere were any light coming from the side, therewould be shadows we would experience in reality.(6.5)Lighting was cited as a cue for "perspective" or depthby all informants.Informants felt that it was important that lighting be"continuous" if it were used at all, and affect all parts ofan image equally in the way that chiaroscuro once did.For example, the old idea of chiaroscuro, ofmodeling, that would have to be done by going backinto it, and playing with each individual one.(5 4)The definition of continuous included the ideas thatthere be only one external light source, and that it causeregular effects such as shadows.There'd also be a spotlight casting light on142it... a light source, like the sun behind you,and casting shadows. There's no obvious apparentsource of light [in stimulus 3.1^(3.8)Three informants were concerned by the lack of shadowsin what they otherwise described as a very "realistic"image, stimulus 2.Where these things overlap there's no senseof shading or shadow-casting. They're sostrongly lit there are no cast shadows, norincidental shadows. So that's kind of false.(6 5)Five informants commented on the irregularity of thelight source in stimulus 2. The irregularity was perceivedas a result of procedures that "pasted" or "patched" theimage together from one or more sources.The light often seems to be coming from alldirections at once. And that's probably causedby the cutting and pasting and rotating of asingle image to make an image like this. (8.3)The fact that computer images are created on a screenwas perceived by one informant as affecting the way lightand color are used in the final image.Format The format itself was perceived as a kind of"container" for eye patterns or structural patterns.The composition always does depend on theformat, not on the positive space. It happens143from the edge of the piece. (4.4)Three informants noticed the cropped edges of the imagein stimulus 1.The toes are missing, and the very top of thehead is sort of clipped off, like it's eitherbeen photocopied or something, as would be theusual thing that would produce that sort ofclipping. Or looking at an image that's notquite fully displayed on a computer screen.(3.2)Two informants commented on the scale of the computerformat in terms of its impact on the viewer.The scale is different in these images too.Everything's down to magazine size. (5.11)One informant pointed out that the experience of thecomputer image is different in hardcopy than it is onscreen. The colors on the monitor may not match the colorswhich will be output by various hardcopy devices. He pointedout that the computer artist has to be aware of potentialvariables that occur during electronic reproduction, while atraditional artist has control over his image from beginningto end.144Summary of formal principlesBalance The idea of balance was related to that of global,symmetrical organization. Asymmetry was equated by mostinformants with irregularity, or deliberate manipulations oflocal areas for particular effects.Unity Unity was perceived as a global effect resulting fromconsistency in depth of field, such as consistent reductionof forms or focus, or from global patterns such as a radialcomposition of elements.VarietyVariety was considered by most informants to includeconceptual and perceptual information, though themanipulation of ideas was referred to as a technique tomaintain the viewer's interest.Clarity of image The importance of clarity of image was the mostprevalent theme in all interviews. Informants looked forevidence that techniques, styles and mediums were consistentin each image, and compositions symmetrical.RepetitionThe term repetition was used equally as much in two145different senses: the replication or copying of a singleelement, and a series of elements which were more alike thandissimilar.Emphasis Informants perceived emphasis as a kind of globalorganization. Informants referred to allover "pervasive" or"merged" patterns, as well as unifying cognitive themes like"carnival atmosphere". Thus emphasis was equated withnotions about each artist's overall intention or purpose,rather than with the idea of emphasized elements.LightingLighting was also perceived as a global, unifyingdevice, and informants looked for consistency. Informantsdistinguished between art styles which stressed decorativeeffects and therefore ignored conventional light sources,and artworks which sought to transcribe or incorporatenatural, illusionistic lighting.Effects of lighting were used as depth cues todetermine irregularities in the original surface ofartworks; to verify consistency in three-dimensionalillusions; and to verify the "naturalness" of simulatedrealism.146Format Format was perceived as a kind of "container" forstructural patterns and imagery. Format is not only"magazine scale" in computer graphics, but may also bedifferent in hardcopy than on the screen.147CHAPTER VCOMPONENTIAL ANALYSISIntroductionAll of the data from the literature search, domainanalysis, comparative taxonomies, and the interpretation ofinterviews was compared and contrasted. The componentialanalysis has three parts.First, design vocabulary used in art education andcomputer graphics is listed. These terms are derived fromthe literature review and from the interviews. Many termsare comparable (Tables 4 - 7) and significantly expandformalist concepts. They are further discussed. Otherterms have no counterpart, and appear unique to one field ofimage-making or the other; these terms are listed followingthe comparison tables.The second part is a componential analysis of elementsand principles in traditional art and in computer graphics.In the third part, many issues raised in the literaturesearch are correlated with problems identified in the domainanalysis and by informants during interviews. These includesimilarities, differences, and dichotomies between formalismand computer graphics.1481. Design vocabularyThe componential analysis of design vocabulary ispresented in four tables: in Table 4, vocabulary used todesignate design elements as well as parts of designelements, such as "corner" in traditional art and "vertex"in computer graphics; in Table 5, vocabulary used todescribe characteristics and properties of design elements,such as "organic" shapes and "freehand" polygons; in Table6, vocabulary used to describe the image as a whole, such as"symmetry" or "global regularity", as well as vocabularyused to describe positions or locations of design elementswithin the format; in Table 7, terms that describeprocedures and techniques for structuring images.The componential analysis of design vocabulary seeks tocompare differences in terminology, and in this study, todescribe areas where traditional concepts have been expandedto accommodate material derived from data-gathering. Eachtable has two columns so that design vocabulary in the twofields can be compared side-by-side. Computer graphicsterms are highlighted to represent conceptual areas whichappear to expand meanings in formalist theory. An outlineof how these terms expand traditional art theories followseach table.149TABLE 4Design vocabulary: elementsArt education^Computer graphicselement primitivemark, point pixel; dot-per-inchline, path,^continuousmark, moving pointrow; segment; vectorcontour line silhouette linecross-contour,^interiorcontour linecontour lineconnecting line segment; vectorcorner vertex; node, handleedge bounding sidepattern default,^selected,^orcreated patterns;^areafills; hatch patternsallover, continuouspattern (local)fill,^opacity map,texture mapsurfaces materialsplane bitmap; polygontwo-dimensional shape polygonthree-dimensionalshape, 2D projectionsolid object; polyhedralillusion simulationprojection extrusion; loftplastic shapes extruded polygonsarea regionpositive shape region; polygon;polyhedralnegative shape, space bitmap; voidsoft-edge shadow penumbra,^fall-offhighlight specular highlightvalue contrast150Conceptual expansions of terminologyfor design elements, Table 4mark, point <^pixel; dot-per-inchThe computer graphic terms expand the notion of "mark" toemphasize different forms of outputline, path, continuous mark, moving point <^row;segment; vectorThe computer graphic terms emphasize the result of workingin different spatial environmentscorner <^vertex; node, handleThe computer graphic terms indicate the generativepotential of shapes.^Shapes have no "fixed" corners.pattern <^default, selected or created patterns; areafillsallover,^continuous pattern (local)^<^fill,^opacitymap, texture mapIn computer graphics, patterns are ready-made.surface <^materialIn traditional analog media, the surface of an object in apicture is the same thing as its side or face. ^Incomputer graphics, the surface, called "material", can bemanipulated independently of faces, called "facets"plane <^bitmap; polygon"Bitmap" and "polygon" clarify notions of plane as eithera surface or a shapethree-dimensional shape, 2D projection <^solid object,polyhedralThe computer graphic terms clarify the notion of 3D shapeas a 3600 form in an environment151TABLE 5Design vocabulary: characteristics and propertiesArt education^Computer graphicscharacter regularitycharacteristics propertiescurve arc,^semi-circle,splinediagonal slopeon an angle skewedbroken angulardashed or dotted hatchedzigzag brokenjagged edges jaggies,^steps,staircase effectsoft edge dithered, featheredhard edge bounding sidesdecorative planarorganic, biomorphic freehand polygonsturned rotateddistorted irregularconcrete visiblesymmetrical duplicated and flippedsimple regularbusy noisemirrored ping-pongedrepeated duplicated, copied;swept; replicated;arrayed; instancedactual positive by defaultnegative reverseopaque solidmatte flat lightglossy shiny,^reflective;illuminated152weight intensity, thicknessbold thickdelicate thinlocal or objective color selected coloroptical color spotlight colorshade lightnessintensity saturationoverlapping co-planar153Conceptual expansions of terminologyfor characteristics and properties,Table 5characteristics <^propertiesThe notion of "properties" credits characteristics to theelement, rather than to the format or the element seen incontextdiagonal <^slopeThe term "slope" allows a perception of diagonals as"grades" interacting with each other, rather than with theformathard edge <^bounding sidesThe term "bounding sides" emphasizes the idea of spacearound the shape rather than the shapebusy <^noiseThe computer term "noise" expands the perceptual responseto include cognitive reactionrepeated <^duplicated, copied; swept; arrayed;instancedThe computer graphic terms emphasize the notion of exactequivalents copied in a seriesintensity <^saturation"Saturation" indicates the measurable extent, on a scaleof 1-100%. , to which a color can be intense in computergraphics.154TABLE 6Design vocabulary: ImageryArt education^Computer graphicsdesign, graphics two-dimensional graphicspicture renderingthree-dimensional space;illusionismvoidformat hardcopy;^environmentpictorial analysis disaggregationmultiples hardcopies; replicationssurface imagepicture plane screen; matrix; bitmapgrid bitmap; wireframematrix bitmapmosaic block-pixed bitmapcomposition structureposition locationdepth devices depth cueslighting ambient lightingaxis intersectionsymmetry global regularitydirection orientationradial balance rotation;^mirroringallover pattern (global) continuous patterndensity resolutionperspective field of viewpoint of view camera placementpalette color resolutioncolor scheme color tables155Conceptual expansions of terminology for imagery,Table 6picture <^renderingIn a computer rendering, features of the picture such aspoint of view, field of view, and lighting can bemanipulated independently of the objects in the picture.In traditional analog media, these features areinseparable from the content of the picture.three-dimensional space; illusionism < voidThe computer term "void" expands the notion of a three-dimensional space from a surface to an environmentformat <^hardcopy; environment"Hardcopy" expands the notion of one unique original, and"environment" expands the notion of the format as asurface planepictorial analysis <^disaggregationIn "disaggregation", elements are perceived in terms of aprocess of reduction, rather than of integration oradditionmultiples <^hardcopies; replicationsThe computer terms emphasize the idea of a digital ratherthan an analog originalpicture plane <^screen; matrix; bitmapThe computer terms refer to the location and orientationof areas rather than to the idea of a "window"156matrix <^bitmapmosaic <^block-pixed bitmapThe computer terms allow matrix-based traditional art tobe seen in a spatial tradition unlike the picture planecomposition < structure"Structure" emphasizes the notion of building rather thandesigning or arrangingsymmetry <^global regularity"Global regularity" focuses on the composition of a unit,rather than areas that "match"density <^resolution"Resolution" emphasizes the distribution of the medium onthe surface rather than the depthperspective <^field of viewThe computer term places the viewer within the field ofview, rather than establishing the viewer as an externalobserver157TABLE 7Design vocabulary: procedures and techniquesArt education^Computer graphicstechniques proceduresmediums program capabilitiespigment pixels of light; dots ofinkdraw use coordinates, geometryfreehand paintimage development interpolationexperimentation generationgraphic design interactionperspective systems coordinate systems;geometrychiaroscuro flat shading, polygonalshadingmodeling continuous shadingatmosphericperspectivedegrees of atmosphericsaerial perspective degrees of transparencyscaling of pattern ortextureprocedural modelingscaling resizingoutlining framingrepetition replication,^copying,duplication; sweeping;iteration; recursion158Conceptual expansions of terminologyfor procedures and techniques,Table 7mediums <^program capabilities"Program capabilities" afford interaction between mediumswhich are physically impossible in traditional artpigment <^pixels of light; dots of inkThe computer terms indicate expansions in the propertiesand qualities of colorimage development <^interpolation"Interpolation" emphasizes transitions between images asan averaging process, rather than a hierarchicalsuccessionexperimentation <^generation"Generation" emphasizes the idea of machine interventionin the creative process, using such intermediary devicesas conversion to digits and algorithmsgraphic design <^interaction"Interaction" emphasizes the role of the computer inaffording a partnership during the creative processperspective systems <^coordinate systems; geometryThe computer graphic terms indicate new capabilities ofperspective systems in art, such as using a 3D void tocreate 2D outputrepetition <^replication, duplication, copying;sweeping; iteration; recursionThe term "repetition" is not expansive enough toaccommodate differences in the meanings of these computergraphics terms.159The following art education terms do not appear to haveany comparable meanings in computer graphics.motifrhythmcalligraphicvarietyemphasisfocal pointweightcenter of interestdominantsubordinateapproximate symmetrymonochromatic color schemeanalogous color schemecomplementary color schemetriadic color schemeshallow spacedynamicpassiveintuitiveexpressivecolor "temperature"advancing or receding colorambiguousorganic/biomorphiccolor fieldpassageharmonyproximitybalanceunity160The following computer graphics terms do not appear tohave any comparable counterparts in traditional art.iterationrecursionfractalsmathematically "grown" imagestransformationmorphingdigitizationrandomnessstochastic variationmkray tracingself-illuminatingeffects filtershidden line algorithms2. Elements and principlesA comparison of similarities and differences betweenelements and principles in traditional art and equivalentelements and principles in computer graphics afforded thefollowing componential analysis of expansions in meaning orusage.1.^Two-dimensional space Procedures for computer graphics are linked todifferent kinds of two- and three-dimensional space. In161two-dimensional object-based systems, the idea of "co-planar" shapes replaces formalist ideas of "overlapping"shapes, and expands formalist ideas about design as an"arrangement" with computer graphic procedures forcoordinate systems. Bitmap systems in computer graphics maybe equated with matrix-based forms of art.2. Two-dimensional shape Formalist ideas about two-dimensional shapes asgeometric, "decorative" or planar, with characteristics like"soft" and "hard" edges, are similar to the concept ofpolygons or planes in computer graphics. The idea of shapein computer graphics also includes spaces, areas, regions,or surfaces. Two-dimensional shapes in computer graphicshave different intentions, depending on the kind of space inwhich they are created.3. Three-dimensional spaceThe idea of three-dimensional space in traditionalartwork is constrained by the fact that images are flatareas on a picture plane. In computer graphics, three-dimensional space is a void in which 3600 objects areplaced, and subsequently manipulated through such techniquesas scaling, orientation and lighting.Traditional perspective systems involve treating images162in 3D space as 2D projections from a fixed viewpoint.Computer procedures afford the expansion of traditionalconcepts about perspective through the use of coordinatesystems and geometry; interactive points of view and depthof field; and special procedures for transparency andillumination.4. Three-dimensional shape In computer graphics, three-dimensional shapes areentities or objects which interact in actual geometricrelationship to each other. This concept expands theformalist idea of three-dimensional shapes as illusionisticorganizations of tone or contrast on a surface.5. Line Line in formalist theory is perceived as an elementwith expressive characteristics, while in computer graphicsline is literal. Lines in computer graphics are generatedvia the computer, using different mathematical systems. Anumber of perceptual and conceptual characteristics ofcomputer lines, such as aliased lines, lines with precisehatch patterns, or vectors on a z axis, expand the formalistdimensions.6.^PatternA wide variety of procedures are used in computer163graphics to create local patterns similar to those oftraditional art. Global, unifying procedures in computergraphics can also organize local elements. Global patternis created in computer graphics with procedures such asrecursion or "mirroring".7. Texture Rather than a surface quality, texture in computergraphics is defined as a form of rendering, such as bitmapsor bumpmaps. These procedures simulate reality but areapplied uniformly, despite procedural modeling whichincreases illusionistic effects by "wrapping" texture aroundthree-dimensional objects to give a perceptually-correctperspective. Computer-driven procedures give a uniformityto texture that equates it more with formalist ideas ofpattern.8. ColorFormalist notions of color "schemes" may be replacedwith response to color brightness, key or intensity, valuecontrasts, and color saturation, since four-color separationand computer program palettes emphasize these kinds ofqualities rather than schemes. The perception of colorappears to be a matter of perceiving degrees on differentcontinuums, rather than a categorization process. Color is164therefore perceived in relationship to variables of value orpurity within each color.9. Tone The concept of tone in computer graphics is primarilyconcerned with uniform global effects rather than localcontrast. It is determined by such global features aslighting, color intensity and resolution. The use of tonein terms of focus in computer graphics, through suchprocedures as illumination and transparency, also expandsthe formalist concept of tone as shading and modeling.Local effects are achieved through the application ofdifferent kinds of shading procedures, as they are intraditional art.Tone was found to serve as an aid to the perception ofshapes, edges, and texture. Tone also aids in theintegration of planes.10. Formal image Procedures play an important part in expanding the ideaof an abstract "language". Evidence of techniques andselections may be perceived as recognizable elements or"signifiers", whether they are techniques in art oralgorithmic procedures in computer graphics. Appropriatedart historical signifiers also appear to be an important165part of artistic language. The formal image can no longerbe perceived as referring only to itself, with "permanent orresidual aesthetic value".Computer graphics demonstrate more precise ideas about"space" in images than have been defined in traditional art.Ideas about space may be organizing principles rather thanelements, as different kinds of artistic and mathematicalspaces determine the kinds of activities which can occur inthem.Generative and interpolative procedures in computergraphics, as well as the replicability of the same image indifferent output modes, beg notions of what is original or"unique" in art.11. BalanceIdeas expressed by the informants about balance,symmetry and asymmetry in computer graphics tended to bedescribed as local. However, the formalist principle of"balance" is related to that of global pattern in computergraphics.12. UnityConcepts of resolution and lighting in computergraphics expand the number of formalist fundamentals whichare believed to contribute to "unity". The computer image166is unified by equivalency of color, medium, and resolution,and the degree to which lighting effects are consistent.13. VarietyFormalist ideas about variety depend on the dominanceor subordination of sensory elements such as color andshape, and on contrasting characteristics of sensoryelements such as hard edge/soft edge, matte/glossy, orpatterned/solid. Variety was not found to be an importantprinciple in computer graphics. This study also found thatvariety is generally perceived in terms of conceptual themevariety rather than perceptual effects.14. Clarity of image Clarity of image was found to be a significant factorin the perception of the image as a whole, whethertraditional art or computer art. Procedures in computergraphics afford consistency in techniques, styles andmediums.15. RepetitionThe formalist idea of repetition as a series ofelements which are more alike than dissimilar is expanded bycomputer graphics to include the idea of replicating orduplicating a single element. The latter form of repetitioncreates a kind of fill, iteration, or equivalency of167elements in a similar sense to that of modernist andminimalist art structure.16. LightingIn traditional art, the paint itself (or other media)is used to create the illusion of light. The content (i.e.objects represented in a 2D artwork) and the effects oflighting (i.e. the modeling) are inseparable. In computergraphics, objects and lighting are created separately andcan be manipulated independently.In both traditional art and computer graphics, however,lighting can be a global, unifying device that creates bothconsistency and regularity between elements. As such,lighting is a compositional element.17. Format The "magazine" scale of 8 1/2 x 11" computer graphichardcopy questions the assignation of formalist values torelationships between the scale of the visual content andthe scale of the format, as well as the values assigned toscale in contemporary artworks.Traditional concepts of perspective are expanded as thefield of view in computer graphics seeks to enclose theimage content, while traditional perspective directsattention to diminishing and receding elements.168ConclusionIn conclusion, this conceptual analysis of elements andprinciples of art indicates that while some elements may beprinciples, some principles may be global elements.Principles do not appear to be laws, criteria, orrules. Images are perceived as units, with regular,irregular, consistent, or inconsistent features within thoseunits. Global elements such as tone, pattern, resolution orlighting aid in the consistency or regularity of images.The interior consistency or constancy of design elements isunlike formalist notions of harmony, which assume exteriorcriteria.1693. Componential analysis of image-related issuesThe componential analysis of issues related to thevisual structure of images is organized in three parts.First, conceptual similarities between computer graphicimages and formalist images are described. Second,differences between them are reviewed. Third, conceptualdichotomies are created as a result of certain distinctionsbetween formalist images and computer graphic images as wellas distinctions in aesthetic response.Similarities 1. Computer graphics and formalist images rely on similarelements of art: line, point, pattern, texture, and shape.2. Computer graphics and formalist art share rationalorganization.3. "Formal roots" give traditional art "universality",while the international use of specific software programscauses a kind of "cultural colonization" (Ettinger, 1988).4. Traditional art has schematas, or conventions forrepresentation, as does computer graphics.5. The idea of "signifiers" in both traditional images andcomputer images includes concrete evidence of specifictechniques, selections, and procedures as much as an"abstract language".1706. Traditional art is concerned with perceptual structures,such as modeling, pattern, or texture. In a similar vein,computer graphics use algorithms for perceptual structures.7. In aesthetic study, visual and tactile characteristics(among other properties of artworks) can be discriminatedand categorized (Broudy, 1966). In computer graphics,visual and tactile characteristics are recognized anddescribed.Differences 1. In aesthetic study, discriminations among sensoryelements are visually perceived (Smith, 1972). In computergraphics, many elements are hidden from view or embedded insuch procedures as hidden-line algorithms.2. Aesthetic study of conventional 2D images is premised onthe fact that the structure is static, and has a typicalconsistency. The underlying structure in computer graphicsis fluid, and may be hidden, manipulated, cut and pasted, ortransformed.3. Formalist images are often described in terms ofanthropomorphic qualities of character and personality,while characteristics of computer graphics are literal.4. The formalist image is material and fixed. In computer171graphics, the digital data is subject to transformationduring output reproduction.5. Formalist art postulates an idea of permanent orresidual value, while computer graphics are interactive andtransformable.6. Formalism seeks to integrate, while computer graphicsseeks to correlate.7. The formalist image is considered to be unique andoriginal, even when it appears as a multiple, as inprintmaking. In computer graphics, the image is one ofmultiple interpolations or modification. It may also be theresult of commercial software or public domain shareware.In these cases, the programmer as author has, by writing theprogram, constrained the user's originality; as Hickman andWright pointed out, the programmer may even be seen as theartist, who makes art by offering an array of possibilitiesto others (Hickman, 1991; Wright, 1989).Dichotomies 1. Traditional artworks frequently contain evidence ofhandcrafted marks and "errors". The surfaces of computergraphics tend to be pristine, regular, and uniform.2. In traditional art, elements are worked with, using172principles. In computer graphics, principles are workedwith, using elements.3. Traditional formalist theory emphasizes the significanceof dominance and subordination, emphasis, and focal point,with elements interacting to create balance, harmony, orrhythm. In computer graphics, elements are downgraded intothe kind of "visual fodder" described by Wright (1989),which creates an equality and consistency between elements.5. Computer graphics seek to introduce chaos into order (inthe mathematical sense) as a generative process, tocircumvent the orderly and mechanical nature of the medium.Conversely, formalist design seeks to bring order out ofchaos (in the literary sense).6. Formalist theory postulates subjective externalaesthetic references such as "balance", "harmony", or"beauty". Computer graphics that simulate scientificreferents in the fields of biology or astronomy areexternally-directed and have objective criteria againstwhich they can be evaluated.173CHAPTER VIIMPLICATIONS FOR ART EDUCATIONIntroductionDuring the past ten years, the field of art educationhas been influenced by models which equally emphasize studiopractice, response to art, and the art historical context ofartworks. The J. Paul Getty model for Discipline-Based ArtEducation has been particularly influential in NorthAmerica.Studio practice is concerned with the techniques andtheories involved in the creation of art. Two modes ofresponse to art are encouraged: aesthetic response,particularly "scanning" for sensory elements and principles;and art criticism, or an evaluation of art in the context ofaesthetic models and value systems. In art historicalanalysis, artworks are discussed in the context ofchronological, cultural, and personal influences on artiststhroughout history.The findings of this study reveal implications for arteducators in these four areas.174Implications for studio practice1.^Space as an integrating principle This study has revealed that the idea of space is veryimportant in determining both the media used in traditionalart and the kinds of systems used in computer graphics.Ideas about space in computer graphics allow precise anddetailed understandings about the construction of elementsand the kinds of environments in which they operate.Concepts of space in computer graphics may serve as modelsfor the organization of elements and principles whencreating artwork, in the same way they served as anorganizational framework for the comparative taxonomies ofconcepts about elements and principles in this study(Appendix E and F).In traditional studio courses, it may be useful toencourage students to begin not with emphasis on explorationof a medium, but instead, with the emphasis on investigationof spatial properties and relations. Elements in artmakingmay be considered as correlated to spatial properties.Shapes, for example, can be evaluated not only in terms oftype, but position, area or structure, surface, and edges inthe context of different kinds of two and three-dimensionalspace.1752. Cognitive factors Formalist theory places great emphasis on affectiveexperiences that result from working with elements. Thisstudy has confirmed the degree to which artmaking andartviewing are cognitive experiences, with artworksresulting from generative procedures as much asexperimentation. In studio practice, for both groups ofinformants, expressive intentions were found to be balancedwith attention to how and why. For example, techniques andprocedures for making "textures" were well-articulated,particularly in computer graphics. Reasons for making"textures" were particularly well-articulated in traditionalart. The emphasis in both traditional art and computer artwas on media as intermediaries for thought.The language used to express formalist theory was alsofound to be very affective and often anthropomorphic inintent when compared to design vocabulary in computergraphics. This study has investigated the extent to whichsuch non-affective or objective ideas as schematas,"signifiers", and simulations affect both art making and artviewing.3. The sequence and significance of elements A great deal of emphasis was placed by both the176informants and the literature on the "man-made" mark, andissues surrounding the values implicit in this. Manytextbooks and course outlines traditionally begin with theelement of "line", which reinforces the apparent importanceof line, gesture and mark. However, there appears to be noreason, other than habit, why "line" should be the firstelement of art to be taught and applied in studio courses.The element of "line", as well as other elements, may noteven be an important part of many art forms, includingtraditional two-dimensional art. For example, "line" wasfound not to be an important component of either matrix-based art or of color fields. Based on the number ofmentions, in computer graphics the element of line was foundto be sixth in frequency in terms of informant reports. Itmay be fruitful, refreshing and disarming to change thesequence in which elements are taught in studio courses. Itmay also be appropriate to consider the relativesignificance of different elements and principles todifferent art forms.Implications for aesthetic response1.^The interrelationship of techniques and elements Arbitrary separations of "studio techniques", "sensory177elements", and "formal principles" in recent aestheticmodels encourage the separation of processes or techniquesfrom visual evidence and structure during aestheticscanning. However, this study determined that not only areprocesses an important part of elements, but elements arealso a vital part of processes. For example, the idea of"signifiers" in both traditional images and computer imagesincludes evidence of specific techniques, selections andprocedures as much as "abstract language". Computergraphics in particular enable techniques and processes to beread in terms of both elements and principles, sincemathematically-defined operations often leave specific kindsof visual evidence. Algorithms unique to particularprograms may be universally recognizable and form a kind of"cultural colonization" of computer imagery. In this sense,the findings of this study are reminiscent of recent studieswhich have explored the relationship of aesthetic frameworksto artwork that is bound to cultural andsocioanthropological traditions.2.^Sensory discriminations The "language" of art is often taught as if elementsand principles have clear distinctions, and as ifdiscriminations can be made between them. Discrimination,178however, may be more complex than this. In this study, manysensory elements were found to be operating as formalprinciples, while formal principles often occurred aselements. For example, space, pattern and tone were foundto be organizing and unifying characteristics as much assensory elements of images. The textural quality ofpixel/needlework surfaces was found to be uniformlypervasive, rather than locally isolated. Conversely,asymmetry and repetition were often local elements as muchas principles.3.^Standards of response Ideas about "space" and "color" are in particular needof reevaluation by educators. Renaissance and/orphotographic perspective continue to be used as standardsfor responding to space in artwork. It would be useful toexamine other concepts of space with students, includingdifferent forms of "artistic" space.Ideas about "color schemes" in formalist theory wereformulated at a time when the range of both traditionalstudio pigments and reproductive pigments was relativelylimited. Color "brilliance" relied on such effects asjuxtaposed "complementaries". In teaching color theories,educators should account for the greatly expanded range of179colors developed in all mediums (including many new ones)during the past twenty years, as well as the degrees ofbrilliance and intensity available in contemporary mediums.Visualization technologies which exhibit color through lightadd another new dimension to the standards and terms bywhich the element of color is discussed. The highlysophisticated use of color in computer technologies furtherunderscores the gap between formalist descriptions of colorand contemporary applications.4.^The relevance of formalist terms Mention has previously been made (p. 160) of 31formalist terms that were found to have no comparablemeaning in computer graphics. It may be useful for arteducators to evaluate other art forms such as imagesresulting from visual technology, animated art, site andenvironment art, performance art, and modernist artworksgenerally, to determine whether formalist terms areappropriate or relevant in other cases as well. Rather thanassuming that formalist terms are always applicable to allartwork, as was suggested by Malcolm (1972), Lauer (1979),and Ocvirk et al (1975), regardless of medium, function orintent, aesthetic inquiry might more meaningfully bedirected to contextual/situational analysis, in which, as180Weitz (1962) suggested, each art work is evaluated in termsthat are relevant to it.This study emphasizes the fact that formalist theory isonly one of many aesthetic models. It appears to beapplicable to artwork which has formalism as its intention.It is misleading and confusing for teachers to discussartwork in paradigmatic terms that are antithetical to thepurposes and processes that governed the creation of thework in the first place. A paradigm can be justified onlyinasfar as it expands and enhances the perceptual andcognitive experiences of the viewer. This study has soughtto describe ways in which computer terms and concepts areboth similar and dissimilar to formalist terms, and tosuggest ways in which the knowledge of concepts unique tocomputer graphics may expand and enhance an appreciation oftraditional art as well as computer graphics. For example,educators might consider discussing traditional art incomputer terms. Such traditional media as weavings andmosaics have many things in common with pixel graphics(Appendix E, p. 217). Two-dimensional, flat planes intraditional art have much in common, in terms of concept,types, shape structure, surface, and edges, with polygons intwo-dimensional graphics (Appendix E, p. 219).181Implications for art criticism1. Aesthetic paradigms Computer graphics have traditionally sought to simulatetraditional art. Early Constructivist-oriented computer artemphasized formal relations of elements and principles ofdesign. Recent programs prioritize procedures forillustration and simulation, using effects-filters tosimulate even the appearances of traditional art mediumssuch as watercolor or pastel and styles such as Pointillism.An "aesthetics" of computer graphics has not been well-articulated. An aesthetic model for computer graphicsideally would account for the constraints and strengths ofthe medium, the potential of mathematically-based "elements"of art, the "marriage" of geometry and visible evidence, andthe values implicit in simulation and appropriation.By teaching the history of computer graphics andfocusing on emerging issues that distinguish computergraphics from traditional art, educators can help studentsto become more discerning consumers and producers of both.2. The importance of terminologyIt is difficult to discuss computer graphics without aknowledge of the terminology. Thirteen computer graphicterms (as noted on p. 161) were found to have no comparable182meanings in traditional art, and 31 art education terms (asnoted on p. 160) were found to have no comparableapplication in computer graphics. One hundred and twelveart education terms were found to have meanings that do havea correlative in computer graphics (Tables 4-7). However, 57of the computer graphic correlatives represent conceptswhich expand the meaning of traditional art education terms,or change the nature of its application (as noted inConceptual expansions of terminology, Tables 4 - 7).Unlike traditional design vocabulary, language is veryspecific in computer graphics. Educators should encourageart students to learn and apply proper computer terminologyto computer images. An evaluation of art educationtextbooks may be necessary to determine the degree to whichthey incorporate appropriate terminology.3.^Judging art This study found that even without knowledge ofcomputer terminology, informants had strong and well-articulated opinions about computer graphics used asstimuli. Stimulus 2, a recent 3D computer graphic, provokedboth the greatest quantity and the highest quality ofdiscussion about visual imagery. This graphic enabledintense and detailed examinations of issues, elements and183principles, as well as techniques, in both fields. Manyissues described in this study, such as the value of thehuman gesture versus the mechanical mark, can serve asprovocative starting points for discussing computer images.Implications for art history1.^The history of aesthetics This study found that art historical references are animportant part of art appreciation, and that most informantscould "read" images in terms of traditional art history.However, none of the informants "read" the two computergraphics in a historical context. While relatively short,the history of computer graphics is fascinating and has manycorrelatives with traditional art.For example, computer graphics have been produced as anart form for more than thirty years. During this time,different approaches have been taken that are linked totraditional art historical styles. Pioneer efforts havealso been made in simulating pure aesthetics, by computer-generating the characteristics of landmark artworks andpivotal art historical styles. Notions about "ideal"aesthetic structures formed an important part of earlycomputer graphics. A historical study of aesthetic184explorations in computer graphics would enhance students'understanding of both the field of computer graphics andfine art.2.^The history of studio practice As an art form, computer graphics has been led bydevelopments in electronic capabilities. In this sense, thehistory of computer art could be studied together withtraditional art forms such as painting. Studio developmentsin traditional art, such as the development of oil paint,the notion of "portable" easel painting, and the creation ofchemical pigments as well as entirely new mediums andgrounds, have shaped output in traditional art. Similarevents in computer graphics are worth studying.The manipulation of color with a computer issubtractive on screen. All colors potentially exist on thescreen and the user selects those which are appropriate, bymanipulating the default palette. The traditional artist,on the other hand, is constrained to achieving color byaggregation. It would be interesting to examine palettepotential in an art historical context. An art historicalstudy could be made of developments in art resulting fromartists' reactions to expanded palettes; of different color"schemes" used in fine and applied art during this century;185and the development of color palettes and finer resolutionin computer graphics.In conclusion: A personal noteNear the end of this study, I received a press releasedescribing a series of traditional oil paintings as"offering random access to the viewer". The artistdescribed her paintings as "layered information" on a"surface carrying synchronicity" as "elements of textinteracted with the visual". It would appear that just ascomputer artists have appropriated visual art traditions, sotraditional visual artists have begun to borrow bothterminology and paradigms of thought from computertechnology.As an art reviewer, the dilemma of choosing paradigmsfor discussing art work may be resolved for me by theartists themselves. As an art educator, I feel there ismuch work to be done. Two large areas of concern havebarely been articulated to date. The first is the need todevelop a theory of art for computer graphics which willdelineate its similarities to traditional art forms, whileat the same time develop and articulate a philosophy thatguides its differences. The second is the need to develop a186historical, practical, and theoretical curriculum for arteducation that embraces visualization technology.Art educators currently believe that people should beguided in their approaches to making art, and informed intheir responses to art. Computers cannot do this job forart educators. Computer graphic programs are highly"intuitive". They are menu-driven to teach the user how touse them, and interact with gestural input devices such astrackball or mouse to ease the learning process. However,they do not provide the kinds of structured knowledge aboutart that art educators themselves can offer, and do notguide the process of aesthetic inquiry.Art education can make a valuable contribution to thefield of computer graphics. Conversely, art education canbenefit from the incorporation of this new medium. It is aquestion of evaluating the degree to which traditionalknowledge and theories in art education are a good "fit"with computer technology. This study has evaluated oneaspect of that process: a comparison of visual elements intraditional art images and computer graphics.187REFERENCESAckerman, J.S. (1966). The historian as critic. InSmith, R.A. (Ed.). Aesthetics and criticism in art education. Chicago: Rand McNally.Ackroyd, S. and Hughes, J.A. (1981). 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Leonardo: Computer Art in ContextSupplemental issue. 43-48.Ocvirk, 0., Bone, R., Stinson, R. and Wigg, P. (1975).Art fundamentals: Theory and practice (3rd ed.).Dubuque, IA: William Brown.Pearse, H.P. (1992). Beyond paradigms: Art educationtheory and practice in a postparadigmatic world.Studies in Art Education. 33 (4). 244-252.Pope, E.R. (1988). The significance of the computer inart. In Farley, F.H. and Neperud, R.W. (Eds.) Thefoundations of aesthetics, art, and art education.321-336. New York: Praeger.Sanders, W.B. and Pinhey, T.K. (1983). The conduct ofsocial research. New York: Holt, Rinehart andWinston.Spradley, J.P. (1980). Participant observation. NewYork: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Varro, T. (1992). Emerging roles for art educators:Toward the year 2000. BCATA Journal. 32 (2). 15-19.Weitz, M. (1962). The role of theory in aesthetics. In J.Margolis (Ed.). Philosophy looks at the arts: Contemporary readings in aesthetics. New York:Charles Scribner's Sons. 48-62.191Wilson, S. (1991). Technological research and developmentas a source of ideas and inspiration for artists.Leonardo. 24 (4). 433-440.Wright, R. (1989). The image in art and computer art.Leonardo: Computer Art in Context SupplementalIssue. 49-53.192APPENDIX ALiterature used in domain analysisArt educationChapman, L.H. (1992). Art: Images and ideas.Worcester, Mass: Davis.Elementary fine arts curriculum guide (1985).Province of B.C.: Ministry of Education.Lauer, D.A. (1979). Design basics. New York: Holt,Rinehart and Winston.Malcolm, D. (1972). Design: Elements and principles.Worcester, Mass.: Davis.Ocvirk, 0., Bone, R., Stinson, R. and Wigg, P.(1975). Art fundamentals: Theory and practice (3rd ed). Dubuque, IA: William Brown.Computer graphics educationAutodesk 3D Studio manual and tutorial manual.Batty, M. (1987). Microcomputer graphics. London:Chapman and Hall.Bixby, R. Corel draw! 3.(1993). New York: John Wiley.Csuri, C. (1979). Computer graphics and art. InBooth, K. (Ed). Computer graphics. New York:IEEE.Franke, H.W. (1985). Theoretical foundations ofcomputer art. Computer graphics,computer art.Berlin: Springer Verlag.Friedhoff, R.M. and Benzon, W.(1989). Visualization.New York:Abrams.Hearn, D. and Baker, M.P. (1986). Computer graphics.Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.Inside MacIntosh, Volume I (1985). Addison-Wesley:Apple Computer Inc.Kerlow, I.V. and Rosebush, J. (1986). Computergraphics for designers and artists. New York: VanNostrand Reinhold.MacPaint Manual, Claris.193APPENDIX B- 1Sample of terminology in art education textsLine ProblemsProblem 1The artist may combine expressive calligraphy and therepresentational characteristics of line in the sameimage (fig. 4.16).Select a few moderately complex subjects. Drawthese experimentally in a continuous contour line,defining the subject but at the same time allowingthe drawing instrument to roam freely, to makesudden changes in direction, and to overlap itself.The line should dwell in some areas, movingsteadily, improvising as it moves, and movingdirectly from one area  to another. Try drawingquickly as well as slowly. The intention is to pro-duce works that are at the same time definitiveand spontaneous, expressive and disciplined. Theline should have calligraphic qualities (see Cal-ligraphy under "Definitions"; see also plate 18and fig. 4.3).Problem 2Lines may vary according to their physical properties.a. In one or more frame shapes create interestingline arrangements in one medium. Vary the mea-sure, type, direction, and location of the lines.b. Repeat the line arrangements in several othermedia and compare the resulting works for dif-ferences in character.fromOcvirk et al., (1975). Art fundamentals: Theory andpractice (3rd ed)., page 50. (Emphasis mine).194111111111 111111111Sample of terminology in computer graphics textsfloating point numbers. Computer graphicsemploys either integer or floating pointnumbers depending on whether the databeing measured is discrete or continuous.Discrete data occurs in ditinct units. In-dividuals, playing cards, and letters of thealphabet must all be represented by dis-crete data, as they cannot be divided andstill retain their identity. Likewise, the pagesof this book come in integer whole num-bers and are not counted in fractional units.Data is continuous if the axis or di:mension that is measured has no apparentindivisible unit from which it is composed.Examples abound in our space-time-matterenvironment, such as weight, length, andtemperature as well as an intelligencequotient or a readability index; no matterhow precise the scale of measurement, afiner resolution always exists.The continuous/discrete dichotomy ap-plies to graphics as well as to Cartesianspaces Both incorporate an _origin. axes,and equal-interval scales. lithe Cartesianspace is floating point  and continuous,then a location is expressed as a decimal number and called a point, which is anXY number pair lithe Cartesian space isdiscr_e_t_e, a tacaiQn_i_sexw-_e.pair of integers and is called a pixel (fig.1-21). Pixels cannot be fractional.The distinction between point (line) andpixel representations is analogous' to thedistinction between line copy  and halftones in traditional graphics. Logos, diagrams,and type—objects with sharp edges andno continuous tone—are best representedas line copy, while photographs, paintings,and shaded color areas  (benday) are bestrepresented using continuous tone meth-ods. Of course, it is possible to representlogos, type, and rules using halftone methods and to represent photographsusing line copy techniques, but this cross-over seldom improves visibility and is notrecommended except to achieve a partic-ular artistic effect.Many aspects of computer graphics canbe either discretely or continuoUsly rep-resented—time and color for example.Pixels and points are everyday tools thatillustrate the fundamental differences be-tween the two.fromKerlow and Rosebush, (1986). Computer graphics fordesigners and artists, page 14. (Emphasis mine).195APPENDIX B-2Sample of terminology found in glossaries and lists(Art education)Linepath of movementactive - passivebold - delicateflowing - lightstraight - curvedthick - thindark-lightbroken - continuousgeometric - organicimplied - actualprecise - irregularcontour - outlinecalligraphyfrom Chapman, L.H. (1992). Art: Images and ideas,p.40.196Sample of terminology found in glossaries and lists(Computer graphics)- Translation and rotation of pictures and subpictures.- Windowing:singling out a window-like area which can then betreated separately, for instance by coloring it or by zoomingit.- Zooming: the enlargement of subpictures or windowed struc-tures;Clipping: the clipping of line segments which extend beyondthe window border.- Locator Operation for locating a point or a line.Pick Operation:the identification of a graphical element on thebasis of spatial coincidence. The so-called choice simulationapplies procedures of this kind, for instance when a digitizingtable is being overlaid by a menu of light buttons. Since thecomputer using the pick operation is capable of recognizingthe light button picked, it can also understand the associatedchoice.- Temporary Storage: the stored pictures can be retrieved at anytime during a design session.Overlay Technique: the overlay of storage levels.Filling of Closed Polygons: for instance by coloring, textures,etc.from Franke, H.W. (1985). Computer graphics, p. 27197Sample of terminology found in indexes(Art education)scale (proportion), 66-83of art, 69-70within art, 72-75unexpected scale, 75variations in scale, 72-73confusion, 76-77and focal_point, 66and the Golden Mean, 82and human proportions, 79-81and relative size, 66Serifos, Greece, view of, 15Schwartzenegger, Arnold, biceps of, 74, 75Schwitters, Kurt, From Kate Steinitz, 202Sekine, Nobuo, Phases of Nothingness—Cone, 199Seurat, Georges, Ballerina, 162, 163; Le Chahut, 56;The Channel at Gravelines, Petit Fort Philippe, 182,183; Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La GrandeJatte, 178, 179Severini, Gino, Dynamic Hieroglyphic of the BalTabarin, 194, 195shape (form), 172-195abstraction, 178-179curvilinear, 87-89dots as, 182-185naturalism of, 174-177distortion, 174-175_ idealism, 176-177Tapies, Antoni, Great Painting, 200, 201texture, 198-209and pattern, 208-209tactile, 200-203in collage, 202-203visual, 204-207trompe-l'ceil, 206-207Theseum, 144, 145Tintoretto, Jacopo, The Crucifixion, 72, 73Titian, Bacchus and Ariadne, 55To the Mummies, 4, 5Tooker, George, The Subway, 104, 105Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de, A La Mie, 166, 167;Monsieur Boileau at the Cafe, 7trompe-rceil, 206Trumbull, John, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis, 26unity, 2-19intellectual, 4with variety, 12-19in architecture, 15visual, 4ways to achieve, 7-11continuation, 10proximity, 7repetition, 8from Lauer, D. (1979). Design Basics, p. 239.198Sample of terminology found in indexes(Computer graphics)Print Merge Dialog Box, 107Print Options Dialog Box, 92Print Setup Dialog Box, 88, 95Process Color, 182-84Rapidograph, 187Ray Path, 243^45Reftanglesblend large to small, 233-35drawing of, 14-16, 22, 36editing of, 44-45, 45-46fitting text in, 72-74rectangular solids, 241reduction of, 44 45roilncling corners of, 45snapped to a grid, 137Rectangle Tool, 21-22,315Redo, 28,45Refresh Window, 135Registration of Software, 4-5Remove Spots, 274, 275Repeat, 230, 246-47Resolution, xiii-xvRoll-Ups, 199-202, 212Rotate At- Skew Dialog Box, 47Rotatiopbitunap,114Scale with Image, 189Scattergrams, 282Scissors, 264Screen Elements, 9-10, 13-27Screen Frequency and Printing, 95-96Scripts, Editing of, 296-98Select a Brush Style Dialog Box, 268Select All, 69Setting Up, 6-7Setup Dialog Box, 88Shadow, 48-49Shapesblending of, 198-200, 230-32Shape Tot', 18, 135, 315Sharpen Paintbrush, 272Sizingin charts, 287of objects, 80of rectangles, 16, 80of windows, 10-11Skewing, 315bitmaps, 114of objects, 17, 46 ^49Slide Showcreation of, 292-96script editing of, 296-98Smear Paintbrush, 272Smoothing, 65-66fromBixby, R. (1993). Corel Draw! 3, page 324.(Emphasis mine)199APPENDIX C-1Domain analysis of sensory elementsArt Educationlineconcepts- a mark- a continuous mark, a path of movement- a path, mass or edge where length is dominantmeasure- length- widthtype- straight- curved- angular- contour- interior, cross-contour- exterior, outlines- continuous- broken- connecting- repeated- rhythmic- simple/ consistent (thickness and valueremain the same along the length)- complex- geometric- organic- precise- irregulardirection- horizontal- vertical- diagonalvalue- light/distant- dark/ close, nearweight- heavy- light- thick- thin, fine200linepresence- implied- actual- positive- negativelocationcharacter (refers to medium)- calligraphic, expressive- dynamic, active, passive- subtle, delicate- intense, bold, powerfulshapeconcept- the idea of "plane" distinguishes 2D shapesfrom 3D shapestwo-dimensional shapes- 2D shapes are single planes- also called flat or decorative shapes- have area but not volume- surface may be modeled but without depththree-dimensional shapes (sometimes referred to as"forms" because they simulate actual physicalvolumes)- 3D shapes are made up of planes- the edges of planes may not be obvious- also called volumetric or cubic- have area and volume (depth)- may use value gradation/ contrast to indicateplanes and/or depth- interact in space but their interaction doesnot have mathematical precisiontypes- outline/ contour- solid- unclear boundaries- geometric: circle, square, triangle- organic/ plastic/ biomorphic- free-form- concave, convex- hard edge- soft edge- torn edge201shape- ambiguous- complete- modeled- opaque- transparent- negative/ ground/ void- positive/ figure/ solid- location- orientationspacetwo-dimensional- flat shapes feel shallow- shapes are against the picture plane- outlines keep shapes closer to the pictureplane- depth can be suggested by- overlapping lines- overlapping shapes- converging lines- line weights- multiple views- arrangements of light and dark- a picture plane covered only with patternseliminates the feeling of space- types- negative/ positive- open/ closed- filled/ empty- actual/ implied- interior/ exterior- warm colors advance to the picture plane- cool colors recede from the picture planethree-dimensional (illusionistic)- picture plane has levels of depth- deep- shallow- perspective systems- one-dimensional- two-dimensional- three-dimensional- aerial perspective (lessening of value202spaceand value contrasts in the "distance"of the picture plane)- atmospheric perspective (backgroundbecomes more opaque or bluer)- loss of detaillighting- modeling- chiaroscuro- shadowsobject relationships- objects in the distance become smaller- objects higher than others appear to be atthe front end of the picture plane- overlapped objects appear to be at the frontof the picture plane- shapes are solids existing in space- forms and space interact, but are usuallynot mathematically definedspace can dominate formshapes often appear to escape the boundaries of thepicture planeform (physical)actual 2 1/2D (parts or areas of a flat pictureplane are physically projected into space)actual 3D (e.g. sculptures), not illusorymass- volume- opaque- transparent- weightplanes- surfaces- surface directionsstructure- geometric- spheres, cylinders, cones, cubes,pyramids- irregular- solid/ closed- penetrated/ open203patternmotifrepetitiontype- border- allover/ continuousorganization)- distorted/ variant- localized(systematictexturesurface quality- even/ uniform- uneven- smoothtype- natural/ actual/ "tactual"- invented/ man-made- engraved- embossed- impasto- relief- 2 1/2D- illusory/ simulated/ visual/ trompe- modulation of bits or areas- illusion of texture- variable line measure- variable line direction- variable line type- variable brush techniques1 oeilcolorbalance- distributed- unifiedluster- matte- shiny- semi-gloss, glossylimited palette- monochromatic- complementary (employing simultaneous contrastof colors that are opposite on the colorwheel)unlimited palette204colorhue (name of color: e.g. yellow). May also beneutral. Color interactions and simultaneouscontrast are a result of hue.value (lightness or darkness of a color)- tint (a high-value color produced by addingwhite pigment)- shade (a low-value color produced by addingblack pigment)intensity/ chroma/ saturation (brightness of acolor)- high key/ low key- bright/ dulltheory- primaries (red, yellow, blue)- secondaries (orange, green, purple)- tertiaries (intermediates, e.g. blue-green)harmony (color schemes based on the position ofhues on the color wheel)- monochromatic- analogous- complementary- triadicinnate qualities- depth- receding- advancing- temperature- cool- warm- description- local/ objective- optical (as affected by light conditionsother than "normal" daylight)- arbitrary- symbolictoneflatevencontrastingchiaroscuro/ shadedhatchingpassage205APPENDIX C-2Domain analysis of sensory elementsComputer Graphics lineconcepts- in Draw mode, a linear location with nothickness between available pixels (amathematical model rather than an actualgraphic element on the screen)- in Paint mode, a continuum of adjacentpixels (2D lines with x,y coordinates)- in 3D graphics, vectors (3D lines with x,y,zcoordinates between width, height and depth)measure- length- width- locationtype- straight: horizontal, vertical, diagonal- curved: arcs (have a start, end, and radius);semi-circles; or curves (wander)- "jagged" diagonal curved lines, often as aresult of output resolution- silhouette (designate outline)- contour (designate the height of areas, as incontour maps)- hatch patterns (dots, dashes, etc.)- connecting (vectors)direction- horizontal- vertical- diagonal- slope (degree of grade or the orientationof a line on a plane)value- variable line widths- can be zero- can be cued to show depth- result from pen modes206line- result from pen sizes- some programs support pressure-sensitivedrawing with a stylus on a tablet- variable line intensities- can be cued to show depth- thick and thin lines resulting from time-sensitive tabletspresence- positive by default- reverse/ negativelocation- designated area of a pre-determined format(eg. Paint programs)- mathematically defined in space (vector orobject-oriented graphics)shapetwo-dimensional shape- mass of pixels- has area- types of edges- horizontal- vertical- hard-edge- Cartesian coordinates x,y- polygon (a closed shape formed by lines;a sequence of connected lines)- two-dimensional/ flat/ planar- has corner points (vertices)- sides (edges)- has surface area- can be filled (with coloring,textures, etc.)- types- freehand- regions (an irregular set ofbits)- may be two dimensionallyconcave- may be two-dimensionally convex- consists of one or more areas- can have "holes"- selected (defined by an arbitrary207set of points)shape- rectangles rounded rectangles- ovals- wedges- resized- duplicated- rotated- flipped- distorted- inverted- types of edges- invisible- hard-edge- horizontal- vertical- angled- curves- coordinate systems- Cartesian coordinates x,y- local coordinate system- two-coordinate systems, x,y and r,c- geometric- using pre-selected shapes- using pen tool- organic- using freehand tool- positive- filled- transparent- opaque- region (a low-level routine, i.e. afigure as a collection of regions)- negative- location- designated area of a bitmap(predetermined format)three-dimensional shape- wireframe display- has area- has volume, with Euclidean x,y,zcoordinates- polyhedra (a volumetric solid object, likea cup or tree)208- three-dimensionalshape- has bounding edges- each face is a facet- has area- has volume, with Euclidean x,y,zcoordinates- types of edges- hard-edge (solid shapes or wireframe)- blurred or "feathered " edgegeometric- using pre-selected shapes- using points and vectorsorganic- 2D shapes can be extruded into 3Dpositivelocation- objects in relation to space- objects in relation to other objects in space- opposite of conscious formattingorientation- described by a face normal (not a coordinateor position, but a direction: e.g. how apolygon is angled in space)spacetwo-dimensional space (conscious formatting)- pixel-based graphics (methods analogous tousing a traditional brush and paint)- base of a mathematical hierarchy- Cartesian coordinates x,y- manipulations occur on the picture plane,by shuffling or replacing intensitiesor colors in the bitmap)- 2D object-based systems- above pixel-based graphics in amathematical hierarchy- depth suggested by:- overlapping lines and shapes- line thickness (not "weights")- size- near/far- shadows- contrast (arrangements of light209and dark)space- perspectivethree-dimensional space (3D graphics or 3D object-based systems)- concept: although illusory (since it istaking place behind the computer screen),3D graphics is more similar to the idea ofphysical "form" in art than to 3D space- space is infinite- objects can be located and intersected- objects can be treated as things withphysical properties (dependent on the program,objects can be assigned properties such asmass, gravity (weight, inertia), subjectedto stress testing, etc.- objects can be subjected to transformations- joined- broken into multiple objects- objects can be subjected to proceduralmodeling (a mathematical procedure in whichthe surface texture or pattern, called"image", does not stay relative to itself,but changes in proportion to the object)- lighting- omni (ambient)- spotlights (have a source and focus)- specular highlights (need a viewer: theother end of the "z" in x,y,z)- the automatic creation of- shadows- transparency (usually in degrees of100)- self-illuminated- reflectivepatterndefaultselected- pen patterns- brush patterns- area fill patternscreated- bitmaps210- texture mapspattern- opacity maps- bump maps- fractalstexturesurface rendering- smooth- blend- graduated fill- detailed (details used to make smoothtransitions between areas or objects)- polygonal shading- continuous shading- Gouraud- Phong- uneven- block-pixed- manipulated intensity values- edges- aliased ("jaggies" or "staircase" effect)- anti-aliasedcolormonochrome (black and white)limited palette- can be dithered to suggest gradationsbetween colors- pseudocolor (limited color palette appliedto black and white images)unlimited palette- 8-bit (each pixel has 1 of 256 simultaneousintensity values or colors, "chosen" from16,000,000)- 24-bit (each pixel has 1 of 16,000,000possible intensity values; "true color")pixel format resolution (the number wide by thenumber high) has an equitable volume ofintensity values. There is a correlationbetween quantity of pixels and quantity ofcolors. Generally, the higher the resolution(without extra hardware), the lower thenumber of colors.211hue (position of color on the color wheel)colorvalue/ brightness (amount of black in the color)saturation (10096 intensity without white)lightness (amount of black or white in the color)theory- primary colors red, green, blue- secondary colors cyan, magenta, yellow- black is the absence of all three primaries- white is all three primaries in full intensity- gray is all three primaries in equal intensityNote: Program example in 3D Studio1-100 Red^Hue 1-1001-100 Green Luminance 1-1001-100 Blue^Saturation 1-100tonematte surface (flat)chiaroscuro- polygonal shading/ "flat shading"- color graduated surfacescontinuous shading- Gouraud- Phong212APPENDIX D-1Domain analysis of formal principlesArt educationconceptimage as a wholean artwork is a concrete image, like hardcopy, butwithout an identical abstract selfan original, uniquethe content is part of a discrete environmentpassive contents, bound to formartworks contain signifiersthe vast majority of works employ several formalmethods simultaneouslybalancehorizontal- assumes a central vertical axis in the format- assumes a distribution of visual structureon either sidevertical- assumes vertical balance with weight at bottomsymmetry- symmetrical- elements are similar- asymmetrical- contrast of- value- shapes- texture- position- approximate symmetry of elementsdominance- dominant- subordinatetension- oppositionradial balanceallover pattern/ crystallographic balance213varietyvisual theme and variationcontrast- large against small- light against dark- cool against warm- color against color- defined edges against spacescale (size)proportion (relative size)actual/ natural/ realistic/ life-sizemonumental/ miniaturedistorted/ exaggerated/ idealizedemphasis/ focal point/ center of interest/ weightby size and by contrast of elements- one element differs from others- interrupts an overall patternby converging lines or elementsby isolation of elementsplacement of elementsdegree of emphasis- restraint in emphasis- absence of focal pointunity/ harmony/ consistency/ integrationwhole pattern is predominate over the partsdistinction between intellectual or conceptual unityand visual unityproximity- of elements- of figure to ground- dividing- separating- organizing- of format to content- of color distribution- of palette- warm- coolsurface resolution/ uniformity of surface214repetitionrepetition of characteristics (holds overall designtogether)rhythm or continuance- regular- irregular/ progressive, through increasingor decreasing elements in a series:- small to large- light to dark- smooth to rough- patterned to solid- alternationcontinuationdominant path of movementline, edge or direction continues from one form orelement to another- vertical- horizontal- diagonal- curvingfield of viewenclosedcroppedlighting215APPENDIX D-2Domain analysis of formal principlesComputer graphics conceptimage as a wholeobject-oriented graphics and 3D graphics have anidentical abstract selfimage may be part of a discrete environment (2Dbitmaps) or part of a continuous environment(3D graphics)may not be an originalexcept in hardcopy, contents are dynamic andinteractiveartworks contain signifiersthe vast majority of works employ several formalmethods simultaneously, although hierarchicallyarranged according to mathematics and procedureshierarchical assemblagepictures or systems ("universals") are ahierarchical assemblage composed of parts orelements ("primitives")"primitives" are often incorporated into proceduresor sub-routines"universals" can be decomposed or disaggregatedinto their constituent partsprimitives are assembled with additionalsynthesizing elements; i.e. the sum is greaterthan the partsbalanceregularity (relates to the traditional concept ofsymmetry)- local- globalcomplexity (local and global)- shape variety- color variety- business- noise216unitylow color varietyresolution- image is affected uniformly by the resolutionof the outputtemporal priority- what is written first stays written untilit is overwritten: the order of commands ismaintained- can be used by the artist to structure hiswork; e.g. landscapes: one thing leads toanotherlighting (3D graphics)reflection (the amount of reflected light variesaccording to the relationship between theangle of incidence and the angle of view)- matte or diffuse (dull, flat light)- shininess- specular (highlights)refraction (uses ray tracing to cause reflectionsto adapt to a new surface)can reveal transparencyatmospherics (such as fog: can be set for 96 near,1-6 far, and color)luminescence (self-illuminating)shadows- hard-edge- transparent- penumbras- blending tools- shadow map resolutionemphasiswindowing- isolation of regions in 2D graphics- zooming (enlargement of sub-pictures orwindowed structures)repetitionrecursion/ self-similarity- parts that reflect the whole- detail is produced by the same procedure thatproduced the overall structure (i.e. fractals)217repetitionreplication/ recursion- one of the greatest strengths of computergraphicsability to replicate detail in great abundancerepresentations are quantitatively rich/ preciseboth regular and broken symmetries can bemanipulatedvarietyrandomness- random choices of local details temperrepeatability and samenessexperimentation- the necessity of improving the quality ofprograms and picture structure throughinteractive use218APPENDIX EComparative taxonomy of sensory elementsELEMENTS^ART EDUCATION^COMPUTER GRAPHICSTWO-DIMENSIONALSPACE1. Matricesconcept matrix-based forms of art(eg. needlepoint,weaving, mosaics, hard-edge abstract gridpaintings)concept pixel-based graphics(eg. Paint programs)two-dimensional space bitmapdiscrete environment discrete environmentconscious formatting conscious formattingshapes are composed ofindividual stitches, tiles,sections, etc.shapes are intensities ofcolor selected in a bitmapeach shape is one layerdeepbitmap manipulations(changing intensities orcolors by replacing them)shapes are areas of amatrix (grid)shapes (called regions) useCartesian coordinates x,ydepthdevices(generally not applicable) depth cues the illusion of layered linesand areasline thicknessescontrast contrastcolor gradations color gradationsTWO-DIMENSIONALSPACE2. Designsconcept arrangements on apicture planeconcept 2D object-based systemstwo-dimensional space 2D graphicsdiscrete environment- not consciouslyformatteddiscrete environment- using Cartesiancoordinates x,y- using a local coordinatesystem- using a two-coordinatesystemflat shapes feel shallowshapes are against thepicture planepicture planemanipulationsselections and procedurestypes negative or posisitve types positive by defaultopen or closed open or closed219ELEMENTS^ART EDUCATION^COMPUTER GRAPHICS2D Space:Designsfilled or empty filled or emptyactual or implied positive by defaultinterior or exteriormeasure scale properties scalespacing positioningposition locationdepthdevicesoverlapping flat shapes("layered" shapes)depth cues layered shapesconverging lines perspectiveline weights line thicknesses/intensitiesarrangements of light anddarkdrop shadowscolor theory- warm colors advanceto the picture plane- cool colors recedefrom the pictureplanecolor codingTWO-DIMENSIONALSPACE3. Continuousfieldsconcept soft-edge abstracts,photographs, washes, etc.two-dimensional spacecontinuous environmentnot consciouslyformattedTWO-DIMENSIONALSHAPE1. Area of amatrixconcept area of the matrix design concept - region of pixels- set of bitstypes positive/figure types region (a figure is acollection of regions)negative/ground bitmapposition not explicit ("upperright", "lower left" etc.)location designated area of a bitmapin a predetermined formatnot explicit ("to the right"or "left of')mathematic orientation toother shapesareastructurepositive- regular- irregularregionstructurepositive (irregular only)- may be 2D concave- may be 2D convexconsists of one or moreareasconsists of one or more areaspositive types may have"negative spaces"may have holesedges hard-edge sides hard-edge by default220ELEMENTS^ART EDUCATION^COMPUTER GRAPHICS"staircase"effect; jag,giesTWODIMENSIONALSHAPE2. Planeconcept flat surface concept a polygon (a sequence ofconnected lines)essentially two-dimensionaltwo-dimensional"decorative" flat/planarrelationships with othershapes give the illusionof a third dimension (eg.overlapping)relationships with othershapes give the illusion of athird dimension (eg.layering)types created types - selected- createdmay be repeated - may be duplicated- may be swept (a procedurewhich repeats a shape)inverted invertedturned rotatedflippedopen or closed closedfilled filledempty outlineactual shapesimplied hidden shapesshapestructuregeometric (circle,square, triangle)- using tools- freehandpolygonstructuregeometric (circle, ellipse,square, rectangle, triangle,polygon etc.)- using pre-selected 2Dshapes- using pen tool and 2Dline segmentsorganic/plastic/biomorphic/freeformorganic using freehandtool (pixel-based brushin Paint layer)sizes are not explicit ("ofdifferent proportions")may be resizedsurface may be modeled (withoutintending an illusion ofdepth)fill can be filled with coloringor textures but not modeledmay use value gradation may use value gradationmay use value contrast may use value contrastopaque/solid opaque/solidtransparent transparent221ELEMENTS^ART EDUCATION^COMPUTER GRAPHICS2D Shape:Planeoutlined/contour framededges hard-edge sides hard-edge by defaultcorners vertices (corner points)freehand freehand in Paint mode onlysoft-edge may be "feathered" (aprocedure which dithersthe pixels)N/A invisibleTWO-DIMENSIONALSHAPE3. Formlessconcept an area of a continuouspicture plane (eg. awatercolor wash)two-dimensionaltypes positive/"form"negative/groundposition not explicit ("upperright", "lower left" etc.)area structure often called a "form" or"formless shape"edges soft-edgeblendedTHREE-DIMENSIONALSPACEconcept picture plane has levelsof depth (described as"deep", "shallow")concept 3D graphics copy laws ofphysicssimulates a continuousenvironment- continuous environmenton screen- discrete environment inhardcopyperspective linear- one-dimensional- two-dimensional- three-dimensionalenvironment space is infinitedepth devices atmospheric perspective depth cues degrees of atmosphericsaerial perspective degrees of transparencylighting - ambient lighting- spotlights- specular highlightsshading/modeling modelingshadows - cast shadows- ray tracing222ELEMENTS^ART EDUCATION^COMPUTER GRAPHICSTHREE-DIMENSIONALSPACE- objects in the distanceare proportionatelysmaller- higher objects appearfarther back- overlapping objectsappear to be in frontobjects are in geometricrelationship to others inspacespace may be used todominate formcroppingframingTHREE-DIMENSIONALSHAPE1. Wireframeconcept 3D art forms such aswire sculpture, ratherthan 2D artconcept wireframe displayactual three-dimensionalform- three-dimensional gridsin a void- two-dimensionalhardcopynon-mathematical has volume, with Euclideanx,y and z axessides hard-edge (lines)structure and sides are thesame thing (no surfaces)may be concave may be concavemay be convex may be convexTHREE -DIMENSIONALSHAPE2. Illusionconcept a 2D projection concept a polyhedrala volumetric or cubic 2Dshapevolumetric (3D) in a voidillusion of threedimensions- illusion of threedimensions in hardcopy- solid object in the voidhas area on the pictureplane- has area in hardcopy- has area and volumewith x,y and z axes inthe void3D illusion from a fixed2D viewpoint- objects behave and aretreated more like actual3D forms- fixed viewpoint only inhardcopy223ELEMENTS^ART EDUCATION^COMPUTER GRAPHICS3D Shape:Illusionposition positioned on a pictureplanelocation objects are in mathematicalrelation to spare (notconsciously formatted on amatrix)orientation described by the direction offace normals (the facetsoriented to z, the viewer)depth devices shading/modeling depth devices modelingshadows cast shadowsray tracingimagestructuremade up of planes(surface directions)objectstructuremade up of facets(each face is a facet)planes may be blended facets may be smoothedgeometric (sphere, cube,pyramid, cone)- using tools- freehandgeometric (sphere, cube,pyramid, cone etc.)- using preselectedvolumetric shapes- using extrusion orsurfaces of revolution- using points andvectorsorganic/biomorphic (2D) freehand polygons (2D)plastic (3D) organic (2D freehandpolygons can be extrudedinto 3D)objectpropertiesobjects may be assigned"mass" and act as if theydisplay space (also gravity,weight, inertia etc., andmay be stress-tested)may be subjected totransformations (joined,broken into multiples objectsetc.)objects may be intersectedobjects act as if they havephysical surfaces (eg.reflective surfaces)may be subjected toprocedural modeling (thesurface texture or patternchanges in proportion to thesubject)224ELEMENTS^ART EDUCATION^COMPUTER GRAPHICS3D Shape:Illusionsurface solid image (in 3D,refers to thesurface textureor pattern)bitmappedmay be transparentmay be self-illuminatedmay be reflectivedevices like modeling areused to simulate anappearance of depthhas actual volume (z) in thevoidedges hard-edge sides bounding edgessoft-edge dithered, blurred orfeathered edgemay be open (passage) orclosedmay be penetrated(interaction betweenshape and space)FORM concept 2 1/2 D or actual 3D(eg. a real object,sculpture, assemblage,mobile, etc.)concept 3D outputobjectpropertiesmassweightplanes (surfaces andsurface directions)objectstructuregeometricirregularsolid/closedpenetrated/opensurface opaquetransparentLINE concepts - a mark- a pointconcepts - a pixel (on screen)- a dot-per-inch (inhardcopy)a path, mass or edgewhere length is dominant- a continuum of adjacentpixels- a row225ELEMENTS^ART EDUCATION^COMPUTER GRAPHICSLine a continuous mark - 2D segments with x,ycoordinates (go betweenwidth and height orbetween localcoordinates)- 3D vectors with x,y,zcoordinates (gobetween width, heightand depth)a invisible linear location (amathematical model ratherthan an actual graphicelement on screen)types - freehand- geometric- organictypes follow grid patterns onscreen and in hard copystraight- horizontal- vertical- diagonalstraight- horizontal (x)- vertical (y)- diagonal/slope (x+y)curved- geometric- freehandcurved- arcs (have a start, endand radius)- semi-circles- curves (Bezier,quadratic andFournier are equationsthat describe themathematics of thecurves between thedefining points)- freehand inPaint modecontinuous continuousjagged diagonal and curvedlines (a result of outputresolution in 3D graphics)contour lines/ cross-contour lines (exterioroutlines)silhouette lines(designate the outline)cross-contour (designatesurface changes)contour lines (designateheight of areas)connecting - 2D lines/segments- 3D vectors226ELEMENTS^ART EDUCATION^COMPUTER GRAPHICSLine repeated iteratedmeasure direction- horizontal- vertical- diagonalproperties orientation- horizontal (x)- vertical (y)- 2D diagonal line orslope (degree ofgrade on a plane, x+y)- 3D diagonal vector (z)weight- heavy/ dark/ wide/thick- light/thin/fineintensity- thick (a result of penmode or sizes in pixelor 2D graphics)- thin (a result of penmode or sizes)value- dark- lightvalue- resulting from pressureor time-sensitivetablets- can be zero (+)depth devices depth cues 2D or 3D linesdark or heavy linesappear close/nearlines can be cued to showdistance by using variableintensities (thick, thin etc.)or colorslight lines appeardistantlines can be cued to showdistancestructure - broken- dotted, dashedstructure hatch patterns (dots, dashes,etc.)angular broken (ie. silhouette lines)simple/consistent simple/consistent by defaultcomplex (eg. sketching)patternedpresence - implied- actualselection - invisible- positivepositive (dependent oncontrast of media toground)positive by default(dependent on contrast)negative (dependent oncontrast)reverseerasedcharacter a result of media regularity - variable widths as a resultof time- or pressure-sensitive drawing tablets- result of pen patterns227ELEMENTS^ART EDUCATION^COMPUTER GRAPHICSLine active or passiveprecise/regular orirregularexpressive or dynamiccalligraphicsubtle/delicatebold/powerful/intensePATTERN concept a series of repeatedelements or motifsconcepts -default patterns-selected patterns- pen patterns- brush patterns- area fill patterns- bitmaps (eg.reflection map)- created patterns- fractalstypes border types borderallover/continuous - fill/ opacity map/texture map- reiterated' duplicated- recursivedistorted/variant bump-mappedlocalized - area fill- image-mappinggrid - bitmapTEXTURE concept surface quality concept surface renderingmay have surface depthor layeringsingle layer outputtypes natural/actual typesinvented/man-made(engraved, embossed,impasto, relief etc.)illusory/ simulated/visual/ trompe l'oeilsimulatedsurface even/uniform(distributed or unified)image (3D) - bit-mapped- opacity mapped- uneven modulation ofbits or areas- illusory variables:- line measure- line type- line direction- brush techniquesuneven 2D- block-pixed- manipulated intensityvaluesuneven 3D- texture mapped- bump mapped228ELEMENTS^ART EDUCATION^COMPUTER GRAPHICSTexture smooth smooth 2D- blend- graduated fill- polygonal shadingsmooth 3D- continuous shading- Gouraud- Phongluster/sheen- matte- shiny/ semi-gloss/glossy3D effects- luminance- matte- glossy- self-illuminating- reflection mappededges 2D- "jaggies" or staircase"effect3D- aliased or "jaggies"- anti-aliasedCOLOR concept made of pigment, dyeetc.concept - dots of ink in hardcopy- made of light on screencolors absorb or reflectlight- colors absorb or reflectlight in hardcopy- colors are luminant onscreentypes local/objective color types selected coloroptical color as altered by colorspotlights, etc.arbitrary color arbitrary colorsymbolic colors used togenerate aestheticresponsessymbolic colors used forcoding in technicalapplications (eg. medicalor engineering)palette monochrome (black,white, gray)palette monochrome (black orwhite/ on or off)tints pseudocolor- limited palette- full palettepalette-1, 8, 16, 24 or 32 bit229ELEMENTS^ART EDUCATION^COMPUTER GRAPHICSColor palette is limited by therange of chosen oravailable pigmentsthe number of colorscorrelates to the pixel formatresolution:^the fewercolors, the higher theresolution(the more colors, the lowerthe resolution)color scheme - monochromatic- analogous- complementary- triadiccolor design color tablescolor theory additive color theory - additive in hardcopy- subtractive on screenprimaries red, yellow,blue- primaries cyan, magentaand yellow in hardcopy- primaries red, green, blueon screensecondaries purple,green, orange- secondaries purple,greenorange in hardcopy- secondaries cyan,magenta, yellow onscreenblack is the presence ofall three primariesblack is the absence of allthree primarieswhite is the absence ofall three primarieswhite is the presence of allthree primaries in fullintensityshade gray results from addingblack to any pigmentlightness amount of black or white inthe colora low-value colorproduced by addingblack pigmentamount of black in the colorintensity brightness or dullness ofa color- bright or dull- high key or low keysaturation 100% intensity withoutwhitehue name of the color on thecolor wheel (eg. yellow-green)hue default name of color (eg.yellow)value lightness or darkness ofa colorbrightness/contrastgray is all three primaries inequal intensitydepth receding coloradvancing colortemperature cool or warm230ELEMENTS^ART EDUCATION^COMPUTER GRAPHICSTONE concept qualities of light anddarkconcept shading and shadowstypes flat, even types mattechiaroscuro (treatmentof light and shade)- 2D chiaroscuro- 3D flat shading(polygonal shading)modeling (shading intones of light and dark)continuous shading- Gouraud- Phong (includesspecular highlights)modeling (shading withcolor gradiants)- color is mapped ontoshading- Gouraud shading createsgradiants of colorhatchingpassageshadows- cast- hard-edge- soft-edgeshadows- cast- hard-edge- penumbras- drop231APPENDIX FComparative taxonomy of formal principlesPRINCIPLES^ART EDUCATION^ COMPUTER GRAPHICSFORMALIMAGEconcept image viewed as a whole concept - hardcopy image- screen or digital imagematrix forms digital medium in Paint snd 2Dobject-oriented systemsanalog forms continuous medium in 3Dgraphicsconcrete - concrete in hardcopy only- dynamic on screenimage is stable only hardcopy is stableone original three originals- digital data- multiple screen originalscoexistin pixel-based, 2D or 3Dgraphics- hardcopy graphicsprintmaking multiples hardcopy multiplescontent content is created in adiscrete environment calleda formatcontent - 2D bitmap content is created in adiscrete (matrix) environment- 2D object-oriented content iscreated in a discrete(coordinate) environment- 3D graphics content is createdin a continuous environmentcontents are passive contents are passive only inhardcopycontents are bound to form contents are bound to hardcopyartworks contain signifiers(the "language" of art)contain signifiers (evidence ofselections and procedures, such as"sweeping" or a particalprocedure)several formal principlesmay operate simultaneouslyformal principles are appliedhierarchicallystructure formalist images arecomposed of parts called"elements" of artstructure pictures ("universals") arehierarchical assemblages of partsor elements called "primitives"elements of art can befurther broken down (ie.motif + repetition = pattern)primitives are often incorporatedinto procedures or subroutines232PRINCIPLES^ART EDUCATION^ COMPUTER GRAPHICSFormalimagethe formalist image can besubjected to "aestheticscanning" for individualelements of artuniversals may be decomposed orclisaggregated into theirconstituent partsthe sum is greater than theparts (due to visual andconceptual relationshipsbetween elements)the sum is greater than the parts(due to additional synthesizingelements)procedures formal principles result fromworking spontaneously withmedia and elements of artprocedures formal principles arehierarchically arranged in bothmathematics and proceduresspontaneity have temporal and mathematicalprioritydynamic dynamicinteractive interactivethe image has no identicalabstract self (the result of amental model)the image has an identical abstractself (a mathematical model)FORMALBALANCEhorizontal - assumes a central verticalaxis in the format orobject- visual structure isdistributed to either sidehorizontal regions, polygons or objects maybe subjected to Flip Horizontalprocedurevertical the "weight" of the image isat the bottomvertical regions, polygons or objects maybe subjected to Flip Verticalproceduresymmetry balance of the sameelementsglobalregularityduplicated and flippedradialbalancedesign elements radiatefrom a central pointrotation objects rotated around a circlealloverpatternrepeated motifs (eg. lines,geometric or organicshapes) distributeduniformly across the surfacecontinuouspatterna result of procedures foriteration or recursion (eg. fractals)INFORMALBALANCEasymmetry off-balancecontrast of- value- shapes- texture- positionbrokensymmetries- regions, polygons or objectsmay be transformed withRotate, Slant, Stretch orDistort procedures- randomness of local detailsapproximatesymmetrysymmetry using two or moredifferent elements tointuitively balance thedesign233PRINCIPLES^ART EDUCATION^COMPUTER GRAPHICSVARIETY/CONTRASTshapevarietydominantsubordinateproportion (relative size)- actual/natural/realistic- distorted/exaggerated/idealized- miniature- monumental- manneredscalethemevariety- perceptual- conceptualtone variety - light against dark- defined edges againstspacecolorvariety- variety of hue- variety of tint- cool color against warmUNITY/HARMONY1. VisualUnityconcept unity of visual elementsthe whole pattern ispredominant over the partsclarity ofimagecomplex graphicformvariablescomplexity- local- globalsimple regularity- local- globalbusy "busyness""noise"randomnessrepetition repetition of characteristics repetition - duplication- replication- iterationrhythm/continuance- regular- irregular/progressive(increasing ordecreasing elements in aseries, eg. from small tolarge, light to dark)recursion/self-similarity- details and parts reflect thewhole- detail is produced by the sameprocedure that produced theoverall structure (ie. fractals)234PRINCIPLES^ART EDUCATION^COMPUTER GRAPHICSUnity/harmony:Visualproximityof elementscontinuation (a line, edge ordirection continues from oneelement to another)- vertical- horizontal- diagonal- curvingfigure to ground- dividing- separating- organizingformat to contentcolor distributioncolorscheme- monochromatic- analogous- complementary- triadiccolor "look-up" tablesgradation - color gradation- texture gradients- perspectivegradients - gradients- ping-pongedsurface uniform density (image isaffected uniformly byreflected light on media)a graphic/an imageuniform resolution (the image isaffected uniformly by theresolution of the output)UNITY/HARMONY2. Conceptualconcept intellectual/conceptual unity(resulting from "meanings"of parts of images)EMPHASIS concept focal point(s)center of interest"weight" of the picturetypes degree of emphasis typesrestraint in emphasisabsence of focal point absence of focal pointstructure isolation of elements structure isolation of elementsplacement of elements placement of elementsLIGHTING types (3Dgraphics)reflection (the angle of incidenceand the angle of view can bemanipulated)- matte or diffuse- shininess- specularrefraction (uses ray tracing tocause reflections to adapt to a newsurface)235PRINCIPLES^ART EDUCATION^COMPUTER GRAPHICSLighting transparency of images (can berevealed and adjusted withlighting)luminescence (self-illuminating)shadowsFORMAT perspective directed field ofviewenclosedcropped can be- selected (pixel graphics)- windowed (2D graphics)- cropped (3D graphics)scale the scale of the format inrelation to the scale of thevisual contentthe scale of the format inrelation to conceptualcontentorientationof format tocontenthorizontal : "earthly" view horizontal by default ("portrait")vertical: "spiritual" vertical may be selected on someprograms ("landscape")circularirregular236APPENDIX GStimulus 1Untitled, Pixel graphicTosiyasu L. Kunii, Tokyo University237Stimulus 2Peonies, 3D graphicNed Greene, New York Institute of Technology238Stimulus 3Presenting George Littlechild and His Horse.George Littlechild, Mixed media on paper, 30 x 30"239Stimulus 4Self-Portrait with Blue GuitarDavid Hockney, Oil on canvas, 152.4 x 182.9 cm.240APPENDIX HDescription of stimuliStimulus 1: Untitled, Pixel graphic. Tosiyasu L. Kunii,Tokyo UniversityElements of art line^- uneven contour/ silhouette, jagged- vertical, horizontal, diagonal- negative/ reversedshape^- two-dimensional- geometric, organic- solid, outlinespace^- two-dimensional- matrix, bitmap- positive and negativepattern^- localized (dress)- allover, invariant (dress)color^- limited palette- analogous- cooltexture^- illusory- even/ uniform/ invariant (pixel pattern)- localized (figure)tone^- flat- contrastPrinciples of art unity^- format to content241- unified palette- proximity of figure to ground: separatedrepetition - regular pattern (on dress)emphasis - isolation of element (pattern on dress)- outline/ silhouette linebalance^- horizontalscale/ proportion - actuallighting - diffuse reflectionuniformity of surface - low resolution "jaggies"- contrast (pixel texture against solid)field of view - almost enclosed (cropped feet)Stimulus 2: Peonies, 3D graphic. Ned Greene, New YorkInstitute of TechnologyElements of art line^- broken- interior/ cross-contour (designate changesin surface of bark)shape^- 3D- organicspace^- 3D- object-based system- one-point perspective- atmospheric perspective242- loss of detailpattern^- allover- variant/ irregular- decreasingcolor^- limited palette- complementary color scheme (red and green)texture^- natural (the bark is an algorithm derivedfrom plaster casts of actual bark)- mapping (flowers and leaves were modeledas grids of fine polygons then colored bytexture mapping)- smooth/ eventone^- even- continuous shading (Gouraud)Principles of art unity^- recursive imagery- proximity of figure to ground: organizingrepetition - irregularemphasis - placement and scale of elements- vanishing pointbalance - approximate symmetry- radial balancescale/ proportion - actual/ naturallighting - diffuse reflection/ no shadows- atmosphericsuniformity of surface - high resolution243field of view - croppedStimulus 3: Presenting George Littlechild and HisHorse, George Littlechild, mixed media onpaper, 30 x 30".Elements line^- bold- continuous- irregular contour- positive and negativeshape^- 2D/ flat- layered- face is semi-3D due to contour linesspace^- 2D (overlapping)- 3D (modeling on face)pattern^- motif/ repetition- allover/ continuous (spots)- border (squares)color^- unlimited palette- tintstexture - invented/ man-made- impastotone^- contrastingPrinciples of art unity^- proximity of figure to ground: dividing- repetition: irregular (decreasing)repetition - repeated shapes- repeated motifsemphasis - contrast (scale)balance - symmetrical and asymmetrical- horizontal and verticalscale/ proportion - distorted/ unnaturallighting - diffuse reflection- no shadowsuniformity of surface- even (impasto: brushwork of a similarscale)- low resolutionfield of view - enclosedStimulus 4: Self-Portrait with Blue Guitar, DavidHockney, oil on canvas, 152.4 x 182.9 cm.Elementsline^- delicate- contour/ silhouette lines- repeated diagonal perspective linesshapespace- some 3D- some 3D (both outline and modeled)- geometric and organic- 2D- 3D projection- isometric projection245pattern^- localized- allover/ continuous- distorted/ variantcolor^- unlimited palette- primary colorstexture^- illusory/ simulated- smooth- modulated areastone^- chiaroscuro/ shading- flat- contrastingPrinciples of artunity^- proximity of figure to ground: organizing- conceptual unityrepetition - repeated lines/ angles/ styles/ colorsemphasis - isolation of elements- placement of elements- degree of emphasisbalance^- symmetrical- horizontal and verticalscale^- actual/ naturallighting - inconsistentuniformity of surface - non-uniform- both flat and impasto- high resolution246APPENDIX IInterview questions1. To begin, could you tell me about this picture?2. I would like to know how you would describe thedifferent parts of this image.Prompts:Stimulus 1 Could you describe the different areas of this figure(dress, limbs, face, etc.)?Could you describe the edges of this figure?Could you describe the background?Stimulus 2 Could you describe the different areas in this picture(flowers, leaves, vines, etc.)?Could you describe the edges of these areas?Stimulus 3 Could you describe the different areas of this picture(face, horse, background, border design, etc.)?247Could you describe the edges of these areas?Stimulus 4 Could you describe the different areas of this image?Could you describe the surfaces of different areas andobjects?3. I would like to know what you think about the image as awhole, in terms of its composition or arrangement in space.Prompts:Stimulus 1 Could you describe the colors or the palette of thispicture?Could you describe the way the different areas are organizedin a composition or in space?Stimulus 2 Could you describe the colors or the palette of the picture?Could you describe the way these different areas areorganized in a composition or in space?Could you describe the lighting in this picture?Stimulus 3 Could you describe the colors or the palette of thispicture?Could you describe the way these different areas are248organized in a composition or in space?Stimulus 4 Could you describe the perspective of different objects?Could you describe their location in space?Could you describe the colors or the palette of the picture?Could you describe the lighting in this picture?4. On the basis of its visual structure, do you think thisis a successful image?5. Do you think there are any connections between the waycomputer artists and traditional artists (or computergraphics educators and art educators) might talk about thisimage?249APPENDIX JSubject contact letterTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAFaculty of Education2125 Main MallVancouver, B.C. Canada V61 1Z4Room 2115, Scarfe Building,Department of Visual and Performing Arts,Faculty of Education,2125 Main Mall,University of British Columbia.May 27, 1993.DearI am a graduate student in the Faculty of Education atU.B.C. currently conducting a study for my M.A.I am doing a study of the terms used by computergraphicists, artists and art educators to talk about artimages. I will be interviewing eight subjects who work inone or more of these areas.Your name has been recommended to me as a person whomight be interested in responding verbally to four artimages. The interview will take between twenty minutes andone hour, at the location of your choice and at a timeconvenient to you. The results of the study will bepublished in a Master's thesis. Your participation will beanonymous and confidential.I hope to hear from you at your earliest convenience.Sincerely,Mia Johnson822-5325 (office) or 222-2117 (home)Faculty Advisor: Dr. Ronald MacGregor (822-5340)250APPENDIX KSubject consent formTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAFaculty of Education2125 Main MallVancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Z4Consent form: Responses to visual images InvestigatorMia JohnsonVisual and Performing Arts in Education,Faculty of Education,University of British Columbia.822-5325 or 222-2117Faculty Advisor: Dr. Ronald MacGregor (822-5340)Purpose of the project To examine the kinds of terms and concepts used bycomputer artists and educators to describe and discuss thevisual structure of art images, and to compare them to termsand concepts used by art educators. An interpretation ofthe interview data may be used in a Master's thesis and injournal articles.Procedures Subjects of the study will be shown four reproductionsof traditional and computer art and asked to describe theimages in their own words. Subjects will also be asked tocomment on connections between the fields of computer andtraditional art.The identity of the subjects will be confidential andsubjects will be identified by number. The total amount oftime required will be no less than twenty minutes and nomore than one hour. Longer interviews will be dependent onthe interest and agreement of the subjects.Any inquiries concerning the procedures in order toensure they are fully understood by the subjects will beanswered. The subject has the right to refuse toparticipate in the study or to withdraw at any time.I understand the purpose and procedures of this study andagree to be a subject under the above conditions. I havereceived a copy of this consent form.subject name^ date251APPENDIX LSample interview transcriptSubject 4 To begin, could you tell me something about your backgroundas an artist, and in computer graphics?(S4) My background as a visual artist, as a painter, wouldmost likely be the most extensive one. But like yourself,I'm interested in any two-dimensional surface, whether it bea television screen, or a computer printout, or a Xeroxmachine, or a photograph. In that way, I have been expertin looking at the two-dimensional surface, which is a mostfascinating surface for me. Right now, and in the pastcouple of years, my interests have been involved in computergraphics. I would still use the computer as a tool.. as anexperimental tool. I like experimenting with it... and Iwould certainly approach my computer work in a similar way Iwould approach my painting. And the similarity would bethat I would let the image lead me into another image,rather than knowing what the image is going to look like inits final stage. So that's where the experiment comes in.It might mean that I would combine the computer image withmy own drawing. I would certainly allow that to happen. Sosometimes a cooperation of the computer and my own work...or it might be that I translate my own work into thecomputer. Although at times it even takes longer, some ofthe images that I'm after. But again, it's how familiar youare with the computer. Although it's a little bit likepainting, you learn the techniques and then you strive forsomething more - you want to communicate on differentlevels. So there's this departure from an illustrationwhich describes in a narrative, to something that deals withmy emotions.252As I explained, I'm interested in your ways of describingvisual images, or how you would explain them to someoneelse. I have four images. I'd like to show you each one inturn, then if you want you could comment on connections.Feel free to go back as we go through them. This is thefirst.(S4) Certainly. Let's see... Nice color print. We'redefinitely dealing with a figurative image...Could you describe the different areas of the figure?(S4) Yes. Simply by the separation of the color field.There's a dress, there's pattern in the dress, the figurehas a flesh tone, which is certainly evocative of thefigurative. It's a female. There's a vertical line on oneside which tends to fluctuate with tonality. It's lighterin the center and gets cool towards the each end. Thereisn't much in the negative space of this image except thatone line. Other than that, I would look at it as a fairlyraw image, or at least it's at a fairly raw stage by justsimply the linear work. Most of the lines that areoutlining the shapes have a certain similarity. I know thatthere that can certainly be a variation of the linearstructure. Why does the outline of the dress have to be thesame as the outline of the legs? I would be a little moresensitive to certain issues of the line itself.Why do you think that line looks like that?(S4) Well it's the same line that runs through the dress asit does throughout the figure. The only difference in theline is this line here, that vertical line. It's the onlyone that is quite a bit different from the rest of theimage.How do you think those lines were made?253(S4) Those lines were made... let's see... I'm trying tofigure out what kind of program it could have been...Do you think it was a computer image?(S4) By the pixels.. .you know, a computer screen is a littlebit like a stitch work. Like when you're sewing. It hasevery point. So it could very well be something that hasbeen sutured, or weaved through. You know, computerprintouts are always deceiving. It's more, what'sreminiscent of this, the head does look very much like acomputer image. Also this flatness of the negative's so nicely flat. To have this positive space part ofthat negative space, it seems like a computer image. Icould probably draw this image on my computer. But it seemslike it been cut off, or shaved off, at the bottom. Maybethe printer, or something got in the way. But definitelythe pattern, it's definitely a repetitive form. I couldfigure it out from a quarter of an inch. It's a repetitionthat tens to multiply itself.^In the legs... it reallydoes look like a material-like fabric. But there's not muchdifference. It could be an illusion.., you know you canmake computer look like fabric or you could make fabric looklike the computer. The early stitching, they look likeearly computer drawings. You know, the early computerwriting looks like stitching, like "Home Sweet Home", youknow. The lines don't have that roundness though... it's apretty raw program, because you can certainly get that muchfiner lines, or that difference between the lines. Theycould be much more evident. Light to dark... It definitelyis a color Xerox.Do you think this is a successful image, on the basis of itsvisual structure?(S4) Yes... it could be successful... successful alwaysdepends on how it's utilized, what it's for. I could see itin enlarged in a window display, with some garments.254In terms of its composition?(S4) Well, there are few elements with which to deal with.I like the simplicity of it. With the computer though I'dbe tempted to deal with some other issues as well.What would those be?(S4) They might be dealing with the negative space, so thatthe negative space somewhat would be part of the positivespace of the female figure. There might be someintegration. It seems like I could just take scissors andcut out this figure and put it on a green paper. I reallylike this line. If the line wasn't there, it would reallyread as an isolated image, almost as an island. The linebrings this negative space, like the black is not soisolated. There's an attempt at making the format. Youknow, the composition depends always on the format of thepiece, reading it from the corner, or from the center. Theline really does make a lot of difference. Otherwise thepattern-like quality of the form would be entirely isolatedfrom the format. And the composition always does depend onthe format, not on the positive space. It happens from theedges of the piece.Let me show you the second image and see what you think.Can you tell me about this?(S4) Oh, right... So this is a very illusionistic get the sense of a foreground, the middle ground, thebackground. It's not a figurative image. That's anexcellent print of that...Could you describe it to me? What are you looking at rightnow?(S4) Well, without getting really specific, we're dealing255with organic imagery of flowers, branches, and certainlythat sense of space... It seems like the images that areforward, or the foreground, are collected on the edges ofthis particular piece. The foreground happens in almost acircular manner. As we move toward the center, as a vortex,it moves through the middle ground into the extreme depthsof space in the center. Again, I read it as a fairlysymmetrical image because the center of the depth of fieldis so symmetrical.. But I do also get that sense of thespiral. And then there's the flowers, which are done withwarm colors, and the leaves, which are done in cool colors.We're really aware of the contrast between the cool and thewarm.. And those cool colors of the branches... they serveas a linear form... but they seem like a multiplication of aform.. It seems like somewhere along the line there is somekind of pattern I could figure out... I really do get thatstrong sense of a spiral coming from the center towards theedges. Of course, at the edges the images are far sharper,so in that sense it's creating a sense of the foreground.It gets sharper both in the flowers and the branches. Thatsense of contrast is being greatly reduced as we movethrough the middle ground into the background. Whether itwas black or white, or that mauve color being diluted withthe whiteness. There's certainly a gradation. Is it acomputer image?How do you think it was done?(S4) I was trying to figure out the actual segment which wasreproduced... on the edges, it doesn't seem like it wasreproduced but turning to a few things I can see somereproduction. It could be collage. I've worked with animage that I have rotated and multiplied, with the computer.Because of the softness of some of these colors it also hasan airbrush quality or a watercolor quality, but, that canalso be done on the computer without too much trouble. Butif it is a collage... there is a collage that exists fromthe early nineteenth century, the Dadaists were probably the256first people who dealt with the collage in a most extensiveway... so whether it's collage done on a two-dimensionalsurface or collage done on a computer... Before computersthe Xerox machine was a great device. What happened is thatit would make six or a dozen Xeroxes of that same image, andgo through a painstaking process of juxtaposing one againstanother to create one image from maybe a dozen similarimages...Why would you want to do that?(S4) Well, for us, as visual investigators! you always wantto go into the unknown, or somehow deal with your own image.I remember when the Xeroxes came out, I remember my Dad in1968, who was the first guy on the block who got a Polaroidcamera... You would take pictures, you know, instantgratification, then the Xerox machine that would alsocapture an image... inevitably you're going to come up withtwo or three images. These images that are kicking aroundin your studio somehow make their way into your work. Art,in my vision, is that mystery of art , sort of like themystery of love... Being a Surrealist, the attraction isthat mystery, that sensation of being alive, that is thereflection of your work without any aesthetical judgment.Often when artists get these materials that are new to them,like back then, whether they be tattered pages, or whetherthey be crumbled pages, whether you bring them out from theashes and start gluing them, somehow they would make theirway into your work. So again, this seems like amultiplication. It doesn't have the flatness like theprevious image. And of course you know I'm a sucker for theflatness of an image. I do a lot of "seeing" the flatness,I can relate to the flatness, because of the physicalmanifestation of that two-dimensional surface.Is this second image flat to you?(S4) No, this image does not read flat to me. I certainly257do feel a depth.Can you describe the things that create that sense of depth?(S4) Yes, the contrast... that's the old academic school forillusionism: images that possess contrast will appear thatthey're coming forward. The reduction of contrast willcreate the illusion of space. And this is exactly theformula I'm seeing here.Is there anything besides contrast?(S4) Yes, the size can also create that sense of depth, thatis probably the most obvious one. The reduction of size:the flowers in the foreground are larger, and as we movetowards that depth of field the size of these objects isbeing reduced. We're reminded that we're dealing with thensame object, the flower that is being reproduced throughout,but it's being reduced in size quite a bit as we movetowards the extremity of that depth of field. As I'mlooking at this longer, because it's pretty tricky, I'vealready found the original image, I think.Could you describe the lighting in this picture.(S4) Well, the lighting. You mean as far as the tint isconcerned, of the color? I think if I were to examine thisa little longer... I'm already starting to get the sense ofthe original, which has been twisted around... I feel thatall the color that has been painted in this image, theoriginal colors that existed here, the original pigmentsinvolved, the pink, the mauves - I doubt if they were justa single color - as you move into the middle ground, andthe background, the reduction of contrast has been reducedby a single-color wash, rather than a multiple wash. Theimages were subject to either a wash, a white color, thatmakes it appear like a mist.258Why don't we look at the next one? You've gone into a lotof detail on this one, here.(S4) Okay. Oh well, yes! I just had a show with this guy,in Prague!Looking at the visual structure, how would you describe thethird image?(S4) In looking at the other images, totally flat... I mustsay I like this artist, I really do... First of all, he'sdealing with the flatness of the shape, he's dealing withthe materials.., it doesn't look like a computer drawing.He's dealing with the sensation of color, and brush, shapes,to a certain extent even pattern. I love this controlledmessiness, which is so difficult to do with the computer.To get messy with the computer, it's one of the mostdifficult issues to deal with. Controlled messiness.., agood example would be Francis Bacon. They're loose, and yetthere's an incredible amount of control. That mess,dripping, texture... you know, with a computer you can gettexture but it's always a multiplication of that texture.This image has irregularity. I can "read" his handwriting.I call it handwriting, but I mean his brushwork.When you say you "read" it, what do you mean by that? Whatare you reading?(S4) Oh! I'm just reading the way you would deal withvarious planes. I like the way he's sensitive to color.For the computer to actually get that brush stroke, toactually get that sensation of form... because for a brushstroke, you have to go around these shapes. There's a greatirregularity. There isn't that regularity that I would seein a lot of computer images. And then there's that wholesense that it's not an image that is perhaps derived fromlife. It's an image derived from the imagination, althoughit's still a figurative image. We see a horse, a face with259a crown... it reminds me of an old theater it's gotlighting, it's got spotlights, it's got curtains, it has astage. It's isolated, it is almost like a theatrical set.It's got a king, a big-headed king on this horse.... I couldcertainly say that if this is a computer painting, then Iwould like to know how this is done. Because this reallyhas a sensation that is very evocative of a painterlymanner. There's a great order in this as well, there's moreto this than just the image.What kind of order are you talking about?(S4) I think, when we were talking about composition alittle bit earlier, you know, the way he's taken care oforganizing this image... who knows what came first or whatcame next - although probably you could figure it out -but there's been great care taken in presenting the imagethat tends to be worked out most in the head.Could you describe the color scheme?(S4) Yes, it's a pretty good color Xerox. There's thatrepetition, and knowing this is a painter, you tend to workout the problem of the color within the painting itself.You would mix a certain color, like perhaps this Thalo greenwith this Thalo Blue and some white, which would describethe horse... you would add a little bit of white... the samecool color might be represented in the crown and some of theevidence we have around that image.You're pointing toward the...(S4) I'm pointing toward the border that he's created withthese rectangle squares and circles inside.., so if I wereto examine it a little bit longer, I would find there mightbe only five or six colors, and then they're mixed invarious ways. And not like the first image, the figure...easily this head could have been dealt with in a symmetrical260way. He's not trying to be symmetrical. Left doesn't meanthat it also has to be right. And then we were discussingthe line. There's more to line.., every line is different.One line is a sheer color. The next line is supported witha red line on the inside. Here it's supported with anorange, he's mixed some of his orange with it. When orangegets into blue, you're going to get this muddy color. Andthat muddy color was a result of what happened maybe in thenose. If you just go around, if you start looking at thisstructure, this is a line he's working on not in asystematic manner...What would you call this line that goes around?(S4) If it's an exterior line that deals with the outershell only, it could be referred to as a contour line, or itcould be referred to as an outer shell.^Here the line isweaving in and out of the image. See here it starts out asa red line, it moves into the ear, it's still red, as itmoves into the horse the line goes black, into white...there isn't that consistency. He's not working with bordersin this image. There's paint involved. And a painterlymanner. He's not trying to disguise the paint like we oftenwould with a graphic design, that you have the flatness ofthe image and you can't really get away from pattern-making.Would you say this is a 2D or a 3D image?(S4) It's a two-dimensional image. It doesn't want at allto be a 3D image. Of course there's that overlap, we getthat sense of a theatrical mask, or a theater, the horse ison top of something, but there's no illusion of space atall. It looks like Matisse would deal with that sensationof overlap, or how some people would deal with it in acollage.^But it's a direct painting.Do you think this is a successful image, on the basis of itsvisual structure?261(S4) Yes, I do. I like this image very much.What makes its structure work?(S4) There are various things, and this may be my personaloutlook. Some images are really read as... the reason Iwould feel close to this image... it doesn't look anythinglike my work, it doesn't reflect what I'm working on. Thewords I'm going to say may be very abstract... because tosay that it's not pretentious is a very abstract term.would feel that this artist is working with images that arenot derived from life, that these images are being exploredfrom inside, and then manifested through some mean. Call it"magic", or call it mystery... the subject matter has notstood in front of this artist. He had to make this workfrom the very beginning of that image. He could not rely ona still life or on a tangible world to arrive at this image.I'm interested in that kind of work, whether it's from 4000B.C. or today. Those images that come out of our mind, I'malways intrigued by them. Some of them tend to work... thiscould be tragic, or happy... but it is a lived-throughexperience rather than a rendering of an image.Let's look at the last one. Again you've given me a lot ofinformation!(S4) Right! This is David Hockney.Are you familiar with his work?(S4) Oh yes, of course.Can you tell me something about the different areas?(S4) Right. You're giving me again work that I can relateto! In my youth, he was my mentor! I liked this stage ofHockney, when he was applying various methods.262Could you describe some of the various methods you seethere?(S4) Yes. One is simply working with the flatness, and thelinear work, and then again, dealing with the illusion ofspace or texture... a little bit like in a collage, but inthe chairs here, he's just dealing with linear structure,he's just dealing with lines. In a way it could have been ahomage to Picasso. Even though it was a very surreal thingto have an artist painting their own work.. So it's a self-portrait, and when you actually draw your self drawing,there's a whole... it's a long discussion! There's an imageof an image... Dali kind of did it in a cheap way - I'mcrazy about Dali's work - but he's painted himself severaltimes, holding the brush.Do you think that's what going on here?(S4) Well, here's David, and he's sitting in front of thistable, and he's certainly drawing something... it seems likeit may be a guitar. But the thing is, it may be acombination of that flat world, and that dimensional world.We can sense the dimension of that table, we can deal withthe perspective, and then we can move on to other areas ifwe move below the table, we're dealing with the carpet.We're not dealing at all with an illusion of space there,we're only reminded of the geometric design of theparallelogram.., but there's no depth of field here. Thereare the flat straight lines. He's applying differentmethods here: you're aware of various sides of the table,you can discuss him as an artist sitting at a table, and wecan discuss the source of light... The light looks like itis coming from the top, because his chin has darker shades,and the shadow's a little bit under his hands, and the lightis hitting the flatness of the table, but the sides of thetable would be dark. Moving towards this curtain, you'realmost getting into that illusionistic way of working with263the material. The way it's created, it seems it's really inthe foreground. It seems we are dealing with the materialin a way that is totally separate from the way he hashandled the chairs. And then that little Picasso vignetteof a head, it's again has a source of light, it's comingfrom the same side as it would on him, coming form the left.And there's that inevitable sense of an overlap... but Istill don't get that sense of a dimension. In a lot of wayshe's working with positive and negative space. I don't getthat sense of dimension like I would with the flower image,where I'm really reminded that that image goes a long wayback. Again it's more a sensation of overlap rather than anillusion of space. It's a very limited space. The onlyillusion of space in the entire piece is this line thatdrops behind this flower and starts going back, behind thehouse here. It's like the flower piece: contrast will looklike it's forward, reduction of contrast will look like it'sgoing really far back. The tail of that image certainlylooks like it's going further back than the beginning of it,which is right almost under the Picasso head. There arekinds of suggestions that are not necessarily being derivedfrom life. The chair sitting on top of a nice greencarpet... the shadow of the chair does not correspond to thechair itself... it might be a design of the carpet, but it'sstill part of the chair. So there's still some Cubisticelement involved, like the leg dropping or being extendedinto the carpet. And being more aware of the positive andnegative space, and what happens in that area, rather thanbeing true to life. He's also boxing himself in, he wantsto be important. He's created a border around himself, he'sgot to stand out. It's a nice piece... There are variousways of dealing with a pattern. It's an effective componentwhen it's part of that negative space. This is anabsolutely marvelous piece as far as negative and positivespaces are concerned, because if we're constantly looking atthe image, if we're constantly looking at the colors, or thechair, or the artist himself, well, that's nice. But I'malso looking at various abstract images that are created by264the negative space, like between the table, or spaces somepeople would just consider as white areas. Because knowinghis work, I know that he was just so conscious of whathappens in the whole structure, negative and positive.. Insome places he tends to slow down the eye where he workswith detail, then he gives it some sort of quiet area wherethere is less descriptive form. But again there is, talkingabout the methods, the way he presents himself in a fairlyrealistic manner, shadows included, and puts himself sittingon a bunch of lines.., the chairs are lines, and the tablebecomes a very Impressionistic structure, sort of likesomeone like Seurat might be drawing on this table. Again,it's a totally marvelous piece.Well, I'd like to ask you one last question. Can you seeany connections between the way traditional artists andcomputer artists might talk about these images?(S4) Traditional artists, you mean like artists who paint oncanvas and that kind of thing...Right.(S4) Oh, yes. There would be similarities. If I were to beusing a computer, and I would start to discuss an image, Iwould be using a similar language as I am using here, exceptthat I would be talking about nods and angles and pixels...but I would still be talking about positive and negativespace, I would still be talking about depth of field andcomposition...So you feel you would be referring to the same kinds ofthings but using a different vocabulary...(S4) Right. And I could be referring to such language asphotography... or...So you think that the language to describe art could be used265for computer graphics?(S4) Yes. The English language is very good for that. Ilike discussing visual arts in English because there is anextensive way of portraying verbally a visual image.Do you think that there are any terms or concepts incomputer graphics that are useful for talking abouttraditonal art?(S4) Oh yes, in the future I see absolutely no doubt. Imean it's already happening to a certain extent in my work.I can see no doubt that there would be some kind of amerging, or some way of dealing with a computer image. Butthere's a difference. I don't mean to call it graphicdesign. Graphics often deals with that world we callillustration. And a computer design deals with slightlydifferent issues, because they're not responding to agraphic design... they're just responding to the computer.They don't have to create some thing. And usually whenwe're dealing with a graphic design, it's usually a logo, oran image, or someone sets up a situation, or it's anarrative. But once the computer design gets into.., theonly difference I can see in painting and computer design isthe approach to the work. It's the way you would approachyour painting...You mean the procedures that you use in making it?(S4) Yes, the procedures... but again it's how you extendthe program, because just like painting, computers are alsolimited. The capability of a program is very important.But I still believe you can create something out of nothing.So if I were to be given a program just with a straightline, and maybe a curved line, I could come up with a greatimage.Great, let's stop on that note!266


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