UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Children’s beliefs about inherited characteristics Kargbo, Dennis Borboh 1978

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CHILDREN'S BELIEFS ABOUT INHERITED CHARACTERISTICS by DENNIS BORBOH KARGBO B.Sc. Ed. U n i v e r s i t y o f S i e r r a Leone ( N j a l a ) 1972 P o s t - G r a d . D i p l . Sc. Ed. (S.E.P.A.) U.S.L. ( N j a l a ) 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1978 (^ D e n n i s B. Kargbo 1978 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 i i ABSTRACT T h i r t y two c h i l d r e n (6 t o 13 y e a r s ) of average a b i l i t y f rom t h r e e s c h o o l s i n Vancouver were i n t e r v i e w e d about t h e i r b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g t h e phenomenon of i n h e r i t a n c e . The s t u d y was p u r e l y e x p l o r a t o r y . No hypo-t h e s i s was t e s t e d . The s u b j e c t s were exposed to f i v e t a s k s , c o m p r i s i n g t w e l v e p i c t u r e s , one l i v e p l a n t specimen and twenty q u e s t i o n s . The f i r s t t h r e e t a s k s were d e s i g n e d t o f i n d out whether the s u b j e c t s c o u l d d i f f e r e n t i a t e between e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y i n d u c e d d e f o r m i t i e s and i n h e r i t e d t r a i t s i n l i v i n g o r g a n i s m s . The l a s t two t a s k s were d e s i g n e d t o f i n d out whether the s u b j e c t s i n v o k e p r o b a b i l i t y t h i n k i n g i n p r e d i c t i n g t h e outcome of an o f f s p r i n g ' s i n h e r i t e d t r a i t s or n o t . The d a t a c o l l e c t e d was a n a l y z e d u s i n g t a b u l a r t e c h n i q u e s : (a) F requency d i s t r i b u t i o n t a b l e . (b) Q u e s t i o n - R e s p o n s e t a b l e . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the s u b j e c t s from the v a r i o u s age groups had d i f f i c u l t i e s d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e f o r m i t i e s and i n h e r i t e d t r a i t s . S i n c e the d i f f i c u l t i e s and the s u c c e s s e s w i t h the t h r e e t a s k s i n v e s t i g a t i n g the p r o b l e m were found i n a l l t h e age g r o u p s , i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t p o s s i b l y the a c q u i s i t i o n of t h i s c o n c e p t i s n o t dependent on age but i s r a t h e r a f u n c t i o n of t h e s u b j e c t ' s e x p e r i e n c e s . On the o t h e r hand, the development of t h e t h i n k i n g r e l a t e d t o the making of p r o b a b i l i s t i c p r e d i c t i o n s was b e l i e v e d t o be d e v e l o p m e n t a l . Younger s u b j e c t s (6 t o 9 y e a r s ) were r i g i d and p r e d i c t e d w i t h c e r t a i n t y ; whereas the o l d e r s u b j e c t s (10 t o 13 y e a r s ) made v e r y i m p r e c i s e and t e n t a t i v e p r e d i c t i o n s about t h e outcome of the o f f s p r i n g . i i i T h i s f i n d i n g and o t h e r s w h i c h a r e r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s t u d y about c h i l d r e n ' s t h i n k i n g r e g a r d i n g t h e phenomenon of i n h e r i t a n c e , s h o u l d h e l p the c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r and the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i n d e c i d i n g how b e s t a p p r o p r i a t e l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s c o u l d be p r o v i d e d f o r c h i l d r e n ( a verage a b i l i t y ) of the age groups t h a t were s t u d i e d . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE A b s t r a c t . i i L i s t o f T a b l e s (a) i v L i s t o f T a b l e s (b) v L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i Acknowledgement v i i CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Scope o f t h e P r o b l e m and Aim o f t h e Study 1 Method f o r C o l l e c t i n g D a t a 3 E a r l i e r E f f o r t s . 3 I m p l i c a t i o n s 4 Background and Reasons f o r t h e Study 5 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW I n t r o d u c t i o n 10 P i a g e t ' s T heory o f I n t e l l e c t u a l Development 11 The L i t e r a t u r e on B i o l o g y Concept Development 12 The L i t e r a t u r e on P r o b a b i l i t y Concept Development 20 A p p r a i s a l . . ; 23 CHAPTER THREE METHOD FOR COLLECTING DATA 26 S c h o o l s and S u b j e c t s 29 The T a s k s 32 TASK I : INJURIES ON ANIMALS Background 32 N a r r a t i v e 33 Q u e s t i o n s 33 TASK I I : INJURIES ON PLANTS Background 33 N a r r a t i v e 34 Q u e s t i o n s 34 TASK I I I . INJURIES ON MAN Background 34 N a r r a t i v e 34 Q u e s t i o n s 35 V PAGE TASK IV. HEIGHT IN MAN Background 35 N a r r a t i v e 36 Q u e s t i o n s 36 TASK V I . COLOUR IN DOGS Background 36 N a r r a t i v e 36 Q u e s t i o n s 36 I n t e r v i e w S e t t i n g 37 CHAPTER FOUR ANALYSIS The Method 39 Task I ' 42 Task I I 57 Task I I I . . . . 69 Task IV 81 Task V 99 CHAPTER FIVE FINDINGS S e c t i o n I D e f o r m i t i e s 109 S e c t i o n I I C o l o u r and H e i g h t I l l S e c t i o n I I I E x p l a n a t i o n s 112 CONCLUSION 114 CHAPTER SIX DISCUSSION AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATION 116 Summary 122 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES 124 BIBLIOGRAPHY 126 APPENDIX I : L e t t e r . t o P a r e n t s 131 APPENDIX I I : Q u e s t i o n - R e s p o n s e T a b l e s 132 v i L I ST OF TABLES (a) PAGE Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n T a b l e s : 1BI t o 1BIV . 45 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n T a b l e s : 2BI t o 2BIV 59 F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n T a b l e s : 3BI t o 3BIV . . 71 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n T a b l e s : 4BI t o 4BIV 88 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n T a b l e s : 5BI t o 5 B I V 101 v i i L I ST OF TABLES (b) PAGE Ques t i o n - R e s p o n s e T a b l e : 1AI t o 1 A V I I I 133 Q u e s t i o n - R e s p o n s e T a b l e : 2AI t o 2 A V I I I 151 Q u e s t i o n - R e s p o n s e T a b l e : 3AI t o 3 A V I I I 166 Q u e s t i o n - R e s p o n s e T a b l e : 4AI t o 4 A V I I I 182 Q u e s t i o n - R e s p o n s e T a b l e : 5AI t o 5 A V I I I 198 v i i i L I ST OF FIGURES PAGE FIGURE 1: The Woodlouse P r o b l e m 18 1 C h a p t e r 1 INTRODUCTION Scope of P r o b l e m and Aim of the Study. T h i s s t u d y was d i r e c t e d a t i d e n t i f y i n g what b e l i e f s t h a t c h i l d r e n of age 6 t o 13 y e a r s p o s s e s s r e g a r d i n g t h e phenomenon o f i n h e r i t a n c e . The s t u d y d i d n o t a t t e m p t t o t e s t any h y p o t h e s i s . I t was p u r e l y an e x p l o r -a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n w h i c h a m o d e r a t e l y s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r m of t h e C l i n i c a l I n t e r v i e w Method was a d o p t e d to c o l l e c t t h e d a t a . The i n v e s t -i g a t o r had no p r e c o n c e p t i o n s about t h e k i n d s of b e l i e f s t h e c h i l d r e n may have. However, i t was h i s g e n e r a l a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a l l p e o p l e r e g a r d l e s s of whether they had f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g o r n o t have i n t u i t i v e n o t i o n s about the p h e n o t y p i c v a r i a t i o n s i n h e i g h t , s i z e , u g l i n e s s , d i s e a s e e t c . t h a t a r e e x h i b i t e d by the v a r i o u s l i v i n g o r g a n i s m s around them. The f o r e g o i n g a s s u m p t i o n a r i s e s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t p e o p l e e n c o u n t e r and r e c o g n i z e s i t u a t i o n s r e l a t e d to i n b o r n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n l i v i n g o r g a nisms e v e r y day of t h e i r l i f e . On a c c o u n t of t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n one g r a d u a l l y b u i l d s up n o t i o n s about t h e phenomenon of i n h e r i t a n c e . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g :of Mendel's t h e o r y of g e n e t i c s as f o r m a l l y t a u g h t i n s c h o o l i s n o t r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o be a b l e to d e v e l o p t h e s e b e l i e f s . I t was t h e r e f o r e n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n who were s t u d i e d were found t o have formed t h e i r own i d e a s a l r e a d y about how the p r o c e s s of i n h e r i t a n c e t a k e s p l a c e . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , some g e n e r a l problems w h i c h r e s e a r c h p s y c h o l o g y f a c e s a r e : (1) d e v e l o p i n g a c o mprehensive p i c t u r e of the b e l i e f s c h i l d r e n p o s s e s s r e g a r d i n g h e r e d i t y 2 (2) r e c o g n i z i n g t h e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of c h i l d r e n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t s of i n h e r i t a n c e (3) r e c o g n i z i n g d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s of t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f h e r e d i t y f o r v a r i o u s age l e v e l s The p r e s e n t s t u d y d i d n o t a t t e m p t t o c o v e r a l l of t h e s e p r o b l e m s . The aim was t o i d e n t i f y what b e l i e f s a v e r a g e a b i l i t y c h i l d r e n of age 6 t o 13 y e a r s have about t h e phenomenon of i n h e r i t a n c e . S p e c i f i c a l l y t h e s t u d y was a d d r e s s e d t o f i n d i n g out whether or n o t : (1) c h i l d r e n of 6 t o 13 y e a r s c a n d i s t i n g u i s h between e n v i r o n m e n t -a l l y i n d u c e d f e a t u r e s and h e r e d i t a r y ones (2) c h i l d r e n o f age 6 t o 13 y e a r s i n v o k e p r o b a b i l i s t i c p a t t e r n s of t h i n k i n g i n p r e d i c t i n g the outcome of the o f f s p r i n g on t h e b a s i s of the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n on t h e p h e n o t y p i c t r a i t s e x h i b i t e d by the p a r e n t ( s ) . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y on t h e s e two p r o b l e m a r e a s came about because the i n v e s t i g a t o r r e g a r d s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e development o f t h e s e two t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s ( d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between e n v i r o n m e n t a l f e a t u r e s and h e r e d i t a r y t r a i t s , and p r o b a b i l i s t i c t h i n k i n g i n p r e d i c t i n g o f f s p r i n g outcome) as v e r y i m p o r t a n t p r e r e q u i s i t e s t o a s u c c e s s f u l s t u d y of the s u b j e c t of G e n e t i c s i n s c h o o l . The i n v e s t i g a t o r i s of t h e o p i n i o n t h a t o n l y when c h i l d r e n ' s p r e s e n t b e l i e f s a r e i d e n t i f i e d can t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h a r e i n tune w i t h the c h i l d r e n ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s be d e v e l o p e d and implemented w i t h s u c c e s s . The e d u c a t i o n a l s t r a t e g y a d v o c a t e d t h e r e f o r e i s one w h i c h i s based on the p r i n c i p l e of u n d e r -s t a n d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e l e a r n e r — t h e c h i l d — o n t h e b a s i s o f w h i c h m e a n i n g f u l t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s can be b u i l t . 3 Method for C o l l e c t i n g Data. In t h i s study a moderately standardized version of the C l i n i c a l Interview Method was adopted to c o l l e c t data from the 32 subjects who p a r t i c i p a t e d . These subjects were students of average a b i l i t y from grades 1 to 8 i n three Vancouver schools. Each subject was interviewed f o r about 30 to 40 minutes i n a quiet room provided by each of the schools. These interviews were audiotaped. In the course of the interview each subject was exposed to 20 questions pertaining to the subject of inheritance. The 20 questions were developed from 12 coloured pictures and one l i v e specimen. The questions were accompanied by probings f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n where th i s was deemed necessary. E a r l i e r E f f o r t s . A v a r i e t y of. educational researchers have done work to understand the nature of children's explorations, the cosmology developed i n the process and the implications of these for the teaching-learning s i t u a t i o n . Documented i n the l i t e r a t u r e are e f f o r t s of great s c i e n t i s t s such as Freud, Montessori, Herbert, Froebel, Dewey, to name a few who have aided i n i l l u m i n a t i n g our understanding of children and the whole process of learning. Among contemporary s c i e n t i s t s we owe our greatest debt to Jean Piaget f o r giving us the rudimentary framework upon which to b u i l d a better understanding of the nature of c h i l d r e n and the process of i n t e l l e c t u a l growth. Piaget i n a l l of h i s research with c h i l d r e n u t i l i z e d the C l i n i c a l Interview Method. The C l i n i c a l Interview Method requires the investigator to engage i n a free but constructive conversation with the subject on the topic i n question, l i s t e n c a r e f u l l y to the responses of the subject and at the same time watch f o r reactions which may lead to further clues. 4 On the b a s i s of the a n a l y s i s of h i s f i n d i n g s about c h i l d r e n u s i n g t h i s method, P i a g e t i d e n t i f i e d f o u r s t a g e s i n t h e c o n c e p t u a l g r o w t h o f c h i l d r e n v i z : -(a) s e n s o r i - m o t o r s t a g e 0 - 2 y e a r s (b) p r e - o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e 2 - 7 y e a r s (c) c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e 7 - 1 2 y e a r s (d) f o r m a l s t a g e 12 - onwards ( C h i t t e n d e n 1970). W i t h i n t h e frame work of t h e s e s t a g e s w h i c h r u n w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g ages one i s e x p e c t e d t o move fr o m one s t a g e t o a n o t h e r w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g improvement i n pe r f o r m a n c e . P r e c i s e l y t h i s can be s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : -(a) c o g n i t i v e growth p r o c e e d s t h r o u g h c e r t a i n s t a g e s (b) t h e s e s t a g e s o c c u r i n the same o r d e r f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l s ( c ) each s t a g e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s and the i n a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m o t h e r s ( K o l o d i y 1977). K o l o d i y f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t t h e " o n t o g e n i c development o f s t r u c t u r e s c a n be thought of as a p r o c e s s of a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o a k i n d of e q u i l i b r i u m , an end s t a t e n e v e r c o m p l e t e l y a c h i e v e d . " So t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s found o s c i l l a t i n g c o n s t a n t l y between s t a t e s o f m e n t a l d i s e q u i l i b r i u m and e q u i l i b r i u m . Thus t h i s q u e s t t o r e a c h an i d e a l i z e d s t a t e of s t a t i c m e n t a l b a l a n c e u r g e s one t o go on l e a r n i n g a l l t h r o u g h l i f e . I m p l i c a t i o n s . I f the above c l a i m i s t r u e the q u e s t f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f v a r i a t i o n and i n h e r i t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s h o u l d r u n t h r o u g h a l l c h i l d r e n w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s of u n d e r s t a n d i n g . One wonders why the s t u d y o f g e n e t i c s as would be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e s p e c i f i c ages i s n o t begun a t an e a r l i e r g r ade i n s c h o o l . ( I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s c h o o l s i t i s n o t begun u n t i l g r a d e 10-) The r e s u l t s of the p r e s e n t s t u d y , w h i c h was d i r e c t e d a t i d e n t i f y i n g and 5 u n d e r s t a n d i n g c h i l d r e n ' s p a t t e r n s of b e l i e f s i n r e l a t i o n t o i n h e r i t a n c e , may p r o v i d e some sense of d i r e c t i o n t o . b o t h t e a c h e r s and c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e s t u d y of t h e s u b j e c t of g e n e t i c s i n s c h o o l . Background and Reasons f o r t h e Study. Any s c i e n t i f i c o b s e r v a t i o n of l i v i n g o r ganisms s u g g e s t s s i m i l a r i t i e s as w e l l as d i f f e r e n c e s among i n d i v i d u a l s c o m p r i s i n g t h e f a m i l i e s o f t h e s e o r g a n i s m s - be t h e y p l a n t s , a n i m a l s or man. Though some of t h e s e t r a i t s a r e i n f l u e n c e d by e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s , - the b a s i c b i o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n i s s e t by h e r e d i t y . Thus some genes (the c a r r i e r s of i n h e r i t e d m a t e r i a l ) r e s p o n d d i f f e r e n t i a l l y t o a w i d e range of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s w h i l e o t h e r s a r e more p r e c i s e and r e s t r i c t e d . I t i s t h i s b a s i c n o t i o n of i n h e r i t a n c e t h a t l e a d t o t h e c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t o f a n c i e n t p e o p l e towards i m p r o v i n g t h e i r p l a n t s and a n i m a l s t o c k . A c c o r d i n g t o Gardner (1968) even though a n c i e n t p e o p l e d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e s c i e n t i f i c mechanism of i n h e r i t a n c e t h e y a c h i e v e d p r a c t i c a l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t w i t h t h e i r i n t u i t i v e n o t i o n s of t h e phenomenon. F o r example Gardner (1968) r e p o r t s o f t a b l e t s of s t o n e p r e p a r e d by B a b y l o n i a n s 6000 y e a r s ago showing p e d i g r e e s o f s e v e r a l s u c c e s s i v e g e n e r a t i o n s of h o r s e s ; a r t i f i c i a l c r o s s p o l l i n a t i o n of d a t e palms; s e l e c t i v e improvement of v a r i e t i e s o f r i c e by C h i n e s e f a r m e r s . D u r i n g t h o s e t i m e s no s u c c e s s was a c h i e v e d i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f i n h e r i t a n c e . T h i s was a c h i e v e d o n l y when Gregor Mendel (IS65) came i n t o t h e p i c t u r e w i t h h i s r e p o r t on i n h e r i t e d c h a r a c t e r s o f pea p l a n t s . H i s work was n e g l e c t e d though, u n t i l s i x t e e n y e a r s a f t e r h i s d e a t h (Moon e t a l . 1947). E a r l i e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s were u n s u c c e s s f u l i n u n r a v e l l i n g t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of i n h e r i t a n c e because t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n s of t h e phenomena 6 were r e p o r t e d t o be vague, u n s c i e n t i f i c or s u p e r s t i t i o u s and thus c o n t a i n e d s e r i o u s f l a w s (Gardner 1968). S t o r i e s o f u n u s u a l h y b r i d s o r c r o s s e s between organisms were r e p o r t e d . G r e a t p h i l o s o p h e r s such as A r i s t o t l e , H i p p r o c a t e s , P l i n y 79-23 BC, Gesner 1516-1565 (Gardner 1968) r e p o r t e d i n h e r i t a n c e t a l e s o f t h e g i r a f f e b e i n g a r e s u l t o f a. h y b r i d between t h e camel and t h e l e o p a r d ; t h e o s t r i c h as a p r o d u c t of the m a t i n g of t h e camel and the sparrow; banana t r e e s were b e l i e v e d t o a r i s e f r o m a c r o s s between a c a c i a and palm t r e e s . Thus in'man's e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o b l e m of i n h e r i t a n c e , f a n t a s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n s have e v o l v e d . I t i s s t r a n g e l y t r u e t h a t t h e s e t a l e s have p e r s i s t e d among some p e o p l e s and a r e p e r p e t u a t e d per- se. I n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s v a r i a t i o n s of them a r e o f t e n t a u g h t t o c h i l d r e n by p a r e n t s i n t h e i r e f f o r t t o e x p l a i n i n h e r i t a n c e w h i c h t h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e o f t e n eager t o know about. These wrong n o t i o n s t a k e h o l d of t h e c h i l d r e n and s e t the s t a g e f o r making t h e s t u d y of g e n e t i c s d i f f i c u l t l a t e r i n s c h o o l . '. : I t i s a r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e above causes o f c h i l d r e n ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n l e a r n i n g g e n e t i c s and many o t h e r c r u c i a l r e a s o n s , w h i c h w i l l be t r e a t e d s h o r t l y , t h a t have prompted t h i s s t u d y . F o r i n s t a n c e t h e advancement of m e d i c i n e , development i n p a t t e r n s of l i f e , advances i n t e c h n o l o g y e t c . have t h r e a t e n e d not o n l y t h e e x i s t e n c e o f man b u t a l s o h i s whole s u r v i v a l h a p p i n e s s . W i t h the advance i n m e d i c i n e p o p u l a t i o n s have grown, l i f e e x p e c t a n c y has i n c r e a s e d t h u s l e a d i n g t o a d e p l e t i o n of the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s w h i c h used t o s u s t a i n human l i f e , i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of the w o r l d , w i t h no c o r r e s p o n d i n g improvement i n p e o p l e ' s knowledge of how t o improve t h i s d i s a s t r o u s s i t u a t i o n ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s ) . S e c o n d l y humanity i s b e s e i g e d by more t h a n a thousand d i s e a s e s and s h o r t c o m i n g s t h a t c a n be t r a c e d t o changes i n h e r e d i t a r y m a t e r i a l ( F r i e d 1971). F r i e d e l a b o r a t e d t h i s t o i n c l u d e 3/4 of t h e c a s e s of b l i n d n e s s o c c u r i n g b e f o r e age of 15, h a l f of the c a s e s of d e a f n e s s , bone d i s e a s e s , d i a b e t e s , s i c k l e - c e l l anemia, c r i p p l i n g m u s c u l a r d i s e a s e s e t c . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , the advancement i n m e d i c i n e has i n c r e a s e d and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o i n c r e a s e t h e i n c i d e n c e of t h e s e d i s e a s e s . B e f o r e t h e advancement i n modern m e d i c i n e p e o p l e b o r n w i t h g e n e t i c d i s e a s e s e i t h e r d i e d a t an e a r l y age or were s e v e r e l y h a n d i c a p p e d i n f i n d i n g w i v e s / husbands and h a v i n g c h i l d r e n . Thus t h e number of bad genes i n each g e n e r a t i o n was k e p t a t a minimum. Today many p e o p l e b o r n w i t h g e n e t i c d i s e a s e s o f t e n f a r e w e l l . F o r i n s t a n c e , a man w i t h s i c k l e - c e l l anemia can go on t a k i n g f o l i c - a c i d t a b l e t s and o t h e r drugs and.expect t o l e a d a n ormal l i f e . Or a woman w i t h d i a b e t e s can t a k e i n s u l i n and e x p e c t t o l e a d a n o r m a l l i f e , c o m p l e t e w i t h mate and c h i l d r e n . Thus the bad genes i n s t e a d of b e i n g k e p t a t a minimum w i l l s t a r t t o a c c u m u l a t e as t h e o f f s p r i n g s r e c e i v e them. Of t h i s s i t u a t i o n , E l o f C a r l s o n ( F r i e d 1971) s t a t e d t h a t "when a l o a d (an a c c u m u l a t i o n of bad genes) i s n o t e l i m i n a t e d , i t e x p r e s s e s i t s e l f i n h e a r t a t t a c k s , s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o c a n c e r , p r e c o c i o u s s t r o k e s , c h r o n i c i l l n e s s e t c . " V a r i o u s o t h e r f a c t o r s o r m a t e r i a l s have been shown t o be i n j u r i o u s t o g e n e t i c m a t e r i a l . F o r example, d r u g s such as L.S.D.; t r a n q u i l i z e r s , c i g a r e t t e s and r a d i a t i o n have been r e p o r t e d t o c a u s e breakages i n chromosome m a t e r i a l (chromosomes c o n t a i n t h e genes w h i c h t r a n s m i t i n h e r i t e d t r a i t s ) . The i n v e s t i g a t o r b e l i e v e s t h a t s c h o o l s s h o u l d s t a r t t h e s t u d y of g e n e t i c s e a r l i e r so t h a t c h i l d r e n would be a l e r t e d t o t h e s e problems and d a n g e r s . T h i s s t r a t e g y e n a b l e s us t o expose c h i l d r e n e a r l y t o an e d u c a t i o n t h a t i s based upon i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t has s u r v i v a l v a l u e f o r them. T h i s i s i n tune w i t h t h e a s p i r a t i o n s of the NSTA ( N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e 8 T e a c h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n ) C u r r i c u l u m Committee (1964) who s t a t e d t h a t : E d u c a t i o n must go beyond the immediate and i n c l u d e the f u t u r e . I t s h o u l d p r o v i d e young p e o p l e w i t h a background and i n t e l l e c t u a l t a l e n t s f o r s h a p i n g t h e f u t u r e i n a manner t h a t a s s u r e s t h e w e l f a r e of human b e i n g s and t h e i r p r o g r e s s . P r o g r e s s i s found not so much i n t o o l s and m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s as i n t h e e x t e n s i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of p e o p l e and t h e v i a b i l i t y of t h e i r knowledge.... T h e r e f o r e a c u r r i c u l u m i s needed t h a t i s o r i e n t e d toward a p e r i o d n o t y e t l i v e d , i n f l u e n c e d by d i s c o v e r i e s n o t y e t made, and b e s e t w i t h s o c i a l problems not y e t p r e d i c t e d . These s t a t e m e n t s have s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h i s s t u d y . I n r e c o g n i t i o n of .the.above i s s u e s t h i s s t u d y i s d i r e c t e d towards i d e n t i f y i n g c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s about i n h e r i t a n c e so t h a t t h i s c a n s e r v e as a b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s o f t e a c h i n g and p l a n n i n g a c u r r i c u l u m on the s u b j e c t o f i n h e r i t a n c e f o r the j u n i o r g r a d e s i n s c h o o l . An e a r l y i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the s t u d y o f g e n e t i c s has many i m p l i c a t i o n s . I t w o u l d p r e p a r e t h e mind of t h e young t o t h i n k c o n s t a n t l y about t h e p r e c a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n t o w h i c h advancement has p l u n g e d h i s r a c e . They would t h i n k o f d e v i s i n g s c i e n t i f i c ways of i m p r o v i n g the human s t o c k ; i m p r o v i n g p l a n t s and l i v e s t o c k t o cope w i t h t h e gro w i n g human p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s hoped t h a t t h e e a r l y t e a c h i n g of s i m p l e g e n e t i c s would n o t o n l y ease the t e a c h i n g of complex g e n e t i c s l a t e r b u t w i l l a l s o have p r e p a r e d the mind of t h e young f o r a s c i e n t i f i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g and ap p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m o f l i v i n g i n a w o r l d s o p h i s t i c a t e d by advancement; t h i s would i n c l u d e r e f r a i n i n g f r o m i t e m s such as d r u g s and c i g a r e t t e s which; j e o p a r d i z e o r endanger t h e i r l i f e . A l s o , t h e e a r l y t e a c h i n g o f g e n e t i c s m i g h t s t i m u l a t e c h i l d r e n i n t o a l i f e - l o n g l i k i n g f o r t h e s u b j e c t o f g e n e t i c s . 9 F i n a l l y , i t i s t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t g a i n i n g knowledge r e l a t i n g t o c h i l d r e n ' s e x i s t i n g n o t i o n s about t h e phenomenon o f i n h e r i t a n c e would enhance t h e development of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s and t h e t e a c h i n g o f g e n e t i c s f o r c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e same t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s and age l e v e l s as t h o s e t h a t t o o k p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y . 10 C h a p t e r 2 LITERATURE REVIEW I n t r o d u c t i o n . T h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w c o v e r s t h e work t h a t has been r e p o r t e d i n t h e a r e a s o f development o f b i o l o g y c o n c e p t s i n c h i l d r e n and t h e development o f c o n c e p t o f p r o b a b i l i t y o r chance i n c h i l d r e n . T h i s second a r e a may appear t o be a s i d e t r a c k . However, i t i s n o t . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h e p r e d i c t i o n s w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s were e x p e c t e d t o make i n two o f t h e t a s k s ( Tasks IV and Task V) r e q u i r e d from them an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a p r o b a b i l i t y p r i n c i p l e i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e o f f s p r i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The r e v i e w i s made up o f f o u r p a r t s . The f i r s t p a r t c o v e r s P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y on t h e p r o c e s s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l development i n human o r g a n i s m s . P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y on i n t e l l e c t u a l development has become t h e s p r i n g b o a r d f o r many i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n s c i e n c e c o n c e p t development. P i a g e t i s made r e f e r e n c e t o by so many r e s e a r c h p a p e r s and s c h o o l m a t e r i a l s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t h i s name has become common p a r l a n c e i n e d u c a t i o n a l c i r c l e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y i s s u b j e c t t o d i f f e r i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . I n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s p r o b l e m t h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w d e d i c a t e s t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y o f Jean P i a g e t , i n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y t h e w r i t e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The second p a r t o f t h e r e v i e w c o v e r s t h e work t h a t has been r e p o r t e d i n t h e a r e a o f development o f c o n c e p t s i n t h e g e n e r a l a r e a o f b i o l o g y . T h i s p a r t o f t h e r e v i e w emphasizes t h e a f f i l i a t -i o n w h i c h most o f t h e work t h a t has been done i n t h e a r e a o f b i o l o g y c o n c e p t development has f o r t h e P i a g e t i a n t h e o r y . The t h i r d s e c t i o n i s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e work t h a t has been done w i t h c h i l d r e n i n t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f t h e c o n c e p t o f p r o b a b i l i t y . P i a g e t a g a i n i s t h e p i o n e e r i n t h i s a r e a . The f o u r t h p a r t o f t h e r e v i e w i s a c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l by t h e a u t h o r 11 of the work that has been reviewed ( e s p e c i a l l y i n the area of biology concept development)• Piaget's Theory of I n t e l l e c t u a l Development: "Genetic epistemology i s the study of the mechanism of the growth of s c i e n t i f i c type knowledge" (Good 1977). Most research i n the development of science concepts have come to use the works of Jean Piaget either as a springboard or a frame of reference. According to Piaget's theory,, learning of concepts i s a whole l i f e process of dynamic mental adaptation. In t h i s adaptive process the organism i s said to i n t e r a c t with the environment i n order to develop cognitive structures. This adaptation i s comprised of two a c t i v e components: a s s i m i l a t i o n and accommodation. Good (1977) states that " a s s i m i l a t i o n i s that part of the adaptation i n which the developing organism changes the environment to f i t i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Accommodation comprises those adjustments which the organism undergoes to mentally t o l e r a t e the new concept i n h i s (mental) structure". The balance of in t e r p l a y between these two components i n an organism r e s u l t s to equi-l i b r a t i o n which gives r i s e to i n t e l l i g e n t behaviour (Ohuche ^1974). It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that not a l l types of learning take t h i s form. Some learning takes place i n the form of i m i t a t i o n . Good (1977) states that i n t e l l i g e n t s c i e n t i f i c learning r e s u l t s only when the organism i n t e r a c t s with h i s environment to adapt h i s behaviour to r e a l i t y . This i s what Piaget c a l l s self-regulation(Ohuche 1974). Thus, the actions of an organism on h i s immediate environment become c r u c i a l i n the process of h i s a c q u i s i t i o n of science concepts. It i s on the basis of t h i s learning theory that Jean Piaget developed h i s famous four stages of cognitive development: sensori-motor stage; preoperational "stage; concrete 12 o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e ; and f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e . The L i t e r a t u r e on B i o l o g y Concept Development: When one examines t h e p r e s e n t c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s i n s c h o o l s , t h e t e a c h i n g and f o r m o f l e a r n i n g t h a t i s a d v o c a t e d i n b i o l o g y w i t h t h e emphasis on a c t i v i t y , one r e a l i z e s t he g r e a t a f f i l i a t i o n t h e s u b j e c t o f b i o l o g y o r r a t h e r s c i e n c e has t o t h e t h e o r y p o s t u l a t e d by Jean P i a g e t . However, s c a n n i n g t h r o u g h t h e l i t e r a t u r e one n o t i c e s t h a t r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f b i o l o g y t y p e c o n c e p t s i s l i m i t e d . The few r e s e a r c h p a p e r s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e seem t o t a k e two major d i r e c t i o n s : (a) U n d e r s t a n d i n g what young c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s a r e and t h e u n d e r l y i n g r e a s o n s f o r t h e s e b e l i e f s . (b) U n d e r s t a n d i n g how c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s f i t t h e ' s t a g e s ' ( P i a g e t ' s ) w h i c h some c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r s u s e as g u i d e p o s t s i n d e v e l o p i n g c u r r i c u l u m f o r s c h o o l s . The two ' s t a g e s ' r e s e a r c h e r s and c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r s emphasize a r e -(1) c o n c e r e t e o p e r a t i o n s t a g e (2) f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s t a g e The e a r l i e s t r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d f o r t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f young c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s c e n t r e s around c h i l d r e n ' s n o t i o n o f l i f e and l i v i n g t h i n g s . P i a g e t i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f young c h i l d r e n ' s t h i n k i n g t h a t t e n d t o d o m i n a t e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f o b j e c t s and e v e n t s i n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t (Good 1977). Among t h e s e t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Animism, A r t i f i c i a l i s m and M a g i c ) Animism was t h e t e r m P i a g e t a p p l i e d t o t h e t e n d e n c y i n c h i l d r e n t o a t t r i b u t e a c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o t h i n g s such as t h e s u n , moon, t r e e s , s t o n e s , a i r e t c . C h i l d r e n b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s e t h i n g s c o u l d a c t v o l u n t a r i l y . They c o u l d move, change c o l o u r , s i n g o r w h i s t l e when t h e y want t o . T h i s a n i m i s t i c c o n c e p t o f l i f e a p p e a r s t o undergo g r a d u a l 13 e v o l u t i o n and t h e n e v e n t u a l l y d i s a p p e a r s as t h e c h i l d grows. P i a g e t c l a s s i f i e d t h i s e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s i n t o f o u r s t a g e s : -(a) A s t a g e i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d a t t r i b u t e s l i f e t o e v e r y t h i n g w h i c h has a c t i v i t y o r f u n c t i o n s o r use o f any s o r t . (b) A second s t a g e i n w h i c h l i f e i s d e f i n e d by movement and a l l movement b e i n g r e g a r d e d as i n a c e r t a i n d e g r e e spontaneous. (c) A t h i r d s t a g e i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d d i s t i n g u i s h e s l o c o m o t i o n from movement imposed by an o u t s i d e a g e n t . (d) A f o u r t h s t a g e i n w h i c h l i f e i s r e s t r i c t e d e i t h e r t o a n i m a l s and/or p l a n t s . (Kamara 1971) Oth e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s a r e r e p o r t e d by Kamara (1971) t o have done s t u d i e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f P i a g e t . The f i n d i n g s o f t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t o r s ( e . g . K l i n b e r g , 1957; Laurendeau and P i n a r d , 1962; L o o f t , 1969) e i t h e r c o n f i r m P i a g e t ' s f i n d i n g s o r r e f u t e them. I n t h e c a s e o f Kamara's s t u d i e s w i t h S i e r r a L eonean c h i l d r e n ( i n 1971) , he found out t h a t t h e r e c o u l d n o t be e s t a b l i s h e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between animism and t h e c h i l d ' s l e v e l o f i n t e l l e c t u a l development. He p o i n t s out t h a t many o f t h e o l d e r c h i l d r e n who s u c c e s s f u l l y s o l v e d t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s were a l s o found t o be h i g h l y a n i m i s t i c w h i l e many o f t h e younger c h i l d r e n were n o t . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s L a u rendeau and P i n a r d (1962) i n t h e i r work on C a u s a l T h i n k i n g i n C h i l d r e n , i n w h i c h t h e y i n v e s t i g a t e d c h i l d r e n ' s n o t i o n s o f l i f e and l i v i n g t h i n g s made t h e comment t h a t " t h e s c a l e o f s t a g e s does n o t seek t o shed l i g h t on t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e i n f a n t i l e c o n c e p t o f l i f e , b u t r a t h e r on t h e e v o l u t i o n and e x t e n s i o n o f a n i m i s t i c b e l i e f s . " A n o t h e r l i n e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n w h i c h has a t t r a c t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f r e s e a r c h e r s i s t h a t o f young c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t s o f r e p r o d u c t i o n . P i a g e t i n h i s book: The C h i l d ' s C o n c e p t i o n o f t h e World (1969) i d e n t i f i e d two 14 s t a g e s t h r o u g h w h i c h a c h i l d goes i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e development o f t h e t h i n k i n g c o n c e r n i n g t h e b i r t h o f b a b i e s . P i a g e t c l a i m e d t h a t t h e s e . s t a g e s a r e n o t age s p e c i f i c and b o t h may c o - e x i s t a t one t i m e a l t h o u g h e v e n t u a l l y t h e c h i l d w i l l p r o g r e s s from t h e f i r s t s t a g e t o t h e second. A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s t h e o r y , d u r i n g t h e f i r s t s t a g e , t h e baby i s assumed t o have e x i s t e d b e f o r e i t s b i r t h and t h e c h i l d m e r e l y i n q u i r e s where i t was b e f o r e b i r t h ( B e r n s t e i n and Cowan 1975). T h i s b e l i e f makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e c h i l d t o a c c e p t f a b l e s t o l d by p a r e n t s . I n t h e second s t a g e t h e c h i l d q u e s t i o n s how b a b i e s a r e made and i s l e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e p a r e n t s as t h e cause o f t h e i r c r e a t i o n . W i t h d e v e l o p m e n t , however, P i a g e t found t h a t t h e f i r s t b e l i e f wanes g r a d u a l l y i n f a v o u r o f the more a p p r o p r i a t e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s r e l a t e d t o t h e above t h e o r y were c a r r i e d o ut by Moore and K e n d a l l ; (1971) and B e r n s t e i n and Cowan ( 1 9 7 5 ) . As u s u a l w i t h r e p l i c a t e d P i a g e t i a n e x p e r i m e n t s , c o n t r o v e r s i e s , c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and c o n f i r m a t i o n s , as t h e c a s e may b e , a r e r e p o r t e d by t h e s e s t u d i e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e s u l t s i n - t h e s t u d y of Moore and K e n d a l l (1971) p r o v i d e l i t t l e s u p p o r t f o r t h e P i a g e t i a n t h e o r i z i n g about what t h e c h i l d t h i n k s o f r e p r o d u c t i o n . I n t h e i r s t u d y t h e y found t h a t even though c h i l d r e n o f 2 t o 5 y e a r s a r e c u r i o u s about sex and r e p r o d u c t i o n , t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s e m a t t e r s does n o t e x i s t u n t i l about t h e age of 11 y e a r s . And f r o m t h e sample o f c h i l d r e n t h e y o b s e r v e d , t h e f a t h e r ' s r o l e i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a baby i s seen t o be i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l . T h i s f i n d i n g i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f B e r n s t e i n and Cowan (1975) who c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e i r f i n d i n g s " s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f human r e p o r d u c t i o n p r o c e e d s t h r o u g h a P i a g e t i a n d e v e l o p m e n t a l sequence". Many r e a s o n s can be advanced f o r t h e s e d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n t h e r e s u l t s o f P i a g e t i a n r e p l i c a t e d s t u d i e s , i n c l u d i n g (a) d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l 15 background and e x p e r i e n c e s of t h e s u b j e c t s of two o r more i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n s (b) d i f f e r e n c e s as w e l l as p r e j u d i c e s among i n v e s t i g a t o r s who c a r r y out t h e s e s t u d i e s (c) d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n s t r u m e n t s used and i n t h e methods o f a n a l y z i n g t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d . O t her r e s e a r c h e f f o r t i n B i o l o g y Concept l e a r n i n g has been geared towards u n d e r s t a n d i n g how c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l c o u l d f i t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l ' s t a g e s ' . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s s t a g e t h e o r y o f i n t e l l e c t u a l development J e a n P i a g e t and h i s c o - w o r k e r s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e human mind does n o t show e v i d e n c e o f t r u e l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g u n t i l t h e o n s e t o f t h e f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e [ u s u a l l y a c h i e v e d by age 11 or 12] (Good 1977). B e f o r e t h i s s t a g e , t h e i n d i v i d u a l can o n l y o p e r a t e on c o n c r e t e m a t e r i a l s such t h a t h i s t h i n k i n g i s s a i d t o be p r e l o g i c a l . E x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h w i t h c h i l d r e n o f b o t h s t a g e s i . e . c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s s t a g e and f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s s t a g e i s c e n t r e d around c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f b i o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l s . The a b i l i t y t o c l a s s i f y has l o n g been r e g a r d e d as an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s . I t i s based upon the f o r m a t i o n by t h e p u p i l of p r e c i s e c o n c e p t s and t h e s y s t e m a t i c ways o f r e l a t i n g them t o each o t h e r ( L o v e l l , 1968). There a r e two t y p e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d e a l t w i t h i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e : (a) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on c o n c r e t e m a t e r i a l s . Most o f t h e work t h a t has been c a r r i e d out i n t h i s a r e a has been done w i t h e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . (b) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on a b s t r a c t e d t h o u g h t s . Most o f t h e work i n t h i s a r e a has been c a r r i e d out w i t h s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l p u p i l s . I n h e l d e r and P i a g e t (1964) w o r k i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n on t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c o n c r e t e m a t e r i a l s made use o f p i c t u r e s of f l o w e r s and a n i m a l s t o g e t h e r 16 w i t h o t h e r o b j e c t s . T h i s work was t o h e l p them u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e development o f l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . A c c o r d i n g t o Ryman (1976) I n h e l d e r and P i a g e t n o t e d a d i s c r e p a n c y between c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p i c t u r e s o f f l o w e r s and o t h e r o b j e c t s when compared w i t h t a s k s making u s e o f p i c t u r e s o f a n i m a l s . By way o f e x p l a i n i n g t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y , I n h e l d e r and P i a g e t s u g g e s t e d t h a t a n i m a l s , a l t h o u g h r e a l ( c o n c r e t e ) c o u l d n o t have a c t i o n s p e r formed on them i n t h e way t h a t was p o s s i b l e w i t h f l o w e r s and o t h e r o b j e c t s . S i m i l a r d i s c r e p a n c i e s on t a s k s i n v o l v i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n have been r e p o r t e d by o t h e r w o r k e r s . F o r i n s t a n c e , Kamara (1971) p r e s e n t s e v i d e n c e t h a t some o f h i s s u b j e c t s , who even though were t a u g h t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f b i o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l s v e r b a l l y by t h e i r t e a c h e r a week b e f o r e h i s i n v e s t -i g a t i o n , f a i l e d t o c l a s s i f y a bean seed as: a l i v i n g t h i n g . P r e s e n t e d b e l o w i s a segment o f h i s d i s c u s s i o n . One week a f t e r t h e s e c h i l d r e n had been t a u g h t t h i s l e s s o n , t h r e e o f them were i n t e r v i e w e d as s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y . S u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f some o f t h e s u b j e c t s d i d n o t r e f l e c t any spontaneous r e c o g n i t i o n o f seeds and p l a n t s as l i v i n g t h i n g s . On t h e c o n t r a r y t h e two s u b j e c t s who f a i l e d t o c l a s s i f y t h e seeds and p l a n t s as l i v i n g t h i n g s j u s t i f i e d t h e i r d e n i a l o f l i f e t o t h e s e t h i n g s by a r g u i n g t h a t t h e y do n o t b r e a t h e . A n o t h e r s t u d y on t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f l i v i n g t h i n g s i s t h a t o f Natadze (1 9 6 3 ) . N a t a d z e found i n h i s s t u d y t h a t c h i l d r e n o f 7 t o 10 y e a r s had d i f f i c u l t i e s i n l e a r n i n g t o c l a s s i f y common a n i m a l s , d e s p i t e v e r y c a r e f u l h e l p g i v e n t o them by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s . N a t a d z e c l a i m s t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n knew t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e o r g a n i s m s s u p p l i e d by h e a r t , b u t t h e y were u n a b l e t o a p p l y them because o f i n a d e q u a t e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . T h i s l e a d t o e r r o r s s u c h as i n s i s t i n g t h a t t h e d o l p h i n was a f i s h even though t h e y c o u l d d e f i n e i t s mammalian c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 17 From studies of 200 c h i l d r e n of age 12, tested on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n tasks comprising 38 drawings which are mostly taken from N u f f i e l d text year I, Ryman (1974) made the following conclusion:-Their understanding of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was generally poor. With few exceptions, they did not appear to have developed r e l i a b l e c l a s s concepts as revealed by t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to recognize instances and non-instances of the concepts. The misunderstandings revealed, suggest that inadequate concept formation and language problems contribute to d i f f i c u l t i e s of c l a s s i f y i n g plants and animals. It i s also possible that the cognitive development of 12 year old pupils i s s t i l l very much at the concrete l e v e l , and tasks demanded of them i n c l a s s i f y i n g plants and animals are too dependent on abstracted thought. Whereas c h i l d r e n at the concrete l e v e l of thinking approach a problem i n a t r i a l and error manner, t e s t i n g one thing at a time, r a r e l y a r r i v i n g at a f u l l s o l u t i o n , those at the formal l e v e l make use of a system that takes account of a l l p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Such a system (Ryman 1976) i s only a v a i l a b l e to the c h i l d when h i s thinking i s l i b e r a t e d from the actual objects and classes of objects. Thus for the formal stage the develop-ment of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n culminates i n a combinatorial system. As an example of a task used at the formal l e v e l of thinking, the Woodlouse problem i s described below. I t i s developed i n biology a f t e r the model i n i t i a t e d by Piaget. Piaget described the combination of ideas or propositions i n terms of modern symbolic or algorithmic l o g i c (Ryman 1976). The reasoning behind the model i s as follows: when two proposit-ions are considered together so that each can be either true or f a l s e , a t o t a l of sixteen-combinations can be derived by taking the propositions one at a time (4); two at a time (6); three at a time (4); a l l four together (1); or none (1). The task i s b u i l t around a diagram (Fig. I ) . Questions such as these may be asked of the subjects. 18 d a r k and damp l i g h t and damp THE WOODLOUSE PROBLEM FIG. 1 19 (1) How would you f i n d out whether t h e p r e f e r e n c e o f w o o d l i c e f o r d a r k n e s s i s s t r o n g e r o r weaker t h a n t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r dampness? (2) W o o d l i c e a r e p l a c e d i n (X) and s u b j e c t s a r e asked t o l i s t as many p o s s i b l e r e s u l t s as t h e y can t h i n k o f (Ryman 1976) . Shayer (1974) made u s e of t h e P i a g e t model i n h i s a n a l y s i s of t h e N u f f i e l d 0 - l e v e l c o u r s e m a t e r i a l s ( B i o l o g y ) . He e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e age a t w h i c h f o r m a l t h i n k i n g appeared was between 13.5 and 14.5 y e a r s f o r a b l e c h i l d r e n and around 15 y e a r s f o r c h i l d r e n o f a v e r a g e i n t e l l i g e n c e . C h i l d r e n b e l o w a v e r a g e i n t e l l i g e n c e , he f u r t h e r p o i n t s m i ght n e v e r r e a c h t h e s t a g e o f f o r m a l t h o u g h t . Shayer's ages a r e l a t e r t h a n t h o s e o r i g i n a l l y quoted by P i a g e t and h i s f o l l o w e r s who s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e t r a n s i t i o n s began around t h e age o f 11 ( e l e v e n ) y e a r s . T h i s f i n d i n g s l e a d Shayer t o s u g g e s t t h a t s e v e r a l of t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e N u f f i e l d m a t e r i a l s were l i k e l y t o p r o v e beyond t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f many p u p i l s exposed t o t h o s e m a t e r i a l s . Ryman (1976) i n t e s t i n g f o r f o r m a l t h i n k i n g i n B i o l o g y u s i n g t h e woodlouse p r o b l e m d e s c r i b e d above c o n c l u d e d t h a t f o r b o t h f i r s t and second y e a r p u p i l s i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l , t h e woodlouse p r o b l e m seems d i f f i c u l t . And i f t h e woodlouse p r o b l e m i s t h e ( o n l y ) y a r d s t i c k by w h i c h f o r m a l t h i n k i n g i s measured, t h e n t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e f i r s t and second y e a r o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i n g have n o t y e t a t t a i n e d f o r m a l t h i n k i n g . Ryman f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t : I t seems u n l i k e l y t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h e problems i n t h e r e v i s e d N u f f i e l d c o u r s e w i l l l e a d t o a n y . r e a l s c i e n t i f i c s o l u t i o n , where genuine h y p o t h e s i s a r e r e q u i r e d e x c e p t f o r a v e r y s m a l l m i n o r i t y o f p u p i l s . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were a l s o o b t a i n e d by Lawson e t a l (1971) when t h e y t e s t e d 20 t w e n t y t h r e e h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n r e a s o n i n g u s i n g BSCS B l u e V e r s i o n e x a m i n a t i o n . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t : The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h i s sample p e r f o r m e d b e l ow t h e f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l . F u r t h e r , t h e y s t a t e d t h a t : The f a c t t h a t a s t u d e n t does d e m o n s t r a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n , however, i n no way seems t o i n s u r e h i s s u c c e s s i n s u c h a c o u r s e [ B . S .C.S.]. Even t h e b e s t o f c o n s e r v e r s p e r formed p o o r l y on t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s . However, P i a g e t ' s v i e w i s t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n r e a s o n i n g i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r r a t i o n a l ( l o g i c a l ) t h o u g h t and s e c o n d l y P i a g e t s u g g e s t s a l s o t h a t a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s h o u l d e x i s t between a s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o demon-s t r a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n r e a s o n i n g and h i s p e r f o r m a n c e on s u b j e c t m a t t e r e x a m i n a t i o n . The i n v e s t i g a t o r on t h e other* hand i s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n may be . n e c e s s a r y but n o t s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e p e r f o r m a n c e on s u b j e c t m a t t e r . Many o t h e r f a c t o r s have t o be c o n s i d e r e d . For example, t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f t h e home f r o m w h i c h t h e c h i l d comes, th e p a t t e r n s o f c h i l d - r e a r i n g , as w e l l as t h e c h i l d ' s own i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y may a l l be i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s t h a t go t o d e t e r m i n e a c h i l d ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i n s c h o o l . L i t e r a t u r e on P r o b a b i l i t y Concept Development: I n t h e s t u d y o f t h e development o f c o n c e p t s o f p r o b a b i l i t y o r chance i n c h i l d r e n P i a g e t ' s t a s k s i n v o l v e d g i v i n g each c h i l d an a s s o r t m e n t o f t o k e n s i n v a r i o u s c o l o u r s i n an opaque bag. The t o k e n s were shaken w e l l b e f o r e t h e c h i l d made a draw. An i d e n t i c a l a s s o r t m e n t of t o k e n s was p l a c e d i n a row on t h e t a b l e b e f o r e t h e c h i l d . The c h i l d was t h e n asked w h i c h c o l o u r he would most l i k e l y get i f he r e a c h e d i n t o t h e bag w i t h o u t l o o k i n g and w i t h d r e w one t o k e n . ( I n a d d i t i o n , o l d e r s u b j e c t s 21 were asked t o p r e d i c t t h e c o l o u r s o f s u c c e s s i v e p a i r s o f t o k e n s w h i c h were drawn from t h e b a g ) . Tokens w i t h d r a w n from t h e bag remained on t h e t a b l e i n t h e s u b j e c t ' s v i e w ( Y o s t e t a l . 1 9 6 2 ) . From h i s s t u d i e s P i a g e t i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e s t a g e s t h r o u g h w h i c h c h i l d r e n go i n t h e development o f c o n c e p t o f p r o b a b i l i t y . I n t h e f i r s t s t a g e (5 t o 7 y e a r s ) t h e c h i l d i s n o t a b l e t o make h i s or h e r p r e d i c t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t l y on t h e b a s i s o f t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e e l e m e n t s i n t h e bag, but r a t h e r u s e s v a r i o u s o t h e r c r i t e r i a such as c o l o r p r e f e r -e nce, o r d e r o f t o k e n s on t a b l e e t c . Thus a c h i l d ' s p r e d i c t i o n s i n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s do n o t t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e random m i x i n g o f t h e t o k e n s i n t h e bag and he/she does n o t c o n s i d e r a l s o t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e t o k e n s ( i n t h e b a g ) . The c h i l d a t t h i s l e v e l o f development i s s a i d t o l a c k c o m b i n a t o r i a l p a t t e r n s o f t h i n k i n g . I n t h e second s t a g e t h e c h i l d r e n ( r o u g h l y ages 8 t o 10) were found by P i a g e t t o base t h e i r c h o i c e s on t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e el e m e n t s b u t f a i l t o c o n s i d e r t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f d r a w i n g t o k e n s from t h e bag w i t h o u t r e p l a c e -ment. The t h i r d s t a g e w h i c h i s made up o f c h i l d r e n o f e l e v e n y e a r s and o v e r i s t h e s t a g e i n w h i c h P i a g e t c l a i m s t h e c h i l d r e n a r e a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e t h e change i n p r o b a b i l i t i e s o f t h e outcome as t h e number o f to k e n s i n t h e bag d e c r e a s e s . Q u i t e a few s t u d i e s have been c o n d u c t e d f o l l o w i n g a s i m i l a r p r o c e d u r e t o t h a t one d e v e l o p e d by P i a g e t . The f i n d i n g s o f some o f t h e s e s t u d i e s c o n f i r m P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y e.g. Hoemann and Ross (1971). W h i l e t h e r e s u l t s o f o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s r e f u t e P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y . Examples of t h e s e a r e D a v i e s (1962) , G o l b e r g (1966) , Y o s t , S i e g e l and Andrew (1962) who have r e p o r t e d t h a t under f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s c h i l d r e n as young as f o u r y e a r s can comprehend and a p p l y p r o b a b i l i t y c o n c e p t s i n making p r e d i c t i o n s about 22 outcomes o f e v e n t s . These c o n t r o v e r s i e s e x i s t because i n some o f t h e s e r e p l i c a t e d s t u d i e s t h e o r i g i n a l P i a g e t i a n t a s k s have been a l t e r e d o r m o d i f i e d e x t e n s i v e l y , even t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h c a n d i e s , t o y s e t c . has been i n t r o d u c e d . One wonders whether P i a g e t ' s o r i g i n a l s t u d i e s i n w h i c h r e i n f o r c e m e n t s were n o t p a r t o f t h e p r o t o c o l can be e x p e c t e d t o be t h e same w i t h s t u d i e s i n w h i c h r e i n f o r c e m e n t i s a p a r t o f t h e method o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The p r o b l e m o f m i x i n g d i f f e r e n t l y c o l o u r e d t o k e n s i n v a r i o u s p r o p o r t i o n s t o check o u t what t h i n k i n g p a t t e r n s t h e c h i l d r e n would b r i n g i n t o t h e s i t u a t i o n o f p r e d i c t i n g outcome o f e v e n t s has v e r y c l o s e r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h e p r o b l e m o f p r e d i c t i n g outcome o f o f f s p r i n g c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s . I n l i v i n g o r g a n i s m s t h e genes ( f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s ) w h i c h go t o d e t e r m i n e t h e o f f s p r i n g ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c come i n v a r i o u s s t r e n g t h s . Some a r e dominant ( o v e r o t h e r s ) , w h i l e o t h e r s a r e r e c e s s i v e . B e f o r e t h e s e genes assume permanent a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h each o t h e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e o f f s p r i n g ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , l i k e t h e t o k e n s , t h e y undergo random m i x i n g (random a s s o r t m e n t o f g e n e s ) . I t i s o n l y a f t e r t h i s random a s s o r t m e n t t h a t t h e genes s e t t l e down i n t o t h e v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s t h a t go t o d e t e r m i n e t h e o f f s p r i n g ' s i n h e r i t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I n o r d e r t o make an a p p r o p r i a t e p r e d i c t i o n i n t h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e t h e r e f o r e , t h e s u b j e c t s h o u l d have a t t h e back o f h i s mind some i d e a o f : ( i ) t h e r e c e s s i v e n e s s o r dominance q u a l i t y o f t h e genes and ( i i ) t h e m i x i n g e f f e c t o f t h e genes. I t i s o n l y when t h e s u b j e c t r e c o g n i z e s t h e s e two i n t e r a c t i n g f a c t o r s w h i c h i n many ways a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e two t y p e s o f t o k e n s i n t h e bag can he p r e d i c t u s i n g a p r o b a b i l i t y ( o r u n c e r t a i n t y ) p r i n c i p l e . I t i s i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s r e s e m b l a n c e i n t h e two s i t u a t i o n s 2 3 and t h e s i m i l a r t h i n k i n g p a t t e r n s t h e s u b j e c t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o b r i n g i n t o t h e two problems t h a t t h e work on p r o b a b i l i t y has been r e v i e w e d t o e n a b l e t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o see what problems t h e r e a r e and what f i n d i n g s have been made i n t h e a r e a o f p r o b a b i l i t y . So f a r t h e p i c t u r e emerging i n t h e a r e a o f p r o b a b i l i t y c o n c e p t development i s n o t v e r y c l e a r . These may have been caused by t h e d i f f e r i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l t e c h n i q u e s t h a t have been adopted by v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s who i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p r oblem. However, P i a g e t ' s s t u d y and t h a t o f Hoemann and Ross p o s t u l a t e t h a t c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p c o m b i n a t o r i a l t h i n k i n g p a t t e r n s t h a t r e s u l t t o f l e x i b l e and i m p r e c i s e p r e d i c t i o n s about outcome of e v e n t s a t t h e age o f about e l e v e n y e a r s . W h i l e younger c h i l d r e n l a c k t h i s t h i n k i n g a b i l i t y . Younger c h i l d r e n seem t o be r i g i d about t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s ; because t h e i r t h i n k i n g most t i m e s i s c e n t r e d around t h e p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e i t e m s t h e y a r e l o o k i n g a t . A p p r a i s a l : From t h e f o r e g o i n g one m i g h t t e n d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e t h e o r y o f J e a n P i a g e t on c o g n i t i v e development and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i n the s t u d y o f B i o l o g y i n s c h o o l s i s b e i n g s y s t e m a t i c a l l y condemned by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . A b e l i e f o f t h i s k i n d i s f a r from t h e t r u t h . P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y on c o g n i t i v e growth has much t o o f f e r t h e B i o l o g y e d u c a t o r as w e l l as t h e l e a r n e r . I t s h o u l d , however, be c a u t i o n e d t h a t c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h a t t h e o r y need r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n and even m o d i f i c a t i o n . Many o f P i a g e t ' s a d v o c a t e s m i s i n t e r p r e t h i s w r i t i n g s . Good (1977) p o i n t s out t h e c o n c e p t o f ' s t a g e s ' has been w i d e l y m i s i n t e r p r e t e d due t o o v e r s i m p l i c a t i o n by w r i t e r s . I t would be w e l l a d v i s e d t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h e i s s u e o f c o g n i t i v e s t a g e s be deemphasized. Many s t u d i e s i n o t h e r f i e l d s , f o r example, i n t h e f i e l d o f p h y s i c s e d u c a t i o n e.g. A g u i r r e ( 1 9 7 8 ) , E r i c k s o n ( 1 9 7 5 ) , Hobbs 24 (1973) , E r i c k s o n and Hobbs (1978) p o i n t t o t h e f a c t t h a t many i n d i v i d u a l s v a r y i n p e r f o r m a n c e from one t a s k t o a n o t h e r . Good (1977) r e p o r t s even o f a more s e r i o u s s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h he found t h a t o v e r 1/3 (one t h i r d ) o f c o l l e g e s e n i o r s he t e s t e d f a i l e d a paper and p e n c i l t e s t on c o n s e r v -a t i o n . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s f i n d i n g Good commented t h a t " t h e v e r y p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s t h a t many p e o p l e , perhaps most a d u l t s o p e r a t e a t t h e c o n c r e t e l e v e l " . However, c a u t i o n s h o u l d be e x e r c i s e d i n g e n e r a l i z i n g t h e r e s u l t s from a s i n g l e s t u d y t o a l l s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s s c e p t i c i s m combined w i t h t h e r ange o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l a b i l i t i e s w i t h i n a s i n g l e g r a de l e v e l u s u a l l y a t l e a s t two or t h r e e y e a r s , s h o u l d c a u t i o n t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r and c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r a g a i n s t a ssuming t h a t a l l o r even most c h i l d r e n would have a t t a i n e d c e r t a i n a b i l i t i e s by a g i v e n g r a de o r age. F u r t h e r , i t can be emphasized t h a t i n t h e s u b j e c t o f B i o l o g y p a r t i c u l a r l y , where c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s have f a i l e d t o y i e l d c o n s t r u c t i v e r e s u l t s t h a t c a n be t a l l i e d a g a i n s t t h e c o g n i t i v e ' s t a g e s ' o f P i a g e t , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between s u b j e c t m a t t e r and ' c o g n i t i v e s t a g e s ' s h o u l d be d i s c o u r a g e d . A more r e a s o n a b l e v i e w o f l o g i c a l development i n g e n e r a l i s t h a t t h e r a t e o f development i s much s l o w e r a f t e r a g i v e n s t a g e . b u t n o n e t h e l e s s c o n t i n u e s . As p r o g r e s s i v e l y more d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n s a r e e n c o u n t e r e d , m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e s c o n t i n u e t o d e v e l o p and r e a c h a s t a b l e b u t dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m (Good 1977). P i a g e t f u r t h e r p o i n t e d out t h a t i n t h e development o f c o n c e p t s i n c h i l d r e n f o u r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s come i n t o p l a y . He l i s t e d t h e s e t o be: ( i ) m a t u r a t i o n ( i i ) s o c i a l t r a n s m i s s i o n ( i i i ) e x p e r i e n c e ( i v ) s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n . Each o f t h e above f a c t o r s i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of t h i s r e v i e w has been e x p l i c i t l y o r i m p l i c i t l y d i s c u s s e d . For i n s t a n c e Kamara (1971) drew our a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c a s e o f h i s s u b j e c t s who even though had s t u d i e d 25 l i v i n g t h i n g s i n s c h o o l f a i l e d t o c l a s s i f y t h e bean seed as a l i v i n g t h i n g . These p u p i l s were e i t h e r n o t mature o r p o s s i b l y l a c k e d t h e e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e t a s k s p r e s e n t e d . A c a s e of s o c i a l t r a n s m i s s i o n i s e v i d e n c e g i v e n by Moore and K e n d a l l (1971) i n t h e i r s t u d y o f young c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t s about r e p r o d u c t i o n t h a t p a r e n t s m i s i n f o r m c h i l d r e n on t h e s e m a t t e r s . I n h i s paper on Development and L e a r n i n g , P i a g e t (1964) emphasized t h e f a c t t h a t none of t h e s e f a c t o r s can s t a n d by i t s e l f t o e x p l a i n l e a r n i n g . A l l o f t h e s e f o u r f a c t o r s i n t e r a c t w i t h each o t h e r t o p roduce i n t e l l i g e n t b e h a v i o u r i n t h e o r g a n i s m . F i n a l l y , t h e r e v i e w c l e a r l y shows t h a t no work on t h e development o f t h e c o n c e p t s r e l a t e d t o i n h e r i t a n c e has been r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s s t u d y i s t h e r e f o r e one o f a p i o n e e r i n g t y p e i n t o t h e a r e a o f h e r e d i t y c o n c e p t development among s c h o o l age C a n a d i a n c h i l d r e n . T h e r e a r e t h e r e f o r e many p r o b l e m a r e a s on t h e t o p i c w h i c h one c o u l d d e c i d e t o i n v e s t i g a t e . T h i s s t u d y t a k e s t h e i n i t i a l s t e p o f d i s c o v e r i n g f i r s t o f a l l what b e l i e f s t h e c h i l d r e n have about t h e phenomenon o f i n h e r i t a n c e . 26 C h a p t e r 3 METHOD FOR COLLECTING DATA Many methods o f r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e have been d e v e l o p e d t o s t u d y t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l development o f c h i l d r e n a t v a r i o u s age l e v e l s . These methods a r e implemented i n a v a r i e t y o f f o r m a t s g e n e r a l l y r e f e r e e d t o as t e s t s . T here a r e t e s t s f o r i n d i v i d u a l I.Q., t e s t s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l a p t i t u d e , t e s t s f o r achievement and even t e s t s f o r p e r s o n a l i t y development as i t i s r e l a t e d t o i n t e l l e c t u a l g r o w th. I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f t e s t s . , R o b e r t M c C l u r e (1971) w r o t e , " t h e y were produced by t h e s c o r e and were r a p i d l y p r e s s e d i n t o s e r v i c e i n t h e s c h o o l s " . A c c o r d i n g t o Rugg, quoted by M c C l u r e 1971) " t h e r e was a v e r i t a b l e o r g y o f t a b u l a t i o n as s u r v e y s s t u d i e d c h i l d r e n i n l o c a l s c h o o l s y s t e m s ; t o o k i n v e n t o r i e s o f e v e r y c o n c e i v a b l e t o p i c and d e v e l o p e d b a t t e r i e s o f d e v i c e s t o measure e d u c a t i o n a l o u t p u t " . A l t h o u g h t h e f o r e g o i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e was v a s t implement-a t i o n o f t h e s e t e s t s t o u n d e r s t a n d c h i l d r e n ' s t h i n k i n g y e t t h e s e t e s t s c o n t a i n s e r i o u s problems as w i l l be o u t l i n e d s h o r t l y . These problems a r e due t o v a r i o u s f a c t o r s . I n IQ t e s t s f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e g e n e r a l p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n t a k i n g t h e t e s t may a f f e c t h i s m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e t e s t . Or even s l i g h t i l l n e s s o r m e n t a l s t r a i n may i n v a r i a b l y r e d u c e a t e s t e e ' s s c o r e . Or a c h i l d f rom a home i n w h i c h e x c e l l e n t l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s have been p r o v i d e d may t e n d a l w a y s t o o u t r a n k a l e s s f o r t u n a t e c h i l d who has been d e p r i v e d o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , a t home. Above a l l t h e n o t i o n o f f a c i n g a t e s t c a u s e s a n x i e t y among many c h i l d r e n and t h i s a f f e c t s t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e . F u r t h e r , a l t h o u g h t h e s e t e s t s have t h e i r m e r i t s f o r p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s o f r e s e a r c h t h e y c o n t a i n s e r i o u s u n d e r l y i n g f l a w s f o r o t h e r s , such a s : 27 (a) l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c o g n i t i v e o p e r a t i o n i n l e a r n e r s (b) t h e i r c o n c e r n o n l y w i t h answers r a t h e r t h a n t h e p r o c e s s t o t h e answer, w h i c h does n o t a i d i n s h e d d i n g l i g h t i n t o our u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s and t h e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of l e a r n e r s t o p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t a r e a s (c) t h e tendency ( i n r e s e a r c h e r s ) t o brand i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s as i n e d u c a b l e (on t h e b a s i s of s c o r e s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e s e t e s t s ) . Because of t h e s e p r o b l e m s , i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d f r o m t h e s e t e s t s may be c o n s i d e r e d s u p e r f i c i a l and sometimes u s e l e s s i n the d i r e c t i o n of u n d e r -s t a n d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f a c h i l d ' s c o g n i t i v e o p e r a t i o n . R o b e r t M c C l u r e (1971) w r i t e s of them:-As i n t h e contemporary p e r i o d v i t r i o l i c argument r a g e d as t o t h e p r o p e r u s e s arid i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s of t e s t s . W h i l e t h e a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l p a e d a g o g i c a l v a l u e of knowing more about the l e a r n e r was g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d , t h e r e was b i t t e r d i s a g r e e m e n t about what s p e c i f i c s c h o o l p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s s h o u l d f o l l o w f r o m such knowledge. There were t h o s e who m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e r e was new u n d i s p u t a b l e p r o o f o f t h e i n e d u c a b i l i t y of a t l e a s t h a l f o f the s t u d e n t s and o t h e r s who c o n c l u d e d t h a t o n l y a f r a c t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n had the i n t e l l i g e n c e and a b i l i t y t o apprehend and u t i l i z e t r a d i t i o n a l academic d i s c i p l i n e . To a v o i d the s i t u a t i o n of l a b e l l i n g i n d i v i d u a l s , and t o f u r n i s h an i n d e p t h v i e w i n t o t h e p r o b l e m (under s t u d y ) t h i s s t u d y a d o p t s a d i f f e r e n t method - a m o d e r a t e l y s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r m of the C l i n i c a l I n t e r v i e w Method d e v e l o p e d by J e a n P i a g e t . Here as e a r l i e r s t a t e d t h e i n v e s t -i g a t o r t a l k s f r e e l y w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s i n a s e t i n t e r v i e w p r o t o c o l , as i n t h i s c a s e h e r e d i t y , l i s t e n s c a r e f u l l y t o t h e i r r e s p o n s e s w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e watches t h e i r r e a c t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r c l u e s . T h i s i s v e r y 28 r e a s o n a b l e because a c h i l d ' s s t a t e m e n t or answer t o a q u e s t i o n cannot be j u d g e d on i t s f a c e v a l u e a l o n e . Many f a c t o r s have t o be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n e.g. c u l t u r e , e x p e r i e n c e , e t c . A p a r t f r o m t h e s e , P.iaget (1969) f u r t h e r p o i n t s out t h a t a c h i l d ' s r e s p o n s e t o a q u e s t i o n c a n be (a) romancing (b) random (c) s u g g e s t e d c o n v i c t i o n (d) spontaneous c o n v i c t i o n , d e p e n d i n g on the c h i l d i n q u e s t i o n and t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . A l l t h e s e v a r i a b l e s have t o be watched f o r a t a l l s t a g e s of t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i f t h e s t u d y i s t o y i e l d good and r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s . I t i s i n r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e s e p roblems t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h u n d e r t o o k a one-to-one i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n , so t h a t each c h i l d ' s r e s p o n s e would be j u d g e d a c c o r d i n g l y w i t h due c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . I t i s a l s o r e a s o n a b l e t o m e n t i o n h e r e t h a t t h i s method r e q u i r e s a t h o r o u g h g r a s p of t h e t e c h n i q u e s of q u e s t i o n i n g . Thus one sees t h a t an e l a b o r a t e r e s e a r c h method of t h i s k i n d r e q u i r e s s e r i o u s p r e c a u t i o n s on t h e p a r t of t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r b o t h d u r i n g t h e i n t e r r o g a t i o n s e s s i o n and i n t h e c o u r s e of the d a t a p r o c e s s i n g . I s s u e s such as the f o l l o w i n g s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d and t a k e n c a r e o f : -(a) t h o r o u g h g r a s p o f t h e lan g u a g e of communication w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s (b) o b j e c t i v i t y i n the a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a as w e l l as an a p p r e c i a t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s (c) c o n t r o l of e x t r a n e o u s i n f l u e n c e s s u c h as n o i s e (d) s u i t a b i l i t y o f t a s k m a t e r i a l s . I t c a n o n l y be s a i d i n c o n c l u d i n g t h a t i f one i s d e t e r m i n e d not o n l y t o a r r i v e a t c h i l d r e n ' s answers b u t a l s o t o probe i n t o t h e i r l o g i c and b e l i e f s , t h e r e i s no o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a l t o o l more e x p e d i e n t t h a n the C l i n i c a l I n t e r v i e w Method. 29 S c h o o l s and S u b j e c t s T h i r t y two (32) c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d f r o m t h r e e s c h o o l s i n t h e c i t y o f Vancouver. The s c h o o l s were: (1) C h i e f Maquinna E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l (2) Queen E l i z a b e t h E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o i (3) V a n c o u v e r T e c h n i c a l Secondary S c h o o l S i n c e s y s t e m a t i c f a c t o r s s u c h - a s t h e l o c a t i o n of the s c h o o l s o r t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f the s u b j e c t s ' f a m i l y may i n d i r e c t l y c a u se b i a s t o the d a t a c o l l e c t e d , i t was ensured t h a t i n o r d e r t o c o u n t e r b a l a n c e any e f f e c t of t h i s t y p e the two e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s f r o m w h i c h t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e s u b j e c t s came, were t o be l o c a t e d f a r away from each o t h e r i n d i f f e r i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . T h i s c o n d i t i o n was f u l f i l l e d s i n c e C h i e f Maquinna E l e m e n t a r y i s l o c a t e d i n E a s t Vancouver i n a mod-e r a t e l y low income r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a w h i l e Queen E l i z a b e t h E l e m e n t a r y i s s i t u a t e d i n West Vancouver around t h e U n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r e r s ' r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . F u r t h e r , w i t h i n each of t h e s e s c h o o l s o n l y a l t e r n a t i n g g rades (odd or even) were used to c u r t a i l the amount of i n t e r a c t i o n among t h e s u b j e c t s of d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s d u r i n g the t i m e of t h e i n t e r v i e w s . L a s t l y , t h e s u b j e c t s were t o l d n o t t o d i s c u s s the i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s u n t i l t h e end of t h e day, s i n c e a l l f o u r s u b j e c t s of e v e r y g r a d e were i n t e r v i e w e d i n one s c h o o l - d a y p e r i o d . The p r o s p e c t i v e t h i r t y two (32) c h i l d r e n t h a t were t o be the s u b j e c t s f o r t h e s t u d y were each g i v e n a l e t t e r , s e e k i n g p e r m i s s i o n from t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p a r e n t s o r - g u a r d i a n s f o r them t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . The r e s p o n s e f r o m t h e p a r e n t s / g u a r d i a n s o f t h e c h i l d r e n f o r a l l t h e t h r e e s c h o o l s was v e r y good. F o r a copy of t h i s l e t t e r , c h eck a p p e n d i x 1 . The c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y ranged i n age 30 s p e c i f i c a l l y f r o m 5:6 t o 13:10. Two boys and two g i r l s were s e l e c t e d f r o m each grade under t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m a t . Grade S u b j e c t s T o t a l Approx. age 1 2 boys + 2 g i r l s 4 6 2 2 boys + 2 g i r l s 4 7 3 2 boys + 2,. g i r l s 4 8 4 2 boys + 2 g i r l s 4 9 5 2 boys + 2 g i r l s 4 10 6 2 boys + 2 g i r l s 4 11 7 2 boys + 2 g i r l s 4 12 8 2 boys + 2 g i r l s 4 13 The p a r t i c u l a r age range of r o u g h l y 6-13 y e a r s was chosen on t h e ground t h a t i t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h s c h o o l g r a d e s i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia when p u p i l s have n o t y e t been exposed f o r m a l l y t o the s t u d y o f G e n e t i c s i n s c h o o l . As t h e t a b l e above i n d i c a t e s t h e r e was an a t t e m p t made t o g e t an e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e sexes f o r e v e r y g r a d e . T h i s was done t o ch e c k f o r and a t t h e same t i m e c o r r e c t f o r any b e l i e f s w h i c h may be s e x - l i n k e d among t h e s u b j e c t s . Through t h e h e l p o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s of each grade the c h i l d r e n were chosen on t h e b a s i s o f the f a c t t h a t t h e y were q u i t e h e a l t h y , w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e and f e l l w i t h i n t h e group o f t h e a v e r a g e a b i l i t y c h i l d r e n of the c l a s s . A p p a r e n t l y , t h i s t a s k was g e n u i n e l y c a r r i e d o ut by t h e t e a c h e r s , s i n c e some o f the s u b j e c t s asked t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w .why th e " s m a r t e s t guys" of t h e i r c l a s s were n o t c o n s i d e r e d . 31 The T a s k s The t a s k s w h i c h formed t h e b a s i s of the i n t e r v i e w s were f o r m a l l y p r e s e n t e d t o t h i s group of t h i r t y - t w o (32) c h i l d r e n . These t a s k s went t h r o u g h c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y some e a r l i e r t i m e b e f o r e t h i s s t u d y was f o r m a l l y l a u n c h e d . The o r i g i n a l t a s k s were t r i e d w i t h a group of t w e l v e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n Vancouver. I n c i d e n t a l l y , t h e s e c h i l d r e n came f r o m q u i t e d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s from t h e ones used f o r t h e s t u d y . On t h e b a s i s of t h e f i n d i n g s f r o m t h i s p i l o t s t u d y , some of the o r i g i n a l t a s k s were dropped from the l i s t and o t h e r s were m o d i f i e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y t o e l i m i n a t e a l l a m b i g u i t i e s and o t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s . The t a s k s were d e v e l o p e d f r o m a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the t h r e e s u b j e c t a r e a s w h i c h c o m p r i s e t h e t o t a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t u d y o f l i v i n g o r g a n i s m s . Thus, t h e r e were t a s k s on man, a n i m a l s and p l a n t s . R e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e r e were two t a s k s on man, two t a s k s on a n i m a l s and one t a s k on p l a n t s . The t a s k s were d e s i g n e d t o d e t e r m i n e c h i l d r e n s ' b e l i e f p a t t e r n s r e g a r d i n g two major b i o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t i o n s o r t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s w h i c h a r e b e l i e v e d t o be v e r y f u n d a m e n t a l t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f g e n e t i c s i n l a t e r s t u d i e s . These c o n c e p t i o n s a r e : (1) t h e a b i l i t y o r i n a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h between e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y i n d u c e d f e a t u r e s and i n h e r i t e d t r a i t s on a l i v i n g o r g a n i s m . I n o t h e r words, i s the s u b j e c t a b l e o r n o t a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y i n d u c e d f e a t u r e s cannot be t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e o f f s p r i n g ? What b e l i e f s does he/she h o l d about t h e phenomenon? (2) t h e a b i l i t y o r i n a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e s p e c i f i c i n h e r i t -ance o f an i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d / o f f s p r i n g i s not based on any c e r t a i n t y t h e o r y o r p r e d i c t i o n b u t r a t h e r , on p r o b a b i l i t y . I n o t h e r words, what i s t h e s u b j e c t ' s b e l i e f r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i v e 32 c o n t r i b u t i o n of each p a r e n t t o a s p e c i f i c o f f s p r i n g ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? The t e s t s were p r e s e n t e d u s i n g a . . s e r i e s of p i c t u r e s . Twelve c o l o u r e d p i c t u r e s were p r e p a r e d and a l l were mounted on h a r d paper frames of about 10 cm by 15 cm o r 15 cm by 20 cm as the c a s e may be. These t w e l v e p i c t u r e s were p r e s e n t e d t o each one of t h e s u b j e c t s . F o r one s i t u a t i o n a s u i t a b l e l i v e p l a n t specimen was used i n s t e a d of a p i c t u r e . To go a l o n g w i t h t h e s e p i c t u r e s and one l i v e p l a n t specimen, t w e n t y major q u e s t i o n s were d e v e l o p e d . These twenty q u e s t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d b e l o w a l o n g w i t h -(a) t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e phenomenon around w h i c h the q u e s t i o n s were f o r m u l a t e d and (b) a d i s t i l l e d summary (where a p p r o p r i a t e ) of t h e n a r r a t i v e t h a t was used t o p r e s e n t t h e t a s k s i t u a t i o n t o t h e c h i l d r e n . TASK I : INJURIES ON ANIMALS Background: I n t h e c o u r s e of an a n i m a l ' s l i f e i t i s f a c e d w i t h many h a z a r d s . M o t o r c a r s may h i t i t , and b r e a k i t s l e g . S m a l l e r a n i m a l s l i k e r o d e n t s may be a t t a c k e d by p r e d a t o r s and i f t h e y a r e l u c k y , t h e y may escape w i t h t h e l o s s of a body p a r t e.g. t a i l . C e r t a i n l i z a r d s (ghekko) show escape mechanism i n w h i c h t h e y can a f f o r d t o l o s e t h e i r t a i l s t o r u n away f r o m danger. A n i m a l r e a r e r s such as dog owners sometime p r e f e r t o s h o r t e n t h e l e n g t h of t h e t a i l s and t h e e a r s of t h e i r a n i m a l s . I n an e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s about t h i s phenomenon, as i t i s r e l a t e d t o i n h e r i t a n c e , t h e f o l l o w i n g t a s k was p r e s e n t e d . 33 N a r r a t i v e : The s u b j e c t was g i v e n t h e p i c t u r e ( s ) t o examine t h o r o u g h l y and s t a t e what he/she u n d e r s t a n d s f r o m them. Three dogs (one male and two f e m a l e s ) were h i t by a motor c a r w h i l e t h e y were c r o s s i n g t h e s t r e e t . These dogs were h u r t b u t f o r t u n a t e l y t h e y d i d n o t d i e . They were t r e a t e d a t t h e V e t e r i n a r y C l i n i c n earby. Q u e s t i o n s : ( i ) Suppose the l e g of one of t h e f e m a l e dogs was b r o k e n by t h e c a r . As a r e s u l t t h e dog l i m p s a f t e r i t became w e l l . W i l l t he p u p p i e s of t h i s dog be b o r n w i t h a. lame l e g ? Why? ( i i ) The o t h e r f e m a l e dog and the male dog b o t h l o s t t h e i r t a i l s i n the a c c i d e n t . I f t h e s e two dogs have a puppy, what w i l l be the l e n g t h of t a i l of t h i s puppy? Why? ( i i i ) I f two dogs (male and f e m a l e ) had t h e i r t a i l s c u t o f f a t a V e t e r i n a r y C l i n i c when they were j u s t one month o l d , would t h i s a f f e c t t h e i r own p u p p i e s ? Why? ( i v ) I f t h e t a i l s o f a l l t h e dogs i n Vancouver were c u t s h o r t by t h e i r owners, what w i l l t h e i r own newborn p u p p i e s l o o k l i k e ? Why? TASK I I : INJURIES ON PLANTS Background: P l a n t s a r e s u b j e c t e d by man t o v a r i o u s h a z a r d s . F o r i n d u s t r i a l s u p p l i e s of c e r t a i n d y e s , m e d i c i n e and r u b b e r , t h e b a r k s , t h e r o o t s o r even t h e b r a n c h e s o f t r e e s a r e c u t o f f o r s c r a p e d as the case may be. The wounds as i n a n i m a l s , h e a l and a s c a r i s l e f t b e h i n d w h i c h i n many cas e s shows i t s e l f r i g h t t h r o u g h t h e l i f e s p a n of the p l a n t . Out of wonder f o r what c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s a r e r e g a r d i n g t h i s phenomenon and i t s 34 r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e mechanism of i n h e r i t a n c e , t h e f o l l o w i n g t a s k i s p r e -s e n t e d . N a r r a t i v e : The s u b j e c t was shown p i c t u r e s ' o f wounded t r e e s i . e . r u b b e r t r e e , d o u g l a s f i r t r e e , and A f r i c a n baobab t r e e and he/she was asked t o e x p l a i n what he/she t h i n k s t h e men a r e d o i n g t o t h e t r e e s . Q u e s t i o n s : ( i ) I f a deep c u t i s made on the b a r k o f a t r e e ( e . g . r u b b e r t r e e ) , w i l l t h e t r e e grow a s c a r ? ( i i ) . I f a t r e e i s wounded and i t h e a l s i t s wound, woul d t h e s c a r formed be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e s e e d l i n g o f t h i s t r e e ? ( i i i ) Suppose a t r e e has twenty b r a n c h e s and t e n of t h e s e b r a n c h e s were chopped o f f , w i l l the s c a r s of t h e s e c u t o f f b r a n c h e s show on t h e s e e d l i n g o f t h i s t r e e ? ( i v ) (A l i v e p l a n t specimen was used f o r t h i s q u e s t i o n ) . I f t he l e a v e s of a p l a n t / t r e e were c u t i n two h a l v e s ( d e m o n s t r a t e w i t h a l e a f and p a i r o f s c i s s o r s ) , when the t r e e was s t i l l a s e e d l i n g p l a n t , w i l l t h i s a f f e c t t h e shape of the l e a v e s of t h i s p l a n t ' s s e e d l i n g ? TASK I I I : INJURIES ON MAN Background : Human b e i n g s , on a c c o u n t of t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n v a r i o u s v i g o r o u s Or r i s k - t a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r e v e r y day u n d e r t a k i n g s , a r e t h e m s e l v e s a l s o s u b j e c t e d t o a v a r i e t y of h a z a r d s i n w h i c h many g e t i n j u r e d and l o s e a body p a r t o r i t s e f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g c o m p l e t e l y r i g h t t h r o u g h l i f e . What do c h i l d r e n t h i n k about t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o what an 35 o f f s p r i n g c a n i n h e r i t f r o m i t s p a r e n t s ? N a r r a t i v e : The s u b j e c t was g i v e n p i c t u r e s of two c r a s h e s ; a m o t o r c a r c r a s h , and a t r a i n c r a s h and was asked t o e x p l a i n h i s o b s e r v a t i o n . Q u e s t i o n s : ( i ) Suppose i n a t r a i n a c c i d e n t a man l o s t one of h i s f i n g e r s / t o e s . I f t h i s man has a c h i l d , how many f i n g e r s / t o e s w i l l t h e c h i l d have? ( i i ) Suppose a man and h i s w i f e b o t h l o s t t h e i r t h u m b s / f i n g e r s i n a t r a i n a c c i d e n t . I f th e y have a c h i l d a f t e r w a r d s , how w i l l t h i s c h i l d be? ( i i i ) Suppose a n o t h e r c o u p l e were i n j u r e d i n a c a r a c c i d e n t i n w h i c h t h e y l o s t t h e i r e y e s i g h t . I f t h e y have a c h i l d a f t e r w a r d s , w i l l t h i s c h i l d be a f f e c t e d ? ( i v ) Suppose a s m a l l boy and a s m a l l g i r l l o s t t h e i r f i n g e r s when the y were j u s t b a b i e s e.g. 1 y r . o l d . I f t h e y grow up, g e t m a r r i e d and have a baby, w i l l t h e i r baby be a f f e c t e d ? TASK IV: HEIGHT IN MAN Background: Man, p l a n t s and a n i m a l s e x h i b i t i n h e r i t e d q u a l i t i e s . I n t h e s e o r g a n i s m s i n h e r i t a n c e f o l l o w s a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n i . e . t h e g e n e t i c code p r e s e n t i n t h e gametes of e i t h e r p a r e n t i s t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e o f f s p r i n g d u r i n g f e r t i l i z a t i o n b u t w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s of m a n i f e s t a t i o n o r appearance e s p e c i a l l y when p r e d i c t i o n s a r e based on an i n d i v i d u a l c a s e . Thus, p r e d i c t i o n s w h i c h a r e couched on n o n - p r o b a b i l i s t i c p r e m i s e or w i t h o u t any g i s t of u n c e r t a i n t y a r e v i e w e d w i t h s u s p i c i o n . How do c h i l d r e n make t h e i r own p r e d i c t i o n s about t h e phenomenon of i n h e r i t a n c e ? What i s t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n ? 36 N a r r a t i v e : The s u b j e c t was p r e s e n t e d w i t h the p i c t u r e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n and comments. Q u e s t i o n s : ( i ) I f a t a l l man and a s h o r t woman have a c h i l d . If t h i s c h i l d i s a boy, how t a l l w i l l he be?when he I s f u l l y grown? ( i i ) I f t h e c h i l d i s a g i r l , how t a l l w i l l she be when she i s f u l l y grown? ( i i i ) Why do you s a y so? ( i v ) Do you know of any o t h e r t h i n g s w h i c h c o u l d make a c h i l d grow t a l l ? TASK V: COLOUR IN DOGS Background: Same as i n TASK IV. N a r r a t i v e : The s u b j e c t was g i v e n a s e r i e s of p i c t u r e s o f dogs and p u p p i e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n and comments. Q u e s t i o n s : ( i ) I f a b l a c k dog (f e m a l e ) i s t o have p u p p i e s , what c o l o u r would t h e p u p p i e s be? ( i i ) I f a w h i t e male dog and a b l a c k f e m a l e dog have s i x p u p p i e s : What c o l o u r would t h e i r p u p p i e s be? ( i i i ) Which one of t h e p a r e n t dogs do you t h i n k would g i v e more c o l o u r t o t h e p u p p i e s ? Why? ( i v ) Can the p u p p i e s have any o t h e r c o l o u r a p a r t f r o m t h e c o l o u r of the p a r e n t dog? 37 I t can be seen f r o m t h e above l a y o u t t h a t t h e f i r s t t h r e e t a s k s a d d r e s s t h e m s e l v e s d i r e c t l y t o t h e f i r s t o f the two o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h i s t o f i n d out whether o r n o t t h e s u b j e c t s can d i s t i n g u i s h between e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y i n d u c e d f e a t u r e s and i n h e r i t e d t r a i t s . The l a s t two t a s k s a d d r e s s them-s e l v e s t o t h e second o b j e c t i v e w h i c h i s t o f i n d out whether o r n o t t h e s u b j e c t s a r e a b l e t o i n v o k e a p r o b a b i l i s t i c t h i n k i n g p a t t e r n i n p r e d i c t i n g t h e o f f s p r i n g ' s i n h e r i t e d p h e n o t y p i c t r a i t s . I t may a l s o be n o t i c e d t h a t each of t h e c o n c e p t s t h a t was i n v e s t i g a t e d was p r e s e n t e d i n two o r more d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s . T h i s was done t o f i n d out whether the s u b j e c t u s e s t h e same p r e d i c t i o n o r e x p l a n a t i o n he/she adopted i n p r e v i o u s i n s t a n c e s . T h i s was deemed th e o n l y way t o c heck f o r t h e s t a b i l i t y o f r e a s o n i n g w h i c h w o u l d be t y p i c a l of s u b j e c t s who show comprehension or a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a s y s t e m a t i c mechanism o f i n h e r i t a n c e b o t h w i t h i n and w i t h o u t each of t h e s u b j e c t a r e a s t r e a t e d . The I n t e r v i e w S e t t i n g The i n t e r v i e w s were co n d u c t e d on t h e p r e m i s e s of each of t h e t h r e e s c h o o l s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . Each s c h o o l p r o v i d e d a q u i e t room w i t h as l i t t l e d i s t u r b a n c e as p o s s i b l e from o u t s i d e . An a u d i o t a p e -r e c o r d e r was s e t i n t h e room w e l l b e f o r e t h e commencement of each day's s c h e d u l e . Each c h i l d was i n t e r v i e w e d a l o n e i n t h e room f o r a p e r i o d of about 30-40 m i n u t e s . I t was e n s u r e d t h a t the c h i l d was c o m f o r t a b l y s e a t e d and f a c i n g t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . I n t h e p r e l i m i n a r y t a l k between the s u b j e c t and the i n v e s t i g a t o r , t h e s u b j e c t was made aware t h a t h i s o r h e r r e s p o n s e was b e i n g r e c o r d e d by a u d i o t a p e . He/she was a l s o a s s u r e d t h a t t h e d i s c u s s i o n between him/her and t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r would n o t be made known t o anyone, n e i t h e r t h e t e a c h e r s nor h i s / h e r p a r e n t s . Each of the s u b j e c t s was 38 a s s u r e d t o f e e l f r e e t o say wha t e v e r came t o h i s / h e r mind r e g a r d i n g the q u e s t i o n s posed and t h a t he/she s h o u l d t r y t o be as s i n c e r e as p o s s i b l e about what he/she s a y s . And t h e n some b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a r e g a r d i n g t h e s u b j e c t ' s name, age was c o l l e c t e d . The f o r m a l a s p e c t s of the i n t e r v i e w i n v o l v e d e x p o s i n g each o f the s u b j e c t s i n t h e sample t o the same e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t t i n g : - t h i s i n c l u d e s e x p o s u r e t o t h e t w e l v e s e r i e s of p i c t u r e s p l u s one p l a n t specimen, s e q u e n t i a l l y f o l l o w e d by t h e s e t of twenty q u e s t i o n s w h i c h were posed by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . These twenty major q u e s t i o n s were f o l l o w e d by p r o b i n g s f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n s or e l a b o r a t i o n s . The d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h ensued from t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n made up the raw d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y . I n the c o u r s e of the i n t e r v i e w , p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n was p a i d t o the i d e a s and t h e l a n g u a g e p a t t e r n s used by the s u b j e c t s . These i d e a s and l i n g u i s t i c p a t t e r n s s e r v e d as the ' l i f e c o r d ' w h i c h the i n t e r v i e w e r h e l d on t o , i n o r d e r t o s u s t a i n the s p i r i t of t h e i n t e r v i e w . 39 C h a p t e r 4 ANALYSIS The Method. The f o u r q u e s t i o n s w h i c h c o m p r i s e each t a s k were p r e s e n t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e f o r m a t i n w h i c h t h e y a r e shown i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . From t h i s p l a n i t c o u l d be o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h were s u s p e c t e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms o f h a v i n g i n f l u e n c e on t h e s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n s i n a v e r y o r d e r l y f a s h i o n , one a f t e r the o t h e r . A few q u e s t i o n s were n o t as k e d ; e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e t o w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t i m p l i e d the answer i n a p r e v i o u s r e s p o n s e . The r e s p o n s e t o each q u e s t i o n i s made up o f two p a r t s : a p r e d i c t i o n p a r t and the s t a t e m e n t of s u p p o r t o r e x p l a n a t i o n . These p r e d i c t i o n s and e x p l a n a t i o n s formed t h e b a s i c d a t a f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s . The d a t a were a n a l y z e d u s i n g t a b u l a r t e c h n i q u e s . F o r e v e r y t a s k t h e r e a r e two t y p e s o f t a b l e s i . e . (a) Q u e s t i o n - Response t a b l e : These Q u e s t i o n - R e s p o n s e t a b l e s a r e l a b e l l e d 1AI t o 5 A V I I I . They a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x . I I . (b) Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n t a b l e : The Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n t a b l e s a r e l a b e l l e d 1BI t o 5BIV. They a r e p r e s e n t e d i n the t e x t o f t h e A n a l y s i s . The Q u e s t i o n - R e s p o n s e t a b l e s show, as the name i m p l i e s , t he r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s grouped by age, f o r a l l t h e s u b j e c t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d . From t h e s e t a b l e s , one can see the a c t u a l answers g i v e n by each c h i l d t o t h e twenty m a j o r q u e s t i o n s t h a t were a s k e d . (The p r o b i n g s and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e s p o n s e s t o them were n o t r e c o r d e d i n the t a b l e s ) . The Que s t i o n - R e s p o n s e t a b l e s p e r f o r m two f u n c t i o n s . F i r s t , f r o m them, one can see c l e a r l y how t h e r e s p o n s e s of the s u b j e c t s p r o g r e s s f r o m age t o 40 age. T h i s can e a s i l y be done by r e a d i n g each, column downwards f o r a g i v e n q u e s t i o n . The second f u n c t i o n i s t o show the p r e d i c t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n o f e v e r y s u b j e c t t o t h e f o u r q u e s t i o n s making up the t a s k . By r e a d i n g h o r i z o n t a l l y a c r o s s each c h i l d ' s name, one can see whether t h e s u b j e c t i s g i v i n g c o n s i s t e n t r e s p o n s e s as t h e d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s o f th e t a s k a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n s . The F requency D i s t r i b u t i o n t a b l e s , l a b e l l e d 1BI t o 5BIV i n t h e t e x t a r e o n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t he p r e d i c t i v e p a r t of t h e s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s t o the q u e s t i o n s . F o r e v e r y q u e s t i o n , a t a b l e o f p r e d i c t i v e r e s p o n s e s i s p r e s e n t e d . The t a b l e shows how t h e s u b j e c t s ' p r e d i c t i o n s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d a l o n g t he age groups. Wherever i t was deemed a p p r o p r i a t e t h e p r e d i c t i o n s have been compressed b e a r i n g i n mind the major i d e a s e x p r e s s e d by the s u b j e c t s . From t h e s e t a b l e s a l s o one can see whether p a r t i c u l a r p r e d i c t -i o n s seem t o emerge o n l y a t p a r t i c u l a r ages o r n o t . A c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s y s t e m was d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f the s u b j e c t s . F i v e c a t e g o r i e s were d e v e l o p e d based on t h e k i n d s o f e x p l a n -a t i o n s t h e s u b j e c t s i n v o k e d f o r t he d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the o f f s p r i n g s ' i n h e r i t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These c a t e g o r i e s a r e : E n v i r o n m e n t a l . When t h e s u b j e c t i n v o k e s e n v i r o n m e n t a l t h i n g s t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r an i n h e r i t e d t r a i t i n an o f f s p r i n g . F o r example the s u b j e c t may c l a i m t he sun, the w a t e r , e t c . t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the outcome o f an o f f s p r i n g ' s _ i n h e r i t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . S o matic o r O r g a n i s m i c . When t h e s u b j e c t i n v o k e s a p a r t o f the p a r e n t ' s body ( v e g e t a t i v e ) as t he agent r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t he c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e o f f s p r i n g . F o r example the b r a i n , t he b l o o d , t he b r a n c h e s , t h e t e a t s 41 a r e c l a i m e d as the d e t e r m i n a n t s o f t h e o f f s p r i n g ' s i n h e r i t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . N a t u r a l i s t i c . When the s u b j e c t i n v o k e s ' b i o l o g i c a l ' b u t u n s c i e n t i f i c r e a s o n s f o r t h e o r i g i n o f an o f f s p r i n g ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . F o r example, t h e s u b j e c t may c l a i m t h a t t he o f f s p r i n g would l o o k l i k e i t s mother because i t i s a g i r l ( f e m a l e ) . Or t h a t i t would l o o k l i k e i t s f a t h e r because i t i s a boy. H e r e d i t y . When t h e s u b j e c t i n v o k e s a b i o l o g i c a l l y s c i e n t i f i c o r i g i n f o r the i n h e r i t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e o f f s p r i n g . H e r e d i t y and En v i r o n m e n t . When t h e s u b j e c t i n v o k e s a b i o l o g i c a l l y s c i e n t i f i c r e a s o n f o r the o r i g i n o f t h e i n h e r i t e d t r a i t and i s a l s o aware t h a t t he t r a i t c o u l d be i n f l u e n c e d by e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . The whole A n a l y s i s i s made up of f i v e s e c t i o n s . These s e c t i o n s a r e : (a) A n a l y s i s f o r Task I (b) A n a l y s i s f o r Task I I (c) A n a l y s i s f o r Task I I I (d) A n a l y s i s f o r Task IV (e) A n a l y s i s f o r Task V 42 Task I I n t h i s t a s k the c h i l d r e n were p r e s e n t e d w i t h a p i c t u r e of t h r e e dogs and were t o l d a s t o r y about an a c c i d e n t i n w h i c h t h e dogs were i n v o l v e d . The q u e s t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w e d the s t o r y were d e s i g n e d t o check out whether t h e d e f o r m i t y l e f t by t h e i n j u r y would be t r a n s m i t t e d t o the o f f s p r i n g . And i f t h i s i s o r i s n o t the c a s e , whether the p r e s e n c e o r absence of c e r t a i n f a c t o r s - o r s i t u a t i o n s would a l t e r t h e r e s u l t s . The f a c t o r s , i n t r o d u c e d a r e : (1) Number or sex o f p a r e n t s i n j u r e d . The s u b e c t s were asked whether i t would make any d i f f e r n e c e I f o n l y one or b o t h p a r e n t s o f t h e o f f s p r i n g were i n j u r e d . And whether i t would make any d i f f e r e n c e whether the male p a r e n t o r t h e f e m a l e p a r e n t were the one who was i n j u r e d . (2) Time e l a p s e d . The s u b j e c t s were asked whether i t made any d i f f e r e n c e i f t h e p a r e n t had t h e c h i l d a s h o r t w h i l e a f t e r t h e a c c i d e n t o r many y e a r s a f t e r t h e a c c i d e n t [ i n j u r y ] . (3) P o p u l a t i o n magnitude. The s u b j e c t s were asked whether i t made any d i f f e r e n c e i f o n l y a few members of t h e p o p u l a t i o n of a n i m a l s were i n j u r e d o r i f a l l the members o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n s u s t a i n e d t h e same i n j u r y . (4) Repeated i n j u r y . The s u b j e c t s were asked whether i n f l i c t i n g an i n j u r y on members of a p o p u l a t i o n o f a n i m a l s , g e n e r a t i o n a f t e r g e n e r a t i o n , would change t h e t r a i t s o f t h a t p o p u l a t i o n . The f o u r t h f a c t o r o r s i t u a t i o n i . e . r e p e a t e d i n j u r y , was p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p r o b i n g i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g Q u e s t i o n I I I or Q u e s t i o n IV. These f o u r f a c t o r s o r s i t u a t i o n s though u n i m p o r t a n t i n terms of t h e r e a l outcome of the s i t u a t i o n , were f o u n d t o have i n f l u e n c e on t h e s u b j e c t s 43 as m a n i f e s t e d by t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . However, a c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n of t a b l e s 1BI t o 1BIV a p p ears to show the same d i s t r i b u t i o n e x h i b i t e d by t h e p r e d i c t i o n s o f the s u b j e c t s f r o m Q u e s t i o n I t o Q u e s t i o n I V . A c l o s e r s t u d y of t h e s e t a b l e s r e v e a l s t h a t t h i s i s n o t e x a c t l y the c a s e . The number of c h i l d r e n g i v i n g the l e s s a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e i n c r e a s e s f r o m t a b l e 1BI t o 1BIV. Q u e s t i o n I : Suppose the l e g of a f e m a l e dog was b r o k e n by a m o t o r c a r . I f t h i s dog l i m p s a f t e r i t has become w e l l . Would t h e p u p p i e s o f t h i s dog be b o r n w i t h a lame l e g ? F o r t h i s q u e s t i o n t h e r e were f o u r t e e n s u b j e c t s who p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e p u p p i e s would l i m p . E i g h t e e n s u b j e c t s s a i d the p u p p i e s would not l i m p . Among th e f o u r t e e n s u b j e c t s who s a i d t h a t t h e p u p p i e s would l i m p , t h e r e was no c h i l d f r o m t h e t h i r t e e n y e a r o l d s ; o n l y v e r y few f r o m t h e group of e l e v e n and t w e l v e y e a r o l d s . D i v i d i n g t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u b j e c t s i n t o two g r o u p s : s i x t o n i n e y e a r o l d s as younger and t e n t o t h i r t e e n y e a r o l d s as o l d e r , one sees t h a t s e v e n of t h e younger c h i l d r e n p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e p u p p i e s would l i m p ; w h i l e t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n s a i d t h e y would n o t . On the o v e r a l l , w i t h i n t h e s e two groups - younger and o l d e r , more of t h e younger c h i l d r e n p r e d i c t e d t h a t the p u p p i e s would l i m p w h i l e more of the o l d e r s u b j e c t s c l a i m e d t h e p u p p i e s would n o t l i m p . C h e c k i n g the A p p e n d i x on Q u e s t i o n - R e s p o n s e , t a b l e s 1AI t o 1 A V I I I , t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e s e two g r o u p s , gave v a r i o u s r e a s o n s t o s u p p o r t t h e i r c l a i m . P r e s e n t e d below a r e a few of t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s . 44 P r e d i c t i o n T a b l e # S u b j e c t J o h n n i e 7.4 Pups w i l l l i m p 1AI Pups w i l l l i m p 1 A I I D o u g l a s 8.1 Pups w i l l l i m p 1AIV Shannon 10.2 Pups w i l l n o t l i m p 1AI T r i c i a 7.5 Pups w i l l n o t l i m p 1 A I I Hughie 8.6 Pups w i l l n ot l i m p 1 A V I I I W a l t e r 13.8 E x p l a n a t i o n ; Because t h e mother b r o k e h e r bone. wh a t e v e r t h e mother i s , th e baby w i l l be. (but ) i t depends on t h e f a t h e r . t h e y ' r e d i f f e r e n t p a r t o f t h e mother. i t happened t o h e r , n o t them. i t ' s n o t n a t u r a l , i t happened by c a r . Q u e s t i o n I I : I f two dogs (male and f e m a l e ) had t h e i r t a i l s c u t s h o r t i n an a c c i d e n t , i f t h e y have p u p p i e s , how .would t h e s e p u p p i e s be i n terms of t a i l l e n g t h ? Two new f a c t o r s were i n t r o d u c e d i n t h i s q u e s t i o n . These f a c t o r s a r e t h e a d d i t o n o f a f a t h e r t o t h e mother dog ( o f Q u e s t i o n I ) and the c o m p l e t e r e m o v a l of a body p a r t u n l i k e the c a s e i n t h e p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n where i t was j u s t the b r e a k i n g o f a l e g . The p a t t e r n e x h i b i t e d h e r e by t h e s c o r e s (see t a b l e 1 B I I ) a p p e a r s t o be s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o r Q u e s t i o n I . However, t h e r e a r e s m a l l v a r i a t i o n s i n t h a t t h o s e c h i l d r e n who c l a i m e d t h a t t h e p u p p i e s would be b o r n w i t h a s h o r t t a i l a r e f i f t e e n and t h o s e who s a i d they would n o t a r e s i x t e e n . The one s u b j e c t who s a i d she does no t know c l a i m e d t h a t she has a dog w i t h a s h o r t t a i l b u t t h a t t h i s dog i s a 'boy' J m a l e J . "Of c o u r s e boy dogs don't have p u p p i e s " . To t h i s c h i l d , C h r i s t i n a (5.6) t h e q u e s t i o n o f i n t r o d u c i n g t h e male f a c t o r i s unwa r r a n t e d s i n c e f o r h e r , male p a r e n t dogs a r e n o t i n v o l v e d i n 45 KKI;I}UI:NCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE A G E QUESTION: 6 7 8 - 9 10 11 12 13 Suppose the leg of a female dog was broken by a motorcar. If this dog limps after it has become well. Would the puppies be born with a lame leg? RESPONSE: TOTAL: Yes. They would limp/have a 111 1 11 1111 1 11 14 scar etc. No. They would not. 1 1 1 11 111 1111 1 11111 18 X 46 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE 1BII A G E QUESTION II: 6 7 8 9 10 If two dogs, (male and female) had their tails cut short in an accident, if they have puppies, how rfill these puppies be in terras, of tai l length? TOTAL With a short tail/without ta i l etc. 11 11 11 11111 11 11 15 With a normal t a i l . I l l 11 11 111 1 11111 16 I don't know. 1 1 A 7 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE 1BIII RESPONSE: A G E QUESTION.Ill: 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 If two dogs lost their tails just when they were l i t t l e pups, i f they have puppies when they are fully grown. How will their puppies' tails.be? Born with short tails/no tails . I l l 11 11 11111 11 11 1 17 Born quite normal. 11 11 11 111 1 1111 1* I don't know. 1 48 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE RESPONSE: A G E QUESTION: IV: 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 If the tails of a l l the dogs in Vancouver were cut short by their owners, what will their newborn puppies look like? • '* TOTAL With a short tail/no t a i l . 1 11 11 11 11111 11 11 11 18 With a normal t a i l . 11 11 11 111 1 111 13 I don't know. 1 1 49 d e t e r m i n i n g what i n h e r i t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s the p u p p i e s would haye. The f i f t e en^-sixteen-one d i s t r i b u t i o n shown i n t a b l e 1 B I I i l l u s t r a t e s t o some e x t e n t t h a t t h e i n t r o d u c e d f a c t o r s have had some e f f e c t on t h e s u b j e c t s . A c l o s e r s t u d y of the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e two groups o f c h i l d r e n i n t a b l e 1 B I I shows t h a t among the younger c h i l d r e n , s i x c l a i m e d the p u p p i e s would be b o r n w i t h s h o r t t a i l s w h i l e f i v e s a i d t h e y would n o t be b o r n t h a t way. One c h i l d i n t h i s group s a i d she d i d n o t know. I n t h e o l d e r group of t e n t o t h i r t e e n y e a r o l d s , n i n e c h i l d r e n s a i d the p u p p i e s would be b o r n w i t h abnormal t a i l s and e l e v e n c l a i m e d the p u p p i e s would be b o r n n o r m a l . The r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between the number of c h i l d r e n o p t i n g f o r e i t h e r of t h e two o p t i o n s i n b o t h the younger group and o l d e r group i s too s m a l l as y e t t o j u s t i f y t h e making o f any s t r o n g s t a t e m e n t s about i n c r e a s e s or d e c r e a s e s i n t h e number of c h i l d r e n ( o p t i n g f o r one or the o t h e r of the two c h o i c e s ) . However, one p o s t u l a t i o n c a n s a f e l y be made t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the new f a c t o r s r e v e a l e d some i n -c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e minds o f some s u b j e c t s as shown by the d i f f e r e n c e s between the s c o r e r a t i o s o f t a b l e s 1BI and 1 B I I . Those c h i l d r e n who gave c o n f l i c t i n g answers were probed as t o why they had t a k e n d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s . Some of them had no s t r o n g r e a s o n , w h i l e o t h e r s gave v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g d e f e n s i v e s t a t e m e n t s . The c a s e of J o h n n i e (7.4) i s p r e s e n t e d f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n . E : Have you seen dogs w i t h o u t t a i l s ? Dog whose t a i l s have been removed? S : Yes. E : I n t h i s a c c i d e n t , t h e s e two dogs' t a i l s were r u n o v e r by t h e c a r . They were t a k e n t o the v e t e r i n a r y c l i n i c f o r t r e a t m e n t . They became w e l l b u t had no t a i l s anymore, as t h e dog i n t h i s p i c t u r e . I f t h e s e two.; dogs have p u p p i e s a f t e r some y e a r s , how w i l l t h e i r p u p p i e s be: 50 w i t h a t a i l o r w i t h o u t a t a i l ? S : The p u p p i e s w i l l have a t a i l . E : Why w i l l t h e y have a t a i l ? S : The c a r r a n o v e r t h e dogs' t a i l b u t i t d i d n o t r u n o v e r t h e b a b i e s , so t h e l i t t l e pups w i l l have a t a i l . E : E a r l i e r on, you t o l d me t h a t i f the f o o t i s b r o k e n , o f a dog; and t h e n t h e dog has p u p p i e s , you s a i d t h e p u p p i e s w i l l a l s o have a b r o k e n l e g . S : No. I s a i d t h e y w i l l l i m p . E : Oh, O.K. What w i l l make them l i m p ? S : Because t h e y w i l l w a l k bad l i k e t h e i r mother. E : W i l l t h e y have a b r o k e n l e g ? S : No. I t seems e v i d e n t f r o m J o h n n i e ' s s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f the l i m p by the p u p p i e s i s an e n v i r o n m e n t a l phenomenon. Mere i m i t a t i o n i s a mechanism s u f f i c i e n t by i t s e l f t o r e s u l t i i i t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a t r a i t . For him hence a l i m p can be mimicked b u t a c u t t a i l c a n n o t , t h e l i m p would be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e o f f s p r i n g b u t not t h e c u t t a i l . Q u e s t i o n I I I : I f two dogs l o s t t h e i r t a i l s w h i l e t h e y were j u s t p u p p i e s , i f t h e y have p u p p i e s when t h e y a r e f u l l y grown, how w i l l t h e i r own p u p p i e s be? The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the s u b j e c t s by r e s p o n s e t o t h i s q u e s t i o n ( see T a b l e 1 B I I I ) show an i n c r e a s e f o r t h e number of c h i l d r e n c l a i m i n g , t h a t t h e p u p p i e s would be b o r n w i t h a s h o r t t a i l . The new f a c t o r t h a t was i n t r o d u c e d i n t h i s q u e s t i o n i s t h e f a c t o r o f 'time e l a p s e ' . Seventeen 51 c h i l d r e n s a i d t h e p u p p i e s would be b o r n w i t h abnormal t a i l s . F o u r t e e n s a i d t h e y would be b o r n n o r m a l . So w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of more f a c t o r s we f i n d more c h i l d r e n g e t t i n g d e c e i v e d and g i v i n g t h e I n a p p r o p r i a t e answer. One s u b j e c t s a i d she d i d n o t know the answer. A c l o s e r exam-i n a t i o n o f t h e two groups of c h i l d r e n - younger and o l d e r , shows t h a t seven..of the younger c h i l d r e n chose t h e o p t i o n t h a t the p u p p i e s would be abnormal w h i l e o n l y f o u r s a i d the p u p p i e s would be n o r m a l . F o r t h e o l d e r group t e n s u b j e c t s s a i d the p u p p i e s would be b o r n w i t h s h o r t t a i l s w h i l e t h e same number of s u b j e c t s ( t e n ) c l a i m e d t h e p u p p i e s would come w i t h n o r m a l t a i l s . Thus i t c o u l d be seen f r o m the c o n s i s t e n t r e d u c t i o n of number of c h i l d r e n g i v i n g the more a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e ( b o t h f r o m the younger and o l d e r group) t h a t t h e i n t r o d u c e d . f a c t o r s o r s i t u a t i o n s a r e h a v i n g some i n f l u e n c e on some of the c h i l d r e n r e g a r d l e s s of age. Even one t h i r t e e n y e a r o l d was d e c e i v e d . The t y p i c a l r e s p o n s e s g i v e n f o r the s i g n i f i c a n c e of time e l a p s e a r e : Jun ( 1 0 . 6 ) : " t h e dogs have a s h o r t t a i l f o r a l o n g t i m e so i t w i l l be i n t h e i r system." M a r i a ( 1 0 . 1 1 ) : " t h e mother has had i t f o r a l o n g t i m e . " W a l t e r ( 1 3 . 8 ) : " t h e y [ p a r e n t s ] were s m a l l when i t happened to them so t h e y would i n h e r i t the s h o r t t a i l as t h e y grow up.". (See a l s o T a b l e 1AV and 1 A V I I I i n A p p e n d i x ) . Q u i t e a few of the c h i l d r e n were reminded a g a i n about how t h e i r r e s p o n s e s c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e i r e a r l i e r answers. I t i s s u r p r i s i n g t o n o t i c e t h a t some of t h e s e c h i l d r e n s t i l l r e mained o b l i v i o u s o f t h e changes they made i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s as t h e i n t e r v i e w p r o g r e s s e d i n s p i t e of the c o n s t a n t r e m i n d e r s f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w e r . J amie's (7.4) c a s e i s p r e s e n t e d . See a l s o T a b l e 1AI i n A p p e n d i x . 52 E : I f the dog's t a i l was c u t o f f when i t was v e r y young, when i t was a puppy. I f t h i s puppy grows up and has i t s own p u p p i e s . W i l l i t s own p u p p i e s have a t a i l ? S : No. E : But e a r l i e r ^ o n , you s a i d t h a t dogs' t a i l a r e u s u a l l y n o t c u t o f f i n a c c i d e n t s , b u t even when the t a i l s a r e c u t , t h e i r own p u p p i e s w i l l have t a i l s . Why a r e you c h a n g i n g [your v i e w ] now? S : I do not know I am c h a n g i n g b u t I t h i n k t h a t i t i s r i g h t m.... maybe i t i s wrong . . . . b u t . . . i t i s . I t seems q u i t e c l e a r f r o m J a m i e ' s answer t h a t he i s q u i t e c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e p u p p i e s w i l l . n o t have a t a i l as f a r as t h i s i n s t a n c e i s c o n c e r n e d . • The r e m i n d e r s of c o n f l i c t by the e x p e r i m e n t e r o n l y s i g n a l l e d t o t h e s u b j e c t t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r i s s a y i n g 'you a r e wrong'. T h i s s p e c i f i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms of t h e l i g h t i t sheds on c h i l d r e n ' s t h i n k i n g . I n a n u t s h e l l what Jamie r e v e a l s from h i s l a s t s t a t e m e n t i s t h a t what c o u l d be wrong t o one's p e r c e p t i o n as an a d u l t may n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be wrong t o a c h i l d ' s judgement. A c h i l d and an a d u l t o p e r a t e a t two d i f f e r e n t c o g n i t i v e l e v e l s , hence J a m i e ' s s t a t e m e n t -"maybe i t i s wrong....but " t o him i t i s c o r r e c t . T h i s i s a f a c t to be r e c k o n e d w i t h i f our g o a l i n s c h o o l s i s t o have a s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h c h i l d r e n . Q u e s t i o n IV: I f the t a i l s o f a l l dogs i n Vancouver were c u t s h o r t by t h e i r owners,, what w i l l t h e i r newborn p u p p i e s l o o k l i k e ? Why? I n t h i s q u e s t i o n the f a c t o r o f l a r g e numbers [ p o p u l a t i o n magnitude] was i n v e s t i g a t e d . The r e s u l t s show t h a t t h i s f a c t o r was v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms of t h e e f f e c t i t had upon t h e r e s p o n s e s o f the s u b j e c t s . From 53 T a b l e 1BIV i t i s o b s e r v e d t h a t e i g h t e e n s u b j e c t s p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e p u p p i e s b o r n of t h e s h o r t t a i l e d p a r e n t s w o u l d be w i t h s h o r t t a i l s . T h i r t e e n s u b j e c t s s a i d t h i s i s n o t g o i n g t o be t h e c a s e . One c h i l d s a i d she d i d n o t know t h e answer. Among the younger c h i l d r e n i . e . s i x t o n i n e y e a r o l d s , seven opted f o r the r e s p o n s e t h a t t h e p u p p i e s would be abnormal. F o u r s u b j e c t s i n t h i s group c l a i m e d the p u p p i e s w o u l d be n o r m a l . I n t h e o l d e r group of c h i l d r e n e l e v e n s a i d t h e p u p p i e s would be b o r n w i t h a s h o r t t a i l w h i l e n i n e s u b j e c t s s a i d t h i s i s n o t so; t h e p u p p i e s - w o u l d be b o r n n o r m a l . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e f i g u r e s o n l y a v e r y s m a l l number of c h i l d r e n changed t h e i r answers f r o m what they s a i d f o r Q u e s t i o n I I I . I n f a c t t h o s e c h i l d r e n who s a i d t h e p u p p i e s would be b o r n w i t h abnormal t a i l s were v e r y f i r m t h i s t i m e about t h e i r b e l i e f . S e r g i o ' s c a s e (12.6) i s p r e s e n t e d f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n . See a l s o T a b l e 1AVII i n A p p e n d i x . S e r g i o ( 1 2 . 6 ) : The p u p p i e s would be w i t h o u t t a i l s . P r e t t y s u r e about t h a t , s i n c e a l l the dogs i n Vancouver d i d not have any t a i l s , , , t h e i r p u p p i e s w i l l n o t ; f o r e v e r and e v e r no dog would have any t a i l s J T h i s q u e s t i o n was extended one s t e p f u r t h e r i n chat the s u b j e c t s were asked what would happen t o the t a i l s of the p u p p i e s i f p e o p l e s h o u l d go on c u t t i n g t h e t a i l s of the p a r e n t s f r o m one g e n e r a t i o n t o t h e o t h e r . A l t h o u g h the r e s p o n s e s a r e n o t f o r m a l l y p r e s e n t e d i n the t a b l e s as f o r the o t h e r q u e s t i o n s , mention-:of them i s . made where a p p r o p r i a t e and i n s t a n c e s r e p o r t e d i n t h e commentary s e c t i o n of t h e t a b l e s ( 1 A I - 1 A V I I I i n A p p e n d i x ) . I t s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d t h a t many s u b j e c t s f e l l p r e y t o t h i s e x t e n s i o n : t h e y p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e t a i l s w i l l p r o g r e s s i v e l y g e t s h o r t e r and s h o r t e r u n t i l t h e r e i s no t a i l anymore and dogs would 54 r e m a i n t h a t way, w i t h o u t t a i l s . F o r t y p i c a l c a s e s see r e s p o n s e s of V i v i a n (13.00) and L i z a (13.5) i n T a b l e s ' 1 A V I I I and 1AVII r e s p e c t i v e l y i n the A p p e n d i x . Summary of Task I A n a l y s i s A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the c h i l d r e n , ; s i x - t h i r t e e n y e a r s , have t h e m i s -c o n c e p t i o n t h a t d e f o r m i t i e s r e s u l t i n g f r o m i n j u r i e s c a n be t r a n s m i t t e d by a p a r e n t t o t h e o f f s p r i n g . The number of c h i l d r e n who had t h e s e k i n d s of b e l i e f s i n c r e a s e d p r o g r e s s i v e l y as t h e f a c t o r s of two p a r e n t s , l e n g t h of t i m e , l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n s , r e p r e a t e d c u t t i n g s , were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the q u e s t i o n s . A l t h o u g h the c h i l d r e n were d i v i d e d i n t o two groups - a younger group ( s i x - n i n e y e a r s ) a n d an o l d e r group ( t e n - t h i r t e e n y e a r s ) , t h e m i s c o n -c e p t i o n was found t o be p r e s e n t i n a l l the ages. Each of t h e f a c t o r s t h a t was s e q u e n t i a l l y i n t r o d u c e d a f f e c t e d some c h i l d r e n of a l l t h e ages s t u d i e d . Some of t h e c h i l d r e n i n t r y i n g t o e x p l a i n t h e i r v a r i o u s answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s have b r o u g h t i n t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h dogs, what t h e i r r e l a t i v e s have t o l d them, f i l m s , s c h o o l r e a d i n g s e t c . From t h e i r a n s w e r s * i t ' would be seen t h a t some of t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s have h e l p e d w h i l e o t h e r s have f a i l e d . Those c h i l d r e n who have had c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e s of t e n d i n g dogs w i t h , c u t - t a i l s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e - x a s e where t h e s e dogs a r e f e m a l e s , seem to be f a r more c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s t h a n t h o s e who have r e a d or c a s u a l l y h e a r d about m u t a t i o n o r the e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r y o f man d e v e l o p i n g f r o m o t h e r p r i m a t e s . I n f a c t some of t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s have o n l y added more . c o n f u s i o n t o t h e minds o f ' t h e c h i l d r e n " . F o r example V i v i a n (13. 00) s a y s -" b u t i f t h e y keep on d o i n g t h a t ( c u t t i n g the t a i l s ) l o n g i n t i m e , i t m i g h t m u t a t i o n you know." 55 Shannon (10.2) " I saw a show (movie) of a l a d y w i t h o u t arms b u t h e r own baby had arms. T h i s c o u l d have been because of the f a t h e r . " L i z a (13.5) " T h e i r p u p p i e s w i l l be b o r n w i t h s h o r t t a i l s . We a r e supposed t o be b o r n of t h e monkey and we o n l y have a t a i l bone now". F u r t h e r some c h i l d r e n have i n v o k e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l e x p l a n a t i o n s such as m i m i c r y f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of a t r a i t . O t h e r s have i n v o k e d s o m a t i c or o r g a n i s m i c e x p l a n a t i o n s s u c h as " t h e system of the p a r e n t " , " t h e n e rvous s y s t e m " , e t c . Other c h i l d r e n have g i v e n n a t u r a l i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n s such as "whatever t h e mother i s , t h e baby w i l l be". Y e t some c h i l d r e n have g i v e n h e r e d i t a r y e x p l a n a t i o n s s u c h as " t h e y a r e a s p e c i a l b r e e d , so we have to c u t t h e i r t a i l s t o o " . A l t h o u g h some o f t h e s e e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h they have been used, t h e y shed l i g h t on what t h e s e s u b j e c t s ' b e l i e f s a r e r e g a r d i n g the phenomenon of i n h e r i t a n c e . As f a r as t h i s t a s k was c o n c e r n e d t h e r e was no s p e c i f i c age a t w h i c h the s p e c i f i c b e l i e f s or c o n c e p t s emerged. A l l t h e age groups of c h i l d r e n who p a r t -i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y had d i f f i c u l t i e s and s u c c e s s e s w i t h t h e t a s k . I t c o u l d be c o n c l u d e d t h e r e f o r e " t h a t t h e c o n c e p t checked f o r i n t h i s t a s k may n o t be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a development sequence. R a t h e r i t may m e r e l y be dependent on t h e r e s p e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d has had. Even some of t h e v e r y young c h i l d r e n ( T r i c i a 7.5) were n o t d e c e i v e d by any one of the forms i n w h i c h t h e t a s k was p r e s e n t e d . On the o t h e r hand some t h i r t e e n y e a r o l d s were. One v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t need w h i c h has been e x p r e s s e d by the v a r i o u s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s of t h e c h i l d r e n i s t h a t t h e y a r e v e r y c u r i o u s t o know about t h e phenomenon of 56 i n h e r i t a n c e . Hence a p p r o p r i a t e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s have not been made a v a i l a b l e t o them t o s a t i s f y t h i s y e a r n i n g , t h e y on t h e i r own, a r e d e v i s i n g w h a t e v e r f o r m u l a t i o n s t h a t come t o t h e i r minds i n o r d e r t o cope w i t h the s i t u a t i o n . 57 TASK I I Task I I was p r e s e n t e d t o the s u b j e c t s i n 4 s t a g e s as i n t h e p r e v i o u s Task. Fo r t h r e e of t h e s e s t a g e s , p i c t u r e s d e p i c t i n g v a r i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n a p l a n t ' s l i f e were p r e s e n t e d t o the s u b j e c t s . I n t h e f o u r t h s t a g e a l i v e p l a n t s p ecimen was u s e d . T h i s Task as a whole was i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y i n o r d e r t o f i n d out whether c h i l d r e n do r e a l i z e t h a t t h e mechanism of i n h e r i t a n c e as m a n i f e s t e d i n a n i m a l s f o l l o w s a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n i n p l a n t s as w e l l . Q u e s t i o n I : I f a deep c u t i s made on the b a r k of a t r e e ( e . g . a r u b b e r t r e e ) . W i l l the t r e e grow a s c a r ? T h i s q u e s t i o n was a s k e d i n o r d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t h o s e c h i l d r e n who have an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the f a c t t h a t p l a n t s can grow a s c a r when t h e i r b a r k s a r e wounded and t h o s e c h i l d r e n who l a c k such an u n d e r s t a n d i n g . And f r o m m e r e l y g l a n c i n g t h r o u g h T a b l e 2 B I , i t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the c h i l d r e n f r o m b o t h the younger (6-9 y e a r s ) and t h e o l d e r group (10-13 y e a r s ) have an u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t p l a n t s do grow s c a r s when t h e i r b a r k i s wounded. Only two c h i l d r e n among the younger group of c h i l d -r e n s a i d t h e y do n o t b e l i e v e the phenomenon i s p o s s i b l e . To them p l a n t s c a n n o t grow a s c a r . O nly one c h i l d among th e o l d e r group of c h i l d r e n had d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e t a s k . I t i s i n f a c t even s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a c h i l d i n t h i s age group s h o u l d have a p r o b l e m w i t h t h i s q u e s t i o n a t a l l . But t a k i n g a c l o s e r l o o k a t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i n T a b l e 2 A V I I I (Appendix) one' sees t h a t t h i s s u b j e c t ' s p r o b l e m i s o n l y one of s e m a n t i c s (see W a l t e r (13.8) T a b l e 2 A V I I I ) . F o r W a l t e r e x p l a i n e d h i s p o s i t i o n by s a y i n g t h a t he h i m s e l f wounded a t r e e w h i c h i s s t a n d i n g j u s t i n f r o n t o f h i s house. And f o r t h e p a s t f i v e y e a r s 58 he has been w a t c h i n g the t r e e , t h e wound i s s t i l l t h e r e b u t t h e o u t e r s k i n i s d r y and n o t f r e s h . However, he cannot r e f e r t o t h i s phenomenon as a s c a r . So one sees t h a t W a l t e r ' s p r o b l e m i s n o t w i t h t h e c o n c e p t b u t r a t h e r i s w i t h the l i n g u i s t i c a p p l i c a t i o n of the word ' s c a r ' t o p l a n t s . As i m p l i e d by h i s argument, he may have l e a r n e d t o use t h e word ' s c a r ' o n l y i n a n i m a l and human c i r c u m s t a n c e s and not i n the c o n t e x t of p l a n t s . Hence W a l t e r ' s p r o b l e m was o n l y one of l a n g u a g e he was a s k e d t h e accompanying q u e s t i o n s t h a t c o m p r i s e the Task, w i t h t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r making a p p r o p r i a t e 'wording m o d i f i c a t i o n s ' t o s u i t t h i s s u b j e c t ' s f r a m e -work. The o t h e r two c h i l d r e n , C h r i s t i n a (5.6) and Jamie (7.4) (see T a b l e 2AI) who d e n i e d f l a t l y t h a t p l a n t s cannot grow s c a r s because 'they a r e n o t human b e i n g s ' were n o t asked f u r t h e r about the phenomenon. T h e i r s c o r e i n T a b l e 2 B I I , 2 B I I I , and 2BIV i s r e c o r d e d as 0 ( z e r o ) . From the t o t a l s c o r e r a t i o i n T a b l e 2BI w h i c h i s p r e s e n t e d as 3-29, i t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t the m a j o r i t y of t h e c h i l d r e n knew what t h e c o n c e p t , checked f o r , was. That i s 29 c h i l d r e n s a i d t h e t r e e w i l l grow a s c a r , w h i l e o n l y 3 s a i d t h e t r e e l a c k s s u c h c a p a b i l i t y . I t was t h e s e 29 c h i l d r e n p l u s W a l t e r who were exposed t o the subsequent t h r e e q u e s t i o n s . Q u e s t i o n I I : I f a t r e e i s wounded and i t h e a l s i t s wound, would the s c a r formed be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e s e e d l i n g o f t h i s t r e e ? I n t h i s q u e s t i o n the c h i l d r e n were shown two p i c t u r e s of men i n f l i c t i n g wounds on the b a r k s of two d i f f e r e n t t r e e s , a r u b b e r t r e e and a d o u g l a s f i r t r e e . From o b s e r v i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c o r e s i n T a b l e 2 B I I , one n o t i c e s t h a t o n l y 3 c h i l d r e n s a i d t h a t t h e s c a r w i l l be t r a n s f e r r e d t o th e s e e d l i n g p l a n t w h i l e 27 c h i l d r e n s a i d t h i s i s n o t the c a s e . I t i s 59 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE 2BI A G E QUESTION I: . , 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 If a deep cue is made on the bark of a tree (e.g. a rubber tree). Will the tree grow a scar? RESPONSE: TOTAL No, It won't grow a scar. Yes, it would grow a scar. 1111 11 1111 1111111 11111 111 1111 29 60 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE 2BII QUESTION II: If a tree is wounded and it heals its wound, would the scar formed be transferred to the seedling of this tree? A G E 9 10 11 12 13 RESPONSE: Yes, it would be transferred. TOTAL No, i t would not be transferred. 1111 11 1111 11111 11111 11 11111 27 61 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE 2BII1 QUESTION III: Suppose a tree has 20 branches and 10 of these branches were chopped off. Will the scars of these chopped off branches show on the young. seedling? A G E 9 10 11 12 13 Yes, the scars wi l l appear on the seedling. No, the scars won't appear. TOTAL 1 11 11 1 11 11111 11111 11 11111 22 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE 2BIV QUESTION IV: 6 7 8 9 If the leaves of a tree were cut in two halves (demonstrate with a leaf and scissors) when the tree was s t i l l a seedling plant, wil l this affect the shape of the seedling leaves of the tree? Yes, the shape of the leaves of the RESPONSE: seedling would be affected. No, the leaves won't be affected. I l l 11 11 I don't know. 1 63 r a t h e r s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e s e 3 c h i l d r e n come fr o m t h e group of o l d e r s u b j e c t s (10-13 y e a r s ) . Two of t h e s e s u b j e c t s who s a i d the s c a r w i l l be t r a n s f e r r e d e x p l a i n e d t h a t o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f the"'scar, commensurate w i t h t h e s i z e of the s e e d l i n g , w i l l a p pear. F o r t h i s group of s u b j e c t s as the s e e d l i n g grows b i g g e r and b i g g e r so t h e s c a r grows l a r g e r and l a r g e r t o o (see T a b l e 2AV f o r Stephen (10.9) and T a b l e 2AVII f o r Sandra ( 1 2 . 8 ) . The t h i r d c h i l d i n t h i s group e x p l a i n e d h i s p o s i t i o n u s i n g the f a c t o . r . o f Time, even b e f o r e t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r c o u l d i n t r o d u c e the q u e s t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h a t s i t u a t i o n . So i n f a c t h i s r e s p o n s e t o Q u e s t i o n I I I was m e r e l y i m p l i e d from, h i s r e s p o n s e h e r e . The f o l l o w i n g i n t e r v i e w segment i s p r e s e n t e d f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n of the s u b j e c t s ' s t a t e m e n t s : Jun (1 0 . 6 ) . " i f the wound was "done b e f o r e t h e seeds a r e on the t r e e , t h e n t h e s c a r would be g i v e n t o the s e e d l i n g . But i f i t i s done when t h e seeds a r e a l r e a d y t h e r e i t would n o t be g i v e n i n t o the se e d s " . (See T a b l e 2AV). Among t h e 27 s u b j e c t s who p r e d i c t e d t h a t the s c a r o f t h e p a r e n t p l a n t would not be handed down t o t h e s e e d l i n g t h r e e , t h e r e was a v e r y good r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m the younger group and the o l d e r group of s u b j e c t s . These 27 c h i l d r e n have g i v e n v a r y i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s t o s u p p o r t t h e i r . p r e -d i c t i o n s . Some i n f a c t i n t h e i r d e n i a l of the t r a n s f e r of the s c a r have made r e f e r e n c e t o what they s a i d e a r l i e r about t h e dogs i n Task I . Tony (12.6) "The s e e d l i n g won't have a s c a r . I t i s something l i k e t h a t -the.dog". W i t h i n t h i s same group a l s o o t h e r c h i l d r e n have used a p u r e l y s o m a t i c o r o r g a n i s m i c e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t t h e seed was n o t c o n c e i v e d i n s i d e the p a r e n t s p l a n t ' s body, so because of t h a t t h e r e I s no way t h i s c o n d i t i o n c o u l d a f f e c t t he s e e d l i n g . These k i n d s of e x p l a n a t i o n s came e s p e c i a l l y f r o m t h o s e s u b j e c t s whose p r e d i c t i o n i n t h i s q u e s t i o n c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e i r 64 p r e d i c t i o n i n t h e c a s e of t h e dog. Susan's (11.1) i n t e r v i e w e x c e r p t i s one i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the c a s e I n p o i n t . E w i l l t h i s s c a r be t r a n s f e r r e d t o the young p l a n t o r w i l l i t n o t n o t be t r a n s f e r r e d ? S : No. I don't t h i n k i t w i l l . E : Why w i l l i t n o t be t r a n s f e r r e d ? S : Because i t o n l y happened t o t h i s one ( p a r e n t ) . A p e r s o n came and p e e l e d i t o f f . E : Why i s i t t h a t i n t h i s t r e e the s c a r i s n o t t r a n s f e r r e d , b u t i n dogs i t i s t r a n s f e r r e d ? S : Because i t i s j u s t seeds coming o u t . . . l i k e . . . some one i s t a k i n g them away. E : What do you mean e x a c t l y ? S : They d o n ' t grow i n the t r e e , some one's got t o p l a n t them away f r o m t h i s t r e e . (See a l s o E r i c (11.10) T a b l e 2AVI) Y e t , t h e r e a r e q u i t e a few s u b j e c t s w i t h i n t h i s group of c h i l d r e n who gave a d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n of t h e s o m a t i c e x p l a n a t i o n . They s a i d t h a t s i n c e the t r e e was n o t wounded on t h e b r a n c h e s w h i c h h o l d the s e e d s , the seeds a r e then t o o f a r away f r o m t h e wounded stem t o g e t the e f f e c t Of the wound. So f o r t h e s e s u b j e c t s " p r o x i m i t y " of the d e v e l o p i n g seeds t o the wounded p a r t of the t r e e i s t h e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t o be c o n s i d e r e d f o r the d e t e r -m i n a t i o n of whether o r n o t the s c a r would be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e s e e d l i n g . The f u r t h e r away the wound i s f r o m t h e l o c a t i o n of the s e e d s , t h e l e s s t h e chance f o r t r a n s f e r ; the n e a r e r the b e t t e r . 65 Q u e s t i o n I I I : Suppose a t r e e has 20 b r a n c h e s and 10 of t h e s e b r a n c h e s were chopped o f f . W i l l t h e s c a r s of t h e s e chopped o f f b r a n c h e s show on the young s e e d l i n g o f t h i s t r e e ? I n t h i s q u e s t i o n the v a r i a b l e o f the ' p r o x i m i t y o f the s e e d s ' t o the i n j u r e d p a r t of t h e t r e e w h i c h some of t h e c h i l d r e n m e n t i o n e d i n t h e d a t a of the l a s t q u e s t i o n ( i . e . Q u e s t i o n I I ) was checked f o r on the o t h e r s u b j e c t s . As can be seen from the s c o r e r a t i o i n T a b l e 2 B I I I , 8 s u b j e c t s c l a i m t h a t t h e s c a r s w i l l be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e s e e d l i n g w h i l e 22 s a i d t h e s c a r s w i l l n o t be t r a n s f e r r e d . From t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f some of t h e s e s u b j e c t s , i t a p p e a rs q u i t e a few o f them d i d n o t l o o k a t t h e phenomenon fr o m a ' p r o x i m i t y t o i n j u r y ' p o i n t of v i e w , r a t h e r t h e y l o o k e d a t ' i t f r o m a 'permanence of s c a r ' p o i n t o f v i e w . That i s , f o r t h e s e c h i l d r e n s i n c e the , wound on t h e b a r k would grow a new s k i n and c o n c e a l the i n j u r y , t h e r e s u l t -ant s c a r w i l l n ot be t r a n s f e r r e d as the i n j u r y was o n l y temporary. A new s k i n would grow i n arid c o v e r the a r e a . But i n t h e case o f t h e c u t t i n g down of t h e b r a n c h e s , t h e s c a r s r e m a i n p e r m a n e n t l y on the p a r e n t t r e e r i g h t t h r o u g h i t s l i f e span. Because of t h i s permanent m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e s c a r s i n t h i s t y p e o f i n j u r y , ' t h e s e c h i l d r e n b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s c a r s l e f t b e h i n d w i l l be t r a n s f e r r e d t o the s e e d l i n g t r e e f r o m t h e p a r e n t t r e e . F o r examples of t h e s e k i n d s o f r e s p o n s e , see Hughie ( 8 . 6 ) , and Brenda (7.8) i n T a b l e 2 A I I . A l t h o u g h the f a c t o r , o f ' p r o x i m i t y ' w a s i n i t i a l l y i n t r o d u c e d by s u b j e c t s f r o m t h e o l d e r group, as a l r e a d y e x p l a i n e d i n the a n a l y s i s f o r Q u e s t i o n I I , t h i s f a c t o r when f o r m a l l y i n s t i t u t e d i n t h i s Q u e s t i o n I I I , had e f f e c t t o a l a r g e e x t e n t among t h e younger group of c h i l d r e n (6-9 y e a r o l d s ) . The 66 c a s e s o f Brenda and Hughie mentioned above t e s t i f y t o t h i s s t a t e m e n t . F i v e o f t h e 8 s u b j e c t s who s a i d the s c a r s w i l l be t r a n s f e r r e d a r e f r o m the 6-9 y e a r o l d s . And among t h i s group of young c h i l d r e n a l s o o n l y 5 p r e -d i c t e d t h a t t he s c a r w i l l n o t be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e o f f s p r i n g t r e e . W h i l e i n t h e o l d e r group o f s u b j e c t s 17 s a i d t h e s c a r w i l l n o t be t r a n s f e r r e d and o n l y 3 s a i d t h e s c a r w i l l be t r a n s f e r r e d . These 3 s u b j e c t s i n f a c t a r e t he same ones who s a i d i n Q u e s t i o n I I t h a t t h e s c a r w i l l be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t he s e e d l i n g . So a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s d a t a t h e n , the ' p r o x i m i t y ' v a r i a b l e d i d n o t have a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t i n c h a n g i n g t h e a l r e a d y i m p l a n t e d c o n c e p t s of the o l d e r c h i l d r e n e x c e p t f o r the 3 c a s e s w h i c h have a l r e a d y been t a l k e d a b o u t . Those c h i l d r e n who a r e d e c e i v e d by the i n t r o d u c t e d v a r i a b l e , ' p r o x i m i t y ' had b a s i c a l l y t he same r e a s o n , e x c e p t f o r t h e sub-j e c t s who gave a 'permanence' e x p l a n a t i o n , f o r s a y i n g t h a t t he s c a r s on the b r a n c h e s w i l l be t r a n s f e r r e d . The s t a t e m e n t s o f M i c a h e l (9.2) (see T a b l e 2 A I I I ) e x e m p l i f y t h e s e c h i l d r e n ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s . " I f t h e b r a n c h e s a r e removed, t h i s ( s c a r ) w i l l be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e s e e d l i n g . Because t h i s i s now c u t t i n g down b r a n c h e s . " Q u e s t i o n IV: I f t h e l e a v e s of a house p l a n t were c u t i n two h a l v e s (demon-s t r a t e ) when t h e p l a n t was a s e e d l i n g , w i l l t h i s a f f e c t t he shape o f the l e a v e s of t h e s e e d l i n g t r e e ? I n o r d e r t o f i n d out whether the v a r i a b l e of t i m e e l a p s e d w o u l d have any e f f e c t i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e b e l i e f s h e l d by t h e s u b j e c t s r e g a r d i n g t h e t r a n s -m i s s i o n of i n h e r i t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f r o m a p a r e n t p l a n t t o an o f f s p r i n g p l a n t , t h e above q u e s t i o n was p r e s e n t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h a c o n c r e t e d e m o n s t r a t i o n of t h e t a s k done by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i n f r o n t o f t h e s u b j e c t . W i t h t h e use of a p a i r o f s c i s s o r s , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r c u t up one o r two 67 l e a v e s o f a young p o t t e d p l a n t i n t o two h a l v e s and asked t h e s u b j e c t whether the a c t i o n d e m o n s t r a t e d would a f f e c t t h e shape o f the l e a v e s o f the s e e d l i n g t h a t would d e v e l o p f r o m the seeds of t h i s p o t t e d p l a n t . As c o u l d be seen f r o m T a b l e 2BIV, o n l y 4 c h i l d r e n s a i d t h a t t h e c u t t i n g of t h e l e a v e s o f t h e p a r e n t p l a n t would a f f e c t the shape o f t h e l e a v e s o f the s e e d l i n g . Three of t h e s e c h i l d r e n a r e f r o m t h e o l d e r group. These 3 o l d e r c h i l d r e n a r e i n f a c t t h e same s u b j e c t s who have been s a y i n g a l l a l o n g t h a t t h e p l a n t ' s d e f o r m i t i e s w o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d . Thus, i t can be seen t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e s e s u b j e c t s a r e wrong, t h e y have been c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n . As a whole 25 of t h e s u b j e c t s s a i d t h e c u t on t h e l e a v e s would not a f f e c t the shape o f the l e a v e s o f the s e e d l i n g . E i g h t o f t h i s group of c h i l d r e n come f r o m the younger group w h i l e t h e o t h e r 17 c h i l d r e n a r e f r o m t h e o l d e r group o f c h i l d r e n . One c h i l d s a i d he d i d n o t know the answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n . I n t h i s t a s k a s m a l l v a r i a t i o n was made i n t h a t t h e v a r i a b l e s of sex and t h e number of t h e p a r e n t s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the o f f s p r i n g ' s c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s , as was t h e c a s e i n Task I , was o m i t t e d . T h i s became n e c e s s a r y because t h e P i l o t Study r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e s e v a r i a b l e s as t h e y a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o p l a n t s . Summary I t w o u l d appear f r o m t h e v e r y low f r e q u e n c y of t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h i s t a s k who c l a i m t h a t t h e s c a r would be t r a n s f e r r e d , t h a t t h e c o n c e p t checked f o r by t h e Task was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n the minds o f t h e s u b j e c t s who were s t u d i e d . B u t , f r o m p r o b i n g s of some of the s u b j e c t s , i t became q u i t e e v i d e n t t h a t even though the m a j o r i t y of the s u b j e c t s gave what would be c a l l e d ' a c c e p t a b l e ' p r e d i c t i o n s , t h e s e answers were n o t , e x c e p t 68 f o r a few c a s e s , based on any u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e g e n e t i c p r i n c i p l e w h i c h i s o p e r a t i n g and r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e n o n - t r a n s f e r of the s c a r . Some o f t h e s u b j e c t s c l a r i f i e d t h e i r p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n f o r t h i s Task from t h e i r p o s i t i o n f o r t h e p r e v i o u s Task ort dogs, t h a t p l a n t s and a n i m a l s a r e n o t t h e same o r g a n i s m , i m p l y i n g t h e y a r e n o t o p e r a t i n g under t h e same g e n e t i c mechanism. To t h i s end Jamie (7.4) s a y s : "There i s o n l y one t h i n g w h i c h a n i m a l s and p l a n t s do t h e same. They b o t h d r i n k w a t e r . " The f a c t o r s t h a t were i n t r o d u c e d , i . e . t h e f a c t o r of p r o x i m i t y and p e r -manence, had v a r y i n g d e grees of e f f e c t on b o t h age g r o u p s . However, o n l y 3 c h i l d r e n from t h e o l d e r group as opposed t o 5 c h i l d r e n from the younger group y i e l d e d t o the d e c e p t i o n of t h e s e f a c t o r s . The m i s c o n c e p t i o n s t h e n were p r e s e n t i n b o t h t h e o l d e r and t h e younger group of c h i l d r e n . The f a c t o r o f t i m e e l a p s e d d i d n o t seem t o have much e f f e c t on t h e s u b j e c t s s i n c e many of them s a i d t h a t t h e t r e e w i l l grow new l e a v e s a g a i n w i t h good shape i n p l a c e o f t h e i n j u r e d ones (see T a b l e 2BIV f o r t h e s c o r e s ) . On t h e whole t h e m a j o r i t y of the s u b j e c t s p r e d i c t e d f o r t h i s t a s k t h a t t h e s e e d l i n g s would n o t be a f f e c t e d . But i n c o n s i s t e n c y was r e v e a l e d i n b o t h groups of s u b j e c t s by t h e i r r e s p o n s e s when th e f a c t o r s , of ' p r o x i m i t y ' and 'permanence' were i n t r o d u c e d . Thus, t h e ' a c c e p t a b l e ' p r e d i c t i o n s d i d not seem t o be based on an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e of i n h e r i t a n c e . 69 TASK I I I Task I I I was d e v e l o p e d i n o r d e r t o f i n d out what b e l i e f p a t t e r n s t h e c h i l d r e n have r e g a r d i n g t h e phenomenon o f i n h e r i t a n c e i n human b e i n g s . The f o u r q u e s t i o n s t h a t c o m p r i s e t h i s Task were p r e s e n t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e same f o r m a t as i n t h e e a r l i e r t a s k s . The f i r s t two q u e s t i o n s a r o s e o u t of a p i c t u r e o f a t r a i n a c c i d e n t . The second two q u e s t i o n s were d e v e l o p e d f r o m a p i c t u r e o f a c a r wreck. Q u e s t i o n I : Suppose i n a t r a i n a c c i d e n t , a man l o s t one o f h i s f i n g e r s . I f t h i s man has a c h i l d , how many f i n g e r s w i l l t h i s baby have? I n t h i s q u e s t i o n o n l y t h e f a c t o r o f the male p a r t n e r was p r e s e n t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t s . The f e m a l e f a c t o r was w i t h h e l d . The t o t a l s c o r e f o r t h i s q u e s t i o n on T a b l e 3BI shows t h a t 7 o f the s u b j e c t s s a i d t h e c h i l d would have fewer f i n g e r s . Of t h e s e 7, 5 s u b j e c t s come fr o m t h e younger group o f s u b j e c t s (6-9 y e a r s ) , w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g two a r e fr o m t h e o l d e r group (10-13 y e a r s ) . T w e n t y - t h r e e s u b j e c t s p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e c h i l d w i l l be b o r n n o r m a l . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e 23 s u b j e c t s come fr o m t h e o l d e r group of c h i l d r e n . I n f a c t , no c h i l d w i t h i n t h e sample o f c h i l d r e n who p a r t i -c i p a t e d showed s i g n s o f t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n a f t e r t h e age of 10. However, 5 of t h e 23 s u b j e c t s who c l a i m e d t h e d e f o r m i t y cannot be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e c h i l d come f r o m t h e younger group. These f i g u r e s a r e s u g g e s t i v e i n d e e d b u t a c l o s e r s t u d y r e v e a l s t h a t t h e y p o r t r a y a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e f r o m what t h e f a c t s a r e . T h i s i s because t h e arguments t h a t were advanced by some o f t h e 23 s u b j e c t s were n o t i n d i c a t i v e o f an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e u n d e r l y i n g mechanism. Some c l a i m t h a t b ecause i t i s t h e man who i s i n v o l v e d t h e c h i l d would h o t be a f f e c t e d s i n c e i t i s t h e woman who b e a r s t h e b a b i e s . A few s u b j e c t s ' i n t e r v i e w segments a r e p r e s e n t e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e p o i n t . Susan (11.1) " I t h i n k t h e baby wo u l d s t i l l have t e n - l i k e f i v e on each hand. I t s h o u l d n o t a f f e c t t h e baby, because i t happened j u s t t o t h e man and t h e l a d y had good f i n g e r s . " D o u glas (8.1) "A man does n o t have b a b i e s . But i f he has a w i f e w i t h n o r m a l f i n g e r s , one c h i l d would have ( f i v e ) f i n g e r s l i k e me." Jamie (7.4) "Men? Men cannot have b a b i e s . No." However, most o f t h e 23 c h i l d r e n c o m p r i s i n g t h i s group had c l e a r n o t i o n s about t h e phenomenon. A c a s e f r o m t h e younger group o f c h i l d r e n i s p r e s e n t e d t o e x e m p l i f y t h e o t h e r s u b j e c t s ' f o r m of t h i n k i n g . T r i c i a (7.5) "The baby would j u s t be as someone who d i d not have any f i n g e r s c u t o f f . So i t won't a f f e c t t h e c h i l d . The above i n d i c a t e s t h a t b o t h forms o f t h i n k i n g p a t t e r n s a r e p r e s e n t i n b o t h t h e age groups o f s u b j e c t s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d . Q u e s t i o n I I : Suppose a man and h i s w i f e b o t h l o s t t h e i r t h u m b s / f i n g e r s i n a t r a i n a c c i d e n t . I f t h e y have a c h i l d a f t e r w a r d s , how w i l l t h e c h i l d be? I n t h i s q u e s t i o n t h e f e m a l e p a r e n t was i n t r o d u c e d . i n t o t h e scene.-in. o r d e r see what e f f e c t t h i s new f a c t o r would have on t h e s u b j e c t s ' p r e d i c t i o n . As r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 3 B I I , 12 s u b j e c t s s a i d t h e c h i l d w i l l be b o r n w i t h fewer f i n g e r s . Of t h e s e 12 s u b j e c t s , 6 a r e f r o m t h e younger group (6-9 y e a r s ) and t h e o t h e r 6 a r e f r o m t h e o l d e r group of s u b j e c t s . N i n e t e e n c h i l d r e n p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e c h i l d would be b o r n n o r m a l . F i v e o f t h e s e 71 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE 3B1 QUESTION I: Suppose in a train accident, a man lost one of his fingers/toes. If this man has a child,how many fingers/toes wil l he/she have?' A G E 10 11 12 13 RESPONSE: TOTAL The child would have less number of fingers/toes. 11 11 The child wil l have normal fingers. 11 11111 11111 111 11111 23 I don't know. 1 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE 3BII QUESTION.II: Suppose a man and his wife both lost their thumbs/finger in a train accident. If they have a child afterwards, how will this child be? RESPONSE: The child wil l have less number 0 11 11 of fingers or thumbs/short fingers. The child wil l be normal. m 7 3 RESPONSE: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE 3BIII A G E QUESTION. I l l : ' ' 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Suppose another couple were injured in a car accident in which they, lost their eyesight. If they have a child afterwards, wil l lie be. affected? TOTAL The child would be blind - 0 11 1 11 1111 11 11 13 partially or wholly. The child wil l be normal. I l l 11 111 111 1 11111 17 I don't know. 1 74 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE 3BIV A G E QUESTION IV: ' 6 7 8 9 10 Suppose a small boy and a small g i r l lost their fingers when they were just babies. If they get married and have a baby, wil l their baby be affected? RESPONSE: Yes, their baby will be affected. 0 11 11 11 1111 11 11 1 15 No, the baby would be normal. I l l 11 11 111 1 111 14 I don't know 1 1 2 75 19 s u b j e c t s a r e f r o m t h e younger group. The r e m a i n i n g 14 a r e fr o m t h e o l d e r group. Those c h i l d r e n who p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e c h i l d would be b o r n w i t h l e s s number o f f i n g e r s had v a r i o u s r e a s o n s f o r b e l i e v i n g so. Some b e l i e v e t h a t as l o n g as t h e mother i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e a c c i d e n t , t h e c h i l d w i l l be a f f e c t e d . F o r some o f them, i t i s o n l y t h e mother who m a t t e r s . Hughie (8.6) "As l o n g as i t i s t h e l a d y who i s wounded, t h e c h i l d w i l l show t h e s c a r , t o o . " Fo r some o t h e r s b o t h p a r e n t s have t o have the d e f o r m i t y f o r i t t o be t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e o f f s p r i n g . I f i t i s o n l y one p a r e n t who i s a f f e c t e d , t h a t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o w a r r a n t t r a n s f e r . F o r examples o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s see Susan (11.1) T a b l e 3AV and T r e v o r (10.1) T a b l e 3AIV. Y e t t h e r e a r e a few s c a t t e r e d c a s e s who b e l i e v e t h a t e i t h e r t h e i n j u r y has t o be r e a l l y s e v e r e ( M a r i a 10.11, T a b l e 3AV) o r has t o i n v o l v e i n t e r n a l o r g a n s ( G a e l e n 11.11, T a b l e 3AVI) b e f o r e i t can be handed o v e r t o t h e o f f s p r i n g . On t h e o t h e r hand, some s u b j e c t s c o uch t h e i r b e l i e f o r e x p l a n a t i o n on a p r o b a b i l i s t i c framework. F o r example, Stephen (10.9) s a y s : I f t h e y had 3 c h i l d r e n , 2 of the c h i l d r e n c o u l d be l i k e t h e i r f a t h e r o r t h e i r mother. They c o u l d have one o r two f i n g e r s m i s s i n g . Thus, f r o m t h i s d a t a one see s t h a t t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e f e m a l e p a r e n t i n t o t h e p r o b l e m has had some impact on some s u b j e c t s b o t h f r o m t h e younger and o l d e r group o f s u b j e c t s . They were l e a d i n t o b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e d e f o r m i t y c o u l d be i n h e r i t e d b ecause t h e l a d y o r b o t h p a r e n t s were i n v o l v e d i n t h e a c c i d e n t . 76 Q u e s t i o n I I I : Suppose a n o t h e r c o u p l e were i n j u r e d i n a c a r a c c i d e n t i n w h i c h t h e y l o s t t h e i r e y e s i g h t . I f t h e y have a c h i l d a f t e r w a r d s , w i l l he be a f f e c t e d ? T h i s q u e s t i o n was asked i n o r d e r t o f i n d o u t whether t h e i n f l i c t i o n o f an i n j u r y t o a v e r y v i t a l o r g a n s u c h as the eyes would make any d i f f e r e n c e i n terms of whether t h e d e f o r m i t y would be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e o f f s p r i n g o r n o t . The q u e s t i o n was d e v e l o p e d f r o m a p i c t u r e o f two wrecked c a r s w h i c h c o l l i d e d i n t o each o t h e r . T a b l e 3 B I I I shows t h a t 13 s u b j e c t s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e c h i l d b o r n o f t h e i n j u r e d p a r e n t s would be b l i n d . F i v e of t h e s e 13 c h i l d r e n a r e younger s u b j e c t s w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g 8 come from t h e group o f o l d e r s u b j e c t s . S e v e n t e e n o f t h e s u b j e c t s s a i d t h e c h i l d would be b o r n q u i t e n o r m a l . Of t h e s e 17 s u b j e c t s , 5 a r e from t h e younger group w h i l e the r e m a i n i n g 12 a r e f r o m t h e o l d e r group. One c h i l d s a i d he d i d n o t know th e answer. By comparing t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c o r e s f o r T a b l e s 3 B I I and 3 B I I I , one sees t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n m a i n t a i n e d v i r t u a l l y t h e same r e s p o n s e s f o r t h e two s i t u a t i o n s . ( P l e a s e see T a b l e 3AI t o 3 A V I I I f o r Q u e s t i o n s I I and I I I ) . A p a r t f r o m two s u b j e c t s - P a u l a 10.2, T a b l e 3ATV and S e r g i o 12.6, T a b l e 3AV.H who gave r a t h e r c o n f l i c t i n g p r e d i c t i o n s f o r t h e two s i t u a t i o n s , e v e r y o t h e r one of t h e c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e two groups o f s u b j e c t s was c o n -s i s t e n t i n terms of t h e p r e d i c t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e outcome of t h e phenomena. Thus, i t c o u l d be s a f e l y s a i d t h a t the v i t a l i t y o f t h e i n j u r e d o r g a n does n o t seem t o be c o n s i d e r e d a v e r y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e t r a n s f e r o r non t r a n s f e r of t h e d e f o r m i t y t o t h e o f f s p r i n g . 77 Q u e s t i o n IV: Suppose a s m a l l boy and a s m a l l g i r l l o s t t h e i r f i n g e r s when the y were j u s t b a b i e s . I f th e y g e t m a r r i e d ( l a t e r ) and have a baby, w i l l t h e i r baby be a f f e c t e d ? I n t h i s q u e s t i o n t h e e f f e c t o f ti m e l a p s e d o r d u r a t i o n o f a d e f o r m i t y on an i n d i v i d u a l was checked f o r i n o r d e r t o f i n d out whether the s u b j e c t s c o n s i d e r t h i s an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f what an o f f s p r i n g can o r cannot i n h e r i t f rom p a r e n t s . The n a r r a t i v e and t h e q u e s t i o n were d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e p i c t u r e o f t h e two wrecked c a r s . T a b l e 3BIV shows t h a t 15 c h i l d r e n s a i d t h a t t h e baby w i l l be b o r n w i t h s h o r t f i n g e r s l i k e t h e p a r e n t s . Of t h e s e 15 s u b j e c t s , 6 a r e younger s u b j e c t s w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g 9 come from t h e o l d e r group of s u b j e c t s . F o u r t e e n c h i l d r e n c l a i m e d t h e i n j u r y t o the f i n g e r o f t h e p a r e n t s w o u l d n o t a f f e c t t h e i r c h i l d i n any way. F i v e o f t h e s e 14 sub-j e c t s a r e f r o m t h e younger group and the o t h e r 9 s u b j e c t s a r e f r o m t h e o l d e r group. Two s u b j e c t s s a i d t h e y do not know t h e answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n . One s u b j e c t gave no r e s p o n s e a t a l l . Her s c o r e i s r e c o r d e d as z e r o . Those c h i l d r e n who s a i d the i n j u r y c o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d had e x p l a n a -t i o n s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g k i n d s : Sandra (12.8) " I t i s the d i f f e r e n c e o f t i m e . I f one boy had i t ( t h e i n j u r y ) b e f o r e t h e o t h e r , t h e f i r s t boy, h i s son o r d a u g h t e r w o u l d have s h o r t e r f i n g e r s , t he second boy h i s son would have l o n g e r f i n g e r s . " S e r g i o (12.6) "Because t h e y h a v e n ' t y e t grown t o a l l t h e y can. They a r e s t i l l young. So i t w o u l d a f f e c t t h e i r g r o w i n g c y c l e . " A l t h o u g h t h e s e two c a s e s e x e m p l i f y t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s some of the c h i l d r e n have r e g a r d i n g the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i n h e r i t a n c e , t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e 78 n o t as r e v e a l i n g as t h e one g i v e n by M i c h a e l (13.10) about how c h i l d r e n t h i n k the mechanism of i n h e r i t a n c e t a k e s p l a c e . E : W i l l the r e m o v a l of t h e s e b r a n c h e s a f f e c t t h e s e e d l i n g of t h i s t r e e ? S : No. I d o n ' t t h i n k so. E : Why do you say i t won't? S : I t i s w i t h t h e seeds. When the seed f a l l s , i t s t a r t s i t s own l i f e by i t s e l f . I t s t a r t s b u i l d i n g the t r e e . I t makes i t s own b r a n c h e s . I t does n o t , l i k e a human, l e a v e back t r a c e s f r o m maybe the p a r e n t s . I don't t h i n k a t r e e w i l l . E : I f i n t h i s c a r a c c i d e n t a man l o s t h i s f i n g e r / t o e , w i l l t h i s a f f e c t h i s c h i l d ? S : No. E : Why n o t ? S : : W e l l , i t does n o t a f f e c t t h e c h i l d because t h e f a t h e r i s a l r e a d y mature. So when he goes t o have c h i l d r e n h i s b r a i n would sense t h a t he had a t o e b e f o r e . So I would guess i t would n o t a f f e c t t h e c h i l d . E : What about i f t h e a c c i d e n t happened when t h i s man was s t i l l a v e r y s m a l l boy? S : W e l l , I t h i n k i t would a f f e c t t h e c h i l d , y e a . Because the boy would n o t be mature y e t . He would s t i l l be g r o w i n g up. Because h i s b r a i n would sense t h a t one t o e i s m i s s i n g , j u s t h a v i n g f o u r . Y ea, I guess so. E : I n t h e e a r l i e r e x p l a n a t i o n s you gave me w i t h r e g a r d s t o young p l a n t s , t o young dogs, you s a i d i t would n o t a f f e c t them, why i s i t d i f f e r e n t now? S : When I s a i d about t h e dog, the dog was s t i l l s m a l l , i t would g e t used t o i t . But a human i s more.developed. H i s own b r a i n would know more about i t t h a n an a n i m a l whose b r a i n i s l e s s d e v e l o p e d . And the p l a n t w e l l (shakes h i s head and l a u g h s ) . Thus, one sees f r o m the above e x c e r p t s t h a t f o r some s u b j e c t s t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s about t h e phenomenon were n o t l i n k e d w h o l l y t o Time b u t r a t h e r t o Time i n i t s r e l a t i o n t o t h e b r a i n development of t h e o r g a n i s m i n q u e s t i o n . F o r t h i s group of c h i l d r e n , t h e r e f o r e , the g e n e t i c o r i n h e r i t a n c e phenomenon i s d i r e c t l y under t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n ( c o n t r o l ) of t h e b r a i n of t h e o r g a n i s m . Hence, p l a n t s do n o t have a b r a i n , t h e i r own i n h e r i t a n c e mechanism i s bound to f o l l o w a d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n t o t h a t of humans and a n i m a l s . Summary The f a c t o r s of 'sex of p a r e n t ' , 'time or d u r a t i o n of i n j u r y ' were seen to have some e f f e c t on some of the s u b j e c t s by m i s l e a d i n g them t o t h i n k t h a t t h e s e a r e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s t o c o n s i d e r i n terms of whether an i n j u r y - e f f e c t c a n be t r a n s f e r r e d or n o t . The m i s c o n c e p t i o n c r e a t e d by t h e s e v a r i a b l e s was p r e s e n t i n b o t h the younger and o l d e r group of s u b j e c t s . I t was o b s e r v e d t h a t the ' v i t a l i t y o f an o r g a n ' v a r i a b l e d i d n o t p l a y any ( i m p o r t a n t ) r o l e of c h a n g i n g t h e v i e w of t h o s e s u b j e c t s who a l r e a d y had what can ba termed as a c c e p t a b l e c o n c e p t s about t h e phenomenon. However, o t h e r s u b s i d i a r y f a c t o r s s u c h as t h e s e v e r i t y of t h e i n j u r y and t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e i n j u r e d p a r t were c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t by some s u b j e c t s . 80 The e x p l a n a t i o n s p o s t u l a t e d by t h o s e s u b j e c t s who s a i d t h e c h i l d w i l l be a f f e c t e d f a l l u nder two c a t e g o r i e s . There were t h o s e who i n v o k e d a p u r e l y s o m a t i c o r o r g a n i s m i c c o n t r o l mechanism. They mentioned organs such as t h e b r a i n ( M i c h a e l 13.10) and b l o o d (Shannon 10.2) as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o n t r o l of t h e phenomenon of i n h e r i t a n c e . Some i n v o k e d a n a t u r a l i s t i c c o n t r o l mechanism. These me n t i o n e d i t e m s s u c h as t h e ' l i f e c y c l e ' as t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s of i n h e r i t e d t r a i t s . Among t h i s m i s l e a d group of s u b j e c t s , some b e l i e v e t h e mother p l a y s a more i m p o r t a n t r o l e t h a n t h e f a t h e r i n t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h e i n h e r i t e d t r a i t s . Those s u b j e c t s who gave what c o u l d be c a l l e d a c c e p t a b l e r e s p o n s e s have r e s o r t e d t o examples o f a n i m a l s ( d o m e s t i c a t e d ) , examples of r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s ' p a r e n t s who have l o s t a body p a r t i n a c c i d e n t s and y e t have normal o f f s p r i n g s , t o d e f e n d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . F o r examples see P a u l a (10.2) T a b l e 3AIV, S a r a h (11.2) T a b l e 3AVI and Tony (12.6) T a b l e 3 A V I I . I t c o u l d be c o n c l u d e d from a l l t h e s e f i n d i n g s t h a t the development of t h i s c o n c e p t i n the s u b j e c t s who were s t u d i e d , does n o t seem t o be r e l e v a n t t o a t h e o r y of n a t u r a l l y u n f o l d i n g s t r u c t u r e s . R a t h e r i t i s dependent on t h e v a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s t o w h i c h the c h i l d r e n have been exposed i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i r e v e r y d a y l i f e . 81 TASK IV -S t atemen t: Task IV and Task V a r e by t h e i r n a t u r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s t h r e e t a s k s . U n l i k e t h e phenomena t e s t e d f o r i n t h e e a r l i e r 3 t a s k s , t h e phenomena of c o l o u r and h e i g h t around w h i c h the f o l l o w i n g 2 t a s k s a r e d e v e l o p e d a r e g e n u i n e l y i n h e r i t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h o s e a n i m a l s t o w h i c h t h e y c a n be a s s o c i a t e d . The two t a s k s t h e m s e l v e s a r e s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i n t h a t c o l o u r i n dogs i s a p u r e l y i n h e r i t e d c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c w h i l e t h e h e i g h t i n man i s b o t h i n h e r i t e d and a l s o a f f e c t e d by e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s . I t i s i n an e f f o r t t o know what b e l i e f s c h i l d r e n have f o r t h e s e two phenomena t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g t a s k s were p r e s e n t e d . TASK IV T h i s t a s k was p r e s e n t e d i n s t a g e s i n w h i c h o t h e r v e r y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s t h a t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d by t h e s u b j e c t b e f o r e a l o g i c a l p r e d i c t i o n c o u l d be made, were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y h e l d back by t h e i n v e s t -i g a t o r . These v a r i a b l e s were g r a d u a l l y i n t r o d u c e d as t h e i n t e r v i e w p r o g r e s s e d . Q u e s t i o n I : I f a b l a c k ( f e m a l e ) dog i s t o have p u p p i e s , what c o l o u r would the p u p p i e s be? The c h i l d r e n were p r e s e n t e d w i t h a c o l o u r e d p i c t u r e o f a b l a c k f e m a l e dog. No p i c t u r e o f a male p a r t n e r was shown. Thus the f a c t o r of the f a t h e r dog was w i t h h e l d i n o r d e r t o f i n d out whether the s u b j e c t s would c o n s i d e r t h i s as an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e 82 c o l o u r of t h e p u p p i e s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s a p i c t u r e of s i x u n c o l o u r e d p u p p i e s was shown t o t h e s u b j e c t s . As mentioned i n o t h e r s e c t i o n s , the r e s p o n s e s of t h e s u b j e c t s were made up of a p r e d i c t i v e p a r t and an e x p l a n a t o r y p a r t . A c c o r d i n g t o T a b l e 4 B I , 13 s u b j e c t s p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e p u p p i e s would g e t a b l a c k c o l o u r . Of t h e s e 13 s u b j e c t s , 9 a r e from t h e younger group (6-9 y e a r s ) , and 4 a r e f r o m t h e o l d e r group (10-13 y e a r s ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t a f t e r t h e age of 9 y e a r s t h e number of s u b j e c t s making t h i s k i n d of p r e d i c t i o n d r o p s down s h a r p l y . F o r example, no s u b j e c t i n age 10, 11 and 12 made t h i s t y p e of p r e d i c t i o n . I n f a c t , a l l t h e 4 o l d e r s u b j e c t s who s a i d the p u p p i e s would be b l a c k a r e 13 y e a r o l d s . The . 4 come fr o m the same s c h o o l . However, one 11 y e a r o l d s u b j e c t s a i d i t i s u s u a l l y the f a t h e r who g i v e s the c o l o u r t o t h e p u p p i e s and n o t t h e mother-dog. E i g h t e e n s u b j e c t s p r e d i c t e d t h a t the p u p p i e s would be a m i x t u r e of many c o l o u r s d e p e n d i n g on t h e c o l o u r of the f a t h e r - d o g and a l s o t h e c o l o u r of t h e a n c e s t o r dogs f r o m whom t h e p a r e n t s were b o r n . Among the 18 s u b j e c t s who gave t h i s t y p e of p r e d i c t i o n f o u r were f r o m the group of younger s u b j e c t s . The r e m a i n i n g 14 a r e f r o m the group of o l d e r s u b j e c t s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e a l s o t h a t the number of s u b j e c t s making t h i s k i n d of p r e d i c t i o n p e r age group i n c r e a s e s m a r k e d l y as f r o m age 10 onwards w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of age 13 where most s u b j e c t s opted f o r t h e mother c o l o u r . Those s u b j e c t s who s a i d the p u p p i e s a r e g o i n g t o be b l a c k advanced many d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s t o s u p p o r t t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n . One of the most p o p u l a r of t h e s e r e a s o n s i s , " t h e p u p p i e s a r e g o i n g t o be b l a c k because t h e y t a k e a f t e r t h e i r mother who gave b i r t h t o them". 83 Examples of these cases axe-;Christina"' (5.6) /Table 4AI, Sandra (7.6), Brenda (7.8), Hugtiie (8.6) a l l i n Table 4AII, K e l l y (13,7), Mike (13.10) both i n Table 4 A V I I . The one subject who said that the puppies w i l l take a f t e r t h e i r father's colour said that i t i s j u s t the natural course of the process of inheritance. One sees that a l l of the subjects c i t e d above have invoked a n a t u r a l i s t i c explanation to support t h e i r claim. Some other subjects who predicted that the puppies are going to be black argued that "they take a f t e r the colour of the mother because she takes care of them". See Jamie (7.4) Table 4AI. For t h i s subject i t i s the amount of attention which a parent dog gives to the puppies which determines which colour the puppies would acquire. The less time a parent dog spends with the puppies, the fewer c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l the puppies acquire from that parent. This subject thus invokes an environmental explanation f o r h i s support. There i s again one subject who said that the colour of the parent dog does not matter at a l l . What matters to him i s the s p e c i f i c "colour of the teats from which the puppies suck milk". If the teats are white, the puppies are going to be white resardless of the mother's colour. See Gary (10.1) Table 4AIII. In t h i s case the subject i s invoking an organismic (somatic) explanation for the o r i g i n of the colour of the puppies. The above explanations vof environmental, n a t u r a l i s t i c and organismic (somatic) are not unique to the above subjects alone. Some of the subjects i n the other group who by th e i r p r e d i c t i o n appeared to recognize the necessity of knowing the colour of the male partner and even the ancestors gave explanations that reveal t h e i r ignorance about the phenomenon. They too invoked environmental as we l l organismic 84 ( s o m a t i c ) e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t . F o r example T r i c i a (7.5) T a b l e 4AI, s a i d : " I t h i n k t h e y ( p u p p i e s ) would be e i t h e r a l l b l a c k o r b l a c k and w h i t e , n o t j u s t w h i t e . They would g e t t h e w h i t e f r o m t h e male dog o r f r o m t h e sun". T r i c i a i s p a r t l y i n v o k i n g an e n v r i o n m e n t a l o r i g i n f o r the o t h e r c o l o u r on the p u p p i e s . She says t h i s c o l o u r would a r i s e f r o m the sun. She may have been m i s l e a d t o b e l i e v e t h a t dogs become sun tanned; s i n c e t h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d i n summer. The example of a s u b j e c t who i n v o k e d an o r g a n i s m i c ( s o m a t i c ) e x p l a n a t i o n i n t h i s group i s R i c h a r d 11.4, T a b l e 4AVI. R i c h a r d s a i d : "The p u p p i e s would p r o b a b l y be b l a c k - most of them, I t h i n k p r o b a b l y have odd w h i t e s p e c k s . Because t h e r e m i g h t be something l i k e t h a t i n s i d e the body of the mother". Thus R i c h a r d i s i n v o k i n g an o r g a n i s m i c ( s o m a t i c ) o r i g i n f o r t h e o t h e r c o l o u r s of t h e p u p p i e s . However, t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h i s group of 18 s u b j e c t s d i d n o t s i d e t r a c k i n t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s a t a l l . They were c a r e f u l t o n o t e t h a t t h e r e may be o t h e r c o l o u r s emerging on t h e p u p p i e s b u t they have emphasized t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r them t o know what t h e c o l o u r of t h e f a t h e r i ' . i s and i n some c a s e s even what the c o l o u r of t h e a n c e s t o r dogs a r e . So f o r t h e s e s u b j e c t s knowing o n l y t h e c o l o u r of the mother-dog i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t enough t o w a r r a n t a c e r t a i n t y p r e d i c t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e s of t h e s e s u b j e c t s see T r e v o r ( 1 0 . 1 ) , P a u l a ( 1 0 . 2 ) , Shannon (10.2) a l l i n T a b l e 4AIV; Stephen ( 1 0 . 9 ) , Susan (11.1) b o t h i n T a b l e 4AV; Sarah ( 1 1 . 2 ) , E r i c (11.10) b o t h i n T a b l e 4AVI; Tony ( 1 2 . 6 ) , S e r g i o ( 1 2 . 6 ) , Sandra ( 1 2 . 8 ) , L i z a (13.5) a l l i n T a b l e 4 A V I I I . I t i s q u i t e a p p a r e n t f r o m t h i s d a t a t h a t a l t h o u g h some younger s u b j e c t s e.g. Douglas (8.1) T a b l e 4 A I I i n v o k e d t h i s h e r e d i t a r y e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the phenomenon, t h e m a j o r i t y of the s u b j e c t s who advanced i t come f r o m the o l d e r group 85 e s p e c i a l l y f r o m age 10 onwards. Q u e s t i o n I I : I f a w h i t e male dog and a b l a c k f e m a l e dog have s i x p u p p i e s . What c o l o u r would t h e i r p u p p i e s be? I n t h i s q u e s t i o n t h e f a c t o r of the f a t h e r dog w h i c h some of t h e s u b j e c t s d i d n o t c o n s i d e r f o r the p r e d i c t i o n i n the l a s t q u e s t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d . A p i c t u r e of a w h i t e male dog was b r o u g h t s i d e by s i d e w i t h the b l a c k f e m a l e dog. I t c o u l d be s e e n f r o m T a b l e 4 B I I t h a t 19 of t h e s u b j e c t s p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e p u p p i e s would e i t h e r be b l a c k , w h i t e o r a m i x t u r e of t h e s e two c o l o u r s . These 19 s u b j e c t s c e n t r e d t h e i r t h o u g h t s o n l y around t h e c o l o u r s e x h i b i t e d by the p a r e n t s . They d i d n o t c o n s i d e r any r e c e s s i v e f a c t o r s ( f r o m t h e a n c e s t r a l l i n e ) w h i c h c o u l d have been p r e s e n t i n t h e p a r e n t -dog's g e n e t i c make-up. W i t h i n t h i s group of 19 s u b j e c t s , subgroups a r e c l e a r l y e v i d e n t . T h i r t e e n o f t h e s e 19 s u b j e c t s s a i d t h a t o n l y t h e two c o l o u r s of the p a r e n t dogs would show on the p u p p i e s . F i v e o t h e r s u b j e c t s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e p u p p i e s would a l l be b l a c k a f t e r t h e i r mother. One s u b j e c t s a i d t h e y would be a l l w h i t e a f t e r t h e c o l o u r of t h e i r f a t h e r . Of the above 19 s u b j e c t s who c e n t r e d t h e i r t h o u g h t s o n l y on the c o l o u r s e x h i b i t e d by e i t h e r one o r the two p a r e n t dogs, 8 a r e f r o m the younger group of s u b j e c t s . Ten s u b j e c t s a r e f r o m t h e o l d e r group. The one s u b j e c t who o pted f o r the f a t h e r i s f r o m t h e o l d e r group t o o . There were 13 s u b j e c t s who showed c a u t i o n o r r a t h e r s c e p t i c i s m and i m p r e c i s i o n about t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n . They c l a i m e d t h a t t h e p u p p i e s c o u l d be b l a c k , w h i t e o r a m i x t u r e of b l a c k and w h i t e and/or a n y t h i n g . These 13 s u b j e c t s were n o t m i s l e a d by t h e d e c e p t i v e c o l o u r s shown by t h e p a r e n t s . 86 They b e l i e v e d t h e r e were o t h e r f a c t o r s a t work a l t h o u g h , some of them d i d n o t know what t h e s e f a c t o r s were. P o u r o f t h e s e group of 13 s u b j e c t s a r e f r o m t h e younger group. The r e m a i n i n g 9 a r e f r o m the o l d e r group of s u b j e c t s . The e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e 19 s u b j e c t s who have based t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n o n l y on the c o l o u r of t h e p a r e n t s f a l l i n t o 3 c a t e g o r i e s : - t h e r e a r e t h o s e who i n v o k e d a n a t u r a l i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the o r i g i n of the c o l o u r s . Some of t h e s e s u b j e c t s have f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e any p r i n c i p l e o f dominance o r r e c e s s i v e n e s s i n t h e i s s u e of i n h e r i t a n c e . They have c l a i m e d t h a t t h e p u p p i e s would be b l a c k and w h i t e w i t h e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . Those who have quoted f i g u r e s have s a i d 3 p u p p i e s would be b l a c k and 3 would be w h i t e a f t e r t h e i r mother and f a t h e r . F o r example, J u n (10.6) s a y s : " I would say t h r e e of them would be b l a c k and t h r e e of them w h i t e . Three of t h e s e would be g i r l and the o t h e r t h r e e would be boy". F o r more examples of t h i s f o r m of t h i n k i n g see M a r i a (10.11) T a b l e 4AV, M i c h a e l (9.2) T a b l e 4 A I I I , W a l t e r (13.8) T a b l e 4 A V I I I . W i t h i n t h i s group of 19 s u b j e c t s a l s o , t h e r e a r e t h o s e who s a i d the p u p p i e s were g o i n g t o be b l a c k r e g a r d l e s s of the p r e s e n c e o f a f a t h e r w i t h a d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r . For i n s t a n c e s of t h i s see Nancy (9.0) T a b l e 4 A I I I , Tony (12.6) T a b l e 4 A V I I . F o r t h i s group of s u b j e c t s i t i s o n l y the mother who g i v e s c o l o u r t o t h e p u p p i e s s i n c e t h e p u p p i e s come f r o m h e r body. Y e t t h e r e a r e t h o s e who saw t h e f a t h e r as the o n l y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t o c o n s i d e r . To them the mother does n o t m a t t e r . Examples a r e L i z a (13.5) T a b l e 4AVII and G a e l e n (11.11) T a b l e 4AVI. The above t h r e e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f e x p l a n -a t i o n s f o r t h e o r i g i n of the p u p p i e s ' c o l o u r a r e a l l n a t u r a l i s t i c . 87 Q u i t e a^-few s u b j e c t s among t h e 19 i n v o k e d an e n v i r o n m e n t a l e x p l a n -a t i o n f o r the phenomenon. T r e v o r (10.1) T a b l e 4AIV says t h i s about t h e s i t u a t i o n : "The p u p p i e s c o u l d be e i t h e r c o l o u r , I g u e s s . They c o u l d be a m i x t u r e or g r e y . P r o b a b l y more would be b l a c k because b l a c k i s a d a r k e r c o l o u r t h a n w h i t e " . T r e v o r e x p l a i n s the i n h e r i t a n c e of c o l o u r i n t h e l i g h t of what he knows about p a i n t s . The d a r k e r t h e c o l o u r t h e more dominance i t w i l l show o v e r t h e o t h e r s . Gary (10.1) s t i l l i n v o k e s an o r g a n i s m i c ( s o m a t i c ) e x p l a n a t i o n when he i n s i s t s t h a t "as l o n g as t h e mother's t e a t s a r e b l a c k ( o r w h i t e ) t h a t i s the c o l o u r t h e p u p p i e s w i l l be." F o r t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e 13 s u b j e c t s who p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e p u p p i e s c o u l d be b l a c k , w h i t e , mixed or a n y t h i n g , t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e b u t t r e s s e d by an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e mechanism u n d e r l y i n g t h e phenomenon. Some of t h e s e s u b j e c t s c o n f e s s e d t h a t t h e y do n o t know how the o t h e r c o l o u r a r i s e s b u t t h e y a r e aware i t c o u l d appear on the p u p p i e s . O t h e r s have s a i d t h a t t h e many c o l o u r s a r i s e on t h e p u p p i e s because t h e mother mates w i t h many d i f f e r e n t f a t h e r - d o g s b e f o r e t h e l i t t e r of p u p p i e s i s b o r n . Y e t a few members o f t h i s group o f 13 s u b j e c t s have shown a r e c o g n i t i o n of some fo r m of randomness i n t h e way t h e c o l o u r s appear on t h e o f f s p r i n g . F o r example Shannon (10.2) s a y s : "Sometimes th e y a r e b l a c k , Sometimes they a r e m i x e d , and o t h e r t i m e s they t a k e a f t e r t h e mother. Sometimes a f t e r the f a t h e r " . A l t h o u g h i t may n o t be q u i t e a p p a r e n t f r o m h e r s t a t e m e n t , one c o u l d see Shannon i l l u s t r a t i n g a r u d i m e n t a r y a p p r e c i a t i o n of an u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e of randomness (random,assortment of genes) i n t h e i n h e r i t a n c e 88 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE 4BI QUESTION. If a black dog (female) la to have puppies, what colour would the puppies be? A G E 10 11 12 13 RESPONSE: Black They get the colour from the father. Mixed colour from mother and father/ancestors. 11 1 111 1 1111 1 111111 1111 1111 TOTAL 13 8 9 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE 4BII A G E 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 RESPONSE: TOTAL Black and white (or black and white mixed) 1 1 11 11 111 1111 13 They would be black. 11 1 1 1 5 They would be white 1 1 They would be black and white and/or anything. 11 1 1 1111 1 111 1 !3. If a white male dog and a black female dog have six puppies. What colour would their puppies be? 90 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE 4BIII RESPONSE: A G E QUESTION-III: 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Which one of the parent dogs do you think gives more colour to the puppies The mother gives more. 1111 11 11 111 1 111 111 18 The father gives more. 11 1 3 They both give equally. 1 1 1 1 1 5 The stronger of the two colours shows more Sometimes the mother at other times the father. I l l 1 4 91 KHBJUKNOY I) I ST It I Ml IT 1 ON TABLE 'iBIV A G E QUESTION IV: 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Can Che puppies have any other colour apart from the colour of the parent dog? RESPONSE: No. They won't. 11 Yes. They could. 1 111 1 111 1111111 11111 111 1111 27 92 of c o l o u r . T h i s random a s s o r t m e n t of genes u s u a l l y t a k e s l o g i c a l shape' ( i n i t s p h e n o t y p i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n ) o n l y when l a r g e c o u n t s of o f f s p r i n g s a r e t a k e n o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d of t i m e . On t h e w h o l e a l t h o u g h many s u b j e c t s f r o m t h e younger and o l d e r group o f s u b j e c t s base t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n o n l y i n terms of t h e c o l o u r o f t h e p a r e n t s , q u i t e a number of s u b j e c t s f r o m t h e s e two groups do r e c o g n i z e o t h e r h i d d e n v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e making of a m e a n i n g f u l p r e d i c t i o n . The i m p r e c i s e p r e d i c t i o n s w h i c h m a n i f e s t t h i s awareness have been o b s e r v e d more n o t i c e a b l y a t age 10 onwards f o r t h e s u b j e c t s of t h i s s t u d y . Q u e s t i o n I I I : Which one o f t h e p a r e n t s do you t h i n k would g i v e more c o l o u r t o t h e p u p p i e s ? I n o r d e r t o f i n d out what b e l i e f s the c h i l d r e n have r e g a r d i n g whether any one p a r e n t can be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e g i v i n g or h a n d i n g down of i n h e r i t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o t h e o f f s p r i n g , the above q u e s t i o n was p r e s e n t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t s . As i s r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 4 B I I I , 18 s u b j e c t s c l a i m t h a t the mother u s u a l l y g i v e s the c o l o u r t o the p u p p i e s s i n c e she i s t h e one who g i v e s b i r t h t o them. I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o h e a r some of t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s : -J o h n n i e (7.4) "Dogs g e t t h e i r c o l o u r from t h e i r mother. They do n o t g e t a c o l o u r f r o m the f a t h e r because they w eren't b o r n from him". Tony (12.6) "The mother because she i s c l o s e r t o them, because t h e f a t h e r i s n o t a l w a y s t h e r e . The mother w i l l a l w a y s be t i l l t h e y g e t o l d e r . The m a j o r i t y w i l l t a k e a f t e r h e r because they came f r o m h e r body". 93 M i k e ,(13.10) "Maybe t h e mother b e c a u s e she has them i n t h e womb. The b l o o d p a s s e s t h r o u g h them and t h e i r mother's body. So I guess the mother may c o n t r i b u t e more". As c o u l d be seen f r o m t h e above segments t h i s c l a i m came fr o m b o t h t h e s u b j e c t s of t h e younger group and t h e s u b j e c t s of t h e o l d e r group. I t c o u l d a l s o be n o t e d t h a t J o h n n i e i n v o k e d a n a t u r a l i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n . Tony a p a r t l y e n v i r o n m e n t a l ; and M i k e i n v o k e d an o r g a n i s m i c o r s o m a t i c e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n of c o l o u r i n dogs. Of t h e 18 s u b j e c t s who made t h e above c l a i m 8 a r e fr o m t h e younger group. The r e m a i n i n g 10 s u b j e c t s a r e f r o m the o l d e r group. Three s u b j e c t s c l a i m e d t h a t the f a t h e r u s u a l l y g i v e s c o l o u r t o the p u p p i e s . A l l t h r e e a r e f r o m t h e o l d e r group of s u b j e c t s . They were n o t a b l e t o g i v e any r e a s o n why they h o l d s u c h b e l i e f . Examples a r e R i c h a r d (11.4) T a b l e 4AVI, G a e l e n (11.11) T a b l e 4AVI, and L i z a (13.5) T a b l e 4 A V I I . As i n Q u e s t i o n I I , some s u b j e c t s s t i l l i n s i s t e d t h a t b o t h p a r e n t c o n t r i b u t e e q u a l l y . F o r them t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n o f one p a r e n t d o m i n a t i n g t h e o t h e r . They have no b e l i e f i n t h e dominance t h e o r y o f i n h e r i t a n c e . For example C h r i s t i n a (5.6) s a y s : " I f t h e r e a r e s i x p u p p i e s , t h r e e would be w h i t e and t h r e e would be b l a c k " . The s u b j e c t s who advanced the above e q u a l i t y o r non-dominance t h e o r y a r e 7..in a l l . F i v e o f them a r e f r o m t h e younger group and 2 a r e f r o m the o l d e r group of s u b j e c t s . The l a s t group of s u b j e c t s a r e t h o s e who made v e r y i m p r e c i s e p r e d i c t i o n s about the c o l o u r t h e p u p p i e s would have. To t h i s e f f e c t S t ephen (10.9) s a y s : "Sometimes i t i s the mother a t o t h e r t i m e s i t i s t he f a t h e r " . 94 A more i l l u m i n a t i n g s t a t e m e n t i n t h i s r e s p e c t i s t h a t 'made by Shannon C I O .2) w h i c h has a l r e a d y been r e p o r t e d i n the a n a l y s i s of Q u e s t i o n I I . Three s u b j e c t s made t h e s e t y p e of i m p r e c i s e p r e d i c t i o n s . A l l t h r e e of t h e s e s u b j e c t s a r e f r o m t h e o l d e r group of s u b j e c t s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g a g a i n t o n o t e t h a t t h i s v e r y c a u t i o u s and i m p r e c i s e s t a t e m e n t s appear o n l y a t age 10 among t h e 32 s u b j e c t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . Q u e s t i o n IV: Can t h e p u p p i e s have any o t h e r c o l o u r a p a r t f r o m the c o l o u r of t h e p a r e n t dogs? ( I n t h i s q u e s t i o n t h e s u b j e c t s were asked whether i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r t h e p u p p i e s t o g e t any o t h e r c o l o u r d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of t h e i r p a r e n t s ) . T h i s q u e s t i o n was asked i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h o s e s u b j e c t s who were r i g i d and c e r t a i n about t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s from t h o s e who were f l e x i b l e and t h i n k i n terms of p o s s i b i l i t i e s about t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n . As r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 4BIV, 5 s u b j e c t s c l a i m e d the p u p p i e s c o u l d n o t g e t some o t h e r c o l o u r o t h e r t h a n t h a t shown on t h e i r p a r e n t s . F o u r of t h e s e s u b j e c t s a r e f r o m the younger group of s u b j e c t s and 1 i s f r o m t h e o l d e r group. Twenty seven c h i l d r e n p r e d i c t e d t h a t i t i s v e r y p o s s i b l e f o r the p u p p i e s t o have a c o l o u r n o t e x h i b i t e d on the f u r of t h e i r p a r e n t s . Of t h e s e 27 s u b j e c t s 8 a r e f r o m the younger group "of s u b j e c t s . The r e m a i n i n g 19 a r e from the o l d e r group. I t i s v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h e a c c e l e r a t e d i n c r e a s e i n f r e q u e n c y of t h e s u b j e c t s making t h i s f l e x i b l e f o r m of p r e d i c t i o n a t age 10 onwards. I n f a c t a p a r t f r o m one 13 y e a r o l d no s u b j e c t f r o m t h e age of 10 onwards p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e p u p p i e s would n o t g e t a n o t h e r , c o l o u r . Thus age 10 a p p e a r s t o be c r u c i a l i n terms o f t h e emergence of t h i s f l e x i b l e f o r m of t h i n k i n g f o r t h e 32 s u b j e c t s who were s t u d i e d . 95 The v a r i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s g i v e n by t h e s u b j e c t s , f o r t h e o r i g i n of t h e o t h e r c o l o u r s t h a t may appear on t h e p u p p i e s ' f u r , f a l l i n t o f i v e d i f f e r -e n t c a t e g o r i e s . There were t h o s e s u b j e c t s who c o n f e s s e d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t know where t h e s e c o l o u r s a r i s e f r o m b u t t h e y were aware i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r the p u p p i e s t o have o t h e r c o l o u r s . M i c h a e l ' s (9.2) i n t e r v i e w segment i s p r e s e n t e d t o e x e m p l i f y the group. "They m i g h t be d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r f r o m the mother and f a t h e r . But I do n o t know where t h e y w i l l g e t t h i s o t h e r c o l o u r f r om". T h i s i g n o r a n c e was shown by b o t h t h e younger and o l d e r group of s u b j e c t s . T here were a l s o t h o s e s u b j e c t s who b e l i e v e t h a t t h e o r i g i n of t h e s t r a n g e c o l o u r on the p u p p i e s was e n v i r o n m e n t a l . T r i c i a (7.5) mentioned t h e sun as r e s p o n s i b l e . C h r i s t i n a (5.6) m entioned w a t e r as t h e agent r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c h a n g i n g the c o l o u r of dogs. She s a i d : " G e t t i n g washed l i k e i t happened t o my dog t o o . When we washed i t , i t had w h i t e s p o t s on i t s f u r " . R i c h a r d (11.4) t h i n k s i t i s the f o o d the p u p p i e s e a t w h i c h g i v e s them t h e d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s . He s a y s : "Yes, maybe d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of f o o d s " . Some o t h e r s u b j e c t s b e l i e v e t h e phenomenon i s j u s t a w e i r d n a t u r a l o c c u r e n c e w h i c h has n o t y e t been uncoded by man. To t h i s e f f e c t S e r g i o (12.6) made t h i s s t a t e m e n t : "Yes, i t happened b e f o r e . That i s j u s t n a t u r e . I don't t h i n k anybody knows. I d o n ' t t h i n k they have found t h a t y e t . I t i s j u s t a w e i r d t h i n g " . fie. Thus•to some e x t e n t ^ i s i n v o k i n g a n a t u r a l i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e o r i g i n o f t h i s s t r a n g e c o l o u r . Y e t Gary (10.1) i n v o k e s a s o m a t i c ( o r g a n i s m i c ) e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the s t r a n g e c o l o u r on t h e p u p p i e s . He s a y s : " I f the t e a t s a r e b l a c k , the p u p p i e s would be b l a c k " . 96 F i n a l l y , t h e r e a r e t h o s e s u b j e c t s who have i n v o k e d a h e r e d i t a r y e x p l a n -a t i o n f o r the o r i g i n of t h e s t r a n g e c o l o u r on t h e p u p p i e s . Two c a s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d t o e x e m p l i f y t h e group: S a r a h (11.2) "They would p r o b a b l y g e t brown. I am n o t s u r e where from. Because you sometimes have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t y o u r p a r e n t s d i d n o t have. I t m i g h t be i n t h e back - f r o m t h e a n c e s t o r s of t h o s e ( p a r e n t ) dogs". W a l t e r (13.8) " I suppose t h e y c o u l d . From the b r e e d o f the p a r e n t dogs". A l t h o u g h t h i s f o r m of e x p l a n a t i o n was fo u n d more among t h e o l d e r s u b j e c t s i t was n o t e x c l u s i v e t o them. Q u i t e a few younger s u b j e c t s e x h i b i t e d t h e same f o r m of t h i n k i n g t o o . F o r Douglas (8.1) s a i d " "They may g e t g o l d y - b l a c k or brown from r e l a t i v e s -grandma and granddad". However, on the whole the e n v i r o n m e n t a l n a t u r a l i s t i c and s o m a t i c o r o r g a n i s m i c e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the o r i g i n of the s t r a n g e c o l o u r on t h e p u p p i e s , were more p o p u l a r e x p l a n a t i o n s among the younger s u b j e c t s t h a n t h e o l d e r ones. W h i l e t h e h e r e d i t a r y e x p l a n a t i o n was f a v o u r e d more i n t h e group of o l d e r s u b j e c t s t h a n i n the younger one. Summary: Three l e v e l s o f a b s t r a c t i o n have been d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e v a r i o u s r e s p o n s e s w h i c h were g i v e n by t h e s u b j e c t s . There were t h o s e s u b j e c t s who r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e g r a d u a l i n t r o d u c t i o n of o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , c o u l d r e c o g n i z e o n l y t h e mother ( o r f a t h e r ) as the s o l e g i v e r of i n h e r i t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s s u b j e c t s d i d n o t see beyond t h e mother ( f a t h e r ) v a r i a b l e t o make t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s . To them th e r o l e of t h e o t h e r p a r e n t p a r t n e r and the a n c e s t r a l l i n e a r e n o t ' 97 s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of what an o f f s p r i n g c o u l d i n h e r i t . A l t h o u g h t h i s l e v e l of a b s t r a c t i o n was p r e s e n t i n b o t h groups of s u b j e c t s i t was much more p o p u l a r among t h e younger group of s u b j e c t s . There i s a second l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n . I n t h i s l e v e l t h e s u b j e c t s r e c o g n i z e d t h e two p a r e n t s as i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s w h i c h work t o g e t h e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e o f f s p r i n g ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . However, t h e y d i d n o t see beyond t h e two p a r e n t s . They f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e a n c e s t r a l o r h e r e d i t a r y l i n e , o f t h e p a r e n t dogs. T h e i r t h o u g h t s were a b s o r b e d s o l e l y by the c o l o u r s e x h i b i t e d by t h e f a t h e r and t h e mother. Those s u b j e c t s w i t h t h e s e l e v e l o f t h i n k i n g a r e f ound i n b o t h groups - t h e younger and t h e o l d e r . I t a p p ears f r o m T a b l e 4 B I I t h a t i n f a c t the two groups seem t o have about the same number of s u b j e c t s e x h i b i t i n g t h i s f o rm of t h i n k i n g . Then t h e r e i s a t h i r d group who e x h i b i t e d a t h i r d l e v e l of a b s t r a c t -i o n i n w h i c h t h e y r e c o g n i z e d t h e p a r e n t s as w e l l as the a n c e s t r a l l i n e as s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s t o c o n s i d e r i n o r d e r t o make a m e a n i n g f u l p r e -d i c t i o n about t h e c o l o u r of t h e o f f s p r i n g . Hence the t a s k as i t i s d i d n o t s u p p l y s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would w a r r a n t a p r e c i s e p r e d i c t i o n , t h e s e group o f s u b j e c t s o n l y p r e d i c t e d i n terms o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s . A l t h o u g h v e r y few s u b j e c t s i n t h e younger group showed t h i s f orm of t h i n k i n g , i t was seen more among the o l d e r s u b j e c t s t h a n t h e younger ones. F o r t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s w h i c h the s u b j e c t s have used t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e i r c l a i m s , f o u r c a t e g o r i e s (of e x p l a n a t i o n s ) have emerged. These a r e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l , n a t u r a l i s t i c , o r g a n i s m i c (or s o m a t i c ) and h e r e d i t a r y . The f i r s t t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , i . e . t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l , n a t u r a l i s t i c , and o r g a n i s m i c were e x p l a n a t i o n s i n v o k e d more by s u b j e c t s from the younger group t h a n t h e o l d e r group a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s d u r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n i n g . The 98 f o u r t h c a t e g o r y was seen more i n t h e o l d e r group o f s u b j e c t s where i t appeared more o f t e n a f t e r age 10. S i n c e the genotype of t h e dogs used f o r the t a s k was n o t known, t h e v a r i o u s p r e d i c t i o n s g i v e n by the s u b j e c t s cannot be s a i d t o be wrong or r i g h t . They can o n l y be c a t e g o r i z e d i n terms of l e v e l s o f a b s t r a c t i o n . I t i s hoped t h a t w i t h t h e use of t h e s e l e v e l s o f a b s t r a c t i o n we would be a b l e t o b u i l d up our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f p a t t e r n s about t h e phenomenon of i n h e r i t a n c e . 99 TASK V A l t h o u g h t h e r e s p o n s e o f e v e r y s u b j e c t t o a q u e s t i o n i s supposed t o have a p r e d i c t i v e as w e l l as an e x p l a n a t o r y p a r t , the a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i r s t two q u e s t i o n s f o r t h i s t a s k d e a l s o n l y w i t h the p r e d i c t i v e a s p e c t o f the r e s p o n s e s . Q u e s t i o n I I I i s d e d i c a t e d w h o l l y t o t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s advanced by t h e s u b j e c t s f o r the p r e d i c t i o n s g i v e n f o r Q u e s t i o n I and Q u e s t i o n I I . T h i s has been done t o a v o i d undue r e p e t i t i o n . Q u e s t i o n I : I f a t a l l man and a s h o r t woman have a c h i l d . I f t h i s c h i l d i s a boy, how t a l l would he be when he i s f u l l y grown? T a b l e 5BI r e p o r t s t h a t 23 s u b j e c t s p r e d i c t e d t h e c h i l d would be t a l l . These s u b j e c t s c l a i m e d t h a t s i n c e the c h i l d i s a boy, he would l o o k l i k e h i s f a t h e r . Of t h e s e 23 s u b j e c t s 10 come f r o m t h e younger group. The r e m a i n i n g 13 come f r o m t h e group of o l d e r s u b j e c t s . Two o t h e r s u b j e c t s f r o m the younger group s a i d the c h i l d would be s h o r t when f u l l y grown b e c a u s e , f o r them, c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y a c q u i r e t h e h e i g h t of t h e i r mother. Four s u b j e c t s c l a i m e d the c h i l d would be of medium h e i g h t s i n c e he i s a b l e n d between a s h o r t mother and a t a l l f a t h e r . A l l f o u r of t h e s e s u b j e c t s a r e from the group of o l d e r s u b j e c t s . F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s a group of s u b j e c t s who s a i d t h e c h i l d ' s h e i g h t i s a d i f f i c u l t phenomenon t o p r e d i c t p r e c i s e l y s i n c e he would come l o o k i n g l i k e the f a t h e r o r the mother o r none i n terms of h e i g h t . F o r t h i s group of s u b j e c t s t h e answer i s " i t would depend on whom the c h i l d t a k e s a f t e r " . Three s u b j e c t s made t h i s c l a i m . A l l t h r e e o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s come f r o m t h e group of o l d e r s u b j e c t s . T h i s i m p r e c i s e and p r o b a b i l i s t i c r e s p o n s e was f i r s t s een a t age 10 f o r t h e s u b j e c t s who 100 p a r t i c i p a t e d . Q u e s t i o n I I : I f t he c h i l d ( b o r n of t h e s h o r t woman and t a l l man) i s a g i r l : How t a l l w i l l she be? T a b l e 5BVI shows t h a t 21 c h i l d r e n b e l i e v e the c h i l d b o r n o f t h e s e c o n -t r a s t i n g p a r e n t s w i l l be s h o r t l i k e h e r mother s i n c e she i s a g i r l . Of t h e s e 21 s u b j e c t s , 12 a r e fr o m t h e younger group of s u b j e c t s . The r e m a i n -i n g 9 a r e fr o m the o l d e r group. Three o t h e r s u b j e c t s s a i d t he g i r l would be t a l l a f t e r h e r f a t h e r s i n c e , f o r t h e s e 3 s u b j e c t s , t he f a t h e r a l w a y s c o n t r i b u t e s t h e h e i g h t of t h e c h i l d w h i l e the mother c o n t r i b u t e s b e a u t y f e a t u r e s s u c h as shape o f nose, c o l o u r o f eyes and h a i r . These 3 s u b j e c t s a r e f r o m the o l d e r g roup. Y e t t h r e e s u b j e c t s , a l s o from the o l d e r group s a i d t he c h i l d w i l l be of medium h e i g h t - a k i n d o f non-dominance b l e n d between t h e t a l l f a t h e r and t he s h o r t mother. F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s the f o u r t h group o f s u b j e c t s who s a i d , as i n t h e p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n , t h a t t h e h e i g h t o r t h e _ c h i l d - w i l l depend on whom she t a k e s a f t e r . There a r e f i v e s u b j e c t s who made t h i s c l a i m . A l l f i v e came f r o m t h e group o f o l d e r s u b j e c t s . A g a i n t h e f i r s t a ppearance o f t h i s f l e x i b l e f o r m o f p r e d i c t i o n f o r t h i s c o n c e p t was see n a t age 10 among t h e 32 s u b j e c t s . Q u e s t i o n I I I : Why do you say so? T h i s q u e s t i o n a s ked o f t h e s u b j e c t s t o g i v e r e a s o n s f o r t h e p r e d i c t i o n s t h e y have made f o r Q u e s t i o n I and Q u e s t i o n I I . As r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 5 B I I I , . 22 s u b j e c t s had e x p l a n a t i o n s , about t h e phenomenon of h e i g h t i n h e r i t a n c e , w h i c h were l i n k e d i n one way o r a n o t h e r t o t h e p a r e n t ' s p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e , 101 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE 5BI QUESTION I: If a t a l l man and a short woman have a c h i l d : If this c h i l d i s a boy, how t a l l w i l l he be when he i s f u l l y grown? A G E 9 10 11 12 J3 RESPONSE: The boy would be (very) t a l l . 1 11111 1 111 11111 111" 111 11 23 He would be short. 1 1 2 He would be medium. 1 11 1 4 It depends on whom he takes after. 102 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE 5m 1. A G E 7 8 9 10 11 .12 1J RESPONSE: TOTAL She won Id be shore. 1 H i l l 11 1111 11111 1 1 11 21 She wou Id be t a l l . 1 1 1 3 She would be medium. 11 1 3 I t depends on whom she takes a f t e r . QUESTION•Jl: If Lht.' c h i l d i s a g i r l , how t a l L w i l l she be? 103 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE 5BIII QUESTION III: Why i s this so? A G E 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Because the boy takes after the father and the g i r l s after her mother. 1 1111 1 111 11 1 11 14 Because the mother gives b i r t h to the babies. The father only can give the height to a c h i l d . 1 1 11 4 Because the mother stays with the babies most times. 1 1 G i r l s are usually smaller than boys. 11 .1 3 Because the c h i l d i s a blend between the two heights of the parents. 1 111 « 4 Because the chil d w i l l take after any of the two parents 1 1 1 1 1 5 I don 1t know. 104 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE 5BIV A G E QUESTION.IV: Do you know of any other things which could make a c h i l d grow t a l l ? 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 TOTAL No. 1 111 1 11 11 1 11 12 Yes, foods (exercise/sleep). 11 1 11 11111 m i 1 1111 13 Yes, ancestory. 1 1 105 o r h i s / h e r r o l e i n t h e f a m i l y as a whole. The v a r i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s can be put i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s as f o l l o w s . There were th o s e s u b j e c t s who c l a i m e d : "The boy i s g o i n g t o be t a l l l i k e h i s f a t h e r because he i s a boy and would l o o k l i k e him. The g i r l i s g o i n g t o grow s h o r t a f t e r h e r mother who i s a s h o r t woman." To t h e group o f s u b j e c t s who made the above s t a t e m e n t s t h e i s s u e of h e i g h t i n h e r i t a n c e i n a s e x -l i n k e d phenomenon. Examples a r e J o h n n i e ( 7 . 4 ) , Jamie ( 7 . 4 ) , T r i c i a (7.5) a l l i n T a b l e 5AI; Sandra ( 7 . 6 ) , Brenda ( 7 . 8 ) , Hughie (8.6) a l l i n T a b l e 5 A I I ; M i c h a e l (9.2) T a b l e 5 A I I I ; Kenneth ( 9 . 1 0 ) , T r e v o r (10.1) b o t h i n T a b l e 5AIV; J u n (10.6) T a b l e 5AV; S e r g i o ( 1 2 . 6 ) , Sandra (12.8) b o t h i n T a b l e 5 A V I I . There were t h o s e s u b j e c t s who e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e h e i g h t , l i k e any o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a c h i l d i n h e r i t s , i s g i v e n o n l y by t h e mother s i n c e she g i v e s b i r t h t o t h e b a b i e s . Y e t o t h e r s u b j e c t s r e c o g n i z e d t h e f a t h e r as t h e o n l y donor o f c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c i n h e r i t e d t r a i t s . They s a i d t h a t the h e i g h t o f a c h i l d i s u s u a l l y g i v e n by the f a t h e r . But o t h e r f e a t u r e s s u c h as eyes o r h a i r c o l o u r a r e c o n t r i b u t e d by the mother. For examples o f t h i s s m a l l group o f s u b j e c t s see Douglas (8.1) T a b l e 5 A I I ; S y l v i a (9.5) T a b l e 5 A I I I ; G a e l e n (11.11) Tabe 5AVI. The t h i r d group of s u b j e c t s e x p l a i n e d t h a t " g i r l s a r e , u s u a l l y . s m a l l e r t h a n b o y s " , so t h e y would e x p e c t the g i r l t o be s h o r t e r t h a n t h e boy e.g. T r e v o r (10.1) T a b l e 5AIV; K e l l y (13.7) T a b l e 5 A V I I I . Thus t h e 22 s u b j e c t s , e x c e p t f o r one, who made t h e above s t a t e m e n t s have i n v o k e d i n one way or a n o t h e r a n a t u r a l i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n t o s u b s -t a n t i a t e t h e i r c l a i m . The exempted one case i n v o k e d an e n v i r o n m e n t a l e x p l a n a t i o n when she s a i d "because i t i s the mother who s t a y s a t home and c a r e s f o r t h e baby", ( S y l v i a 9.5). Of t h e s e 22 s u b j e c t s who gave the above e x p l a n a t i o n s , . 1 1 a r e fr o m the younger group, the o t h e r 11 a r e from the 106 group of o l d e r s u b j e c t s . There i s a group of 4 s u b j e c t s who gave a non^dominance t h e o r y when they emphasized the b l e n d i n g a s p e c t of t h e h e i g h t between t h e mother and t h e f a t h e r and p r e d i c t e d t h a t the c h i l d w i l l be medium. A l l f o u r of t h e s e s u b j e c t s a r e f r o m the o l d e r group of s u b j e c t s . Examples a r e Stephen (10.9) T a b l e 5AV; Susan (11.1) T a b l e 5AV a l s o ; S arah (11.2) T a b l e 5AVI. F i n a l l y , 5 s u b j e c t s s a i d the c h i l d c o u l d t a k e a f t e r t h e h e i g h t of any one of the p a r e n t s o r c o u l d be i n between. These s u b j i e c t s seem t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t many v a r i a b l e s a r e i n v o l v e d and s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n o r d e r t h a t a r e a s o n a b l e p r e d i c t i o n c o u l d be made about the h e i g h t t h e c h i l d would a c q u i r e . Hence, the i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r was n o t a l l t h a t a d e q u a t e , and t h e s u b j e c t s c o u l d o n l y g i v e i m p r e c i s e , c a u t i o u s p r e -d i c t i o n s and e x p l a n a t i o n s . F o u r of t h e s e 5 s u b j e c t s a r e from t h e o l d e r group and 1 i s o l a t e d c a s e f r o m the younger group. One o l d e r s u b j e c t s a i d he does n o t know the answer. Q u e s t i o n IV: Do you know of any o t h e r t h i n g s w h i c h c o u l d make a c h i l d grow t a l l ? I n t h i s q u e s t i o n the s u b j e c t s were asked whether any o t h e r t h i n g a p a r t f r o m what they have mentioned i n t h e i r e a r l i e r e x p l a n a t i o n s would a i d t h e growth i n h e i g h t o f the c h i l d . I n t h e p r o b i n g w h i c h f o l l o w e d , the i n v e s t i g a t o r s p e c i f i c a l l y t r i e d t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e s u b j e c t s r e c o g n i z e d f o o d as an i m p o r t a n t s u b s t a n c e w h i c h c o u l d a i d growth i n h e i g h t . As i s r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 5BIV, 12 s u b j e c t s were n o t aware t h a t f o o d s do p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n terms of i m p r o v i n g a c h i l d ' s h e i g h t . Examples of t h e s e s u b j e c t s a r e C h r i s t i n a .'(5.6), Jamie (7.4) b o t h i n T a b l e 5AI; Stephen (10.9) T a b l e 5AV; R i c h a r d (11.4) T a b l e 5AVI. Of the 12 107 s u b j e c t s who made t h e above c l a i m , 7 a r e from the younger group o f sub-j e c t s and 5 a r e from t h e o l d e r group. Of t h e 7 younger s u b j e c t s , two e x p l a i n e d t h a t what t h e y b e l i e v e h e l p s a c h i l d t o grow a r e t h e c a r e and a t t e n t i o n w h i c h a p a r e n t o f f e r s t o t h e c h i l d , e.g. T r i c i a (7.5) T a b l e 5 A I ; S y l v i a (9.5) T a b l e 5 A I I I . Twenty s u b j e c t s r e c o g n i z e d f o o d as an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t o t h e development o f a c h i l d . Some of t h e s e 20 s u b j e c t s even mentioned o t h e r v a r i a b l e s s u c h as e x e r c i s e , s l e e p , sometimes a n c e s t r y i n t h e l i s t of i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Of t h e s e 20 s u b j e c t s , 5 a r e fr o m the younger group and 15 a r e fr o m t h e o l d e r group. On T a b l e 5BIV a l s o , one c o u l d see the a c c e l e r a t e d i n c r e a s e i n f r e q u e n c y of s u b j e c t s o p t i n g f o r t h i s e x p l a n a -t i o n a t age 10 and a f t e r . Summary Three l e v e l s o f a b s t r a c t i o n s c o u l d be d i s c e r n e d from t h e p r e d i c t i o n s g i v e n by the s u b j e c t s . The f i r s t group o f s u b j e c t s a r e t h o s e who c e n t e r e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n o n l y on one p a r e n t ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o p r e d i c t t h e h e i g h t of t h e c h i l d . Some of them s a i d a boy would a c q u i r e t h e h e i g h t o f t h e f a t h e r and a g i r l t h e h e i g h t o f h e r mother. O t h e r s s t i l l w i t h i n t h i s group d i d n o t make t h i s s ex d i s t i n c t i o n . They e x p l a i n e d t h a t a l l c h i l d -r e n would t a k e a f t e r t h e mother s i n c e t h e c h i l d r e n come fr o m h e r ; o r t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n t a k e a f t e r t he f a t h e r ' s h e i g h t , as women do not c o n t r i b u t e h e i g h t t o a c h i l d . To t h e s e s u b j e c t s women o n l y c o n t r i b u t e f e a t u r e s w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o b e a u t y . A l t h o u g h t h e s e t h e o r i e s were advanced by s u b j e c t s from b o t h t h e o l d e r and younger group (of s u b j e c t s ) , i t was the m a j o r i t y o f younger s u b j e c t s who d e n i e d s t r o n g l y . t h a t f o o d and o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s do n o t a f f e c t a c h i l d ' s h e i g h t . 108 The second l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n i s t h a t i n w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s r e c o g n i z e d b o t h p a r e n t s as p l a y i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e q u e s t i o n of h e i g h t i n h e r i t a n c e . The s u b j e c t s , however, d i d not seem t o r e c o g n i z e t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e o f randomness i n i n h e r i t a n c e o r t h e dominance t h e o r y of i n h e r i t a n c e . As a r e s u l t t h e y emphasized o n l y the b l e n d i n g n a t u r e o f the genes t o pro d u c e a c h i l d of medium h e i g h t . To t h e s e s u b j e c t s , any t i m e a t a l l and s h o r t p a r e n t would have a c h i l d t h a t c h i l d would be medium i n h e i g h t . Those s u b j e c t s who e x h i b i t e d t h i s f orm of a b s t r a c t i o n a r e a l l f rom the o l d e r group. F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s the group w i t h t h e t h i r d l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n who not o n l y r e c o g n i z e d the h e r e d i t y n a t u r e o f t h e phenomenon i n q u e s t i o n b u t a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h e f a c t t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s do p l a y a v e r y i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the outcome of a c h i l d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e s p e c t t o h e i g h t . I n a d d i t i o n t o h e r e d i t a r y e x p l a n a t i o n s , t h e s e s u b j e c t s m e ntioned s l e e p , e x e r c i s e as f a c t o r s w h i c h a r e i m p o r t a n t t o t h e growth of a c h i l d . A p a r t from a few c a s e s i n t h e younger group, t h i s t y p e o f a b s t r a c t i o n was seen more i n the m a j o r i t y of the o l d e r s u b j e c t s w i t h age t e n becoming v e r y n o t i c e a b l e i n the v a r i o u s t a b l e s as e i t h e r t h e p o i n t o f emergence or t h e p o i n t f o r a c c e l e r a t e d f r e q u e n c y f o r t h i s t h e o r y . The e x p l a n a t i o n s advanced by t h e s u b j e c t s t o c l a r i f y t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n f a l l i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h have a l r e a d y been e x p l a i n e d w i t h e x e m p l i f y i n g c a s e s : - N a t u r a l i s t i c , E n v i r o n m e n t a l , H e r e d i t y , and H e r e d i t y and Environment ( t o g e t h e r ) . The f i r s t two e x p l a n a t i o n s were advanced by s u b j e c t s f r o m b o t h groups - younger and o l d e r . But the second two e x p l a -n a t i o n s were m o s t l y f r o m t h e o l d e r s u b j e c t s . One c o u l d a l s o see f r o m t h e t a b l e s how the age of 10 appears t o be a d i v i d i n g l i n e i n l e v e l of development of the h e r e d i t y o r h e r e d i t y and environment e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e s u b j e c t s i n t e r v i e w e d . 109 C h a p t e r 5 FINDINGS T h i s c h a p t e r g i v e s an o v e r a l l summary of t h e f i n d i n g s w h i c h a r e r e p o r t e d f o r Tasks I t o Task V i n C h a p t e r 4. The summary i t s e l f i s made up of t h r e e major s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s r e l a t i n g t o t h e b e l i e f s t h e s u b j e c t s have r e g a r d i n g t h e i n h e r i t a n c e o r n o n - i n h e r i t a n c e , by o f f s p r i n g s , o f d e f o r m i t i e s a r i s i n g f r o m e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n j u r i e s . The second a s p e c t d e a l s w i t h t h e b e l i e f s r e l a t i n g t o t h e phenomenon o f : t h e i n h e r i t a n c e of c o l o u r i n dogs and h e i g h t i n human b e i n g s . The t h i r d p a r t summarizes t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s advanced by t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e i r e f f o r t t o j u s t i f y t h e i r c l a i m s . SECTION I : DEFORMITIES Tasks I , I I and I I I were d e d i c a t e d t o f i n d i n g o u t whether the s u b j e c t s were a b l e to, make a d i s t i n c t i o n between p u r e l y e n v i r o n m e n t a l f e a t u r e s and p u r e l y h e r e d i t a r y t r a i t s i n l i v i n g o r g a n i s m s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e f i n d i n g s i n t h e a n a l y s i s a l a r g e number of s u b j e c t s were n o t a b l e t o make t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between e n v i r o n m e n t a l f e a t u r e s and i n h e r i t e d t r a i t s . These s u b j e c t s , coming b o t h f r o m t h e younger and o l d e r group of s u b j e c t s , had t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n t h a t a d e f o r m i t y caused by an i n j u r y c o u l d be t r a n s m i t t e d by a p a r e n t t o t h e o f f s p r i n g . A number of s u b j e c t s who i n f a c t i n i t i a l l y c l a i m e d t h a t t h e f e a t u r e cannot be i n h e r i t e d , .changed t h e i r o p i n i o n when c e r t a i n f a c t o r s or c i r c u m s t a n c e s ( l i s t e d below) were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n s . W i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s o r f a c t o r s , t h e s u b j e c t s v s a i d t h e d e f o r m i t y c o u l d now be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e o f f s p r i n g . The number o f m i s l e a d s u b j e c t s . i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y from one q u e s t i o n t o t h e n e x t . The c i r c u m s t a n c e s o r f a c t o r s w h i c h seemed to be i m p o r t a n t f o r 110 t h e s u b j e c t s were: (1) t h e e l a p s e o f t i m e : S u b j e c t s o f t e n b e l i e v e d t h a t i f the p a r e n t s u f f e r e d f r o m t h e i n j u r y a l o n g t i m e ago, t h e n t h e r e would be more chance f o r t h e r e s u l t i n g d e f o r m i t y t o be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e o f f s p r i n g . To t h i s e f f e c t J u n (10.6) s a i d "The p u p p i e s ' t a i l would be s h o r t . I f the dogs have a s h o r t t a i l f o r a l o n g t i m e , I t h i n k i t w i l l be i n t h e i r s y s t e m . " (2) l a r g e numbers: S u b j e c t s o f t e n b e l i e v e d t h a t when a l l members of a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n s o f a n i m a l s s u f f e r t he same i n j u r y , t h e n the o f f -s p r i n g s b o r n o f t h e deformed p a r e n t s would a c q u i r e the d e f o r m i t y . The same s u b j e c t J u n (10.6) would be c i t e d as an example h e r e . He s a i d : " T h e i r t a i l s ( p u p p i e s ) would a l l be s h o r t I t h i n k . I f you g e t used t o s e e i n g a l l o f t h e dogs g e t t i n g s h o r t t a i l s , i t would be k i n d o f funny f o r o t h e r dogs t o have l o n g t a i l s . " (3) r e p e a t e d i n j u r y : S u b j e c t s o f t e n had the b e l i e f t h a t i f an i n j u r y i s i n f l i c t e d on a s p e c i e s o f a n i m a l s r e p e a t e d l y , f r o m g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n , by r e p e a t e d c u t t i n g of t a i l s f o r i n s t a n c e , t h i s would g r a d u a l l y l e a d t o t h e b r e e d i n g of dogs w i t h o u t t a i l s . About t h i s m a t t e r V i v i a n (13:0) s a i d : "No, b u t i f you keep on d o i n g t h a t ( c u t t i n g t he t a i l s ) l o n g i n t i m e , i t m i g h t - m u t a t i o n , you know." (4) d e f o r m i t i e s i n b o t h p a r e n t s : S u b j e c t s o f t e n b e l i e v e d t h a t b o t h the mother and the f a t h e r have t o have t h e d e f o r m i t y i n o r d e r t h a t t h e c h i l d c o u l d a c q u i r e i t f u l l y . I f o n l y one p a r e n t has t h e d e f o r m i t y t h e n i t would e i t h e r n o t be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e o f f s p r i n g o r would o n l y p a r t i a l l y be t r a n s f e r r e d . F o r example Susan (11.1) s a y s : " I t h i n k t h e y would l i m p j u s t a s l i g h t b i t . The l i m p i n g would come f r o m t h e i r mother (who l i m p s ) , t h e r e s t of t h e i r w a l k i n g ways would I l l be f r o m t h e f a t h e r (who does n o t l i m p ) . They t a k e a f t e r t h e i r mum and dad". (5) " " V i t a l i t y of an o r g a n " : S u b j e c t s d i d n o t seem t o r e c o g n i z e t h e f a c t o r o f ' v i t a l i t y of an organ', as i m p o r t a n t f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of w h i c h i n j u r e d o r g a n t h e o f f s p r i n g would i n h e r i t and w h i c h one he would n o t . I n t h i s q u e s t i o n t h e eye was r e g a r d e d a more i m p o r t a n t o r g a n t h a n t h e f i n g e r . F o r t h e s u b j e c t s however, a l l o r g a n s -whether r e g a r d e d as i m p o r t a n t o r l e s s i m p o r t a n t , a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e same " g e n e t i c " l aw. Any o r g a n i n j u r e d i n t h e p a r e n t s t a n d s an e q u a l chance o f t r a n s f e r r i n g the d e f o r m i t y t o i t s r e l a t i v e o r g a n i n t h e o f f s p r i n g . SECTION I I : COLOUR AND HEIGHT Whereas the i n h e r i t a n c e of c o l o u r i n dogs can be e x p l a i n e d w i t h p u r e l y g e n e t i c p r i n c i p l e s , t h e i n h e r i t a n c e of h e i g h t i n man i s i n f l u e n c e d by b o t h h e r e d i t y and enviro n m e n t . The r e s p o n s e s g i v e n by t h e s u b j e c t s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g to t h e s e two phenomena can be c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o 3 l e v e l s o f a b s t r a c t i o n . (1) I n the f i r s t o f t h e s e t h r e e l e v e l s , o n l y one p a r e n t was r e c o g n i z e d as t h e s o l e g i v e r of i n h e r i t e d m a t e r i a l t o t h e o f f s p r i n g . The m a j o r i t y of t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h t h i s l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n r e c o g n i z e d o n l y the mother as t h e s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r . The f a t h e r ' s r o l e was not i m p o r t a n t . Most of t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h t h i s l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n were f r o m t h e younger group. An example of a s u b j e c t ' s s t a t e m e n t f r o m t h i s group f o l l o w s : S y l v i a ( 9 . 2 ) : "The f e m a l e dog c o n t r i b u t e s more c o l o u r t o t h e p u p p i e s . Because she i s t h e mother. The baby p u p p i e s come out of h e r body.'-' 112 : (2) I n t h e second l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n t h e s u b j e c t s r e c o g n i z e d b o t h p a r e n t s as i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t o r s . However, t h e t h e o r y t h e s e s u b j e c t s advanced was, as a w h o l e , a non-dominance one where b o t h p a r e n t s c o n t r i b u t e d e q u a l l y t o t h e o f f s p r i n g ' s p h e n o t y p i c c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s . S u b j e c t s f r o m b o t h t h e younger and o l d e r group advanced t h i s l e v e l of t h i n k i n g . An example of a s u b j e c t w i t h t h i s l e v e l of t h i n k i n g i s Susan ( 1 1 . 1 ) . She s a i d : " I t h i n k t h e boy and the g i r l w i l l be i n between ( t h e mother and t h e f a t h e r ' s h e i g h t ) . Because they a r e b o t h the mother and the f a t h e r ' s b a b i e s , so they w i l l t a k e a f t e r them1,1. (3) The t h i r d l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n was where the s u b j e c t s r e c o g n i z e d a h e r e d i t y (and e n v i r o n m e n t ) p r i n c i p l e as t h e o p e r a t i n g mechanism t h a t d e t e r m i n e s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s the o f f s p r i n g would i n h e r i t . T h i s l e v e l of o p e r a t i o n , w h i c h r e q u i r e d i m p r e c i s e and f l e x i b l e r e s p o n s e s , was f o u n d m o s t l y among the s u b j e c t s of t h e o l d e r group. An example of a s u b j e c t w i t h t h i s f o r m of t h i n k i n g i s Mike (13.10) when he s a i d : "Sometimes too t h e g i r l w i l l be l i k e h e r f a t h e r . The boy c o u l d be l i k e h i s f a t h e r b u t he c o u l d a l s o be l i k e h i s mother. I t depends. SECTION I I I 1 : EXPLANATIONS To e v e r y q u e s t i o n f r o m Task I t o Task V a s u b j e c t ' s r e s p o n s e was supposed t o have a p r e d i c t i v e as w e l l as an e x p l a n a t o r y p a r t . The e x p l a n a t i o n s t h e s u b j e c t s advanced to j u s t i f y t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s were many and d i f f e r e n t . These v a r i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s c o u l d be ^ c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o 4 g r o u p s . (1) E n v i r o n m e n t a l : Some s u b j e c t s i n v o k e d p u r e l y e n v i r o n m e n t a l e x p l a n -a t i o n s f o r t h e a ppearance of ( i n h e r i t e d ) t r a i t s i n t h e o f f s p r i n g . Those s u b j e c t s who i n v o k e d t h i s k i n d of e x p l a n a t i o n mentioned t h i n g s s u c h as the sun, w a t e r , f o o d , c a r e , m i m i c r y as mechanisms w h i c h c o n t r o l t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of i n h e r i t e d t r a i t s i n l i v i n g o r g a n i s m s . (2) O r g a n i s m i c o r S o m a t i c : T h e r e were t h o s e s u b j e c t s who i n v o k e d o r g a n i s m i c o r s o m a t i c e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the o r i g i n o f t h e i n h e r i t e d t r a i t . I n t h i s group of s u b j e c t s i t e m s such as n e r v e s , b r a i n , b l o o d , t e a t s , b r a n c h e s were named as t h e a g e n t s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f i n h e r i t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . (3) N a t u r a l i s t i c : There were o t h e r s u b j e c t s who i n v o k e d a n a t u r a l i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e emergence of t h e t r a i t s on the o f f s p r i n g . T h i s group mentioned l i f e - c y c l e , n a t u r e , s e x - r e s e m b l a n c e t o p a r e n t , motherhood, as t h e f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of .the o f f s p r i n g ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . (4) G e n e t i c p r i n c i p l e : F i n a l l y t h e r e were t h o s e s u b j e c t s who i n v o k e d a g e n e t i c p r i n c i p l e e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y f o r the development of an i n h e r i t e d t r a i t i n t h e o f f s p r i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l , N a t u r a l i s t i c and O r g a n i s m i c forms o f e x p l a n -a t i o n s were seen among some o l d e r s u b j e c t s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t s who advanced t h e s e t h e o r i e s t o j u s t i f y t h e i r p o s i t i o n were f r o m t h e younger group. The group of younger s u b j e c t s a l s o e x h i b i t e d v e r y r i g i d forms o f p r e d i c t i n g ; i n t h a t f o r them: i f the mother i s i n j u r e d , the o f f s p r i n g s would be deformed i f t he mother dog i s b l a c k , t h e p u p p i e s would be b l a c k i f t h e f a t h e r i s t a l l , t he son would be t a l l a l s o , e t c . F o r t h i s group of s u b j e c t s one i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e e x p l a i n s one dependent v a r i a b l e . No o t h e r f a c t o r i s b r o u g h t i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h e s e younger s u b j e c t s were a l s o found t o be u n a b l e t o r e s o r t t o t e c h n i q u e s of making a n a l o g i e s and.comparisons f o r e l a b o r a t i n g o r i l l u s t r a t i n g a p o i n t 114 i n t h e d i s c o u r s e . They tended t o e x p l a i n each s i t u a t i o n i n i t s own e n t i t y w i t h o u t r e g a r d o r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o what th e y had s a i d p r e v i o u s l y . When c o n f l i c t i n g s t a t e m e n t s were b r o u g h t t o t h e i r n o t i c e by t h e e x p e r i m e n t -e r , t h e y would u s u a l l y f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e t h e c o n f l i c t . I n c i r c u m s t a n c e s where they r e c o g n i z e d the c o n f l i c t , t h e y would c l a r i f y by s a y i n g t h a t p l a n t s , a n i m a l s and human b e i n g s a r e d i f f e r e n t o r ganisms and t h e r e f o r e , a r e bound t o have d i f f e r e n t g e n e t i c mechanisms. Because of t h i s , t h i n g s such as the m a t u r i t y of the b r a i n , b l o o d , t e a t s , b r a n c h e s were i n v o k e d by t h e s e s u b j e c t s as the a g e n t s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o n t r o l o f i n h e r i t a n c e i n t h e r e s p e c t i v e o r g a n i s m s . On t h e o t h e r hand t h e g e n e t i c t h e o r y was advanced m o s t l y by c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e o l d e r group. The m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h i s f o r m o f t h i n k i n g among the s u b j e c t s was e x h i b i t e d i n v a r i o u s ways. Some s u b j e c t s mentioned i t e m s such as a n c e s t r a l l i n e , p u r e b r e e d s , e t c . t o j u s t i f y t h e i r i m p r e c i s e and v e r y p r o b a b i l i s t i c p r e d i c t i o n about the outcome of the o f f s p r i n g . A t the same t i m e some of t h e s e s u b j e c t s w i t h t h e s e f l e x i b l e p a t t e r n s of t h i n k i n g were o b s e r v e d t o be a b l e t o make a n a l o g i e s and comparisons among f a m i l i a r o r g a n i s m s and o c c a s i o n s t o i l l u s t r a t e i s s u e s i n t h e c o u r s e of t h e i n t e r r o g a t i o n . CONCLUSION: On the b a s i s o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s i t c o u l d be c o n c l u d e d t h a t f o r t h e 32 a v e r a g e a b i l i t y s u b j e c t s who were s t u d i e d , t h e development of t h e c o n c e p t s r e l a t e d t o t h e i n h e r i t a n c e of a d e f o r m i t y c o u l d n o t be based on a t h e o r y of n a t u r a l l y u n f o l d i n g s t r u c t u r e s s i n c e b o t h the m i s c o n c e p t i o n and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e b e l i e f s were found among t h e . s u b j e c t s from b o t h t h e younger and o l d e r g r o u p s . The b e l i e f s of t h e s u b j e c t s were r e l a t i v e t o the k i n d s o f e x p e r i e n c e t h e y have had w i t h the phenomenon i n q u e s t i o n . 115 On t h e o t h e r hand t h e development of the p r o b a b i l i s t i c and c o m b i n a t o r i a l forms o f t h i n k i n g w h i c h a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of the c o n c e p t s r e l a t e d t o t h e i n h e r i t a n c e o f c o l o u r i n dogs and h e i g h t i n man, seemed t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y of u n f o l d i n g s t r u c t u r e s . Younger c h i l d r e n were found t o be v e r y r i g i d i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g w h i l e o l d e r c h i l d r e n were f l e x i b l e and r e c o g n i z e d the n e c e s s i t y o f knowing about many v a r i a b l e s b e f o r e a p p r o p r i a t e p r e c i s e p r e d i c t i o n s c o u l d be made. The age of 10 ( t e n y e a r s ) among t h e s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d , seemed t o be t h e d i v i d i n g age where f r o m many o f t h e s u b j e c t s d e v e l o p t h e f l e x i b l e f o r m of r e a s o n i n g w h i c h i s a v e r y e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y f o r t h e c a p a b i l i t y t o s t u d y g e n e t i c s . 116 C h a p t e r 6 DISCUSSION AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS I n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , t h e r e s u l t s of t h e s t u d y were p r e s e n t e d i n t h r e e s e c t i o n s . S e c t i o n one d e a l t w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s on e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y i n d u c e d d e f o r m i t i e s . S e c t i o n two was a p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e r e s u l t s on c o l o u r i n dogs and h e i g h t i n man. S e c t i o n t h r e e was a summary of t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s t h e s u b j e c t s advanced t o j u s t i f y t h e i r v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s i n s e c t i o n one and s e c t i o n two. The r e s u l t s appeared t o i n d i c a t e t h a t c h i l d r e n , of age 6 t o 13 y e a r s have a l r e a d y formed t h e i r own t h e o r i e s t o e x p l a i n the v a r i o u s forms of p h e n o t y p i c t r a i t s w h i c h t h e y see e x h i b i t e d by the v a r i o u s l i v i n g o r g a n i s m s around them—man, a n i m a l s , and p l a n t s . The t h e o r i e s w h i c h the s u b j e c t s have advanced f o r t h e o r i g i n of the phenomenon of i n h e r i t a n c e have ranged f r o m e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o p o s i t i o n s , n a t u r a l i s t i c p r o p o s i t i o n s , o r g a n i s m i c or s o m a t i c p r o p o s i t i o n s t o g e n e t i c p r o p o s i t i o n s . The younger group of c h i l d r e n i . e . 6 t o 9 y e a r o l d s were found more t o advance t h e f i r s t t h r e e t y p e s of p r o p o s i t i o n s o r e x p l a n a t i o n s . From what t h e s e s u b j e c t s s a i d , i t was a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e y d i d n o t have an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e mechanism of i n h e r i t a n c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e t h e o r i e s o r e x p l a n a t i o n s p r o b a b l y f u l f i l l a p s y c h o l o g i c a l need i n t h o s e s u b j e c t s who advanced them. Many e d u c a t o r s would be tempted a t t h i s p o i n t t o r e a c t t h a t the s u b j e c t m a t t e r of g e n e t i c s i s d i f f i c u l t f o r the age l e v e l s of the c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , so t h e s c h o o l s a r e j u s t i f i e d i n t h e i r p o l i c y o f p o s t p o n i n g the t e a c h i n g of g e n e t i c s t i l l g rade 10. I t i s on the b a s i s of t h i s argument w h i c h i s n o t documented i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , t h a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m has f l o u r i s h e d a l l t h e s e decades s i n c e Mendel's work of 1865, w i t h o u t 117 i n c o r p o r a t i n g t r u e a s p e c t s of g e n e t i c s i n the e l e m e n t a r y s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m . The a p p a r e n t n e g l e c t of t h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r , however, does n o t p r e v e n t the mind of t h e c h i l d r e n f r o m w o r k i n g on the i s s u e o f i n h e r i t a n c e . T h e i r minds a r e c o n s t a n t l y f o r m u l a t i n g w h a t e v e r t h e o r y t h e y c a n r e a s o n a b l y come up w i t h t o s u i t t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e a t hand. I t i s i n f a c t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s n e g l e c t e d s i t u a t i o n t h a t B e r n s t e i n and Cowan (1975) i n t h e i r s t u d y o f young c h i l d r e n ' s i d e a s of p r o c r e a t i o n , c o n c l u d e d w i t h the f o l l o w i n g r e m a r k s : Our r e s u l t s s u g g e s t s t r o n g l y t h a t c h i l d r e n c o n s t r u c t t h e i r n o t i o n (about b a b i e s ) ; t h e y do n o t w a i t t o be t o l d What i s o f t e n t a k e n as a m i s c o n c e p t i o n may l a r g e l y be a p r o d u c t o f t h e i r own a s s i m i l a t i v e p r o c e s s a t work on m a t e r i a l s w i t h too complex a s t r u c t u r e f o r them t o un d e r -s t a n d . These s t a t e m e n t s a r e i n tune w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y . Whereas a l o t o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l , o r g a n i s m i c or s o m a t i c and n a t u r a l i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n s came m o s t l y f r o m t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h e younger group, the wrong p r e d i c t i o n s however, came fr o m a l l t h e age groups o f c h i l d r e n t h a t were s t u d i e d (6 t o 13 y e a r s ) . Some of t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s and t h e s u p p o r t i v e t h e o r i e s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l , n a t u r a l i s t i c and o r g a n i s m i c o r i g i n a r e i n c r e d i b l e and h a r d t o e n v i s a g e . What i s even more u n f o r t u n a t e i s the e v i d e n c e shown i n t h i s s t u d y t h a t some c h i l d r e n o f the o l d e r group s t i l l had t h e s e ' i n f a n t i l e ' m i s c o n c e p t i o n s . I n o t h e r words f o r some of t h e s u b j e c t s t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s were found t o f a i l t o wear away w i t h age. T h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s a: l i k e l i h o o d t h a t even when s t u d e n t s a r e exposed t o a f o r m a l s t u d y o f g e n e t i c s i n s c h o o l , t h e s e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s may s t i l l p e r s i s t i n t h e i r minds. The B.C. S c i e n c e Assessment (1978 Summary R e p o r t ) r e p o r t e d t h a t 30% of t h e s u b j e c t s who were t e s t e d f r o m grade 12 on t h e q u e s t i o n of whether e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y i n d u c e d d e f o r m i t i e s c o u l d be i n h e r i t e d 118 p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e s e d e f o r m i t i e s would be i n h e r i t e d by the o f f s p r i n g s . F o r example, t h e y were asked whether t h e o f f s p r i n g s of a mouse whose t a i l has been c u t s h o r t would be b o r n w i t h a c u t t a i l . T h i r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e g r ade 12 c h i l d r e n o f t h e s c h o o l s t h a t were t e s t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a chose a r e s p o n s e w h i c h i n d i c a t e s the b e l i e f t h a t t h e young m i c e would be b o r n w i t h s h o r t t a i l s . The f i n d i n g s o f t h a t s t u d y become more s u r p r i s i n g when one i s reminded t h a t grade 12 c h i l d r e n i n B.C. s c h o o l s have had a t l e a s t some amount o f f o r m a l s t u d y o f g e n e t i c s . However, s c a n n i n g t h r o u g h t h e t e x t s used f o r the g r a d e 10 c o u r s e i n g e n e t i c s i n B.C. s c h o o l s (a) E x t e n d i n g S c i e n c e Concepts i n the Lab- o r a t o r y by M a n f r e d C. Schmid, w h i c h i s t h e t e x t used by most s c h o o l s ; and (b) Why Y o u ' r e You, by t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m S t u d y , w h i c h i s used by o n l y 20% of t h e s c h o o l s ) r e v e a l s t h a t t h e p r o b l e m may n o t so much be w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n but i t may r a t h e r be w i t h t h e a p p r o a c h and m a t e r i a l s w h i c h a r e used i n t h e t e a c h i n g of t h i s c o u r s e . A l m o s t a l l of t h e l e s s o n s on g e n e t i c s i n t h o s e two t e x t s a r e c e n t r e d around f r u i t -f l i e s and p e a p l a n t s . None of t h e a n i m a l s w h i c h a r e common and c h a l l e n g i n g t o t h e c h i l d r e n a r e used as examples. I t c o u l d be s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h i s a p p r o a c h t o the t e a c h i n g of t h e s u b j e c t ( g e n e t i c s ) would p o s s i b l y f o r c e some c h i l d r e n t o d e v e l o p two c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s r e l a t i v e t o t h e t o p i c of i n h e r i t a n c e . I t c o u l d be t h a t t h e s e two c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s d e v e l o p s e p a r a t e l y and be q u i t e u n r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r . F i r s t t h e r e c o u l d be one s t r u c t u r e a r i s i n g f r o m t h e c h i l d ' s exposure t o t h e f o r m a l s t u d y of g e n e t i c s i n s c h o o l . Second, t h e r e c o u l d be a n o t h e r s t r u c t u r e , p o t e n t b u t submerged below the f o r m e r . T h i s second s t r u c t u r e would c o n s i s t of a l l t h e b e l i e f s t h e c h i l d has formed about t h e phenomenon of i n h e r i t a n c e i n t h e c o u r s e of h i s i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g . A c h i l d who f i n d s h i m s e l f i n the 119 p r e d i c a m e n t where he cannot r e s o l v e t h e c o n f l i c t between t h e two s t r u c t u r e s may n e v e r be a b l e t o d e v e l o p an i n t e g r a t e d p i c t u r e about t h e phenomenon of i n h e r i t a n c e ; and so he/she may c o n t i n u e t o i n v o k e t h e wrong s t r u c t u r e (of b e l i e f s ) i n p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o i n h e r i t a n c e . A n o t h e r p r o b l e m w h i c h i s c r e a t e d by c e n t e r i n g i n t r o d u c t o r y g e n e t i c s l e s s o n s on f r u i t f l i e s i s t h e f a c t t h a t many of t h e s u b j e c t s r e g a r d t h e mechanism of i n h e r i t a n c e t o be c o n t r o l l e d by t h e b r a i n , t h e b l o o d , the t e a t s e t c . F r u i t f l i e s have n e i t h e r ' b l o o d ' nor do t h e y have a mature b r a i n as i n man, n o r t e a t s as... i n dogs. So s t a r t i n g a c o u r s e w i t h an o r g a n i s m t h a t has none of t h e s e i t e m s t h a t confound a c h i l d ' s mind and a t the same t i m e f o r m the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e f o r h i s / h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e phenomenon, would n o t be a v e r y p r o m i s i n g v e n t u r e ; s i n c e i t would mean p i c k i n g up f a r above where the s u b j e c t i s . I n t h i s r e g a r d c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s need t o be g u i d e d by A u s u b e l ' s (1968) s t a t e m e n t s when he s a i d : I f I had t o r e d u c e a l l of e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y t o j u s t one p r i n c i p l e , I would say t h i s : t h e most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g l e a r n i n g i s what th e l e a r n e r a l r e a d y knows. A s c e r t a i n t h i s and t e a c h him a c c o r d i n g l y . I t would seem from t h e way t h e g e n e t i c s c o u r s e s f o r s c h o o l s have been s t r u c t u r e d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s ' d i f f i c u l t i e s have n o t been t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g of t h a t c u r r i c u l u m . I t a p p e ars t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e of the c o u r s e has been o v e r emphasized t o t h e d e t r i m e n t of a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e c h i l d ' s r e a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . The f i n d i n g of t h e f a c t t h a t the younger c h i l d r e n were r i g i d and n o n - p r o b a b i l i s t i c i n t h e i r t h o u g h t s i s n e i t h e r u n i q u e n o r i s i t s t r a n g e . O ther s c i e n c e e d u c a t o r s have m e n t i o n e d i n e a r l i e r works about the f a c t 120 t h a t young c h i l d r e n t a k e c o g n i z a n c e o f o n l y one v a r i a b l e i n p r e d i c t i n g the outcome of e v e n t s . T h i s p a t t e r n of t h i n k i n g i n w h i c h o n l y one i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i s h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e outcome of the depedent v a r i a b l e i s r e g a r d e d by George H e i n (1968) as ' p a r t i c u l a t e t h i n k i n g ' . I n r e p o r t i n g on some a c t i v i t i e s e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n c a r r i e d out on t h e U n i t ' R o l l i n g Objects,', i n w h i c h the s u b j e c t s had t o c o n s i d e r two o r more v a r i a b l e s t o p r e d i c t ( a p p r o p r i a t e l y ) t h e outcome of t h e e x p e r i m e n t s George H e i n (1968) made t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s : These c h i l d r e n do n o t have a s t a t i s t i c a l v i e w of d a t a and s c i e n t i f i c o b s e r v a t i o n . , I n s t e a d t h e y have a p a r t i c u l a t e v i e w . Each o b s e r v a t i o n has i t s i n d e p e n d e n t e x i s t e n c e , each o b s e r v a t i o n c o u l d d e c i d e the c o n t e s t [outcome]. I t i s no wonder t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h e younger s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y were f o u n d t o be r i g i d about t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s and d i d n o t show e v i d e n c e of b e i n g a b l e t o make a n a l o g i e s and c o mparisons as was t h e c a s e w i t h some c h i l d r e n i n the o l d e r group. I n the l i g h t o f t h i s t h e r e f o r e i t c o u l d be recommended t h a t i f a g e n e t i c s c o u r s e s h o u l d be drawn up f o r a v e r a g e a b i l i t y e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , t h e c o u r s e work f o r age 6 t o 9 y e a r s s h o u l d d e a l . m a ' i n l y _ w i t h i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o h e l p i n g the c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p t h e a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h between p u r e l y e n v i r o n m e n t a l f e a t u r e s and i n h e r i t e d t r a i t s i n l i v i n g o r g a n i s m s . Whereas s i m p l e r but t r u l y g e n e t i c t o p i c s , t h a t would r e q u i r e c o m b i n a t o r i a l p a t t e r n s of t h i n k i n g , t h e a b i l i t y t o make a n a l o g i e s and c o m p a r i s o n s t o a r r i v e a t p r e c i s e o r i m p r e c i s e p r e d i c t i o n s , s h o u l d be t r e a t e d w i t h c h i l d r e n of t h e age of about 10 ( y e a r s ) and above. T h i s c o u r s e c o u l d a l s o be d i r e c t e d towards h e l p i n g the s u b j e c t s r e a l i z e t h e common g e n e t i c p r i n c i p l e s t h a t o p e r a t e i n a n i m a l s , humans and p l a n t s . An e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o d e v e l o p t h e c o u r s e around l i v i n g o r g a n i s m s t h a t a r e f a m i l i a r t o t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e i r 121 e v e r y d a y e n c o u n t e r . The above recommendations may r a i s e many q u e s t i o n s i n t h e minds of r e a d e r s . Q u e s t i o n s such a s : I s t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a d v o c a t i n g a s h i f t f r o m f r u i t f l i e s t o something e l s e ? How can t h e c h i l d r e n c a r r y o u t a c t i v i t i e s w i t h o u t f r u i t f l i e s ? e t c . would be a s k e d . The answers t o t h e s e k i n d s of q u e s t i o n s a g a i n d e r i v e s u p p o r t f r o m t h e f i n d i n g s i n t h i s s t u d y : Y e s , f o r E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l g r a d e s e s p e c i a l l y , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t f r u i t f l i e s s h o u l d be p u t away t e m p o r a r i l y , u n t i l l a t e r i n t h e c h i l d ' s l i f e when a c t i v i t i e s w i t h f r u i t f l i e s c o u l d e a s i l y be r e l a t e d t o o t h e r o rganisms around. I t i s thus recommended t h a t the g e n e t i c s c o u r s e f o r ' e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s s h o u l d be c e n t r e d around l a r g e r a n i m a l s , e s p e c i a l l y d o m e s t i c a t e d ones, t o w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e l a t e s more o f t e n i n h i s e v e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e a s o n s a l r e a d y g i v e n f o r the recommended temporary d i s s o c i a t i o n f r o m the s t u d y of f r u i t f l i e s i s the f a c t t h a t even though t h e s e o rganisms a r e t h e b e s t known f o r a c t i v i t y o r i e n t e d l e s s o n s because of t h e s i m p l e t r a i t s t h e y c a r r y and the v e r y f a s t r a t e a t w h i c h t h e y r e p r o d u c e , h a n d l i n g them would e n t a i l many problems f o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d . Amongst t h e s e p roblems a r e : (1) t h e f a c t t h a t f r u i t f l i e s a r e t o o t i n y and d e l i c a t e t o be h a n d l e d ( w i t h o u t b e i n g damaged) by e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n -(2) the f a c t t h a t t h e mechanism of a n a e s t h e s i z i n g t h e s e o rganisms i s too complex f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n t o c a r r y out e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g . (3) t h e f a c t t h a t e t h e r , the c h e m i c a l used f o r a n a e s t h e s i z i n g t h e f r u i t f l i e s i s t o o dangerous to be e n t r u s t e d t o e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . 7 122 Because of t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s and the f i n d i n g t h a t f r u i t f l i e s t h e m s e l v e s a r e n o t r e l a t e d t o the problems the c h i l d i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h , t h i s s t u d y would recommend f o r a t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h t h e u s e of a p p r o p r i a t e s l i d e s of l a r g e r a n i m a l s , f i l m s t r i p s , p i c t u r e s , and s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r l e a d d i s c u s s i o n s as e f f e c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e methods by w h i c h the c h i l d c o u l d be t a u g h t g e n e t i c s i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . T h i s approach, appears t o be b e t t e r t h a n one t h a t r e s o r t s t o a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h have no b e a r i n g on t h e e v e r y d a y problems of t h e c h i l d . I m p l i e d i s t h a t a c t i v i t i e s a r e n o t t h e o n l y answer to a l l t h e l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s c h i l d r e n have as some e d u c a t o r s seem t o b e l i e v e . A c t i v i t i e s a r e good i f t h e y a r e r e l a t e d t o the problems of th e l e a r n e r . I n c i r c u m s t a n c e s where the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y i s n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e c h i l d ' s e v e r y d a y p r o b l e m , t h e n o t h e r methods of t e a c h i n g w h i c h a r e more a p p r o p r i a t e t o the s i t u a t i o n c o u l d be adopted and found t o be f a r more e f f e c t i v e . One o f t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s where t h i s a p p r o a c h i s deemed a p p r o p r i a t e i s i n t h e s t u d y o f g e n e t i c s i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . Summary The s u b j e c t s o f t h i s s t u d y have d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t the a c q u i s i t i o n o f c o n c e p t s r e l a t e d t o t h e i n h e r i t a n c e o r non i n h e r i t a n c e o f t r a i t s i n l i v i n g o r g a n i s m s f o l l o w s two p a t t e r n s . The a c q u i s i t i o n o f b e l i e f s r e l a t i n g t o d e f o r m i t i e s i s p u r e l y a f u n c t i o n of t h e e x p e r i e n c e s t h e c h i l d has had w i t h t h e phenomenon i n h i s e v e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s and e n c o u n t e r s ; whereas the b e l i e f s r e l a t e d t o the i n h e r i t a n c e of c o l o u r i n dogs and h e i g h t i n man a r e a f u n c t i o n of t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l development ( w i t h a g e ) . F o r t h e 32 a v e r a g e a b i l i t y s u b j e c t s who p a r t -i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y , t h e age df 10 ( y e a r s ) was found t o be the d i v i d i n g l i n e f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of the f l e x i b l e p a t t e r n s o f t h i n k i n g . Below t h e age of 10 y e a r s t h e c h i l d r e n were found t o be r i g i d i n t h e i r 123 p r e d i c t i o n s because t h e y c o n s i d e r o n l y one v a r i a b l e f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e o f f s p r i n g ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A t about the age of 10 and above t h e s u b j e c t s a c q u i r e f l e x i b l e and c o m b i n a t o r i a l p a t t e r n s o f t h i n k i n g i n p r e d i c t i n g t h e outcome of t h e o f f s p r i n g ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . On t h e b a s i s of t h i s f i n d i n g s t h i s s t u d y recommends t h a t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s s h o u l d t a k e upon t h e m s e l v e s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t u t o r c h i l d r e n of age 6 t o 9 y e a r s about t h e n o n - i n h e r i t a n c e n a t u r e of e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y i n d u c e d d e f o r m i t i e s i n l i v i n g o r g a n i s m s . T h i s t o p i c has been s u g g e s t e d f o r t h i s age group s i n c e i t i s f a r s i m p l e r t h a n t r u e g e n e t i c t o p i c s w h i c h r e q u i r e c o m b i n a t o r i a l p a t t e r n s o f t h i n k i n g . The c h i l d r e n of t h e age of about 10 y e a r s and above who showed the a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e s i t u a t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e d c o m b i n a t o r i a l p a t t e r n s of t h i n k i n g c o u l d be exposed t o a p u r e b u t s i m p l e g e n e t i c s c o u r s e t h a t i s b u i l t around o r g a n i s m s w h i c h a r e more f a m i l i a r t o them. 124 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES From the s t a n d p o i n t of t h e p r o b l e m t h a t was i n v e s t i g a t e d and t h e methods ado p t e d f o r t h a t p u r p o s e , i t becomes a p p a r e n t t h a t many recommend-a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t s about i n h e r i t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o u l d be made. These recommendations a r e : (1) S i n c e t h i s s t u d y o n l y l o o k e d i n t o the b e l i e f s of c h i l d r e n of a v e r a g e a b i l i t y , e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the f i n d i n g s c o u l d o n l y be r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e group o f c h i l d r e n . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s of t h i s t y p e c o u l d be c a r r i e d out on c h i l d r e n of above av e r a g e a b i l i t y and below a v e r a g e a b i l i t y i n o r d e r to f i n d o u t what t h e i r own b e l i e f s a r e about t h e phenomenon of i n h e r i t a n c e . (2) I n the l i g h t o f the f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y group i n s t r u m e n t s ( f o r example paper and p e n c i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d and t e s t e d on w h ole c l a s s e s o r c l a s s e s of a v e r a g e a b i l i t y c h i l d r e n t o f i n d out how p r e v a l e n t t h e b e l i e f s a r e among th e c h i l d r e n of the v a r i o u s c l a s s e s . The f i n d i n g s c o u l d be used t o recommend c u r r i c u l u m f o r t h e s p e c i f i c c l a s s e s . (3) A n o t h e r a p p r o a c h w h i c h c o u l d be employed i n : t h e e x e c u t i o n of t h i s k i n d of r e s e a r c h i s the a d o p t i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l methods t o c o l l e c t t h e sample of c h i l d r e n ( o f v a r i o u s a b i l i t i e s ) and f i n d out what b e l i e f s t h i s h e t e r o g e n e o u s sample of c h i l d r e n h o l d about t h e phenomenon of i n h e r i t a n c e . The e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the f i n d i n g s of s u c h a s t u d y c o u l d be v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n t o d a y ' s s c h o o l s s i n c e most s c h o o l s have c h i l d r e n of v a r i o u s a b i l i t i e s w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r i n t h e same c l a s s r o o m . 125 More c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s s h o u l d be p l a n n e d . The a n a l y s i s method adopted f o r such s t u d i e s s h o u l d check o u t c l e a r l y w hether f a c t o r s s u c h as s e x , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l of home, do r e a l l y i n f l u e n c e t h e development of t h e b e l i e f s t h a t were i n v e s t i g a t e d . However, w i t h i n . t h e , s t r e n g t h s o f the method adopted f o r t h i s s t u d y , t h e s e two f a c t o r s - sex and s o c i o -economic l e v e l , were not found t o be i m p o r t a n t i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e b e l i e f s o f t h e a v e r a g e a b i l i t y c h i l d r e n t h a t were s t u d i e d . B o t h boys and g i r l s , c h i l d r e n of low and h i g h income r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , had s u c c e s s e s as w e l l as d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e t a s k s . More c a r e f u l s t u d i e s a r e needed i n t h i s a r e a , however. T h i s s t u d y o n l y l o o k e d a t two b e l i e f a r e a s o f the t o p i c i n q u e s t i o n i . e . t h e a r e a o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y i n d u c e d d e f o r m i t i e s and t he a r e a of c o l u r and h e i g h t i n h e r i t a n c e i n a n i m a l s and human b e i n g s r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i m i l a r e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d i e s c o u l d be c o n d u c t e d on o t h e r a r e a s o f the t o p i c of i n h e r i t a n c e , f o r example s e x - l i n k e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as b a l d n e s s , f e a t u r e s such as the s i x t h f i n g e r e t c . w h i c h d e c e p t i v e l y appear randomly i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d t o f i n d out what b e l i e f s c h i l d r e n h o l d about them. An o p i n i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d and handed out t o E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l S c i e n c e t e a c h e r s t o f i n d out what t h e i r own o p i n i o n s a r e about t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of a s u b j e c t l i k e G e n e t i c s (as i s deemed a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the c h i l d r e n ) i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . Do th e y see any need f o r t h i s i n t o d a y ' s s c h o o l s ? 126 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. A n d e r s o n , Gene C. " S e n s o r i - m o t o r p e r i o d : The Source o f I n t e l l e c t u a l Development." i n D e v e l o p i n g t h e I n d i v i d u a l i n a Changing W o r l d , v o l . I . R i e g e l , K l a u s F. and Meacham, John A. ( E d s ) . The Hague, Mouton. 1976. 2. A g u i r r e , J o s e M. " C h i l d r e n ' s B e l i e f s About F o r c e s i n E q u i l i b r i u m " . U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1978. 3. A u s u b e l , D.P. E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y : A C o g n i t i v e View. New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1968. 4. B e a r d , R u t h M. An O u t l i n e o f P i a g e t ' s D e v e l o p m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y f o r S t u d e n t s and T e a c h e r s . New Y o r k : B a s i c Books, I n c . 1969. 5. B e r n s t e i n , Anne and Cowan, P h i l i p . " C h i l d r e n ' s Concepts o f How P e o p l e Get B a b i e s " . C h i l d Development v o l . 46, pp. 77-91, 1975. 6. Bonar, John R. Why You're You. I n t e r m e d i a t e S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m S t u d y , A t l a n t a : S i l v e r B u r d e t t . 1972. 7. B r a i n e r d , C h a r l e s J . "The R o l e o f S t r u c t u r e s i n E x p l a i n i n g B e h a v i o r a l Development". i n D e v e l o p i n g t h e I n d i v i d u a l i n a Chan g i n g W o r l d , v o l . I . R i e g e l , K l a u s F. and Meacham, John A. ( E d s ) . The Hague, Mouton. 1976. 8. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c i e n c e Assessment. Summary R e p o r t , 1978. 9. B r u n e r , Jerome S. The P r o c e s s o f E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : V i n t a g e Books, 1960. 10. C h i t t e n d e n , Edward A. " P i a g e t and E l e m e n t a r y S c i e n c e " . S c i e n c e and C h i l d r e n , v o l . 8 No. 4, pp. 9-15, 1970. 11. D a v i e s , C a r o l y n M. "Development o f t h e P r o b a b i l i t y Concept i n C h i l d r e n " . C h i l d Development v o l . 36, pp. 779-788, 1965. 12. De B l a n c q u e r e - C l a r k s o n , J o h . " O l d P e r s p e c t i v e s on E v o l u t i o n " . S c h o o l S c i e n c e Review, v o l . 57, pp. 463-475, 197.6. 13. D u c k w o r t h , E l e a n o r R. " P i a g e t R e d i s c o v e r e d " . The J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g v o l . 2, 3, pp. 172-175, 1964. 14. D u d l e y , B.A.C. "The M a t h e m a t i c a l B a s i s o f P o p u l a t i o n G e n e t i c s " . J o u r n a l o f B i o l o g i c a l E d u c a t i o n , v o l . 7, pp. 41-43, 1973. 15. D u d l e y , B.A.C. "The M a t h e m a t i c a l B a s i s o f P h e n o t y p i c R a t i o s " . J o u r n a l o f B i o l o g i c a l E d u c a t i o n , v o l . 7, pp. 25-28, 1973. 127 16. E r i c k s o n , E. C h i l d h o o d and S o c i e t y . New Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1950. 17. E r i c k s o n , G a e l e n L. 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C h i l d Development, v o l . 33, pp. 769-780, 1962. 131 APPENDIX I Department o f S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n F a c u l t y of G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia Vancouver, B.C. May 16, 1978 Dear P a r e n t : Your c h i l d has an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s t u d y d i r e c t e d towards u n d e r s t a n d i n g c h i l d r e n ' s i d e a s about i n h e r i t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The s t u d y w i l l t a k e the form of a taped d i s c u s s i o n of about 20-30 m i n u t e s between y o u r c h i l d and t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r on the s u b j e c t of i n h e r i t a n c e i n p l a n t s , i n a n i m a l s and i n man. (Your c h i l d w i l l n o t be asked q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g h im o r h i s f a m i l y ) . C o u l d you k i n d l y l e t me know by: (a) c h e c k i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e space p r o v i d e d and (b) s i g n i n g y o u r name below whether you would approve o f y o u r c h i l d t a k i n g p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y . P l e a s e r e t u r n t h e s i g n e d s l i p i n t h e e n v e l o p e p r o v i d e d and send i t t o t h e s c h o o l w i t h y o u r c h i l d . I would a p p r e c i a t e y o u r prompt r e s p o n s e t o t h i s p r o p o s a l . Thank you, Dennis Kargbo Y e s , I would approve of my c h i l d t a k i n g p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y . No, I would n o t a p p r o v e of my c h i l d t a k i n g p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y . S i g n a t u r e 132 APPENDIX I I QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 133 Grade I QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 1AI QUESTION I Suppose the leg of a female dog was broken by a motorcar. If this dog limps after i t has become well. Would the puppies of the dog be born with a lame leg? QUESTION II If two dogs (male and female) had their t a i l s cut short in an accident, i f they have puppies, how w i l l these puppies be in terms of t a i l length? QUESTION III If two dogs l o s t their t a i l s while they were pups, i f they have pup-pies when they are f u l l y grown. How w i l l their own pups be? TOPIC Christina 5.6 Injuries on dogs. They wouldn't have a broken leg. I don't know why. I don't know. My dog has a short t a i l , but i t i s a boy. Of course boy dogs don't have puppies. I don't know. Johnnie 7.4 They might limp. Because the mother broke her bone, and leg, they might start to limp too. They w i l l have a t a i l . The car ran over the dog's t a i l , i t did not run over the t a i l s of their babies. They would have f u l l t a i l s (implied). 7.4 I say they maybe limping-might be-not a l l the time, just sometimes--because em, they grow up inside the mother's tummy I don't know the rest. They w i l l have a t a i l . The t a i l was ran over by a car, the pups w i l l s t i l l have a t a i l . They w i l l not have a t a i l . 7.5 I don't think the puppies w i l l have a broken leg because the pups are a different part of the mother. Just l i k e i f the leg i s broken, the arm isn't broken. I think that their puppies w i l l have a t a i l . Because i t is not them that got ran over. They won't be affected. 134 Grade I QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE IAI (cont'd.) QUESTION IV If the t a i l s of a l l dogs in Vancouver were cut short by their owners, what w i l l their new born puppies l o o l like? Why? COMMENTS They won't have a t a i l , know. I don't They w i l l have a t a i l . Because they didn't chop off their t a i l s . I don't know. They w i l l be with a t a i l (and then have their t a i l s cut off) C h r i s t i e i s mislead to believe that when large numbers of dogs suffer an injury, then there is a great chance that this w i l l be transmitted to the offsprings. Johnnie's second answer appears to contradict his e a r l i e r logic and answer to the f i r s t question. When he was further probed about the matter* he explained the transmission of the broken leg i n terms of mimicking that the pups would not necessarily have a broken bone but w i l l just walk l i k e their mother. Jamie believes the pups w i l l limp a l i t t l e because they grow up in the mum's tummy. But he does not believe the short t a i l can be transmitted to the offsprings. He explained the difference i n transmission to be caused by the fact that these are diff e r e n t accidents. When he was reminded about the contradictions he said he i s not aware he i s changing his view - but he thinks he i s quite right. T r i c i a believes that injuries are only i n f l i c t e d on people and they cannot be transmitted to the offspring. 135 GRADE II . QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 1AII 9 QUESTION I Suppose the leg of a female dog was broken by a motorcar. If this dog limps after i t has become well. Would the puppies of the dog be born . with a lame leg? NAME AGE TOPIC QUESTION II If two dogs (male and female) had their t a i l s cut short i n an accident, i f they have puppies, how would their puppies be i n terms of t a i l length? QUESTION III If two dogs l o s t their t a l i s while they were pups, i f they have puppies when they are f u l l y grown. How w i l l their own puppies be? Sandra 7.6 Injuries The puppies might be a b i t wounded, on dogs. Because their mother i s a b i t wound ed. The puppies won't have t a i l s because their mother and father don't have t a i l s . They won't have t a i l s (implied). Brenda 7.8 They would limp, had a broken leg. Because the mother Their puppies won't have any t a i l s . Because the mother and father did not have a t a i l . They won't have t a i l s (implied). Douglas 8.1 They probably w i l l limp - l i k e i f the mother i s sick the babies w i l l be sick. Whatever the mother i s the babies w i l l be. Then the babies would probably have no t a i l s . Because the mother has had problems, and probably the babies get the problems. They won't have t a i l s (implied). Hughie 8.6 They would be black l i k e she Is with the wound-ra-like—with a l i t t l e scar on their leg. They would not limp l i k e their mother anyway because i t happened to her and not to them. No, they would not have a scar. Their puppies w i l l not have a t a i l . Because their mother did not have a t a i l . The puppies won't have a t a i l . 136 Grade II - QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 1AII (cont'd.) 9 QUESTION IV If the t a i l s of a l l dogs in Vancouver were cut short by their owners, what w i l l their new born puppies look like? Why? COMMENTS They won't have t a i l s (implied). They won't have t a i l s (implied). They won't have t a i l s (Implied). The puppies won't have a t a i l (implied). Even though Sandra claims she has many small animals at home to look after -dog, cat, mice, yet Sandra believes that the wounded dog can transfer the limp to her puppies. Sandra i s of the opinion that even the short t a i l would be trans-ferred to the puppies by their parents. It i s quite evident that Brenda Is of the opinion that whatever injury i s i n f l i c t e d on the parent animal, this would be handed down to the offspring's genetic code. Douglas believes that whatever problem the mother has this would be given down to the baby. He says you catch sickness from other people and l i k e that a baby catches problems from i t s mother. When the apparent contradiction was brought to Hughie's notice with regards to his d i f f e r e n t i a l explanations for the two in j u r i e s , he repeated only his stance in what he had e a r l i e r said but was not able to elaborate. 137 Grade III QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 1AIII QUESTION I Suppose Che leg of a female dog was broken by a motorcar. If this dog limps after i t has become well. Would the puppies of this dog be born with a lame leg? QUESTION II If two dogs (male and female) have their t a i l s cut short i n an accident. If they have puppies afterwards, how would these puppies be i n terms of t a i l length? QUESTION III If two dogs (male and female) lost their t a i l s while they were puppies, i f they have puppies when they are f u l l y grown, how w i l l their own puppies be? N a n c y 9.00 Injuries The puppies w i l l not have a broken The puppies w i l l have a t a i l . Because They w i l l have t a i l s , on dogs. leg. The mother did not have the the mother's t a l l only got cut o f f . baby yet. Michael 9.2 Some of them would limp because the mother was hurt before they were born. The t a i l s of the puppies might be short too. Because their father was in the accident and so a short t a i l might be transferred to them. They w i l l have a short t a i l (implied). Sylvia 9.5 Normal, puppies. Because they are new Because nothing happened They w i l l have a t a i l , happened to them. Because nothing The puppies w i l l have a t a i l (implied). Gary 10.1 No, they won't limp. Because they are inside the mother's body and her body was not broken, i t was the leg which was broken. I think the puppy w i l l have a t a i l . Because the mother used to have a t a i l , right? The puppies w i l l have a t a i l . Because these puppies had t a i l s when they were babies. 188 GRADE III QUESTION IV If Che t a i l s of a l l dogs in Vancouver were cut short by their owners, what w i l l . t h e i r new born puppies look like? QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 1AIII (cont'a.) COMMENTS They w i l l have a t a i l . Because their mothers has their t a i l s cut o f f . They w i l l have a short t a i l (implied). The puppies w i l l have a t a i l (implied). Their puppies won't have a t a i l . They w i l l have a t a i l because their mother used to have t a i l s . Nancy was able to recognize that hurting the mother dog/s at any time in her/their l i v e s w i l l not affect their own puppies In any way. Mike believes that once the mother or father suffered an injury before the babies (puppies) were born, there is a great chance that the phenomenon would be transferred to the babies.' Sylvia realizes that once nothing happened to the puppies while they are inside the belly of their mother, they're going to be born quite normal. Gary Is f i r s t deceived by the large numbers but he changed his view as the questioning progressed .* 139 „ , T „ QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE Grade IV u i y QUESTION I Suppose the leg of a female dog was broken by a motorcar. If this dog limps after i t has become well. Would the puppies of this dog be born with a lame leg? QUESTION II If two dogs (male and female) have their t a i l s cut short i n an accident. If they have puppies afterwards, how would these puppies be In terms of t a i l length? QUESTION III If two dogs (male and female) lost their t a i l s while they were puppies, i f they have puppies when they are f u l l y grown, how w i l l their own puppies be? Kenneth 9.10 Injuries They might limp too. Because the They might have a very short t a i l or They would have a short t a i l on dogs. mother had an accident before and might-have no t a i l . (implied), she was limping. 10.1 I don't think they'd limp, but their foot maybe a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t , l i k e i t might have a scar or some-thing. I don't think they would have a t a i l . They come out l i k e their mother and father - probably. They won't have a t a i l . They would not have a t a i l (implied). Paula 10.2 10.2 I don't think i t would affect them. I have a dog whose mother's leg was broken In an accident. This mother dog limps, but my own dog did not limp. I guess some of the puppies might have a leg l i k e that (lame) but It depends on the father too. I saw a show of a lady without arms but her own baby had arms; this could have been because of the father. I don't think that would affect them either. Like gradma said they cut off the t a i l s of the dogs when they are special breed. So I don't think i t w i l l a f f e c t the puppies. I wouldn't think that they would have t a i l s , but I am not too sure. They take after their parents. I don't think i t would affect the puppies. The puppies would have a short t a l l . 140 Grade IV QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 1AIV (cont'd.) • QUESTION IV ' * If the tails of a l l dogs in Vancouver were cut short by their owners, what will their newborn puppies look like? COMMENTS The puppies would probably not have a t a i l . I don't think so. They would probably come out like their mother and father (without tails) . You would probably have to go round cutting the puppies' ta i l too. I don't think it would affect them - really, but if you go on and on - yes. They would have a short ta i l (implied). Kenneth is of the belief that making an injury on a dog can be transmitted to pups. He believes that progressive cut-ting of the ta i l , generation after generation would gradually shorten It In the puppies. Although Trevor does not believe that the broken bone in the leg would be transferred to the pups, he Is convinced that a scar would appear on the pups. On the issue of the cut t a i l , he says this would be handed down to the puppies from the parents. Although Paula resorts to explaining the non transfer of Injuries from experiences, she however was lead to believe that successive cutting of the dog's ta i l from generation to generation would shorten the t a i l of newborns. Shannon explained about the woman in the film who had no arms but had a baby with arms, so she believes the child must have taken from the father. 141 Grade V QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 1AV AGE TOPIC QUESTION I If the leg of a dog (female) was broken i n a motorcar accident. Then the dog limps after she has become well. If she i s to have puppies afterwards, w i l l they be born with a lame leg? QUESTION II QUESTION III If a male dog and a female dog were i n - If two dogs (male and female) had volved in an accident i n which they l o s t their t a i l s cut short when they were their t a i l s (both). If these two dogs s t i l l puppies. If they have puppies have puppies, how w i l l their t a i l length when they are f u l l y grown, w i l l °e? • their puppies be affected? 10.6 Injuries I don't think they would limp. on dogs. Because the puppies are in the dog' stomach. They are no where in the dog's leg. I think i t (the t a i l ) w i l l be right i n The puppies' t a i l would be short, the middle. Their father and mother have If the dogs have a short t a i l for a short t a i l s , they w i l l be about i n the middle. Not long enough - short. long time I think i t w i l l be i n their system. Stephen Maria Susan 10.9 10.11 jtt r e a l l y depends. If i t s father has something wrong with It. It could affect the puppies i n the t a i l or leg or ear. .Some might have a limp, happened to the mother. Because i t I think they would limp just a s l i g h t l i t t l e b i t . The limping would come from their mother, the rest of their walking ways would be from the father. They take after their mum and dad. Some would have t a i l s but Just stubby (short) t a i l s . Others would have no t a i l s . If they have six puppies, I would say some w i l l come with short t a i l s , others with medium. Because they used to have long t a i l s , some might be medium. I think the puppies would be born with a short t a i l . Because their mother and father had just a l i t t l e stump. If i t is the one parent who has the short t a i l , the puppies would have a medium t a i l . They could have short t a l i s or they would have no t a i l s i f they are not so lucky. So i f their parents have no t a i l , they could end up not having ears. Probably the puppies would have short t a i l s . Becuase the t a i l s have been short since they were small u n t i l they grow up. The mother has had i t for a long time. Their puppies would have a short . t a i l . 142 QUESTION IV Suppose the t a i l s of a l l the dogs in Vancouver were cut short by their owners, what w i l l the newborn puppies look l i k e in terms of t a i l length? QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 1AV (cont'd.) COMMENTS The t a i l s would a l l be short I think. If you get used to a l l of the dogs getting short t a i l s i t w i l l be kind of funny for other dogs to have long t a i l s . A lot of them could have short t a i l s but one or two could have long t a i l s . Although Jun does not believe that the limp can be handed down to the puppies, he however believes that the cutting of the t a i l w i l l be handed down In progessive stages. As the t a i l i s cut from one generation to another, so i t becomes shorter and shorter. To Stephen the fact that a mother dog's t a i l i s cut does not mean a l l pups w i l l lose their t a i l , some would acquire this feature by losing the ears, by losing a l l or only part of the t a i l , etc. Some puppies would come with a short t a i l , some with a medium. The duration of the in j u r i e s Is for Maria a very s i g n i f i c a n t factor for transmission to the puppies. The longer i t has been on the mother, the better the chances. The pups would have a short t a i l . For Susan i f only one parent suffered the injury, then only an in between (medium) chara c t e r i s t i c w i l l be given to the c h i l d . Both parents have to be injured for the injury to be transferred wholly to the c h i l d . 143 QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 1AVI NAME AGE TOPIC QUESTION I Suppose the leg of a dog (female) was broken in a motorcar accident. Then this dog limps after she has become well. If she i s to have puppies a f t e r -wards, w i l l they be born with a lame leg? QUESTION II If a male dog and a female dog were involved In an accident In which they lost their t a i l s (both). If these two dogs have puppies, how long w i l l the t a i l s of the puppies be? QUESTION III Suppose two dogs (male and female) had their t a i l s cut short when they were s t i l l puppies. If they are to have puppies when they are f u l l y grown, how w i l l these puppies' t a i l s be? Sarah 11.2 Injuries on dogs. Richard E r i c 11.4 11.10 I don't think this defect can be transferred. Because i t happened to her leg and not her Inside. The puppies would just be normal puppies. They would not limp or anything wrong with their leg. Normal'. Well, well leg has not get anything to do with i t . The puppies would probably have a long t a i l . The dogs did not start off with a short t a i l i n the breed so the puppies would have long t a i l s . I would say they would just be normal puppies with just normal t a i l s . .Just because the t a i l i s cut off wouldn't mean that much effect when It has b i r t h . Well some of them might just have short t a i l s or no t a i l s . But none of them would have wrecked legs. The puppies w i l l not be affected because i t happened a long time ago. If i t happened a short while ago i t might have an indirect effect because the mother dog w i l l be attending to her wound and not caring for the puppies, so they grow up unhealthy. Their puppies would be normal puppies. Just because you cut off the t a i l i t wouldn't make that much difference. The puppies would have a short t a i l (implied). Gaelen 11.11 They would be normal. It does not They would have a c a l l . Puppies grow In The puppies would have s t i l l a t a i l . a f f ect the puppies. a such of a package (enclosure) and they are not affected. 144 Grade VI qUESTlON-RCSPONSE TABLE 1AVT (cont'd.) » QUESTION IV Suppose the t a i l s of a l l dogs i n Vancouver were cut short by their owners, what w i l l the newborn puppies look l i k e i n terms of t a i l length? COMMENTS Their puppies would have long t a i l s . But i f you did this (cutting) for a couple of gen-erations then the puppies would probably start getting shorter and shorter t a i l s . To Sarah the o r i g i n a l characteristics of the breed determine what the pups would look l i k e . An injury deformity would not be transferred. The puppies would not be affected (implied). Richard r e a l i z e s that a deformity on the mother does not at a l l a f f e c t the young ones i n any way. The limp or the cut t a i l w i l l not be transferred. They probably would not have t a i l s . Well the kids are mostly l i k e their parents, so i f their parents have no t a i l s , then they gonna have no t a i l s . They would have a t a i l because i t i s only a physical (bodily) injury. When the contradiction i n the responses was brought to Eric's notice he says he does not know why that difference exists. Gaelen i s not at a l l deceived to believe that any form of the injury can be transferred to the puppies from the parents. 145 Grade VII QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE. 1AVII TOPIC Tony Sergio 12.6 12.6 QUESTION I Suppose the leg of a dog (female) was broken in a motorcar accident. Then this dog limps after she has become well. If she has puppies afterwards, w i l l they be born with a lame leg? QUESTION II If a male dog and a female dog were involved in an accident i n which they lost their t a i l s . If these dogs have puppies, how long w i l l the t a i l s of the puppies be? , QUESTION III Suppose two dogs (female and male) had their t a i l s cut short when they were s t i l l puppies. If they are to have puppies when they are f u l l y grown, how w i l l their t a i l s be? The puppies w i l l be O.K. It i s not l i k e the colour transfer. When a bone i s broken, i t Is not transferred to the puppies. There i s a chance that they might grow up with a limp and they might not be normal most dogs because of their mother; or else they could be just as normal as other dogs. Normal - because i t i s the same thing as a broken leg. They could end up having no t a i l . Because the parents did not have any. So they would be born without a t a i l . Their puppies would be normal. The puppies would have no t a i l s (implied). Sandra Liza 12.8 135 The puppies w i l l have the leg that she broke, or maybe a shorter leg or may walk with a limp. I think they w i l l be O.K. They would have shorter t a i l s . Becaus both parents had their t a i l s broken o f f . They w i l l come out O.K. I don't think the t a i l makes any difference. The puppies would come with a short t a i l . The puppies would come out O.K. 1 4 * Grade VII QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 1AVII (cont'd.) QUESTION IV Suppose the t a i l s of a l l dogs in Vancouver were cut short by their owners. What w i l l their newborn puppies look l i k e In terms of t a i l length? COMMENTS The puppies would be O.K. The puppies would be without t a i l s . Pretty sure about that since a l l the dogs in Vanc-ouver did not have any t a i l s , their pups would not; forever and ever no dogs would have any t a i l s . The puppies would have shorter t a i l s than they are supposed to have. Their puppies w i l l be with short t a i l s , i f a l l of them are l i k e that and their environment Is li k e that, so I think i t wouldn't be. We are supposed to be born of the monkey and we only have a t a i l bone now. Tony i s convinced that i n j u r i e s would not be transferred to the young: they are not l i k e fur colours which could be handed down by the parents to the i r young. Sergio explained that since their mother limped; If there were six pups, 3 would limp and 3 would be normal. He says i f the mother and father dog did not have t a i l s , 5 of the pups would probably be without t a i l s too when they are born. Sergio is deceived by large.numbers too. Sandra i s of the conviction that the puppies would come out l i k e their parents -with wounded legs or short t a i l s . Liza i s deceived to f e e l that numbers make a great difference to the outcome of experimental results. And also that the progressive cutting of the t a i l of the dogs w i l l shorten i t s length in offsprings gradually hence she cites the development of human beings from monkeys as examples. 147 Grade VIII QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 1AVIII NAME AGE TOPIC QUESTION I Suppose the leg of a dog (female) was broken i n a motorcar accident. Then this dog limps after she has become well. If she has puppies afterwards, w i l l they be born with a lame leg? QUESTION II If a male dog and a female dog were involved in an accident i n which they l o s t their t a i l s . If these dogs have puppies, how long w i l l the t a i l s of the puppies be? QUESTION III Suppose two dogs (male and female)" had their t a i l s cut short when they were s t i l l puppies. If they are to have puppies when they are f u l l y grown, how w i l l their t a i l s be? 13.00 Injuries on dogs. No, i t would n o t - a f f e c t the puppies. It has nothing to do with the puppies. Well, the t a i l s w i l l be O.K. It does not have anything to do with i t . It is a part of the mother and not the puppy that does not have the t a i l . It w i l l not affect the puppies. Kelly 13.7 13.8 They would be normal. Any broken bone does not go to the babies. I t does not have anything to do with i t . .1 think they would be normal. The broken leg was not natural; It happened by car. I think they would probably be O.K. I think that the puppies should have a t a i l , because again i t did not happen naturally. I don't think the puppies w i l l be affected for the same reason I gave e a r l i e r . Yes, i t would have e f f e c t , because, they were small when i t happened to them. So they would inherit the t a i l as they grow up. Mike 13.10 I don't think i t would affect the puppies. They would not have a broken leg l i k e their mother. No, I don't think their t a i l s w i l l be short. Because my uncle breeds hunting dogs and he cuts off their t a i l s . When these dogs have pups he has to cut off their t a i l s , too. So I don't think i t has anything to do with i t . No, I don't think i t would affect the puppies. 148 » Grade VIII ' QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 1AVIII (cont'd.) QUESTION IV Suppose the t a i l s of a l l dogs i n Vancouver were cut short by their owners, what w i l l their newborn puppies look l i k e in terms of t a i l length? COMMENTS No, but i f they keep on doing Although Vivian's answers are right, that long in time i t might - her elaboration on long time cutting mutation - you know. i s wrong. She believes that the sequential cutting of t a i l s from gen-eration to generation w i l l lead to mutational shortening of the t a i l . The puppies w i l l have t a i l s . K elly i s quite clear on the issue of accidents, i n j u r i e s and inheritance. No, this won't affect the puppies at a l l . I don't think the puppies coming after them would have t a i l s . The cutting of the t a i l w i l l affect the nutrition, the nervous system. So i t w i l l change their reaction or something. Although Walter i s not deceived by large numbers, he i s however deceived to think that the e a r l i e r a dog suffers an injury, the more the injury stands to be i n b u i l t i n the dog's body and hence hand i t down to i t s own puppies. Mike i s deceived by large numbers. 149 G r a d e i QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 2AI QUESTION I If a deep cut i s made on the bark of a tree (e.g. rubber tree). W i l l the tree grow a scar? QUESTION II. If a tree i s wounded and i t heals i t s wound, wouLd the scar formed be trans-ferred to the offspring of this tree? QUESTION III Suppose a tree has 20 branches and 10 of these branches were chopped of f . W i l l the scars of these chopped off branches show on the young seedlings? Christina 5.6 TOPIC Injuries on trees. No. I don't know why. The tree w i l l not heal i t s wound. Johnnie 7 4 Yes, sometimes i t has a half scar. No. Because they skinned the other Maybe i t could have those (scars). tree but did not skin the l i t t l e plant. Jamie 7.4 No, I don't believe plants can grow 1 m u l i say yes --they are not human beings. No, i t would not affect i t . scar- -Yes, the tree can grow a scar. The scar w i l l not be transferred t< the seedling. It i s not the same tree because i t hasn't got chopped off yet. The scars w i l l not be shown on • the seedling. No, because i t is a different tree again. 150 Grade I QUESTION IV If Che leaves of a tree were cut in two halves (demonstrate with leaf) when che tree was s c i l l a seedling plant, w i l l this affect the shape of the seedling leaves of this tree? Christina complained she was t i r e d . After the rest period, Che subject became disinterested in the interview and did not co-operate any more. When the apparent contradiction of the statements was brought to Johnnie's notice, he.said he does not know why the difference i s so, but he is convinced about his own answer. On further probings, he appeared to be confused and just gave up by saying "I don't know". Jamie was not convinced even when the ex-perimenter explained that trees can grow scars, she says that there i s only one thing he believes that human beings and plants do in common. That i s that they both drink water. When the subject was asked why he i s constantly changing his views, he denied that, he was not changing. T r i c i a is not of the opinion at a l l that wounds on trees can be transmitted to seedling plants. She was aware that trees can grow scars but that these scars cannot be passed on to seed-lings at a l l . QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 2AI (cont'd.) COMMENTS I don t know. 151 Grade II QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 2AII AGE TOPIC QUESTION I If a deep cut i s made on the bark of a tree (e.g. rubber tree). W i l l the tree grow a scar? Sandra Brenda 7.6 Injuries of trees. Yes, they can grow a new skin--a scar. I have a scar on my chin. QUESTION II If a tree is wounded and i t heals i t s wound, would the scar formed be trans-ferred to the offspring of this tree? QUESTION III Suppose a tree has 20 branches and 10 of these branches were chopped off. W i l l the scars on these cut off branches show on the seedling plants? No. Because the seed from which the seedlings grew were on a d i f f e r e n t part of the tree. (The seed has to f a l l o ff the tree before i t starts to grow). No. The tree had a new layer of skin m-—m I forgot. Remove this picture. No. Because i t would be a d i f f e r -ent part of the tree. So i t would just have as many branches as could, have. Yes. Because the tree has some scars where they cut off some branches Douglas Yea, i t grows a piece of protection. Hughie 8.6 No. Because - because... Like when the tree i s wounded and the seeds came from the very top i t would not be hurt -because i t would s t i l l be growing at the top. So when you pick up the seeds quick-ly and grow them, nothing would happen to them - r e a l l y . The scar w i l l not be transferred to the seedling. But the 'why' i s a hard question to answer. Absolutely no. Because I have been growing chestnut trees and there is a huge hole that vent almost through the tree and I am growing the chest-nut (seeds) that came off the trees, the chestnut trees that I am growing they don't have i t (the hole). But i f you make the i n j u r i e s very close to the seeds, i t would be transfer-red. These scars w i l l be transferred because they came from broken branches. 152 GRADE II QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 2AII QUESTION IV If the leaves of a tree were cut in two halves (demonstrate with a leaf) when the tree was s t i l l a seedling plant, w i l l this a f f e c t the shape of the leaves of the seedling? COMMENTS No. (implied) No, i t won't af f e c t the seed-l i n g . Sandra explains that seedlings grow from seeds away from the parent plants, therefore she does not believe they could acquire deformities from their parents. The answers here are contradicting each other. But upon l i s t e n i n g to Brenda's explanations i t became clear why she answered as she did. To her, the scar l e f t behind by peeling the back of a tree i s a d i f f e r e n t scar from that l e f t by cutting down the branch of a tree. The bark can grow again a new bark i n place but the stumps cannot. Therefore the branch's scars can be transferred to the seedlings but the bark's scars cannot. It appeared from Douglas' f i r s t answer that proximity of injury to the bearing organ of the tree has significance In terms of whether the injury would be transferred. When this idea was checked for i n the 2nd picture with branch i n j u r i e s , Douglas denied p o s i t i v e l y that the Injuries cannot be transferred, basing his argument on his experience with the chestnut tree. No. The wound i n the leaves won't be transferred but i t is a hard question to explain why. When Hughie was asked why the scars from broken branches would be transferred and not the ones from peeled off bark, he explained that because in this case the branches are completely removed from the tree. 153 QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 2AIII AGE TOPIC QUESTION I If a deep cut i s made on the bark of a tree (e.g. rubber tree). W i l l the tree grow a scar? QUESTION II If a tree i s wounded and i t heals i t s wound. Would the scar formed be trans-ferred to the offspring of this tree? QUESTION III Suppose a tree has 20 branches and then 10 of these branches were chopped off . W i l l the scars of these cut off branches appear on the seedling? Nancy 9.00 Injuries on trees. Yes, they do. No. I don't know why. The scar w i l l not be transferred. Michael 9.2 Yes, I have got a scar right there. The scar won't be transferred. Because i t was j u s t a bruise on i t s mother. If the branches are removed, this ,will be transferred to the seed-l i n g . Because this Is now cutting off branches. Sylvia 9.5 Yes, trees can have a scar. No. It Is a d i f f e r e n t kind (tree). It i s not the same as this one. No. It Is a d i f f e r e n t kind of tree again. Gary Yes. It won't have this scar. No, they won't get i t . 154 Grade III QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 2AIII (cont'd.)* QUESTION IV If the leaves of a tree were cut in two halves (demonstrate with a leaf) when the tree was s t i l l a seedling, w i l l this affect the shape of the leaves of the seedling? The baby plants won't have the cut up leaves. Because the leaves w i l l grow. The young plants grow their own leaves. No. COMMENTS Again Nancy recognizes that scars and injuries on plants cannot be handed down to their seedlings--"they grow their own leaves". He explained that in plants the bruise w i l l not be transferred to the young plant because i t i s not an animal. They are not a l i v e l i k e humans and dogs. No. It i s a different tree. Sylvia recognizes that young trees come fresh, they do not acquire injury marks from their parents. No. (implied) The subject does not believe that seedlings could inherit injury marks from* their parent plant. Some communication problems were encountered as English was a 2nd language for this subject. 155 G . I V QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE r 2AIV » QUESTION I If a deep cut is made on the bark of a tree (e.g. rubber tree). W i l l the tree grow a scar? QUESTION II If a tree i s wounded and i t heals i t s wound. Would the scar formed be trans-ferred to the offspring of this tree? QUESTION III Suppose a tree has 20 branches and then 10 of these branches were chopped off . W i l l the scars of these cut off branches appear on the seedling? NAME AGE TOPIC Kenneth 9.10 Injuries on trees. Yes. No. If the bark was taken off how would i t a f f e c t the seedlings on top of the tree? It might, but I am not sure. It i s easier to transfer less than more branches. No. Not so r e a l l y . The scar would s t i l l grow i n . Every tree has a different number of branches. (No, they won't be transferred). Paula Shannon 10.2 10.2 Yes. No, except i f the wound were such that i t obstructed the water supply of the plant. No, the scar w i l l not be trans-ferred, but the seedling might not grow as well. Looks l i k e i t would not. Because i t i s a seed so i t would not have a scar there. Most l i k e l y not. So I guess i t would not have a scar. No, i t won't af f e c t the leaves the seedlings. (implied). No, I don't think so. Like the tree grew with branches and he had them cut o f f . So when the seeds come down, they are not attached (to the parent). 156 Grade IV QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 2AIV * QUESTION IV If the leaves of a tree were cut i n two halves (demonstrate) when the tree was s t i l l a seedling, w i l l this affect the shape of the leaves of the seedling? COMMENTS The leaves would probably be short. If a l l the leaves were cut in half and the seedling were grown on the branches by the leaves, they f e l l off too, the leaves would probably be short. (proximity of injury to seeds determined the transfer. The short leaves w i l l not be transferred. I guess i t does not r e a l l y happen that way. No, i t won't affect the leaves of the seedlings, (implied) This would not affect the seedlings' leaves. When Kenneth was reminded about the apparent contradiction of this ex-planation to that for the dog, he explained that puppies grow inside the mother's body, but seeds do not -they grow on braches. Trevor does not believe scars and wounds on plants can be given to seedlings. When asked to explain the differences for plants and dogs, he says he does not know, but he guesses things don't happen that way i n plants. Paula does not believe at a l l that injuries can be handed down to seedlings. She c i t e s her I l l u s t r a t i o n from what she sees people do to trees around. When the contradiction between this ex-planation on tree scars and t a i l s of dogs was brought to Shannon, she said that in dogs babies grow inside the mother but in trees seeds grow on branches and in the s o i l . 157 Crade V QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 2AV NAME TOPIC QUESTION I If a deep cut i s made on the bark of a tree (e.g. rubber tree). W i l l that tree develop a scar? QUESTION II If a deep cut i s made on the bark of a tree and a scar i s formed, w i l l the seedling of this tree have this scar transferred to i t ? Why? QUESTION III Suppose a tree has 20 branches. If 10 of these branches are chopped down, w i l l the resulting scars be transferred to the seedling of such a tree? 10.6 Injuries on plants. Yes. Yes. If the wound was done before the seeds are on the tree, then the scar would be given to the seedling. But i f i t Is done when the seeds are already there i t would not be given into the seeds. Yes, i t would have these scars. Stephen 10.9 Yea. I think the baby plant would have a scar Yes, the scar would be transferred, but i t would not show very much, as It (implied) grows older and older the scar grows bigger and bigger. Maria 10.11 Yes, when a mark i s l e f t . It i s not going to be on the new trees that grow. Because these seeds have been up there, and might not get every-thing, so they might not turn.on. No, I don't think the scars would be transferred. Because this plant was not bom with that, the man did i t . 11.1 No, I don't think i t w i l l . Because i t only happened to this one (the parent). A person came and peeled i t o f f . No, I don't think so. Because the person has not come and taken off the branches yet. Here i t i s just seeds coming out of the tree and somebody plants i t way from this tree (parent). So i t won't be transferred. 158 urade V QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 2AV (cont'd.) ' • QUESTION IV If the leaves of a house plant were cut in two halves (demonstrate with a leaf) when the plant was a seedling, w i l l this affect the shape of the leaves of the seedling from this tree? COMMENTS Yes, the cut leaves would be Jun has again resorted to the transferred. significance of time of injury for the deformity's transmittance. It was this same explanation he gave for the cut t a i l in dogs. Yes, i t would affect the seedlings (implied). Stephen quite c i e a r l y says that plants inherit scars from their parents but in miniscule form. As they grow older each day, the scars grow bigger and bigger. No, i t would not affect the Maria recognizes that something done on leaves of the seedlings. the plants cannot be transmitted. When the contradiction between this explan-ation and that for dogs was brought to her notice*, she was not able to explain herself. No, i t would not affect the leaves. Susan explained her contradiction between trees and dogs that i n trees, the seeds grow away from the parent tree. 159 Grade VI QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 2AVI (cont'd.)' QUESTION IV If the leaves of a house plant were cut in two halves (demons-trate) when the plant was a seed-l i n g , w i l l this affect the shape of the leaves of the seedling from this tree? The leaves of the seedling won't be affected. COMMENTS This contradictory explanation to that of dogs was brought to Sarah's notice. She said a tree hardly ever looks l i k e where i t comes from (parent) but a dog usually looks l i k e Its parent with most of the physical features. She gives the example that a mother orange tree could have bad oranges but the seedling from i t could give healthy oranges. The seedling would be normal (implied). Richard i s quite aware the seedlings grow from normal seeds, so no way would the injury on the parent affect the seedling. No, i t won't affect the seed-l i n g leaves. Er i c i s quite convinced that the scars won't. No, i t would affect the seedlings (implied). Gaelen believes that wounds on trees cannot be transferred to the seedlings. 160 QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 2AVI 9 QUESTION I If a deep cut i s made on the bark of a tree (e.g. rubber tree). W i l l this tree develop a scar? NAME AGE TOPIC QUESTION II Suppose a deep cut is made on the bark of a tree and a scar formed; w i l l the seedling of this tree have this scar transferred on to i t ? Why? QUESTION III Suppose a tree has 20 branches. If 10 of these branches are chopped down, w i l l the resulting scars be transferred to the seedling of such a tree? 11.2 Injuries on plants. Yes. No, the scar would not be transferred. The scar would have nothing to do with i t because most of the time i t does not grow up to look l i k e the tree from where i t came from. Generation after generation of peeling would not affect the seedling because a tree does not look l i k e the mother. No, i t Is the same l i k e before. No tree looks the same. Like you can cut.a tree to a stump and i t w i l l s t i l l grow again l i k e before. Richard 11.4 Yes. 11.10 No, I don't think so. I am pretty sure they won't. They grow from seeds and I would think they would not have scars i n the seeds. I don't think so. No, because when It has seeds, the seeds just f a l l off the tree, way—-away from the parents' area, they just grow away. No, I don't think the scars would be transferred, because there are no branches to give seeds here anymore, the other branches give the seeds -normal seeds. It would not affect the number of branches on the seedling. The seedling would be normal. No, I don't think so. It won't. Gaelen 11.11 Yes. No, the seedlings won't be affected. No. Because the branches were cut o f f . So i t wouldn't have an affect on the seedlings. 161 Grade VII QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 2AVII QUESTION I If a deep cue is made on the bark of a tree (e.g. rubber tree). W i l l this tree develop a scar? QUESTION II Suppose a deep cut i s made on the bark of a tree and a scar formed; w i l l the seedling of this tree have this scar transferred on to i t ? Why? QUESTION III Suppose a tree has 20 branches. If 10 of these branches are cut down, w i l l the resulting scars be trans-ferred to the seedling of such a tree? TOPIC Tony 12.6 Injuries on trees. Yes. The seedlings won't have a scar. I t Is something l i k e that the dog. No, i t would not affect the seed-l i n g . I don't think they w i l l . Because i t is d i f f e r e n t in trees. When trees have seeds, these seeds grow up normally. The same as i n the case with the bark. The seedling would probably be normal s :z c h e s e e d l i n g an D u t :f ^ r r t h r 3 5 Y e s a n o C c h . No, I don't think so. Like i f I got No, i t won't a f f e c t the seedling * hurt I don't think i t would get tree. transferred unto my children. 162 Grade VII QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 2AVII (cont'd.) QUESTION IV If the leaves of a house plant were cut in two halves (demonstrate), w i l l this affect the shape of the leaves of the seedlings from this tree? COMMENTS No, i t won't affect the seedling. Seedling leaves would be normal. But i f the injury was done when the tree was young, then the leaves of the seedling would be cut off. Tony explains the issue of the non-transfer of injuries on trees in terms of what he knows happens to dogs and human beings. Sergio also d i f f e r e n t i a t e inheritance i n trees and in dogs. He makes analogies with human beings to explain the tree phenomenon. He i s deceived by time In the case of the leaves. Yes, the shape of the seedlings w i l l be affected. Sandra is convinced that on a small scale injuries on the back of a tree can be transferred on the skin of the seedling plant. No, i t wouldn't affect the seedling leaves. Liza does not believe at a l l that i n j u r i e s oh trees can be transferred to the seedling. 163 Grade VIII QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 2AVIII AGE QUESTION I" If a deep cut i s made on the bark of a tree (e.g. rubber tree). W i l l this tree develop a scar? QUESTION II Suppose a deep cut i s made on the bark of a tree and a scar i s formed; w i l l the seedling of this tree have this scar transferred on to i t ? Why? QUESTION III Suppose a tree has 20 branches. If 10 of these branches are chopped down, w i l l the resulting scars be transferred to the seedling of such a tree? Vivian 1300 Injuries on trees. Yes, No, the seedling won't have the scar. Seedlings would be di f f e r e n t because they grow their own bark. It doesn't affect the branches of the seedling. They would have their own branches. Kelly 13.7 No, because the sseds are separate from the tree. No, i t won't a f f e c t the seedling. Mike 13.8 13.10 No, i t w i l l only dry up. There i s a tree just infront of my house which I gave a wound with a knife about 5 years ago. I went there afterwards, the wound was s t i l l there but i t i s dried up and not fresh. Yes, they grow a new bark. No, the wound won't be transferred to the seedling, because i t i s already big. No, I don't think so. The plant grows from the seed, and the seed was not affected. No, i t won't a f f e c t the seedlings. The branches f i r s t of a l l w i l l grow back on the tree. No, I don't think so. Well, i t is again with the seeds. 164 Grade VIII QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 2AVIII (cont'd.) » QUESTION IV If the leaves of a house plant were cut in two halves (demonstrate), w i l l this a ffect the shape of the leaves of the seedling from this tree? COMMENTS It would not affect the leaves of the young plant. The cut leaves w i l l eventually f a l l off and the tree grows new leaves. No, i t won't have any effect on the shape of the leaves. It would not affect the seed-l i n g because the plant w i l l grow new leaves. Vivian i s quite clear on the question of transfer of inherited material in plants. Kelly i s also quite clear on the issue of injuries and inheritance in plants. Walter explained that i n j u r i e s In plants w i l l not be transferred because they w i l l grow new leaves and new branches when older ones are cut down. It would not affect the shape of the leaves of the seedling. The injury phenomenon on trees i s quite clear to Mike - i t cannot be inherited. 165 Grade 1 QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 3AI QUESTION I Suppose in a t r a i n accident a man lost one of his fingers/toes. If this man has a child how many fingers/ toes w i l l he haveJ QUESTION II Suppose a man and his wife both l o s t their thumbs i n a trai n accident. If they have a c h i l d afterwards, how w i l l this c h i l d be? QUESTION III Suppose another couple were involved in a car accident in which they lost their eyesight. If they have a c h i l d w i l l he be affected? NAME AGE TOPIC Christina 5.6 Injuries of man I don't know 7 - 4 H i s c h i l d w i l l not lose a finger - The c h i l d would be normal. (implied) The c h i l d would not be blind because the baby was never i n the T don't know why. It i s too accident. hard (to explain). Jamie 7.4 7.5 Man? Men cannot have babies. No. Yes, the chil d w i l l have a finger there. Just because the mummy's own finger i s cut off doesn't mean the baby's own Is going to get o f f . The child.would just be as some one who did not have any fingers cut o f f . This is because they are d i f f e r e n t people and have to have theirs cut off too. No, he w i l l not be blind (implied). The c h i l d w i l l be able to see. It is a different person. He has not got anything i n his eyes that can stop him from seeing. So he can s t i l l see things. 166 G r a d e j QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 3AI (cont'd.) QUESTION IV Suppose a small boy and a g i r l l o s t their fingers when they were just babies. If they get married and have a baby, w i l l he be affected? COMMENTS They w i l l have their own fingers Their baby w i l l have a finger No, the baby w i l l have fingers C h r i s t i n a does not know what fingers or toes or thumbs are. Even when the investigator taught her what these body parts are, her answers were just the regular 'I don't know'. She must be fed up with the interview already as she indicated her tiredness e a r l i e r on. Johnnie recognize that these are environmental occurences and cannot be transferred to the offspring-this i s shown by his Insistence that the young ones themselves were not involved i n the accident. He was not deceived by duration of injury at a l l . Jamie does not believe that men can have babies. No wonder he explained e a r l i e r on i n the case of dogs, that the father dog can only transmit t r a i t s to the offspring through the care and attention he gives to the pups. T r i c i a does not confuse enronmental features at a l l with Inherited ones. Of a l l the subjects Interviewed In grade one she showed the most developed concepts. 167 Grade II QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 3AII QUESTION I Suppose i n a train accident a man lost one of his fingers/toes. If this man has a c h i l d how many fingers/toes w i l l he have? QUESTION II Suppose a man and his wife both l o s t their thumbs i n a tra i n accident. If they have a c h i l d afterwards, how w i l l this c h i l d be? QUESTION III Suppose another couple were involved i n another car accident in which they l o s t their eyesight. If they have a chi l d w i l l he be affected? NAME AGE TOPIC Sandra 7.6 Injuries Maybe four fingers. Maybe f i v e . on Man Because the wife has f i v e and the father has four, so i t would b e — em between the two. The baby w i l l be four fingered. Blind probably. Because the mother and the father are b l i n d . Their c h i l d would be blind. Brenda 7.8 .One finger would be missing. Their baby w i l l be affected (implied). Because the person (father) Because the mother was blind, had his finger cut o f f . Douglas Hughie 8.1 8.6 A man does not have babies. But i f he has a wife with normal fingers, one chi l d would have fingers l i k e me (five) but another would have a shorter finger that grows slowly. His c h i l d w i l l have ten (10) fingers. Because his children did not get cut off. If i t i s a lady who i s wounded, her baby w i l l show the scar. These babies would probably have no fingers. As long as i t i s a lady who i s wounded the child w i l l show the scar too. The eyes (of the child) would open, i t would take a longer time for them to open, l i k e , maybe not three weeks but 7 months. It takes a longer time. It does not transfer l i k e the dogs do. Anyway, I don't re a l l y know. Their child would lose a finger as long as. the mother has lost her finger. 168 , T T QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE Grade II s 3AII (cont'd.) QUESTION IV Suppose a small boy and a small g i r l l o s t their fingers when they were just babies. If they get married and have a baby, w i l l he be affected? COMMENTS Their ch i l d would be affected (implied). The c h i l d would be abnormal (implied). He w i l l be affected (implied). The c h i l d would lose a finger as long as the mother has lost her finger. It is quite apparent that Sandra cannot d i f f e r e n t i a t e environmental t r a i t s from those inherited p a r t i c u l a r l y in animals and humans. The logic behind this mis-conception i s very interesting indeed. In human the baby grows in the mother's womb but i n plants the seedlings grow away from the parents. Brenda holds on to her previous logic in the case of the dogs, that once the parents are injured the injury would affect the c h i l d born to the parents. She believes the deformity w i l l be genetically coded and handed down to the offspring. Douglas q u a l i f i e s that the transfer of i n j u r i e s i n dogs i s not the same as in man. In dogs the deformities are transferred whole sale as i n the parent. But i n man these would only be retardation i n growth of fingers of the offspring and lateness in opening of e/es after b i r t h . Hughie emphasize the point right through that i t i s only when the female parent i s injured does he f e e l the deformity would be transferred to the babies. If i t is the father who i s blind the child won't be b l i n d . 169 Grade III QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 3AIII QUESTION I Suppose In a train accident a man lost one of his fingers/toes. If this man has a ch i l d , how many fingers/toes w i l l he have? QUESTION II Suppose a man and his wife both lost their thumbs i n a t r a i n accident. If they have a c h i l d afterwards, how w i l l this c h i l d be? QUESTION III Suppose another couple were involved in another car accident i n which they l o s t their eyesight. If they have a child w i l l he be affected? AGE TOPIC Nancy 9.00 Injuries on Man The man's child w i l l have f u l l (number of) fingers. The baby w i l l be normal. Their baby w i l l be normal (implied). Michael 9.2 Sylvia 9.5 the c h i l d ' s f i n g e r might r e a l l y be short. One finger w i l l r e a l l y be small right through his l i f e . No, they would have five fingers. The baby's fingers on one hand would be short and maybe on the other hand maybe short also. No, the c h i l d would have f i v e fingers because he's a new person. The baby w i l l look l i k e his parents. If the parents were hurt, the baby . might be blind. That's how the baby w i l l be born. Their children would have five fingers i n each hand. Gary 10.1 His ch i l d w i l l have ten fingers -normal. Because the man use to have ten right? So the baby w i l l grow the fingers the man use to have. The baby w i l l be normal. Their baby w i l l see. Because the woman used to have normal eyes and so the baby w i l l be l i k e her too. 170 „ , T T T QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE Grade III x 3AIII (cont'd.) QUESTION IV Suppose a small boy and a small g i r l l o s t their fingers when they were just babies, If they get married and have a baby, w i l l he be affected? COMMENTS Their baby w i l l be with the finger. Because the mother Is not l i k e the baby. She had an accident and the baby did not have the accident. The baby w i l l look l i k e his parents If the parents were hurt, the baby* fingers might be chopped off. That's how the baby w i l l be born. Their children would have f i v e fingers in each hand. Their baby won't be affected (implied). Nancy does not believe that the in j u r i e s can be transferred to the babies. However, she i s able to distinguish accidental i n j u r i e s from inherited t r a i t s . Mike believes that i n j u r i e s can be transferred and that i f i t i s the right hand of the mother or father which i s affected, the right hand of the child would be the one affected also. Sylvia explained that even though some babies come with fault from b i r t h , yet most children come normal. And that i f a parent breaks a hand i t does not mean the baby would be l i k e that. Gary i s able to recognize that once the mother was normal before, the chil d w i l l be normal also when i t is born. 171 Grade IV QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 3AIV QUESTION I Suppose i n a t r a i n accident a man l o s t one of his fIngers/toes. If this man has a child how many fingers/toes w i l l he have? QUESTION II Suppose a man and his wife both l o s t their thumbs in a t r a i n accident. If they have a c h i l d afterwards, how w i l l this c h i l d be? QUESTION I I I Suppose another couple were involved in another car accident i n which they lost their eyesight. If they have a c h i l d , w i l l he be affected? NAME AGE TOPIC Kenneth 9.10 Injuries on Man I think the chi l d w i l l have very short finger. Probably i t would not have a finger. Probably, the baby would be blind. Paula Shannon 10.1 10.2 10.2 I could say the child would probably not have a finger. I think i t i s probably l i k e i n the dogs. They would have what their parents have. rdon't think that i t w i l l affect him -e-m-my best friend's mother, l i k e her father got his finger chopped off in a car, i t did not affect my friend's mother. I'think the child w i l l be normal. Because the mother was born normal. The c h i l d would have a short finger. Children have what their parents have. It would not be transferred. It could be either. It probably would come blind or i t might not, If i t was lucky. But i t probably has a better chance that i t might grow blind. They maybe blind - I am not sure -i t is r e a l l y a 50-50 chance. I don't know r e a l l y . I guess the baby would s t i l l be normal. The baby would be normal (implied). 172 QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 3AIV (cont'd.) QUESTION IV Suppose a small boy and a small g i r l l o st their fingers when they were just babies. If they get married and have a baby, w i l l he be affected? COMMENTS Their baby w i l l have a short finger (implied). To Kenneth, i f i t i s only one parent who l o s t a finger, the child w i l l develop a short finger but i f i t i s both parents who lost their two fingers, then the child w i l l be born with no finger. Their ch i l d would have short finger. Trevor has d i f f i c u l t y distinguishing between environmentally induced i n j u r i e s and inherited t r a i t s . It won't be transferred. Even though Paula c i t e s l i v i n g examples to explain why a cut finger cannot be transferred she was confused when i t came to the question of blindness. The baby won't take after i t s When the contradiction between this explanation parents' cut finger. It and that of the dog was brought to Shannon's depends, the baby could have notice, she says human being are d i f f e r e n t to fingers or the baby couldn't dogs. She got confused. have fingers. It depends. I am not sure (she i s confused). 173 QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE Grade V 3 A V QUESTION I Suppose in a tra i n accident, a man lo s t his finger/toes. If he becomes well and has a baby aft e r , w i l l his baby be affected? QUESTION II Suppose a man and his wife both l o s t their thumbs i n an accident, i f they have a baby after they have recovered, how w i l l their own baby be? • QUESTION III If a boy and a g i r l l o st their thumbs/fingers when they were just babies (e.g. 1 year old). If they grow up and have babies how w i l l t h e i r babies be? AGE TOPIC 10.6 Injury I think his child w i l l have f i v e Normal, because the parents did not The baby won't be blind. Because on Man (normal). Because the man did not have the problem a l l their l i v e s . the parents are already big. have four fingers a l l his l i f e . I . don't think i t had enough time to form i n his system. If the man had three children, two could be a l r i g h t l i k e the mother and one could be l i k e his father. The child's finger could s t i l l be there but he could not move i t , or i t could be a different finger or his wrist - he could not move i t forever. If they had again three children, two of the children could be l i k e their father or mother. They could have one or two fingers missing, but I would say most of them would be a l r i g h t . The chi l d could see but there would be something wrong with his eyes -l i k e they could be cross-eyed or he'd have to wear glasses. Maria 10.11 I think, normal. Because the accident just happened to the man after that he got married. Maybe the c h i l d w i l l be missing a finger. Because the mother and father both have It. This does not happen a l l the time--only when something r e a l l y bad. I think the c h i l d would be blind. But i f i t i s jus t one parent who i s injured, then i t would not be affected i t could but I don't think so. Susan 11.1 I think the baby would s t i l l " have ten-like fi v e on each hand. Because i t should not affect the baby— Because i t happened just to the man and the lady had good fingers. I think that the fingers (of the baby) might be a b i t shorter because the mother and father both had them o f f . I don't think the child's eyes would be very good at seeing things. Because the baby came from the mother and the father. 174 Grade V QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 3AV (cont'd.) QUESTION IV If a boy and a g i r l l o st their thumbs/fingers when they were just babies (e.g. 1 year old). If they grow up and have babies, how w i l l their babies be? COMMENTS I think there w i l l be only four fingers on the baby. The baby would be affected but not necessarily on their fingers; could have missing hand on to the elbow or an unmoving wrist. Jun believes that the longer one has a de-formity the more there are chances for i t to be adopted by his/her system and given over to his/her children. Once one i s getting older and older, the chances grow slimmer and slimmer. Stephen again reiterates the point that the wounding of either the finger or the eyes would not necessarily lead to similar injury on the c h i l d . He i s convinced this feature would be transmitted but i t would manifest i t s e l f In various ways on any part of the child's body. The c h i l d might have-be short on one finger-missing one finger. Because the mother and father both have i t . Maria reiterates that the injury has to be long with the parent to j u s t i f y transfer. She also brings in a new factor and that i s the severity of the injury. If i t is a lesser injury It w i l l not transfer but i f i t is severe, i t stands a chance to be transferred to the c h i l d . The baby would s t i l l have shorter Susan holds on to the logic she used for dog deformities fingers. Because It happened Even i n humans she says, once i t i s both parents who s t i l l to the mother and the father. are injured the injury w i l l be transferred. But i f is just one parent, the manifestations i s of a medium ef f e c t . 175 Grade VI QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 3 AVI QUESTION I Suppose in a train accident a man l o s t his fingers/toes. If he becomes well and has a baby after, w i l l his baby be affected? QUESTION II Suppose a man and his wife both l o s t their thumbs i n an accident, i f they have a baby after they have recovered, how w i l l their own baby be? QUESTION III If in a accident a man and his wife were injured and they l o s t their eyesight. If they have a baby af t e r , w i l l the baby be born blind? Sarah 11.2 Injuries No i t won't be transferred to the on Man c h i l d . But in every c h i l d there i s a chance for deformity. My dad has a chopped finger, he had me but you know I am (O.K.) Their ch i l d w i l l not be affected. That's what happened to me. They would probably not be blind. They would be able to see but they have a l i t t l e chance of being b l i n d . They might be affected but I doubt i t . Richard 11.4 It might but I am pretty sure i t won't. The (lost) finger would not make that much difference to the birth-, the baby. It j u s t might, but I don't think think i t w i l l . But maybe i f i t had twins one might get i t , one might not. The more babies you have the more chance you have of the hand getting cut o f f . It depends on whether i t i s twins or a single c h i l d . 11.10 They would just be normal with f i v e on each hand. Because the finger l i k e the bones have nothing to do with i t . I would say normal because dogs are di f f e r e n t to human beings. Gaelen 11.11 Oh no. Because my mother had an infection there and that did not affect me. No, that wouldn't a f f e c t the c h i l d , because i t i s only physical. If i t were Inside the body, then i t would af f e c t the c h i l d . But not when the injury i s outside i . e . physical. No, the c h i l d would be normal. 176 Grade VI QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 3AVI (cont'd.) QUESTION IV If a boy and a g i r l l o s t their thumbs/finger when they were just babies (e.g. 1 year old). If they grow up and have babies, how w i l l their babies be? COMMENTS Their c h i l d w i l l not be affected. Sarah brings her own case as an example of the phenomenon i n question. Because of her belief in a chance for every chi l d to be deformed, she thinks the blindness might affect the c h i l d : but she doubts i f this i s going to be the case anyway. It depends i f they have twins or a single c h i l d . If they have twins there is more chance of having a chopped off finger or half-finger. Richard doesn't see any s i m i l a r i t y in the issue of transfer of injury between humans, dogs and plants at a l l . He sees these organisms with different inheritance mechanisms. The probability of transfer of injury increase with the increase i n the number of children per b i r t h . Normal because i t i s same the man and the lady. Eri c says that human beings do not transmit injuries to their young. He explained this difference between dogs and humans on the grounds that they are different organisms. The c h i l d won't be affected (implied). Although Gaelen did not mix up inheritance and environmental features, her use of "physical" means external body parts, while to her internal organs have much to do with inheritance p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t comes to transfer of i n j u r i e s to offspring. 177 Grade VII QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 3AVII QUESTION I Suppose in a t r a i n accident a man lost his fingers/toes. If he becames well, and has a baby after, w i l l his baby be affected? QUESTION II Suppose a man and his wife both lost their thumbs i n an accident, i f they have a baby after they have recovered, how w i l l their own baby be? QUESTION III If in a car accident a man and his wife were injured and they l o s t their eyesight. If they have a baby aft e r , w i l l the baby be born blind? NAME TOPIC Tony 12.6 Injuries on Man Sergio 12.6 He w i l l have correct fingers. The children would be normal. The baby w i l l have thumbs. The baby won't be affected because i t Is only a misfortune of an accident. No, because some people get blind when they are young and when they get babies, the babies won't turn out blind. They might grow up blind or they might have bad knees, that colapses right away. Sandra 13.8 He would be normal because the mother i s normal. The c h i l d would have shorter thumbs. They would have sight but not as good as normal kids would have. 13.5 I think the c h i l d would be O.K. I don't think i t re a l l y makes any "difference. The baby w i l l not be affected. The baby w i l l not be affected. 178 Grade VII QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 3AVII (cont'd.) QUESTION IV If a boy and a g i r l l o s t their thumbs/fingers when they were just babies (e.g. 1 year old). If they grow up and have babies, how w i l l their babies be? COMMENTS Regular, normal. Tony does not confuse i n j u r i e s at a l l with inherited t r a i t s . When you are younger, there i s more of a chance that there would be an effect on the baby. Same as i n the dogs, i t would affect their growing cycle. The c h i l d would be normal but with shorter fingers, just l i k e I said e a r l i e r . The longer the time, the shorter w i l l the finger be. Sergio shows quite an Inconsistent logic i n the case of the thumb and the eye injury. In one case i t i s transferred, in the other i t i s not. He is again deceived to believe that the younger the person Is when he is injured, the more there • are chances for this injury message to be registered i n one's inheritance code. Sandra is of the opinion that deformities can be transferred to the offspring. The longer the parents have the injury, the more intense the transfer on the children. If only one parent i s injured, then there i s no transfer. It w i l l not affect the chi l d . Liza c l e a r l y sees that the injuries on humans w i l l not affect the child at a l l . 179 Grade VIII QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 3AVIII * QUESTION I Suppose i n a trai n accident a man lost his fingers/toes. If he becomes well, and has a baby after, w i l l his baby be affected? QUESTION II Suppose a man and his wife both l o s t their thumbs i n an accident; i f they have a baby after they have recovered, how w i l l their own baby be? QUESTION III If in a car accident a man and his wife were injured and they lost their eyesight. If they have a baby a f t e r , w i l l the baby be born blind? TOPIC Vivian 13.00 Injuries on Man No, i t wouldn't be affected. No, i t would not affect the c h i l d . The c h i l d won't be affected 13.7 No, i t won't affect his c h i l d . 13.8 • No, i t won't. I don't think so. This did not happen naturally, i t was cut off. So i t won't affect the c h i l d . No, i t won't for the same reason I gave e a r l i e r . The c h i l d would be normal, leading a normal l i f e . Even i f a limb of a person i s cut, there i s no way that i t can a f f e c t the c h i l d . No, the c h i l d won't be blind. I don't think the child would be born b l i n d . The parents were not born without eyesight. 1 3 10 No, the chi l d w i l l have a toe. No, i t won't affect the c h i l d . Ho. I don't think i t would affect . . , , _„ the c h i l d . Because the man ts already mature. 180 Grade VIII QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 3AVIII (cont'd.) QUESTION IV If a boy and a g i r l lost their thumbs/finger when they were just babies (e.g. 1 year old). If they grow up and have babies, how w i l l their babies be? COMMENTS Their ch i l d w i l l be just normal. Again Vivian was quite clear on the question of injury transfer i n Man. She does not confuse environmental features to those inherited at a l l in Man. No, i t won't affect their c h i l d . I have no idea. This i s not the same with dog because a dog•is a d i f f e r e n t animal, species. The dog has a whole different type of body. Kelly does not mix up her ideas at a l l about inheritance and i n j u r i e s . Walter realized that probably giving an answer for this last question would contradict with his e a r l i e r logic for the dog, hence he c l e a r l y knows that i n humans, wounding a child early i n l i f e does not change what is inherited so he said he does not know the answer to the question. I think i t would affect the chi l d When Mike was reminded about the contradiction because the boy and the g i r l are of this l a s t explanation to that for dogs he says-not mature yet. It would s t i l l the human brain is more developed and i t would be growing up. Because his brain know more about i t , than an animal whose brain would sense that one toe/finger was i s less developed. Well the plant has no missing and would record this. brains so there i s no question about transfer. 181 QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 4AI QUESTION I If this black dog (female) Is to have puppies, what colour would the puppies be? Why? QUESTION II If a white male dog and a black female dog have six puppies. What colour would their puppies be? Why? QUESTION III Which one of the parent dogs do you think gives more colour to the puppies? 5.6 Relative contrib-ution of parent = colour in dog. They would be black because their mother i s black. White and black. Because their mother and father. If there are six puppies, three of them would be black and three would be white. I don't think any parent gives more colour to the puppies. Jamie 7.4 7.4 Some could be white some could be black. Sometimes they could just come white. Black. Because the dog i s black. It could be brown and as i t i s growing older changes to black. I cannot think of anything. I don't know. Some may come with spots, brown, black. I would say they would be black, the mother always has the baby, right? So i t should be that colour. Dogs get their colour from their mother. They do not get a color from the father because they were not' born from him. It is the mother who gives colour to the pups, because she has them and she takes care of them. The Dad can take care of them a l i t t l e b i t . 7-5 I think they would either be a l l They could be white or they could The mother and the father give the black or black and white, not just be black and white or they could colour to the pups, white. They would get the white have brown. From the sun or the from another dog or from the sun. mixture of Mum and Dad together, that could give brown. 182 Grade I QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 4AI (cont'd.) QUESTION IV Can puppies have any other colour apart from the colour of the parent dog? Why? COMMENTS They could be brown. I don't know. White dogs-getting washed l i k e i t happened to my dog too when we washed i t . It had l i t t l e white spots on i t s fur. Brown, maybe. I don't know. -She does not believe that any one of the parents could give more colour than the other to the puppies. She believes in the equal contribution of the father and the mother to the puppies' colour hence she said 3 w i l l be black, 3 white. To Johnnie, the pups could be white or they could be black because they just come that way. It could be brown, know. 1 d°n't _ Jamie believes that dogs could have various " colours but that these colours change as the dogs grow older e.g. from brown to black. So age i s s i g n i f i c a n t variable in deter-mining the colour of dogs. Yes, they could get other colours from the sun. When the sun shines on you and then you start turning l i g h t . T r i c i a recognizes that the father can also contribute along with the mother to the colour of the pups. But for those strange colours which are not apparent on the parent dogs, she says these colours are given to the pups by the l i g h t from the sun. 183 Grade II QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 4AII QUESTION I QUESTION II If this black dog (female) i s to have If a white male dog and a black female puppies, what colour would the puppies dog have six puppies. What colour be? Why? would th e i r puppies be? Why? QUESTION III Which one of the parent dogs do you think gives more colour to the puppies? NAME AGE 7.6 Relative contribut-ion of a parent = colour in dog. Probably black, i s black. Because their mother White and black or white or black together. Maybe three would be black, two would be mix, one would be white. You have more black because the mother i s black. The mother gives more colour to the puppies. 7.8 Probably black. Because the dog (mother) i s black. Probably black. Because the mother i s black. It i s only the mother who gives colour to the puppies (implied). Douglas Hughie 8.1 8.6 If the mother has a father, and a grandmother and granddad, they would probably-all the colours should be about the same colour. It would be a mixture of the colour of the father and mother. It w i l l have puppies that are black. The babies (puppies) would be black and white. Not a l l of them-like four or three of them would be black and white and one would be another colour, l i k e the other relatives-would probably be an odd colour-like goldy black. They would be black because the mother i s black. It's the mother who gave the babies, so i t is the mother's colour. The mother'(implied). The mother gives colour to the puppies. 184 Grade II QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 4AII (cont'd.) QUESTION IV Can puppies have any other colour apart from the colour of the.parent dog? Why? COMMENTS No. Sandra believes that the mother contributes more colour to the offsprings than the father does. To her puppies can not have any other colour on them other than that of the parent dog(s). Brenda does not recognize the contributing rol e of a father to the features on o f f -spring dogs. To her the puppies can only acquire the colour of the mother. They may get goldy black or brown from relatives-grandma and granddad. Douglas was able to recognize many factors beyond the mother and father which could be s i g n i f i c a n t in determining the colour of an offspring. He mentions grandma and grandpa, the father dog, etc. Hughie does not recognize the significance of a father in terms of colour transmission in dogs. In the case of dogs, Hughie believes that only the mother can hand down i t s colour because she gives forth the babies. 185 Grade III QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 4AIII ' QUESTION I If this black dog (female) i s to have puppies, what colour would the puppies be? Why? QUESTION II If a white male dog and a black, female dog have six puppies. What colour would their puppies be? Why. QUESTION III Which one of the parent dogs do you think gives more colour to the puppies? NAME TOPIC Nancy Michael Sylvia 9.00 9.2 9.5 Relative contribut-ion of a parent = colour in dog. The puppies would be black, the mother i s black. Maybe white. Some would be black, some would be white because some pups don't take after their mother. Black. Because the mother i s black. Black. Because the mother i s black. The baby came from the mother. Some of them could be black and white together. Some could be black, some white. Two would be black. Two would be white. Two would be black and white together. Some might be black. Some might be white. Some might be spotted. Because their parents are black and white. The mother because the baby came from her. No one contributes more than the other. If the mother i s black she gives more than the father. If the father i s the black one, he gives more than mother. The female contributes more colour to the puppies. Because she i s the mother. Because the baby comes out of her body. Gary 10.1 Black. If she has teats that are black, she would have puppies that are black. As long as the mother's teats are black (or white) that i s the colour the puppies w i l l be. The mother because she has the teats. 186 Grade III QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 4AIII (cont'd.) QUESTION IV Can puppies have any other colour apart from the colour of the parent dog? Why? COMMENTS No. They might be different colour from the mother and father. I don't know where they w i l l get these other colours from. Nancy only recognizes the mother as the sole determiner of the colour of puppies. To her the role of the father and the ancestral l i n e are i n -consequent i a l . Mike does not believe i n the dominance of one parent over the other. To him the dark colours have more strength over l i g h t ones and so w i l l show more on the puppies 1 fur. Maybe - l i k e brown, know (where from). I don't Yes, i f the teats are black (on a white dog) the pups would be black. Sylvia recognizes that the father dog could contribute to the puppies' colour, but t h i s contribution i s only very minimal since i t i s from the mother's body the puppies come from. To Gary i t does not matter what colour the parents are, the important thing i s the s p e c i f i c colour of the teats from which the pups suck milk-that colour Is what the pups would have. 187 G r a d e I V QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 4AIV QUESTION I If this black dog (female) i s to have puppies, what colours would the puppies be? QUESTION II If a white male dog and a black female dog have six puppies. What colour would their puppies be? Why? QUESTION III Which one of the parent dogs do you think gives more colour to the puppies? TOPIC 9.10 10.1 Relative contribut-ion of a parent = colour i n dog. Probably a very dark colour-like black. Because the mother i s black. Well i t depends on what colour the father I s - l i k e i f he i s white I don't know. Their puppies would probably be black, with white spots. Because they cannot be two f u l l colours at once. I think the black because the black i s a stronger colour than the white-usually. Could be either (colour) I guess. Could Not anyone r e a l l y , be a mixture or grey or something. Pro-bably more would be black. I guess i t is a dark colour. Paula 10.2 Well, i t sort of depends on what sort of colour the father i s — r e a l l y . Probably d i f f e r e n t colours, some might be mix, some might be black, some might be white. Not any one r e a l l y . Shannon 10.2 Usually would be black-but i t depends what colour the father i s too-I guess. Sometimes they are black and white-l i k e i f the mother-sometimes they are mixed. And other times they take after their mother, sometimes thei r father. I am not sure but I think the mother might, because l i k e she has the babies, but I am not sure. 188 Grade IV QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 4AIV (cont'd.) QUESTION IV Can puppies have any other colour apart from the colour of the parent dog? Why? COMMENTS The puppies could but i t does not very often happen. Yes, there might be. I don't know (where from). Kenneth believes that black colour is stronger than white so the dogs w i l l mostly be black with white spots. He was able to recognize that other colours could appear on the puppies. Trevor could not predict what the colour of the puppies would be unless he knows what the colour of the Dad i s . To him black is. stronger than white. That i s the determining factor. Maybe - I am not r e a l l y sure.. I don't know where these colours come from. Paula recognizes the role of the father as a contributor and she cannot predict from only data related to the mother. She has to know about the father too. I think they do but I am not sure. I am not positive. Most of Shannon's answers are based on tentative premises. She i s not sure of a l l the predictions she makes but she thinks t h i s i s how things w i l l be. 189 Grade V QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 4AV QUESTION I If a black (female) dog has a l i t t e r of puppies. What w i l l the colour of these puppies be? QUESTION II If a black female dog and a white male dog have six puppies. What colour would these puppies be? Why? QUESTION III Which one of the two parent dogs do you think gives more colour to the puppies? Why? Stephen 10.6 10.9 Relative contribut-ion of a parent = colour in dog. The puppies would be black and white. They get the white from their father. Well, i t depends what colour the father i s . I would say three of them would be black and three of them white. Three of these would be g i r l and the other three would be boy. Some might be black with spots. Some could be l i k e t h e i r mother, some could be l i k e the father. No. I don't think any of them does (implied). Sometimes i t i s the mother at other times i t i s the father. Maria 10.11 Some could be black and some could have white in them. I don't know where they would get the white from. The puppies would be black and white. Two would be black, two white and two black and white. The female gives more colour because she has the puppies. But she can't give a l l the colours. 11.1 I think they would have a b i t of black in them and a b i t of the male dog's colour. Maybe black and white; a l l over-like spots. Some could be d i f f e r e n t with some other colour l i k e brown or something. No, I don't think anyone of them does give more colour than the other. The colour of the puppies i s i n between. 190 Grade V QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 4AV (cont'd.) QUESTION IV Can the puppies have any other colour apart from the colour of the parent dog? Why? COMMENTS Brown. I don't know (where from). Yes, they could have other colours. (He c i t e s example from Siamese cats). He says these maybe two fathers-one puppy gets the colour from one father, the other from another father ( i f the mother has two puppies). They could get-like-brown. I don't know where they get this other colour from. Maybe brown.„ I don't know. Jun recognizes the significance of the male dog in giving inherited material to the pups but he believes the male puppies take after their fathers and the female puppies after their mothers. Stephen believes that the puppies making a l i t t e r have various fathers and they exhibit the various colours because of the different colours of the fathers from whom they come. Maria recognizes that the father dog con-tributes to the colour of the pups. But she believes that the mother gives more colour because she has the puppies. Susan does not think anyone of the parent dogs can dominate the other. She says the colour i s in between both parents. 191 Grade VI QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 4AVI » QUESTION I If a black (female) dog has a l i t t e r of puppies, what w i l l the colour of these puppies be? QUESTION II If a black female dog and a white male dog have six puppies. What colour w i l l these puppies be? Why? QUESTION III Which one of the two parent dogs do you think gives more colour to the puppies? NAME AGE Sarah 11.2 Relative contribut-ion of a parent -colour in dog. Richard Gaelen 11.10 11.11 It depends on what colour the father was. The puppies would probably be black-most of them; I think probably have odd, some white specks. Because there might be something l i k e that made/ the body of the dog (mother). I am not sure. It depends on what colour the male dog i s . I don't know very much about dogs. Because I have never r e a l l y had one. I have two cats anyway. The kittens would be same colour as their father. They would probably have a l i t t l e black on them.and a l i t t l e white, some might be t o t a l l y black, or t o t a l l y white. 1 would be black. 1 would be white. 4 would be mixed. Because the father and the mother mix to have babies. Three of them would may be blacky and then two would be white, and may be one would be black and white, speck. Some of them might be pure white with blackspots, white some of them would Just be white. I don't know i f there w i l l be any ones with pure black. The k i t t e n would be white just l i k e the colour of the father. Unless one of them is a pure breed and another i s not, otherwise they would contribute equal colour i f they are both pure breeds. I would say since i t i s the mother who i s giving b i r t h to the puppies, would say she gives more than the father. The white i s plenty because the male dog i s white. The male could give more colour. I don't know why. The father contributes the colour of the kittens. 192 Grade VI QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 4AVI (cont'd.) QUESTION IV Can the puppies have any other colour apart from the colour of the parent dog? Why? COMMENTS They would probably get brown. I am not sure where from. Because you sometimes have chara c t e r i s t i c s that your parents did not have. It might be i n the back-in the ancestors of those dogs. Yes, maybe different kind of food but I don't think so. I am not sure. Sarah recognizes that pure breeds could be dominant over non pure breeds. Other-wise the features would just be a blend i f both parents are pure. She recognizes that the other colours on the offspring's could have come from the ancestors. Richard recognizes that the puppies could have a different colour from the parents but he does not know how th i s comes about. He believes the mother gives more colour than the father. Maybe, but I don't know. Er i c i s convinced that i t i s the male dog who determines more the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the puppies. Yea, they could. They get thi s from ancestors. Gaelen has problem answering questions related to dogs because she says she does not know much about dogs. She requested the examiner to ask her the questions as they are related to cats, because she only presently has cats. 193 G r a d e V I 1 QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 4AVII » QUESTION I If a black (female) dog has a l i t t e r of puppies, what w i l l the colour of these puppies be? QUESTION II If a black female dog and a white male dog have puppies. What colour w i l l t h e i r puppies be? Why? QUESTION III Which one of the two parent dogs do you think gives more colour to the puppies? NAME AGE TOPIC Tony Sergio 12.6 12.6 Relative contribut-ion of a parent = colour in dog. Some could be black, some could be brown, some could be blue etc. after their mother and father. Or they may not necessarily have to take after the mother or the father's colour. That depends what colour the Dad was. They could be mixed, or-but you don't know that for sure. There are no certain colours that they have to come out. Black and white, some maybe black, some maybe white. If they had 6 puppies, 4 of them would take after the mother or 3 and a few of them mixed colours. But majority w i l l be the mother's. Maybe black and white, striped, some might be black, some might be white. The mother because she Is closer to them, because the father i s not always there, the mother w i l l always be t i l l they get older. The majority w i l l take after her because they came from her body. Yea. Probably the female. Because i t i s from the female's body that they come. So i t i s most from the female. 12.8 It depends on the male dog. If the father i s brown and the mother i s black, the puppy w i l l be dark brown. They would be l i g h t black. If the mother Yes. the mother. It i s the mother and the father are blended together there i s a greyish colour, l i g h t black If there are 6 puppies, 4 would be greyish black, 1 black and 1 white. that has the babies so they w i l l take more of the colour from her. 13.5 They would be black, but either their mother, father, grandmother or ances-tory might have been white. So maybe they would be affected by this white. I think they would be white because the puppies would usually look l i k e their father. But i f the ancestory is white, they would be affected by this white. The puppies usually come out looking l i k e the father. 194 QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE Grade VII 4 A V I I ( c o n C' d.) QUESTION IV Can che puppies have any other colour apart from the colour of the parent dog? Why? COMMENTS Yes, they could. Maybe the colour of the mother and father mixed, but I don't know. Yes, i t has happened before. That i s just nature. I don't think anybody knows. I don't think they have found that yet. It i s just a weird thing. Unless she mates with another male dog, then the puppies can have a different colour. The explanation of Tony here does not r e f l e c t a carry over at a l l from his e a r l i e r theory about height in man. Here he thinks that the mother contributes more because she is the b i r t h giver and caretaker. When the contradiction between this ex-planation for dogs and that for height in humans was brought to Sergio's notice, he said that there i s a difference between animal and the human being. The differences are those of no of leg, hair colour, t a i l s . These are the difference that makes the genetics of a dog different to that of man. Sandra believes that the mother gives more characteristics than the father because she delievers the puppies. To her the pups w i l l not get any other (alien) colour unless their mother mates with another dog who i s not the legal father. Yes, maybe from the father's aneestory. Liza's opinion i s that young pups look more l i k e their father. 195 Grade VIII QUESTION-RESPONSE IMLE 4AVIII QUESTION I If a black (female) dog has a l i t t e r of puppies, what w i l l the colour of these puppies be? QUESTION II If a black female dog and a white male dog have 6 puppies. What colour w i l l their puppies be? QUESTION III Which one of the two parent dogs do you think gives more colour to the puppies? NAMZ AGE TOPIC 13.00 Relative contribut-ion of a parent = colour in dog. The puppies would be black, because she i s black. Some would be black, some white and maybe black with white patches or white with black patches. Maybe A would be white or one with black patches. The mother dog (implied). Kelly Walter Mike 13.7 13.8 13.10 The puppies would be black, because that is the kind of dog the mother dog i s . Most of the puppies would be black. For the same reason that the chil d (regardless of sex) w i l l be just as t a l l as the mother. The mother gave birt h to them. Probably black. Because i t w i l l be same colour as i t s mother hence i t is inside i t s womb. The blood system and everything goes to the puppies. The puppies w i l l be a mixture of black and white or white or black. The puppies would get a black and white colour. 3 would be black, and 3 white. Because now I see the father dog who i s white. Some puppies would be l i k e the father and some would be l i k e the mother. Some could be mixed-black and white. It is hard to say which number would be black or white or mixed. It depends sometimes. The mother dog contributes more colour because she has more to do with the puppies-they are inside her. The male dog does not have much to do with i t . They both give equal contribution. Maybe the mother because she has them in the womb. The blood passes through them and their mother's body. So I guess the mother may contribute more. 196 Grade VIII QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE . . (Cont'd.)-QUESTION IV Can the puppies have any other colour apart from the colour of the parent dog? Why? COMMENTS Yes, from the mother's mother, longtime you know or from the father's mother. I don't think they would show any other colour. Although Vivian's predictions are very r i g i d , she suggests that other colours could appear on the puppies and this could have come from their ancestory. But from the figures she gives i t i s . quite clear she thinks the mother gives more colour than the father dog. Kelly i s not able to see beyond the parent dogs' features. Yes, I suppose they could. From the breed of the parent dogs. Dogs could also change colour as they grow older. There i s a difference between Walter's prediction here and that for height in terms of r e l a t i v e contribution of a parent. He c l a r i f i e d that dogs are different to people Yes, but I can which colour. t t e l l for sure Mike feels that in dogs the mother gives more colour to the puppies than the male dog because the puppies grow inside the female dog's womb. 197 Grade I QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 5A1 9 QUESTION I If a t a l l man and a short woman have a c h i l d : If this c h i l d i s a boy how w i l l he be when he i s f u l l y grown? QUESTION II If the c h i l d Is a g i r l , how w i l l she be when she is f u l l y grown? QUESTION III Why i s this so? NAME Christina Johnnie 5.6 7.4 Relative Parent Contrib-ution » height in man be w i l l te t a l l as his father. The boy would be t a l l . Because the Dad i s t a l l so he's gonna be t a l l . She w i l l be just as t a l l as her mother. She w i l l be short because her mother i s short. Because the boy i s f u l l y grown. Because she i s grown too. Because the father i s t a l l . Because the mother i s short. Jamie 7.4 7.5 He w i l l be t a l l . Because the man i s t a l l and i f the boy looks l i k e the man he i s gonna be t a l l . The boy would be t a l l . If she Is going to look l i k e her mother, she i s going to be small. The g i r l would be short. Because the man i s t a l l and the woman i s short; right? So i f the boy i s gonna look l i k e h is father, I w i l l say he w i l l be t a l l and the g i r l w i l l be short i f she looks l i k e her mum. The man i s t a l l and the boy is going to be a man. And the mother is short and she i s a g i r l , so she w i l l be short. 198 QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE Grade I 5AI (cont'd.) QUESTION IV Do you know of any which would make a other things c h i l d grow t a l l ? COMMENTS No, I don 1t know. No, I don't think so. Yes, well i f you eat the right foods, you can grow t a l l e r — i f you eat good foods; go on a diet when you should, not eat candy. Sometimes the boy Is l i k e his mother and the g i r l i s l i k e her father. Because the boy and the g i r l are both from the mother. The father only looks after the children when the mother has to go out. Christina believes that the sex of the c h i l d determines which of the parent's features the chil d would acquire. She does not recognize any other factors coming into play. Johnnie as C h r i s t i e above believes that If the chil d i s a boy, he w i l l be l i k e the father and i f she i s a g i r l , she w i l l be l i k e her mother, when she i s f u l l y grown. He does not recognize any other variables taking part In the game of inheritance. Jamie believes the c h i l d i s got to look l i k e one of the parents. If i t i s a boy i t w i l l look l i k e i t s father and If i t i s a g i r l i t w i l l look l i k e i t s mother. There are rudiments of a chance factor She started off with r i g i d explanations but gradually changed to amore f l e x i b l e theory. 199 QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 5AII ^ QUESTION I If a t a l l man and a short woman have a c h i l d : If t h i s c h i l d i s a boy how w i l l he be when he i s f u l l y grown? QUESTION II If the c h i l d i s a g i r l , how w i l l she be when she i s f u l l y grown? QUESTION III Why i s t h i s so? NAME AGE TOPIC Sandra 7.6 7.8 Relative Contribut-ion of a Parent = height in man. Quite t a l l . He would be t a l l . Because he is a boy. She would be quite short. Short. Because she i s a baby. The boy would be t a l l because i t s father i s quite t a l l . The g i r l would be short because her mother is quite short. Because the boy w i l l be l i k e the father and the g i r l l i k e her mothet mother. Douglas 8.1 He would be as big as his mother. G i r l s are usually smaller than boys. So she would be as big as her mother. They would both be about the same size. I don't know why they would be just as t a l l as their mother. Hughie 8.6 I think the chil d w i l l be as t a l l as i t s father. It w i l l be just as t a l l as i t s mother. Because i f i t i s a boy It w i l l be as t a l l as i t s father. If It's a g i r l she w i l l be just l i k e r mother because the mother had her. Because she Is a g i r l . 2 0 0 Grade II QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 5AII (cont'd.) QUESTION IV Do you know of any other things which would make a c h i l d grow t a l l ? COMMENTS No, I don't. Sandra does not recognize the importance of any other factors.apart from the fact that the boy would be l i k e his father, the g i r l l i k e her mother. If the c h i l d eats good food, l i k e apples, some pears. Brenda believes l i k e other e a r l i e r children that the boy w i l l be l i k e his father and the g i r l l i k e her mother. However she was able to observe the importance of food as a contributing factor. Foods: Apple, carrots, celery, tomato, onions. The investigator had a rough time to lure this subject into the subject under investigation. He engages himself very quickly into issues that were quite different from the topic. No, I don't. Hughie does not recognize the importance of foods i n determining growth. To him the ch i l d i s going to be t a l l l i k e the father i f he i s a boy and short l i k e the mother i f i t is a g i r l . 201 Grade III QUESTION-RESPONSE,TABLE 5AIII QUESTION I If a t a l l man and a short woman have a c h i l d : If this c h i l d i s a boy how w i l l he be when he i s f u l l y grown? QUESTION II If the chil d i s a g i r l , how w i l l she be when she i s f u l l y grown? QUESTION III Why i s this so? NAME TOPIC Nancy Michael 9.00 9.2 Relative contribut-ion of a parent = height i n Man About his father's size. T a l l as his Dad because he i s a boy. Her mother's s i z e . She w i l l be short l i k e her mother. Because as his father grows older, he i s becoming smaller and smaller. Because she is a g i r l , she w i l l take after her mother. The same with the boy and his father. Sylvia 9.5 He w i l l take after the woman because she is the mother. Same thing. (She w i l l take after the mother) This i s so because their father always work. And their mother always stays home. Gary 10.1 He w i l l be big ( t a l l ) . Because he's She w i l l be short, grown and he eats food. Because a man i s big and a woman i s short. 2 0 2 QUESTION IV Do you know of any other things which would make a chi l d grow t a l l ? QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 5AIII (cont'd.) COMMENTS Eating meat. I don't know any other. I don't know i f this i s right but being a vegetarian. Eating vegetables. Mavbe food milk. It i s r e a l l y interesting how Nancy views the overtaking of height a t t a i n -ment by a c h i l d . He i s of the opinion that fathers regress i n height as they grow older and older and as such, their children gradually equal them in height. In as much as Mike believes height of a child is inherited according to sex from the respective parents, he recognizes that foods—--vegetables, can also be a determining factor. Sylvia believes that children take after people who are constantly in touch with them. Hence her belief that a l l children take after their mother as their father always goes to work. She does not recognize any other factors at play. Although Gary recognizes the role food plays in helping growth, he believes that the g i r l w i l l be shorter than the boy because women are smaller than men, usually. So to him It Is not the question of the height of the mother or father, i t i s the question of the natural course of things. 203 Grade IV QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 5AIV QUESTION I If a t a l l man and a short woman have a c h i l d : If this c h i l d i s a boy how w i l l he when he i s f u l l y grown? QUESTION II If the chil d i s a g i r l how w i l l she be when she i s f u l l y grown? QUESTION III Why i s this so? TOPIC Kenneth 9.10 Relative contrib-. ution of a parent = height in Man Probably he w i l l be t a l l . She would probably be short, probably about the height of her mother. Because his father i s t a l l . Because her mother was short, she i s probably going to be short. 10.1 I would say about as big as the man. Usually boys grow as big as their father. Probably the mother's s i z e . G i r l s are usually smaller than boys Usually boys grow as big as their fathers. G i r l s are usually smaller than boys. 10.2 Probably, l i k e his father, as t a l l as his father. Probably around the size of her mother, maybe a b i t bigger. I don't know why. 10.2 1 think, he'd probably be t a l l , quite t a l l . I am not sure though. (It depends). I guess i t might be short or i n between, or take after the mother I am not sure though. Because he might take after his father or mother. 204 QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE Grade IV 5AIV (cont'd.) QUESTION IV Do you know of any other things which would make a chil d grow t a l l ? COMMENTS Good foods such as milk, f r u i t s ; having a balanced meal. No. Probably some foods-l i k e vegetables. Proper eating, good e x e r c i s e -f r u i t s , apples, oranges, bananas. Well by eating good foods. Kenneth seem to use the idea of probability very much in presenting his b e l i e f s . This shows the tentative nature of what he was saying. Although on f i r s t instance he was not able to remember any things as contributors to height, he recognized food when i t was suggested by the investigator. Trevor i s of the bel i e f that boys usually are as big as their fathers. G i r l s are usually smaller than boys, so the g i r l s w i l l be l i k e their mother. Paula uses very tentative predictions by her constant use of 'probably*. She recognizes food and exercises as contributing factors to a child's height. Shannon makes predictions which she based on probability. She says she was not sure about her predictions as they could turn otherwise. She names good foods as contributors. 205 TOPIC QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 5AV » QUESTION I If a t a l l man and a short woman have a c h i l d : If the child i s a boy, how t a l l w i l l he be when he i s f u l l y grown? QUESTION II If the c h i l d i s a g i r l how t a l l w i l l she be when she i s f u l l y grown.? QUESTION III Why do you say so? 10.6 Relative contribut-ion of a Parent « Man About same as his father, i s a boy. Because he She w i l l grow up l i k e her mother. Because he i s a boy. Because she i s a g i r l . Stephen 10.9 10.11 The child w i l l be medium; but he w i l l be more towards his mother's si z e . •Maybe as t a l l as the father. Boys grow t a l l e r . The g i r l w i l l be more l i k e father. her Maybe a l i t t l e past the mother. I don't know. Well, his father i s t a l l and his mother i s short, so he w i l l be medium. Sometimes g i r l s take after their.father and boys after their mother. Because the child might want to be d i f f e r e n t . If he i s already a aboy he has to have something of the mother too. Because boys grow t a l l e r (than g i r l g i r l s ) . Susan 11.1 I think he would be in between. Because i t i s the mother and the father's baby, so i t takes after them. I s t i l l think i t would be i n between. Because they are both the mother and the father's babies, so they w i l l take after them. 2 0 6 Grade V QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 5AV (cont'd.) QUESTION IV What other things do you think would make a child grow t a l l ? COMMENTS He should eat In the proper time To Jun even though he believes the sex and sleep In the proper time. of the c h i l d determines who of the parents he/she w i l l take after, he was able to mention s i g n i f i c a n t factors . such as food and sleep for proper growth. No. Stephen thinks that g i r l s sometimes take I am not quite sure. after their father and boys after their mother. He cites himself as an example. So he believes a l l children would be l i k e that, because by being boy one i s already l i k e the father and he has to get some qu a l i t i e s from the mother too, and this would be height (short). Eggs, meat and vegetables. Maria postulated that boys are usually t a l l e r than g i r l s , so she would expect the boy to be as t a l l as the father and the g i r l a l i t t l e shorter. 6he recognized foods as s i g n i f i c a n t factors to growth. Foods - vegetables, meat. Susan believes that the characteristics a chil d acquire are a blend between the father and the mother towards a mean. It is this mean height which the chi l d w i l l get, be he boy or g i r l . 207 Grade VI QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 5 AVI QUESTION I If a t a l l man and a short woman have a c h i l d : If the child i s a boy, how t a l l w i l l he be when he i s fully' grown? QUESTION II If the chil d i s a g i r l , how t a l l w i l l she be when she i s f u l l y grown? QUESTION III Why do you say so? NAME Sarah AGE 11.2 TOPIC Relative contribut-ion of a Parent = Man Probably right i n between the mother and the father. Because the mother and the father put i n together, so i t kind of balances i n between them. Probably be a l i t t l e shorter than i f i t were a boy. But i t w i l l also be a mixing between the father and the mother. Because the mother and the father put i n together so i t w i l l be a kind of balance i n between them Richard 11.4 Do we have any d e f i n i t e height for this man? He w i l l get the height from his father because his father i s t a l l -er. He w i l l get some other character-i s t i c from his mother. She would probably have the same height as her mother, and she might have the same eyes as her father or she might pick up something else from her father. Because the father is t a l l and the mother i s short. He might be as t a l l as the father. She might pro-bably be as t a l l as the mother. This i s . not so a l l the times, but I guess most of the times. E r i c Gaelen 11.10 11.11 I don't know but I think i t w i l l be the height of the father. He w i l l bt t a l l . The boy comes from the father's side of i t . The height i s inherited from the father and the eyes from the mother. I believe she w i l l be just anyhow. She maybe t a l l e r than her mother or shorter than her. father. I t could be a blend between the two parents but I am not positive. Even i f i t i s a g i r l , the height would s t i l l be from the father. I don't know why i t w i l l be the height of the father. I don't know, i t could be the mother. The height i s inherited only from the father and other things from the mother. 208 Grade VI QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 5AVI (cont'd.) QUESTION IV What other things do you think would make a child grow t a l l ? COMMENTS Good proteins, f r u i t s , love and attention. I don't think so. I didn't know (foods could help growth) Sarah sees none of the parents showing dominance over the other. She sees the child's characteristics as a balance between the two parents hence she pre-di c t s the ch i l d w i l l be i n between. Naturally the children should be in between but, she says, , rbut the g i r l should be smaller than the boy."She recognizes food as a factor. The question of height inheritance to this boy i s a tentative thing, Although many times boys grow t a l l l ike their father, and g i r l short as their mother, this trend could change once i n a while. To Richard i f the c h i l d acquires the height from one parent he would acquire some other feature from the other parent. Yea, foods like meat, milk. Eric says he i s not positive about his pre-dictions. » And even these predictions he has merely couched on tentative premise. He does not believe the question of "height either in.'boy or g i r l can be predicted with certainty. Yea, foods could help growth. Gaelen believes that only the father contributes to the height of a c h i l d , the mothers give other characteristics l i k e eyes. 2 0 9 Grade VII QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 5AVII QUESTION I If a C a l l man and a short woman have a c h i l d : If the child Is a boy, how t a l l w i l l he be when he i s f u l l y grown? QUESTION II If the c h i l d i s a g i r l , how t a l l w i l l she be when she i s f u l l y grown? QUESTION III Why do you say so? NAME Tony 12.6 Relative contribut-ion of a Parent = Height in Man -It depends on whom he takes after in siz e . He could be the size of his mother or the size of his father. Same thing. Usually i t could be different size, he could take after his mother or take a f t e r his father. . Sergio 12.6 -About the size of his Dad. Because usually sons are the same as Dads when they grow up. The g i r l w i l l grow up to be the same size as the si z e of the mum, probably; but she could be same si z e as her Dad, but usually i s the mum. Because usually sons are the same as Dads when they grow up. Usually she i s l i k e the size of her mum. Sandra Liza 12.8 13.5 -I think he w i l l be li k e his father. If he i s a boy he i s gonna be li k e his father. 'He would be t a l l . Well i t Is, l i k e , his father i s t a l l . The boy would take after his father. So he would be t a l l l i k e his father. She w i l l be l i k e her mother. I think she would be t a l l too because her brother i s t a l l , but she w i l l be shorter than her brother.. Boys take after their father, take a f t e r their mother.1 g i r l s The father i s t a l l and so children usually take a f t e r their father's heights. So the father gives more. The father does more active things and so he sleeps more, so he grows more than the mother who i s mostly at home. 2 1 0 Grade VII QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 5AVII (cont'd.) QUESTION IV What other things do you think would make a chil d grow t a l l ? COMMENTS Foods, good foods l i k e milk, celery and carrots. No, I don t know that. Tony does believe that the height i n -heritance can be predicted on the bases of whether the child is a boy or a g i r l . He says i t depends on whom th^ chil d takes after, i t could be the mother or the father. Sergio i s of the feeli n g that the sex of the chi l d could be used to t e l l who of the two parents she/he could emulate i n terras of height: The boy follows after the Dad, the g i r l after the mother. He notices no other variables at a l l . No, nothing that I know of. Yes, food. She believes boys take after t h e i r father and g i r l s after their mothers. She thinks that the father gives more the inheritance of height in his children, but hence boys do more active things than their s i s t e r s , they get tired more and sleep more. To her the more you sleep the more you grow t a l l , hence boys are t a l l e r than their s i s t e r s . 211 Grade VIII QUESTION-RESPONSE T^BLE 5AVIII QUESTION I If a t a l l man and a short woman have a c h i l d : If this c h i l d i s a boy, how t a l l w i l l he be when he i s f u l l y grown? QUESTION II If the c h i l d i s a g i r l , how t a l l w i l l she be when she i s f u l l y grown? QUESTION III Why. i s this so? AGE TOPIC Vivian 13.00 Relative contribut-ion of a Parent =» Height i n Man Half way i n between - Not as t a l l as his father but not as short as his mother. She would also probably be a l i t t l e b i t t a l l e r than her mother, because I am. The height of a chi l d i s a mix (blend) between the mother and the' father. K e l l y 13.7 He w i l l be t a l l , because his father i s t a l l and most boys look t a l l . She w i l l be about medium. The g i r l w i l l be a blend of her mother and father. Because boys usually are t a l l and g i r l s take after a blend of the mother and father. Walter 13.8 He w i l l be short l i k e his mother; since he was born by the mother, he probably picks up some of the characteristics of the mother. I think she w i l l be short too. Both parents contribute to the child's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s but the mother gives more since she gives b i r t h to the babies Well the mother i s the one who gives b i r t h to the babies, she w i l l probably give more. Mike 13.10 His father is big, so he i s going to be big too. Sometimes the boy may just be the same as his mother. It depends. Her mother i s short, she w i l l probably be short too. Sometimes too the g i r l w i l l be l i k e her father. It depends. Because sometimes a boy is l i k e his father, but he could also be l i k e his mother; same thing for the g i r l . It depends. 212 Grade VIII QUESTION-RESPONSE TABLE 5AVIII (cont'd.) QUESTION IV What other things do you think would make a child grow t a l l ? COMMENTS Their grandmother and grand-father maybe t a l l so they may be t a l l also after them. Although Vivian thinks that the height of a c h i l d i s a blend between the mother and the father, she was also able to note that the tallness or shortness of a c h i l d is dependent on the family history hence she named the ancestors. She says, however, that this trend could be altered by disease. Foods, help one grow t a l l e r and healthier. The amount of food, protection from disease. Food, what he eats. Exercise too. Kelly i s of the opinion that the question of height i n boys is not contro-versal, boys usually are going to be t a l l , g i r l s , short. She recognizes anyway the importance of food as a factor that could help. Walter i s of the opinion that children acquire the height mostly from their mothers since the mother is the birth giver. He i s also able to recognize other variables such as food as contributors. Mike cannot r e a l l y predict for sure how the baby w i l l be when he/she is f u l l y grown, i t depends on many variables, the parents, food, exercise, etc 

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