UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Childrens’ beliefs about the human circulatory system Catherall, Robin William 1981

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1981_A8 C38.pdf [ 5.74MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055282.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055282-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055282-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055282-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055282-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055282-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055282-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055282-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055282.ris

Full Text

CHILDREN'S BELIEFS ABOUT THE HUMAN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM by ROBIN WILLIAM CATHERALL BSc. (Zoology), U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Mathematics and Science Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1981 (c) Robin W. C a t h e r a l l , 1981 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date DE-6 (2/79) - i i -ABSTRACT T h i s e x p l o r a t o r y study was aimed at uncovering c h i l d r e n s ' b e l i e f s and ideas about the human c i r c u l a t o r y system. T h i r t y - t w o s u b j e c t s , aged from 7 to 14 years, were i n t e r v i e w e d using a m o d i f i c a t i o n of P i a g e t ' s C l i n i c a l Method. The data were analysed by developing a "conceptual i n v e n t o r y " of b e l i e f s f o r each of f i v e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . I t was found that the i n t e r v i e w methodology was e f f e c t i v e i n a s c e r t a i n i n g these b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e s . Many c h i l d r e n were found to possess s i m i l a r b e l i e f s about c e r t a i n aspects of the c i r c u l a t o r y system. Developmental trends were a l s o evident from the data c o l l e c t e d . I t was found that many of the b e l i e f s from t h i s study p a r a l l e l e d the a n c i e n t s c i e n t i f i c ideas about t h i s system. I t i s f e l t that the b e l i e f s uncovered i n t h i s study w i l l a i d the e d u c a t i o n a l community by p r o v i d i n g an i n s i g h t i n t o some of the " t y p i c a l " ideas that c h i l d r e n b r i n g to the classroom. - i i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE A b s t r a c t i L i s t o f T a b l e s v L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s v i i CHAPTER ONE 1.00 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.11 The P r o b l e m 3 1.20 M e t h o d s o f S t u d y 4 1.21 D a t a C o l l e c t i o n 4 1.22 The S u b j e c t s 5 1.30 E d u c a t i o n a l S i g n i f i g a n c e o f t h e S t u d y 5 1.40 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 7 CHAPTER TWO 2.00 I n t r o d u c t i o n 9 2.10 P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o n t e x t o f t h e S t u d y 9 2.20 The H i s t o r y o f t h e S c i e n t i f i c C o n c e p t i o n o f t h e H e a r t a n d t h e C i r c u l a t o r y S y s t e m . 14 2.30 C u r r e n t H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n i n Canada 19 2.40 P e d a g o g i c a l C o n t e x t o f t h e S t u d y 21 CHAPTER THREE 3.00 I n t r o d u c t i o n 28 3.10 The S u b j e c t s 28 3.20 R a t i o n a l e F o r U s i n g t h e C l i n i c a l I n t e r v i e w M e t h o d 30 3.30 The I n t e r v i e w P r o c e d u r e 32 CHAPTER FOUR 4.00 I n t r o d u c t i o n ; 38 4.10 M e t h o d s o f A n a l y s i s 38 4.20 R e s u l t s o f t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n 40 4.21 The F o r m a t o f t h e C o n c e p t u a l I n v e n t o r y 40 4.22 The R e s u l t s 41 CHAPTER FOUR (con't) 1) Major Question 1: What i s the function of the heart? 41 2) Major Question 2: What are the paths and methods of blood . ci r c u l a t i o n ? Subquestion 2.1: What i s the pulse? 47 3) Subquestion 2.2: How i s the blood d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the body? 51 4) Subquestion 2.3: How do we get blood? 63 5) Subquestion 2.4: What are the veins and where do they go in the body? 68 6) Major Question 3: What are the functions of the blood? .74 7) Major Question 3a: How i s the blood related to the respiratory system? Subquestion 3a.1: Where does the a i r go when we inhale i t ? 79 8) Subquestion 3a.2: Is the a i r d i s t r i b u t e d to other parts of the body, and i f so, how i s i t distributed? 84 9) Major Question 3b: How i s the blood related to the digestive system? 93 CHAPTER FIVE 5.00 Summary of the Study 101 5.10 Conclusions of the Study 102 5.20 Educational Implications of the Study 109 5.30 Recommendations for Further Research 110 BIBLIOGRAPHY 112 APPENDIX ONE: Letter of Parental/Guardian Consent 115 APPENDIX TWO: Exemplary Transcript From A Student Interview 117 APPENDIX THREE: Diagram of the Heart From the Exemplary Student Interview 131 APPENDIX FOUR: Diagram of the Human Blood C i r c u l a t i o n From the Exemplary Student Interview. ..132 APPENDIX FIVE: Nine Belief Summaries Derived From the Exemplary Student Interview 133 - V -LIST OF TABLES PAGE TABLE ONE: Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n for Major Question 1: What i s the function of the heart? 46 TABLE TWO: Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n for Subquestion 2.1: What i s the pulse? 50 TABLE THREE: Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n for Subquestion 2.2: How i s the blood d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the body? 62 TABLE FOUR: Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n for Subquestion 2.3: How do we get blood? 67 TABLE FIVE: Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n for Subquestion 2.4: What are the veins and where do they go in the body? 72 TABLE SIX: Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n for Major Question 3: What are the functions of the blood? 78 TABLE SEVEN: Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n for Subquestion 3a.1: Where does the a i r go when we inhale i t ? 83 TABLE EIGHT: Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n for Subquestion 3a.2: Is the a i r dis t r i b u t e d to other parts of the body, and i f so, how i s i t distributed? 92 TABLE NINE: Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n for Major Question 3b: How i s the blood related to the digestive system? : 100 - v i -LIST OF FIGURES PAGE FIGURE ONE: Exemplary diagram of the human c i r c u l a t i o n corresponding to Belief Category 2.2-A 57 FIGURE TWO: Exemplary diagram of the human c i r c u l a t i o n corresponding to Belief Category 2.2-B 58 FIGURE THREE: Exemplary diagram of the human c i r c u l a t i o n corresponding to Belief Category 2.2-C 59 FIGURE FOUR: Exemplary diagram of the human c i r c u l a t i o n corresponding to Belief Category 2.2-D 60 FIGURE FIVE: Exemplary diagram of the human c i r c u l a t i o n corresponding to Belief Category 2.2-E 61 - v i i -Acknowledgments I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e t h a n k s t o p r o f e s s o r s G. E r i c k s o n , S. Brough, K. A n a s t a s i o u and M. Hoebel f o r b e i n g a c t i v e members of my t h e s i s committee. I am e s p e c i a l l y i n d e b t e d t o my t h e s i s a d v i s o r Dr. Gaalen E r i c k s o n f o r the c o n t i n u e d h e l p and a s s i s t a n c e which he has o f f e r e d throughout t h e d u r a t i o n of t h i s r e s e a r c h . A l s o , I would l i k e t o thank the t h i r t y - t w o c h i l d r e n who were i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h i s r e s e a r c h would not have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I am g r a t e f u l t o b o t h my w i f e H e l e n and t o my mother f o r a l l the k i n d p a t i e n c e and support which they have p r o v i d e d over the past s i x months. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o thank Mr. Mark Rowsome f o r the many hours t h a t he spent i n t y p i n g t h i s t h e s i s . 1 CHAPTER ONE  THE PROBLEM 1-. 00 I ntroduct ion The focus of s c i e n c e education c u r r i c u l a has changed a great deal over the past f i f t y y e a r s . It has evolved from a " s u b j e c t - c e n t e r e d " c u r r i c u l a where the m a t e r i a l s and teaching s t r a t e g i e s are e s t a b l i s h e d at a time p r i o r to classroom implementation, to a " c h i l d - c e n t e r e d " approach where d e c i s i o n s about i n s t r u c t i o n are r e l a t e d to some form of p s y c h o l o g i c a l theory. Shulman and Tamir (1973) have i d e n t i f i e d the need for r e s e a r c h which d i r e c t s i t s e l f towards the establishment of a type of c o g n i t i v e psychology focused on those concepts f e l t to be important i n the f i e l d of s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n . "...such s c i e n c e - r e l e v a n t b a s i c research would be on a t o p i c l i k e the c o g n i t i v e development of s c i e n c e - r e l e v a n t concepts i n young c h i l d r e n . . . . T h e purpose would be to i d e n t i f y some general normal expectancies f o r the e v o l u t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r concepts around which c u r r i c u l u m developers and program w r i t e r s c o u l d plan t h e i r c r e a t i v e endeavors....The importance would be to provide general maps that would be u s e f u l f o r the a c t i v i t i e s of the c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s . " One area of recent e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t i n c o g n i t i v e psychology has been in the r o l e that i n t u i t i v e b e l i e f s p l ay i n the development of formal concepts. A number of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have suggested the importance of these e a r l y b e l i e f s as they are evolved i n t o mature concepts (Ausubel,1968; D r i v e r and Easley,1978; Erickson,1980; Kargbo, Hobbs and Erickson,1980). I t has been suggested that the knowledge of these b e l i e f s c o u l d b e n e f i t the e d u c a t i o n a l 2 community by r a i s i n g the l e v e l of awareness of t e a c h e r s and c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o some o f the many p e r s p e c t i v e s t h a t s t u d e n t s b r i n g t o the c l a s s r o o m . T h i s study f o c u s e s on the c h i l d ' s b e l i e f s about the human c i r c u l a t o r y system. T h i s t o p i c was chosen f o r f i v e r e a s o n s : 1) T h i s has been the source of a g r e a t d e a l of a t t e n t i o n today w i t h a s h i f t i n g s o c i e t a l emphasis towards h e a l t h and f i t n e s s . As a r e s u l t , i t i s p o p u l a r o p i n i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d know more about t h e i r b o d i e s . 2) T h i s i s a t o p i c t o which everyone i s exposed, both b e f o r e and a f t e r f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n . 3) Most s c h o o l systems i n c l u d e t h i s as p a r t of t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m , e i t h e r a t the i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l or d u r i n g the h i g h s c h o o l program. 4) Some c u r r i c u l a i m p l i c i t l y assume t h a t c h i l d r e n have a b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the body w i t h r e s p e c t t o i t s s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n . 5) To date t h e r e has not been any r e s e a r c h which has i n v e s t i g a t e d t h i s t o p i c . The r e s e a r c h e r has chosen t o use an a d a p t a t i o n of P i a g e t ' s C l i n i c a l Method as a means t o c o l l e c t t h e s e b e l i e f s . There were no a p r i o r i p r e d i c t i o n s about the n a t u r e of the c h i l d ' s b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e s , however, the b a s i c assumption i s t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n p o s s e s s some p r e c o n c e i v e d t h e o r y or b e l i e f about the form and f u n c t i o n of the c i r c u l a t o r y system. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h i s s tudy i s d e s c r i p t i v e and e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e . There was no f o r m a l t e s t i n g of r e s e a r c h hypotheses. The r e s e a r c h e r i s a t t e m p t i n g o n l y t o i d e n t i f y the e x t e n t and the n a t u r e of the c h i l d ' s b e l i e f s about the c i r c u l a t o r y system. I t i s hoped t h a t the 3 discussion of the findings of this study w i l l serve to generate more sp e c i f i c hypotheses for future research. 1.10 The Problem The purpose of thi s study was to investigate the nature of children's b e l i e f s in the following three research areas. (1) What is the function of the heart? (2) What are the paths and methods of blood c i rculat ion? (3) What are the functions of the blood? (3a) How is the blood related to the respiratory system? (3b) How is the blood related to the digestive system? These three research questions are further reduced to more s p e c i f i c questions which were addressed to each c h i l d during the interview. These s p e c i f i c interview questions are indicated in Chapter Three. The investigator was interested in determining the ideas that children have about: (1) the functions of the various c i r c u l a t o r y structures and organs, and (2) how these structures and organs are int e r r e l a t e d to produce an overall framework for the functioning of the ci r c u l a t o r y system. The b e l i e f s w i l l be analysed to determine i f there are any trends or consistencies which might coincide with the development or the sex of children as they are observed 4 from grades two through e i g h t . 1.20 Methods of Study.  1.21 Data C o l l e c t i o n The researcher has chosen to use a mo d i f i e d v e r s i o n of P i a g e t ' s C l i n i c a l Interview Technique. A set of que s t i o n s was prepared to ensure that a l l aspects of the three problem areas were expl o r e d with each c h i l d . Further probing of the students' i n i t i a l responses were c a r r i e d out to determine the degree to which the c h i l d was " r o m a n t i c i z i n g " or was subject to suggestion by the i n t e r v i e w e r . In c o n t r a s t to most formal P i a g e t i a n - t y p e i n t e r v i e w s , there were no concrete tasks which r e q u i r e d the c h i l d to p r e d i c t the outcome of some so r t of experiment or t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . However, the i n t e r v i e w s d i d i n v o l v e a few simple a c t i v i t i e s which served only to f a c i l i t a t e the flow of the d i s c u s s i o n . I t was f e l t that the P i a g e t i a n C l i n i c a l Method was most a p p r o p r i a t e for t h i s study because i t allowed f o r the g r e a t e s t l a t i t u d e in the s u b j e c t ' s d e s c r i p t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the p r a c t i t i o n e r was f r e e to explore the " n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n s " and "spontaneous i n t e r e s t s " of the c h i l d . ( Piaget, 1929) Attempts were made to c r e a t e a d i s c u s s i o n - t y p e format i n s t e a d of a d i r e c t question-answer i n t e r v i e w . If a c h i l d responded to a p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n so that subsequent q u e s t i o n s were a l s o addressed, then these l a t t e r q u e s t i o n s were dropped from the p r o t o c o l . 5 1.22 The Subjects Because of the e x p l o r a t o r y nature of t h i s study, the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s was not a major i s s u e . For t h i s reason the sample s i z e was q u i t e s m a l l . T h i r t y - t w o s u b j e c t s , a l l from schools i n the Richmond School D i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia were i n t e r v i e w e d . The data were analysed with respect to trends which might occur i n both the c h r o n o l o g i c a l development of the c h i l d and the sex of the c h i l d . For these reasons, the sample i n c l u d e d e i g h t students each from grades 2, 4, 6, and 8. Equal numbers of each sex were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s sample. The two schools which p a r t i c i p a t e d in t h i s study were l o c a t e d i n an urban s e t t i n g i n the Greater Vancouver D i s t r i c t . The students a t t e n d i n g these schools represented a "normal" mixture of socioeconomic backgrounds. The 32 s u b j e c t s chosen f o r t h i s study were a "sample of convenience" where each student was randomly s e l e c t e d from a group of consenting students. 1.30 E d u c a t i o n a l S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study According to P i a g e t , the process of l e a r n i n g i n the c h i l d i n v o l v e s a c o n t i n u a l i n t e r a c t i o n with the environment. By becoming a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d with o b j e c t s or p r o p e r t i e s of o b j e c t s i n t h e i r p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l world, the c h i l d g r a d u a l l y c o n s t r u c t s a set of mental s t r u c t u r e s or schemes which they use to make sense out of t h e i r world. The e v o l u t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r concept, which would be one of the 6 components of these schemes, i s thought to go through a series of progressive adaptations (through this interaction process) u n t i l the student or adult no longer sees any need to a l t e r this concept. Most young children w i l l have experienced various aspects of their internal body. These might include: feeling their heartbeat, feeling or hearing their pulse, loosing blood at the s i t e of an injury, breathing in a i r , or ingesting foodstuffs. As a result, these children should have developed various i n t u i t i v e explanations or hypotheses to explain these phenomenon in their bodies. Most of these b e l i e f s would have been formed in the absence of formal school inst r u c t i o n . As the c h i l d matures, these become "assimilated" and "accomodated" into new conceptions as a result of experiencing further stimuli or by receiving some type of external explanation. When children receive formal instruction in the classroom, they may not necessarily accept new explanations which are presented to them. Instead they might only assimilate this new i n s t r u c t i o n a l information to their former b e l i e f s and ideas. As a re s u l t , i t may be possible to detect traces of these i n t u i t i v e b e l i e f s at a time following formal inst r u c t i o n . It has been said that these early b e l i e f s are "amazingly tenacious and resistant to extinction" as they are incorporated into the maturation and development of a concept. (Ausubel,1968). Obtaining knowledge of these i n t u i t i v e ideas would be of great assistance to the educational community. By 7 determining the nature of these b e l i e f s , i t may be possible to create special i n s t r u c t i o n a l strategies which w i l l promote the development of desired concepts in an optimal d i r e c t i o n . They may aid curriculum developers to produce s p e c i f i c materials which emphasize special strategies for certain misconceptions. Also, i t may help to decide the appropriate ages for the introduction of s p e c i f i c concepts in the c u r r i c u l a . Teachers would benefit from the knowledge of these belief structures by having a better interpretive understanding when presenting these concepts, and also by being able to select appropriate c u r r i c u l a for their students. 1.40 Limitations of the Study In this study i t i s assumed that the C l i n i c a l Interview Method i s a useful instrument which can be used to attain the ch i l d ' s i n t u i t i v e ideas about the human ci r c u l a t o r y system. However, there are lim i t a t i o n s as to the v a l i d i t y of this technique in determining the correct interpretation of the chi l d ' s b e l i e f structure. Two methods which might be employed to v a l i d i t y the f i n a l b e l i e f summaries include: (1) submitting the data to other researchers for their analyses, and later cross-checking these with the present findings, and (2) administering an objective paper and pencil test to confirm the analysis of this investigation. 8 T h i s study has a sample s i z e of 32 i n d i v i d u a l s . Such a small number of s u b j e c t s w i l l c e r t a i n l y pose a r e s t r i c t i o n as to the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of any f i n d i n g s . Consequently, one must assume that the b e l i e f s uncovered in t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n are t y p i c a l only to the s u b j e c t s i n t e r v i e w e d . T h i s e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y can only be i n c r e a s e d i f s i m i l i a r research with l a r g e r , more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e groups of students i s conducted in the f u t u r e . The researcher assumes that each of the s u b j e c t s has a s i m i l i a r background with respect to t h e i r h e a l t h education in t h i s area. However, d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l l i k e l y e x i s t between s u b j e c t s , both in terms of t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n from home and from s c h o o l . Only d e t a i l e d backgound r e s e a r c h w i l l r e v e a l t h i s degree of sample homogeneity. 9 CHAPTER TWO  LITERATURE REVIEW 2.00 Introduction The l i t e r a t u r e review for this study w i l l direct i t s e l f to four p r i n c i p a l areas: (1) The psychological context of the study. (2) The history of the s c i e n t i f i c conception of the heart and the circ u l a t o r y system. (3) Current health education in Canada. ( 4 ) The pedagogical context of the study. 2.10 Psychological Context of the Study No study of the development of a concept in science would be complete without f i r s t considering some of the major theories of i n t e l l e c t u a l development. Perhaps the most famous developmental psychologist of recent times has been Jean Piaget. The work of thi s man has had a profound influence upon both education and c h i l d psychology. Piaget believed that to f u l l y comprehend human knowledge, one would f i r s t have to study the formation and evolution of the individual's cognitive growth. For this reason, he devoted the i n i t i a l part of his career to the psychological study of the ch i l d ' s understanding of r e a l i t y . His findings were published in two well-acclaimed books 10 ( 1 9 2 9 and 1 9 3 0 ) . With the p r o g r e s s i o n of h i s work in t h i s area, Piaget became i n c r e a s i n g l y aware of the d i f f e r e n c e s in thought processes between the c h i l d and the a d u l t . T h i s prompted him to produce a theory which would account fo r the development of human i n t e l l i g e n c e . Piaget s t a t e s that from the e a r l i e s t years of l i f e , i n d i v i d u a l s are a c t i v e l y engaged in a c o n t i n u a l i n t e r a c t i o n with the immediate surroundings of t h e i r environment. T h i s a c t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n i n v o l v e s two f u n c t i o n s which a f f e c t i n t e l l i g e n c e : o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d a p t a t i o n . The term " o r g a n i z a t i o n " r e f e r s to the tendency to organize thought processes i n t o coherent mental s t r u c t u r e s or schemes. Piaget uses "adaptation" to i n d i c a t e the tendency of the organism to adapt to the environment. T h i s i s s a i d to i n v o l v e two complementary pr o c e s s e s : a s s i m i l a t i o n and accomodation. Ginsburg and Opper provide a c o n c i s e d e f i n i t i o n f o r these two terms. On the one hand the person i n c o r p o r a t e s or a s s i m i l a t e s f e a t u r e s of e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y i n t o h i s own p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s ; on the other hand he m o d i f i e s or accomodates h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s to meet the pressures of the environment Moreover, these processes are simultaneously present i n every a c t . (Ginsburg and Opper , 1 9 6 9 , p. 1 8 & 19) According to P i a g e t ' s theory, c o g n i t i v e development i s i n f l u e n c e d by four f a c t o r s : h e r e d i t y , s o c i a l t r a n s m i s s i o n , e q u i l i b r a t i o n , and experience. Piaget uses the term " h e r e d i t y " to r e f e r to the i n h e r i t e d p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s which are necessary f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l 11 development. " S o c i a l transmission", on the other hand, r e f e r s to the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n with other people. Such i n t e r a c t i o n may be e i t h e r v e r b a l or p h y s i c a l . Piaget d e f i n e s " e q u i l i b r a t i o n " as the s t a t e which b r i n g s p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a b i l i t y to the world (Ginsburg & Opper, 1969). When faced with a c o g n i t i v e d i s t u r b a n c e such as t r y i n g to understand something, the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l t r y to a s s i m i l a t e t h i s experience i n t o a mental scheme and he w i l l a l s o t r y to accomodate h i s present mental scheme to comply with the experience. Piaget (1964) i n d i c a t e s that c o n t a c t with o b j e c t s in the environment can produce two types of "mental experience". He l a b e l s " p h y s i c a l experience" as that knowledge which i s drawn d i r e c t l y from the p r o p e r t i e s of o b j e c t s . The second type of experience i s " l o g i c a l -mathematical experience". T h i s i s s a i d to r e s u l t i n knowledge which i s drawn not from the o b j e c t s themselves, but from the p r o p e r t i e s of the a c t i o n s c a r r i e d out on the o b j e c t s . Perhaps the most s i g n i f i g a n t f a c t o r f o r the present study i s that of p h y s i c a l experience. The re s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s posed i n t h i s study are based upon an assumption that when young c h i l d r e n t r y to understand a novel s i t u a t i o n , they are faced with a c o g n i t i v e d i s t u r b a n c e . In order to make sense of t h i s s i t u a t i o n or experience, the c h i l d "adapts" to the d i s t u r b a n c e through a s s i m i l a t i o n and accomodation. In so doing, simple i n t u i t i v e belief's or 1 2 theories are developed. In order to account for the vast differences in mental capacities between the c h i l d and the adult, Piaget theorized that the c h i l d progresses through a series of q u a l i t a t i v e l y d ifferent psychological structures. Three stages of development have been i d e n t i f i e d : the sensorimotor stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage. A l l children are said to proceed through the same stages in the same order, but at d i f f e r e n t rates of development. The present study does not attempt to correlate the c h i l d ' s belief structures to the preceeding three stages. Rather, Piaget's theoretical description of the child's construction of knowledge serves as a general framework for thi s study. Another psychologist whose theory of learning has had some influence on educational psychology i s D. Ausubel. According to his theory, "new conceptual material can only be learned i f i t is related in some way to the existing cognitive structure of the in d i v i d u a l " (Ausubel 1968). The f i n a l learned product, then, would be a modification of the input and of the existing cognitive structure. Van Kirk summarizes the gist of Ausubel's theory: ...meaningful learning, on the other hand, occurs when new material i s anchored to existing concepts in the cognitive structure (subsubers) through an interactive process c a l l e d subsumption. As new material i s subsumed, i t is s l i g h t l y modified, as 1 3 i s the e x i s t i n g knowledge to which i t i s being anchored. As meaningful l e a r n i n g occurs, then, subsuming concepts are n e c e s s a r i l y p r o g r e s s i v e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . When apparently c o n t r a d i c t o r y new knowledge i s to be learn e d , the process of i n t e g r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the c o n t r a d i c t o r y elements, under a more i n c l u s i v e subsumer, may occur.... (Van K i r k , 1978, pp.2 & 3) Wollman (1978) p o i n t s out many s i m i 1 i a r i t i e s between Ausubel and Piaget in t h e i r ideas on the development of concepts. Instead of " a s s i m i l a t i n g " and "accomodating" in the P i a g e t i a n sense, new concepts are s a i d to be "subsumed" with e x i s t i n g c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s . S i m i l a r l y , " p r o g r e s s i v e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n " and " i n t e g r a t i v e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n " are a l s o s a i d to be synonymous to P i a g e t ' s " a s s i m i l a t i o n and accomodation of mental schemes". The present study assumes that c h i l d r e n develop mental concepts a c c o r d i n g to the t h e o r i e s of Piaget and Ausubel as d e s c r i b e d above. Consequently, i t i s b e l i e v e d that c h i l d r e n develop t h e i r i n t u i t i v e ideas by a c t i v e l y e x p e r i e n c i n g s t i m u l i from the environment. I t i s hoped that the t h e o r i e s of these two p s y c h o l o g i s t s can be implemented to allow f o r an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e s which are uncovered i n t h i s study. Thus i t may be p o s s i b l e to account f o r the o r i g i n s of these b e l i e f s , as w e l l as to tr a c e the development of these t y p i c a l b e l i e f s as c h i l d r e n mature. In a d d i t i o n , i t i s hoped that these two t h e o r i e s can a i d the e d u c a t i o n a l community to f u r t h e r the e v o l u t i o n of these b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e s along d e s i r e d l i n e s of development. 1 4 2.20 The H i s t o r y of the S c i e n t i f i c Conception of the  Heart and the C i r c u l a t o r y System •According to P i a g e t ' s theory of "genetic epistemology" (Piaget 1972), the h i s t o r i c a l development of knowledge has many p a r a l l e l s with the i n t e l l e c t u a l development of knowledge i n the c h i l d . For t h i s reason, he suggests that "the study of t h i s development at both l e v e l s might y i e l d i n s i g h t i n t o the most mature (or at l e a s t the l a t e s t ) forms of c o l l e c t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l knowledge". (Ginsburg & Opper,1969) The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be d i r e c t e d towards a b r i e f h i s t o r y of the s c i e n t i f i c conception of the heart and the c i r c u l a t o r y system. Throughout h i s t o r y , the d i s c o v e r y of new s c i e n t i f i c ideas has been guided by s o c i a l , academic, and t e c h n o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . Our present conception of the heart and the c i r c u l a t o r y system has r e s u l t e d from a c o n t i n u a l e v o l u t i o n of these h i s t o r i c a l t h e o r i e s and ideas. T h i s p r o g r e s s i o n of ideas has been documented i n the l i t e r a t u r e by s e v e r a l authors (Singer,1922; W i l l i u s and Dry,1948; Taylor,1963; Fishman and Richards,1964; Graubard,1964; and Debus,1978) . The f i r s t recorded o b s e r v a t i o n s of the i n t e r n a l human anatomy can be t r a c e d back to the a n c i e n t Egyptians, some 3000 years B.C.. The mummification and p r e s e r v a t i o n of bodies provided these people with an o p p o r t u n i t y to observe the form and s t r u c t u r e of the i n t e r n a l organs. The heart was b e l i e v e d to be the c e n t r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n p o i n t f o r the 1 5 "vessels" that radiate to the rest of the body. Blood was thought to be synonymous with l i f e - without blood, there is no l i f e . There is no indication that the Egyptians had any further ideas about the functions of the blood or of the blood c i r c u l a t i o n . The early Greeks contributed a great deal towards the early knowledge of the c i r c u l a t o r y system. This knowledge and development of ideas was primarily due to a c u l t u r a l appreciation for the explanation of natural phenomenon. Plato (427-347 B.C.) was the f i r s t to theorize that the blood is in constant motion throughout the body. This movement was said to take place within the veins. Hippocrates (460-370 B.C.), a contemporary of Plato, was aware of the structural differences between the a r t e r i e s and the veins. He postulated that the a i r which i s inhaled, travels from the lungs to the heart. From the heart, the a i r was thought to have been d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the body through the a r t e r i e s . In this sense, the a r t e r i e s were thought to act as " a i r tubes". The veins were therefore the only vessels which car r i e d blood. A r i s t o t l e (384-322 B.C.) was the f i r s t to hypothesize that the blood which travels in the veins i s the d i s t r i b u t o r of the "transformed food" through the body. He also theorized that the heart causes the motion of the blood in the veins. Furthermore, this organ was thought to have 1 6 been the seat of in t e l l i g e n c e and the source of bodily heat. The idea that a i r is transported throughout the body in the artery " a i r tubes" remained unchallenged u n t i l the time of Erasistratus (310-250 B.C.). This physician proposed that the a r t e r i e s do not contain a i r , but instead they contain blood. This a r t e r i a l blood was thought to be produced in the l i v e r . Perhaps the most influencia-1 figure in the history of cardiology has been Claudius Galen (138-201 A.D.). As with many of the s c i e n t i s t s of his time, Galen's work was guided by a theme of Divine Providence. Consequently, his theories and ideas were accepted by many theologians, and thus persisted for almost fourteen centuries. Although Galen had no idea of the concept of c i r c u l a t i o n , that i s , that the heart pumped blood through a network and back to i t s e l f , he did perceive the blood as being in a continuous "ebb and flow movement" through the veins or the a r t e r i e s . Galen devised a physiological scheme for the body which inte r r e l a t e d the processes of digestion, r e s p i r a t i o n , and the actions of the heart. According to this scheme, the heart drew in a i r from the lungs. The a i r was thought to serve three functions: 1) It served to cool the "eternal furnace" (the heart), 2) i t transformed the blood in the heart to form the " v i t a l s p i r i t " for the body, and 3) i t drew out from the venous blood the impurities of the body. The following quote summarizes Galen's "purpose" for re s p i r a t i o n . 1 7 R e s p i r a t i o n i n animals, as we have seen, e x i s t s for the sake of the he a r t , which r e q u i r e s the substance of the a i r , and scorched by the heat, d e s i r e s most s t r o n g l y the coolness thus p r o v i d e d . P e n e t r a t i n g with i t s c o o l i n g v i r t u e , the a i r re f r e s h e s the heart; i t then leaves i t , dragging along with i t the e f f e r v e s c e n t p a r t i c l e s of a nature burnt and sooty. (from Galen's "On the Functions of the Parts of the Human Body-in Graubard, 1964, p.25) Galen's concept of the " v i t a l s p i r i t " i s the f i r s t account of the mixing of a i r with the blood. Galen does not a c t u a l l y use the term "mix", but he s t a t e s that the a i r "transforms" the blood i n t o v i t a l s p i r i t . T h i s was evidenced by the d i f f e r e n c e in c o l o r between the blood of the a r t e r i e s and the blood of the v e i n s . According to Galen, the a i r or "pneuma" co u l d a l s o enter the a r t e r i e s to a small degree through the s u r f a c e of the s k i n . As a r e s u l t of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the lungs and the heart, Galen t h e o r i z e s that i n s p i r a t i o n and e x p i r a t i o n c o i n c i d e with the movement of v i t a l s p i r i t through the a r t e r i e s . When the thorax, on the other hand, d i l a t e s , the lung f o l l o w s s u i t with the chest as a whole, as i n i n s p i r a t i o n . But n e i t h e r i n i n s p i r a t i o n nor i n e x p i r a t i o n do the ve i n s undergo the same amount of d i l a t i o n as the a r t e r i e s because they are not assigned the same f u n c t i o n . The l a t t e r , hollowed out by nature to r e c e i v e the pneuma, must r e a d i l y be f i l l e d up durin g the i n s p i r a t i o n and i n turn q u i c k l y emptied during e x p i r a t i o n and the prod u c t i o n of v o i c e . Since the ve i n s serve as r e s e r v o i r s of nourishment, they need not d i l a t e with i n s p i r a t i o n or c o n t r a c t with e x p i r a t i o n . . . . (from Galen's "On the Fun c t i o n s of the Pa r t s of the Human Body-from Graubard,1964, pp.26 & 28) 18 Food was thought to be mixed with the blood in the l i v e r and thus d i s t r i b u t e d to the body through the v e i n s . Consequently, the venous and a r t e r i a l systems were seen as having unique " f u n c t i o n s " and t h e r e f o r e were q u i t e u n r e l a t e d . Galen's p h y s i o l o g i c a l scheme r e c e i v e d u n i v e r s a l acceptance throughout the middle ages up u n t i l the pre-renaissance p e r i o d . Ibn N a f i s (1210-1270), an Arab p h y s i c i a n born in Damascus, was the f i r s t to put f o r t h a major c r i t i c i s m of the Galenian d o c t r i n e . He proposed that the blood was "aerated" not in the heart, but i n s t e a d w i t h i n the lungs. Ibn N a f i s s t i l l accepted much of Galen's theory by acknowledging the two "types" of blood from the v e i n s and the a r t e r i e s . The f i r s t p h y s i o l o g i s t to c o r r e c t l y d e s c r i b e the c i r c u l a t i o n of blood as we see i t today was W i l l i a m Harvey (1578-1657). U n t i l t h i s time, the blood was thought to have flowed back and f o r t h in two d i r e c t i o n s i n both the v e i n s and the a r t e r i e s . Harvey p o s t u l a t e d that the aerated blood flowed from the lungs through the heart and the a r t e r i e s to the r e s t of the body. Although he c o u l d not see them, he t h e o r i z e d that the blood flowed through small "communicating v e s s e l s " from the a r t e r i e s to the v e i n s . T h i s blood then returned to the h e a r t . In t h i s sense, Harvey had schematized the c i r c u l a t o r y system as being c y c l i c a l , with blood f l o w i n g u n i d i r e c t i o n a l l y throughout the a r t e r i e s and v e i n s . Our c u r r e n t conception of the heart and the 1 9 c i r c u l a t o r y system has c e r t a i n l y expanded from the o r i g i n a l ideas expressed by W i l l i a m Harvey, but t h i s man stands alone as having provided the s i n g l e g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the h i s t o r y of t h i s concept. From h i s time h e n c e f o r t h , the e v o l u t i o n of t h i s concept has r e s u l t e d from numerous c o n t r i b u t i o n s made from many smal l e r d i s c o v e r i e s . Most of these d i s c o v e r i e s have been d i r e c t e d towards the areas of mi c r o b i o l o g y , b i o c h e m i s t r y , h i s t o l o g y and microanatomy. These f i n d i n g s w i l l not be reviewed here, as most of these do not shed l i g h t on the cu r r e n t problem area. It i s hoped that t h i s h i s t o r i c a l o u t l i n e of the concept of the heart and the c i r c u l a t o r y system can serve as a refere n c e to which the c h i l d r e n s ' b e l i e f s , as uncovered i n the present study, may be compared. Consequently, i t i s assumed that the development of the ancient t h e o r i e s were guided by many of the same f a c t o r s and l i m i t a t i o n s as are u t i l i z e d i n the development of the modern c h i l d ' s conception of t h i s t o p i c . 2.30 Current Health Education in Canada C a r d i o v a s c u l a r d i s e a s e i n North America has reached near epidemic p r o p o r t i o n s . Turner & B a l l (1976) i n d i c a t e that one male i n three w i l l have some form of a r t e r i a l d i s e a s e before the age of 65. T h i s problem has cr e a t e d the need f o r an e f f e c t i v e p r e v e n t a t i v e education program i n our s c h o o l s . A recent study by Byrne and Rothman (1979) 20 indicates that the current health education in Canada is "sadly d e f i c i e n t " . This deficiency i s said to result in three areas: curriculum aims and theory, curriculum content, and trained teaching s t a f f . ....the 1978 Canadian Education Association study of health c u r r i c u l a in Canadian schools showed that wide discrepancies exist between school boards, schools and teachers, in the same province, concerning the subject matters of health education. Typically, what i s taught is a function of teacher interest guided in large part by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s e l f - l e a r n i n g k i t s . Thus the overal l picture of health education appears to be without a consistant and stable focus. (Byrne & Rothman,1979, p.10) Byrne & Rothman (1979) further report that most pr o v i n c i a l health curriculum guides are designed only according to the age and grade levels of the c h i l d . As a result, they appear to lack a psychological approach to instruct ion. Health education in B r i t i s h Columbia i s directed by an outdated curriculum guide, "Human L i f e Science"(1963). Science education does offer some health instruction to the elementary school student in areas of basic human anatomy and physiology (Stem Science and Exploring Science). However, these topics are covered only at the grade four and seven l e v e l s . Byrne & Rothman(1978) recommend that Canadians i n i t i a t e a core health cuuriculum which provides consistant up-to-date information, and both attitude and s k i l l development. Further, they suggest that this curriculum be 21 designed according to modern psychological theory. The present study attempts to provide the basis for educators to develop such a psychologically based curriculum for health instruction in Canada. It is f e l t that by i d e n t i f y i n g some of the ty p i c a l children's b e l i e f structures about the heart and the c i r c u l a t o r y system, these may be used by curriculum developers to produce materials which emphasize a pa r t i c u l a r strategy for certain "misconceptions". Also, the knowledge of these b e l i e f s may help to decide the appropriate age for the introduction of certain health c u r r i c u l a into our schools. 2.40 Pedagogical Context of the Study Ausubel's theory of learning provides great insight into the way that prior b e l i e f s a f f e c t the acquisition of further cognitive structures. The following quote summarizes his ideas. If I had to reduce a l l of educational psychology to just one p r i n c i p l e , I would say t h i s : the most important single factor influencing learning i s what the learner already knows. Ascertain t h i s and teach him accordingly. (Ausubel,1968,p.vi) According to his theory, when novel ideas are continually introduced to an indi v i d u a l , these are modified and slowly integrated into an existing cognitive structure. Consequently, the pre-existing b e l i e f s are "amazingly tenacious and resistant to extinction" and the "unlearning" of these b e l i e f s "might well prove to be the most 22 d e t e r m i n a t i v e s i n g l e f a c t o r i n the a c q u i s i t i o n and r e t e n t i o n of s u b j e c t matter knowledge". (Ausubel,1968) A number of s t u d i e s have i l l u s t r a t e d the p e r s i s t a n c e of i n t u i t i v e b e l i e f s i n s c i e n c e , d e s p i t e i n s t r u c t i o n a l e f f o r t s to r e p l a c e them. (Driver,1973; Rowell and Dawson,1977 ; Driver,1981) D r i v e r and E a s l e y (1978) have suggested the importance of i n v e s t i g a t i n g the nature of these b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e s , and they recommend that a d i s t i n c t i o n be made between two types of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s where students' b e l i e f s are assessed i n terms of t h e i r conformance to an accepted c r i t e r i o n are termed "nomothetic s t u d i e s " ( D r i v e r & Easley,1978) . These s t u d i e s can be used to e s t a b l i s h norms of conceptual development i n l e a r n i n g s c i e n c e . An example of t h i s i s a study which attempts to c o r r e l a t e some form of data with the P i a g e t i a n developmental stages so as to determine the s e q u e n t i a l order of c u r r i c u l a r p r e s e n t a t i o n , or the most e f f e c t i v e age f o r i n t r o d u c i n g a concept i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s where students' b e l i e f s are assessed i n t h e i r own terms without r e f e r e n c e to an e x t e r n a l l y accepted c r i t e r i o n are c a l l e d "ideographic s t u d i e s " ( D r i v e r & Easley,1978). The value of these s t u d i e s i s that they can " r a i s e the awareness of the p o s s i b l e p e r s p e c t i v e s p u p i l s may b r i n g and d i f f i c u l t i e s they may have, and hence enable more e f f e c t i v e communication to take 23 p l a c e " . ( D r i v e r & Easley,l978) By understanding the nature of these i n t u i t i v e b e l i e f s , i t may be p o s s i b l e f o r educators to take c h i l d r e n on a step-by-step path from t h e i r p r e - e x i s t i n g ideas to the a c q u i s i t i o n of d e s i r e d conceptual outcomes. T h i s suggestion i s r e v e a l e d i n the f o l l o w i n g statement. What the teacher has i n mind may w e l l be the d e s i r a b l e d e s t i n a t i o n of a t h i n k i n g process; but a l e a r n e r needs to t r a c e the steps from the f a m i l i a r to the new, from the f a c t or idea he possesses, to that which he i s to a c q u i r e . In other words, the l e a r n e r has to make a journey in thought for h i m s e l f . (The B u l l o c k Report,1975, from Driver,1981,p.100) D r i v e r (1981) suggests that by implementing the a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i v i t i e s in s c i e n c e , these may allow students to d i s p r o v e t h e i r " a l t e r n a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s " as w e l l as to a f f i r m the accepted views. In an Ausubelian sense, t h i s i m p l i e s that p r e - e x i s t i n g b e l i e f s become " p r o g r e s s i v e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d " as they are "subsumed" with d e s i r e d i d e a s . Consequently, t h i s p r o g r e s s i v e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n should e v e n t u a l l y l e a d to the d e s i r e d outcome i f the a p p r o p r i a t e intermediary steps are taken. In order to know which "a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i v i t i e s " to implement, the educator must f i r s t a s c e r t a i n the nature of the p r e - e x i s t i n g b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e s . One of the e a r l y p i o n e e r s in the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of c h i l d r e n s ' b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e s was Jean P i a g e t . T h i s i s r e v e a l e d i n h i s two books "The C h i l d s ' Conception of the 24 World"(l929) and "The C h i l d s ' Conception of P h y s i c a l C a u s a l i t y " ( 1 9 3 0 ) . Piaget was not so much i n t e r e s t e d i n the content of these b e l i e f s , but r a t h e r in the thought processes or the methods of t h i n k i n g which c h i l d r e n use to e x p l a i n t h e i r b e l i e f s . Much of t h i s work l a t e r formed the b a s i s of h i s theory of l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s . In the past h a l f decade there has been a number of s t u d i e s which have e x p l i c i t l y i n v e s t i g a t e d the nature of c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e s . ( A g u i r e , 1 9 7 8 ; Kargbo, Hobbs and Erickson,1980; Erickson,1979; Deadman and Kelly,1978; Brumby,1979; Kuhn,1979; McCloskey, Caramazza, and Green,1980; Nussbaum and Novak,1976). Each of these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n d i c a t e two b a s i c p o i n t s : a) c h i l d r e n do indeed possess a number of a l t e r n a t e ideas about concepts u s u a l l y taught i n the school system, and b) i n most cases these ideas can be grouped i n t o a manageable number of c a t e g o r i e s or types f o r the purpose of subsequent i n s t r u c t i o n . Much of the c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h on concept development i n s c i e n c e education has focused towards the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s and very l i t t l e has been d i r e c t e d towards studying c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s i n the area of b i o l o g y . The work of Deadman and K e l l y ( l 9 7 8 ) and Brumby(1979), both centered on uncovering student b e l i e f s about the concepts of e v o l u t i o n and h e r e d i t y . I t was a c o n c l u s i o n of both s t u d i e s that most students i n t u i t i v e l y h o l d a Lamarkian i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e v o l u t i o n . In each i n v e s t i g a t i o n the pre-25 e x i s t i n g b e l i e f s were i d e n t i f i e d and these were used to recommend s p e c i a l s t r a t e g i e s for i n s t r u c t i o n . Another study d i r e c t e d towards concept development research i n b i o l o g y was Kargbo, H'obbs and Er ickson ' s ( 1 980 ) work on student b e l i e f s about the concept of i n h e r i t a n c e . In s i m i l a r i t y to the work of Deadman and K e l l y ( l 9 7 8 ) , t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n explored the nature of these b e l i e f s by means of an open-ended i n t e r v i e w technique. It was f e l t that t h i s method allowed for the d e t e c t i o n of very " s u b t l e conceptual s t r u c t u r e s and emphases which w r i t t e n t e s t i n g or other d i a g n o s t i c techniques r a r e l y do". (Deadman & K e l l y , 1 9 7 8 ) . L i k e the preceding two s t u d i e s , s p e c i f i c t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s were recommended on the b a s i s of the b e l i e f s uncovered. A recent paper by E r i c k s o n (1981) has attempted to summarize the scope and d i r e c t i o n of much of the c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h which d i r e c t s i t s e l f towards uncovering student b e l i e f s about science concepts. He suggests that a f o u r -phase approach might be used to develop t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s which take i n t o account student i n t u i t i v e b e l i e f s . "Phase One" of t h i s scheme e s s e n t i a l l y c o n s i s t s of c o l l e c t i n g a set of i n v e n t o r i e s of student i n t u i t i v e b e l i e f s . "Phase Two" i n v o l v e s the v a l i d i f i c a t i o n of these b e l i e f i n v e n t o r i e s i n a classroom s e t t i n g . E r i c k s o n proposes that "phase thre e " i n v o l v e the f o r m u l a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s which are based upon trends i n the student b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e s . These s t r a t e g i e s would be a p p l i c a b l e to both the teacher and the c u r r i c u l u m developer. E r i c k s o n ' s " f i n a l phase" c o n s i s t s 26 of the implementation and e v a l u a t i o n of these i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t a t e g i e s . To date there has been very l i t t l e r e s e a r c h i n which i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s have been designed to correspond with student i n t u i t i v e b e l i e f s ("phase three" in E r i c k s o n ' s scheme). Perhaps Nussbaum and Novick (1980) have proceeded the f u r t h e s t i n t h i s area by d e s i g n i n g a teaching s t r a t e g y for the concept of the p a r t i c l e model of a i r . The present study i n v e s t i g a t e s c h i l d r e n s ' b e l i e f s about the human c i r c u l a t o r y system. The i n v e s t i g a t o r takes an ideographic approach to the a n a l y s i s of the data, i n the sense that the b e l i e f s which are uncovered are not assessed with respect to the c u r r e n t "accepted" theory of the system. T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n s ' b e l i e f s about the c i r c u l a t o r y system i s s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e : (a) a d i v e r s i t y of b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e s are p o s s i b l e f o r t h i s concept area. (b) some c u r r i c u l a i m p l i c i t l y assume that c h i l d r e n have a b a s i c understanding of the body with respect to i t s s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n . (c) no p r e v i o u s work on the development of concepts r e l a t e d to the human c i r c u l a t o r y system have been s i t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Although t h i s study i s c o n f i n e d only to the f i r s t stage of E r i c k s o n ' s i n s t r u c t i o n a l development scheme ( 1 9 8 1 ) , i t i s hoped that the b e l i e f s which are uncovered i n t h i s work w i l l serve to provide teachers and c u r r i c u l u m developers with a more d e t a i l e d p e r s p e c t i v e which w i l l allow 27 them to c o n s t r u c t i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s or teaching s t r a t e g i e s to promote a more e f f e c t i v e education f o r school c h i l d r e n . 28 CHAPTER THREE  METHODS 3.00 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s chapter d i s c u s s e s three aspects of the methodology used in t h i s study. These are: (1) The s u b j e c t s . (2) The r a t i o n a l e f o r using the c l i n i c a l i n t e r v i e w techn ique. (3) The i n t e r v i e w procedure. 3.10 The Subjects Thirty-two c h i l d r e n aged from seven to fourteen years were s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g to three c r i t e r i a : 1) each had to be w i l l i n g to partake i n the study, 2) they had to be "normal" a c h i e v e r s at s c h o o l , and 3) they had to have w r i t t e n consent from t h e i r parent or guardian. (Refer to Appendix 1 f o r a copy of t h i s l e t t e r of c o n s e n t ) . Each of these c r i t e r i a was confirmed by the teacher p r i o r to these i n t e r v i e w s . Due to the wide d i v e r s i t y of h e a l t h c u r r i c u l a i n Canadian schools (Byrne and Rothman,1979), i t was decided that p r e v i o u s i n s t u c t i o n i n t h i s concept area should not be a s e l e c t i o n - c r i t e r i o n f o r t h i s study. However, at the end of every d i s c u s s i o n , each c h i l d was asked i f "they had ever t a l k e d about the body at s c h o o l . " E i g h t students each were s e l e c t e d from grades 2, 4, 6, and 8. In order to check f o r any b e l i e f s which might 29 be related to the diff e r e n t background experiences of boys and g i r l s , equal numbers of both sex were included for each grade. Table 3.1 summarizes the sample of students interviewed. Characteristics of Interview Subjects GRADE SUBJECTS TOTAL AGE RANGE AVERAGE AGE 2 4 males:4 females 8 7:5 - 8:7 7:9 4 4 males:4 females 8 9:5 - 10:2 9:10 6 4 males:4 females 8 11:5 - 12:' 11:9 8 4 males:4 females 8 13:5 - 14:( 5 13:11 Students were selected from two schools in the Greater Vancouver area of B r i t i s h Columbia - one was an elementary school and the other was a junior secondary school. Both are located in predominantly middle-class r e s i d e n t i a l areas. The investigator made no attempt to determine the parental occupation of these children, since the sample was already inappropriate for generalizing to a broader population due to i t s small size and lack of randomness. Therefore, the findings of thi s study can only be " o f f i c i a l l y " generalized to the sample used herein. 30 However, due to the e x p l o r a t o r y and d e s c r i p t i v e nature of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t i s being hypothesized that the b e l i e f s uncovered from t h i s sample may w e l l be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of " t y p i c a l " c h i l d r e n of s i m i l i a r age and grade. Further s t u d i e s in t h i s area are c l e a r l y r e q u i r e d to c o n f i r m t h i s t h e s i s . 3.20 R a t i o n a l e For Using the C l i n i c a l Interview Method Much of P i a g e t ' s e a r l y r e s e a r c h in c h i l d psychology was conducted using the c l i n i c a l i n t e r v i e w technique. In these c l i n i c a l i n t e r v i e w s both the i n t e r v i e w e r and the subject became a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n a d i s c u s s i o n which was r e l e v a n t to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Often, the c h i l d ' s answers determined the course of q u e s t i o n i n g . Hence, the e n t i r e format of these i n t e r v i e w s c o u l d be a l t e r e d by a l l o w i n g the c h i l d to pursue a d i s c u s s i o n i n an area of h i s or her own i n t e r e s t . I t was f e l t t h a t t h i s technique pr o v i d e d the g r e a t e s t f l e x i b i l i t y by p e r m i t t i n g c h i l d r e n to expand upon many of t h e i r " n a t u r a l mental i n c l i n a t i o n s " and "spontaneous i n t e r e s t s " . (Piaget,1929) Piaget (1929) suggested that the c l i n i c a l i n t e r v i e w may r e v e a l f i v e types of responses from the s u b j e c t ; answers at random, romancing, suggested c o n v i c t i o n , l i b e r a t e d c o n v i c t i o n , and spontaneous c o n v i c t i o n . In order to d i s c r i m i n a t e between these types of responses, Piaget suggested that f u r t h e r probing q u e s t i o n s should be used to determine whether or not the statement was a genuine product of the c h i l d ' s c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e and not something 3 1 suggested by the i n t e r v i e w e r or an "on the spot" i n v e n t i o n . The present study u t i l i z e d a m o d i f i c a t i o n of Piag e t ' s c l i n i c a l i n t e r v i e w technique. In an attempt to c o n t r o l the u n i f o r m i t y of questions to a l l s u b j e c t s , a' set int e r v i e w p r o t o c o l was addressed to each c h i l d . The type of que s t i o n s and t h e i r r e l a t i v e o r d e r i n g in t h i s p r o t o c o l was l a r g e l y determined by an e a r l i e r p i l o t study. However, in keeping with the P i a g e t i a n i n t e r v i e w s , i n d i v i d u a l i z e d probing q u e s t i o n s were used i n an attempt to determine a deeper understanding of the c h i l d ' s response. A l s o , f o r many s u b j e c t s , t h i s probing served to shed l i g h t on d i f f e r e n t f a c e t s of t h e i r b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e which they had not p r e v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n d i d not employ s p e c i f i c tasks such as the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c P i a g e t i a n tasks which r e q u i r e the subject to make a p r e d i c t i o n about the p o s s i b l e outcome of an experiment. However, c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s were used during the course of the in t e r v i e w which served to f a c i l i t a t e the general flow of the d i s c u s s i o n . Each i n t e r v i e w was tape-recorded so that the data c o u l d be l a t e r t r a n s c r i b e d . A l s o , t h i s served to add f u r t h e r v a l i d i t y to the study by a l l o w i n g others to v e r i f y each c h i l d ' s b e l i e f as summarized by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . 32 3.30,The Interview Procedure The data f o r t h i s study were a l l c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g a one-week p e r i o d i n the month of May, 1 9 8 1 . Students were interviewed during the hours of 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. i n a q u i e t room l o c a t e d somewhere w i t h i n each s c h o o l . These d i s c u s s i o n s each l a s t e d about 20 to 30 minutes i n d u r a t i o n . In an attempt to reduce student c o l l a b o r a t i o n between i n t e r v i e w s , each c h i l d was asked at the end of each d i s c u s s i o n "not to d i s c u s s any of the things t a l k e d about i n t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n " with t h e i r classmates. A l s o , e f f o r t s were made to complete a l l the student i n t e r v i e w s from each grade in one day. The format of the i n t e r v i e w f o r t h i s study can be d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s . The purpose of the f i r s t p art was to introduce the t o p i c of d i s c u s s i o n , and to cr e a t e a r e l a x e d i n f o r m a l atmosphere f o r the qu e s t i o n s and answers which were to f o l l o w i n part two. I t was thought that such an atmosphere would help to reduce the student i n h i b i t i o n s and hence promote the g r e a t e s t l i b e r a t i o n of ideas. The i n i t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n which was c o l l e c t e d i n par t one i n c l u d e d a rec o r d of the s u b j e c t ' s name, grade, b i r t h d a t e and sex. F o l l o w i n g t h i s , a few minutes were spent c a s u a l l y c h a t t i n g with the students. In t h i s d i s c u s s i o n the c h i l d r e n were t o l d that the i n t e r v i e w e r was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r ideas on how they thought the body works. I t was ex p l a i n e d that there were no r i g h t or wrong answers to any of the qu e s t i o n s that they would be asked. In a d d i t i o n , the 3 3 students were asked i f a t a p e - r e c o r d i n g c o u l d be made of the c o n v e r s a t i o n . The p r o t o c o l of questions which f o l l o w e d i n part two of the inte r v i e w s was designed to uncover the c h i l d ' s b e l i e f s about the f o l l o w i n g three research areas: 1) What i s the f u n c t i o n of the heart? 2) What are the paths and methods of blood c i r c u l a t i o n ? 3) What are the f u n c t i o n s of the blood? 3 a ) How i s the blood r e l a t e d to the r e s p i r a t o r y system? 3 b ) How i s the blood r e l a t e d to the d i g e s t i v e system? If d u r i n g the subsequent i n t e r v i e w the c h i l d appeared to be "stumped" at any time, he/she was again reminded that there were no " r i g h t or wrong answers" to any of the q u e s t i o n s . As a r e s u l t of the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d probing, i t may have been p o s s i b l e f o r students to answer c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s before they were addressed i n the p r o t o c o l . In such cases, these q u e s t i o n s were not repeated. The f o l l o w i n g i s the s t a n d a r d i z e d p r o t o c o l of questions which were used in t h i s study. I = i n t e r v i e w e r 11: Have you ever heard of the heart? A c t i v i t y 1: Here i s a drawing of the human body (see 34 Figure One) Could you draw a picture of the heart on this drawing? Be sure to show: a) where i t is found in the body, b) i t s size, and c) i t s shape. A c t i v i t y 2: This i s a stethoscope. Do you know what this is used for? Place the stethoscope on the chest. Can you hear anything? 12: What is causing that sound? 13: What do you think the heart does? 14: Have you ever heard of the pulse? A c t i v i t y 3: Feel the pulse on the side of the neck 15: What does i t fe e l like? Can you describe i t ? 16: What do you think is causing that movement in your nec k? 17: What would happen i f we were to get a deep cut on the end of our finger from a sharp piece of glass? 18: If we were cut with t h i s glass anywhere on our bodies would we s t i l l bleed? Why? 19: How does the blood get to these places in our bodies? 110: Is the blood in the body moving or i s i t s i t t i n g s t i l l ? 111: What causes the blood to move in our body? 112: Can you describe the path that a l i t t l e b i t of blood takes when i t moves in the body? A c t i v i t y 4: Could you draw t h i s path on the drawing of 35 the human body? (see Figure One) 113: If we were cut with the sharp piece of glass on our wrists or on our necks, would we bleed the same amount as i f we were cut on our finger? 114: How do we get blood? A c t i v i t y 5: Turn your hand so that your palms are down on the table. Notice the green lines on the top of your hand. Do you know what these lines are called? 115: Why do we have these in the body? 116: Can you t e l l me where these (veins) go in the body? Do they a l l start and end somewhere in the body? 117: What dire c t i o n or which way does the blood move in these veins? 118: Are the blood vessels a l l the same size in the body? Where are the largest and the smallest ones found? 119: Have you ever heard of a heart attack? What happens when someone has a heart attack? 120: What happens when your heart stops beating? (why do you die i f your heart stops?) 121: What does blood do for the body? Why do we have blood in us? 122: What does every part of the body need in order to 1 i ve? Alternative 1: If the subject indicates "food" or the "diges- tive system" at 121 or 122, then proceed to 130 and answer questions 130 to 136. If not, proceed to A c t i v i t y 5 and answer questions 123 to 136. 36 A c t i v i t y 5: Place a bag over your mouth. Plug your nose and breathe normally. Watch the bag. Why does i t move? What causes i t to move? 123: Where inside us does the a i r go when we breathe? 124: Do we need a i r in order to live? What happens i f we can't get air? 125: Why do we take a i r inside us? Why do we breathe? 126: What happens to the a i r once i t is inside us? 127: What parts of the body need a i r in order to liv e ? 128: How does the a i r get from our (body part(s) from 123) to these (body part(s) from 127)? 129: Does the heart have anything to do with our breathing? 130: Where does the food go after we have swallowed i t ? 131: Do we get r i d of a l l the food in us when we go to the bathroom? 132: Do we need food in order to l i v e ? What does food do to keep us alive? 133: What parts of the body need food (for growth and energy-132)? 134: How does the food get to these parts of the body so that i t can be used (for growth and energy-132)? 135 ( i f necessary): What part of the body would most l i k e l y carry the food to these parts? 136 ( i f necessary): You were saying e a r l i e r that we had blood inside us. Does t h i s blood ever touch the food as i t goes through us? 37 A l t e r n a t i v e 2: Proceed to A c t i v i t y 5 and answer ques t i o n s 123 to 129 ( i f these haven't yet been addressed to the s u b j e c t ) . 137: Have you ever t a l k e d about the body at school? T h i s standard p r o t o c o l of q u e s t i o n s was c o n s t r u c t e d so that the s u b j e c t s c o u l d c o n t i n u a l l y add to the d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e s as they proceeded with the i n t e r v i e w . Therefore a complete e v a l u a t i o n f o r each of the r e s e a r c h questions c o u l d only be c a r r i e d out a f t e r reviewing the e n t i r e i n t e r v i e w format. 38 CHAPTER FOUR  ANALYSIS 4.00 Introduction Two factors w i l l be considered in this chapter: the methods of analysis,. and the results of the investigation. The "methods of analysis" section describes the procedure which was employed to interpret and summarize the raw data co l l e c t e d during the student interviews. In the second section, a "conceptual inventory" of children's b e l i e f s has been developed for each research question considered in this study. These b e l i e f s have been categorized to i l l u s t r a t e the trends or s i m i l a r i t i e s which correspond to the age (grade) or the sex of children. These categories of b e l i e f s have been presented in tables of "frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n " . In order to show how the investigator has c l a s s i f i e d these b e l i e f s , excerpts from student interviews have been quoted. 4.10 Methods of Analysis The aim of thi s study has been to identif y children's b e l i e f s about the following three major research questions (henceforth c a l l e d "major questions"): 1. What i s the function of the heart? 2. What are the paths and methods of blood c i r c u l a t i o n ? 39 3. What are the functions of the blood? 3a. How i s the blood related to the respiratory system? 3b. How is the blood related to the digestive system? Some of these major questions have been further divided into what can be c a l l e d "research subquestions" (henceforth c a l l e d "subquestions"). Consequently, the content of each major question contains the sum of i t s constituent subquestions. Below are l i s t e d the major questions with their corresponding subquestions. Major Question 1 - What is the function of the heart? Major Question 2 - What are the paths and methods of blood c i r c u l a t i o n ? Subquestion 2.1 - What i s the pulse? Subquestion 2.2 - How i s the blood d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the body? Subquestion 2.3 - How do we get blood? Subquestion 2.4 - What are the veins and where do they go in the body? Major Question 3 - What are the functions of the blood? Major Question 3a - How is the blood related to the respiratory system? Subquestion 3a.1 - Where does the a i r go when we inhale i t ? Subquestion 3a.2 - Is the a i r dist r i b u t e d to other parts of the body, and i f so, how is i t distributed? Major Question 3b - How i s the blood related to the digestive system? Each ch i l d ' s interview data was later transcribed to produce a summary of their b e l i e f s or ideas about each of these major questions or subquestions. Consequently, nine summaries of b e l i e f s were produced from each interview. 40 ( B e l i e f s about Major Questions 2 and 3a were not t a b u l a t e d due to the r e d u c t i o n of these i n t o s u b q u e s t i o n s ) . For an exemplary t r a n s c r i p t of a student i n t e r v i e w and corresponding b e l i e f summaries, r e f e r to Appendices 2,3,4 & 5. These nine b e l i e f summaries of each c h i l d were compared to those of the other c h i l d r e n in order to note the presence of any trends or c o n s i s t e n c i e s . These trends i n b e l i e f p a t t e r n s were then c a t e g o r i z e d and f u r t h e r examined in terms of the s u b j e c t response frequency. T h i s response frequency is- i l l u s t r a t e d in t a b u l a r form. I t d i f f e r e n t i a t e s the respondents of each b e l i e f category a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r grade, sex, and grade-sex i n t e r a c t i o n . As a r e s u l t of t h i s a n a l y s i s , a "conceptual i n v e n t o r y " has been generated f o r each of the nine r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . T h i s inventory i l l u s t r a t e s the many d i f f e r e n t b e l i e f s which c h i l d r e n possess about each of the q u e s t i o n s . 4.20 R e s u l t s of the I n v e s t i g a t i o n 4.21 The Format of the Conceptual Inventory In order to generate a conceptual i n v e n t o r y f o r each major q u e s t i o n or corresponding subquestion, s i m i l i a r trends i n b e l i e f have been c a t e g o r i z e d together. The i n v e s t i g a t o r shows how each b e l i e f category was d e r i v e d by quoting e x c e r p t s from the student i n t e r v i e w s . In a d d i t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n i s presented i n t a b u l a r form which i n d i c a t e s the grade and the sex of the c h i l d r e n who possess these b e l i e f s . The conceptual i n v e n t o r i e s are presented a c c o r d i n g 41 to the f o l l o w i n g format: 1. The major q u e s t i o n and subquestion ( i f present) and the i n t e r v i e w questions which correspond to t h i s . 2. A l i s t of the t o t a l b e l i e f c a t e g o r i e s which are r e l a t e d to each major q u e s t i o n or subquestion, and the number of respondents i n each b e l i e f category. 3. Exemplary excerpts from the i n t e r v i e w which correspond to each b e l i e f c a t e gory. 4. General comments about the c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s about each major q u e s t i o n and subquestion ( i f p r e s e n t ) . 5. The " t a b l e of response frequency" f o r each major qu e s t i o n or subquestion. 4.22 The R e s u l t s 1 ) Major Question 1: What i s the f u n c t i o n of the heart? (11 - 1 4 ) T o t a l B e l i e f C a t e g o r i e s f o r Major Question 1 1-A: A i r t r a v e l s to the heart where i t i s mixed with blood, t h i s mixture i s then pumped to the r e s t of the body. (n=5) 1-B: A i r t r a v e l s to the heart where i t i s s e p a r a t e l y pumped through the body. The heart a l s o pumps blood through the body. ( A i r and blood t r a v e l through separate passages). (n=3) 1-C: A i r t r a v e l s to the heart where i t i s then pumped out of the body d u r i n g e x h a l a t i o n . The heart a l s o pumps the blood through the body. ( A i r and blood are not mixed.) (n=3) 1-D: The heart only pumps blood through the body. (n=l7) 1-E: Both food and a i r t r a v e l independently to the heart where they are mixed with blood. T h i s mixture i s then pumped to the r e s t of the body. (n=2) 1-F: No idea of the f u n c t i o n s of the h e a r t . (n=2) 42 Exemplary Interview Excerpts Corresponding to Belief Categories (M.Q.1) Belief Category 1-A: Air travels to the heart where i t is mixed with blood, this mixture is then pumped to the rest of the body. (n=5) George (11:8 - Grade 6) S: "When you breathe i t makes your heart beat by breathing a i r into i t and making i t pump. Like when you inhale, i t pumps out, and when you exhale i t pumps i n . When you inhale a i r , i t (the heart) goes bigger because you've got a i r in i t . " I: "You were saying e a r l i e r in our discussion that the heart pumped blood. Now you are saying that the heart is f i l l e d with a i r . " S: "Well i t (the a i r ) goes into the blood." Belief Category 1-B: Air travels to the heart where i t is pumped through the body. The heart also pumps blood through the body. (Air and blood travel through separate passages). (n=3) Neil (10:2 - Grade 4) S: "When i t pumps i t vibrates the blood and i t ' s moving around." S: (later) "Like the heart i s beating, and the a i r i s just t r a v e l l i n g around, and some of the a i r goes to your neck and face. When you breathe another time the old a i r goes out the nose." I: "How does this have to do with the heart?" S: "The heart is beating and i t travels the a i r up here (points to head), i t blows i t up here." Jack (7:5 - Grade 2) S: "The heart i t makes the blood move, and the a i r i t goes into your heart, so i t sort of helps i t . " I: "What happens to the a i r once i t goes into the heart?" S: "Then you breathe i t out again. Then you breathe i t in again." 43 I: (later) "Do any other parts of the body need a i r ? " S: "I think right there (points to side of chest) and there (points to abdomen)-(later) and a l i t t l e to the brain. " I: "How does the a i r get down to these parts?" S: "Not a l l the vessels carry blood, some carry a i r . " I: "How does the a i r get to the brain?" S: "It travels in these things (points to veins on hand)." I: "But you said that blood t r a v e l l e d in these l i n e s . " S: "Not a l l of them." Belief Category 1-C: Air travels to the heart where i t is pumped out of the body (during exhalation). The heart also pumps the blood through the body. (Air and blood are not mixed). (n=3) Ju l i e (9:8 - Grade 4) S: "I think as well as pumping the blood, I think i t might sort of push the a i r out of your body and then out of your mouth so you can breathe again. The heart is beating and i t pumps the a i r l i k e i t pumps the blood." Belief Category 1-D: - The heart only pumps blood through the body. (n=17) Lorna (11:10 - Grade 6) S: "The heart brings in blood and puts i t out through a l l your c e l l s . It gives i t to the parts of the body to keep you a l i v e . " Belief Category 1-E: Both the food and the a i r travel independently to the heart where they are mixed with the blood. This mixture i s then pumped to the rest of the body. (n=2) Harry (14:2 - Grade 8) S: "Air gets pumped into the heart, then i t goes into the blood, then the blood ca r r i e s i t through the body. The lungs might put enough into your heart-just 44 the amount that i t needs, then the heart just pushes i t into the blood and then the blood takes i t to the body. " S: (later) "It's (the food) churned into acids in your stomach, then i t somehow goes through some tubes or something to your heart, and then the heart takes i t and disperses i t into the blood and then the blood takes i t and takes i t through the body." Comments About Major Question 1 : What is the function of the heart? Nearly a l l the subjects (n=30) believed that the heart causes the movement of blood throught the body. The terms "pushing" or "pumping" were the most common words to describe t h i s function of the heart. It is interesting to note that 13 subjects believed that a i r , when inhaled, travels to the heart. Seven of these thirteen children thought that the heart i s the mixing place for the a i r and the blood. This aerated blood was thought to be subsequently d i s t r i b u t e d to the rest of the body. Three of thi s group of 13 thought that the heart pumps the a i r (separately from the blood) throughout the body. The remaining three children believed that the heart causes the a i r to exhale as a result of i t s pumping action. The 13 subjects who believed that the a i r travels to the heart represented an equal cross-section of the sex and age of the children interviewed. Two subjects, each from grade 8, indicated that in addition to a i r , food travels to the heart from the stomach area. This food was said to mix with the blood in the heart. 45 Only two children f a i l e d to produce their b e l i e f s on the functions of the heart. This may have been due to the novelty of th i s question, or i t may have been due to the interviewer's intimidation. Both children were from grade 2. The diagrams of the position, size, and shape of the human heart ( A c t i v i t y 1) were generally quite accurate. A l l thirty-two subjects positioned the heart in the chest region of the body. The size of this organ varied between being twice i t s normal size, to being about half i t s normal siz e . The shape ranged from the t y p i c a l "valentine" heart, to an irregular-shaped c i r c l e . There did not appear to be any trends in age or sex which corresponded to these drawings. 46 TABLE ONE Major Question: What i s the major f u n c t i o n or the heart? B e l i e f C a t e g o r i e s : 1-A: A i r t r a v e l s to the heart where i t i s mixed with the blood, t h i s mixture i s then pumped to the r e s t of the body. 1-B: A i r t r a v e l s to the heart where i t i s s e p a r a t e l y pumped through the body. The heart a l s o pumps blood through the body. ( A i r and blood t r a v e l through separate passages). 1-C: A i r t r a v e l s to the heart where i t i s pumped out of the body d u r i n g e x h a l a t i o n . The heart a l s o pumps the blood through the body. ( A i r and blood are not mixed). 1-D: The heart only pumps blood through the body. 1-E: Both food and a i r t r a v e l independently to the heart where they are mixed with the blood. T h i s mixture i s then pumped to the r e s t of the body. 1-F: No idea of the f u n c t i o n s of the h e a r t . CATEGC )RY GRADE 1 -A 1 -B 1 -c 1 -D 1 -E 1 -F 2 2 2 - 2 - 2 4 1 1 1 5 - -6 1 - 2 5 - -8 1 — — 5 2 -Females 2 1 2 8 1 2 Males 3 2 1 1 0 1 -2F - 1 - 1 - 2 2M 2 1 - 1 - -4F 1 - - 2 - -4M - 1 1 3 - -6F - - 1 3 - -6M v 1 - 1 2 - -8F - - - 2 1 -8M 1 — — 3 1 — 47 2) Major Question 2: What are the paths and methods of blood c i r c u l a t i o n ? (15 - 122) Subquestion 2.1 What i s the pulse? (15 - 16) T o t a l B e l i e f C a t e g o r i e s f o r Subquestion 2.1 2.1-A: The pulse i s somehow l i n k e d with the heart - no f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n s . (n=5) 2.1-B: The pulse i s caused by blood running through blood v e s s e l s . (n=l8) 2.1-C: The pulse i s caused by b r e a t h i n g . (n=2) 2.1-D: The pulse i s caused by your b r a i n working. (n=l) 2.1-E: No idea what the pulse i s . (n = 6) Exemplary Interview Excerpts Corresponding to B e l i e f C a t e g o r i e s (SQ. 2.1) B e l i e f Category 2.1-A: The pulse i s somehow l i n k e d with the heart - no f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n s . (n = 5) Anne (7:11 - Grade 2) I: (Subject has j u s t f e l t pulse i n neck). "What does that f e e l l i k e ? " S: " I t f e e l s l i k e when your heart beats." I: "What causes that movement?" S: "Your h e a r t . " I: . "But you s a i d that your heart was down here ( p o i n t s to chest) i n your diagram. What i s causing t h i s movement i n your neck?" S: "I don't know." B e l i e f Category 2.1-B: The pulse i s caused by the blood running through the blood v e s s e l s . (n=l8) Jack (7:5 - Grade 2) I: "What do you thin k i s causing that movement?" S: "Your h e a r t . " 48 I: "But you s a i d that your heart was down here in your c h e s t . " S: "Well there's these t h i n g s , I don't know what they're c a l l e d . They go up here (p o i n t s to head) and everywhere and i t pumps blood i n t o these."' B e l i e f Category 2.1-C: The pulse i s caused by b r e a t h i n g . (n = 2) K e l l y (7:6 - Grade 2) I: "What does that f e e l l i k e when you f e e l your p u l s e ? " S: "Going out and i n . " I: "What do you think i s causing that to go out and i n ? " S: "Is i t when you breathe?" B e l i e f Category 2.1-D: The pulse i s caused by your b r a i n working. (n=1 ) J u l i e (9:8 - Grade 4) I: (Subject i s f e e l i n g pulse in neck) "Can you f e e l anything?" S: "A b i t - i t so r t of v i b r a t e s a b i t . " I: "What do you think i s causing that v i b r a t i o n . " S: "Your b r a i n working." Comments About Subquestion 2.1: What i s the Pulse? Although t h i r t y s u b j e c t s b e l i e v e d that the heart causes the movement of the blood through the body (as seen f o r Major Question One), only eighteen s u b j e c t s thought that the pulse i s caused by the heart pumping blood through the blood v e s s e l s . T h i r t e e n of t h i s group of eighteen were from grades 6 and 8 while only f i v e c h i l d r e n were from grades 2 and 4. 49 F i v e s u b j e c t s c o u l d i d e n t i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f e e l i n g of the pulse and the beat of the he a r t , but these c h i l d r e n were unable to extend t h i s concept to the movement of blood through the blood v e s s e l s . Four of these s u b j e c t s were from grades 2 and 4. Two sub j e c t s f e l t that the pulse i s due to the flow of a i r while b r e a t h i n g . Perhaps t h i s may have been due to the f a c t that the pulse was taken by f e e l i n g the c a r o t i d a r t e r y in the neck. As a recommendation f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h , the i n v e s t i g a t o r suggests that the pulse should a l s o be taken in the w r i s t . T h i s part of the anatomy would be f a r removed from the head r e g i o n , thus b r e a t h i n g or " b r a i n a c t i v i t y " ( B e l i e f Category 2.1-D) would not o f f e r as much b i a s to the c h i l d ' s answer. Six c h i l d r e n d i d not o f f e r any suggestions as to the cause of the p u l s e . Three of these s u b j e c t s were from grade 2, one from grade 4, and two from grade 6. 50 TABLE TWO Major Question 2: What are the paths and methods of blood c i rculat ion? Subquestion 2.1: What is the pulse? Belief Categories: 2.1-A: The pulse is somehow linked with the heart -no further explanations. 2.1-B: The pulse is caused by blood running through blood vessels. 2.1-C: The pulse is caused by breathing. 2.1-D: The pulse i s caused by your brain working. 2.1-E: No idea what the pulse i s . CATEGORY GRADE 2.1-A 2.1-B 2. 1-C 2.1-D 2. 1-E 2 1 3 1 - 3 4 3 2 1 1 1 6 1 5 - - 2 8 — 8 — - -Females 3 7 2 1 2 Males 2 1 1 - - 4 2F 1 1 - - 1 2M - 2 - - 2 4F 2 - 2 1 -4M 1 2 - - 1 6F 1 2 - - 1 6M - 3 - - 1 8F - 2 - - -8M — 4 — — -51 3) Major Question 2: What are the paths and methods of blood d i s t r i b u t i o n ? (15 - 122) Subquestion 2.2: How i s the blood d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the body? (17 - 113) T o t a l B e l i e f C a t e g o r i e s f o r Subquestion 2.2 2.2-A: From the heart the blood flows through v e i n s . T h i s flow i s in one d i r e c t i o n o nly. The movement of blood i s from the heart to one part of the body, then to other p a r t s , then f i n a l l y back to the heart . (n=5) 2.2-B: From the heart the blood flows through the blood v e s s e l s . T h i s flow i s in one d i r e c t i o n o nly. The movement of blood i s from the heart to one part of the body and d i r e c t l y back to the hear t . (n=12) 2.2-C: From the heart the blood t r a v e l s through blood v e s s e l s . T h i s flow i s i n one d i r e c t i o n only. The blood i s c a r r i e d by the blood v e s s e l s only to the body p a r t . No e x p l a n a t i o n i s given as to how i t ret u r n s to the h e a r t . (n=9) 2.2-D: From the heart the blood flows through v e i n s . T h i s flow i s i n a back-and-forth motion in the v e i n s . The movement of blood i s from the heart to one part of the body and d i r e c t l y back to the heart through the same v e i n . (n=3) 2.2-E: The heart pumps the blood "to the body". No mention i s given of t h i s movement through blood v e s s e l s . T h i s flow i s d i r e c t e d only towards the body p a r t s . No e x p l a n a t i o n i s given as to how the blood r e t u r n s to the h e a r t . (n=l) 2.2-F: The heart i s not a s s o c i a t e d with blood movement. Th i s movement i s caused by the movement of the body. The blood s t a r t s from the head and moves around the body i n a haphazard way. (n=2) Exemplary Interview Excerpts Corresponding to B e l i e f C a t e g o r i e s (SQ. 2.2) B e l i e f Category 2.2-A: From the heart the blood flows through the v e i n s . T h i s flow i s i n one d i r e c t i o n o nly. The movement of blood i s from the heart to one pa r t of the body, then to other p a r t s , then f i n a l l y back to the h e a r t . (n=5) 52 David (13:6 - Grade 8) S: "The heart pumps the blood through the v e i n s , I guess." S: ( l a t e r ) "The heart pumps i t (the blood) and i t c i r c u l a t e s . " S: ( l a t e r , subject e x p l a i n s blood diagram - r e f e r to Fi g u r e One) " I guess i t would come down from the heart and i t would come down somewhere in the l e g , hang a U-turn, go back up and then go a l l around and then back to the h e a r t . -And probably down h i s arms or something and then back to the h e a r t . " B e l i e f Category 2.2-B: From the heart the blood flows through blood v e s s e l s . T h i s flow i s in one d i r e c t i o n o n l y . The movement of blood i s from the heart to one part of the body and d i r e c t l y back to the hear t . (n=12) A l l e n (9:9 - Grade 4) "How does the blood get to these p a r t s in the body?" "The heart pumps i t through these v e i n s . " ( l a t e r , subject speaks about h i s diagram - r e f e r to Fi g u r e Two) "One l i n e goes down and the other goes up to put the bad blood back i n the h e a r t . " "What do you mean by "bad blood"?" " I t ' s the blood that takes a l l the d i r t y s t u f f out of your hands and t h i n g s . " "What does the new blood have that the bad blood doesn't have?" "The bad blood i s a b i t d u l l , and the new blood i s a l l red. I j u s t heard on t e l e v i s i o n that the bad blood j u s t i s n ' t very good." ( l a t e r ) "When the bad blood goes i n t o the heart i t performs new blood and then the new blood comes out and the bad blood comes back i n t o the h e a r t . I t keeps going around." B e l i e f Category 2.2-C: From the heart the blood t r a v e l s through blood v e s s e l s . T h i s flow i s in one d i r e c t i o n o nly. The blood i s only c a r r i e d by these blood v e s s e l s to the body p a r t . No e x p l a n a t i o n i s I : S: S: I: S: I : S: S: 53 given as to how i t r e t u r n s to the h e a r t . (n=9) N e i l (10:2 - Grade 4) S: ( r e f e r to F i g u r e 3). "When the heart i s b e a t i n g , i t moves the blood and the blood gets i n t o the v e i n , and the v e i n i t t r a v e l s down the arm to your hands." I: " I f you've got blood flowing i n t o your hands, won't they j u s t get f i l l e d up with blood?" S: "When i t ' s f i l l e d up, i t w i l l stop there u n t i l the blood r e s t s . " I: "Can you t e l l me a l i t t l e more?" S: " I f • the hand has too much blood in i t , i t won't go there anymore, i t w i l l t r a v e l somewhere e l s e . " B e l i e f Category 2.2-D: From the heart, the blood flows through the v e i n s . T h i s flow i s i n a back-and-forth motion in the v e i n s . The movement of blood i s from the heart to one part of the body and d i r e c t l y back to the heart through the same v e i n . (n=3) Lorna (11:10 - Grade 6) S: "The heart pumps i t and d i s t r i b u t e s the blood to the v e i n s . " S: ( l a t e r ) "The v e i n s b r i n g the blood to the p l a c e s i t has to go." I: ( l a t e r - r e f e r to F i g u r e 4) " I f the blood moves in one d i r e c t i o n , doesn't i t b u i l d up pressure at the end of your foot and hand?" S: "No, because i n the same blood v e s s e l they go both ways. L i k e , one p a r t goes t h i s way ( p o i n t s up towards h e a r t ) , and one part goes t h i s way ( p o i n t s towards f o o t ) . " I: "I don't understand what you mean." S: "In the vein i t goes both ways." B e l i e f Category 2.2-E: The heart pumps the blood "to the body". No mention i s given of t h i s movement through blood v e s s e l s . T h i s flow i s d i r e c t e d only towards the 54 body parts. No explanation is given as to how the blood returns to the heart. (n= 1 ) Louise (8:0 - Grade 2) I: "How does the blood get to a l l the spots in the body?" S: "Air, when you breathe i t in, i t goes and pushes the blood." I: "Where does the blood go when i t travels around the body?" S: "It stays at the outside." I: "Outside of what?" S: "Underneath your skin." I: "Do you know what causes the blood to move?" S: "The heart and the a i r . When you breathe in i t goes into your heart, then i t a l l pumps i t (the blood)." -This subject later thought that the veins acted as "connectors" of the di f f e r e n t parts of the body. Belief Category 2.2-F: The heart is not associated with blood movement. This movement i s caused by the movement of the body. The blood starts from the head and moves around the body in a haphazard way. (n=2) Margaret (7:10 - Grade 2) I: "Does the blood move in the body?" S: "Sometimes i t s i t s s t i l l , sometimes i t moves." I: "What causes i t to move?" S: "Like when I move, i t starts to move." I: "How does the blood get around the body?" S: "By bones pushing." (Refer to Figure 5 for thi s subject's ideas on the directions that the blood takes when i t moves around the body.) 55 Comments about Subquestion 2.2: How is the blood di s t r i b u t e d  through the body? There appears to be five categories of beli e f as to how the blood moves in the body. In the f i r s t category (Belief 2.2-A), the blood is thought to move through the blood vessels so as to complete a " c i r c l e " to and from the heart. However this path of movement extends in a continuous manner throughout the entire body before i t returns to the heart. For example, the blood would flow from an arm to a leg, then to the other leg, then to the other arm, and f i n a l l y back to the heart. A l l five subscribers to this b e l i e f were from grades 6 and 8 (one in grade 6 and four in grade 8). In the second category (Belief 2.2-B), the blood is also thought to flow u n i d i r e c t i o n a l l y through the blood vessels so as to complete a c i r c u l a t i o n of the blood to and from the heart. In contrast to the f i r s t category,this flow is from the heart to a body part, and d i r e c t l y back to the heart. This formed the largest group with n=12 (four children each from grades 4, 6, and 8). The t h i r d category of beli e f (Belief 2.2-C), di f f e r e d from the f i r s t two categories in that there was no indication of the c i r c u l a t i o n of blood back to the heart. These subjects believed that the blood only flows from the heart to the body part. This be l i e f was maintained by each subject despite the following counter-suggestion made by the investigator: "won't the hand (or body part) just get f i l l e d 56 up with blood?". Nine children from the sample held this b e l i e f (four each from grades 2 & 4,,and one from grade 6). The fourth belief category (Belief 2.2-D), held that the blood flows in a back-and-forth motion within each blood vessel. In this sense, the blood is c i r c u l a t i n g from the heart to the body part,and back to the heart. Three respondents subscribed to this b e l i e f . Three children believed that the movement of blood throughout the body takes place in a haphazard manner. The blood was thought to move by some other means than through the blood, vessels. A l l three subjects were from grade 2. To summarize, twenty children held to a b e l i e f of the c i r c u l a t i o n of the blood throughout the body. This movement both starts and ends at the heart. It should be noted that the term "vein" was used synonymously with " a r t e r i e s " . No children distinguished between the venous and the a r t e r i a l system, or between veins and a r t e r i e s . In this sense, the blood flow to and from the heart is through the "veins". 58 FIGURE THREE Exemplary Diagram of the Human Blood C i r c u l a t i o n Corresponding t o B e l i e f Category 2.2-C 59 62 TABLE THREE Major Question 2: What are the paths and methods of blood c i rculat ion? Subouestion 2.2: How i s the blood d i s t r i b u t e d throughout thi. >•:•:;>•? Belief Categories: 2.2-A: From the heart the blood flows through veins. This flow i s in one d i r e c t i o n only. The movement of blood i s from the heart to one part of the body, then to another port of the body, then f i n a l l y back to the heart. 2.2-B: From the heart the blood flows through blood vessels. This flow i s in one d i r e c t i o n only. The movement of blood is from the heart to one part of the body and d i r e c t l y back to the heart. 2.2-C: From the heart the blood t r a v e l s through blood vessels. This flow i s in one d i r e c t i o n only. The blood i s c a r r i e d only to the body part by the blood vessel. No explanations are given as to how i t returns to the heart. 2.2-D: From the heart, the blood flows through veins. This flow i s in a back-and-forth motion in the veins. The movement of blood is from the heart to one part of the body and d i r e c t l y back to the heart through the same vein. 2.2-E: The heart pumps blood "to the body". No mention is given of t h i s movement through blood vessels. This flow i s directed only towards the body parts. No explanations are given as to how the blood returns to the heart. 2.2-F: The cause of blood movement i s thought to be the movement of the body. The blood s t a r t s from the head and moves around the body in a haphazard way. CATEGORY GRADE 2.2-A 2.2-B 2.2-C 2.2-D 2.2-E 2.2-F 2 - - 4 1 1 2 4 - 4 4 - - -6 1 4 1 2 - -8 4 4 — — - -Females 2 6 3 2 1 2 Males 3 6 6 1 - -2F - - 1 - 1 2 2M - - 3 1 - -4F - 2 2 - - -4M - 2 2 - - -6F - 2 - 2 - -6M 1 2 1 - - -8F 2 2 - - - -8M 2 2 — — — , -i 63 4) Major Question 2: What are the paths and methods of blood d i s t r i b u t i o n ? (15 - 122) Subquestion 2.3: How do we get blood? (114) Total Belief Categories for Subquestion 2.3 2.3-A: Blood is made in the heart. (n=2l) 2.3-B: Blood is made in the stomach from the food we eat. (n = 2) 2.3-C: Blood is made in the bone marrow. (n=1) 2.3-D: Blood is made from food and water - no idea where this takes place. (n = 2) 2.3-E: We get blood from our head. (n=l) 2.3-F: Our blood comes only from our mothers when we are l i t t l e . (n=l) 2.3-G: No idea how we get blood. (n=4) Exemplary Interview Excerpts Corresponding to Belief Categories (SQ. 2.3) Belief Category 2.3-A: Blood is made in the heart. (n=2l) Allen (9:9 - Grade 4) I: "How do we get blood in our bodies?" S: "In our heart." I: "Can you t e l l me a b i t more about that?" S: "I think that when the old blood goes into the heart i t performs new blood and then the new blood comes out and the old blood comes back into the heart. It keeps going around." I: "Where do we get the blood o r i g i n a l l y ? " S: "From the heart mostly." I: "Do you mean i t ' s made in the heart?" S: "Yes." 64 Belief Category 2.3-B: Blood i s made in the stomach from the food we eat. (n=2) Randy (9:10 - Grade 4) I: "How do we get blood in our body?" S: "From the good food that we eat." I: "So you are saying that we eat the blood." S: "When you eat i t , i t forms blood c e l l s in your body." I: "Where abouts are these blood c e l l s formed?" S: "In your stomach probably, or your intestines." Belief Category 2.3-C: Blood is made in the bone marrow. (n=1 ) Susan (13:11 - Grade 8) I: "How do we get blood in the body?" S: "Like through the bones and the marrow." I: "Is this where the blood i s made in the body." S: "I think i t ' s in the inside of your bones and then i t goes to your heart and t h i s d i s t r i b u t e s i t to your body. " Belief Category 2.3-D: Blood i s made from the food and water, no idea where th i s takes place. (n=2) Jack (7:5 - Grade 2) I: "Jack, how do we get blood?" S: "From the food we eat." I: "Where does the food become blood in the body - where does i t change from being food to being blood?" S: "Well, i t doesn't exactly do that. Like, the proteins and s t u f f , i t goes into some sort of thing and everything else that you eat goes in and i t makes blood." I: "Do you know where that blood i s made?" S: "I don't know." 65 Belief Category 2.3-E: We get blood from our head. (n = l ) Anne (7:11 - Grade 2) I: "How do we get blood in the body?" S: "From our head." (This subject did not offer any further b e l i e f s about the or i g i n of the blood.) Belief Category 2.3-F: Our blood only comes from our mothers when we are l i t t l e . ( n = l ) Greg (7:5 - Grade 2) I: "Where do we get our blood, Kevin?" S: "I don't know." I: "Do you know where i t ' s made in the body?" S: "From the mother's heart." I: "Well, you are a big boy now, do you think that you s t i l l get i t from your mother?" S: "But when you were l i t t l e and s t i l l in the heart -yes. " I: "So you don't make blood anymore now, eh?" S: "No." Comments about Subquestion 2.3: How do we get blood? Most subjects believed that the blood i s made in the heart (n=21). Many of these f e l t that since t h i s i s "the place where the blood starts from", then "thi s i s the place where i t i s made". Others thought that the blood i s made in the heart from the food that we ingest. Only two subjects could suggest how this food travels to the heart for blood production (Belief Category 1-E, - Major Question 1). The twenty-one children who maintained t h i s b e l i e f were evenly 66 d i s t r i b u t e d across a l l grades and each sex. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between blood p r o d u c t i o n and the i n g e s t i o n of food i s seen in B e l i e f C a t e g o r i e s 2.3-B and 2.3-D ( t o t a l N=4). Other o r i g i n s of blood p r o d u c t i o n i n c l u d e d the head (n=l-grade 2), the bone marrow (n=1-grade 8), and the maternal source of blood before b i r t h (n=1-grade 2). Only four c h i l d r e n c o u l d not comment on the o r i g i n of the blood. 67 TABLE FOUR Major Question 2: What are the paths and methods of blood dis t r i b u t i o n ? Subquestion 2.3: How do we get blood? Belief Categories: 2. 3 -A: Blood is made in the heart. 2. 3 -B: Blood is made in the stomach from the food we eat. 2. 3 -C: Blood is made in the bone marrow. 2. 3 -D: Blood is made from the food and water - no idea where this takes place. 2. 3 -E: We get blood from our head. 2. 3 -F: Our blood comes only from our mothers when we are l i t t l e . 2. 3 -G: No idea how we get blood. C :ATEGORI 1 GRADE 2.3-A 2.3-B 2.3-C 2. 3-D 2.3-E 2.3-F 2.3-G 2 3 - - 1 1 1 2 4 7 1 - - - - -6 5 1 - 1 - - 1 8 6 — 1 — — — 1 Females 1 1 - 1 - 1 - 3 Males 1 0 2 — 2 - 1 1 2F 1 - - - 1 - 2 2M 2 - - 1 - 1 -4F 4 - - - - - -4M 3 1 - - - - -6F 4 - - - - - -6M 1 1 - 1 - - 1 8F 2 - 1 - - - 1 8M 4 — — — — — — 68 5) Major Question 2; What are the paths and methods of blood d i s t r i b u t i o n ? (15 - 122) Subquestion 2.4: What are the veins and where do they go in the body? (115 - 120) Total Belief Categories for Subquestion 2.4 2.4-A: Blood flows through the veins. These extend from the heart to the body parts. (n=27) 2.4-B: Veins connect and support d i f f e r e n t parts of the body. They are not linked at a l l with blood. (n=3) 2.4-C: Veins help us to move our body. They extend from the head to the d i f f e r e n t body parts. (n=l) 2.4-D: Veins allow blood to flow through them. They extend from the head to the di f f e r e n t body parts. (n=1 ) Exemplary Interview Excerpts Corresponding to Belief Categories (SQ. 2.4) Belief Category 2.4-A: Blood flows through the veins. These extend from the heart to the body parts. (n=27) Doug (11:5- Grade 6) I: (Investigator refers to the veins on the top of the hand) "Why do we have these veins in the body?" S: "To make blood go to d i f f e r e n t parts of the body." I: "Do the veins a l l start and end somewhere in the body?" S: "They start at the heart and they go a l l around, and they usually go back to the heart, and i t pumps more blood and i t goes a l l around your body - l i k e a c i r c l e . " Belief Category 2.4-B: Veins connect and support the dif f e r e n t parts of the body. They are not linked at a l l with blood. They are a l l over the body. (n=3) Dawn (12:3 - Grade 6) I: "Why do we have these (veins) in the body?" 69 S: "If we didn't have them, our fingers wouldn't stand up straight. They would just limp around. They attach to your fingers. If you didn't have them, your fingers would just limp around." I: "Do they serve any other function?" S: "They go up your arms. They're attached everywhere in your body." I: "What do they do for the body? Why do we have them in us?" S: "I think i t ' s just to keep you straightened, or just the way you are - straight." I: (later) "How does the blood move inside you." S: "It runs back and forth or sideways - just l i k e in a swimming pool when the water goes swif t l y around." Louise (8:0 - Grade 2) I: "Why do we have these veins in the body?" S: "To hold our knuckles on to our hand." I: "Do we have these veins on our legs?" S: "Yes, to keep the thigh connected to the kneecap, and the kneecap connected to the lower thigh." Belief Category 2.4-C: Veins help us to move our body. They extend from the head to the di f f e r e n t body parts. Barb (9:11 - Grade 4) I: (Investigator refers to the veins on the top of the hand). "What do these green lines do in the body, Barb?" S: "They help you to move your hand - moving." I: "What do they help our body do?" S: "They help us move our hands, and our head, and our legs." I: "Do they a l l start and end somewhere in the body?" S: "They start from the hand and they end in the head." 7 0 Belief Category 2.4-D; Veins allow blood to flow through them. They extend from the head to the d i f f e r e n t body parts. (n=1) Anne (7:11 - Grade 2) I: (Subject previously c a l l e d the green lines on the top of the hand "veins"). "Why do we have these veins in our body?" S: "So that you can get blood into your hands and f ingers." I: "Can you t e l l me where these green lines go in the body? Do they a l l start and end somewhere in the body?" S: "Start from your head." I: "And where do they end?" S: "End in your toes and hands." -Comments about Subquestion 2 . 4 : What are the veins and where do they go in the body? By in large, most subjects thought that the function of the veins is to allow blood movement. Twenty-seven children (equally representing a l l grades) believed that these structures extend between the heart and the body parts. Several of these indicated that instead of two separate veins (for input and output), one long vein might exist between the heart and the body part. For example this vein would loop around at the end of the hand and take the blood back to the heart. Only one c h i l d suggested that the o r i g i n of the veins is in the head region. The remaining subjects held to the b e l i e f that the primary function of the veins i s to connect the body parts 71 so as to o f f e r support or m o b i l i t y to them. The four c h i l d r e n i n t h i s category were in grades 2 & 6 (two i n grade 2, two i n grade 6) . Again there was no d i s t i n c t i o n made at any time between the venous and the a r t e r i a l systems or between v e i n s and a r t e r i e s . Blood was thought to flow both to and from the heart through the v e i n s . 72 TABLE FIVE Major Question 2: What are the paths and methods of blood c i rculat ion Subquestion 2.4: What are the veins and where do they go in the body? Belief Categories: 2.4-A: Blood flows through the veins. These extend from the heart to the body parts. 2.4-B: Veins connect and support the d i f f e r e n t parts of the body. They are not linked at a l l with blood. 2.4-C: Veins help us to move our body. They extend from the head to the d i f f e r e n t body parts. 2.4-D: Veins allow the blood to flow through them. They extend from the head to the d i f f e r e n t body parts. CATEC 50RY GRADE 2.4-A 2.4-B 2.4-C 2.4-D 2 5 2 - 1 4 7 - 1 -6 7 1 - -8 8 - — -Females 1 1 3 1 1 Males 16 - - -2F 1 2 - 1 2M 4 - - -4F 3 - 1 -4M 4 - - -6F 3 1 - -6M 4 - - -8F 4 - - -8M 4 — - -73 Comments About Major Question 2: What are the paths and  methods of blood d i s t r i b u t i o n ? Most subjects believed that the blood moves through the body in blood vessels (n=29, Subquestion 2.2). Further, a l l of these children thought that the source of this blood flow is the pumping heart. As an application to these main conceptual b e l i e f s , eighteen subjects, mainly from grades 6 and 8, were able to correlate the movement of the pulse to the movement of the blood through the blood vessels. Twenty subjects, equally representing grades 2 to 8, viewed the movement of blood as completing a cycle within the body. This c i r c u l a t i o n of blood was said to have started and ended at the heart. Seventeen of these twenty subjects believed that this blood flow in the body occurs as a result of blood flowing u n i d i r e c t i o n a l l y within the blood vessels. Thus, only three children thought that the blood flows to and from the heart in the same vessel. Two-thirds of the subjects held to the b e l i e f that the heart is the s i t e of blood production in the body. Some subjects suggested this as a result of the "key rol e " which the heart plays in the movement of the blood. 74 6) Major Question 3; What are the functions of the blood? (121 & 122) Total Belief Categories for Major Question 3 3-A: Blood is essential for l i f e . No further explanations are given. (n=9) 3~B: Blood car r i e s food and a i r throughout the body. (n = 8) 3-C: Blood car r i e s food throughout the.body. (n = 5) 3-D: Blood car r i e s a i r throughout the body. (n=2) 3-E: Blood heats the body and i t also ca r r i e s food. (n = 2) 3-F: Blood c a r r i e s food and a i r throughout the body, i t also fights bacteria in the body. (n=l) 3-G: No idea of the function of the blood. (n=5) Exemplary Interview Excerpts Corresponding to Belief Categories (M.Q. 3) Belief Category 3-A: Blood is essential for l i f e . No further explanations are given. (n = 9) Doug (11:5-Grade 6) I : "Why i s blood so important to the body?" S: "Because, l i k e i f you didn't have any blood you wouldn't be a l i v e . Because, l i k e the bones in you f i l l the shape of you and then l i k e blood flows through so that you can do movements and i t makes your heart beat and i f your heart didn't beat you'd be dead." I: "But why do we a l l have blood in us? What is so important about the blood?" I: "It keeps you going." I: "Do you know how i t keeps us going?" S: "Blood makes your heart pump." Belief Category 3-B: Blood car r i e s food and a i r throughout the body. (n=8) 75 Calvin (11:5 - Grade 6) I: "Why is the blood so important to the body?" S: "Well i t keeps i t going. And when you eat something, the nutrients go into the blood and the blood is l i k e food for the rest of the body and i t c a r r i e s oxygen." I: "When you breathe, where does the a i r go?" S: "It goes into your lungs and i t goes into your blood at the lungs. Belief Category 3-C: Blood car r i e s food throughout the body. (n=5) Diane (14:4 - Grade 8) I: "Why do we have blood in us? Why is i t so important?" S: "It car r i e s n u t r i t i o n and feeds your muscles so that they become strong. If your blood just a l l of a sudden s i t s , then you're not active,you can't move around. If i t s i t s then i t w i l l go a l l to your feet, right, because i t w i l l stop moving. So you won't be able to go anywhere." I: "What does every part of the body need in order for a person to l i v e ? " S: "Blood, n u t r i t i o n , l i q u i d s , and muscles - mostly blood though." Belief Category 3-D: Blood carries a i r throughout the body. (n= 2) Brad (7:8 - Grade 2) I: "What does blood do for the body, Brad?" S: "I don't know act u a l l y . " I: (later in interview) "Do our arms and our legs need a i r ? " S: "Yes I think so." I: "You said that when you took a i r in, i t went from your mouth down to your heart. How does the a i r get to your arms and legs?" S: "I think that i t goes through your veins." I: "But you said that blood went through the veins." 76 S: "Well i t ' s the same t h i n g , i t can go through the ve i n s because i t ' s i n v i s i b l e . It goes with the blood." B e l i e f Category 3-E: Blood heats the body and i t a l s o c a r r i e s food. (n=2) Brenda (11:5 - Grade 6) I: "What does the blood do f o r the body?" S: "Well i t helps us to move, and when you squeeze your f i n g e r f o r a long time the blood stops c i r c u l a t i n g and i t kind of makes your f i n g e r dead." I: "Well what i s i t that the blood does to make i t a l i v e ? " S: " I t c i r c u l a t e s and keeps us warm." I: "Why i s the blood so important that we can't be without i t ? " S: " I t keeps us a l i v e . It takes some things that we need to the p a r t s of the body." I: "Do you know what these a r e ? " S: "No." ( l a t e r i n i n t e r v i e w ) "Well the t h i n g s that we need , l i k e the v i t a m i n s go t o the heart and i n t o the blood again through the v e i n s and to the other p a r t s of the body." B e l i e f Category 3-F: Blood c a r r i e s food and a i r throughout the body. It a l s o f i g h t s b a c t e r i a i n the body. (n=l) Harry (14:2-Grade 8) I: "Why do we have blood i n us? Can you thin k of any f u n c t i o n s of the blood?" S: "To b r i n g things through your body l i k e n u t r i t i o n to the d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the body." I: "Does i t b r i n g anything e l s e ? " S: "Blood c e l l s . " I: "What does every p a r t of the body need f o r us to l i v e ? " S: "I guess i t needs red and white blood c e l l s . " 77 I: "What's in red and white blood c e l l s that makes them so important?" S: "Like t h i n g s that f i g h t o f f b a c t e r i a and d i s e a s e . " (Subject l a t e r i n d i c a t e d that a i r was t r a n s p o r t e d through the blood system) Comments About Major Question 3; What are the Functions of the Blood? Twenty-seven of the s u b j e c t s interviewed, b e l i e v e d that the blood has at l e a s t one f u n c t i o n . A l l of the c h i l d r e n who had no ideas about i t s p o s s i b l e f u n c t i o n s were from grade two. The b e l i e f s about the f u n c t i o n s of the blood ranged from a simple conception that i t i s e s s e n t i a l to l i f e (n=9 - a l l grades), to more complex b e l i e f s such as " i t c a r r i e s food and a i r " (n=8),"it heats the body" (n=2), or " i t f i g h t s b a c t e r i a " (n=l). The s u b j e c t s who thought that the blood c a r r i e s food and a i r were predominently from the o l d e r grades (6 & 8). The same was true for the b e l i e f that the blood f i g h t s b a c t e r i a ( subject was from grade 8). It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that most students, when asked about the f u n c t i o n s of the blood at 121 were unable to give a complete summary of t h i s b e l i e f . Thus, most c h i l d r e n suggested that the blood c a r r i e s food and/or a i r at a l a t e r time i n the i n t e r v i e w when the q u e s t i o n s were d i r e c t e d towards the r e s p i r a t o r y and d i g e s t i v e systems. 78 TABLE SIX Major Question 3: What are the functions of the blood? Belief Categories: 3-A: Blood is essential for l i f e - no further explanat i on. 3-B: Blood carries food and a i r throughout the body. 3-C: Blood carries food throughout the body. 3-D: Blood carries a i r throughout the body. 3-E: Blood heats the body and i t also c a r r i e s food. 3-F: Blood carries food and a i r throughout the body. It also fights bacteria in the body. 3-G: No idea of the functions of the blood. C :ATEGORJ 1 GRADE 3-A 3-B 3-C 3-D 3-E 3-F 3-G 2 1 1 - 1 - - 5 4 4 - 2 1 1 - -6 3 3 1 - - 1 8 1 4 2 - - 1 Females 5 4 1 2 - 3 Males 4 4 4 1 — 1 2 2F 1 - - - - 3 2M - 1 - 1 - - 2 4F 2 - - 1 1 - -4M 2 - 2 - - - -6F 2 1 - - 1 - -6M 1 2 1 - - - -8F - 3 1 - - - -8M 1 1 1 — — 1 — 79 7) Major Question 3a: How i s the blood related to the resiratory system? (123-129) Subquestion 3a.1: Where does the a i r go when we inhale i t ? (123-129) Total Belief Categories for Subquestion 3a.1 3a.1-A: The a i r goes to the lungs in the chest. (n=l8) 3a.1-B: The a i r goes to the lungs and the heart. (n=6) 3a.1-C: The a i r goes to the heart. (n=7) 3a.1-D: The a i r goes to the stomach (with the food) and also to the legs. (n=l) Exemplary Interview Excerpts Corresponding to Belief Categories (SQ. 3a.iT Belief Category 3a.1-A: The a i r goes to the lungs in the chest. (n=18) Kay (13:5 - Grade 8) I: "Where does the a i r go when you breathe i t into your body?" S: "Into your blood" I: "How does i t get into your blood?" S: "By your lungs I guess." I: "Where are our lungs?" S: "Around the heart." I: "What parts of the body need a i r ? " S: "The lungs - a l l the parts of the body I guess, because i t gets into the lungs and the blood c a r r i e s the oxygen I guess." 80 Belief Category 3a.1-B: The a i r goes to the lungs and the heart. (n=6) Diane (14:4 - Grade 8) I: "Where does the a i r go when you inhale i t ? " S: "It goes into your lungs." I: "Do we need a i r in order to l i v e ? " S: "Yes, your heart needs a i r - oxygen." I: "What does the heart do with the a i r or oxygen?" S: "Your heart goes this way (subject indicates pumping action with f i s t ) when you inhale and exhale. Your heart does the same thing. So i t inhales and exhales oxygen." I: "Does the heart pump this oxygen?" S: "Yes, l i k e into your lungs when you exhale, and when you inhale i t goes through your lungs and into your heart. It keeps your heart pumping." J u l i e (9:8 - Grade 4) I: "Where does the a i r go in your body?" S: "Into your lungs" (points to chest). I: (later) "What parts of your body need a i r in order to l i v e ? " S: "Your lungs and your heart." I: "How does the a i r get from your lungs to your heart?" S: "There is this one part of your body that goes from your throat down to your lungs and your heart." I: "Does our heart have anything to do with our breathing?" S: "I think as well as pumping the blood, I think i t might sort of push the a i r out of your body and then out of your mouth so you can breathe. The heart i s beating and i t pumps the a i r out l i k e i t pumps the blood." Belief Category 3a.1-C: The a i r goes into the heart. (n=7) Mark (12:4 - Grade 6) 81 I : "Where does the a i r go when we breathe i t in?" S: "Into our heart." I: "What happens to the a i r once i t ' s in your heart?" S: "You breathe i t out, because you need fresh a i r in your heart." I: "What happens to the a i r once i t ' s inside our bodies? Once i t goes in, what happens to i t ? " S: "It helps our blood move and keeps i t fresh." I: "Do any other parts of the body need a i r ? " S: "No" I: "Does the heart have anything to do with our breathing?" S: "We need fresh a i r in our heart, and when we breathe i t out, that means that we have bad a i r in our heart." Belief Category 3a.1-D: The a i r goes to the stomach (with the food) and also to the legs.(n=l) Margaret (7:10-Grade 2) I: "What part of your body does the a i r go to?" S: "It goes to your stomach and your legs." I: "How does i t get down to your stomach and your legs?" S: "By bones pushing i t down." I: "What parts of your body need a i r ? " S: "Your legs and your tummy." I: "How does the a i r get down to our legs and our tummy?" S: "It blows down." Comments About Subquestion 3a.1 - Where does the a i r go when we inhale i t ? Twenty-four subjects, primarily from grades 4, 6, 82 and 8, b e l i e v e d that the a i r , when i t i s i n h a l e d , t r a v e l s to the lungs. Six of these f u r t h e r suggested that the a i r t r a v e l s from the lungs to the h e a r t . Four of these s i x su b j e c t s thought that the pumping a c t i o n of the heart i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the movement of the a i r through the lungs during i n h a l a t i o n and e x h a l a t i o n . Seven s u b j e c t s , p r i m a r i l y from grade 2, b e l i e v e d that the a i r t r a v e l l e d d i r e c t l y to the he a r t . T h i s group was then f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o three groups: one thought that the a i r mixes with the blood at the he a r t , another group thought that the heart pumps t h i s a i r throughout the body i n tubes, and a t h i r d group b e l i e v e d that the a i r i s i n h a l e d and exhaled by the pumping of the heart ( i n t h i s case the a i r only t r a v e l s to the heart and out a g a i n ) . One subject from grade 2 b e l i e v e d that the a i r goes only to the stomach. 83 TABLE SEVEN Major Question 3a: How is the blood related to the respiratory system? Subquestion 3a.1: Where does the a i r go when we inhale i t ? Belief Categories: 3 a . l - A : The a i r goes to the lungs in the chest. 3a.1-B: The a i r goes to the lungs and the heart. 3a.1-C: The a i r goes to the heart. 3a.1-D: The a i r goes to the stomach (with the food) and also to the legs. CATEC ;ORY GRADE 3a.1-A 3a.1-B 3a.1-C 3a.1-D 2 3 - 4 1 4 5 2 1 -6 5 1 2 -8 5 3 — -Females 9 4 2 1 Males 9 2 5 — 2F 2 - 1 1 2M 1 - 3 -4F 2 2 - -4M 3 - 1 -6F 3 - 1 -6M 2 1 1 -8F 2 2 - -8M 3 1 — • — 84 8) Major Question 3a: How is the blood related to the resiratory system? (123-129) Subquestion 3a.2: Is the a i r dis t r i b u t e d to other parts of the body, and i f so, how is i t distributed? (127-129) Total Belief Categories for Subquestion 3a.2 3a.2-A: The a i r travels to the lungs. The blood from the heart mixes with this a i r at the lungs. This blood then travels to the heart where i t i t pumped to other parts of the body. (n=8) 3a.2-B: The a i r travels to the heart. The heart then pumps this a i r through "tubes" or "vessels" to other parts of the body, (air and blood are separate) (n=3) 3a.2-C: The a i r travels to the lungs and the heart.The heart then pumps this a i r through "tubes" to other parts of the body. (Air and blood are separate) Air i s also absorbed through the skin.(n=1) 3a.2-D: The a i r travels to the heart. The a i r mixes with the blood there and i t is pumped by the heart to other parts of the body. (n=4) 3a.2-E: The a i r travels to the lungs. From here i t flows through "tubes" or "vessels" to d i f f e r e n t parts of the body. (n=2) 3a.2-F: Air i s di s t r i b u t e d to the stomach and legs. It is "blown" down by the bones. (n=1) 3a.2-G: The a i r travels only to the lungs and the heart. The heart then "pumps" the a i r out of the mouth during exhalation. (n=3) 3a.2-H: The a i r travels only to the lungs. It i s then exhaled back through the mouth. (n=7) 3a.2-1: Air is di s t r i b u t e d to other parts of the body. No suggestions as to how i t i s d i s t r i b u t e d . (n=3) Exemplary Interview Exerpts Corresponding to Belief Categories Belief Category 3a.2-A: The a i r travels to the lungs. The blood from the heart mixes with t h i s a i r at the lungs. This blood then travels to 85 the heart where i t is pumped to other parts of the body. (n=8) Brenda (11:5 - Grade 6) S: "I think that when we breathe a i r , i t brings oxygen to our heart." I: "Can you t e l l me a b i t more about that?" S : "When we breathe oxygen, i t goes to our heart." I: "How does the oxygen go to the heart?" S: "Through our lungs." I: (subject had previously indicated that the fingers needed air ) "How does the a i r get to our fingers?" S : "Through the heart, in the blood." I: "What parts of the body need a i r in order to l i v e ? " S: "Well I guess a l l of them do." I: "How does the a i r get to a l l the di f f e r e n t parts?" S: "Through the veins and the blood." Calvin (11:5 - Grade 6) I: "When you breathe, where does the a i r go?" S : "It goes into your lungs and i t goes into the blood at the lungs." I: "How does i t get into your blood at the lungs?" S: "Well I think there is veins there where the a i r travels into the blood, and i t ' s sort of l i k e an intersection and i t gets into the blood there." I: "What parts of the body need a i r in order to l i v e ? " S : "The brain and the heart and almost every part." I: "How does i t get to these parts?" S: "By when you breathe and then i t gets into the blood and then the heart pumps i t to a l l the d i f f e r e n t parts." Belief Category 3a.2-B: The a i r travels to the heart. The heart then pumps thi s a i r through "tubes" or "vessels" to the other parts of the 8 6 body, (air and blood are separate) (n=3) Neil (10:2 - Grade 4) I: "Are there any other parts of the body that need a i r ? " S: "The head, (later) When the heart is beating, the a i r is just c i r c l i n g around in the chest." I: "You were saying that the head needed a i r . How does the head get the a i r ? " S: "Some of the a i r sometimes travels through your neck and into your face." I: "How does i t get to your brain?" S: "It just f l o a t s up in the back of your neck and stays there." I: "Can you t e l l me a bit about how the heart works?" S: "Well, l i k e the heart pump is beating and the a i r is just moving around and some of the a i r comes up into your neck and into your face and when you breathe again I think the old a i r comes out of your brain and out of your n o s t r i l s . " I: "What does th i s have to do with the heart?" S: "Well l i k e the heart i s beating and i t travels some of the a i r up here." (points to head) I: "What does i t do with the a i r ? " S: "Well i t blows the a i r up a l i t t l e here." Jack (7:5 - Grade 2) S: "The heart, i t makes the blood move, and the a i r i t goes into your heart, so i t kind of helps i t . " I: "What happens to the a i r once i t goes into the heart?" S: "Then you breathe i t out again." I: (later) "Do any other parts of the body need a i r ? " S: "I think right there (points to chest) and there (points to' abdomen)...(later) and a l i t t l e to the brain." I: "How does the a i r get down to these parts?" S: "Not a l l the vessels carry blood, some carry a i r . " 87 I: "How does the a i r get to the brain?" S: "It travels in these things." (points to veins on hand) I: "But you said blood t r a v e l l e d in these l i n e s . " S: "Not a l l of them." Belief Category 3a.2-C: The a i r travels to the lungs and the heart. The heart then pumps t h i s a i r through "tubes" to other parts of the body.(air and blood are separate) Air is also absorbed through the skin. (n=l) Diane (14:4 - Grade8) I: "What parts of the body need that a i r ? " S: "Mostly your stomach, I don't know about your arms and legs. They're just with the blood mostly." I: "How does the a i r get from your lungs down to your stomach area?" S: "Through the heart, you know how the heart has a whole bunch of tube passages, well i t goes a l l through those veins, and they go a l l through." I: "But you said that veins were for blood." S: "Ya I know, your heart has veins coming from i t , right, well they've got tubes in i t - but they pump a i r through you. " I: "So you mean there is some tubes for a i r and others for blood?" S: "Veins for blood and tubes for a i r . " I: "So as far as the other body parts that need a i r , you think i t is just the stomach that needs i t . " S: "I don't know whether your arms need i t inside, outside they would because your skin absorbs a i r . " Belief Category 3a.2-D: The a i r travels to the heart. The a i r mixes with the blood there and i t i s pumped by the heart to other parts of the body. Katie (9:5 - Grade 4) (Subject had previously indicated that a i r went to the lungs and the heart) 88 S: "Like the heart keeps them (air) in, - the lung doesn't somet imes." I: "The heart keeps what in?" S: "Air - fresh a i r , to go in your blood." I: "What does i t do with the blood?" S: "The a i r goes into the blood." I: "Oh I see, can you t e l l me what happens then?" S: "It helps the blood go quicker, and sometimes i t moistens the blood." I: "I see, you said "that the a i r went into the heart." S: "The heart keeps some a i r and some a i r i t doesn't keep." I: "I see and can you t e l l me how the a i r is mixed with the blood?" S: "Well l i k e I was saying before, i f you get a cut somewhere, i f i t ' s warm a i r , your blood w i l l bleed warm, and sometimes i f i t ' s cold a i r , your blood w i l l bleed cold a i r blood." Belief Category 3a.2-E: The a i r travels to the lungs. From here i t flows through "tubes" or "vessels" to dif f e r e n t parts of the body. (n=2) Kelly (7:6 - Grade 2) I: "Where does this a i r go?" S: (subject points to chest area) I: (later) "What parts of the body need a i r ? " S: "Around the heart and a b i t to the hands and feet." I: (later) "How does the a i r get down to our hands and feet?" S: "Like whenever you breathe, i t quickly goes down to your legs and comes back up slowly." I: "How does i t get from there to there?" S: "You know l i k e you blow into a pipe, l i k e your throat. It's stuck over here (points to chest and abdomen) and then i t comes down (points to legs)." 89 Belief Category 3a.2-F: Air is di s t r i b u t e d to your stomach and legs. It i s "blown" down by the bones. (n=1) Margaret (7:10 - Grade 2) I: "What part of your body does the a i r go to?" S: "It goes to your stomach and your legs." I: "How does i t get to your stomach and your legs?" S: "By the bones pushing i t down." I: "What parts of your body need a i r ? " S : "Your legs and your tummy." I: "How does the a i r get from our mouth down to our legs and our tummy?" S: "It blows down by the bones. Belief Category 3a.2-G: The a i r travels only to the lungs and the heart. The heart then "pumps" the a i r out of the mouth during exhalation. (n = 3) Dawn (12:3 - Grade 6) I: "Where does the a i r go when i t i s inside you?" S: "To the heart." I : "What parts of the body need a i r in order to survive?" S : "The heart, and I don't know what else needs i t . " I: "Does the heart have anything to do with breathing?" S : "When i t pumps, then you breathe.You need the heart to pump back and forth so you can breathe." I: "Pump what back and forth?" S : "The a i r . " Belief Category 3a.2-H: The a i r travels only to the lungs. It is then exhaled back through the mouth. (n = 7) Curt (10:1 - Grade 4) I : (subject has indicated that a i r travels to the lungs when 90 we breathe in) "Are there any other parts of the body that need a i r ? " S: "I don't think so." I: "Does your heart have anything to do with breathing?" S: "It pumps and then our lungs pump and we have a i r . . . Everytime your heart pumps, your lungs go up and down and then you can breathe." I: "Does the blood have anything to do with our breathing?" S: "No, the blood has nothing to do with i t . " Comments About Subquestion 3a.2: Is the a i r d i s t r i b u t e d to other  parts of the body, and i f so, how is i t distributed? Two-thirds of the subjects believed that the a i r is somehow di s t r i b u t e d to the entire body. Ten children (Beliefs 3a.2-G and 3a.2-H) thought that the a i r only goes as far as the lungs, or the lungs and the heart, before i t is exhaled. These ten subjects represented an even d i s t r i b u t i o n across a l l four grades. For those twenty-two subjects that thought that the a i r goes to the body, there were three broad categories of beli e f as to how this a i r is d i s t r i b u t e d . The f i r s t category believed that the blood i s the primary source of a i r transport. Eight children, four each in grades 6 & 8, suggested that the a i r mixes with the blood at the lungs, while four others believed that this mixture takes place in the heart, (two from grade 2, and one subject each from grades 4 and 8) The second category believed that the a i r is 91 d i s t r i b u t e d to the body by way of s p e c i a l "tubes" or " v e s s e l s " . Thus the a i r i s d i s t r i b u t e d in the same manner as the blood. In t h i s sense, the tubes are s i m i l a r i n f u n c t i o n to the v e i n s . The three o r i g i n s for these a i r tubes were the lungs ( B e l i e f 3a.2-F,n = 2),' the heart ( B e l i e f 3a.2-B and 3a.2-C, n = 4), and the t h r o a t ( B e l i e f 3a.2-F, n=l). Some s u b j e c t s l a b e l l e d these tubes as " v e i n s " . However, when they were asked i f the a i r ever touched the blood, they i n d i c a t e d that i t d i d not. T h i s a i r - t u b e method of a i r d i s t r i b u t i o n appeared to be mainly a b e l i e f h e l d by the younger s u b j e c t s (n=4 in grade 2, n=2 i n grade 4, and n=1 in grade 8). Only one c h i l d (from grade 8) b e l i e v e d that a i r can a l s o be absorbed through the pores of the s k i n . The t h i r d category of s u b j e c t s (n=3) had no suggestions as to how the a i r i s t r a n s p o r t e d , however they were c e r t a i n that i t i s d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the body. 92 TABLE EIGHT Major Question 3a: How i s the blood re lated to the resp i ra tory system? Subquestion 3a .2: Is the a i r d i s t r i b u t e d to other parts of the body, and i f so, how is i t d i s t r i b u t e d ? Be l ie f Categor ies: 3a.2-A: The a i r t r a v e l s to the lungs. The blood from the heart mixes with the a i r at the lungs. Th is blood then t rave ls to the heart where i t i s pumped to other parts of the body. 3a .2-B: The a i r t r a v e l s to the hear t . The heart then pumps th is a i r through "tubes" to other parts of the body, (a ir and blood are separate) 3a .2 -C: The a i r t rave ls to the lungs and the heart . The heart then pumps t h i s a i r through "tubes" to other par ts of the body. (Air and blood are •epara te ) . A i r is a lso absorbed through the s k i n . 3a.2-D: The a i r t rave ls to the hear t . This a i r mixes with the blood here and i t i s pumped by the heart to other par ts of the body. 3e.2-E: The a i r t r a v e l s to the lungs. From here i t flows through "tubes" or "vesse ls" to d i f f e r e n t parts of the body. 3a .2 -F : A i r is d i s t r i b u t e d to your stomach and l e g s . It i s "blown* down by the bones. 3a .2-G: The a i r t r a v e l s only to the lungs and the heart . The heart then "pumps" the a i r out of the mouth during exha la t ion . 3a .2-H: The a i r t r a v e l s only to the lungs. It is then exhaled back through the mouth. 3a .2 -1 : Air is d i s t r i b u t e d to other parts of the body. No suggestions given as to how i t i s d i s t r i b u t e d . CATEGORY GRADE 3a.2A 3a.2B 3a.2C 3a.2D 3a.2E 3a.2F 3a.2G 3a.2H 3a.21 2 - 2 _ 2 1 1 _ 2 4 - 1 - 1 1 - 1 3 1 6 4 - - - - - 2 1 1 8 4 — 1 1 - - - 1 1 Female: 3 5 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 Males 3 2 - 3 - - . 1 4 3 2F - 1 - — 1 1 __ 1 _ 2M - 1 - 2 - - - 1 4F - - - 1 1 - 1 1 4M - 1 - - - - — 2 1 6F 2 - - - - - 1 1 6M 2 - - - - - 1 1 8F 3 - 1 - - — _ _ 8M 1 — — 1 - - - 1 1 93 Comments About Major Question 3a: How i s the blood r e l a t e d to the r e s p i r a t o r y system? Twelve s u b j e c t s b e l i e v e d that the a i r i s d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the e n t i r e body by mixing with the blood. In t h i s sense, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the blood c o r r l a t e s to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the a i r . These twelve s u b j e c t s were p r i m a r i l y o l d e r c h i l d r e n (n=2 in grade 2, n=1 i n grade 4, n=4 i n grade 6, and n=5 i n grade 8). There d i d not appear to be any obvious d i f f e r e n c e s between the responses of e i t h e r sex. These s u b j e c t s who su b s c r i b e d to t h i s b e l i e f can c l e a r l y be d i v i d e d i n t o two groups. Some b e l i e v e d that the a i r mixes with the blood at the lungs (n=8), while the others b e l i e v e d that t h i s mixture occurs at the heart (n=4). A l l the "lung mixture" c h i l d r e n were from grades 6 and 8 (four i n each). The remaining twenty s u b j e c t s who were interv i e w e d e i t h e r d i d n ' t think that the a i r i s d i s t r i b u t e d to the r e s t of the body, or they conceived of some other means f o r the a i r d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout the body.(Three s u b j e c t s had no ideas as to how i t i s d i s t r i b u t e d ) 9) Major Question-3b: How i s the blood r e l a t e d to the d i g e s t i v e system? (130-136) T o t a l B e l i e f C a t e g o r i e s For Major Question 3b 3b-A: The food goes to the stomach. There i t gets broken up and d i s s o l v e s i n t o the blood. T h i s blood i s then d i s t r i b u t e d to the body. (n=14) 3b-B: The food only goes to the stomach. I t i s not d i s t r i b u t e d to the r e s t of the body. (n=2) 94 3b-C: The food goes to the stomach. From the stomach i t passes to the heart. The heart then makes blood from t h i s food.(Blood only touches food in the heart) (n=l) 3b-D: The food only goes to the "tummy". Once in the tummy, the "bad" food is exhaled into the a i r . The "good" food stays in the tummy. (n=l) 3b-E: The food goes to the stomach. From the stomach, i t passes through tubes to the heart. The heart then mixes i t with the blood and passes i t to the rest of the body. (n=2) 3b-F: The food goes to the stomach. From there i t travels to other parts of the body through "tubes" or "vessels". (n=7) 3b-G: The food goes to the stomach. It also travels to other parts of the body. No suggestions given as to how i t trave l s . (n=4) 3b-H: No explanations given as to where the food goes after i t i s swallowed. (n=1) Exemplary Interview Excerpts Corresponding to Belief Categories (M.Q.3b) Belief Category 3b-A: The food goes to the stomach. There i t gets broken up and dissolves into the blood. This blood is then di s t r i b u t e d to the body. (n=14) George (11:8 - Grade 6) I: "Where w i l l the food go after you have swallowed i t ? " S: "Into your stomach, and then into your digestive system." I: "What i s your digestive system?" S: "Well i t is just a bunch of co i l e d tubes. It has acid and stuff in i t and i t digests a l l your food. When i t is in your digestive system, you get a l l the nutrients and stuff out of i t and then you go to the bathroom." I: "What does food do for us to keep us a l i v e ? " S: "Well i t has got a l l the nutrients and vitamins and stuff l i k e that, and i t goes into our blood." I: (later) "How does the food get from your digestive system to the rest of the body?" 95 S: "In your blood." Belief Category 3b-B: The food only goes to the stomach. It is not dis t r i b u t e d to the rest of the body. (n=2) Dawn (12:3 - Grade 6) I: "Where does food go after we have swallowed i t ? " S: "To your stomach." I: (later) "What parts of the body need food?" S: "I just know that the stomach needs food." Belief Category 3b-C: The food goes to the stomach. From the stomach i t passes to the heart. The heart then makes blood from this food, (blood only touches the food in the heart) (n=1 ) Katie (9:5 - Grade 4) I: "Where does the food go after you have swallowed i t ? " S: (Subject refers to the abdomen on the human figure) I: "What does food do to keep us al i v e ? " S: "It makes more blood." I: "Does a l l food make blood?" S: "The good food but not the rotten food... Ya, and then i t digests and then some of i t vibrates here, and I think the good part vibrated to the heart, and the heart pushes,- makes i t into blood." I: "How does i t get from the stomach to the heart?" S: "From the stomach to the heart, i t vibrates, and i t doesn't go through any veins or anything." I: "OK, and what does the heart do with the food?" S: "Makes i t into blood." I: "And then what happens?" S: "Then i t goes through some veins." Belief Category 3b-D: The food only goes to the "tummy". Once 9 6 in the tummy, the "bad" food is exhaled into the a i r . The "good" food stays in the tummy. (n=1) Brad (7:8 - Grade 2) I: "Where did the food go after you swallowed i t ? " S: "In your tummy." I: "Where did i t go after that?" S: "Like a l l the bad stuff that you eat,- i t grinds i t up and sees what's bad and i t throws i t out with your a i r , and the good things that you eat stay in your tummy." I: "Do you know what parts of the body need food?" S: "The food can't go anywhere once i t ' s gone in your tummy. If the bad things go with your breathing, they stay out in the a i r . " I: "Do we see food when we breathe?" S: "It grinds i t up r e a l l y well." I: "Does the blood ever touch the food when i t is inside us?" S: "No I don't think so. I think the veins just go over your tummy to somewhere." Belief Category 3b-E: The food goes to the stomach. From the stomach i t passes through tubes to the heart. The heart then mixes i t with the blood and passes i t to the rest of the body. (n=2) Harry (14:2 - Grade 8) I: "When you had breakfast t h i s morning, where did the food go when you swallowed i t ? " S: "To the stomach I guess." I: "What parts of the body need food?" S: " A l l parts need food." I: "How does i t get to these parts?" S: "Through the blood. It is put into the heart and then the heart mixes i t with the blood." I: "Can you t e l l me a b i t more about that?" 97 S: "It's churned into acids in your stomach, then i t somehow goes through some tubes or something to your •heart and then the heart takes i t and disperses i t into the blood and then the blood takes i t through the body." Belief Category 3b-F: The food goes to the stomach. From there i t travels to other parts of the body through "tubes" or "vessels". (n = 7) Doug (11:5 - Grade 6) I: "What parts of the body need food?" S: "Your arms and your legs and your heart." I: "How does the food get from your mouth down to your arms and your legs and your heart?" • S: "Most veins pump blood, but some of them bring other things down to your legs and arms to make them stronger...sometimes you have green veins and red veins." I: "Which are which?" S: "I think the red ones carry blood and the green veins carry other things l i k e food to make you strong." I: "Does the blood ever touch the food as i t is going around?" S: "I don't think so." Lynne (11:7 - Grade 6) I: "Before, you were t e l l i n g me that when you swallowed, the food went from your mouth down into your lungs. How does i t get from your lungs to your legs?" S: "Through tubes." I: "Can you describe these tubes?" S: "They're not as small as veins. They're not r e a l l y hard they're soft, and they carry food to the parts of the body." I: (later) "Does this blood ever touch the food as i t is going through us?" S: "I don't think so." 98 Comments About Major Question 3b: How is the blood related to the digestive system? Twenty-seven subjects believed that the food is di s t r i b u t e d throughout the entire body. Sixteen of these subjects thought that the blood i s the vehicle which di s t r i b u t e s this food. This was a be l i e f which appeared to be predominently held by the older children (n=1 in grade 2, n=3 in grade 4, n=5 in grade 6, and n=7 in grade 8). There were two main ideas as to where the food mixes with the blood. Most subjects (n=14) suggested that the stomach is the mixing place, while two subjects from grade 8 thought that the food mixed with the blood at the heart. Seven children from grades 2, 4, and 6, thought that the food i s distributed by way of tubes to the rest of the body. This p a r a l l e l s the be l i e f that the a i r i s distributed throughout the body in "air-tubes" (Beliefs 3a.2-B, 3a.2-C,3a.2-E, and 3a.2-F, t o t a l n=7). Only four subjects thought that the a i r i s not d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the body. One c h i l d (see appendix 2) thought that the food "produces" the blood, but there was no indication of a belief that the food is transported to the rest of the body by way of this blood. In each case, i f the c h i l d indicated that the p e r i f e r a l body parts such as the arms, the legs, or the head 99 needed food, the i n v e s t i g a t o r assumed that the c h i l d b e l i e v e d that the " e n t i r e body" r e c e i v e s a d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s food. 100 TABLE NINE Major Question 3b: How i s the blood r e l a t e d to the d i g e s t i v e system? B e l i e f Categories: The food goes to the stomach. There i t gets broken up and d i s s o l v e s i n t o the blood. T h i s blood i s then d i s t r i b u t e d to the body. The food only goes to the stomach. It i s not d i s t r i b u t e d to the rest of the body. The food goes to the stomach. From the stomach i s passes to the heart. The heart then makes blood from t h i s food. (Blood only touches the food in the heart) . The food only goes to the "tummy". Once in the tummy, the "bad" food i s exhaled i n t o the a i r . The "good" food stays in the tummy. The food goes to the stomach. From the stomach i t passes through tubes to the heart. The heart then mixes i t with the blood and passes i t to the r e s t of the body. The food goes to the stomach. From here i t t r a v e l s to other parts of the body through "tubes" or " v e s s e l s " . The food goes to the stomach. It a l s o t r a v e l s to other parts of the body. No suggestions are given as to how i t t r a v e l s . No suggestions given as to where the food goes a f t e r i t i s swallowed. CATEGORY GRADE 3b-A 3b-B 3b-C 3b-D 3b-E 3b-F 3b-G 3b-H 2 1 - - 1 - 2 3 1 4 3 1 1 - - 3 - -6 5 1 - - - 2 - -8 5 — — — 2 - 1 -Females 6 2 1 — 1 4 2 Males 8 — - 1 1 3 2 1 2F - - - - - 2 2 _ 2M 1 - - 1 - - 1 1 4F 1 1 1 - - 1 - -4M 2 - - - - 2 - -6F 2 1 - - - 1 - -6M 3 - - - - 1 — -8F 3 - - - 1 - - -8M 2 — — - 1 - 1 -3b-A: 3b-B: 3b-C: 3b-D: 3b-E: 3b-F: 3b-G: 3b-H: 101 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS, EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS and RECOMMENDATIONS for FUTURE RESEARCH 5.00 Summary of the Study This study has progressed with two main objectives: A) to id e n t i f y , through the use of individualized interviews, the nature of childrens' b e l i e f s about the human ci r c u l a t o r y system. S p e c i f i c a l l y , these interviews were directed towards uncovering the b e l i e f s about the following three research questions: 1) What are the functions of the heart? 2) What are the paths and methods of blood c i r c u l a t i o n ? 3) What are the functions of the blood? 3a) How is the blood related to the respiratory system? 3b) How i s the blood related to the digestive system? B) to determine any possible trends or patterns in these b e l i e f s which might coincide with the development and/or the sex of children as they are observed from grades two through eight, (ages 7 through 14 years) Thirty-two subjects from this age category were observed in thi s study. The interview data were analyzed so as to produce a "conceptual inventory" for each research question. These c o l l e c t i o n s of be l i e f s were then categorized and further examined in order to show the presence of any trends which might correspond to the age or the sex of the children. 1 02 5.10 Conclusions of the Study Due to the exploratory and descriptive nature of thi s study, there was no formal testing of research hypotheses. However, conclusions can be made about the methodology which was employed in this work, and also about the types of b e l i e f s held by the children in thi s study. (1) The methodology used in this study (a modification of Piaget's C l i n i c a l Method) was useful for determining the nature of childrens' b e l i e f s about the human c i r c u l a t o r y system. This methodology was also useful for comparing these b e l i e f s so as to determine the presence of any trends which might be related to the age and/or sex of the c h i l d . This methodology permitted enough f l e x i b i l i t y for the c h i l d to elaborate on many of the topics of his or her own interest, yet i t maintained enough direction to allow for a comparison of the be l i e f s between children. The a c t i v i t i e s which were employed in this study served to f a c i l i t a t e the flow of the discussion and they also provided an alternate perspective for the children to express their views and ideas. (2) The method of analyzing the results, where a "conceptual inventory" was developed for each research question was an e f f e c t i v e means to categorize and thus compare the nature of the children's b e l i e f s about the human ci r c u l a t o r y system. This method allowed for the collapse of a great volume of data into three major research questions and six subquestions. This methodology also permitted a tabular representation of the data so as to offer a quick comparison of childrens' b e l i e f s . (3) A l l children aged 7 to 14 years from t h i s study possessed certain b e l i e f s about the human c i r c u l a t o r y system. Many of these same b e l i e f s and ideas were held by several other children in the sample. 103 Thus, i t was not uncommon to find s i m i l a r i t i e s in bel i e f between both children of the same age and children of di f f e r e n t ages. Also, i t was found that there was a great d i v e r s i t y in these b e l i e f s about the human c i r c u l a t o r y system. ( 4 ) There were no trends in b e l i e f s about the human cir c u l a t o r y system that were sex-dependent or grade/sex-dependent . (5) There were several developmental trends which were evident from the data regarding childrens' b e l i e f s about the human c i r c u l a t o r y system. One must be very careful in the interpretation of t h i s conclusion. The investigator is not attempting to match s p e c i f i c b e l i e f s with s p e c i f i c ages, because the same b e l i e f s were found to be present in children across several ages. However, i t can be said that certain trends or in c l i n a t i o n s do e x i s t , such that "older" children may be more l i k e l y to possess one b e l i e f , and "younger" children w i l l be more l i k e l y to possess other b e l i e f s . In this sense, i t may be possible to perceive the way that children develop an understanding about a p a r t i c u l a r concept. The following conclusions are based on the presence or absence of any developmental trends which exist in the childrens' b e l i e f s about each of the three major research questions in this study. (5A) There were no major developmental trends which were evident in the data regarding childrens' b e l i e f s about the functions of the heart. Most subjects believed that the heart "pumped" or "pushed" the blood throughout the body. However several subjects also believed 1 04 that the a i r , when inhaled, travels to the heart. These children can be further divided into three groups according to thi s b e l i e f . group 1) The heart mixes the a i r with the blood and pumps this mixture throughout the body. This b e l i e f was present at a l l grade l e v e l s . group 2) The heart pumps the a i r to the body through separate passages. The heart also pumps the blood throughout the body. Thus the a i r and the blood are not mixed, this was most prominent in the younger grades. group 3) The pumping of the heart draws in a i r during inhalation and pushes the a i r out during exhalation. The heart also pumps blood to the body. The a i r and the blood are not mixed. This belief was held by subjects at a l l four grade l e v e l s . (5B) There were developmental trends evident in the data regarding childrens' b e l i e f s about the paths and methods of blood c i r c u l a t i o n . Although this research question was addressed through four "subquestions" there were some d e f i n i t e trends in beli e f which can be attributed to the r e l a t i v e age of the children interviewed in this study. The subjects who conceived the pulse as being caused by the blood flowing through the blood vessels were primarily from grades 1 05 6 and 8. The younger children (grades 2 and 4) were divided in their b e l i e f s as to what causes the movement of the pulse. These alternate ideas included believing that the pulse i s caused by: (a) breathing, (b) brain a c t i v i t y , and (c), the movement of the heart. There appeared to be some d e f i n i t e developmental trends in the childrens' b e l i e f s about the paths of blood d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout the body. The students who conceived a " c i r c u l a t i o n " of blood throughout the body were mainly from grades 4, 6, and 8. There were two p r i n c i p a l b e l i e f s as to how the blood c i r c u l a t e d in the body. The f i r s t idea was that the blood flows in a continuous fashion from the heart to a l l other parts of the body before returning again to the heart for r e - c i r c u l a t i o n . This belief was predominantly held by the grade 8 children. The second idea of blood c i r c u l a t i o n was that the blood flows from the heart to one part of the body and d i r e c t l y back to the heart. The "non-circulation" b e l i e f s from the grade 2 subjects included the idea that the blood moves in a haphazard fashion as a result of the movements of the body. Other b e l i e f s included suggestions that the blood flows only from the heart towards one part of the body. In t h i s case there was no indication of the return blood-flow back to the heart. A t h i r d category of be l i e f was not correlated to the age of the children. This was t y p i c a l of subjects from grades 2 and 6. These children thought that the blood flows from the heart to a single 1 06 part of the body by moving back-and-forth in a single blood vessel. In this sense, these children do conceive of the c i r c u l a t i o n of blood as being to and from the heart. The childrens' b e l i e f s about the functions of the veins did not appear to f a l l into any d i s t i n c t developmental patterns. Most subjects from a l l grades thought that the function of the veins was to allow blood movement. Another idea about the function of these structures was that they served to connect and thereby support the different parts of the body. There was also an absence of any developmental trends in the childrens' b e l i e f s about the orgin of the blood. Most thought that t h i s substance was produced in the heart. Other ideas for th i s production s i t e for the blood included: the head, the bone marrow, the stomach, and from the pre-natal maternal source. (5C) There were developmental trends evident in the data regarding childrens' b e l i e f s about the functions of the blood. The children who thought that the blood car r i e s food and a i r to the body were predominently from grades 6 and 8. The same trend was true for the subjects who thought that the blood carried only food throughout the body. These children were mainly from grades 4, 6, and 8. By and large, the younger children from grade 2 had no ideas about the functions of the blood. (5D) There were developmental trends evident from the data regarding childrens' b e l i e f s about how the blood is related to the respiratory system. 1 07 The belief that the a i r is dis t r i b u t e d throughout the body by mixing with the blood was generally held by the older students in grades 6 and 8. These subjects can be further divided into two groups. Some believed that the a i r mixes with the blood at the heart. Other children believed that t h i s mixture takes place at the s i t e of the lungs. Several of the younger subjects in grades 2 and 4 thought that the a i r , when inhaled, i s not at a l l related to the blood system. In t h i s sense, the a i r goes only to the lungs, where i t i s subsquently exhaled out of the body. Another idea which was t y p i c a l of the younger grade 2 and 4 children, was that the a i r was pumped throughout the body by the heart. This air-flow was thought to occur through "tubes" or "vessels", which are similar in function to the veins. (5E) There were developmental trends evident in the data regarding childrens' b e l i e f s about how the blood is related to the digestive system. Most of the older children from grade 6 and 8 believed that the food is distributed throughout the body through the blood stream. Many of these children thought that t h i s food mixes into the blood at the stomach, however a few suggested that the food travels through tubes to the heart before i t is mixed into the blood system. The younger children in grades 2 and 4 were divided in their b e l i e f s . Some thought that the food i s dis t r i b u t e d to the body through special "tubes" or "vessels", while others had no ideas as 1 08 to how the food i s d i s t r i b u t e d . (6) There were many p a r a l l e l s in b e l i e f s about the heart and the c i r c u l a t o r y system between the c h i l d r e n of t h i s study and the a n c i e n t p h i l o s o p h e r s and s c i e n t i s t s . If we assume that the everyday experiences of c h i l d r e n p lay a part i n g u i d i n g the development of t h e i r conceptual t h e o r i e s and idea s , then i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that we f i n d s e v e r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s in b e l i e f between the young c h i l d and the e a r l y p h i l o s o p h e r s and s c i e n t i s t s who have l i v e d at a time when these same every-day experiences were commonplace. The data from t h i s study r e v e a l strong resemblences to the e a r l y h i s t o r i c a l concepts which are recorded i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Some of these s i m i l a r i t i e s are l i s t e d below: A) The Egyptians (3000 B.C.) b e l i e v e d that the blood i s synonymous with l i f e - without blood there i s no l i f e . B) Hippocrates (460-370 B.C.) b e l i e v e d that the a i r which i s i n h a l e d , t r a v e l s from the lungs to the h e a r t . From the h e a r t , the a i r was thought to d i s t r i b u t e throughout the body through the a r t e r i e s . The v e i n s , however, were thought to be the only v e s s e l s which c a r r y the blood. In t h i s sense, the a i r d i d not come i n contact with the blood. C) A r i s t o t l e (384-322 B.C.) was the f i r s t to suggest that the heart i s the b o d i l y source of heat. T h i s was l a t e r supported by Galen (138-201 A.D.), who suggested that one f u n c t i o n of b r e a t h i n g i s to c o o l the " e t e r n a l furnace" which i s the hear t . D) Galen f u r t h e r suggested that the blood moves i n an ebb and flow movement through the v e i n s . T h i s e a r l y t h e o l o g i a n hypothesized that a i r , when i n h a l e d , t r a v e l s from the lungs to the heart, where i t becomes the " v i t a l s p i r i t " by combining with the blood. T h i s v i t a l s p i r i t was then thought to be d i s t r i b u t e d to the r e s t of the body. The a i r or "pneuma" c o u l d a l s o enter the a r t e r i e s through the s u r f a c e of the s k i n . 1 09 5.2 .Educational I m p l i c a t i o n s E a r l i e r i n t h i s t h e s i s , i t was suggested that the knowledge of t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n ' s b e l i e f s about a s p e c i f i c t o p i c c o u l d enhance the o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the e d u c a t i o n a l system. Thus, by understanding the nature of these i n t u i t i v e ideas, i t may be p o s s i b l e f o r educators to take c h i l d r e n along a step-by-step path from t h e i r p r e - e x i s t i n g ideas to the a q u i s i t i o n of d e s i r e d conceptual outcomes. T h i s may allow these c h i l d r e n to disprove any p r e - e x i s t i n g "misconceptions" as w e l l as to a f f i r m the accepted viewpoint. It i s the o p i n i o n of the i n v e s t i g a t o r that c h i l d r e n should l e a r n about t h e i r body at as e a r l y an age as p o s s i b l e . Thus, i t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y important f o r both the teacher and the c u r r i c u l u m developer to become aware of the many ideas that c h i l d r e n b r i n g to the classroom so that they may o f f e r the a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t a g i e s so as to d i r e c t these c h i l d r e n along d e s i r e d l i n e s of l e a r n i n g . Educators would b e n e f i t from the knowledge of these b e l i e f s by having a b e t t e r i n t e r p r e t i v e understanding when p r e s e n t i n g these concepts, and a l s o by being able to s e l e c t a p p r o p r i a t e c u r r i c u l a f o r t h e i r s tudents. Although there i s a lac k of a core h e a l t h c u r r i c u l u m in the B r i t i s h Columbia elementary school system, i t i s apparent that young c h i l d r e n have many v a r i e d ideas and e x p l a n a t i o n s to account f o r the i n t e r n a l processes of t h e i r body. Consequently, the author f e e l s that such a h e a l t h c u r r i c u l u m should be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the 1 1 0 school system at an age when children begin to form these b e l i e f s about their body. The results from this study would suggest that grade 2 would be an appropriate l e v e l for such an introduction. It is hoped that the b e l i e f s uncovered in this study w i l l serve to provide an example of some of the t y p i c a l b e l i e f s that children aged 7-14 years possess. Hopefully in the future, some of these b e l i e f s and ideas w i l l be used by teachers, or they may be incorporated into a psychologically-based curriculum such as recommended by Byrne and Rothman (1979). 5.3 Recommendations for Further Research On the basis of the research conducted in this study, i t is apparent that further investigations of childrens b e l i e f s about the human c i r c u l a t o r y system are necessary. The following are the recommendations for thi s future research: 1) In order to increase the v a l i d i t y of the methodology used in this study, i t is recommended that the beli e f summaries for similar future research be submitted to several people for their evaluation of the findings. Thus the interpretations of future interviews would r e f l e c t a consensus of opinion from several investigators. Another method which would increase the v a l i d i t y of these studies would be to administer objective paper-and-penci1 tests in order to reconfirm the broad categories of bel i e f as uncovered in the research. 111 2) As a means of increasing the external v a l i d i t y or generalizabilty of this study, i t is recommended that similar research be conducted with a larger sample si z e . Such research could also determine, through various controlled experiments, the effects of such factors as: socioeconomic background, or previous in s t r u c t i o n . This l a t t e r suggestion would ce r t a i n l y reveal the degree to which the child' s b e l i e f s about the human c i r c u l a t o r y system are "amazingly tenacious ad resistant to change" as suggested by Ausubel (1968). 3) Similar research should be conducted to determine the nature of childrens b e l i e f s about other related concepts such as the processes of: digestion, r e s p i r a t i o n , nervous a c t i v i t y , or reproduction. 4) Teaching stratagies which are based on the b e l i e f s uncovered from this study should be developed in the future. These would form "Phase Three" of Erickson's (1981) scheme for developing teaching stratagies which are based on students' i n t u i t i v e b e l i e f s . 5) Develop research which explores the origins of childrens' i n t u i t i v e b e l i e f s about the human c i r c u l a t o r y system. By ascertaining these o r i g i n s , this w i l l give a broader picture of the developmental trends in childrens ideas about t h i s science concept. BIBLIOGRAPHY Aguirre, J.M.; "Children's B e l i e f s About Forces In Equilibrium," unpublished Master's thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978. Ausubel, D.P.; "Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968. B r i t i s h Columbia Government Publication; B.C. Curriculum  Guide: Human Li f e Science , V i c t o r i a , 1963. Brumby, M.; "Problems in Learning the Concept of Natural Selection", Journal of B i o l o g i c a l Education , 1979, 13(2), 119-122. Byrne, N. and Rothman, A.; "Childhood Education and Cardiovascular Health." A paper commissioned by the Canadian Heart Foundation, 1979. (Also summarized in "Childhood Education and Cardiovascular Health", Health  Education, 1979, 18(3), 9-10. Deadman, J.A. and Kelly, P.J.; "What do Secondary School Boys Understand About Evolution and Heredity Before They Are Taught the Topics?" Journal of B i o l o g i c a l Education, 1978, 12(1), 7-15. Debus, A.G.; "Man and Nature in the Renaissance. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1978. Driver, R.; "Pupils Alternate Frameworks in Science." European Journal of Science Education, 1981, 3(1), 93-101. Driver, R.; "The Representation of Conceptual Frameworks in Young Adolescent Science Students." Ph.D. thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, I l l i n o i s , 1973. Driver, R. and Easley, J.; "Pupils and Paradigms: A Review of Literature Related to Conceptual Development in Adolescent Science Students." Studies in Science  Education, 1978, 5, 61-84. Erickson, G.L.; "Student B e l i e f s About Science Concepts: A Missing Ingredient in the Instructional Process." A paper presented at a symposium e n t i t l e d "Early Adolescence: A C r i t i c a l Stage for Science" held at the 1981 AAAS Meetings in Toronto, Canada. Erickson, G.L.; "Children's Conceptions of Heat and Temperature." Science Education, 1979, 63(2), 221-230. Fishman, A.P. and Richards, D.W.; C i r c u l a t i o n of the Blood:  Men and Ideas. New York: Oxford University Press, 1964. 1 1 3 Ginsburg, H. and Opper, S.; Piaget's Theory of I n t e l l e c t u a l  Development: An Introduction. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1969. Graubard, M.; Ci r c u l a t i o n and Respiration: The Evolution of  an Idea. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1 964. Kargbo,D., Hobbs,T., and Erickson,G.L.; "Student B e l i e f s About Inherited C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . " Journal of B i o l o g i c a l  Education, 1980. Kuhn, K.C.; "Student Belie f s About Free-Fail Motion." Unpublished Masters thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979. McCloskey,M., Caramazza,A., and Green,B.; "Curvilinear Motion in the Absence of External Forces: Naive B e l i e f s About the Motion of Objects." Science, 1980, 210(5), 1139-1141. Nussbaum, J. and Novak, J.D.; "An Assessment of Children's Concepts of the Earth U t i l i z i n g Structured Interviews." Science Education, 1976, 60(4), 535-550. Nussbaum, J . and Novick, S.; "Brainstorming in the Classroom to Invent a Model: A Case Study." The School Science  Review, 1980. Piaget, J.; The Child's Conception of the World. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1929. (Reprinted - Tonowa, N.J.: L i t t l e f i e l d , Adams and Co., 1969). Piaget, J.; The Child's Conception of Physical Causality. London: Kegan Paul, 1930. Piaget, J.; The Princ i p l e s of Genetic Epistemology. New York: Basic Books, 1972. Piaget, J.; "Development and Learning." Journal of Research  in Science Teaching, 1964, 2(3), 176-186. Rowell, J.A. and Dawson, C.J.; "Teaching About Floating and Sinking: An Attempt to Link Cognitive Psychology With Classroom Practice." Science Education, 1977, 61(2), 245-253. Shulman, L.S. and Tamir, P.; Second Handbook of Research on  Teaching. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1973. Singer, C ; The Discovery of the C i r c u l a t i o n of the Blood. London: G.Bell and Sons Ltd., 1922. Taylor, R.G.; The Science of L i f e ^ A Picture History of  Biology. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1963. 1 1 4 Turner, R. and B a l l , R.; "The Cardiologist's Responsibility for Preventative Coronary Heart Disease." American Heart  Journal, 1976, 119, 139. Von Kirk, J.; "Limitations of Ausubel's Theory of Learning With Regard to Meaning and Cognitive Processing." Cornell University, 1978. W i l l i u s , A.F. and Dry, J.T.; A History of the Heart and the  C i r c u l a t i o n . Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 1948. Wollman, W.; "Developmental Implications of Science Teaching: Early Adolescence." A monograph prepared for the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, Columbus, Ohio: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education, 1978. 1 1 6 Your c h i l d ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study i s t o t a l l y v o l u n t a r y and of c o u r s e he/she can withdraw at any time t h a t he/she (or you) d e s i r e s . Thank-you f o r your c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h i s r e q u e s t . Yes, I would approve of my c h i l d t a k i n g p a r t i n the s t u d y . No, I would not l i k e my c h i l d to take p a r t i n the s t u d y . I would l i k e you t o c o n t a c t me to p r o v i d e more i n f o r m a t i o n S i n c e r e l y y o u r s , Gaalen L. E r i c k s o n A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r Dept. of Math and S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n . Robin C a t h e r a l l M a s t ers Student about the s t u d y . S i g n a t u r e 1 1 7 APPENDIX TWO Exemplary Transcript From A Student Interview Subject: Katie M. Grade 4 9 years, Grade 4 . Birthdate Female. five months old, Dec. 2 7 , 1971 S=Subject I = 1ntervi ewer Katie, I'm interested in your ideas on how you think the body works. There's no right or wrong answers to any of the questions I'm going to ask you. Just t e l l me your own ideas on how you think things work. O.K.? Have you ever seen a tape recorder before? Ya, lots of times. Would you mind i f I recorded this conversation? O.K. That's great. You're free to stop at any time you l i k e , (pause) Katie, have you ever heard of the heart before? Ya. What I'd l i k e you to do is to draw a picture for me of a heart on the human figure on t h i s page, and, i f you could show me the position of the heart on this figure and also the size and the shape of the heart on this figure. I've got to remember how i t was, because I've got an encyclopedia with a human heart in i t , and I've got to remember what i t looks l i k e . (pause) I think that's how i t looks l i k e . Something l i k e that, (refer to Appendix 3) O.K., that's great stethoscope before? Katie, have you ever seen a Nope. I haven't even heard of one. Well, doctors use these and they put them up to their ears and they l i s t e n to what's going on inside our bodies. So how would you l i k e to put t h i s on yourself, put i t on your ears....If you'd l i k e to place that against your chest where you think your heart i s . You'll have to l i s t e n very, very c a r e f u l l y . 1 1 8 S: I can hear i t . I: What do you think that is? S: Your heart pumping blood. I: You think i t is your heart doing what? S: Pumping blood. I: What do you think the heart does, Katie? S: Well l i k e i t , you get, i t pumps some blood from your body a l l over your body, and keeps your body working, and sends messages to your brain and a l l that. I: Ah huh. What sort of messages does i t send to your brain? S: I don't know, I ' l l have to think. I: You say i t pumps blood around your body. S: Ya. I: Could you t e l l me a l i t t l e more about that? S: Well, i f you get a cut, l i k e , i t pumps your blood from your veins and i f you get a cut and i t ' s deep, i t cuts your vessels or veins, i t ' l l start to bleed. I: I see. Katie, have you ever heard of the term "pulse". S: Ya. I: What's a pulse? S: Well sometimes i f you go l i k e that you can fe e l your heart beating. I: Have you ever f e l t your pulse under your chin? S: Nope. I: Put your hand right there under your ear, and under the bottom of your jaw, there Can you fe e l anything moving? S: It's a pulse. I: What do you think is causing that movement? S: The vi b r a t i o n . S: The heart from the pumping. 1 1 9 I: What is i t that you are feeling? S: I don't know. I: Do you have any ideas? Remember, there's no right or wrong answers here. S: No (laughter). I: You don't know what's causing that movement? S: Nope. I: A l r i g h t . What would happen, Katie, i f you were to get a deep cut on the end of your finger? S: It would bleed l i k e anything and yo u ' l l have to have a bandage. I: And what would happen i f you were cut anywhere else on your body? S: If i t ' s not too deep, then you won't need a bandage. I: We're talking about a deep cut. S: Ya, i t could get infected. I: What else would happen i f you were to get cut somewhere else on your body? S: Well, you might get infected and i t might be so bad you'd have to go into hospital or somewhere to get st itches. I: Ah huh, would a person bleed? S: Yup. I: Why would they bleed i f they were cut anywhere else on the body? S: Because i t would get into their vein, and the vein would be opened, and they'd start to bleed through the opening. I: Is th i s blood a l l through our bodies? S: There's blood a l l through our bodies and muscles and a l l that. I: Humm - everywhere in our bodies? S: P r a c t i c a l l y , ya, and bones. I: I see, I see, how does the blood get to these places 1 20 in our bodies? S: By the heart. I: Well, you said the heart i s up in the chest. S: Ya, l i k e there's pipes joined to the heart and the heart pumps blood in every pipe. I: I see, and where do these pipes go in the body? S: Well some go to your legs, toes, go a l l over your body. I: I see, and is the blood in the body moving or is i t s i t t i n g s t i l l ? S: Moving. I: Is i t moving a l l the time? S: Yup. I: I see, and what causes the blood to move in our bodies? S: Well, l i k e everytime the heart pumps more blood, i t has to push i t down more and the heart pumps p r a c t i c a l l y every second. I: Does the heart push blood up? S: Well I don't know. I think so. I: O.K., could you describe for me, Katie, the path that a l i t t l e b i t of blood might take when i t ' s c i r c u l a t i n g around, when i t ' s moving around the man in the drawing...What I ' l l do i s give you a fresh sheet of paper, and i f you could draw for me the path that a l i t t l e b i t of blood might take. (Subject draws on fi g u r e ) . Could you t e l l me what's happening here in your drawing? (refer to Appendix 4) S: Well the blood is going down here, and some's going up there and going around because they have... I: Where i s this point where i t ' s going in the d i f f e r e n t directions...here, where i t is starting? S: Well ah, here's how i t s t a r t s , and sometimes i t goes upwards and ah... I: From where? What's thi s point here? S: That's from your heart pumping blood. 121 I: O.K., so that's the heart right there, and i t goes, sorry... Can you show me again which dir e c t i o n the blood goes, say in the arm here? S: It goes upwards through the fingers and also i t goes downwards. I: What's this l i n e here? S: That's the other side of the vein. I: I don't know what you mean by one side and the other side. S: Like, say here's one side of the vein and then you go for the other part - so there's two sides. I: Oh, I see. This whole thing here is one big vein, is i t ? S: Ya. I: Well, so the heart's continually pushing this blood to the hand, is i t ? S: Ya, pumps everywhere. I: I see. If that was the case, wouldn't the hand build up pressure? S: (laughter) Sometimes, and sometimes not. Like, i f you get s t r i n g , and t i e i t around your finger and i t gets up to the top part right there, i t ' l l start to get real pressure, and start to sting awhile. I: I see. Katie, i f we were cut with a sharp piece of glass on our wrists or on our necks, would we bleed the same amount as i f we were cut on the end of our f inger? S: Probably not. I: Where would we bleed more? S: Well, we might bleed on our fingers or our knees or on our legs or on our arms more. I: Do you know why that is? S: Because there's so many veins. I: Where? S: On our legs and arms. I: But we're talking about getting cut on our wrists as 1 22 opposed to our finger t i p . Where would you bleed more? You say you'd bleed more on your finger tip? S: Ya. I: But why? Why is that? S: Well there is so many veins down there and i f you get cut more blood w i l l pass through and get opening. I: I see. O.K. You were saying Katie in your l i t t l e diagram here that the heart pushes this blood to the di f f e r e n t parts of the body (points to diagram). S: Ya. I: Where do we get blood in our body? S: From the food. I: I see. From the food, eh? Is the blood made in the body from the food we eat? S: Not always. Sometimes from the a i r or something. I: I see. Can you t e l l me a bit more about how the blood is made from the a i r . S: Well some, l i k e when you eat the food and breathe in a i r , that mixes and sometimes the a i r i s cold, and when you bleed the blood is sometimes cold. I : I see. S: Or else the a i r is warm and the blood is warm. I: We'll talk a l i t t l e more about that in a l i t t l e while. Is there any other spot in the body where we make blood or where we get blood? S: Maybe around here somewhere. (Subject points to diagram). I: And what's that? Your pointing to the middle of the man there. Not in his chest, but in his tummy area. S: Well that's where his food digests. I: Oh I see. alright....Can I just see the top of your hand Katie? See these blue lines? S: Those are the veins. I: And why do we have these veins in our body? S: To pass blood to the whole body. 1 23 I : Ah huh, and where do these veins go in the body? S: Well, l i k e some go to your head, -everywhere in your body. I: I see, and do they a l l start and end somewhere in the body? S: I don't know that (laughter). I : Can you take a guess, or i f you think about i t ? S: Probably. I : Can you suggest where they might start and where they might end in the body? S: In your hands and in your feet. I: And where would they start? S: From the heart. I: Do a l l veins start in the heart? S: Yup. Or some pass on from other ones. I: A l r i g h t . What di r e c t i o n , or which way does the blood move in those veins? S: Some go down and some go up. I: I'm not sure what you mean by that. S: Like, some blood goes up so that i t ' l l get to your shoulders and a l l that, and some goes down so i t w i l l get to your feet. I: I see, O.K.. In the vein on your hand here, which di r e c t i o n i s the blood moving? S: Up. I: It's moving this way, up? (Points up toward's subject's shoulder). S: I mean down. I: O.K.. It's moving down towards your finger t i p s i s it ? S: Yup. I: O.K., that's fine. Are these veins a l l the same size, or these "tubes" that the blood flows in? 1 24 S: Nope. I: Where would we find the biggest ones, and where would we find the smallest ones? S: Well, the biggest ones would be along here (points to thigh). I: On your thigh? S: Ya. I: Why is that? S: Well that's where the biggest bones are, and they come near the bones they use. I: I see. Do you have big veins near your backbone? S: I don't know that. It's a hard one. I: Do you think you'd have big veins in thi s area (points to the torso), because that's a pretty big area - in your tummy and on your chest? S: I don't think so, because i t could get in the way of the food coming down. I: I see. Katie, have you ever heard of a heart attack? S: Ya. I: What happens to someone when they have a heart attack? S: Well they f a l l down and their heart stops pumping. I: Ah huh, and does anything else happen when their heart stops pumping? S: Sometimes they lose their oxygen and sometimes they die. I: Why does someone die when their heart stops beating? S: Because i t ' s hard to get i t back going again, and t h e y ' l l run out of a i r , and t h e y ' l l just die. The blood won't get through to everywhere. I: Well what does the blood do for the body? S: It keeps i t going. I: Why do we have blood in us? S: I don't know. It might keep the body running as well 1 2 5 as the heart. I: Do you know how i t keeps the body going? S: It can make you move your fingers and a l l that. I: Do you know how i t makes our fingers move and our body move? S: Because the veins bend sometimes, and they have l i n e s . I: I see. Katie, what does every part of the body need in order to liv e ? S: Well, there's bones and veins. I: A l r i g h t , bones and veins, can you think of anything else? S: Not r e a l l y , a heart, a pulse. I: You were talking a l i t t l e while ago when we were talking about the heart attack, that the man can't breathe when he dies. S: Right. I: What I'd li k e you to do Katie i s a l i t t l e experiment. When you were young I'm sure you have blown up a paper bag and exploded i t (subject agrees). Well, what I'd l i k e you to do is to blow up thi s paper bag, and then just breathe into i t normally. S: Just blow i t up and then breathe into i t . I: Yes, just watch the bag as you breathe into i t , O.K.? S: Does this have a hole? I: No, no hole. (Subject blows up bag). Now, what's happening to the bag when you are breathing? S: Well the lungs start to move up and down in me, and the a i r comes out more. I: And where does the a i r go when we breathe? S: Out into the a i r , and then we breathe in fresh a i r . I: Where does the fresh a i r go when you breathe i t in? S: Nose. I: Ah huh, and where else in your body? Where does i t go once i t ' s in your nose? 1 26 S: Down through your, one of those tubes down there. I: And once i t goes there, where does i t go? S: Down one of the tubes, and then somewhere else in your body, to the lungs I think. I: Where abouts are the lungs in your body? S: Right along here, and here. I: You're pointing to your chest there. Is that the only place where the a i r goes in the body? S: To the heart. I: What does the heart do with the a i r when i t gets i t ? S: It pumps i t out; some they pump out so they can breathe i t out. I: I see. So the heart...Can you t e l l me what happens when you breathe in and then describe how the heart f i t s in, and how the lungs f i t in? S: Well, some go down to your heart and some go down to your lungs, and then you breathe some out of your heart and some out of your lungs, and so on. I: Well, is your heart beating a l l the time? S: Yup, unless you have a heart attack. I: I see, and when does i t push the a i r out? S: When you're talking, when you're breathing out. I: I see, well you told me a l i t t l e e a r l i e r that the heart pumped blood. S: Some they pump out, and some they pump, some they keep i n . I: I'm sorry I don't understand what you mean. S: Like, the heart keeps them in, the lung doesn't sometimes. I: The heart keeps what in? S: Air - fresh a i r , to go in your blood. I: What does i t do with the blood. S: The a i r goes into the blood. 1 27 I: Oh I see, can you t e l l me what happens then? S: Then, sometimes that helps i t go down more or moistens. I: Sometimes the a i r in the blood helps what? S: It helps the blood go quicker, and sometimes i t moistens the blood. I: I see, you said "that the a i r went into the heart". S: Some they keep and some they don't. I: Some what keeps? S: Some the heart keeps. The heart keeps some a i r and some a i r i t doesn't keep. I: You said the heart pushed the a i r out of the body. S: Sometimes i t does, l i k e , some goes out of your mouth or nose, and some stays i n . I: I see, and can you t e l l me how the a i r is mixed with the blood? S: Well, l i k e I was saying before, i f you get a cut somewhere, i f i t ' s warm a i r , your blood w i l l bleed warm, and sometimes i f i t ' s cold a i r , your blood w i l l bleed cold a i r blood. I: I see, and where is this blood with the a i r in i t , pushed around the body? S: Through the veins, i t goes everywhere. I: Oh, I see. What parts of the body need a i r in order to l i v e ? S: Hum, well, the lungs, heart - you do, of course. I can't think of anything else. I: So you think the lungs and the heart are the parts of the body that need a i r ? S: Yes. I: Can you give any others. S: No (laughter). I: Well how does the a i r get from the lungs to the heart? S: Well, not a l l that goes to the lungs, some goes down 1 28 to the heart and some goes into the lungs. I : I see, through what? S: I don't know what i t goes through, but i t goes down ins ide. I: Katie, does the heart have anything to do with our breathing? S: I don't actually know. I think so, because then, sometimes i t comes out quicker - i f you need faster a i r . I: I see, you were saying before that the heart helped to push the a i r out of us. S: Ya. I: Do you think that is what happens? S: Yup. I: Katie, when you eat food, where does the food go after you have swallowed i t ? S: Down one of your pipes in your throat, and then i t digests i t and some of the rotten food you have to go to the washroom and take i t out. I: I see, and where does i t do this digestion? S: Well, i t makes i t se t t l e d in, and sometimes you might throw i t up. I: Where does this take place in your body? S: Mom never told me that. I: O.K. that's fine. Where do you think i t takes place in your body? S: Right along here (subject refers to f i g u r e ) . I: You're pointing to the tummy on the man. I see, do we need food in order to l i v e , Katie? S: Ya. I: What does food do to keep us alive? S: It makes more blood. I: Does a l l food make blood? S: The good food, but not the rotten food. 1 29 I: Does milk make blood? S: I think so. I: O.K.. What parts of the body need food? S: The whole body. I: Well, you said that when you swallowed food, i t went into your tummy. S: Ya, and then i t digests and then some of i t vibrates here, and I think the good part vibrated into the heart, and the heart pushes, and makes i t into blood. I: Oh I see, how does i t vibrate to the heart, can you t e l l me that? S: Well, l i k e water, i t goes up into the a i r , but in this case i t goes into your stomach. I: How does i t get from the stomach to the heart? S: From the stomach to the heart? It vibrates, and i t doesn't go through any veins or anything. I: Sorry, i t what? S: It doesn't go through any veins or anything. I: Well I'm not sure how i t can vibrate i t s way to the heart. S: Like, maybe, i t goes through the lungs or something. I: Ah huh, you think i t goes through the lungs. S: No, not through the lungs, through the knees, bones, right there (points to chest) - the ri b s , whatever. I: I see, so i t goes from the tummy through the ribs into the heart? S: Ya. I: O.K., and what does the heart do with the food? S: Makes i t into blood. I: And then what happens? S: Then i t goes through some veins. I: O.K.,once i t ' s in the veins, where does i t go? S: Through your body. 1 30 You think then that the blood c a r r i e s the food through the body? Ya. You were saying e a r l i e r that we had blood a l l through our body. Does the blood ever touch the food when i t is in our tummy? No, I don't think so. The blood only touches the food, then, when i t is in the heart? Ya. I see, O.K. Katie, one la s t question and that is have you ever talked about any of these questions in school at a l l ? No. You haven't, eh? Alr i g h t then, thankyou very much, Katie. O.K.. APPENDIX THREE D i a g r a m of t h e H e a r t F rom t h e E x e m p l a r y S t u d e n t I n t e r v i e w 131 132 APPENDIX FOUR Diagram of t h e Hurr.an B i o o d C i r c u l a t i o n From the Exemplary Student Interview 1 33 APPENDIX FIVE Nine Belief Summaries Derived From an Exemplary Student Interview (Katie - Grade 4) Major Question 1: What is the function of the heart? Student b e l i e f : Air travels to the heart where i t is mixed with blood. This mixture is then pumped to the rest of the body. (Belief Category 1-A). Major Question 2: What are the paths and methods of blood c i rculat ion? Subquestion 2.1: What i s the pulse? Student b e l i e f : The pulse is somehow linked with the heart. No further explanations are given. (Belief Category 2.1-A) Subquestion 2.2: How i s the blood d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the body? Student b e l i e f : From the heart the blood travels through blood vessels. This flow i s in one direction only. The blood is only car r i e d by the blood vessels to the body part. No explanations are given as to how i t returns to the heart. (Belief Category 2.2-C) Subquestion 2.3: How do we get blood? Student b e l i e f : Blood is made in the heart. (Belief Category 2.3-A) Subquestion 2.4: What are the veins and where do they go in the body? Student b e l i e f : Blood flows through the veins. These extend from the heart to the body parts. (Belief Category 2.4-A) Major Question 3: What are the functions of the blood? Student b e l i e f : Blood car r i e s a i r throughout the body. (Belief Category 3-D) Major Question 3a: How i s the blood related to the respiratory system? 1 34 Subquestion 3a.1: Where does the a i r go when we inhale i t ? Student b e l i e f : The a i r goes to the lungs and the heart. (Belief Category 3a.1-B). Subquestion 3a.2: Is the a i r distributed to other parts of the body, and i f so, how is i t distributed? Student b e l i e f : The a i r travels to the heart. The a i r mixes with the blood there and i t is pumped by the heart to other parts of the body. (Belief Category 3a.2-D) Major Question 3b: How is the blood related to the digestive system? Student b e l i e f : The food goes to the stomach. From the stomach i t passes to the heart. The heart then makes blood from this food. (Blood only touches the food in the heart). (Belief Category 3b-C) 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0055282/manifest

Comment

Related Items