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Children’s attitudes toward play and children’s play behaviors Toffoli, Louise Marilyn 1976-12-31

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CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES TOWARD PLAY AND CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS by LOUISE MARILYN TOFFOLI B.P.H.E., U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming r e q u i r e d standard  t o the  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 197 6 © L o u i s e M a r i l y n T o f f o l i , 1976  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  make i t  freely available  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  for  for  I agree  that  reference and study.  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  thesis  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or  by h i s of  in p a r t i a l  this  representatives. thesis  It  i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  not be allowed without my  written permission.  Department of  ,„^y^„I)  If  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  &C^cn^7^J  Columbia  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  ffiirZMf/D  S, /9?6*  n.O^rtL  / f jU^&O^nn)  ABSTRACT This i n v e s t i g a t i o n studied children's a t t i t u d e s toward p l a y and t h e i r p l a y behavior p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l playground.  when engaged i n f r e e  Subproblems o f t h i s  study  attempted t o determine i f there were d i f f e r e n c e s i n f r e e p l a y on school playgrounds when c o n s i d e r i n g the v a r i a b l e s of;  1. sex, 2. grade, 3 . s c h o o l and 4. sex w i t h i n each grad  In a d d i t i o n , the c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r view technique with the observed behavior  technique was  assessed. Three hundred and t h i r t y - n i n e grade one, two and three c h i l d r e n served techniques  as s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s study.  were u t i l i z e d  f o r data c o l l e c t i o n ;  i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w , and 2. o b s e r v a t i o n s . i n t e r v i e w assessed:  Two  1. a quest-  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e  c h i l d r e n ' s d e s i r e t o p l a y , reasons f o r  p l a y i n g , f a v o r i t e time t o p l a y , f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y , p l a y behaviors  and the type o f equipment c h i l d r e n use.  s e r v a t i o n s assessed: children's play The 1.  c h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y and  behaviors.  conclusions  of t h i s study are as f o l l o w s :  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w  can be s u c c e s s f u l l y u t i l i z e d and behaviors 2.  The ob-  and o b s e r v a t i o n  techniques  t o determine s e l e c t e d a t t i t u d e  of c h i l d r e n .  C h i l d r e n p l a y on t h e i r school playground because  are fun t h i n g s , they can s o c i a l i z e  (children play  there  with  f r i e n d s who are g e n e r a l l y t h e i r own age) and because o f  pleasant  feelings.  3.  The s c h o o l playground i s mainly used d u r i n g s c h o o l hours.  4.  Females were more l i k e l y t o choose an a c t i v i t y  i t was  fun w h i l e the males chose an a c t i v i t y  because  because they  c o u l d use i t i n a game. 5.  C h i l d r e n ' s c h o i c e s o f a c t i v i t i e s and equipment  were  comparable. 6. Males use the p l a y i n g f i e l d more w h i l e females use the b l a c k t o p area more - o f t e n . 7.  C h i l d r e n p r e f e r r e d h i g h energy a c t i v i t i e s w i t h medium  and h i g h energy a c t i v i t i e s  increasing i n preference with  i n c r e a s e s i n grade. 8.  The equipment  area i s used most o f t e n w i t h both sexes  and each of the grades making equal use o f i t . 9.  The males and females showed p r e f e r e n c e s i n p l a y behav-  iors. 10. Males perform h i g h energy a c t i v i t i e s more than females who  perform medium and low energy a c t i v i t i e s more than males  11. Grades one, two and t h r e e c h i l d r e n have d i f f e r e n t p l a y behaviors. 12. The a c t i v i t i e s c h i l d r e n s a i d they p r e f e r r e d were a c t u a l l y what they were seen d o i n g .  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES  x  x i i  CHAPTER 1.  INTRODUCTION STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM SUBPROBLEMS ... .. DEFINITION OF TERMS CLASSIFICATION CATEGORIES USED IN ORGANIZING THE DATA ASSUMPTIONS DELIMITATIONS LIMITATIONS SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY  2.  RELATED LITERATURE DEFINITIONS OF PLAY IMPORTANCE OF PLAY. RESEARCH STUDIES ON PLAY SEX STEREOTYPING . LITERATURE SUPPORTING RESEARCH TECHNIQUES Research Using Both Techniques Questionnaire-Interview L i t e r a t u r e Observational Literature  3.  METHODS AND PROCEDURES ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES A t t i t u d e Assessment Using the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Interview Technique Behavior Assessment Using the Observation Technique SELECTION OF THE SAMPLE ORGANIZATION OF TIME AND SPACE METHODOLOGY A t t i t u d e Assessment Using t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - I n t e r v i e w Technique Behavior Assessment Using the Observation Technique METHOD OF ANALYSIS Questionnaire-Interview Observations Questionnaire-Interview R e l i a b i l i t y Comparison Between A t t i t u d e Data and Behavior Data S t a t i s t i c a l Significance iv  1 2 3 3 6 7 8 8 8 13 13 14 17 19 21 22 23 26 32 32 32 32 33 34 34 34 37 38 38 39 40 41 41  TABLE OF CONTENTS  (Continued) Page  CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DATA RELIABILITY OF THE EVALUATIVE TECHNIQUES AND THE INVESTIGATOR Questionnaire-Interview Observations Investigator 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW (SEE APPENDIX G).... GENERAL ATTITUDE DATA (SEE APPENDIX H) C h i l d r e n ' s D e s i r e To Play C h i l d r e n ' s Reasons For P l a y i n g C h i l d r e n ' s F a v o r i t e Time To Play On T h e i r School Playground C h i l d r e n ' s F a v o r i t e Spot To P l a y On T h e i r School Playground i C h i l d r e n ' s Play Behaviors The f a v o r i t e t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect The degree of energy used The Type Of Equipment C h i l d r e n Use On T h e i r School Playground GENERAL BEHAVIOR DATA (SEE APPENDIX I) C h i l d r e n ' s F a v o r i t e Spot To Play On T h e i r School Playground C h i l d r e n ' s Play Behaviors The F a v o r i t e ..Things, C h i l d r e n Do The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect The degree of energy used COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA (.QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW) AND BEHAVIOR DATA (OBSERVATIONS) Sex Grade School Sex Within Each Grade CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR WHEN ENGAGED • IN FREE PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND IN RELATION TO SEX DIFFERENCES A t t i t u d e Data C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot t o play on t h e i r school playground C h i l d r e n ' s p l a y behaviors 1. The F a v o r i t e Things C h i l d r e n Do 2. The Degree of Energy Used v.  41 42 42 42 43 46 46 47 48 50 54 57 59 64 64 67 68 72 74 76 79 80 81 81 82 88 89 89 90 90 91 91 92 94 96  TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page Behavior Data 97 C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on t h e i r school playground 97 C h i l d r e n ' s play behaviors 97 1. The Favorite-'^Things. Children-Do 98 2. Degree o f Energy Used 99 CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR WHEN ENGAGED IN FREE PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND IN RELATION TO GRADE DIFFERENCES 101 A t t i t u d e Data 101 C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on t h e i r school playground 102 C h i l d r e n ' s p l a y behaviors 102 1. The F a v o r i t e Things C h i l d r e n Do 104 2. The Degree o f Energy Used 106 The type o f equipment c h i l d r e n used on t h e i r school playground 107 Behavior Data 108 C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l playground 108 C h i l d r e n ' s p l a y behaviors 109 1. The Favorite''Things Children-Do 110 2. The Degree of Energy Used 110 CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR WHEN ENGAGED IN FREE PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND IN RELATION TO SCHOOL DIFFERENCES I l l A t t i t u d e Data 112 C h i l d r e n ' s p l a y behaviors 112 1. The F a v o r i t e Things C h i l d r e n Do 113 The type o f equipment c h i l d r e n use on t h e i r s c h o o l playground 113 Behavior Data 114 C h i l d r e n ' s F a v o r i t e Spot To Play On T h e i r School Playground 114 C h i l d r e n ' s Play Behaviors 115 1. The F a v o r i t e t h i n g s C h i l d r e n Do 117 CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR WHEN ENGAGED IN FREE PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND IN RELATION TO SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE.. 118 A t t i t u d e Data 119 C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l playground 119 C h i l d r e n ' s p l a y behaviors 120 1. The F a v o r i t e Things C h i l d r e n Do 12 0 2. The Degree of Energy Used 121 The type o f equipment c h i l d r e n use on t h e i r s c h o o l playground 123 Behavior Data 123 C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l playground 123 •'.vi  TABLE OF CONTENTS  (Continued) Page  C h i l d r e n ' s p l a y behaviors 124 1. The F a v o r i t e Things C h i l d r e n Do .... 12 6 2. The Degree o f Energy Used 127 5.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  130  PURPOSE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESULTS A t t i t u d i n a l Components Children's desire to play C h i l d r e n ' s reasons f o r p l a y i n g C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e time t o p l a y on t h e i r school playground C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on t h e i r school playground C h i l d r e n ' s p l a y behaviors 1. The F a v o r i t e Things C h i l d r e n Do ... 2. The S o c i a l i z a t i o n Aspect 3. The Degree o f Energy Used The type o f equipment c h i l d r e n use on t h e i r school playground Behavior C a t e g o r i e s C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on t h e i r school playground C h i l d r e n ' s p l a y behaviors 1. The F a v o r i t e Things C h i l d r e n Do ... 2. The S o c i a l i z a t i o n Aspect 3. The Degree o f Energy Used CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS  130 130 133 133 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 137 137 137 138 138 139 139 139 141  LIST OF REFERENCES  143  APPENDICES  150  A. THE TYPE OF PLAYGROUND EQUIPMENT LOCATED ON THE SCHOOLS USED IN THIS STUDY B. QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW'..' C. TABLE 28 - QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW AND OBSERVATION SCHEDULE D. BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUE E. PILOT STUDY F. TABLE 29 - RELIABILITY OF THE QUESTIONNAIREINTERVIEW G. DETAILED ANALYSIS FOR THE RELIABILITY OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW H. TABLE 30 - GENERAL RESPONSES FOR QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW TECHNIQUE (ATTITUDE DATA)  150 151 156 157 158 160 163 165  TABLE OF CONTENTS  (Continued) Page  I. TABLE 31 - GENERAL RESPONSES FOR OBSERVATION TECHNIQUE (BEHAVIOR DATA) J . TABLE 32 - COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO SEXUAL DIFFERENCES K. TABLE 33 - COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO GRADE DIFFERENCES L. TABLE 34 - COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO SCHOOL DIFFERENCES M. TABLE 35 - COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO SEXUAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE N. TABLE 36 - DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION O. TABLE 37 - SIGNIFICANT SEX DIFFERENCES, TABLE 38SIGNIFICANT GRADE DIFFERECES, TABLE 39 SIGNIFICANT SCHOOL DIFFERENCES, AND TABLE 4Q SIGNIFICANT SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE  viii  174 17 6 178 182 186 190  191  LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE 1.  2.  3.  4.  5. 6.  7.  8.  9. 10.  COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S DESIRE TO PLAY  49  COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S REASONS FOR PLAYING  51  COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE TIME TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND  55  COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND  57  COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS  60  COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT CHILDREN USE ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND  69  COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE . SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA)  75  COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA)  77  COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA  82  SEX DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA)  92  11. SEX DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (ATTITUDE DATA)  93  12. SEX DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA)  97  ix  LIST OF TABLES (Continued) Page 13. SEX DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA)  98  14. GRADE DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA)  102  15. GRADE DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (ATTITUDE DATA)  103  16. GRADE DIFFERENCES FOR THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT CHILDREN USE ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA)  107  17. GRADE DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA)  108  18. GRADE DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA)  109  19. SCHOOL DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (ATTITUDE DATA)  113  20. SCHOOL DIFFERENCES FOR THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT CHILDREN USE ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA)  114  21. SCHOOL DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA)  115  22. SCHOOL DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA)  116  23. SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA)  119  24. SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIOR (ATTITUDE DATA) ...  122  25. SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT CHILDREN USE ON THEIR PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA)  123  26. SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR CHILDREN'S ' FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA) 124 x'  LIST OF TABLES (Continued) Page 27. SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA)  125  28. QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW AND OBSERVATION SCHEDULE  156  29-. RELIABILITY OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW 30. GENERAL RESPONSES FOR INTERVIEW TECHNIQUE 31. GENERAL RESPONSES FOR TECHNIQUE (BEHAVIOR  QUESTIONNAIRE(ATTITUDE DATA) OBSERVATION DATA)  160 165 174  32. COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO SEXUAL DIFFERENCES  17 6  33. COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO GRADE DIFFERENCES  17 8  34. COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION. TO SCHOOL DIFFERENCES  18 2  35. COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO SEXUAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE  186  36. DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION  190  37. SIGNIFICANT SEXUAL DIFFERENCES  191  38. SIGNIFICANT GRADE DIFFERENCES  191  39. SIGNIFICANT SCHOOL DIFFERENCES  192  40. SIGNIFICANT SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE..  192  xi  LIST OF FIGURES. FIGURE 1. 2. 3.  4.  5. 6.  7.  8. 9.  Page CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR DESIRE TO PLAY  50  CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR REASONS FOR PLAYING  53  CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR FAVORITE TIME TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND  56  CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND  58  CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR PLAY BEHAVIORS  63  CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT THEY USE ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND  71  CHILDREN'S BEHAVIORS REFLECTING THEIR FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND  75  CHILDREN'S BEHAVIORS REFLECTING THEIR PLAY BEHAVIORS  79  THE TYPE OF PLAYGROUND EQUIPMENT LOCATED ON THE SCHOOLS USED IN THIS STUDY  xii  150  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I t i s with deepest and most s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t h a t I would l i k e t o thank Dr. F. Alex C a r r e , my T h e s i s Chairman, whose time, c o n t r i b u t i o n and enthusiasm have been i n v a l u a b l e t o t h i s r e s e a r c h . In a d d i t i o n , t h e encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e given by Dr. A. Best, Dr. R. Mosher and Dean N. S c a r f e were g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . A l s o , my thanks are due t o Mr. R.W. T a y l o r , P h y s i c a l Education S u p e r v i s o r f o r the Richmond School Board and a l l o f t h e p r i n c i p a l s , t e a c h e r s and c h i l d r e n o f the schools used i n t h i s study f o r making the data c o l l e c t i o n both p o s s i b l e and thoroughly enjoyable.  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION It  i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t a broader base of know-  ledge about p l a y i s e s s e n t i a l i f school playgrounds are to provide c h i l d r e n w i t h adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r meaningful experiences  i n free play.  A b e t t e r understanding  of  the  n e c e s s i t y f o r p l a y as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the growth  and  development of a c h i l d has yet to be e s t a b l i s h e d . (1971) s t a t e d t h a t when studying c h i l d r e n , "we  Gillander  must  first  understand the t r u e meaning of p l a y i n a young c h i l d ' s p.20)  For these  reasons t h i s study attempted t o p r o v i d e more  knowledge of p l a y by a s s e s s i n g c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y and  c h i l d r e n ' s play behaviors  more about the experiences ful.  General  and  a t t i t u d e s toward  a l s o by f i n d i n g  used t o e s t a b l i s h a  framework of knowledge upon which t h i s study was may  based.  have a c o n s i d e r a b l e t o l e r a n c e f o r  c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y but they have not developed the f u l l e n t i a l of p l a y as an e s s e n t i a l means of l e a r n i n g . educators  are not as aware as they might be of the  of p l a y as a v i t a l a c t i v i t y of c h i l d h o o d Riley  out  which c h i l d r e n f i n d most meaning-  l i t e r a t u r e on p l a y was  Schools  life."  pot-  Some role  (Salvay,1974).  (1973) wrote t h a t , "Often p l a y ' s values must be  t r a n s l a t e d i n t o academic terms to j u s t i f y i t s e x i s t e n c e . " (p.146)  The  understood.  values of p l a y f o r i t s own The  importance of having  1  sake are not always  p l a y taken s e r i o u s l y  and  not ignored or c o n s c i o u s l y r e j e c t e d cannot be s t r e s s e d  o f t e n enough  (Van Anne,1974).  Play helps c h i l d r e n c o n s i d e r  and understand the v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s i n l i f e freedom of a c t i o n and  thought.  2  Sutton-Smith  through  (197 2)  clearly  a f f i r m e d the need f o r p l a y i n education with h i s statement: As the modern world seems to be e x c e s s i v e l y c o n f u s i n g and complex i n i t s problems and demands, i t would seem t h a t any education system t h a t d i d not maximize a c h i l d ' s p l a y c a p a c i t i e s i s g u i d i n g him down a b l i n d a l l e y . Any education system t h a t l e t s a c h i l d go f o r t h with p l a y d e f i c i t s , does not leave him equipped f o r what l i e s ahead, (p.10) Play i s a major c o n t r i b u t o r to the  educational  development of young c h i l d r e n (Sutton-Smith,1972). I t c o n t a i n s the necessary should be f a c i l i t a t e d  elements f o r education  i n the school environment.  the obvious concerns expressed searchers  (Hansen and  and  thus Due  to  by numerous p l a y r e -  Hansen,1972;  Martinello,1973;  Salvay,197 4) t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r undertook the task of a s s e s s i n g c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y a t t i t u d e s and behavior r e l a t e d to school playgrounds.  Educators  must  as  they  recognize  the importance of schools p r o v i d i n g the most conducive environment f o r l e a r n i n g to p l a y and  l e a r n i n g through p l a y .  P l a y ' s f u n c t i o n i n s e l f f u l f i l l m e n t and s a t i s f a c t i o n and cognized,  an o p p o r t u n i t y  otherwise,  means of growth and  f o r l e a r n i n g must be r e -  c h i l d r e n w i l l be denied  an e s s e n t i a l  development.  STATEMENT OF THE The  i n b r i n g i n g meaning,  PROBLEM  primary purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  to  study c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s toward p l a y and t h e i r behavior when engaging i n f r e e p l a y on t h e i r  play  3  school  playgrounds. SUBPROBLEMS 1.  To determine i f there were sex d i f f e r e n c e s  among c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r p l a y a t t i t u d e s and behavior  when  engaging i n f r e e p l a y on t h e i r school playgrounds. 2.  To determine i f there were grade d i f f e r e n c e s  among c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r p l a y a t t i t u d e s and behavior  when  engaging i n f r e e p l a y on t h e i r school playgrounds. 3.  To determine i f there were systematic  school  d i f f e r e n c e s among c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r p l a y a t t i t u d e s and behavior  when engaging i n f r e e p l a y on t h e i r  school  playgrounds. 4.  To determine i f there were sex d i f f e r e n c e s  among c h i l d r e n w i t h i n each grade i n t h e i r p l a y a t t i t u d e s and behavior  when engaging i n f r e e p l a y on t h e i r  school  playgrounds. 5.  To assess the c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f the q u e s t i o n -  n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w technique  with the observed  behavior  technique. DEFINITION OF TERMS P l a y , f o r t h e purposes of t h i s study, was considered to be behaviors which were chosen f r e e l y by the c h i l d r e n w i t h i n the confinements of the school playground d u r i n g a  free play period. Free p l a y i s a n o n - i n s t r u c t i o n a l aspect of school programme c o n s i s t i n g of u n s t r u c t u r e d , p l a y s i t u a t i o n s observed d u r i n g two  the  unorganized  h a l f hour f r e e p l a y  p e r i o d s which were h e l d on the school playground. A t t i t u d e s are f e e l i n g s or thoughts of c h i l d r e n r e l a t e d to p r e f e r e n c e s aspects of p l a y .  or l i k e s and d i s l i k e s of  specific  These are e x e m p l i f i e d by the f o l l o w i n g  a t t i t u d i n a l components of the  questionnaire-interview:  1.  Children's d e s i r e to play.  2.  C h i l d r e n ' s reasons f o r p l a y i n g .  3.  C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e time to p l a y on  their  s c h o o l playground. 4.  C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on  their  s c h o o l playground. 5.  Children's play behaviors,  specifically:  a.  The  f a v o r i t e t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do.  b.  The  s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect; whether c h i l d r e n  p l a y alone, with c h i l d r e n t h e i r own  age,  with c h i l d r e n younger than themselves or with c h i l d r e n o l d e r than themselves. c.  The degree of energy used by the c h i l d r e n ; whether they d i d a c t i v i t i e s t h a t took a l o t of energy, took some energy or they engaged in quiet things.  6.  The  types of equipment c h i l d r e n use on  school playground.  their  These a t t i t u d i n a l components p e r t a i n e d school  s o l e l y to p l a y  5  on  playgrounds. Behavior i s the s p e c i f i c o v e r t a c t i o n or conduct  evident during  f r e e p l a y as seen under the f o l l o w i n g  categories: 1. school  The  c h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on  their  playground. 2.  The  c h i l d r e n ' s play behaviors,  specifically:  a.  The  f a v o r i t e t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do.  b.  The  s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect; whether c h i l d r e n  p l a y alone or i n groups. c.  The  degree of energy used by the  children;  whether they d i d a c t i v i t i e s t h a t took a l o t of energy, took some energy or they engaged in quiet things. The  equipment area i s t h a t p a r t of the school  ground c o n t a i n i n g a phase two which has  a tire  swing and  adventure playground s t r u c t u r e  a s l i d e j o i n e d by l o g s .  s t r u c t u r e i s manufactured by Big Toys Inc. The  blacktop  play-  This  (See Appendix  area i s t h a t p a r t of the school  ground covered with a s p h a l t and most o f t e n adjacent  A)  playto  the  school. The  playing f i e l d  i s t h a t p a r t of the school  ground which i s used f o r organized f o o t b a l l , b a s e b a l l and  field  s p o r t s such as  soccer and/or t h a t p a r t of the  playground which i s covered with  play-  school  grass.  High energy a c t i v i t i e s are those a c t i v i t i e s such as running,  s k i p p i n g and moving by one's hands on the monkeybars,  6  which r e q u i r e a strenuous amount of movement, speed or strength. Medium energy a c t i v i t i e s are those a c t i v i t i e s which have an i n h e r e n t c a p a c i t y f o r a c t i o n , however strenuous e x e r t i o n i s not e v i d e n t i n the c h i l d ' s a c t i o n s . of  such a c t i v i t i e s are; swinging on a swing,  Examples  sliding,  p l a y i n g hopscotch and k i c k i n g a b a l l . Low  energy a c t i v i t i e s  are those a c t i v i t i e s which  r e q u i r e very l i t t l e gross motor movement and where f i n e motor movements predominate. c h i l d b a s i c a l l y remains  During these a c t i v i t i e s  i n one l o c a t i o n .  the  Examples of such  a c t i v i t i e s are; s i t t i n g and watching o t h e r s , p l a y i n g marbles, r e a d i n g and b u i l d i n g or making t h i n g s u s i n g s m a l l o b j e c t s or t o o l s . A s m a l l group i s two up t o ten c h i l d r e n gathered t o gether and interacting with one another either physically or verbally. F a v o r i t e f o r the a t t i t u d e data, i s what c h i l d r e n  say  i s t h e i r f a v o r i t e w h i l e , f o r the o b s e r v a t i o n data i t i s what c h i l d r e n are observed doing most o f t e n . CLASSIFICATION CATEGORIES USED IN ORGANIZING THE DATA C a t e g o r i z i n g Percentage Agreement f o r the M a j o r i t y of Comparisons between A t t i t u d e and Behavior Data 1. Outstanding percentage agreement;within 5% or less 2. High percentage agreement;  between 6-15% difference  3. Good percentage agreement; between 16-25,% difference 4. Major d i s c r e p a n c y ; g r e a t e r than 25%  difference.  7  Comparing R e s u l t s f o r a l l S i g n i f i c a n t A t t i t u d e and Behavior D i f f e r e n c e s f o r the V a r i a b l e s of Sex and Sex w i t h i n each Grade 1.  Moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r ; between 20% and 4 0% discrepancy.  2.  High p r e f e r e n c e f o r ; between 40% and 60% discrepancy.  3.  Outstanding p r e f e r e n c e f o r ; between 60% and 100% d i s c r e p a n c y .  Rank Order C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r Aspects of Comparisons between A t t i t u d e and Behavior Data 1.  Outstanding c o r r e l a t i o n ; between .9 and 1  2.  High c o r r e l a t i o n ; between .75 and .9  3.  Good c o r r e l a t i o n ; between .6 and .75  4.  Low c o r r e l a t i o n ;  5.  Major d i s c r e p a n c y ; a d i f f e r e n c e o f .4 or  l e s s than .6  greater Percentages Used t o Consider t h e R e l i a b i l i t y of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - I n t e r v i e w 1.  Outstanding percentage; 90% t o 100%  2.  High percentage; 75% t o 90%  3.  Good percentage; 60% t o 7 5%  4.  Low percentage; l e s s than 60% ASSUMPTIONS  T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was based on the assumption c h i l d r e n can express t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and a t t i t u d e s p l a y i f the proper language and approach are used 1974; Miller,1972),  that  toward (Evans,  8  DELIMITATIONS 1. one,  The sample p o p u l a t i o n was d e l i m i t e d t o grades  two and t h r e e i n the Richmond School d i s t r i c t o f  British  Columbia. 2.  The c h i l d r e n were only observed  playing  3.  Due t o the time f a c t o r i n v o l v e d , only two  outside.  h a l f hour f r e e p l a y s e s s i o n s per c l a s s were f e a s i b l e . 4.  During  the f r e e p l a y p e r i o d , only those c h i l d r e n  p l a y i n g i n the s c h o o l playground assessed.  area under o b s e r v a t i o n were  C h i l d r e n moving from one area t o another  were not  i n c l u d e d i n an o b s e r v a t i o n . 5.  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w was w r i t t e n f o r  c h i l d r e n i n language a p p r o p r i a t e t o the ages i n c l u d e d i n the study.  Therefore  i t can b e s t be used with c h i l d r e n of  s i m i l a r ages. LIMITATIONS 1.  The f r e e p l a y s e s s i o n s were h e l d o u t s i d e ,  t h e r e f o r e problems of poor weather a f f e c t e d the times when the o b s e r v a t i o n s c o u l d take p l a c e .  The time span between  the f i r s t and l a s t o b s e r v a t i o n s f o r t h i s study was a p p r o x i mately three months. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY C h i l d r e n ' s p l a y a t t i t u d e s and behavior  are e s s e n t i a l  aspects of t h e i r development and should be c o n s i d e r e d as  such  (Holme and Massie, 19.70 ; P i a g e t , 1951;  9 Sutton-Smith, 1971) .  Play i s o f t e n regarded as i n s i g n i f i c a n t and thus  little  emphasis i s placed upon i t . T h i s study was concerned developing The  with  more awareness of the value of p l a y . importance of c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y has been  n i z e d by many a u t h o r i t i e s .  recog-  G i l l a n d e r (1971) s t a t e d t h a t ,  "play i s i n f a c t the l e a r n i n g medium f o r your c h i l d r e n . " (p.20)  Holme  (1970) wrote:  The importance of p l a y i n c h i l d r e n ' s p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional development i s now und i s p u t e d ; such a c t i v i t i e s as the e x p l o r a t i o n o f a c h i l d ' s environment, being w i t h other c h i l d r e n , p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e , i m a g i n a t i v e games - a c t i v i t i e s which we a d u l t s normally c a l l p l a y - are a l l e s s e n t i a l t o t h i s development, (p.31) G e s e l l and I l g (1946) a l s o s t r e s s e d the n e c e s s i t y f o r p l a y . "Deeply absorbing f u l l mental growth."  p l a y seems t o be e s s e n t i a l f o r  (p.360)  The i n v e s t i g a t o r s e t out t o  s u b s t a n t i a t e f u r t h e r the need f o r a g r e a t e r awareness o f the importance  o f p l a y i n c h i l d r e n ' s growth and develop-  ment. Numerous p l a y r e s e a r c h e r s values  inherent i n play.  have remarked on many of the  T h e i r comments emphasize the im-  portance of p l a y . 1.  C h i l d r e n l e a r n b e s t from m a t e r i a l s they s e l e c t and  manipulate. 2.  Play helps p e r f e c t body s k i l l s .  1973; 3.  (.Ellis , 197 3 ; F r o s t i g , 1967 ; Kephart, 1967)  Miller,  (Caplan  and Caplan,  1972; Salvay,1974)  Play provides  the environment and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  c h i l d r e n t o explore Whitehurst,1971)  a t t h e i r own pace.  (Sutton-Smith,1971;  4.  P l a y prompts c h i l d r e n to ask q u e s t i o n s and  their cognitive a b i l i t i e s . 5.  (Isaacs,1933;  develop  Salvay,1974)  Play p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c h i l d r e n t o work  i n d i v i d u a l l y and  independently thus s t r e n g t h e n i n g i n -  dependence, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and  self discovery.  (Evans,  1974) 6.  P l a y f o s t e r s a s p i r i t of c o o p e r a t i o n , s h a r i n g and  teamwork thus c h i l d r e n become aware of the needs of others and the n e c e s s i t y f o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  Peer groups  are important  f o r t r a n s m i t t i n g games, l e a r n i n g v a l u e s  a t t i t u d e s and  i n g a i n i n g s t a t u s and r e c o g n i t i o n . (Isaacs,  1933; 7.  M i l l e r , 1 9 7 2 ; Piaget,1951)  Through p l a y c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o understand  b e t t e r by absorbing f a c t s from t h e i r (Neumann,1974; Riley,1973; 8.  and  their  world  environments.  Salvay,1974)  P l a y i s one of the primary f a c t o r s important  i n t e g r a t i o n of the c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l i t y .  i n the  Without p l a y ,  c e r t a i n aspects of c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y development w i l l be h i n d e r e d . 9.  (Evans,1974;  P l a y can o f f e r r e l i e f  Gillander,1971)  from s t r e s s f u l  (Erikson,1963; Hartley,1952;  situations.  Hawkes and Pease,1962)  10. P l a y p r o v i d e s the environment f o r t e a c h e r s t o c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g and  observe  s o c i a l behavior under c o n d i t i o n s  f r e e from a d u l t d i r e c t i o n .  (Hansen and Hansen,197 2; Neumann  1974) The many f u n c t i o n s p l a y serves i n the l i v e s of c h i l d r e n cannot Moffitt  and  should not be under estimated.  (.197 2)  wrote:  Many of the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t are c a l l e d 'play' are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the development of v a r i o u s kinds of s k i l l s t h a t c h i l d r e n need f o r a c h i e v i n g success i n academic s u b j e c t s , (p.47) The v a l u e s i n h e r e n t i n p l a y are not independent of i n academics or v i s e v e r s a .  To understand  children  what i s b e n e f i c i a l to them, one must understand  those and  play.  The emphasis i n p l a y r e s e a r c h i s o f t e n l i m i t e d i n t e r p r e t i n g p l a y b e h a v i o r s from observed opinions.  Two  data and a d u l t  examples o f r e s e a r c h e r s who  have done ex-  t e n s i v e work i n the area of o b s e r v i n g behavior and have i n t e r p r e t e d behaviors  s o l e l y from observed  Kunze (1967) and Cohen C1965). for  to  Kunze developed  who  data are; a system  o b s e r v i n g behavior of c h i l d r e n w i t h language d i s o r d e r s  and he s e t up a programme of t r a i n i n g intended to h e l p i n d i v i d u a l s r e c o r d and analyse b e h a v i o r a l data  skillfully.  Cohen devised a d e t a i l e d system f o r o b s e r v i n g c h i l d r e n ' s behavior i n p l a y .  Curtis  (1971) s t r e s s e d the need f o r  teachers to make use of the o b s e r v a t i o n a l technique g a i n g r e a t e r i n s i g h t i n t o the c h i l d r e n they  to  teach.  C h i l d r e n ' s o p i n i o n s on i n t e r e s t s and c h o i c e s of p l a y equipment, p l a y a c t i v i t i e s and other aspects of p l a y as seen on s c h o o l playgrounds  should be considered when  a s s e s s i n g p l a y and the types of playgrounds children.  C h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r s should not be d i c t a t e d s o l e  by a d u l t o p i n i o n s Miller  best suited f o r  (King,1970; M i l l e r , 1 9 7 2 ) .  (1972) wrote:  Playgrounds should be b u i l t upon c h i l d r e n ' s needs, not a d u l t ' s needs. Unless c h i l d r e n ' s  i n t e r e s t s are a s c e r t a i n e d and provided f o r , c h i l d r e n w i l l not be motivated t o engage in activity. (p.18)  12  C h i l d r e n ' s ideas can make v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o a g r e a t er understanding of p l a y and t o the development of b e t t e r playgrounds.  CHAPTER I I RELATED LITERATURE DEFINITIONS OF PLAY Numerous d e f i n i t i o n s have been w r i t t e n i n an attempt t o c l a r i f y the p l a y experience arise.  y e t questions  continue t o  A number of well-known p l a y r e s e a r c h e r s  have  attempted t o d e f i n e the parameters w i t h i n which p l a y experiences  can be found.  Although the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s  are only a few i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of p l a y , they h e l p t o b r i n g more depth and c l a r i t y t o t h i s Huizinga  (1949). c o n s i d e r e d  study.  p l a y to be a necessary  aspect  of each day. Summing up the formal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of play we might c a l l i t a f r e e a c t i v i t y standing q u i t e c o n s c i o u s l y o u t s i d e " o r d i n a r y " l i f e as being "not s e r i o u s , " but a t the same time absorbing the p l a y e r i n t e n s e l y and u t t e r l y . I t i s an a c t i v i t y connected with no m a t e r i a l i n t e r e s t , and no p r o f i t can be gained by i t . I t proceeds w i t h i n i t s own proper boundaries o f time and space according t o f i x e d r u l e s and i n an o r d e r l y manner. I t promotes the formation o f s o c i a l groupings which tend t o surround themselves w i t h secrecy and t o s t r e s s t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e from the common world by d i s guise o r other means, (p.13) Sutton-Smith  (.1972) s t a t e d t h a t :  Play i s what a person does when he can choose the a r b i t r a r i n e s s of the c o n s t r a i n t s w i t h i n which he w i l l a c t or imagine, (p.32) Van  Anne (19 74).  wrote:  In p l a y man opens h i m s e l f t o h i s being, t e s t s i t , e i t h e r conquers i t or he doesn't, but i n the process experiences the t h r i l l t h a t comes i n the c o n f r o n t a t i o n and d i s c o v e r y o f s e l f . (p.7) 13  Moffitt  14  (.1972) d e f i n e d p l a y as f o l l o w s :  Play i s a powerful inner f o r c e through which a c h i l d reaches out t o i n t e r a c t with h i s e n v i r o n ment i n v o l v i n g movement and d i f f e r e n t sensory modes. Play a c t i v i t i e s provide the momentum through which a c h i l d can make a more balanced t h r u s t toward maturation, (p. 45). These d e f i n i t i o n s of p l a y are u s e f u l r e f e r e n c e s f o r t h i s study.  Play researchers f i n d  i t d i f f i c u l t to  agree on one p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n o f p l a y because t h i s term i s such an a b s t r a c t concept.  However, by c o n s i d e r i n g  v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f p l a y , i t i s r e a d i l y apparent t h a t p l a y i s a b a s i c need of every 1972;  Stone,1970; Walston,1974).  t h i s study,  p l a y was c o n s i d e r e d  individual  (Phinney,  For the purposes o f t o be behaviors which were  chosen f r e e l y by the c h i l d r e n w i t h i n the confinements of the s c h o o l playground d u r i n g f r e e p l a y p e r i o d s . IMPORTANCE OF PLAY A l l classrooms,  from p r e - s c h o o l  through the primary  grades could b e n e f i t from p a r t o f each school day spent on play  (Hansen and Hansen,1972; Salvay,1974).  Educating  through p l a y w i l l h e l p make l e a r n i n g become something t h a t c h i l d r e n want t o be doing and not an u n i n t e r e s t i n g task (Hansen and Hansen,1972; M a r t i n e l l o , 1 9 7 3 ) . reason why education  There i s no  systems cannot use the school p l a y -  ground environment as a medium f o r l e a r n i n g . ment i n which p l a y occurs  The e n v i r o n -  i s extremely important  thus the  school playground as the environment f o r p l a y a t s c h o o l , should be r e c o g n i z e d  as an important  p a r t of the t o t a l  15  s c h o o l environment. The  aspect  of play environment was  many p l a y r e s e a r c h e r s  such as; Dattner  studied  (1969), F r i e d b e r g  (1970) and M i l l e r  (.1972).  p l a y was  u s i n g a camera and tape r e c o r d e r  Stone  explored  (.1970) .  The  by  C h i l d r e n ' s world of outdoor by  type of equipment, the manner i n which  i t was  used by the c h i l d r e n , and where the c h i l d r e n played  helped  focus on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p l a y , the types of  playgrounds and  p l a y as i t r e l a t e d to the community.  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t playgrounds r e p r e s e n t of the surrounding not be considered Walston play and  community and  lifestyle  t h a t the playgrounds can-  s e p a r a t e l y from the  community.  (1974) s t r e s s e d the b e n e f i t s of outdoor  the need f o r p l a y environments which enhance  l e a r n i n g through p l a y . and  the  The  When p l a y i s allowed  t o be c r e a t i v e  i n n o v a t i v e c h i l d r e n w i l l l e a r n more r e a d i l y and  t h e i r s o c i a l , emotional,  i n t e l l e c t u a l and  physical a b i l i t i e s .  C h i l d r e n i n Walston's study b u i l t t h e i r own Proper outdoor p l a y provides expression,  gain i n  playgrounds.  opportunities for; s e l f -  s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , a sense of achievement, v a r i o u s  movements and  creativity.  Sutton-Smith  (1970) recognized  t h a t p l a y i s not  always s e l f - e v i d e n t but occurs most o f t e n i n areas d e s i g nated f o r p l a y .  U s u a l l y p l a y i s o c c u r r i n g i f there  s i g n s of p l e a s u r e ,  r e l a x a t i o n and  (1971) f e l t t h a t b e f o r e  excitement.  are  Sutton-Smith  a c l e a r understanding of the meaning  of p l a y could be reached, a framework f o r the d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of c h i l d ' s play must be developed. He wrote:  16  I suggest t h a t the d i f f e r e n t forms of p l a y a r e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of the f o u r b a s i c modes by which we know the world - i m i t a t i o n , e x p l o r a t i o n , t e s t i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n , (p.68) A child  l e a r n s through i m i t a t i o n when he models  other people o r a l s o models h i s own behavior under d i f f e r e n t circumstances. powerful persons  Most o f t e n a c h i l d w i l l  imitate  i n h i s l i f e such as h i s parents o r  teachers.  E x p l o r a t i o n i s a l s o an important means o f  learning.  Sutton-Smith  (1971) wrote that., "A c h i l d under-  stands h i s world by a n a l y s i n g how t h i n g s work, how they came t o be the way they are, and what they can do." (p.68) T h i s q u o t a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e form of p l a y c a l l e d A c h i l d a l s o t e s t s i f h i s behavior w i l l cause effects.  exploration.  certain  T h i s process of t e s t i n g c o n t i n u a l l y occurs as a  c h i l d develops.  Sutton-Smith  s t r u c t i o n as a c h i l d  c o n s i d e r e d the process o f con-  l e a r n i n g t o understand  h i s world by  p u t t i n g t h i n g s together i n h i s own way. Piaget  (.1951) a l s o r e c o g n i z e d the d i f f i c u l t y i n  understanding p l a y and r e c o g n i z i n g when i t o c c u r s .  He  wrote: But the reason f o r the d i f f i c u l t y l i e s perhaps i n the f a c t t h a t t h e r e has been a tendency t o c o n s i d e r p l a y as an i s o l a t e d f u n c t i o n and t h e r e f o r e t o seek p a r t i c u l a r s o l u t i o n s t o the problem, whereas p l a y i s i n r e a l i t y one of the aspects of any a c t i v i t y , (p.47) He concluded t h a t the p r o v i s i o n o f a s t i m u l a t i n g environment  along w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a d u l t s i s l i k e l y  t o r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r development i n the c h i l d ' s For P i a g e t , i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h the environment  abilities.  come about  n a t u r a l l y , modified  p r a c t i c e e x i s t i n g schemata and modify them to meet situations and  (accomodation) and  experiences  17  by the c h i l d ' s innate tendency to  t o i n c o r p o r a t e new  new  objects  i n t o e x i s t i n g schemas ( a s s i m i l a t i o n ) . RESEARCH STUDIES ON  PLAY  Researchers have s t u d i e d c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y through v a r i o u s methodologies. one  hearing  impaired  and  school c h i l d r e n during nursery  school.  behavior  Kretschmer  (1972) s t u d i e d  seventy-one normally  hearing  videotapes  taken were  a n a l y s i s was  and  the o b j e c t s with which the c h i l d r e n played.  concerned with both a c t i v i t i e s  c a t e g o r i e s i n which the behavior  with  a  There were four g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s of  The  body, 2. h a n d l i n g  pre-  f r e e play i n a s t u d i o resembling  from which the 142  locomotion - any  seventy-  was  considered.  performed The  four  c l a s s i f i e d were: 1.  p h y s i c a l movement or p o s i t i o n i n g of - manipulating  the  o b j e c t s , 3. i n t e r a c t i o n  s e l f - r e l a t e d to p h y s i c a l contact with o n e s e l f as w e l l  as any  attempt at v o c a l i z a t i o n and,  objects - imaginative  p l a y and  4. i n t e r a c t i o n with  problem s o l v i n g or mechanical  a c t s such as i n v e s t i g a t i n g o b j e c t s . c a t e g o r i e s to analyse hearing  impaired  and  the videotapes,  Using  impaired  observational  the behavior  normal c h i l d r e n was-,  indicated that hearing  these  of  compared.  Results  c h i l d r e n were more a c t i v e ,  used a l l sensory m o d a l i t i e s , d i s p l a y e d more f e a r f u l h a v i o r and  the  be-  engaged i n l i t t l e a c t u a l p l a y .  Roderick during play.  (1971) s t u d i e d n u r s e r y - k i n d e r g a r t e n  A p u p i l nonverbal category  system was  children developed  as the method of behavior c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  There were  three behavior c a t e g o r i e s ; 1. the nonverbal b e h a v i o r s e x h i b i t e d , 2. p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n and 3. the a b i l i t y t o stay with a task f o r a t l e a s t f i v e minutes.  The r e s u l t s  i n d i c a t e d t h a t frequency of behavior v a r i e d with age and sex.  T h i s study recommended t h a t more than one observer  should study a c h i l d and t h a t non-verbal behavior should be recorded s e p a r a t e l y from decision-making b e h a v i o r . Hartley  (1964) s t u d i e d c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of  sex r o l e s i n p l a y by having c h i l d r e n aged e i g h t and e l e v e n t e l l which p l a y items of f i f t y - s e v e n were f o r boys and f o r girls.  The r e s u l t s showed t h a t each sex claimed more  items f o r i t s e l f than the other sex a s s o c i a t e d with i t . Boys tended t o be more aware of both sexes r o l e s w h i l e g i r l s were more c l e a r l y aware of t h e i r own r o l e than the male r o l e . A s i m i l a r study was conducted  by Conn  (1951).  Game- p r e f e r e n c e s and p l a y a t t i t u d e s of 193 c h i l d r e n were c o l l e c t e d f o r the purpose  of determining c h i l d r e n ' s aware-  ness of sex d i f f e r e n c e s .  Each c h i l d mentioned a l l of  t h e i r f a v o r i t e a c t i v i t i e s by checking them o f f a l i s t and by e x p r e s s i n g themselves  through p l a y i n t e r v i e w s .  The  r e s u l t s of t h i s study showed t h a t male and female c h o i c e s of  games are very d i f f e r e n t from one another. In  summary, v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s have found out  v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n from s t u d y i n g c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y . i s most o f t e n a n a t u r a l environment environment  Play  f o r c h i l d r e n . I f the  does not become too s u p e r f i c i a l but r a t h e r  remains r e l a x e d and  natural, researchers  can use  the  play  19  experience to g a i n more knowledge of c h i l d r e n ' s growth and  development. SEX Children's  at i n f a n c y .  of l i f e .  be a l r e a d y Smart  tended to be  ages of s i x and  I t was  (1972) s t r o n g l y suggested t h a t t h i s  Smart and  preferences  haviors  a c q u i s i t i o n of sex-type behavior begins  Lewis  r o l e behavior may  to be evident  STEREOTYPING  ten.  e s t a b l i s h e d by the f i r s t  (1967) f e l t t h a t the stabilized  Kohlberg  sex year  sex-role  some time between the  (1966) considered  these  s t a b i l i z e d at about f i v e or s i x years of  beage.  from these s t u d i e s t h a t a c h i l d ' s maleness  or femaleness i s e s t a b l i s h e d at a very e a r l y Extensive  research  has  age.  been d i r e c t e d towards t r y i n g  to determine the reasons f o r sexual d i f f e r e n c e s .  Since  c u l t u r e i n which a c h i l d l i v e s c o n s t a n t l y r e i n f o r c e s  sex  type b e h a v i o r , i t i s d i f f i c u l t and  to  determine the extent values  and  almost impossible  to which the c h i l d ' s l e a r n i n g of  a t t i t u d e s are i n f l u e n c e d by u n d e r l y i n g  logical differences  the  (Hamburg and  bio-  Lunde, 1973 ; Hutt ;  and  Gibby,1959; Mussen,1974). Children acquire  information  about the kinds  behavior t h a t are s o c i a l l y approved by the two many ways.  There i s o b s e r v a t i o n a l  such as parents and  peers  Through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and  of  sexes i n  l e a r n i n g from l i v e models  (Kohlberg,1966; Mischel,1968).  w i t h others  females begin to r e c o g n i z e  of the same sex,  males  the v a r i a t i o n s i n s e x - r o l e  behavior.  They most o f t e n i d e n t i f y with the parent of  the same sex  (Kohlberg,1966).  They a l s o l e a r n these be-  h a v i o r s through r e i n f o r c e m e n t from the Kohlberg  20  environment.  (1966) s t a t e d t h a t :  At any g i v e n p o i n t , the c h i l d uses h i s experiences of h i s body and h i s s o c i a l environment t o form b a s i c s e x - r o l e concepts and v a l u e s , but a t any g i v e n p o i n t , e n v i r o n mental e x p e r i e n c e s a l s o s t i m u l a t e restructuri n g of these concepts and v a l u e s , (p.85) Although t h e r e are many d i f f e r e n c e s , males and females e x h i b i t v a r i o u s s i m i l a r i t i e s i n p l a y and b e h a v i o r s .  attitudes  Research has shown t h a t young g i r l s  ex-  h i b i t e d a wider range o f p l a y p r e f e r e n c e s ; t a k i n g i n many so c a l l e d masculine a c t i v i t i e s whereas the boys mainly chose masculine a c t i v i t i e s (1967).  (Brown,1958; Smart and Smart,  The g i r l s have more freedom of c h o i c e f o r example,  g i r l s who  climb, p l a y s p o r t s with boys and so f o r t h , r e -  f e r r e d to as tomboys, are s o c i a l l y accepted whereas boys who  p l a y with d o l l s and perform o t h e r female  are not  (Brown,1958; Smart and Smart,1967).  activities Sutton-Smith  (1972) found t h a t even a t the grade four l e v e l g i r l s :preferred many male a c t i v i t i e s . changing.  However, t h i s a t t i t u d e was  gradually  Brown (1958) d i s c o v e r e d i n h i s r e s e a r c h t h a t  males showed s t r o n g e r p r e f e r e n c e s f o r male r o l e s than females d i d f o r female r o l e s .  He f e l t t h i s was  due t o  s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s ; t h e r e were more s o c i o c u l t u r a l advantages to being male. Research has c o n t i n u a l l y shown t h a t t h e r e are d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t y l e o f p l a y between the sexes with the  males performing more gross-motor d i d more f i n e motor a c t i v i t i e s and  a c t i v i t i e s while  (Lewis,1972).  females  Both gross  f i n e motor c o o r d i n a t i o n are necessary f o r a l l c h i l d r e n  I f s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s are f o r c i n g c h i l d r e n t o mostly one of the two  , then s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s are a l s o  n a t u r a l growth and development, of c h i l d r e n .  perform  inhibiting  Bones and  muscles grow a c c o r d i n g t o usage. Hawkes and Pease  (1962) made the statement  that:  Equipment which encourages p r a c t i c e i n both gross and f i n e body movements should be made a v a i l a b l e to c h i l d r e n . Between the ages of f i v e and e i g h t most c h i l d r e n need experience i n the use of l a r g e muscles, (p.178) They a l s o s t r e s s e d the importance along with Kephart  of fine motor  (1967) and F r o s t i g  skills  (1967).  Educators should r e c o g n i z e the i n f l u e n c e sexr o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g can have on c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s toward p l a y and on p l a y b e h a v i o r . Hawkes and Pease  (.19 62) r e p o r t e d t h a t :  Sex-role development assumes much importance d u r i n g the elementary s c h o o l years because of the c h i l d ' s growing awareness of h i m s e l f as a person, (p.113) Although  there i s beginning t o be a g r e a t e r tendency  somewhat broader,  less  r i g i d l y d e f i n e d sex-typed  for  roles  and more o v e r l a p p i n g between sex-typed b e h a v i o r s , more of t h i s freedom of c h o i c e i s e s s e n t i a l . c h o i c e may  More freedom of  encourage c h i l d r e n to partake i n a wider  of p l a y e x p e r i e n c e s . LITERATURE SUPPORTING RESEARCH TECHNIQUES  range  Research Using Both  22  Techniques  When c o n s i d e r i n g l i t e r a t u r e on p l a y , r e s e a r c h subs t a n t i a t i n g the assumption T h i s study was  of t h i s study was  based on the assumption  that c h i l d r e n  express t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and a t t i t u d e s toward proper language  and approach  considered. can  p l a y i f the  are used.  The method of data c o l l e c t i o n was  very  important.  In p a r t i c u l a r , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and d i r e c t methods of obs e r v i n g c h i l d r e n were s p e c i f i c a l l y s e l e c t e d .  In con-  s i d e r a t i o n of the work of s e v e r a l p l a y r e s e a r c h e r s , i t seemed worthwhile Evans  to use techniques based on  t h e i r work.  (1974) used both techniques t o g a i n a deeper  s t a n d i n g of p l a y .  These two techniques  under-  accomplished  t h i s by b e i n g adaptable t o c h i l d r e n and to v a r i o u s p l a y s i t u a t i o n s , and can be used  i n a way  t h a t does not i n -  h i b i t c h i l d r e n ' s n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e s and behavior towards play.  Her r e s e a r c h gave numerous examples of c h i l d r e n ' s  comments to s i t u a t i o n s o c c u r r i n g i n p l a y . A c c o r d i n g to Evans  (1974) :  I f we take enough time to r e a l l y observe and l i s t e n to c h i l d r e n we w i l l begin t o understand what they are doing, how they are f e e l i n g , and how they are t h i n k i n g by the ways i n which they p l a y . (p.26 8) Miller the  (1972) researched c r e a t i v e outdoor p l a y areas  through  processes o f ; 1. e x t e n s i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n  p l a y i n g i n v a r i o u s environments playgrounds playing.  from b a c k a l l e y s t o fancy  and 2. e x t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the c h i l d r e n  She c o n s i d e r e d c h i l d r e n up t o the age of young  teenagers and from both sexes.  M i l l e r echoed-Evan' s view....  when she wrote: By talking w i t h c h i l d r e n and observing t h e i r f r e e and spontaneous p l a y a c t i v i t i e s i n the outdoors and elsewhere, a d u l t s can g a i n c l u e s and d i r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n about youngsters' i n t e r e s t s , (p.18) Questionnaire-Interview Literature The flexibility  i n t e r v i e w technique  i s valuable i n i t s  and a d a p t a b i l i t y t o i n d i v i d u a l  situations,  thus making i t e s p e c i a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r r e s e a r c h with children  (Kerlinger,1973).  Some of the advocates of the  i n t e r v i e w approach as a method of g a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from c h i l d r e n are; Conn (1939), King Tyler agreed  (1973) and Yarrow  t h a t t h i s technique  care i s taken and  (I960).  in  (1973), Sundberg and  A l l o f these  can be extremely  researchers  successful i f  f o r m u l a t i n g the questions t o be asked  i n r e c o r d i n g the d a t a .  Goals must be c l e a r l y  l i s h e d but there should be enough f l e x i b i l i t y  estab-  t o make  r e v i s i o n s t o the i n t e r v i e w i f necessary. Conn (1951) made v a l u a b l e use o f p l a y i n t e r v i e w s to determine c h i l d r e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s a t t i t u d e s and behaviors  f o r games and t h e i r  on other a s p e c t s .  He a t t r i b u t e d  much of h i s success on the emphasis he placed on t r e a t i n g c h i l d r e n as equals and not as i n f e r i o r b e i n g s .  Children's  o p i n i o n s were r e s p e c t e d and v a l u e d . Conn (1939) wrote: In the d i f f i c u l t task o f c o l l e c t i n g data on s i g n i f i c a n t items of c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s there i s one important c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t too o f t e n i s ; f o r g o t t e n - namely t h a t the c h i l d h i m s e l f has something t o c o n t r i b u t e , (p.68)  Yarrow  (1960). a l s o f e l t t h a t there must be  genuine honesty from the i n t e r v i e w e r i n her acceptance and  l i k i n g f o r the c h i l d b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d and a t the  same time m a i n t a i n i n g  a sense o f o b j e c t i v i t y .  j e c t i v i t y can be gained by having completely  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  d e v i s e d p r i o r to the i n t e r v i e w thus each  interview i s standardized. and  Ob-  This l i m i t s interviewer bias  ensures t h a t each c h i l d i n t e r v i e w e d  same q u e s t i o n s  i s given the  thus making f o r responses t h a t a r e com-  parable. How b e t t e r can r e s e a r c h e r s understand c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s i f not by d i r e c t v e r b a l Yarrow  questioning?  (1960) s t a t e d t h a t , "The i n t e r v i e w i s the most  f r e q u e n t l y chosen approach t o c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s and values."  (p. 668).  The i n t e r v i e w a l s o enables  meaningful  study of a wider range o f i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o a c h i l d ' s l i f e than i s p o s s i b l e through the o b s e r v a t i o n a l technique. Yarrow  (1960) was able t o make use of t h i s  with very young c h i l d r e n . f o l l o w i n g statement.  He c i t e d t h i s p o s s i b l i t y i n the  "On the whole, r e s e a r c h  suggests t h a t the d i r e c t i n t e r v i e w can be used with f o u r y e a r - o l d s . "  techniqu  (p.564)  During  evidence effectively  interviewing of a l l  persons, e s p e c i a l l y young c h i l d r e n , the i n t e r v i e w e r must be c e r t a i n t h a t the c h i l d r e n are c l e a r as:-.:to the purpose of the i n t e r v i e w , t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r r o l e i n the i n t e r v i e w and  the i n t e r v i e w e r ' s r o l e .  With t h i s c l a r i f i c a t i o n made,  the c h i l d r e n w i l l most l i k e l y e x h i b i t l e s s apprehension  towards the i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n and are l i k e l y t o enjoy themselves.  25  I f c h i l d r e n enjoy t h e i r involvement i n the  r e s e a r c h they w i l l make a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the study  through t h e i r d i r e c t , honest and thorough r e -  sponses . Sundberg and T y l e r  (1973) r e a l i z e d the n e c e s s i t y  f o r keeping the c h i l d r e l a x e d d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w .  This  can be b e s t accomplished by a l l o w i n g t h e c h i l d t o do most of the t a l k i n g . Although the c h i l d  i s encouraged, h i s  responses are not d i r e c t e d o r i n f l u e n c e d by the b i a s of the i n v e s t i g a t o r .  To gain the most r e l i a b l e and  v a l i d data p o s s i b l e , great care must be taken i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the purpose f o r which i t i s done and t h e methodology o f r e c o r d i n g the data.  The l e s s s t r u c t u r e d ,  the l e s s r e l i a b l e and v a l i d i n t e r v i e w s a r e l i k e l y to be (Sundberg and Tyler,1973). The  i n t e r v i e w technique  has many q u a l i t i e s t h a t  make its;, i n c l u s i o n along with the o b s e r v a t i o n a l approach necessary  i n r e s e a r c h on p l a y .  many of these 1. 2. 3. 4.  5.  K e r l i n g e r (1973) has l i s t e d  qualities.  Interviews can o b t a i n a great d e a l o f information. They are f l e x i b l e and adaptable t o i n dividual situations. The i n t e r v i e w e r knows i f t h e c h i l d does not understand. The i n t e r v i e w permits probing i n t o the context o f , and reasons f o r , answers t o questions. I t i s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l measuring  instrument.  G r e a t e s t success w i l l be achieved w i t h the i n t e r view technique  i f the i n v e s t i g a t o r takes care i n a v o i d i n g  the f o l l o w i n g p o t e n t i a l weaknesses as suggested Kerlinger  (1973):  1. 2. 3. 4.  more than one i d e a to a q u e s t i o n ambiguous words and expressions l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s which t h r e a t e n the v a l i d i t y demanding knowledge t h a t i s above the c a p a b i l i t i e s and understanding of the c h i l d .  I f the i n t e r v i e w technique  i s used i n an  manner, i t can be extremely Kerlinger  26  by  appropriate  valuable i n research.  (197 3). s t a t e d :  The success of the i n t e r v i e w i n s o c i o l o g y and psychology should encourage e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s to master i t s i n t r i c a c i e s and to use i t where i t i s c l e a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e , (p.476) Observational L i t e r a t u r e I t i s p o s s i b l e to g a i n v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n the understanding  of young c h i l d r e n by observing  r e c o r d i n g p l a y behavior.  and  More r e s e a r c h i n c h i l d r e n ' s  p l a y has u t i l i z e d the o b s e r v a t i o n a l approach r a t h e r than the i n t e r v i e w approach.  I t i s b e n e f i c i a l to d i s c u s s the  work of some of the r e s e a r c h e r s who s e r v a t i o n a l technique such a  ob-  to c l a r i f y the p o t e n t i a l uses of  technique. Observations  can be used f o r a wide range of  purposes r e l a t e d to young c h i l d r e n . the e f f e c t of decreased behavior  have used the  of three and  P r e i s e r (1972) s t u d i e d  a v a i l a b l e space on the f r e e p l a y  four year o l d s ; Phinney  (197 2) s e t  out to determine c h i l d r e n ' s l e v e l of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a b i l i t y by o b s e r v i n g spontaneous behavior t e r a c t i n g with blocks., at two c h i l d r e n were c l a s s i f i e d  of c h i l d r e n i n -  l e v e l s of complexity.  i n t o two  The-  l e v e l s of a b i l i t y .  The  r e s u l t s d i d not i n d i c a t e any i n t e r a c t i o n between a b i l i t y and complexity f o r t h i s study.  Bishop  (197 2)  used a time l a p s e movie camera t o t e s t c h i l d r e n ' s r e sponses t o p i c t u r e s o f playgrounds and a l s o t o t e s t the responses of playground d e s i g n e r s . responses was made. are  The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a d u l t d e s i g n e r s  i n s e n s i t i v e to c h i l d r e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s was found t o  be t r u e .  Holme CL970) observed how c h i l d r e n  to d i f f e r e n t p l a y environments of  A comparison o f the  responded  t o determine i f the k i n d s  playgrounds t h a t c h i l d r e n r e a l l y want and w i l l go on  u s i n g are b e i n g b u i l t .  In her study Holme found t h a t  c h i l d r e n p l a y i n v a r i e d environments many of which are not  d e s i g n a t e d as p l a y spaces such as back a l l e y s and  streets.  C h i l d r e n respond t o the environment  i n which  they are f a m i l i a r . Observing p h y s i c a l behavior can t e l l r e s e a r c h e r s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of i n f o r m a t i o n about  children's  ways of l o o k i n g a t l i f e : t h e i r s o c i a l , emotional and p h y s i c a l development 1971;  through p l a y  Hartley,1964; Isaacs,1933;  Whitehurst,1971).  (Brown,1958; C u r t i s , Sutton-Smith,1971;  A v a r i e t y of i n s t r u c t i o n s on ob-  s e r v a t i o n and r e c o r d i n g techniques were found i n the l i t e r a t u r e on p l a y such as those s t a t e d by Kunze  (1967).  The f i r s t step i n such a t r a i n i n g program i s t o h e l p the student d i s t i n g u i s h between d e s c r i p t i o n o f b e h a v i o r a l events and statements of impressions r e s u l t i n g from h i s o b s e r v a t i o n of b e h a v i o r a l events, (p.474). He a l s o s t a t e d t h a t the s t r u c t u r e f o r r e c o r d i n g b e h a v i o r a l  events be  such t h a t i t f a c i l i t a t e s r e c o r d i n g  while discouraging gestions  28  behavior  the r e c o r d i n g of impressions.  Sug-  on d e t a i l s t h a t would be meaningful i n e x p l a i n -  i n g behavior were given.  Generalizations  made through observations  and  t h a t can  be  p e r t a i n to matters of  v i t a l importance to c h i l d r e n , w i l l h e l p provide  clues  to c h i l d r e n ' s thoughts and f e e l i n g s . Cohen  (19 65)  wrote:  When we come to see c h i l d r e n ' s behavior through the eyes of i t s meaning to them, from the i n s i d e out, we s h a l l be w e l l on our way to understanding them. (p.5) If observations should  are to be b e n e f i c i a l ,  be made of the technique used, i t s  f o r the problem being  considered  t a t i o n s of the approach. be  The  and  consideration  appropriateness  the assets and  limi-  a c t u a l data c o l l e c t i o n  should  f r e e from i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to prevent b i a s from the  s e r v e r . Kerlinger  (1973) s t a t e d t h a t , "The  ob-  more the burden  of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n put upon the observer, the g r e a t e r v a l i d i t y problem."  (p.506)  data from being d i s t o r t e d .  Being o b j e c t i v e prevents An o b s e r v a t i o n a l  i s more u s e f u l i f the r e s u l t i n g data can be q u a n t i t a t i v e l y r a t h e r than q u a l i t a t i v e l y 1971;  Kunze,1967; King and One  observation  the  instrument summarized  (Furst and  Hill,  Thompson,19 69).  of the most important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  in  system i s to know c l e a r l y what i s being  any ob-  served  s i n c e t h i s w i l l d i c t a t e the o p e r a t i o n a l  system.  Curtis  (1971) s t r e s s e d the v i t a l importance of  ob-  servations  the  i n s t u d y i n g motor development i n c h i l d r e n .  She  s t r e s s e d f o c u s i n g on how  29  the c h i l d uses h i s body;  the process of movement, not the product.  She  f i l m s were b e n e f i c i a l i n d e v e l o p i n g the s k i l l  felt of  ob-  servers . S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s made v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s in  c l a r i f y i n g the c r i t e r i a h e l p f u l f o r s e l e c t i n g the most  useful  instrument. 1.  to  see  Smith,  The observer must f i r s t  decide what he wishes  (Kerlinger,1973; King and Thompson  (1969);  Sutton-  197 0) . 2.  The observer must have a c l e a r idea of how  wants to use the data  (Cohen,1970; F u r s t and H i l l ,  he  1971;  Sutton-Smith,197 0) 3.  The degree of v a l i d i t y depends on how  instrument r e f l e c t s the t h e o r i e s which generated  w e l l the i t (Furst  and H i l l , 1 9 7 1 ; Kerlinger,1973; Kunze,1967). 4.  The  instrument should be r e l i a b l e such t h a t the  same r e s u l t s occur when the same p o p u l a t i o n i s observed d i f f e r e n t times and/or by d i f f e r e n t observers  (Furst  at  and  H i l l , 1 9 7 1 ; Kunze,1967). 5.  Observers  should i d e n t i f y t h e i r own  b i a s e s and  be c a u t i o u s t h a t these b i a s e s do not hinder the r e s u l t s (Curtis,1971; King and Thompson,1969). By being c a r e f u l i n d e v i s i n g a u s e f u l  instrument  i n which t o observe c h i l d r e n at p l a y , the observer f i n d out what s a t i s f i e s c h i l d r e n ' s needs.  The  can  generaliz-  a t i o n s t h a t can be made on what i s seen happening g i v e s f u r t h e r knowledge i n t o the matters  t h a t are of v i t a l  30 importance to young c h i l d r e n d u r i n g p l a y . expressed  C u r t i s (1971)  t h i s view i n h i s w e l l w r i t t e n statement:  We must remember t h a t i n our haste, there i s s e r i o u s danger t h a t we w i l l not stop t o r e a l l y look a t the small c h i l d - o r , i f we do look, we may f a i l t o see him. (p.33) U t i l i z a t i o n and understanding technique  o f the o b s e r v a t i o n a l  i s v a l u a b l e and should  not be underestimated as  a means of l e a r n i n g more about c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y . Considerable f o r t h i s study.  l i t e r a t u r e on p l a y was i n v e s t i g a t e d  General  l i t e r a t u r e on p l a y p r o v i d e d a  b a s i s from which the i n v e s t i g a t o r c o u l d j u s t i f y t h i s The major emphases  study.  of the r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e were placed  on i n f o r m a t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h r e s e a r c h e r s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the term p l a y , the importance o f p l a y , r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s on p l a y , l i t e r a t u r e on sex s t e r e o t y p i n g as evidenced i n c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y and i n f o r m a t i o n s u b s t a n t i a t i n g the two r e s e a r c h techniques The  used i n t h i s  study.  l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g with d e f i n i t i o n s o f p l a y ,  the importance o f p l a y and r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s on p l a y made i t clear that research t h a t i t i s important  i n play i s being undertaken and  t o continue  further research.  l i t e r a t u r e s u b s t a n t i a t e d the i n i t i a l t h i s study, understanding The  statements made i n  t h a t more knowledge about p l a y and a b e t t e r o f the n e c e s s i t y f o r p l a y a r e e s s e n t i a l . i n f o r m a t i o n d e a l i n g with the q u e s t i o n n a i r e -  i n t e r v i e w technique  and o b s e r v a t i o n technique  the assumption t h a t c h i l d r e n can express t h e i r and  This  a t t i t u d e s towards p l a y i f the proper  substantiated interests  language and  approach are used.  Numerous r e s e a r c h e r s have success  f u l l y used these techniques t o g a i n g r e a t e r i n s i g h t into children's play.  T h e i r v a r i o u s uses of the  two  techniques supported the approach taken i n t h i s study  CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND  PROCEDURES  Play r e s e a r c h e r s have used v a r i o u s approaches t o g a i n f u r t h e r knowledge of c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y .  Although r e -  search on p l a y has more o f t e n made use o f the o b s e r v a t i o n technique  than the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w technique,  both  have been s u c c e s s f u l i n g a i n i n g v a l u a b l e knowledge o f what young people c o n s i d e r important 1974;  Miller,1972;  i n play  Sutton-Smith,1971).  ( E l l i s , 1 9 7 3 ; Evans, Based on numerous  p l a y r e s e a r c h e r s ' success with these two techniques, study examined p l a y a t t i t u d e s and behavior two  relevant  through  this these  sources. ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES  A t t i t u d e Assessment Using the Questionnaire-Interview  Technique  A q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w was given on a one-toone b a s i s with each c h i l d .  T h i s r e s e a r c h instrument  w r i t t e n i n c h i l d r e n ' s language, terms they to secure  was  understand,  information related to children's a t t i t u d e s  toward p l a y when engaging i n f r e e p l a y on t h e i r playgrounds.  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w  school  technique  acknowledges the need t o i n v o l v e c h i l d r e n .  C h i l d r e n can  make v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the f u r t h e r  understanding  of p l a y . Behavior Assessment Using the Observation Technique 32  The c h i l d r e n were observed i n f r e e p l a y on t h e i r  33  s c h o o l playground. A p i l o t study was undertaken d u r i n g the summer of 1975 u s i n g both techniques to develop b a s i c  investigator  competencies i n these assessment measures (See Appendix E) . SELECTION OF THE SAMPLE F i v e elementary schools w i t h i n the Richmond School D i s t r i c t , Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia were s e l e c t e d , w i t h s i m i l a r playgrounds as the major c r i t e r i a .  Other c r i t e r i a  were; s i m i l a r socio-economic backgrounds and s i m i l a r i n terview rooms. s c h o o l board was  T h i s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t was  chosen s i n c e i t s  extremely e n t h u s i a s t i c and i n t e r e s t e d i n  the area of c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y .  W i t h i n each s c h o o l a grade  one, two and three c l a s s were randomly  s e l e c t e d making  a t o t a l of f i v e grade one, f i v e grade two and f i v e grade three c l a s s e s . was  The t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n  interviewed  354 w i t h 339 of these c h i l d r e n observed d u r i n g  play.  free  Since each c h i l d had to be both observed and  inter-  viewed, the sample group f o r t h i s study c o n s i s t e d of 339 subjects.  A l l data a n a l y s i s was based on those 339  children. C l a s s e s were s e l e c t e d randomly t o reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y of b i a s .  The c h i l d r e n were chosen on a c l a s s  b a s i s to f a c i l i t a t e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and to cause the l e a s t amount of d i s t u r b a n c e a t the s c h o o l s .  The  were chosen w i t h the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a i n mind:  classes  34 1. They were s i m i l a r i n s i z e . 2. They had s i m i l a r numbers o f males and females. 3. They were able t o p l a y on the school p l a y ground d u r i n g a f r e e p l a y p e r i o d . ORGANIZATION OF TIME AND SPACE There were f i v e schools with three c l a s s e s t o be i nt er vi ew ed  and observed per s c h o o l . I t took four days  per s c h o o l , t h e r e f o r e a t o t a l of twenty days was needed for  data c o l l e c t i o n .  the r e l i a b i l i t y  Six more days were needed t o t e s t  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w .  Weather  problems prevented  the observations  consecutive  See Appendix B f o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n -  days.  from t a k i n g p l a c e on  terview and Appendix C f o r o b s e r v a t i o n  schedule.  Each q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w took  approximately  ten minutes t o complete.  Thus a t l e a s t one c l a s s of  c h i l d r e n were i n t e r v i e w e d  per day.  p l a c e d u r i n g two separate  h a l f hour f r e e p l a y  The o b s e r v a t i o n s  took  sessions  per c l a s s and g e n e r a l l y a f t e r the i n t e r v i e w i n g was completed.  The time span between the two techniques f o r  each s c h o o l v a r i e d depending upon the weather. was  There  a three month time p e r i o d over which t e s t i n g took  place. METHODOLOGY A t t i t u d e Assessment Using the Questionnaire-Interview The  Technique  q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w assessed  the f o l l o w i n g  a t t i t u d i n a l components:(See Appendix B f o r complete Questionnaire). 1.  Children's d e s i r e to play.  (Question  2.  C h i l d r e n ' s reasons f o r p l a y i n g .  1)  (Questions  2 & 3) 3.  C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e time t o p l a y on t h e i r school playground.  4.  (Question  C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on t h e i r school playground. (Question  5.  4)  Children's play behaviors, a.  specifically;  The f a v o r i t e t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do. (Questions  b.  5)  7 & 8)  The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect; whether c h i l d r e n p l a y alone, with c h i l d r e n t h e i r own age, with c h i l d r e n younger than themselves or with c h i l d r e n o l d e r than themselves. (Question  c.  6)  The degree of energy used by the c h i l d r e n ; whether they d i d a c t i v i t i e s t h a t took a l o t of energy, took some energy o r they engaged i n q u i e t t h i n g s . (Question  6.  6)  The types of equipment c h i l d r e n use on t h e i r school playground.(Questions  The  9 & 10)  f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s were emphasized by the  investigator: 1.  The i n v e s t i g a t o r was i n t e r e s t e d i n d e t e r - '  mining what c h i l d r e n l i k e t o do on t h e i r school playground  36  and why i t was l i k e d , 2.  There a r e no r i g h t or wrong answers t o the  questions - what was d e s i r e d was t h e i r own p e r s o n a l opinions. 3.  I f there were ever  any questions the  c h i l d r e n should f e e l f r e e t o ask them. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o one c l a s s a t a time. another  child  As one c h i l d was being i n t e r v i e w e d  s a t o u t s i d e of the i n t e r v i e w i n g room u n t i l  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w t a k i n g p l a c e was completed. Then t h i s c h i l d was c a l l e d i n and the c h i l d who had j u s t f i n i s h e d answering the questions r e t u r n e d t o the c l a s s and of  sent the next c h i l d .  For s i m p l i c i t y ' s sake the order  q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w s f o l l o w e d the c l a s s Approximately  list.  ten minutes was needed f o r each  c h i l d t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w , however, t h i s time v a r i e d depending upon the s p e c i f i c  child.  Since only two c h i l d r e n a t a time were i n v o l v e d w i t h the i n t e r v i e w i n g , there was very l i t t l e the c l a s s e s .  disturbance i n  When a s k i n g the s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s , the  i n t e r v i e w e r used the f o l l o w i n g techniques: 1.  Each q u e s t i o n was read aloud and repeated  when necessary. 2.  The c h o i c e s , when g i v e n , were read s l o w l y .  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p l a c e d i n f r o n t o f each  c h i l d so t h a t they c o u l d read i t w i t h the i n v e s t i g a t o r . T h i s was mainly 3.  f o r the b e n e f i t o f the o l d e r c h i l d r e n .  The i n v e s t i g a t o r recorded the responses.  37  Behavior Assessment Using the Observation Technique The o b s e r v a t i o n s assessed s e l e c t e d aspects o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w , t h a t i s : (See Appendix D f o r complete form) 1.  The c h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e t h e i r s c h o o l playground  spot t o p l a y on (See Question 5 o f  Questionnaire-Interview) 2.  The c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y b e h a v i o r s , a.  specifically;  The f a v o r i t e : things, c h i l d r e n do. . (See Questions  7 & 8 of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e -  Interview) b.  The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect; whether c h i l d r e n p l a y alone or i n groups.(See  Question 6  of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - I n t e r v i e w ) c.  The degree o f energy used by the c h i l d r e n ; whether they d i d a c t i v i t i e s t h a t took a l o t of energy,  took some energy or they  engaged i n q u i e t t h i n g s (See Question 6 of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - I n t e r v i e w ) The o b s e r v a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s used corresponded  ' directly  with  q u e s t i o n components from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w with a s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n t o the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect. only one c l a s s a t a time was u s i n g the playground  Since during  the f r e e p l a y c o n d i t i o n , the c h i l d r e n were b a s i c a l l y of the same age. were used:  T h e r e f o r e , only two o b s e r v a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s  1. c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g alone and, 2. c h i l d r e n  p l a y i n g i n a s m a l l group.  Observations  took p l a c e on a c l a s s b a s i s with  the i n v e s t i g a t o r o b s e r v i n g a l l of the sample group on the s c h o o l playground  d u r i n g two  separate h a l f hour  s e s s i o n s of f r e e p l a y per c l a s s .  T h i s procedure f o r  o b s e r v i n g the c h i l d r e n , made i t p o s s i b l e f o r the i n v e s t i g a t o r t o observe only those c h i l d r e n i n t e r v i e w e d . Over the h a l f hour p e r i o d , the i n v e s t i g a t o r observed  each of the t h r e e p l a y areas: 1. equipment  area, 2. b l a c k t o p area and,  3. p l a y i n g f i e l d  minutes per area broken down i n t o two minute o b s e r v a t i o n a l s e s s i o n s .  f o r ten  separate  There was  five  a t o t a l of  s i x complete o b s e r v a t i o n s over the h a l f hour p e r i o d . The order of areas to be observed  was  randomly s e l e c t e d  per c l a s s per s c h o o l u s i n g a Table of Random Numbers (Kerlinger,1973).  The  o b s e r v a t i o n s made i n r e s p e c t to  the s e l e c t e d components of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w , were recorded by the i n v e s t i g a t o r f o r each complete servation.  Observations  were undertaken by the  ob-  investi-  gator a t each of the t h r e e p l a y areas r a t h e r than  ob-  s e r v i n g s p e c i f i c c h i l d r e n moving from one area to another. METHOD OF ANALYSIS Questionnaire-Interview A l l questions were t a b u l a t e d and data p l a c e on computer c a r d s . 1.  The  data was  analysed as f o l l o w s :  C h i square values were  t o t a l responses to each q u e s t i o n .  determined f o r the  2.  C h i square v a l u e s were determined by the  39  computer programme S t a t i s t i c a l Programme f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , v e r s i o n 5.01 through the computer a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  f o r each of the f o l l o w i n g  sub-problems. a.  To  determine i f t h e r e a r e sex d i f f e r e n c e s  among c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r p l a y a t t i t u d e s when engaging i n f r e e p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l playgrounds. b.  To determine i f t h e r e a r e grade d i f f e r e n c e s  among c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r p l a y a t t i t u d e s when  engaging  i n f r e e p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l playgrounds. c.  To determine i f t h e r e are s c h o o l d i f f e r e n c e s  among c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r p l a y a t t i t u d e s when engaging i n f r e e p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l playgrounds. d.  To determine i f t h e r e a r e sex d i f f e r e n c e s  among c h i l d r e n w i t h i n each grade i n t h e i r p l a y  attitudes  when engaging i n f r e e p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l playgrounds. Observations A l l o b s e r v a t i o n s were r e c o r d e d on a per c l a s s b a s i s . The data was then analysed i n the same manner as the questionnaire-interview. 1.  C h i square v a l u e s were determined f o r the  t o t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s t o each o b s e r v a t i o n category. 2.  C h i square v a l u e s were determined f o r each  of the f o l l o w i n g a.  sub-problems.  To determine i f t h e r e are sex d i f f e r e n c e s  among c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r p l a y behavior when engaging i n  f r e e p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l b.  40  playgrounds,  To determine i f there are grade d i f f e r e n c e s  among c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r p l a y behavior when engaging i n f r e e p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l c.  playgrounds.  To determine i f there are s c h o o l d i f f e r e n c e s  among c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r p l a y behavior when engaging i n f r e e p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l d.  playgrounds.  To determine i f there are sex d i f f e r e n c e s among  c h i l d r e n w i t h i n each grade i n t h e i r p l a y behavior when engaging  i n f r e e p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l  Questionnaire-Interview  playgrounds.  Reliability  For the purpose of t e s t i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w technique, schools were r e i n t e r v i e w e d . was used.  of the  t h r e e c l a s s e s from two  A sample group o f 129 c h i l d r e n  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w s were administered i n  an i d e n t i c a l manner t o the f i r s t s e t o f i n t e r v i e w s . Once the data was c o l l e c t e d , the i n v e s t i g a t o r analyzed each c h i l d ' s i n i t i a l responses and the responses of  the r e i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n .  independently  The questions were c o n s i d e r e d  s i n c e they were each designed  t o assess a  s p e c i f i c aspect of the c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e toward f r e e p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l playground.  The r e l i a b i l i t y  o f the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w was determined by c a l c u l a t i n g  per-  centages of c h i l d r e n who gave i d e n t i c a l r e p l i e s t o the same questions.  Thus the percentages  r e f e r t o the percentage of  agreement between c h i l d r e n ' s i n i t i a l responses and r e interview  responses.  41  Comparison Between A t t i t u d e Data and Behavior Data The c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f the a t t i t u d e data  (question-  n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w approach) w i t h the b e h a v i o r data (obs e r v a t i o n s ) was determined as f o l l o w s : 1.  The adjusted frequency percentages of the two were compared f o r the comparison o f ; a. f a v o r i t e spot, b. s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and c. degree of energy used.  2.  Spearman's c o e f f i c i e n t o f rank o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n was determined f o r the comparisons o f ; a.  a c t i v i t i e s , and b. k i n d s o f games  (Ferguson,1971). The two d i f f e r e n t methods were used s i n c e rank o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s are not u s e f u l when o n l y a small number o f c h o i c e s a r e ranked.  T h i s was the case f o r the t h r e e com-  p a r i s o n s , f a v o r i t e spot, s o c i a l i a t i o n and degree of energy. However, s u f f i c i e n t numbers of c h o i c e s  f o r the comparisons;  a c t i v i t i e s and kinds of games allowed f o r rank o r d e r i n g . Statistical  Significance  To be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , the d a t a must e x h i b i t a .01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . CHARACTERISTICS  OF THE DATA  The dependent v a r i a b l e s f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n were the c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r s and a t t i t u d e s and the independent v a r i a b l e s were: sex, grade, s c h o o l and sex w i t h i n each grade. Since the v a r i a b l e s were c o n s i d e r e d under the terms of  42  e q u a l i t y or d i f f e r e n c e , they were nominal v a r i a b l e s (Ferguson, 1971). RELIABILITY OF THE EVALUATIVE TECHNIQUES AND THE INVESTIGATOR Questionnaire-Interview The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e . u s e d f o r t h i s study had  r e v i s e d numerous times and children.  The  developed w i t h the h e l p of  i n v e s t i g a t o r had  used a s i m i l a r i n s t r u -  ment w i t h c h i l d r e n i n supervised Appendix E ) . i n the  The  playgrounds  (See  major d i f f e r e n c e i n emphasis was  type of p l a y environment under The  been  consideration.  i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s assumption t h a t c h i l d r e n  respond to a q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w these p r e l i m i n a r y v a l i d i t y appeared  sessions  and  successful.  on face v a l i d i t y i n the  was  tested  on the b a s i s of Garrett  following  seen  could  during face  (1958) commented  quotation:  A t e s t i s s a i d to have face v a l i d i t y when i t appears to measure whatever the author had i n mind, namely, what he thought he was measuring..... * Face v a l i d i t y i s necessary, too, when we must d e c i d e what items are s u i t a b l e f o r c h i l d r e n and which are a c c e p t a b l e to a d u l t s , (p.355) The  i n v e s t i g a t o r t r i e d t o make the wording of each q u e s t i o n  as simple as p o s s i b l e and thought or i d e a was c o n f u s i o n and  w i t h no ambiguity.  Only  one  suggested i n each q u e s t i o n to prevent  misinterpretation  by the  children.  Observations The  observational  categories  used f o r t h i s  study  were comparable w i t h s e l e c t e d q u e s t i o n components from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w . similar observational v i s e d playgrounds i n emphasis was  The  i n v e s t i g a t o r had  categories  used  w i t h c h i l d r e n i n super-  (See Appendix E ) .  The  major d i f f e r e n c e  seen i n the type of p l a y environment under  consideration. The haviors  i n v e s t i g a t o r recorded the p a r t i c u l a r  d i c t a t e d by the o b s e r v a t i o n a l  s e l e c t e d b e h a v i o r s were recorded;  categories.  the  what the  i n v e s t i g a t o r saw.  No  Only  investigator did  not attempt to observe a l l b e h a v i o r s . was  be-  What was  judgments as  recorded to  a t t i t u d e s toward p l a y were made. Investigator The  i n v e s t i g a t o r had  questionnaire-interview  previously  technique and  technique w i t h young c h i l d r e n  i n i t i a l problems of i n t e r v i e w i n g  by  i n v e s t i g a t o r and  have been r e c t i f i e d . as s t a t e d by  validity  as  r e c o g n i z e d by play  One  Sundberg and  c l e a r l y they are  the  structured  the  (1973) was,  researchers  "The  (p.113)  The  t i g a t o r overcame t h i s problem by s t a n d a r d i z i n g  The  interviews less  l e s s r e l i a b i l i t y and  they are l i k e l y to have."  q u e s t i o n s , thus s t r u c t u r i n g the  Many  experienced  p o t e n t i a l problem of Tyler  the  observation  (See Appendix E ) .  of the the  used both  investhe  questionnaire-interview.  q u e s t i o n s were completely formulated p r i o r to  the  interview. The  q u e s t i o n s used should not have more than  one  i d e a per q u e s t i o n , should be s h o r t , and should not be l e a d i n g or i t s v a l i d i t y w i l l be threatened  (Kerlinger,  (1973).  The i n v e s t i g a t o r took c o n s i d e r a b l e thought i n  choosing  the questions and t e s t e d them with  Kerlinger  (1973) a l s o s t a t e d t h a t another  shortcoming  potential  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w  was the time f a c t o r .  children.  technique  The maximum l e n g t h of an i n t e r -  view s e s s i o n i n t h i s study was ten minutes.  The  c h i l d r e n d i d not get bored w i t h i n t h i s time p e r i o d . Many of the other i n i t i a l problems o f i n t e r v i e w i n g such as; g e t t i n g accustomed t o t a l k i n g with c h i l d r e n , r e l a t i n g t o them, h e l p i n g them f e e l a t ease and p r o v i d i n g a p l e a s a n t i n t e r v i e w environment have been worked out with the experience pilot  the i n v e s t i g a t o r had d u r i n g the  study. Many o f the i n i t i a l problems o f observing as ex-  p e r i e n c e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r and recognized by p l a y r e s e a r c h e r s have a l s o been r e c t i f i e d .  One p o t e n t i a l  problem i s t h a t d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n s can only d e s c r i b e what the c h i l d has s a i d and done.  The method i s  misused i f one makes any attempt t o d i s c o v e r what t h a t behavior means q u a l i t a t i v e l y  (Kretschmer;1972).  o b s e r v a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s f o r t h i s study cover what c h i l d r e n d i d ;  sought t o d i s -  no i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s as t o why  they behaved as they d i d was made.  Kretschmer  a l s o wrote t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n s can be a lengthy The to  The  (1972) process.  i n v e s t i g a t o r was c a r e f u l t o l i m i t the time p e r i o d two separate  t h i r t y minute s e s s i o n s per c l a s s .  Roderick  (1971) found d i f f i c u l t y i n the ob-  s e r v a t i o n a l system when the category f o r coding movement was not e x p l i c i t .  The i n v e s t i g a t o r r e s o l v e d t h i s  problem by p r o v i d i n g d e f i n i t e c a t e g o r i e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n s . Before one can begin data c o l l e c t i o n one must be sure o f the behavior  categories  (Cohen,1963; Kunze,1967) .  Many  other i n i t i a l problems o f o b s e r v a t i o n s such as; d e t e r mining a u s e f u l r e c o r d i n g method making use o f a coding system, randomization  of o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s f o r the  sample p o p u l a t i o n and g e n e r a l l y becoming accustomed t o g a t h e r i n g as much i n f o r m a t i o n as p o s s i b l e i n a l i m i t e d p e r i o d were r e c t i f i e d as a r e s u l t o f the p i l o t  study.  CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND  DISCUSSION  INTRODUCTION The  r e s u l t s from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w data  and o b s e r v a t i o n a l data were analysed with r e s p e c t t o c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s toward p l a y and t h e i r p l a y when engaging i n f r e e p l a y on t h e i r school The  behavior  playgrounds.  c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s were examined by means of the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w and t h e i r behaviors were examined by means of the The was  observations.  reliability  considered  first  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w  s i n c e the r e l i a b i l i t y  proved to be  f u r t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s made on general a t t i t u d e r e s u l t s .  The  the  g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e data  was  c o n s i d e r e d next with i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r e l a t e d to the s i x a t t i t u d i n a l components. the a t t i t u d e d a t a .  The  g e n e r a l behavior data  followed  The behavior r e s u l t s were analysed  terms of the behavior  categories.  Next to be d i s c u s s e d  the comparison between a t t i t u d e data and behavior sex, grade, s c h o o l and  in  data  was by;  sex w i t h i n each grade.  F o l l o w i n g these g e n e r a l comparisons, c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s and behavior  towards p l a y when engaged i n f r e e  p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l playground  with r e s p e c t t o the  comparisons of sex, grade, s c h o o l and were d i s c u s s e d .  specific  sex w i t h i n each grade  These d i s c u s s i o n s were f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d 46  47  i n t o a t t i t u d e and behavior r e s u l t s . TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW (SEE APPENDIX G) The q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w was r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 12 9 c h i l d r e n w i t h r e l a t i v e l y equal numbers from grades one of  (46), two  (38) and t h r e e (45). There was a time p e r i o d  j u s t over two months between i n t e r v i e w s . The  m a j o r i t y of r e l i a b i l i t y  percentages were e i t h e r  h i g h or o u t s t a n d i n g (see Chapter 1 f o r percentage pretation) .  inter-  C h i l d r e n ' s d e s i r e t o p l a y showed an o u t s t a n d i n g  percentage w h i l e c h i l d r e n ' s reasons f o r p l a y i n g ,  children's  f a v o r i t e time t o p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l playground, c h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l playground, c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y b e h a v i o r s and the type of equipment c h i l d r e n use on t h e i r s c h o o l playground, most o f t e n showed a h i g h percentage. (See Appendix F f o r Table 29)  Percentages were g i v e n f o r  each q u e s t i o n and f o r the most frequent responses w i t h i n each q u e s t i o n .  The percentages f o r the f a v o r i t e  were h i g h e r than f o r the complete q u e s t i o n s .  responses  Children  seemed t o be more c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s f o r t h e i r p r e f e r r e d c h o i c e s than f o r t h e i r l e s s popular c h o i c e s .  The  l e s s popular c h o i c e s caused the percentages on the q u e s t i o n s to  be lower than f o r the f a v o r i t e c h o i c e s . The t e s t - r e t e s t a n a l y s i s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e -  i n t e r v i e w technique i n d i c a t e d a m a j o r i t y o f h i g h and outstanding r e l i a b i l i t y reliable  percentages.  Thus i t was c o n s i d e r e d  f o r the purposes of t h i s study.  The c h i l d r e n i n  grades one,  two  and  three were c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r s t a t e d  4  a t t i t u d e s towards f r e e p l a y on t h e i r school playgrounds. The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w technique  was  adapted to young  c h i l d r e n and young c h i l d r e n were a b l e to respond t o i t . GENERAL ATTITUDE DATA (SEE APPENDIX H). The  a t t i t u d e data r e f e r r e d to t h e data  from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w . c h i l d r e n who  The  gathered  percentage of  s e l e c t e d a p a r t i c u l a r c h o i c e d i v i d e d by  t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n who  responded to the  (otherwise known as the adjusted  the  question  frequency), was  determined  C h i square v a l u e s were a l s o determined f o r the purpose of d e c i d i n g i f there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d r e n ' a t t i t u d e s f o r the f o l l o w i n g s e l e c t e d a t t i t u d i n a l components 1.  Children's desire to play.  2.  C h i l d r e n ' s reasons f o r p l a y i n g .  3.  C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e time to p l a y oh .their school playground.  4.  C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot to p l a y on  their  school playground. 5.  Children's play behaviors,  specifically;  a.  The  f a v o r i t e t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do.  b.  The  s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect; whether c h i l d r e n  p l a y alone, with c h i l d r e n t h e i r own  age,  w i t h c h i l d r e n younger than themselves or with c h i l d r e n o l d e r than themselves. c.  The  degree of energy used by the c h i l d r e n ;  49 whether they d i d a c t i v i t i e s t h a t took a l o t of energy, took some energy o r they engaged i n q u i e t 6.  things.  The types o f equipment c h i l d r e n use on t h e i r school playground .  Children's  Desire To Play  C h i l d r e n ' s d e s i r e t o p l a y was p l a c e d questionnaire-interview this particular  question  remaining q u e s t i o n s .  t o allow c h i l d r e n t o respond t o without being  The r e s u l t s  component showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y the  f i r s t on the  i n f l u e n c e d by the  for this  s i g n i f i c a n t differences at  .01 l e v e l i n c h i l d r e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s .  are presented i n Table 1.  attitudinal  Figure  These d i f f e r e n c e s  1 presents  children's  responses t o the a t t i t u d i n a l component d e a l i n g w i t h children's desire to play. TABLE 1 COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S DESIRE TO PLAY  Question #1** Responses Yes No  0  339 0  E  169. 5 169.5  Total 339 *p<.01,x . , = 6. 64 ** Do you l i k e t o play? 2  01  x  O-E  169.5 169.5  .  (O-E)  (O-E) / E  2  2  28,730.25 28,730.25  169. 5 169. 5 x =339. 0* 2  50  FIGURE 1 CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR DESIRE TO PLAY Responses Question Yes No % *Do  0 10 20 30 you l i k e t o p l a y ?  I t was of  #1*  40  50  60  70  e v i d e n t from F i g u r e 1 t h a t p l a y was  the c h i l d r e n ;  they l i k e d t o p l a y .  80  90  important t o  These r e s u l t s  s u b s t a n t i a t e d the need f o r a study of t h i s nature. d e s i r e to p l a y , was as: R i l e y  100  100%  further Children's  a l s o e v i d e n t to many p l a y r e s e a r c h e r s such  (1973), Sutton-Smith  (1971) and Whitehurst  (1971).  C h i l d r e n ' s Reasons For P l a y i n g Play must s a t i s f y c h i l d r e n ' s needs i f i t i s t o be meaningful  (Flinchum and Hanson,1972; 0'Shea,1925).  s t a t e d t h a t , "We  Haverson(1971)  w i l l have to assess the needs, t o study the  ways, t o evaluate the r e s u l t s . "  (p.33) I t was  imperative t h a t  c h i l d r e n ' s reasons f o r p l a y i n g be c o n s i d e r e d . C h i l d r e n ' s s p e c i f i c behaviors may  be more e a s i l y understood  i f a b e t t e r under-  s t a n d i n g of t h e i r reasons f o r p l a y i n g i s achieved. The children's  statistical  s i g n i f i c a n c e of q u e s t i o n s d e a l i n g with  reasons f o r p l a y i n g are presented i n Table  2.  F i g u r e 2 p r e s e n t s each of the q u e s t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s reasons f o r p l a y i n g .  51  TABLE 2 COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S REASONS FOR PLAYING  a. Question #2B** 0 Responses Happy Pleasant feelings Fun Other Unpleasant feelings Good Sad Dizzy  E  O-E  (O-E)  2  96  38.5  57 .5  3306.25  85.88  44 42 41  38.5 38.5 38.5  5.5 3.5 2.5  30.25 12.25 6.25  .78 .32 .16  29 26 19 11  38.5 38.5 38.5 38.5  -9.5 -12.5 -19.5 -27.5  90.25 156.25 380.25 756.25  2.34 4.06 9.88 19 .64 x =123.06*  Total N=308 *p <• 01 , 3 ? . 0-1,7= 18 .48 ** How does i t make you :f e e l ?  b. Question #3A** 0 Responses Yes No  329 10  Total  339  *p<.01,x  (O-E) /E  2  E  169.5 169.5  O-E  159.5 -159.5  2  (O-E)  2  (0-E) /E 2  25,440.25 25,440.25  150.09 150.09 x =300.18* 2  .01,1=18.48  ** Do you l i k e t o p l a y on your school playground?  52 TABLE 2 (continued)  c. Question #3i** 0 Ranking Responses Fun t h i n g s Meet new k i d s Fun I feel better Provides opportunities Do school work b e t t e r after Other Like to p l a y hard Scary feelings Healthy  E  Q 1  9  (O-E)  (O-E) /E  88 68 67 46  42. 12 42. 12 42. 12 42. 12  46. 12 26. 12 25. 12 4.12  2 ,127 .05 682 .25 631 .01 16 .97  21  42. 12 -21. 12  446 .05  10 . 59  18 11  42. 12 -24. 12 42. 12 -31. 12  581 .77 968 .45  13 . 81 22 .99  8  42. 12 -34. 12  1 ,164 .17  27 .64  7 3  -35. 12 -39. 12  1 ,233 .41 1 ,530 .37  29 .28 36 .33  Total 337 *p< . 01,x =21.67 * * I f yes, why? 2  O-E  X  2  50 .50 16 .20 14 .98 .40  =  224 .72  53 FIGURE 2 CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR REASONS FOR PLAYING Responses a. Question #2B* Happy Pleasant f . Fun Other Unpleasant f . Good Sad Dizzy Responses b. Question Yes No  #3A**  Responses c. Question #3i*** Fun t h i n g s Meet new k i d s Fun I feel better Opportunities School work Other L i k e t o p l a y hard Scary f e e l i n g s Healthy %  0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 * How does i t make you f e e l ? ** Do you l i k e t o p l a y on your school playground? *** I f yes, why?  90  100  From F i g u r e 2 i t was e v i d e n t t h a t c h i l d r e n r e p e a t e d l y gave s i m i l a r c h o i c e s f o r t h e i r reasons  for playing.  When asked i f  they had c e r t a i n kinds o f f e e l i n g s when p l a y i n g on t h e i r playground,  54.9% o f the sample p o p u l a t i o n s a i d yes.  p a r t i c u l a r group t h r e e f e e l i n g s were most popular; (31.2%), 2. p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s  Of  school this  1. happy  (14.3%) and 3. fun (13.6%). (See  F i g u r e 2-a)  Table  f o r p l a y i n g had .01  2-a  showed t h a t t h i s aspect of reasons  statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , at the  l e v e l , i n children's preferences.  of p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s .  C h i l d r e n played  the l e a s t among the meanings of  movement f o r the young c h i l d are sheer enjoyment and  school playground.  t h i s aspect the  .01  l i k e d to play  (See F i g u r e 2-b)  showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y  The  results  (See Table  These c h i l d r e n were given s e v e r a l c h o i c e s from which s e l e c t e d t h e i r reasons f o r p l a y i n g and three reasons.  F i g u r e 2-c  then ranked  C h i l d r e n ' s three most  reasons f o r p l a y i n g on t h e i r  element of fun The  they  their  school playground as l i s t e d i n  (20.2%) and  (26.1%),  2.  3. because of the  l i k e d p l a y i n g on t h e i r  97.3%  of t h e i r reasons while  school playground.  s t a t e d t h a t there are fun t h i n g s was 97.1%  chose the element of fun and  chose the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect as reasons.  pleasant  they  c h i l d r e n were a l s o asked t o s t a t e which c h o i c e s  Of the p o p u l a t i o n  30)  2-b)  (19.9%).  were reasons why  Table  for  popular  were; 1. because there are fun t h i n g s  f o r the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect  on  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , at  l e v e l , i n children's preferences.  favorite  sensuous  (p.35).  Of the sample p o p u l a t i o n , 97.1% their  because  T h i s f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d Whitehurst's  (1971) c o n t e n t i o n t h a t , "Not  pleasure."  54  one  95.6%  (See Appendix H -  The major reasons f o r p l a y i n g were; the fun t h i n g s , f e e l i n g s and  the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l i z i n g .  55  C h i l d r e n ' s F a v o r i t e Time To P l a y on T h e i r School Playground When c h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e time t o p l a y on t h e i r school playground statistically  was c o n s i d e r e d , the r e s u l t s showed  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , a t the .01 l e v e l ,  in children's preferences.  Table 3 presents these d i f f e r e n c e s .  F i g u r e 3 presents c h i l d r e n ' s responses of  favorite  t o each of the c h o i c e s  time. TABLE 3  COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE TIME TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND  Question #4** Responses  0  E  Lunch Recess A f t e r school Weekends Evenings Before school  154 86 48 36 11 3  56. 56. 56. 56. 56. 56.  O-E  33 97. 67 33 30. 33 33 -8. 33 33 -20. 33 33 -45. 33 33 -53. 33  (O-E)  2  9,539. 43 919. 91 69. 39 413. 31 2,054 . 81 2,844. 09  (O-E) /E 2  169. 35 16. 33 1. 23 7. 34 36. 48 50. 49  Total 338 x = 281.22* *p<.01,x2 .01,5= 15.09 ** When do you p l a y most o f t e n on your school playground?  56 FIGURE 3 CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR FAVORITE TIME TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND Responses Question #4* Lunch Recess A f t e r school Weekends Evenings Before school % 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 *When do you p l a y most o f t e n on your school playground ? C h i l d r e n were asked t o choose two f a v o r i t e times of  s i x choices.  I t was e v i d e n t from the r e s u l t s  from a l i s t presented  i n F i g u r e 3, t h a t c h i l d r e n had d e f i n i t e p r e f e r e n c e s time d u r i n g  which they played on t h e i r school  On a percentage b a s i s , lunch hour  i n the  playground.  (45.6%) and r e c e s s  (25.4%)  had much higher p r e f e r e n c e s than any of the other c h o i c e s . (See F i g u r e 3).  I t was e v i d e n t t h a t the school playgrounds  were used most o f t e n d u r i n g s c h o o l  hours.  C h i l d r e n ' s F a v o r i t e Spot t o Play On T h e i r School Playground The  a t t i t u d i n a l component c l a s s i f e d as c h i l d r e n ' s  f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l playground  showed  s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , a t the .01 l e v e l , i n children's preferences. i n Table 4.  These d i f f e r e n c e s were  presented  F i g u r e 4 presents each of the c h o i c e s f o r  c h i l d r e n ' s responses r e f l e c t i n g the area of the playground  57  i n which they p r e f e r t o p l a y .  TABLE 4 COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND  a.Question #5A** Responses Yes No  0  278 61  E  169.5 169.5  O-E  108.5 -108.5  (O-E)  (0-E) /E  2  2  11,772 .25 11,772 . 25  Total 339 *p<. 01,x2 . . , = 6.64 **Do you have a f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on your s c h o o l playground?  X  69. 45 69.45  2 = 138.90*  m  b.Question #5B** Responses Equipment Playing f i e l d Sand Other Blacktop  0  171 63 15 15 14  E  O-E  69.5 69.5 69.5 69.5 69.5  101.5 -6.5 -54. 5 -54. 5 -55. 5  Total 278 *p<.01,x2 _ , = 13. 28 * * I f y e s , what i s i t ? 01  4  (O-E)  (0-E) /E  2  2  10,302. 25 42. 25 2,970. 25 2,970. 25 3,080. 25 X  148.23 .61 42. 74 42.74 44.32  2 = 278.64*  58  FIGURE 4  CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND  Responses a.Question #5A* Yes No Responses b.Question #5B** Equipment Playing f i e l d Sand Other Blacktop %  . 0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  90  100  *Do you have a f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on your s c h o o l playground? * * I f yes, what i s i t ?  When asked i f they had a f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on t h e i r school playground, 82.0% o f the sample group responded i n the a f f i r m a t i v e . playing f i e l d  The equipment area  (61.5%) and the  (22.7%) were the most popular c h o i c e s .  (See F i g u r e 4-b)  I t cannot  be assumed however t h a t  given  o t h e r circumstances c h i l d r e n would s t i l l p r e f e r the equipment  area.  The c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d i n a l p r e f e r e n c e s f o r the  equipment area i n t h i s study may  have been due to the  l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t i e s for p a r t i c i p a t i n g on the other playground  areas.  C h i l d r e n ' s P l a y Behaviors The  a t t i t u d i n a l component c l a s s i f i e d as c h i l d r e n  p l a y behaviors was t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do;  sub-divided i n t o ;  1. the  favorite  2. the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect  3. the degree of energy used.  The  statistical  and sig-  n i f i c a n c e of q u e s t i o n s d e a l i n g with c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y behaviors are presented i n Table 5.  Figure 5 presents  the r e s u l t s f o r each of these s u b d i v i s i o n s .  60 TABLE 5 COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS  •Question #6A ** Responses  0  Own age Older Younger Play alone  185 75 47 32  Total  339  2  *p <01,x  E  84. 84. 84. 84.  O-E  75 75 75 75  100. -9. -37. -52.  CO-E)  25 75 75 75  2  (0-E) /E 2  10,050. 06 95. 06 1,425. 06 2,782. 56 X  .01,3=11-34  118.58 1.12 16.81 32.83 2  =169.34*  **Which of the f o l l o w i n g choices do you do most o f t e n ; p l a y alone, p l a y w i t h c h i l d r e n your own age, younger than y o u r s e l f or o l d e r than y o u r s e l f ?  b.Question #6B** Respones A l o t of energy Quiet t h i n g s Some energy Total  2  0  159 125 55 339  E  O-E  (O-E)  113 113 113  46 12 -58  2,116.0 144.0 3,364.0  (O-E) /E  2  2  18.72 1.27 29.77 x =49.76* 2  *p<.01,x .01,2=9.21  **Which o f the f o l l o w i n g c h o i c e s do you do most often-' high, medium o r low energy a c t i v i t i e s ?  61  TABLE 5 (continued)  c.Question #7** Responses  0  Running 130 Swinging 51 Sliding 32 Climbing 27 Making t h i n g s 25 Kicking 19 12 Skipping Jumping 11 Throwing 10 Other 8 Hopping 7  E  30. 82 30. 82 30. 82 30. 82 30. 82 30 .82 30. 82 30. 82 30. 82 30. 82 30. 82  O-E  99. 18 20. 18 8. 18 -3. 82 -5. 82 -11. 82 -18. 82 -19. 82 -20. 82 -22. 82 -23. 82  (O-E)  (O-E) /E  9,836 .67 407 .23 66 .91 14 .59 33 .87 139 .71 354 .19 392 .83 433 .47 520 .75 567 .39  319. 16 13. 21 2.17 47 1.10 4. 53 11. 49 12. 75 14. 06 16. 90 18. 41  Total 339 *p<.01,x =23.21 **What t h i n g s ' d o you do most o f t e n on your s c h o o l playground? 2  >  0  1  2  =414. 25  10  d.Question #7Why** O Responses Fun Other Can p l a y games It's healthy I like i t Be w i t h f r i e n d s Good f a c i l i t i e s  73 61 55 53 25 24 17  E  44 44 44 44 44 44 44  Total 308 *p<.01,x = 16.81 *Why, f o r * f i r s t c h o i c e ? 2  0 1  X  6  O-E  29 17 11 9 -19 -20 -27  (O-E)  (O-E) /E  841. 00 289. 00 121. 00 81. 00 361. 00 400. 0 0 729. 00  19. 11 6. 57 2.75 1.84 8. 20 9. 09 16. 57 x =64. 13 2  62  TABLE 5 (continued)  e.Question #'8** Responses  0  114 Tag Games you 75 make up Sports 61 Make t h i n g s 51 Games on 24 equipment S p e c i a l equipment games 14  E  O-E  (O-E)  56 .5  57. 5  3,306.25  58. 52  56 .5 56 .5 56 .5  18. 5 5. 5 -5. 0  342.25 30.25 25. 00  6, 06 54 • 44  56 .5 -32. 5  1,056,25  18. 69  1,806.25  31. 97  56 .5 -42. 5  (O-E) / E  2  2  x =116. 16 339Total *p 01,x = 15.09 **What f a v 6 r i £ e kinds o f mes do you do most o f t e n on your s c h o o l playground 2  2  #0 1  5  63  FIGURE 5 CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THEIR PLAY BEHAVIORS Responses' a. Question #6A* Own age Older Younger P l a y alone b. Question #6B** A l o t of energy Quiet t h i n g s Some energy c. Question #7*** Running Swinging Sliding Climbing Making t h i n g s Kicking Skipping Jumping Throwing Other Hopping d. Question #7Why**** Fun Other Can p l a y games It's healthy I like i t Be w i t h f r i e n d s Good f a c i l i t i e s e. Question #8***** Tag Games you make up Sports Make t h i n g s Games on equipment S p e c i a l equipment 0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  90  100  64 FIGURE 5  (continued)  *Which o f the f o l l o w i n g c h o i c e s do you do most o f t e n ; p l a y alone, p l a y with c h i l d r e n your own age, younger than y o u r s e l f o r o l d e r than y o u r s e l f ? **Which of the f o l l o w i n g c h o i c e s do you do most often; high, medium or low energy a c t i v i t i e s ?  1  ***What t h i n g s do you do most o f t e n on your school playground? ****Why, f o r f i r s t  choice?  *****What f a v o r i t e kinds o f games do you do most o f t e n on your s c h o o l playground?  The  f a v o r i t e t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do.  C h i l d r e n were asked t o  s t a t e f i v e f a v o r i t e a c t i v i t i e s they d i d most o f t e n on t h e i r s c h o o l playground.  Only the f i r s t r a n k i n g was  emphasized f o r a n a l y t i c a l purposes s i n c e the p a t t e r n o f responses  was c o n s i s t e n t throughout  the other  rankings.  T h i s aspect showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , at  the .01 l e v e l , i n c h i l d r e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s .  (See Table  5-c) . Running was p r e f e r r e d over a l l o f the other  acti-  v i t i e s with 38.3% o f the c h i l d r e n ranking i t f i r s t of eleven  choices.  The importance o f running f o r growth and  development o f c o n t r o l , balance and muscular s t r e n g t h has been expressed  by such p l a y r e s e a r c h e r s as; M o f f i t t  and Smart and Smart  (1967).  Miller  (1972) wrote  (1972)  that,  " C h i l d r e n l o v e t o move! - most of a l l run." F i g u r e 5-c  (p.18)  showed t h a t on the b a s i s of  percentage,  f o u r other a c t i v i t i e s were important t o the c h i l d r e n . These a c t i v i t i e s i n order of p r e f e r e n c e were; (15.0%), s l i d i n g things  (7.4%).  (11.5%),climbing The  swinging  (8.0%), and making  children liked their  f a v o r i t e a c t i v i t y mainly because i t was  particular e i t h e r fun  (23.7%), the a c t i v i t y c o u l d be used i n a game (17.9%) and it  i s h e a l t h y t o engage i n the a c t i v i t y  (17.2%).  (See  F i g u r e 6-a)  The p r e f e r e n c e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y  be-  cause i t was  fun, p r o v i d e d a d d i t i o n a l support f o r G i l l a n d e r  contention.  Gillander  (1971) wrote:  Fun t o the c h i l d i s not an o b j e c t i v e of p l a y , but r a t h e r i t s by-product. In a p l a y ground, i f l i t t l e e l s e i s o f f e r e d except r e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s of a l i m i t i n g nature, fun becomes s t e r i l e . But when i t engages the whole c h i l d i n p h y s i c a l and emotional e x e r c i s e s of c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e b u i l d i n g e x p r e s s i o n , then fun i s wholesome and meaningful. Cp.21) C h i l d r e n are t h e r e f o r e u n l i k e l y t o be a t t r a c t e d t o e i t h e r an a c t i v i t y or p i e c e of equipment i f the enjoyment element i s not present.  Many r e s e a r c h e r s who  a c t i v i t i e s supported  have s t u d i e d c h i l d r e n  the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study.  (1958) s t a t e d t h a t , running, c l i m b i n g and  Brown  jumping are  popular a c t i v i t i e s of c h i l d r e n and these a c t i v i t i e s  are  b e n e f i c i a l i n the c o o r d i n a t i o n and e f f i c i e n c y of movement. Miller  (1972) expressed her view t h a t c h i l d r e n loved t o  c r e a t e , manipulate m a t e r i a l s found  and b u i l d w i t h sand, water and  i n t h e i r 'surroundings.  other  A p r e f e r e n c e f o r t a g and c h a s i n g games (33.6%) was e v i d e n t from Question  #8 which d e a l t w i t h kinds of games.  T h i s aspect showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y at  66  significant differences,  the .01 l e v e l , i n c h i l d r e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s . ( S e e Table 5-e)  Running i s a major aspect o f t a g and c h a s i n g games and both were ranked for  first.  This i l l u s t r a t e d children's consistency  behaviors, involving  running.  F i g u r e 5-e i l l u s t r a t e d  t h a t games you or your f r i e n d s make up (22.1%) and s p o r t s (18.0%)were ranked  second and t h i r d r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Games  you make up r e f e r r e d t o games that c h i l d r e n i n i t i a t e on t h e i r own, s e t up t h e i r own r u l e s and need no s p e c i a l of  types  equipment.,Walking and t a l k i n g with f r i e n d s and watching  other c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g were examples of t h i s c h o i c e .  Both  games you make up and s p o r t s c o u l d a l s o i n v o l v e a cons i d e r a b l e amount o f running, p a r t i c u l a r l y s p o r t s , s i n c e the s p o r t s observed The  most o f t e n were soccer and grass hockey.  f o u r t h f a v o r i t e game was a c t i v i t i e s where you can b u i l d  or make d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s from sand, paper and other materials  (15.0%).  The  r e s u l t s f o r f a v o r i t e k i n d s o f games provided  a d d i t i o n a l support f o r some p l a y r e s e a r c h e r s ' r e s u l t s . Sutton-Smith  (.19.7 2)  d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s i n g i n g games, make-  b e l i e v e and tagging games pre-dominated i n the p l a y of c h i l d r e n up u n t i l t h e age of nine. he asked  In one o f h i s s t u d i e s  561 f i v e and s i x year o l d s t o rank order  their  game p r e f e r e n c e s and the r e s u l t s showed t h a t t a g was ranked first  f o r both males and females.  Games which would be  67  c l a s s i f i e d as games you and your f r i e n d s make up such as house, d o l l s , and  farmer i n the d e l l , were a l s o  extremely  important  to the sample p o p u l a t i o n i n Sutton-Smith's  Smart and  Smart  and  (.19 67)  s t a t e d t h a t , b a l l games, t a g , chasing  jumping games are very popular w i t h The  study.  children.  p l a y environment must present a c h a l l e n g e  and  allow f o r e x p r e s s i o n , c r e a t i v i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y i n p l a y . I t i s a r e a l c h a l l e n g e to give c h i l d r e n the proper ment.  environ-  Without equal o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r v a r i o u s games and  a c t i v i t i e s , c h i l d r e n may  be r e s t r i c t e d  i n t h e i r c h o i c e s of  a c t i v i t i e s or games. The  s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect.  presented  i n F i g u r e 5-a,  The  s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect  proved c o n s i d e r a b l y important  t h i s study and showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y at the  .01  level,  as  significant differences,  i n children's preferences.  (See Table  C h i l d r e n needed the p l a y experience because i t provided o p p o r t u n i t y to be w i t h t h e i r f r i e n d s and t o make new Sutton-Smith  (.197 2) supported  in  5-a) an  friends.  t h i s view when he wrote:  Toward the end of the 19th century p s y c h o l o g i s t s began to s t r e s s the great importance of games i n a c h i l d ' s development, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s o c i a l development, (p.221) When c h i l d r e n were asked what they d i d most o f t e n ; p l a y p l a y with c h i l d r e n your own  age,  c h i l d r e n younger than  s e l f or c h i l d r e n o l d e r than y o u r s e l f , only 9.4% group s t a t e d t h a t  they played alone.  alone, your-  of the  sample  From F i g u r e 5-a  i t can  be seen t h a t c h i l d r e n p r e f e r r e d to be i n groups, and most o f t e n groups of c h i l d r e n t h e i r own  age  (54.6%).  This finding  supports r e s e a r c h Smart age,  by Hutt and  Gibby  (19 59)  and  Smart  68  and  (1967) which determined t h a t at s i x to ten years of s o c i a l i z a t i o n away from the  f a m i l y becomes important  as c h i l d r e n become more and more i n v o l v e d with and  par-  t i c i p a t e i n s o c i a l groups. The  degree of energy used.  was  categorized  energy and  The  degree of energy expended  as; t h i n g s t h a t take a l o t of energy, some  quiet s i t t i n g things.  The  f o r a p a r t i c u l a r degree of energy was 5-b.  children's  preferences  illustrated  i n Figure  C h i l d r e n l i k e d t h i n g s t h a t took a l o t of energy  most o f t e n .  Quiet  s i t t i n g t h i n g s and  energy were ranked second and  t h i n g s t h a t take some  third respectively.  a t t i t u d i n a l component showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n c e s , at the (See Table 5-b)  .01  level,  (46.9%)  This  significant  in children's  preferences.  C h i l d r e n r e q u i r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o perform  b e h a v i o r s which r e q u i r e expenditure of energy, p a r t i c u l a r l y a l o t of energy. The Type of Equipment C h i l d r e n On T h e i r School Playground  Use  T h i s a t t i t u d i n a l component showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , at the ferences.  The  .01  level, in children's  pre-  d i f f e r e n c e s were presented i n Table 6. Based  on t h e i r f i r s t r a n k i n g ,  c h i l d r e n d i d have d e f i n i t e  f o r p a r t i c u l a r types of equipment. followed  sig-  The  s i m i l a r patterns of r e s u l t s .  were presented i n F i g u r e  6.  other  These  preferences  rankings preferences  69 TABLE 6 COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT CHILDREN USE ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND  a.Question #9** Responses  0  E  Go up and down 59 S l i d e on 56 Spin around on 47 Climb 43 Swing on 41 Other 2 9. Balance on 28 Build with 23 R o l l on or over 6 Crawl on 3  33. 5 33. 5 33. 5 33. 5 33. 5 33. 5 33. 5 33. 5 33. 5 33. 5  O-E  (O-E)  25. 5 22 .5 13. 5 9 .5 7. 5 -4. 5 -5. 5 -10. 5 -27. 5 -30. 5  650 .25 506 .25 182 .25 90 .25 56 .25 20 .25 30 .25 110 .25 756 .25 930 .25  (O-E) /E  2  2  19.41 15.11 5.44 2 . 69 1.68 .60 .90 3.29 22.57 27.77  Total 335 x =99.46* *p<.01,x . 0 1 , 9 = 21.67 **What t h i n g s do you use most o f t e n on your s c h o o l playground? Question #9Why** O Fun Other Like i t I get d i z z y It i s versatile I can go h i g h Can p l a y games It's healthy Allows f o r creativity Total  E  0-E  89 68 36 22 22 18 15 14  33. 11 33. 11 33. 11 33. 11 33. 11 33. 11 33. 11 33. 11  55 .89 34 .89 2 . 89 -11 .11 -11 .11 -15 .11 -18 .11 -19 . 11  14  33. 11  -19 .11  298  *p<.01,x .01,8=20.09  **Why, f o r f i r s t c h o i c e ?  (O-E)  2  (0- m2  3,123 .69 1,217 .31 8 .35 123 .43 123 .43 228 .31 327 .97 365 .19  94 .34 36 .78 .25 3 .73 3 .73 6 .90 9 .90 11 . 03  365 .19  11 .03 2 X  =177 .69  70 TABLE 6. (continued).  c.Question #10A** Responses Yes No Don't know  O  209 125 5  E  O-E  113 96.00 113 12.00 113 -108.00  (O-E)  (O-E) /E  9,216.00 144.00 11,664.00  81.56 1.27 103.22  Total 339 x =186.05* *p <. 01,x = 9.21 **Do you want more t h i n g s t o p l a y on or w i t h i n your school playground? 2  2  t0 1 f2  d.Question #10B** Responses Other Swing on Climb Manipulate Slides Teeter-totters Things t o r i d e Merry-go-round Forts  0  69 68 38 35 33 25 25 22 12  E  O-E  36 .33 32. 67 36 .33 31. 67 36 . 33 1. 67 36 .33 -1. 33 36 . 33 -3. 33 36 . 33 -11. 33 36 .33 -11. 33 36 .33 -14. 33 36 .33 -24. 33  Total 327 *p<.01,x 8= 20. 09 * * I f yes, what kinds of t h i n g s ? 2  > 0 1 >  (O-E)  (O-E) /E  1,067. 33 1,002. 99 2. 79 1. 77 11. 09 128. 37 128. 37 205. 35 591. 95  29 .38 27 . 61 .08 .05 .30 3 .53 3 .53 5 . 65 16 .29  X  2  =8 6 . 42  FIGURE 6  71  CHILDREN'S RESPONSES REFLECTING THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT THEY USE ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND Responses a. Question #9* Go up and down S l i d e on Spin around on Climb Swing on Other Balance on B u i l d with R o l l on o r over Crawl on b. Ouestion #9Why** Fun Other I like i t r get 'dizzy . It i s v e r s a t i l e I can go h i g h Can p l a y games It's healthy Allows f o r creativity c.Question #10A*** Yes No Don't know d.Question #10B**** Other Swing on Climb Manipulate Slides Teeter-totters Things t o r i d e Merry-go-rounds Forts %  0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 *What t h i n g s do you use most o f t e n on your s c h o o l playground? **Why f o r f i r s t choice? ***Do you want more t h i n g s t o p l a y on or with i n your s c h o o l playground? * * * * I f yes, what kinds o f t h i n g s ?  Things t o go up and down on (17.6%), t h i n g s t o s l i d e on  72  (16.7%),things t o s p i n around on (14.0%), t h i n g s t o climb (12.8%) and t h i n g s t o swing on (12.2%) were the f i v e f a v o r i t e c h o i c e s f o r the q u e s t i o n a s k i n g c h i l d r e n what equipment they used most o f t e n on t h e i r school These r e s u l t s were presented  playground.  i n F i g u r e 6-a. Of the t o t a l  p o p u l a t i o n , 87.9% responded when asked why they p r e f e r r e d a s p e c i f i c p i e c e of equipment.  The most popular  response  as seen i n F i g u r e 6-b was because i t was fun (29.9%). I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t the equipment p r o v i d e w i t h meaningful  and enjoyable experiences.  children  Playgrounds  should be designed with c h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e a c t i v i t i e s i n mind.  The r e s u l t s showed t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s f o r  t h i n g s t o s l i d e on, t h i n g s t o climb and t h i n g s t o swing on r e f l e c t e d three o f the f i v e a c t i v i t i e s  . i . e . swinging,  c l i m b i n g and s l i d i n g d i s c u s s e d i n t h e a t t i t u d i n a l component, c h i l d r e n ' s play behaviors.  C h i l d r e n wanted equipment which re-  f l e c t e d t h e i r choices OfiactLvities. .Dattner (196 9) s t a t e d t h a t , " l e f t alone, c h i l d r e n choose environments r i c h i n experience." Equipment should be v e r s a t i l e , i m a g i n a t i v e and e n j o y a b l e . Dattner  (1969) a l s o wrote:  C h i l d r e n g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y and the raw m a t e r i a l s w i l l d e s i g n a playground f a r b e t t e r than most f a c i l i t i e s designed f o r them by a d u l t s , (p.61) F i g u r e 6-c presents c h i l d r e n ' s responses  when asked  i f they wanted more t h i n g s t o p l a y on o r w i t h i n t h e i r s c h o o l playground.  For t h i s q u e s t i o n , 61.7% of the  c h i l d r e n answered i n the a f f i r m a t i v e .  Since a moderately  high percentage of c h i l d r e n were not s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r  73  playground, concern should be expressed as t o the r e l e v a n c e of e x i s t i n g s c h o o l playgrounds. f i c i a l t o have asked c h i l d r e n why  I t would have been benethey wanted more t h i n g s  thus determining i f the playground equipment i s s a t i s f a c t o r y . The c h i l d r e n were asked t o g i v e two types of t h i n g s t h a t they would most l i k e t o see i n t h e i r s c h o o l playground. T h i s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , a t the .01 l e v e l , i n c h i l d r e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s .  The  s p e c i f i c pre-  ferences as presented i n F i g u r e 6-d were; 1. t h i n g s to swing on  (20.8%), 2. t h i n g s to climb  manipulate  (10.7%) and s l i d e s  (11.6%), 3. t h i n g s t o  (10.1%).  The s i m i l a r i t y of the c h o i c e s f o r t h i s q u e s t i o n along w i t h those f o r a c t i v i t i e s and t h i n g s used most o f t e n , i s very apparent.  The most popular c h o i c e s f o r each of these  q u e s t i o n s were comparable.  C h i l d r e n s t a t e d t h a t they d i d  c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s and y e t a l s o s t a t e d t h a t they wanted more equipment t o do these same a c t i v i t i e s .  I t seems t h a t they  want more equipment t o ensure t h a t they have a g r e a t e r chance t o perform t h e i r d e s i r e d a c t i v i t i e s .  More equipment  would a l l o w f o r more o p p o r t u n i t i e s to perform c e r t a i n vities.  The types of equipment most popular i n t h i s  actistudy  were; 1. t h i n g s t o go up and down on, 2. t h i n g s t o s l i d e  on,  3, t h i n g s to s p i n around on, 4. t h i n g s t o swing on and  5.  t h i n g s to c l i m b .  and  Equipment should be chosen c a r e f u l l y  with c h i l d r e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s kept i n mind. ment may fulfill  Otherwise,  be b u i l t but not used.or enjoyed because  equip-  i t does not  the requirements necessary to perform d e s i r e d b e h a v i o r s .  74  GENERAL BEHAVIOR DATA (SEE APPENDIX I) The behavior data r e f e r r e d t o the data gathered from the o b s e r v a t i o n s . the percentage  The a d j u s t e d frequency which i s  o f c h i l d r e n observed performing each c h o i c e  d i v i d e d by the number o f c h i l d r e n observed  f o r the par-  t i c u l a r b e h a v i o r a l category, was determined. behavior c a t e g o r i e s were 1.  observed:  C h i l d r e n ' s F a v o r i t e Spot t o P l a y On T h e i r School  2.  The f o l l o w i n g  Playground.  C h i l d r e n ' s P l a y Behaviors. a.  The F a v o r i t e Things C h i l d r e n Do.  b.  The S o c i a l i z a t i o n  c.  The Degree o f Energy Used.  Aspect.  C h i l d r e n ' s F a v o r i t e Spot To P l a y On T h e i r School Playground Each o f the t h r e e areas observed 1.  on the playgrounds,  the equipment a r e a , 2. the p l a y i n g f i e l d and 3. the b l a c k -  top area were observed  on two separate o c c a s i o n s f o r a t o t a l  of twenty minutes per c l a s s .  The behavior data f o r f a v o r i t e  spot showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , at the .01 l e v e l , i n c h i l d r e n ' s behaviors. differences.  Table 7 p r e s e n t s these  The r e s u l t s f o r c h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot t o  p l a y were presented i n F i g u r e 7 and they showed evidence o f d e f i n i t e preferences f o r play areas.  75  TABLE 7  COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S -.: FAVORITE : SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA)  Question #1** Responses  0  E  O-E  Equipment Playing f i e l d Blacktop  825 346 2 00  457 457 457  368 -111 -257  (O-E).  (O-E) / E  2  2  135,424.00 12,321.00 66,049.00  Total  1371 *p<.01,x .01, 2=9.21 * * C h i l d r e n ' s 'favorite- spot t o p l a y on t h e i r playground.  296. 33 26. 96 144. 00  x =467. 29* 2  2  school  FIGURE 7 CHILDREN'S BEHAVIORS REFLECTING THEIR FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND Responses Question #1* Equipment area Playing f i e l d Blacktop % 0 10 20 30 * Children' s vfavdrlte-spot t  o  40 50 P-*-y a  o  n  60 70 80 90 100 t h e i r s c h o o l playground.  76 The c h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e area was (60.2%).  The  second  the equipment area  area used most o f t e n was  p l a y i n g f i e l d w i t h 25.2%.  the  T h i s behavior category  h i b i t e d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s t o the comparable  ex-  attitudinal  component. Children's Play  Behaviors  The behavior category c l a s s i f i e d as c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y behaviors was t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do, 3.  s u b d i v i d e d i n t o ; 1. 2.  the degree of energy  favorite  the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect used.  and  Table 8 p r e s e n t s the  s u b d i v i s i o n s which showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y ences at the  the  .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  significant  differ-  Figure 8 presents  the r e s u l t s f o r each of these s u b d i v i s i o n s .  77  TABLE 8 COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND EXPECTED FREQUENCIES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA)  a.Question #2ai * * Responses  o  Running Swinging Climbing Sliding Making t h i n g s Other Kicking Skipping Throwing Hopping Jumping  340 239 215 183 149 108 39 29 26 24 19  E  O-E  124. 64 215. 36 124. 64 114. 36 124. 64 90. 36 124. 64 58. 36 124. 64 24. 36 124. 64 -16. 64 124. 64 -85. 64 124. 64 -95. 64 124. 64 -98. 64 124. 64-•100. 64 124. 64-•105. 64  (O-E)  (O-E) / E  2  2  46,379. 93 13,078. 21 8,164. 93 3,405. 89 593. 41 276. 89 7,334. 21 9,147. 01 9,729. 85 10,128. 41 11,159. 81  372 .11 104 .93 65 . 51 27 .32 4 .76 2 .22 58 .84 73 .39 78 .06 81 . 26 89 .54  Total 1371 *p<.01,x . 0 1 , l 0=29.59 **The a c t i v i t i e s c h i l d r e ni p r e f e r t o do. b.Question 2 a i i ** Responses Games on equipment Tag Sports Games you make up Make t h i n g s Special equipment  0  E  O-E  (O-E)  =9 57 .94*  (O-E) / E  2  2  648 204 161  228 .5 228. 5 228 .5  419. 5 -24. 5 -67 .5  175,980 .25 600 .25 4,556 .25  156 136  228 .5 228. 5  -72. 5 -92. 5  5,256 .25 8,556 .25  23 .00 37 .44  228 .5 -•162 .5  26,406 . 25  115 . 56  66  Total 1371 *p<.01,x . oi 5 =15.09 **The kinds o f games c h i l d r e n p r e f e r t o do. 2  2  X  x  770 . 15 2 .63 19 .94  2  =968.72*  78  TABLE 8 (continued)  Question #2b** Responses Play i n a group Play alone  E  0  1286 85  O-E  685.5 600.5 685.5 -600.5  (O-E)  (O-E) /E  2  2  360,600.25 360,600.25  Total 1371 *p<.01,x . ol , l =6.64 **The s o c i a l i z a t i o n a s p e c t .  526.04 526.04  x =1052.08*  2  d.Question #2c** Responses A l o t of energy Quiet t h i n g s Some energy Total  0  E  O-E  691 347 3 33  457 457 457  234.00 -110.00 -124.00  2  **The degree of energy  2  54,756.00 12,100.00 15,376.00  (0-E) /E 2  119.82 26.48 33.64 x =179.94*  1371  *p<.01, x . 01 ,2=9.21  (O-E)  used.  FIGURE 8 CHILDREN'S BEHAVIORS REFLECTING THEIR PLAY BEHAVIORS Responses a. Question #2ai*** Running Swinging Climbing Sliding Making t h i n g s Other Kicking Skipping Throwing Hopping Jumping b. Question # 2 a i i * * * * Games on equipment Tag Sports Games you make up Make t h i n g s S p e c i a l equipment c. Question #2b* Play i n a group Play alone  ,|  d. Question #2C** A l o t o f energy Quiet t h i n g s Some energy %  0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 *The s o c i a l i z a t i o n a s p e c t . **The degree o f energy used. ***The a c t i v i t i e s c h i l d r e n do. ****The k i n d s o f games c h i l d r e n do.  79  The t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do.  C h i l d r e n were observed  80  t o de-  termine the a c t i v i t i e s they d i d most o f t e n . The r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , a t the .01  l e v e l , i n c h i l d r e n ' s behaviors.  (See Table 8-c) F i g u r e 8-c  i l l u s t r a t e d c h i l d r e n ' s most frequent c h o i c e s f o r kinds o f a c t i v i t i e s and showed t h a t running was performed  most o f t e n  over a l l of the other a c t i v i t i e s w i t h 24.8% o f the observ a t i o n a l r e s u l t s f a v o r i n g running.  Four other  activities  which c h i l d r e n d i d i n order of h i g h e s t percentage  frequency  were; swinging  (13.4%)  (17.4%), c l i m b i n g (15.7%), s l i d i n g  and making t h i n g s  (10.6%).  These f i v e a c t i v i t i e s were the  same as the top f i v e a c t i v i t i e s f o r the a t t i t u d e data. The r e s u l t s f o r c h i l d r e n ' s most frequent behavior i n r e s p e c t t o the aspect o f kinds o f games were presented i n F i g u r e 8-d. playground  The p r e f e r e n c e s observed were; 1. the s c h o o l  equipment  (47.3%) as the c h o i c e performed  most  o f t e n , f o l l o w e d by 2. t a g and c h a s i n g games (14.9%), 3. sports  (11.7%) and 4. games you make up (11.4%). The other  two c h o i c e s had lower percentages. was the game performed ranked  The playground  equipment  most o f t e n f o r the o b s e r v a t i o n s y e t  f i f t h f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w . C h i l d r e n  played on the equipment although when g i v e n equal opport u n i t i e s t o s e l e c t other games as r e f l e c t e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w they chose something e l s e . I t i s dangerous t o assume t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s needs a r e being s a t i s f i e d by the playground equipment because they are seen p l a y i n g on i t .  The f a c t t h a t the r e s u l t s of the  " •  o b s e r v a t i o n a l technique and the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w  81  technique showed a c o n t r a d i c t i o n f o r kinds o f games was evidence enough t o g i v e f u r t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n t o the methodology o f t h i s study.  In order t o reduce the p o s s i -  b i l i t y o f i n c o r r e c t assumptions being made, both  obser-  v a t i o n s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w should be used when determining c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y a t t i t u d e s and behavior. The  s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect.  The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect was  c o n s i d e r e d f o r the b e h a v i o r a l data.  T h i s behavior  e x h i b i t e d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s t o the comparable component. a group.  C h i l d r e n were observed  category  attitudinal  as e i t h e r alone or i n  The r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s , a t the .01 l e v e l , i n c h i l d r e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s . (See Table 8-a) F i g u r e 8-a presents the r e s u l t s f o r the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect as r e f l e c t e d by the behavior data. Only  6.2% were observed p l a y i n g alone.  The c h i l d r e n were  most o f t e n seen p l a y i n g i n groups. The degree o f energy  used.  The degree o f energy  used was  c a t e g o r i z e d i n a s i m i l a r manner t o the a t t i t u d e data w i t h t h i n g s t h a t take a l o t o f energy, t h i n g s as the c h o i c e s .  some energy  The r e s u l t s f o r t h i s  category were presented i n F i g u r e 8-b. r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y  most o f t e n .  behavior  The o b s e r v a t i o n a l  s i g n i f i c a n t differences, at  the .01 l e v e l , i n c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r s . C h i l d r e n were observed  and q u i e t  expending  (See Table 8-b)  a l o t o f energy  (50.4%)  Q u i e t s i t t i n g t h i n g s and t h i n g s t h a t take  some energy were ranked  second  and t h i r d  respectively.  82 COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA (QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW) AND BEHAVIOR DATA (OBSERVATIONS) The  i n v e s t i g a t o r was i n t e r e s t e d i n comparing the i n -  formation gathered d u r i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n a l s e s s i o n s with t h a t from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w s . The purpose o f such a comparison was t o assess the c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w approach w i t h the observed In other words, t o determine  behavior  approach.  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between what  c h i l d r e n as a group were a c t u a l l y observed doing and what they s a i d they d i d . The r e s u l t s from the comparison between the a t t i t u d e data and behavior data were presented i n Table 9. Table 9 was s u b d i v i d e d i n t o the f i v e f o l l o w i n g comparisons;  1.  f a v o r i t e spot, 2. s o c i a l i z a t i o n , 3. degree o f energy,  4.  a c t i v i t i e s and 5. kinds o f games. TABLE 9 COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR  CLASSIFICATION a.Area  CHOICES  equipment area playing f i e l d area b l a c k t o p area  OBSERVATION RESULTS  60.2% 25.2% 14. 6% N =1371  DATA  INTERVIEW % DIFFERENCE RESULTS  61. 5% 22.7% 5.0% N=278  1.3% *a 2.5% 9.6%  83  TABLE 9 (continued)  CLASSIFICATION  CHOICES  OBSERVATION RESULTS  b . S o c i a l i - play i n a zation group 93.8% p l a y alone 6.2% N=1371  c.Degree of Energy  a l o t of energy 50.4% q u i e t t h i n g s 25.3% some energy 24.3% N=1371  INTERVIEW RESULTS  90. 6% 9.4% N=339  3 2% 3*2%  46.9% 36. 9% 16.2% N=339  3.5% 11.6% 8.1%  *a - f o r the i n t e r v i e w r e s u l t s , 10.8% 'other' c a t e g o r y .  CLASSIFICATION  CHOICES  OBSERVATION RESULTS  Running 1st Jumping 11th Throwing 9th Kicking 7th Climbing 3rd Hopping 10th Skipping 8th Making t h i n g s 5th Sliding 4th Swinging 2nd Other 6th Total  1371  % DIFFERENCE  #  chose the  INTERVIEW RESULTS  D  D  1st 8th 9th 6th 4th 11th 7th 5th 3rd 2nd 10th  0 3 0 1 -1 -1 1 0 1 0 -4  0 9 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 16  8D =  30  339  2  P  =  2  84  TABLE 9 (continued)  CLASSIFICATION Kinds o f Games  CHOICES  OBSERVATION RESULTS  Sports Tag Games you make up Special equipment Games on equipment Make t h i n g s Total  INTERVIEW RESULTS  D  D  3rd 2nd  3rd 1st  0 1  0 1  4th  2nd  2  4  6th  6th  0  0  1st 5th  5th 4th  -4 1  16 1  1371  22  339 P =  Percentage d i f f e r e n c e s between the percentage a d j u s t e d f r e q u e n c i e s o f both techniques were determined f o r the comparisons  o f ; 1. c h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on  t h e i r s c h o o l playground, 2. the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect and 3. the degree o f energy used. were used f o r the comparisons  Rank order c o r r e l a t i o n s of a c t i v i t i e s and k i n d s o f  games. I t was extremely v a l u a b l e t o make comparisons between the two techniques s i n c e a h i g h c o m p a t i b i l i t y would seem t o i n f e r t h a t both techniques were measuring the same thing.  The r e s u l t s f o r the m a j o r i t y of comparisons  t h i s inference.  (See T a b l e 9)  verified  Although the major emphasis  f o r t h i s assessment was p l a c e d upon the c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f g e n e r a l responses, f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n was a l s o made w i t h i n the f o l l o w i n g  categories;  1.  the c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f o b s e r v a t i o n  questionnaire-interview 2.  3.  within  and  r e s u l t s f o r the v a r i a b l e  the c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f o b s e r v a t i o n  questionnaire-interview  and  r e s u l t s f o r the v a r i a b l e grade  the c o m p a t i b i l i t y of o b s e r v a t i o n  questionnaire-interview 4.  r e s u l t s f o r the v a r i a b l e sex  the c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f o b s e r v a t i o n  questionnaire-interview  and  school  and  r e s u l t s f o r the v a r i a b l e sex  each grade. The  r e s u l t s o f these two techniques f o r 1.  f a v o r i t e spot, 2. the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect, and 3. the degree of energy used, had e i t h e r high or o u t s t a n d i n g percentage agreements.  Table 9-a p r e s e n t s the obser-  v a t i o n and q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w  r e s u l t s f o r the  equipment area as (60.2%) and (61.5%) r e s p e c t i v e l y , the playing  field  (25.2%) and (22.7%), and the b l a c k t o p  (14.6%) and (5.0%) r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Table 9-b p r e s e n t s the  r e s u l t s f o r the s o c i a l i z a t i o n comparison.  The r e s u l t s  showed t h a t 90.6% of the c h i l d r e n s t a t e d t h a t they played i n groups and 93.8% were a c t u a l l y observed p l a y i n g i n groups. The parison,  f i n d i n g s f o r the degree of energy used com-  revealed  the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r each of the  t h r e e degrees o f energy. Table 9-c.  These f i n d i n g s were presented i n  A l o t of energy, the f a v o r i t e c h o i c e ,  had an  o u t s t a n d i n g percentage things  86 agreement of 3.5%, and q u i e t s i t t i n g  (11.6%) and t h i n g s t h a t take some energy  h i g h percentage The termined  (8.1%) had  agreements.  f i n a l comparison, the t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do de-  c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the two techniques by means of  rank order c o r r e l a t i o n s .  The p a r t i c u l a r c h o i c e s of  a c t i v i t i e s and kinds of games ranked d u r i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t e r v i e w s as being done most o f t e n were compared w i t h the rankings of numbers observed  performing  these  particular  behaviors. A rank order c o r r e l a t i o n of .8 64 was obtained f o r the comparison o f a c t i v i t i e s .  The a c t i v i t i e s c h i l d r e n  said  they p r e f e r r e d t o do were a c t u a l l y what they were seen doing. The  a t t i t u d e s and behaviors with r e s p e c t t o a c t i v i t i e s were  compatible.  The f i n d i n g s showed t h a t the f i v e most popular  a c t i v i t i e s were i d e n t i c a l f o r both techniques, i . e . 1. running,  2. swinging,  3. c l i m b i n g , 4. s l i d i n g and 5. making  things.  The r e s u l t s of t h i s comparison a l s o r e f l e c t e d the  c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the two approaches. A rank order c o r r e l a t i o n of .372 was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the comparison of kinds of games.  T h i s low c o r r e l a t i o n was  l a r g e l y the r e s u l t o f the d i s c r e p a n c y f o r the c h o i c e of a c t i v i t i e s you do on the s c h o o l playground equipment. C h i l d r e n were observed  p l a y i n g games on the s c h o o l p l a y -  ground equipment more than any of the other game c h o i c e s where as they only ranked  t h i s c h o i c e f i f t h on the  questionnaire-interview.  Thus c h i l d r e n ' s behaviors and  a t t i t u d e s d i f f e r e d on t h e i r c h o i c e s of kinds of games with  the major d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r r i n g  f o r the c h o i c e of playground  equipment. This  low c o r r e l a t i o n f o r kinds of games was ex-  tremely d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n . why c h i l d r e n ' s  I t was hard t o understand  a t t i t u d e s f o r kinds of games  contradicted  w i t h t h e i r b e h a v i o r s y e t t h e r e was c o n s i s t e n c y other comparisons. explained The  This  low c o r r e l a t i o n can p a r t i a l l y be  as r e s u l t i n g from a weakness i n the comparison.  i n v e s t i g a t o r c l a s s i f i e d the c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r s i n t o  s i x types of games.  During the i n t e r v i e w i n g  stated t h e i r preferences.  of these games.  the c h i l d r e n  The comparison may have r e s u l t e d  i n a low c o r r e l a t i o n due t o a d i f f e r e n c e  i n interpretations  The c h i l d r e n may have c l a s s i f i e d  d i f f e r e n t l y than the i n v e s t i g a t o r . the  for a l l  behaviors  I f t h i s i s true,  then  i n v e s t i g a t o r recorded b e h a v i o r s as c e r t a i n games where  i n f a c t they may have been other games from the c h i l d r e n ' s p o i n t of view.  For example, the i n v e s t i g a t o r  classified  c h i l d r e n moving up and down on the equipment as games on the  school  playground equipment where i n f a c t , the c h i l d r e n  may have considered i t t a g and chasing games o r games you or your f r i e n d s make up.  Thus the comparison breaks down.  I t has become evident  from t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y  that  extreme care must be taken i n making the comparisons f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w s i m i l a r as p o s s i b l e .  and o b s e r v a t i o n  techniques as  Comparisons of these two techniques  can s u c c e s s f u l l y be made i f i t i s remembered t h a t both techniques a r e u s i n g  the same c a t e g o r i e s  although  to classify  88 The q u e s t i o n n a i r e -  data, they s t i l l measure d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s .  i n t e r v i e w measures a t t i t u d e s w h i l e the o b s e r v a t i o n s measure behaviors. The techniques  should be taken i n t o account  both  i n d i v i d u a l l y and j o i n t l y f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r comparison. The c o m p a t i b i l i t y of these two techniques  should not be  r e j e c t e d only on the b a s i s of the i n c o n s i s t e n c y f o r kinds of games s i n c e a l l other comparisons were compatible. two techniques can be s u c c e s s f u l l y it  used together,  These  although  seems from the d i s c r e p a n c y f o r kinds of games t h a t an  attempt must be made t o l i m i t m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .  When  r e c o n s i d e r i n g the c h o i c e s f o r a c t i v i t i e s , the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect and the degree of energy used, t h e r e seemed t o be little  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o n f u s i o n whereas the c h o i c e of  kinds of games showed d e f i n i t e evidence of m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . For t h i s q u e s t i o n , a s p e c i f i c behavior c o u l d p o s s i b l y be c l a s s i f i e d under more than one type of game. The  o b s e r v a t i o n and q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w  approaches were compatible  f o r comparisons based on g e n e r a l  responses.  The c a t e g o r i e s of comparison with r e s p e c t t o  sex, grade,  s c h o o l and sex w i t h i n each grade were a l s o con-  s i d e r e d t o determine i f there were d i f f e r e n c e s f o r these particular  variables.  Sex The m a j o r i t y of comparisons e x h i b i t e d e i t h e r a h i g h or o u t s t a n d i n g percentage  agreement.  These r e s u l t s were  comparable t o those from the g e n e r a l responses.  (See Appendix  89 J f o r Table 32).  The males and females were e q u a l l y con-  s i s t e n t with t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and behavior comparisons.  f o r the f i v e  Sex d i f f e r e n t i a l s were i n s i g n i f i c a n t .  Grade The m a j o r i t y of comparisons f o r the v a r i a b l e grade e x h i b i t e d e i t h e r a high or o u t s t a n d i n g agreement.  percentage  These r e s u l t s were a l s o comparable to those  from the g e n e r a l responses.  (See Appendix K f o r Table 33)  Each grade was e q u a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and behavior f o r the f i v e comparisons.  There was a  tendency f o r more c o n s i s t e n c y between behavior and a t t i t u d e s f o r the degree of energy comparison as the grades i n c r e a s e d . grades o c c u r r e d .  However, no major d i s c r e p a n c y between When a c t i v i t i e s were c o n s i d e r e d , the  rank order c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r the grade two and grade t h r e e children,  .816 and .7 66 r e s p e c t i v e l y , were higher  f o r the grade one c h i l d r e n Table 33)  than  (.666). (See Appendix K f o r  I t seemed t h a t the o l d e r c h i l d r e n were most  c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r behaviors and a t t i t u d e s f o r a c t i v i t i e s although no major d i s c r e p a n c i e s o c c u r r e d .  Grade d i f f e r e n t i a l s  were a l s o i n s i g n i f i c a n t . School The m a j o r i t y of comparisons f o r the v a r i a b l e school e x h i b i t e d e i t h e r a h i g h or o u t s t a n d i n g percentage  agreement.  These r e s u l t s were a l s o comparable t o those from the g e n e r a l responses.  (See Appendix L f o r Table 34)  schools which tended  There were not any  t o e i t h e r be c o n s i s t e n t l y higher or  lower on percentage agreements.  There were some d i s -  c r e p a n c i e s between schools on p a r t i c u l a r but  90  comparisons,  these d i s c r e p a n c i e s were not major nor were they  c o n s i s t e n t throughout the comparisons.  Again, no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were e v i d e n t . Sex W i t h i n Each Grade The m a j o r i t y of comparisons f o r the v a r i a b l e sex w i t h i n each grade were a l s o e i t h e r high or o u t s t a n d i n g i n t h e i r percentage agreements.  These r e s u l t s were a l s o com-  p a r a b l e t o those from the g e n e r a l responses. (See Appendix M f o r Table 35)  G e n e r a l l y , t h e f i v e comparisons were  e q u a l l y c o n s i s t e n t , although a few minor occurred.  Percentage agreements  discrepancies  tended t o i n c r e a s e with  i n c r e a s e i n grade when degree o f energy was examined. Males w i t h i n each of the three grades tended t o be more c o n s i s t e n t than the females i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s f o r a c t i v i t i e s and k i n d s of games.  Again, no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were e v i d e n t . CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR WHEN ENGAGED IN FREE PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND IN RELATION TO SEX DIFFERENCES C h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s were considered to determine i f there were d i f f e r e n c e s i n the area of f r e e p l a y on s c h o o l playgrounds when c o n s i d e r i n g the v a r i a b l e of sex.  The i n v e s t i g a t o r hoped t o determine i f c h i l d r e n ' s  a t t i t u d e s toward p l a y and/or t h e i r b e h a v i o r i n p l a y were a f f e c t e d by the sex of the c h i l d .  Only those q u e s t i o n s  which e x h i b i t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were c o n s i d e r e d .  There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between sexes f o r  91  the a t t i t u d i n a l components, c h i l d r e n ' s d e s i r e t o p l a y , c h i l d r e n ' s reasons f o r p l a y i n g , c h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e time t o p l a y on t h e i r school  playground, the s o c i a l i z a t i o n  aspect and the type of equipment c h i l d r e n used on t h e i r school  playground.  A l l behavior c a t e g o r i e s  except f o r  s o c i a l i z a t i o n showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . Sex parisons  d i f f e r e n c e s were e v i d e n t ,  although many com-  were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  s u l t s seem t o f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e (1962) statement t h a t ,  (p.88)  Hawkes and Pease's  "Sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n play  to appear w i t h some c o n s i s t e n c y year o l d s . "  These r e -  begin  among s i x and seven  T h i s study attempted t o determine  sex d i f f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d t o p l a y . A t t i t u d e Data Children's  f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on t h e i r school  playground.  Table 10 presents the d i f f e r e n c e s between sexes f o r the a t t i t u d i n a l component c l a s s i f i e d as c h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot. I t was e v i d e n t  from Table 10 t h a t there was a d e f i n i t e  d i f f e r e n c e i n c h i l d r e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e f o r f a v o r i t e spot when sex was  considered.  92 TABLE 10 SEX DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA)  Question  # 5B  N for Responses  Blacktop Playing f i e l d Sand The t o t a l number of t h i s question.  Male  Female  Difference  14 35.7% 64.3% 28.6% 63 73.0% 27 .0% 46.0% 15 26.7% 73.3% 46.6% females = 1 3 5 and males = 143 f o r  T h i s component showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t the .01 l e v e l i n c h i l d r e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s . (See Appendix 0 f o r Table 36)  The d i f f e r e n c e s occurred  f o r the c h o i c e s o f b l a c k t o p , p l a y i n g f i e l d and sand. The males had a h i g h p r e f e r e n c e f o r the p l a y i n g f i e l d w h i l e the females blacktop.  had a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r the  Few c h i l d r e n s e l e c t e d sand as an other c h o i c e  but of those who d i d , the females  e x h i b i t e d a higher  p r e f e r e n c e f o r i t over the males. Children's play behaviors.  The a t t i t u d i n a l component  c l a s s i f i e d as c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y b e h a v i o r s showed s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the f a v o r i t e t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do and the degree of energy used.  93  TABLE 11 SEX DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (ATTITUDE DATA)  a. Question #6B Responses  N for Responses  Male  Female  Difference  A l o t of energy 159 66.0% 34.0% 32.2% Some energy 55 3 8*2% 61.8% 23.6% Quiet t h i n g s 34.4% 31.2% 125 65.6% The t o t a l number of females = 17 0 and males = 169 for t h i s question. b. Question #7 Responses  N for Responses  Male  Female  Difference  Throwing 10 60.0% 40.0% 20.0% Kicking 19 100.0% 0.0% 100.0% Hopping 7 0.0% 100.0% 100.0% Skipping 12 0.0% 100.0% 100.0% Making t h i n g s 25 32.0% 68.0% 36.0% The t o t a l number of females = 170 and males = 169 for t h i s question. c. Question #7Why• N f o r Responses Responses  Male  Female  Difference  Fun 34.2% 65.8% 73 31.6% Can p l a y games 55 78.2% 21.8% 56.4% The t o t a l number of females = 152 and males = 156 for t h i s question. d. Question #8 Responses  N for Responses  Male  Female  Difference  Sports 61 86.9% 73.8% 13 .1% Made up games 75 32.0% 68.0% 36.0% Special equipment 14 7.1% 92.9% 85.8% Make t h i n g s 51 39.2% 60 . 8% 21.6% The t o t a l number of females = 17 0 and males = 169 for t h i s question.  94  1. The F a v o r i t e Things C h i l d r e n Do D i f f e r e n c e s between males and females a c t i v i t i e s were recorded showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y  i n Table 11-a.  .01  (See Appendix 0 f o r Table  Both sexes showed d e f i n i t e p r e f e r e n c e s f o r p a r t i c u l a r  activities. k i c k i n g and  The males had an o u t s t a n d i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r c l i m b i n g and  and c a t c h i n g .  On the other hand, the females  o u t s t a n d i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r hopping and p r e f e r e n c e f o r making t h i n g s .  Males and females  differed  activities  i n t h e i r reasons T h i s showed  t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at the  females  e x h i b i t e d an  sexes.  they chose t h e i r f a v o r i t e a c t i v i t y .  children's preferences.  throwing  s k i p p i n g , and a h i g h  The remaining  showed s i m i l a r p r e f e r e n c e s by both  The  Favorite things  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , a t the  l e v e l i n children's preferences. 36)  for specific  why  statis-  .01 l e v e l , i n  (See Appendix 0 f o r Table  36)  chose the aspect of fun more o f t e n , while  the males chose the a c t i v i t y because they could use i t i n a game. (See Table  11-b)  Smart and Smart  (19 67)  achieved  some i n t e r e s t i n g  r e s u l t s from t h e i r r e s e a r c h which support the f i n d i n g s of the present study f o r the t h i n g s c h i l d r e n p r e f e r to do. They asked  e i g h t and eleven year o l d s to determine i f  c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s were f o r boys or g i r l s or both. Approximately  80% of the females  and  90% of the males s a i d  t h a t c l i m b i n g t r e e s and p l a y i n g with b a l l s and male a c t i v i t i e s .  a bat were  The males and females had d e f i n i t e i n t h e i r c h o i c e s of kinds of games.  95  preferences  The males had  an  o u t s t a n d i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r s p o r t s w h i l e the females a h i g h p r e f e r e n c e f o r s p e c i a l equipment games.  had  Numerous  r e s e a r c h e r s a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t males p r e f e r r e d s p o r t s . Rosenberg and Sutton-Smith  (1963) wrote:  Games and s p o r t s are p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the male sex r o l e , but n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the female sex r o l e . (p.124) In other r e s e a r c h , Sutton-Smith  (1972) presented 2,689  c h i l d r e n w i t h a check l i s t of 181  items and they were  asked to mark t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s .  S p o r t s , tag and games  you make up were most popular with the males w h i l e tag and games you make up were most popular with the  females.  These r e s u l t s agreed w i t h those found i n the present There was  a high' c o n s i s t e n c y between the  f o r kinds of games and degree of energy. o f t e n r e q u i r e a h i g h degree of energy,  and  study.  results  Sports which most the c h o i c e of  t h i n g s t h a t take a l o t of energy were of more i n t e r e s t to the males.  S p e c i a l equipment games, made up games and  games where you b u i l d and make t h i n g s , along with such as hopping males.  and  activities  jumping were more popular w i t h the f e -  These a c t i v i t i e s most often r e q u i r e some energy  not a l o t of  energy.  Conn (1951) wrote: Terman concluded t h a t the average boy p r e f e r s more a c t i v e games r e q u i r i n g g r e a t e r s t r e n g t h , muscular d e x t e r i t y , and e l a b o r a t e , f i x e d r u l e s of p l a y , w h i l e the average g i r l ' s a c t i v i t i e s are of a semi-sedentary nature i n v o l v i n g s m a l l groups, (p. 98)  but  The  96  r e s u l t s of t h i s study lend f u r t h e r support t o Conn's  statement. 2. The  Degree of Energy Used Table 11 showed the degree of energy to be  a t t i t u d i n a l component where males and t h e i r responses.  The  females d i f f e r e d i n  r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y  n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t the preferences.  another  .01  level, i n children's  (See Appendix 0 f o r Table 36)  e x h i b i t e d a moderate p r e f e r e n c e  sig-  The  females  f o r q u i e t t h i n g s and  things  t h a t take some energy w h i l e the males e x h i b i t e d a moderate preference  f o r t h i n g s t h a t take a l o t of energy.  spect to h i s r e s e a r c h  In r e -  on sexual d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , E l k i n d  (1971) wrote: Sex d i f f e r e n c e s are seen most r e a d i l y i n play a c t i v i t i e s . In general,boys tend to engage i n vigorous a c t i v e p l a y and h i g h l y organized games t h a t r e q u i r e muscular d e x t e r i t y and s k i l l and i n v o l v e competition between teams. G i r l s i n c o n t r a s t , tend t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n more sedentary a c t i v i t i e s , (p. 15) Conn  (1951). asked c h i l d r e n f o r t h e i r f a v o r i t e  a c t i v i t i e s and why  s p o r t s , f o r those of the opposite  they made t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s e l e c t i o n s .  sex  Results  and from h i s  study i n d i c a t e d t h a t the c h i l d r e n f e l t t h a t g i r l s do not as s t r e n u o u s l y  or work as hard as boys.  The  play  major reasons  f o r t h i s assumption as r e f l e c t e d i n the c h i l d r e n ' s responses were as f o l l o w s ; 1. g i r l s are more t i m i d and h u r t , and  2. j u s t because t h a t ' s the way  were boys and  g i r l s were g i r l s and  preferences.  Flinchum and  Hanson  a f r a i d of  being  t h i n g s are - boys  each sex  j u s t had d i f f e r e n t  (1972) s t a t e d t h a t ,  "there  i s evidence  t h a t c u l t u r a l focus on sex r o l e s makes boys  seek a c t i v e and g i r l s p a s s i v e a c t i v i t i e s . " Behavior  97  (p.19)  Data  C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on t h e i r school Table 12 presents the d i f f e r e n c e s observed  playground,  f o r the areas on  which males and females were seen p l a y i n g . TABLE 12 SEX DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA)  Question #1 Responses  N for Responses  Blacktop area 200 Playing f i e l d 346 The t o t a l number o f females t h i s question.  Males  Females  Difference  38.0% 62.0% 24.0% 73.1% 26.9% 46.2% = 663 and males = 7 08 f o r  The r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , a t the  .01 l e v e l , i n c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r s .  Table 36)  (See Appendix 0 f o r  The d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d f o r the c h o i c e s of  b l a c k t o p and p l a y i n g f i e l d . data, the b e h a v i o r a l data  C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the a t t i t u d e showed t h a t the males had a high  p r e f e r e n c e f o r the p l a y i n g f i e l d while the females  had a  moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r the b l a c k t o p . C h i l d r e n ' s p l a y b e h a v i o r s . The behavior category as c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y behaviors showed  significant  classified sex  d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do and the degree of  98  energy used. TABLE 13 SEX DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA)  a •Question #2ai Responses  N for Responses  Male  Female  Difference  Running 34 0 71.2% 28 .8 % 42.4% Jumping 19 31.6% 68.4% 36.8% Throwing 26 38.5% 61.5% 23 .0% Kicking 39 97.4% 2.6% 94.8% Hopping 24 0.0% 100.0% 100.0% Skipping 29 6.9% 93.1% 86.2% The t o t a l number of females = 663 ,and males = 708 for t h i s question. b .Question # 2 a i i Responses  N for Responses  Male  Female  Difference  Sports 161 100.0% 0.0% Made up games 156 27 . 6% 72.4% S p e c i a l equipment 66 3.1.8% 68.2% The t o t a l number females = 663 and males = 708 for t h i s question. c .Question #2c Responses  N for Responses  Male  Female  100.0% 44.7% 36.4%  Difference  A l o t of energy 691 63.4% 36.6% 26.8% Quiet t h i n g s 347 36.9% 63.1% 26.2% The t o t a l number of females = 6 63 and males = 708 for t h i s question. 1. The F a v o r i t e Things C h i l d r e n Do I t was e v i d e n t from o b s e r v i n g male and female beh a v i o r t h a t they had s p e c i f i c p r e f e r e n c e s f o r d i f f e r e n t activities.  These d i f f e r e n c e s were presented i n Table 13-a.  These r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l , i n c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r s .  differences  The males had  an o u t s t a n d i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r k i c k i n g , a high p r e f e r e n c e f o r running and a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r throwing catching.  99  and  On the other hand, the females e x h i b i t e d an  o u t s t a n d i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r hopping moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r jumping.  and s k i p p i n g and The remaining  a  activities  d i d not show at l e a s t a moderate p r e f e r e n c e by e i t h e r These r e s u l t s were s i m i l a r t o the a t t i t u d e  sex.  results.  The males and females a l s o showed d e f i n i t e pref e r e n c e s i n t h e i r c h o i c e s of kinds of games.  The males  had an o u t s t a n d i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r s p o r t s w h i l e the  females  had a h i g h p r e f e r e n c e f o r made up games and a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r s p e c i a l equipment games. (See Table These r e s u l t s were comparable w i t h the a t t i t u d e  13-b).  results.  2. Degree of Energy Used. Table 13-c  p r e s e n t s the o b s e r v a t i o n a l data f o r  degree of energy used and i t showed t h a t males and  females  had d i f f e r e n t p r e f e r e n c e s f o r the degree of energy  used.  The r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y at the  .01 l e v e l ,  f o r Table 36)  significant  differences  i n c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r s . ( S e e Appendix O  The males e x h i b i t e d a moderate p r e f e r e n c e  f o r t h i n g s t h a t take a l o t of energy while the  females  e x h i b i t e d a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r q u i e t t h i n g s . these r e s u l t s were compatible with the r e s u l t s from  Again, the  a t t i t u d e data. The r e s u l t s from t h i s study showed d i f f e r e n c e s i n the males'and females'choices f o r the a t t i t u d i n a l components; 1. c h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot, 2.  c h i l d r e n ' s play behaviors  and  the behavior  spot to play and  100  c a t e g o r i e s , 3. c h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e 4. c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y b e h a v i o r s .  However,  there were numerous s i m i l a r i t i e s between sexes which could be due  to the f a c t t h a t i t i s not u n t i l the t h i r d or f o u r t h  grades t h a t many sex d i f f e r e n c e s begin Smith,1972).  to appear  (Sutton-  As c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between  the s o - c a l l e d sex r o l e s , they begin t o p r e f e r t h a t are accepted  as a p p r o p r i a t e  behaviors  f o r t h e i r own  sex.  Another reason f o r r e l a t i v e s i m i l a r i t i e s on some of t h e i r choices  i s due  to the f a c t t h a t g i r l s '  i n d e c i s i v e than males and e i g h t years of age.  females become sex o r i e n t e d a f t e r  Males show t h e i r awareness of  s t e r e o t y p i n g a t an e a r l i e r age The  i n t e r e s t s are more  (Hutt and  Gibby,1959).  r e s u l t s f o r t h i s study were s i m i l a r to those  found i n the r e s e a r c h of numerous p l a y r e s e a r c h e r s as: Hawkes and Rosenberg and Males and  Pease  (1962), Smart and  Sutton-Smith  females do  (1963), Conn  i n play.  such  (1967),  (1951) and  others.  i n play.  f e l t that  have a strong i n f l u e n c e i n determining  a t t i t u d e s and behavior i n one  Smart  show d i f f e r e n t preferences  As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , these r e s e a r c h e r s pressures  sex  social children's  T h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r set out  of the subproblems t o determine i f there were  sex  d i f f e r e n c e s among c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r p l a y a t t i t u d e s and behavior.  D i f f e r e n c e s were evident and  overlooked  or c o n s i d e r e d  should  not  be  insignificant.  However, along with r e c o g n i z i n g the sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n p l a y , i t i s a l s o important to understand why  these  d i f f e r e n c e s occur and i f these d i f f e r e n c e s should be encouraged.  The i n v e s t i g a t o r contends t h a t playgrounds must  p r o v i d e equal p l a y o p p o r t u n i t i e s  f o r both sexes and y e t  encourage c h i l d r e n of both sexes t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n what are considered  t o be play behaviors of the o p p o s i t e  sex.  A wide range of p l a y a c t i v i t i e s i s b e n e f i c i a l f o r c h i l d r e n . CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR WHEN ENGAGED IN FREE PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND IN RELATION TO GRADE DIFFERENCES Children's  a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s were  considered  to determine i f there were grade d i f f e r e n c e s i n f r e e on school  playgrounds.  play  The i n v e s t i g a t o r attempted t o  determine i f c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y b e h a v i o r s and/or t h e i r a t t i t udes toward play v a r i e d depending upon the grade. those q u e s t i o n s which e x h i b i t e d were considered.  Only  significant differences  There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  among grades f o r the f o l l o w i n g a t t i t u d i n a l components; 1.  c h i l d r e n ' s d e s i r e to p l a y , 2.  p l a y i n g , 3.  c h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e time t o p l a y on t h e i r  school playground and 4. behavior c a t e g o r i e s for  c h i l d r e n ' s reasons f o r  the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect. A l l  showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect.  When d i s c r e p a n c i e s  grades one, two and three were e v i d e n t , showed p a t t e r n s with increase  among  they most o f t e n  of i n c r e a s i n g or d e c r e a s i n g  i n grade.  except  preference  T h i s suggests t h a t c e r t a i n  tudes and b e h a v i o r s change as c h i l d r e n i n c r e a s e  atti-  i n age.  A t t i t u d e Data Table 14 p r e s e n t s only those choices  for favorite  102  spot t h a t show at. l e a s t a moderate p r e f e r e n c e . TABLE 14 GRADE DIFFERENCE FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA)  Question $5B Responses  N for Grade 1 Responses  Grade 2  Grade 3  Playing f i e l d 14 50.0% 7.1% B l a c k t o p area 63 17.5% 36.5% Sand 15 60.0% 20.0% The t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n responding to t h i s q u e s t i o n from gradel=9.4, grade 2=8 8 and grade 3=9 6  C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot to p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l There was  showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y  considered.  T h i s component  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , a t the  l e v e l , i n c h i l d r e n ' s preferences  .01  (See Appendix O f o r Table  The p o p u l a r i t y of the b l a c k t o p area i n c r e a s e d with  i n c r e a s e i n grades.  The p l a y i n g f i e l d  d i f f e r e n c e f o r grades w i t h grades one  a l s o showed a and three c l o s e l y  agreeing but with the grade twos having much l e s s i n t h i s area.  Sand was  interest  not one of the c h o i c e s g i v e n on  questionnaire-interview,'  but  i t was  of the c h i l d r e n as an other c h o i c e .  mentioned by a The grade one  mentioned sand more o f t e n than the grade twos and The  playground.  a d e f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e i n children's preference for  f a v o r i t e spot when grade was  37).  42.9% 46.0% 20.0%  equipment area which was  few children  threes.  most popular, showed con-  s i s t e n c y of r e s u l t s f o r a l l grades. Children's play behaviors.  The  the  a t t i t u d i n a l component  103 c l a s s i f i e d as c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y b e h a v i o r s showed s i g n i f i c a n t grade d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the f a v o r i t e t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do and the degree of energy used.  These r e s u l t s are presented i n  Table 15. TABLE 15 GRADE DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (ATTITUDE DATA)  Question #7 Responses  N for Responses  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Jumping 18.2% 11 54.5% 27 .3% Throwing 10 0.0% 30.0% 70.0% Kicking 19 21.1% 36.8% 42.1% Running 25.4% 130 35.4% 39.2% Climbing 14.8% 27 33. 3% 51.9% Hopping 7 0.0% 28 .6% 71.4% Skipping , 12 16. 7% 66.7% 16.7% Making t h i n g s 25 44.0% 28.0% 28.0% Sliding 39 46.2% 33.3% 20.5% Swinging 51 47.1% 27.5% 25.5% The t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n responding to t h i s q u e s t i o n from grade 1=10 8, grade 2=114 and grade 3=117. Question #7Why N f o r Responses Responses  Grade 1  Fun 73 49.3% Like i t 25 28 .0% Can p l a y games 55 14.5% Good f a c i l i t i e s 17 47.1% The t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n responding from grade 1=101, grade 2=106 and grade  Grade 2  Grade  23.3% 27.4% 32 . 0% 40.0% 36.4% 49.1% 29 .4% 23.5% to t h i s question 3=101.  Question #8; Responses  N for Responses  Grade 1  Sports 61 16.4% Make t h i n g s 51 54.9% S p e c i a l equip14 35.7% ment The t o t a l number o f c h i l d r e n responding from grade 1=101, grade 2=106 and grade Question #6B Responses  N for Responses  Grade 1  104 Grade 3  36.1% 29.4% 42.9%  47.5% 15.7% 21.4%  to t h i s 3=101.  question  Grade 2  A l o t of energy 159 25.8% Some energy 55 16.4% Quiet t h i n g s 125 46.4% The t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n responding from grade 1=10 8, grade 2=114 and grade 1.  Grade 2  33.3% 34.5% 33.6% to this 3=117.  Grade 3 40.9% 49.1% 20.0% question  The F a v o r i t e Things C h i l d r e n Do D i f f e r e n c e s among grades one, two and three f o r  s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s were recorded. tically  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , a t the .01 l e v e l i n  c h i l d r e n ' s preferences The  T h i s showed s t a t i s -  (See Appendix O f o r Table 37).  d i f f e r e n c e s e i t h e r i n c r e a s e d or decreased with  i n grade.  increases  I t may be t h a t c h i l d r e n chose s p e c i f i c be-  h a v i o r s s u i t a b l e f o r the stage of growth they were presently i n . Such a c t i v i t i e s as throwing and c a t c h i n g , k i c k i n g , running,  c l i m b i n g and hopping i n c r e a s e d  grades i n c r e a s e d .  These r e s u l t s f u r t h e r  r e s e a r c h by Smart and Smart  (19 67).  " c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t i n running s t e a d i l y from s i x t o nine."  i n p o p u l a r i t y as substantiated  They d i s c o v e r e d  and c l i m b i n g  (p. 239-)  that,  increases  Jumping, making  t h i n g s , s l i d i n g and swinging decreased i n p o p u l a r i t y with i n c r e a s e s i n grade.  The grades one and three c h i l d r e n  s i m i l a r l y showed l i t t l e  i n t e r e s t i n s k i p p i n g while the  grade two c h i l d r e n were s l i g h t l y more i n t e r e s t e d i n i t .  105  (See Table 15-a) The d i f f e r e n c e i n b e h a v i o r s was  not s p o r a d i c but  r a t h e r showed d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n s i n r e l a t i o n t o grade i n crease.  S p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s extremely  youngest  c h i l d r e n i . e . jumping, making t h i n g s , s l i d i n g  and  important t o the  swinging became l e s s important w i t h o l d e r c h i l d r e n and  a c t i v i t i e s which were o f l i t t l e  i n t e r e s t t o the youngest  c h i l d r e n i . e . throwing and c a t c h i n g , k i c k i n g , c l i m b i n g , hopping  and s k i p p i n g became i n c r e a s i n g l y more  popular as c h i l d r e n matured. The grades d i f f e r e d  (See Table 15-a) i n t h e i r reasons as t o why  they chose t h e i r f a v o r i t e a c t i v i t y . tically  running,  T h i s showed s t a t i s -  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , a t the .01 l e v e l , i n  c h i l d r e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s . (See Appendix 0 f o r Table 37) The c h o i c e s o f 1. f u n and 2. because t h e r e a r e f a c i l i t i e s to do the a c t i v i t y , decreased i n grade. and  i n p o p u l a r i t y with i n c r e a s e s  The c h o i c e s of 1. because they l i k e the a c t i v i t y  2. the a c t i v i t y can be used  i n c r e a s e s i n grade.  i n games i n c r e a s e d with  The younger c h i l d r e n were more l i k e l y  to choose an a c t i v i t y because i t was fun and there were good f a c i l i t i e s whereas the o l d e r c h i l d r e n were more l i k e l y t o choose an a c t i v i t y because they l i k e d i t and they c o u l d use it  i n games.  P l a y i n g games was a l s o more popular with the  o l d e r c h i l d r e n f o r t h e i r c h o i c e s of k i n d s of games.  Older  children preferred sports. I t was e v i d e n t from Table 15-c t h a t the three  grades  had d e f i n i t e p r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r c h o i c e s of kinds o f games.  T h i s aspect showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t .01 l e v e l i n c h i l d r e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s . f o r Table 37)  differences  106  (See Appendix 0  The three c h o i c e s which caused  this  dis-  crepancy among grades were; s p o r t s , a c t i v i t i e s where the c h i l d can b u i l d or make d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s from sand, and other m a t e r i a l s and  paper,  s p e c i a l equipment games.  Sports  i n c r e a s e d i n p o p u l a r i t y w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n grade.  Sports  most o f t e n r e q u i r e a high degree of energy f o r both c h o i c e s are compatible. a c t i v i t y , decreased Again, these two  and the p a t t e r n s  Making t h i n g s , a q u i e t  i n p o p u l a r i t y w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n grade.  c h o i c e s had compatible r e s u l t s .  equipment games, the grades one  and two  For  c h i l d r e n had  special similar  responses while the grade t h r e e s showed l e s s i n t e r e s t i n them. The other c h o i c e s f o r kinds of games d i d not show any major d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the v a r i a b l e 2.  grade.  The Degree of Energy Used Degree of energy  was  another a t t i t u d i n a l component  where grades d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r responses. presented these r e s u l t s .  The r e s u l t s showed  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , a t the .01 l e v e l , preferences.  (.See Appendix 0 f o r Table 37)  take a l o t of energy  15-d  statistically  in children's Things t h a t  and some energy became more popular  w i t h the c h i l d r e n as grades for quiet things.  Table  increased.  The r e v e r s e occurred  The r e s u l t s from the other q u e s t i o n s  d e a l i n g w i t h a t t i t u d e s toward play behaviors helped p l a i n the reasons  f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s i n degree of  The p r e f e r e n c e s f o r a c t i v i t i e s may a f f e c t e d by the amount of energy  exenergy.  have been s t r o n g l y  necessary t o perform  specific activities.  Most o f t e n , the a c t i v i t i e s and  of games p r e f e r r e d by the o l d e r c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d  107 kinds  a l o t of  energy w h i l e those p r e f e r r e d by the younger c h i l d r e n r e quired The  l e s s energy.  type of equipment c h i l d r e n used on t h e i r school  ground .  Table 16 presents  play-  the grade d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the  a t t i t u d i n a l component c o n s i d e r i n g c h i l d r e n ' s  preferences  f o r equipment. TABLE 16 GRADE DIFFERENCES FOR THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT CHILDREN USE ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA)  Question #10A Responses  N for Responses  Grade 1  Grade 2  NO 125 31.2% 24.8% The t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n responding to t h i s from grade 1=108 grade 2=114 and grade 3=117.  Grade 3 44.0% question  f  The  r e s u l t s showed t h a t grades one,  i n t h i s study had  two  and  three c h i l d r e n  s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e s toward the type of  equipment they used on t h e i r school playground. question a t the  t h a t showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y  .01  The  only  significant differences,  l e v e l , i n c h i l d r e n ' s preferences  was  the  question  which asked i f they wanted more t h i n g s to play on or with i n t h e i r s c h o o l playground. n e g a t i v e l y most o f t e n .  The  grade t h r e e c h i l d r e n responded  Behavior  108  Data  C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l Grades one, two and three were observed  playground.  on the s c h o o l p l a y -  ground with the r e s u l t t h a t they, had d e f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s f o r p l a y areas.  These r e s u l t s are pre-  sented i n Table 17. TABLE 17 GRADE DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA)  Question #1 Responses  N for Responses  Grade 1  Playing f i e l d ,200 31.5% B l a c k t o p area 346 28.9% The t o t a l number o f c h i l d r e n responding from grade 1=437, grade 2=443 and grade  Grade 2  16.5% 52.0% 27.7% 43.4% to t h i s question 3=491.  T h i s b e h a v i o r a l category showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n c e s a t the .01 l e v e l ,  Grade 3  significant  i n c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r s (See  Appendix O f o r Table 37). The d i f f e r e n c e s occurred f o r the c h o i c e s of p l a y i n g f i e l d and b l a c k t o p a r e a .  G e n e r a l l y con-  s i s t e n t w i t h the a t t i t u d e data, the b e h a v i o r a l data showed t h a t there was a tendency f o r i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n the b l a c k t o p area w i t h i n c r e a s e i n grade.  Although  there was  a l s o a s i m i l a r tendency f o r the p l a y i n g f i e l d , the grade two c h i l d r e n showed l e s s i n t e r e s t than the grade one c h i l d r e n .  109 TABLE 18 GRADE DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA)  a.Question #2ai Responses Jumping Throwing Kicking Running Climbing Hopping Skipping Making t h i n g s Sliding Swinging  N For Responses 19 26 39 340 215 24 29 149 183 239  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  0.0% 19.2% 7.7% 26.2% 31.6% 37.5% 55.2% 44.3% 35.0% 32.6%  21.0% 7.7% 30.8% 27.0% 40.9% 0.0% 37.9% 34.9% 34.4% 35.6%  79.0% 73.1% 61.5% 46.8% 27.4% 62.5% 6.9% 20.8% 30.6% 31.8%  The t o t a l numer of c h i l d r e n responding to t h i s from grade 1=437, grade 2=443 and grade 3=491. b.Question # 2 a i i Responses Sports Make t h i n g s  N for Grade 1 Responses 161 134  4.3% 46.3%  Grade 2  Grade 3  13.7% 32.8%  82.0% 20.9%  The t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n responding t o t h i s from grade 1=437, grade 2=443 and grade 3=491. c.Question #2c Responses A l o t of energy Some energy Quiet t h i n g s  N for Grade 1 Responses 691 333 347  27.5% 31.5% 40.9%  question  Grade 2  Grade 3  31.2% 32.3% 34.3%  41.2% 36.0% 24.8%  The t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n responding t o t h i s from grade 1=437, grade 2=443 and grade 3=491. C h i l d r e n ' s p l a y behaviors.-  question  question  The behavior c a t e g o r y c l a s s i f i e d  as c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y b e h a v i o r showed s i g n i f i c a n t grade d i f f e rences f o r the t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do and the degree of energy used.  Table 18 p r e s e n t s these d i f f e r e n c e s .  110  1. The F a v o r i t e t h i n g s C h i l d r e n Do By o b s e r v i n g behavior i t was had  e v i d e n t t h a t grades  s p e c i f i c preferences f o r a c t i v i t i e s .  these  results  showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , a t the l e v e l , i n c h i l d r e n ' s behavior. 37)  (See Appendix O f o r t a b l e  Such a c t i v i t i e s as jumping, k i c k i n g and running  came more popular as grades tendency  S k i p p i n g , making t h i n g s and s l i d i n g decreased  ing.  be-  i n c r e a s e d with a s i m i l a r  f o r throwing and c a t c h i n g , c l i m b i n g and  with i n c r e a s e i n grade.  .01  t h e r e was  hopping.  in popularity  no d i f f e r e n c e f o r swing-  These r e s u l t s were b a s i c a l l y comparable w i t h the  attitude  results. The grades a l s o showed d e f i n i t e p r e f e r e n c e s i n  t h e i r behavior f o r k i n d s of games. statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at the  in children's behaviors. The  two  These r e s u l t s showed .01  level,  (See Appendix 0 f o r Table  c h o i c e s which caused  37)  t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y among  grades were; s p o r t s and a c t i v i t i e s where the c h i l d  can  b u i l d or make t h i n g s from sand, paper and other m a t e r i a l s . As w i t h the a t t i t u d e r e s u l t s , s p o r t s i n c r e a s e d i n percentage  frequency w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n grade and making t h i n g s  decreased  i n percentage  frequency with i n c r e a s e s i n grade.  2. Degree of Energy Used The b e h a v i o r a l data showed t h a t the t h r e e  grades  had d i f f e r e n t p r e f e r e n c e s f o r the degree of energy The r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  a t the .01 l e v e l i n c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r s . 0 f o r Table 37)  A l o t of energy  and  used.  differences  (See Appendix  some energy  increased  i n percentage frequency with  i n c r e a s e s i n grade and q u i e t  Ill  t h i n g s decreased i n percentage frequency f o r i n c r e a s e s i n grade.  These r e s u l t s f o l l o w e d the same p a t t e r n s as with  the a t t i t u d e r e s u l t s . The  r e s u l t s from t h i s study e x h i b i t e d grade  d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s and behavior. e v i d e n t t h a t many p l a y a t t i t u d e s and behaviors  Iti s  of c h i l d r e n  from grades one through t o three correspond, y e t d i f f e r e n c e s do e x i s t and these should not be ignored. ferences  should be recognized  Children's  pre-  and measures taken t o assure  t h a t t h e i r needs are met w i t h i n each grade.  The assumption  cannot be made t h a t c h i l d r e n from grades one t o three r e q u i r e and i n c l i n e toward the same i n t e r e s t s i n p l a y behaviors.  Patterns  illustrating  changing p r e f e r e n c e s i n  p l a y c h o i c e s are a l r e a d y beginning  t o appear even w i t h i n  the f i r s t three grades of elementary  school.  CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR WHEN ENGAGED IN FREE PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND IN RELATION TO SCHOOL DIFFERENCES C h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s and behaviors  were  considered  to determine i f there were d i f f e r e n c e s i n the area of f r e e p l a y on school playgrounds when c o n s i d e r i n g the v a r i a b l e of school.  The i n v e s t i g a t o r hoped t o determine i f c h i l d r e n ' s  a t t i t u d e s toward p l a y and/or t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s  for particular  p l a y behaviors  Only those  were a f f e c t e d by t h e i r s c h o o l .  questions  which e x h i b i t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were con-  sidered.  There were.no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the  a t t i t u d i n a l components, c h i l d r e n ' s d e s i r e t o p l a y , c h i l d r e n ' s  reasons f o r p l a y i n g , c h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e  112 time t o p l a y on  t h e i r s c h o o l playground, the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect and the degree o f energy used.  There were no s i g n i f i c a n t  diffe-  rences among schools f o r the b e h a v i o r c a t e g o r i e s , the socialization  aspect and the degree of energy used.  The i n v e s t i g a t o r d i d not expect many s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e s i n c e the schools were chosen on t h e i r  s i m i l a r i t y w i t h one another.  g a t i o n and a n a l y s i s was  Further  investi-  necessary t o determine why-there  were d i s c r e p a n c i e s . An apparent cause f o r much of the d i s c r e p a n c y was the  imbalance i n numbers of males and females i n each grade  w i t h i n each s c h o o l .  I d e a l l y , there should have been equal  or n e a r l y equal number of males and females per grade per school. affecting  To prevent the i n e q u a l i t i e s the s c h o o l r e s u l t s ,  i n numbers of c h i l d r e n  the data was  b a s i s of sex w i t h i n each grade by s c h o o l .  analysed on the These a n a l y s e s  were not a f f e c t e d by the imbalance. A t t i t u d e Data Children's play behaviors.  The a t t i t u d i n a l  component  c l a s s i f i e d as c h i l d r e n ' s play b e h a v i o r s showed s c h o o l d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the f a v o r i t e  significant  things children  These d i f f e r e n c e s were presented i n Table 19.  do.  113  TABLE 19 SCHOOL DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (ATTITUDE DATA)  Question #8 N f o r Grauer Responses Responses  Errington  Bridge Lee  Woodward  Grade 2 females games you make up build things  20  50.0%  25.0%  10.0%  15.0%  0.0%  7  0.0%  0.0%  42..9%  0.0%  57.1%  Grade 3 males sports 25 0.0% 24.0% 20.0% 12.0% 44.0% tag 20 20.0% 10.0% 15.0% 50.0% 5.0% The t o t a l number of females=60 and males = 63 f o r t h i s question. 1. The F a v o r i t e Things C h i l d r e n Do D i f f e r e n c e s between schools f o r s p e c i f i c kinds of games were recorded.  The r e s u l t s showed  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , a t the .01 l e v e l f o r Table 38), f o r the grade two females males p r e f e r e n c e s f o r kinds of games.  statistically (See Appendix 0 and grade t h r e e  The females  differed  f o r the c h o i c e s ; games you make up and a c t i v i t i e s where you b u i l d or make t h i n g s .  The males d i f f e r e d  f o r the c h o i c e s ;  s p o r t s and t a g and c h a s i n g games. The type of equipment c h i l d r e n use on t h e i r s c h o o l .playground .  Table 20 presents the d i f f e r e n c e between  schools  f o r the q u e s t i o n r e l a t e d t o the t h i n g s c h i l d r e n use most o f t e n on t h e i r s c h o o l  playground.  1.1,4TABLE 2 0 SCHOOL DIFFERENCES FOR THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT CHILDREN USE ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA)  Question #9 N f o r Responses Res-. ponses Grade 3 males  Grauer  Errington  Bridge Lee  things to s p i n around on 12 8.3% 66.7% 8.3% 8.3% things to climb 14 14.3% 0.0% 21.4% 42.9% The t o t a l number of males = 63 f o r t h i s q u e s t i o n . T h i s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y .01  level  males.  Woodward  8.3% 21.4%  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , a t the  (See Appendix O f o r Table  These males d i f f e r e d  38) f o r grade three  f o r the c h o i c e s o f t h i n g s t o  s p i n around on and t h i n g s t o climb. When c o n s i d e r i n g the number o f comparisons f o r the a n a l y s i s o f males and females i n each grade w i t h i n each s c h o o l , the three d i f f e r e n c e s observed i n t h i s study are relatively  insignificant.  Behavior Data Children's favorite Table  21 presents  behavior  category  to p l a y on t h e i r  spot t o p l a y on t h e i r  school playground.  the d i f f e r e n c e s among schools  f o r the  c l a s s i f i e d as c h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e school playground.  spot  115  TABLE 21 SCHOOL DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA)  Question #1 Responses  N f o r Grauer Responses  Errington  Bridge Lee  Woodward  BlacKtop 22.4% area 9.7% 18 .0% 13 9. 8% 200 Playing field 346 26.2% 32.0% 14 7 9- 27.6% 25. 2% Equipment area 825 64.1% 50.0% 72 .1% 49 .3% 65. 0% The t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n responding to t h i s q u e s t i o n from Grauer=290, Errington=278, Bridge=265, Lee=272 and Woodward=2 6 6.  The  r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant differences,  at the .01 l e v e l i n c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r s . 0 f o r Table 38)  (See Appendix  The d i f f e r e n c e s occurred f o r the b l a c k t o p  area, p l a y i n g f i e l d and equipment area. Children's play behaviors.  The behavior category  classified  as c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y b e h a v i o r s showed s i g n i f i c a n t s c h o o l d i f f e r ences for: "the favorite t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do. these d i f f e r e n c e s .  Table 22 presents  116  TABLE 2 2 SCHOOL DIFFERENCES FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA)  Question #2aiN f o r Grauer Responses Responses  Errington  Bridge Lee  Woodward  "Running 340 24. 1% 29. 8% 20 .4% 28. 7% 20 .7% Jumping 19 7% 4. 3% 0 . 0% 1. 8% 0 .0% Throwing and catching 26 0. 0% 1. 8% .4% 7. 0% .4% Kicking 39 3. 4% 2. 5% 0 .0% 2. 2% 6 .0% Climbing 215 14. 8% 11. 9% 18 .1% 18. 0% 15 .4% Hopping 27 0. 0% 6. 5% 1 1. 8% 0 .0% Skipping 29 0. 0% 0. 0% 0 .0% 4. 0% 6• 8 % Making t h i n g s 146 14. 5% 5. 0% 15 • 8 % 7. 4% 10 R 9Sliding 183 12. 8% 12. 6% 17 .4% 7. 0% 17 .3% Swinging 239 17. 2% 17. 6% 18 • ^ 15. 8% 18 .0% Other 108 12. 4% 7. 9% 7 .9% 6. 2% 4 .5% N=1371 The t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n responding t o t h i s q u e s t i o n from Grauer=290, Errington=278, Bridge=265, Lee=272 and Woodward =2 66. s  Question #2aiiNfor Grauer Responses Responses Sports Tag and chasing Games you make up Special equipment Games on equipment B u i l d things  Errington  161  10. 0%  2Q4  16. 9%  20 .9%  156  13. 4%  19 • 8 %  66  1. 0%  6. 8 %  4  1 9-  Bridge Lee  9 . 8 %16. 9%  Woodward  15. 4%  11  7 9-  12. 9%  11. 6%  8  T 9-  9. 6%  5. 3%  0 .0% 11. 8%  7 .1%  648 45. 2% 43 9 955 .5% 41. 5% 51. 5% 136 13. 4% 5 .0% 14 .7% 7 .4% 9. 0% N=:1371 The t o t a l number o f c h i l d r e n responding t o t h i s q u e s t i o n from Grauer=290, Errington=278,Bridge=265,Lee=272 and Woodward =266.  1. The  F a v o r i t e Things  117  C h i l d r e n Do  D i f f e r e n c e s between schools f o r a c t i v i t i e s and of games were recorded.  Both aspects showed  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , at the behaviors.(See  .01  level,  Appendix 0 f o r Table 38)  kinds  statistically  in children's  The d i f f e r e n c e s  d i d not seem t o occur i n any p a r t i c u l a r c h o i c e s but r a t h e r throughout a l l c h o i c e s .  The  percentage agreements among the schools  the lowest and h i g h e s t percentages  with  f o r the three d i f f e r e n c e s ,  e x h i b i t e d good and high percentage agreement.  Therefore,  t h e r e were no major d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n s c h o o l comparisons even though d i s c r e p a n c i e s were e v i d e n t .  The  discrepancies  among schools d i d not seem to present any type of p a t t e r n , with any p a r t i c u l a r schools showing more disagreements than the o t h e r s .  However, t h e r e was  a tendency f o r one  school to have s l i g h t l y more d i s c r e p a n c i e s w h i l e  another  s c h o o l had  remaining  s l i g h t l y fewer d i s c r e p a n c i e s than the  schools. The  i n v e s t i g a t o r found  i t d i f f i c u l t to account f o r  the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t o c c u r r e d .  They may  have  been the outcome of not having the schools more s i m i l a r . However, the playgrounds were almost i d e n t i c a l , the  schools  were a l l w i t h i n the same School Board thus they would g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w the same p r i n c i p l e s , and the chosen were from s i m i l a r socio-economic have been extremely  schools  groups.  d i f f i c u l t to have chosen f i v e  even more s i m i l a r than those used f o r t h i s  study.  I t would schools  A few obvious d i f f e r e n c e s between schools noted and may have a f f e c t e d the r e s u l t s . one  118  were  On the average,  school had the l e a s t number o f c h i l d r e n per c l a s s  w h i l e another had t h e l a r g e s t s i z e d c l a s s e s .  The  d i f f e r e n c e s i n numbers of c h i l d r e n may have a f f e c t e d c h i l d r e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s w h i l e p l a y i n g on the playground. C h i l d r e n i n the l a r g e r c l a s s e s may not have been able t o s e l e c t t h e i r f a v o r i t e choices smaller  as o f t e n as those i n  c l a s s e s due t o the types o f f a c i l i t i e s and the  numbers they can accommodate. A l s o , the a t t i t u d e s of the t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s w i t h i n each school are l i k e l y t o d i f f e r on t h e i r i n t e r e s t s towards p l a y and on t h e i r b a s i c objectives.  I t was impossible  t o prevent these d i f f e r e n c e s  from p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t i n g the r e s u l t s of t h i s study. Further  research  v e s t i g a t o r could  i s necessary before the i n -  s t a t e t h a t s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s were d e f i n i t e l y  the cause of the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the v a r i a b l e of s c h o o l .  However, f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n  of the s i z e of  school playgrounds and the type of playground equipment i n l i g h t o f the school enrolment i s recommended. B a s i c a l l y , there were few d i f f e r e n c e s i n the area of f r e e play on school  playground when c o n s i d e r i n g  the v a r i a b l e of s c h o o l .  CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR WHEN ENGAGED IN FREE PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND IN RELATION TO SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE Children's  a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s were considered  determine i f t h e r e were d i f f e r e n c e s i n the area o f f r e e on school playgrounds when c o n s i d e r i n g  to play  the v a r i a b l e of sex  w i t h i n each grade.  119 i n v e s t i g a t o r attempted t o determine  The  i f c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s toward p l a y and/or t h e i r for particular  p l a y b e h a v i o r s were a f f e c t e d by the  the c h i l d w i t h i n each grade. exhibited were no  preferences sex  of  Only those q u e s t i o n s which  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were c o n s i d e r e d .  There  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between sexes w i t h i n  each  grade f o r the a t t i t u d i n a l components; c h i l d r e n ' s d e s i r e p l a y , c h i l d r e n ' s reasons f o r p l a y i n g , c h i l d r e n ' s favorite  time to play on t h e i r  s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect.  :  school playground and  A l l behavioral  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s except f o r the  categories  to  the  showed  socialization  aspect. A t t i t u d e Data Children's There was favorite  favorite  spot t o p l a y on t h e i r  school  playground.  a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i n children's preference for spot when sex w i t h i n each grade was  considered.  Table 23 presents these. TABLE 23 SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA)  Question #5B Responses  N for Responses  Males  Females  Grade 3: Playing f i e l d 29 72.4% 27.6% The t o t a l number of females = 4 5 and males = 51 .  Difference  44.8%  T h i s a t t i t u d i n a l component showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t the preferences. had  .01  level,  120  sig-  in children's  (See Appendix 0 f o r Table 39)  A l l choices  s i m i l a r r e s u l t s except f o r the p l a y i n g f i e l d f o r  the grade t h r e e s .  The males showed a moderate p r e f e r e n c e  f o r the p l a y i n g f i e l d . Children's play behaviors.  The a t t i t u d i n a l component  c l a s s i f i e d as c h i l d r e n ' s play behaviors was  statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the f a v o r i t e t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do and degree of energy used.  the  Table 24 presents these d i f f e r e n c e s .  1. The F a v o r i t e Things C h i l d r e n Do Table 24-a and  females  presents the d i f f e r e n c e s between the males  i n grade two  f o r the aspect of f a v o r i t e  activities.  T h i s aspect showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at the  .01  level,  Table 39)  i n c h i l d r e n ' s preferences.(See Appendix 0  The males e x h i b i t e d an o u t s t a n d i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r  k i c k i n g and the females  showed an o u t s t a n d i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r  s k i p p i n g and a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r s l i d i n g . c h o i c e s showed s i m i l a r  results.  D i f f e r e n c e s between the males and females one,  two  A l l other  i n grade  and three were e v i d e n t f o r the aspect of f a v o r i t e  kinds of games. statistically Appendix 0  T h i s was  presented  i n Table 24-b  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at the  f o r Table 39)  f o r grades one,  two  and  .01 l e v e l and  showed (See  three.  For the grade one comparison, the males showed a h i g h p r e f e r e n c e f o r s p o r t s and The  females  a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r t a g .  showed a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r games you  121 make up and a c t i v i t i e s where you can b u i l d or make t h i n g s . For the grade two  comparison, the males e x h i b i t e d an  standing p r e f e r e n c e f o r s p o r t s and the females  out-  showed an  o u t s t a n d i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r s p e c i a l equipment and a high p r e f e r e n c e f o r games you make up.  For the grade t h r e e  comparison, the males showed an o u t s t a n d i n g for  s p o r t s and the females  preference  showed a moderate p r e f e r e n c e  f o r games you make up. 2. The.Degree of Energy Used Table 24-c males and females of  energy used.  nificant  i n grades two  and three f o r the degree  T h i s aspect showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g -  d i f f e r e n c e s a t the  preferences. two  presents the d i f f e r e n c e s between the  .01 l e v e l ,  in children's  (See Appendix 0 f o r Table 39)  For the grade  c h i l d r e n , the males e x h i b i t e d a moderate p r e f e r e n c e  f o r a l o t of energy a c t i v i t i e s  and the females e x h i b i t e d  a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r some energy a c t i v i t i e s and q u i e t things.  For the grade t h r e e c h i l d r e n , the males e x h i b i t e d  a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r a l o t of energy and the  females  e x h i b i t e d a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r q u i e t t h i n g s . Hawkes and Pease  (1962) r e c o g n i z e d t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n degree of  energy expenditure.  They wrote:  Beginning a t age f i v e or s i x boys show an i n c r e a s i n g s u p e r i o r i t y i n s u s t a i n e d energy output and muscular s t r e n g t h , which may correspond t o t h e i r preference f o r a c t i v e play. G i r l s ' preference i s f o r q u i e t e r p u r s u i t s , (p.115)  122 TABLE 24 SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (ATTITUDE DATA) a .Question #7 Responses  N for Responses  Grade 2: Kicking Skipping Sliding  Males  7 8 13  100.0% 0.0% 38 * 5%  Females  Difference  0.0% 100.0% 61.5%  100.0% 100.0% 23.0%  The t o t a l number of females;=60 and males=54. b .Question #8 Responses  N for Responses  Grade 1: Sports 10 Tag 34 Games you make up 2 4 Make t h i n g s 28  Males  Females  80.0% 64.7% 33.3% 28.6%  20.0% 35.3% 66.7% 71.4%  Difference  60. 0% 29.4% 33.4% 42.8%  The t o t a l number o f females =56 and males=52. :  Grade 2: Sports 22 Games you make up 2 7 S p e c i a l equipment 6  90.9% 25.9% 0.0%  9.1% 74.1% 100.0%  81.8% 48.2% 100.0%  The t o t a l number o f females^=60 and males=54. Grade 3: Sports 29 Games you make up 2 4  86.2% 37.5%  13.8% 62.5%  72.4% 25.0%  The t o t a l number of females;=54 and males=63. c .Question #6B Responses  N for Responses  Grade 2: A l o t of energy Some energy Quiet t h i n g s  Males  53 19 42  66.0% 31.6% 31.0%  Females  34.0% 68.4% 69 .0%  Difference  32.0% 3 6.8% 38.0%  The t o t a l number of females =6 0 and males=54. :  Grade 3: A l o t o f energy Quiet t h i n g s  65 25  66.2% 32.0%  3 3.8% 68.0%  The t o t a l number o f females;=54 and males=63.  32.4% 36.0%  The  123  type of equipment c h i l d r e n use on t h e i r s c h o o l p l a y -  ground .  The males and  females w i t h i n each grade had  s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e s toward the type of equipment they on t h e i r s c h o o l playground.  Table 25 presents  q u e s t i o n which showed d i s c r e p a n c i e s .  the  use only  T h i s q u e s t i o n asked  i f the c h i l d r e n wanted more t h i n g s to p l a y on or with i n t h e i r school  playground. TABLE 25  SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT CHILDREN USED ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (ATTITUDE DATA)  Question #10A Responses  N for Responses  Males  Females  Difference  Grade 2: No 31 22.5% 77.4% The t o t a l number of females=60 and males=54.  T h i s a t t i t u d i n a l component showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n c e s , at the The  grade two  .01  level,  54.8%  significant  i n children's preferences.  females had a high p r e f e r e n c e f o r the  negative  response. Behavior  Data  C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e , spot to p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l p l a y - ; ground.  Table 26 presents the d i f f e r e n c e s f o r f a v o r i t e  when the v a r i a b l e of sex w i t h i n each grade was  spot  considered.  Table 26 showed males and females w i t h i n each grade to have d e f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r preference f o r play  areas.  124  TABLE 26  SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR CHILDREN'S FAVORITE SPOT TO PLAY ON THEIR SCHOOL PLAYGROUND (BEHAVIOR DATA)  Question #1 Responses  N for Responses  Males  Females  Difference  Grade 1: Blacktop 63 19.0% 81.0% Playing f i e l d 100 60.0% 40.0% The t o t a l number of females=56 and males=52.  62.0% 20.0%  Grade 2: Blacktop 33 33.3% 66.7% Playing f i e l d 96 67.7% 32.3% The t o t a l number of females=60 and males=54 .  33.4% 35.4%  Grade 3: Playing f i e l d 150 85.3% 14.7% Equipment area 237 37.6% 62.4% The t o t a l number of females=54 and males=63.  70.6% 24.8%  T h i s b e h a v i o r a l category showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t the .01 l e v e l i n c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r s . (See Appendix 0 f o r Table 39)  For the grade one comparison,  the males showed a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r the p l a y i n g f i e l d while the females showed an o u t s t a n d i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r the b l a c k t o p area.  The grade two males and females  showed moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r the p l a y i n g f i e l d top area r e s p e c t i v e l y .  and b l a c k -  The grade t h r e e males showed an  o u t s t a n d i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r the p l a y i n g f i e l d  and the females  showed a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r the equipment a r e a . C h i l d r e n ' s p l a y b e h a v i o r s . Table 27 p r e s e n t s grade d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the behavior category c l a s s i f i e d as c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y behaviors.  125  TABLE 27 SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE FOR CHILDREN'S PLAY BEHAVIORS (BEHAVIOR DATA) a.Question #2ai Responses Grade 1: Running Climbing Hopping Skipping Sliding  N for Responses 89 68 916 64  Males  64.0% 64.7% 0.0% 0.0% 67.2%  The t o t a l number of females =219 Grade 2: Kicking Skipping Sliding Making t h i n g s Running  Females  36.0% 35.3% 100.0% 100.0% 32 .8%  28.0% 29.4% 100.0% 100.0% 34.4%  and males = 218.  12 11  91.7% 18.2%  8.3% 81.8%  83.4% 6 3.6%  52 92  32.7% 63.0%  67.3% 37.0%  34 .6% 26.0%  The t o t a l number of females =223 and males Grade 3: Running Jumping Kicking Climbing Hopping Swinging  Difference  159 15 24 59. 15 76  79.9% 40 .0% 100.0% 39.0% 0 . 0% 36.8%  The t o t a l number of females = 221 b.Question # 2 a i i N f o r Responses Responses  20.1% 60.0% 0.0% 61.0% 100.0% 63.2%  and males  Males  = 220.  = 270.  Females  Grade 1: Sports 7 Tag 78 Games you make upi 52 S p e c i a l equipment. 25  100.0% 60.2% 13. 5% 20.0%  The t o t a l number of females  = 219 and males  59 .8% 20.0% 100.0% 22.0% 100.0% 26.4%  0.0% 39.8% 86.5% 80.0%  Difference  100.0% 20.4% 73 . 0% 60.0%  = 218.  TABLE 27 N for Responses  Grade 2: Sports Games you make up S p e c i a l equipment Make t h i n g s  22 43 20 44  126  (continued) Males  Females  100.0% 32.6% 40.0% 31.8%  0.0% 67.4% 60.0% 6 8.2%  Difference 100.0% 34.8% 20.0% 36.4%  The t o t a l number of females =223 and males = 220. Grade 3: Sports 132 Tag 49 Games you make up 6 3 S p e c i a l equipment 21 Games on equip-. ment 198 Make t h i n g s 28 The  100.0% 36.7% 34.9% 38.1%  0.0% 63 .3% 65.1% 61.9%  39.9% 39.3%  60.1% 60.7%  100.0% 26.6% 30.2% 23.8% 20.2% . 21.4%  t o t a l number o f females =221 and males = 270.  c.Question #2C Responses Grade 2: Quiet t h i n g s  N for Responses 119,  The t o t a l number of females  Males  38.6% = 223  Females  Difference  61.4%  22.8%  and males = 220.  1. The F a v o r i t e Things C h i l d r e n Do All  sex d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n each grade f o r c h i l d r e n ' s  p l a y behaviors were presented i n Table 27.  By o b s e r v i n g  male and female behavior w i t h i n each grade,  i t was e v i d e n t  t h a t males and females have s p e c i f i c  p r e f e r e n c e s f o r ac-  t i v i t i e s . These r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s a t the .01 l e v e l , i n c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r s . (See Appendix 0 f o r Table 39)  F o r the grade one  comparison,  the males had a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r running, c l i m b i n g and  s l i d i n g w h i l e the females had an o u t s t a n d i n g p r e f e r e n c e  f o r hopping  and s k i p p i n g .  The grade two  comparison e x h i b i t e d an o u t s t a n d i n g  127  p r e f e r e n c e f o r k i c k i n g and a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r running f o r the males and an o u t s t a n d i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r s k i p p i n g and a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r making t h i n g s f o r the  females.  The grade three comparison e x h i b i t e d an o u t s t a n d i n g pref e r e n c e f o r k i c k i n g and a h i g h p r e f e r e n c e f o r running f o r the males and an o u t s t a n d i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r hopping moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r jumping, c l i m b i n g and the  and a  swinging f o r  females. Again, the males and  females w i t h i n each grade  showed  d e f i n i t e p r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r c h o i c e s of kinds of  games.  These r e s u l t s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y  d i f f e r e n c e s a t the  significant  .01 l e v e l , i n c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r s .  (See Appendix 0 f o r Table 39)  For each of the grades  males showed an o u t s t a n d i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r s p o r t s .  the  The  grade one males showed a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r tag w h i l e the females  showed an o u t s t a n d i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r games you  make up and s p e c i a l equipment games.  The  grade two  showed moderate p r e f e r e n c e s f o r games you make up,  females special  equipment games and a c t i v i t i e s where you can b u i l d or make things.  The grade three females  f o r t a g , games you make up, on the school playground  showed moderate p r e f e r e n c e s  s p e c i a l equipment games, games  equipment and a c t i v i t i e s where you  can b u i l d or make t h i n g s . 2.The Degree Of Energy Used The o b s e r v a t i o n a l data showed a d i f f e r e n c e f o r the grade two comparison.  I t showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y  d i f f e r e n c e a t the .01 l e v e l ,  significant  i n c h i l d r e n ' s behaviors  (See  Appendix 0 f o r Table 39). preference for quiet  The  females showed a moderate  128  things.  Before many statements r e l a t e d to d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s of males and  females w i t h i n each of the  grades should be made, more r e s e a r c h  i s needed.  three Larger  numbers of c h i l d r e n w i t h i n each grade are necessary. However, i t i s important to note t h a t more occurred  a t the grade two  which occurred the p a t t e r n s I t was  level.  discrepancies  A l s o , the  differences  f o r each of the grades g e n e r a l l y  evident  i n the r e s u l t s f o r the  d i f f i c u l t t o determine why  p o s s i b l e t h a t the grade two  sex  followed comparisons.  t h i s r e s u l t e d , but  c h i l d r e n were i n the  i t was  beginning  of the t r a n s i t i o n a l stage when sex r o l e s were questioned or f o r some reason they had play r e s e a r c h e r s  on these p r e s s u r e s may  c l a r i f y i n g the q u e s t i o n Hamburg  more p r e s s u r e s .  Comments by  be of h e l p  in  of d i f f e r e n c e s .  (1973) wrote:  Many s u b t l e as w e l l as obvious pressures are placed on c h i l d r e n to produce such d i f f e r e n c e s . Sex-typing precedes and i s a p a r t of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and r e s u l t s from a p a t t e r n of rewards and punishments administered by parents, teachers, o l d e r b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s , and playmates.(p.330) Kohlberg  (196 6) wrote:  A l l c h i l d r e n become aware of body d i f f e r e n c e s , are exposed to b a s i c gender l a b e l i n g , and p e r c e i v e c e r t a i n s a l i e n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n males and females r o l e s i n s i d e and outside. the f a m i l y . In l a r g e p a r t , i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s sexr o l e a t t i t u d e s r e f l e c t v a r i a t i o n s i n the development of these concepts, v a r i a t i o n s due to d i f f e rences i n age, g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , and experiences s t i m u l a t i n g development of s e x - r o l e concepts, (p. 155) 1  The r a t e a t which the c h i l d develops determines the formation o f h i s a t t i t u d e s toward s e x - r o l e s . T h i s study d i s c o v e r e d evidence between sexes w i t h i n each grade.  of d i f f e r e n c e s  Before the s p e c i f i c  d i f f e r e n c e s should be emphasized, a l a r g e r sample per c h o i c e i s necessary.  I t was d i f f i c u l t  t o make many  assumptions s i n c e the v a l u e s of N f o r s e v e r a l c h o i c e s were s m a l l . and  However, there i s the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t males  females w i t h i n grades one, two and t h r e e do have  separate p r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r p l a y a t t i t u d e s and behavior and the e d u c a t i o n a l system should r e c o g n i z e Hawkes and Pease  this.  (1962) wrote:  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y changes w i t h age and maturation. It i s u s u a l l y e n e r g e t i c , a c t i v e , n o i s y and c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the development of motor s k i l l s , (p.91)  CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS PURPOSE This i n v e s t i g a t i o n studied children's a t t i t u d e s t o ward p l a y and t h e i r p l a y behavior on t h e i r school playgrounds.  when engaging i n f r e e p l a y  Subproblems of t h i s  study  attempted t o determine i f there were d i f f e r e n c e s i n f r e e p l a y on school playgrounds when c o n s i d e r i n g the v a r i a b l e s of sex, grade, school and sex w i t h i n each grade. In a d d i t i o n the c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w with the observed behavior a t t i t u d e s and behaviors  technique  technique  as measures of p l a y  r e s p e c t i v e l y , was assessed.  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Three hundred and t h i r t y - n i n e grade one, two and t h r e e c h i l d r e n served as subject's f o r t h i s study.  A l l subjects  were from f i v e elementary schools w i t h i n the Richmond D i s t r i c t , Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia. utilized  f o r data c o l l e c t i o n ;  and  2. o b s e r v a t i o n s .  and  observed.  collection.  Two techniques  School were  1. a q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w ,  Three c l a s s e s per school were i n t e r v i e w e d  Four days i n each school were r e q u i r e d f o r data Thus a t o t a l of twenty days was needed t o com-  p l e t e the data c o l l e c t i o n aspect of the study.  Six additional  days were needed t o t e s t the r e l i a b i l i t y of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e interview. 130  Each c h i l d was I t took approximately  interv i e w e d  on a one-to-one b a s i s .  t e n minutes per c h i l d t o complete the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w with the i n v e s t i g a t o r r e c o r d i n g responses.  131  T h i s technique  assessed  the  the f o l l o w i n g a t t i t u d i n a l  components: 1.  C h i l d r e n ' s d e s i r e to p l a y .  2.  C h i l d r e n ' s reasons f o r p l a y i n g .  3.  C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e time t o p l a y on  their  school playground. 4.  C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot to p l a y on  their  school playground. 5.  Children's play behaviors,  specifically:  a.  The  f a v o r i t e t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do.  b.  The  s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect; whether c h i l d r e n  p l a y alone, w i t h c h i l d r e n t h e i r own  age,  with c h i l d r e n younger than themselves or with c h i l d r e n o l d e r than themselves. c.  The  degree of energy used by the c h i l d r e n ;  whether they d i d a c t i v i t i e s t h a t took a l o t of energy, took some energy or  they  engaged i n q u i e t t h i n g s . 6.  The  types of equipment c h i l d r e n use on  their  s c h o o l playground. The  observations  took p l a c e d u r i n g two  hour f r e e play s e s s i o n s per c l a s s .  separate h a l f  Over the h a l f - h o u r  the i n v e s t i g a t o r observed each of the three p l a y areas; equipment area, 2. b l a c k t o p area and  period, 1.  3. p l a y i n g f i e l d , f o r  ten minutes per area broken down i n t o two separate minute o b s e r v a t i o n a l s e s s i o n s . complete o b s e r v a t i o n s s e r v a t i o n s assessed  1.  13 2  There was a t o t a l of s i x  over the h a l f hour p e r i o d .  s e l e c t e d b e h a v i o r a l aspects  questionnaire-interview,  five  The obof the  that i s ;  The c h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on t h e i r school playground.  2.  The c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y behaviors,  specifically;  a.  The f a v o r i t e t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do.  b.  The s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect; whether c h i l d r e n p l a y alone or i n groups.  c.  The degree of energy used by the c h i l d r e n ; whether they d i d a c t i v i t i e s t h a t took a l o t of energy, took some energy or they engaged i n q u i e t t h i n g s .  Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s were determined f o r the t o t a l responses t o the questions  and the o v e r a l l o b s e r v a t i o n s . C h i  square values were c a l c u l a t e d t o determine i f there were d i f f e r e n c e s among c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s for  p a r t i c u l a r questions  behavior grounds.  of choices  i n t h e area of p l a y a t t i t u d e s and  when engaging i n f r e e play on t h e i r school  play-  In a d d i t i o n , c h i values were determined f o r both  the a t t i t u d e and behavior  r e s u l t s t o determine i f there were  sex d i f f e r e n c e s , grade d i f f e r e n c e s , school d i f f e r e n c e s and/or sex d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n each, grade i n p l a y a t t i t u d e s and behavior: when engaging i n f r e e p l a y on t h e i r school The  reliability  playgrounds.  o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w  technique was t e s t e d on 129 c h i l d r e n from the t o t a l  sample  population  (N=339).  ministered  i n an i d e n t i c a l manner t o the i n i t i a l  interviews.  The  questionnaire-interview  Percentages of c h i l d r e n who  was  133  ad-  s e t of  gave i d e n t i c a l  responses on the t e s t - r e t e s t , on p a r t i c u l a r questions  and  p a r t i c u l a r responses w i t h i n each q u e s t i o n were determined. The  c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w  with the observed behavior  technique was  technique  determined e i t h e r  by c a l c u l a t i n g frequency percentages of the two  techniques  or by c a l c u l a t i n g Spearman's c o e f f i c i e n t of rank-order c o r r e l a t i o n depending upon the  comparison.  RESULTS The  r e s u l t s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n as determined  a n a l y s i s are a l l s t a t i s t i c a l l y stated.  s i g n i f i c a n t unless  These r e s u l t s were c l a s s i f i e d under the  a t t i t u d i n a l components and  behavior  by  otherwise following  categories:  A t t i t u d i n a l Components Children's desire to play.  Play was  c h i l d r e n ; they l i k e d t o p l a y .  important to 100%  of  Children's desire to play  showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s with r e s p e c t to sex, s c h o o l and  C h i l d r e n have s p e c i f i c  they l i k e to p l a y on t h e i r school playground  the most popular  reasons being;  1. because there are  t h i n g s , 2. because there are o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r and  grade,  sex w i t h i n each grade.  C h i l d r e n ' s reasons f o r p l a y i n g . reasons why  the  3. because of p l e a s a n t  with  fun  socializing,  f e e l i n g s such as happy and  fun.  134  In a d d i t i o n , the reasons 1. because they c o u l d do t h e i r work b e t t e r a f t e r p l a y i n g and 2. because they f e e l b e t t e r a f t e r p l a y i n g , were of some importance. for to  C h i l d r e n ' s reasons  p l a y i n g showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s with  respect  sex, grade, s c h o o l and sex w i t h i n each grade.  C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e time t o p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l playground. C h i l d r e n most o f t e n p l a y on t h e i r school playground d u r i n g lunch hour and r e c e s s .  C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e time t o p l a y  on t h e i r school playground showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s with r e s p e c t t o sex, grade, school and sex w i t h i n each grade. C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on t h e i r school playground. When asked i f they had a f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y on t h e i r school playground, 82.0% o f the c h i l d r e n responded i n the affirmative.  The most popular  spots  i n order of p r e f e r e n c e  were; 1. the equipment area and 2. the p l a y i n g  field.  When c o n s i d e r i n g sex d i f f e r e n c e s , the males showed a high preference  f o r the p l a y i n g f i e l d w h i l e the females  had  a high p r e f e r e n c e  for  the b l a c k t o p .  differences  f o r sand and a moderate  preference  In a d d i t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g grade  were e v i d e n t .  The p o p u l a r i t y of the b l a c k t o p  area i n c r e a s e d w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n grade.  The grade one  c h i l d r e n showed more i n t e r e s t i n the sand and both grade one and  three c h i l d r e n showed more i n t e r e s t i n the p l a y i n g  No school d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d . in c h i l d r e n ' s preferences  f o r the playing  There was a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e  f o r f a v o r i t e spot when sex w i t h i n  grade three was c o n s i d e r e d . preference  field.  The males showed a moderate field.  Children's play behaviors.  The  135  a t t i t u d i n a l component  c l a s s i f i e d as c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y behaviors was i n t o ; the f a v o r i t e t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do, the  subdivided socialization  aspect and the degree of energy used. 1.  The F a v o r i t e Things C h i l d r e n Do Running was  swinging,  the most popular a c t i v i t y f o l l o w e d by  s l i d i n g , c l i m b i n g , and making t h i n g s .  The  children  l i k e d t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r f a v o r i t e a c t i v i t y mainly because i t was  e i t h e r a. fun, b. the a c t i v i t y c o u l d be used i n a game or  c. i t ' s h e a l t h y to engage i n the a c t i v i t y . tag and chasing games was  A preference for  e v i d e n t f o l l o w e d by games you  or  your f r i e n d s make up and s p o r t s . Both sexes showed d e f i n i t e p r e f e r e n c e s f o r p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and kinds of games.  The males had an  outstanding  p r e f e r e n c e f o r k i c k i n g and a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r c l i m b i n g and throwing  and  catching.  The  females  e x h i b i t e d an  out-  s t a n d i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r hopping and s k i p p i n g , and a high p r e f e r e n c e f o r making t h i n g s . o f t e n as the reason why  The  females  chose fun more  they chose t h e i r f a v o r i t e  activity  while the males chose the a c t i v i t y because they c o u l d use it  i n a game. D e f i n i t e preferences f o r p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s  kinds of games were e v i d e n t f o r the v a r i a b l e grade.  and  The  p r e f e r e n c e s e i t h e r i n c r e a s e d or decreased w i t h i n c r e a s e i n grade.  The  grades d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r reasons  chose t h e i r f a v o r i t e a c t i v i t i e s .  as t o why  The c h o i c e s of fun  they and  because there are f a c i l i t i e s to do the a c t i v i t y seemed to  decrease  i n p o p u l a r i t y with i n c r e a s e s i n grade w h i l e  136  the  c h o i c e s of because they l i k e the a c t i v i t y and the a c t i v i t y can be used i n games i n c r e a s e d as a f u n c t i o n of grade. s c h o o l d i f f e r e n c e s occurred  for this attitudinal  Sex d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n grade two 2. The  Socialization  No  component.  occurred.  Aspect  C h i l d r e n need the p l a y experience because i t provided an o p p o r t u n i t y to be with t h e i r f r i e n d s and friends.  to make  new  C h i l d r e n p r e f e r r e d to be i n groups and most o f t e n  groups of c h i l d r e n t h e i r own  age.  The  socialization  aspect  showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s with r e s p e c t to sex, s c h o o l and 3. The  grade,  sex w i t h i n each grade.  Degree of Energy Used C h i l d r e n r e q u i r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s to perform  which i n c l u d e expenditure  behaviors  of a l l degrees of energy  although  they p r e f e r r e d high energy a c t i v i t i e s . In c o n s i d e r i n g sex d i f f e r e n c e s , the males e x h i b i t e d a moderate p r e f e r e n c e  f o r high energy a c t i v i t i e s w h i l e  the  females e x h i b i t e d a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r medium and  low  energy a c t i v i t i e s .  In a d d i t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g grade  d i f f e r e n c e s occurred. became more popular  High and medium energy a c t i v i t i e s  as grades i n c r e a s e d w h i l e the  o c c u r r e d f o r low energy a c t i v i t i e s . d i f f e r e n c e s occurred.  reverse  No  significant  There were a few  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s preference used when sex w i t h i n grades two  and  school  f o r degree of energy three was  considered.  The type of equipment c h i l d r e n use on t h e i r s c h o o l p l a y ground.  The  types of equipment used most o f t e n on  s c h o o l playground  2. t h i n g s to s l i d e on,  3. t h i n g s to s p i n  around on, 4. t h i n g s to climb and t h i n g s to swing sex d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d .  d i f f e r e n c e s , the grades had type of  In c o n s i d e r i n g grade  equipment they used on t h e i r s c h o o l  playground.  c h i l d r e n wanted more t h i n g s  to p l a y on or with i n t h e i r school playground the grade three c h i l d r e n .  females w i t h i n each grade had  The males and  s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e s toward the  type of equipment they use on t h e i r school  playground.  a d i f f e r e n c e between sexes f o r the q u e s t i o n asking  the c h i l d r e n wanted more t h i n g s to p l a y on or with i n  t h e i r s c h o o l playground had  more so than  School d i f f e r e n c e s occurred a l -  though there were no major d i s c r e p a n c i e s .  if  on.  s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e s toward the  However, the grade one and two  However,  the  i n order of p r i o r i t y were; 1. t h i n g s to  go up and down on,  No  137  occurred f o r grade two.  a high p r e f e r e n c e f o r the negative  Behavior  The  females  response.  Categories  C h i l d r e n ' s f a v o r i t e spot to p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l C h i l d r e n were observed  playground.  most o f t e n on the equipment area  f o l l o w e d by the p l a y i n g f i e l d . Males and females  had d e f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r  p r e f e r e n c e s f o r p l a y areas. for  The males had a h i g h  the p l a y i n g f i e l d w h i l e the females  ference f o r the b l a c k t o p area. also occurred.  There was  had  preference  a moderate pre-  In a d d i t i o n grade d i f f e r e n c e s  i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n the b l a c k t o p  and p l a y i n g f i e l d w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n grade.  138 differ-  School  ences o c c u r r e d f o r f a v o r i t e spot although no major d i s c r e p a n c i e s were e v i d e n t .  The males and females w i t h i n each of  the three grades had d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r c h o i c e s of f a v o r ite  spot.  For the grade one comparison,  the males showed  a moderate p r e f e r e n c e f o r the p l a y i n g f i e l d w h i l e the f e males showed an o u t s t a n d i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r the b l a c k t o p a r e a . The grade two males and for  the p l a y i n g f i e l d  females  showed moderate p r e f e r e n c e s  and b l a c k t o p area r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The  grade t h r e e males showed an o u t s t a n d i n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r the p l a y i n g f i e l d while the females  showed a moderate p r e f e r -  ence f o r the equipment area. Children's play behaviors. ified  The behavior category  as c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y behaviors was  class-  subdivided into;  f a v o r i t e t h i n g s c h i l d r e n do, the s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect the degree of energy 1.  the  and  used.  The F a v o r i t e Things C h i l d r e n Do The a c t i v i t i e s c h i l d r e n were observed doing most  o f t e n were, a. ing  and e.  running, b.  making t h i n g s .  swinging, c.  The kinds of games c h i l d r e n were  observed doing most o f t e n were; a. ground equipment, b.  s l i d i n g , d. climb-  games on the s c h o o l p l a y -  tag and chasing games and c.  sports.  Both sexes showed d e f i n i t e p r e f e r e n c e s f o r p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and kinds of games.  In a d d i t i o n , grades were  observed doing d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s and games.  The  differences  e i t h e r i n c r e a s e d or decreased w i t h grade i n c r e a s e s . School  d i f f e r e n c e s occurred evident.  The males and females w i t h i n each of the three  grades were observed doing d i f f e r e n t 2.  139 were  although no major d i s c r e p a n c i e s  The S o c i a l i z a t i o n  a c t i v i t i e s and games.  Aspect  C h i l d r e n were most o f t e n observed p l a y i n g i n groups. The  s o c i a l i z a t i o n aspect  showed no s i g n i f i c a n t  differences  with r e s p e c t t o sex, grade, school and sex w i t h i n each grade. 3.  The Degree of Energy Used C h i l d r e n were most o f t e n observed expending a l o t  of energy. category.  Sex d i f f e r e n c e s occurred  f o r t h i s behavior  The males e x h i b i t e d a moderate preference f o r  t h i n g s t h a t take a l o t of energy while the females e x h i b i t e d a moderate preference d i f f e r e n c e s occurred.  for quiet things.  In a d d i t i o n , grade  As grades i n c r e a s e d ,  the c h i l d r e n  were observed doing a l o t of energy and some energy  acti-  v i t i e s more o f t e n .  things.  No s i g n i f i c a n t  The opposite  occurred  f o r quiet  school d i f f e r e n c e s occurred.  d i f f e r e n c e s were evident a moderate preference  i n grade two.  f o r quiet s i t t i n g  Significant  sex  The females showed things.  CONCLUSIONS Conclusions  r e l a t e d t o the methodology u t i l i z e d i n  t h i s study are as f o l l o w s : 1.  C h i l d r e n i n grades one, two and three can express  a t t i t u d e s on a q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w  their  i f the questions are  s t a t e d i n a simple and e a s i l y comprehensive manner,  (p.47)  2.  The o b s e r v a t i o n technique can be s u c c e s s f u l l y  to determine 3.  140 utilized  s e l e c t e d p l a y behaviors of c h i l d r e n . ( p . 7 4 )  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w and o b s e r v a t i o n technique  can be s u c c e s s f u l l y u t i l i z e d t o compliment one another i n determining c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y behaviors.(p.82) In a d d i t i o n the c o n c l u s i o n s r e s u l t i n g from the a t t i t u d e data and behavior data are as f o l l o w s : 1.  C h i l d r e n p l a y on t h e i r s c h o o l playground because  are fun t h i n g s , they can s o c i a l i z e and because feelings, 2.  of pleasant  (p.54)  The s c h o o l playground i s mainly used d u r i n g s c h o o l  hours, 3.  there  (p.57)  P l a y on the s c h o o l playground i s a time f o r s o c i a l i z i n g  C h i l d r e n p l a y with f r i e n d s who a r e g e n e r a l l y t h e i r own age. (p.67 and 81) 4.  C h i l d r e n s t a t e d they p r e f e r r e d h i g h energy  activities  and were observed doing high energy a c t i v i t i e s most o f t e n . (p.85) 5.  The a c t i v i t i e s c h i l d r e n s a i d they p r e f e r r e d were a c t u a l l y  what they were seen doing, (p.86) 6.  Females were more l i k e l y t o choose an a c t i v i t y  because  i t was fun w h i l e the males were more l i k e l y t o choose an a c t i v i t y because 7.  they c o u l d use i t i n a game. (p.94)  The equipment c h i l d r e n s t a t e d they used most o f t e n were  comparable w i t h the a c t i v i t i e s they s a i d they d i d most often, (p.72) 8.  Males use the p l a y i n g f i e l d more than females w h i l e  141 females use the b l a c k t o p area more than males, 9.  (p.92)  The equipment area i s used most o f t e n with both  sexes  and each o f the three grades making equal use of i t . (p.59, 76, 10.  91, 102) The males and females  from grades one through t o t h r e e  a l r e a d y begin t o show p r e f e r e n c e s f o r d i f f e r e n t p l a y beh a v i o r s . (p.90) 11.  Grades one, two and three c h i l d r e n have d i f f e r e n t p l a y  behaviors with the d i f f e r e n c e s i n c r e a s i n g w i t h grade i n creases, 12.  (p.101)  Males perform high energy  a c t i v i t i e s more than  while females perform medium and low energy than males, 13.  females  a c t i v i t i e s more  (p.96)  Medium and h i g h energy  a c t i v i t i e s increased i n pre-  ference w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n grade,  (p.106)  RECOMMENDATIONS 1.  The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f equipment and f a c i l i t i e s on the  s c h o o l playground  should take c h i l d r e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e s i n t o  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n c e t h i s may r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and enjoyment o f the playground by the c h i l d r e n . 2.  Increased e f f o r t should be made t o l i s t e n i n g t o c h i l d r e n  and observe  them i n a f r e e p l a y environment s i n c e a g r e a t e r  understanding o f c h i l d r e n and p l a y i s l i k e l y t o r e s u l t . 3.  More awareness o f the p o t e n t i a l use o f the s c h o o l p l a y -  ground as a v a l u a b l e environment f o r c h i l d r e n t o s o c i a l i z e and l e a r n about s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s needed.  4.  play preferences  as r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r f a v o r i t e time t o  p l a y , f a v o r i t e spot t o p l a y , p l a y behaviors ment c h i l d r e n use most o f t e n may were p r e f e r r e d over 5.  142  Determining c h i l d r e n ' s reasons f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e i r  and  c l a r i f y why  the  equip-  c e r t a i n choices  others.  I t would seem from the r e s e a r c h t h a t there i s a need  f o r f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n to the d i f f e r e n c e s between males females i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward p l a y and haviors.  their play  However, along with the r e c o g n i t i o n of  d i f f e r e n c e s and  and be-  sex  p r o v i s i o n f o r them, i t i s a l s o important  t h a t c h i l d r e n of both sexes be encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s and not l i m i t t h e i r p l a y  experiences  due  to sex  stereotyping.  6.  I t would seem from t h i s r e s e a r c h t h a t grade has an i n -  f l u e n c e on c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s toward p l a y and h a v i o r s and  p r o v i s i o n should  play  be made f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s .  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American J o u r n a l of O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , 21:667-692, 1951.  146 Evans, Mary, "Play i s L i f e I t s e l f . " Theory Into P r a c t i c e , 13:4:267-272, 1974. F e i t e l s o n , Dina and G a i l Ross, "The Neglected F a c t o r - P l a y . " Human Development, 16:3:202-223, 1973. Flinchum, B. and M. Hanson, "Who JOHPER, June, 1972.  Says the Young C h i l d  Can't?"  F u r s t , Norma and R. H i l l , "Classroom O b s e r v a t i o n , Systematic. The E n c y c l o p e d i a of Education, 2:168-183, 1971. G i l l a n d e r , John,"Play - Pre School Prelude to P h y s i c a l Education." CAPHER J o u r n a l , 38:2:19-22, Nov.-Dec.1971. G o t t f r i e d , Nathan, and B. Seay, " E a r l y S o c i a l Behavior: Age and Sex B a s e l i n e Data From A Hidden P o p u l a t i o n . " J o u r n a l o f G e n e t i c Psychology, 125:1:61-70, Sept.1974. Halverson, C.F., "The R e l a t i o n s of M e c h a n i c a l l y Recorded A c t i v i t y L e v e l t o V a r i e t i e s of Pre School P l a y Behavior." C h i l d Development, 44:3:678-81, Sept. 1973. H a l v e r s o n , L o l a s , "A Real Look a t the Young C h i l d . " JOHPER, 31-33, May 1971. Hansen, Harlan and Ruth, "The C h i l d and the C u r r i c u l u m ECE: C h i l d r e n Need Playtime." I n s t r u c t o r , 82:4:45-46, Dec. 1972. Harper, L.V. and K.M. Sanders, "Preschool C h i l d r e n ' s Use of Space: Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n Outdoor P l a y . " Developmental Psychology, 11:1:119, Jan. 1975. H a r t l e y , Ruth, " C h i l d r e n ' s Concepts of Male and Female Roles." M e r r i l l - P a l m e r Q u a r t e r l y , 6:83-91, 1960. and F.P. Hardesty, " C h i l d r e n ' s P e r c e p t i o n s of Sex Roles i n Childhood." J o u r n a l of Genetic Psychology 105:43-51, 1964. H u i z i n g a , Johan. HomoLudens, A Study of the Play-Element In C u l t u r e . London: Routledge and K. P a u l , 19 49. Jackson, D.W. and H.R. A n g e l i n o , "Play as Learning" Theory Into P r a c t i c e , 13:4:317-322, Oct. 1974. King, F r a n c i n e and Gary Thompson, " A p p l i c a t i o n of a 'Research A t t i t u d e ' to Classroom Teaching." V o l t a Review, 71:426-431, 1969.  147 King, S t a n l e y , "Young People Design T h e i r Future." A u s t r a l i a n P l a n n i n g J o u r n a l , 8:2, A p r i l 1970. Kunze, Luvern, "Program f o r T r a i n i n g In B e h a v i o r a l Observation." Asha, 9"12:474, Dec. 1967. Lewis, M i c h a e l , "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n Play Behavior o f The Very Young." JOHPER, June 1972. M a r t i n e l l o , Marian, "Play-ground For Learning." Elementary School J o u r n a l , 74:2:106-114, Nov. 1973. M o f f i t t , Mary, "Play As A Medium For L e a r n i n g - Does P l a y Make A D i f f e r e n c e . " JOHPER, 45-47, June 1972. P r e i s e r , Wolfgang, "Work In P r o g r e s s : Behavior of Nursery School C h i l d r e n Under D i f f e r e n t S p a t i a l D e n s i t i e s . " Man-Environment Systems, 2:4:247-250, J u l y 1972. Reece, L.H., "The Play Needs o f C h i l d r e n Aged S i x t o Twelve." Marriage and Family L i v i n g , 16:131-134, 1954. R i l e y , Sue, "Some R e f l e c t i o n s On The Value o f C h i l d r e n ' s P l a y . " Young C h i l d r e n , 28:3:146-153, Feb. 1973, Rosenberg, B.G. and B. Sutton-Smith, "A Revised Conception of Masculine-Feminine D i f f e r e n c e s In Play A c t i v i t i e s . " J o u r n a l o f Genetic Psychology, 96:165-170, 1960. __, "The Measurement of M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y In C h i l d r e n . " C h i l d Development, 30:373-380, 1959. Stone, J.P., "Play Of L i t t l e C h i l d r e n " Quest, 4:23-31, A p r i l , 1965. Sutton-Smith, B r i a n , " C h i l d ' s Play - Very S e r i o u s Psychology Today, 67-69, Dec. 1971. , "Play As A T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l 43:6:32-33, June 1972.  Business."  Set." JOHPER,  , B. Rosenberg and E. Morgan, "Development o f Sex D i f f e r e n c e s In Play Choices During Preadolescence." C h i l d Development, 34:119-126, 1963. Ward, C o l l e e n , "The C i t y On The W a l l . " J o u r n a l o f Town and Country P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , 40:6:327-330, June 1972.  148 Whitehurst, Katurah, "What Movement Means To Young C h i l d r e n . " JOHPER, 34-35, May 1971. Wolfgang, C.H. "From Play To Work" Theory Into P r a c t i c e , 13:4:275-286, Oct. 1974. Other: Bishop, Robert and Others, Measurement Of C h i l d r e n ' s P r e f e r e n c e s For The P l a y Environment. Paper Presented At Environmental Design Research A s s o c i a t i o n Annual Conference, C a l i f o r n i a : January 1972. Kretschmer, R i c h a r d . A Study To Assess The P l a y A c t i v i t i e s And Gesture Output Of Hearing Handicapped Pre-School C h i l d r e n . F i n a l Report, A p r i l 1972. Neumann, Eva. Observing and P l a n n i n g For P l a y And Competence. A p r i l 1974. Phinney, Jean. The I n f l u e n c e o f A b i l i t y L e v e l and M a t e r i a l s on C l a s s i f l e a f o r y and Imaginative Behavior In Free P l a y . Los Angeles: 1972. Roderick, J e s s i e , and Others. Nonverbal Behavior Of Young C h i l d r e n As I t R e l a t e s To T h e i r D e c i s i o n Making: A Report o f Research F i n d i n g s . Sept. 1971. Salvay, B. Toward Parent and Teacher Understanding o f The Importance o f P l a y . Master's T h e s i s , C a l i f o r n i a State U n i v e r s i t y , J a n . 197 4. Sutton-Smith, B r i a n . A D e s c r i p t i v e Account Of Four Modes of C h i l d r e n ' s P l a y Between One And F i v e Years. Dec.1970. -. P l a y As V a r i a b i l i t y T r a i n i n g And, As The U s e l e s s Made U s e f u l . New York: N.Y.S.A.E.Y.C. P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 7 2 . . The P l a y f u l Modes o f Knowing. 1970. Van Anne, Nancy. L i f e ! Through P l a y . Paper Presented t o The Wyoming A s s o c i a t i o n For H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , Wyoming: Nov. 1974. Wade, G.R. A Study Of F r e e - P l a y P a t t e r n s Of Elementary School Age C h i l d r e n In Playground Equipment Areas. Master's T h e s i s , P e n n s y l v a n i a : 1968.  149 Walston, Herman. M a t e r i a l s , Equipment, And Primary L e a r n i n g F a c t o r s Which Can Be U t i l i z e d By E a r l y Childhood Education Planners In D e v i s i n g C r e a t i v e Playgrounds F o r Young C h i l d r e n . March 1974.  150 APPENDIX A THE TYPE OF PLAYGROUND EQUIPMENT LOCATED ON THE SCHOOLS USED IN THIS STUDY  151 APPENDIX B QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW 1.  Do you l i k e t o p l a y ?  Yes No  Don't know  (Desire To Play) 2.  A) Do you get any kinds o f f e e l i n g s when p l a y i n g on your s c h o o l playground?  Yes No  Don't know  (Reasons F o r P l a y i n g ) B) How does i t make you f e e l ? ( L I S T THREE FEELINGS) 3.  A) Do you l i k e t o p l a y on your s c h o o l playground? Yes No  Don't know  (Reasons For Playing) i.  I f y e s , why? 1) because i t ' s fun 2) I can meet new k i d s and be w i t h my f r i e n d s  (ALLOW SEVERAL CHOICES - FROM  3) I l i k e scary f e e l i n g s when moving f a s t , swinging  or climbing  high CHOICES RANK 4) I l i k e t o p l a y  hard  ORDER TOP 3) 5) there are f u n t h i n g s  (Equipment)  6) I can do my s c h o o l work b e t t e r after playing 7) I f e e l b e t t e r a f t e r p l a y i n g 8) Other  152 ii)  I f no, why? 1) i t ' s not fun 2) o t h e r c h i l d r e n bother or bug  me  3) I get scary f e e l i n g s when moving f a s t , swinging and  or c l i m b i n g h i g h  I don't l i k e these  feelings  4) p l a y i s hard work 5) there are no fun t h i n g s  (Equipment)  6) I f i n d i t hard to do my  school  work a f t e r p l a y i n g 7) I don't f e e l good a f t e r p l a y i n g 8) other 4)  When do you p l a y most o f t e n on your s c h o o l  playground?  (Most Popular Time) 1. d u r i n g r e c e s s e s  4. a f t e r s c h o o l  2. d u r i n g lunch hours 5. weekends 3. b e f o r e s c h o o l (RANK TOP 5)  6. evenings  (after  dinner)  2 CHOICES)  A) Do you have a f a v o r i t e spot to p l a y on your s c h o o l playground?  Yes No  Don't know ( F a v o r i t e Spot)  B) I f yes, what i s i t ? 1) equipment area 2) b l a c k t o p area 3) p l a y i n g f i e l d 4) o t h e r (RANK ORDER TOP  2 CHOICES)  6.  Which of the f o l l o w i n g c h o i c e s do you do most (Play A)  often?  153  Behaviors)  1) p l a y  alone  2) p l a y with c h i l d r e n your own age 3) p l a y with c h i l d r e n younger than y o u r s e l f 4) p l a y with c h i l d r e n o l d e r than y o u r s e l f (.1 CHOICE). B)  1) t h i n g s t h a t take a l o t o f energy and I f e e l t i r e d after  (High Energy A c t i v i t i e s )  2) t h i n g s t h a t take some energy but not a l o t (Medium Energy A c t i v i t i e s ) 3) q u i e t s i t t i n g t h i n g s  (Low Energy A c t i v i t i e s )  (.1 CHOICE) 7.  What t h i n g s do you do most o f t e n on your s c h o o l p l a y ground?  (Play  Behaviors)  1) running  7) s k i p p i n g  2) jumping  8) making t h i n g s  3) throwing and c a t c h i n g  9) s l i d i n g  4) k i c k i n g  10)  5) c l i m b i n g  11) other  swinging  6) hopping (RANK ORDER TOP 3 CHOICES - WHY FOR FIRST CHOICE)  What f a v o r i t e kinds o f games do you do most o f t e n on your s c h o o l playground?  (Play  Behaviors)  1) s p o r t s i . e . b a s e b a l l , f o o t b a l l ,  soccer  2) t a g and chasing games 3) games you or your f r i e n d s make up 4) games you need s p e c i a l equipment f o r i . e . tether b a l l 5) a c t i v i t i e s you do on your s c h o o l playground equipment i . e . the wooden s t r u c t u r e 6) a c t i v i t i e s where you can b u i l d o r make d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s from sand, paper and other m a t e r i a l s 7) other What t h i n g s do you use most o f t e n on your s c h o o l playground?  (Equipment)  1) t h i n g s t o climb 2) t h i n g s t o swing on 3) t h i n g s t o b u i l d  with  4) t h i n g s t o s l i d e on 5) t h i n g s t o r o l l on o r over 6) t h i n g s to balance on 7) t h i n g s t o crawl on or over 8) t h i n g s t o s p i n around on 9) t h i n g s t o go up and down on 10)  other  (RANK ORDER TOP 3 CHOICES - WHY FOR FIRST CHOICE)  A) Do you want more t h i n g s t o p l a y on or with i n your s c h o o l playground?  Yes No  (Equipment) B) I f y e s , what kinds o f t h i n g s ? (RANK ORDER TOP 2)  Don't  156 APPENDIX C TABLE 2 8 QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW AND OBSERVATION SCHEDULE  SCHOOLS  QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW  OBSERVATIONS  Grauer  November 17th, 18th and 19 t h (.19.75) *Reinterview; January 14th and 15th (1976)  February 9th and March 11th (1976)  Errington  November 21st, 2 4th and 25th (1975) *Reinterview; January 21st and 22nd (1976)  November 2 0th and 27th (1975)  Bridge  November 26th and 2 8th, and December 1 s t (1975)  March 15th and 17th (1976)  Woodward  December 3rd, 9th and 10th (1975)  March 15th and 17th (1976)  Lee  December 2nd, 4th and 8th (1975)  March 12th and 17th (1976)  APPENDIX D BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUE Weather School Day and Date Grade  Play Area  Socialization Alone (A) or Group (G)  Degree o f Energy A c t i v i t i e s High (H), Medium (M) or Low (L)  Kinds o f Games  Males Females  Males  Males  Females  Males Females  Females  Ul  APPENDIX E PILOT STUDY The p i l o t study used a s i m i l a r methodology as i n t h i s study.  200 c h i l d r e n from three playgrounds were i n -  terviewed i n d i v i d u a l l y on the t o p i c o f p l a y on playgrounds. The i n v e s t i g a t o r r e c o r d e d a l l responses which were then p l a c e d on computer cards f o r a n a l y s i s by; 1. responses to i n d i v i d u a l q u e s t i o n s 2. responses i n r e l a t i o n t o sex 3. responses i n r e l a t i o n t o age 4. responses i n r e l a t i o n t o the playgrounds 5. responses i n r e l a t i o n t o sex w i t h i n each age Observations were c o l l e c t e d on the hour throughout the day (3 days/playground) vestigator.  and recorded on a c h a r t by the i n -  The o b s e r v a t i o n s were d i r e c t e d a t ;  1. the t o t a l number o f c h i l d r e n i n the playground at a g i v e n time 2. the f a v o r i t e p l a y p a t t e r n s - r a n k i n g the top three a c t i v i t i e s  and g i v i n g the t o t a l  number  of c h i l d r e n per a c t i v i t y 3. the top three p l a y areas and the number o f c h i l d r e n a t each. When the p i l o t study was t a k i n g p l a c e , the i n v e s t i g a t o r o f t e n asked c h i l d r e n f o r t h e i r o p i n i o n s o f the p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n s and whether o r not they understood  what was b e i n g asked.  Since the i n t e r v i e w i n g was done  i n d i v i d u a l l y , i t was e a s i e r f o r the i n v e s t i g a t o r t o ask f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s as a method of checking i f i n f a c t the c h i l d was comprehending. The p i l o t study was o f b e n e f i t t o t h i s study due to the f o l l o w i n g reasons; 1. c h i l d r e n aged f i v e through t o twelve were used and the c h i l d r e n f o r t h i s study ranged  i n ages  from approximately s i x through t o e i g h t . 2. the i n v e s t i g a t o r became accustomed t o t h e methodology. 3. the c h i l d r e n i n the p i l o t study were a b l e t o express t h e i r views thus the i n v e s t i g a t o r developed c o n f i d e n c e i n her approach. 4. m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l approach and the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were made t o make t h e present study more meaningful. 5. the c h i l d r e n i n t e r v i e w e d helped the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n wording  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  6. the i n v e s t i g a t o r e s t a b l i s h e d a good i n t e r v i e w approach - speak s l o w l y , repeat each q u e s t i o n , emphasize the key words of each q u e s t i o n , and observe a c h i l d ' s f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s as a method of determinging the c h i l d ' s l e v e l o f comprehension. 7. the one t o one approach found t o be extremely  f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g was  successful.  160 APPENDIX F TABLE 29 RELIABILITY OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW Key: % no change f o r the q u e s t i o n - the percentage gave the same responses  of c h i l d r e n who  f o r the q u e s t i o n on both i n t e r v i e w s  d i v i d e d by the t o t a l # of c h i l d r e n  responding.  Most popular c h o i c e s - those c h o i c e s per q u e s t i o n which were chosen most o f t e n by the c h i l d r e n . % no change f o r responses gave the same responses  - the percentage  of c h i l d r e n  who  f o r the c h o i c e s on both i n t e r v i e w s  d i v i d e d by the t o t a l # of c h i l d r e n who i n i t i a l l y  selected  the c h o i c e **** Outstanding Percentage ** High Percentage * Low Percentage  #  % No Change f o r The Question  Most Popular Responses  % No Change For Responses  1  **** 100%  yes  ****100%  2A  **  yes  ***  76.46%  2B  25.84% c o r r e c t happy on a l l three fun choices* 61.39% c o r r e c t on a t l e a s t two of t h r e e c h o i c e s ** 77.44% c o r r e c t on a t l e a s t one of three c h o i c e s * * *  * **  55.28% 66.78%  Question  71.95%  3A  ****  95.64<i  yes  ****  3i.  ****  91.21^  fun meet new k i d s scary f e e l i n g s p l a y hard fun t h i n g s do school work b e t t e r f e e l better  **** 98.96% **** 96.48% *** 76.28% *** 83.78% **** 100% **** *** *  91 95% 91 05%  12.62% c o r r e c t on a l l three c h o i c e s* 59.44% c o r r e c t on a t l e a s t two of t h r e e c h o i c e s* 91.31% c o r r e c t on a t l e a s t one of t h r e e choice Q * * * *  fun t h i n g s friends  * **  54.48% 64.49%  49.99% c o r r e c t on both choices* 90.08% c o r r e c t on l e a s t one of two  lunch recess.  *** **  82.81% 68.18%  5A  ***  yes  ***  86.63%  5B  45.98% c o r r e c t on both choices* 80.71% c o r r e c t on a t l e a s t one o f two choices***  equipment playing field  ***  77.34%  **  63.73%  **  70.27^  children your own age  ***  88.02%  68.90%  a l o t of energy quiet things  ***  77.36%  **  74.87%  Ranking  6A  6B  81.45%  fun  99.27%  55.28%  161  5.06% c o r r e c t on* five of five choices 46.06% c o r r e c t on a t l e a s t four of f i v e choices* 75.55% c o r r e c t on a t l e a s t three o f f i v e choices*** 7  43.98?  running swinging sliding climbing making things  ** *** *** ** **  fun  162 71.93% 78.34% 77.22% 73.04% 72.25%  56.00?  Why? 8  19.12% c o r r e c t on t o p three of three* choices 76.61% c o r r e c t on a t l e a s t two o f three choice 98.38% c o r r e c t on a t l e a s t one o f three choice c * * *  tag made up games  *** **  87.65% 72.62%  10.34% c o r r e c t on three o f three* choices 50.13% c o r r e c t on a t l e a s t two of three c h o i c e s * 88.07% c o r r e c t on a t l e a s t one o f three c h o i c e s * * *  things to go up and down on things to s l i d e on  ***  76.89%  **  63.83 =  *  48.61%  fun  ***  80.19%  yes  9 Why? 10A 10B  i  27.78% c o r r e c t on both c h o i c e s * 69.82% c o r r e c t on a t l e a s t one of two c h o i c e s * *  things to swing on  54.17% ***  83.69% 49.17%  163  APPENDIX G DETAILED ANALYSIS FOR THE RELIABILITY OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW The separately.  reliability  of each q u e s t i o n was  Those questions with y e s , no or do not know  c h o i c e s , t h a t i s : questions analysed  considered  1, 2A, 3A, 5A and 10A were  on a percentage b a s i s .  A t o t a l percentage o f  those responses t h a t were the same both times was  cal-  c u l a t e d along with the percentage "no change" f o r each of the c h o i c e s : 1. yes, 2. no and 3. do not know. to  T h i s was  show the i n v e s t i g a t o r where there were d i s c r e p a n c i e s . For questions  2B, 3B, 4, 5B, 7 and 10B, a s i m i l a r  method of t e s t i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y questions  was used.  r e q u i r e d more than one response,  centages were t a b u l a t e d f o r c o n s i s t e n c y  Since  these  'no change' per-  i n a l l of the  responses i . e . three out of t h r e e , two out of two or f i v e out of f i v e depending on the number of responses r e q u i r e d . 'No change' percentages were a l s o t a b u l a t e d f o r c o n s i s t e n c y i n some o f the responses i . e . two out o f t h r e e , one out o f t h r e e , one out of two, four  out o f f i v e , three out o f f i v e ,  two out of f i v e and one out o f f i v e depending on the number of responses r e q u i r e d .  T h i s was to give the i n v e s t i g a t o r  f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o the number  of c h i l d r e n who were con-  s i s t e n t i n a l l of t h e i r c h o i c e s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r and  i n some of t h e i r c h o i c e s .  question  F o r example, i n q u e s t i o n  t h r e e , i f a c h i l d gave i d e n t i c a l c h o i c e s f o r h i s three f a v o r i t e reasons why he l i k e s t o p l a y on h i s s c h o o l  playground,  he would be  l i s t e d as one  of those  i n the  percentage g i v i n g t h r e e of three c o r r e c t answers. Once t h i s was  done, a f u r t h e r method of t e s t i n g  the r e l i a b i l i t y by c o n s i d e r i n g each c h o i c e f o r each q u e s t i o n i n d i v i d u a l l y was c h o i c e s had and  h e l p f u l i n determining  the g r e a t e s t d i s c r e p a n c i e s .  which  Question  6A  6B were analysed on a percentage 'no change' f o r  the q u e s t i o n s as a whole and then each c h o i c e was  looked  at s e p a r a t e l y .  to  Since q u e s t i o n 8 asked each c h i l d  rank order t h e i r f i r s t  f i v e c h o i c e s , and t h e r e were only  s i x c h o i c e s g i v e n , a percentage of c o n s i s t e n c y or  'no  change' i n the f i r s t t h r e e responses f o r three of t h r e e , two  of three and one of three c h o i c e s were t a b u l a t e d . The method of a n a l y s i s f o r t e s t i n g  the  r e l i a b i l i t y of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w , was c u l a t e d on a percentage b a s i s . was  I t was  cal-  f e l t that t h i s  most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r such a q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w  because i t was  designed  c h i l d r e n responding  to determine the number of  to each of the c h o i c e s and  c u l a t i n g those a t t i t u d e s most popular  cal-  to t h i s age  group.  APPENDIX H TABLE 30 GENERAL RESPONSES FOR QUE STIONNAlREINTERVIEW TECHNIQUE (ATTITUDE DATA) Key: Absolute  frequency  - the number of c h i l d r e n  responding  to the c h o i c e . Adjusted frequency  - the percentage  o f c h i l d r e n who  selected a p a r t i c u l a r choice d i v i d e d by the t o t a l number o f c h i l d r e n who responded t o the question. Significance  l e v e l - the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l was obtained u s i n g c h i square.  Question  #1 Do you like to play? #2A Do you get any kinds of feelings when playing on your school playground?  Choice i n Order o f Preference  Absolute Frequency  yes  339 N=339  yes no do not know  186 146 7 N=339  Adjusted Frequency (Percent)  100%  54.9% 43.1% 2.1%  Significance Level  .01  No S i g n i f i cant Difference  166 #2B How does i t make you f e e l ? (List three choices)  3A Do you like to p l a y on your school playground? Yes, because i t i s fun?  happy pleasant feelings fun other unpleasant feelings good sad dizzy  yes no  yes no do not know  Yes, because I can meet new k i d s and be with my friends?  yes no do not know  Yes, because I l i k e scary feelings?  yes no do not know  96 44  31. 2% 14. 3%  42 41 29  13. 6% 13. 3% 9.4%  26 19 11 N=308  8.4% 6.2% 3. 6%  329 10 N=339  97.1% 2.9%  01  329 9 1  97.1% 2.7% 0.3%  01  95.6% 3• 5% 0.9%  . 01  52*2% 46.6% 1.2%  No S i g n i f i cant Difference  60.5% 36.6% 2.9%  .01  01  N=339 324 12 3 N=339  177 158 4 N=339  Yes, because I like to p l a y hard?  yes no do not know  205 124 10 N=339  #3A continued Yes, be- yes cause no there a r e fun t h i n g s Y'es, because I can do my s c h o o l work better after playing?  yes no do not know  Yes, because I feel better after playing?  yes no do not know  330 9 N=339 280 53 6 N=339  293 42 4 N=339  Yes, beno cause i t yes provides an opportunity to do t h i n g s ?  288 51 N=339  Yes, because play i s good f o r your health?  no yes  330 9 N=339  Yes, because o f other reasons?  no yes  309 30 N=339  #3A continued Reasons why? (first rank)  fun t h i n g s meet new kids fun I feel better provides opportunities do school work b e t t e r after other I like to p l a y hard I like scary feelings: play i s good f o r your health  88  26.1%  68 67  20. 2% 19.9%  46  13.6%  21  6.2%  18  5.3%  11  3• 3%  8  2.4%  7  2.1%  3 N=337  .9%  .01  Do not p l a y because i t i s not fun?  yes no  6 4 N=10  60.0% 40.0%  no s i g n i f i cant difference  Do not p l a y because other children bug me  yes no  7 3 N=10  70.0% 30.0%  .01  Do not p l a y because I get scary feelings?  no yes  7 3 N=10  70.0% 30.0%  .01 •  Do not no p l a y because p l a y i s hard work  10 N=10  100%  .01  #3A continued Do not play no fun things  yes no  6 4 N==10  60.0% 40.0%  no s i g n i f i cant difference  Do not play hard doing school work after?  yes no  5 5 N== 10  50.0% 50.0%  no s i g n i f i cant difference  I do not f e e l good after playing?  no yes  6 4  60.0% 40.0%  no s i g n i f i cant difference  Other  yes no  5 5 N= 10  50.0% 50.0%  no s i g n i f i cant difference  Reasons why?  other kids bug me no fun things it is not fun other I do n o t f e e l good after hard to do s c h o o l work a f t e r get scaryfeelings  6  2 3.1%  6  23.1%  no s i g n i f i cant difference  4 4  15.4% 15 .4%  3  11.5%  2  7.7%  1 N= 26  3. 8%  N=ao  #4 When do you p l a y most often on your school playground? ( F i rs t rank) #5A Do you have a favorite spot t o p l a y on your school playground? #5B I f yes, what i s it? (First rank)  #6A Which do you do most often?  #6B Which do you do most often?  lunch recess after school weekends evenings before school  yes no  equipment playing field sand other blacktop  play with children your own age children older children younger p l a y alone  a l o t of energy quiet things some energy  154 86  45.6% 25.4%  48 36 11  14.2% 10.7% 3.3%  3 N=338  .9%  278 61 N=339  82.0% 18.0%  .01  171  61.5%  .01  63 15 15 14 N=278  185  22.7% 5.4% 5.4% 5.0%  54.6%  75  22.1%  47 32 N=339  13.9% 9.4%  159  46.9%  125  36.9%  55 N=339  16.2%  .01  .01  #7 What things do you do most o f t e n on your school playground? (First rank)  #7 Whyfor first choice?  #8 What favorite kinds o f games do you most often play on your school playground? (First rank)  running swinging sliding climbing making things kicking skipping j umping throwing other hopping  fun other can p l a y games it is healthy I like i t I can be w i t h my friends there are good facilities  130 51 39 27  38. 3% 15. 0% 11. 5% 8.0%  25 19 12 11 10 8 7  7.4% 5 .6% 3. 5% 3. 2% 2. 9% 2. 4% 2. 1%  73 61  23. 7% 19. 8%  55  17. 9%  53 25  17. 2% 8.1%  24  7. 8%  17 N= 30 8  5. 5%  N=•339  t a g and chasing 114 games you make up 75 sports 61 b u i l d or make t h i n g s 51 games on equipment 24 special equipment games 14 N= 339  33. 6% 22 .1% 18. 0% 15. 0% 7.1% 4.1%  #9 What t h i n g s do you use most o f t e n on your school playground? (First rank)  #9 Whyfor first choice?"  go up and down on 59 s l i d e on 56 s p i n around on 47 climb 43 swing on 41 other 29 balance on 28 b u i l d with 23 r o l l on o r over 6 crawl on 3 N=:335 fun 89 other 68 like i t 36 I get d i z z y 22 i t i s versatile 22 I can go high 18 can p l a y games 15 it is healthy 14 allows f o r creativity 14 N= 298  #10A Do you want yes more t h i n g s no to p l a y on do n o t o r with i n know your s c h o o l playground? ( F i r s t rank)  17. 6% 16 .7% 14. 0% 12. 8% 12. 2% 8. 7% 8.4% 6. 9% 1. 8% 0.9%  29. 9% 22 .8% 12. 1% 7.4% 7.4% 6. 0% 5. 0% 4. 7% 4. 7%  209 125  61. 7% 36 .9%  5 N= 339  1.5%  173 #10B I f yes, what kinds of things  other t h i n g s to swing on t h i n g s to climb t h i n g s to manipulate slides teetertotters t h i n g s to ride merry-goround forts  69  21.1%  68  20. 8%  38  11.6%  35 33  10.7% 10.1%  25  7.6%  25  7.6%  22 12 N=3 27  6.7% 3.7%  .01  APPENDIX I TABLE 31 GENERAL RESPONSES FOR OBSERVATION TECHNIQUE (BEHAVIOR DATA) Key: Absolute  frequency  the number o f c h i l d r e n performing  Adjusted  frequency  each c h o i c e ,  the percentage performing  observed  of children  observed  each c h o i c e d i v i d e d by  the number o f c h i l d r e n observed f o r the q u e s t i o n . S i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l - the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l was obtained u s i n g c h i square  OBSERVATION  #1 Favorite spot "' '  CHOICE IN ORDER OF PREFERENCE  equipment area playing field blacktop  ABSOLUTE FREQUENCY  ADJUSTED FREQUENCY (PERCENT)  825  60.2%  346 200 N=1371  25.2% 14.6%  SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL  01  OBSERVATION  #2ai Activities  #2aii Kinds of Games  #2b Socialization  #2c Degree of Energy  CHOICE IN ORDER OF PREFERENCE  ABSOLUTE FREQUENCY  running swinging climbing sliding making t h i n g s other kicking skipping throwing and catching hopping jumping  games on equipment tag and chasing sports games you make up b u i l d or make t h i n g s special equipment games  play i n a group p l a y alone  3 40 239 215 183 149 108 39 29 26 24 19  ADJUSTED FREQUENCY (PERCENT)  24.8% 17 .4% 15.7% 13.4% 10.6% 7.9% 2.8% 2.1%  47 .3%  204 161  14.9% 11.7%  156  11.4%  66  1286 85 N=1371  a l o t of energy 691 quiet things 3 47 some energy 333 N=1371  01  1.9% 1.8% 1.4%  648  136  175 SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL  01  9 . 9% 4.8%  93 . 8% 6.2%  50 4% 25, 3% 24 ,3%  01  176  APPENDIX J TABLE 32 COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO SEXUAL DIFFERENCES Key: The percentages  g i v e n are the adjusted f r e q u e n c i e s .  Obs. - the o b s e r v a t i o n a l r e s u l t s  (Behavior Data)  Int. - the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s ( A t t i t u d e Data) D. ED  - t h e d i f f e r e n c e between r e s u l t s 2  - sum of the d i f f e r e n c e s squared  P  - Spearman's c o e f f i c i e n t of rank c o r r e l a t i o n  *  - u n l e s s otherwise  s t a t e d , the v a l u e s of N a r e : females males  663 708  170 169  F a v o r i t e Spot Sex  Blacktop Obs. I n t . D.  Female 18.7% 6.7% Male 10.7% 3.5%  Playing F i e l d Obs. I n t . D.  12.0% 14.0% 12.6% 1.4% 7.2% 35.7% 32.2% 3.5%  Equipment Obs. Int. 67.3% 53.5%  f o r I n t . females, N=135; males, N=143 Socialization Sex Obs.  Alone I n t . D.  Female 7.8% Male 5.4%  11.8% 4.0% 7.1% 1.7%  Group Obs. I n t . D. 92.2% 88.2% 4.0% 94.6% 92.9% 1.7%  D,  68.9% 1.6% 54.5% 1.0%  177  Degree o f Energy Sex  A l o t of Energy D. Obs Int.  Female 38. 2% 31.8% 6.4% .2% Male 61. 9% 62.1%  Some Energy Obs. I n t . D.  Quiet Things Obs. Int. D.  28.8% 20.0% 8.8% 20.1% 12.4% 7.7%  33.0% 18.1%  48.2% 15.2% 25.4% 7.3%  Activities Responses  Running Jumping Throwing Kicking Climbing Hopping Skipping Making Things Sliding Swinging Other  Obs.  Males D. Int.  1st 1st 9th 7 . 5th 8th 7 .5th 7 th 4th 2nd 5 th l l t h l O .5th lOthlO .5th 5 th 3rd 4 th 6 th  0  0 1.5 .5 3 -3 .5 -.5  0 2.25 .25 9 9 .25 .25  -1 0 2 -3  1 0 4 9  6 th 3rd 2nd 9th.  Total  D  Obs.  Females D Int.  3 10 9 11 2 8 7  1 8 9.5 11 6 7 5  4 . 4 5 3 1 2 6 9.5  ED = 35.5 P = .841  D  2 2 -.5 0 -4 1 2  o  4 4 .25 0 16 ' 1 4  0 0 2 4 -1 1 -3.5 12 .25 ED =46 .5 P -.789  2  2  Kinds of Games Responses  Sports Tag Games you make up Special Equipment Games on Equipment Make Things Total  Obs  Males Int. D.  D  2 3  2 1  0 2  5  3  6 1 4  Obs  Females Int. D.  D  0 4  6 3  6 1  0 2  Q 4  2  4  2  2  0  0  6  0  0  5  4  1  1  5 4  -4 0  16 0  1 4  5 3  -4 1  16 1  ED P  2  2  = 24 = .314  2  2 = 22 ED P = == .372  178 APPENDIX K TABLE 3 3 COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO GRADE DIFFERENCES Key: The percentages g i v e n are the adjusted  frequencies  Obs. - the o b s e r v a t i o n a l r e s u l t s  (Behavior Data)  I n t . - the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s  (Attitude  D.  Data)  - the d i f f e r e n c e between r e s u l t s 2  ED  - sum o f the d i f f e r e n c e s squared  P  - Spearman's c o e f f i c i e n t o f rank c o r r e l a t i o n  *  - u n l e s s otherwise s t a t e d , the v a l u e s of N a r e : grade 1 grade 2 grade 3  Obs.Int. 437 108 443 114 491 117  F a v o r i t e Spot Grade 1 2 3  Blacktop Obs. I n t . D.  Playing F i e l d Obs. I n t . D.  Equipment Obs. Int.  14.4% 7.4% 7.0% 7.4% 1.1% 6.3% 21.2% 6.3% 14.9%  22.9% 11.7% 11.2% 62.7% 21.7% 26.1% 4.4% 70.9% 30.6% 30.2% .4% 48.3%  D.  58.5% 4.2% 68.2% 2\7% 58.3% 10.0%  f o r I n t . grade 1, N=94; grade 2, N=8 8; grade 3,N=96  Socialization Grade 1 2 3  Obs.  Alone Int.  8.2% 6.8% 4.9%  8.3% .1% 13.2%6 .4% 6.8%1 .9%  D.  Obs.  Group I n t . D.  91.8% 91.7% .1% 93.2% 86.8%6.4% 95.1% 93.2%1.9%  179 Degree o f Energy Grade  A l o t o f Energy Obs. I n t . D.  1 2 3  43.5% 38 .0% 5. 5% 24. 0% 8.3% 15. 7 % 3 2 • 5 % 53.7% 21. 2% 48.8% 46 • 5 % 2 3% • 24. 4% 16.7% 7. 7% 26.9% 36.8% 9. 9% 58.0% 55 • 6 % 2 4% • 24. 4% 23.1% 1. 3% 17.5% 21.4% 3.9%  Some Energy Obs . I n t . D.  Quiet Things Obs. Int. D.  !  Activities Responses Obs Running Jumping Throwing Kicking Climbing Hopping Skipping Making Things Sliding Swinging Other  1 11 9 10 3 8 7 4 5 2 6  Grade 1 Int. 1 5.5 10.5 7.5 7.5 10.5 9 4 3 2 5.5  Total  Responses Obs • Running Jumping Throwing Kicking Climbing Hopping Skipping Making Things Sliding Swinging Other Total  1 9 10 7 2 11 8 5 4 3 6  Grade 2 Int. 1 8.5 8.5 6.5 4. ' : 10.5 5 6.5 3 2 10.5  D  D. 0 5.5 -1.5 2.5 -4.5 -2.5 -2 0 2 0 .5 2 ED P = =  2  0 30.25 2.25 6.25 20.25 6.25 4 0 4 0 .25 73.5 .666  D.  D.  0  0  .5 1.5 .5 -2 .5 3 -1.5 1 1 -4.5 ED = P = 2  .25 2.25 .25 4 .25 9 2.25 1 1 20.25 40.5 .816  180 Responses  Grade 3 Obs.  Running Jumping Throwing Kicking Climbing Hopping Skipping Making Things Sliding Swinging Other  1 9.5 8 7. 3 9.5 11 6 4 2 5  Int. 1 9.5 6.5 4.5 2 8 9.5 6.5 4.5 3 11  Total  D.  D.  0 0 1.5 2.5 1 1.5 1.5 -.5 -.5 -1 -6  0 0 2.25 6.25 1 2.25 2.25 .25 .25 1 36  ED =  51.5  2  Kinds of Games Responses  Sports Tag Games you make up Special Equipment Games on Equipment Make Things Total  Obs.  Grade 1 Int.  D.  D.  6 2 4  4 1 3  2 1 1  4 1 1  5  6  -1  1  1 3  5 2  -4 1  16 1  ED P  2  = =  24  181 Responses  Sports Tag Games you.imake up S p e c i a l Equipment Games on Equipment Make Things  Obs.  Grade 2 Int.  D.  D.  5 2 4 6  3 1 2 6  2 1 2 0  4 1 4 0  1 3  5 4  -4 -1  16 1  Total  ED P  Responses  Sports Tag Games you make up S p e c i a l Equipment Games on Equipment Make Things Total  2  = =  26  o  .257  Obs.  Grade 3 Int.  D.  D.  2 4 3 6  2 1 3 6  0 3 0 0  0 9 0 0  1 5  5 4  -4 1  16 1  o 2  26 .257  182  APPENDIX L TABLE 3 4 COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO SCHOOL DIFFERENCES Key: The percentages  g i v e n are the adjusted f r e q u e n c i e s  Obs - the o b s e r v a t i o n a l r e s u l t s  (Behavior Data)  Int.-  ( A t t i t u d e Data)  D.  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s  - the d i f f e r e n c e between r e s u l t s 2  ED  - sum of the d i f f e r e n c e s squared  P  - Spearman's c o e f f i c i e n t of rank c o r r e l a t i o n  *  - u n l e s s otherwise  s t a t e d , the v a l u e s of N a r e : Grauer Errington Bridge Lee Woodward  Obs.Int. 290 63 278 79 265 65 272 68 266 64  F a v o r i t e Spot School  Grauer Errington Bridge Lee Woodward  Blacktop %Obs. % I n t . %D. 9.7% 12.0% 18.0% 13.2% 22.4% 9.8%  Playing F i e l d %Obs. % I n t . %D.  %Obs.  Equipment % I n t . S 'sD.  2.3% 26.2% 10.0% 16.2% 64.1% 68.0%  3.9  !  4.7% 13, 3% 32.0% 20.3% 11.7% 50.0% 67 17 .2% 5.3% 7, 9% 14.7% 19.3% 4.6% 72.1% 59, 12.5% 0.0% 22, 4% 27.6% 28.3? 6% 49.3% 54.7% 5.4 !  3.7%  6.1% 25.2% 35.2% 10.0% 65.0% 57.4%  For i n t e r v i e w r e s u l t s , the values of N a r e : G. E. B. L. W.  7.6% N=5 0 N=64 N=57 N=53 N=54  183  Socialization School  Alone %Obs.  Grauer Errington Bridge Lee Woodward  Group  % I n t . %D.  6.9%  %Obs. % I n t . %D.  9.5%  2.6%  93.1% 90.5% 2.6%  8.6% 6.3% 7.2% 13.8% 4.0% 8.8%  2.3% 6.6% 4.8%  91.4% 93.7% 2.3% 92.8% 86.2% 6.6% 96.0% 91.2% 4.8%  4.1%  5.3%  95.9% 90.6% 5.3%  9.4%  Degree of EnergySchool A l o t o f Energy %Obs. % I n t . %D. Grauer 44.1% Errington 47.1% Bridge 54.3% Lee 52.2% Woodward 54.9%  Some Energy %Obs. % I n t . %D.  31.7% 12.4% 23.1%19. 0% 4 1 48.1% 52.3% 60.3%  Quiet Things %Obs. % I n t . %D, 9-  1.0% 27.7% 21. 5% 6 9 92.0% 17.4% 10. 8% 6 .6% 8.1% 27.9% 10. 3%17 .6%  40.6% 14.9% 25.8%18. 8% 7 .0%  32 . 8 % 49. 2% 16 .4% 25 9 9- 30. 4% 28 "3 9- 36. 9% 19 . 8 % 29. 4% 19 .9%  5 .2% 8 .6% 9• 6 %  40. 6% 20 7 9-  Activities Responses Obs. Running Jumping Throwing Kicking Climbing Hopping Skipping Making Things Sliding Swinging Other Total  1 8 10 7 3 10 10 3 4 2 6  Grauer Int. D. 1 9.5 11 5 6.5 9.5 6.5 3 4 2 8  9 D .  0 -1.5 -1 2 -3.5 .5 3.5  0 1 2.25 8 1 10 4 9 12.25 4 .25 6 12.25 11  0 0 0 -2  0 0 0 4  ED P  = 36 1 = .836  2  Obs.  17 ;3 2 5  Errington Int. D.  9  D . 2  1 9 7.5 10.5 4 6 10.5  0 -1 2.5 -1.5 0 0 .5  0 1 6.25 2.25 0 0 .25  5 3 2 7.5  2 0 0 -2.5  4 0 0 6.25  ED P  2  = 20 = .909  184 Responses Obs. Running Jumping Throwing Kicking Climbing Hopping Skipping Making Things Sliding Swinging Other  Bridge I n t . D.  1 10 8 10 3 7 10  1 6.5 9 9 2.5 11 6.5  5 4 2 6  5 4 2.5 9  Total  Obs. Running Jumping Throwing Kicking Climbing Hopping Skipping Making Things Sliding Swinging Other Total  0 3.5 -1 1 .5 -4 3.5 0  0 2.5 -1 4 -2 1 -1.5  16 4 1 2.25  4 5.5 3 7  6.5 3 2 11  -2.5 2.5 1 -4  6.25 . 6.25 1 16  -.-5 -3  9  .25  = 52 = .764  Woodward I n t . D.  D'  1 10.5 9 7 4 10.5 6  1 6. 5 8. 5 3. 5 6. 5 11 5  .5 3.5 -2.5 -.5 1  25 12. 25 6. 25 • 25 1  5 3 2 8  8 .5 3. 5 2 10  -3.5 -.5 0 -2  12. 25 .25 0 4  0 4  ED P  2  o  1 8 6.5 5 4 9.5 9.5  0 0  2  D  0 1 12.25 10.5 1 5.5 1 9 .25 2 16 10.5 12.25 8  0  ED p  Responses  ?  D . . Obs.  Lee Int. D.  0 16  =52. 5 =.761  2 ED  0 6.25 •1  = 60  727  185  Kinds o f Games Responses  Sports Tag Games you make up Special Equipment Games on Equipment Make Things  Obs.  Grauer Int. D.  D  5 2  4 1  1 1  3.5  2  6 1 3.5  Obs  Errington Int. D  D  1 1  4 2  3 1  1 1  1 1  1.5  2.25  3  2  1  1  6  0  0  6  6  0  0  5 3  -4  4 5  -3 0  9 0  2  Total  ED P  Responses  Sports Tag Games you make up Special Equipment Games on Equipment Make Things  : l .25 . 5  =20.50 = .414  Bridge Int. D.  D  4 3  4 1  0 2  5  2.5  6  6  1 2  5 2.5  ED P  = =  2  2  12 .657  Obs.  Lee Int. D.  D  0 4  2 3  2 1  0 2  0 4  2.5  6.25  4.5  3  1.5  2.25  0  0  '4.5  6  -1.5  2.25  5 4  -4 2  -4 -.5 ED P  Responses  Total  16  Obs.  Total  Sports Tag Games you make up Special Equipment Games on Equipment Make Things  .5  9  2  16  Woodward I n t . D.  D  2 3  1 2  1 1  1 1  6  4  2  4  5  5  0  0  1 4  6 3  -5 1  25 1 2  .25  = 26.5 = .243  Obs.  ED P  9  Z  = 32  1 6  2  16 4  ED = P = 2  28.5 .18  186 APPENDIX M TABLE 35 COMPARISON BETWEEN ATTITUDE DATA AND BEHAVIOR DATA IN RELATION TO SEXUAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE Key: The percentages g i v e n are the a d j u s t e d f r e q u e n c i e s Obs. - the o b s e r v a t i o n a l r e s u l t s  (Behavior Data)  I n t . - the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s  ( A t t i t u d e Data)  D.  - the d i s c r e p a n c y between r e s u l t s 2  ED  - sum of the d i f f e r e n c e s squared  P  - Spearman's c o e f f i c i e n t o f rank c o r r e l a t i o n  *  - u n l e s s otherwise s t a t e d , the v a l u e s of N a r e : Obs. Int. Grade 1: males, N=218; F.,N=219 M.,N=52; F.,N=56 Grade 2: males, N=220; F.,N=223 M.,N=54; F.,N=60 Grade 3: males, N=270; F.,N=221 M.,N=63; F.,N=54  F a v o r i t e Spot Grade Blacktop Sex %Obs. % I n t . %D. 1 2 3 1 2 3  M M M F F F  Playing F i e l d %Obs. % I n t . %D.  Equipment %Obs. % I n t . %D.  5.5% 8.7% 3.2% 27.5% 19.6% 7.9% 67.0% 5.0% 2.2% 2.8% 29.5% 34.8% 5.3% 65.4% 19.6% 0.0% 19.6% 47.4% 41.2% 6.2% 33.0% 23.3% 6.3% 17.0% 18.3% 4.2% 14.1% 58.4% 9.9% 0.0% 9.9% 13.9% 16.7% 2.8% 76.2% 23.1% 13.3% 9.8% 10.0% 17.8% 7.8% 67.0%  52.2% 58.7% 52.9% 64.6% 78.6% 64.4%  For i n t e r v i e w r e s u l t s , the values o f N a r e : Grade 1, M., N=46 Grade 2, M., N=46 Grade 3, M., N=51  F., N=48 F., N=42 F., N=45  14.8% 6.7% 19.9% 6.2% 2.4% 2.6%  187 Socialization Grade Alone Sex %Obs. % I n t . %D.  Group %Obs. % I n t . %D.  1 2 3 1 2 3  92.7% 93.6% 97.0% 90.9% 92.8% 92.8%  M M M F F F  7.3% 5.8% 6.4% 14.8% 3.0% 1.6% 9.1% 10.7% 7.2% 11.7% 7.2% 13.0%  1.5% 8.4% 1.4% 1.6% 4.5% 5.8%  94.2% 85.2% 98.4% 89.3% 88.3% 87.0%  1.5% 8.4% 1.4% 1.6% 4.5% 5.8%  Degree o f Energy Grade A l o t o f Energy Sex %Obs. % I n t . %D.  Some Energy %Obs. % i n t . %D.  1 2 3 1 2 3  20. 2% 22. 3% 18. 2% 27. 8% 26. 5% 32. 1%  M M M F F F  57. 8% 56. 8% 69. 3% 29. 2% 40. 8% 44. 3%  51. 9% 5. 9% 64. 8% 8.0% 68. 3% 1. 0% 25. 0% 4. 2% 30. 0% 10. 8% 40. 7% 3. 6%  Quiet Things %0bs. % I n t . %D.  5. 8% 14 .4% 22. 0% 11. 1% 11 . O X>9- 20. 9% 19. 0% . 8 % 12. 6% 10. 7% 17 .1% 42. 9% 21. 7% 4 .8% 32. 7% 27. 8% 4 23. 5%  42. 3% 20 . 0-J 9-^ 24. 1% 3 0 912. 7% .1% 64. 3% 21 .4% 48. 3% 15 • 6 % 31. 5% 8 .0%  Activities Responses Running Jumping Throwing Kicking Climbing Hopping Skipping Making Things Sliding Swinging Other Total  Grade 1 Males Obs. D. Int. 1 9.5 9.5 7 2 9.5 9.5  1 0 7 2.5 10.5 -1 4 3 5 -3 10.5 -1 9 .5  4.5 3 4.5 6  7 -2.5 2.5 .5 2.5 2 7 -1 ED P  2  D  2  Grade 1 Females Obs. Int. D.  0 3.5 6.25 10.5 1 9 9 10.5 9 5 1 8 .25 7 6.25 .25 4 1  = 38 = .827  2 6 1 3.5  D  2  1 7 10.5 4 5 10.5 9  2.5 6 .25 3.5 12 .25 -1.5 2 .25 6.4 42 .25 0 0 -2.5 6 .25 -2 4  7 2.5 2.5 7  -5 25 3.5 12 .25 -1.5 2 .25 -3.5 12 .25 ED =125 P = .432 2  188 Responses Running Jumping Throwing Kicking Climbing Hopping Skipping Making Things Sliding Swinging Other  Obs.  Grade 2 I n t . D.  1 10.5 8.5 7 2 10.5 8.5  1 6.5 9 2.5 4.5 10.5 10.5  0 4 -.5 4.5 -2.5 0 -2  0 16  5.5 4 3 5.5  6.5 4.5 2.5 8  -1 -.5 .5 -2.5 2  1  Total  Obs.  Total  1 9 8 4 5 10.5 10.5 7 3 2 6  0 1 3 1.5 2.5-: .5 .5 0 -3 -2 -4 ED  P  0 1 9 2.25 6. 25 25 25 # m  = 48  =  D  2  1 10 7.5 10 5.5 7.5 2.5  3 -2 3 -1 -3.5 3 4.5  9 4 9 1 12.25 9 20.25  5.5 2.5 4 8  -2.5 2.5 -3 -2  6.25 6.25 9 4  ED  =  2  P  I Obs  =  90  Grade 3 Females Int. D. D  .591  2  !9 8 11 2 7 10  1 9 7.5 10.5 2.5 4 7.5  .5 .5 -.5 3 2.5  9 6.25  6 4 1 5  5.5 5.5 2.5 10.5  .5 -1.5 -1.5 -5.5  .25 2.25 2.25 30.25  ED  55  i  0 9 4 16 2  Grade 2 Females Int. D.  54.5 .752  2  7 6 4 10  3 5 1 6  .25 .25 6.25  Grade 3 Males o I n t . D. D  1 8 5 2.5 2.5 10 10  Obs  4 8 .25 10.5 20.25 9 6.25 2 0 10.5 4 7  ED  Responses Running Jumping Throwing Kicking Climbing Hopping Skipping Making Things Sliding Swinging Other  o  D  .782  3  2 0  P  2  =  =  4 0  .25 .25 .25  ,750  189 Kinds o f Games Responses Sports Tag Games you make up Special Equipment Games on Equipment Make Things  Obs, 4.5 2 4.5 6 1 3  Grade 1 Males „ Int. D. D" 3 1 3 6 5 3  Total  Responses Sports Tag Games you make up Special Equipment Games on Equipment Make t h i n g s  1  1  1.5  2.25  1 2  4.5  4  6  6  0  1 4.5  5 3  -4 1.5  2 0  Obs,  Obs,  0 16 2.25  5.5  Grade 3 Males Int. D. D" 1 2  0 2  0 4  3  3  0  0  6  6  0  0  4 5  -2 0  4 0  ED' = 8 P = .772  .25  .5  3  0  0  2  0  0  4  1 -4.5 3 2 ED = P =  1  5.5 1  20.25 9 30.5 .129  Grade 2 Females Int. D. D'  6 2  6 2  4  1  5  4.5  1 3  4.5 3  22.5 .357  1 4  2 5  Grade 1 Females Int. D. D'  21.5 .386  25  2  2  1 4  4 0  ED = P=  6 3  5  0 16 0  0 -4 0  3 2  Responses  Total  2.25  Grade 2 Males Int. D. D'  Total  Sports Tag Games you make up Special Equipment Games on Equipment Make t h i n g s  1.5  ED' P  Obs,  Obs,  0 0  0 0  .25 •3.5 0  12.25 0 21.5 .386  ED P  Grade 3 Females Obs. I n t . D. D' 3.5 1 2 5 6 3.5  2.5 2  6.25 4  0  0  0  0  -5  25 .5  .25  ED = 35.5 P = -.014  APPENDIX N TABLE 36 DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION School males N % Grauer  Grade 1 females t o t a l N % N %  males N %  Grade 2 females t o t a l N % N %  Grade 3 males females N % N % N  Total total % N  %  9  17.3 12 21.4 21 19.4 9 16.7 15 25.0 24 21.0 8 12.7 10 ia*;5;i8 15.4 63 18.6  Errington  13  25.0 11 19.6 24 22.2 11 20.4 16 26.7 27 23.7 13 20.6 15 28.8 28 23.9 79 23.3  Bridge  12  23.1 13 23.2 25 23.1 9 16.7 11 18.3 20 17.5 13 20.6 7 12.9 20 17.1 65 19.2  12  23.1 10 17.9 22 20.4 15 28.8 7 11.7 22 19.3 15 23.8  L  ee  Woodward  Total  6  52  9 16.7 24 20.5 68 20.1  11.5 10 17.9 16 14.8 10 18.5 11 18.3 21 18.4 14 22.2 13 24.1 27 23.1 64 18.9  56  108  54  60  114  63  54  117  339  vo o  APPENDIX 0 TABLE 37 SIGNIFICANT SEXUAL DIFFERENCES Technique  Question #  QuestionnaireInterview  Observations  Degree of Freedom.:  Significance Level  X  2  Calculated 2 X  5B 7 7 Why 8 6B  4 10 6 5 2  .01 .01 .01 .01 .01  13.28 23.21 16.81 15.09 9.21  20.53 42.70 25.10 56.24 31. 60  1 2ai 2aii 2c  2 10 5 2  .01 .01 .01 .01  9.21 23.21 15.09 9.21  89.56 164.92 206.40 7 9..2.1  TABLE 3 8 SIGNIFICANT GRADE DIFFERENCES QuestionnaireInterview  Observations  5B 7 7 Why 8 6B  8 20 12 10 4  .01 .01 .01 .01 .01  20.09 37.57 26.22 23.21 13.28  31.80 48.62 26.96 25.55 27.18  1 2ai 2aii 2c  4 20 10 4  .01 .01 .01 .01  13.28 37.57 23.21 13.28  59.26 120.97 192.87 31.22  TABLE 39 SIGNIFICANT SCHOOL DIFFERENCES Technique  Question #  Degree o f Freedeom  QuestionnaireInterview 8 (females Gd 2) 8 (males Gd 3) 9 (males Gd 3) Observations  1 2ai 2aii  Significance Level  x  Calculated x2  20  01  37.57  41.16  16  01  32.00  35.78  36  01  58.00  63.47  8 40 20  01 01 01  20.09 60.00 37.57  57.94 264.14 136.68  TABLE 40 SIGNIFICANT SEX DIFFERENCES WITHIN EACH GRADE QuestionnaireInterview 5(Grade 3) 7(Grade 2) 8(Grade 1) 8(Grade 2 j 8(Grade 3) 6B(Grade 2) 6B (Grade 3) 10A (.Grade 2}  4 10 5 5 5 2 2 2  .01 .01 .01 .01 .01 .01 .01 .01  13.28 23.21 15.09 15,09 15.09 9.21 9.21 9.21  13.91 23.38 17.31 27.68 21.21 13.85 9.72 10.62  TABLE 40 (Cont'd) Technique  Question #  Observations  1(Grade 1) 1(Grade 2) 1 (Grade 3) 2ai(Grade 1) 2ai(Grade 2) 2ai(Grade 3) 2 a i i ( G r a d e 1) 2 a i i ( G r a d e 2) 2aii(_Grade 3) 2c (Grade 2)  Degree of Freedom  Significance Level  X  2  Calcula X  2  2 2 2  .01 .01 .01  9.21 9.21 9.21  29.33 17.84 85.61  10 10 10  .01 .01 .01  23.21 23.21 23.21  65.06 32.14 104.83  5 5 5 2  .01 .01 .01 .01  15.09 15.09 15.09 9.21  50.52 36.07 147.82 12.38  

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