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A comparison of strategies for attitude change Bennett, Gary George 1975

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A COMPARISON OF STRATEGIES FOR ATTITUDE CHANGE by Gary George Bennett B.A., Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964 A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of Master of Arts i n The Faculty of Graduate Studies ( S o c i a l Studies, Education) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard The University of B r i t i s h Columbia August, 1975 © G a r y George Bennett, 1975 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes i s for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on of th is thes i s fo r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of ^^JAL £-?l£>/&Z — g'biJCft'T/aji) The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 20 75 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to compare the effectiveness of three s t r a t e g i e s for achieving more p o s i t i v e measured attitudes toward the Native Indians of Canada; namely, r o l e playing, reading, and p r i n c i p l e t e s t i n g . The l i t e r a t u r e suggested that the most e f f e c t i v e strategy f o r changing attitudes would be the one that would introduce inconsistency into one's psychological system for the purpose of demonstrating the p o t e n t i a l psychological s a t i s f a c t i o n of a new a t t i t u d e without, at the same time, posing a threat to the subject's perceived psychological f r e e -dom. Although the l i t e r a t u r e suggested that a l l three s t r a t e g i e s should produce s i g n i f i c a n t a t t i t u d i n a l change, there was not enough clear empirical evidence to employ d i r e c t i o n a l hypotheses. The r o l e play strategy most c l o s e l y f i t the requirements for a t t i t u d i n a l change; therefore, i t i s stated i n hypothesis one that the r o l e play strategy would produce an a t t i t u d e change s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t than e i t h e r reading or p r i n c i p l e t e s t i n g . I t was also hypothesized that each of the s t r a t e g i e s , (role playing, reading, and p r i n c i p l e testing) would produce an a t t i t u d e change s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t than the control group. The l i t e r a t u r e also suggested that the dogmatic personality was an intervening v a r i a b l e i n the process of a t t i t u d e a c q u i s i t i o n ; dogmatic students were expected to r e s i s t change i n a l l three experimental s i t u a t i o n s . There-fore, i t was also hypothesized that there was a strong inverse r e l a t i o n i i between the degree of one's dogmatism i n one's pe r s o n a l i t y and the amount of a t t i t u d e change. A 2 x 4 (dogmatism x method) f a c t o r i a l design was used i n t h i s study; the four l e v e l s being compared consisted of three experimental strategies and one con t r o l group; the two l e v e l s of dogmatism consisted of dogmatic and non-dogmatic students, (as determined by ranking out scores on a dogmatism scale p r e t e s t ) . The student sample consisted of four i n t a c t groups taking a com-pulsory English 11 course i n a large senior secondary school located i n a predominantly Caucasian, middle income socio-economic area. The students had been assigned previously to these groups i n an a r b i t r a r y manner but the treatment l e v e l s were assigned to the groups randomly. The treatment period ran approximately four days. The r o l e play-ing strategy required that various students take on the r o l e of eit h e r Native Indians or Whites and attempt to convince other members of the cl a s s of the v a l i d i t y of t h e i r adopted value p o s i t i o n s . The reading strategy required that the students read and discuss a short novel that showed some degree of empathy toward Native Indians. In the p r i n c i p l e t e s t i n g strategy the teacher attempted to c l a r i f y the value positions of students toward Native Indians by using various discussion s t r a t e g i e s . An analysis of covariance revealed that none of the strategies pro-duced a s i g n i f i c a n t a t t i t u d e change; furthermore, i t showed that dogmatic p e r s o n a l i t i e s were not i n t e r a c t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y with a t t i t u d e change. The researcher suggests several possible reasons f o r these r e s u l t s , some of which are: the device used to measure a t t i t u d e change may not have been s e n s i t i v e or subtle enough to measure the true f e e l i n g s of the students; the materials used i n the strategies may not have been long i i i or strong enough to demonstrate that a legitimate inconsistency was present; and perhaps a longer incubation period i s needed to assim i l a t e the inconsistency and to reorganize one's a t t i t u d e s toward the subject. Chairman's Signature i v TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION 1 II . BACKGROUND LITERATURE 3 I I I . HYPOTHESES 12 IV. METHOD 14 A. Design 14 B. Procedure 19 C. Techniques of Measurement 26 D. Analysis 27 V. SUMMARY OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS 28 BIBLIOGRAPHY 33 APPENDICES I. Student Scores on the Dogmatism Scale, the Pre-test and Post-Test Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l 37 II . The Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l 41 I I I . The Dogmatism Scale 43 IV. Learning Environment Inventory 49 V. Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Item Analysis 58 v LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Experimental Layout . . . . 17 2 Analysis of Variance: Dogmatism 17 3 Sample Sizes 18 4 Experimental Time Schedule 18 5 Summary S t a t i s t i c s : A t titude Scores on the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l 29 6 Analysis of Covariance 29 7 Analysis of Variance: Classroom Climate 29 8 Student Scores on the Dogmatism Scale, the Pre-Test and Post-Test Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l 38 v i LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Seating Arrangement f o r the Role Playing Exercise 19 v i i I. INTRODUCTION Most educators agree that students' attitudes are an important area of concern. H i s t o r i c a l l y , schools have advocated the promotion of t o l e r -ant values and attitudes toward one's culture and toward other cultures i n his own and other s o c i e t i e s . Indeed, the B r i t i s h Columbia course of study states that the teacher i s "to provide a forum i n which students may learn to deal with value questions i n an i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and e t h i c a l l y honest way" ( B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary School Curriculum Guide: S o c i a l Studies, 1968, p. 3). Many teachers are reluctant, however, to attempt to change attitudes because of the lack of e f f e c t i v e organized strategies f o r changing a t t i t u d e s . Reluctance i s also due to concerns regarding the lack of o b j e c t i v i t y of such s t r a t e g i e s . Furthermore, i t i s often assumed that programs which have been designed to produce p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d i n a l change, but which have not been systematically evaluated, are achieving t h e i r objectives. The purpose of th i s study i s to compare the effectiveness of three s t r a t e g i e s for achieving more p o s i t i v e measured attitudes toward the Native Indians of Canada; namely, r o l e playing, reading, and p r i n c i p l e t e s t i n g . Rokeach's d e f i n i t i o n of the term a t t i t u d e as being "an organization of several b e l i e f s around a s p e c i f i c object or s i t u a t i o n , " (1973, p. 18) i s used i n this study. That d e f i n i t i o n i s operationalized i n the present research by accepting student responses to a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l as a measure of t h e i r b e l i e f s about the Native Indians of Canada. 1 2 The r a t i o n a l e f o r the present research i s supported by current practices and concerns. In the f i r s t place, a l l three of these models have been used i n the teaching of S o c i a l Studies, English, Drama, and, to some degree, Guidance f o r several years; nevertheless, few attempts have been made to measure and compare t h e i r success i n f o s t e r i n g p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d i n a l changes. Second, the c u r r i c u l a of S o c i a l Studies, E n g l i s h , and Guidance lend themselves very w e l l to the discussion of a t t i t u d e s . Third, teachers i n general need an organized and r a t i o n a l way of handling class discussion on contentious issues. And f i n a l l y , Canada i s one of the few countries of the world that has o f f i c i a l l y adopted the concept of a mosaic society, through a federal B i l l of Rights and several provin-c i a l B i l l s of Human Rights, and perhaps we, as educators, are obliged to search for ways to increase harmony, through c u r r i c u l a r v e h i c l e s , i n order to make the system v i a b l e . I I . BACKGROUND LITERATURE 1. Acceptance of New Attitudes The l i t e r a t u r e on a t t i t u d e learning indicates that while attitudes are learned, the process of t h i s learning i s gradual and complex, (Horowitz, 1944; Metraux, 1950). Although this process i s a continuing one, Goodman (1964) suggests that i t consists of three overlapping stages: ethnic awareness, ethnic o r i e n t a t i o n , and the emergence of " a d u l t - l i k e " ethnic values. He further points out that the transformation from the ethnic o r i e n t a t i o n stage to the a d u l t - l i k e stage takes place during one's adolescence. He suggests that i t i s only during one's adolescence, when one can understand and codify the various p o s i t i v e and negative d i f f e r -e n t i a t i n g ethnic l a b e l s that one i s using, that one takes on an a d u l t - l i k e stance. This study w i l l compare three teaching strategies f or a l t e r i n g adopted ethnic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s before the ethnic o r i e n t a t i o n stage has s t a b i l i z e d into a d u l t - l i k e a t t i t u d e s . I t i s useful here to c i t e Rokeach's d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between values and a t t i t u d e s . An a t t i t u d e d i f f e r s from a value i n that an a t t i t u d e r e f e r s to an organization of several b e l i e f s around a s p e c i f i c object or s i t u -ation. A value, on the other hand, refe r s to a si n g l e b e l i e f of a very s p e c i f i c kind. I t concerns a desirable mode of behavior or end-state that has a transcendental q u a l i t y to i t guiding actions, a t t i t u d e s , judgments, and comparisons across s p e c i f i c objects and s i t u a t i o n s and beyond immediate goals to more ultimate goals. (1973, p. 18) How does one challenge or i n t e r f e r e with this on-going process of 3 a t t i t u d e acquisition? Carlson (1956) found that attitudes change i f the s a t i s f a c t i o n derived from a new a t t i t u d e i s greater than the s a t i s f a c t i o n derived from the old a t t i t u d e . Festinger (1957) i n o u t l i n i n g h i s Disson-ance Theory stated that i f enough d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with behavior or b e l i e f s e x i s t s then change i n that behavior or those b e l i e f s w i l l take place. Ostrom and Brock (1969) and Edwards and Ostrom (1969) state that l i n k i n g a p a r t i c u l a r a t t i t u d e to a more important value w i l l make i t more r e s i s t a n t to change. Therefore, i t would seem that a new a t t i t u d e i n c o n f l i c t with an old a t t i t u d e may be accepted into one's rep e r t o i r e of attitudes i f i t can be demonstrated that the new a t t i t u d e i s l i n k e d to a more important value than the old a t t i t u d e . At t h i s point one must be concerned with how new attitudes are appraised or evaluated for t h e i r psychological s a t i s f a c t i o n ? Rosenberg (1960) suggests that one's personality needs a f f e c t i v e - c o g n i t i v e c o n s i s t -ency. Therefore, the i n j e c t i o n of inconsistency into one's c l u s t e r of a t t i t u d e s toward a given subject, or into one's hierarchy of values require that the psychological system deals with i t . Rokeach supports t h i s view i n h i s discussion of cognitive inconsistency; he suggests that: Contradictions probably e x i s t , and may also be induced to e x i s t , within a l l human cognitive systems. They may be consciously experienced or they may e x i s t below the l e v e l of conscious aware-ness because of i n t e l l e c t u a l l i m i t a t i o n s , repression, ego defense, or a need to conform to contradictory norms or demands of society. The more a person becomes consciously aware of a contradiction and the more i t implicates h i s s e l f conceptions, the greater the l i k e -lihood that i t w i l l lead to a cognitive change and, as a consequence, to behavioral change. (1973, p. 224) There i s evidence to suggest, however, that the i n i t i a l a p p r a i sal of a new a t t i t u d e i s dependent upon how one perceives the source of the new a t t i t u d e . Zimbardo, (1960), for example, demonstrated that i f a subject 5 perceives the communicator as one who i s attempting to a l t e r h i s a t t i t u d e s , he w i l l f e e l a threat to h i s psychological freedom and react against the source even i f the new a t t i t u d e i s p o t e n t i a l l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e to the r e c i p i e n t . The question for i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s : which strategy should be used to introduce inconsistency into one's psychological system for the purpose of demonstrating the p o t e n t i a l psychological s a t i s f a c t i o n of a new a t t i -tude without, at the same time, posing a threat to the subject's perceived psychological freedom? 2. Teaching Strategies and Attitude Change a) Comprehensive approaches Comprehensive approaches use a v a r i e t y of teaching strategies and methods to achieve t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n a l objectives. A number of studies have used t h i s approach s u c c e s s f u l l y i n changing a t t i t u d e s . Hayes and Conklin (1953) found that a comprehensive approach i n v o l v i n g reading, act-ing, and l i s t e n i n g produced more e f f e c t i v e a t t i t u d i n a l change than d i r e c t experience with minority groups or academic i n s t r u c t i o n on the problem of prejudice. Georgeoff (1968) studied the e f f e c t of curriculum upon the s e l f concept of c h i l d r e n i n r a c i a l l y integrated fourth grade classrooms. Aft e r a course on Black American h i s t o r y , the s e l f concept of both Black and White students increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Gezi and Johnson (1970) found that a f i r s t hand comprehensive approach i n the study of Black her-itage produced s i g n i f i c a n t and p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d i n a l changes toward the A f r i c a n and the Black whereas a t r a d i t i o n a l program based on textbooks and lectures did not. In summary, the l i t e r a t u r e suggests that comprehensive approaches are generally successful i n producing p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d i n a l change. 6 b) Reading Some insigh t s may be found by i s o l a t i n g reading as a strategy for a t t i t u d i n a l change. Several d e s c r i p t i v e studies (New York City Board of Education, 1960; Oben, 1973; and Dantzler, 1974) have suggested that l i t e r a t u r e would be an excellent device for changing a t t i t u d e s ; however, empirical research does not support t h i s contention. Peregrine (1936), Remmers and Morgan (1936), H a l l (1938), and Bettleheim and Janowitz (1964) could draw no f i r m conclusions on the subject. Bazelak (1973) found no differences i n the attitudes of Black or White students, a f t e r completing a Black l i t e r a t u r e program. c) Role Playing In general, t h i s strategy induces the subjects to play s o c i a l roles i n which they express ideas that are not n e c e s s a r i l y i n accord with t h e i r private convictions. Perhaps the acting segment of the Hayes and Conklin (1953) comprehensive approach may have been the s i g n i f i c a n t force i n producing the p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d i n a l changes and much of the l i t e r a t u r e tends to support t h i s contention. Culbertson (1957) found that r o l e playing produced s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s i n changing a t t i t u d e s . Elms (1969) found that i f a subject perceived that he was choosing the r o l e that he was to play, he would i d e n t i f y more c l o s e l y with the new attitudes of the r o l e than i f he had been forced to play a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e . Shaftel (1970) suggested r o l e playing was an e f f e c t i v e means of producing p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d i n a l change because of the t r a n s a c t i o n a l process involved. The actor's ideas are complicated and challenged by the unexpected responses of the other actors; the actor has to reach and respond to these unexpected responses. Shaftel states that: 7 Many personal perceptions of the students are delineated i n enactments; consequently, t h e i r l i f e experiences become a resource for use. As each o f f e r s h i s idea of what i s happening, the group becomes aware that d i f f e r e n t people see d i f f e r e n t things i n a commonly experienced event. The many perceptions offered should widen the awareness of each p a r t i c i p a n t . . . . In t h i s process they w i l l grow up to be r a t i o n a l caring human beings. (1970, pp. 557-559) There i s a t h e o r e t i c a l basis f o r these r e s u l t s . F l a v e l (1968) showed that by early adolescence c h i l d r e n have developed the a b i l i t y to e f f e c t i v e l y r o l e change. Furthermore, by i t s very nature r o l e playing requires a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of s e l f - i n s i g h t , and Katz and h i s associates (1956) found that attitudes toward Negroes were modified to a greater extent by the s e l f - i n s i g h t approach than by the informational approach. Moreover, when s e r i o u s l y r o l e playing, one becomes, temporarily at l e a s t , part of a d i f f e r e n t 'society' and i t s inherent attitudes toward various subjects. Horowitz (1936) found that emerging attitudes toward an ethnic group are a r e s u l t not of contact with the ethnic group but a r e s u l t of contact with the attitudes of the group. Rokeach (1973) suggests that b e l i e f congru-ence i s a greater determinant of s o c i a l distance than ethnic d i f f e r e n c e s . Hence, by r o l e playing one adopts another's attitudes and values and there-fore, because of t h i s contact, becomes cl o s e r i n a t t i t u d i n a l distance to those attitudes and values than he was before taking on the r o l e . This t h e o r e t i c a l basis may explain why no conclusive r e s u l t s for changing attitudes were found through the reading model or why Greenberg, Pierson and Sherman (1957) found no differences i n a t t i t u d e change between classroom debate, class discussion, and a l e c t u r e on prejudice. Perhaps the subjects were not required to perform much, i f any, s e l f - i n s i g h t , or adopt the attitudes of another society, d) P r i n c i p l e Testing The same concern must be expressed about p r i n c i p l e t e s t i n g ; a strategy 8 that uses a v a r i e t y of teacher centered questioning techniques to challenge the consistency of a student's values and a t t i t u d e s . The procedures developed by Coombs (1971) i n th i s strategy would seem to o f f e r e x c e l l e n t methods f or introducing inconsistencies into one's c l u s t e r of attitudes or one's hierarchy of values, but one may question how the student perceives the source of t h i s challenge to h i s b e l i e f s . Is he developing more p o s i t i v e attitudes toward the subject of the discussion or indulging i n an one-the-spot protection of h i s psychological freedom? Several studies, while c e r t a i n l y not r e f u t i n g the effectiveness of p r i n c i p l e t e s t i n g f o r changing a t t i t u d e s , r a i s e some i n t e r e s t i n g questions of the t h e o r e t i c a l basis of this strategy. Thistlethwaite (1950) and also Prentice (1957), i n developing measures of i r r a t i o n a l bias found that such measures could not be used f o r subjects who did not have a firm grasp of deductive reasoning. This f i n d i n g i s c r u c i a l , f o r the p r i n c i p l e t e s t -ing approach r e l i e s heavily on deductive reasoning. Moreover, this strategy makes s i g n i f i c a n t use of u n i v e r s a l i z a t i o n and analogy. The use of these techniques i s warranted i f i t i s assumed that there i s a general factor of prejudice. Campbell (1947) t r i e d to determine the extent of p r e j u d i c i a l attitudes within one's pe r s o n a l i t y . He concluded that there i s a greater degree of consistency i n att i t u d e s toward one minority group than i n the same at t i t u d e toward a l l minority groups. Bettelheim and Janowitz (1963) tend to confirm these f i n d i n g s . I f Campbell i s correct then the use of analogy and of u n i v e r s a l i z a t i o n becomes l i m i t e d and therefore p r i n c i p l e t e s t i n g may be i n e f f e c t i v e . On the other hand, a number of authors (Murphy and L i k e r t , 1938; Hartley, 1946; Williams, 1947; and Adorno et a l , 1950) contend that there i s a general factor of prejudice; a subject who i s bigoted against 9 one group w i l l be bigoted against most groups. I f t h i s i s so, then analogy and u n i v e r s a l i z a t i o n should be very e f f e c t i v e t o o l s . Rokeach (1973) c l a r i f i e s t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l confusion by pointing out that: . . . a person has as many values as he has learned b e l i e f s concern-ing desirable modes of conduct and end-states of existence, and as many attitudes as d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t encounters he has had with s p e c i f i c objects and s i t u a t i o n s . I t i s thus estimated that values number only i n the dozens, whereas att i t u d e s number i n the thousands. He suggests that values are more c e n t r a l to a person's make-up than a t t i -tudes and hence values are the determinants of general behaviors. There-fore, i t would be more economical to change values which are more general-i z a b l e than to develop a host of.programs to a l t e r i n d i v i d u a l a t t i t u d e s . This indicates that the use of u n i v e r s a l i z a t i o n and analogy would be more e f f e c t i v e i n programs designed to a l t e r values than those designed to deal p r i m a r i l y with a t t i t u d e s . Kehoe (1974a) attempted to c l a r i f y the research. The purpose of the study was to compare two r e l a t e d strategies for t h e i r effectiveness i n creating a more p o s i t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n toward c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y . He compared the responses of students who were shown inconsistencies within t h e i r value systems, students who were shown inconsistencies between t h e i r values and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , and students who were shown no inconsistencies at a l l . No change was found i n any of the value posi t i o n s although i n the second case a change i n attitu d e was found. 3 . The E f f e c t of Dogmatism on A t t i t u d i n a l Response The above discussion suggests that r o l e playing i s the most e f f e c t i v e strategy f or changing at t i t u d e s , but the l i t e r a t u r e suggests that there may be a strong intervening variable—dogmatism. Kramer (1949) indicated that the s p e c i f i c emotional response of an i n d i v i d u a l 10 toward members of a p a r t i c u l a r minority group i s probably strongly influenced by the i n d i v i d u a l ' s general temperament. Adorno et a l (1950), for example, found that highly prejudiced people had a more r i g i d p e r s onality organization or dogmatic p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Feather (1970), i n South A u s t r a l i a , summarizes h i s findings by suggesting that there may be a c l u s t e r of values around the dogmatic personality i n which obedience ranks very high. Rim (1970), i n I s r a e l , found that people with dogmatic p e r s o n a l i t i e s scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on equ a l i t y , honesty, and obedience and s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower on broadmindedness and independence. Rokeach (1973) i n a study of Michigan State students found that dogmatic students placed a higher importance on the values of s a l v a t i o n , s o c i a l recognition, and obedience than they did on the values of equality, f r e e -dom, and broadmindedness. While the studies by Feather, Rim, and Rokeach in d i c a t e that dogmatic p e r s o n a l i t i e s place a greater emphasis on obedience than on openmindedness, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note Rim's scores on equality. Rokeach (1973) does not f e e l t h i s i s inconsistent and, indeed, goes on to suggest that there i s no t h e o r e t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n between dogmatism and e g a l i t a r i a n i s m but rather an unwillingness for the dogmatic person to d i v e r t from the i n s t i t u t i o n a l norm of h i s society, (the value of equality being highly regarded i n I s r a e l ) . The dogmatic personality w i l l , therefore, demonstrate an i n t o l e r -ance to change and perhaps the reason f o r t h i s was demonstrated by O'Conner (1952), Kutner (1958), and Kutner and Gordon (1964), who con-cluded that tolerant subjects have the a b i l i t y to reason more l o g i c a l l y than p r e j u d i c i a l ones. The dogmatic personality i s therefore expected to r e s i s t a t t i t u d i n a l change i n a l l of the experimental groups. 11 6. Conclusion The l i t e r a t u r e has provided a t h e o r e t i c a l framework and a number of studies from which to draw conclusions regarding the effectiveness of procedures for a l t e r i n g a t t i t u d e s . However, because of some inconsistent and inconclusive evidence plus the p o s s i b i l i t y of a strong intervening v a r i a b l e there i s a need to d i r e c t l y compare three s t r a t e g i e s — r o l e play-ing, reading, and p r i n c i p l e t e s t i n g — t a k i n g into account possible d i f f e r -e n t i a l e f f e c t s a t t r i b u t a b l e to dogmatism, and to determine t h e i r r e l a t i v e effectiveness f o r changing a t t i t u d e s . This i s the purpose of the current inves t i g a t i o n . I l l . HYPOTHESES The l i t e r a t u r e suggests that the strategy that would be the most e f f e c t i v e i n creating more p o s i t i v e attitudes toward minority groups would be the one that would introduce inconsistency into a psychological system, so that the p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e s of a new a t t i t u d e could be demonstrated without posing a threat to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s perceived psychological freedom. I t i s also suggested that the dogmatic personality would r e s i s t a l l a t t i t u d -i n a l change. In t h i s experiment three s t r a t e g i e s , role playing, reading, and p r i n c i p l e t e s t i n g , were compared f o r t h e i r effectiveness i n achieving a t t i t u d i n a l change, taking into account the possible e f f e c t s a t t r i b u t a b l e to dogmatism. Although the l i t e r a t u r e suggests that these strategies should produce s i g n i f i c a n t a t t i t u d i n a l change, there i s not enough clear empirical evidence to employ d i r e c t i o n a l hypotheses. Strategy one, the r o l e playing exercise, was adapted for t h i s research from Kehoe's (1974b) "Role Playing for I n t e r c u l t u r a l Understanding of Native Indian-White Value Differences." Various students took on the r o l e of Native Indians and Whites and attempted to convince others of the v a l i d i t y of t h e i r adopted value p o s i t i o n s . This strategy most c l o s e l y met the requirements for achieving p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e change as suggested by the l i t e r a t u r e . Therefore, i t i s stated i n hypothesis one that the r o l e play-ing strategy would produce an a t t i t u d e change which was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f -ferent than e i t h e r reading or p r i n c i p l e t e s t i n g . I t i s stated i n hypothesis two that the r o l e playing strategy would produce an a t t i t u d e change s i g n i f -i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t than a control group. Strategy two was a reading program that involved the student i n the 12 13 reading of a short novel that showed some degree of empathy toward Native Indians. The book used was The Revenge of Annie C h a r l i e by Alan Fry (1973). Even though some studies that have used reading as a strategy f o r achieving a t t i t u d i n a l change have been inconclusive, this strategy does s a t i s f y the c r i t e r i a suggested by the l i t e r a t u r e f o r achieving a t t i t u d i n a l change. Consequently, i t i s stated i n hypothesis three that the reading strategy would produce an at t i t u d e change s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t than the con t r o l group. Strategy three was the p r i n c i p l e t e s t i n g strategy developed by Coombs (1971) i n which the teacher attempted to c l a r i f y the value p o s i t i o n s of stu-dents toward Native Indians by using various discussion s t r a t e g i e s . The p a r t i c u l a r exercise to be used was Kehoe's (1974c) "An Ap p l i c a t i o n of P r i n -c i p l e Testing Strategies." I t i s stated i n hypothesis four that p r i n c i p l e t e s t i n g w i l l produce an a t t i t u d e change s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t than the cont r o l group. The above hypotheses are stated i n t h e i r s t a t i s t i c a l form as follows: Ho : U J ' V * 0Ho : U J ~ V'* = 0 ( N U L 1 F O R M) J = 1. Role Play J* = 1. Reading or P r i n c i p l e Testing 2. Role Play 2. Control Group 3. Reading 3. Control Group 4. P r i n c i p l e Testing 4. Control Group I t was further believed that the dogmatic pe r s o n a l i t y was an i n t e r -vening v a r i a b l e i n th i s process; dogmatic students were expected to r e s i s t change i n a l l three experimental s i t u a t i o n s . I t i s stated i n hypothesis f i v e that there was a strong inverse r e l a t i o n between the degree of dogmatism i n one's personality and the amount of at t i t u d e change. IV. METHOD A. Design A 2 x 4 (dogmatism x method) f a c t o r i a l design was used i n t h i s study. The four l e v e l s being compared consisted of the three experimental s t r a t e g -ies and the control group. The two l e v e l s of dogmatism consisted of dogmatic and non-dogmatic students. 1. Variables a) Independent - Experimental The experimental v a r i a b l e i n t h i s design was the method used; the three strategies that were being compared were r o l e playing, reading, and c r i t i c a l thinking. The r o l e playing model was an adaptations of Kehoe's "Role Playing for I n t e r c u l t u r a l Understanding of Native Indian-White Value Differences" (1974b); the reading model uses a short novel by Alan Fry c a l l e d The Revenge of Annie Charlie (1973); and the c r i t i c a l thinking model makes use of Kehoe's "An A p p l i c a t i o n of P r i n c i p l e Testing Strategies" (1974c). A f u l l e r d e s c r i p t i o n of these s t r a t e g i e s i s contained i n the 'Procedure' section of t h i s chapter. Although the time of experimentation was r e l a t i v e l y short, a c o n t r o l group was used to c o n t r o l for threats to i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y (Campbell and Stanley, 1963). Because i t was expected that dogmatism was an intervening independ-ent v a r i a b l e , a dogmatism scale was used to determine which students were dogmatic and non-dogmatic. b) Independent - Controlled (1) The student sample consisted of four i n t a c t groups taking 14 15 a compulsory English 11 course with the general theme of 'man's search f o r values'. The students had been assigned previously to these groups i n an a r b i t r a r y manner but the treatment l e v e l s were assigned to the groups ran-domly. A t o t a l of e i g h t y - f i v e students completed a l l aspects of the study; eighteen i n the r o l e playing strategy, twenty-two i n the reading strategy, twenty-five i n the p r i n c i p l e t e s t i n g strategy, and twenty i n the c o n t r o l group. The study took place i n a large senior secondary school located i n a predominantly Caucasian, middle income socio-economic area. (2) Each group of students met for one period (one and one-quarter hours) at d i f f e r e n t times of the school day as the timetable cycle proceeded. (3) Pre-tests were administered by the researcher on the same day to a l l four groups. No s p e c i a l arrangements were made for the t e s t s . S i m i l a r l y , upon completion of a l l treatments, the post-tests were admin-i s t e r e d to a l l groups on the same day. (4) None of the students was treated outside the classroom i n a d i f f e r e n t or s p e c i a l manner by the teacher or the administration than p r i o r to, during, or a f t e r the research. (5) None of the students was t o l d that the class was involved i n an experiment. (6) None of the students had p r i o r experience with the p a r t i c u l a r materials being used. (7) During the treatment period the same teacher taught the groups involved i n the three s t r a t e g i e s . The c o n t r o l group continued with the regular teacher i n t h e i r regular classroom routine. He only taught the r o l e play and the reading groups on a regular ba s i s . A l l of the groups 16 were post tested using a classroom climate device to determine i f there was a d i f f e r e n t i a l classroom e f f e c t other than that ascribable to the approaches investigated. c) Dependent The dependent va r i a b l e i n t h i s design was the r e l a t i v e change i n a t t i t u d e toward Native Indians as measured by a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l test developed for the study. 2. Experimental Layout Three experimental groups and one control group were used i n t h i s design. As shown i n Table 1 a l l groups were pre- and post-tested for a t t i -t u d i n a l changes using a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l device, pre-tested only using Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale and post-tested using a classroom climate device. The r e s u l t s of the dogmatism pre-test were subjected to an analysis of variance as shown i n Table 2; no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n dogmatism among the four strategy groups was found. Consequently, the dogmatism scores were ranked, disregarding groups, and the median value was deter-mined. Those below the median (a score of 141) were considered highly dogmatic while those at the median and above were considered non-dogmatic. With the median s p l i t the students' scores were then put back into t h e i r respective experimental groups for further a n a l y s i s . The group sample siz e s following t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n are shown i n Table 3. I t should be noted that i n Table 3 there was a r e v e r s a l i n the trend of the s p l i t of the dogmatism scores i n strategy one (role playing). This r a i s e d some concern i n the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . However, as l a t e r shown, the i n t e r a c t i o n i n v o l v i n g these terms was not s i g n i f i c a n t and therefore should not cause any m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the main e f f e c t s . As shown i n Table 4 the experimental treatment ran approximately TABLE 1 EXPERIMENTAL LAYOUT Groups Observations Treatment Observations Strategy 1 0 0 X 0 0 (Role Play) b ' 1 D ' i 1 S ' Z C ' 1 Testing) Control 0 0 n . 0_ Q 0_ . S.7 D.4 S.8 C.4 Note: S. represents the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l D. represents the dogmatism scale C. represents the classroom climate device TABLE 2 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE: DOGMATISM Source df M.S. F Groups 3 0.40 <1.0 Error 81 0.54 Total 84 TABLE 3 SAMPLE SIZES Strategy 1 Role Play Strategy 2 Reading Strategy 3 P r i n c i p l e Testing Control Group Dogmatic 6 12 14 12 Non-dogmatic 12 10 11 8 Group s i z e 18 22 25 20 Dogmatic and Non-dogmatic Students below the median s p l i t of 141 are c l a s s i f i e d as dogmatic, others non-dogmatic TABLE 4 EXPERIMENTAL TIME SCHEDULE (Latter part of F e b r u a r y — F i r s t part of March) Day Role Play Strategy Reading Strategy P r i n c i p l e Testing Strategy Control 1 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Pre-test 2 Regular class 3 Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale Pre-test 4 Regular class 5 Regular class 6 Regular class 7 Regular class 8 Regular class 9 Regular class 10 Regular class 11 Treatment Treatment Treatment 12 Treatment Treatment Treatment 13 Treatment Treatment Regular 14 Treatment Treatment Class 15 Regular class 16 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Post-test 17 Regular class 18 Regular class 19 Regular class 20 Regular class 21 Learning Environment Inventory Regular Class Regular Class 19 four days. B. Procedure A l l students were given the same general expectations for the Eng-l i s h 11 course; the s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s v a r i e d with each strategy. 1. Strategy 1—The Role Playing Model This strategy used an adaptation of Kehoe's "Role Playing for Inter-c u l t u r a l Understanding of Native Indian-White Value Differences" (1974b). Four periods were needed f o r t h i s r o l e playing exercise. On the f i r s t day the class was randomly divided into three equal groups. A l l students were given a sheet of general questions; the group playing the Native Indians (A) and the group playing the non-Indian culture (B) were given t h e i r respective answer sheets. They were t o l d that the purpose of the exercise was to con-vince the other groups of the v a l i d i t y of t h e i r adopted roles and hence, each group was given two a d d i t i o n a l periods to develop the general theme suggested i n the answer. Group C was asked to answer the general questions with t h e i r own views. Within a l l three groups students were allowed to choose the ques-tions that they wanted to deal with, so long as a l l questions were covered. The seating arrangement f o r the exercise i s shown below i n Figure 1. Groups A and B were seated quite close to the undecided group C; i n e f f e c t A B A C C B A C C B A C C B A C C B A C C B A B Figure 1. Seating Arrangement for the Role Playing Exercise arguing over t h e i r heads. Group C asked the question c l e a r l y and l i s t e n e d c a r e f u l l y to the answers given knowing that l a t e r they were to be asked to 20 j o i n e i t h e r group A or group B i f they so desired. In ro t a t i n g turns groups A and B gave the answers that they had developed f o r the respective questions. About h a l f way through the question and answer procedure, the teacher asked each member of the middle group which side he or she would prefer to j o i n or to i n d i c a t e i f they were undecided. The three groups were then i d e n t i f i e d ; group C representing the young Indians t r y i n g to decide what values and way of l i f e to adopt. The advice given to them by group A represents the advice of t h e i r f a m i l i e s adhering to the o l d Indian culture; group B represents the advice of the North American, urban, non-Indian society. The d i f f i c u l t i e s shown by the members of group C i n making t h e i r choices demonstrated the problems that young Native Indians experienced i n making decisions about con-f l i c t i n g value p o s i t i o n s . As a r e s u l t the class may be more empathetic to-ward the p o s i t i o n of young Indians who face such c o n f l i c t s . Groups A and B then continued to ask and answer the remainder of the questions. The whole exercise was then followed by a discussion i n v e s t i g a t i n g the reasons f o r the values held by the two groups and of the consequences of the value p o s i t i o n s . Question and Answer Sheets Each student was given a sheet containing the following general questions: 1. How large a group should a person belong to? 2. What should be my r e l a t i o n s h i p to my environment? 3. What should I do about sharing my goods with others? 4. Is i t important to hold a steady job? 5. Should i n d i v i d u a l s own property? 6. Is i t important to use time c a r e f u l l y ? 7. Who should be consulted when family decisions are being made? 8. What i s the most desirable type of community? 9. Should I be i n favor of strong leadership? 10. Should I compete with others? 21 11. What should be my a t t i t u d e toward welfare? A sheet containing the following answers prepared by the researcher was given to the group playing the Native Indians (Group A); the answers correspond to the general questions given above. 1. You should be aware that you belong to a much larger s o c i e t y which has a long s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y . 2. You should l i v e i n harmony with nature and adjust to the changes i n your environment. 3. The most important reason for sharing i s that you might someday be hungry and need someone else's help. Other, but less important, reasons for doing i t are that i t i s useful, generous and kind. 4. You should only work when your food supply i s low. I t i s not important to work j u s t f or the sake of working. 5. No, with the exception of your cloth i n g , you should not own property. Property i s for everyone to use as they need i t . I t should not be used to b u i l d your ego. 6. Time should be measured i n terms of the seasons. You should not l e t the amount of time required to do something influence your d e c i s i o n to do i t . You should do i t i f you think i t i s important, no matter how long i t takes. You should be concerned about the present, l i v i n g each day and season as i t comes. 7. Grandparents and r e l a t i v e s should have a say when decisions about b r i n g -ing up c h i l d r e n are made. 8. The most desirable type of community i s one that does not have an upper clas s and a lower c l a s s . There should be as l i t t l e government as pos-s i b l e . I t should be as simple as possible and everybody should be much the same. 9. Firm leadership i s desirable but no one should derive pleasure from exercising power. I f too much power i s shown i t should be resented by those whom i t a f f e c t s . 10. To succeed i s good, but you should not p u b l i c l y advertise your success. 11. Taking care of yourself i s the r i g h t thing to do. You should r e l y on yourself rather than other human beings. However, i f welfare i s a v a i l a b l e , i t i s wise and i t w i l l give you s e c u r i t y i f you take i t . A sheet containing the following answers prepared by the researcher was given to the group playing the non-Indian r o l e (Group B); the answers correspond to the general questions given previously. 1. You should only be concerned about the group i n your immediate sur-roundings and the group you know i n the present. 2. You should r e a l i z e that nature needs to be conquered. We must master our environment i n order to control i t . 3. To share i s desirable but only a f t e r you have looked a f t e r your own. Saving i s a much more desirable way of looking a f t e r yourself i n the future. 4. I t i s important to work at a steady job day a f t e r day. Work i s good fo r you. 5. Yes, to own property makes you f e e l good. I t gives you prestige i n the community. 6. Time i s very important and should be used c a r e f u l l y and not wasted. You should give c a r e f u l thought to doing something i f i t i s l i k e l y to take a l o t of time. Time i s money and you should look for ways of using i t more e f f i c i e n t l y now and i n the future. 7. Grandparents and r e l a t i v e s should not have much influence i n r e a r i n g children. I t i s not t h e i r concern. 23 8. A complex society i s more desirable with many groups and planning councils. The r e s u l t i s more progress. 9. Great respect should be given our business and government leaders. Strong leadership i s necessary, desirable and i n e v i t a b l e . 10. Competition i s very desirable because i t leads to high achievement and excellence. Honor and money should be given to those who achieve the most. 11. To take care of yourself and your family i s extremely important. To accept welfare i s a disgrace, unhealthy and of low status. To work with others to achieve a goal i s good as long as everyone contributes t h e i r f a i r share. 2. Strategy 2—The Reading Model 1. Students were given a copy of The Revenge of Annie Cha r l i e by Alan Fry (1973). 2. A few introductory comments were made about the background of the author. 3. They were t o l d that t h i s i s a novel which portrays the i n t e r a c t i o n of White and Native Indian values i n a somewhat humorous vain. 4. Students were given three periods i n which to read the novel. 5. The class discussion a f t e r the novel had been read was designed to bring into focus the c o n f l i c t i n g values between the two s o c i e t i e s ; to explore the i n t e r - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y between the White society (as represented by the R.C.M.P.), the Native society (as represented by Big Meadow and Annie), and the main character of Gyp; and to study the changes i n character as a r e s u l t of t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . 3. Strategy 3—The P r i n c i p l e Testing Model The procedure f o r this model was based on an a r t i c l e by Kehoe (1974). The teacher r e l a t e d to the class the following story and then led the d i s -cussion by asking a number of questions. 24 The Flamingo Motel A young school teacher, Fred Hardwick, was teaching i n a school i n northern Saskatchewan. He and h i s wife went into the c i t y of Prince Alber t , Saskatchewan f o r the week-end. They stopped i n front of the Flamingo Motel and Fred went i n to get a room. The manager of the Motel said there was no vacancy. Fred thought t h i s was a b i t unusual because i t was 10 o'clock i n the morning and h i s no vacancy sign was not turned on. Fred asked, "How come your no vacancy sign i s not on?" The manager r e p l i e d , "I j u s t haven't got around to turning i t on yet." "Well turn i t on, then," said Fred somewhat i r r i t a t e d that he had stopped unnecessarily. The manager of the Motel refused to turn on the sign. I t was at t h i s point that Fred thought there might be something else bothering the Motel manager. He thought the Motel manager had decided he wasn't married because he looked so young. He offered to show the Motel manager h i s marriage l i c e n c e but the Motel manager said that was not the problem. Fred became angry and s a i d he was going to phone the p o l i c e . He asked the manager for change, c a l l e d the p o l i c e from the lobby of the Motel. Fred: "My name i s Fred Hardwick and I am at the Flamingo Motel. The manager refuses to give me a room." Policeman: "Well, i f he doesn't want to give you a room I guess he doesn't have to. I t ' s h i s Motel." Fred: "I am quite sure he has to give me a room unless I have done something wrong." Policeman: "I w i l l send a squad car up." Fred turned away from the phone and the Motel manager asked him what the p o l i c e had s a i d . Fred t o l d him they were sending up a squad car. The manager became very nervous and s a i d he was having a l o t of problems with White people bringing Indians to h i s Motel and having wild p a r t i e s . Fred then r e a l i z e d that the manager thought Fred's wife, who was s i t t i n g i n the car, was Indian. That was the reason he didn't want to rent the room. The Questions Statement: "I would l i k e you to think about the following question and decide what should be the answer. 'Should the Motel manager have a r i g h t  to deny Fred Hardwick and h i s wife access to the Motel?' You w i l l notice I am not asking you whether he does or does not have the r i g h t but rather  should he have the r i g h t . " There was d i v i s i o n i n the class and j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r d e n i a l of access was that i t i s h i s business or property and he can do as he wishes with i t . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r saying he does not have the r i g h t to deny was that he i s discriminating or i s u n f a i r . Once posit i o n s or p r i n c i p l e s 25 had been taken the teacher began to present information and ask questions which tested the p r i n c i p l e s . The New Cases Test asked the students to apply the p r i n c i p l e he had accepted to new l o g i c a l l y relevant cases. New cases were presented f o r both p r i n c i p l e p o s i t i o n s . Statements for those who said the motel manager had a r i g h t : Let us say that a couple with two chil d r e n age three and one p u l l up i n front of the Motel. The father asks i f there i s a room and the Motel manager says, "yes". The father asks to see the room. The family looks at the room and decides to take i t . The father goes to the o f f i c e to r e g i s t e r . He signs h i s name M. Levin. The manager asks him i f i t i s a Jewish name and the father r e p l i e s that i t i s . The manager t e l l s him he does not accept Jews i n his motel and the man and h i s family w i l l have to leave. Should the Motel manager have the r i g h t to deny the family access? Some pupils s a i d yes, the teacher then proceeded with a further analogy. For example, should the motel manager have the r i g h t to deny c r i p p l e d people access to h i s motel? Statement f o r those who sa i d the motel manager did not have the r i g h t to deny access: Mrs. Webster, a poor widow who depends on her boarding house as a source of income has four female boarders. A male boarder applies f o r the f i f t h advertised p o s i t i o n . Mrs. Webster would accept him but her four female boarders say they w i l l leave i f she accepts the male boarder. Should Mrs. Webster have the r i g h t to deny the male boarder a room? Some of the pupils said yes, the teacher then proceeded with a further analogy. For example, should the motel manager have the r i g h t to refuse rooms to members of a motorcycle gang? The Role Exchange Test asked the student to exchange roles with those affected by the a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s , then consider whether or not he could s t i l l accept the p r i n c i p l e . Statement f o r the Role Exchange Test: 26 Think of yourself as Fred Hardwick seeking a room, do you think you should have any r i g h t s i n that situation? Place yourself i n the p o s i t i o n of Fred Hardwick and then the motel manager. Whom do you think i s being treated most u n f a i r l y ? The U n i v e r s a l i z a t i o n Test asked the student to imagine the conse-quences i f everybody behaved the way the student would advocate. Would he accept the consequences? Statement for the U n i v e r s a l i z a t i o n Test: What would be the consequence i f every motel i n town denied Fred a room because they thought h i s wife was Indian. Would the r e s u l t be acceptable to you? What i f most motorcycle gangs caused trouble i n the motel? Would you s t i l l require motels to accept them? The Subsumption Test asked the student to show that the value p r i n -c i p l e i s a case of some more general value p r i n c i p l e . I t would seem to be u s e f u l to discern the general value p r i n c i p l e s on both sides of the con-f l i c t and then ask the student to make a choice. For example i n the Flamingo Motel story the p r i n c i p l e s i n c o n f l i c t seem to be: (1) a person who owns property should be able to do as he wishes with the property and (2) a person has a r i g h t not to be the r e c i p i e n t of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . A student can be asked which general p r i n c i p l e he accepts and then i n d i c a t e what facts make the more general p r i n c i p l e relevant to determining the accept-a b i l i t y of h i s p o s i t i o n on the case. 4. The Control Group This group was given no s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s , and was tested at the same time that the other groups were tested. During the treatment period the control group proceeded with i t s normal classroom routine with i t s regular teacher. C. Techniques of Measurement Three t e s t i n g devices, including a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , a dogmatism scale, and the Learning Environment Inventory (Anderson, 1968) were used i n t h i s study. The semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , f i r s t developed by Murphy and L i k e r t (1938), has generally been accepted as an excellent measure of the degree of p o s i t i v e or negative f e e l i n g toward a p a r t i c u l a r ethnic group. I t i s easy to construct, has a high t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y and correlates high with other a t t i t u d e measures which are more d i f f i c u l t to construct, use, and score. The semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l used i n t h i s study was con-structed as a pre- and post-test by the researcher and i s included i n Appendix I I . An item analysis performed by using the Lertap program (maintained by the Educational S t a t i s t i c s Laboratory, Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia) revealed that a l l items were working w e l l . The dogmatism scale was f i r s t developed by Troldahl and Powell (1965). The p a r t i c u l a r test used i n t h i s study was developed by Rokeach (1973). Item analysis again revealed that a l l of the items were working w e l l . The dogmatism scale, which i s shown i n Appendix I I I , was administered to the students p r i o r to the treatment and was used to c l a s s i f y the students into high and low dogmatic personality categories, as described above. The Learning Environment Inventory, which i s shown i n Appendix IV, was developed by Anderson (1968) as part of a research and evaluation pro-gram of Harvard Project Physics. I t measures the climate of the classroom along several dimensions. I t was used as a post t e s t . D. Analysis An analysis of variance (Finn, 1974) was used to determine i f there was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference e i t h e r i n dogmatism or i n the climate of the classroom between any of the four groups. Because the design contained i n t a c t classes, an analysis of covariance (Kirk, 1968) was used to measure a t t i t u d i n a l change and to determine i f there was an i n t e r a c t i o n between dogmatism and a t t i t u d i n a l change. V. SUMMARY OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS A. Results I t i s stated i n the s t a t i s t i c a l n u l l hypotheses, corresponding to the research hypotheses, that the three s t r a t e g i e s would not produce a t t i t u d i n a l changes s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than the c o n t r o l group; that the r o l e playing strategy would not produce an a t t i t u d i n a l change s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than ei t h e r the reading strategy or the p r i n c i p l e t e s t i n g strategy; and that there was not a strong r e l a t i o n between the degree of dogmatism i n one's personality and the amount of a t t i t u d i n a l change experienced. The r e s u l t s r e l a t e d to a t t i t u d i n a l change and i t s i n t e r a c t i o n with dogmatic p e r s o n a l i t i e s are summarized i n Tables 5 and 6. The data from Table 6 reveal that none of the groups showed a s i g n i f i c a n t change. Furthermore, dogmatic p e r s o n a l i t i e s were not i n t e r a c t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y with at t i t u d e change.* I t i s therefore not possible to r e j e c t the n u l l hypo-theses that there i s no difference i n a t t i t u d e change between the three st r a t e g i e s and the c o n t r o l group or that there was not a strong r e l a t i o n between the degree of dogmatism and the a t t i t u d i n a l change experienced. Classroom Climate As seen from Table 7, an analysis of variance indicated that there were s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the classroom climate of the four groups. Scheffe's comparison t e s t (Kirk, 1968) showed that s i g n i f i c a n t differences *These analyses were further confirmed by looking at an analysis of difference scores, (for r a t i o n a l e see K i r k , 1968). Comparable r e s u l t s were obtained which further substantiates the r e s u l t s of the present a n a l y s i s . 28 TABLE 5 SUMMARY STATISTICS: ATTITUDE SCORES ON THE SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL Pre-' Test Post--Test X S.D. X S. D. Strategy 1 (Role Play) 57.61 9.20 56.00 7. 33 Strategy 2 (Reading) 54.86 8.34 53.59 8. 70 Strategy 3 ( P r i n c i p l e Testing) 57.64 10.74 60.12 9. 16 Control 60.55 15.34 60.50 12. 61 TABLE 6 ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE Source df M.S. F Groups (G) 3 148.18 2.55 Dogmatism (D) 1 75.81 1.30 G x D 3 30.18 0.51 Error 76 Total 83 TABLE 7 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE: CLASSROOM CLIMATE Source df M.S. F P Groups 3 0.49 3.48 0.019* Error 95 0.14 Total 98 *p < .05 30 existed between the following groups; r o l e playing and p r i n c i p l e t e s t i n g , reading and the co n t r o l group, and p r i n c i p l e t e s t i n g and the control group. However, no s i g n i f i c a n t difference was found between reading and r o l e play-ing; the only two of the groups taught r e g u l a r l y by the researcher. This indicates that a possible teacher e f f e c t was operating i n the design. B. Conclusions The study has f a i l e d to demonstrate any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on the a t t i t u d e measure among the various treatment groups or between each of the treatment groups and the co n t r o l group. Furthermore, the study did not demonstrate any s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between dogmatism and a t t i t u d e change. Several reasons may account for t h i s f i n d i n g ; two of which are design considerations, while three are more t h e o r e t i c a l i n nature. The use of the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l as both the pre- and the post-test may have possibly resulted i n a test e f f e c t ; the subject's response to the post-test was conditioned by t h e i r remembered response on the pre-test. Furthermore, the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l may not be s e n s i t i v e enough to assess a t t i t u d i n a l change or subtle enough to measure the true f e e l i n g s of the students. To control f o r t h i s , a d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d i n a l measure should be used. There appeared to be a teacher e f f e c t i n operation, as sug-gested by the analysis of classroom climate. Furthermore, the two groups showing the greatest a t t i t u d i n a l change, although not s i g n i f -icant, were the p r i n c i p l e t e s t i n g group and the co n t r o l group. I t was i n these two groups that the experimenter used the classes of two other teachers; one as the p r i n c i p l e t e s t i n g experimental group, and the other to pre- and post-test as a co n t r o l group. The novelty of 31 having a d i f f e r e n t teacher i n the room may have given the a c t i v i t i e s done during the experimenter's presence some a r t i f i c i a l importance. The background l i t e r a t u r e f or t h i s research has suggested that i n order for a t t i t u d e change to occur, an inconsistency must be i n j e c t e d into one's psychological system without the source of the inconsistency appearing as a threat to the subject's psychological freedom. Two t h e o r e t i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n to the nature of the inconsistency a r i s e ; perhaps the treatments were not long enough or strong enough to demonstrate that a legitimate inconsistency was present. To overcome t h i s problem several r e v i s i o n s and additions are necessary. For the r o l e play strategy the i n c l u s i o n of other r o l e play s i t u a t i o n s involving Native Indians or i d e n t i c a l r o l e play procedures using other ethnic groups may be productive. For the reading strategy t h i s would include a revised and expanded reading l i s t of novels empathetic to Native Indians. The p r i n c i p l e t e s t i n g strategy i n t h i s study may have been s i g n i f i c a n t i f i t had included a larger number of s i t u a t i o n a l dilemmas i n order to point out incon-s i s t e n c i e s present i n the student's a t t i t u d e s . The t h i r d t h e o r e t i c a l consideration was that perhaps the incubation period or the time needed to assimilate the inconsistency and to reorganize one's attitudes i s of s u f f i c i e n t duration that the o r i g i n a l post-test would not pick up any a t t i t u d i n a l change whereas a subsequent one would. Therefore, a further long range test would be u s e f u l . In addition, i t should be noted that the i d e a l would be to have had the students assigned randomly to the experimental and con-t r o l groups. Unfortunately, this i s often d i s r u p t i v e to the school system and therefore, i t i s u n l i k e l y that the use of i n t a c t groups can be avoided. In conclusion the author believes that with some r e v i s i o n t h i s study should be r e p l i c a t e d . 33 BIBLIOGRAPHY Adorno, T. W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D. L. and Sanford, R. N. The Au t h o r i t a r i a n Personality. New York, Harper, 1950. Anderson, G. F. 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LX (1960), pp. 86-94. 37 APPENDIX I STUDENT SCORES ON THE DOGMATISM SCALE, THE PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL 38 TABLE 8 STUDENT SCORES ON THE DOGMATISM SCALE, THE PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL Pre-Test Post-Test Student Number Dogmatism Score Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Strategy I Role Play 163 136 44 44 165 159 46 44 167 178 59 58 168 148 61 56 169 129 66 62 170 104 59 54 172 99 79 58 178 170 53 57 181 169 45 46 183 175 62 65 184 162 54 52 185 164 69 61 186 125 55 59 188 184 63 72 189 134 66 52 190 155 52 52 191 144 48 53 192 157 56 63 Strategy II Reading 131 127 42 42 134 111 51 47 137 136 57 54 138 183 52 52 140 99 57 63 142 141 73 68 144 153 51 52 145 174 52 52 147 118 55 64 148 82 64 62 149 148 49 48 150 152 62 52 151 186 66 64 152 127 58 69 153 167 49 50 154 165 63 55 155 127 41 38 157 150 49 46 159 131 51 48 160 134 42 41 161 122 64 52 162 145 59 60 39 Table 8 - continued Pre-Test Post-Test Student Number Dogmatism Score Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Strategy I II P r i n c i p l e Testing 223 141 68 67 224 102 55 63 225 172 68 63 226 128 51 60 227 129 68 66 229 120 68 58 230 161 73 72 231 117 59 57 232 131 59 55 233 117 66 53 234 160 70 60 235 142 38 82 236 171 52 57 237 141 52 54 238 148 42 39 239 132 44 49 240 162 50 52 241 152 56 56 242 178 50 53 243 109 82 63 244 154 58 71 246 144 58 59 247 125 48 65 249 132 46 53 250 135 60 76 Control Group 195 179 79 72 197 129 58 39 199 147 71 71 200 171 38 48 201 143 58 56 203 141 79 81 206 125 49 50 207 114 55 64 208 136 28 49 210 146 58 53 211 123 46 52 212 133 44 52 213 178 70 75 214 145 62 68 215 193 75 65 216 123 76 72 40 Table 8 - continued Pre-Test Post-Test Student Number Dogmatism Score Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l 217 140 68 70 218 130 45 42 220 108 68 52 221 124 84 79 APPENDIX II THE SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL 42 Name Division Place a check mark ( / ) in one of seven spaces, between each pair of adjectives, which best indicates your feeling towards Native Indians. Be honest but work quickly. NATIVE INDIANS bad stupid easy funny unimportant ashamed sad dirty uneducated uninteresting unclear hot lazy APPENDIX III THE DOGMATISM SCALE 44 INFORMATION SURVEY 2 NAME GRADE SEX AGE Directions On the following pages are a number of statements indicative of attitudes that Canadians hold about a variety of subjects. The best answer to each statement below i s your personal opinion. We have tried to cover many different and opposing points of view; you may find yourself agreeing strongly with some of the statements, disagreeing just as strongly with others, and perhaps uncertain about others. Whether you agree or disagree with any statement, you can be sure that many people feel the same as you do. On the accompanying pages, for each statement, c i r c l e the corres-ponding number according to how much you agree or disagree with i t . Please mark every one. 1. I AGREE VERY MUCH 4. I DISAGREE A LITTLE 2. I AGREE ON THE WHOLE 5. I DISAGREE ON THE WHOLE 3. I AGREE A LITTLE 6. I DISAGREE VERY MUCH There are no right and wrong answers. We are concerned only with  your opinion. Work rapidly and carefully. Give your f i r s t reaction. 45 Agree Disagree Very Much Very Much 1. The United States and Russia have j u s t about nothing i n common. 2. The highest form of government i s a democracy and the highest form of democracy i s a government run by those who are most i n t e l l i g e n t . 3. Even though freedom of speech for a l l groups i s a worthwhile goal, i t i s unfortunately necessary to r e s t r i c t the freedom of c e r t a i n p o l i t i c a l groups. 4. I t i s only natural that a person would have a much better acquaintance with ideas he believes i n than with ideas he opposes. 5. Man on h i s own i s a helpless and miserable creature. 6. Fundamentally, the world we l i v e i n i s a pretty lonesome place. 7. Most people don't give a "damn" for others. 8. I'd l i k e i t i f I could f i n d someone who would t e l l me how to solve my personal problems. 9. I t i s only natural f or a person to be rather f e a r f u l of the future. 10. There i s so much to be done and so l i t t l e time to do i t . 11. Once I get wound up i n a heated d i s -cussion, I j u s t can't stop. 12. In a discussion I often f i n d i t necessary to repeat myself several times to make sure I am being understood. 13. In a heated discussion I generally become so absorbed i n what I am going to say that I forget to l i s t e n to what the others are saying. 46 14. I t i s better to be a dead hero than a l i v e coward. Agree Very Much Disagree Very Much 4 5 6 15. While I don't l i k e to admit this even to myself my secret ambition i s to become a great man, l i k e E i n s t e i n , or Beethoven, or Shakespeare. 16. The main thing i n l i f e i s for a person to want to do something important. 17. If given the chance I would do some-thing of great b e n e f i t to the world. 18. In the h i s t o r y of mankind there have probably been j u s t a handful of r e a l l y great thinkers. 19. There are a number of people I have come to hate because of the things they stand f o r . 20. A man who does not be l i e v e i n some great cause has not r e a l l y l i v e d . 21. I t i s only when a person devotes himself to an i d e a l or cause that l i f e becomes meaningful. 22. Of a l l the d i f f e r e n t philosophies which e x i s t i n t h i s world, there i s probably only one which i s correct. 23. A person who gets enthusiastic about too many causes i s l i k e l y to be a pretty "wishy-washy" sort of person. 24. To compromise with our p o l i t i c a l opponents i s dangerous because i t usually leads to the bet r a y a l of our own side. 4 '5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 25. When i t comes to differences of opin-ion i n r e l i g i o n we must be c a r e f u l not to compromise with those who believe d i f f e r e n t l y from the way we do. 4 5 6 47 Agree Very Much Disagree Very Much 26. In times l i k e these, a person must be pretty s e l f i s h i f he considers p r i m a r i l y h i s own happiness. 27. The worst crime a person could commit i s to attack p u b l i c l y the people who believe i n the same thing he does. 28. In times l i k e these i t i s often neces-sary to be more on guard against ideas put out by people or groups i n one's own camp than by those i n the opposing camp. 29. A group which tolerates too many differences of opinion among i t s own members cannot e x i s t f o r long. 30. There are two kinds of people i n th i s world; those who are for the truth and those who are against the tru t h . 31. My blood b o i l s whenever a person stubbornly refuses to admit he's wrong. 32. A person who thinks p r i m a r i l y of h i s own happiness i s beneath contempt. 33. Most of the ideas which get printed nowadays aren't worth the paper they are printed on. 34. In th i s complicated world of ours the only way we can know what's going on i s to r e l y on leaders or experts who can be trusted. 35. I t i s often desirable to reserve judgment about what's going on u n t i l one has had a chance to hear the opinions of those one respects. 36. In the long run the best way to l i v e i s to pick friends and associates whose tastes and b e l i e f s are the same as one's own. 37. The present i s a l l too often f u l l of unhappiness. I t i s only the future that counts. 48 38. I f a man i s to accomplish h i s mission i n l i f e i t i s sometimes necessary to gamble " a l l or nothing at a l l . " 39. Unfortunately, a good many people with whom I have discussed important s o c i a l and moral problems don't r e a l l y under-stand what's going on. 40. Most people j u s t don't know what's good for them. Agree Disagree Very Much Very Much APPENDIX IV LEARNING ENVIRONMENT INVENTORY 50 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT INVENTORY DIRECTIONS The purpose of the questions i n th i s booklet i s to f i n d out what your cl a s s i s l i k e . This i s not a " t e s t . " You are asked to give your honest, frank opinions about the class which you are now attending. Record your answer to each of the questions on the IBM card provided. Please make no marks on the booklet i t s e l f . Answer every question. In answering each question go through the following steps: 1. Read the statement c a r e f u l l y . 2. Think about how we l l the statement describes your class (the one you are now i n ) . 3. Find the number on the answer card that corresponds to the st a t e -ment you are considering. 4. Blacken one space only on the answer card according to the follow-ing i n s t r u c t i o n s : I f you strongly disagree with the statement, blacken space 1. I f you disagree with the statement, blacken space 2^ . I f you agree with the statement, blacken space J 3 . If you strongly agree with the statement, blacken space 4_. 5. You w i l l have approximately 4£ minutes to complete the 105 questions i n the booklet. Be sure the number on the answer card corresponds to the number of the statement being answered i n the booklet. 51 1. Members of the class do favours for one another. 2. The books and equipment students need or want are e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e to them i n the classroom. 3. There are long periods during which the c l a s s does nothing. 4. The class has students with many d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s . 5. Certain students work only with t h e i r close f r i e n d s . 6. The students enjoy t h e i r class work. 7. Students who break the rules are penalized. 8. There i s constant bickering among class members. 9. The better students' questions are more sympathetic-a l l y answered than those of the average students. 10. The cl a s s knows exactly what i t has to get done. 11. Interests vary greatly within the group. 12. A good c o l l e c t i o n of books and magazines i s a v a i l -able i n the classroom f o r students to use. 13. The work of the class i s d i f f i c u l t . 14. Every member of the class enjoys the same p r i v i l e g e s . 15. Most students want t h e i r work to be better than t h e i r f r i e n d s ' work. 16. The class has rules to guide i t s a c t i v i t i e s . 17. Personal d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the class i s too small to be a problem. 0) 0) 5-1 60 CD n) cu to u •H 60 n) ^ QJ i—1 CU rH 60 U 60 a 60 <u C o n) cu o S-l CO u U +J •rl 60 u CO n < CO 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 52 18. A student has the chance to get to know a l l other students i n the c l a s s . 19. The work of the class i s frequently interrupted when some students have nothing to do. 20. Students cooperate equally with a l l class members. 21. Many students are d i s s a t i s f i e d with much that the class does. 22. The better students are granted s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s . 23. The objectives of the class are not c l e a r l y recognized. 24. Only the good students are given s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s . 25. Class decisions tend to be made by a l l the students. 26. The students would be proud to show the classroom to a v i s i t o r . 27. The pace of the clas s i s rushed. 28. Some students refuse to mix with the r e s t of the c l a s s . 29. Decisions a f f e c t i n g the clas s tend to be made democratically. 30. Certain students have no respect f o r other students. 31. Some groups of students work together regardless of what the r e s t of the class i s doing. 32. Members of the class are personal f r i e n d s . 33. The class i s w e l l organized. 34. Some students are interest e d i n completely d i f f e r e n t things than other students. a) CD u 60 CD cd CD CO U •H 60 Cfl CD >> <U 60 .60 C 60 a O CO CD o U CO u u •U •H 60 4J c/3 Q < C/3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 i 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 ' 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 ! 2 3 4 53 35. Certain students have more influence on the class than others. 36. The room i s br i g h t and comfortable. 37. Class members tend to pursue d i f f e r e n t kinds of problems. 38. There i s considerable d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the work of the c l a s s . 39. F a i l u r e of the class would mean l i t t l e to i n d i v i d u a l members. 40. The class i s disorganized. 41. Students compete to see who can do the best work. 42. Certain students impose t h e i r wishes on the whole c l a s s . 43. A few of the class members always t r y to do better then the others. 44. There are tensions among c e r t a i n groups of students that tend to i n t e r f e r e with cl a s s a c t i v i t i e s . 45. The class i s well-organized and e f f i c i e n t . 46. Students are constantly challenged. 47. Students f e e l l e f t out unless they compete with t h e i r classmates. 48. Students are asked to follow s t r i c t r u l e s . 49. The class i s c o n t r o l l e d by the actions of a few members who are favoured. 50. Students don't care about the future of the class as a group. CD CD u 60 CD n) CD CO U •iH 60 <! CD rH CD rH 60 U 60 C 60 CD P5 o rt CD O U CO U U •P •H 60 4-1 CO Q <; CO 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 ! 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 54 cu u 60 cu cd a) cn !-i •H •60 i d cu t-H cu rH 60 60 c 60 cu C o cfl cu O cn u u 4-1 •H 60 +J C/3 Pi <! 51. Each member of the class has as much influence as any other member. 52. The members look forward to coming to class meetings. 53. The stubject studied requires no p a r t i c u l a r aptitude on the part of the students. 54. Members of the class don't care what the class does. 55. There are displays around the room. 56. A l l students know each other very w e l l . 57. The classroom i s too crowded. 58. Students are not i n close enough contact to develop l i k e s or d i s l i k e s f o r one another. 59. The class i s rather informal and few rules are imposed. 60. Students have l i t t l e idea of what the class i s attempting to accomplish. 61. There i s a recognized r i g h t and wrong way of going about class a c t i v i t i e s . 62. What the class does i s determined by a l l the students. 63. A f t e r the c l a s s , the students have a sense of s a t i s f a c t i o n . 64. Most students cooperate rather than compete with one another. 65. The objectives of the class are s p e c i f i c . 66. Students i n the class tend to f i n d the work hard to do, 67. Each student knows the goals of the course. 68. A l l classroom procedures are well-established. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 55 69. Certain students i n the class are responsible f o r petty quarrels. 70. Many clas s members are confused by what goes on i n cl a s s . 71. The class i s made up of i n d i v i d u a l s who do not know each other w e l l . 72. The class divides i t s e f f o r t s among several purposes. 73. The class has plenty of time to cover the prescribed amount of work. 74. Students who have past h i s t o r i e s of being d i s c i p l i n e problems are discriminated against. 75. Students do not have to hurry to f i n i s h t h e i r work. 76. Certain groups of friends tend to s i t together. 77. There i s much competition i n the c l a s s . 78. The subject presentation i s too elementary for many students. 79. Students are w e l l - s a t i s f i e d with the work of the c l a s s . 80. A few members of the class have much greater influence than the other members. 81. There i s a set of rules f o r the students to follow. 82. Certain students don't l i k e other students. 83. The class r e a l i z e s exactly how much work i t has to do. 84. Students share a common concern f o r the success of the c l a s s . 85. There i s l i t t l e time f o r day-dreaming. cu cu !-l 60 n) CO •rH T3 60 C O U cu CD u 60 03 CU !^  CU rH u 60 60 <u C cu o CO S-i U •rt 60 4-> Q <! CO 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 56 cu CU u 86. The class i s working toward many d i f f e r e n t goals. 87. The cl a s s members f e e l rushed to f i n i s h t h e i r work. 88. Certain students are considered uncooperative. 89. Most students s i n c e r e l y want the class to be a success. 90. There i s enough room for both i n d i v i d u a l and group work. 91. Each student knows the other members of the class by t h e i r f i r s t names. 92. F a i l u r e of the class would mean nothing to most members. 93. The class has d i f f i c u l t y keeping up with i t s assigned work. 95. There i s a great deal of confusion during class meetings. 95. D i f f e r e n t students vary a great deal regarding which aspect of the class they are intere s t e d i n . 96. Each student i n the class has a c l e a r idea of the class goals. 97. Most students cooperate equally with other class members. 98. Certain students are favoured more than the r e s t . 99. Students have a great concern for the progress of the c l a s s . 100. Certain students s t i c k together i n small groups. 101. Most students consider the subject-matter easy. 60 cu n) cu cn u •H 60 i d cfl cu rH rH 60 u 60 c 60 cu C O ni cu o U cn u S-i 4J •H 60 4-1 w n < W 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 57 102. The course material i s covered quickly. cu cu n 60 cu ctf cu CO 5-4 •rl 60 X) cd cu >> r-t cu I-l 60 S-i 60 CJ 60 cu C o cd cu o u CO 5-1 4-1 •H 60 •U P 1 2 3 4 103. There i s an undercurrent of f e e l i n g among students that tends to p u l l the cl a s s apart. 104. Many students i n the school would have d i f f i c u l t y doing the advanced work of the c l a s s . 105. Students seldom compete with one another. APPENDIX V SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL ITEM ANALYSIS SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL ITEM ANALYSIS Number Cor r e l a t i o n 1 0.957 2 0.946 3 0.786 4 0.910 5 0.942 6 0.936 7 0.874 8 0.928 9 0.903 10 0.921 11 0.953 12 0.881 13 0.923 

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