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Cognitive style and children's performance on measures of elementary science competencies 1971

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COGNITIVE STYLE AND CHILDREN'S PERFORMANCE ON MEASURES OF ELEMENTARY SCIENCE COMPETENCIES by GERALD ALEXANDER SIEBEN B.Ed., Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of EDUCATION We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as con fo rm ing to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u n e , 1971 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia , I agree tha t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t pe rm i s s i on f o r e x t e n s i v e copy ing o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g ranted by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s unders tood tha t copy ing or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . F a c u l t y of Educa t ion The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia , Vancouver 8, B.C. June , 1971 ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s tudy was to determine the e f f e c t of W i t k i n ' s c o n s t r u c t of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e on c h i l d r e n ' s performance on s a l i e n t e lementary s c i e n c e competenc ie s . These competencies i n v o l v e d the a b i l i t y to use s c i e n c e proces ses and the a c q u i s i t i o n of s p e c i f i c a t t i t u d e s . Dur ing the development of the study (see Appendix A ) , i t was f i r s t neces sa ry to determine the measurable o b j e c t i v e s o f the E lementary Sc ience Study ( E . S . S . ) . The Test of Science Processes was used to measure those E.S.S. o b j e c t i v e s which p e r t a i n e d to s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s . In o r d e r to measure the a t t i t u d i n a l o b j e c t i v e o f the E.S.S. p r o - gramme, the author deve loped f o u r a t t i t u d e s c a l e s , u t i l i z - ing p roper a t t i t u d e measur ing t e c h n i q u e s . The f o u r s c a l e s measured c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s towards the f o l l o w i n g b e l i e f s : c h i l d r e n w i l l f e e l t h a t "Mess ing about in S c i e n c e " i s fun (Fun S c a l e ) ; c h i l d r e n w i l l f o l l o w - u p phenomena encountered du r i n g E..S.S. e x p e r i e n c e s (Pursue S c a l e ) ; c h i l d r e n w i l l impose a s t r u c t u r e on t h e i r p l ay to f i n d out more ( S t r u c t u r e i i S c a l e ) ; c h i l d r e n w i l l themselves i n i t i a t e t h e i r own i n v e s - t i g a t i o n s ( Independent I n v e s t i g a t i o n S c a l e ) . The d e v e l o p - ment of these s c a l e s i s r e p o r t e d i n t a c t i n Appendix B. Good r e l i a b i l i t y and f a c t o r a l v a l i d i t y weve e s t a b l i s h e d f o r these s c a l e s . It was hoped t h a t the f o u r a t t i t u d e s c a l e s would prove to be u s e f u l t o o l s f o r e lementary s c i e n c e e d u c a t o r s . A n a t u r a l exper iment in a smal l c i t y s choo l d i s t r i c t was u t i l i z e d to determine the e f f e c t o f yea r s of E.S.S. e x p e r i e n c e , the e f f e c t o f W i t k i n ' s c o n s t r u c t of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e , and the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t o f yea r s of e x p e r i e n c e wi th c o g n i t i v e s t y l e - - on c h i l d r e n ' s p e r - formance on measures of e lementary s c i e n c e competenc ie s . U t i l i z i n g a th ree by th ree f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n , the t e s t s co re s o f 184 grade seven p u p i l s were compared. The independent l e v e l l i n g v a r i a b l e used to determine c o g n i t i v e s t y l e was based upon performance on the Children's Embedded Figures Test ( C . E . F . T . ) . Years of E.S.S. i n s t r u c t i o n (one y e a r , two year s and th ree y e a r s ) comprised the independent b l o c k i n g v a r i a b l e . Groups were compared on f o u r t e e n dependent v a r i a b l e s ( n ine process v a r i a b l e s and f i v e a t t i t u d i n a l v a r i a b l e s ) . H o t e l l i n g s T 2 s t a t i s t i c was com- puted p r i o r to a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e in o rder to determine i f the g l oba l group ( C . E . F . T . s core 0-15) would a ch ieve i i i s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower s cores than the a n a l y t i c a l group ( C . E . F . T . score 20-25) on the sets of e lementary s c i e n c e competenc ies (p roces ses and a t t i t u d e s ) . The p r e d i c t e d i n f e r i o r performance of the g l o b a l group was conf i rmed on the se t of a t t i t u d i n a l dependent v a r i a b l e s and on the se t o f dependent v a r i a b l e s conce rn ing p r o c e s s e s . The p r e d i c t e d e f f e c t o f s u p e r i o r performance of s tudent s who had r e c e i v e d more E.S.S. e x p e r i e n c e than o ther s tudent s was not g e n e r a l l y suppor ted by the s t a t i s - t i c a l t e s t s . The p r e d i c t e d i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was not g e n e r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e i t h e r , a l though t h e i r appeared to be a t r e n d which might i n d i c a t e t h a t the g l o b a l group d i d l e s s we l l when t h i s group had more and more E.S.S. e x p e r i e n c e . L i m i t a t i o n s of the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l d e s i g n , however, made i t d i f f i c u l t to come to any f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t and the e f f e c t of year s of i n s t r u c t i o n . Ana lyses of v a r i a n c e conf i rmed the f i n d i n g s tha t the c h i l d r e n wi th a more g l oba l c o g n i t i v e s t y l e ach ieved s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower s cores on e lementary s c i e n c e competencies than c h i l d r e n with more a n a l y t i c a l c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s . - Based on these f i n d i n g s , the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the c o n s t r u c t of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e on e lementary s c i e n c e i v e d u c a t i o n was d i s c u s s e d in terms of methodo log i ca l re form and c u r r i c u l a r r e f o r m . F i n a l l y , a p lan f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h was p roposed . v TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. INTRODUCTION 1 1.0 Importance of the Study 1 1.1 Genera l Statement of the Problem . . . . . . 3 a) A D e f i n i t i o n of the C o n s t r u c t of C o g n i t i v e S t y l e 3 b) The Nature of t h i s Study 7 II. A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON COGNITIVE STYLE. . . . 9 2.0 The C l a s s i c a l D i v i s i o n between C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s and P e r c e p t u a l S t y l e i s Unwarranted 9 2.1 C o g n i t i v e S t y l e i s Re l a ted to Dependence Upon Others 11 2.2 S tud ie s Reveal the Ontogeny of 13 D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n 2.3 D i s c r i m i n a t i n g A t t r i b u t e s of C o g n i t i v e S t y l e s are S i m i l a r to the A t t r i b u t e s of E.S.S. A c t i v i t i e s 17 II I. PROCEDURES 22 3.0 A Natura l Exper iment E x i s t e d in a S m a l l - C i t y School D i s t r i c t 22 3.1 I n d i v i d u a l and Group Tes t s were A d m i n i s t e r e d to the Sub jec t s 24 v i Chapter Page 3.2 The Design of t h i s Study can be C a t e g o r i z e d as a F a c t o r i a l Model 26 3.3 There was no S i g n i f i c a n t I.Q. Bias in Columns I, I I, and III 28 3.4 Four teen Dependent V a r i a b l e s were Tes ted i n the Design 29 3.5 The Nu l l Hypotheses 31 3.6 The A l t e r n a t i v e Hypotheses 32 IV. THE STATISTICAL ANALYSES . 34 4 . 6 Raw Data was Ana lyzed by the Computing F a c i l i t i e s of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia . . 34 4.1 M u l t i v a r i a t e and U n i v a r i a t e Tes t s were U t i l i z e d f o r the S t a t i s t i c a l T e s t of Hypothes i s I 35 a) S t a t i s t i c a l Te s t s and T h e i r Re su l t s . 35 b) Summary o f the S t a t i s t i c a l Te s t s of H n 40 UI 4.2 M u l t i v a r i a t e and U n i v a r i a t e Tes t s were U t i l i z e d f o r the S t a t i s t i c a l Tes t s of Hypothes i s II 40 a) S t a t i s t i c a l Tes t s 40 b) Summary o f S t a t i s t i c a l Tes t s of U I I 4.3 The S t a t i s t i c a l Te s t s of Hypotheses III, IV, and V 45 a) Ana ly ses of Va r i ance Tes t s of Hypotheses I I I , IV, and V 45 b) Summary of Tes t s of Hypotheses I I I , IV, and V 59 v i i Chapter Page b b b V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY. . 67 5.1 Th i s Study Developed from a Need which Arose in the C lassroom 67 5.2 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 68 5.3 Conc lu s i on s and Recommendations . 69 a) The E f f e c t of Years of E.S.S. I n s t r u c t i o n 69 b) The I n t e r a c t i o n of C o g n i t i v e S t y l e and Years of E.S.S. I n s t r u c t i o n 70 c) The E f f e c t of C o g n i t i v e S t y l e on Performance on the Test of Science Processes 71 d) The E f f e c t of C o g n i t i v e S t y l e on Performance on the A t t i t u d e S c a l e s . . 71 e) General Conc lu s i on s and Recommendations 71 e-1) The M o d i f i c a t i o n of E.S.S. Methodology 72 e-2) The M o d i f i c a t i o n of the Way C u r r i c u l u m i s Used . . . 75 5.4 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research 77 REFERENCES 79 v i i i -1) The Main E f f e c t f o r Years o f E.S.S. I n s t r u c t i o n ( H 0 ) 60 u 111 -2) The Main E f f e c t f o r Cog- n i t i v e S t y l e ( H n ) 60 U I V -3) The I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t o f C o g n i t i v e S t y l e and Years of E.S.S. Expe r i ence (H Q ) . 61 Page APPENDIX A THE SELECTION OF PERFORMANCE CRITERIA 87 APPENDIX B THE DEVELOPMENT OF FOUR ATTITUDE SCALES TO MEASURE CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE AFFECTIVE OBJECTIVES OF THE ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY 95 APPENDIX C ITEM AND TEST ANALYSES FOR C . E . F . T . AND THE TEST OF SCIENCE PROCESSES 152 APPENDIX D RAW DATA - - IDENTIFIED ACCORDING TO FORMAT 164 i x LIST OF TABLES Tab le Page 1. A comparison Showing the S i m i l a r i t y Between E.S.S. O b j e c t i v e s and the D e s c r i m i n a t i n g A t t r i b u t e s o f G loba l versus A n a l y t i c a l F u n c t i o n i n g 18 2. t - T e s t s Comparing the G loba l versus the A n a l y t i c a l Group on Each of the A f f e c t i v e V a r i a b l e s 36 3. A M u l t i v a r i a t e Comparison of G loba l versus A n a l y t i c a l Groups on the A f f e c t i v e Measures of the E lementary S c i ence Study 38 4. A Comparison of I n d i v i d u a l t - T e s t s of the T o t a l Group versus the t - T e s t s of Each Sex S e p a r a t e l y on the A f f e c t i v e Measures - 39 5. t - T e s t s Comparing the G loba l versus the A n a l y t i c a l Groups on Each o f the P r o c e s s e s . 41 6. A Comparison of I n d i v i d u a l t - T e s t s of the T o t a l Group versus t - T e s t s of Each Sex S e p a r a t e l y on the C o g n i t i v e Measures ( P roce s se s ) 42 7. A M u l t i v a r i a t e Comparison Between the G loba l Group and the A n a l y t i c a l Group on the C o g n i t i v e E lementary S c i ence Competencies (P roces se s ) 43 8a T o t a l Groups Ana lyses of Va r i ance Tab les 47 8b Boys ' Ana lyses of V a r i a n c e Tab les . . . . . 51 8c G i r l s ' Ana ly ses of V a r i a n c e Tab le s 55 9. Summary of Re jec ted and Accepted Hypotheses (H n , H n » and H 0 ) . 59 u 111 U I V U V 1 F a c t o r Loadings on the Four A t t i t u d e S ca l e s 11.6 x Tab le Page B2 A lpha C o e f f i c i e n t s , Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of the Four Sca le s 119 B3 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of the Four A t t i t u d e Domains - by Sex 121 CI Item A n a l y s i s of the Childrens ' Embedded Figures Test . . . . . . . 152 C2 Item Ana ly ses f o r the Subtes t s of the Tests of Science Processes 154 x i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page I. Sample Item from the Childrens' Embedded Figures Test 5 II. S t a b i l i t y of C o g n i t i v e S t y l e over Time 14 II I. The Design o f the Study 27 IV. A l l S i g n i f i c a n t Main E f f e c t s f o r Years of E.S.S. Exper i ence 62 V. S t a t i s t i c a l l y S i g n i f i c a n t I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s 63 VI. Score Trends f o r To t a l A t t i t u d e s and T o t a l P rocesses Based Upon C e l l Means from Ana ly ses of V a r i a n c e 64 x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My thanks are extended to my s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. G.H. Cannon f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement. Thanks are a l s o due to Dr. L . L . Wa l ter s f o r h i s adv i ce and suppor t . I am g r a t e f u l to Dr. Stephen F o s t e r f o r h i s c a r e f u l s u p e r v i s i o n of the p r e p a r a t i o n of the a t t i t u d e s c a l e s . I a l s o wish to express my g r a t i t u d e to the teacher s and s tudent s of School D i s t r i c t #15 ( P e n t i c t o n ) f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n . x i i i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 .0 Importance of the Study Th i s e x p l o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n f ocus sed on an impor- t a n t i s sue in c u r r i c u l u m development which was r a i s e d more than a decade ago: S h a l l educator s search f o r the one bes t c u r r i c u l u m f o r a l l c h i l d r e n , or s h a l l educator s seek to d i s c o v e r which c u r r i c u l a are bes t s u i t e d to c h i l d r e n m a n i f e s t i n g p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Cronbach 1957, 1967; Cronbach and Snow, 1969). Statements such as the f o l l o w i n g s t i l l p e r s i s t i n major e lementary s c i e n c e r e - v i s i o n s and t y p i f y the u n i l a t e r a l approach to c u r r i c u l u m : Every c h i l d learns best when real things such as b a t t e r i e s , bulbs, bones and blocks are a v a i l a b l e for him to use, as tools for his inquiry. As a r e s u l t , the pupils ex- perience with real things w i l l lead him to search for supporting vesources. . . .They [the p u p i l s ] need to have a fvee, unstruc- tured period of time to feel, to smell, to l i s t e n , etc. . . .How the pupil learns things i s more important than the things he learns {Elementary Science, P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , 1969, p. 12) . Th i s s t a tement , though w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d , i s q u e s t i o n a b l e and perhaps even c o n t r a d i c t o r y . It i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e tha t when one c o n s i d e r s how the p u p i l l e a r n s , i t may be tha t 1 2 the i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l under c o n s i d e r a t i o n does not l e a r n bes t w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e o f the methodology and m a t e r i a l s t ha t are p r e s c r i b e d f o r every c h i l d . For example, some c h i l d r e n appear to l a ck d i r e c t i o n and to e x p e r i e n c e g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n the above mentioned e lementary s choo l s c i e n c e program which s t r e s s e s i n d i v i d u a l , s e l f - i n i t i a t e d exper i mentat i on. The w r i t e r does not wish to imply t h a t he i s c o n - demning t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c u r r i c u l u m e i t h e r . G loba l c o n - demnation i s p robab ly as i n a p p r o p r i a t e as complete endorsement f o r a l l c h i l d r e n . R a t h e r , he wishes to emphasize tha t a c u r r i c u l u m must not be regarded by those i n p o s i t i o n s of i n f l u e n c e as some panacea—some mag ica l e l i x i r which i s e q u a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r a l l c h i l d r e n . C l e a r l y , r e s e a r c h i s c a l l e d f o r which at tempts to uncover more about the i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s of c h i l d r e n who are l e a r n i n g w i t h i n the p a r t i c u l a r framework of a c u r r i c u l u m . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of these i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e s of d e a l i n g wi th the wor ld shou ld be matched wi th t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . To t h i s e f f e c t , t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s tudy attempted to ana l y ze i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s in terms of the c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s of c h i l d r e n who have been e x p e r i e n c i n g the l e a r n i n g s t r a - t e g i e s and m a t e r i a l s of the E lementary S c i ence S tudy . 3 During the development of t h i s r e s e a r c h , i t was necessary to engage in a p a r a l l e l s tudy to determine and to deve lop c r i t e r i o n measures f o r E lementary S c i ence Study e x p e r i e n c e s . Th i s p a r a l l e l r e s e a r c h study i s r e p o r t e d i n t a c t in Appendix A and Appendix B. It i s hoped tha t the a t t i t u d e s c a l e s which were deve loped by the author w i l l be u s e f u l t o o l s f o r e lementary s c i e n c e teacher s and f o r c u r r i c u l u m r e s e a r c h e r s . 1 .1 Genera l Statement of the Problem a) A D e f i n i t i o n of the C o n s t r u c t of C o g n i t i v e S t y l e W i t k i n (1962) and h i s a s s o c i a t e s r e p r e s e n t a schoo l of p sycho logy which i s c a l l e d " d i f f e r e n t i a l p s y c h o l o g y . " At the b a s i s of t h i s theory i s a concept c a l l e d f i e l d dependence which can be d e f i n e d as the l ack of a b i l i t y to disembed or to d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e a s t imu lu s f i g u r e from an i r r e l e v a n t but o r g a n i z e d s t imu lu s background. There i s a b a t t e r y of t e s t s which are used to determine t h i s p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t y . For example, in the Rod and Frame T e s t , a s imp le square luminous frame p rov ide s a f i e l d which glows in a semi -darkened room. Th i s frame i s p i v o t e d a.t i t s c e n t e r so tha t a luminous rod may be t i l t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y of the f rame, c l o c k w i s e or c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e . The s u b j e c t i s asked to a d j u s t the rod so tha t i t s p o s i t i o n cor responds to the p o s i t i o n of a h y p o t h e t i c a l v e r t i c a l 4 s tandard ( " s t r a i g h t with a f l a g p o l e " ) . Meanwhile the exper imenter a d j u s t s the frame to v a r i o u s t i l t e d p o s i t i o n s . Some c h i l d r e n are ab le to p l ace the rod in a v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n w i thout be ing confused by the su r round ing f rame. They are ab le to p e r c e i v e pa r t of the f i e l d as d i s c r e t e from the dominant pa r t of the v i s u a l f i e l d . Others seem to r e l y on the m i s l e a d i n g c l u e s of the back- ground to dominate pa r t of the v i s u a l f i e l d and c o n - s e q u e n t l y are r e f e r r e d to as f i e l d - d e p e n d e n t , w h i l e the former s u b j e c t s are c a l l e d f i e l d - i n d e p e n d e n t . Sub jec t s at e i t h e r end of t h i s continuum show a marked degree of c o n s i s t e n c y in o the r performance t e s t s which a l s o dea l w i th d isembedding one pa r t of a f i e l d from the rema inder . F i g u r e 1 shows a p a i r of f i g u r e s from the Children's Embedded Figures Test (Karp and Kons tad t , 1969). The s u b j e c t i s asked to f i n d the s imp le f i g u r e on the l e f t w i t h i n the complex f i g u r e on the r i g h t . A l though t h i s task does not i n v o l v e p e r c e p t i o n of the u p r i g h t , there i s a b a s i c commonal ity between the Rod and Frame Test and the Children's Embedded Figures Test. In the l a t t e r t e s t , a f i g u r e i s embedded w i t h i n another and the exper imenter attempts to determine how much the dominant whole of the v i s u a l f i e l d i s i n h i b i t i n g h i s s u b j e c t ' s p e r c e p t i o n of a pa r t t ha t i s embedded w i t h i n i t . Sub jec t s F i g u r e 1 Sample i tem from the Children's Embedded Figures Test. are t r a i n e d to f i n d two s imp le shapes w i t h i n a more complex background. Then the s imp le shapes are removed from s i g h t and they are not shown to the s u b j e c t aga in un le s s he reques t s i t ; neve r , however, are both s imp le shapes and 6 complex shapes presented simultaneously (except i n t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s ) . As each of the complex shapes i s presented, the subject i s asked to i d e n t i f y i t and name i t . In t h i s way, the experimenter i s assured that the subject has "taken- i n " the whole f i g u r e . The subject i s then asked to f i n d the simple f i g u r e which i s embedded w i t h i n the more complex,mis1eading f i g u r e . The number of c o r r e c t f i r s t responses provides an index of field-independence. By means of perceptual i n d i c e s such as these, Witkin and his as s o c i a t e s have demonstrated that f i e l d dependent c h i l d r e n d i f f e r from f i e l d independent c h i l d r e n on a vast number of d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a such as: dependence on o t h e r s , the a b i l i t y to s t r u c t u r e ambiguous s t i m u l i , the a b i l i t y to see a l t e r n a t e uses f o r the f a m i l i a r , the a b i l i t y to r e s i s t persuasion by a u t h o r i t y , the a b i l i t y to be l o g i c a l i n the face of evidence that i s contrary to the known a t t i t u d e s of the s u b j e c t s , and the a b i l i t y to adopt a n a l y t i c a l procedures when dea l i n g with t h e i r environment.^ Witkin summarized these f i n d i n g s and used the term"cognitive s t y l e " as i t w i l l be used i n t h i s study. Evi dence Chapter II which sty1e. f o r t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s included reviews the l i t e r a t u r e of c o g n i t i v e 7 To continue with, our main story, the studies cited and the numerous other ones as well, have made i t quite clear that the s t y l e of functioning we f i r s t picked up in perception, where we were dealing with an immediately present stimulus con- f i g u r a t i o n , manifests i t s e l f as well in i n t e l l e c - tual a c t i v i t y , where we are dealing with symbolic functioning. As noted at the outset, we use the designation "cognitive s t y l e " to refer to t h i s kind of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , s e l f - c o n s i s t e n t way of functioning that an i n d i v i d u a l shows across per- ceptual and i n t e l l e c t u a l ( i . e . , cognitive) a c t i v i t i e s . The p a r t i c u l a r cognitive s t y l e we have been discussing, of which f i e l d dependence of f i e l d independence is the perceptual component, may be described most broadly as follows: at one extreme there is a tendency for experience to be d i f f u s e and global; the organization of a f i e l d as a whole dictates the way in which i t s parts are experienced. At the other extreme the tendency is for experience to be delineated and structured; parts of a f i e l d are experienced as discrete and the f i e l d as a whole as structured. To these opposite poles of the cognitive s t y l e we have applied the labels "global" and " a r t i c u - lated. " It should be emphasized that there is no i m p l i c a t i o n here that the world is populated by two kinds of human beings. Scores for any large group of people on tests of t h i s cognitive s t y l e show a continuous d i s t r i b u t i o n and depending on which sides of the mean or average a person 's score f a l l s , we say his cognition is more a r t i c u - lated or more global. It is clear from the evidence on hand that a tendency toward a more global or more a r t i c u l a t e d mode of functioning pervades a c h i l d ' s cognitive a c t i v i t y ; and i t may be added, on the basis of other evidence, that a given s t y l e of cognitive functioning is a stable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a c h i l d even over very long periods of time ( W i t k i n , 1969, p. 206) . b) The Nature of t h i s Study U t i l i z i n g W i t k i n s ' s c o n s t r u c t of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e , t h i s s tudy attempted to demonstrate tha t the c h i l d r e n who 8 cou ld be c a t e g o r i z e d as being at the extreme ends o f the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n continuum would ach ieve s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s on e lementary s c i e n c e competenc ie s . It was hypo the s i zed that the g l o b a l group would a c h i e v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower scores than the a n a l y t i c a l group on those measures which attempt to tap some of the e s s e n t i a l o b j e c t i v e s of the E lementary S c i ence S tudy. Moreover , i t was expected tha t the d i f f e r e n c e s between the g l o b a l ( f i e l d dependent group) and the a n a l y t i c a l ( f i e l d i n d e - pendent group) would i n c r e a s e as c h i l d r e n had more and more e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n the E.S.S. programme. CHAPTER II A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON COGNITIVE STYLE 2.0 The C l a s s i c a l D i v i s i o n between C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s and Pe rcep tua l S t y l e s i s Unwarranted A g rea t number of s t u d i e s have shown tha t there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between f i e l d dependence and the k inds o f a t t r i b u t e s which the author b e l i e v e s to be very important in The E lementary S c i ence Study ( E . S . S . ) . There i s c o n - s i d e r a b l e ev idence tha t the c l a s s i c a l d i v i s i o n between c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s and p e r c e p t u a l s t y l e i s perhaps a r b i t r a r y and unwarranted. D i f f e r e n c e s in p e r c e p t i o n as measured by the Embedded Figures Test ( a d u l t v e r s i o n ) have been found to be r e l a t e d to d i f f e r e n c e s in c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g and in p a r t i c u l a r , to d i f f e r e n c e s in a n a l y t i c a l f u n c t i on i n g . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s has r e v e a l e d tha t f i e l d dependence, G u i l f o r d ' s c o n s t r u c t of adap t i ve f l e x i b i l i t y , P h i l l i p ' s c o n s t r u c t of s p a t i a l d e c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n , Dunkcer's no t i on of f u n c t i o n a l f i x e d n e s s , T h u r s t o n e ' s " f l e x i b i l i t y o f c l o s u r e , " and the c o n s t r u c t of " p e r c e p t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " 9 10 on the Weschler I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e , a l l i n v o l v e an a b i l i t y to disembed (Goodenough and Karp, 1961; W i t k i n , 1962). Some of the re sea r ch u t i l i z i n g E i n s t e l l u n g t e s t s r e v e a l e d tha t on the e x t i n c t i o n problem (not the c r i t i c a l p r o b l e m s ) , performance was r e l a t e d to f i e l d independence (Guetzkow, 1951, Goodman, 1960). L i n t o n (1952) found f i e l d dependence s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to l o g i c a l a b i l i t y when s y l l o g i s m s d i d not conform to the s u b j e c t s ' known v iews. E c c l e s (1966) and Pa scua l - Leone (1968, 1969) have shown tha t f i e l d dependent c h i l d r e n are l e s s ab le to i n t e g r a t e numbers o f s t i m u l i . Pa scua l - Leone b e l i e v e s tha t f i e l d dependence i s an i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e which may r e s t r i c t l o g i c a l f u n c - t i o n i n g ( i n terms of P a s c u a l - L e o n e 1 s I n format ion P r o c e s s i n g Mode l ) . He had demonstrated tha t many P i a g e t i a n s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v e a d isembedding a b i l i t y . Even humour a p p r e c i a t i o n was i n v e s t i g a t e d and found r e l a t e d to p e r c e p t u a l s t y l e ( O v e r l a d e , 1954, 1955). Ev idence suggests a l s o t h a t f i e l d independent c h i l d r e n tend to e x p e r i e n c e the wor ld in a c l e a r and s t r u c t u r e d f a s h i o n under everyday s i t u a - t i o n s . B i e r i , Bradburn and G a l i n s k y (1958) found f i e l d independent c h i l d r e n to score h i gher s cores on measures of c o g n i t i v e c l a r i t y . ^ Th i s d imens ion r e f l e c t s the ex ten t to which i n f o r m a - t i o n i s d i s c r e t e , s t r u c t u r e d and a s s i m i l a t e d versus b l u r r e d , confused and unass imi 1 ated (Wi tk in et_. a]_. 1962 , pp. 103- 114) . 11 2.1 C o g n i t i v e S t y l e i s Re l a ted to Dependence Upon Others Of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t in terms of E.S.S. t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s was the re sea r ch of Gardner e_t. aj_. (1959) and Duram (1964) in which i t was r e v e a l e d tha t f i e l d dependent c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d l e s s in terms of "non-human" i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g than d i d the f i e l d independent c h i l d r e n , but when the i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l was human f a c e s , t h i s t r end was r e v e r s e d . Gordon (1953) by means of a Thur s tone s c a l e , demonstrated tha t f i e l d dependent persons p e r c e i v e d themselves as s o c i a l l y dependent and were judged by o ther s as more dependent as w e l l . Pemberton (1952) in a f a c t o r a n a l y t i c study found tha t the group which in her t e rm ino logy cor responded to f i e l d dependent c l a s s i f i c a - t i o n , tended to be l e s s a m b i t i o u s , l e s s p e r s e r v e r i n g and l e s s t h e o r e t i c a l . B e l l (1955) found f i e l d dependent sub- j e c t s more " o t h e r d i r e c t e d " than the f i e l d independent s u b j e c t s . S i m i l a r l y , F r e n k e l - B r u n s w i c k (1949) found tha t those people who r e l i e d on o ther s f o r gu idance tended to show more i n t o l e r a n c e f o r ambigu i ty in p e r c e p t i o n . Numbers of s t u d i e s have r e l a t e d high scores on the F - - s c a l e of a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m to f i e l d dependence ( P o l l a c k e_t. aj_. , 1960 ; J a c k s o n , 1 955; L i n t o n , 1952). One of F e n c h e l ' s (1958) d imens ions on h i s RAPH s c a l e of s o c i a l 12 r i g i d i t y was the b e l i e f in " r u l e s f o r r u l e s s a k e . " Th i s s c a l e was c o r r e l a t e d in the expected d i r e c t i o n with f i e l d dependence. Ba les and Couch (1956) showed tha t men who demonstrated a tendency to accept e x t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y were more f i e l d dependent. A mass of s t u d i e s has i n d i c a t e d tha t f i e l d dependent people are more e a s i l y persuaded by group p re s su re or e x t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y ( L i n t o n , 1952; A s c h , 1956, C r u t c h f i e l d , 1957; L i n t o n and Graham, 1959). Many s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d tha t g l o b a l c h i l d r e n would be prone to e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t y in u n s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . From case s t u d i e s W i t k i n and h is a s s o c i a t e s found c h i l d r e n of " l i m i t e d d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n " ( g l oba l or h i g h l y f i e l d dependent) to be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the f o l l o w i n g a t t r i b u t e s : . . . poverty of resources, lack of enterprise and i n i t i a t i v e , underdeveloped i n t e r e s t s , laok of well- structured controls and defenses and marked depen- dence on others. Children showing t h i s c o n s t e l l a - tion are perhaps the prototype of l i m i t e d l y d i f f e r - entiated children. A second subgroup showed as an outstanding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c severe problems of impulse control though also giving evidence of marked poverty of resources. F i n a l l y , the t h i r d and smallest subgroup consisted of children whose outstanding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was a high level of verbal s k i l l s in the absence of developed unerlying structure. They presented a picture of uneven development^ ( W i t k i n , 1962, pp. 268-269) . These people cou ld perhaps be c a l l e d f a l s e accomo- dator s in P i a g e t i a n sense . 13 The c h i l d r e n d e s c r i b e d above would q u i t e l i k e l y have more d i f f i c u l t y l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s which c a l l f o r the c h i l d to i n i t i a t e and c a r r y out h i s own i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o phenomena tha t are r e v e a l e d to him through p l a y , than those c h i l d r e n with many re sou rce s at t h e i r d i s p o s a l . 2.2 S tud ie s Reveal the Ontogeny of D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n Some work has been c a r r i e d out to determine the o r i g i n s of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s in the l e v e l s of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . The n o t i o n of env i ronmenta l i n t e r a c t i o n upon a g e n e t i c base has long been a popu la r v iew. Vanderberg ( c i t e d by W i t k i n , 1962) s t u d i e d Rod and Frame Tes t ( R . F . T . ) s core v a r i a t i o n among f r a t e r n a l and i d e n t i c a l t w i n s ; r e s u l t s were i n c o n - c l u s i v e . Perhaps a n e u r o p h y s i c a l approach to t h i s t o p i c w i l l r e v e a l mechanisms which w i l l account f o r the d i s - embedding p r o c e s s . J . G. M i l l e r ' s The I n d i v i d u a l as an Information Processing System ( F i e l d s and Abbot , e d s . , 1963) , p rov i de s a ba s i s f o r i n t e r e s t i n g s p e c u l a t i o n about f i e l d dependence and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , in terms of neura l development and c a p a c i t y . However, the " n a t u r e - n u r t u r e " q u e s t i o n remains u n r e s o l v e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , modes o f p e r c e p t i o n have been s t u d i e d in terms of t h e i r s t a b i l i t y and in terms of the c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s of mothers . W i t k i n and h i s a s s o c i a t e s (1967) have demonstrated by means o f both l o n g i t u d i n a l and c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s , t h a t the p e r c e p t u a l s t y l e of an i n d i v i d u a l i s s u r p r i s i n g l y s t a b l e . Dur ing the growth y e a r s , c h i l d r e n tend to become more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , but i t seems tha t r e l a t i v e to the g roup , c h i l d r e n remain s t a b l e i n terms of d i f f e r e n - t i a t i o n . These t rends can be seen in the graphs in F i g u r e 24 21 18 15 12- 9 • 6 • 0 W 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 AGE (YEARS) . Developmental curves for rod-and-frame. test based on cross-sectional data. 6-!3yeor mole* 0-----0 8'l5y*of («™O'M • '0'2Cy!O' tro'ti o OI0-24J.0* f-Tioiei 0 V > 8 9 10 II 12 IJ <* >i 'G l y .8 19 20 21 22 2J 24 A C C H E A R S ) Developmental curves for rod-and-frame test based on longitudinal data. ISO 150 120 90 60- 30- 8 9 '0 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 ACE(YEARS) Developmental curves for embedded-figures test based on cross-sectional data. UJ 0 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 A G E ( Y E A R S ) Fic. 1. Developmental curves for body-adjustment test based on cross-sectional data. F i g u r e II: S t a b i l i t y of C o g n i t i v e S t y l e over Time ( W i t k i n , 1967) , pp. 295-296) 15 F l i e g e l (1955) , us ing c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , found tha t over a t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d , t e s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were ext remely h igh on the e n t i r e t e s t b a t t e r y . Franks (1956) u t i l i z i n g b a r b i t u a t e s , amphetimenes, and p l a c e b o e s , found tha t p e r c e p t u a l s t y l e was remarkably s t a b l e a f t e r t r e a t m e n t . Of note a l s o i s a study by P o l l a c k , Karp and F ink (1960) in which i t was found tha t c o n v u l s i v e therapy tended to reduce f i e l d dependence (as c i t e d by W i t k i n , 1962). These f i n d i n g s suggest tha t a b i o p h y s i c a l mechanism c o u l d be i n v o l v e d in the d i s e m b e d d i n g - a n a l y z i n g p r o c e s s . Attempts to change p e r c e p t u a l s t y l e of a d u l t s v i a t r a i n i n g schedu les or v i a pe r i od s of sensory d e p r i v a t i o n have not been s u c c e s s f u l i n a l t e r i n g the i n d i v i d u a l ' s mode of p e r c e p t i o n ( W i t k i n , 1948, 1967; D a v i s , McCourt , and Soloman, 1958; Gruen, 1955). In s t u d i e s wi th young p e o p l e , W i t k i n , Goodenough and Karp (1961) found tha t the tendency toward f i e l d independence i n c r e a s e d g e n e r a l l y to about age seventeen and then mode of p e r c e p t i o n s t a b i l i z e d . R e l a t i v e to the group however, c h i l d r e n remained remarkab ly s t a b l e in mode of p e r c e p t i o n . W i tk in (1967) s t a t e d tha t these s t a b i l i t y s t u d i e s d e a l t wi th s u b j e c t s who themselves were rea red in s t a b l e f a m i l y and o v e r a l l env i ronmenta l s e t t i n g s . F i nd ing s are not as of t h i s time g e n e r a l i z a b l e to u n s t a b l e env i ronmenta l c h i l d r e a r i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Never- t h e l e s s , one may i n f e r from t h i s l i t e r a t u r e tha t i f educator s 16 wished to a l t e r modes of f u n c t i o n i n g , the c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d would q u i t e l i k e l y have to be q u i t e young. By means o f case s t u d i e s and i n t e r v i e w s , W i t k i n and h i s a s s o c i a t e s found that mothers of u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c h i l d r e n compla ined o f t e n about t h e i r husbands and had d i f f i c u l t y themselves cop ing wi th e v e r y d a y - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . Mothers of d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c h i l d r e n tended to be more s e l f - a s s u r e d and to e x h i b i t a sense of s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . In terms of m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n , mothers of u n d i f - f e r e n t i a t e d c h i l d r e n d i f f e r e d g r e a t l y from mothers o f d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c h i l d as a genera l r u l e . U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c h i l d r e n tended to f a i l to meet the mother ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s - - e s p e c i a l l y in i n t e l l e c t u a l ach ievement , appearance , b e h a v i o r , and a gg re s s i on (when a g r e s s i o n was d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the mother ) . Approva l was g iven on a con t i ngency that the c h i l d "be good" and not demanding of c a r e . Mothers of d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c h i l d r e n tended to be more approv ing with focus on such th ing s as school ach ievement , c r e a t i v i t y , and the c h i l d t ak i ng r e s p o n s i b i l i t y upon h i m s e l f . These cou ld be c o n s i d e r e d to be a g e - a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r s . Mothers of a n a l y t i c a l c h i l d r e n a l s o s t i m u l a t e d c u r i o s i t y and i n t e r e s t . The former mothers , however, tended to s t r e s s c o n f o r m i t y , prevented the c h i l d ' s t a k i n g -up a c t i v i t i e s as d e s c r i b e d above, gave p h y s i c a l care which was not age adequate and o f t e n expected a d u l t behav io r from t h e i r c h i l d . 17 Attempts were made to c o n t r o l c h i l d r e n by i r r a t i o n a l means and by v a c i l l a t i o n from indu l gence to severe d i s c i p l i n e and to c o e r c i o n . Other s t u d i e s showed tha t mothers of p o o r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d or g l oba l c h i l d r e n tended to be more p o o r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d or g l o b a l themselves ( W i t k i n , 1962, pp. 286-367) . 2.3 D i s c r i m i n a t i n g A t t r i b u t e s of C o g n i t i v e S t y l e s are S i m i l a r to the A t t r i b u t e s of E.S.S. A c t i v i t i e s Many o f the a t t r i b u t e s of the k inds of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t c h i l d r e n do in the E lementary S c i ence Study are s i m i l a r to the a t t r i b u t e s on which one can a l s o d i s c r i m i - nate between a n a l y t i c and g l o b a l c h i l d r e n . Th i s s i m i l a r i t y i s summarized in Tab le 1 on the f o l l o w i n g page. In genera l the re seems to be s t rong sugges t ion tha t the c o n s t r u c t of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e i s worthy of i n v e s t i g a - t i o n in terms o f s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n . If c h i l d r e n who are more f i e l d dependent do not e x p e r i e n c e as much success on e lementary s c i e n c e competency measures (as d e f i n e d in Appendix A) then that f a c t in i t s e l f would be worth knowing j u s t from a t h e o r e t i c a l po in t of v iew. Through the con - s t r u c t of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e teacher s cou ld be a s s i s t e d in i d e n t i f y i n g these c h i l d r e n who e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t y working 18 TABLE 1 A Comparison Showing the S i m i l a r i t y Between E.S.S. O b j e c t i v e s and the D i s c r i m i n a t i n g A t t r i b u t e s of G loba l versus A n a l y t i c a l F u n c t i o n i n g A t t r i b u t e s of E.S.S o b j e c t i ves D i s c r i m i n a t i n g a t t r i b u t e s of g l o b a l versus a n a l y t i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g A t t i tudes : "Mess ing about" i s f u n . "Mess ing about" w i l l l ead c h i l d r e n to pursue and f o l l o w - u p phenomena. "Mess ing about " w i l l l ead c h i l d r e n to impose a s t ruc - t u r e on t h e i r own. "Messi ng ch i1dren on t h e i r about w i l l l ead to i n v e s t i g a t e own. v a r i a b l e s S c i ence Processes Observ i ng CI as s i fy i ng A n a l y z i ng Con t ro l 1i ng P red i c t i ng Hand l ing data Exper iment i ng Rep l i c a t i ng Pos ing problems A c q u i r i n g p r a c t i c a l C r e a t i v e Component: s k i l l s f r e e whee l ing s p e c u l a t i o n , c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g , and i n t u i t i v e , p l a y f u l e x p l o r a t i o n . Humour a p p r e c i a t i o n (Over lade ) (Pemberton) (W i tk in ) Ambi t i o n P e r s e r v e r a n c e Impulse c o n t r o l C o g n i t i v e c l a r i t y ( B i e r a e t . a l . ) Other d i r e c t e d n e s s (Gordon ;Bel1 ) A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m ( P o l l a c k ) Dependency (Ba les and Cooch) P e r s u a s a b i 1 i t y ( C r u t c h f i e l d ) I n t e g r a t i n g l a r g e numbers of s t i m u l i ( Pa s cua l - Leone ) I n t o l e r a n c e of ambigu i ty ( F r e n k e l ) Sy l1og i sms ( L i n t o n ) I n s i g h t f u l t h i n k i n g (Guetzkow; Goodman) 19 TABLE 1 ( C o n t ' d . ) M a n i p u l a t i v e and b u i l d i n g s k i l l s . C o g n i t i v e development: S p e c i f i c concept d e v e l o p - ment. I n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g s Two Hand C o o r d i n a t i o n Tes t ( Pode l l and P h i l l i p s ) I n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g s (Gardener ; Gordon; Duram) i 20 w i t h i n the c u r r i c u l a r framework of the E lementary S c i ence Study. Teachers may be more under s t and ing and may have more empathy with those c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d to above. Because the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t o f c o g n i t i v e s t y l e has at i t s ba s i s a r a t h e r w e l 1 - a r t i c u l a t e d t h e o r y , t h i s theory may be c a l l e d upon to p rov i de sugges t i ons f o r s p e c i f i c t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r these c h i l d r e n such as : p r o v i d i n g more a s s i s t a n c e in ambiguous s i t u a t i o n s and p r o v i d i n g more d i r e c t i o n , s u p p o r t , and encouragement f o r g l o b a l c h i l d r e n . C e r t a i n l y the theory would suggest tha t c o e r c i v e t rea tment by the teacher would on ly aggravate the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n f o r g l o b a l c h i l d r e n . In a d d i t i o n the theory would suggest tha t the i n i t i a l laissez faire, " 0 " phase of E.S.S. method- ology^ be m o d i f i e d f o r g l o b a l c h i l d r e n in o rder tha t they r e c e i v e more s u p p o r t i v e t reatment from the teacher and more encouragement as w e l l . W i tk in h i m s e l f has c a l l e d f o r r e s e a r c h in e d u c a t i o n , u t i l i z i n g h i s c o n s t r u c t o f c o g n i t i v e s t y l e . Using this particular cognitive style as a reference let us consider now the ways in which knowledge about the existence of cog- nitive styles and their specific nature may be useful in dealing with some of the prob- lems encountered in the educational system! In. particulars let us examine the implica- tions of the cognitive style work for issues of evaluation, placement and teaching methods. . . . ( W i t k i n , 1969, pp. 217-218) . These phases of E.S.S. methodology are d e s c r i b e d in Appendix B. Witk in conc luded his l i s t of suggested i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l r e sea r ch by s t a t i n g " I t must be l e f t to educa - to r s to assess the u s e f u l n e s s of these s u g g e s t i o n s " (Wi tk in 1969, p. 226) . In a per sona l communicat ion wi th W i t k i n (January 26, 1970) the author in formed him o f the genera l nature of the proposa l to use the c o n s t r u c t of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e in e lementary s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n . W i tk in r e p l i e d : I h e a r t i l y agree with your concept that teaching methods need to be adapted to charac- t e r i s t i c s of the i n d i v i d u a l student, rather than applied in the same way to a l l students. I have long had the f e e l i n g , too, that children who are located at d i f f e r e n t points of the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n dimension d i f f e r in the teaching approaches they need. I would include under 'teaching approaches' social as well as cogni- t i v e aspects of teaching methodology. CHAPTER III PROCEDURES 3.0 A Natura l Exper iment E x i s t e d in a S m a l l - C i t y School D i s t r i c t School D i s t r i c t Number 15 ( P e n t i c t o n , B.C.) p rov ided the s i t e and s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s s tudy . A n a t u r a l e x p e r i - ment e x i s t e d the re because the m a t e r i a l s and t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s o f the E lementary S c i e n c e Study were be ing phased- i n over a number of y e a r s . Con sequen t l y , i t was p o s s i b l e to l o c a t e f a i r l y i n t a c t groups of grade seven p u p i l s t h a t had e x p e r i e n c e d the E.S.S. programme f o r v a r y i n g numbers of y e a r s . I t was a r e l a t i v e l y easy task to f i n d c l a s s e s of c h i l d r e n tha t had had e x p e r i e n c e with the E.S.S. p r o - gramme f o r time i n t e r v a l s of one y e a r , two y e a r s , and t h r e e year s . Because of p u p i l m o b i l i t y , w i t h i n each c l a s s there were a few i n d i v i d u a l s who had not been the same number o f yea r s on the E.S.S. programme as the r e s t of the group. These c h i l d r e n were randomly a s s i gned to one of the o t h e r c l a s s e s which matched t h e i r year s of E.S.S. e x p e r i e n c e . Data f o r p u p i l s whose p rev ious s c i e n c e e x p e r i e n c e was not 22 23 known were not i n c l u d e d . Dur ing the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the c r i t e r i o n measures , f i v e of the s tudents moved away, one became s e r i o u s l y i l l , and one s tudent d i e d . S tudents who were t e m p o r a r i l y absent from schoo l d u r i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t s were t e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y upon t h e i r r e t u r n . Be fore the t e s t i n g c o u l d begin i t was nece s s a r y to o b t a i n the c o o p e r a t i o n of the schoo l o f f i c i a l s and the teacher s and p u p i l s of the schoo l d i s t r i c t . With the he lp of the D i s t r i c t Supe r i n tenden t of Schoo l s and the S u p e r v i s o r of I n s t r u c t i o n , p r i n c i p a l s and teache r s were in formed about the nature of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . ^ Conse- q u e n t l y i t was p o s s i b l e to a d m i n i s t e r the i n d i v i d u a l and the m u l t i p l e - s i t t i n g group t e s t s i n a p redetermined s c h e d u l e . T e s t i n g was c a r r i e d out in f ou r s c h o o l s : Snowdon E lementa ry , O ' C o n n e l l E l ementa ry , Queen's Park E l ementa ry , and Naramata E lementary . There were two c l a s s e s w i th one year of E.S.S. e x p e r i e n c e ; th ree c l a s s e s wi th two yea r s of E.S.S. e x p e r i e n c e ; and two c l a s s e s with th ree year s of E.S.S. e x p e r i e n c e . The w r i t e r was i n t r o d u c e d to each of these c l a s s e s by the c l a s s room t e a c h e r . Each c l a s s was The s u p e r v i s o r s e l e c t e d c la s s rooms that would be comparable in terms of the teacher v a r i a b l e and he a l s o d r a f t e d an a f f i d a v i t t e s t i f y i n g to t h i s e f f e c t . 24 in formed tha t a group of t eacher s at the u n i v e r s i t y was t r y i n g to f i n d out more about " . . . how k ids l e a r n e d s c i e n c e in s c h o o l . " P u p i l s were t o l d tha t t h i s group of u n i v e r s i t y t eache r s was doing an exper iment to l e a r n more — j u s t as the s tudent s themselves d i d exper iments in s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . S tudents were in formed tha t they would be asked to take a number of t e s t s , to respond to a number of q u i z z e s and to s o l ve a number of p u z z l e s . It was emphasized tha t none o f these tasks would be used f o r r e p o r t cards and tha t a l l o f the r e s u l t s would be c o n f i d e n t i a l . Students were g e n e r a l l y very i n t e r e s t e d in p a r t i c i p a t i n g . During A p r i l , May and June o f 1970 over two hundred c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d . I t was p o s s i b l e to u t i l i z e the data from 184 s u b j e c t s who met the a forement ioned e x p e r i e n t i a l c r i t e r i a . There were 92 boys and 88 g i r l s i n these g roups . 3.1 I n d i v i d u a l and Group Tes t s were A d m i n i s t e r e d to the Sub jec t s A l l s u b j e c t s were f i r s t g iven the Children's Embedded Figures Test ( C . E . F . T . ) , an unt imed, i n d i v i d u a l l y admin- i s t e r e d t e s t . Th i s t e s t p rov ided the independent l e v e l l i n g v a r i a b l e of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e . In g e n e r a l , the p r o t o c o l u t i l i z e d f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t f o l l o w e d the methodology o u t l i n e d in the t e s t manual. The disembedding 25 process was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d in a more casua l manner, however. A f r i e n d l y c o n v e r s a t i o n was i n i t i a t e d which c e n t e r e d about a f a m i l i a r ca r toon f i g u r e (Snoopy). C h i l d r e n were then asked to f i n d a s imp le r e c t a n g u l a r f i g u r e w i t h i n the more complex ca r toon f i g u r e . The exper imenter attempted to c r e a t e an atmosphere in which the s u b j e c t s were i n t r o d u c e d to the task wi th as l i t t l e a n x i e t y as p o s s i b l e . Care was taken n e v e r t h e l e s s , to have the s u b j e c t s mot iva ted to do as we l l as they cou ld on the t a s k . The time to a d m i n i s t e r the t e s t v a r i e d from th ree to twenty m inu te s , depending on the s u b j e c t s . ^ F o l l o w i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of C . E . F . T . i n each of the s c h o o l s , the a t t i t u d e s c a l e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d to each c l a s s i n two s i t t i n g s . The f o u r a t t i t u d e s c a l e s at tempted to measure the a f f e c t i v e o b j e c t i v e s of the E lementary S c i ence 2 S tudy. The a t t i t u d e s c a l e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d a c c o r d i n g to the methodology d e s c r i b e d in Appendix B. The a t t i t u d e s c a l e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d be fo re the r a t h e r l eng thy Test of Science Processes i n o rder to avo id the p o s s i b i l i t y of the a t t i t u d e measures becoming contaminated by any h o s t i l i t y ^A more complete i n t r o d u c t i o n to the children's Embedded Figures Test i s g i ven on pp. 4-6 above. Item and T e s t ana l y se s are r e p o r t e d i n Appendix C. 2 The s e l e c t i o n of the performance c r i t e r i a which were used as s c i e n c e competency measures i s d i s c u s s e d in Appendix A. Complete d e t a i l s about the deve lopment , c o n t e n t , and method of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the f o u r a t t i t u d e s c a l e s can be found in Appendix B. 26 which may have r e s u l t e d from the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t process i n s t r u m e n t . The f o u r a t t i t u d e s c a l e s p rov i ded measures of the f i r s t f ou r dependent v a r i - ab les in t h i s s tudy . F i n a l l y , The Test of Science Processes was admin- i s t e r e d to each of the c l a s s e s in f ou r s i t t i n g s . Each of the t e s t items was read to the c h i l d r e n and then read a g a i n , as they themselves read the i t ems . It was the e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s i n t e n t i o n to attempt to min imize the e f f e c t o f r ead ing d i f f i c u l t i e s confound ing the process s c o r e s . As much time was a l l owed on each item as the s u b j e c t s w i shed . Any rea sonab le ques t i on s about the wording o f an i tem or the nature of the photographs were answered by the e x p e r i m e n t e r . As wi th the a t t i t u d e s c a l e s , c h i l d r e n responded on s tandard answer sheets which f a c i l i t a t e d machine s c o r i n g and data p r o c e s s i n g . The e i g h t p roces ses measured by t h i s 96 i tem process i n s t rument p r o v i d e d the rema in ing dependent v a r i a b l e s f o r t h i s s tudy . 3.2 The Design o f t h i s Study can be C a t e g o r i z e d as a F a c t o r i a l Model The data were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o a th ree by t h r e e , f i x e d e f f e c t s , f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n . The independent column v a r i a b l e s were r e p r e s e n t e d by the number of year s the s u b j e c t s had had 27 E.S.S. i n s t r u c t i o n : I, I I, I I I. The independent row v a r i a b l e s were r e p r e s e n t e d by three l e v e l s of s cores d e t e r - mined by the C . E . F . T . per formance: 0-15 = g l o b a l ; 16-19 = ave rage ; and 20-25 = a n a l y t i c a l . These th ree l e v e l s of performance were s e l e c t e d on the ba s i s of the a n a l y s i s by a computer programme e n t i t l e d v.B.C. H-Gvoup. Th i s program c r e a t e d groups by m i n i m i z i n g the w i t h i n group v a r i a n c e s and maximiz ing the between group v a r i a n c e . F i g u r e III below r e p r e s e n t s t h i s des i gn « I II III 32 33 24 18 22 20 8 15 12 F i gu re II I: The Design of the Study Columns I, I I, and III r e p r e s e n t the th ree l e v e l s of E.S.S. e x p e r i e n c e - - one y e a r , two years and th ree years r e s p e c t i v e l y . In a d d i t i o n to l end ing i t s e l f to a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e t e c h - n i q u e s , t h i s model a l s o p rov ided c a t e g o r i e s f o r c a r r y i n g out 28 p r e - p l a n n e d comparisons between l e v e l s A and C on the f o u r t e e n dependent v a r i a b l e s . Rows A, B, and C r e p r e s e n t the th ree l e v e l s of C . E . F . T . performance - - the a n a l y t i c g roup, the average group and the g l o b a l group r e s p e c t i v e l y . The f i g u r e s in each c e l l r e p r e s e n t the number of s u b j e c t s . 3.3 There was no S i g n i f i c a n t I.Q. Bias in Columns I, I I, and III It was the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t of the exper imenter to u t i l i z e the techn ique of a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e to a r t i - f i c i a l l y equate the column means o f the dependent v a r i a b l e s on the b a s i s of I.Q. A more i n t e n s i v e rev iew of the l i t e r a - tu re on c o g n i t i v e s t y l e r e v e a l e d however tha t c o g n i t i v e s t y l e was r e l a t e d to i n t e l l i g e n c e because the d isembedding process was i n t i m a t e l y connected with s p a t i a l and a n a l y t i c components of I.Q. t e s t s . The exper imenter became concerned about the danger of confound ing the e f f e c t of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e when c o v a r y i n g on I.Q. In o rder to determine i f the p o p u l a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d by the columns in the above des i gn were comparable on I.Q. {Otis Lennon Quick Score) a number of s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s were comp le ted . A one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e produced an F r a t i o of 2.53 ( p r o b a b i l i t y of . 08 ) . These comparisons were the b a s i s of h y p o t h e s i s I and II. 29 E t a 2 was then c a l c u l a t e d from the sums of squares and t h i s s t a t i s t i c r e v e a l e d tha t t he re was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n - sh ip between year s and I.Q. ( e t a 2 = .028) . J a s p e n s ' m u l t i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n a l s o r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r - r e l a t i o n between year s and I.Q. (r = . 05 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , the complete ana l y se s of v a r i a n c e r e p o r t e d in Chapter IV were r e - p e r f o r m e d w h i l s t c o v a r y i n g on I.Q. In genera l the main e f f e c t of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e was d i l u t e d on ly s l i g h t l y by c o v a r i a n c e (as theory would s u g g e s t ) , n e v e r t h e l e s s the magnitude of the F r a t i o s were s t i l l f a r above the l e v e l r e q u i r e d f o r s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e in most c a s e s ; more- over the F r a t i o s f o r the main e f f e c t of year s were v i r t u a l l y unchanged when compared to r e s u l t s from ana l y se s o f v a r i a n c e . Hence, i t was conc luded tha t t he re was no s i g n i f i c a n t I.Q. b i a s in the p o p u l a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d by the columns in F i g u r e II I. T h e r e f o r e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e cou ld be i n t e r - p r e t e d , m i n i m i z i n g l i k e l i h o o d of I.Q. b i a s . 3 .4 Four teen Dependent V a r i a b l e s were Tes ted in the Design The f o l l o w i n g dependent v a r i a b l e s were found to be s u i t a b l e c r i t e r i o n measures of E lementary S c i ence Study 30 competenc ie s : DI A t t i t u d e s conce rn ing the b e l i e f t ha t "messing a b o u t " i s fun .2 D2 A t t i t u d e s conce rn ing the b e l i e f tha t "messing about" w i l l l ead c h i l d r e n to pursue (or f o l l o w - u p ) phenomena which are uncovered . D3 A t t i t u d e s c o n c e r n i n g the b e l i e f tha t "mess ing about " w i l l lead c h i l d r e n to impose a s t r u c - tu re on t h e i r p l a y . D4 A t t i t u d e s towards the b e l i e f t ha t "messing about " w i l l l ead c h i l d r e n to i n v e s t i g a t e on t h e i r own. D5 T o t a l a t t i t u d e s s co re towards the b e l i e f s t a t e - ments c o n c e r n i n g the mer i t s of "mess ing about " in s c i e n c e (E o f D x to D i * ) . D6 Observing - T e s t of S c i e n c e Processes ( T . O . S . P . ) . D7 Comparing - ( T . O . S . P . ) . D8 C l a s s i f y i n g - ( T . O . S . P . ) . D9 Q u a n t i f y i n g - ( T .O . S .P . ) D10 Measur ing - ( T . O . S . P . ) . D l l Exper iment ing - ( T . O . S . P . ) . D12 I n f e r r i n g - ( T . O . S . P . ) . D13 P r e d i c t i n g - ( T . O . S . P . ) . DI4 T o t a l s core on a l l s c i e n c e p roces ses ( T . O . S . P . ) . J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the s e l e c t i o n of these dependent v a r - i a b l e s as a p p r o p r i a t e measures of E.S.S. competenc ies i s g i ven in Appendix A which i s e x c l u s i v e l y devoted to t h a t t a s k . The a t t i tude ' s were measured by the a u t h o r ' s f ou r s c a l e s which are d e s c r i b e d in d e t a i l in Appendix B. The s c i e n c e p roces ses were measured by The Test of Science Processes. The term "messing about " r e f e r s to an E.S.S. t each ing s t r a t e g y which i s d e s c r i b e d in Appendix B. 31 These v a r i a b l e s were t e s t e d with a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r the t o t a l group and then s e p a r a t e l y ( po s t - hoc ) f o r the boys and f o r the g i r l s ( U t i l i z i n g BMDX 64 ) . t - T e s t s and H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 were a l s o used to t e s t the f i r s t two hypotheses noted below. 3 .5 The Nu l l Hypotheses When the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l i s se t at 5%: I. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean scores o f the a n a l y t i c a l group ( l e v e l A) and the mean scores of the g l o b a l group ( l e v e l C) on the a f f e c t i v e measures o f e l e - mentary s c i e n c e competenc ies (Dl through D5). II. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean scores of the a n a l y t i c a l group ( l e v e l A) and the mean scores of the g l o b a l group ( l e v e l C) on the c o g n i t i v e measures o f e l e - mentary s c i e n c e competenc ies (D6 through D14). I I I. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r year s of E.S.S. i n s t r u c t i o n on each of the f o u r t e e n dependent v a r i a b l e s . IV. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r c o g n i t i v e s t y l e f o r each of the f o u r t e e n dependent v a r i a b l e s . 32 V. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between year s and c o g n i t i v e s t y l e on each of the f o u r t e e n dependent v a r i a b l e s . 3. 6 The A l t e r n a t i v e Hypotheses When the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l i s se t at 5%: I. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean scores of the a n a l y t i c a l group ( l e v e l A) and the mean scores of the g l o b a l group ( l e v e l C) on the a f f e c t i v e measures (DI through D5), as i t i s expected tha t the a n a l y t i c a l group w i l l a ch i eve h i ghe r s co re s on these competencies than w i l l the a n a l y t i c a l g roup. II. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean scores of the a n a l y t i c a l group ( l e v e l A) and the mean s co re s of the g l o b a l group ( l e v e l C) on the c o g n i t i v e measures (D6 through D14), as i t i s expected tha t the a n a l y t i c a l group w i l l a ch ieve h i ghe r s cores on these com- p e t e n c i e s than w i l l the g l oba l g roup. I I I. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r years of E.S.S. i n s t r u c t i o n on each of the f o u r t e e n dependent v a r i a b l e s . 33 IV. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r c o g n i t i v e s t y l e on each of the f o u r t e e n dependent v a r i a b l e s . V. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between year s and c o g n i t i v e s t y l e as i t i s expected tha t the midd le group ( l e v e l B) and the a n a l y t i c a l group ( l e v e l C) w i l l a ch i eve h i gher s cores wi th more E.S.S. i n s t r u c t i o n , but the g l o b a l group i s ex- pected to make l e s s progress or even to r eg re s s wi th more e x p e r i e n c e on t h i s programme. CHAPTER IV THE STATISTICAL ANALYSES 4.0 Raw Data was Ana lyzed by the Computing F a c i l i t i e s of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Group a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t s were scored by the IBM 1232 marking d e v i c e and made ready f o r a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t s of the C . E . F . T . and The Test of Science Processes were then ana l yzed by u t i l i z i n g a computer program deve loped e s p e c i a l l y f o r i tem a n a l y s i s by the Department of Mathematics Educa t ion at U.B.C. Th i s program i s e n t i t l e d ED46:TIA. A l l t e s t s and sub te s t s of these two d i cho tomous l y scored i n s t rument s were then marked and item a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d ou t . Po in t b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th the t e s t and sub- t e s t t o t a l s , as we l l as K.R.-20 i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y c o n s i s t e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the process i n s t rument and the C . E . F . T . are t a b u l a t e d in Appendix C. Ana ly se s of the f ou r a t t i t u d e measures was done by means of s p e c i a l l y w r i t t e n computer programs l i s t e d at the c o n c l u s i o n of Appendix B. Item a n a l y s i s was done du r i n g f i n a l v a l i d a t i o n 34 35 p r o c e d u r e s , u t i l i z i n g the output of U.B.C. Faeto. The r e s u l t s of these ana ly ses of the a t t i t u d e s c a l e s can a l l be found in Appendix B. A f t e r s c o r i n g a l l o f the v a r i o u s t e s t s , a l l of the data were en te red on cards in a form a c c e p t a b l e to the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e program BMDX64, and to the U.B.C. Triangular Regression Package (TRIP). The f i n a l form of these data i s l i s t e d in Appendix D. 4.1 M u l t i v a r i a t e and U n i v a r i a t e Tes t s were U t i l i z e d f o r the S t a t i s t i c a l Te s t of Hypothes i s I a ) . S t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s and t h e i r R e s u l t s : The s t a t i s t i c a l hypo the s i s to be t e s t e d was the n u l l hypo the s i s H^: l J c = v^ versus the a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s H, : y c < v^, where v r e p r e s e n t e d the p o p u l a t i o n row means of row A and where u r e p r e s e n t e d the p o p u l a - t i o n row means of row C f o r the se t of f o u r a f f e c t i v e dependent v a r i a b l e s (Dl through D4). I n i t i a l l y a o n e - t a i l e d t - t e s t was made to compare the means of the g l o b a l group with the means of the a n a l y t i c a l group on each of the f i v e v a r i a b l e s i n d i v i d u a l l y . U t i l i z i n g the " f i l t e r " s ta tements and the " s e l e c t " s ta tements of the 36 computer program TRIP ( U . B . C . ' s T r i a n g u l a r Regres s ion Package ) , the dependent v a r i a b l e s cores of those i n d i v i d u a l s who s co red between 0 and 15 on C . E . F . T . were compared to the dependent v a r i a b l e scores of those i n d i v i d u a l s who scored between 20 and 25 on C . E . F . T . The s u b r o u t i n e tj-Te_st was then employed and the f o l l o w i n g output was p roduced : Tab le 2 t - T e s t s Comparing the G loba l versus the A n a l y t i c a l Groups on Each of the the A f f e c t i v e V a r i a b l e s Name Name t - V a l u e D.F. TPROB. Formula l Leve l C: Leve l A: DI Funat t vs . Funat t 2.152 122 0.016 (3) D2 Pursue v s . Pursue 3.276 122 0.001 (3) D3 S t r u c t vs . S t r u c t 2.282 122 0.0175 (3) D4 Indexp vs . Indexp 3.526 122 0.0005 (3) D5 T o t a t t vs . T o t a t t 3.427 122 0.0005 (3) These i n d i v i d u a l t - t e s t s appeared to i n d i c a t e tha t there was s u f f i c i e n t ev idence to r e j e c t the n u l l hypo thes i s f o r H n . u l With t h i s f a i r l y l a r g e number of t - t e s t s , however, there was c o n s i d e r a b l e l i k e l i h o o d of m i s i n t e r p r e t i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e The formula u t i l i z e d to o b t a i n t (when p o p u l a t i o n v a r i - i ances were equa l ) f o r these comparison was t = J l ~ I z — ( r u - Q S ! 2 + ( n 2 - l ) S 2 2 , l + 1 x ni + n 2 - 2 v n x n 2 37 of i n d i v i d u a l t - v a l u e s by be ing o v e r l y c o n f i d e n t about the p r o b a b i l i t i e s of each i n d i v i d u a l compar i son . H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 s t a t i s t i c was computed, t h e r e f o r e , to determine i f the g l o b a l versus the a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i o n would d i s c r i m i - nate d i f f e r e n c e s on the a f f e c t i v e measures (Dl through D4)^ when these dependent v a r i a b l e s were c o n s i d e r e d s i m u l t a n e - o u s l y . Tab le 3, on the f o l l o w i n g page, i n d i c a t e s the r e s u l t s of t h i s m u l t i v a r i a t e compar i son . H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 was s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e to r e j e c t the n u l l hypotheses f o r H n . F u r t h e r , because the c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s f o r D2 and u l D4 d i d not c o n t a i n z e r o , i t was s t a t i s t i c a l l y j u s t i f i a b l e to conc lude tha t the v a r i a b l e s D2 and D4 were e a c h , i n d i - v i d u a l l y s u f f i c i e n t to cause r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l hypo the s i s f o r H n . Hence the p r o b a b i l i t i e s f o r D2 and f o r D4 cou ld u l be r e l i e d upon to be l e s s than .05 when c o n s i d e r e d i n d e - p e n d e n t l y . The p r o b a b i l i t i e s f o r Dl and f o r D3 ( r e p o r t e d in Tab le 2) q u i t e l i k e l y cou ld not be r e l i e d upon to be l e s s than .05 as Tab le 2 would sugges t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the d i f f e r e n c e f o r Dl and D3 approached s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Dur ing the a n a l y s i s tha t was done to t e s t H n i t u l was n o t i c e d tha t there were i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s in D5 (the t o t a l a t t i t u d e s c a l e ) had to be e l i m i n a t e d from t h i s m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s because D5 i s a l i n e a r combinat ion of o the r f ou r a f f e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s . It was f e l t tha t the i n d i v i d u a l t - t e s t p r o b a b i l i t y of D5 cou ld be r e l i e d upon because of the magnitude of the t - v a l u e and because of the f a c t t ha t D5 was a l i n e a r comb ina t ion of a l l the a t t i t u d e s c a l e s (Dl through D4). 38 Tab le 3 A M u l t i v a r i a t e Comparison of .Global versus A n a l y t i c a l Groups on the A f f e c t i v e Measures of the E lementary Sc ience Study. Con f idence I n t e r v a l s were Computed at the .05 l e v e l ( o n e - t a i l ) Leve l C Leve l A Di f f e r e n c e s Between Means Con f i dence I n t e r v a l s f o r D i f f e r e n c e s Between Means Group 1 Mean Group 2 Mean L e f t L i m i t R i ght L i m i t Funat t Pursue S t r u c t I ndexp 49.657 43.771 38.571 38.400 54.629 51 .719 44.640 47.449 -4.972 -7.948 -6 .069 -9.049 -11.573 -14.879 -13.667 -16.383 1 .629 -1 .016 1 .529 -1 .716 Data g i ve a H o t e l l i n g T - squared va lue of 15.623 and a s s o c i a t e d F- va lue 3.810 which is s i g n i f i c a n t . The computed P r o b a b i l i t y o f t h i s s t a t i s t i c = .0061 compared to P r e - s e t p r o b a b i l i t y of .05 ( o n e - t a i 1 ) Degrees of freedom — 4 vs . 119 F -va lue used in d e t e r m i n a t i o n — 1.991 t - v a l u e s when the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g to sex and sepa ra te a n a l y s i s done. It would appear t h a t f o r g i r l s e s p e c i a l l y , C . E . F . T . s co re groupings d i d not d i s c r i m i n a t e between performances on e i t h e r Dl or D3 at p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l s t ha t were' s i g n i f i c a n t or were approach ing s i g n i f i c a n c e . Th i s compar ison of t - v a l u e s f o r sex groupings i s summarized below in Tab le 4. 39 T a b l e 4 A Comparison of I n d i v i d u a l t - T e s t s of the T o t a l Group versus the t - T e s t s of Each Sex S e p a r a t e l y on the A f f e c t i v e Measures V a r i a b l e s Names Both Sexes (122 D.F.) Boys (67 D.F.) G i r l s (53 D.F.) A f f e c t i v e Variable: t-value T PR OB t-value T-PROB t-value T PROB DI Fun A t t i t u d e 2.152 .016 1 .823 .0345 1 .153 (-) .1265 D2 Pursue A t t . D3 S t r u c t u r e A t t . D4 I n d i v i d . Exper . A t t . D5 T o t a l A t t i t u d e 3.276 2.282 .001 .0175 2.104 2.037 .0185 .0265 2.607 1 .023 .0055 (-) .156 3.526 3.427 .0005 .0005 2.692 2.519 .003 .007 2.197 2.277 .0155 .0175 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e not s i g n i f i c a n t near .05 l e v e l . ( 40 b ) . Summary o f the S t a t i s t i c a l Te s t of H N : u l H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 was computed to t e s t the n u l l hypo thes i s t ha t t he re would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean s co re s of the a n a l y t i c a l group ( l e v e l A) and the mean s co re s of the g l o b a l group ( l e v e l C) on the a f f e c t i v e measures of e lementary s c i e n c e competenc ie s . The n u l l hypo the s i s was r e j e c t e d . It was found tha t the g l o b a l group d i d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s we l l on the f o u r a t t i t u d i n a l measures. F u r t h e r , i t was found tha t D2 and D4 were in themselves s u f f i c i e n t to cause r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l hypothe- s i s and tha t the i n d i v i d u a l p r o b a b i l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d wi th these two v a r i a b l e s cou ld be r e l i e d upon to be l e s s than .05. Sex i n f l u e n c e s were a l s o n o t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the a t t i t u d e s measured by Dl and D3. 4.2 M u l t i v a r i a t e and U n i v a r i a t e Tes t s were U t i l i z e d f o r the S t a t i s t i c a l Tes t s of Hypothes i s II a ) . S t a t i s t i c a l T e s t s : The s t a t i s t i c a l hypo thes i s to be t e s t e d was the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s HQ : y c = versus the a l t e r n a t i v e hypo the s i s H^: y c < v ^ , where v r e p r e s e n t e d the p o p u l a t i o n row means of row A and where y r e p r e s e n t e d the p o p u l a t i o n row means 41 of row C f o r the se t of e i g h t c o g n i t i v e ( p roce s s ) v a r i a b l e s (D6 through D13). I n i t i a l l y a o n e - t a i l e d t - t e s t was u t i l i z e d to compare the means of the g l o b a l group (row C) w i th the means o f the a n a l y t i c a l group (row A) on each of the p r o - cesses s e p a r a t e l y . The r e s u l t s of these i n d i v i d u a l t - t e s t s are r e p o r t e d below in Tab le 5: Tab le 5 t - t e s t s Comparing the G loba l versus the A n a l y t i c a l Groups on Each of the P roces ses Leve l C Leve l A V a r i a b l e vs . V a r i a b l e t - v a l u e D.F. t . p r o b D6 Obs erv vs . Observ 5.885 122 0.000 (3) D7 Compar vs . Compar 2.447 122 0.0075 (3) D8 C l a s s i vs . C1 a s s i 5.688 122 0.000 (1) D9 Q u a n t i vs . Q u a n t i 5.246 46 0.000 (3) D10 Meas ur vs . Measur 6.492 122 0.000 (3) D l l Exper i vs . Exper i 3.057 122 0.0015 (3) D12 I n f e r r v s . I n f e r r 5.704 122 0.000 (3) D13 Pred i c vs . P red i c 4.313 93 0.000 (1) 1 DI 4 T o t a l p vs . T o t a l p 7.57: 122 0 .000 (3) (1) Note: t = I Si + s 2 "NT (with unequal popula^ t i o n v a r i a n c e s ) (3) t = ( n r l ) s ; + ( n 2 - l ) S 2 (wi th equal popu- l a t i o n s v a r i a n c e s ) 42 Because sex d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t i c e d du r i n g the s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t o f H n , the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was c a t e - u l g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g to sex and s e p a r a t e ana l y se s were~ done. For the s c i e n c e p roces ses ( u n l i k e the a t t i t u d e s ) t he re were no marked d i f f e r e n c e s in C . E . F . T . ' s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a t t r i b u t a b l e to sex. These s t a t i s t i c s are summarized i n Tab le 6 below. Tab le 6 A Comparison of I n d i v i d u a l t - T e s t s of the T o t a l Group versus t - T e s t s of Each Sex S e p a r a t e l y on the C o g n i t i v e Measures (P roces se s ) V a r i a b l e s Names Both Sexes (122 D.F.) Boys (67 D.F.) G i r l s (53 D.F.) Cognitive Variables: t 5.885 2.447 5.688 5.246 6.492 3.057 5.704 4.313 7.574 p r o b , .000 .0075 .000 .000 .000 .0015 .000 .000 .000 t 3.923 1 .486 4.602 4.170 5.569 2.087 4.231 1 .686 5.816 p r o b . .000 .069 .000 .000 .000 .0195 .000 .046 .000 t 4.562 1 .963 3.324 2.154 3.864 2.200 3.70 4.52 4.747 p r o b . .000 .026 .001 .022 .000 .0155 .0005 .000 .000 D6 Observ ing D7 Comparing D8 C l a s s i f y i n g D9 Q u a n t i f y i n g D10 Measur ing D l l Exper iment ing D12 I n f e r r i n g D13 P r e d i c t i n g D14 T o t a l P roces ses Once a g a i n , i n d i v i d u a l t - t e s t ev i dence i n d i c a t e d t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l dependent v a r i a b l e r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s in the performance of the g l o b a l group versus the performance of the a n a l y t i c a l g roup. A g a i n , however, i t was not p o s s i b l e to r e l y upon the f a ce va lue of the p r o b a b i l i t i e s f o r t h i s l a r g e number of t - t e s t s . H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 was computed f o r t h i s se t of v a r i a b l e s t o o , in o rde r to determine i f the g l o b a l group ach ieved s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower 43 scores than the a n a l y t i c a l group on the se t of p rocess v a r i a b l e s when these dependent v a r i a b l e s (D6 through D13) were c o n s i d e r e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . ^ Th i s m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t was produced by u t i l i z i n g the TRIP s u b r o u t i n e e n t i t l e d HOTEL. Output i s summarized below in Tab le 7. Tab le 7 A M u l t i v a r i a t e Comparison Between the G loba l Group and the A n a l y t i c a l Group on the C o g n i t i v e E lementary S c i ence Competencies ( P roce s se s ) Con f i dence I n t e r v a l s f o r the D i f f e r e n c e s Between the Means D6 Observ D7 Compar D8 C l a s s i D9 Quant i D10 Measur D l l Exper t D12 I n f e r r D13 P r e d i c Group 1 Mean Leve l C 3.886 3.143 7.743 7.542 1 .400 4.400 4.857 3.486 Group 2 Mean Leve l A 6.067 3.629 9 .809 9.888 16.360 5.494 7 .427 4.685 L e f t L i m i t -3 .600 -1.247 -3.456 -3.784 -7 .882 -2 .464 -4.293 -2.462 R ight L i m i t •0.764 0.274 •0.677 •0.906 •2.037 0.275 •0.846 0.063 Di f f e r e n c e s Between Means -2.182 -0.486 -2.066 -2.345 -4 .960 -1 .094 -2.570 -1 .200 Data g i ve a H o t e l l i n g T - squared va lue of 68.505 and a s s o c i a t e d F- va lue 8.072 which i s s i g n i f i c a n t . The computed p r o b a b i l i t y of t h i s s t a t i s t i c i s 0.0000 compared with the c r i t e r i a p r o b a b i l i t y of .05 ( o n e - t a i l ) . Degrees of Freedom - 8 v s . 115. F - va lue used in d e t e r m i n a t i o n - 1.724. D14 ( T o t a l P roce s se s ) had to be e l i m i n a t e d from the computat ion of T 2 because i t was a l i n e a r combinat ion of the o ther v a r i a b l e s and hence was i n a d m i s s a b l e to Hotel . The p r o b a b i l i t y of D14 cou ld be r e l i e d upon in any c a s e , as i t i s a l i n e a l comb ina t ion of the e i g h t p r o c e s s e s . 44 Hote l 1 i r ig ' s - 2 was s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e to r e j e c t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s f o r H n . F u r t h e r , because the c o n f i d e n c e U I I i n t e r v a l s f o r D6, D8, D9, D10, and D12 d i d not c o n t a i n z e r o , i t was s t a t i s t i c a l l y j u s t i f i a b l e to conc lude t h a t the v a r i a b l e s D6, D8, D9, D10, and D12 were each in them- s e l v e s s u f f i c i e n t to cause r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s f o r H n . Hence the i n d i v i d u a l p r o b a b i l i t i e s f o r these U I I s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s cou ld be r e l i e d upon to be l e s s than .05 when c o n s i d e r e d as s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s . The p r o b a b i l i t i e s f o r D7 and D l l c o u l d not be r e l i e d upon to be l e s s than .05 as T a b l e 6 might seem to sugges t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the d i f f e r e n c e s f o r D7 and D l l were approach ing s i g n i f i c a n c e at the .05 l e v e l . 45 b ) . Summary of the S t a t i s t i c a l Tes t of H n II H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 was computed to t e s t the n u l l hypo thes i s t h a t there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean scores of the a n a l y t i c a l group ( l e v e l A) and the mean scores of the g l o b a l group ( l e v e l C) on the se t of c o g n i t i v e measures of e lementary s c i e n c e competenc ies ( s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s ) . The n u l l hypo thes i s was r e j e c t e d . It was found tha t the g l o b a l group d i d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s we l l on the e i g h t s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s . F u r t h e r , i t was found tha t f o r the t e s t s of O b s e r v a t i o n , C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n , Measu r ing , and I n f e r r i n g , these t e s t s were each i n d i v i d u a l l y s u f f i c i e n t to cause r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , and tha t the i n d i v i d u a l p r o b a b i l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with these v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be r e l i e d upon to be l e s s than .05. No marked sex i n f l u e n c e s were uncovered f o r the e i g h t s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s . 4.3 The S t a t i s t i c a l Tes t s of Hypotheses I I I , IV and V a) A n a l y s i s of Va r i ance Tes t s of H n , H n , and H n . U 111 U I V U V Dur ing the t e s t s of H n and H n , i t was observed U j u n tha t the g l o b a l group ach ieved s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower s cores on e lementary s c i e n c e competenc ies than d i d the a n a l y t i c a l 46 group. Moreover , sex d i f f e r e n c e s were found to p l ay some pa r t in de te rm in ing the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the a f f e c t i v e measures. It was c o n s i d e r e d p r u d e n t , t h e r e f o r e to t e s t the th ree remain ing hypo theses , not on ly f o r the t o t a l sample, but a l s o f o r boys and f o r g i r l s s e p a r a t e l y . The r e s u l t s of these ana l y se s of v a r i a n c e are summarized below in Tab le 8. F i n d i n g s are r e p o r t e d f o r the t o t a l group in Tab le 8a . Tab le 8b r e p o r t s f i n d i n g s f o r the boys and Tab le 8c r e p o r t s r e s u l t s f o r the g i r l s . Because of the e x t e n s i v e n e s s of these a n a l y s e s , the acceptance and r e j e c t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r hypotheses were i n c l u d e d as pa r t of the t a b l e s r e f e r r e d t o . F o l l o w i n g these t a b l e s a summary of accep ted versus r e j e c t e d hypotheses i s a l s o p re sen ted in t a b u l a r fo rm. 47 Tab le 8a T o t a l Groups ' Ana ly ses of V a r i a n c e Tab les Dl . FUN SCALE Hypo. Source Sum of Squares D.F. Mean Square F H o I l l IV V Mean 439701.01119 1 439701.00000 3425.18384 accept* r e j e c t accept Years Cogs t c y 175.82117 920.97491 281.06846 2 2 4 87.91058 460.48730 70.26709 0.68481 3.58710 0.54737 Error -22465.27153 175 128.37296 D2. PURSUE SCALE III IV V Mean 368982.75732 1 368982.750000 2125.11768 accept r e j e c t accept Years Cogs t Cy 11.55316 1552.10600 418.24636 2 2 4 5.77658 776.05298 104.56158 0.03327 4.46960 0.60221 Error 30385.13441 175 173.62932 D3. STRUCTURE SCALE III IV V Mean 284245.60927 1 284245.46250 1549.29395 Years Cogs t c y 18.19544 970.19061 333.87566 2 2 4 9.09772 485.09521 83.46887 0.04959 2.64403 0.45495 accep t a Lc£ep_t( + ' a ccept Error 32106.86338 175 183.46779 Note: (+) = approach ing s i g n i f i c a n c e at a = .05. 48 D4. INDIVIDUAL EXPERIMENTATION Hypo. Source Sum of Squares D.F. Mean Square F H o I l l IV V Mean 295076.60211 1 295076.56250 1669.96802 accept r e j ec t a ccep t Years Cogst Cy 186.68892 1723.10846 290.41381 2 2 4 93.34445 861.55420 72.60339 0.52828 4.87591 0.41089 Error 20921.79047 175 176.69592 D5. TOTAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS MESSING ABOUT IN SCIENCE III IV V Mean 5506305.52455 1 5506305.00000 3020.86548 accep t r e j ec t accept Years Cogs t c y 378.31424 19480.75916 1994.77889 2 2 4 189.15710 9740.37891 498.69458 0.10378 5.34376 0.27359 Error 318982.60941 175 1822.75732 D6. OBSERVING III IV V Mean 3862.36532 1 3862.36523 1165.75171 r e j e c t r e j ec t a ccep t Years Cogst c y 25.09983 101 .54618 11 .35123 2 2 4 12.54991 50.77309 2.83781 3.78786 15.32450 0.85652 Error 579.80960 175 3.31320 D7. COMPARING III IV V Mean 1772.53103 1 1772.53101 1685.45752 accep t a c £ e £ t ( + ) a ccept Years Cogst Cy 1 .71745 6.28930 0.70462 2 2 4 0.85873 3.14465 0.17615 0.81655 2.99017 0.16750 Error 184.04091 175 1 .05166 49 D8. CLASSIFYING Hypo. Source Sum of Squares D.F. Mean Square F H o I l l IV V Mean 12233.92816 1 12233.92578 4087.74048 accept r e j e c t r e j e c t Years Cogst c y 3.37249 95.06451 31.26261 2 2 4 1.68624 47.53224 7.81565 0.56343 15.88202 2.61145 Error 523.74596 175 2,99283 • D9. QUANTIFYING III IV V Mean 12129.96730 1 12129.96484 3769.07544 accept r e j e c t accept Years Cogs t Cy 8.25529 122.98666 20.71625 2 2 4 4.12764 61.49322 5.17906 1 .28256 19.10747 1 .60926 Error 563.20032 175 3.21829 D10. MEASURING III IV V Mean 29635.34867 1 29635.34766 1963.31738 Years Cogst c y 105.23352 634.96289 61.75043 2 2 4 53.61676 317.48120 15.43760 3.48582 21.03287 1.02273 r e j e c t r e j e c t accept Error 2641.54223 175 15.09453 D l l . EXPERIMENTING Mean 3638.34347 1 3638.34326 1101.12793 III IV V Years Cogst Cy 7.18945 37.41347 15.17475 2 2 4 3.59473 18.70677 3.79369 1.08793 5.66152 1.14814 accept r e j e c t accept Error 578.23441 175 3.30420 50 D12. INFERRING Hypo. Source Sum of Squares D.F. Mean Square F Ho I l l IV V Mean 5976.04107 1 5976.03906 1193.24414 r e j e c t r e j e c t accept Years Cogst c y 30.50133 158.01676 5.19325 2 2 4 15.25066 79.00838 1.29831 3.04512 15.77572 0.25924 Error 876.44015 175 5.00823 D13. PREDICTING III IV V Mean 2722.50407 1 2722.50391 1073.22925 accept r e j e c t a ccep t Years Cogst Cy 0.55284 34.45086 3.72862 2 2 4 0.27642 17.22542 0.93215 0.10897 6.79037 0.36746 Error 443.92986 175 2.53674 D14. TOTAL SCIENCE PROCESSES III IV V Mean 471890.62186 1 471890.56250 3957.72778 Years Cogst Cy 512.62593 6769.76153 428.12938 2 2 4 256.31274 3384.87891 107 .03229 2.14968 28.38884 0.89768 ac£ep_t( + ) r e j e c t accept Error 20865.72399 175 119.23270 F va lues r e q u i r e d f o r r e j e c t i o n of H : Df. a. 1-0 a .05 a.01 2 v s . 175 2. 30 3 .00 4.61 4 vs . 175 1 . 94 2 .37 3.32 51 Tab le 8b Boys ' Ana lyses of Va r i ance Tab le s DI. FUN SCALE Hypo. Source Sum of Squares D.F. Mean Square F H o I l l IV V Mean 233838.13303 1 233838.12500 1777.18140 accept accept ( + accept Years Cogst Cy 94.19879 729.87535 434.34932 2 2 4 47.09940 364.94750 108.58728 0.35796 2.77354 0.82527 Error 11447.29659 87 131.57808 D2. PURSUE SCALE III IV V Mean 192378.15216 1 192378.12500 1087.43848 accept r e j e c t accept Years Cogst Cy 129.11036 1890.11850 808.34525 2 2 4 64.55518 945.05908 202.08630 0.36491 5.34205 1.14231 Error 15391.12160 87 176.90942 D3. STRUCTURE SCALE III IV V Mean 146585.84323 1 146585.81250 723.72192 accept r e j e c t accept Years Cogst c y 59.27946 1355.96059 132.54475 2 2 4 29 .63972 677.98022 33.13618 0.14634 3.34732 0.16360 Mean 1 7621 .3621 5 87 202.54436 BOYS ( C o n t ' d ) 52 D4. INDIVIDUAL EXPERIMENTATION SCALE Hypo. Source Sum of Squares D.F. Mean Square F H o I l l IV V Mean 16294.81453 1 162694.81250 932.93555 accept r e j e c t a ccep t Years Cogst c y 386.74678 1716.76755 684.53738 2 2 4 193.37329 858.38354 171.13434 1.10885 4.92220 0.98133 Error 15171.94799 87 174.39017 D5. TOTAL ATTITUDE TOWARD "MESSING ABOUT" III IV V Mean 2918621.07862 1 2918621.00000 1447.76831 accept r e j e c t accept Years Cogst Cy 1197.47363 21883.99120 175387.20713 2 2 4 598.73657 10941.99219 2015.94458 0.29700 5.42772 0.61057 Error 175387.20713 87 2015.94458 D6. OBSERVING III IV V Mean 2110.09156 1 2110.09155 586 .45752 r e j e c t r e j e c t accept Years Cogst Cy 27.75577 33.52035 27.20047 2 2 4 13.87788 16.76016 6.80012 3.85708 4.65815 1 .88996 Error 313.02880 87 3.59803 D7. COMPARING III IV V Mean 904.159 51 1 904.15942 736.23315 accept accept accept Years Cogst Cy 0.60633 1.89718 0.84639 2 2 4 0.30317 0.94859 0.21160 0.24686 0.77241 0.17230 Error 106.84375 87 1 .22809 BOYS ( C o n t ' d ) 53 D8. CLASSIFYING Hypo. Source Sum of Squares D.F. Mean Square F I l l IV V Mean 6062.16458 1 6062.16406 2068.88110 accept r e j e c t r e j e c t Years Cogst Cy 3.42785 50.11094 29.55982 2 2 4 1 .71393 25.05547 7.38995 0.58492 8.55087 2.52203 Error 254.92441 87 2.93017 D9. QUANTIFYING III IV V Mean 6205.42328 1 6205,42188 1989.42993 accept r e j e c t a c c e £ t ( + ) Years Cogst Cy 6.65426 86.65572 29.68223 2 2 4 3.32713 43.32785 7.42056 1 .06666 13.89071 2.37900 Error 271.37018 87 3.11920 D10. MEASURING III IV V Mean 16816.69776 1 16816.69531 1193.97412 Years Cogst Cy 32.53012 306.90663 88.38174 2 2 4 16.26506 153.45325 22.09543 1.15481 10.89508 1.56876 accep t r e j e c t accept Error 1225.36373 87 14.08464 D l l . EXPERIMENTING III IV V Mean 1772.25667 1 1772.25659 495.34985 Years Cogst Cy 2.35120 17.86458 8.14008 2 2 4 1.17560 8.93229 2.03502 0.32858 2.49660 0.56879 accep t a_ccejDt( + ) accept Error 311.26777 87 3.57779 54 BOYS (Con t ' d ) D12. INFERRING Hypo. Source Sum of Squares D.F. Mean Square F H o I l l IV V Mean 2908.82763 1 2908.82739 542.48350 accept r e j e c t a ccep t Years Cogst Cy 7.48507 73.88997 12.34654 2 2 4 3.74253 36.94498 3.08663 0.69797 6.89007 0.5/564 Error 466.49914 87 5.36206 D13. PREDICTING III IV V Mean 1394.64486 1 1394.64478 554.35938 accep t accept a c cep t Years Cogs t cy 3.84833 6.28463 5.10169 2 2 4 1 .92416 3.14232 1 .27542 0.76484 1 .24904 0.50697 Error 218.87265 87 2.51578 D14. TOTAL PROCESSES III IV V Mean 245712.80379 1 245713.75000 2040.54761 accept r e j e c t a c cep t Years Cogst cy 223.51510 2930.68879 723.62113 2 2 4 111 .75754 1465.34424 180.90527 0.92810 12.16906 1.50234 Error 10476.15713 87 120.41559 F va lues r e q u i r e d f o r r e j e c t i o n of H-: Df. a .10 a.05 a .01 2 vs . 87 2 .37 3.15 4 .98 4 vs . 87 2 .05 2.53 3 .65 55 Tab le 8c G i r l s ' Ana ly ses of V a r i a n c e Tab le DI. FUN SCALE Hypo. Source Sum of Squares D.F. Mean Square F Ho I l l IV V Mean 193423.48986 1 193423.43750 1530.63770 accept a ccep t a ccep t Years Cogst Cy 482.59342 328.65358 363.13841 2 2 4 241.29663 164.32678 90.78455 1 .90948 1 .30038 0.71841 Error 9983.06445 79 126.36787 D2. PURSUE SCALE III IV V Mean 165693.71054 1 165693.68750 1070.15430 accept r e j e c t accept Years Cogst Cy 333.06169 1081.66355 790.01929 2 2 4 166 .53076 540.83154 197.50482 1 .07556 3.49303 1 .27561 Error 12231.69907 79 154.83157 D3. STRUCTURE SCALE III IV V Mean 129091.89722 1 129091.87500 752.33862 accept a ccep t accept Years Cogst Cy 5.82983 128.16886 713.60288 2 2 4 2.91492 64.08443 178.40070 0.01699 0.37348 1.03971 Error 13555.40699 79 171 .58742 GIRLS ( C o n t ' d ) 56 D4. INDIVIDUAL EXPERIMENTATION SCALE Hypo. Source Sum of Squares D.F. Mean Square F I l l IV V Mean 127259.35428 1 127259.31250 740.66821 accep t a_c£e p_t (+) accept Years Cogst Cy 8.45721 981.82155 314.55069 2 2 4 4.22861 490.91064 78.63763 0.02461 2.85717 0.45768 Error 13573.53462 79 171.81685 D5. TOTAL ATTITUDE TOWARD "MESSING ABOUT" IN SCIENCE III IV V Mean 2440425.93034 1 2440425.00000 1552.68945 accept a_c£ej3t( + ) accep t Years Cogst Cy 1990.16335 7408.92599 4297.74115 2 2 4 995.08154 3704.46289 1074.43457 0.63311 2.35692 0.68360 Error 124167.55420 79 1 571 .74048 D6. OBSERVING III IV V Mean 1594.21551 1 1594.21533 559.45532 Years Cogst Cy 17.56233 74.57972 13.35016 2 2 4 8,78116 37 .28955 3.33754 3.08156 13.08596 1.17124 r e j e c t r e j e c t accept Error 225.11713 79 2.84958 D7. COMPARING III IV V Mean 807.68098 1 807.68091 893.91797 Years Cogst Cy 1 .54633 4.80940 3.87694 2 2 4 0.77316 2.40470 0.96923 0.85572 2.66145 1 .07272 accept ac£ep_t (+ ' accept Error 71 .37879 79 0.90353 GIRLS ( C o n t ' d ) 57 D8. CLASSIFYING Hypo. Source Sum of Squares D.F. Mean Squares F H o I l l IV V Mean 5770.62647 1 5770.62500 1872.84473 accept r e j e c t a ccep t Years Cogst Cy 1 .0921 6 49.23180 15.19630 2 2 4 0.54608 24.61589 3.79907 0.17723 7.98904 1 .23298 Error 243.41550 79 3.08121 D9. QUANTIFYING t— 1 1 — i 1— 4  Mean 5558.63" 155. 1 5558 .62891 1653.35815 t— 1 1 — i 1— 4  Years Cogst Cy 2.54197 29.55254 4.33905 2 2 4 1 .27099 14.77627 1.08476 0.37804 4.39505 0.32265 accept r e j e c t a ccep t t— 1 1 — i 1— 4  Error 265.60000 79 3.36202 D10. MEASURING III IV V Mean 11900.29503 1 11900.29297 767.10522 Years Cogst Cy 87.58741 323.79244 53.71161 2 2 4 43.79370 161.89612 13.42790 2.82299 10.43599 0.86558 accept r e j e c t accept Error 1225.54662 79 15.51324 D l l . EXPERIMENTING III IV V Mean 1727.00083 1 1727.00073 529.33911 Years Cogst Cy 8.87023 20.68681 10.09581 2 2 4 4.43511 10.34340 2.52395 1 .35940 3.35940 0.77361 accep t r e j e c t accept Error 257.74231 79 3.26256 GIRLS (Con t ' d ) 58 D12. INFERRING Hypo. Source Sum of Squares D.F. Mean Squares F I l l IV V Mean 2928.79588 1 2928.79565 620.17139 Years Cogst cy 36.20162 75.01964 11 .34160 2 2 4 18.10080 37.50981 2.83540 3.83284 7.94269 0.60039 r e j e c t r e j e c t a ccep t Error 373.08217 79 4.72256 D13. PREDICTING III IV V Mean 1249.36653 1 1249.36646 501.94800 Years Cogst Cy 8.35602 38.78139 5.02702 2 2 4 4.17801 19.39069 1 .25674 1 .67857 7.79044 0.50492 accept r e j e c t accept Error 196.63380 79 2.48903 D14. TOTAL SCIENCE PROCESSES III IV V Mean 210661.38328 1 210661.37500 1758.59546 Years Cogst Cy 657.75766 3637.19460 491 .02467 2 2 4 328.87866 1818.59717 122.75616 2.74547 15.18160 1.02477 accep t r e j e c t a ccep t Error 9463.37879 79 119.78955 F va lues r e q u i r e d f o r r e j e c t i o n of H : D f ; a. 10 a.05 a.01 2 v s . 79 2.39 3.15 4.98 4 vs . 79 2.04 2.53 3.65 59 b ) . Summary of Tes t s of Hypotheses I I I, IV, and V. Tab le 9 below i n d i c a t e s those s p e c i f i c n u l l hypotheses which were accepted versus those n u l l hypotheses which were r e j e c t e d : Tab le 9 Summary of Re jec ted and Accepted Hypotheses ( H n , H n and H n ) u 111 U I V U V FU N  A T T . P U R S A T T . ST R A T T . IN D IV . A T T . T O T A L A T T . O B S E R V IN G  C O M P A R IN G  C L A S S IF Y IN G  Q U A N T IF Y IN G  M E A S U R IN G  E X P E R IM E N T IN G  IN F E R R IN G  P R E D IC T IN G  T O T A L P R O C . D 1 D 2 D 3 D 4 D 5 D 6 D 7 D 8 D 9 D 10 D 11 D 12 D 13 D 14 Main E.YEARS: TOTAL A A A A A R A A A R A R A A + BOYS A A A A A R A A A A A A A A GIRLS A A A A A R A A A A ft R A A COG. ST. TOTAL R R A + R R R A + R R R R R R R BOYS A + R R R R R A R R R A + R A R GIRLS A R A A + A + R A + .R R R R R R R INTERACTION CY TOTAL A A A A A A A R A A A A A A BOYS A A A A A A A R A + A A A A A GIRLS A A A A A A A A A A A A A A = approach s i g n i f i c a n c e at a = .05 D = s i g n i f i c a n t beyond a.05 T o t a l Number of Re jec ted H ' s : Main E .Year s : 6/42 0 COG. ST. : 31/42 INTERACTION : 2/42 60 b-1) The Main E f f e c t f o r Years of E.S.S. I n s t r u c t i o n ( H n ): u 111 In g e n e r a l , the main e f f e c t f o r year s of i n s t r u c t i o n was on ly s i g n i f i c a n t i n s i x of f o r t y - t w o t e s t s . When data from these s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s were p l o t t e d (see F i g . IV ) , there were no c l e a r - c u t , obv ious i n c r e a s e s i n scores a t t r i b u t a b l e to year s of E.S.S. e x p e r i e n c e . In g e n e r a l : the main e f f e c t of year s of E.S.S. e x p e r i e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t . b-2) The Main E f f e c t f o r C o g n i t i v e S t y l e ( H n ): U I V Tab le 9 i n d i c a t e s tha t t he re was a genera l r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l hypo thes i s f o r H n . The main e f f e c t of U I V c o g n i t i v e s t y l e was s i g n i f i c a n t in a l l but two v a r i a b l e s f o r the t o t a l group. In these two e x c e p t i o n s , the F r a t i o s were approach ing s i g n i f i c a n c e at the .05 l e v e l . Th i s genera l r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l hypo thes i s f o r H n was U I V c o n s i s t e n t with the f i n d i n g s f o r H n and H n ° I ° I I Sex d i f f e r e n c e s were observed which were c o n s i s t e n t wi th the f i n d i n g s f o r H n and H n as w e l l . Worthy o f UI U I I emphasis was the f i n d i n g tha t the main e f f e c t of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e was not s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the g i r l s when the means were compared f o r Dl ( the Fun S c a l e ) and f o r D3 (the S t r u c t u r e S c a l e ) . 61 b-3) The I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t of C o g n i t i v e S t y l e and Years of E.S.S. Expe r i ence ( H n ): U V Only two of f o r t y - t w o i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . These two s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r - a c t i o n s can be seen v i s u a l l y in F i g u r e V. C e r t a i n l y two s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s out of a p o s s i b l e f o r t y - t w o s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s , d i d not p rov i de s u f f i c i e n t ev idence to r e j e c t the n u l l hypo the s i s f o r H n . In genera l i t was neces sa ry to accept t h i s n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . Key: ro M i d d l e A n a l y t i c a l ^G loba l c £(i) Total Group Observing G l o b a l M i d d l e A n a l y t i c a l CD u 8 CO Boys Group Observing • • G l o b a l o ( i i i ) o CO M i d d l e A n a l y t i c a l G i r l s Group Observing M i d d l e A n a l y t i c a l S G l o b a l o m (iv) Total Group Measuring ^Globa l S(v) CO M i d d l e ' A n a l y t i c a l T o t a l Group I n f e r r i n g 2 G l oba l o (/j (vi) G i r l s I n f e r r i n g M i d d l e A n a l y t i c a l 63 1 y r 2 y r 3 y r 1 y r 2 y r 3 y r Years : T o t a l Group Years : Boys Group F i g . V: S t a t i s t i c a l l y S i g n i f i c a n t I n t e r a c t i o n s : C l a s s i f y i n g Key - - = a n a l y t i c a l = average group = g l o b a l group 64 1 y r . 2 y r . 3 y r . 68 66 64 62 s 60 58 56 54 / 52 50 A f\ 48 46 O M /-\ o CO Years of E x p e ri ence GROUP TOTAL PROCESSES 1 y r . 2 y r . 3 y r . 230 225 220 210 Years of E x p e r i e n c e GROUP TOTAL ATTITUDES F i g . V I : Score Trends f o r T o t a l A t t i t u d e s and T o t a l P roces se s Based Upon C e l l Means from Ana l y se s of V a r i a n c e (BMDX 64) T o t a l T e s t Scores Key: G l oba l (Score 0- -5 C . E . F . T . ) M idd le (16-20) A n a l y t i c a l (27-25) F i g . V l ( C o n t ' d ) G loba l M idd le A n a l y t i c a l 66 G loba l M idd le A n a l y t i c a l CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY 5.1 Th i s Study Developed from a Need which Arose in the C lassroom The reader shou ld c o n s i d e r t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y study w i t h i n i t s proper c o n t e x t . Th i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n grew out of the a u t h o r ' s c l a s s room teach ing e x p e r i e n c e in which i t was observed that c e r t a i n c h i l d r e n appeared to e x p e r i e n c e much d i f f i c u l t y wh i l e o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the r a t h e r un- s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s of the E lementary S c i ence S tudy. The t h e o r e t i c a l framework of W i t k i n ' s Differential Psychology (1967) appeared to be of some a s s i s t a n c e in e x p l a i n i n g why the h i g h l y p r a i s e d and r e l a t i v e l y novel t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s and methodology of the E lementary S c i ence Study d i d not appear to be s u c c e s s f u l with these c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d to above. It was the a u t h o r ' s wish to i n i t i a t e an i n v e s t i g a t i o n to determine i f the a p p a r e n t l y p e r v a s i v e i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e would be h e l p f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g d i f f e r e n c e s in achievement in t h i s r a t h e r u n s t r u c t u r e d c u r r i c u l u m . Achievement was measured in terms 67 68 of a t t i t u d i n a l and h e u r i s t i c s c i e n c e competenc ie s . F u r t h e r , i t was in tended that by a n a l y z i n g c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l d a t a , i t would be p o s s i b l e to o b t a i n some i n s i g h t r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e over time - - as c h i l d r e n had more and more e x p e r i e n c e with the E lementary S c i ence Study m a t e r i a l s and methodology. 5.2 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study Because the a n a l y s i s of the e f f e c t of years o f E.S.S. e x p e r i e n c e was based upon c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l d a t a , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s about the e f f e c t s of exposure to the E.S.S. program c o u l d on ly be d e s c r i b e d as a form of s t a t i s t i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n . I d e a l l y a l o n g i t u d i n a l s tudy shou ld have been done, but as t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s tudy was an e x p l o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t was reasoned tha t shou ld W i t k i n ' s c o n - s t r u c t of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e bear s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p with performance on the type of e lementary s c i e n c e com- p e t e n c i e s a p p r o p r i a t e to the E.S.S. c u r r i c u l u m , then the investment of time and l abour on a l o n g i t u d i n a l s tudy would be war ran ted . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s t h e s i s appear to suppor t the d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r such a l o n g i t u d i n a l s tudy . 69 5 . 3 Conc lu s i on s and Recommendations a) The E f f e c t of Years of E.S.S. I n s t r u c t i o n : There was no s t a t i s t i c a l ev idence to s t a t e t h a t performance on the c r i t e r i o n measures improved as c h i l d r e n had more and more exposure to the E.S.S. programme. Th i s f i n d i n g shou ld not be viewed as a genera l i n d i c t m e n t o f the E.S.S. programme, but r a t h e r as an i n d i c a t i o n of the probab le weakness of the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l r e s e a r c h de s i gn employed by the au tho r . There were l i k e l y too many i n t e r - vening v a r i a b l e s unaccounted f o r , to come to any f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s about the e f f e c t of year s of E.S.S. i n s t r u c - t i o n . A l o n g i t u d i n a l s tudy would e l i m i n a t e t h i s d i f f i c u l t y . b) The I n t e r a c t i o n of C o g n i t i v e S t y l e and Years o f E.S.S. I n s t r u c t i o n : S i m i l a r l y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of i n t e r a c t i o n s between e x p e r i e n c e on the programme and c o g n i t i v e s t y l e are ex t reme ly d i f f i c u l t , again because of the assumptions made by the d e s i g n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t seems apparent t h a t the E.S.S. c u r r i c u l u m shou ld not be viewed as some educa - t i o n a l panacea. Graphs of s co re t rends appear to i n d i c a t e tha t the more g l o b a l c h i l d r e n may a c t u a l l y r eg re s s on competency measures as these c h i l d r e n have more and more 70 e x p e r i e n c e with E.S.S. c u r r i c u l u m . A proper l o n g i t u d i n a l s tudy o f i n t e r m e d i a t e - a g e d s tudent s may a f f i r m t h i s s pecu - l a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n . The l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by the des i gn on the con - c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t of year s of e x p e r i e n c e and i n t e r a c t i o n s , do not app ly f o r the main e f f e c t of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e , because the parameters of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e were c l e a r l y d e f i n e d in terms of performance on the Children's Embedded Figures Test. c) The E f f e c t of C o g n i t i v e S t y l e on Performance on the T e s t of S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s : It was found tha t c h i l d r e n who cou ld be c a t e g o r i z e d as p e r c e p t u a l l y g l o b a l , a ch ieved s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower s cores on both c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e measures of e lemen- t a r y s c i e n c e competenc ie s . With regards to the c o g n i t i v e o b j e c t i v e s which were measured by the Test of Science Processes , i t was found tha t the g l o b a l group d id s i g n i f i - c a n t l y l e s s we l l on the se t of e i g h t s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s . F u r t h e r , i t was found tha t on the measures of O b s e r v a t i o n , C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n , Measur ing and I n f e r r i n g - - these t e s t s were each in themselves s u f f i c i e n t to conc lude tha t the g l oba l group ach ieved s t a t i s t i c a l l y lower s co re s than the a n a l y t i c a l group on the se t of s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s . 71 d) The E f f e c t of C o g n i t i v e S t y l e on Performance on the A t t i t u d e S c a l e s : With regards to the a f f e c t i v e o b j e c t i v e s - - the a t t i t u d e s conce rn ing "mess ing about in s c i e n c e " - - there was a s t a t i s t i c a l ba s i s to conc lude tha t the g l o b a l c h i l d r e n ach ieved s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower scores than the a n a l y t i c a l c h i l d r e n on the se t of a t t i t u d e s s c a l e s . It was found tha t d i f f e r e n c e s on the Pursue S ca l e (D2) and the I n d i v i d u a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n Sca le (D4) were each s u f f i c i e n t i n themselves to conc lude that the g l o b a l group ach ieved s t a t i s t i c a l l y lower scores than the a n a l y t i c a l group on the se t of a t t i t u d e measures. A l though there was some ev idence tha t g l o b a l c h i l d r e n d i d l e s s we l l on measures of the enjoyment a t t i t u d e (DI) and on the a t t i t u d e o f imposing s t r u c t u r e on p lay (D3), the ev idence was perhaps confounded by a number of f a c t o r s . For i n s t a n c e , c u l t u r a l e t h i c s r e g a r d i n g i n c u l c a t e d e v a l u a t i o n s of the concepts of "work" ( s t r u c t u r e ) and the concept of " f u n " may have been i n v o l v e d . For example, sex d i f f e r e n c e s were found wi th regards to DI and D3 which may have i n d i c a t e d the e f f e c t of r o l e e n c u l - t u r a t i o n , i . e . va lues which the c u l t u r e i n c u l c a t e d i n g i r l s , such as being non-mechanica l and " f e m i n i n e . " e) Genera l Conc lu s i on s and Recommendations. G e n e r a l l y i t shou ld be viewed as an impor tant f i n d i n g tha t p e r c e p t i o n a l l y g l oba l c h i l d r e n appear to be l e s s we l l 72 equipped a t t i t u d i n a l l y and h e u r i s t i c a l l y to opera te w i t h i n the r a t h e r u n s t r u c t u r e d methodo log ies of the E lementary S c i ence Study (and probab ly o the r s i m i l a r " d i s c o v e r y o r i e n t e d " c u r r i c u l a as w e l l ) . Th i s f i n d i n g i s s i g n i f i c a n t both from a t h e o r e t i c a l and from a p r a c t i c a l v i e w p o i n t . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , i t enhances the c r e d i b i l i t y of d i f f e r e n t i a l p sycho logy to educator s and suggests i t s broader a p p l i c a - t i o n f o r r e s e a r c h . In terms o f c l a s s room p r a c t i c e , the author suggests the f o l l o w i n g recommendat ions: e-1 The M o d i f i c a t i o n o f E.S.S. Methodology: The t e a c h i n g methodology d e f i n e d by Hawkins (1965) was composed of th ree phases through which the l e a r n i n g environment was to deve lop .^ It i s the f i r s t o f these phases which r e q u i r e s m o d i f i c a t i o n . In t h i s f i r s t s t a g e , e n t i t l e d the " 0 " phase, Hawkins d e f i n e d a l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n - ment which he r e f e r r e d to as " g l o r i o u s messing about " and " k i n d e r g a r t e n r e v i s i t e d . " Dur ing t h i s phase, s tudent s o f e lementary schoo l s c i e n c e were to be a l lowed to engage i n a r a t h e r l eng thy p e r i o d of " f r e e and unguided e x p l o r a t i o n " - - t h i s p e r i o d sometimes was to take as long as two weeks. In h i s much c i t e d a r t i c l e Hawkins s t r e s s e d the need f o r a 'The "0", " A " , and " • " phases of E.S.S. methodology are f u l l y d e s c r i b e d in Appendix B. 73 re -emphas i s upon t h i s type of l e a r n i n g which t y p i f i e s the s t y l e o f l e a r n i n g e x h i b i t e d by c h i l d r e n be fo re they come to s c h o o l . Indeed, Hawkins even suggested the broader a p p l i c a t i o n of the " 0 " phase to the c o l l e g e l e v e l . In h i s zea l to de-emphas ize the " • " phase, ( a b s t r a c t and t h e o - r e t i c a l t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s such as l e c t u r i n g ) , Hawkins committed an e r r o r of o m i s s i o n . Teachers have long been aware t h a t some c h i l d r e n appear to have a pover ty of r e s o u r c e s at t h e i r d i s p o s a l . These p u p i l s appear to be unable to engage in s u s t a i n e d p lay w i th m a t e r i a l s . These c h i l d r e n are not as capab le of p r o f i t a b l y u t i l i z i n g e x t e n s i v e pe r i od s o f unguided e x p l o r a t i o n in s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . Differential psychology p r o v i d e s a t h e o r e t i c a l framework which shou ld be o f g rea t a s s i s t a n c e in h e l p i n g educator s to p r o v i d e f o r the type o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s r e f e r r e d to above. From the r e s e a r c h of W i t k i n and h i s f o l l o w e r s , i t would appear tha t the degree of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e ( g l o b a l versus a n a l y t i c a l f u n t i o n i n g ) i s g e n e r a l l y a p e r v a s i v e t r a i t a f t e r the age of e i g h t y e a r s . It would seem to the a u t h o r , t h e r e f o r e , t ha t e s p e c i a l l y in the upper e lementary schoo l g r ades , the i n d i v i d u a l c o g n i t i v e s t y l e of c h i l d r e n i s an impor tant f a c t o r which educator s shou ld at tempt to accommodate when d e s i g n i n g and implement ing c u r r i c u l u m . It would be na ive to c o n s i d e r tha t the mere a p p l i c a t i o n of any one c u r r i c u l u m would suddenly a l t e r the c o g n i t i v e s t y l e 74 of o l d e r c h i l d r e n (to d r a s t i c a l l y enhance the d i f f e r e n t i a - t i o n p r o c e s s ) , because the c h i l d ' s p a r t i c u l a r mode of d e a l - ing with the wor ld has become we l l r e i n f o r c e d and ent renched by t h i s t ime. Educators t h e r e f o r e must l e a r n to p r o v i d e f o r the i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s in c o g n i t i v e s t y l e . In the E.S.S. scheme f o r example, g l oba l c h i l d r e n have a d i s t i n c t d i sadvantage when compared to the more a n a l y t i c a l c h i l d r e n - - wh i l e l e a r n i n g w i t h i n a " f end f o r y o u r s e l f " l e a r n i n g e n v i r - onment. The t e a c h e r shou ld i d e n t i f y the c h i l d r e n at the extreme ends of the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n continuum ( u t i l i z i n g such t e s t s as C . E . F . T . ) and he shou ld modify the " 0 " phase f o r these c h i l d r e n . Extremely g l o b a l c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e c o n s c i e n t i o u s , s y s t e m a t i c gu idance and s u p p o r t i v e a s s i s t a n c e - - wh i l e a n a l y t i c a l c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e very l i t t l e i n t e r f e r e n c e by the t e a c h e r du r i n g t h i s " 0 " phase. In the pr imary grades a more d e t a i l e d methodology shou ld be deve loped and t e s t e d ; at t h i s l e v e l i t may be p o s s i b l e to enhance the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n process and by so d o i n g , to a c t u a l l y a l t e r the ext remely g l oba l c h i l d ' s mode o.f dea l ing wi th the w o r l d . Th i s methodology f o r pr imary schoo l i n s t r u c t i o n cou ld be based upon the e x i s t i n g data and theory r e g a r d i n g the c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s of the parents of more a n a l y t i c a l c h i l d r e n . The a c t u a l development of s p e c i a l t each ing s t r a t e g i e s which would 75 enhance the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n process f o r young c h i l d r e n i s beyond the scope of t h i s s tudy . In s h o r t , differential psychology p re sen t s a t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l b a s i s from which to deve lop d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s . e-2 The M o d i f i c a t i o n of the Way C u r r i c u l u m i s Used: C u r r e n t l y the " u n i t " approach to c u r r i c u l u m i s a popu l a r method o f a p p l y i n g the m a t e r i a l s of the many e lementary s c i e n c e p r o j e c t s . For example, t eacher s may be p l ann ing to u t i l i z e Batteries and Bulbs ( E . S . S . ) f o l l o w e d by Pendulums ( E . S . S . ) - - or perhaps another u n i t from an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t wi th a very d i f f e r e n t p h i l o s o p h y . Rather than approach ing the study of t o p i c s or o b j e c t s through the s e l e c t i o n of "a u n i t " ( u n i l a t e r a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d to the e n t i r e c l a s s ) , the author suggests the f o l l o w i n g m o d i f i c a t i o n in the way tha t c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s are c u r r e n t l y used. The study of t o p i c s or o b j e c t s cou ld be approached in such a way as to account f o r the s t y l e s of l e a r n i n g which are more a p p r o p r i a t e to the c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s of p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d r e n . Seve ra l avenues or paths of learning shou ld be a v a i l a b l e on any p a r t i c u l a r s c i e n c e t o p i c . These paths would d i f f e r i n the degree of structure and support which they a f f o r d the teacher s and p u p i l s who wish to i n v e s t i g a t e a t o p i c . 76 The c h i l d r e n and the teacher s cou ld dec ide which path i s most s u i t a b l e . The author does not n e c e s s a r i l y suggest the des i gn of e n t i r e l y new c u r r i c u l a based upon the concept of d i f f e r e n t i a t e d routes to l e a r n i n g (a l though such a c u r r i c u l u m des i gn may be f e a s i b l e ) , he suggests however, t ha t i t may be p r e s e n t l y p o s s i b l e to ach ieve the d e s i r e d end by making much b e t t e r use o f c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s which have a l r e a d y been d e v e l o p e d . These many c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s themselves have b u i l t - i n f e a t u r e s which r e f l e c t p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h i e s and methodo log i e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the e n t i r e spectrum of s t r u c t u r e d versus r e l a t i v e l y u n s t r u c t u r e d e lementary s c i e n c e e x p e r i e n c e s i s a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e under the covers of these p r e - e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s . The author recommends tha t s c i e n c e educator s e x t r a c t the d i f f e r e n t approaches to g iven t o p i c s from these sepa ra te e n t i t i e s , and i n t e g r a t e the v a r i o u s approaches to the t o p i c s - - thus p r o v i d i n g alternate routes to learning a t o p i c . For example, A . A . A . S . l e s sons r e g a r d i n g seed ge rm ina t i on cou ld be compi led and o f f e r e d as a more s t r u c t u r e d path to the t o p i c than the more " f r e e - w h e e l i n g " E.S.S. u n i t s such as Starting from Seeds. S tudents cou ld then be a f f o r d e d a c h o i c e as to which path they wished to f o l l o w - - s t r u c t u r e d versus r e l a t i v e l y u n s t r u c t u r e d . 77 5.4 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research As suggested at the beg inn ing of t h i s c h a p t e r , t he re i s s u f f i c i e n t ev idence about the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e to j u s t i f y development of a l o n g i t u d i n a l s tudy ( s i m i l a r i n format to t h i s o n e ) , in o rde r to determine the i n t e r a c t i o n o f c o g n i t i v e s t y l e and year s of E.S.S. e x p e r i e n c e on performance on e lementary s c i e n c e competency measures. It i s suggested t h a t t h i s study begin at the lower i n t e r m e d i a t e grade l e v e l s and shou ld con t i nue to the end of e lementary s c h o o l i n g . In the pr imary g r ade s , p a r t i c u l a r l y in k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one, i t would be an e x c i t i n g study to determine the s t a b i l i t y of c o g n i t i v e - s t y l e when the t eacher con - s c i e n t i o u s l y adopts the type of s u p p o r t i v e t rea tment which W i t k in and h i s a s s o c i a t e s i d e n t i f i e d as the c h i l d - r e a r i n g s t y l e employed by parents of f i e l d - i n d e p e n d e n t (more a n a l y t i c a l ) c h i l d r e n . The author h y p o t h e s i z e s tha t such e a r l y schoo l e x p e r i e n c e s would enhance the d i f f e r e n - t i a t i o n process f o r ex teremely g l o b a l c h i l d r e n . ^ What i s i n tended i s tha t the environment of these c h i l d r e n be man ipu l a ted c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y and i n t e n s i v e l y f o r s e v e r a l C o g n i t i v e s t y l e has been found to be s t a b l e and p e r v a s i v e ( r e l a t i v e to the group) in s t a b l e env i ronment s . 78 years in o r d e r to determine what changes c o u l d be e f f e c t e d upon c o g n i t i v e s t y l e - - a c o n s t r u c t which has been con - s i d e r e d by r e s e a r c h e r s to be p e r v a s i v e and r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e compared to the group norms. C o g n i t i v e - s t y l e would become the dependent v a r i a b l e of such a s tudy . 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The r e l a t i o n of danc ing e x p e r i e n c e and p e r s o n a l i t y to p e r c e p t i o n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Mono- g raphs , 69 (Whole No. 399) . Guetzkow, H . , 1951. An a n a l y s i s of the o p e r a t i o n o f s e t in p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g b e h a v i o r . J o u r n a l o f Genera l P sycho logy , 45 (219-244) . G u i l l f o r d , J . P . , 1966. I n t e l l i g e n c e : 1965 model . American P s y c h o l o g i s t , 21 , 1 (20 -26 ) . Hawkins, Dav id . E.S.S. E lementary s c i e n c e a c t i v i t i e s p r o j e c t . S c i ence E d u c a t i o n , V o l . 48, No. 4 (77 -78 ) . Hawkins, Dav id . Messing about in s c i e n c e . S c i ence and C h i l d r e n (Feb. 1965), 5 -9 ) . . I n t r o d u c t i o n to the E lementary S c i e n c e Study (1965 v e r s i o n ) . E.S. I . Inc. , Watertown, Mass. . I n t r o d u c t i o n to the E lementary S c i e n c e Study (1 966 v e r s i o n ) . E.S. I . Inc. , Watertown , Mass. 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New Haven: Ya le U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 83 L i n t o n , H a r r i e t B., 1952. R e l a t i o n s between mode of p e r - c e p t i o n and tendency to conform. Unpub l i shed d o c t o r ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n , Ya le U n i v e r s i t y . L i n t o n , H a r r i e t and Graham, E l a i n , 1959. P e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s of persuas i bi 1 i t y . In J a m ' s , I .L., e t . a l . P e r s o n a l i t y and P e r s u a s i b i 1 i t v . New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y . M i l l e r , James G . , 1963. The i n d i v i d u a l as an i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g system i n In format ion Storage and Neural C o n t r o l . F i e l d s and Abbot (eds . ) . S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s . M o r r i s o n , Ph i l l i p and W a l c o t t , C h a r l e s . E n l i g h t e n e d oppor - tun i sm. An i n fo rma l account of the e lementary s c i e n c e summer study of 1962. Jou rna l of Research In S c ience T e a c h i n g . Vol . 1 (48-53) . M o r r i s o n , P h i l l i p . , Tens ions of purpose . E.S. I . Q u a r t e r l y . Summer 1966 , (67 ) . N u n n a l l y , Jum C , 1967. Psychometr i c Theory . New York: McGraw H i l l Book Company. O v e r l a d e , D.C., 1955. Humor: Its R e l a t i o n to A b s t r a c t i o n . Paper read at Midwest. P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . Ch i cago . Pascua l Leone, J . , 1966. P i a g e t ' s Pe r i od of Concre te Opera t i ons and W i t k i n ' s F i e l d Dependence: A s tudy on c o l l e g e s tudents and c h i l d r e n . Paper read at C P . A . , M o n t r e a l , and U.B.C. (Mimeograph). Pascual Leone, J . 1969. A Mathemat ica l Model f o r the T r a n s i t i o n Rule in P i a g e t ' s Developmental S tages . Research r e p o r t grant NCR APA 234 (Canada) . York U n i v e r s i t y . Pemberton, C a r o l , L . , 1952. The c l o s u r e f a c t o r r e l a t e d to temperament. Journa l of P e r s o n a l i t y , 21, (159- 1.75) . P o d e l l , J . E . , 1957. P e r s o n a l i t y and s t imu lu s f a c t o r s in a d u l t c o g n i t i o n : a developmenta l a n a l y s i s of d e c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n . Unpub l i shed d o c t o r ' s d i s s e r - t a t i o n , C l a rk U n i v e r s i t y . ( c i t e d by W i t k i n , 1962). » 84 P o l l a c k , M. , Kahn, R .L . , Karp, E . , and F i n k , M. , 1 960. I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s in p e r c e p t i o n of the u p r i g h t in h o s p i t a l i z e d p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s . Paper read at the Eas te rn P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c a t i o n , New York, ( c i t e d by W i t k i n , 1962) . Qua r ton , G .C . , E v a l u a t i n g new s c i e n c e m a t e r i a l s . E.S. I . Q u a r t e r l y (spr ing-summer 1966) , ( 77 ) . , Report of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C l e a r i n g h o u s e f o r S c i ence and Mathematics C u r r i c u l a r Developments. 1968. L o c k a r d , D a v i d , D i r e c t o r , (224-241) . S c o t t , W i l l i a m A . , 1968. A t t i t u d e Measurement. Handbook of S o c i a l P s ycho logy , V o l . 2, (204-273) . Tannenbaum, R.S., 1969. T e s t of S c i ence P r o c e s s e s . Pub l i s hed S e r v i c e s . New York. by R.S. Tannenbaum, I n s t i t u t e of Hea l th i c e s . Hunter C o l l e g e . C i t y U n i v e r s i t y o f Tannenbaum, R.S., 1969. The Development of the T e s t of S c i ence P r o c e s s e s . Paper read at the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Research in S c i ence T e a c h i n g . Pasadena, C a l i f o r n i a . W i n e s t i n e , M.C. , 1969. Twinsh ip and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n - t i a t i o n . Jou rna l of the American Academy of C h i l d P s y c h i a t r y T I T No. 3. (436-455) . W i t k i n , H.A., 1948. The E f f e c t of T r a i n i n g and of S t r u c t u r a l A ids on Performance in Three Tes t s of Space O r i e n t a t i o n . Rep r i n t no. 80, D i v . Re s . , CAA. Washington, D.C. W i t k i n , H.A., and A s c h , S . E . , 1948a. S tud i e s in space o r i e n t a t i o n : I I I. P e r c e p t i o n of the u p r i g h t in the absence of a v i s u a l f i e l d . Jou rna l of E x p e r i - mental P sycho logy , 38, (603-614) . W i t k i n , H.A. , and A s c h , S . E . , 1948b. S tud ie s in space o r i e n t a t i o n : IV. F u r t h e r exper iments on p e r c e p t i o n df the u p r i g h t with d i s p l a c e d v i s u a l f i e l d s . J o u r n a l of Exper imenta l P sycho logy , 38, (762-782) . 85 W i t k i n , H.A., 1949. P e r c e p t i o n of body p o s i t i o n and of the p o s i t i o n of the v i s u a l f i e l d . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Monograph, 63, (whole no. 302) . W i t k i n , H.A., Sex d i f f e r e n c e s in p e r c e p t i o n . T r a n s . N.Y. Academy of S c i e n c e . 12, ( 22 -26 ) . W i t k i n , H.A., 1949. The nature and importance of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s in p e r c e p t i o n . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y , 18, (145-170) . W i t k i n , H.A., and Wapner, S., 1950. V i s u a l f a c t o r s in the maintenance of u p r i g h t p o s u t r e . American J o u r n a l of P s ycho logy , 63, ( 3 1 - 5 0 ) . W i t k i n , H.A., 1950. P e r c e p t i o n of the u p r i g h t when the d i r e c t i o n of f o r c e a c t i n g on the body i s changed. J o u r n a l of Exper imenta l P s ycho logy , 40 , ( 93 -106 ) . W i t k i n , H.A., 1950. I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s in ease of p e r c e p t i o n of embedded f i g u r e s . Jou rna l of P e r s o n a l i t y , 19, ( 1 - 1 5 ) . W i t k i n , H.A., 1952. F u r t h e r s t u d i e s of p e r c e p t i o n of the u p r i g h t when the d i r e c t i o n of the f o r c e a c t i n g on the body i s changed. J o u r n a l of Exper imenta l P sycho logy , 43, ( 9 - 2 0 ) . W i t k i n , H.A., Wapner, S., and Leventha l , T . , 1952. Sound l o c a l i z a t i o n wi th c o n f l i c t i n g v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y cues . Jou rna l of Exper imenta l P sycho logy , 43, ( 58 -67 ) . W i t k i n , H.A., Lew i s , H e l e n , B., Hertzman, M. , Machover, Karen, M e i s s n e r , P e a r l , B., and Wapner, S., 1954. P e r s o n a l i t y through P e r c e p t i o n . New York: Harper . W i t k i n , H.A., Karp, S .A . , and Goodenough, D.R., 1959. Dependence in a l c o h o l i c s . Q u a r t e r l y Jou rna l of S tud ie s in A l c o h o l i s m , 20, (493-504) . W i t k i n , H.A., Dyk, Ruth B., F a t e r s o n , Hanna F . , Goodenough, D.R., and Karp, S .A . , 1 962. P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . New York: W i l ey . W i t k i n , H.A., 1965. Some i m p l i c a t i o n s of r e s e a r c h on c o g n i t i v e s t y l e f o r problems of e d u c a t i o n . Arc h i v i o di P s i c o l o g i a , Neuro l og i a e P s i c h i a t r i a , 26 (1) , ( Repr in ted and m o d i f i e d in P r o f e s s i o n a l School P s ycho logy , V o l . I l l , 1969, pp. 198-227) . 86 W i t k i n , H.A., 1965. P s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and forms of pa tho logy . J o u r n a l of Abnormal P sycho logy , 70, No. 5, (317-336) . W i t k i n , H.A., F a t e r s o n , H . F . , Goodenough, D.R., and Birnbaum J . , 1966. C o g n i t i v e p a t t e r n i n g in m i l d l y r e t a r d e d boys . C h i l d Development, 37, (301-316) . W i t k i n , H.A., 1967. A c o g n i t i v e - s t y l e approach to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of P sycho logy , 2, No. 4, (233-250) . W i t k i n , H.A., Goodenough, D.R., and Karp, S .A. , 1967. S t a b i l i t y fo c o g n i t i v e s t y l e from c h i l d h o o d to young a d u l t h o o d . Jou rna l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s ycho logy , V o l . 7, No. 3, November, Par t I, (291-300) . W i t k i n , H.A., Lew i s , H.B., W e i l , B.A., 1968. A f f e c t i v e r e a c t i o n s and p a t i e n t - t h e r a p i s t i n t e r a c t i o n s among more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and l e s s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p a t i e n t s e a r l y in t h e r a p y . Journa l of Nervous and Mental D i s e a s e , 146, No. 3, (193-208) . W i t k i n , H.A., 1968. C o g n i t i v e p a t t e r n i n g in c o n g e n i t a l l y b l i n d c h i l d r e n . C h i l d Development, (767-786) . W o l c o t t , C h a r l e s , 1965. From the d i r e c t o r . E.S.S. News- l e t t e r , Oc tober . APPENDIX A THE SELECTION OF PERFORMANCE CRITERIA I t i s an enormous task to attempt to l e a r n something about the nature of c h i l d r e n who e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t y working w i t h i n the framework of the E lementary S c i e n c e S tudy. Of the many c u r r i c u l a r p r o j e c t s which have been adopted by p u b l i c s c h o o l s , the author s e l e c t e d the E lementary S c i e n c e S tudy , because i t had been c o n s i s t e n t l y adopted by many schoo l d i s t r i c t s , because i t appeared to be one of the most popu la r programs, and because i t was the one program with which the author had had a g rea t deal o f per sona l c l a s s room e x p e r i e n c e . The s e l e c t i o n of the E lementary S c i e n c e Study as the t rea tment e x p e r i e n c e f o r the s u b j e c t s in t h i s s t u d y , how- e v e r , p re sen ted some d i f f i c u l t problems which had to be overcome b e f o r e the s tudy o f the genera l problem cou ld c o n t i n u e . Determin ing the impor tant measurable o b j e c t i v e s was one such problem and the development of s p e c i f i c t e s t i n s t rument s to measure these o b j e c t i v e s was a n o t h e r . In the p a s t , teacher s of e lementary s c i e n c e have e v a l u a t e d t h e i r s tudent s by emphas iz ing in t h e i r t e s t s 87 such th ing s as f a c t u a l . r e c a l l , r e c o g n i t i o n and o t h e r low l e v e l c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s . With the advent of many new c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s , a new emphasis has been p l aced on such o b j e c t i v e s as the a c q u i s i t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c and human i s t i c a t t i t u d e s and the f o s t e r i n g of c r e a t i v e t a l e n t C o n s e q u e n t l y , e v a l u a t i o n in the t r a d i t i o n a l sense has become i n s u f f i c i e n t and in some s i t u a t i o n s , i n a p p r o p r i a t e For example, t eacher s are now i n s t r u c t e d to determine " . . . how each c h i l d i s d e v e l o p i n g h i s own sk i l l s in s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n " (E lementary S c i e n c e , 1969, p. 26 ) . Sugges t ions f o r c a r r y i n g out these forms of e v a l u a t i o n i n c l u d e anecdota l r e p o r t s , c h e c k l i s t s , i n t e r - v i ews , and paper and p e n c i l t e s t s . Th i s t rend away from s imp ly a t tempt ing to measure how we l l c h i l d r e n commit to memory f a c t s from textbooks or f a c t s from t e a c h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n s , i s an o b v i o u s l y neces sa ry one. In any c a s e , s i n c e c u r r i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e s have been m o d i f i e d d r a s t i c a l l y , so must the e v a l u a t i o n techn iques be redes i gned to measure these new o b j e c t i v e s . The l i t e r a t u r e in s c i e n c e educa t i on r e v e a l s t ha t many a r t i c l e s have d e a l t wi th the problem of d e v e l o p i n g s u i t - ab le e v a l u a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . For example, the c u r r i c u l u m which has been deve loped by the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement of S c i e n c e , possesses a s p e c i a l l y deve lop 89 e v a l u a t i o n model which was t a i l o r e d to meet the s p e c i f i c needs of t h i s program ( A . A . A . S . , 1970). On the o the r hand, one of the most p r o l i f i c and one of the most popu la r c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s , the E lementary S c i ence Study g roup, has s t a t e d tha t p resent e v a l u a t i o n techn iques have con - t i n u e d to be so inadequate tha t such measurements might even be a dangerous and i n h i b i t i n g i n f l u e n c e on c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n s . Consequent l y , t h i s group has done r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e in deve l op ing e v a l u a t i o n in s t ruments and methods (Quar ton , 1966, p. 7; L o c k h a r d t , 1967, p. 240) . Never- t h e l e s s , attempts must be made to deve lop more adequate e v a l u a t i v e techn iques because schoo l o f f i c i a l s are r e q u i r e d to j u s t i f y i n n o v a t i o n s . Th i s t rend toward p u b l i c a ccoun t - a b i l i t y appears to be growing ( E l l i o t , 1970). I f appro - p r i a t e e v a l u a t i o n methodo log ies are not d e v e l o p e d , then i n a p p r o p r i a t e ones may f i n d themselves in use in the absence of more s u i t a b l e ones. The problem of d e v e l o p i n g e v a l u a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d because i n s t i t u t i o n s which have deve loped such e x c e l l e n t m a t e r i a l s as the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y reknowned E.S.S. g roup, have been r e l u c t a n t to s t a t e t h e i r o b j e c - t i v e s in a comple te , c l e a r and o r d e r l y f a s h i o n . The f o l l o w i n g s tatement i s the l i s t of o b j e c t i v e s tha t were r e p o r t e d to the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C l e a r i n g h o u s e f o r S c i ence and Mathematics C u r r i c u l a r Developments ( L o c k h a r d , 1967): 90 Behavioral objeotives i d e n t i f i e d : We have i d e n t i f i e d some. We feel that i f the materials are well designed children w i l l be deeply involved and highly motivated to continue with t h e i r owrk. We use such c r i t e r i a as noise l e v e l , general order, attention to the work at hand and design of new experiments by the children. We also have as objectives an increase in problem solving s k i l l s , an improvement in the a b i l i t y to predict what w i l l happen under certain experimental conditions with ther materials involved. Res earch evidence of obj ectives achieved: Our evidence comes from anecdotal reports from teachers and from close and lengthy observations made by our own s t a f f in classrooms ( L o c k h a r d , 1967, p. 241) . I t m e r i t s e m p h a s i z i n g , however, tha t t h i s c u r r i c u l u m g roup ' s r a t h e r vague mode of d e a l i n g with the q u e s t i o n of e v a l u a t i o n i s e p i t o m i z e d in the i n t r o d u c t o r y s t a t e m e n t , "We have i d e n t i f i e d some." Th i s vagueness made the task o f d e t e r m i n i n g the measurable o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s c u r - r i c u l u m very d i f f i c u l t . The w r i t e r f e l t tha t a necessary r e q u i s i t e f o r s o l v i n g the problem of de te rm in ing o b j e c t i v e s shou ld i n v o l v e the f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s : 1. Ga in ing e x p e r i e n c e with the program by t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n of a l l grade l e v e l s , u t i l i z i n g the E.S.S. m a t e r i a l s , f o l l o w i n g the sugges t i ons of guide books and employing E.S.S. t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s . Th i s e x p e r i e n c e shou ld span a number of y e a r s . 91 2. T a l k i n g to o t h e r teacher s and to c h i l d r e n about t h e i r thoughts about the E.S.S. m a t e r i a l s . 3. S tudy ing and a n a l y z i n g the l i t e r a t u r e tha t has been r e l e a s e d by the E.S.S. group. Having undergone these p r o c e d u r e s , the w r i t e r f e l t t ha t he had the ba s i s f o r an under s tand ing o f the o b j e c - t i v e s o f the program. His p e r s i s t e n t b e l i e f was t h a t there were many i m p l i c i t o b j e c t i v e s in a d d i t i o n to those tha t are l i s t e d in the o f f i c i a l E.S.S. s tatement of o b j e c - t i v e s . ^ For example, a f t e r hav ing e x p e r i e n c e with both E.S.S. m a t e r i a l and A . A . A . S . m a t e r i a l s , i t was r a t h e r apparent tha t the c h i l d r e n who were us ing the E.S.S;. m a t e r i a l s were a l s o a c q u i r i n g p r a c t i c e in us ing the same types of processes of s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n tha t the A . A . A . S . 2 group l i s t e d as pr imary o b j e c t i v e s . In o rde r to c o n f i r m these o b s e r v a t i o n s about o ther i m p l i c i t o b j e c t i v e s of the E.S.S. g roup, the w r i t e r then examined the p u b l i s h e d u n i t s and the f o l l o w i n g E.S.S. m a t e r i a l s wi th the purpose of i d e n t i f y i n g the i m p l i c i t o b j e c t i v e s of E,S.S .- m a t e r i a l s : Th i s s tatement of o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be f u r t h e r ana l yzed in Appendix B. 2 In E.S.S. Rocks and Charts, the p u p i l s c l a s s i f y . In Kitchen Physics, the p u p i l s g r aph , use space - t ime r e l a - t i o n s h i p s , p r e d i c t , i n f e r , e t c . 92 1. The e n t i r e E.S.S. r e p o r t submit ted to the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C l e a r i n g h o u s e f o r S c i e n c e and Mathematics C u r r i c u l a r Development, (1967) . 2. The much c i t e d a r t i c l e by David Hawkins, the former d i r e c t o r of the E lementary S c i ence S tudy. Th i s a r t i c l e i s e n t i t l e d , "Mess ing About in S c i e n c e . " Hawkins (1965) o u t l i n e d E.S.S. t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s . 3. The genera l i n f o r m a t i o n b u l l e t i n s which are e n t i t l e d Introduction to the Elementary Science Study. Key words were u n d e r l i n e d in each s e n t e n c e . Key words were d e f i n e d as words which t o l d or d e s c r i b e d what c h i l d r e n a c t u a l l y d i d in s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . These words and phrases were then l i s t e d on c a r d s , the cards were then s h u f f l e d and c a t e g o r i z e d . The f i n a l c a t e g o r i z a t i o n r e v e a l e d c l u s t e r i n g s of key words which were l a b e l l e d with the f o l l o w i n g head ing s : 1. B e l i e f s concern ing the mer i t s of "messing about" a. "Mess ing about" i s f u n . b. "Mess ing about" w i l l l ead the c h i l d r e n to pursue and f o l l o w up phenomena which are uncovered . c . "Mess ing about " w i l l l ead c h i l d r e n to impose a s t r u c t u r e on t h e i r p l a y . d. "Mess ing about " w i l l l ead c h i l d r e n to i n v e s t i g a t e on t h e i r own. 2. S c i ence p r o c e s s e s : a. Observ ing b .- C1 a s s i f y i n g c. A n a l y z i n g d. C o n t r o l l i n g v a r i a b l e s e. P r e d i c t i n g f . Hand l ing data 93 g. Exper iment ing h. R e p l i c a t i n g i . Pos ing problems j . A c q u i r i n g p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s 3. C r e a t i v e component: f r e e whee l ing s p e c u l a t i o n , c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g , and i n t u i t i v e , p l a y f u l e x p l o r a t i on. 4. M a n i p u l a t i v e and b u i l d i n g s k i l l s 5. C o g n i t i v e development a. S p e c i f i c concept development b. I n c i d e n t i a l l e a r n i n g s To avo id t h i s s tudy t ak i ng on unmanageable p r o p o r t i o n s , i t was f e a s i b l e to match on ly some of these o b j e c t i v e s wi th s u i t a b l e t e s t s . The w r i t e r s e l e c t e d a r e c e n t t e s t , The Test of Science Processes (Tannenbaum, 1969), because i t appeared to p rov ide a rea sonab le match to the second c l u s t e r i n g of o b j e c t i v e s mentioned above. It was r e a s o n - ab l y easy to match the type of behav io r s which are d e f i n e d in the b l u e p r i n t f o r the Test of Science Processes w i th those behav io r s tha t occur in E.S.S. s i t u a t i o n s . ^ Because For example, the b l u e - p r i n t d e f i n e s f i v e behav io r s to be t e s t e d under the s c i e n c e p r o c e s s , Observing. The f o l l o w i n g i l l u s t r a t e s tha t i t i s rea sonab ly easy to match these behav io r s d e s c r i b e d in the b l u e p r i n t of The Test of Science Processes wi th E.S.S. a c t i v i t i e s , Behav ior 1. Demonstrate an o p e r a t i o n a l know- ledge of the p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of o b j e c t s . 2. I d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e o b j e c t s which i n t e r a c t i n a system (Tannenbaum, 1969, Appendix C) Quest ions EES Un i t s 14,19 A t t r i b u t e Games 14,19 Rocks and Charts Ki tchen Phys i cs ,~ ,Q Bones , Bulbs & B a t t e r i e s , Gasses and A i r s 94 the E.S.S. group s t r e s s e d the need f o r c h i l d r e n to a c q u i r e the a t t i t u d e s d e s c r i b e d above ( c l u s t e r 1 ) , the author a l s o chose to measure those o b j e c t i v e s as w e l l , and as a consequence f ou r L i k e r t - t y p e a t t i t u d e s c a l e s were d e v e l o p e d . The techn iques i n v o l v e d in d e v e l o p i n g these s c a l e s are f u l l y d e s c r i b e d in Appendix B. APPENDIX B THE DEVELOPMENT OF FOUR ATTITUDE SCALES TO MEASURE CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE AFFECTIVE OBJECTIVES OF THE ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY E.S.S. L i t e r a t u r e Co r robo ra te s the Importance of the A f f e c t i v e O b j e c t i v e s E s t a b l i s h e d by the Procedures L i s t e d in Appendix A In o r d e r to measure the a t t i t u d i n a l o b j e c t i v e s d i s - cussed in Appendix A, i t was necessary f o r the author to c o n s t r u c t f o u r a t t i t u d e s c a l e s . In t h i s append ix , the con - c l u s i o n s of Appendix A w i l l be c o r r o b o r a t e d by s tatements from E.S.S. l i t e r a t u r e . It w i l l be shown t h a t i f the aim of the E.S.S. program i s to b r i n g about a t t i t u d e s h i f t s in c h i l d r e n , a t t i t u d e t e s t i n g i s necessary i f one i s to assess the p u p i l s , the t e a c h e r s , or the l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n - ment. Fo l l ow ing t h i s argument are d e f i n i t i o n s of a t t i t u d e and o t h e r r e l e v a n t te rms ; reasons f o r the s e l e c t i o n of a L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e ; and the procedures employed in d e v e l o p - ing the s c a l e s . F i n a l l y , the s c a l e s i n t h e i r f i n a l t e s t form are i n c l u d e d along with r e l e v a n t s t a t i s t i c a l data about each s c a l e . 95 96 Bes ides the usual o b j e c t i v e s which emphasize the n e c e s s i t y f o r c h i l d r e n to a c q u i r e the s k i l l s or p roces ses of s c i e n c e , the E.S.S. group deve loped m a t e r i a l s and s t r a t e g i e s which they hoped would deve lop c e r t a i n c r u c i a l a t t i t u d e s in c h i l d r e n . One c o u l d view these m a t e r i a l s and s t r a t e g i e s as a s e r i e s of t reatments which are supposed to b r i n g about an a t t i t u d e s h i f t in s t u d e n t s . Throughout the E.S.S. m a t e r i a l s the re are c o u n t l e s s r e f e r e n c e s to the e f f e c t tha t E.S.S. e x p e r i e n c e would b r i n g about the a t t i t u d e tha t s c i e n c e i s fun to do. Perhaps the most obv ious s tatement of t h i s o b j e c t i v e can be found in former E.S.S. D i r e c t o r David Hawkins 1 a r t i c l e "Mess ing About i n S c i e n c e " (1965) . Hawkins began h i s s tatement about E.S.S. t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s by quo t ing from Kenneth Graham's poem The Wind i n the W i l l ows : 'Nice? It's the only thing, ' said the Water Rat solemnly, as he leant forward for his stroke. 'Believe me, my young friend, there is nothing—absolutely nothing—half so much worth doing as simply messing about in boats. Simply messing, ' he went on dreamily, 'messing—about—in—boats—messing— ' In t h i s a r t i c l e , Hawkins d e f i n e d th ree sequences of t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s which he l a b e l s O , A , and • . In the o phase Hawkins demanded tha t there be a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of t ime f o r fun and p l a y : 97 There is a time, much greater in amount than commonly allowed which should be devoted to free and unguided exploratory work (call i t play i f you wish; I call i t work). Children are given materials and equipment--thing s-- and allowed to construct, test, probe and experiment without superimposed questions or instructions. I call this 0 phase. 'Messing About' honoring the philosophy of the Water Rat, who absentmindedly ran his boat into the bank, picked himself up, and went on without interrupting the joyous train of thought (Hawkins, 1965, p. 6 ) . I t i s c l e a r t ha t the E.S.S. group wished c h i l d r e n to enjoy s c i e n c e . In t h e i r summary of u n i t s submi t ted to the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C l e a r i n g h o u s e f o r S c i ence and Mathematics C u r r i c u l a r Development (1968) , t he re were no fewer than t h i r t y - o n e r e f e r e n c e s to an enjoyment f a c t o r . One can a l s o f i n d s tatements in E.S.S. l i t e r a t u r e which emphasize the i n t u i t i v e , the i m a g i n a t i v e , the p l a y f u l , and to use B r u n e r ' s te rm, " the l e f t - h a n d e d " (Morr i son and W a l c o t t , 1962, p. 7 ) . There i s ample ev idence t h a t the E.S.S. group endeavored to produce m a t e r i a l s and t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s which would deve lop a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e i n c h i l d r e n toward the b e l i e f t ha t "messing about in s c i e n c e i s f u n . " Th i s s tatement was a l s o the i n i t i a l b e l i e f s tatement of the f i r s t s c a l e . The second a t t i t u d e s c a l e was c o n s t r u c t e d around the b e l i e f s tatement t h a t , "From Messing about in S c i e n c e , 98 c h i l d r e n w i l l be lead to pursue phenomena tha t are r e v e a l e d . " There are many r e f e r e n c e s in E.S.S. l i t e r a t u r e in which the importance of t h i s a t t i t u d e i s s t r e s s e d . It was f e l t tha t i f the m a t e r i a l s were a p p r o p r i a t e then t h i s a t t i t u d e of pur su ing phenomena would d e v e l o p : We feel that i f materials are well designed, children w i l l be deeply involved and highly motivated to continue with t h e i r work, ( L o c k h a r d , 1967, p 241) . In o rde r f o r the c h i l d to make sense out o f the phenomena r e v e a l e d through "mess ing about " i t i s neces sa ry t h a t the q u a l i t y o f the p lay change and become more r i g - orous and more s t r u c t u r e d . Hawkins r e f e r s to t h i s p rocess in the l e a r n i n g sequences which he l a b e l s ^ and Q . In these phases of "mess ing about" the t e a c h e r or a f i l m loop may p rov ide a s i t u a t i o n in which an anomaly i s made more r e c o g n i z a b l e . In o rder to make the anomaly behave, the c h i l d must impose a s t r u c t u r e on h i s p l a y . It i s hoped tha t the c h i l d may take expe r i ence s with th ing s and be ab le to " . . . ana l yze them, a b s t r a c t from them, and perhaps even reach a g e n e r a l i t y which he can t e s t i n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n " ( E . S . S . , 1965, p. 9 ) . C l e a r l y the E.S.S. group a l s o wished to f o s t e r the a t t i t u d e tha t " through messing about C h i l d r e n w i l l impose a s t r u c t u r e on t h e i r p l a y : " . . . we have found basic agreement that a major aim of our project must be to en- courage children to examine, analyze and understand the world around them and to stimulate t h e i r desire to continue to do so ( E . S . S . , 1965, p. 7 ) . Th i s a t t i t u d e of " impos ing s t r u c t u r e on p l a y " became the ba s i s f o r the t h i r d a t t i t u d e s c a l e . F i n a l l y , the re was c o n s i d e r a b l e ev idence in the l i t e r a r y d i s c o u r s e tha t the E.S.S. group wished to f o s t e r the a t t i t u d e tha t " through 'mess ing about ' c h i l d r e n would i n v e s t i g a t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y . " For example, even in the b r i e f s ta tement of o b j e c t i v e s , there was a r e f e r e n c e to the " . . . des ign of new exper iments by the c h i l d r e n " ( L o c k h a r d , 1967, p„ 241) . It i s hoped tha t c h i l d r e n w i l l be ab le to and i n c l i n e d to i n v e s t i g a t e phenomena i n d e p e n d e n t l y , w i thout the t e a c h e r . Th i s a t t i t u d e t h a t "mess ing about " w i l l l ead the c h i l d r e n to be p o s i t i v e toward i n v e s t i g a t i o n of phenomena on t h e i r own, became the core of the f o u r t h and f i n a l a t t i t u d e s c a l e deve loped by the a u t h o r . D e f i n i t i o n s of A t t i t u d e I n d i c a t e d tha t Summated Rat ings P rov ided ' a Workable Model f o r A t t i t u d e Measurement Because t h i s c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t aimed to u t i l i z e e lementary schoo l e x p e r i e n c e as a v e h i c l e which would 100 he lp the c h i l d become a s c i e n t i f i c a l l y c u r i o u s person ( E . S . S . , 1965, p. 7 ) , i t can be conc luded tha t t h i s aim i s p r i m a r i l y an a t t i t u d i n a l one. The author must agree w i th the emphasis t ha t t h i s c u r r i c u l a r p r o j e c t p l aces upon a f f e c t i v e o b j e c t i v e s . It matters l i t t l e i f t eacher s are capab le of p roduc ing s tudent s p r o f i c i e n t at s c i e n t i f i c c o m p e t e n c i e s , i f the c h i l d r e n do no c a r r y these competenc ies out of the c o n t r i v e d environment o f the c l a s s room i n t o the r e a l w o r l d . The term " a t t i t u d e " has been d e f i n e d i n many ways. In the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e there are many attempts at c a t e g o r i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s wh i l e many w r i t e r s p r e f e r to g i ve very l i m i t e d d e f i n i t i o n s to the term. These d e f i n i t i o n s vary with conven t i on and the a u t h o r ' s purpose . For example, K rech , C r u t c h f i e l d and B a l l a c h e y (1962, p. 152) d e f i n e a t t i t u d e as . . . an enduring organization of motivational3 emotional3 perceptual3 and cognitive process es with respect to some aspect of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s world. Newcomb, T u r n e r , and Converse (1965) , however, d e f i n e a t t i t u d e as "a s t a t e of r e a d i n e s s f o r motive a r o u s a l . " One a t t r i b u t e of the c o n s t r u c t of a t t i t u d e seems to be impor tant to t h i s s tudy in p a r t i c u l a r . The ' a c t i o n tendency ' 101 component of a t t i t u d e seems to be e s p e c i a l l y impor tant when c o n s i d e r i n g the a f f e c t i v e o b j e c t i v e s of the E lementary S c i e n c e S tudy: Attitudes are commonly distinguished from cognitions3 a b i l i t i e s , c a p a c i t i e s , or i n t e l - ligence not only by the presence of an affec- t i v e component but also by the conventional assumption that the mere presence of the relevant object is enough to t r i g g e r the pre- pared response which does not require addi- t i o n a l motivation. A person who 'knows how' to add w i l l not necessarily do so in the presence of numbers3 but the person who l i k e s to add may be expected to do so when given the opportunity ( S c o t t , 1968, p. 207) . S i m i l a r l y i n e lementary schoo l s c i e n c e , a person who i s ab le to use the proces ses i n v o l v e d i n s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i - g a t i on won ' t n e c e s s a r i l y i n v e s t i g a t e in the presence o f s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l s , but a person who a l s o l i k e s to employ these proces ses may be expected to do so when g iven the o p p o r t u n i t y . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from E.S.S. i n d i c a t e s tha t i t i s t h i s " tendency f o r a c t i o n " which i s an e s s e n t i a l pa r t of t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s : . . . we have found basic agreement that a major aim of our project must be to encour- age children to examine, analyze and under- stand the world around them and to stimulate t h e i r desire to continue to do so. . . . [emphasis added] ( E . S . S . , 1965 , p. 7) . " . . . t h e i r d e s i r e to con t i nue to do so" i n v o l v e s the no t i on of a c t i o n tendency or mot ive a rousa l d i s c u s s e d above. 102 Other e lementary s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s have not on ly emphasized the importance of a s s e r t i n g a f f e c t i v e o b j e c t i v e s , but have attempted to deve lop in s t ruments which would measure a t t i t u d e s . It i s of i n t e r e s t to note tha t even one of the most s t r u c t u r e d c u r r i c u l a in e l e - mentary s c i e n c e , the programme deve loped by the A . A . A . S . ( S c i e n c e : A Process Approach) has r e c o g n i z e d the need to f o s t e r the development of p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s and has a l s o i n i t i a t e d the r e s e a r c h i n t o the semant ic d i f f e r e n t i a l t e chn ique as i t a p p l i e s to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c u r r i c u l a r model . In o rde r to e v a l u a t e the s t u d e n t ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f the a t t i t u d e s tha t have been shown to be o b j e c t i v e s o f the E lementary S c i ence S tudy , the author dec ided to u t i l i z e the L i k e r t method of summated r a t i n g s . Because the f i r s t p a r t of each of the f o u r b e l i e f s tatements i n v o l v e d what Hawkins c a l l e d "Mess ing About in S c i e n c e , " summated r a t i n g s seemed to be . the most s u i t a b l e t echn ique to convey the meaning of the term "mess ing about " as Hawkins used i t . It was f e l t tha t the very d i v e r s i t y of e lementary s c i e n c e a c t i v i t i e s cou ld be used to convey the no t i on of "mess ing a b o u t , " and tha t these d i v e r s e s i t u a t i o n s would a s s i s t i n p r o v i d i n g many of the a t t r i b u t e s of the c o n s t r u c t of a t t i t u d e t h a t are r e f e r r e d to by S c o t t (1968, pp. 204-273) . 103 S c o t t l i s t e d e leven p r o p e r t i e s of a t t i t u d e s : d i r e c t i o n , magni tude, i n t e n s i t y , amb i va l ence , s a l i e n c e , a f f e c t i v e s a l i e n c e , c o g n i t i v e c o m p l e x i t y , o v e r t n e s s , embeddedness, f l e x i b i l i t y , and c o n s c i o u s n e s s . S c o t t emphasized tha t many p r o p e r t i e s of a t t i t u d e have not been c o n s i d e r e d by s c a l e makers: The c r i t i c a l point to be noted is that, i f one is to 'measure attitudes ' as they are conceptualized in the literature3 one needs to find ways of operationalizing3 and con- verting to numbers such properties as these. In actual practice3 most of them have not been operationalized satisfactorily3 let alone scaled. By far the greatest attention has been devoted to the measurement of magnitude (or intensity) so the ensuing description of measurement procedures will focus exclusively on this property. Com- parable measuring procedures could3 in principle3 be applied to most of the other properties as well [ d i r e c t i o n , magn i tude, i n t e n s i t y , amb i va l ence , s a l i e n c e , a f f e c t i v e s a l i e n c e , c o g n i t i v e c o m p l e x i t y , o v e r t n e s s , embeddedness, f l e x i b i l i t y , c o n s c i o u s n e s s ] ( S c o t t , 1968, p. 208) . R e a l i z i n g tha t p re sen t day a t t i t u d e s c a l e t echn ique s have many s h o r t - c o m i n g s , the author f e l t t ha t the L i k e r t t echn ique was p robab ly more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s s tudy than any of the o t h e r methods. Edwards (1959, p. 168) c i t e d ev idence tha t the c o r r e l a t i o n between L i k e r t S ca le s and Thurs tone Equal Appear ing I n t e r v a l S c a l e s , i n d i c a t e d that there i s n e a r l y a p e r f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the scores of the 104 two d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s c a l e s . Edwards conc luded tha t i n h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y : . . . we might predict that the r e l a t i v e ordering of the subjects on either an equal- appearing interval scale or a summated rating scale would be, for a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes, e s s e n t i a l l y the same.(Edwards , 1 957 , p. 168) The L i k e r t s c a l i n g techn ique was s e l e c t e d by the author a f t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s . The L i k e r t s c a l i n g t echn ique appeared to ho ld promise o f gua ran tee ing a c e r t a i n amount of s a l i e n c e . By i n c l u d i n g b e l i e f s tatements about dozens o f a c tua l e lementary s c i e n c e a c t i v i t i e s (what the c h i l d r e n r e a l l y d i d in s c i e n c e c l a s s e s ) i n the a s s e r t i o n s about the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t s , the author f e l t t ha t the s c a l e s would be p e r t i n e n t and meaningfu l measures. By o b t a i n i n g these s tatements by means of t app ing the b e l i e f pool of e lementary s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s , there seemed a l s o to be a guarantee that the t e s t would p rov i de measures of r e a l a t t i t u d e s towards r e a l o b j e c t s in the c h i l d r e n ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l w o r l d . F u r t h e r , the L i k e r t t echn ique p rov ided a s i t u a t i o n in which a s s e r t i o n s about the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t can be p l aced w i t h i n the meaningfu l con tex t of a c t u a l c l a s s room b e h a v i o r s . The author a l so f e l t tha t the L i k e r t t echn ique would bes t make use of h i s e x p e r i e n c e as a p r a c t i c i n g e lementary schoo l t eacher as the task of d e v e l o p i n g s a l i e n t items in these 105 s c a l e s demands the t a c i t knowledge of a p r a c t i c i n g t e a c h e r . F i s h b e i n (1967, p. 395) c i t e d Rosenberg ' s s tudy in which i t was found tha t . . . estimates of attitudes based on a consideration of an individual 's salient beliefs (i.e., those elicited by the sub- ject) were considerably more accurate than estimates based on a consideration of beliefs selected on an a priori basis. With in each s c a l e one can f i n d items tha t i n v o l v e many of the p r o p e r t i e s o f a t t i t u d e s mentioned by S c o t t . Many of the items r e v e a l the d i v e r s e nature of the a t t i t u d e domain tha t i s be ing measured by each s c a l e . Some of the items even resemble Bogardus ' (1925) s o c i a l d i s t a n c e measures.^ It has been t h i s w r i t e r ' s p e r s i s t e n t b e l i e f tha t when items are deve loped from the background of p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e of the t e s t maker and a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e s of the t e s t i n g p o p u l a t i o n , the L i k e r t t echn ique p r o v i d e s a workable model f o r d e v e l o p i n g a t t i t u d e measures. F u r t h e r , the summated r a t i n g technique,when u t i l i z e d as i t has been in t h i s s t u d y , does not appear to be i n c o n s i s t e n t wi th more r e c e n t t h e o r i e s : In addition, i t should be noted that according to the theory, [ F i s h b e i n ' s ] every time an individual learns a new belief that associates the attitude object with some positively evaluated concept, his attitude will change in a positive direction. Similarly, i f the new belief associates the For example, item 17 reads "Peop le who l i k e doing s c i e n c e exper iments are c r e e p s . " 106 attitude object with a negatively evaluated concept, his attitude change, would be in a negative direction. That is, attitude change, as well as attitude per se, is viewed as a function of the total amount of affect asso- ciated with an individual's beliefs about the attitude object. In contrast to this, most theories based on a notion of "consistency" would predict that attitudes and attitude change are functions of the mean amount of affect associated with an individual's beliefs. ( F i s h b e i n , 1967 , p. 398).. Summated r a t i n g s , as they have been deve loped f o r t h i s s t u d y , attempted to measure a t t i t u d e "as a f u n c t i o n of the t o t a l amount o f a f f e c t " Procedures Employed in Deve lop ing the L i k e r t S ca l e s The c o n s t r u c t i o n of the f ou r L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e s i n i t i a l l y f o l l o w e d the procedures d e s c r i b e d by Edwards (1957) , w i th o t h e r a d d i t i o n a l procedures employed as w e l l . More e l a b o r a t e methods were i n v o l v e d i n c o n s t r u c t i n g the f i n a l form of the t e s t . Th i s s e c t i o n w i l l i n d i c a t e how the p r e l i m i n a r y v e r s i o n o f the s c a l e was drawn from the b e l i e f pool of the p o p u l a t i o n to be t e s t e d ; how t h i s s e l e c t i o n was v a l i d a t e d by exper t j u d g e s ; and how item a n a l y s i s of the p r e l i m i n a r y s c a l e was c a r r i e d ou t . F o l l o w i n g t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n there w i l l be a d e s c r i p t i o n of the procedures i n v o l v e d in p roduc ing the f i n a l s c a l e , and the procedures employed in d e v e l o p i n g the a u d i o - v i s u a l form of the t e s t . 107 Tapping the B e l i e f Pool of the P o p u l a t i o n Two c l a s s e s of grade seven c h i l d r e n who, in the o p i n i o n o f the S u p e r v i s o r of I n s t r u c t i o n , had been f o l l o w - ing c o r r e c t l y the program deve loped by the E lementary S c i ence Study - - were s e l e c t e d to p rov i de i n f o r m a t i o n about the b e l i e f pool of the p o p u l a t i o n . A b o o k l e t was p rov i ded to each o f the s i x t y p u p i l s ; on each page the s tudent s were asked to respond to one of the f o l l o w i n g s t a tement s : Page 1. What I f e e l about do ing s c i e n c e i n s c h o o l . Page 2. "Mess ing about" i n s c i e n c e i s fun and i n t e r e s t i n g [ S ca l e I ] . Page 3. When "mess ing about" in s c i e n c e , I f o l l o w - up th ing s tha t I n o t i c e [ S ca l e I I ] . Page 4. Do you measure th ing s tha t you n o t i c e ? [ S ca l e I I I ] Page 5. By be ing a l l owed to "mess about " w i th th ing s in s c i e n c e , I enjoy be ing ab le to f i g u r e th ing s f o r myse l f [ S ca l e IV ] . Page 6. I wish I had more he lp from my t e a c h e r when I am doing s c i e n c e [ S ca le IV ] . S tudents were t o l d to r e a c t f r e e l y to these s t a tement s . They were in formed tha t they need not comment un less they f e l t l i k e doing so. S tudents were a l s o adv i sed tha t t h e i r comments were c o n f i d e n t i a l and had noth ing to do with 108 r e p o r t cards and tha t t h e i r comments were to serve someone at U.B.C. who wanted to know how s tudent s f e l t about doing s c i e n c e in s c h o o l . S tudents i n q u i r e d whether "mess about " meant " h o r s e p l a y - - f o o l i n g a r o u n d . " The p u p i l s were i n - formed tha t "mess ing about" meant " p l a y i n g and us ing equipment and s t u f f , l i k e you have been doing f o r s e v e r a l year s in s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . " The c h i l d r e n ' s responses p r o - v i ded a l a r g e pool of s tatements about the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t s of the f o u r s c a l e s . Deve lop ing the I n i t i a l Set of Items Items were s e l e c t e d from the b e l i e f pool and some of these items were m o d i f i e d so tha t t he re would be the same number of p o s i t i v e a s s e r t i o n s about the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t as t he re were nega t i ve a s s e r t i o n s . Three o u t s t a n d i n g e lementary s c i e n c e teacher s were c a l l e d upon to v a l i d a t e whether each s tatement was indeed an a s s e r t i o n about the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t o f each p a r t i c u l a r s c a l e . The judges were p rov i ded with a l i s t of the items and were a l s o g i ven the f o u r key a s s e r t i o n s about the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t s . Judges were asked to judge whether each item was a p o s i t i v e way of s ay ing the a s s e r t i o n about the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t , a nega- t i v e way of s ay ing i t , or whether the i tem was not a way of s ay ing the a s s e r t i o n . Judges made a p o s i t i v e mark 109 be s i de each i t e m , a nega t i ve mark bes ide the i tem or drew l i n e s through i r r e l e v a n t i tems . Judges a l s o made sugges- t i o n s which improved, some i t ems . Items f o r which there was complete agreement as a p o s i t i v e or a nega t i ve a s s e r - t i o n were kept i n t a c t . Items f o r which there was on l y p a r t i a l agreement were r e w r i t t e n and re submi t ted to the j udge s . Items tha t were c r o s s e d - o u t were r e j e c t e d . The items tha t s u r v i v e d with the complete agreement of the judges formed the p r e l i m i n a r y v e r s i o n of the f o u r a t t i t u d e s c a l e s . S ca l e one c o n s i s t e d o f 40 i t e m s , s c a l e two 30 i t e m s , s c a l e th ree 30 items and s c a l e f ou r 43 i t ems . In o rde r to reduce the read ing a b i l i t y f a c t o r in i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of these s c a l e s , a p r e - l i m i n a r y taped v e r s i o n of t h i s s c a l e was a l s o p roduced . S e l e c t i n g the F i n a l Set of Items The f ou r s c a l e s were then a d m i n i s t e r e d to t h i r t y - e i g h t grade seven p u p i l s at Dr. H. N. McCork inda le E lementary S c h o o l . These p u p i l s had a l s o had s e v e r a l year s o f E.S.S. e x p e r i e n c e . S tudents were in formed that t h e i r responses would be c o n f i d e n t i a l and would not be shown to anyone at t h e i r s c h o o l . S tudents responded anonymously on answer sheets des igned to be m e c h a n i c a l l y s c o r e d . Students were t o l d to show how they " r e a l l y and h o n e s t l y f e l t " about s tatementswhich d e s c r i b e d d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s in e lementary schoo l s c i e n c e . They were i n s t r u c t e d to l i s t e n to the taped s tatement then to read i t i f they wished and then to respond to a f i v e p o i n t agree or d i s - agree s c a l e . Items were scored 4, 3, 2, 1, and 0. The s c o r i n g of nega t i ve items was r e v e r s e d . Scores f o r each i n d i v i d u a l were summated. F o l l o w i n g the method suggested by Edwards (1957, pp. 152-159) , i tem a n a l y s i s was then done. The top 33 per cent and the bottom 33 per cent o f the s u b j e c t s wi th the h i g h e s t and the lowest scores were assumed to p rov ide c r i t e r i o n groups in terms of which each i n d i v i d u a l s tatement cou ld be e v a l u a t e d . The f o l l o w i n g " t " r a t i o was used to e v a l u a t e each s t a tement : t =  XH " X L S7 S"2 4h h where = the mean s co re on a g i ven s tatement f o r the top group X^ = the mean s co re on the same statement f o r the bottom group I l l the v a r i a n c e of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of responses of the top group to the s tatement the v a r i a n c e of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of responses of the bottom group on the s tatement the number of s u b j e c t s i n the high group the number of s u b j e c t s i n the bottom group U t i l i z i n g U .B .C . ' s T r i a n g u l a r Regres s ion Package (TR IP ) , " t " va lues f o r each item were c a l c u l a t e d . To be s i g n i f i - cant at the a lpha l e v e l of .001, " t " ' s needed to exceed 3.045; s i m i l a r l y " t " ' s needed to exceed 2.750 f o r the .01 l e v e l and 2.041 f o r the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . ^ With the e x c e p t i o n of a few items which approached s i g n i f i c a n c e , items which f a i l e d to exceed the .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e were r e j e c t e d . The two items which approached s i g n i f i c a n c e were r e w r i t t e n and i n c l u d e d in the f i n a l s c a l e . F i f t y - two of the items were s i g n i f i c a n t at the .001 l e v e l , 9 at the .01 l e v e l , and e i gh teen at the .05 l e v e l . U t i l i z i n g a t a b l e of random numbers the items tha t s u r v i v e d were then randomized in o rder to reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y of one These c r i t i c a l va lues of t were determined at 38 degrees of freedom ( o n e - t a i l ) . 112 type of response se t m a n i f e s t i n g i t s e l f i n the responses of the s u b j e c t s . The f i n a l forms of the f ou r s c a l e s each c o n t a i n e d twenty items h a l f o f which were p o s i t i v e and h a l f of which were n e g a t i v e . The f i n a l form of the s c a l e s was composed of f o u r s epa ra te t e s t b o o k l e t s . To accompany the v i s u a l form of the s c a l e a f i n a l tape r e c o r d i n g of each s tatement was a l s o made. Mr. Mark H a r t f o r d a t r a i n e d b r o a d c a s t e r from the a u d i o - v i s u a l department in the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , U . B . C , read each item i n t o the r e c o r d e r in a c l e a r and o b j e c t i v e manner. J u s t enough time was a l l owed so tha t a person c o u l d l i s t e n to the s t a tement , read i t , and r e - spond on the m e c h a n i c a l l y marked answer s h e e t - - t h e ex ten t to which he agreed or d i s a g r e e d . It was f e l t tha t t h i s format would a s s i s t in making the s c a l e s a more p l e a s u r a b l e task to f ace and a l s o tha t the taped v e r s i o n would min imize read ing d i f f i c u l t i e s and read ing e r r o r s . The i n s t r u c t i o n s to the s u b j e c t s were a l s o g iven on the tape which he lped to s t a n d a r d i z e the t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . The f i n a l s c a l e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d in two s i t t i n g s to each of seven grade seven c l a s s e s who have had e x p e r i e n c e with E lementary S c i ence Study m a t e r i a l s over a l eng thy p e r i o d of t ime. The responses of 184 s u b j e c t s were then 113 used f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . The response sheets were marked by the U.B.C. Computer C e n t e r ' s IBM 1232 O p t i c a l Scanner and responses were punched on c a r d s . The a n a l y s i s was done on U .B .C . ' s IBM 360 f a c i l i t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g s p e c i a l programmes were w r i t t e n by James G a s k i l l o f the Mathematics Educat ion Department at U . B . C : Program One ad ju s t s the scores from the cards produced by the o p t i c a l scanner and t r a n s - forms them to the c o r r e c t mode and to the proper va lues of 0 , 1, 2, 3, and 4. Program Two r e v e r s e s the nega t i ve i t e m s , sums each of the f o u r s c a l e s and sums an o v e r a l l t o t a l s co re as w e l l . ^ Both s c a l e s are l i s t e d at the end of t h i s append ix . Be fore the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s c a l e s , s tudent s were t o l d tha t t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to the s tatements were to be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l . It was emphasized that the r e s e a r c h e r wanted to f i n d out how s tudents r e a l l y f e l t about the a t t i t u d e s t a tement s . S tudents were asked to respond h o n e s t l y r a t h e r than in a manner which c o n s i d e r e d how someone These programs are l i s t e d at the end of t h i s append ix . 114 e l s e l i k e t h e i r t e a c h e r , would expect them to r e spond . These i n s t r u c t i o n s were repeated in the tape r e c o r d i n g . ^ S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of the A t t i t u d e Tes t s A n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d out u t i l i z i n g the p r i n c i p a l components f a c t o r a n a l y s i s program which i s e n t i t l e d U.B.C. FACTO. The p r e l i m i n a r y f a c t o r a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d tha t t he re were t h i r t y f a c t o r s wi th E igen va lues g r e a t e r than one, and these t h i r t y f a c t o r s accounted f o r 70 per 2 cent of the v a r i a n c e . Because the f i r s t f i v e f a c t o r s accounted f o r much of t h i s v a r i a n c e , p r i n c i p a l components f a c t o r a n a l y s i s with varimax r o t a t i o n was c a r r i e d out w h i l e r e s t r i c t i n g the number of f a c t o r s to f i v e . When the E igen va lues of the f a c t o r s were p l o t t e d the s l ope was n e g l i g i b l e beyond f i v e f a c t o r s . The four a t t i t u d e t o t a l s cores and the grand t o t a l were a l s o i n c l u d e d as v a r i a b l e s in t h i s a n a l y s i s in o rde r to determine the f a c t o r a l c o m p o s i t i o n of the s c a l e s . I t was hypo the s i zed tha t the f o u r s c a l e s would each be composed of ma in ly one unique f a c t o r . To some degree t h i s hypo thes i s was u p h e l d . ^Many of the s tudent s remarked tha t they found the taped i n s t r u c t i o n s and s c a l e items very h e l p f u l . o Nunnally (1 967 , p. 256) suggested tha t one can expect a l a r g e number of " f a c t o r s " wi th 184 s u b j e c t s and 80 i t ems . i 115 An attempt was made to i d e n t i f y and l a b e l these f a c t o r s by de te rm in ing the common l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e s o f those items which possessed common f a c t o r l o a d i n g s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , F a c t o r A has been l a b e l l e d " the fun f a c t o r " ; F a c t o r B " the i n s e c u r i t y f a c t o r " ; F a c t o r C " the impos ing s t r u c t u r e f a c t o r " ; F a c t o r D " the independence f a c t o r " ; F a c t o r E " the ego i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with s c i e n c e f a c t o r . " F a c t o r E appears to be the l e a s t impor tant f a c t o r i n a l l f ou r of these s c a l e s . These f a c t o r l o a d i n g s are summarized on the f o l l o w i n g page. It can be seen t h a t S ca l e I i s loaded p r i m a r i l y on " the fun f a c t o r . " S c a l e II was judged to be l o g i c a l l y u n i q u e , however i t appears to be a com- p o s i t e s c a l e f a c t o r a l l y . S ca l e II has been c o n s t r u c t e d to be l o g i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the o the r th ree s c a l e s . It can be argued tha t the th ree major f a c t o r s i n the s c a l e combine to produce a unique s c a l e . J u s t as the c o l o r green can be shown to be composed of two pr imary c o l o r s , the c o l o r g r e e n , i s s t i l l green - - n e i t h e r y e l l o w nor b l u e , but a unique c o l o r g reen ! So t o o , S ca l e II i s composed of c e r t a i n combinat ions of F a c t o r s A, C, and D. N e v e r t h e l e s s the s c a l e s t i l l s tands as a l o g i c a l l y unique e n t i t y J S ca l e II has demonstrated tha t i t i s a ^Perhaps S ca le II c ou ld be r e f e r r e d to as a secondary s c a l e f a c t o r a l l y , wh i l e the o the r s c a l e s cou ld best be d e s c r i b e d pr imary s c a l e s , f a c t o r a l l y . 116 Tab le Bl F a c t o r Loadings on the Four A t t i t u d e S ca l e s S ca l e A B C D E I .82106 - .33248 - .22851 .10787 .19605 II .69923 .19121 -^36221 .36948 .20400 III .21994 -.08511 - .89052 .30252 .16000 IV .24947 - .59813 .26475 .62628 .23662 T o t a l .57830 - .35985 - .53364 .43256 .23850 117 s e n s i t i v e i n s t rument tha t d i s c r i m i n a t e s d i f f e r e n t l y from the o t h e r s c a l e s . Fu r the rmore , S ca l e II has an ex t reme ly h igh i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . ^ The d i f f e r e n c e s between S ca l e II and the o ther s c a l e s are s u b t l e , but then too - - so i s the a t t i t u d e domain be ing t e s t e d . S ca l e III i s f a c t o r a l l y u n i q u e , and i t i s l oaded p r i m a r i l y on F a c t o r C. the a p p r o p r i a t e f a c t o r . S c a l e IV i s ex t remely i n t e r e s t i n g , f a c t o r a l l y : as t h i s s c a l e appears to be composed of two oppos ing f a c t o r s . The f i r s t component i s F a c t o r D ( independence) which i s p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with t h i s s c a l e ; the second f a c t o r i s F a c t o r B ( i n s e c u r i t y ) which i s n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d wi th t h i s s c a l e . In g e n e r a l , S ca le s I, I I, and IV have been shown to be f a c t o r a l l y un ique. Th i s f i n d i n g enhances the v a l i d i t y of the s c a l e s . Item a n a l y s i s was done by computing the Product Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t between the s co re s of persons on each item versus the scores of persons on each a p p r o p r i a t e t o t a l s c o r e . These c o r r e l a t i o n s can be found in the l e f t hand marg in , be s i de each i tem i n the s c a l e s which f o l l o w below. A l though s e v e r a l items in each s c a l e do not c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y wi th the t o t a l s c o r e , most items appear to c o r r e l a t e q u i t e w e l l . The i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y ^The Cronbach A lpha C o e f f i c i e n t f o r S ca l e II i s .8239. 118 o f each s c a l e conf i rms the c o n c l u s i o n tha t i t would not be wor thwh i le d i s c a r d i n g these few items f o r the purposes of t h i s s tudy . F u r t h e r re f inement s cou ld be made at a l a t e r date however. The i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s e l e c t e d to p r o v i d e an index of homogeneity was C ronbach ' s C o e f f i c i e n t , A lpha (Cronbach , 1957, p. 161). The author computed these c o e f f i c i e n t s on a c a l c u l a t i n g machine, u t i l i z i n g the s t andard d e v i a t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l items and t o t a l s c a l e which was produced as output by U.B.C. FACTO. These s t andard d e v i a - t i o n s were squared and the va lues were s u b s t i t u t e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a : Oj - E C 2 K 0 1 = I T T Where K = the number of items in a s c a l e I = the i tem T = the t o t a l or s ub s ca l e t o t a l The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e summarizes the f i n d i n g s ; the t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s c a l e s appear to be h i g h l y r e l i a b l e i ns t ruments : 119 Tab le B2 A lpha C o e f f i c i e n t s , Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of the Four S ca le s COEFFICIENT ALPHA S c a l e K al T a Mean S. D. I 20 35.15452 130.36433 .7687 54.26 11 .42 II 20 38.65241 177.95560 .8239 50.22 13.35 III 20 42.34158 185.03752 .8117 43.81 13.58 IV 20 40.41436 183.41962 .8207 45.12 13.54 TOTAL 80 156.56287 1881.10870 .9284 193.4 43.37 F i n a l l y , the f ou r s c a l e s were c o r r e l a t e d wi th each o t h e r , f i r s t f o r the t o t a l group and then f o r boys and then f o r g i r l s . The r e s u l t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n ma t r i ce s r e v e a l t ha t the f ou r domains are more i n t e r c o n n e c t e d f o r the boys and more d i s c r e t e e n t i t i e s f o r the g i r l s . Computing the s i g n i f i - cance of the d i f f e r e n c e s between p a i r s of c o r r e l a t i o n s in the f i r s t f i g u r e below i n d i c a t e s tha t f i v e of the s i x p a i r s of i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r boys and f o r g i r l s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . Th i s f i n d i n g would a l s o lend suppor t to the v a l i d i t y 120 of these a t t i t u d e i n s t r u m e n t s . It i s the w r i t e r ' s hope tha t these s c a l e s w i l l be u s e f u l both to r e s e a r c h e r s and to p r a c t i c i n g c l a s s room t e a c h e r s . Below are the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among s c a l e s . Th i s f i g u r e i s f o l l o w e d by the a c t u a l t e s t fo rm. The item a n a l y s i s and f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of items preceeds the s p e c i a l computer programs r e f e r r e d to above. Tab le B3 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of The A t t i t u d e Domains by Sex GIRLS (88) T o t a l A t t . I II III IV I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n I \ l . 1 Xv .6759 .3812 .5249 .8005 A * A l C * L l II .7445 \ 1 • iX .5085 .4847 .8405 III .5886 .6791 X  1 • 1 \ .4402 .7447 A * A 2 * B 2 b l IV .6391 ,7122 .6698 X  1 • i X .7803 C * L 2 „ * * D 2 * * t 2 T o t a l -8411 .9030 .8533 .8739 s i g . d i f f e r e n t at .05. s i g . d i f f e r e n t at .01. Tab le B3 ( c o n t ' d ) T o t a l A t t . .8227 .8758 .8081 .8331 123 THE FOUR E.S.S. ATTITUDE SCALES I (1-20) "Mess ing about in s c i e n c e " i s f u n . (Fun S c a l e ) II (21-40) "Mess ing about " leads the c h i l d to pursue ( f o l l o w - u p ) phenomena tha t are n o t i c e d . (Pursue Sca le ) III (41-60) "Mess ing about " leads the c h i l d to impose a s t r u c t u r e on h i s p l a y . ( S t r u c t u r e S c a l e ) IV (61-80) "Mess ing about " leads the c h i l d to i n v e s t i g a t e on h i s own. ( Independent I n v e s t i g a t i o n S c a l e ) 124 P lease do not w r i t e on the b lue pages. Th i s i s not a t e s t f o r marks. There are no r i g h t or wrong answers. DIRECTIONS: Below are some s tatement about p l a y i n g and exper iment ing in s c i e n c e . We would l i k e to know how you r e a l l y f e e l about them. Read each s tatement c a r e f u l l y , as I read i t to you . Then dec ide whether you (1) agree a l o t , (2) agree a l i t t l e b i t , (3) d o n ' t know how you f e e l about i t , (4) d i s a g r e e a l i t t l e b i t , or (5) d i s a g r e e with i t a l o t . EXAMPLE: Grade s i x and sevens shou ld get pa id f o r coming to s c h o o l . 1 . I agree a 1o t . 2. I agree a l i t t l e 3. I d o n ' t know. 100 • • • O D 4. I d i s a g r e e a l i t t l e b i t . 1 2 3 4 5 5. I d i s a g r e e a l o t . Now look at the red answer s h e e t . Look at row 100 on t h i s s h e e t . F i l l i n your answer by b l a c k e n i n g one of the boxes . I f you d o n ' t unde r s t and , r a i s e your hand. Now do example 101: Grade s i x and sevens shou ld not get pa id f o r coming to s c h o o l . i o i • • • • • 1 2 3 4 5 Any q u e s t i o n s ? Now we are ready to be ing the s t a tement s . 125 FORM W 1. Doing s c i e n c e exper iments i s i n t e r e s t i n g 2. In s c i e n c e I have fun wi th s t u f f and i t ' s i n t e r e s t i n g 3. Exper iment ing i s f u n . 4. Far too much time i s wasted " j u s t p l a y i n g " w i th th ing s i n s c i e n c e . 5. I d o n ' t r e a l l y l i k e exper iment ing because I o f t e n d o n ' t know i f I'm g e t t i n g the r i g h t answer. 6. Doing s c i e n c e makes me n o t i c e tha t there are many b e a u t i f u l t h ing s in the w o r l d . 7. S c i e n c e makes me f e e l dumb. 8. By p l a y i n g with b a t t e r i e s i t he lps me to get at a l l s o r t s of answers to que s t i on tha t bug me. 9. I'm g l ad when s c i e n c e per i od s are over Check your answer sheet to make sure tha t you are you are f i l l i n g in the proper space . 126 FORM W ( c o n t ' d ) . 10. I wish we cou ld p lay around with th ings in a l l s u b j e c t s as we can in s c i e n c e . 11. A person shou ld want to do s c i e n c e exper iments so tha t he can l e a r n about th ing s tha t he has wondered about . 12. In s c i e n c e e x p e r i m e n t s , I d o n ' t have to p re tend - I can be m y s e l f . 13. The sooner tha t I can f o r g e t about s c i e n c e exper iments the h a p p i e r I am. 14. Exper iments are a bore 15. Some th ing s in s c i e n c e are b e a u t i f u l and s t r ange 16. A person r e a l l y d o e s n ' t l e a r n much by f o o l i n g around with th ing s in s c i e n c e . 17. People who l i k e doing s c i e n c e exper iments are creeps 18. S c i ence exper iments are e n j o y a b l e 127 19. I sometimes brag a l i t t l e at home about what I d i d in s c i e n c e . 20. S c i e n c e exper iments are never r e a l l y f u n . 128 FORM X 21. F o o l i n g around with th ing s makes me want to l e a r n more about them. 22. I'm s t i l l exper iment ing and t h i n k i n g about something tha t I n o t i c e d in s c i e n c e a long time ago. 23. I d o n ' t ca re about why th ings happen in a s c i e n c e exper iment . 24. A person d o e s n ' t get many ideas f o r an expe r - iment from h a n d l i n g equipment. 25. I f I n o t i c e d tha t a b a l l seemed to bounce about the same number of t imes i f I dropped i t from d i f f e r e n t h e i g h t s , I 'd go on and study something e l s e . 26. It i s n i c e to th ink about ways of d i s c o v e r i n g answers in exper iment s . 27. I r e a l l y d o n ' t care why th ing s happen the way they do. 129 FORM X ( c o n t ' d ) 28. Anyone who goes to the l i b r a r y to get books about what he ' s n o t i c e d w h i l e p l a y i n g around wi th th ing s in s c i e n c e i s a j e r k . 29. I f I c a n ' t f i n d out why some s t range th ing s happen, i t r e a l l y bugs me. 30. I f something unexpected happens i n an exper iment at another t a b l e , I d o n ' t t h i n k I 'd bo ther going over t h e r e . 31. I want to d i s c o v e r more answers to th ing s t ha t bug me when we beg in to exper iment . 32. I ' l l work f o r hours on a s c i e n c e p r o j e c t i f I t h i nk I 've a lmost got an answer. 33. I wish we took a d i f f e r e n t u n i t every day. 34. I can th ink of a time when I d id an exper iment on my own because of something tha t I n o t i c e d . 130 FORM X (Con t ' d ) 35. Exper iments are a c h a l l e n g e and I l i k e to f i n d out as many th ing s as I c a n , be fo re I go on to something e l s e . 36. I d o n ' t t h i n k about s c i e n c e s t u f f un less I'm in c l a s s . 37. A l though I know I shou ld f o l l o w up more - from th ing s tha t I n o t i c e in s c i e n c e , I u s u a l l y d o n ' t b o t h e r . 38. I f something i s i n t e r e s t i n g I want to know what makes i t t i c k even i f i t ' s hard work. 39. Once I 've been i n t r o d u c e d to an i d e a , I l i k e to f o l l o w i t up in an exper iment . 40. P l a y i n g wi th th ing s and messing around wi th th ing s does not make me c u r i o u s enough to exper iment with them. 131 FORM Y 41. I hate t r y i n g to f i g u r e out why th ing s work; I 'd sooner j u s t p lay with them and then f o r g e t them. 42. I o f t e n make up my own names f o r th ing s so t h a t I can remember and compare. 43. I f you measure a l o t , you d i s c o v e r th ings t ha t you never n o t i c e d b e f o r e . 44. Blowing bubbles i s O.K. u n t i l the t e a c h e r s t a r t s a sk ing a l o t of q u e s t i o n . 45. I hate t r y i n g to d i s c o v e r r u l e s about why th ing s happen i n a c e r t a i n way. 46. The c o n f u s i o n when I beg in to exper iment soon goes away as I p lan what I'm going to do. 47. I t h i n k tha t f o r me to p lan an exper iment i s a waste of t ime . 48. P l a y i n g wi th th ing s i s O.K. but I l i k e to p lan ways to f i n d out more of the d e t a i l . 132 FORM Y ( c o n t ' d ) 49. A f t e r p l a y i n g with i c e m e l t i n g in w a t e r , I 'd l i k e to measure the temperature and graph how the temperature changes as the i c e m e l t s . 50. People overdo a l l t h i s "measur ing s t u f f " i n s c i ence. 51. I 'd r a t h e r t h i n k of th ing s j u s t as they are r a t h e r than by t h i n k i n g about every pa r t of them. 52. I t ' s fun making up r u l e s which might e x p l a i n th ing s you n o t i c e when you mess around with s c i e n c e s t u f f . 53. Having fun and measuring in s c i e n c e are two very d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s . 54. I f I exper imented with pendulums, I would want to use a r u l e r and a t i m e r . 55. I f I was t r y i n g to f i n d out how a mealworm exp l o re s a box I 'd l i k e to measure and r e c o r d where he goes. 56. Exper iment ing can be f u n , except I hate measur ing and compari ng. 133 FORM Y ( c o n t ' d ) 57. When I exper iment , I l i k e to keep some s o r t of r e c o r d in my book so I can compare t h i n g s . 58. S c i e n c e i s fun u n t i l you have to compare th i ng s e x a c t l y . 59. I l i k e d i s c o v e r i n g a p a t t e r n i n something which d i d n ' t seem to have one. 60. S c i e n c e would be more fun wi thout r u l e r s , graphs , and t i m e r s . 134 FORM Z 61. When I beg in a new exper iment I r e a l l y get bugged when someone makes me s t o p . 62. I t ' s neat to s t a r t r i g h t from the beg inn ing of an expe r imen t , doing e v e r y t h i n g f o r y o u r s e l f . 63. I l i k e s u b j e c t s where the answers can be found e a s i l y i n a book. 64. I 'd l i k e s c i e n c e a l o t b e t t e r i f the t e a c h e r showed everyone how to do every exper iment . 65. I w o u l d n ' t want to work with someone who u s u a l l y t o l d me the r i g h t answers. 66. I d o n ' t enjoy g i v i n g in and l e t t i n g o ther s do the work when we do an exper iment . 67. I do e x t r a exper iments on my own. 68. I d o n ' t l i k e the t e a c h e r to g i ve away too many h i n t s . 135 FORM Z ( c o n t ' d ) 69. I wish the t eacher would help me more so tha t I can do the r i g h t t h i n g . 70. I 'd sooner s i t around and t a l k than p lay around wi th t h i ng s in s c i e n c e . 71. I d o n ' t r e a l l y l i k e f i n d i n g things out on my own 72. I r e a l l y l i k e to watch the t e a c h e r do an expe r imen t , i n s t e a d of me doing one. 73. I t ' s more fun hea r ing about s c i e n c e than doing i t , 74. I l i k e i t best when I'm t o l d how to do the exper iment e x a c t l y so tha t I know how to f i n d the r i g h t answer. 75. I f my f r i e n d s thought tha t my ideas were c r a z y , I d o n ' t t h i nk I 'd say them. 76. It would be g rea t to have more time to work on exper iments t ha t you choose and f i g u r e out on your own. FORM Z ( c o n t ' d ) I 'd r a t h e r do my very own exper iments i n s t e a d of watch ing the t eacher do one. Th ings get too con fu s i n g un less my t e a c h e r he lps me. I d o n ' t l i k e the teacher to g i ve away many c l u e . I do a l o t of exper iments at home 137 Sca le s wi th i t e m - p e r - s c a l e c o r r e l a t i o n s (on l e f t marg in ) . Fac to r s wi th Eigen va lues are l a b e l l e d A, B,C, D, and E, ( these are l o c a t e d i n co lumns ) . These f a c t o r s seem to f i t l o g i c a l l y i n t o the f o l l o w i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : A. FUN -B. INSECURITY WHILE INVESTIGATING ON YOUR OWN C. IMPOSING A STRUCTURE ON INVESTI- GATIONS -D. INVESTIGATION BY "DOING YOU OWN" THING" NOTE: A l though Sca le II does not appear too unique in f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , i t i s l o g i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t and has shown to d i s c r i m i n a t e d i f f e r e n t l y from Sca le I. E. EGO IDENTIFICATION WITH SCIENCE c o n t r i b u t e s l i t t l e to the s c a l e s . Load + Load 00 CO FORM W FACTORS: (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) ITEM-TESl CORRELA- TIONS QUESTION FUN 17.52 INSECURITY ( i nvest ) 3.60 IMPOSING STRUCUTRE ON PLAY 3.27 INDEPENDENCE ( i nvest ) 2.72 EGO 2.60 .54623 1 . Doing s c i e n c e exper iments i s i n teres t i ng. .60058 - .0555 -.06912 .06932 .09933 .53985 2. In s c i e n c e I have fun with s t u f f and i t ' s i n t e r e s t i n g . .42337 -.18112 - .33764 - .03545 .17773 .51513 3. Exper iment ing i s f u n . .56009 -.16075 - .06260 - .00647 .12338 .19839 4. Far too much time i s wasted " j u s t p l a y i n g with th ing s i n s c i e n c e . .14409 -.02038 - .02904 - .09922 - .24244 .49467 5. I d o n ' t r e a l l y l i k e exper iment ing because I o f t e n d o n ' t know i f I'm g e t t i n g the r i g h t answer. .38446 -.32006 - .20142 - .14893 .04735 .36343 6. Doing s c i e n c e makes me n o t i c e tha t t he re are many b e a u t i f u l t h ing s in the w o r l d . .32437 .06632 -.21060 - .02250 .15910 .38284 7. S c i ence makes me f e e l dumb. .22080 -.32647 - .08897 .1900*6 .01387 CO FORM W (Cont 'd ) I .T .C. QUESTION (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) .29686 E 8. By p l a y i n g wi th b a t t e r i e s i t he lps me to get at a l l s o r t s of answers to ques t i ons tha t bug me. .16883 .07882 - .19906 - .11107 .30352 .53719 9. I'm g l ad when s c i e n c e pe r i od s are over . .38855 -.17182 -.13139 .03742 .18560 .23168 E 10. I wish we cou ld p j a y around with th ings in a l l s u b j e c t s l i k e we can in s c i e n c e . .14967 .08139 .19179 - .03607 .34571 .36284 11 . A person shou ld want to do s c i e n c e e x p e r i - ments so tha t he can l e a r n about th ings tha t he has wonder about . .41204 .04046 - .05171 - .03529 - .14034 .33028 12. In s c i e n c e e x p e r i m e n t s , I d o n ' t have to pretend - I can be m y s e l f . .32510 .07855 -.00739 .01929 .10385 .58122 13. The sooner tha t I can f o r g e t about s c i e n c e exper iments the happ ie r I am. .39231 -.36395 - .23597 .17215 - .00844 .60703 14. Exper iments are a bo re . .55657 -.19212 -.18754 .22554 .01759 .30313 15. Some th ing s in s c i e n c e are b e a u t i f u l and s t r a n g e . .33081 -.02382 .03720 .03796 - .01085 .36236 B 16. A person r e a l l y d o e s n ' t l e a r n much by f o o l i n g around with t h i ng s in s c i e n c e . .22650 -.38355 -.00196 - .12109 - .01028 .53448 17. People who l i k e do ing s c i e n c e exper iments are c r e e p s . .43134 -.20635 -.70765 .37075 - .13102 I .T.C. QUESTION (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) .62053 18. S c i ence exper iments are e n j o y a b l e . .60991 - .07862 - .19459 .26091 .13742 .40271 E 19. I sometimes brag a l i t t l e a t home about what I d i d in s c i e n c e . .19193 - .20764 - .06118 .07874 .42429 .63294 20. S c i ence exper iments are never r e a l l y f u n . FORM X .58105 - .26814 -.11714 .18802 .01292 .36884 21 . F o o l i n g around wi th th ing s makes me want to l e a r n more about them. .39345 .16761 -.06777 .12394 .11566 .41060 E 22. I'm s t i l l e xpe r imen t i ng and t h i n k i n g about something I n o t i c e d in s c i e n c e a long time ago. .13265 .03092 .01515 .22433 .44590 .59575 23. I d o n ' t care about why th ing s happen in a s c i e n c e exper iment . .34327 -.23911 -.26478 .26880 .03828 .33445 24. A person d o e s n ' t get many ideas f o r an exper iment from hand l i n g equipment. .29694 -.09150 -.01605 - .01747 .06173 .24208 25. I f I n o t i c e d tha t a b a l l seemed to bounce about the same number o f t imes i f I dropped i t from d i f f e r e n t h e i g h t s , I 'd gon on and study something e l s e . .1 0771 -.25867 -.31402 - .10458 - .1 2563 .57977 26. It i s n i c e to t h i n k about ways of d i s - c o v e r i n g answers in exper iment s . .55977 .09358 -.14776 .22145 .22265 .60992 27 . I r e a l l y d o n ' t care why th ing s happen the way they do. .49632 - .29880 -.17366 .15079 .05034 FORM X ( c o n t ' d ) I .T .C. QUESTION (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) .51067 28. Anyone who goes to the l i b r a r y to get books about what h e ' s n o t i c e d wh i l e p l a y i n g around with th ings in s c i e n c e i s a j e r k . .41633 - .07492 -.17052 .35282 - .26935 .39604 29. I f I c a n ' t f i n d out why some s t range th ings happen, i t r e a l l y bugs me. .43375 ,12817 .01007 .14161 - .04007 .35485 30. I f something unexpected happens in an exper iment at another t a b l e , I d o n ' t th ink I 'd bo ther go ing over t h e r e . .36753 - .07649 -.02421 .29746 - .39016 .59290 31 . I want to d i s c o v e r more answers to th ings tha t bug me when we be ing to exper iment . .50157 .05581 -.18161 .22622 .22461 .51863 32. I ' l l work f o r hours on a s c i e n c e p r o j e c t i f I t h i n k I ' ve a lmost got an answer. .22594 -.09594 -.19170 .25493 .42867 .43051 C 33. I wish we took a d i f f e r e n t u n i t every day. .16425 -.19220 -.29848 .27414 - .27107 .38263 34. I can t h i n k of a time when I d i d an exper iment on my own because o f something tha t I n o t i c e d . .07367 -.12462 - .07236 .22517 .39285 .61475 35. Exper iments are a c h a l l e n g e and I l i k e to f i n d out as many th ing s as I c an , be fo re I go on to something e l s e . .52054 .02980 -.19344 .26333 .26967 .58758 36. I d o n ' t t h i n k about s c i e n c e s t u f f un less I'm in s c i e n c e c l a s s . .36875 - .34019 -.19492 .14172 .08949 CM I .T .C. QUESTION (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) .47451 37. A l though I know I shou ld f o l l o w up more - from th ing s tha t I n o t i c e in s c i e n c e , I u s u a l l y d o n ' t b o t h e r . .31062 -.22379 -.3781 0 - .06808 .1 2690 .60654 38. I f something i s i n t e r e s t i n g I want to know what makes i t t i c k even i f i t ' s hard work. .41722 -.01908 -.32780 .09542 .26979 .61892 39. Once I 've been i n t r o d u c e d to an i d e a , I l i k e to f o l l o w i t up in an exper iment . .34686 - .00945 - .25664 .37986 .34743 .47744 40. P l a y i n g w i th th ing s and messing around with th ing s does not make me c u r i o u s enough to exper iment with them. FORM Y .40806 -.18300 -.20060 .10889 - .07108 .55789 41 . I hate t r y i n g to f i g u r e out why th ings work; I 'd sooner j u s t p l ay wi th them and then f o r g e t them. .13501 -.26619 -.48816 .23840 .04915 .25789 42. I o f t e n make up my own names f o r th ings so tha t I can remember and compare. .01873 .03843 - .23849 - .09382 .18265 .27994 43. If you measure a l o t , you d i s c o v e r th ings tha t you never n o t i c e d b e f o r e . .11224 .27844 -.17150 .08342 .26516 .47828 44. Blowing bubbles i s O.K. u n t i l the teacher s t a r t s a sk ing a l o t of q u e s t i o n s . .01461 - .18070 -.51885 - .04214 - .03676 ro I .T .C. QUESTION (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) .48097 45. I hate t r y i n g to d i s c o v e r r u l e s about why th ing s happen in a c e r t a i n way. .03647 -.20694 -.40948 .19730 .13960 .40528 46. The c o n f u s i o n when I beg in to exper iment soon goes away as I p lan what I'm going to do. .13258 .19072 -.34189 .14161 .04407 .47630 47. I t h i n k tha t f o r me to p lan an exper iment i s a waste of t ime . .27585 -.17883 -.35147 .26655 - .08953 .48205 48. P l a y i n g with t h i ng s i s O.K. but I l i k e to p lan ways to f i n d out more of the d e t a i l . .17138 .18232 -.41290 .25148 .23467 .54235 49. A f t e r p l a y i n g wi th i c e m e l t i n g in water , I 'd l i k e to measure the temperature and graph how the temperature changes as the i c e m e l t s . .15393 .21927 -.48391 .25680 .08562 .46992 50. People overdo a l l t h i s "measur ing s t u f f " i n s c i e n c e . .4018 - .18584 -.42299 .17641 .0079 .57284 51 . I 'd r a t h e r t h i n k of th ing s j u s t as they are r a t h e r than by t h i n k i n g about every pa r t of them. .10859 -.19702 -.53061 .1 0631 .04816 .42064 52. I t ' s fun making up r u l e s which might e x p l a i n th ing s you n o t i c e when you mess around with s c i e n c e s t u f f . .05087 .02204 -.33312 .23297 .21521 .43806 53. Having fun and measur ing in s c i e n c e are two very d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s . .10637 - .27228 -.34649 .03989 .1788 I .T .C. QUESTION (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) . 3751 6 54. I f I exper imented with pendulums, I would want to use a r u l e r and a t i m e r . .18053 .16790 -.37070 .02185 - .05394 .52413 55. I f I was t r y i n g to f i n d out how a mealworm e x p l o r e s a box I 'd l i k e to measure and r e c o r d where he goes. .17261 .16672 -.43277 .25422 .10650 .56373 56. Exper iment ing can be f u n , except I hate measur ing and compar ing. .00965 - .07877 - .61715 .1325 - .07345 .66362 57. When I e x p e r i m e n t , I l i k e to keep some s o r t of r e c o r d in my book so I can compare t h i n g s . .1750] - .03897 - .62949 .22046 .05021 .43875 58. S c i ence i s fun u n t i l you have to compare th ing s e x a c t l y . .10351 - .08544 - .45483 - .07462 .10951 .46137 59. I l i k e d i s c o v e r i n g a p a t t e r n in something which d i d n ' t seem to have one. - .00308 - .00557 - .31490 -.39851 .19010 .62161 60. S c i ence would be more fun w i thout r u l e r s , g raphs , and t i m e r s . .12810 .26633 .57229 .24052 - .07036 LO FORM Z I .T.C. QUESTION (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) .49645 61 . When I beg in a new exper iment I r e a l l y get bugged when someone makes me s t o p . .19069 - .01778 -.07447 .49868 .25444 .54753 62. I t ' s neat to s t a r t r i g h t from the beg inn ing of an exper iment , do ing e v e r y t h i n g f o r y o u r s e l f . .18959 -.16980 - .14220 .49871 .15386 .51059 63. I l i k e s u b j e c t s where the answers can be found e a s i l y in a book. .07880 -.52900 - .30542 .06967 .10593 .42587 64. I 'd l i k e s c i e n c e a l o t b e t t e r i f the t e a c h e r showed everyone how to do every exper iment . - .02187 -.48862 -.04199 .20738 - .15674 .31766 65. I w o u l d n ' t want to work wi th someone who u s u a l l y t o l d me the r i g h t answers. - .02927 .04357 -.15332 .42387 -.10251 .48508 66. I d o n ' t enjoy g i v i n g in and l e t t i n g o ther s do the work when we do an exper iment . .23687 .03218 -.07882 .61183 .02819 .45032 67. I do e x t r a exper iments on my own. .07386 - .31926 - .18378 .01629 .56325 .55538 68. I d o n ' t l i k e the t e a c h e r to g i ve away too many h i n t s . - .01630 -.25859 -.02161 .65477 .04121 .38543 C 69. I wish the t e a c h e r would he lp me more so tha t I can do the r i g h t t h i n g . .09760 .54643 .02235 .10558 .10211 I . T . C . QUESTION (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) .51362 C 70. I 'd sooner s i t around and t a l k than p lay around with th ing s in s c i e n c e . .25329 - .22626 - .42503 .19834 .05435 .52831 71 . I d o n ' t r e a l l y l i k e f i n d i n g th ings out on my own. .06190 - .39102 - .18319 .27233 .13643 .62820 72. I r e a l l y l i k e to watch the t e a c h e r do an e x p e r i m e n t , i n s t e a d o f me doing one. .27863 - .36623 - .10943 .48832 - .02372 .50326 73. I t ' s more fun hea r i n g about s c i e n c e than doing i t . .34716 - .30990 - .15833 .25156 .01276 .48872 74. I l i k e i t be s t when I'm t o l d how to do the exper iment e x a c t l y so t h a t I know how to f i n d the r i g h t answer. .10521 -.63646 -.06714 .01808 .09164 .42137 75. I f my f r i e n d s thought t h a t my ideas were c r a z y , I d o n ' t t h i n k I 'd say them. .14423 - .40356 .01292 .13940 .0092 .44772 76. It would be g rea t to have more time to work on exper iments t h a t you choose and f i g u r e out on your own. .25968 - .05259 - .21380 .39406 .25460 .53559 77. I 'd r a t h e r do my very own exper iments i n s t e a d of watch ing the t e a c h e r do one. .18036 - .18205 -.05547- .46840 .05167 .43482 78. Things get too c o n f u s i n g un less my t e a c h e r he lp me. - .04618 - .49689 - .1223 .15700 .04529 I .T .C. QUESTION (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) .49953 .37842 79. I d o n ' t l i k e the t e a c h e r to g i ve away many c l u e s . 80. I do a l o t of exper iments at home. .10186 .11532 - .19182 - .25130 - .0666 -.14246 .57139 - .004 .05096 .6506 148 PROGRAMME ONE Th i s programme conver t s the o p t i c a l scanner output to p r o p e r - s i z e mode. The blank items become scored as undec ided . Data i s then w r i t t e n a c c o r d i n g to the format (12X, 60A1/12X, 60A1). L o g i c a l u n i t " 6 " t e l l s where t h i s m o d i f i e d data i s to be w r i t t e n ( i n t h i s case in f i l e " A " ) . $RUN *F0RTRAN DIMENSION 1(80) , M(l1 ) DATA M / , 0 , , , 1 I , , 2 ' , , 3 , , I 4 , > , 5 I , , 6 , > , 7 I , , 8 , J I 9 , > ' ' / 5 READ (5 , 10, END=80)I 10 FORMAT (12X,60A./12X,60A1) DO 20 J=l , 79 , 2 IF ( I ( J ) .EQ.M(11) ) I ( J )+M(3 ) IF( I (J+1).EQ.M(11)) I (J+1)=M(8) DO 20 K=6, 10 IF( I (J+1).EQ.M(K)) I (J+1)=M(K=5) 20 CONTINUE WRITE (6,10)1 G0T05 80 STOP END $ENDFILE $RUN-L0AD# 6=A PROGRAMME TWO Th i s programme r e v e r s e s the nega t i ve items and then sums the f ou r a t t i t u d e s c a l e s i ndependen t l y and a l s o g i ves a t o t a l s core as w e l l . F o l l o w i n g the $ E n d f i l e ca rd i s the l i s t of nega t i ve items ( items f o r r e v e r s e s c o r i n g ) . The o r i g i n a l responses are read from a f i l e e n t i t l e d - B . Cl ' S u b j e c ' i s a v e c t o r of items whose va lue i s to be r e v e r s e d . Cl ' D a t a ' i s a mat r i x of a l l the data with a row f o r each s t u d e n t . Cl ' D a t a ' i s a mat r i x of a l l the data wi th a row f o r each s tudent and a column f o r each q u e s t i on. Cl " t o t " i s a v e c t o r of s u b t e s t s c o r e s . C2 Read in items to be r e v e r s e d . C6 Read in d a t a . C9 Reverse the r e q u i r e d i t ems . $RUN *F0RTRAN INTEGER SUBJEC(80) , DATA(184 ,80 ) , TOT(5) READ (5,5,END=10) (SUBJEC( I ) , 1 = 1 ,80) 5 F0RMAT(13) 10 NITEMS=I-1 DO 25 1 = 1 ,184 READ (6 ,1 5) (DATA(I,J) ,J = 1 ,80) 150 15 F 0 R M A T ( 1 2 X , 6 0 I l / 1 2 X a 6 0 n ) (or any m o d i f i c a t i o n ) DO 20 J = l , NITEMS DATA ( I - SUBJEC(J ) ) = IABS(DATA(I ,SUBJEC(J) )~4) 20 CONTINUE DO 220 J = l ,80 220 DATA( I ,J )= IABS(DATA( I ,J ) -4 ) T0T(5)=0 M=l J = l K=20 21 T0T(M)=0 DO 22 L=J,K TOT(M)=TOT(M)+DATA(I ,L) 22 CONTINUE M=M+1 IF(M,GE.5) GO TO 23 J = K+1 K=K+20 GO TO 21 23 DO 24 M=l ,4 T0T(5)=T0T(5)+T0T(M) 24 CONTINUE WRITE(8,26) TOT 26 F0RMAT(5I7) 25 CONTINUE DO 40 1 = 1 ,184 WRITE(6,30) (DATA(I , J ) , J = 1,80) 30 F0RMAT(12X,60I1/12X,60I1 ) (or any m o d i f i c a t i o n ) 40 CONTINUE STOP END $RUN - LOAD# 6=-B 8=-H 4 5 7 9 13 14 16 These are the nega t i ve i tems : 17 one 13 format numeral on each 20 c a r d . 23 24 25 27 28 ( l i s t of items f o r r e v e r s e d s c o r i n g ) 30 33 36 37 40 41 44 45 47 50 51 53 56 58 60 63 64 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 78 ENDFILE 152 APPENDIX C ITEM AND TEST ANALYSES FOR C . E . F . T . AND THE TEST OF SCIENCE PROCESSES Tab le CI Item A n a l y s i s of the Chi 1drens ' Embedded F i gu re s Te s t Item No. P o i n t B i s e r i a l P Var i ance 1 0.4388 0.7486 0.1882 2 0.3266 0.6667 0.2222 3 0.3960 0.6393 0.2306 4 0.1362 0.8251 0.1443 5 0.2796 0.8470 0.1296 6 0.4962 0.6339 0.2321 7 0.3922 0.8962 0.0930 8 0.1346 0.3770 0.2349 9 0.3310 0.8689 0.1139 10 0.4503 0.8197 0.1478 11 0.5087 0.5738 0.2446 12 0.4438 0.8525 0.1258 13 0.4414 0.4044 0.2409 14 0.4766 0.6831 0.2165 15 0.4612 0.8415 0.1334 16 0.4506 0.7978 0.1613 17 0.5295 0.6721 0.2204 18 0.4865 0.7705 0.1768 19 0.4952 0.5410 0.2483 20 0.3494 0.5355 0.2487 The Mean i s 13.9945 The KR-20 i s 0.7238 The s t andard d e v i a t i o n i s 3.4665 Cont i nued 153 * The f i r s t f i v e items have been omi t ted from the a n a l y s i s of items because of the method suggested in the manual f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of C . E . F . T . to t h i s age group. C o n s i d e r i n g the t o t a l t e s t of t w e n t y - f i v e i terns: T o t a l Group: X = 18.86 a = 3.58 Boys Group: I = 18.77 a = 3.71 G i r l s Group: X = 18 .96 1 a = 3.46 ^Note: there were no " c l e a r - c u t " sex d i f f e r e n c e s on C . E . F . T . s co re s 154 Tab le C2 Item A n a l y s i s f o r Subtes t s of the Tes t of S c i ence Processes D6: OBSERVING Item No. Po in t B i s e r i a 1 P V a r i a n c e 13 0.4378 0.7717 0.1762 14 0.5340 0.7065 0.2073 15 0.489 3 0.5380 0.2486 16 0.4148 0.6957 0.2117 17 0.3075 0.7446 0.1902 18 0.5512 0.5815 0.2434 19 0.5269 0.4457 0.2470 20 0.5471 0.2935 0.2073 21 0.4636 0.5543 0.2470 The Mean i s 5.3315 The KR-20 i s 0.5736 The Standard D e v i a t i o n i s 2.0092 155 D7: COMPARING Item No. Po in t B i s e r i a l P Var i ance 3 0.5938 0.5761 0.2442 7 0.5249 0.7772 0.1732 22 0.5122 0.8967 0.0926 23 0.4426 0.3315 0.2216 24 0.5019 0.9076 0.0839 The Mean i s 3.4891 The KR-20 i s 0.2730 The S tandard D e v i a t i o n i s 1.0214 D8: CLASSIFYING Item No. Po in t B i s e r i a l P Va r i ance 1 0.2741 0.9511 0.0465 2 0.2202 0.8587 0.1213 4 0.3305 0.7880 0.1670 5 0.3470 0.7174 0.2027 6 0.3850 0.9348 0.0610 9 0.4857 0.2283 0.1762 10 0.4803 0.2989 0.2096 11 0.4417 0.4293 0.2450 25 0.2689 0.8859 0.1011 26 0.4088 0.8750 0.1094 27 0.4165 0.7772 0.1732 28 0.3203 0.7772 0.1732 29 0.4387 0.6630 0.2234 The Mean i s 9.1848 The KR-20 i s 0.4798 The Standard D e v i a t i o n i s 1.8993 156 D9: QUANTIFYING Item No. P o i n t B i s e r i a l P V a r i a n c e 30 0.3579 0.9674 0.0315 31 0.3326 0.8098 0.1540 32 0.5544 0.6957 0.2117 33 0.4156 0.6685 0.2216 34 0.2835 0.8641 0.1174 35 0.5774 0.6685 0.2216 36 0.5104 0.8478 0.1290 37 0.3578 0.3696 0.2330 38 0.4799 0.6739 0.2198 39 0.4446 0.8804 0.1053 40 0.4647 0.8207 0.1472 41 0.4209 0.9620 0.0366 The Mean i s 9.2283 The KR-20 i s 0.5911 The Standard D e v i a t i o n i s 1.9978 157 D10: MEASURING Item No. Po in t B i s e r i a l P V a r i a n c e 42 0.4759 0.6359 0.2315 43 0.3269 0.9130 0.0794 44 0.4277 0.7174 0.2027 45 0.2692 0.7337 0.1954 46 0.3493 0.8207 0.1472 47 0.2359 0.6793 0.2178 48 0.4594 0.7065 0.2073 49 0.3921 0.4239 0.2442 50 0.3447 0.7174 0.2027 51 0.4251 0.6250 0.2344 52 0.2209 0.1957 0.1574 53 0.2711 0.1957 0.1574 54 0.4812 0.7228 0.2003 55 0.5031 0.7337 0.1954 56 0.4499 0.6087 0.2382 57 0.4716 0.5054 0.2500 58 0.3902 0.5707 0.2450 59 0.5072 0.5978 0.2404 60 0.1539 0.6087 0.2382 61 0.3486 0.7663 0.1791 62 0.3486 0.7663 0.1791 63 0.5401 0.5380 0.2486 64 0.4889 0.6359 0.2315 65 0.2117 0.2772 0.2003 66 0.3292 0.3261 0.2198 The Mean i s 14.6848 The KR-20 i s 0.7567 The S tandard D e v i a t i o n i s 4.3637 158 D l l : EXPERIMENTING Item No. Po in t B i s e r i a l P Var i ance 67 0.3516 0.4674 0.2489 68 0.2911 0.5109 0.2499 69 0.1763 0.3152 0.2159 70 0.3873 0.3859 0.2370 71 0.5113 0.4511 0.2476 72 0.4610 0.4891 0.2499 74 0.3955 0.6032 0.2393 75 0.4536 0.6739 0.2198 76 0.4133 0.6033 0.2393 77 0.3610 0.5326 0.2489 The Mean i s 5.0326 The KR-20 i s 0.3453 The S tandard D e v i a t i o n i s 1.8647 159 D12: INFERRING Item No. Po in t B i s e r i a l P Var i ance 12 0.3592 0.3641 0.2315 73 0.4162 0.2446 0.1848 78 0.2709 0.3967 0.2393 79 0.2531 0.4837 0.2497 80 0.4015 0.4924 0.2415 81 0.2245 0.2065 0.1639 82 0.4031 0.8641 0.1174 83 0.3504 0.5272 0.2493 85 0.4336 014891 0.2499 86 0.3335 0.3098 0.2138 92 0.4541 0.4978 0.2404 94 0.4773 0.4402 0.2464 95 0.2978 0.4163 0.2497 96 0.4921 0.6359 0.2315 The Mean i s 6.6685 The KR-20 i s 0.5090 The S tandard D e v i a t i o n i s 2.4281 160 D13: PREDICTING Item No. Po in t B i s e r i a l P Var i ance 8 0.4170 0.7120 0.2051 84 0.4063 0.4457 0.2470 87 0.4212 0.6793 0.2178 88 0.4843 0.6957 0.2117 89 0.4570 0.3967 0.2393 90 0.4990 0.3587 0.2300 91 0.4730 0.6033 0.2393 93 0.2401 0.4946 0.2500 The Mean i s 4.3859 The KR-20 i s 0.3459 The Standard D e v i a t i o n i s 1.6245 161 Item A n a l y s i s of the T o t a l Te s t of S c i ence Processes D14: PROCESSES Item No. Po in t B i s e r i a l P Va r i ance 1 0.1818 0.9511 0.0465 2 0.2005 0.8587 0.1213 3 0.1808 0.5761 0.2442 4 0.2514 0.7880 0.1670 5 0.2547 0.7174 0.2027 6 0.2792 0.9348 0.0610 7 0.3221 0.7772 0.1732 8 0.1334 0.7120 0.2051 9 0.1999 0.2283 0.1762 10 0.1804 0.2989 0.2096 11 0.2233 0.4293 0.2450 12 0.2870 0.3641 0.2315 13 0.3984 0.7717 0.1762 14 0.4307 0.7065 0.2073 15 0.4341 0.5380 0.2486 16 0.2652 0.6957 0.2117 17 0.2798 0.7446 0.1902 18 0.4387 0.5814 0.2434 19 0.3263 0.4457 0.2470 20 0.4273 0.2935 0.2073 21 0.2647 0.5543 0.2470 22 0.3583 0.8967 0.0926 23 0.2870 0.3315 0.2216 24 0.3363 0.9076 0.0839 25 0.2751 0.8859 0.1011 26 0.3948 0.8750 0.1094 27 0.2383 0.7772 0.1732 28 0.1814 0.7772 0.1732 29 0.3539 0.6630 0.2234 30 0.2959 0.9674 0.0315 31 0.2384 0.8098 0.1540 32 0.4440 0.6957 0.2117 33 0.3416 0.6685 0.2216 34 0.2076 0.8641 0.1174 162 Item No. Po in t B i s e r i a l P Va r i ance 35 0.4688 0.6685 0.2216 36 0.4067 0.8478 0.1290 37 0.2968 0.3696 0.2330 38 0.3210 0.6739 0.2198 39 0.3440 0.8804 0.1053 40 0.3078 0.8207 0.1472 41 0.2928 0.9620 0.0366 42 0.4201 0.6359 0.2315 43 0.3609 0.9130 0.0794 44 0.3408 0.7174 0.2027 45 0.2439 0.7337 0.1954 46 0.3292 0.8207 0.1472 47 0.1193 0.6793 0.2178 48 0.4165 0.7065 0.2073 49 0.3849 0.4239 0.2442 50 0.2872 0.7174 0.2027 51 0.3509 0.6250 0.2344 52 0.1789 0.1957 0.1574 53 0.1811 0.1957 0.1574 54 0.4073 0.7228 0.2003 55 0.4855 0.7337 0.1954 56 0.4337 0.6087 0.2382 57 0.4777 0.5054 0.2500 58 0.3110 0.5707 0.2450 59 0.4404 0.5978 0.2404 60 0.1133 0.6087 0.2382 61 0.3035 0.7663 0.1791 62 0.3903 0.4293 0 .2450 63 0.4108 0.5380 0.2486 64 0.4139 0.6359 0.2315 65 0.1932 0.2772 0.2003 66 0.2616 0.3261 0.2198 67 0.1705 0.4674 0.2489 68 , 0.0883 0.5109 0.2499 69 -0.0151 0.3152 0.2159 70 • 0.2474 0.3859 0.2370 71 0.4731 0.4511 0.2476 72 0.3684 0.4891 0.2499 73 0.2954 0.2446 0.1848 74 0.1764 0.6033 0.2393 75 0.2612 0.6739 0.2198 163 Item No. Po in t B i s e r i a l P Var i ance 76 0.2213 0.6033 0.2393 77 0.2749 0.5326 0.2489 78 0.1264 0.3967 0.2393 79 0.1470 0.4837 0.2497 80 0.3606 0.5924 0.2415 81 0.1360 0.2065 0.1639 82 0.3584 0.8641 0.1174 83 0.2446 0.5272 0.2493 84 0.1079 0.4457 0.2470 85 0.3718 0.4891 0.2499 86 0.2428 0.3098 0.2138 87 0.3261 0.6793 0.2178 88 0.3878 0.6957 0.2117 89 0.3140 0.3967 0.2393 90 0.3894 0.3587 0.2300 91 0.3604 0.6033 0.2393 92 0.4194 0.5978 0.2404 93 0.0203 0.4946 0.2500 94 0.3727 0.4402 0.2464 95 0.2797 0.5163 0.2497 96 0.3969 0.6359 0.2315 The Mean i s 58.0054 The KR-20 i s 0.8887 The Standard D e v i a t i o n i s 12.6179 164 APPENDIX D RAW DATA—IDENTIFIED ACCORDING TO FORMAT 1 " 0 11 121 / 1 0 8 4 2 1 3 1 6 6 3 0 9 G9 16 b Of 0 64 59 'JO i>5 4 d 2 1 8 " i 9 A l5 2 C 2 1 1 2 1 5 3 1 0 0 1 3 2 1 3 5 3 09 0 8 09 7 Oo 3 5 0 61 4 3 42 34 ld;> 2 L 17 O L 3 ^0311 1 1 6 1 09(320 3 1 5 d 3 Od 09 12 7 10 6 63 YO r> 7 62 44 2<t3 i s 30 l b 4 0 4 1 1 1 1 5 3 1 2 0 2 0 3 1 5 6 4 0 8 11 18 7 Od 7 6 9 65 6 0 37 <+7 2 0 9 3d 39 J l 5 C 5 1 1 1 1 5 3 0 9 9 2 3 3 1 8 3 2 Oi> 08 1 5 2 0 3 2 4 0 d l 6 2 6 2 49 2 3 4 l'+ 2 0 Ob 6 9.0^12162 1 1 0 1 9 2 1 4 7 4 Ov 12 20 7 1 1 o 7<> 67 5 / 5 6 53 23 3_ 4 H _ 0 * 7 C 7 1 1 2 ~ l o d 0^/22 31 / 3 5 0 9 Od 12 0 Ob 7 58 39 5 1 2 7 4 8 165 22 34 12 8 C 8 H 2 1 6 7 0 8 o l 7 2 1 2 5 2 07 09 0 8 5 Oo 3 4 5 61 r>3 3<t 4 8 196 15 ^2 07 9 0 9 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 3 1 7 2 1 2 7 5 09 10 16 2 0 7 5 61 54 5 8 6 4 t>0 2 3 6 3o 42 u£ 1C 1 0 1 1 2 1 O 1 1 0 3 2 3 3 1 8 5 t 09 09 18 5 0 7 5 6 2 54 56 51 50 2 1 1 26 33 0 5 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 1 2 6 2 0 3 1 5 7 3 0 9 12 16 8 0 4 6 o 5 58 51 3 3 4 6 186 J 2 31 GO 12 , 1 2 1 1 2 1 6 3 1 2 3 2 1 3 1 6 9 5 13 08 2 0 7 0 9 7 73 50 58 4 6 3 7 191 __3u 38 02 13 1 3 1 1 2 1 5 5 1 0 5 1 4 1 0 9 4 4 i l 07 11 u Oo 2 51 70 54 5 9 34 2 1 / la 31 0 5 14 1 4 1 1 1 1 5 2 1 1 4 1 6 2 1 1 7 4 10 10 17 8 0 4 2 62 55 39 3 5 33 1 6 7 2 9 3 7 08 15 1 5 1 1 2 1 5 0 1 1 4 1 9 2 1 4 7 5 09 10 18 5 0 7 3 6 4 6 5 4 1 33 HI 166 -31 37 C6 If. l o l l l l d o 1 1 4 1 9 2 1 4 f 3 0 9 09 15 5 0 8 5 6 1 62 6 6 5 4 6 3 2 4 3 15 24 09 17 1 / 1 1 2 1 5 2 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 7 6 5 0 9 11 16 8 0 6 5 6 8 6 8 53 49 197 2 6 32 06 13 1 8 1 1 2 1 6 0 1 0 1 1 3 1 0 8 5 3 06 10 14 6 0 5 3 54 57 57 5 3 54 2 2 1 25 31 0 6 I S 1 9 1 1 1 1 5 5 1 3 1 2 5 3 2 0 8 4 10 12 2 3 5 0 9 6 7/ 75 71 6 7 72 2 6 5 3/ 37 00 2C 2 0 1 1 2 1 7 0 1 0 0 2 2 3 1 7 7 4 11 0 5 10 5 0 6 8 58 5 1 59 3 5 11 15t> 3 5 3o 01 21 2 1 1 1 2 1 5 6 0 9 4 1 9 2 1 4 4 4 11 09 09 o 0 5 5 ^3 4 7 57 5/ 33 1 9 4 18 18 00 22 2 2 1 1 2 1 6 3 0 8 6 1 5 110 0 2 0 8 0 6 0 7 3 0 1 2 29 39 34 34 28 135 10 11 01 23 2 3 1 1 1 1 5 7 0 9 6 1 5 1 1 0 5 3 Od 09 11 5 0 4 3 4 3 61 63 4/ 48 2 1 9 2o 29 03 2^ 2 4 1 1 2 1 6 0 1 1 1 2 5 3 2 0 7 5 09 10 13 5 Oo o 6 1 4 3 2 9 1 3 56 1 4 1 27 3j+_07 25 ~ 2 5 1 1 2 1 o 7 1 0 7 2 2 5 1 7 7 4 10 0 9 13 4 0 6 5 58 58 32 4 5 56 2 1 1 2o J l 06 7t 2 6 1 1 2 1 5 0 1 1222 3 1 / 8 3 10 11 I 3 7 0 9 6 6 7 67 36 50 6 2 2 3 5 2<> 30 J*f 27 0 1 1 2 i l o l 1 0 4 1 3 108 6 3 0 8 0 5 13 6 0 5 4 50 41 24 34 35 134 17 2 0 03 28 C 2 1 2 1 1 7 7 0 9 4 2 4 3 1 9 9 3 i.0 0 9 15 7 0 9 5 6 7 76 71 /9 8 0 3 0 6 2 0 2<t 0^- 2S C 3 1 2 1 1 5 0 1 0 0 1 4 1 0 9 8 3 0 9 11 I t 7 07 5 o 4 54 3b 15 29 133 31 3 o 05" _30 0 4 1 2 2 1 5 0 10 7^2 317 5 3 0 6 0 8 0 6 2 0 9 0 4 1 5 3 43 4 7 5 5 L9 8 2 0 2 d 03 IDENTIFICATION OF DATA VIA " F " FORMAT - CONSECUTIVELY LABELLED: (1) F 2.0 = C las s number (16) F 2.0 = I n f e r r i n g . (2) F 1.0 = Y e a r ( f i r s t a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . ) (3) F 1.0 = D i v i s i o n w i t h i n the y e a r . (17) F 1.0 = P r e d i c t i n g (4) F 1.0 = Sex ( l=boy, 2 = g i r l ) . (18) F 2.0 = To t a l S c ience Processes (5) F 3.0 = Age (19) F 2.0 = Fun A t t i t u d e (6) F 3.0 = I.Q: (20) F 2.0 = Pursue A t t i t u d e (7) F 1.0 = Ac tua l CEFT Sco re . (21) F 2.0 = S t r u c t u r e A t t i t u d e (8) F 1.0 = Second a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n accord i ng to CFJT soore . (9) F 2.0 = o r i g i n a l CEFT score (Tot=20) - a l t e r n a t e s c o r i n g method. (10) F 1.0 = Observ ing (22) F 2.0 = I n d i v i d u a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n A t t (11) F 1.0 = Comparing (23) F 3.0 = To t a l A t t i t u d e Score (12) F 2.0 = C l a s s i f y i n g (24) F 2.0 = Sept . Reading (13) F 2.0 = Q u a n t i f y i n g (25) F 2.0 = June Reading (14) F 2.0 = Measuring (26) F 2.0 = Reading Gain Score (15) F 1 .0 = Exper iment ing . I U v l 2 1 C 5 1 2 1 L35 1 0 0 1 9 2 1 4 2 3 1 1 0 / 1 3 3 0 ( 6 J2 4 b 3o 42 4 o 169 2 4 34 I 3? 0 o l 2 1 L52 1 1 12 i 3 1 6 / 4 16 08 1 5 4 0 9 3 o2 5o o2 50 49 20 / 2 7 3 8 1 1 3 3 0 7 12 2 L5 I 1 0 o l 9 2 1 5 7 3 10 08 10 5 0 3 3 4 9 39 4 7 37 6 3 2 0 o 2 / 38 1 I 34 C 8 1 2 11 L 5o 1 0 6 2 2 31 / 5 3 10 09 j. 8 6 10 6 o7 25 10 2 0 1 3 0/3 32 52 Ou 35 0 9 1 2 1 L/5 0 9 1 2 4 3 1 9 3 4 09 06 1 / 3 0 3 3 5 2 28 4 5 41 4 3 13 / 19 20 01 3c. 1G122 L5 1 1 192 0 315 o _3_ 11 1 1 1 7 i Oo 3 5 0 65 6 0 5 3 3 5 2 3 5 13 20 0 / 3 7 1112 1 L 3 2 0 9 9 2 1 'Hit' 3 3 Od" "u7~ 1 1 0 0 3 3 42 54 42 4 0 6 5 19 9 2 9 ~1 0 3 3 1 2 1 2 1 ] L5 / 106 18 2 1 4 2 1 11 0 3 10 6 0 6 3 4 9 56 54 4 9 53 2 t 2 2 0 51 1 i 3S 1 3 1 2 2 ] Lu5 0 9 4 1 3 108 4 2 0 9 0 8 06 3 0 4 4 4 0 35 4 4 4 5 3 \ 1 3 b 30 31 6 i 4 0 1 4 1 2 1 L6 1 103 14 1 0 9 7 4 0 8 11 13 2 0 6 6 o2 65 36 46 59 2/.o 10 2 0 l o 41 15 121 162 0 9 6 2 1 3 1 6 b 4 06 10 21 / 0 7 5 6 7 52 4 0 3 2 40 1-4 l 9 2 9 l u 4 ? l o l 2 2 L 4-9[_ 1 1 4 1 9 2 i 4 3 0 9 10 14 7 08 4 38 39 17 13 2 6 1O0 2 3 2d 0 3 4 3 1712 2] L 5 3 09 9 I ) 2 1 4 5~" 3 10 0 9 0 7 4 Ob 5 4 3 6 J 50 4 8 52 ~2To " 21 23 02 4 4 1«121 L50 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 6 8 3 09 09 16 6 0 6 4 6 3 65 50 5 9 5 9 2 1 3 27 34 0 ( 4 * 1912 2] 169 0 9 6 1 7 2 1 2 5 3 09 08 10 3 0 4 3 45 47 35 3 7 3 8 15 / 19 27 o9 4 6 2 0 1 2 1 15 5 10b 19 2 1 4 6 3 12 0 7 1 1 4 0 / 5 55 6 0 5 3 34 56 20 i 26 25 01 4 7 2 1 1 2 1 16 7 0 9 8 2 2 31 7 5 2 U6 08 13 4 0 5 5 50 4 0 2 d 28 34 130 19 25 06 48 2 2 1 2 2 J L74 0 8 6 19 2 1 4 2 3 0 7 09 0 3 4 Ob 3 41 51 42 4 1 24 158 15 12 Ou 4 s 23 122 155 1 1 0 2 3 3 1 6 6 3 11 I I 12 3 Od 4 58 53 t> 1 51 o 4 2 3 4 3 5 35 00 5C 2 4 1 2 1 ] 15 9 1 1 4 2 2 3 1 7 6 4 0 9 0 9 16 4 0 6 1 59 50 6 1 16 35 1 6 2 3 b 33 0 3 51 2 5 1 2 2 L4 I 1 4 8 2 0 3 1 3 9 4 lu> 12 19 7 1 i 6 81 4 8 56 2 4 4 d 1 7 6 4 1 41 0 0 52 2 6 1 2 1 L5o 1 0 0 2 3 3 1 6 8 3 09 10 12 5 0 2 1 50 54 5 5 52 6 1 2 2 2 22 2/ oS «; 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