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Children’s attitudes toward play and children’s play behaviors 1976

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CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES TOWARD PLAY AND CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS by LOUISE MARILYN TOFFOLI B.P.H.E., University of Toronto, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION in the School of Physical Education and Recreation We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 197 6 © Louise Marilyn T o f f o l i , 1976 In presenting th i s thes i s in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i cat ion of this thes is fo r f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of , „ ^ y ^ „ I ) &C^cn^7^J n.O^rtL / f jU^&O^nn) If The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date ffiirZMf/D S, /9?6* ABSTRACT This investigation studied children's attitudes toward play and t h e i r play behavior when engaged i n free play on t h e i r school playground. Subproblems of t h i s study attempted to determine i f there were differences i n free play on school playgrounds when considering the variables of; 1. sex, 2. grade, 3 . school and 4. sex within each grad In addition, the compatibility of the questionnaire-inter- view technique with the observed behavior technique was assessed. Three hundred and thir t y - n i n e grade one, two and three children served as subjects for t h i s study. Two techniques were u t i l i z e d for data c o l l e c t i o n ; 1. a quest- ionnaire-interview, and 2. observations. The questionnaire interview assessed: children's desire to play, reasons for playing, f a v o r i t e time to play, fa v o r i t e spot to play, play behaviors and the type of equipment children use. The ob- servations assessed: children's f a v o r i t e spot to play and children's play behaviors. The conclusions of t h i s study are as follows: 1. The questionnaire-interview and observation techniques can be successfully u t i l i z e d to determine selected attitude and behaviors of children. 2. Children play on the i r school playground because there are fun things, they can s o c i a l i z e (children play with friends who are generally t h e i r own age) and because of pleasant fee l i n g s . 3. The school playground i s mainly used during school hours. 4 . Females were more l i k e l y to choose an a c t i v i t y because i t was fun while the males chose an a c t i v i t y because they could use i t i n a game. 5. Children's choices of a c t i v i t i e s and equipment were comparable. 6. Males use the playing f i e l d more while females use the blacktop area more - often. 7. Children preferred high energy a c t i v i t i e s with medium and high energy a c t i v i t i e s increasing i n preference with increases i n grade. 8. The equipment area i s used most often with both sexes and each of the grades making equal use of i t . 9. The males and females showed preferences i n play behav- i o r s . 10. Males perform high energy a c t i v i t i e s more than females who perform medium and low energy a c t i v i t i e s more than males 11. Grades one, two and three children have d i f f e r e n t play behaviors. 12. The a c t i v i t i e s children said they preferred were act- u a l l y what they were seen doing. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES x LIST OF FIGURES x i i CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 2 SUBPROBLEMS ... .. 3 DEFINITION OF TERMS 3 CLASSIFICATION CATEGORIES USED IN ORGANIZING THE DATA 6 ASSUMPTIONS 7 DELIMITATIONS 8 LIMITATIONS 8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 8 2. RELATED LITERATURE 13 DEFINITIONS OF PLAY 13 IMPORTANCE OF PLAY. 14 RESEARCH STUDIES ON PLAY 17 SEX STEREOTYPING . 19 LITERATURE SUPPORTING RESEARCH TECHNIQUES 21 Research Using Both Techniques 22 Questionnaire-Interview Literature 23 Observational Literature 26 3. METHODS AND PROCEDURES 32 ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES 32 Attitude Assessment Using the Questionnaire- Interview Technique 3 2 Behavior Assessment Using the Observation Technique 32 SELECTION OF THE SAMPLE 33 ORGANIZATION OF TIME AND SPACE 34 METHODOLOGY 3 4 Attitude Assessment Using the Questionnaire-Interview Technique 34 Behavior Assessment Using the Observation Technique 37 METHOD OF ANALYSIS 38 Questionnaire-Interview 38 Observations 39 Questionnaire-Interview R e l i a b i l i t y 40 Comparison Between Attitude Data and Behavior Data 41 S t a t i s t i c a l Significance 41 iv TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DATA 41 RELIABILITY OF THE EVALUATIVE TECHNIQUES AND THE INVESTIGATOR 42 Questionnaire-Interview 4 2 Observations 42 Investigator 43 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 46 INTRODUCTION 46 TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW (SEE APPENDIX G).... 47 GENERAL ATTITUDE DATA (SEE APPENDIX H) 48 Children's Desire To Play 50 Children's Reasons For Playing 54 Children's Favorite Time To Play On Their School Playground 57 Children's Favorite Spot To Play On Their School Playground i 59 Children's Play Behaviors 64 The favori t e things children do 64 The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect 67 The degree of energy used 68 The Type Of Equipment Children Use On Their School Playground 7 2 GENERAL BEHAVIOR DATA (SEE APPENDIX I) 74 Children's Favorite Spot To Play On Their School Playground 7 6 Children's Play Behaviors 7 9 The Favorite ..Things, Children Do 80 The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect 81 The degree of energy used 81 COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA (.QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW) AND BEHAVIOR DATA (OBSERVATIONS) 8 2 Sex 88 Grade 89 School 89 Sex Within Each Grade 9 0 CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR WHEN ENGAGED • IN FREE PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND IN RELATION TO SEX DIFFERENCES 90 Attitude Data 91 Children's favorite spot to play on t h e i r school playground 91 Children's play behaviors 92 1. The Favorite Things Children Do 94 2. The Degree of Energy Used 9 6 v . TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page Behavior Data 97 Children's favor i t e spot to play on the i r school playground 97 Children's play behaviors 97 1. The Favorite-'^Things. Children-Do 98 2. Degree of Energy Used 9 9 CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR WHEN ENGAGED IN FREE PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND IN RELATION TO GRADE DIFFERENCES 101 Attitude Data 101 Children's favor i t e spot to play on th e i r school playground 102 Children's play behaviors 102 1. The Favorite Things Children Do 104 2. The Degree of Energy Used 106 The type of equipment children used on th e i r school playground 107 Behavior Data 108 Children's favorite spot to play on th e i r school playground 108 Children's play behaviors 109 1. The Favorite''Things Children-Do 110 2. The Degree of Energy Used 110 CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR WHEN ENGAGED IN FREE PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND IN RELATION TO SCHOOL DIFFERENCES I l l Attitude Data 112 Children's play behaviors 112 1. The Favorite Things Children Do 113 The type of equipment children use on their school playground 113 Behavior Data 114 Children's Favorite Spot To Play On Their School Playground 114 Children's Play Behaviors 115 1. The Favorite things Children Do 117 CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR WHEN ENGAGED IN FREE PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND IN RELATION TO SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE.. 118 Attitude Data 119 Children's favor i t e spot to play on t h e i r school playground 119 Children's play behaviors 120 1. The Favorite Things Children Do 12 0 2. The Degree of Energy Used 121 The type of equipment children use on th e i r school playground 123 Behavior Data 123 Children's favor i t e spot to play on t h e i r school playground 123 •'.vi TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page Children's play behaviors 124 1. The Favorite Things Children Do .... 12 6 2. The Degree of Energy Used 127 5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 130 PURPOSE 130 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 130 RESULTS 133 A t t i t u d i n a l Components 133 Children's desire to play 133 Children's reasons for playing 133 Children's favorite time to play on t h e i r school playground 134 Children's favori t e spot to play on t h e i r school playground 134 Children's play behaviors 135 1. The Favorite Things Children Do ... 135 2. The S o c i a l i z a t i o n Aspect 136 3. The Degree of Energy Used 136 The type of equipment children use on th e i r school playground 137 Behavior Categories 137 Children's favorite spot to play on t h e i r school playground 137 Children's play behaviors 138 1. The Favorite Things Children Do ... 138 2. The S o c i a l i z a t i o n Aspect 139 3. The Degree of Energy Used 139 CONCLUSIONS 139 RECOMMENDATIONS 141 LIST OF REFERENCES 143 APPENDICES 150 A. THE TYPE OF PLAYGROUND EQUIPMENT LOCATED ON THE SCHOOLS USED IN THIS STUDY 150 B. QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW'..' 151 C. TABLE 28 - QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW AND OBSERVATION SCHEDULE 156 D. BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUE 157 E. PILOT STUDY 158 F. TABLE 29 - RELIABILITY OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE- INTERVIEW 160 G. DETAILED ANALYSIS FOR THE RELIABILITY OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW 163 H. TABLE 30 - GENERAL RESPONSES FOR QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW TECHNIQUE (ATTITUDE DATA) 165 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page I. TABLE 31 - GENERAL RESPONSES FOR OBSERVATION TECHNIQUE (BEHAVIOR DATA) 174 J. TABLE 32 - COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO SEXUAL DIFFERENCES 17 6 K. TABLE 33 - COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO GRADE DIFFERENCES 178 L. TABLE 34 - COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO SCHOOL DIFFERENCES 182 M. TABLE 35 - COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO SEXUAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE 186 N. TABLE 36 - DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION 190 O. TABLE 37 - SIGNIFICANT SEX DIFFERENCES, TABLE 38- SIGNIFICANT GRADE DIFFERECES, TABLE 39 - SIGNIFICANT SCHOOL DIFFERENCES, AND TABLE 4Q SIGNIFICANT SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE 191 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE 1. COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S DESIRE TO PLAY 49 2. COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S REASONS FOR PLAYING 51 3. COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE TIME TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND 55 4. COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND 57 5. COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS 60 6. COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT CHILDREN USE ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND 6 9 7. COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE . SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA) 75 8. COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA) 77 9. COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA 82 10. SEX DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA) 92 11. SEX DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (ATTITUDE DATA) 93 12. SEX DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA) 97 ix LIST OF TABLES (Continued) Page 13. SEX DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA) 98 14. GRADE DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA) 102 15. GRADE DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (ATTITUDE DATA) 103 16. GRADE DIFFERENCES FOR THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT CHILDREN USE ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA) 107 17. GRADE DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA) 108 18. GRADE DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA) 109 19. SCHOOL DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (ATTITUDE DATA) 113 20. SCHOOL DIFFERENCES FOR THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT CHILDREN USE ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA) 114 21. SCHOOL DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA) 115 22. SCHOOL DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA) 116 23. SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA) 119 24. SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIOR (ATTITUDE DATA) ... 122 25. SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT CHILDREN USE ON THEIR PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA) 123 26. SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR CHILDREN'S ' FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAY- GROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA) 124 x' LIST OF TABLES (Continued) Page 27. SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA) 125 28. QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW AND OBSERVATION SCHEDULE 156 29-. RELIABILITY OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW 160 30. GENERAL RESPONSES FOR QUESTIONNAIRE- INTERVIEW TECHNIQUE (ATTITUDE DATA) 165 31. GENERAL RESPONSES FOR OBSERVATION TECHNIQUE (BEHAVIOR DATA) 174 32. COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO SEXUAL DIFFERENCES 17 6 33. COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO GRADE DIFFERENCES 17 8 34. COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION. TO SCHOOL DIFFERENCES 18 2 35. COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO SEXUAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE 186 36. DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION 190 37. SIGNIFICANT SEXUAL DIFFERENCES 191 38. SIGNIFICANT GRADE DIFFERENCES 191 39. SIGNIFICANT SCHOOL DIFFERENCES 192 40. SIGNIFICANT SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE.. 192 x i LIST OF FIGURES. FIGURE Page 1. CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR DESIRE TO PLAY 50 2. CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR REASONS FOR PLAYING 53 3. CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR FAVORITE TIME TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND 56 4. CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND 5 8 5. CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR PLAY BEHAVIORS 63 6. CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT THEY USE ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND 71 7. CHILDREN'S BEHAVIORS REFLECTING THEIR FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND 7 5 8. CHILDREN'S BEHAVIORS REFLECTING THEIR PLAY BEHAVIORS 7 9 9. THE TYPE OF PLAYGROUND EQUIPMENT LOCATED ON THE SCHOOLS USED IN THIS STUDY 150 x i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS It i s with deepest and most sincere appreciation that I would l i k e to thank Dr. F. Alex Carre, my Thesis Chairman, whose time, contribution and enthusiasm have been invaluable to t h i s research. In addition, the encouragement and assistance given by Dr. A. Best, Dr. R. Mosher and Dean N. Scarfe were greatly appreciated. Also, my thanks are due to Mr. R.W. Taylor, Physical Education Supervisor for the Richmond School Board and a l l of the p r i n c i p a l s , teachers and children of the schools used i n t h i s study for making the data c o l l e c t i o n both possible and thoroughly enjoyable. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION It i s generally agreed that a broader base of know- ledge about play i s e s s e n t i a l i f school playgrounds are to provide children with adequate provision for meaningful experiences i n free play. A better understanding of the necessity for play as an i n t e g r a l part of the growth and development of a c h i l d has yet to be established. Gillander (1971) stated that when studying children, "we must f i r s t understand the true meaning of play i n a young c h i l d ' s l i f e . " p.20) For these reasons t h i s study attempted to provide more knowledge of play by assessing children's attitudes toward play and children's play behaviors and also by finding out more about the experiences which children find most meaning- f u l . General l i t e r a t u r e on play was used to establish a framework of knowledge upon which t h i s study was based. Schools may have a considerable tolerance for children's play but they have not developed the f u l l pot- e n t i a l of play as an e s s e n t i a l means of learning. Some educators are not as aware as they might be of the role of play as a v i t a l a c t i v i t y of childhood (Salvay,1974). Riley (1973) wrote that, "Often play's values must be translated into academic terms to j u s t i f y i t s existence." (p.146) The values of play for i t s own sake are not always understood. The importance of having play taken seriously 1 2 and not ignored or consciously rejected cannot be stressed often enough (Van Anne,1974). Play helps children consider and understand the various alternatives i n l i f e through freedom of action and thought. Sutton-Smith (197 2) c l e a r l y affirmed the need for play i n education with his statement: As the modern world seems to be excessively confusing and complex i n i t s problems and demands, i t would seem that any education system that did not maximize a c h i l d ' s play capacities i s guiding him down a b l i n d a l l e y . Any education system that l e t s a c h i l d go forth with play d e f i c i t s , does not leave him equipped for what l i e s ahead, (p.10) Play i s a major contributor to the educational development of young children (Sutton-Smith,1972). It contains the necessary elements for education and thus should be f a c i l i t a t e d i n the school environment. Due to the obvious concerns expressed by numerous play re- searchers (Hansen and Hansen,1972; Martinello,1973; Salvay,197 4) thi s investigator undertook the task of assessing children's play attitudes and behavior as they related to school playgrounds. Educators must recognize the importance of schools providing the most conducive environment for learning to play and learning through play. Play's function i n s e l f f u l f i l l m e n t and i n bringing meaning, s a t i s f a c t i o n and an opportunity for learning must be re- cognized, otherwise, children w i l l be denied an e s s e n t i a l means of growth and development. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The primary purpose of t h i s investigation was to 3 study children's attitudes toward play and the i r play behavior when engaging i n free play on their school playgrounds. SUBPROBLEMS 1. To determine i f there were sex differences among children i n t h e i r play attitudes and behavior when engaging i n free play on the i r school playgrounds. 2. To determine i f there were grade differences among children i n t h e i r play attitudes and behavior when engaging i n free play on the i r school playgrounds. 3. To determine i f there were systematic school differences among children i n the i r play attitudes and behavior when engaging i n free play on the i r school playgrounds. 4. To determine i f there were sex differences among children within each grade i n th e i r play attitudes and behavior when engaging i n free play on t h e i r school playgrounds. 5. To assess the compatibility of the question- naire-interview technique with the observed behavior technique. DEFINITION OF TERMS Play, for the purposes of t h i s study, was considered to be behaviors which were chosen f r e e l y by the children within the confinements of the school playground during a free play period. Free play i s a non-instructional aspect of the school programme consisting of unstructured, unorganized play situations observed during two half hour free play periods which were held on the school playground. Attitudes are feelings or thoughts of children related to preferences or l i k e s and d i s l i k e s of s p e c i f i c aspects of play. These are exemplified by the following a t t i t u d i n a l components of the questionnaire-interview: 1. Children's desire to play. 2. Children's reasons for playing. 3. Children's favorite time to play on t h e i r school playground. 4. Children's f a v o r i t e spot to play on t h e i r school playground. 5. Children's play behaviors, s p e c i f i c a l l y : a. The f a v o r i t e things children do. b. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect; whether childre n play alone, with children their own age, with children younger than themselves or with children older than themselves. c. The degree of energy used by the children; whether they did a c t i v i t i e s that took a l o t of energy, took some energy or they engaged i n quiet things. 6. The types of equipment children use on t h e i r school playground. 5 These a t t i t u d i n a l components pertained s o l e l y to play on school playgrounds. Behavior i s the s p e c i f i c overt action or conduct evident during free play as seen under the following categories: 1. The children's favor i t e spot to play on t h e i r school playground. 2. The children's play behaviors, s p e c i f i c a l l y : a. The favor i t e things children do. b. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect; whether children play alone or i n groups. c. The degree of energy used by the children; whether they did a c t i v i t i e s that took a l o t of energy, took some energy or they engaged i n quiet things. The equipment area i s that part of the school play- ground containing a phase two adventure playground structure which has a t i r e swing and a s l i d e joined by logs. This structure i s manufactured by Big Toys Inc. (See Appendix A) The blacktop area i s that part of the school play- ground covered with asphalt and most often adjacent to the school. The playing f i e l d i s that part of the school play- ground which i s used for organized f i e l d sports such as f o o t b a l l , baseball and soccer and/or that part of the school playground which i s covered with grass. High energy a c t i v i t i e s are those a c t i v i t i e s such as running, skipping and moving by one's hands on the monkeybars, 6 which require a strenuous amount of movement, speed or strength. Medium energy a c t i v i t i e s are those a c t i v i t i e s which have an inherent capacity for action, however strenuous exertion i s not evident i n the c h i l d ' s actions. Examples of such a c t i v i t i e s are; swinging on a swing, s l i d i n g , playing hopscotch and kicking a b a l l . Low energy a c t i v i t i e s are those a c t i v i t i e s which require very l i t t l e gross motor movement and where fine motor movements predominate. During these a c t i v i t i e s the c h i l d b a s i c a l l y remains i n one location. Examples of such a c t i v i t i e s are; s i t t i n g and watching others, playing marbles, reading and building or making things using small objects or too l s . A small group i s two up to ten children gathered to- gether and interacting with one another either physically or verbally. Favorite for the attitude data, i s what children say i s t h e i r f a v o r i t e while, for the observation data i t i s what children are observed doing most often. CLASSIFICATION CATEGORIES USED IN ORGANIZING THE DATA Categorizing Percentage Agreement for the Majority of Comparisons between Attitude and Behavior Data 1. Outstanding percentage agreement;within 5% or less 2. High percentage agreement; between 6-15% difference 3. Good percentage agreement; between 16-25,% difference 4. Major discrepancy; greater than 25% difference. 7 Comparing Results for a l l S i g n i f i c a n t Attitude and Behavior Differences for the Variables of Sex and Sex within each Grade 1. Moderate preference for; between 20% and 4 0% discrepancy. 2. High preference for; between 40% and 60% discrepancy. 3. Outstanding preference for; between 60% and 100% discrepancy. Rank Order Correlations for Aspects of Comparisons between Attitude and Behavior Data 1. Outstanding c o r r e l a t i o n ; between .9 and 1 2. High co r r e l a t i o n ; between .75 and .9 3. Good cor r e l a t i o n ; between .6 and .75 4. Low corre l a t i o n ; less than .6 5. Major discrepancy; a difference of .4 or greater Percentages Used to Consider the R e l i a b i l i t y of the Questionnaire-Interview 1. Outstanding percentage; 90% to 100% 2. High percentage; 75% to 90% 3. Good percentage; 60% to 7 5% 4. Low percentage; less than 60% ASSUMPTIONS This investigation was based on the assumption that children can express t h e i r interests and attitudes toward play i f the proper language and approach are used (Evans, 1974; Miller,1972), DELIMITATIONS 8 1. The sample population was delimited to grades one, two and three i n the Richmond School d i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia. 2. The children were only observed playing outside. 3. Due to the time factor involved, only two half hour free play sessions per class were f e a s i b l e . 4. During the free play period, only those children playing i n the school playground area under observation were assessed. Children moving from one area to another were not included in an observation. 5. The questionnaire-interview was written for children i n language appropriate to the ages included i n the study. Therefore i t can best be used with children of similar ages. LIMITATIONS 1. The free play sessions were held outside, therefore problems of poor weather affected the times when the observations could take place. The time span between the f i r s t and l a s t observations for thi s study was approxi- mately three months. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Children's play attitudes and behavior are esse n t i a l aspects of th e i r development and should be considered as 9 such (Holme and Massie, 19.70 ; Piaget, 1951; Sutton-Smith, 1971) . Play i s often regarded as i n s i g n i f i c a n t and thus l i t t l e emphasis i s placed upon i t . This study was concerned with developing more awareness of the value of play. The importance of children's play has been recog- nized by many au t h o r i t i e s . Gillander (1971) stated that, "play i s i n fact the learning medium for your children." (p.20) Holme (1970) wrote: The importance of play i n children's physical, i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional development i s now un- disputed; such a c t i v i t i e s as the exploration of a ch i l d ' s environment, being with other children, physical exercise, imaginative games - a c t i v i t i e s which we adults normally c a l l play - are a l l ess e n t i a l to t h i s development, (p.31) Gesell and I l g (1946) also stressed the necessity for play. "Deeply absorbing play seems to be es s e n t i a l for f u l l mental growth." (p.360) The investigator set out to substantiate further the need for a greater awareness of the importance of play i n children's growth and develop- ment. Numerous play researchers have remarked on many of the values inherent i n play. Their comments emphasize the im- portance of play. 1. Children learn best from materials they select and manipulate. (.Ellis , 197 3 ; F r o s t i g , 1967 ; Kephart, 1967) 2. Play helps perfect body s k i l l s . (Caplan and Caplan, 1973; M i l l e r , 1972; Salvay,1974) 3. Play provides the environment and opportunity for children to explore at the i r own pace. (Sutton-Smith,1971; Whitehurst,1971) 4. Play prompts children to ask questions and develop t h e i r cognitive a b i l i t i e s . (Isaacs,1933; Salvay,1974) 5. Play provides the opportunity for children to work i n d i v i d u a l l y and independently thus strengthening i n - dependence, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and s e l f discovery. (Evans, 1974) 6. Play fosters a s p i r i t of cooperation, sharing and teamwork thus children become aware of the needs of others and the necessity for s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Peer groups are important for transmitting games, learning values and attitudes and i n gaining status and recognition. (Isaacs, 1933; Miller,1972; Piaget,1951) 7. Through play childr e n learn to understand t h e i r world better by absorbing facts from t h e i r environments. (Neumann,1974; Riley,1973; Salvay,1974) 8. Play i s one of the primary factors important i n the integration of the c h i l d ' s personality. Without play, certa i n aspects of character and personality development w i l l be hindered. (Evans,1974; Gillander,1971) 9. Play can o f f e r r e l i e f from s t r e s s f u l situations. (Erikson,1963; Hartley,1952; Hawkes and Pease,1962) 10. Play provides the environment for teachers to observe children's learning and s o c i a l behavior under conditions free from adult d i r e c t i o n . (Hansen and Hansen,197 2; Neumann 1974) The many functions play serves i n the l i v e s of children cannot and should not be under estimated. M o f f i t t (.197 2) wrote: Many of the a c t i v i t i e s that are c a l l e d 'play' are d i r e c t l y related to the develop- ment of various kinds of s k i l l s that children need for achieving success i n academic subjects, (p.47) The values inherent i n play are not independent of those in academics or vise versa. To understand children and what i s b e n e f i c i a l to them, one must understand play. The emphasis i n play research i s often limited to interpreting play behaviors from observed data and adult opinions. Two examples of researchers who have done ex- tensive work i n the area of observing behavior and who have interpreted behaviors solely from observed data are; Kunze (1967) and Cohen C1965). Kunze developed a system for observing behavior of children with language disorders and he set up a programme of t r a i n i n g intended to help individuals record and analyse behavioral data s k i l l f u l l y . Cohen devised a detailed system for observing children's behavior i n play. Curtis (1971) stressed the need for teachers to make use of the observational technique to gain greater insight into the children they teach. Children's opinions on interests and choices of play equipment, play a c t i v i t i e s and other aspects of play as seen on school playgrounds should be considered when assessing play and the types of playgrounds best suited for children. Children's behaviors should not be dictated sole by adult opinions (King,1970; Miller,1972). M i l l e r (1972) wrote: Playgrounds should be b u i l t upon children's needs, not adult's needs. Unless children's 12 interests are ascertained and provided for, children w i l l not be motivated to engage in a c t i v i t y . (p.18) Children's ideas can make valuable contributions to a great- er understanding of play and to the development of better playgrounds. CHAPTER II RELATED LITERATURE DEFINITIONS OF PLAY Numerous d e f i n i t i o n s have been written i n an attempt to c l a r i f y the play experience yet questions continue to ar i s e . A number of well-known play researchers have attempted to define the parameters within which play ex- periences can be found. Although the following d e f i n i t i o n s are only a few interpretations of play, they help to bring more depth and c l a r i t y to this study. Huizinga (1949). considered play to be a necessary aspect of each day. Summing up the formal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of play we might c a l l i t a free a c t i v i t y standing quite consciously outside "ordinary" l i f e as being "not serious," but at the same time absorbing the player intensely and u t t e r l y . It i s an a c t i v i t y connected with no material int e r e s t , and no p r o f i t can be gained by i t . It proceeds within i t s own proper boundaries of time and space according to fixed rules and i n an orderly manner. It promotes the formation of s o c i a l groupings which tend to surround themselves with secrecy and to stress t h e i r difference from the common world by d i s - guise or other means, (p.13) Sutton-Smith (.1972) stated that: Play i s what a person does when he can choose the a r b i t r a r i n e s s of the constraints within which he w i l l act or imagine, (p.32) Van Anne (19 74). wrote: In play man opens himself to his being, tests i t , either conquers i t or he doesn't, but i n the process experiences the t h r i l l that comes i n the confrontation and discovery of s e l f . (p.7) 13 14 M o f f i t t (.1972) defined play as follows: Play i s a powerful inner force through which a c h i l d reaches out to interact with his environ- ment involving movement and d i f f e r e n t sensory modes. Play a c t i v i t i e s provide the momentum through which a c h i l d can make a more balanced thrust toward maturation, (p. 45). These d e f i n i t i o n s of play are useful references for t h i s study. Play researchers find i t d i f f i c u l t to agree on one precise d e f i n i t i o n of play because t h i s term i s such an abstract concept. However, by considering various interpretations of play, i t i s readi l y apparent that play i s a basic need of every i n d i v i d u a l (Phinney, 1972; Stone,1970; Walston,1974). For the purposes of th i s study, play was considered to be behaviors which were chosen f r e e l y by the children within the confinements of the school playground during free play periods. IMPORTANCE OF PLAY A l l classrooms, from pre-school through the primary grades could benefit from part of each school day spent on play (Hansen and Hansen,1972; Salvay,1974). Educating through play w i l l help make learning become something that children want to be doing and not an uninteresting task (Hansen and Hansen,1972; Martinello,1973). There i s no reason why education systems cannot use the school play- ground environment as a medium for learning. The environ- ment i n which play occurs i s extremely important thus the school playground as the environment for play at school, should be recognized as an important part of the t o t a l 15 school environment. The aspect of play environment was studied by many play researchers such as; Dattner (1969), Friedberg (1970) and M i l l e r (.1972). Children's world of outdoor play was explored using a camera and tape recorder by Stone (.1970) . The type of equipment, the manner i n which i t was used by the children, and where the chi l d r e n played helped focus on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of play, the types of playgrounds and play as i t related to the community. The results indicated that playgrounds represent the l i f e s t y l e of the surrounding community and that the playgrounds can- not be considered separately from the community. Walston (1974) stressed the benefits of outdoor play and the need for play environments which enhance learning through play. When play i s allowed to be creative and innovative children w i l l learn more r e a d i l y and gain i n t h e i r s o c i a l , emotional, i n t e l l e c t u a l and physical a b i l i t i e s . Children i n Walston's study b u i l t t h e i r own playgrounds. Proper outdoor play provides opportunities for; s e l f - expression, s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , a sense of achievement, various movements and c r e a t i v i t y . Sutton-Smith (1970) recognized that play i s not always self-evident but occurs most often i n areas desig- nated for play. Usually play i s occurring i f there are signs of pleasure, relaxation and excitement. Sutton-Smith (1971) f e l t that before a clear understanding of the meaning of play could be reached, a framework for the descriptive analysis of c h i l d ' s play must be developed. He wrote: 16 I suggest that the d i f f e r e n t forms of play are transformations of the four basic modes by which we know the world - imitation, exploration, testing and construction, (p.68) A c h i l d learns through imitation when he models other people or also models his own behavior under d i f f e r e n t circumstances. Most often a c h i l d w i l l imitate powerful persons i n hi s l i f e such as h i s parents or teachers. Exploration i s also an important means of learning. Sutton-Smith (1971) wrote that., "A c h i l d under- stands his world by analysing how things work, how they came to be the way they are, and what they can do." (p.68) This quotation refers to the form of play c a l l e d exploration. A c h i l d also tests i f his behavior w i l l cause c e r t a i n e f f e c t s . This process of testing continually occurs as a c h i l d develops. Sutton-Smith considered the process of con- struction as a c h i l d learning to understand his world by putting things together i n his own way. Piaget (.1951) also recognized the d i f f i c u l t y i n understanding play and recognizing when i t occurs. He wrote: But the reason for the d i f f i c u l t y l i e s perhaps i n the fact that there has been a tendency to consider play as an isolated function and therefore to seek p a r t i c u l a r solutions to the problem, whereas play i s i n r e a l i t y one of the aspects of any a c t i v i t y , (p.47) He concluded that the provision of a stimulating environment along with int e r a c t i o n with adults i s l i k e l y to r e s u l t i n greater development i n the ch i l d ' s a b i l i t i e s . For Piaget, interactions with the environment come about 17 naturally, modified by the c h i l d ' s innate tendency to practice e x i s t i n g schemata and modify them to meet new situations (accomodation) and to incorporate new objects and experiences into e x i s t i n g schemas (assimilation). RESEARCH STUDIES ON PLAY Researchers have studied children's play through various methodologies. Kretschmer (1972) studied seventy- one hearing impaired and seventy-one normally hearing pre- school children during free play i n a studio resembling a nursery school. There were four general categories of behavior from which the 142 videotapes taken were considered. The analysis was concerned with both a c t i v i t i e s performed and the objects with which the children played. The four categories i n which the behavior was c l a s s i f i e d were: 1. locomotion - any physical movement or positioning of the body, 2. handling - manipulating objects, 3. interaction with s e l f - r e l a t e d to physical contact with oneself as well as any attempt at v o c a l i z a t i o n and, 4. interaction with objects - imaginative play and problem solving or mechanical acts such as investigating objects. Using these observational categories to analyse the videotapes, the behavior of the hearing impaired and normal children was-, compared. Results indicated that hearing impaired children were more active, used a l l sensory modalities, displayed more f e a r f u l be- havior and engaged i n l i t t l e actual play. Roderick (1971) studied nursery-kindergarten children during play. A pupil nonverbal category system was developed as the method of behavior c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . There were three behavior categories; 1. the nonverbal behaviors exhibited, 2. personal int e r a c t i o n and 3. the a b i l i t y to stay with a task for at least f i v e minutes. The r e s u l t s indicated that frequency of behavior varied with age and sex. This study recommended that more than one observer should study a c h i l d and that non-verbal behavior should be recorded separately from decision-making behavior. Hartley (1964) studied children's perceptions of sex roles i n play by having children aged eight and eleven t e l l which play items of fi f t y - s e v e n were for boys and for g i r l s . The results showed that each sex claimed more items for i t s e l f than the other sex associated with i t . Boys tended to be more aware of both sexes roles while g i r l s were more c l e a r l y aware of t h e i r own role than the male r o l e . A similar study was conducted by Conn (1951). Game- preferences and play attitudes of 193 children were col l e c t e d for the purpose of determining children's aware- ness of sex differences. Each c h i l d mentioned a l l of th e i r f a v o r i t e a c t i v i t i e s by checking them off a l i s t and by expressing themselves through play interviews. The resu l t s of this study showed that male and female choices of games are very d i f f e r e n t from one another. In summary, various researchers have found out valuable information from studying children's play. Play i s most often a natural environment for children. If the environment does not become too s u p e r f i c i a l but rather 19 remains relaxed and natural, researchers can use the play experience to gain more knowledge of children's growth and development. SEX STEREOTYPING Children's a c q u i s i t i o n of sex-type behavior begins at infancy. Lewis (1972) strongly suggested that t h i s sex r o l e behavior may be already established by the f i r s t year of l i f e . Smart and Smart (1967) f e l t that the sex-role preferences tended to be s t a b i l i z e d some time between the ages of six and ten. Kohlberg (1966) considered these be- haviors to be s t a b i l i z e d at about f i v e or six years of age. I t was evident from these studies that a c h i l d ' s maleness or femaleness i s established at a very early age. Extensive research has been directed towards t r y i n g to determine the reasons for sexual differences. Since the culture i n which a c h i l d l i v e s constantly reinforces sex type behavior, i t i s d i f f i c u l t and almost impossible to determine the extent to which the c h i l d ' s learning of values and attitudes are influenced by underlying bio- l o g i c a l differences (Hamburg and Lunde, 1973 ;; Hutt and Gibby,1959; Mussen,1974). Children acquire information about the kinds of behavior that are s o c i a l l y approved by the two sexes i n many ways. There i s observational learning from l i v e models such as parents and peers (Kohlberg,1966; Mischel,1968). Through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , with others of the same sex, males and females begin to recognize the variations i n sex-role 20 behavior. They most often i d e n t i f y with the parent of the same sex (Kohlberg,1966). They also learn these be- haviors through reinforcement from the environment. Kohlberg (1966) stated that: At any given point, the c h i l d uses his experiences of his body and his s o c i a l en- vironment to form basic sex-role concepts and values, but at any given point, environ- mental experiences also stimulate restructur- ing of these concepts and values, (p.85) Although there are many differences, males and females exhibit various s i m i l a r i t i e s i n play attitudes and behaviors. Research has shown that young g i r l s ex- hibited a wider range of play preferences; taking i n many so c a l l e d masculine a c t i v i t i e s whereas the boys mainly chose masculine a c t i v i t i e s (Brown,1958; Smart and Smart, (1967). The g i r l s have more freedom of choice for example, g i r l s who climb, play sports with boys and so f o r t h , re- ferred to as tomboys, are s o c i a l l y accepted whereas boys who play with d o l l s and perform other female a c t i v i t i e s are not (Brown,1958; Smart and Smart,1967). Sutton-Smith (1972) found that even at the grade four l e v e l g i r l s :preferred many male a c t i v i t i e s . However, t h i s attitude was gradually changing. Brown (1958) discovered i n his research that males showed stronger preferences for male roles than females did for female roles. He f e l t t h i s was due to s o c i a l implications; there were more soc i o c u l t u r a l ad- vantages to being male. Research has continually shown that there are differences i n st y l e of play between the sexes with the males performing more gross-motor a c t i v i t i e s while females did more fine motor a c t i v i t i e s (Lewis,1972). Both gross and fine motor coordination are necessary for a l l children If s o c i a l pressures are forcing children to mostly perform one of the two , then s o c i a l pressures are also i n h i b i t i n g natural growth and development, of children. Bones and muscles grow according to usage. Hawkes and Pease (1962) made the statement that: Equipment which encourages practice i n both gross and fine body movements should be made available to children. Between the ages of f i v e and eight most children need experience in the use of large muscles, (p.178) They also stressed the importance of fine motor s k i l l s along with Kephart (1967) and F r o s t i g (1967). Educators should recognize the influence sex- role stereotyping can have on children's attitudes toward play and on play behavior. Hawkes and Pease (.19 62) reported that: Sex-role development assumes much im- portance during the elementary school years because of the chil d ' s growing awareness of himself as a person, (p.113) Although there i s beginning to be a greater tendency for somewhat broader, less r i g i d l y defined sex-typed roles and more overlapping between sex-typed behaviors, more of t h i s freedom of choice i s e s s e n t i a l . More freedom of choice may encourage children to partake i n a wider range of play experiences. LITERATURE SUPPORTING RESEARCH TECHNIQUES 22 Research Using Both Techniques When considering l i t e r a t u r e on play, research sub- stantiating the assumption of t h i s study was considered. This study was based on the assumption that children can express t h e i r interests and attitudes toward play i f the proper language and approach are used. The method of data c o l l e c t i o n was very important. In p a r t i c u l a r , questionnaires and d i r e c t methods of ob- serving children were s p e c i f i c a l l y selected. In con- sideration of the work of several play researchers, i t seemed worthwhile to use techniques based on t h e i r work. Evans (1974) used both techniques to gain a deeper under- standing of play. These two techniques accomplished th i s by being adaptable to children and to various play situations, and can be used i n a way that does not i n - h i b i t children's natural attitudes and behavior towards play. Her research gave numerous examples of children's comments to situations occurring in play. According to Evans (1974) : If we take enough time to r e a l l y observe and l i s t e n to children we w i l l begin to under- stand what they are doing, how they are f e e l i n g , and how they are thinking by the ways i n which they play. (p.26 8) M i l l e r (1972) researched creative outdoor play areas through the processes of; 1. extensive observations of children playing in various environments from backalleys to fancy playgrounds and 2. extensive interviews with the children playing. She considered children up to the age of young teenagers and from both sexes. M i l l e r echoed-Evan' s view.... when she wrote: By talking with children and observing th e i r free and spontaneous play a c t i v i t i e s i n the outdoors and elsewhere, adults can gain clues and d i r e c t information about youngsters' inte r e s t s , (p.18) Questionnaire-Interview Literature The interview technique i s valuable i n i t s f l e x i b i l i t y and adaptability to in d i v i d u a l situations, thus making i t e s p e c i a l l y suitable for research with children (Kerlinger,1973). Some of the advocates of the interview approach as a method of gaining information from children are; Conn (1939), King (1973), Sundberg and Tyler (1973) and Yarrow (I960). A l l of these researchers agreed that t h i s technique can be extremely successful i f care i s taken i n formulating the questions to be asked and i n recording the data. Goals must be c l e a r l y estab- lished but there should be enough f l e x i b i l i t y to make revisions to the interview i f necessary. Conn (1951) made valuable use of play interviews to determine children's preferences for games and th e i r attitudes and behaviors on other aspects. He attributed much of his success on the emphasis he placed on treating children as equals and not as i n f e r i o r beings. Children's opinions were respected and valued. Conn (1939) wrote: In the d i f f i c u l t task of c o l l e c t i n g data on s i g n i f i c a n t items of children's attitudes there i s one important consideration that too often i s ; forgotten - namely that the c h i l d himself has something to contribute, (p.68) Yarrow (1960). also f e l t that there must be genuine honesty from the interviewer i n her acceptance and l i k i n g for the c h i l d being interviewed and at the same time maintaining a sense of o b j e c t i v i t y . Ob- j e c t i v i t y can be gained by having the questionnaire completely devised p r i o r to the interview thus each interview i s standardized. This l i m i t s interviewer bias and ensures that each c h i l d interviewed i s given the same questions thus making for responses that are com- parable. How better can researchers understand children's attitudes and values i f not by d i r e c t verbal questioning? Yarrow (1960) stated that, "The interview i s the most frequently chosen approach to children's attitudes and values." (p. 668). The interview also enables meaningful study of a wider range of information pertaining to a ch i l d ' s l i f e than i s possible through the observational technique. Yarrow (1960) was able to make use of t h i s techniqu with very young children. He ci t e d t h i s p o s s i b l i t y i n the following statement. "On the whole, research evidence suggests that the d i r e c t interview can be used e f f e c t i v e l y with four year-olds." (p.564) During interviewing of a l l persons, es p e c i a l l y young children, the interviewer must be certain that the children are clear as:-.:to the purpose of the interview, t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r role i n the interview and the interviewer's r o l e . With th i s c l a r i f i c a t i o n made, the children w i l l most l i k e l y exhibit less apprehension 25 towards the interview s i t u a t i o n and are l i k e l y to enjoy themselves. If children enjoy t h e i r involvement i n the research they w i l l make a valuable contribution to the study through t h e i r d i r e c t , honest and thorough re- sponses . Sundberg and Tyler (1973) r e a l i z e d the necessity for keeping the c h i l d relaxed during the interview. This can be best accomplished by allowing the c h i l d to do most of the ta l k i n g . Although the c h i l d i s encouraged, his responses are not directed or influenced by the bias of the investigator. To gain the most r e l i a b l e and v a l i d data possible, great care must be taken i n es- tab l i s h i n g the purpose for which i t i s done and the methodology of recording the data. The less structured, the less r e l i a b l e and v a l i d interviews are l i k e l y to be (Sundberg and Tyler,1973). The interview technique has many q u a l i t i e s that make its;, i nclusion along with the observational approach necessary i n research on play. Kerlinger (1973) has l i s t e d many of these q u a l i t i e s . 1. Interviews can obtain a great deal of information. 2. They are f l e x i b l e and adaptable to i n - d i v i d u a l situations. 3. The interviewer knows i f the c h i l d does not understand. 4. The interview permits probing into the context of, and reasons for, answers to questions. 5. It i s a psychological measuring instrument. Greatest success w i l l be achieved with the i n t e r - view technique i f the investigator takes care i n avoiding 26 the following potential weaknesses as suggested by Kerlinger (1973): 1. more than one idea to a question 2. ambiguous words and expressions 3. leading questions which threaten the v a l i d i t y 4. demanding knowledge that i s above the c a p a b i l i t i e s and understanding of the c h i l d . If the interview technique i s used i n an appropriate manner, i t can be extremely valuable i n research. Kerlinger (197 3). stated: The success of the interview i n sociology and psychology should encourage educational researchers to master i t s i n t r i c a c i e s and to use i t where i t i s c l e a r l y appropriate, (p.476) Observational Literature It i s possible to gain valuable information i n the understanding of young children by observing and recording play behavior. More research i n children's play has u t i l i z e d the observational approach rather than the interview approach. I t i s b e n e f i c i a l to discuss the work of some of the researchers who have used the ob- servational technique to c l a r i f y the pot e n t i a l uses of such a technique. Observations can be used for a wide range of purposes related to young children. Preiser (1972) studied the e f f e c t of decreased available space on the free play behavior of three and four year olds; Phinney (197 2) set out to determine children's l e v e l of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a b i l i t y by observing spontaneous behavior of children i n - teracting with blocks., at two levels of complexity. The- children were c l a s s i f i e d into two lev e l s of a b i l i t y . The results did not indicate any inte r a c t i o n between a b i l i t y and complexity for t h i s study. Bishop (197 2) used a time lapse movie camera to tes t children's re- sponses to pictures of playgrounds and also to test the responses of playground designers. A comparison of the responses was made. The hypothesis that adult designers are i n s e n s i t i v e to children's preferences was found to be true. Holme CL970) observed how children responded to d i f f e r e n t play environments to determine i f the kinds of playgrounds that children r e a l l y want and w i l l go on using are being b u i l t . In her study Holme found that children play i n varied environments many of which are not designated as play spaces such as back al l e y s and streets. Children respond to the environment i n which they are f a m i l i a r . Observing physical behavior can t e l l researchers a considerable amount of information about children's ways of looking at l i f e : t h e i r s o c i a l , emotional and physical development through play (Brown,1958; Cur t i s , 1971; Hartley,1964; Isaacs,1933; Sutton-Smith,1971; Whitehurst,1971). A variety of instructions on ob- servation and recording techniques were found i n the l i t e r a t u r e on play such as those stated by Kunze (1967). The f i r s t step i n such a t r a i n i n g program i s to help the student di s t i n g u i s h between description of behavioral events and statements of impressions r e s u l t i n g from his observation of behavioral events, (p.474). He also stated that the structure for recording behavioral 28 events be such that i t f a c i l i t a t e s recording behavior while discouraging the recording of impressions. Sug- gestions on d e t a i l s that would be meaningful i n explain- ing behavior were given. Generalizations that can be made through observations and pertain to matters of v i t a l importance to children, w i l l help provide clues to children's thoughts and feelings. Cohen (19 65) wrote: When we come to see children's behavior through the eyes of i t s meaning to them, from the inside out, we s h a l l be well on our way to understanding them. (p.5) If observations are to be b e n e f i c i a l , consideration should be made of the technique used, i t s appropriateness for the problem being considered and the assets and l i m i - tations of the approach. The actual data c o l l e c t i o n should be free from interpretation to prevent bias from the ob- server. Kerlinger (1973) stated that, "The more the burden of interpretation put upon the observer, the greater the v a l i d i t y problem." (p.506) Being objective prevents the data from being d i s t o r t e d . An observational instrument i s more useful i f the r e s u l t i n g data can be summarized quantitatively rather than q u a l i t a t i v e l y (Furst and H i l l , 1971; Kunze,1967; King and Thompson,19 69). One of the most important considerations i n any observation system i s to know c l e a r l y what i s being ob- served since t h i s w i l l d ictate the operational system. Curtis (1971) stressed the v i t a l importance of ob- servations i n studying motor development in children. 29 She stressed focusing on how the c h i l d uses his body; the process of movement, not the product. She f e l t films were b e n e f i c i a l i n developing the s k i l l of ob- servers . Several researchers made valuable contributions in c l a r i f y i n g the c r i t e r i a h e l p f u l for selecting the most useful instrument. 1. The observer must f i r s t decide what he wishes to see (Kerlinger,1973; King and Thompson (1969); Sutton- Smith, 197 0) . 2. The observer must have a clear idea of how he wants to use the data (Cohen,1970; Furst and H i l l , 1971; Sutton-Smith,197 0) 3. The degree of v a l i d i t y depends on how well the instrument r e f l e c t s the theories which generated i t (Furst and Hill,1971; Kerlinger,1973; Kunze,1967). 4. The instrument should be r e l i a b l e such that the same res u l t s occur when the same population i s observed at d i f f e r e n t times and/or by d i f f e r e n t observers (Furst and Hill,1971; Kunze,1967). 5. Observers should i d e n t i f y t h e i r own biases and be cautious that these biases do not hinder the re s u l t s (Curtis,1971; King and Thompson,1969). By being c a r e f u l i n devising a useful instrument in which to observe children at play, the observer can find out what s a t i s f i e s children's needs. The generaliz- ations that can be made on what i s seen happening gives further knowledge into the matters that are of v i t a l 30 importance to young children during play. Curtis (1971) expressed t h i s view i n his well written statement: We must remember that i n our haste, there i s serious danger that we w i l l not stop to r e a l l y look at the small c h i l d - o r , i f we do look, we may f a i l to see him. (p.33) U t i l i z a t i o n and understanding of the observational technique i s valuable and should not be underestimated as a means of learning more about children's play. Considerable l i t e r a t u r e on play was investigated for t h i s study. General l i t e r a t u r e on play provided a basis from which the investigator could j u s t i f y t h i s study. The major emphases of the related l i t e r a t u r e were placed on information dealing with researchers'interpretations of the term play, the importance of play, research studies on play, l i t e r a t u r e on sex stereotyping as evidenced i n children's play and information substantiating the two research techniques used i n thi s study. The l i t e r a t u r e dealing with d e f i n i t i o n s of play, the importance of play and research studies on play made i t clear that research in play i s being undertaken and that i t i s important to continue further research. This l i t e r a t u r e substantiated the i n i t i a l statements made i n this study, that more knowledge about play and a better understanding of the necessity for play are e s s e n t i a l . The information dealing with the questionnaire- interview technique and observation technique substantiated the assumption that children can express t h e i r interests and attitudes towards play i f the proper language and approach are used. Numerous researchers have success f u l l y used these techniques to gain greater insight into children's play. Their various uses of the two techniques supported the approach taken i n t h i s study CHAPTER III METHODS AND PROCEDURES Play researchers have used various approaches to gain further knowledge of children's play. Although re- search on play has more often made use of the observation technique than the questionnaire-interview technique, both have been successful in gaining valuable knowledge of what young people consider important i n play (Ellis,1973; Evans, 1974; Miller,1972; Sutton-Smith,1971). Based on numerous play researchers' success with these two techniques, t h i s study examined play attitudes and behavior through these two relevant sources. ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES Attitude Assessment Using the Questionnaire-Interview Technique A questionnaire-interview was given on a one-to- one basis with each c h i l d . This research instrument was written i n children's language, terms they understand, to secure information related to children's attitudes toward play when engaging i n free play on t h e i r school playgrounds. The questionnaire-interview technique acknowledges the need to involve children. Children can make valuable contributions to the further understanding of play. Behavior Assessment Using the Observation Technique 32 33 The children were observed i n free play on t h e i r school playground. A p i l o t study was undertaken during the summer of 1975 using both techniques to develop basic investigator competencies i n these assessment measures (See Appendix E) . SELECTION OF THE SAMPLE Five elementary schools within the Richmond School D i s t r i c t , Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia were selected, with similar playgrounds as the major c r i t e r i a . Other c r i t e r i a were; sim i l a r socio-economic backgrounds and similar i n - terview rooms. This school d i s t r i c t was chosen since i t s school board was extremely enthusiastic and interested i n the area of children's play. Within each school a grade one, two and three class were randomly selected making a t o t a l of f i v e grade one, f i v e grade two and f i v e grade three classes. The t o t a l number of children interviewed was 354 with 339 of these children observed during free play. Since each c h i l d had to be both observed and i n t e r - viewed, the sample group for t h i s study consisted of 339 subjects. A l l data analysis was based on those 339 children. Classes were selected randomly to reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y of bias. The children were chosen on a class basis to f a c i l i t a t e data c o l l e c t i o n and to cause the lea s t amount of disturbance at the schools. The classes were chosen with the following c r i t e r i a i n mind: 34 1. They were similar i n size. 2. They had similar numbers of males and females. 3. They were able to play on the school play- ground during a free play period. ORGANIZATION OF TIME AND SPACE There were f i v e schools with three classes to be interviewed and observed per school. It took four days per school, therefore a t o t a l of twenty days was needed for data c o l l e c t i o n . Six more days were needed to test the r e l i a b i l i t y of the questionnaire-interview. Weather problems prevented the observations from taking place on consecutive days. See Appendix B for questionnaire-in- terview and Appendix C for observation schedule. Each questionnaire-interview took approximately ten minutes to complete. Thus at least one class of children were interviewed per day. The observations took place during two separate half hour free play sessions per class and generally after the interviewing was com- pleted. The time span between the two techniques for each school varied depending upon the weather. There was a three month time period over which testing took place. METHODOLOGY Attitude Assessment Using the Questionnaire-Interview Technique The questionnaire-interview assessed the following a t t i t u d i n a l components:(See Appendix B for complete Questionnaire). 1. Children's desire to play. (Question 1) 2. Children's reasons for playing. (Questions 2 & 3) 3. Children's f a v o r i t e time to play on t h e i r school playground. (Question 4) 4. Children's favorite spot to play on the i r school playground. (Question 5) 5. Children's play behaviors, s p e c i f i c a l l y ; a. The favorite things children do. (Questions 7 & 8) b. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect; whether children play alone, with children t h e i r own age, with children younger than themselves or with children older than themselves. (Question 6) c. The degree of energy used by the children; whether they did a c t i v i t i e s that took a l o t of energy, took some energy or they engaged in quiet things. (Question 6) 6. The types of equipment children use on t h e i r school playground.(Questions 9 & 10) The following instructions were emphasized by the investigator: 1. The investigator was interested i n deter- ' mining what children l i k e to do on the i r school playground 36 and why i t was l i k e d , 2. There are no r i g h t or wrong answers to the questions - what was desired was the i r own personal opinions. 3. If there were ever any questions the children should f e e l free to ask them. The questionnaire-interview was administered to one class at a time. As one c h i l d was being interviewed another c h i l d sat outside of the interviewing room u n t i l the questionnaire-interview taking place was completed. Then t h i s c h i l d was c a l l e d i n and the c h i l d who had just finished answering the questions returned to the class and sent the next c h i l d . For si m p l i c i t y ' s sake the order of questionnaire-interviews followed the class l i s t . Approximately ten minutes was needed for each c h i l d to complete the questionnaire-interview, however, thi s time varied depending upon the s p e c i f i c c h i l d . Since only two children at a time were involved with the interviewing, there was very l i t t l e disturbance i n the classes. When asking the s p e c i f i c questions, the interviewer used the following techniques: 1. Each question was read aloud and repeated when necessary. The choices, when given, were read slowly. 2. The questionnaire was placed i n front of each c h i l d so that they could read i t with the investigator. This was mainly for the benefit of the older children. 3. The investigator recorded the responses. 37 Behavior Assessment Using the Observation Technique The observations assessed selected aspects of the questionnaire-interview, that i s : (See Appendix D for complete form) 1. The children's favorite spot to play on the i r school playground (See Question 5 of Questionnaire-Interview) 2. The children's play behaviors, s p e c i f i c a l l y ; a. The favorite: things, children do. . (See Questions 7 & 8 of the Questionnaire- Interview) b. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect; whether children play alone or i n groups.(See Question 6 of the Questionnaire-Interview) c. The degree of energy used by the children; whether they did a c t i v i t i e s that took a l o t of energy, took some energy or they engaged i n quiet things (See Question 6 of Questionnaire-Interview) ' The observation categories used corresponded d i r e c t l y with question components from the questionnaire-interview with a s l i g h t modification to the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect. Since only one class at a time was using the playground during the free play condition, the children were b a s i c a l l y of the same age. Therefore, only two observational categories were used: 1. children playing alone and, 2. children playing i n a small group. Observations took place on a class basis with the investigator observing a l l of the sample group on the school playground during two separate half hour sessions of free play per c l a s s . This procedure for observing the children, made i t possible for the i n - vestigator to observe only those children interviewed. Over the half hour period, the investigator observed each of the three play areas: 1. equipment area, 2. blacktop area and, 3. playing f i e l d for ten minutes per area broken down into two separate f i v e minute observational sessions. There was a t o t a l of six complete observations over the half hour period. The order of areas to be observed was randomly selected per class per school using a Table of Random Numbers (Kerlinger,1973). The observations made in respect to the selected components of the questionnaire-interview, were recorded by the investigator for each complete ob- servation. Observations were undertaken by the i n v e s t i - gator at each of the three play areas rather than ob- serving s p e c i f i c children moving from one area to another. METHOD OF ANALYSIS Questionnaire-Interview A l l questions were tabulated and data place on computer cards. The data was analysed as follows: 1. Chi square values were determined for the t o t a l responses to each question. 39 2. Chi square values were determined by the computer programme S t a t i s t i c a l Programme for the Social Sciences, version 5.01 through the computer at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia for each of the following sub-problems. a. To determine i f there are sex differences among children i n t h e i r play attitudes when engaging i n free play on t h e i r school playgrounds. b. To determine i f there are grade differences among children i n t h e i r play attitudes when engaging in free play on t h e i r school playgrounds. c. To determine i f there are school differences among children i n the i r play attitudes when engaging i n free play on t h e i r school playgrounds. d. To determine i f there are sex differences among children within each grade i n th e i r play attitudes when engaging i n free play on t h e i r school playgrounds. Observations A l l observations were recorded on a per class basis. The data was then analysed i n the same manner as the questionnaire-interview. 1. Chi square values were determined for the t o t a l observations to each observation category. 2. Chi square values were determined for each of the following sub-problems. a. To determine i f there are sex differences among children i n t h e i r play behavior when engaging i n 40 free play on the i r school playgrounds, b. To determine i f there are grade differences among children i n t h e i r play behavior when engaging i n free play on t h e i r school playgrounds. c. To determine i f there are school differences among children i n t h e i r play behavior when engaging i n free play on t h e i r school playgrounds. d. To determine i f there are sex differences among children within each grade i n th e i r play behavior when en- gaging i n free play on t h e i r school playgrounds. Questionnaire-Interview R e l i a b i l i t y For the purpose of testing the r e l i a b i l i t y of the questionnaire-interview technique, three classes from two schools were reinterviewed. A sample group of 129 children was used. The questionnaire-interviews were administered i n an i d e n t i c a l manner to the f i r s t set of interviews. Once the data was col l e c t e d , the investigator analyzed each child ' s i n i t i a l responses and the responses of the reinterview session. The questions were considered independently since they were each designed to assess a s p e c i f i c aspect of the ch i l d ' s attitude toward free play on t h e i r school playground. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the questionnaire-interview was determined by c a l c u l a t i n g per- centages of children who gave i d e n t i c a l r e p l i e s to the same questions. Thus the percentages refer to the percentage of agreement between children's i n i t i a l responses and re- interview responses. 41 Comparison Between Attitude Data and Behavior Data The compatibility of the attitude data (question- naire-interview approach) with the behavior data (ob- servations) was determined as follows: 1. The adjusted frequency percentages of the two were compared for the comparison of; a. favorite spot, b. s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and c. degree of energy used. 2. Spearman's c o e f f i c i e n t of rank order corre- l a t i o n was determined for the comparisons of; a. a c t i v i t i e s , and b. kinds of games (Ferguson,1971). The two d i f f e r e n t methods were used since rank order cor- re l a t i o n s are not useful when only a small number of choices are ranked. This was the case for the three com- parisons, favori t e spot, s o c i a l i a t i o n and degree of energy. However, s u f f i c i e n t numbers of choices for the comparisons; a c t i v i t i e s and kinds of games allowed for rank ordering. S t a t i s t i c a l Significance To be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , the data must exhibit a .01 l e v e l of signi f i c a n c e . CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DATA The dependent variables for the investigation were the children's behaviors and attitudes and the independent variables were: sex, grade, school and sex within each grade. Since the variables were considered under the terms of 42 equality or difference, they were nominal variables (Ferguson, 1971). RELIABILITY OF THE EVALUATIVE TECHNIQUES AND THE INVESTIGATOR Questionnaire-Interview The questionnaire.used for t h i s study had been revised numerous times and developed with the help of children. The investigator had used a similar i n s t r u - ment with children i n supervised playgrounds (See Appendix E). The major difference i n emphasis was seen in the type of play environment under consideration. The investigator's assumption that children could respond to a questionnaire-interview was tested during these preliminary sessions and on the basis of face v a l i d i t y appeared successful. Garrett (1958) commented on face v a l i d i t y i n the following quotation: A t e s t i s said to have face v a l i d i t y when i t appears to measure whatever the author had in mind, namely, what he thought he was measuring..... * Face v a l i d i t y i s necessary, too, when we must decide what items are suitable for children and which are acceptable to adults, (p.355) The investigator t r i e d to make the wording of each question as simple as possible and with no ambiguity. Only one thought or idea was suggested i n each question to prevent confusion and misinterpretation by the children. Observations The observational categories used for t h i s study were comparable with selected question components from the questionnaire-interview. The investigator had used similar observational categories with children i n super- vised playgrounds (See Appendix E). The major difference in emphasis was seen i n the type of play environment under consideration. The investigator recorded the p a r t i c u l a r be- haviors dictated by the observational categories. Only selected behaviors were recorded; the investigator did not attempt to observe a l l behaviors. What was recorded was what the investigator saw. No judgments as to attitudes toward play were made. Investigator The investigator had previously used both the questionnaire-interview technique and the observation technique with young children (See Appendix E). Many of the i n i t i a l problems of interviewing as experienced by the investigator and recognized by play researchers have been r e c t i f i e d . One potential problem of interviews as stated by Sundberg and Tyler (1973) was, "The less c l e a r l y they are structured the less r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y they are l i k e l y to have." (p.113) The inves- tigator overcame t h i s problem by standardizing the questions, thus structuring the questionnaire-interview. The questions were completely formulated prior to the interview. The questions used should not have more than one idea per question, should be short, and should not be leading or i t s v a l i d i t y w i l l be threatened (Kerlinger, (1973). The investigator took considerable thought i n choosing the questions and tested them with children. Kerlinger (1973) also stated that another potential shortcoming of the questionnaire-interview technique was the time factor. The maximum length of an i n t e r - view session i n t h i s study was ten minutes. The children did not get bored within this time period. Many of the other i n i t i a l problems of interviewing such as; getting accustomed to ta l k i n g with children, re- l a t i n g to them, helping them f e e l at ease and providing a pleasant interview environment have been worked out with the experience the investigator had during the p i l o t study. Many of the i n i t i a l problems of observing as ex- perienced by the investigator and recognized by play researchers have also been r e c t i f i e d . One potential problem i s that d i r e c t observations can only describe what the c h i l d has said and done. The method i s misused i f one makes any attempt to discover what that behavior means q u a l i t a t i v e l y (Kretschmer;1972). The observational categories for t h i s study sought to d i s - cover what children did; no interpretations as to why they behaved as they did was made. Kretschmer (1972) also wrote that observations can be a lengthy process. The investigator was careful to l i m i t the time period to two separate t h i r t y minute sessions per cl a s s . Roderick (1971) found d i f f i c u l t y i n the ob- servational system when the category for coding move- ment was not e x p l i c i t . The investigator resolved t h i s problem by providing d e f i n i t e categories for observations. Before one can begin data c o l l e c t i o n one must be sure of the behavior categories (Cohen,1963; Kunze,1967) . Many other i n i t i a l problems of observations such as; deter- mining a useful recording method making use of a coding system, randomization of observation sessions for the sample population and generally becoming accustomed to gathering as much information as possible in a limited period were r e c t i f i e d as a r e s u l t of the p i l o t study. CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION The results from the questionnaire-interview data and observational data were analysed with respect to children's attitudes toward play and t h e i r play behavior when engaging i n free play on t h e i r school playgrounds. The children's attitudes were examined by means of the questionnaire-interview and t h e i r behaviors were examined by means of the observations. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the questionnaire-interview was considered f i r s t since the r e l i a b i l i t y proved to be further j u s t i f i c a t i o n for interpretations made on the general attitude r e s u l t s . The general attitude data was considered next with interpretations related to the six a t t i t u d i n a l components. The general behavior data followed the attitude data. The behavior r e s u l t s were analysed i n terms of the behavior categories. Next to be discussed was the comparison between attitude data and behavior data by; sex, grade, school and sex within each grade. Following these general comparisons, children's attitudes and behavior towards play when engaged i n free play on t h e i r school playground with respect to the s p e c i f i c comparisons of sex, grade, school and sex within each grade were discussed. These discussions were further subdivided 46 into attitude and behavior r e s u l t s . 47 TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW (SEE APPENDIX G) The questionnaire-interview was readministered to 12 9 children with r e l a t i v e l y equal numbers from grades one (46), two (38) and three (45). There was a time period of j u st over two months between interviews. The majority of r e l i a b i l i t y percentages were either high or outstanding (see Chapter 1 for percentage i n t e r - pretation) . Children's desire to play showed an outstanding percentage while children's reasons for playing, children's favori t e time to play on t h e i r school playground, children's favorite spot to play on t h e i r school playground, children's play behaviors and the type of equipment children use on th e i r school playground, most often showed a high percentage. (See Appendix F for Table 29) Percentages were given for each question and for the most frequent responses within each question. The percentages for the favorite responses were higher than for the complete questions. Children seemed to be more consistent in t h e i r attitudes for t h e i r preferred choices than for t h e i r less popular choices. The less popular choices caused the percentages on the questions to be lower than for the favorite choices. The t e s t - r e t e s t analysis of the questionnaire- interview technique indicated a majority of high and out- standing r e l i a b i l i t y percentages. Thus i t was considered r e l i a b l e for the purposes of t h i s study. The children i n 4 grades one, two and three were consistent i n t h e i r stated attitudes towards free play on t h e i r school playgrounds. The questionnaire-interview technique was adapted to young children and young children were able to respond to i t . GENERAL ATTITUDE DATA (SEE APPENDIX H). The attitude data referred to the data gathered from the questionnaire-interview. The percentage of children who selected a p a r t i c u l a r choice divided by the t o t a l number of children who responded to the question (otherwise known as the adjusted frequency), was determined Chi square values were also determined for the purpose of deciding i f there were s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n children' attitudes for the following selected a t t i t u d i n a l components 1. Children's desire to play. 2. Children's reasons for playing. 3. Children's favori t e time to play oh .their school playground. 4. Children's favorite spot to play on t h e i r school playground. 5. Children's play behaviors, s p e c i f i c a l l y ; a. The favori t e things children do. b. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect; whether children play alone, with children t h e i r own age, with children younger than themselves or with children older than themselves. c. The degree of energy used by the children; 49 whether they did a c t i v i t i e s that took a l o t of energy, took some energy or they en- gaged i n quiet things. 6. The types of equipment children use on th e i r school playground . Children's Desire To Play Children's desire to play was placed f i r s t on the questionnaire-interview to allow children to respond to this p a r t i c u l a r question without being influenced by the remaining questions. The results for t h i s a t t i t u d i n a l component showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l i n children's preferences. These differences are presented i n Table 1. Figure 1 presents children's responses to the a t t i t u d i n a l component dealing with children's desire to play. TABLE 1 COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S DESIRE TO PLAY Question #1** 0 E O-E . (O-E) 2 (O-E) 2/E Responses Yes 339 169. 5 169.5 28,730.25 169. 5 No 0 169.5 169.5 28,730.25 169. 5 Total 339 x2=339. 0* *p<.01,x2.01 , x = 6. 64 ** Do you l i k e to play? FIGURE 1 50 CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR DESIRE TO PLAY Responses Question #1* Yes No % 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 *Do you l i k e to play? It was evident from Figure 1 that play was important to 100% of the children; they l i k e d to play. These r e s u l t s further substantiated the need for a study of t h i s nature. Children's desire to play, was also evident to many play researchers such as: Riley (1973), Sutton-Smith (1971) and Whitehurst (1971). Children's Reasons For Playing Play must s a t i s f y children's needs i f i t i s to be mean- in g f u l (Flinchum and Hanson,1972; 0'Shea,1925). Haverson(1971) stated that, "We w i l l have to assess the needs, to study the ways, to evaluate the r e s u l t s . " (p.33) It was imperative that children's reasons for playing be considered. Children's speci- f i c behaviors may be more e a s i l y understood i f a better under- standing of th e i r reasons for playing i s achieved. The s t a t i s t i c a l significance of questions dealing with children's reasons for playing are presented i n Table 2. Figure 2 presents each of the questions dealing with children's reasons for playing. TABLE 2 51 COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S REASONS FOR PLAYING a. Question #2B** 0 E O-E (O-E) 2 (O-E) 2/E Responses Happy 96 38.5 57 .5 3306.25 85.88 Pleasant feelings 44 38.5 5.5 30.25 .78 Fun 42 38.5 3.5 12.25 .32 Other 41 38.5 2.5 6.25 .16 Unpleasant feelings 29 38.5 -9.5 90.25 2.34 Good 26 38.5 -12.5 156.25 4.06 Sad 19 38.5 -19.5 380.25 9.88 Dizzy 11 38.5 -27.5 756.25 19 .64 Total N=308 x2=123.06* *p <• 01 , 3 ? . 0-1,7= 18 .48 ** How does i t make you : feel? b. Question #3A** 0 E O-E (O-E) 2 (0-E) 2/E Responses Yes 329 169.5 159.5 25,440.25 150.09 No 10 169.5 -159.5 25,440.25 150.09 Total 339 x2=300.18* *p<.01,x .01,1=18.48 ** Do you l i k e to play on your school playground? TABLE 2 (continued) 52 c. Question #3i** 0 E O-E (O-E) (O-E) /E Ranking Responses Fun things 88 42. 12 46. 12 2 ,127 .05 50 .50 Meet new kids 68 42. 12 26. 12 682 .25 16 .20 Fun 67 42. 12 25. 12 631 .01 14 .98 I f e e l better 46 42. 12 4. 12 16 .97 .40 Provides op- portunities 21 42. 12 -21. 12 446 .05 10 . 59 Do school work better after 18 42. 12 -24. 12 581 .77 13 . 81 Other 11 42. 12 -31. 12 968 .45 22 .99 Like to play hard 8 42. 12 -34. 12 1 ,164 .17 27 .64 Scary feelings 7 -35. 12 1 ,233 .41 29 .28 Healthy 3 -39. 12 1 ,530 .37 36 .33 Total 2 337 2 X = 224 .72 *p< . 01,x Q 1 9=21.67 * * I f yes, why? FIGURE 2 53 CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR REASONS FOR PLAYING Responses a. Question #2B* Happy Pleasant f. Fun Other Unpleasant f. Good Sad Dizzy Responses b. Question #3A** Yes No Responses c. Question #3i*** Fun things Meet new kids Fun I f e e l better Opportunities School work Other Like to play hard Scary feelings Healthy % 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 * How does i t make you feel? ** Do you l i k e to play on your school playground? *** If yes, why? From Figure 2 i t was evident that children repeatedly gave similar choices for t h e i r reasons for playing. When asked i f they had ce r t a i n kinds of feelings when playing on t h e i r school playground, 54.9% of the sample population said yes. Of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group three feelings were most popular; 1. happy (31.2%), 2. pleasant feelings (14.3%) and 3. fun (13.6%). (See 54 Figure 2-a) Table 2-a showed that t h i s aspect of reasons for playing had s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences. Children played because of positive feelings. This further substantiated Whitehurst's (1971) contention that, "Not the least among the meanings of movement for the young c h i l d are sheer enjoyment and sensuous pleasure." (p.35). Of the sample population, 97.1% l i k e d to play on t h e i r school playground. (See Figure 2-b) The re s u l t s for this aspect showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences. (See Table 2-b) These children were given several choices from which they selected t h e i r reasons for playing and then ranked t h e i r f a v o r i t e three reasons. Children's three most popular reasons for playing on t h e i r school playground as l i s t e d i n Figure 2-c were; 1. because there are fun things (26.1%), 2. for the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect (20.2%) and 3. because of the element of fun (19.9%). The children were also asked to state which choices were reasons why they l i k e d playing on t h e i r school playground. Of the population 97.3% stated that there are fun things was one of t h e i r reasons while 97.1% chose the element of fun and 95.6% chose the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect as reasons. (See Appendix H - Table 30) The major reasons for playing were; the fun things, pleasant feelings and the opportunities for s o c i a l i z i n g . 55 Children's Favorite Time To Play on Their School Playground When children's f a v o r i t e time to play on t h e i r school playground was considered, the res u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences. Table 3 presents these differences. Figure 3 presents children's responses to each of the choices of f a v o r i t e time. TABLE 3 COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE TIME TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND Question #4** Responses 0 E O-E (O-E) 2 (O-E) 2/E Lunch 154 56. 33 97. 67 9,539. 43 169. 35 Recess 86 56. 33 30. 33 919. 91 16. 33 After school 48 56. 33 -8. 33 69. 39 1. 23 Weekends 36 56. 33 -20. 33 413. 31 7. 34 Evenings 11 56. 33 -45. 33 2,054 . 81 36. 48 Before school 3 56. 33 -53. 33 2,844. 09 50. 49 Total 338 x = 281.22* *p<.01,x2 .01,5= 15.09 ** When do you play most often on your school playground? 56 FIGURE 3 CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR FAVORITE TIME TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND Responses Question #4* Lunch Recess After school Weekends Evenings Before school % 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 *When do you play most often on your school playground ? Children were asked to choose two favorite times from a l i s t of six choices. It was evident from the res u l t s presented in Figure 3, that children had d e f i n i t e preferences i n the time during which they played on t h e i r school playground. On a percentage basis, lunch hour (45.6%) and recess (25.4%) had much higher preferences than any of the other choices. (See Figure 3). It was evident that the school playgrounds were used most often during school hours. Children's Favorite Spot to Play On Their School Playground The a t t i t u d i n a l component c l a s s i f e d as children's favorite spot to play on t h e i r school playground showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences. These differences were presented in Table 4. Figure 4 presents each of the choices for 57 children's responses r e f l e c t i n g the area of the playground i n which they prefer to play. TABLE 4 COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND a.Question #5A** 0 E O-E (O-E) 2 (0-E) 2/E Responses Yes 278 169.5 108.5 11,772 .25 69. 45 No 61 169.5 -108.5 11,772 . 25 69.45 Total 339 X2 = 138.90* *p<. 01,x2 . m . , = 6.64 **Do you have a favorite spot to play on your school playground? b.Question #5B** 0 E O-E (O-E) 2 (0-E) 2/E Responses Equipment 171 69.5 101.5 10,302. 25 148.23 Playing f i e l d 63 69.5 -6.5 42. 25 .61 Sand 15 69.5 -54. 5 2,970. 25 42. 74 Other 15 69.5 -54. 5 2,970. 25 42.74 Blacktop 14 69.5 -55. 5 3,080. 25 44.32 Total 278 X2 = 278.64* *p<.01,x2 _ 0 1, 4 = 13. 28 * * I f yes, what i s i t ? 58 FIGURE 4 CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND Responses a.Question #5A* Yes No Responses b.Question #5B** Equipment Playing f i e l d Sand Other Blacktop % . 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 *Do you have a favorite spot to play on your school playground? * * I f yes, what i s i t ? When asked i f they had a favorite spot to play on t h e i r school playground, 82.0% of the sample group responded i n the affirmative. The equipment area (61.5%) and the playing f i e l d (22.7%) were the most popular choices. (See Figure 4-b) It cannot be assumed however that given other circumstances children would s t i l l prefer the equipment area. The children's a t t i t u d i n a l preferences for the equipment area i n t h i s study may have been due to the lack of opportunities for participating on the other playground areas. Children's Play Behaviors The a t t i t u d i n a l component c l a s s i f i e d as children play behaviors was sub-divided into; 1. the favorite things children do; 2. the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect and 3. the degree of energy used. The s t a t i s t i c a l s i g - nificance of questions dealing with children's play behaviors are presented i n Table 5. Figure 5 presents the r e s u l t s for each of these subdivisions. 60 TABLE 5 COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS •Question #6A Responses ** 0 E O-E CO-E)2 (0-E) 2/E Own age 185 84. 75 100. 25 10,050. 06 118.58 Older 75 84. 75 -9. 75 95. 06 1.12 Younger 47 84. 75 -37. 75 1,425. 06 16.81 Play alone 32 84. 75 -52. 75 2,782. 56 32.83 Total 2 339 2 X =169.34* *p <01,x .01,3=11-34 **Which of the following choices do you do most often; play alone, play with children your own age, younger than yourself or older than yourself? b.Question #6B** 0 E O-E (O-E) 2 (O-E) 2/E Respones A l o t of energy 159 113 46 2,116.0 18.72 Quiet things 125 113 12 144.0 1.27 Some energy 55 113 -58 3,364.0 29.77 Total 2 339 x2=49.76* *p<.01,x .01,2=9.21 **Which of the following choices do you do most often-' high, medium or low energy a c t i v i t i e s ? TABLE 5 (continued) 61 c.Question #7** 0 E O-E (O-E) (O-E) /E Responses Running 130 30. 82 99. 18 9,836 .67 319. 16 Swinging 51 30. 82 20. 18 407 .23 13. 21 Sl i d i n g 32 30. 82 8. 18 66 .91 2. 17 Climbing 27 30. 82 -3. 82 14 .59 47 Making things 25 30. 82 -5. 82 33 .87 1. 10 Kicking 19 30 . 82 -11. 82 139 .71 4. 53 Skipping 12 30. 82 -18. 82 354 .19 11. 49 Jumping 11 30. 82 -19. 82 392 .83 12. 75 Throwing 10 30. 82 -20. 82 433 .47 14. 06 Other 8 30. 82 -22. 82 520 .75 16. 90 Hopping 7 30. 82 -23. 82 567 .39 18. 41 Total 2 339 X 2 =414. 25 *p<.01,x > 0 1 1 0=23.21 **What things'do you do most often on your school playground? d.Question #7Why** O E O-E (O-E) (O-E) /E Responses Fun 73 44 29 841. 00 19. 11 Other 61 44 17 289. 00 6. 57 Can play games 55 44 11 121. 00 2. 75 It's healthy 53 44 9 81. 00 1. 84 I l i k e i t 25 44 -19 361. 00 8. 20 Be with friends 24 44 -20 400. 0 0 9. 09 Good f a c i l i t i e s 17 44 -27 729. 00 16. 57 Total 2 308 x2=64. 13 *p<.01,x 0 1 6= 16.81 *Why, f o r * f i r s t choice? TABLE 5 (continued) 62 e.Question #'8** 0 E O-E (O-E) 2 (O-E) 2/E Responses Tag 114 56 .5 Games you make up 75 56 .5 Sports 61 56 .5 Make things 51 56 .5 Games on equipment 24 56 .5 Special equip- ment games 14 56 .5 Total 2 339-*p 01,x # 0 1 5= 15.09 **What f a v 6 r i £ e kinds of on your school playground 57. 5 3,306.25 58. 52 18. 5 342.25 6, 06 5. 5 30.25 54 -5. 0 25. 00 • 44 -32. 5 1,056,25 18. 69 -42. 5 1,806.25 31. 97 x2 =116. 16 mes do you do most often FIGURE 5 63 CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR PLAY BEHAVIORS Responses' a. Question #6A* Own age Older Younger Play alone b. Question #6B** A l o t of energy Quiet things Some energy c. Question #7*** Running Swinging S l i d i n g Climbing Making things Kicking Skipping Jumping Throwing Other Hopping d. Question #7Why**** Fun Other Can play games It's healthy I l i k e i t Be with friends Good f a c i l i t i e s e. Question #8***** Tag Games you make up Sports Make things Games on equipment Special equipment 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 64 FIGURE 5 (continued) *Which of the following choices do you do most often; play alone, play with children your own age, younger than yourself or older than yourself? **Which of the following choices do you do most often; 1 high, medium or low energy a c t i v i t i e s ? ***What things do you do most often on your school playground? ****Why, for f i r s t choice? *****What favorite kinds of games do you do most often on your school playground? The favori t e things children do. Children were asked to state f i v e f a v o r i t e a c t i v i t i e s they did most often on th e i r school playground. Only the f i r s t ranking was emphasized for a n a l y t i c a l purposes since the pattern of responses was consistent throughout the other rankings. This aspect showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences. (See Table 5-c) . Running was preferred over a l l of the other a c t i - v i t i e s with 38.3% of the children ranking i t f i r s t of eleven choices. The importance of running for growth and development of control, balance and muscular strength has been expressed by such play researchers as; M o f f i t t (1972) and Smart and Smart (1967). M i l l e r (1972) wrote that, "Children love to move! - most of a l l run." (p.18) Figure 5-c showed that on the basis of percentage, four other a c t i v i t i e s were important to the children. These a c t i v i t i e s i n order of preference were; swinging (15.0%), s l i d i n g (11.5%),climbing (8.0%), and making things (7.4%). The children l i k e d t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r f a v o r i t e a c t i v i t y mainly because i t was either fun (23.7%), the a c t i v i t y could be used i n a game (17.9%) and i t i s healthy to engage i n the a c t i v i t y (17.2%). (See Figure 6-a) The preference for a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y be- cause i t was fun, provided additional support for Gillander contention. Gillander (1971) wrote: Fun to the c h i l d i s not an objective of play, but rather i t s by-product. In a play- ground, i f l i t t l e else i s offered except re- p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s of a l i m i t i n g nature, fun becomes s t e r i l e . But when i t engages the whole c h i l d i n physical and emotional exercises of creative imagination and self-confidence building expression, then fun i s wholesome and meaningful. Cp.21) Children are therefore u n l i k e l y to be attracted to either an a c t i v i t y or piece of equipment i f the enjoyment element i s not present. Many researchers who have studied children a c t i v i t i e s supported the findings of t h i s study. Brown (1958) stated that, running, climbing and jumping are popular a c t i v i t i e s of children and these a c t i v i t i e s are b e n e f i c i a l i n the coordination and e f f i c i e n c y of movement. M i l l e r (1972) expressed her view that children loved to create, manipulate and b u i l d with sand, water and other materials found i n t h e i r 'surroundings. 66 A preference for tag and chasing games (33.6%) was evident from Question #8 which dealt with kinds of games. This aspect showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences.(See Table 5-e) Running i s a major aspect of tag and chasing games and both were ranked f i r s t . This i l l u s t r a t e d children's consistency for behaviors, involving running. Figure 5-e i l l u s t r a t e d that games you or your friends make up (22.1%) and sports (18.0%)were ranked second and t h i r d respectively. Games you make up referred to games that children i n i t i a t e on th e i r own, set up the i r own rules and need no special types of equipment.,Walking and tal k i n g with friends and watching other children playing were examples of t h i s choice. Both games you make up and sports could also involve a con- siderable amount of running, p a r t i c u l a r l y sports, since the sports observed most often were soccer and grass hockey. The fourth favorite game was a c t i v i t i e s where you can bui l d or make d i f f e r e n t things from sand, paper and other materials (15.0%). The results for favorite kinds of games provided additional support for some play researchers' r e s u l t s . Sutton-Smith (.19.7 2) discovered that singing games, make- believe and tagging games pre-dominated i n the play of children up u n t i l the age of nine. In one of his studies he asked 561 f i v e and six year olds to rank order t h e i r game preferences and the res u l t s showed that tag was ranked f i r s t for both males and females. Games which would be 67 c l a s s i f i e d as games you and your friends make up such as house, d o l l s , and farmer i n the d e l l , were also extremely important to the sample population i n Sutton-Smith's study. Smart and Smart (.19 67) stated that, b a l l games, tag, chasing and jumping games are very popular with children. The play environment must present a challenge and allow for expression, c r e a t i v i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y i n play. It i s a r e a l challenge to give children the proper environ- ment. Without equal opportunities for various games and a c t i v i t i e s , children may be r e s t r i c t e d in t h e i r choices of a c t i v i t i e s or games. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect as presented i n Figure 5-a, proved considerably important i n t h i s study and showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences. (See Table 5-a) Children needed the play experience because i t provided an opportunity to be with t h e i r friends and to make new friends. Sutton-Smith (.197 2) supported t h i s view when he wrote: Toward the end of the 19th century psychologists began to stress the great importance of games in a chil d ' s develop- ment, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s o c i a l development, (p.221) When children were asked what they did most often; play alone, play with children your own age, children younger than your- s e l f or children older than yourself, only 9.4% of the sample group stated that they played alone. From Figure 5-a i t can be seen that children preferred to be i n groups, and most often groups of children t h e i r own age (54.6%). This finding 68 supports research by Hutt and Gibby (19 59) and Smart and Smart (1967) which determined that at six to ten years of age, s o c i a l i z a t i o n away from the family becomes important as children become more and more involved with and par- t i c i p a t e i n s o c i a l groups. The degree of energy used. The degree of energy expended was categorized as; things that take a l o t of energy, some energy and quiet s i t t i n g things. The children's preferences for a p a r t i c u l a r degree of energy was i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 5-b. Children l i k e d things that took a l o t of energy (46.9%) most often. Quiet s i t t i n g things and things that take some energy were ranked second and t h i r d respectively. This a t t i t u d i n a l component showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences. (See Table 5-b) Children require opportunities to perform behaviors which require expenditure of energy, p a r t i c u l a r l y a l o t of energy. The Type of Equipment Children Use On Their School Playground This a t t i t u d i n a l component showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g - n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's pre- ferences. The differences were presented in Table 6. Based on t h e i r f i r s t ranking, children did have d e f i n i t e preferences for p a r t i c u l a r types of equipment. The other rankings followed s i m i l a r patterns of r e s u l t s . These preferences were presented i n Figure 6. 69 TABLE 6 COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT CHILDREN USE ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND a.Question #9** Responses 0 E O-E (O-E) 2 (O-E) 2/E Go up and down 59 33. 5 25. 5 650 .25 19.41 Slide on 56 33. 5 22 . 5 506 .25 15.11 Spin around on 47 33. 5 13. 5 182 .25 5.44 Climb 43 33. 5 9 . 5 90 .25 2 . 69 Swing on 41 33. 5 7. 5 56 .25 1.68 Other 2 9. 33. 5 -4. 5 20 .25 .60 Balance on 28 33. 5 -5. 5 30 .25 .90 Build with 23 33. 5 -10. 5 110 .25 3.29 Ro l l on or over 6 33. 5 -27. 5 756 .25 22.57 Crawl on 3 33. 5 -30. 5 930 .25 27.77 Total 335 x =99.46* *p<.01,x . 0 1 , 9 = 21.67 **What things do you use most often on your school playground? Question #9Why** O E 0-E (O-E) 2 (0-m2 Fun 89 33. 11 55 .89 3,123 .69 94 .34 Other 68 33. 11 34 .89 1,217 .31 36 .78 Like i t 36 33. 11 2 . 89 8 .35 .25 I get dizzy 22 33. 11 -11 .11 123 .43 3 .73 It i s vers a t i l e 22 33. 11 -11 .11 123 .43 3 .73 I can go high 18 33. 11 -15 .11 228 .31 6 .90 Can play games 15 33. 11 -18 .11 327 .97 9 .90 It's healthy 14 33. 11 -19 . 11 365 .19 11 . 03 Allows for c r e a t i v i t y 14 33. 11 -19 .11 365 .19 11 .03 Total 298 X 2 =177 .69 *p<.01,x .01,8=20.09 **Why, for f i r s t choice? TABLE 6. (continued). 70 c.Question #10A** O E O-E (O-E) (O-E) /E Responses Yes 209 113 96.00 9,216.00 81.56 No 125 113 12.00 144.00 1.27 Don't know 5 113 -108.00 11,664.00 103.22 Total 339 x 2=186.05* *p <. 01,x 2 t 0 1 f 2= 9.21 **Do you want more things to play on or with i n your school playground? d.Question #10B** 0 E O-E (O-E) (O-E) /E Responses Other 69 36 .33 32. 67 1,067. 33 29 .38 Swing on 68 36 .33 31. 67 1,002. 99 27 . 61 Climb 38 36 . 33 1. 67 2. 79 .08 Manipulate 35 36 .33 -1. 33 1. 77 .05 Slides 33 36 . 33 -3. 33 11. 09 .30 Teeter-totters 25 36 . 33 -11. 33 128. 37 3 .53 Things to ride 25 36 .33 -11. 33 128. 37 3 .53 Merry-go-round 22 36 .33 -14. 33 205. 35 5 . 65 Forts 12 36 .33 -24. 33 591. 95 16 .29 Total 327 X 2 =8 6 . 42 *p<.01,x 2 > 0 1 > 8= 20. 09 * * I f yes, what kinds of things? FIGURE 6 71 CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT THEY USE ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND Responses a. Question #9* Go up and down Slide on Spin around on Climb Swing on Other Balance on Build with R o l l on or over Crawl on b. Ouestion #9Why** Fun Other I l i k e i t r get 'dizzy . It i s v e r s a t i l e I can go high Can play games It's healthy Allows for c r e a t i v i t y c.Question #10A*** Yes No Don't know d.Question #10B**** Other Swing on Climb Manipulate Slides Teeter-totters Things to ride Merry-go-rounds Forts % 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 *What things do you use most often on your school playground? **Why for f i r s t choice? ***Do you want more things to play on or with i n your school playground? * * * * I f yes, what kinds of things? 72 Things to go up and down on (17.6%), things to s l i d e on (16.7%),things to spin around on (14.0%), things to climb (12.8%) and things to swing on (12.2%) were the f i v e f a v o r i t e choices for the question asking children what equipment they used most often on t h e i r school playground. These r e s u l t s were presented i n Figure 6-a. Of the t o t a l population, 87.9% responded when asked why they preferred a s p e c i f i c piece of equipment. The most popular response as seen i n Figure 6-b was because i t was fun (29.9%). It i s esse n t i a l that the equipment provide children with meaningful and enjoyable experiences. Playgrounds should be designed with children's favori t e a c t i v i t i e s i n mind. The re s u l t s showed that children's preferences for things to s l i d e on, things to climb and things to swing on re f l e c t e d three of the f i v e a c t i v i t i e s .i.e. swinging, climbing and s l i d i n g discussed i n the a t t i t u d i n a l component, children's play behaviors. Children wanted equipment which re- flected t h e i r choices OfiactLvities. .Dattner (196 9) stated that, " l e f t alone, children choose environments r i c h i n experience." Equipment should be v e r s a t i l e , imaginative and enjoyable. Dattner (1969) also wrote: Children given the opportunity and the raw materials w i l l design a playground far better than most f a c i l i t i e s designed for them by adults, (p.61) Figure 6-c presents children's responses when asked i f they wanted more things to play on or with i n t h e i r school playground. For t h i s question, 61.7% of the children answered i n the affirmative. Since a moderately 73 high percentage of children were not s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r playground, concern should be expressed as to the relevance of ex i s t i n g school playgrounds. It would have been bene- f i c i a l to have asked children why they wanted more things thus determining i f the playground equipment i s s a t i s f a c t o r y . The children were asked to give two types of things that they would most l i k e to see i n th e i r school playground. This showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences. The s p e c i f i c pre- ferences as presented i n Figure 6-d were; 1. things to swing on (20.8%), 2. things to climb (11.6%), 3. things to manipulate (10.7%) and s l i d e s (10.1%). The s i m i l a r i t y of the choices for t h i s question along with those for a c t i v i t i e s and things used most often, i s very apparent. The most popular choices for each of these questions were comparable. Children stated that they did certa i n a c t i v i t i e s and yet also stated that they wanted more equipment to do these same a c t i v i t i e s . It seems that they want more equipment to ensure that they have a greater chance to perform t h e i r desired a c t i v i t i e s . More equipment would allow for more opportunities to perform certain a c t i - v i t i e s . The types of equipment most popular in t h i s study were; 1. things to go up and down on, 2. things to s l i d e on, 3, things to spin around on, 4. things to swing on and 5. things to climb. Equipment should be chosen c a r e f u l l y and with children's preferences kept i n mind. Otherwise, equip- ment may be b u i l t but not used.or enjoyed because i t does not f u l f i l l the requirements necessary to perform desired behaviors. 74 GENERAL BEHAVIOR DATA (SEE APPENDIX I) The behavior data referred to the data gathered from the observations. The adjusted frequency which i s the percentage of children observed performing each choice divided by the number of children observed for the par- t i c u l a r behavioral category, was determined. The following behavior categories were observed: 1. Children's Favorite Spot to Play On Their School Playground. 2. Children's Play Behaviors. a. The Favorite Things Children Do. b. The S o c i a l i z a t i o n Aspect. c. The Degree of Energy Used. Children's Favorite Spot To Play On Their School Playground Each of the three areas observed on the playgrounds, 1. the equipment area, 2. the playing f i e l d and 3. the black- top area were observed on two separate occasions for a t o t a l of twenty minutes per cl a s s . The behavior data for favorite spot showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's behaviors. Table 7 presents these differences. The re s u l t s for children's favorite spot to play were presented in Figure 7 and they showed evidence of d e f i n i t e preferences for play areas. TABLE 7 75 COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S -.: FAVORITE : SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA) Question #1** 0 E O-E (O-E).2 (O-E) 2/E Responses Equipment 825 457 368 135,424.00 296. 33 Playing f i e l d 346 457 -111 12,321.00 26. 96 Blacktop 2 00 457 -257 66,049.00 144. 00 Total 1371 x2=467. 29* *p<.01,x 2.01, 2=9.21 **Children's 'favorite- spot to play on th e i r school playground. FIGURE 7 CHILDREN'S BEHAVIORS REFLECTING THEIR FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND Responses Question #1* Equipment area Playing f i e l d Blacktop % 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 * Children' s vfavdrlte-spot t o P-*-ay o n t h e i r school playground. 76 The children's favorite area was the equipment area (60.2%). The second area used most often was the playing f i e l d with 25.2%. This behavior category ex- hibited similar results to the comparable a t t i t u d i n a l component. Children's Play Behaviors The behavior category c l a s s i f i e d as children's play behaviors was subdivided into; 1. the favorite things children do, 2. the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect and 3. the degree of energy used. Table 8 presents the subdivisions which showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r - ences at the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Figure 8 presents the results for each of these subdivisions. TABLE 8 77 COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA) a.Question #2ai ** o E O-E (O-E) 2 (O-E) 2/E Responses Running 340 124. 64 215. 36 46,379. 93 372 .11 Swinging 239 124. 64 114. 36 13,078. 21 104 .93 Climbing 215 124. 64 90. 36 8,164. 93 65 . 51 S l i d i n g 183 124. 64 58. 36 3,405. 89 27 .32 Making things 149 124. 64 24. 36 593. 41 4 .76 Other 108 124. 64 -16. 64 276. 89 2 .22 Kicking 39 124. 64 -85. 64 7,334. 21 58 .84 Skipping 29 124. 64 -95. 64 9,147. 01 73 .39 Throwing 26 124. 64 -98. 64 9,729. 85 78 .06 Hopping 24 124. 64-•100. 64 10,128. 41 81 . 26 Jumping 19 124. 64-•105. 64 11,159. 81 89 .54 Total 1371 X 2 =9 57 .94* *p<.01,x . 0 1 , l 0=29. 59 **The a c t i v i t i e s children i prefer to do. b.Question 2 a i i ** 0 E O-E (O-E) 2 (O-E) 2/E Responses Games on equipment 648 228 . 5 419. 5 175,980 .25 770 . 15 Tag 204 228. 5 -24. 5 600 .25 2 .63 Sports 161 228 . 5 -67 . 5 4,556 .25 19 .94 Games you make up 156 228 . 5 -72. 5 5,256 .25 23 .00 Make things 136 228. 5 -92. 5 8,556 .25 37 .44 Special equipment 66 228 . 5 -•162 . 5 26,406 . 25 115 . 56 Total 1371 x 2 *p<.01,x 2 . oi 5 =15.09 **The kinds of games children prefer to do. =968.72* TABLE 8 (continued) 78 Question #2b** 0 Responses E O-E (O-E) 2 (O-E) 2/E 1286 685.5 600.5 360,600.25 526.04 85 685.5 -600.5 360,600.25 526.04 Play i n a group Play alone Total 1371 *p<.01,x 2 . ol , l =6.64 **The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect. d.Question #2c** 0 Responses A l o t of energy 691 457 Quiet things 347 457 Some energy 3 33 457 x =1052.08* 234.00 54,756.00 119.82 -110.00 12,100.00 26.48 -124.00 15,376.00 33.64 E O-E (O-E) 2 (0-E) 2/E Total 1371 *p<.01, x 2 . 01 ,2=9.21 **The degree of energy used. x =179.94* FIGURE 8 79 CHILDREN'S BEHAVIORS REFLECTING THEIR PLAY BEHAVIORS Responses a. Question #2ai*** Running Swinging Climbing S l i d i n g Making things Other Kicking Skipping Throwing Hopping Jumping b. Question #2aii**** Games on equipment Tag Sports Games you make up Make things Special equipment c. Question #2b* Play i n a group ,| Play alone d. Question #2C** A l o t of energy Quiet things Some energy % 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 *The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect. **The degree of energy used. ***The a c t i v i t i e s children do. ****The kinds of games children do. 80 The things children do. Children were observed to de- termine the a c t i v i t i e s they did most often. The res u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's behaviors. (See Table 8-c) Figure 8-c i l l u s t r a t e d children's most frequent choices for kinds of a c t i v i t i e s and showed that running was performed most often over a l l of the other a c t i v i t i e s with 24.8% of the obser- vational r e s u l t s favoring running. Four other a c t i v i t i e s which children did i n order of highest percentage frequency were; swinging (17.4%), climbing (15.7%), s l i d i n g (13.4%) and making things (10.6%). These f i v e a c t i v i t i e s were the same as the top f i v e a c t i v i t i e s for the attitude data. The r e s u l t s for children's most frequent behavior in respect to the aspect of kinds of games were presented i n Figure 8-d. The preferences observed were; 1. the school playground equipment (47.3%) as the choice performed most often, followed by 2. tag and chasing games (14.9%), 3. sports (11.7%) and 4. games you make up (11.4%). The other two choices had lower percentages. The playground equipment was the game performed most often for the observations yet ranked f i f t h for the questionnaire-interview. Children played on the equipment although when given equal oppor- t u n i t i e s to select other games as r e f l e c t e d i n the question- naire-interview they chose something else. It i s dangerous to assume that children's needs are being s a t i s f i e d by the playground equipment because they are seen playing on i t . The fact that the results of the " • 81 observational technique and the questionnaire-interview technique showed a contradiction for kinds of games was evidence enough to give further j u s t i f i c a t i o n to the methodology of thi s study. In order to reduce the possi- b i l i t y of incorrect assumptions being made, both obser- vations and questionnaire-interview should be used when determining children's play attitudes and behavior. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect was considered for the behavioral data. This behavior category exhibited similar results to the comparable a t t i t u d i n a l component. Children were observed as either alone or i n a group. The res u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences. (See Table 8-a) Figure 8-a presents the re s u l t s for the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect as re f l e c t e d by the behavior data. Only 6.2% were observed playing alone. The children were most often seen playing in groups. The degree of energy used. The degree of energy used was categorized i n a similar manner to the attitude data with things that take a l o t of energy, some energy and quiet things as the choices. The re s u l t s for t h i s behavior category were presented i n Figure 8-b. The observational res u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's behaviors. (See Table 8-b) Children were observed expending a l o t of energy (50.4%) most often. Quiet s i t t i n g things and things that take some energy were ranked second and t h i r d respectively. 82 COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA (QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW) AND BEHAVIOR DATA (OBSERVATIONS) The investigator was interested i n comparing the i n - formation gathered during the observational sessions with that from the questionnaire-interviews. The purpose of such a comparison was to assess the compatibility of the question- naire-interview approach with the observed behavior approach. In other words, to determine the relat i o n s h i p between what children as a group were actually observed doing and what they said they did. The re s u l t s from the comparison between the attitude data and behavior data were presented i n Table 9. Table 9 was subdivided into the f i v e following comparisons; 1. favorite spot, 2. s o c i a l i z a t i o n , 3. degree of energy, 4. a c t i v i t i e s and 5. kinds of games. TABLE 9 COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA CLASSIFI- CHOICES OBSERVATION INTERVIEW % DIFFERENCE CATION RESULTS RESULTS a.Area equipment area 60.2% 61. 5% 1.3% *a playing f i e l d area 25.2% 22.7% 2.5% blacktop area 14. 6% 5.0% 9.6% N =1371 N=278 TABLE 9 (continued) 83 CLASSIFI- CHOICES OBSERVATION INTERVIEW % DIFFERENCE CATION RESULTS RESULTS b . S o c i a l i - play i n a zation group 93.8% 90. 6% 3 # 2 % play alone 6.2% 9.4% 3*2% N=1371 N=339 c.Degree a l o t of of energy 50.4% 46.9% 3.5% Energy quiet things 25.3% 36. 9% 11.6% some energy 24.3% 16.2% 8.1% N=1371 N=339 *a - for the interview r e s u l t s , 10.8% chose the 'other' category. CLASSIFI- CHOICES OBSERVATION INTERVIEW D D 2 CATION RESULTS RESULTS Running 1st 1st 0 0 Jumping 11th 8th 3 9 Throwing 9th 9th 0 0 Kicking 7th 6th 1 1 Climbing 3rd 4th -1 1 Hopping 10th 11th -1 1 Skipping 8th 7th 1 1 Making things 5th 5th 0 0 S l i d i n g 4th 3rd 1 1 Swinging 2nd 2nd 0 0 Other 6th 10th -4 16 Total 1371 339 8D2= 30 P = TABLE 9 (continued) 84 CLASSIFI- CHOICES OBSERVATION INTERVIEW D D CATION RESULTS RESULTS Kinds of Sports 3rd 3rd 0 0 Games Tag Games you 2nd 1st 1 1 make up 4th 2nd 2 4 Special equipment 6th 6th 0 0 Games on equipment 1st 5th -4 16 Make things 5th 4th 1 1 Total 1371 339 P = 22 Percentage differences between the percentage adjusted frequencies of both techniques were determined for the comparisons of; 1. children's favor i t e spot to play on th e i r school playground, 2. the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect and 3. the degree of energy used. Rank order correlations were used for the comparisons of a c t i v i t i e s and kinds of games. It was extremely valuable to make comparisons be- tween the two techniques since a high compatibility would seem to i n f e r that both techniques were measuring the same thing. The re s u l t s for the majority of comparisons v e r i f i e d t h i s inference. (See Table 9) Although the major emphasis for t h i s assessment was placed upon the compatibility of general responses, further consideration was also made within the following categories; 1. the compatibility of observation and questionnaire-interview r e s u l t s for the variable sex 2. the compatibility of observation and questionnaire-interview r e s u l t s f o r the variable grade 3. the compatibility of observation and questionnaire-interview results for the variable school 4. the compatibility of observation and questionnaire-interview results for the variable sex within each grade. The r e s u l t s of these two techniques for 1. favorite spot, 2. the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect, and 3. the degree of energy used, had either high or outstanding percentage agreements. Table 9-a presents the obser- vation and questionnaire-interview r e s u l t s for the equipment area as (60.2%) and (61.5%) respectively, the playing f i e l d (25.2%) and (22.7%), and the blacktop (14.6%) and (5.0%) respectively. Table 9-b presents the resu l t s for the s o c i a l i z a t i o n comparison. The res u l t s showed that 90.6% of the children stated that they played in groups and 93.8% were actually observed playing i n groups. The findings for the degree of energy used com- parison, revealed the close relationship for each of the three degrees of energy. These findings were presented i n Table 9-c. A l o t of energy, the favorit e choice, had an 86 outstanding percentage agreement of 3.5%, and quiet s i t t i n g things (11.6%) and things that take some energy (8.1%) had high percentage agreements. The f i n a l comparison, the things children do de- termined compatibility of the two techniques by means of rank order co r r e l a t i o n s . The p a r t i c u l a r choices of a c t i v i t i e s and kinds of games ranked during the questionnaire- interviews as being done most often were compared with the rankings of numbers observed performing these p a r t i c u l a r behaviors. A rank order c o r r e l a t i o n of .8 64 was obtained for the comparison of a c t i v i t i e s . The a c t i v i t i e s children said they preferred to do were actually what they were seen doing. The attitudes and behaviors with respect to a c t i v i t i e s were compatible. The findings showed that the f i v e most popular a c t i v i t i e s were i d e n t i c a l for both techniques, i . e . 1. running, 2. swinging, 3. climbing, 4. s l i d i n g and 5. making things. The r e s u l t s of t h i s comparison also r e f l e c t e d the compatibility of the two approaches. A rank order c o r r e l a t i o n of .372 was established for the comparison of kinds of games. This low c o r r e l a t i o n was largely the r e s u l t of the discrepancy for the choice of a c t i v i t i e s you do on the school playground equipment. Children were observed playing games on the school play- ground equipment more than any of the other game choices where as they only ranked t h i s choice f i f t h on the questionnaire-interview. Thus children's behaviors and attitudes d i f f e r e d on t h e i r choices of kinds of games with the major difference occurring for the choice of playground equipment. This low co r r e l a t i o n for kinds of games was ex- tremely d i f f i c u l t to explain. It was hard to understand why children's attitudes for kinds of games contradicted with t h e i r behaviors yet there was consistency for a l l other comparisons. This low c o r r e l a t i o n can p a r t i a l l y be explained as r e s u l t i n g from a weakness i n the comparison. The investigator c l a s s i f i e d the children's behaviors into six types of games. During the interviewing the children stated t h e i r preferences. The comparison may have resulted in a low co r r e l a t i o n due to a difference i n interpretations of these games. The children may have c l a s s i f i e d behaviors d i f f e r e n t l y than the investigator. If t h i s i s true, then the investigator recorded behaviors as certain games where in f a c t they may have been other games from the children's point of view. For example, the investigator c l a s s i f i e d children moving up and down on the equipment as games on the school playground equipment where i n fact, the children may have considered i t tag and chasing games or games you or your friends make up. Thus the comparison breaks down. It has become evident from t h i s discrepancy that extreme care must be taken i n making the comparisons for the questionnaire-interview and observation techniques as similar as possible. Comparisons of these two techniques can successfully be made i f i t i s remembered that although both techniques are using the same categories to c l a s s i f y 88 data, they s t i l l measure d i f f e r e n t things. The questionnaire- interview measures attitudes while the observations measure behaviors. The techniques should be taken into account both i n d i v i d u a l l y and j o i n t l y for t h i s p a r t i c u l a r comparison. The compatibility of these two techniques should not be rejected only on the basis of the inconsistency for kinds of games since a l l other comparisons were compatible. These two techniques can be successfully used together, although i t seems from the discrepancy for kinds of games that an attempt must be made to l i m i t misinterpretations. When reconsidering the choices for a c t i v i t i e s , the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect and the degree of energy used, there seemed to be l i t t l e opportunity for confusion whereas the choice of kinds of games showed d e f i n i t e evidence of misinterpretation. For t h i s question, a s p e c i f i c behavior could possibly be c l a s s i f i e d under more than one type of game. The observation and questionnaire-interview approaches were compatible for comparisons based on general responses. The categories of comparison with respect to sex, grade, school and sex within each grade were also con- sidered to determine i f there were differences for these p a r t i c u l a r variables. Sex The majority of comparisons exhibited either a high or outstanding percentage agreement. These r e s u l t s were comparable to those from the general responses. (See Appendix 89 J for Table 32). The males and females were equally con- sis t e n t with t h e i r attitudes and behavior for the f i v e comparisons. Sex d i f f e r e n t i a l s were i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Grade The majority of comparisons for the variable grade exhibited either a high or outstanding percentage agreement. These r e s u l t s were also comparable to those from the general responses. (See Appendix K for Table 33) Each grade was equally consistent with t h e i r attitudes and behavior for the f i v e comparisons. There was a tendency for more consistency between behavior and attitudes for the degree of energy comparison as the grades increased. However, no major discrepancy between grades occurred. When a c t i v i t i e s were considered, the rank order correlations for the grade two and grade three children, .816 and .7 66 respectively, were higher than for the grade one children (.666). (See Appendix K for Table 33) It seemed that the older children were most consistent i n the i r behaviors and attitudes for a c t i v i t i e s although no major discrepancies occurred. Grade d i f f e r e n t i a l s were also i n s i g n i f i c a n t . School The majority of comparisons for the variable school exhibited either a high or outstanding percentage agreement. These r e s u l t s were also comparable to those from the general responses. (See Appendix L for Table 34) There were not any schools which tended to either be consistently higher or 90 lower on percentage agreements. There were some d i s - crepancies between schools on p a r t i c u l a r comparisons, but these discrepancies were not major nor were they consistent throughout the comparisons. Again, no s i g n i f i c a n t differences were evident. Sex Within Each Grade The majority of comparisons for the variable sex within each grade were also either high or outstanding i n thei r percentage agreements. These results were also com- parable to those from the general responses. (See Appendix M for Table 35) Generally,the f i v e comparisons were equally consistent, although a few minor discrepancies occurred. Percentage agreements tended to increase with increase i n grade when degree of energy was examined. Males within each of the three grades tended to be more consistent than the females i n t h e i r attitudes and behaviors for a c t i v i t i e s and kinds of games. Again, no s i g n i f i c a n t differences were evident. CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR WHEN ENGAGED IN FREE PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND IN RELATION TO SEX DIFFERENCES Children's attitudes and behaviors were considered to determine i f there were differences i n the area of free play on school playgrounds when considering the variable of sex. The investigator hoped to determine i f children's attitudes toward play and/or t h e i r behavior i n play were affected by the sex of the c h i l d . Only those questions which exhibited s i g n i f i c a n t differences were considered. 91 There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between sexes for the a t t i t u d i n a l components, children's desire to play, children's reasons for playing, children's favorite time to play on t h e i r school playground, the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect and the type of equipment children used on t h e i r school playground. A l l behavior categories except for s o c i a l i z a t i o n showed s i g n i f i c a n t differences. Sex differences were evident, although many com- parisons were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . These re- sults seem to further substantiate Hawkes and Pease's (1962) statement that, "Sex differences i n play begin to appear with some consistency among six and seven year olds." (p.88) This study attempted to determine sex differences related to play. Attitude Data Children's f a v o r i t e spot to play on the i r school playground. Table 10 presents the differences between sexes for the a t t i t u d i n a l component c l a s s i f i e d as children's f a v o r i t e spot. It was evident from Table 10 that there was a d e f i n i t e difference i n children's preference for favorite spot when sex was considered. 92 TABLE 10 SEX DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA) Question # 5B N for Male Female Difference Responses Blacktop 14 35.7% 64.3% 28.6% Playing f i e l d 63 73.0% 27 .0% 46.0% Sand 15 26.7% 73.3% 46.6% The t o t a l number of females =135 and males = 143 for t h i s question. This component showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l i n children's preferences. (See Appendix 0 for Table 36) The differences occurred for the choices of blacktop, playing f i e l d and sand. The males had a high preference for the playing f i e l d while the females had a moderate preference for the blacktop. Few children selected sand as an other choice but of those who did, the females exhibited a higher preference for i t over the males. Children's play behaviors. The a t t i t u d i n a l component c l a s s i f i e d as children's play behaviors showed s i g - nificant sex differences for the favorite things children do and the degree of energy used. TABLE 11 93 SEX DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (ATTITUDE DATA) a. Question #6B N for Male Female Difference Responses Responses A l o t of energy 159 66.0% 34.0% 32.2% Some energy 55 3 8*2% 61.8% 23.6% Quiet things 125 34.4% 65.6% 31.2% The t o t a l number of females = 17 0 and males = 169 for t h i s question. b. Question #7 N for Male Female Difference Responses Responses Throwing 10 60.0% 40.0% 20.0% Kicking 19 100.0% 0.0% 100.0% Hopping 7 0.0% 100.0% 100.0% Skipping 12 0.0% 100.0% 100.0% Making things 25 32.0% 68.0% 36.0% The t o t a l number of females = 170 and males = 169 for t h i s question. c. Question #7Why • N for Male Female Difference Responses Responses Fun 73 34.2% 65.8% 31.6% Can play games 55 78.2% 21.8% 56.4% The t o t a l number of females = 152 and males = 156 for t h i s question. d. Question #8 N for Male Female Difference Responses Responses Sports 61 86.9% 13 .1% 73.8% Made up games 75 32.0% 68.0% 36.0% Special equipment 14 7.1% 92.9% 85.8% Make things 51 39.2% 60 . 8% 21.6% The t o t a l number of females = 17 0 and males = 169 for t h i s question. 94 1. The Favorite Things Children Do Differences between males and females for s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s were recorded i n Table 11-a. Favorite things showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l i n children's preferences. (See Appendix 0 for Table 36) Both sexes showed d e f i n i t e preferences for p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . The males had an outstanding preference for kicking and a moderate preference for climbing and throwing and catching. On the other hand, the females exhibited an outstanding preference for hopping and skipping, and a high preference for making things. The remaining a c t i v i t i e s showed similar preferences by both sexes. Males and females d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r reasons why they chose t h e i r f a v o r i t e a c t i v i t y . This showed s t a t i s - t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences. (See Appendix 0 for Table 36) The females chose the aspect of fun more often, while the males chose the a c t i v i t y because they could use i t i n a game. (See Table 11-b) Smart and Smart (19 67) achieved some int e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s from t h e i r research which support the findings of the present study for the things children prefer to do. They asked eight and eleven year olds to determine i f c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s were for boys or g i r l s or both. Approximately 80% of the females and 90% of the males said that climbing trees and playing with b a l l s and a bat were male a c t i v i t i e s . 95 The males and females had d e f i n i t e preferences in t h e i r choices of kinds of games. The males had an outstanding preference for sports while the females had a high preference for special equipment games. Numerous researchers also discovered that males preferred sports. Rosenberg and Sutton-Smith (1963) wrote: Games and sports are p o s i t i v e l y associated with the male sex r o l e , but negatively associated with the female sex r o l e . (p.124) In other research, Sutton-Smith (1972) presented 2,689 children with a check l i s t of 181 items and they were asked to mark t h e i r preferences. Sports, tag and games you make up were most popular with the males while tag and games you make up were most popular with the females. These re s u l t s agreed with those found i n the present study. There was a high' consistency between the re s u l t s for kinds of games and degree of energy. Sports which most often require a high degree of energy, and the choice of things that take a l o t of energy were of more intere s t to the males. Special equipment games, made up games and games where you b u i l d and make things, along with a c t i v i t i e s such as hopping and jumping were more popular with the fe- males. These a c t i v i t i e s most often require some energy but not a l o t of energy. Conn (1951) wrote: Terman concluded that the average boy prefers more active games requiring greater strength, muscular dexterity, and elaborate, fixed rules of play, while the average g i r l ' s a c t i v i t i e s are of a semi-sedentary nature involving small groups, (p. 98) 96 The r e s u l t s of t h i s study lend further support to Conn's statement. 2. The Degree of Energy Used Table 11 showed the degree of energy to be another a t t i t u d i n a l component where males and females d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r responses. The r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g - n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences. (See Appendix 0 for Table 36) The females exhibited a moderate preference for quiet things and things that take some energy while the males exhibited a moderate preference for things that take a l o t of energy. In re- spect to his research on sexual d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , Elkind (1971) wrote: Sex differences are seen most r e a d i l y i n play a c t i v i t i e s . In general,boys tend to en- gage i n vigorous active play and highly or- ganized games that require muscular dexterity and s k i l l and involve competition between teams. G i r l s i n contrast, tend to p a r t i c i p a t e i n more sedentary a c t i v i t i e s , (p. 15) Conn (1951). asked children for t h e i r f a v o r i t e a c t i v i t i e s and sports, for those of the opposite sex and why they made th e i r p a r t i c u l a r selections. Results from his study indicated that the children f e l t that g i r l s do not play as strenuously or work as hard as boys. The major reasons for t h i s assumption as r e f l e c t e d i n the children's responses were as follows; 1. g i r l s are more timid and a f r a i d of being hurt, and 2. just because that's the way things are - boys were boys and g i r l s were g i r l s and each sex just had d i f f e r e n t preferences. Flinchum and Hanson (1972) stated that, "there 97 i s evidence that c u l t u r a l focus on sex roles makes boys seek active and g i r l s passive a c t i v i t i e s . " (p.19) Behavior Data Children's favorite spot to play on t h e i r school playground, Table 12 presents the differences observed for the areas on which males and females were seen playing. TABLE 12 SEX DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA) Question #1 N for Males Females Difference Responses Responses Blacktop area 200 38.0% 62.0% 24.0% Playing f i e l d 346 73.1% 26.9% 46.2% The t o t a l number of females = 663 and males = 7 08 for th i s question. The r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's behaviors. (See Appendix 0 for Table 36) The differences occurred for the choices of blacktop and playing f i e l d . Consistent with the attitude data, the behavioral data showed that the males had a high preference for the playing f i e l d while the females had a moderate preference for the blacktop. Children's play behaviors. The behavior category c l a s s i f i e d as children's play behaviors showed s i g n i f i c a n t sex 98 differences for the things children do and the degree of energy used. TABLE 13 SEX DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA) a •Question #2ai N for Male Female Difference Responses Responses Running 34 0 71.2% 28 .8 % 42.4% Jumping 19 31.6% 68.4% 36.8% Throwing 26 38.5% 61.5% 23 .0% Kicking 39 97.4% 2.6% 94.8% Hopping 2 4 0.0% 100.0% 100.0% Skipping 29 6.9% 93.1% 86.2% The t o t a l number of females = 663 , and males = 708 for t h i s question. b .Question #2aii N for Male Female Difference Responses Responses Sports 161 100.0% 0.0% 100.0% Made up games 156 27 . 6% 72.4% 44.7% Special equipment 66 3.1.8% 68.2% 36.4% The t o t a l number females = 663 and males = 708 for t h i s question. c .Question #2c N for Male Female Difference Responses Responses A l o t of energy 691 63.4% 36.6% 26.8% Quiet things 347 36.9% 63.1% 26.2% The t o t a l number of females = 6 63 and males = 708 for t h i s question. 1. The Favorite Things Children Do It was evident from observing male and female be- havior that they had s p e c i f i c preferences for d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . These differences were presented i n Table 13-a. These results showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's behaviors. The males had 99 an outstanding preference for kicking, a high preference for running and a moderate preference for throwing and catching. On the other hand, the females exhibited an outstanding preference for hopping and skipping and a moderate preference for jumping. The remaining a c t i v i t i e s did not show at least a moderate preference by either sex. These re s u l t s were similar to the attitude r e s u l t s . The males and females also showed d e f i n i t e pre- ferences i n t h e i r choices of kinds of games. The males had an outstanding preference for sports while the females had a high preference for made up games and a moderate preference for sp e c i a l equipment games. (See Table 13-b). These r e s u l t s were comparable with the attitude r e s u l t s . 2. Degree of Energy Used. Table 13-c presents the observational data for degree of energy used and i t showed that males and females had d i f f e r e n t preferences for the degree of energy used. The r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's behaviors.(See Appendix O for Table 36) The males exhibited a moderate preference for things that take a l o t of energy while the females exhibited a moderate preference for quiet things. Again, these re s u l t s were compatible with the re s u l t s from the attitude data. The r e s u l t s from t h i s study showed differences i n the males'and females'choices for the a t t i t u d i n a l components; 1. children's favori t e spot, 2. children's play behaviors 100 and the behavior categories, 3. children's f a v o r i t e spot to play and 4. children's play behaviors. However, there were numerous s i m i l a r i t i e s between sexes which could be due to the fact that i t i s not u n t i l the t h i r d or fourth grades that many sex differences begin to appear (Sutton- Smith,1972). As children learn to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the so-called sex r o l e s , they begin to prefer behaviors that are accepted as appropriate for t h e i r own sex. Another reason for r e l a t i v e s i m i l a r i t i e s on some of t h e i r choices i s due to the fact that g i r l s ' interests are more indecisive than males and females become sex oriented after eight years of age. Males show t h e i r awareness of sex stereotyping at an e a r l i e r age (Hutt and Gibby,1959). The r e s u l t s for t h i s study were similar to those found i n the research of numerous play researchers such as: Hawkes and Pease (1962), Smart and Smart (1967), Rosenberg and Sutton-Smith (1963), Conn (1951) and others. Males and females do show d i f f e r e n t preferences i n play. As previously stated, these researchers f e l t that s o c i a l pressures have a strong influence i n determining children's attitudes and behavior i n play. This investigator set out i n one of the subproblems to determine i f there were sex differences among children i n t h e i r play attitudes and behavior. Differences were evident and should not be overlooked or considered i n s i g n i f i c a n t . However, along with recognizing the sex differences in play, i t i s also important to understand why these differences occur and i f these differences should be en- couraged. The investigator contends that playgrounds must provide equal play opportunities for both sexes and yet encourage children of both sexes to parti c i p a t e i n what are considered to be play behaviors of the opposite sex. A wide range of play a c t i v i t i e s i s b e n e f i c i a l for children. CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR WHEN ENGAGED IN FREE PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND IN RELATION TO GRADE DIFFERENCES Children's attitudes and behaviors were considered to determine i f there were grade differences i n free play on school playgrounds. The investigator attempted to determine i f children's play behaviors and/or t h e i r a t t i t - udes toward play varied depending upon the grade. Only those questions which exhibited s i g n i f i c a n t differences were considered. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences among grades for the following a t t i t u d i n a l components; 1. children's desire to play, 2. children's reasons for playing, 3. children's f a v o r i t e time to play on t h e i r school playground and 4. the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect. A l l behavior categories showed s i g n i f i c a n t differences except for the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect. When discrepancies among grades one, two and three were evident, they most often showed patterns of increasing or decreasing preference with increase i n grade. This suggests that c e r t a i n a t t i - tudes and behaviors change as children increase i n age. Attitude Data Table 14 presents only those choices for fa v o r i t e spot that show at. least a moderate preference. 102 TABLE 14 GRADE DIFFERENCE FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA) Question $5B N for Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Responses Responses Playing f i e l d 14 50.0% 7.1% 42.9% Blacktop area 63 17.5% 36.5% 46.0% Sand 15 60.0% 20.0% 20.0% The t o t a l number of children responding to t h i s question from gradel=9.4, grade 2=8 8 and grade 3=9 6 Children's f a v o r i t e spot to play on t h e i r school playground. There was a d e f i n i t e difference i n children's preference for favorit e spot when grade was considered. This component showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences (See Appendix O for Table 37). The popularity of the blacktop area increased with increase i n grades. The playing f i e l d also showed a difference for grades with grades one and three c l o s e l y agreeing but with the grade twos having much less in t e r e s t i n t h i s area. Sand was not one of the choices given on the questionnaire-interview,' but i t was mentioned by a few of the children as an other choice. The grade one children mentioned sand more often than the grade twos and threes. The equipment area which was most popular, showed con- sistency of r e s u l t s for a l l grades. Children's play behaviors. The a t t i t u d i n a l component 103 c l a s s i f i e d as children's play behaviors showed s i g n i f i c a n t grade differences for the favorite things children do and the degree of energy used. These re s u l t s are presented i n Table 15. TABLE 15 GRADE DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (ATTITUDE DATA) Question #7 Responses N for Responses Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Jumping 11 54.5% 27 .3% 18.2% Throwing 10 0.0% 30.0% 70.0% Kicking 19 21.1% 36.8% 42.1% Running 130 25.4% 35.4% 39.2% Climbing 27 14.8% 33. 3% 51.9% Hopping 7 0.0% 28 .6% 71.4% Skipping , 12 16. 7% 66.7% 16.7% Making things 25 44.0% 28.0% 28.0% S l i d i n g 39 46.2% 33.3% 20.5% Swinging 51 47.1% 27.5% 25.5% The t o t a l number of children responding to t h i s question from grade 1=10 8, grade 2=114 and grade 3=117. Question #7Why N for Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade Responses Responses Fun 73 49.3% 27.4% 23.3% Like i t 25 28 .0% 32 . 0% 40.0% Can play games 55 14.5% 36.4% 49.1% Good f a c i l i t i e s 17 47.1% 29 .4% 23.5% The t o t a l number of children responding to t h i s question from grade 1=101, grade 2=106 and grade 3=101. 104 Question #8; N for Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Responses Responses Sports 61 16.4% 36.1% 47.5% Make things 51 54.9% 29.4% 15.7% Special equip- 14 35.7% 42.9% 21.4% ment The t o t a l number of children responding to t h i s question from grade 1=101, grade 2=106 and grade 3=101. Question #6B N for Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Responses Responses A l o t of energy 159 25.8% 33.3% 40.9% Some energy 55 16.4% 34.5% 49.1% Quiet things 125 46.4% 33.6% 20.0% The t o t a l number of children responding to t h i s question from grade 1=10 8, grade 2=114 and grade 3=117. 1. The Favorite Things Children Do Differences among grades one, two and three for s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s were recorded. This showed s t a t i s - t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l i n children's preferences (See Appendix O for Table 37). The differences either increased or decreased with increases i n grade. It may be that children chose s p e c i f i c be- haviors suitable for the stage of growth they were presently i n . Such a c t i v i t i e s as throwing and catching, k i c k i n g , running, climbing and hopping increased i n popularity as grades increased. These r e s u l t s further substantiated research by Smart and Smart (19 67). They discovered that, "children's i n t e r e s t i n running and climbing increases steadily from six to nine." (p. 239-) Jumping, making things, s l i d i n g and swinging decreased i n popularity with increases i n grade. The grades one and three children s i m i l a r l y showed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n skipping while the 105 grade two children were s l i g h t l y more interested i n i t . (See Table 15-a) The difference in behaviors was not sporadic but rather showed d e f i n i t e patterns i n r e l a t i o n to grade i n - crease. S p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s extremely important to the youngest children i . e . jumping, making things, s l i d i n g and swinging became less important with older children and a c t i v i t i e s which were of l i t t l e i n t e r e s t to the youngest children i . e . throwing and catching, kicking, running, climbing, hopping and skipping became increasingly more popular as children matured. (See Table 15-a) The grades d i f f e r e d i n the i r reasons as to why they chose t h e i r f a v o r i t e a c t i v i t y . This showed s t a t i s - t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences. (See Appendix 0 for Table 37) The choices of 1. fun and 2. because there are f a c i l i t i e s to do the a c t i v i t y , decreased i n popularity with increases in grade. The choices of 1. because they l i k e the a c t i v i t y and 2. the a c t i v i t y can be used i n games increased with increases i n grade. The younger children were more l i k e l y to choose an a c t i v i t y because i t was fun and there were good f a c i l i t i e s whereas the older children were more l i k e l y to choose an a c t i v i t y because they l i k e d i t and they could use i t i n games. Playing games was also more popular with the older children for the i r choices of kinds of games. Older children preferred sports. It was evident from Table 15-c that the three grades had d e f i n i t e preferences i n t h e i r choices of kinds of games. 106 This aspect showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences at .01 l e v e l i n children's preferences. (See Appendix 0 for Table 37) The three choices which caused t h i s d i s - crepancy among grades were; sports, a c t i v i t i e s where the c h i l d can b u i l d or make d i f f e r e n t things from sand, paper, and other materials and special equipment games. Sports increased i n popularity with increases i n grade. Sports most often require a high degree of energy and the patterns for both choices are compatible. Making things, a quiet a c t i v i t y , decreased i n popularity with increases i n grade. Again, these two choices had compatible r e s u l t s . For special equipment games, the grades one and two children had similar responses while the grade threes showed less i n t e r e s t i n them. The other choices for kinds of games did not show any major differences for the variable grade. 2. The Degree of Energy Used Degree of energy was another a t t i t u d i n a l component where grades d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r responses. Table 15-d presented these r e s u l t s . The results showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences. (.See Appendix 0 for Table 37) Things that take a l o t of energy and some energy became more popular with the children as grades increased. The reverse occurred for quiet things. The r e s u l t s from the other questions dealing with attitudes toward play behaviors helped ex- p l a i n the reasons for the differences i n degree of energy. The preferences for a c t i v i t i e s may have been strongly affected by the amount of energy necessary to perform 107 s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s . Most often, the a c t i v i t i e s and kinds of games preferred by the older children required a l o t of energy while those preferred by the younger children re- quired less energy. The type of equipment children used on t h e i r school play- ground . Table 16 presents the grade differences for the a t t i t u d i n a l component considering children's preferences for equipment. TABLE 16 GRADE DIFFERENCES FOR THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT CHILDREN USE ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA) Question #10A N for Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Responses Responses NO 125 31.2% 24.8% 44.0% The t o t a l number of child r e n responding to t h i s question from grade 1=108f grade 2=114 and grade 3=117. The r e s u l t s showed that grades one, two and three children i n t h i s study had similar attitudes toward the type of equipment they used on t h e i r school playground. The only question that showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences was the question which asked i f they wanted more things to play on or with i n t h e i r school playground. The grade three children responded negatively most often. 108 Behavior Data Children's favorite spot to play on t h e i r school playground. Grades one, two and three were observed on the school play- ground with the r e s u l t that they, had d e f i n i t e differences i n th e i r preferences for play areas. These re s u l t s are pre- sented i n Table 17. TABLE 17 GRADE DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA) Question #1 N for Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Responses Responses Playing f i e l d ,200 31.5% 16.5% 52.0% Blacktop area 346 28.9% 27.7% 43.4% The t o t a l number of children responding to t h i s question from grade 1=437, grade 2=443 and grade 3=491. This behavioral category showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's behaviors (See Appendix O for Table 37). The differences occurred for the choices of playing f i e l d and blacktop area. Generally con- si s t e n t with the attitude data, the behavioral data showed that there was a tendency for increased interest i n the blacktop area with increase i n grade. Although there was also a similar tendency for the playing f i e l d , the grade two children showed less i n t e r e s t than the grade one children. TABLE 18 109 GRADE DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA) a.Question #2ai Responses N For Responses Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Jumping 19 0.0% 21.0% 79.0% Throwing 26 19.2% 7.7% 73.1% Kicking 39 7.7% 30.8% 61.5% Running 340 26.2% 27.0% 46.8% Climbing 215 31.6% 40.9% 27.4% Hopping 24 37.5% 0.0% 62.5% Skipping 29 55.2% 37.9% 6.9% Making things 149 44.3% 34.9% 20.8% Sl i d i n g 183 35.0% 34.4% 30.6% Swinging 239 32.6% 35.6% 31.8% The t o t a l numer of children responding to t h i s question from grade 1=437, grade 2=443 and grade 3=491. b.Question #2aii N for Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Responses Responses Sports 161 4.3% 13.7% 82.0% Make things 134 46.3% 32.8% 20.9% The t o t a l number of children responding to t h i s question from grade 1=437, grade 2=443 and grade 3=491. c.Question #2c N for Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Responses Responses A l o t of energy 691 27.5% 31.2% 41.2% Some energy 333 31.5% 32.3% 36.0% Quiet things 347 40.9% 34.3% 24.8% The t o t a l number of children responding to t h i s question from grade 1=437, grade 2=443 and grade 3=491. Children's play behaviors.- The behavior category c l a s s i f i e d as children's play behavior showed s i g n i f i c a n t grade d i f f e - rences for the things children do and the degree of energy used. Table 18 presents these differences. 110 1. The Favorite things Children Do By observing behavior i t was evident that grades had s p e c i f i c preferences for a c t i v i t i e s . these r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's behavior. (See Appendix O for table 37) Such a c t i v i t i e s as jumping, kicking and running be- came more popular as grades increased with a similar tendency for throwing and catching, climbing and hopping. Skipping, making things and s l i d i n g decreased i n popularity with increase i n grade. there was no difference for swing- ing. These r e s u l t s were b a s i c a l l y comparable with the attitude r e s u l t s . The grades also showed d e f i n i t e preferences i n t h e i r behavior for kinds of games. These r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's behaviors. (See Appendix 0 for Table 37) The two choices which caused t h i s discrepancy among grades were; sports and a c t i v i t i e s where the c h i l d can b u i l d or make things from sand, paper and other materials. As with the attitude r e s u l t s , sports increased i n per- centage frequency with increases i n grade and making things decreased i n percentage frequency with increases i n grade. 2. Degree of Energy Used The behavioral data showed that the three grades had d i f f e r e n t preferences for the degree of energy used. The re s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l i n children's behaviors. (See Appendix 0 for Table 37) A l o t of energy and some energy increased I l l i n percentage frequency with increases i n grade and quiet things decreased i n percentage frequency for increases i n grade. These re s u l t s followed the same patterns as with the attitude r e s u l t s . The r e s u l t s from t h i s study exhibited grade differences i n children's attitudes and behavior. It i s evident that many play attitudes and behaviors of children from grades one through to three correspond, yet differences do e x i s t and these should not be ignored. Children's pre- ferences should be recognized and measures taken to assure that t h e i r needs are met within each grade. The assumption cannot be made that children from grades one to three re- quire and i n c l i n e toward the same interests i n play be- haviors. Patterns i l l u s t r a t i n g changing preferences i n play choices are already beginning to appear even within the f i r s t three grades of elementary school. CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR WHEN ENGAGED IN FREE PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND IN RELATION TO SCHOOL DIFFERENCES Children's attitudes and behaviors were considered to determine i f there were differences i n the area of free play on school playgrounds when considering the variable of school. The investigator hoped to determine i f children's attitudes toward play and/or t h e i r preferences for p a r t i c u l a r play behaviors were affected by the i r school. Only those questions which exhibited s i g n i f i c a n t differences were con- sidered. There were.no s i g n i f i c a n t differences for the a t t i t u d i n a l components, children's desire to play, children's 112 reasons for playing, children's favori t e time to play on th e i r school playground, the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect and the degree of energy used. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e - rences among schools for the behavior categories, the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect and the degree of energy used. The investigator did not expect many s i g n i f i c a n t differences for t h i s variable since the schools were chosen on th e i r s i m i l a r i t y with one another. Further i n v e s t i - gation and analysis was necessary to determine why-there were discrepancies. An apparent cause for much of the discrepancy was the imbalance i n numbers of males and females i n each grade within each school. Ideally, there should have been equal or nearly equal number of males and females per grade per school. To prevent the i n e q u a l i t i e s i n numbers of children a f f e c t i n g the school r e s u l t s , the data was analysed on the basis of sex within each grade by school. These analyses were not affected by the imbalance. Attitude Data Children's play behaviors. The a t t i t u d i n a l component c l a s s i f i e d as children's play behaviors showed s i g n i f i c a n t school differences for the favorit e things children do. These differences were presented i n Table 19. TABLE 19 113 SCHOOL DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (ATTITUDE DATA) Question #8 N for Grauer Errington Bridge Lee Woodward Responses Res- ponses Grade 2 females games you make up 20 50.0% 25.0% 10.0% 15.0% 0.0% b u i l d things 7 0.0% 0.0% 42..9% 0.0% 57.1% Grade 3 males sports 25 0.0% 24.0% 20.0% 12.0% 44.0% tag 20 20.0% 10.0% 15.0% 50.0% 5.0% The t o t a l number of females=60 and males = 63 for th i s question. 1. The Favorite Things Children Do Differences between schools for s p e c i f i c kinds of games were recorded. The r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l (See Appendix 0 for Table 38), for the grade two females and grade three males preferences for kinds of games. The females d i f f e r e d for the choices; games you make up and a c t i v i t i e s where you bu i l d or make things. The males d i f f e r e d for the choices; sports and tag and chasing games. The type of equipment children use on t h e i r school .play- ground . Table 20 presents the difference between schools for the question related to the things children use most often on t h e i r school playground. 1.1,4- TABLE 2 0 SCHOOL DIFFERENCES FOR THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT CHILDREN USE ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA) Question #9 N for Grauer Errington Bridge Lee Woodward Responses Res-. ponses Grade 3 males things to spin around on 12 8.3% 66.7% 8.3% 8.3% 8.3% things to climb 14 14.3% 0.0% 21.4% 42.9% 21.4% The t o t a l number of males = 63 for t h i s question. This showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l (See Appendix O for Table 38) f o r grade three males. These males d i f f e r e d for the choices of things to spin around on and things to climb. When considering the number of comparisons for the analysis of males and females i n each grade within each school, the three differences observed i n t h i s study are r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Behavior Data Children's favori t e spot to play on their school playground. Table 21 presents the differences among schools for the behavior category c l a s s i f i e d as children's favori t e spot to play on the i r school playground. TABLE 21 115 SCHOOL DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA) Question #1 N for Grauer Errington Bridge Lee Woodward Responses Res- ponses BlacKtop area 200 9.7% 18 .0% 13 22.4% 9. 8% Playing f i e l d 346 26.2% 32.0% 14 7 9- 27.6% 25. 2% Equipment area 825 64.1% 50.0% 72 .1% 49 .3% 65. 0% The t o t a l number of children responding to t h i s question from Grauer=290, Errington=278, Bridge=265, Lee=272 and Woodward=2 6 6. The re s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l i n children's behaviors. (See Appendix 0 for Table 38) The differences occurred for the blacktop area, playing f i e l d and equipment area. Children's play behaviors. The behavior category c l a s s i f i e d as children's play behaviors showed s i g n i f i c a n t school d i f f e r - ences for: "the favorite things children do. Table 22 presents these differences. TABLE 2 2 116 SCHOOL DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA) Question #2aiN for Grauer Errington Bridge Lee Woodward Responses Res- ponses "Running 340 24. 1% 29. 8% 20 .4% 28. 7% 20 .7% Jumping 19 s 7% 4. 3% 0 . 0% 1. 8% 0 .0% Throwing and catching 26 0. 0% 1. 8% .4% 7. 0% .4% Kicking 39 3. 4% 2. 5% 0 .0% 2. 2% 6 .0% Climbing 215 14. 8% 11. 9% 18 .1% 18. 0% 15 .4% Hopping 27 0. 0% 6. 5% 1 1. 8% 0 .0% Skipping 29 0. 0% 0. 0% 0 .0% 4. 0% 6 • 8 % Making things 146 14. 5% 5. 0% 15 • 8 % 7. 4% 10 R 9-S l i d i n g 183 12. 8% 12. 6% 17 .4% 7. 0% 17 .3% Swinging 239 17. 2% 17. 6% 18 • ^ 15. 8% 18 .0% Other 108 12. 4% 7. 9% 7 .9% 6. 2% 4 .5% N=1371 The t o t a l number of children responding to t h i s question from Grauer=290, Errington=278, Bridge=265, Lee=272 and Woodward =2 66. Question #2aiiNfor Grauer Errington Bridge Lee Woodward Responses Res- ponses Sports 161 10. 0% 6 . 8 % 9 . 8 % 16. 9% 15. 4% Tag and chasing 2Q4 16. 9% 20 .9% 11 7 9- 12. 9% 11. 6% Games you make up 156 13. 4% 19 • 8 % 8 T 9- 9. 6% 5. 3% Special equipment 66 1. 0% 4 1 9- 0 .0% 11. 8% 7 . 1% Games on equipment 648 45. 2% 43 9 9- 55 .5% 41. 5% 51. 5% Build things 136 13. 4% 5 .0% 14 .7% 7 . 4% 9. 0% N= :1371 The t o t a l number of children responding to t h i s question from Grauer=290, Errington=278,Bridge=265,Lee=272 and Woodward =266. 117 1. The Favorite Things Children Do Differences between schools for a c t i v i t i e s and kinds of games were recorded. Both aspects showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's behaviors.(See Appendix 0 for Table 38) The differences did not seem to occur i n any p a r t i c u l a r choices but rather throughout a l l choices. The percentage agreements among the schools with the lowest and highest percentages for the three differences, exhibited good and high percentage agreement. Therefore, there were no major discrepancies i n school comparisons even though discrepancies were evident. The discrepancies among schools did not seem to present any type of pattern, with any p a r t i c u l a r schools showing more disagreements than the others. However, there was a tendency for one school to have s l i g h t l y more discrepancies while another school had s l i g h t l y fewer discrepancies than the remaining schools. The investigator found i t d i f f i c u l t to account for the s i g n i f i c a n t differences that occurred. They may have been the outcome of not having the schools more si m i l a r . However, the playgrounds were almost i d e n t i c a l , the schools were a l l within the same School Board thus they would generally follow the same p r i n c i p l e s , and the schools chosen were from si m i l a r socio-economic groups. It would have been extremely d i f f i c u l t to have chosen f i v e schools even more similar than those used for t h i s study. 118 A few obvious differences between schools were noted and may have affected the r e s u l t s . On the average, one school had the least number of children per class while another had the largest sized classes. The differences i n numbers of children may have affected children's preferences while playing on the playground. Children i n the larger classes may not have been able to select t h e i r f a v o r i t e choices as often as those i n smaller classes due to the types of f a c i l i t i e s and the numbers they can accommodate. Also, the attitudes of the teachers and p r i n c i p a l s within each school are l i k e l y to d i f f e r on t h e i r interests towards play and on t h e i r basic objectives. I t was impossible to prevent these differences from p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t i n g the res u l t s of t h i s study. Further research i s necessary before the i n - vestigator could state that s p e c i f i c factors were d e f i n i t e l y the cause of the s i g n i f i c a n t differences for the variable of school. However, further consideration of the size of school playgrounds and the type of playground equipment i n l i g h t of the school enrolment i s recommended. B a s i c a l l y , there were few differences i n the area of free play on school playground when considering the variable of school. CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR WHEN ENGAGED IN FREE PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND IN RELATION TO SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE Children's attitudes and behaviors were considered to determine i f there were differences i n the area of free play on school playgrounds when considering the variable of sex 119 within each grade. The investigator attempted to determine i f children's attitudes toward play and/or t h e i r preferences for p a r t i c u l a r play behaviors were affected by the sex of the c h i l d within each grade. Only those questions which exhibited s i g n i f i c a n t differences were considered. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between sexes within each grade for the a t t i t u d i n a l components; children's desire to play, children's reasons for playing, children's : favorite time to play on t h e i r school playground and the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect. A l l behavioral categories showed s i g n i f i c a n t differences except for the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect. Attitude Data Children's f a v o r i t e spot to play on t h e i r school playground. There was a s l i g h t difference i n children's preference for fa v o r i t e spot when sex within each grade was considered. Table 23 presents these. SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA) TABLE 23 Question #5B Responses N for Responses Males Females Difference Grade 3: Playing f i e l d 29 72.4% 27.6% The t o t a l number of females = 4 5 and males = 51 . 44.8% 120 This a t t i t u d i n a l component showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g - n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences. (See Appendix 0 for Table 39) A l l choices had similar r e s u l t s except for the playing f i e l d for the grade threes. The males showed a moderate preference for the playing f i e l d . Children's play behaviors. The a t t i t u d i n a l component c l a s s i f i e d as children's play behaviors was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t for the favorite things children do and the degree of energy used. Table 24 presents these differences. 1. The Favorite Things Children Do Table 24-a presents the differences between the males and females i n grade two for the aspect of f a v o r i t e a c t i v i t i e s . This aspect showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences.(See Appendix 0 Table 39) The males exhibited an outstanding preference for kicking and the females showed an outstanding preference for skipping and a moderate preference for s l i d i n g . A l l other choices showed similar r e s u l t s . Differences between the males and females i n grade one, two and three were evident for the aspect of f a v o r i t e kinds of games. This was presented i n Table 24-b and showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l (See Appendix 0 for Table 39) for grades one, two and three. For the grade one comparison, the males showed a high preference for sports and a moderate preference for tag. The females showed a moderate preference for games you 121 make up and a c t i v i t i e s where you can build or make things. For the grade two comparison, the males exhibited an out- standing preference for sports and the females showed an outstanding preference for special equipment and a high preference for games you make up. For the grade three comparison, the males showed an outstanding preference for sports and the females showed a moderate preference for games you make up. 2. The.Degree of Energy Used Table 24-c presents the differences between the males and females i n grades two and three for the degree of energy used. This aspect showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g - n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences. (See Appendix 0 for Table 39) For the grade two children, the males exhibited a moderate preference for a l o t of energy a c t i v i t i e s and the females exhibited a moderate preference for some energy a c t i v i t i e s and quiet things. For the grade three children, the males exhibited a moderate preference for a l o t of energy and the females exhibited a moderate preference for quiet things. Hawkes and Pease (1962) recognized t h i s difference i n degree of energy expenditure. They wrote: Beginning at age f i v e or six boys show an increasing superiority in sustained energy output and muscular strength, which may correspond to t h e i r preference for active play. G i r l s ' preference i s for quieter pursuits, (p.115) TABLE 24 122 SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (ATTITUDE DATA) a .Question #7 N for Males Females Difference Responses Responses Grade 2: Kicking 7 100.0% 0.0% 100.0% Skipping 8 0.0% 100.0% 100.0% Sl i d i n g 13 3 8 * 5 % 61.5% 23.0% The t o t a l number of females; =60 and males=54. b .Question #8 N for Males Females Difference Responses Responses Grade 1: Sports 10 80.0% 20.0% 60. 0% Tag 34 64.7% 35.3% 29.4% Games you make up 2 4 33.3% 66.7% 33.4% Make things 28 28.6% 71.4% 42.8% The t o t a l number of females : =56 and males=52. Grade 2: Sports 22 90.9% 9.1% 81.8% Games you make up 2 7 25.9% 74.1% 48.2% Special equipment 6 0.0% 100.0% 100.0% The t o t a l number of females^ =60 and males=54. Grade 3: Sports 29 86.2% 13.8% 72.4% Games you make up 2 4 37.5% 62.5% 25.0% The t o t a l number of females; =54 and males=63. c .Question #6B N for Males Females Difference Responses Responses Grade 2: A l o t of energy 53 66.0% 34.0% 32.0% Some energy 19 31.6% 68.4% 3 6.8% Quiet things 42 31.0% 69 .0% 38.0% The t o t a l number of females : =6 0 and males=54. Grade 3: A l o t of energy 65 66.2% 3 3.8% 32.4% Quiet things 25 32.0% 68.0% 36.0% The t o t a l number of females; =54 and males=63. 123 The type of equipment children use on t h e i r school play- ground . The males and females within each grade had similar attitudes toward the type of equipment they use on t h e i r school playground. Table 25 presents the only question which showed discrepancies. This question asked i f the children wanted more things to play on or with in t h e i r school playground. TABLE 25 SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT CHILDREN USED ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA) Question #10A N for Males Females Difference Responses Responses Grade 2: No 31 22.5% 77.4% 54.8% The t o t a l number of females=60 and males=54. This a t t i t u d i n a l component showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences. The grade two females had a high preference for the negative response. Behavior Data Children's favorite, spot to play on t h e i r school play-; ground. Table 26 presents the differences for favori t e spot when the variable of sex within each grade was considered. Table 26 showed males and females within each grade to have d e f i n i t e differences i n t h e i r preference for play areas. TABLE 26 124 SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA) Question #1 N for Males Females Difference Responses Responses Grade 1: Blacktop 63 19.0% 81.0% 62.0% Playing f i e l d 100 60.0% 40.0% 20.0% The t o t a l number of females=56 and males=52. Grade 2: Blacktop 33 33.3% 66.7% 33.4% Playing f i e l d 96 67.7% 32.3% 35.4% The t o t a l number of females=60 and males=54 . Grade 3: Playing f i e l d 150 85.3% 14.7% 70.6% Equipment area 237 37.6% 62.4% 24.8% The t o t a l number of females=54 and males=63. This behavioral category showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l i n children's behaviors. (See Appendix 0 for Table 39) For the grade one comparison, the males showed a moderate preference for the playing f i e l d while the females showed an outstanding preference for the blacktop area. The grade two males and females showed moderate preference for the playing f i e l d and black- top area respectively. The grade three males showed an outstanding preference for the playing f i e l d and the females showed a moderate preference for the equipment area. Children's play behaviors. Table 27 presents grade differences for the behavior category c l a s s i f i e d as children's play be- haviors. TABLE 27 125 SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA) a.Question #2ai N for Males Females Difference Responses Responses Grade 1: Running 89 64.0% 36.0% 28.0% Climbing 68 64.7% 35.3% 29.4% Hopping 9- 0.0% 100.0% 100.0% Skipping 16 0.0% 100.0% 100.0% S l i d i n g 64 67.2% 32 .8% 34.4% The t o t a l number of females =219 and males = 218. Grade 2: Kicking 12 91.7% 8.3% 83.4% Skipping 11 18.2% 81.8% 6 3.6% S l i d i n g Making things 52 32.7% 67.3% 34 .6% Running 92 63.0% 37.0% 26.0% The t o t a l number of females =223 and males = 220. Grade 3: Running 159 79.9% 20.1% 59 .8% Jumping 15 40 .0% 60.0% 20.0% Kicking 24 100.0% 0.0% 100.0% Climbing 59. 39.0% 61.0% 22.0% Hopping 15 0 . 0% 100.0% 100.0% Swinging 76 36.8% 63.2% 26.4% The t o t a l number of females = 221 and males = 270. b.Question #2aii N for Males Females Difference Responses Responses Grade 1: Sports 7 100.0% 0.0% 100.0% Tag 78 60.2% 39.8% 20.4% Games you make up i 52 13. 5% 86.5% 73 . 0% Special equipment . 25 20.0% 80.0% 60.0% The t o t a l number of females = 219 and males = 218. 126 TABLE 27 (continued) N for Males Females Difference Responses Grade 2: Sports 22 100.0% 0.0% 100.0% Games you make up 43 32.6% 67.4% 34.8% Special equipment 2 0 40.0% 60.0% 20.0% Make things 4 4 31.8% 6 8.2% 36.4% The t o t a l number of females =223 and males = 220. Grade 3: Sports 132 100.0% 0.0% 100.0% Tag 4 9 36.7% 63 .3% 26.6% Games you make up 6 3 34.9% 65.1% 30.2% Special equipment 21 38.1% 61.9% 23.8% Games on equip-. ment 198 39.9% 60.1% 20.2% . Make things 2 8 39.3% 60.7% 21.4% The t o t a l number of females =221 and males = 270. c.Question #2C N for Males Females Difference Responses Responses Grade 2: Quiet things 119, 38.6% 61.4% 22.8% The t o t a l number of females = 223 and males = 220. 1. The Favorite Things Children Do A l l sex differences within each grade for children's play behaviors were presented i n Table 27. By observing male and female behavior within each grade, i t was evident that males and females have s p e c i f i c preferences for ac- t i v i t i e s . These r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's behaviors. (See Appendix 0 for Table 39) For the grade one comparison, the males had a moderate preference for running, climbing and s l i d i n g while the females had an outstanding preference for hopping and skipping. 127 The grade two comparison exhibited an outstanding preference for kicking and a moderate preference for running for the males and an outstanding preference for skipping and a moderate preference for making things for the females. The grade three comparison exhibited an outstanding pre- ference for kicking and a high preference for running for the males and an outstanding preference for hopping and a moderate preference for jumping, climbing and swinging for the females. Again, the males and females within each grade showed d e f i n i t e preferences i n t h e i r choices of kinds of games. These results showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l , i n children's behaviors. (See Appendix 0 for Table 39) For each of the grades the males showed an outstanding preference for sports. The grade one males showed a moderate preference for tag while the females showed an outstanding preference for games you make up and special equipment games. The grade two females showed moderate preferences for games you make up, special equipment games and a c t i v i t i e s where you can b u i l d or make things. The grade three females showed moderate preferences for tag, games you make up, special equipment games, games on the school playground equipment and a c t i v i t i e s where you can b u i l d or make things. 2.The Degree Of Energy Used The observational data showed a difference for the grade two comparison. It showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference at the .01 l e v e l , in children's behaviors (See 128 Appendix 0 for Table 39). The females showed a moderate preference for quiet things. Before many statements related to differences i n attitudes of males and females within each of the three grades should be made, more research i s needed. Larger numbers of children within each grade are necessary. How- ever, i t i s important to note that more discrepancies occurred at the grade two l e v e l . Also, the differences which occurred for each of the grades generally followed the patterns evident i n the r e s u l t s for the sex comparisons. It was d i f f i c u l t to determine why t h i s resulted, but i t was possible that the grade two children were in the beginning of the t r a n s i t i o n a l stage when sex roles were questioned or for some reason they had more pressures. Comments by play researchers on these pressures may be of help i n c l a r i f y i n g the question of differences. Hamburg (1973) wrote: Many subtle as well as obvious pressures are placed on children to produce such differences. Sex-typing precedes and i s a part of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and r e s u l t s from a pattern of rewards and punish- ments administered by parents, teachers, older brothers and s i s t e r s , and playmates.(p.330) Kohlberg (196 6) wrote: A l l children become aware of body differences, are exposed to basic gender labeling, and perceive c e r t a i n s a l i e n t differences i n males and females roles inside and outside. 1 the family. In large part, i n d i v i d u a l differences i n children's sex- role attitudes r e f l e c t variations i n the develop- ment of these concepts, variations due to d i f f e - rences i n age, general i n t e l l i g e n c e , and ex- periences stimulating development of sex-role concepts, (p. 155) The rate at which the c h i l d develops determines the formation of his attitudes toward sex-roles. This study discovered evidence of differences between sexes within each grade. Before the s p e c i f i c differences should be emphasized, a larger sample per choice i s necessary. It was d i f f i c u l t to make many assumptions since the values of N for several choices were small. However, there i s the li k e l i h o o d that males and females within grades one, two and three do have separate preferences i n the i r play attitudes and behavior and the educational system should recognize t h i s . Hawkes and Pease (1962) wrote: The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of children's play changes with age and maturation. It i s usually energetic, active, noisy and close l y related to the development of motor s k i l l s , (p.91) CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS PURPOSE This investigation studied children's attitudes to- ward play and the i r play behavior when engaging i n free play on t h e i r school playgrounds. Subproblems of t h i s study attempted to determine i f there were differences i n free play on school playgrounds when considering the variables of sex, grade, school and sex within each grade. In addition the compatibility of the questionnaire-interview technique with the observed behavior technique as measures of play attitudes and behaviors respectively, was assessed. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Three hundred and thir t y - n i n e grade one, two and three children served as subject's for t h i s study. A l l subjects were from f i v e elementary schools within the Richmond School D i s t r i c t , Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia. Two techniques were u t i l i z e d for data c o l l e c t i o n ; 1. a questionnaire-interview, and 2. observations. Three classes per school were interviewed and observed. Four days i n each school were required for data c o l l e c t i o n . Thus a t o t a l of twenty days was needed to com- plete the data c o l l e c t i o n aspect of the study. Six additional days were needed to test the r e l i a b i l i t y of the questionnaire- interview. 130 131 Each c h i l d was interviewed on a one-to-one basis. It took approximately ten minutes per c h i l d to complete the questionnaire-interview with the investigator recording the responses. This technique assessed the following a t t i t u d i n a l components: 1. Children's desire to play. 2. Children's reasons for playing. 3. Children's favori t e time to play on t h e i r school playground. 4. Children's favorite spot to play on t h e i r school playground. 5. Children's play behaviors, s p e c i f i c a l l y : a. The favorite things children do. b. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect; whether children play alone, with children t h e i r own age, with children younger than themselves or with children older than themselves. c. The degree of energy used by the children; whether they did a c t i v i t i e s that took a l o t of energy, took some energy or they engaged i n quiet things. 6. The types of equipment children use on t h e i r school playground. The observations took place during two separate half hour free play sessions per c l a s s . Over the half-hour period, the investigator observed each of the three play areas; 1. equipment area, 2. blacktop area and 3. playing f i e l d , for 13 2 ten minutes per area broken down into two separate f i v e minute observational sessions. There was a t o t a l of six complete observations over the half hour period. The ob- servations assessed selected behavioral aspects of the questionnaire-interview, that i s ; 1. The children's favorite spot to play on th e i r school playground. 2. The children's play behaviors, s p e c i f i c a l l y ; a. The favorite things children do. b. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect; whether children play alone or i n groups. c. The degree of energy used by the children; whether they did a c t i v i t i e s that took a l o t of energy, took some energy or they engaged i n quiet things. Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s were determined for the t o t a l responses to the questions and the o v e r a l l observations. Chi square values were calculated to determine i f there were differences among children i n t h e i r preferences of choices for p a r t i c u l a r questions i n the area of play attitudes and behavior when engaging i n free play on t h e i r school play- grounds. In addition, chi values were determined for both the attitude and behavior results to determine i f there were sex differences, grade differences, school differences and/or sex differences within each, grade i n play attitudes and be- havior: when engaging i n free play on t h e i r school playgrounds. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the questionnaire-interview technique was tested on 129 children from the t o t a l sample 133 population (N=339). The questionnaire-interview was ad- ministered i n an i d e n t i c a l manner to the i n i t i a l set of interviews. Percentages of children who gave i d e n t i c a l responses on the t e s t - r e t e s t , on p a r t i c u l a r questions and p a r t i c u l a r responses within each question were determined. The compatibility of the questionnaire-interview technique with the observed behavior technique was determined either by c a l c u l a t i n g frequency percentages of the two techniques or by c a l c u l a t i n g Spearman's c o e f f i c i e n t of rank-order co r r e l a t i o n depending upon the comparison. RESULTS The r e s u l t s of the investigation as determined by analysis are a l l s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t unless otherwise stated. These re s u l t s were c l a s s i f i e d under the following a t t i t u d i n a l components and behavior categories: A t t i t u d i n a l Components Children's desire to play. Play was important to 100% of the children; they l i k e d to play. Children's desire to play showed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences with respect to sex, grade, school and sex within each grade. Children's reasons for playing. Children have s p e c i f i c reasons why they l i k e to play on t h e i r school playground with the most popular reasons being; 1. because there are fun things, 2. because there are opportunities for s o c i a l i z i n g , and 3. because of pleasant feelings such as happy and fun. 134 In addition, the reasons 1. because they could do t h e i r work better af t e r playing and 2. because they f e e l better after playing, were of some importance. Children's reasons for playing showed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences with respect to sex, grade, school and sex within each grade. Children's f a v o r i t e time to play on th e i r school playground. Children most often play on t h e i r school playground during lunch hour and recess. Children's favorite time to play on t h e i r school playground showed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences with respect to sex, grade, school and sex within each grade. Children's favori t e spot to play on the i r school playground. When asked i f they had a favorite spot to play on t h e i r school playground, 82.0% of the children responded i n the affirmative. The most popular spots in order of preference were; 1. the equipment area and 2. the playing f i e l d . When considering sex differences, the males showed a high preference for the playing f i e l d while the females had a high preference for sand and a moderate preference for the blacktop. In addition, the following grade differences were evident. The popularity of the blacktop area increased with increases i n grade. The grade one children showed more intere s t i n the sand and both grade one and three children showed more interest i n the playing f i e l d . No school differences occurred. There was a s l i g h t difference in children's preferences for favorite spot when sex within grade three was considered. The males showed a moderate preference for the playing f i e l d . 135 Children's play behaviors. The a t t i t u d i n a l component c l a s s i f i e d as children's play behaviors was subdivided into; the favorite things children do, the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect and the degree of energy used. 1. The Favorite Things Children Do Running was the most popular a c t i v i t y followed by swinging, s l i d i n g , climbing, and making things. The children l i k e d t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r favorite a c t i v i t y mainly because i t was either a. fun, b. the a c t i v i t y could be used i n a game or c. i t ' s healthy to engage i n the a c t i v i t y . A preference for tag and chasing games was evident followed by games you or your friends make up and sports. Both sexes showed d e f i n i t e preferences for p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and kinds of games. The males had an outstanding preference for kicking and a moderate preference for climbing and throwing and catching. The females exhibited an out- standing preference for hopping and skipping, and a high preference for making things. The females chose fun more often as the reason why they chose t h e i r favorite a c t i v i t y while the males chose the a c t i v i t y because they could use i t i n a game. Definite preferences for p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and kinds of games were evident for the variable grade. The preferences either increased or decreased with increase i n grade. The grades d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r reasons as to why they chose th e i r f a v o r i t e a c t i v i t i e s . The choices of fun and because there are f a c i l i t i e s to do the a c t i v i t y seemed to 136 decrease i n popularity with increases i n grade while the choices of because they l i k e the a c t i v i t y and the a c t i v i t y can be used i n games increased as a function of grade. No school differences occurred for t h i s a t t i t u d i n a l component. Sex differences within grade two occurred. 2. The S o c i a l i z a t i o n Aspect Children need the play experience because i t provided an opportunity to be with t h e i r friends and to make new friends. Children preferred to be i n groups and most often groups of children t h e i r own age. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect showed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences with respect to sex, grade, school and sex within each grade. 3. The Degree of Energy Used Children require opportunities to perform behaviors which include expenditure of a l l degrees of energy although they preferred high energy a c t i v i t i e s . In considering sex differences, the males exhibited a moderate preference for high energy a c t i v i t i e s while the females exhibited a moderate preference for medium and low energy a c t i v i t i e s . In addition, the following grade differences occurred. High and medium energy a c t i v i t i e s became more popular as grades increased while the reverse occurred for low energy a c t i v i t i e s . No s i g n i f i c a n t school differences occurred. There were a few s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n children's preference for degree of energy used when sex within grades two and three was considered. 137 The type of equipment children use on t h e i r school play- ground. The types of equipment used most often on the school playground i n order of p r i o r i t y were; 1. things to go up and down on, 2. things to s l i d e on, 3. things to spin around on, 4. things to climb and things to swing on. No sex differences occurred. In considering grade differences, the grades had similar attitudes toward the type of equipment they used on t h e i r school playground. However, the grade one and two children wanted more things to play on or with i n t h e i r school playground more so than the grade three children. School differences occurred a l - though there were no major discrepancies. The males and females within each grade had similar attitudes toward the type of equipment they use on t h e i r school playground. However, a difference between sexes for the question asking i f the children wanted more things to play on or with i n t h e i r school playground occurred for grade two. The females had a high preference for the negative response. Behavior Categories Children's f a v o r i t e spot to play on t h e i r school playground. Children were observed most often on the equipment area followed by the playing f i e l d . Males and females had d e f i n i t e differences i n t h e i r preferences for play areas. The males had a high preference for the playing f i e l d while the females had a moderate pre- ference for the blacktop area. In addition grade differences also occurred. There was increased i n t e r e s t i n the blacktop 138 and playing f i e l d with increases i n grade. School d i f f e r - ences occurred for favorite spot although no major discrep- ancies were evident. The males and females within each of the three grades had differences i n t h e i r choices of favor- i t e spot. For the grade one comparison, the males showed a moderate preference for the playing f i e l d while the fe- males showed an outstanding preference for the blacktop area. The grade two males and females showed moderate preferences for the playing f i e l d and blacktop area respectively. The grade three males showed an outstanding preference for the playing f i e l d while the females showed a moderate prefer- ence for the equipment area. Children's play behaviors. The behavior category c l a s s - i f i e d as children's play behaviors was subdivided into; the favorite things children do, the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect and the degree of energy used. 1. The Favorite Things Children Do The a c t i v i t i e s children were observed doing most often were, a. running, b. swinging, c. s l i d i n g , d. climb- ing and e. making things. The kinds of games children were observed doing most often were; a. games on the school play- ground equipment, b. tag and chasing games and c. sports. Both sexes showed d e f i n i t e preferences for p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and kinds of games. In addition, grades were observed doing d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s and games. The differences either increased or decreased with grade increases. School 139 differences occurred although no major discrepancies were evident. The males and females within each of the three grades were observed doing d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s and games. 2. The S o c i a l i z a t i o n Aspect Children were most often observed playing i n groups. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect showed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences with respect to sex, grade, school and sex within each grade. 3. The Degree of Energy Used Children were most often observed expending a l o t of energy. Sex differences occurred for t h i s behavior category. The males exhibited a moderate preference for things that take a l o t of energy while the females exhibited a moderate preference for quiet things. In addition, grade differences occurred. As grades increased, the children were observed doing a l o t of energy and some energy a c t i - v i t i e s more often. The opposite occurred for quiet things. No s i g n i f i c a n t school differences occurred. S i g n i f i c a n t sex differences were evident i n grade two. The females showed a moderate preference for quiet s i t t i n g things. CONCLUSIONS Conclusions related to the methodology u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study are as follows: 1. Children i n grades one, two and three can express th e i r attitudes on a questionnaire-interview i f the questions are stated in a simple and e a s i l y comprehensive manner, (p.47) 140 2. The observation technique can be successfully u t i l i z e d to determine selected play behaviors of children.(p.74) 3. The questionnaire-interview and observation technique can be successfully u t i l i z e d to compliment one another i n determining children's play behaviors.(p.82) In addition the conclusions r e s u l t i n g from the attitude data and behavior data are as follows: 1. Children play on t h e i r school playground because there are fun things, they can s o c i a l i z e and because of pleasant feelings, (p.54) 2. The school playground i s mainly used during school hours, (p.57) 3. Play on the school playground i s a time for s o c i a l i z i n g Children play with friends who are generally t h e i r own age. (p.67 and 81) 4. Children stated they preferred high energy a c t i v i t i e s and were observed doing high energy a c t i v i t i e s most often . (p.85) 5. The a c t i v i t i e s children said they preferred were actually what they were seen doing, (p.86) 6. Females were more l i k e l y to choose an a c t i v i t y because i t was fun while the males were more l i k e l y to choose an a c t i v i t y because they could use i t i n a game. (p.94) 7. The equipment children stated they used most often were comparable with the a c t i v i t i e s they said they did most often, (p.72) 8. Males use the playing f i e l d more than females while 141 females use the blacktop area more than males, (p.92) 9. The equipment area i s used most often with both sexes and each of the three grades making equal use of i t . (p.59, 76, 91, 102) 10. The males and females from grades one through to three already begin to show preferences f o r d i f f e r e n t play be- haviors . (p.90) 11. Grades one, two and three children have d i f f e r e n t play behaviors with the differences increasing with grade i n - creases, (p.101) 12. Males perform high energy a c t i v i t i e s more than females while females perform medium and low energy a c t i v i t i e s more than males, (p.96) 13. Medium and high energy a c t i v i t i e s increased i n pre- ference with increases in grade, (p.106) RECOMMENDATIONS 1. The construction of equipment and f a c i l i t i e s on the school playground should take children's preferences into consideration since t h i s may r e s u l t i n greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n and enjoyment of the playground by the children. 2. Increased e f f o r t should be made to l i s t e n i n g to children and observe them i n a free play environment since a greater understanding of children and play i s l i k e l y to r e s u l t . 3. More awareness of the potential use of the school play- ground as a valuable environment for children to s o c i a l i z e and learn about s o c i a l interaction i s needed. 142 4. Determining children's reasons for selecting t h e i r play preferences as r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r f a v o r i t e time to play, f a v o r i t e spot to play, play behaviors and the equip- ment children use most often may c l a r i f y why certain choices were preferred over others. 5. It would seem from the research that there i s a need for further attention to the differences between males and females i n t h e i r attitudes toward play and t h e i r play be- haviors. However, along with the recognition of sex differences and provision for them, i t i s also important that children of both sexes be encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a variety of a c t i v i t i e s and not l i m i t t h e i r play experiences due to sex stereotyping. 6. It would seem from th i s research that grade has an i n - fluence on children's attitudes toward play and play be- haviors and provision should be made for these differences. This i s important since most elementary schools have one playground for children from kindergarten through to grade six and assume that i t i s s u f f i c i e n t for a l l of them. LIST OF REFERENCES Books: Beard, Ruth. An Outline of Piaget's Developmental Psychology. New York: The New American Library Inc., 1969. Caplan, Frank and Theresa. The Power of Play. New York: Anchor Press, 1973. Cohen, D., and V. Stern. Observing and Recording the Behavior of Young Children. New York: Teachers College Press, 1965. Dattner, Richard. Design for Play. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company,1969. Elkind, David. A Sympathetic Understanding of the Child Six to Sixteen. Boston: A l l y n and Bacon, Inc., 1971. E l l i s , M.J. Why People Play. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1973. Ferguson, G. S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis i n Psychology and Education. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company,1971. Friedberg, Paul. Play and Interplay. London: The MacMillan Co., 1970. F r o s t i g , M. 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New York: Morrow, 1949. Miller,Peggy. Creative Outdoor Play Areas. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, INc., 1972. Mischel, Walter, Personality and Assessment. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 196 8. Mussen, P., J. Conger and J. Kagan. Child Development and Personality-Fourth E d i t i o n . London: Harperand Row, Publishers, 1974. O'Shea, M.V. The C h i l d : His Nature and His Needs. New York; The Childrens Foundation, 1925. 145 Piaget, Jean. Play, Dreams and Imitation i n Childhood. New York: W.W. Norton and Company Inc., 1951. Singer, Jerome. The Child Psychology Series - Experimental Studies of Imaginative Play. London: Academic Press, 1973. Smart, M., and R. Smart. Children Development and Re- lationships . New York: The Macmillan Co., 19 67. Sundberg and Tyler. C l i n i c a l Psychology, 2nd E d i t i o n . New York: Appleton Centry Crofts, 197 3. Sutton-Smith, Brian. The Folkgames of Children. London: University of Texan Press, 1972. and R.E. Herron. Child's Play. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1971 Yarrow, Leon. Interviewing Children. In. P. Mussen (Ed.), Child Development. New York: John Wiley and Sons,Inc., 1960, Pp. 561-602. Per i o d i c a l s : Anker, D., "Teaching Children as They Play." Young Children 29:4:203-213, May 1974. Bettelheim, B., "Play and Education." School Review, 81:1:1-13, Nov. 1972. Brown, D.G. "Sex-role Development i n a Changing Culture." Psychological B u l l e t i n , 55:232-242, 1958. Conn, Jacob, "Children's Awareness of Sex Differences - Play Attitudes and Game Preferences." Journal of Child Psychiatry, 2:82-99, 1951. , "The Child Reveals Himself Through Play - The Method of the Play Interview,"Mental Hygiene, 23:49-69, Jan. 1939. Curtis, Delores, "The Young Chi l d : The Significance of Motor Development." JOHPER, 29-30, May 1971. Erikson, E.H., "Sex Differences i n the Play Configuration of Pre-Adolescents." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 21:667-692, 1951. 146 Evans, Mary, "Play i s L i f e I t s e l f . " Theory Into Practice, 13:4:267-272, 1974. Feitelson, Dina and G a i l Ross, "The Neglected Factor-Play." Human Development, 16:3:202-223, 1973. Flinchum, B. and M. Hanson, "Who Says the Young Child Can't?" JOHPER, June, 1972. Furst, Norma and R. H i l l , "Classroom Observation, Systematic. The Encyclopedia of Education, 2:168-183, 1971. Gillander, John,"Play - Pre School Prelude to Physical Education." CAPHER Journal, 38:2:19-22, Nov.-Dec.1971. Gottfr i e d , Nathan, and B. Seay, "Early Social Behavior: Age and Sex Baseline Data From A Hidden Population." Journal of Genetic Psychology, 125:1:61-70, Sept.1974. Halverson, C.F., "The Relations of Mechanically Recorded A c t i v i t y Level to V a r i e t i e s of Pre School Play Behavior." C h i l d Development, 44:3:678-81, Sept. 1973. Halverson,Lolas, "A Real Look at the Young Child." JOHPER, 31-33, May 1971. Hansen, Harlan and Ruth, "The Child and the Curriculum - ECE: Children Need Playtime." Instructor, 82:4:45-46, Dec. 1972. Harper, L.V. and K.M. Sanders, "Preschool Children's Use of Space: Sex Differences i n Outdoor Play." Developmental Psychology, 11:1:119, Jan. 1975. Hartley, Ruth, "Children's Concepts of Male and Female Roles." Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 6:83-91, 1960. and F.P. Hardesty, "Children's Perceptions of Sex Roles i n Childhood." Journal of Genetic Psychology 105:43-51, 1964. Huizinga, Johan. HomoLudens, A Study of the Play-Element In Culture. London: Routledge and K. Paul, 19 49. Jackson, D.W. and H.R. Angelino, "Play as Learning" Theory Into Practice, 13:4:317-322, Oct. 1974. King, Francine and Gary Thompson, "Application of a 'Research Attitude' to Classroom Teaching." Volta Review, 71:426-431, 1969. 147 King, Stanley, "Young People Design Their Future." Australian Planning Journal, 8:2, A p r i l 1970. Kunze, Luvern, "Program for Training In Behavioral Observation." Asha, 9"12:474, Dec. 1967. Lewis, Michael, "Sex Differences i n Play Behavior of The Very Young." JOHPER, June 1972. Martinello, Marian, "Play-ground For Learning." Elementary School Journal, 74:2:106-114, Nov. 1973. M o f f i t t , Mary, "Play As A Medium For Learning - Does Play Make A Difference." JOHPER, 45-47, June 1972. Preiser, Wolfgang, "Work In Progress: Behavior of Nursery School Children Under Different S p a t i a l Densities." Man-Environment Systems, 2:4:247-250, July 1972. Reece, L.H., "The Play Needs of Children Aged Six to Twelve." Marriage and Family L i v i n g , 16:131-134, 1954. Riley, Sue, "Some Reflections On The Value of Children's Play." Young Children, 28:3:146-153, Feb. 1973, Rosenberg, B.G. and B. Sutton-Smith, "A Revised Conception of Masculine-Feminine Differences In Play A c t i v i t i e s . " Journal of Genetic Psychology, 96:165-170, 1960. __, "The Measurement of Masculinity and Femininity In Children." C h i l d Development, 30:373-380, 1959. Stone, J.P., "Play Of L i t t l e Children" Quest, 4:23-31, A p r i l , 1965. Sutton-Smith, Brian, "Child's Play - Very Serious Business." Psychology Today, 67-69, Dec. 1971. , "Play As A Transformational Set." JOHPER, 43:6:32-33, June 1972. , B. Rosenberg and E. Morgan, "Development of Sex Differences In Play Choices During Preadolescence." C h i l d Development, 34:119-126, 1963. Ward, Colleen, "The C i t y On The Wall." Journal of Town and Country Planning Association, 40:6:327-330, June 1972. 148 Whitehurst, Katurah, "What Movement Means To Young Children." JOHPER, 34-35, May 1971. Wolfgang, C.H. "From Play To Work" Theory Into Practice, 13:4:275-286, Oct. 1974. Other: Bishop, Robert and Others, Measurement Of Children's Preferences For The Play Environment. Paper Presented At Environmental Design Research Association Annual Conference, C a l i f o r n i a : January 1972. Kretschmer, Richard. A Study To Assess The Play A c t i v i t i e s And Gesture Output Of Hearing Handicapped Pre-School Children. F i n a l Report, A p r i l 1972. Neumann, Eva. Observing and Planning For Play And Competence. A p r i l 1974. Phinney, Jean. The Influence of A b i l i t y Level and Materials on C l a s s i f l e a f o r y and Imaginative Behavior In Free Play. Los Angeles: 1972. Roderick, Jessie, and Others. Nonverbal Behavior Of Young Children As It Relates To Their Decision Making: A Report of Research Findings. Sept. 1971. Salvay, B. Toward Parent and Teacher Understanding of The Importance of Play. Master's Thesis, C a l i f o r n i a State University, Jan. 197 4. Sutton-Smith, Brian. A Descriptive Account Of Four Modes of Children's Play Between One And Five Years. Dec.1970. -. Play As V a r i a b i l i t y Training And, As The Useless Made Useful. New York: N.Y.S.A.E.Y.C. Publications,1972. . The P l a y f u l Modes of Knowing. 1970. Van Anne, Nancy. L i f e ! Through Play. Paper Presented to The Wyoming Association For Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Wyoming: Nov. 1974. Wade, G.R. A Study Of Free-Play Patterns Of Elementary School Age Children In Playground Equipment Areas. Master's Thesis, Pennsylvania: 1968. 149 Walston, Herman. Materials, Equipment, And Primary Learning Factors Which Can Be U t i l i z e d By Early Childhood Education Planners In Devising Creative Playgrounds For Young Children. March 1974. 150 APPENDIX A THE TYPE OF PLAYGROUND EQUIPMENT LOCATED ON THE SCHOOLS USED IN THIS STUDY 151 APPENDIX B QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW 1. Do you l i k e to play? Yes No Don't know (Desire To Play) 2. A) Do you get any kinds of feelings when playing on your school playground? Yes No Don't know (Reasons For Playing) B) How does i t make you feel?(LIST THREE FEELINGS) 3. A) Do you l i k e to play on your school playground? Yes No Don't know (Reasons For Playing) i . If yes, why? 1) because i t ' s fun 2) I can meet new kids and be with my friends 3) I l i k e scary feelings when (ALLOW SEVERAL moving f a s t , swinging or climbing CHOICES - FROM high CHOICES RANK 4) I l i k e to play hard ORDER TOP 3) 5) there are fun things (Equipment) 6) I can do my school work better after playing 7) I f e e l better after playing 8) Other 152 i i ) If no, why? 1) i t ' s not fun 2) other children bother or bug me 3) I get scary feelings when moving fas t , swinging or climbing high and I don't l i k e these feelings 4) play i s hard work 5) there are no fun things (Equipment) 6) I find i t hard to do my school work afte r playing 7) I don't f e e l good a f t e r playing 8) other 4) When do you play most often on your school playground? (Most Popular Time) 1. during recesses 4. aft e r school 2. during lunch hours 5. weekends 3. before school 6. evenings (after dinner) (RANK TOP 2 CHOICES) 5) A) Do you have a favorit e spot to play on your school playground? Yes No Don't know (Favorite Spot) B) If yes, what i s i t ? 1) equipment area 2) blacktop area 3) playing f i e l d 4) other (RANK ORDER TOP 2 CHOICES) 153 6. Which of the following choices do you do most often? (Play Behaviors) A) 1) play alone (.1 CHOICE). B) 1) things that take a l o t of energy and I f e e l t i r e d after (High Energy A c t i v i t i e s ) 2) things that take some energy but not a l o t (Medium Energy A c t i v i t i e s ) 3) quiet s i t t i n g things (Low Energy A c t i v i t i e s ) (.1 CHOICE) 7. What things do you do most often on your school play- ground? (Play Behaviors) 2) play with children your own age 3) play with children younger than yourself 4) play with children older than yourself 1) running 7) skipping 2) jumping 8) making things 3) throwing and catching 9) s l i d i n g 4) kicking 10) swinging 5) climbing 11) other 6) hopping (RANK ORDER TOP 3 CHOICES - WHY FOR FIRST CHOICE) What favorite kinds of games do you do most often on your school playground? (Play Behaviors) 1) sports i . e . baseball, f o o t b a l l , soccer 2) tag and chasing games 3) games you or your friends make up 4) games you need s p e c i a l equipment for i . e . tether b a l l 5) a c t i v i t i e s you do on your school playground equipment i . e . the wooden structure 6) a c t i v i t i e s where you can b u i l d or make d i f f e r e n t things from sand, paper and other materials 7) other What things do you use most often on your school playground? (Equipment) 1) things to climb 2) things to swing on 3) things to b u i l d with 4) things to s l i d e on 5) things to r o l l on or over 6) things to balance on 7) things to crawl on or over 8) things to spin around on 9) things to go up and down on 10) other (RANK ORDER TOP 3 CHOICES - WHY FOR FIRST CHOICE) A) Do you want more things to play on or with i n your school playground? Yes No Don't (Equipment) B) If yes, what kinds of things? (RANK ORDER TOP 2) 156 APPENDIX C TABLE 2 8 QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW AND OBSERVATION SCHEDULE SCHOOLS Grauer Errington Bridge Woodward Lee QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW November 17th, 18th and 19 th (.19.75) *Reinterview; January 14th and 15th (1976) November 21st, 2 4th and 25th (1975) *Reinterview; January 21st and 22nd (1976) November 26th and 2 8th, and December 1st (1975) December 3rd, 9th and 10th (1975) December 2nd, 4th and 8th (1975) OBSERVATIONS February 9th and March 11th (1976) November 2 0th and 27th (1975) March 15th and 17th (1976) March 15th and 17th (1976) March 12th and 17th (1976) APPENDIX D BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUE Weather School Day and Date Grade Play Area So c i a l i z a t i o n Alone (A) or Group (G) Males Females Degree of Energy High (H), Medium (M) or Low (L) Males Females A c t i v i t i e s Kinds of Games Males Females Males Females U l APPENDIX E PILOT STUDY The p i l o t study used a s i m i l a r methodology as i n this study. 200 children from three playgrounds were i n - terviewed i n d i v i d u a l l y on the topic of play on playgrounds. The investigator recorded a l l responses which were then placed on computer cards for analysis by; 1. responses to i n d i v i d u a l questions 2. responses i n r e l a t i o n to sex 3. responses i n r e l a t i o n to age 4. responses i n r e l a t i o n to the playgrounds 5. responses i n r e l a t i o n to sex within each age Observations were co l l e c t e d on the hour throughout the day (3 days/playground) and recorded on a chart by the i n - vestigator. The observations were directed at; 1. the t o t a l number of children i n the playground at a given time 2. the favorite play patterns - ranking the top three a c t i v i t i e s and giving the t o t a l number of children per a c t i v i t y 3. the top three play areas and the number of children at each. When the p i l o t study was taking place, the i n - vestigator often asked children for t h e i r opinions of the p a r t i c u l a r questions and whether or not they understood what was being asked. Since the interviewing was done i n d i v i d u a l l y , i t was easier for the investigator to ask further questions as a method of checking i f i n fact the c h i l d was comprehending. The p i l o t study was of benefit to this study due to the following reasons; 1. children aged f i v e through to twelve were used and the children for t h i s study ranged in ages from approximately six through to eight. 2. the investigator became accustomed to the methodology. 3. the children i n the p i l o t study were able to express th e i r views thus the investigator developed confidence i n her approach. 4. modifications to the observational approach and the questionnaire were made to make the present study more meaningful. 5. the children interviewed helped the investigator in wording the questionnaire. 6. the investigator established a good interview approach - speak slowly, repeat each question, emphasize the key words of each question, and observe a ch i l d ' s f a c i a l expressions as a method of determinging the ch i l d ' s l e v e l of comprehension. 7. the one to one approach for interviewing was found to be extremely successful. 160 APPENDIX F TABLE 29 RELIABILITY OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW Key: % no change for the question - the percentage of children who gave the same responses for the question on both interviews divided by the t o t a l # of children responding. Most popular choices - those choices per question which were chosen most often by the children. % no change for responses - the percentage of children who gave the same responses for the choices on both interviews divided by the t o t a l # of children who i n i t i a l l y selected the choice **** Outstanding Percentage ** High Percentage * Low Percentage Question % No Change for Most Popular % No Change For # The Question Responses Responses 1 **** 100% yes ****100% 2A ** 71.95% yes *** 76.46% 2B 25.84% correct happy * 55.28% on a l l three fun ** 66.78% choices* 61.39% correct on at least two of three choices ** 77.44% correct on at least one of three choices*** 3A 3 i . Ranking 5A 5B 6A 6B **** 95.64<i **** 91.21^ 12.62% on a l l choice 59.44% on at two of choice 91.31% on at one of choice correct three s* correct least three s* correct least three Q * * * * 49.99% correct on both choices* 90.08% correct on le a s t one of two *** 81.45% 45.98% correct on both choices* 80.71% correct on at le a s t one of two choices*** ** 70.27^ 68.90% yes fun meet new kids scary feelings play hard fun things do school work better f e e l better fun things friends fun lunch recess. yes equipment playing f i e l d children your own age a l o t of energy quiet things **** 99.27% 161 **** **** * * * * * * **** * * * * *** * * ** * * * ** 98.96% 96.48% 76.28% 83.78% 100% 91 91 95% 05% 54.48% 64.49% 55.28% 82.81% 68.18% *** 86.63% *** 77.34% ** 63.73% *** 88.02% *** 77.36% ** 74.87% 5.06% correct on* running f i v e of f i v e swinging choices s l i d i n g 46.06% correct climbing on at least making four of f i v e things choices* 75.55% correct on at least three of f i v e choices*** ** *** *** ** ** 162 71.93% 78.34% 77.22% 73.04% 72.25% 7 Why? 8 43.98? 9 Why? 10A 10B 19.12% on top three* 76.61% on at two of choice 98.38% on at one of choice correct three of choices correct least three correct least three c * * * fun tag made up games 10.34% correct on three of three* choices 50.13% correct on at lea s t two of three choices* 88.07% correct on at l e a s t one of three choices*** * 48.61% *** 80.19% 27.78% correct on both choices* 69.82% correct on at least one of two choices** things to go up and down on things to s l i d e on fun yes things to swing on *** ** *** ** * * * 56.00? 87.65% 72.62% 76.89% 63.83 = 54.17% 83.69% 49.17% i APPENDIX G 163 DETAILED ANALYSIS FOR THE RELIABILITY OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW The r e l i a b i l i t y of each question was considered separately. Those questions with yes, no or do not know choices, that i s : questions 1, 2A, 3A, 5A and 10A were analysed on a percentage basis. A t o t a l percentage of those responses that were the same both times was c a l - culated along with the percentage "no change" for each of the choices: 1. yes, 2. no and 3. do not know. This was to show the investigator where there were discrepancies. For questions 2B, 3B, 4, 5B, 7 and 10B, a similar method of testing the r e l i a b i l i t y was used. Since these questions required more than one response, 'no change' per- centages were tabulated for consistency in a l l of the responses i . e . three out of three, two out of two or f i v e out of f i v e depending on the number of responses required. 'No change' percentages were also tabulated for consistency in some of the responses i . e . two out of three, one out of three, one out of two, four out of f i v e , three out of f i v e , two out of f i v e and one out of f i v e depending on the number of responses required. This was to give the investigator further insight into the number of children who were con- sis t e n t i n a l l of t h e i r choices for a p a r t i c u l a r question and i n some of t h e i r choices. For example, i n question three, i f a c h i l d gave i d e n t i c a l choices for his three favorite reasons why he l i k e s to play on his school playground, he would be l i s t e d as one of those i n the percentage giving three of three correct answers. Once t h i s was done, a further method of t e s t i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y by considering each choice for each question i n d i v i d u a l l y was h e l p f u l i n determining which choices had the greatest discrepancies. Question 6A and 6B were analysed on a percentage 'no change' for the questions as a whole and then each choice was looked at separately. Since question 8 asked each c h i l d to rank order t h e i r f i r s t f i v e choices, and there were only six choices given, a percentage of consistency or 'no change' i n the f i r s t three responses for three of three, two of three and one of three choices were tabulated. The method of analysis for t e s t i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y of t h i s questionnaire-interview, was c a l - culated on a percentage basis. It was f e l t that t h i s was most appropriate for such a questionnaire-interview because i t was designed to determine the number of children responding to each of the choices and c a l - culating those attitudes most popular to t h i s age group. APPENDIX H TABLE 30 GENERAL RESPONSES FOR QUE STIONNAlRE- INTERVIEW TECHNIQUE (ATTITUDE DATA) Key: Absolute frequency - the number of children responding to the choice. Adjusted frequency - the percentage of children who selected a p a r t i c u l a r choice divided by the t o t a l number of children who responded to the question. Significance l e v e l - the significance l e v e l was obtained using chi square. Question Choice i n Absolute Adjusted Significance Order of Frequency Frequency Level Preference (Percent) #1 Do you yes 339 100% .01 l i k e to N=339 play? #2A Do you yes 186 54.9% No S i g n i f i - get any no 146 43.1% cant kinds of do not 7 2.1% Difference feelings know N=339 when playing on your school playground? 166 #2B How does happy 96 31. 2% i t make pleasant 44 14. 3% you feel? feelings (List fun 42 13. 6% three other 41 13. 3% choices) unpleasant feelings 29 9. 4% good 26 8. 4% sad 19 6. 2% dizzy 11 N=308 3. 6% 01 3A Do you l i k e to play on your school play- ground? yes no 329 10 N=339 97.1% 2.9% 01 Yes, be- cause i t i s fun? yes no do not know 329 9 1 N=339 97.1% 2.7% 0.3% 01 Yes, be- cause I can meet new kids and be with my friends? yes no do not know 324 12 3 N=339 95.6% 3 • 5 % 0.9% . 01 Yes, be- cause I yes no l i k e scary do not feelings? know 177 158 4 N=339 52*2% 46.6% 1.2% No S i g n i f i - cant Difference Yes, be- yes cause I no l i k e to do not play hard? know 205 124 10 N=339 60.5% 36.6% 2.9% .01 #3A continued Yes, be- yes cause no there are fun things 330 9 N=339 Y'es, be- cause I can do my school work better after playing? yes no do not know 280 53 6 N=339 Yes, be- cause I fe e l better after playing? yes no do not know 293 42 4 N=339 Yes, be- cause i t provides an oppor- tunity to do things? no yes 288 51 N=339 Yes, be- cause play i s good for your health? no yes 330 9 N=339 Yes, be- cause of other reasons? no yes 309 30 N=339 #3A continued Reasons fun things 88 26.1% .01 why? meet new ( f i r s t kids 68 20. 2% rank) fun 67 19.9% I f e e l better 46 13.6% provides oppor- t u n i t i e s 21 6.2% do school work better 18 5.3% after other 11 3 • 3 % I l i k e to play hard 8 2.4% I l i k e scary feelings: 7 2.1% play i s good for your health 3 .9% N=337 Do not yes 6 60.0% no s i g n i f i play be- no 4 40.0% cant cause i t N=10 difference i s not fun? Do not yes 7 70.0% .01 play be- no 3 30.0% cause N=10 other children bug me Do not no 7 70.0% .01 • play be- yes 3 30.0% cause I N=10 get scary feelings? Do not no 10 100% .01 play be- N=10 cause play i s hard work #3A continued Do not play - no fun things Do not play - hard doing school work after? I do not f e e l good af t e r playing? Other Reasons why? yes 6 no 4 N= =10 yes 5 no 5 N= = 10 no 6 yes 4 N= ao yes 5 no 5 N= 10 other kids 6 bug me no fun things 6 i t i s not fun 4 other 4 I do not f e e l good af t e r 3 hard to do school work afte r 2 get scary- feelings 1 N= 26 60.0% no s i g n i f i 40.0% cant difference 50.0% no s i g n i f i 50.0% cant difference 60.0% no s i g n i f i 40.0% cant difference 50.0% no s i g n i f i 50.0% cant difference 2 3.1% no s i g n i f i cant difference 23.1% 15.4% 15 .4% 11.5% 7.7% 3. 8% #4 When do lunch 154 45.6% you play recess 86 25.4% most after often school 48 14.2% on your weekends 36 10.7% school evenings 11 3.3% playground? before (Fi rs t school 3 .9% rank) N=338 #5A Do you yes 278 82.0% .01 have a no 61 18.0% favorite N=339 spot to play on your school play- ground? #5B I f yes, equip- 171 61.5% .01 what i s ment i t ? playing ( F i r s t f i e l d 63 22.7% rank) sand 15 5.4% other 15 5.4% blacktop 14 5.0% N=278 #6A Which play with do you children do most your own often? age 185 54.6% .01 children older 75 22.1% children younger 47 13.9% play alone 32 9.4% N=339 #6B Which do a l o t of 159 46.9% .01 you do energy most quiet often? things 125 36.9% some energy 55 16.2% N=339 #7 What running 130 38. 3% things swinging 51 15. 0% do you s l i d i n g 39 11. 5% do most climbing 27 8. 0% often on making your things 25 7. 4% school kicking 19 5 . 6% playground? skipping 12 3. 5% ( F i r s t j umping 11 3. 2% rank) throwing 10 2. 9% other 8 2. 4% hopping 7 2. 1% N= •339 #7 Whyfor fun 73 23. 7% f i r s t other 61 19. 8% choice? can play games 55 17. 9% i t i s healthy 53 17. 2% I l i k e i t 25 8. 1% I can be with my friends 24 7. 8% there are good f a c i l i t i e s 17 5. 5% N= 30 8 #8 What tag and favorite chasing 114 33. 6% kinds of games you games do make up 75 22 . 1% you most sports 61 18. 0% often play b u i l d or on your make things 51 15. 0% school games on playground? equipment 24 7. 1% ( F i r s t s p e c i a l rank) equipment games 14 4. 1% N= 339 #9 What things go up and do you use down on 59 17. 6% most often s l i d e on 56 16 . 7% on your spin around school on 47 14. 0% playground? climb 43 12. 8% ( F i r s t swing on 41 12. 2% rank) other 29 8. 7% balance on 28 8. 4% b u i l d with 23 6. 9% r o l l on or over 6 1. 8% crawl on 3 0. 9% N= :335 #9 Whyfor fun 89 29. 9% f i r s t other 68 22 . 8% choice?" l i k e i t 36 12. 1% I get dizzy 22 7. 4% i t i s ver- s a t i l e 22 7. 4% I can go high 18 6. 0% can play games 15 5. 0% i t i s healthy 14 4. 7% allows for c r e a t i v i t y 14 4. 7% N= 298 #10A Do you want yes 209 61. 7% more things no 125 36 . 9% to play on do not or with i n know 5 1. 5% your school N= 339 playground? ( F i r s t rank) 173 #10B I f yes, other 69 21.1% .01 what kinds of things things to swing on 68 20. 8% things to climb 38 11.6% things to manipulate 35 10.7% sl i d e s 33 10.1% teeter- totters 25 7.6% things to ride 25 7.6% merry-go- round 22 6.7% forts 12 3.7% N=3 27 APPENDIX I TABLE 31 GENERAL RESPONSES FOR OBSERVATION TECHNIQUE (BEHAVIOR DATA) Key: Absolute frequency Adjusted frequency the number of children observed performing each choice, the percentage of children observed performing each choice divided by the number of children observed for the question. Significance l e v e l - the significance l e v e l was obtained using chi square OBSERVATION CHOICE IN ABSOLUTE ADJUSTED SIGNIFICANCE ORDER OF FREQUENCY FREQUENCY LEVEL PREFERENCE (PERCENT) #1 Favorite spot "' ' equipment area 825 playing f i e l d 346 blacktop 200 N=1371 60.2% 25.2% 14.6% 01 175 OBSERVATION CHOICE IN ABSOLUTE ADJUSTED SIGNIFICANCE ORDER OF FREQUENCY FREQUENCY LEVEL PREFERENCE (PERCENT) #2ai A c t i v i t i e s #2aii Kinds of Games #2b S o c i a l i - zation #2c Degree of Energy running 3 40 swinging 239 climbing 215 s l i d i n g 183 making things 149 other 108 kicking 39 skipping 29 throwing and catching 2 6 hopping 24 jumping 19 games on equipment 648 tag and chasing 204 sports 161 games you make up 156 buil d or make things 136 special equipment games 6 6 play i n a group 1286 play alone 85 N=1371 a l o t of energy 691 quiet things 3 47 some energy 333 N=1371 24.8% 17 .4% 15.7% 13.4% 10.6% 7.9% 2.8% 2.1% 1.9% 1.8% 1.4% 01 47 .3% 14.9% 11.7% 11.4% 9 . 9% 4.8% 93 . 8% 6.2% 50 25, 24 , 4% 3% 3% 01 01 176 APPENDIX J TABLE 32 COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO SEXUAL DIFFERENCES Key: The percentages given are the adjusted frequencies. Obs. - the observational results (Behavior Data) Int. - the questionnaire r e s u l t s (Attitude Data) D. - the difference between res u l t s ED 2 - sum of the differences squared P - Spearman's c o e f f i c i e n t of rank cor r e l a t i o n * - unless otherwise stated, the values of N are: females 663 170 males 708 169 Favorite Spot Sex Blacktop Playing F i e l d Equipment Obs. Int. D. Obs. Int. D. Obs. Int. D, Female 18.7% 6.7% 12.0% 14.0% 12.6% 1.4% 67.3% 68.9% 1.6% Male 10.7% 3.5% 7.2% 35.7% 32.2% 3.5% 53.5% 54.5% 1.0% for Int. females, N=135; males, N=143 So c i a l i z a t i o n Sex Alone Group Obs. Int. D. Obs. Int. D. Female 7.8% 11.8% 4.0% 92.2% 88.2% 4.0% Male 5.4% 7.1% 1.7% 94.6% 92.9% 1.7% Degree of Energy 177 Sex Alot of Energy Some Energy Quiet Things Obs Int. D. Obs. Int. D. Obs. Int. D. Female 38. 2% 31.8% 6.4% 28.8% 20.0% 8.8% 33.0% 48.2% 15.2% Male 61. 9% 62.1% .2% 20.1% 12.4% 7.7% 18.1% 25.4% 7.3% A c t i v i t i e s Responses Males 0 Females o Obs. Int. D. D Obs. Int. D D Running 1st 1st 0 0 3 1 2 4 Jumping 9th 7 . 5th 1.5 2.25 10 8 2 4 Throwing 8th 7 .5th .5 .25 9 9.5 -.5 .25 Kicking 7 th 4th 3 9 11 11 0 0 Climbing 2nd 5 th -3 9 2 6 -4 16 ' Hopping l l t h l O .5th .5 .25 8 7 1 1 Skipping lOthlO .5th -.5 .25 7 5 2 4 Making Things 5 th 6 th -1 1 4 . 4 0 0 Sl i d i n g 3rd 3rd 0 0 5 3 2 4 Swinging 4 th 2nd 2 4 1 2 -1 1 Other 6 th 9th. -3 9 6 9.5 -3.5 12 .25 Total ED 2 = 35.5 ED2=46 .5 P = .841 P -.789 Kinds of Games Responses Obs Males Int. D. D 2 Obs Females Int. D. D 2 Sports 2 2 0 0 6 6 0 Q Tag 3 1 2 4 3 1 2 4 Games you make up 5 3 2 4 2 2 0 0 Special Equipment 6 6 0 0 5 4 1 1 Games on Equipment 1 5 -4 16 1 5 -4 16 Make Things 4 4 0 0 4 3 1 1 Total ED 2 = 24 2 ED = = 22 P = .314 P = = .372 178 APPENDIX K TABLE 3 3 COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO GRADE DIFFERENCES Key: The percentages given are the adjusted frequencies Obs. - the observational r e s u l t s (Behavior Data) Int. - the questionnaire results (Attitude Data) D. - the difference between res u l t s 2 ED - sum of the differences squared P - Spearman's c o e f f i c i e n t of rank cor r e l a t i o n * - unless otherwise stated, the values of N are: Obs.Int. grade 1 437 108 grade 2 443 114 grade 3 491 117 Favorite Spot Grade Blacktop Playing F i e l d Equipment Obs. Int. D. Obs. Int. D. Obs. Int. D. 1 14.4% 7.4% 7.0% 22.9% 11.7% 11.2% 62.7% 58.5% 4.2% 2 7.4% 1.1% 6.3% 21.7% 26.1% 4.4% 70.9% 68.2% 2\7% 3 21.2% 6.3% 14.9% 30.6% 30.2% .4% 48.3% 58.3% 10.0% for Int. grade 1, N=94; grade 2, N=8 8; grade 3,N=96 So c i a l i z a t i o n Grade Alone Group Obs. Int. D. Obs. Int. D. 1 8.2% 8.3% .1% 91.8% 91.7% .1% 2 6.8% 13.2%6 .4% 93.2% 86.8%6.4% 3 4.9% 6.8%1 .9% 95.1% 93.2%1.9% 179 Degree of Energy Grade Alot of Energy Some Energy Quiet Things Obs. Int. D. Obs . Int. D. Obs. Int. D. 1 43.5% 38 .0% 5. 5% 24. 0% 8.3% 15. 7 % 3 2 • 5 % 53.7% 21. 2% 2 48.8% 46 • 5 % 2 • 3% 24. 4% 16.7% 7. 7% 26.9% 36.8% 9. 9% 3 58.0% 55 • 6 % 2 • 4% 24. 4% 23.1% 1. 3% 17.5% !21.4% 3. 9% A c t i v i t i e s Responses Grade 1 Obs Int. D. D 2 Running 1 1 0 0 Jumping 11 5.5 5.5 30.25 Throwing 9 10.5 -1.5 2.25 Kicking 10 7.5 2.5 6.25 Climbing 3 7.5 -4.5 20.25 Hopping 8 10.5 -2.5 6.25 Skipping 7 9 -2 4 Making Things 4 4 0 0 Sl i d i n g 5 3 2 4 Swinging 2 2 0 0 Other 6 5.5 .5 .25 Total 2 ED = 73.5 P = .666 Responses Grade 2 Obs • Int. D. D. Running 1 1 0 0 Jumping 9 8.5 .5 .25 Throwing 10 8.5 1.5 2.25 Kicking 7 6.5 .5 .25 Climbing 2 4 .': -2 4 Hopping 11 10.5 .5 .25 Skipping 8 5 3 9 Making Things 5 6.5 -1.5 2.25 S l i d i n g 4 3 1 1 Swinging 3 2 1 1 Other 6 10.5 -4.5 20.25 Total ED2= 40.5 P = .816 Responses Obs. Grade 3 Int. D. 180 D. Running 1 1 0 0 Jumping 9.5 9.5 0 0 Throwing 8 6.5 1.5 2.25 Kicking 7. 4.5 2.5 6.25 Climbing 3 2 1 1 Hopping 9.5 8 1.5 2.25 Skipping 11 9.5 1.5 2.25 Making Things 6 6.5 -.5 .25 S l i d i n g 4 4.5 -.5 .25 Swinging 2 3 -1 1 Other 5 11 -6 36 Total ED2= 51.5 Kinds of Games Responses Grade 1 Obs. Int. D. D. Sports 6 4 2 4 Tag 2 1 1 1 Games you make up 4 3 1 1 Special Equipment 5 6 -1 1 Games on Equipment 1 5 -4 16 Make Things 3 2 1 1 Total ED 2 = 24 P = 181 Responses Grade 2 o Obs. Int. D. D. Sports 5 3 2 4 Tag 2 1 1 1 Games you.imake up 4 2 2 4 Special Equipment 6 6 0 0 Games on Equipment 1 5 -4 16 Make Things 3 4 -1 1 Total ED 2 = 26 P = .257 Responses Grade 3 o Obs. Int. D. D.2 Sports 2 2 0 0 Tag 4 1 3 9 Games you make up 3 3 0 0 Special Equipment 6 6 0 0 Games on Equipment 1 5 -4 16 Make Things 5 4 1 1 Total 26 .257 182 APPENDIX L TABLE 3 4 COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO SCHOOL DIFFERENCES Key: The percentages given are the adjusted frequencies Obs - the observational r e s u l t s (Behavior Data) Int.- the questionnaire results (Attitude Data) D. - the difference between results 2 ED - sum of the differences squared P - Spearman's c o e f f i c i e n t of rank c o r r e l a t i o n * - unless otherwise stated, the values of N are: Obs.Int. Grauer 290 63 Errington 278 79 Bridge 265 65 Lee 272 68 Woodward 266 64 Favorite Spot School Blacktop %Obs. %Int. %D. Playing F i e l d %Obs. %Int. %D. Equipment %Obs. %Int. S 'sD. Grauer 9.7% 12.0% 2.3% 26.2% 10.0% 16.2% 64.1% 68.0% 3.9! 3% 32.0% 20.3% 11.7% 50.0% 67 9% 14.7% 19.3% 4.6% 72.1% 59, 17 .2% 12.5% Erring- ton 18.0% Bridge 13.2% Lee 22.4% Wood- ward 9.8% 3.7% 6.1% 25.2% 35.2% 10.0% 65.0% 57.4% 7.6% 4.7% 13, 5.3% 7, 0.0% 22, 4% 27.6% 28.3? 6% 49.3% 54.7% 5.4! For interview r e s u l t s , the values of N are: G. N=5 0 E. N=64 B. N=57 L. N=53 W. N=54 S o c i a l i z a t i o n 183 School Alone Group %Obs. %Int. %D. %Obs. %Int. %D. Grauer 6.9% 9.5% Erring- ton 8.6% 6.3% Bridge 7.2% 13.8% Lee 4.0% 8.8% Wood- ward 4.1% 9.4% 2.6% 93.1% 90.5% 2.6% 2.3% 91.4% 93.7% 2.3% 6.6% 92.8% 86.2% 6.6% 4.8% 96.0% 91.2% 4.8% 5.3% 95.9% 90.6% 5.3% Degree of Energy- School Alot of Energy Some Energy Quiet Things %Obs. %Int. %D. %Obs. %Int. %D. %Obs. %Int. %D, Grauer 44.1% 31.7% 12.4% 23.1% Erring- ton 47.1% 48.1% 1.0% 27.7% Bridge 54.3% 52.3% 2.0% 17.4% Lee 52.2% 60.3% 8.1% 27.9% Wood- ward 54.9% 40.6% 14.9% 25.8% 19. 0% 4 1 9- 32 . 8 % 49. 2% 16 .4% 21. 5% 6 9 9- 25 9 9- 30. 4% 5 .2% 10. 8% 6 .6% 28 "3 9- 36. 9% 8 .6% 10. 3%17 .6% 19 . 8 % 29. 4% 9 • 6 % 18. 8% 7 .0% 19 .9% 40. 6% 20 7 9- A c t i v i t i e s Responses Grauer 9 Errington 9 Obs. Int. D. D . Obs. Int. D. D 2. Running 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 Jumping 8 9.5 -1.5 2.25 8 9 -1 1 Throwing 10 11 -1 1 10 7.5 2.5 6.25 Kicking 7 5 2 4 9 10.5 -1.5 2.25 Climbing 3 6.5 -3.5 12.25 4 4 0 0 Hopping 10 9.5 .5 .25 6 6 0 0 Skipping 10 6.5 3.5 12.25 11 10.5 .5 .25 Making Things 3 3 0 0 1 7 5 2 4 Sl i d i n g 4 4 0 0 ; 3 3 0 0 Swinging 2 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 Other 6 8 -2 4 5 7.5 -2.5 6.25 Total ED 2 = 36 1 ED 2 = 20 P = .836 P = .909 184 Responses Bridge ? Lee o Obs. Int. D. D . . Obs. Int. D. D Running 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 Jumping 10 6.5 3.5 12.25 10.5 8 2.5 6.25 Throwing 8 9 -1 1 5.5 6.5 -1 •1 Kicking 10 9 1 1 9 5 4 16 Climbing 3 2.5 .5 .25 2 4 -2 4 Hopping 7 11 -4 16 10.5 9.5 1 1 Skipping 10 6.5 3.5 12.25 8 9.5 -1.5 2.25 Making Things 5 5 0 0 4 6.5 -2.5 6.25 S l i d i n g 4 4 0 0 5.5 3 2.5 . 6.25 Swinging 2 2.5 -.-5 .25 3 2 1 1 Other 6 9 -3 9 7 11 -4 16 Total ED 2 = 52 2 ED = 60 p = .764 727 Responses Woodward Obs. Int. D. D' Running 1 1 0 0 Jumping 10.5 6. 5 4 16 Throwing 9 8. 5 .5 25 Kicking 7 3. 5 3.5 12. 25 Climbing 4 6. 5 -2.5 6. 25 Hopping 10.5 11 -.5 • 25 Skipping 6 5 1 1 Making Things 5 8 . 5 -3.5 12. 25 S l i d i n g 3 3. 5 -.5 . 25 Swinging 2 2 0 0 Other 8 10 -2 4 Total ED 2 =52. 5 P =.761 Kinds of Games 185 Responses Grauer 9 Errington Obs. Int. D. D Obs Int. D D 2 Sports 5 4 1 1 4 3 1 1 Tag 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 Games you make up 3.5 2 1.5 2.25 3 2 1 1 Special Equipment 6 6 0 0 6 6 0 0 Games on Equipment 1 5 -4 16 : l 4 -3 9 Make Things 3.5 3 .5 .25 . 5 5 0 0 Total 2 ED =20.50 ED 2 = 12 P = .414 P = .657 Responses Bridge 9 Lee Obs. Int. D. DZ Obs. Int. D. D 2 Sports 4 4 0 0 2 2 0 0 Tag 3 1 2 4 3 1 2 4 Games you make up 5 2.5 2.5 6.25 4.5 3 1.5 2.25 Special Equipment 6 6 0 0 '4.5 6 -1.5 2.25 Games on Equipment 1 5 -4 16 1 5 -4 16 Make Things 2 2.5 -.5 .25 6 4 2 4 Total ED 2 = 26.5 ED 2 = 28.5 P = .243 P = .18 Responses Woodward Obs. Int. D. D Sports 2 1 1 1 Tag 3 2 1 1 Games you make up 6 4 2 4 Special Equipment 5 5 0 0 Games on Equipment 1 6 -5 25 Make Things 4 3 1 1 Total ED 2 P = 32 186 APPENDIX M TABLE 35 COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO SEXUAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE Key: The percentages given are the adjusted frequencies Obs. - the observational r e s u l t s (Behavior Data) Int. - the questionnaire results (Attitude Data) D. - the discrepancy between results 2 ED - sum of the differences squared P - Spearman's c o e f f i c i e n t of rank co r r e l a t i o n * - unless otherwise stated, the values of N are: Obs. Int. Grade 1: males, N=218; F.,N=219 M.,N=52; F.,N=56 Grade 2: males, N=220; F.,N=223 M.,N=54; F.,N=60 Grade 3: males, N=270; F.,N=221 M.,N=63; F.,N=54 Favorite Spot Grade Blacktop Sex %Obs. %Int. %D. 1 M 2 M 3 M 1 F 2 F 3 F Playing F i e l d %Obs. %Int. %D. Equipment %Obs. %Int. %D. 5.5% 8.7% 3.2% 27.5% 19.6% 7.9% 67.0% 52.2% 14.8% 5.0% 2.2% 2.8% 29.5% 34.8% 5.3% 65.4% 58.7% 6.7% 19.6% 0.0% 19.6% 47.4% 41.2% 6.2% 33.0% 52.9% 19.9% 23.3% 6.3% 17.0% 18.3% 4.2% 14.1% 58.4% 64.6% 6.2% 9.9% 0.0% 9.9% 13.9% 16.7% 2.8% 76.2% 78.6% 2.4% 23.1% 13.3% 9.8% 10.0% 17.8% 7.8% 67.0% 64.4% 2.6% For interview r e s u l t s , the values of N are: Grade 1, M., N=46 F., N=48 Grade 2, M., N=46 F., N=42 Grade 3, M., N=51 F., N=45 187 Grade Alone Sex %Obs. %Int. 1 M 7.3% 5.8% 2 M 6.4% 14.8% 3 M 3.0% 1.6% 1 F 9.1% 10.7% 2 F 7.2% 11.7% 3 F 7.2% 13.0% So c i a l i z a t i o n Group %D. %Obs. %Int. %D. 1.5% 92.7% 94.2% 1.5% 8.4% 93.6% 85.2% 8.4% 1.4% 97.0% 98.4% 1.4% 1.6% 90.9% 89.3% 1.6% 4.5% 92.8% 88.3% 4.5% 5.8% 92.8% 87.0% 5.8% Degree of Energy Grade Alot of Energy Some Energy Quiet Things Sex %Obs. %Int. %D. %Obs. % i n t . %D. %0bs. %Int. %D. 1 M 57. 8% 51. 9% 5. 9% 20. 2% 5. 8% 14 .4% 22. 0% 42. 3% 20 0 9-. -J ^ 2 M 56. 8% 64. 8% 8. 0% 22. 3% 11. 1% 11 O 9- . X> 20. 9% 24. 1% 3 0 9-3 M 69. 3% 68. 3% 1. 0% 18. 2% 19. 0% . 8 % 12. 6% 12. 7% .1% 1 F 29. 2% 25. 0% 4. 2% 27. 8% 10. 7% 17 .1% 42. 9% 64. 3% 21 .4% 2 F 40. 8% 30. 0% 10. 8% 26. 5% 21. 7% 4 .8% 32. 7% 48. 3% 15 • 6 % 3 F 44. 3% 40. 7% 3. 6% 32. 1% 27. 8% 4 23. 5% 31. 5% 8 .0% A c t i v i t i e s Responses Grade 1 Males Grade 1 Females Obs. Int. D. D 2 Obs. Int. D. D 2 Running 1 1 0 0 3.5 1 2.5 6 .25 Jumping 9.5 7 2.5 6.25 10.5 7 3.5 12 .25 Throwing 9.5 10.5 -1 1 9 10.5 -1.5 2 .25 Kicking 7 4 3 9 10.5 4 6.4 42 .25 Climbing 2 5 -3 9 5 5 0 0 Hopping 9.5 10.5 -1 1 8 10.5 -2.5 6 .25 Skipping 9.5 9 .5 .25 7 9 -2 4 Making Things 4.5 7 -2.5 6.25 2 7 -5 25 S l i d i n g 3 2.5 .5 .25 6 2.5 3.5 12 .25 Swinging 4.5 2.5 2 4 1 2.5 -1.5 2 .25 Other 6 7 -1 1 3.5 7 -3.5 12 .25 Total ED 2 = 38 ED2=125 P = .827 P = .432 188 Responses Grade 2 Obs. Int. D. Running 1 1 0 Jumping 10.5 6.5 4 Throwing 8.5 9 -.5 Kicking 7 2.5 4.5 Climbing 2 4.5 -2.5 Hopping 10.5 10.5 0 Skipping 8.5 10.5 -2 Making Things 5.5 6.5 -1 S l i d i n g 4 4.5 -.5 Swinging 3 2.5 .5 Other 5.5 8 -2.5 Total 2 ED o Grade 2 Females D Obs Int. D. D 2 0 4 1 3 9 16 8 10 -2 4 .25 10.5 7.5 3 9 20.25 9 10 -1 1 6.25 2 5.5 -3.5 12.25 0 10.5 7.5 3 9 4 7 2.5 4.5 20.25 1 3 5.5 -2.5 6.25 .25 5 2.5 2.5 6.25 .25 1 4 -3 9 6.25 6 8 -2 4 54.5 ED 2 = 90 .752 P = .591 Responses Grade 3 Males o Grade 3 Females Obs. Int. D. D 2 I Obs Int. D. D 2 Running 1 1 0 0 i 3 1 2 4 Jumping 9 8 1 1 ! 9 9 0 0 Throwing 8 5 3 9 8 7.5 .5 .25 Kicking 4 2.5 1.5 2. 25 11 10.5 .5 .25 Climbing 5 2.5 2.5-: 6. 25 2 2.5 -.5 .25 Hopping 10.5 10 .5 # 25 7 4 3 9 Skipping 10.5 10 .5 m 25 10 7.5 2.5 6.25 Making Things 7 7 0 0 6 5.5 .5 .25 S l i d i n g 3 6 -3 9 4 5.5 -1.5 2.25 Swinging 2 4 -2 4 1 2.5 -1.5 2.25 Other 6 10 -4 16 5 10.5 -5.5 30.25 Total ED 2 = 48 ED 2 = 55 P = .782 P = ,750 189 Responses Sports Tag Games you make up Special Equipment Games on Equipment Make Things Total Obs, 4.5 2 4.5 6 1 3 Kinds of Games Grade 1 Males „ Int. 3 1 3 6 5 3 D. 1.5 1 1.5 0 -4 0 ED' P D" 2.25 1 2.25 0 16 0 21.5 .386 Obs, 6 3 2 5 1 4 Grade 1 Females Int. 5.5 3 2 4 5.5 1 D. .5 0 0 1 -4.5 3 2 ED = P = D' .25 0 0 1 20.25 9 30.5 .129 Responses Sports Tag Games you make up Special Equipment Games on Equipment Make things Total Obs, 3 2 4.5 6 1 4.5 Grade 2 Males Int. D. 1 2 4 6 5 3 2 0 0 -4 1.5 ED2= P = D' 4 0 0 25 16 2.25 22.5 .357 Grade 2 Females Obs, 6 2 4 5 1 3 Int. 6 2 1 4.5 4.5 3 D. 0 0 •3.5 0 ED P D' 0 0 .25 12.25 0 21.5 .386 Responses Sports Tag Games you make up Special Equipment Games on Equipment Make things Total Grade 3 Males Obs, 1 4 3 6 2 5 Int. 1 2 3 6 4 5 D. 0 2 0 0 -2 0 ED' P D" 0 4 0 0 4 0 = 8 = .772 Grade 3 Females Obs. Int. 3.5 1 2 5 6 3.5 D. D' 2.5 6.25 2 4 0 0 -5 0 0 25 .5 .25 ED = 35.5 P = -.014 APPENDIX N TABLE 36 DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION School Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Total males females t o t a l males females t o t a l males females t o t a l N % N % N % N % N % N % N % N % N % N % Grauer 9 17.3 12 21.4 21 19.4 9 16.7 15 25.0 24 21.0 8 12.7 10 ia*;5;i8 15.4 63 18.6 Erring- ton 13 25.0 11 19.6 24 22.2 11 20.4 16 26.7 27 23.7 13 20.6 15 28.8 28 23.9 79 23.3 Bridge 12 23.1 13 23.2 25 23.1 9 16.7 11 18.3 20 17.5 13 20.6 7 12.9 20 17.1 65 19.2 Lee 12 23.1 10 17.9 22 20.4 15 28.8 7 11.7 22 19.3 15 23.8 9 16.7 24 20.5 68 20.1 Woodward 6 11.5 10 17.9 16 14.8 10 18.5 11 18.3 21 18.4 14 22.2 13 24.1 27 23.1 64 18.9 Total 52 56 108 54 60 114 63 54 117 339 vo o APPENDIX 0 TABLE 37 SIGNIFICANT SEXUAL DIFFERENCES Technique Question Degree of Significance 2 X Calculated # Freedom.: Level X2 Questionnaire- Interview 5B 4 .01 13.28 20.53 7 10 .01 23.21 42.70 7 Why 6 .01 16.81 25.10 8 5 .01 15.09 56.24 6B 2 .01 9.21 31. 60 Observations 1 2 .01 9.21 89.56 2ai 10 .01 23.21 164.92 2 a i i 5 .01 15.09 206.40 2c 2 .01 9.21 7 9..2.1 TABLE 3 8 SIGNIFICANT GRADE DIFFERENCES Questionnaire- Interview 5B 8 .01 20.09 31.80 7 20 .01 37.57 48.62 7 Why 12 .01 26.22 26.96 8 10 .01 23.21 25.55 6B 4 .01 13.28 27.18 Observations 1 4 .01 13.28 59.26 2ai 20 .01 37.57 120.97 2 a i i 10 .01 23.21 192.87 2c 4 .01 13.28 31.22 TABLE 39 SIGNIFICANT SCHOOL DIFFERENCES Technique Question # Questionnaire- Interview 8 (females Gd 2) 8 (males Gd 3) 9 (males Gd 3) Observations 1 2ai 2 a i i Degree of Freedeom 20 16 36 8 40 20 Significance Level 01 01 01 x 01 01 01 37.57 32.00 58.00 20.09 60.00 37.57 Calculated x2 41.16 35.78 63.47 57.94 264.14 136.68 TABLE 40 Questionnaire- Interview SIGNIFICANT SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE 5(Grade 3) 4 .01 13.28 13.91 7(Grade 2) 10 .01 23.21 23.38 8(Grade 1) 5 .01 15.09 17.31 8(Grade 2 j 5 .01 15,09 27.68 8(Grade 3) 5 .01 15.09 21.21 6B(Grade 2) 2 .01 9.21 13.85 6B (Grade 3) 2 .01 9.21 9.72 10A (.Grade 2} 2 .01 9.21 10.62 TABLE 40 (Cont'd) Technique Observations Question Degree of Significance 2 X Calcula # Freedom Level X 2 1(Grade 1) 2 .01 9.21 29.33 1(Grade 2) 2 .01 9.21 17.84 1 (Grade 3) 2 .01 9.21 85.61 2ai(Grade 1) 10 .01 23.21 65.06 2ai(Grade 2) 10 .01 23.21 32.14 2ai(Grade 3) 10 .01 23.21 104.83 2aii(Grade 1) 5 .01 15.09 50.52 2aii(Grade 2) 5 .01 15.09 36.07 2aii(_Grade 3) 5 .01 15.09 147.82 2c (Grade 2) 2 .01 9.21 12.38

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